WorldWideScience

Sample records for membrane permeability barrier

  1. Permeability Barrier and Microstructure of Skin Lipid Membrane Models of Impaired Glucosylceramide Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Sochorov?, Michaela; Sta?kov?, Kl?ra; Pullmannov?, Petra; Kov??ik, Andrej; Zbytovsk?, Jarmila; V?vrov?, Kate?ina

    2017-01-01

    Ceramide (Cer) release from glucosylceramides (GlcCer) is critical for the formation of the skin permeability barrier. Changes in ?-glucocerebrosidase (GlcCer?ase) activity lead to diminished Cer, GlcCer accumulation and structural defects in SC lipid lamellae; however, the molecular basis for this impairment is not clear. We investigated impaired GlcCer-to-Cer processing in human Cer membranes to determine the physicochemical properties responsible for the barrier defects. Minor impairment (...

  2. Developments in permeable and low permeability barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferis, S.A.; Norris, G.H.; Thomas, A.O.

    1997-01-01

    The concept of the reactive treatment zone whereby pollutants are attenuated as they move along a pathway in the ground has enabled a re-thinking of many of the concepts of containment. In particular it offers the potential for the control of the flux from a contaminated area by controlling the contaminant concentration in the pathway(s) as well as or instead of using a low permeability barrier. The paper outlines the basic concepts of the reactive treatment zone and the use of permeable and low permeability reactive systems. The paper then gives a case history of the installation of a permeable barrier using an in-situ reaction chamber

  3. Permeability testing of biomaterial membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreesmann, L; Hajosch, R; Nuernberger, J Vaz; Schlosshauer, B [NMI Natural and Medical Sciences Institute at University Tuebingen, Markwiesenstr. 55, D-72770 Reutlingen (Germany); Ahlers, M [GELITA AG, Gammelsbacher Str. 2, D-69412 Eberbach (Germany)], E-mail: schlosshauer@nmi.de

    2008-09-01

    The permeability characteristics of biomaterials are critical parameters for a variety of implants. To analyse the permeability of membranes made from crosslinked ultrathin gelatin membranes and the transmigration of cells across the membranes, we combined three technical approaches: (1) a two-chamber-based permeability assay, (2) cell culturing with cytochemical analysis and (3) biochemical enzyme electrophoresis (zymography). Based on the diffusion of a coloured marker molecule in conjunction with photometric quantification, permeability data for a gelatin membrane were determined in the presence or absence of gelatin degrading fibroblasts. Cytochemical evaluation after cryosectioning of the membranes was used to ascertain whether fibroblasts had infiltrated the membrane inside. Zymography was used to investigate the potential release of proteases from fibroblasts, which are known to degrade collagen derivatives such as gelatin. Our data show that the diffusion equilibrium of a low molecular weight dye across the selected gelatin membrane is approached after about 6-8 h. Fibroblasts increase the permeability due to cavity formation in the membrane inside without penetrating the membrane for an extended time period (>21 days in vitro). Zymography indicates that cavity formation is most likely due to the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases. In summary, the combination of the depicted methods promises to facilitate a more rational development of biomaterials, because it provides a rapid means of determining permeability characteristics and bridges the gap between descriptive methodology and the mechanistic understanding of permeability alterations due to biological degradation.

  4. Permeability testing of biomaterial membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesmann, L; Hajosch, R; Nuernberger, J Vaz; Schlosshauer, B; Ahlers, M

    2008-01-01

    The permeability characteristics of biomaterials are critical parameters for a variety of implants. To analyse the permeability of membranes made from crosslinked ultrathin gelatin membranes and the transmigration of cells across the membranes, we combined three technical approaches: (1) a two-chamber-based permeability assay, (2) cell culturing with cytochemical analysis and (3) biochemical enzyme electrophoresis (zymography). Based on the diffusion of a coloured marker molecule in conjunction with photometric quantification, permeability data for a gelatin membrane were determined in the presence or absence of gelatin degrading fibroblasts. Cytochemical evaluation after cryosectioning of the membranes was used to ascertain whether fibroblasts had infiltrated the membrane inside. Zymography was used to investigate the potential release of proteases from fibroblasts, which are known to degrade collagen derivatives such as gelatin. Our data show that the diffusion equilibrium of a low molecular weight dye across the selected gelatin membrane is approached after about 6-8 h. Fibroblasts increase the permeability due to cavity formation in the membrane inside without penetrating the membrane for an extended time period (>21 days in vitro). Zymography indicates that cavity formation is most likely due to the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases. In summary, the combination of the depicted methods promises to facilitate a more rational development of biomaterials, because it provides a rapid means of determining permeability characteristics and bridges the gap between descriptive methodology and the mechanistic understanding of permeability alterations due to biological degradation

  5. Magnetically controlled permeability membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jurgen

    2013-10-31

    A bioactive material delivery system can include a thermoresponsive polymer membrane and nanowires distributed within the thermoresponsive polymer membrane. Magnetic activation of a thermoresponsive polymer membrane can take place via altering the magnetization or dimensions of nanowires dispersed or ordered within the membrane matrix.

  6. Magnetically controlled permeability membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jü rgen; Khashab, Niveen M.; Zaher, Amir

    2013-01-01

    A bioactive material delivery system can include a thermoresponsive polymer membrane and nanowires distributed within the thermoresponsive polymer membrane. Magnetic activation of a thermoresponsive polymer membrane can take place via altering the magnetization or dimensions of nanowires dispersed or ordered within the membrane matrix.

  7. Permeability Barrier Generation in the Martian Lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schools, Joe; Montési, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Permeability barriers develop when a magma produced in the interior of a planet rises into the cooler lithosphere and crystallizes more rapidly than the lithosphere can deform (Sparks and Parmentier, 1991). Crystallization products may then clog the porous network in which melt is propagating, reducing the permeability to almost zero, i.e., forming a permeability barrier. Subsequent melts cannot cross the barrier. Permeability barriers have been useful to explain variations in crustal thickness at mid-ocean ridges on Earth (Magde et al., 1997; Hebert and Montési, 2011; Montési et al., 2011). We explore here under what conditions permeability barriers may form on Mars.We use the MELTS thermodynamic calculator (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995; Ghiorso et al., 2002; Asimow et al., 2004) in conjunction with estimated Martian mantle compositions (Morgan and Anders, 1979; Wänke and Dreibus, 1994; Lodders and Fegley, 1997; Sanloup et al., 1999; Taylor 2013) to model the formation of permeability barriers in the lithosphere of Mars. In order to represent potential past and present conditions of Mars, we vary the lithospheric thickness, mantle potential temperature (heat flux), oxygen fugacity, and water content.Our results show that permeability layers can develop in the thermal boundary layer of the simulated Martian lithosphere if the mantle potential temperature is higher than ~1500°C. The various Martian mantle compositions yield barriers in the same locations, under matching variable conditions. There is no significant difference in barrier location over the range of accepted Martian oxygen fugacity values. Water content is the most significant influence on barrier development as it reduces the temperature of crystallization, allowing melt to rise further into the lithosphere. Our lower temperature and thicker lithosphere model runs, which are likely the most similar to modern Mars, show no permeability barrier generation. Losing the possibility of having a permeability

  8. Membrane barriers for radon gas flow restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archibald, J.F.

    1984-08-01

    Research was performed to assess the feasibility of barrier membrane substances, for use within mining or associated high risk environments, in restricting the diffusion transport of radon gas quantities. Specific tests were conducted to determine permeability parameters of a variety of membrane materials with reference to radon flow capabilities. Tests were conducted both within laboratory and in-situ emanation environments where concentrations and diffusion flows of radon gas were known to exist. Equilibrium radon gas concentrations were monitored in initially radon-free chambers adjacent to gas sources, but separated by specified membrane substances. Membrane barrier effectiveness was demonstrated to result in reduced emanation concentrations of radon gas within the sampling chamber atmosphere. Minimum gas concentrations were evidenced where the barrier membrane material was shown to exhibit lowest radon permeability characteristics

  9. Fatty acids are required for epidermal permeability barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao-Qiang, M; Elias, P M; Feingold, K R

    1993-08-01

    The permeability barrier is mediated by a mixture of ceramides, sterols, and free fatty acids arranged as extracellular lamellar bilayers in the stratum corneum. Whereas prior studies have shown that cholesterol and ceramides are required for normal barrier function, definitive evidence for the importance of nonessential fatty acids is not available. To determine whether epidermal fatty acid synthesis also is required for barrier homeostasis, we applied 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furancarboxylic acid (TOFA), an inhibitor of acetyl CoA carboxylase, after disruption of the barrier by acetone or tape stripping. TOFA inhibits epidermal fatty acid by approximately 50% and significantly delays barrier recovery. Moreover, coadministration of palmitate with TOFA normalizes barrier recovery, indicating that the delay is due to a deficiency in bulk fatty acids. Furthermore, TOFA treatment also delays the return of lipids to the stratum corneum and results in abnormalities in the structure of lamellar bodies, the organelle which delivers lipid to the stratum corneum. In addition, the organization of secreted lamellar body material into lamellar bilayers within the stratum corneum interstices is disrupted by TOFA treatment. Finally, these abnormalities in lamellar body and stratum corneum membrane structure are corrected by coapplication of palmitate with TOFA. These results demonstrate a requirement for bulk fatty acids in barrier homeostasis. Thus, inhibiting the epidermal synthesis of any of the three key lipids that form the extracellular, lipid-enriched membranes of the stratum corneum results in an impairment in barrier homeostasis.

  10. Therapeutic benefits of enhancing permeability barrier for atopic eczema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Man

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The regulatory role of epidermal permeability barrier function in cutaneous inflammation has been well appreciated. While barrier disruption induces cutaneous inflammation, improvement of permeability barrier function alleviates inflammation. Studies have demonstrated that improvement of epidermal permeability barrier function not only prevents the development of atopic eczema, but also delays the relapse of these diseases. Moreover, enhancing the epidermal permeability barrier also alleviates atopic eczema. Furthermore, co-applications of barrier enhancing products with glucocorticoids can increase the therapeutic efficacy and reduce the adverse effects of glucocorticoids in the treatment of atopic eczema. Therefore, utilization of permeability barrier enhancing products alone or in combination with glucocorticoids could be a valuable approach in the treatment of atopic eczema. In this review, we discuss the benefits of improving the epidermal permeability barrier in the management of atopic eczema.

  11. Herbal medicines that benefit epidermal permeability barrier function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhi Hu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal permeability barrier function plays a critical role in regulating cutaneous functions. Hence, researchers have been searching for effective and affordable regimens to enhance epidermal permeability barrier function. In addition to topical stratum corneum lipids, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, and liver X receptor ligands, herbal medicines have been proven to benefit epidermal permeability barrier function in both normal and diseased skin, including atopic dermatitis, glucocorticoid-induced skin damage, and UVB-damaged skin. The potential mechanisms by which herbal medicines improve the permeability barrier include stimulation of epidermal differentiation, lipid production, antimicrobial peptide expression, and antioxidation. Therefore, utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative approach to enhance epidermal permeability barrier function in order to prevent and/or treat skin disorders associated with permeability barrier abnormalities.

  12. Membrane properties for permeability testing: Skin versus synthetic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Anika; Dorrani, Mania; Goodyear, Benjamin; Joshi, Vivek; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena

    2018-03-25

    Synthetic membranes that are utilized in diffusion studies for topical and transdermal formulations are usually porous thin polymeric sheets for example cellulose acetate (CA) and polysulfones. In this study, the permeability of human skin was compared using two synthetic membranes: cellulose acetate and Strat-M® membrane and lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds either as saturated or formulated solutions as well as marketed dosage forms. Our data suggests that hydrophilic compounds have higher permeation in Strat-M membranes compared with lipophilic ones. High variation in permeability values, a typical property of biological membranes, was not observed with Strat-M. In addition, the permeability of Strat-M was closer to that of human skin than that of cellulose acetate (CA > Strat-M > Human skin). Our results suggest that Strat-M with little or no lot to lot variability can be applied in pilot studies of diffusion tests instead of human skin and is a better substitute than a cellulose acetate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Permeability of skin and oral mucosa to water and horseradish peroxidase as related to the thickness of the permeability barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squier, C.A.; Hall, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    The permeability of porcine skin and keratinized and nonkeratinized oral mucosa to tritium-labeled water and horseradish peroxidase (HRPO) was determined using perfusion chambers. Small blocks from each tissue were also incubated with HRPO and the extent of penetration visualized microscopically; this enabled measurements to be made of the thickness of the permeability barrier to this water-soluble tracer. Results obtained after inverting the oral mucosa in the chambers or adding metabolic inhibitors indicated that both compounds diffuse across the tissue. The permeability constants derived directly in the study showed that skin was less permeable than oral mucosa and that the floor of the mouth was significantly more permeable than all other regions. When these constants were normalized in terms of a standard permeability barrier thickness and the different tissues compared, the values obtained for skin were again less than those of the oral regions but, of these, the buccal mucosa was significantly higher. The difference in permeability between epidermis and keratinized oral epithelium may be due to differences in the volume density of membrane-coating granules known to exist between the tissues; differences between the oral mucosal regions may reflect differences in the nature of the intercellular barrier material

  14. Gyroid Nanoporous Membranes with Tunable Permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Li; Schulte, Lars; Clausen, Lydia D.

    2011-01-01

    -linked 1,2-polybutadiene (1,2-PB) membranes with uniform pores that, if needed, can be rendered hydrophilic. The gyroid porosity has the advantage of isotropic percolation with no need for structure prealignment. Closed (skin) or opened (nonskin) outer surface can be simply realized by altering...... the effective diffusion coefficients of a series of antibiotics, proteins, and other biomolecules; solute permeation is discussed in terms of hindered diffusion. The combination of uniform bulk morphology, isotropically percolating porosity, controlled surface chemistry, and tunable permeability is distinctive...

  15. Permeability of uncharged organic molecules in reverse osmosis desalination membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dražević, Emil; Košutić, Krešimir; Svalina, Marin; Catalano, Jacopo

    2017-06-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) membranes are primarily designed for removal of salts i.e. for desalination of brackish and seawater, but they have also found applications in removal of organic molecules. While it is clear that steric exclusion is the dominant removal mechanism, the fundamental explanation for how and why the separation occurs remains elusive. Until recently there was no strong microscopic evidences elucidating the structure of the active polyamide layers of RO membranes, and thus they have been conceived as "black boxes"; or as an array of straight capillaries with a distribution of radii; or as polymers with a small amount of polymer free domains. The knowledge of diffusion and sorption coefficients is a prerequisite for understanding the intrinsic permeability of any organic solute in any polymer. At the same time, it is technically challenging to accurately measure these two fundamental parameters in very thin (20-300 nm) water-swollen active layers. In this work we have measured partition and diffusion coefficients and RO permeabilities of ten organic solutes in water-swollen active layers of two types of RO membranes, low (SWC4+) and high flux (XLE). We deduced from our results and recent microscopic studies that the solute flux of organic molecules in polyamide layer of RO membranes occurs in two domains, dense polymer (the key barrier layer) and the water filled domains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrically Driven Ion Separations in Permeable Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruening, Merlin [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2017-04-21

    Membranes are attractive for a wide range of separations due to their low energy costs and continuous operation. To achieve practical fluxes, most membranes consist of a thin, selective skin on a highly permeable substrate that provides mechanical strength. Thus, this project focused on creating new methods for forming highly selective ultrathin skins as well as modeling transport through these coatings to better understand their unprecedented selectivities. The research explored both gas and ion separations, and the latter included transport due to concentration, pressure and electrical potential gradients. This report describes a series of highlights of the research and then provides a complete list of publications supported by the grant. These publications have been cited more than 4000 times. Perhaps the most stunning finding is the recent discovery of monovalent/divalent cation and anion selectivities around 1000 when modifying cation- and anion-exchange membranes with polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs). This discovery builds on many years of exciting research. (Citation numbers refer to the journal articles in the bibliography.)

  17. Permeable reactive barriers for pollutant removal from groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, F.G.; Meggyes, T.

    2001-01-01

    The removal of pollutants from the groundwater using permeable reactive barriers is a novel in-situ groundwater remediation technology. The most relevant decontamination processes used are chemical reduction, oxidation, precipitation and sorption, for which examples are given. Some common organic pollutants are halogenated hydrocarbons, aromatic and nitroaromatic compounds which can be treated in reactive barriers successfully. Lead, chromium and, in particular, uranium are dealt with in great detail among inorganic pollutants because of their occurrence in many European countries. Construction methods for cut-off walls and reactive barriers exhibit similar features. Apart from conventional methods, drilling, deep soil mixing, jet technology, arrays of wells, injected systems and biobarriers are applied to construct permeable reactive barriers. Permeable reactive barriers bear great potential for the future in remediation engineering. (orig.)

  18. Improvement of air permeability of Bubbfil nanofiber membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fei-Yan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanofiber membranes always have extremely high filter efficiency and remarkably low pressure drop. In order to further improve air permeability of bubbfil nanofiber membranes, the plasma technology is used for surface treatment in this paper. The results show that plasma treatment can improve air permeability by 4.45%. Under higher power plasma treatment, earthworm like etchings are produced on the membrane surface with fractal dimensions of about 1.138.

  19. A theoretical model for gas permeability in a composite membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, D. A

    2009-01-01

    We present in this work an analytical expression for permeability in a two-layer composite membrane, which was derived assuming the same hypothesis as those of Adzumi model for permeability in a homogeneous membrane. Whereas in Adzumi model permeability shows a linear dependence on the mean pressure, our model for a composite membrane related permeability to pressure through a rather complex expression, which covers the whole range of flow, from molecular-Knudsen to viscous-Poiseuille regimes. The expression obtained for permeability contained information of membrane structural properties as pore size, porosity and thickness of each layer, as well as gas nature and operational conditions. Our two-layer-model expression turns into Adzumi formula when the structure of the layers approach to each other. [es

  20. Review of potential subsurface permeable barrier emplacement and monitoring technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggsbee, W.H.; Treat, R.L.; Stansfield, H.J.; Schwarz, R.M.; Cantrell, K.J.; Phillips, S.J.

    1994-02-01

    This report focuses on subsurface permeable barrier technologies potentially applicable to existing waste disposal sites. This report describes candidate subsurface permeable barriers, methods for emplacing these barriers, and methods used to monitor the barrier performance. Two types of subsurface barrier systems are described: those that apply to contamination.in the unsaturated zone, and those that apply to groundwater and to mobile contamination near the groundwater table. These barriers may be emplaced either horizontally or vertically depending on waste and site characteristics. Materials for creating permeable subsurface barriers are emplaced using one of three basic methods: injection, in situ mechanical mixing, or excavation-insertion. Injection is the emplacement of dissolved reagents or colloidal suspensions into the soil at elevated pressures. In situ mechanical mixing is the physical blending of the soil and the barrier material underground. Excavation-insertion is the removal of a soil volume and adding barrier materials to the space created. Major vertical barrier emplacement technologies include trenching-backfilling; slurry trenching; and vertical drilling and injection, including boring (earth augering), cable tool drilling, rotary drilling, sonic drilling, jetting methods, injection-mixing in drilled holes, and deep soil mixing. Major horizontal barrier emplacement technologies include horizontal drilling, microtunneling, compaction boring, horizontal emplacement, longwall mining, hydraulic fracturing, and jetting methods

  1. Influence of Cholesterol on the Oxygen Permeability of Membranes: Insight from Atomistic Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Rachel J; Smith, Casey R; Bueche, Kristina; Angles, Gary; Pias, Sally C

    2017-06-06

    Cholesterol is widely known to alter the physical properties and permeability of membranes. Several prior works have implicated cell membrane cholesterol as a barrier to tissue oxygenation, yet a good deal remains to be explained with regard to the mechanism and magnitude of the effect. We use molecular dynamics simulations to provide atomic-resolution insight into the influence of cholesterol on oxygen diffusion across and within the membrane. Our simulations show strong overall agreement with published experimental data, reproducing the shapes of experimental oximetry curves with high accuracy. We calculate the upper-limit transmembrane oxygen permeability of a 1-palmitoyl,2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine phospholipid bilayer to be 52 ± 2 cm/s, close to the permeability of a water layer of the same thickness. With addition of cholesterol, the permeability decreases somewhat, reaching 40 ± 2 cm/s at the near-saturating level of 62.5 mol % cholesterol and 10 ± 2 cm/s in a 100% cholesterol mimic of the experimentally observed noncrystalline cholesterol bilayer domain. These reductions in permeability can only be biologically consequential in contexts where the diffusional path of oxygen is not water dominated. In our simulations, cholesterol reduces the overall solubility of oxygen within the membrane but enhances the oxygen transport parameter (solubility-diffusion product) near the membrane center. Given relatively low barriers to passing from membrane to membrane, our findings support hydrophobic channeling within membranes as a means of cellular and tissue-level oxygen transport. In such a membrane-dominated diffusional scheme, the influence of cholesterol on oxygen permeability is large enough to warrant further attention. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Matthew; Dameron, Arrelaine; Kempe, Michael

    2014-03-04

    A test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material. An exemplary device comprises a test card having a thin-film conductor-pattern formed thereon and an edge seal which seals the test card to the barrier material. Another exemplary embodiment is an electrical calcium test device comprising: a test card an impermeable spacer, an edge seal which seals the test card to the spacer and an edge seal which seals the spacer to the barrier material.

  3. Permeable bio-reactive barriers for hydrocarbon remediation in Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumford, K.A.; Stevens, G.W.; Gore, D.B. [Melbourne Univ., Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Chemical and Biomoleculuar Engineering, Particulate Fluids Processing Centre; Snape, I.; Rayner, J.L. [Australian Antarctic Div., Kingston, Tasmania (Australia); Gore, D.B. [Macquarie Univ., Sydney, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Environmental Science

    2010-07-01

    This study assessed the performance of a permeable bio-reactive barrier designed to treat contaminated water. The bio-reactive barrier was installed at a fuel spill site located in the Windmill Islands, Antarctica. A funnel and gate design was used to prevent contaminant migration beyond the barrier location as well as to ensure controlled nutrient delivery. The study also investigated the performance of the bio-reactive barrier in regions with freeze-thaw conditions. The 4-year project was also conducted to assess optimal conditions for enhancing the barrier's ability to degrade hydrocarbons.

  4. Effects of topical application of aqueous solutions of hexoses on epidermal permeability barrier recovery rate after barrier disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denda, Mitsuhiro

    2011-11-01

    Previous studies have suggested that hexose molecules influence the stability of phospholipid bilayers. Therefore, the effects of topical application of all 12 stereoisomers of dextro-hexose on the epidermal barrier recovery rate after barrier disruption were evaluated. Immediately after tape stripping, 0.1 m aqueous solution of each hexose was applied on hairless mouse skin. Among the eight dextro-aldohexoses, topical application of altose, idose, mannose and talose accelerated the barrier recovery, while allose, galactose, glucose and gulose had no effect. Among the four dextro-ketohexoses, psicose, fructose, sorbose and tagatose all accelerated the barrier recovery. As the effects of hexoses on the barrier recovery rate appeared within 1 h, the mechanism is unlikely to be genomic. Instead, these hexoses may influence phase transition of the lipid bilayers of lamellar bodies and cell membrane, a crucial step in epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Groundwater protection from cadmium contamination by permeable reactive barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Natale, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria chimica, Universita di Federico II, P.le Tecchio, 80-80125 Naples (Italy)], E-mail: fdinatal@unina.it; Di Natale, M.; Greco, R. [Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca in Ingegneria Ambientale (CIRIAM), Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Seconda Universita di Napoli, via Roma 29-81031 Aversa (Caserta) (Italy); Lancia, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria chimica, Universita di Federico II, P.le Tecchio, 80-80125 Naples (Italy); Laudante, C.; Musmarra, D. [Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca in Ingegneria Ambientale (CIRIAM), Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Seconda Universita di Napoli, via Roma 29-81031 Aversa (Caserta) (Italy)

    2008-12-30

    This work studies the reliability of an activated carbon permeable reactive barrier in removing cadmium from a contaminated shallow aquifer. Laboratory tests have been performed to characterize the equilibrium and kinetic adsorption properties of the activated carbon in cadmium-containing aqueous solutions. A 2D numerical model has been used to describe pollutant transport within a groundwater and the pollutant adsorption on the permeable adsorbing barrier (PRB). In particular, it has been considered the case of a permeable adsorbing barrier (PAB) used to protect a river from a Cd(II) contaminated groundwater. Numerical results show that the PAB can achieve a long-term efficiency by preventing river pollution for several months.

  6. Instrumentation for Measurement of Gas Permeability of Polymeric Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Billy T.; Wood, George M.; Brown, Kenneth G.; Burns, Karen S.

    1993-01-01

    A mass spectrometric 'Dynamic Delta' method for the measurement of gas permeability of polymeric membranes has been developed. The method is universally applicable for measurement of the permeability of any gas through polymeric membrane materials. The usual large sample size of more than 100 square centimeters required for other methods is not necessary for this new method which requires a size less than one square centimeter. The new method should fulfill requirements and find applicability for industrial materials such as food packaging, contact lenses and other commercial materials where gas permeability or permselectivity properties are important.

  7. Polysulfone - CNT composite membrane with enhanced water permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, Bhakti; Kar, Soumitra; Aswal, V. K.; Bindal, R. C.; Goyal, P. S.

    2018-04-01

    Polymeric membranes are routinely used for water purification. The performance of these conventional membranes can be improved by incorporating nanomaterials, such as metal oxide nanoparticle and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). This manuscript reports the synthesis and characterization of polysulfone (Psf) based nanocomposite membranes where multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and oleic acid coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles have been impregnated onto the polymeric host matrix. The performance of the membranes was evaluated by water permeability and solute rejection measurements. It was observed that the permeability of Psf membrane increases three times at 0.1% loading of MWCNT without compromise in selectivity. It was further observed that the increase in permeability is not affected upon addition of Fe3O4 nanoparticles into the membrane. In order to get a better insight into the membrane microstructure, small angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies were carried out. There is a good correlation between the water permeability and the pore sizes of the membranes as measured using SANS.

  8. Patterning of super-hydrophobic structures on permeable sensor membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelt, van S.; Eggermont, J.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Dietzel, A.H.; Colin, S; Morini, GL; Brandner, JJ

    2012-01-01

    For a disposable smart food monitoring system, a gas sensor membrane is needed that isolates the sensor surface from (dust) particles water droplets. At the same time, this membrane must have a high permeability, a sufficiently fast response times and should be water repellent to avoid blocking of

  9. Experimental Validation of a Permeability Model for Enrichment Membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orellano, Pablo; Brasnarof, Daniel; Florido Pablo

    2003-01-01

    An experimental loop with a real scale diffuser, in a single enrichment-stage configuration, was operated with air at different process conditions, in order to characterize the membrane permeability.Using these experimental data, an analytical geometric-and-morphologic-based model was validated.It is conclude that a new set of independent measurements, i.e. enrichment, is necessary in order to fully characterize diffusers, because of its internal parameters are not univocally determinated with permeability experimental data only

  10. Measurement of radon permeability through polyethylene membrane using scintillation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashry, A.H.; Abou-Leila, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Abdalla, A.M., E-mail: aymanabdalla62@hotmail.co [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Najran University, Najran, P.O. Box. 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Advanced Materials and Nano-Engineering Laboratory (AMNEL), Centre for Advanced Materials and Nano-Engineering (CAMNE), Najran University, Najran, P.O. Box. 11001 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-01-15

    The permeability of Radon 222 through polyethylene membranes has been studied using activated charcoal technique. The permeability constant of Radon 222 through low-density polyethylene, linear low-density Polyethylene and high density polyethylene samples has been measured. There is a considerable agreement between the values obtained by our method and the method suggested by W. Arafa [2002. Permeability of radon 222 through some materials. Radiat. Meas. 35, 207-211], and SSNTD technique suggested by A. Hafez and G. Somogyi [1986. Determination of radon and thoron permeability through some plastics by track technique. Int. J. Radiat. Appl. Instrum. Nucl. Track Radiat. Meas. 12 (1-6), 697-700]. In this work Radon permeability through different polyethylene membranes has been measured using three different methods, i.e. solid state nuclear track technique, W. Arafa [2002. Permeability of radon 222 through some materials. Radiat. Meas. 35, 207-211]method and our proposed method. In addition to this, in this study, the diffusion coefficient of radon in charcoal as well as solubility of Radon in polyethylene membrane has been taken into consideration.

  11. Measurement of radon permeability through polyethylene membrane using scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, A.H.; Abou-Leila, M.; Abdalla, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The permeability of Radon 222 through polyethylene membranes has been studied using activated charcoal technique. The permeability constant of Radon 222 through low-density polyethylene, linear low-density Polyethylene and high density polyethylene samples has been measured. There is a considerable agreement between the values obtained by our method and the method suggested by W. Arafa [2002. Permeability of radon 222 through some materials. Radiat. Meas. 35, 207-211], and SSNTD technique suggested by A. Hafez and G. Somogyi [1986. Determination of radon and thoron permeability through some plastics by track technique. Int. J. Radiat. Appl. Instrum. Nucl. Track Radiat. Meas. 12 (1-6), 697-700]. In this work Radon permeability through different polyethylene membranes has been measured using three different methods, i.e. solid state nuclear track technique, W. Arafa [2002. Permeability of radon 222 through some materials. Radiat. Meas. 35, 207-211] method and our proposed method. In addition to this, in this study, the diffusion coefficient of radon in charcoal as well as solubility of Radon in polyethylene membrane has been taken into consideration.

  12. Pb2+ Modulates Ca2+ Membrane Permeability In Paramecium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Martínez, Juan; Ortega Soto, Arturo

    2004-09-01

    Intracellular recording experiments in current clamp configuration were done to evaluate whether Pb2+ modulates ionic membrane permeability in the fresh water Paramecium tetraurelia. It was found that Pb2+ triggers in a dose-dependent manner, a burst of spontaneous action potentials followed by a robust and sustained after hyper-polarization. In addition, Pb2+ increased the frequency of firing the spontaneous Ca2+-Action Potential and also, the duration of Ca2+-Action Potential, in a dose and reversibly-dependent manner. These results suggest that Pb2+ increases calcium membrane permeability of Paramecium and probably activates a calcium-dependent-potassium conductance in the ciliate.

  13. Role of lipids in the formation and maintenance of the cutaneous permeability barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, Kenneth R; Elias, Peter M

    2014-03-01

    The major function of the skin is to form a barrier between the internal milieu and the hostile external environment. A permeability barrier that prevents the loss of water and electrolytes is essential for life on land. The permeability barrier is mediated primarily by lipid enriched lamellar membranes that are localized to the extracellular spaces of the stratum corneum. These lipid enriched membranes have a unique structure and contain approximately 50% ceramides, 25% cholesterol, and 15% free fatty acids with very little phospholipid. Lamellar bodies, which are formed during the differentiation of keratinocytes, play a key role in delivering the lipids from the stratum granulosum cells into the extracellular spaces of the stratum corneum. Lamellar bodies contain predominantly glucosylceramides, phospholipids, and cholesterol and following the exocytosis of lamellar lipids into the extracellular space of the stratum corneum these precursor lipids are converted by beta glucocerebrosidase and phospholipases into the ceramides and fatty acids, which comprise the lamellar membranes. The lipids required for lamellar body formation are derived from de novo synthesis by keratinocytes and from extra-cutaneous sources. The lipid synthetic pathways and the regulation of these pathways are described in this review. In addition, the pathways for the uptake of extra-cutaneous lipids into keratinocytes are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. Guest Editors: Kenneth R. Feingold and Peter Elias. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Altered membrane permeability in multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted with the objective of examining the outer membrane proteins and their involvement during the transport of β - lactams in multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from extra-intestinal infections. Also, the response of gram negative bacterial biomembrane alteration was studied using extended ...

  15. GAS SEPARATION MEMBRANES COMPRISING PERMEABILITY ENHANCING ADDITIVES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessling, Matthias; Sterescu, D.M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to polymer compositions comprising a (co)polymer comprising (a) an arylene oxide moiety and (b) a dendritic (co)polymer, a hyperbranched (co)polymer or a mixture thereof, and the use of these polymer compositions as membrane materials for the separation of gases. The

  16. The biofiltration permeable reactive barrier: Practical experience from Synthesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesela, L.; Nemecek, J.; Siglova, M.; Kubal, M. [DEKONTA, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2006-10-15

    The paper refers to utilization of biological elements within permeable reactive barriers. The concept of a biofiltration permeable barrier has been tested in the laboratory and in pilot-scale. Oxyhumolite (oxidized young lignite) was examined as an absorption material and a biofilm carrier. Laboratory tests performed before the pilot verification confirmed that oxyhumolite adsorbs organic pollutants at a minimum value, but that it can be used for biofilm attachment. An experimental barrier was built on premises of a chemical factory contaminated mainly by various organic pollutants (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), chlorobenzenes, naphthalene, nitro-derivatives, phenols, trichloroethylene (TCE), and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)). Before the barrier was installed, a preliminary survey of the unsaturated zone, hydrogeological investigation, and a microbiological survey had been performed. The barrier was designed as a trench-and-gate system with an in situ bioreactor. During the year 2004, measurements of groundwater flux and retention time under current hydrological conditions, together with chemical and microbiological monitoring, were carried out on the site. The results showed high effectiveness of organic contamination removal. Average elimination varied from 57.3% (naphthalene) to 99.9% (nitro-derivatives, BTEX); microbial density in the bioreactor was approx. 10{sup 5} CFU mL{sup -1}.

  17. Towards a Biohybrid Lung: Endothelial Cells Promote Oxygen Transfer through Gas Permeable Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Sarah; Finocchiaro, Nicole; Donay, Christine; Thiebes, Anja Lena; Hesselmann, Felix; Arens, Jutta; Djeljadini, Suzana; Wessling, Matthias; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Cornelissen, Christian Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    In patients with respiratory failure, extracorporeal lung support can ensure the vital gas exchange via gas permeable membranes but its application is restricted by limited long-term stability and hemocompatibility of the gas permeable membranes, which are in contact with the blood. Endothelial cells lining these membranes promise physiological hemocompatibility and should enable prolonged application. However, the endothelial cells increase the diffusion barrier of the blood-gas interface and thus affect gas transfer. In this study, we evaluated how the endothelial cells affect the gas exchange to optimize performance while maintaining an integral cell layer. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were seeded on gas permeable cell culture membranes and cultivated in a custom-made bioreactor. Oxygen transfer rates of blank and endothelialized membranes in endothelial culture medium were determined. Cell morphology was assessed by microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Both setups provided oxygenation of the test fluid featuring small standard deviations of the measurements. Throughout the measuring range, the endothelial cells seem to promote gas transfer to a certain extent exceeding the blank membranes gas transfer performance by up to 120%. Although the underlying principles hereof still need to be clarified, the results represent a significant step towards the development of a biohybrid lung.

  18. Water permeability of acinar cell membranes in the isolated perfused rabbit mandibular salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, M C; Seo, Y; Rawlings, J M; Case, R M

    1990-01-01

    1. The diffusive water permeability of epithelial cell membranes in the perfused rabbit mandibular salivary gland was measured at 37 degrees C by a 1H nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation method using an extracellular relaxation reagent, gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd(DTPA)). 2. In glands perfused with a HEPES-buffered solution containing 10 mmol l-1 Gd(DTPA), the spin-lattice (T1) relaxation of the water protons showed two exponential components. The water compartment responsible for the slower component corresponded in magnitude to 71 +/- 5% of the wet weight of the gland, and was attributed to the exchangeable intracellular water of the acinar cells. 3. The rate constant for water efflux from the cells was estimated to be 4.1 +/- 0.1 s-1 which would be consistent with a diffusive membrane permeability (Pd) of approximately 3 x 10(-3) cm s-1. Stimulation with acetylcholine (10(-6) mol l-1) did not cause any detectable change in membrane water permeability. 4. Since the basolateral membrane probably provides the main pathway for water efflux, the osmotic water permeability of this barrier (expressed per gland) was estimated to be less than 6.2 cm3 s-1. This would be insufficient to account for the generation of a near-isosmotic fluid at the flow rates observed during secretion, and suggests that a substantial fraction of the flow of water occurs via a paracellular route. PMID:1966053

  19. Scaffolding proteins in the development and maintenance of the epidermal permeability barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Melissa; Dagnino, Lina

    2017-10-02

    The skin of mammals and other terrestrial vertebrates protects the organism against the external environment, preventing heat, water and electrolyte loss, as well as entry of chemicals and pathogens. Impairments in the epidermal permeability barrier function are associated with the genesis and/or progression of a variety of pathological conditions, including genetic inflammatory diseases, microbial and viral infections, and photodamage induced by UV radiation. In mammals, the outside-in epidermal permeability barrier is provided by the joint action of the outermost cornified layer, together with assembled tight junctions in granular keratinocytes found in the layers underneath. Tight junctions serve as both outside-in and inside-out barriers, and impede paracellular movements of ions, water, macromolecules and microorganisms. At the molecular level, tight junctions consist of integral membrane proteins that form an extracellular seal between adjacent cells, and associate with cytoplasmic scaffold proteins that serve as links with the actin cytoskeleton. In this review, we address the roles that scaffold proteins play specifically in the establishment and maintenance of the epidermal permeability barrier, and how various pathologies alter or impair their functions.

  20. Control of BTEX migration using a biologically enhanced permeable barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borden, R.C.; Goin, R.T.; Kao, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    A permeable barrier system, consisting of a line of closely spaced wells, was installed perpendicular to ground water flow to control the migration of a dissolved hydrocarbon plume. The wells were charged with concrete briquets that release oxygen and nitrate at a controlled rate, enhancing aerobic biodegradation in the downgradient aquifer. Laboratory batch reactor experiments were conducted to identify concrete mixtures that slowly released oxygen over an extended time period. A full-scale permeable barrier system using ORC was constructed at a gasoline-spill site. During the first 242 days of operation, total BTEX decreased from 17 to 3.4 mg/L and dissolved oxygen increased from 0.4 to 1.8 mg/L during transport through the barrier. Over time, BTEX treatment efficiencies declined, indicating the barrier system had become less effective in releasing oxygen and nutrients to the highly contaminated portion of the aquifer. Point dilution tests and sediment analyses performed at the conclusion of the project indicated that the aquifer in the vicinity of the remediation wells had been clogged by precipitation with iron minerals

  1. Hydrogen concentration control utilizing a hydrogen permeable membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keating, S.J. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The concentration of hydrogen in a fluid mixture is controlled to a desired concentration by flowing the fluid through one chamber of a diffusion cell separated into two chambers by a hydrogen permeable membrane. A gradient of hydrogen partial pressure is maintained across the membrane to cause diffusion of hydrogen through the membrane to maintain the concentration of hydrogen in the fluid mixture at the predetermined level. The invention has particular utility for the purpose of injecting into and/or separating hydrogen from the reactor coolant of a nuclear reactor system

  2. Evaluation of synthetic zeolite as engineering passive permeable reactive barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, O.A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of toxic pollutants in groundwater brings about significant changes in the properties of water resources and has to be avoided in order to preserve the environmental quality. Heavy metals are among the most dangerous inorganic water pollutants, that related to many anthropogenic sources and their compounds are extremely toxic. The treatment of contaminated groundwater is among the most difficult and expensive environmental problems. Over the past years, permeable reactive barriers have provided an increasingly important role in the passive insitu treatment of contaminated groundwater. There are a large number of materials that are able to immobilize contaminants by sorption, including granulated active carbon, zeolite, montmorillonite, peat, compost, sawdust, etc. Zeolite X is a synthetic counterpart of the naturally occurring mineral Faujasite. It has one of the largest cavities and cavity entrances of any known zeolites. The main aim of this work is to examine the possibility of using synthetic zeolite X as an engineering permeable reactive barrier to remove heavy metals from a contaminated groundwater. Within this context, the following investigations were carried out: 1. Review on the materials most commonly used as engineered permeable reactive barriers to identify the important features to be considered in the examination of the proposed permeable reactive barrier material (zeolite X). 2. Synthesis of zeolite X and characterization of the synthesized material using different techniques. 3. Batch tests were carried out to characterize the equilibrium and kinetic sorption properties of the synthesized zeolite X towards the concerned heavy metals; zinc and cadmium ions. 4. Column tests were also performed to determine the design factors for permeable reactive barrier against zinc and cadmium ions solutions.Breakthrough curves measured in such experiments used to determine the hydrodynamic dispersion coefficients for both metal ions. 5. Analytical

  3. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003–1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste. PMID:25209263

  4. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003-1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Automated Impedance Tomography for Monitoring Permeable Reactive Barrier Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBrecque, D J; Adkins, P L

    2009-07-02

    The objective of this research was the development of an autonomous, automated electrical geophysical monitoring system which allows for near real-time assessment of Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) health and aging and which provides this assessment through a web-based interface to site operators, owners and regulatory agencies. Field studies were performed at four existing PRB sites; (1) a uranium tailing site near Monticello, Utah, (2) the DOE complex at Kansas City, Missouri, (3) the Denver Federal Center in Denver, Colorado and (4) the Asarco Smelter site in East Helena, Montana. Preliminary surface data over the PRB sites were collected (in December, 2005). After the initial round of data collection, the plan was modified to include studies inside the barriers in order to better understand barrier aging processes. In September 2006 an autonomous data collection system was designed and installed at the EPA PRB and the electrode setups in the barrier were revised and three new vertical electrode arrays were placed in dedicated boreholes which were in direct contact with the PRB material. Final data were collected at the Kansas City, Denver and Monticello, Utah PRB sites in the fall of 2007. At the Asarco Smelter site in East Helena, Montana, nearly continuous data was collected by the autonomous monitoring system from June 2006 to November 2007. This data provided us with a picture of the evolution of the barrier, enabling us to examine barrier changes more precisely and determine whether these changes are due to installation issues or are normal barrier aging. Two rounds of laboratory experiments were carried out during the project. We conducted column experiments to investigate the effect of mineralogy on the electrical signatures resulting from iron corrosion and mineral precipitation in zero valent iron (ZVI) columns. In the second round of laboratory experiments we observed the electrical response from simulation of actual field PRBs at two sites: the

  6. Astrocyte–endothelial interactions and blood–brain barrier permeability*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, N Joan

    2002-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is formed by brain endothelial cells lining the cerebral microvasculature, and is an important mechanism for protecting the brain from fluctuations in plasma composition, and from circulating agents such as neurotransmitters and xenobiotics capable of disturbing neural function. The barrier also plays an important role in the homeostatic regulation of the brain microenvironment necessary for the stable and co-ordinated activity of neurones. The BBB phenotype develops under the influence of associated brain cells, especially astrocytic glia, and consists of more complex tight junctions than in other capillary endothelia, and a number of specific transport and enzyme systems which regulate molecular traffic across the endothelial cells. Transporters characteristic of the BBB phenotype include both uptake mechanisms (e.g. GLUT-1 glucose carrier, L1 amino acid transporter) and efflux transporters (e.g. P-glycoprotein). In addition to a role in long-term barrier induction and maintenance, astrocytes and other cells can release chemical factors that modulate endothelial permeability over a time-scale of seconds to minutes. Cell culture models, both primary and cell lines, have been used to investigate aspects of barrier induction and modulation. Conditioned medium taken from growing glial cells can reproduce some of the inductive effects, evidence for involvement of diffusible factors. However, for some features of endothelial differentiation and induction, the extracellular matrix plays an important role. Several candidate molecules have been identified, capable of mimicking aspects of glial-mediated barrier induction of brain endothelium; these include TGFβ, GDNF, bFGF, IL-6 and steroids. In addition, factors secreted by brain endothelial cells including leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) have been shown to induce astrocytic differentiation. Thus endothelium and astrocytes are involved in two-way induction. Short-term modulation of brain

  7. Effect of heterogeneity on the characterization of cell membrane compartments: I. Uniform size and permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Damien

    2010-03-15

    Observations of the motion of individual molecules in the membrane of a number of different cell types have led to the suggestion that the outer membrane of many eukaryotic cells may be effectively partitioned into microdomains. A major cause of this suggested partitioning is believed to be due to the direct/indirect association of the cytosolic face of the cell membrane with the cortical cytoskeleton. Such intimate association is thought to introduce effective hydrodynamic barriers into the membrane that are capable of frustrating molecular Brownian motion over distance scales greater than the average size of the compartment. To date, the standard analytical method for deducing compartment characteristics has relied on observing the random walk behavior of a labeled lipid or protein at various temporal frequencies and different total lengths of time. Simple theoretical arguments suggest that the presence of restrictive barriers imparts a characteristic turnover to a plot of mean squared displacement versus sampling period that can be interpreted to yield the average dimensions of the compartment expressed as the respective side lengths of a rectangle. In the following series of articles, we used computer simulation methods to investigate how well the conventional analytical strategy coped with heterogeneity in size, shape, and barrier permeability of the cell membrane compartments. We also explored questions relating to the necessary extent of sampling required (with regard to both the recorded time of a single trajectory and the number of trajectories included in the measurement bin) for faithful representation of the actual distribution of compartment sizes found using the SPT technique. In the current investigation, we turned our attention to the analytical characterization of diffusion through cell membrane compartments having both a uniform size and permeability. For this ideal case, we found that (i) an optimum sampling time interval existed for the analysis

  8. Polyethersulfone/clay membranes and its water permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalho, Thamyres Cardoso de; Medeiros, Vanessa da Nobrega; Araujo, Edcleide Maria de; Lira, Helio Lucena; Leite, Amanda Melissa Damiao

    2017-01-01

    Membranes can be considered polymeric or inorganic films that function as a semipermeable barrier to filtration on a molecular scale, separating two phases and restricting, totally or partially, the transportation of one or more chemical species (solute) present in the solution. Therefore, the aim of this work is to produce polyethersulfone membranes (PES) and polyethersulfone/clay by phase inversion technique and evaluate the presence of clay in obtaining membranes for wastewater treatment. The used solvent was dimethylformamide (DMF) and clays were Brasgel PA (MMT) and Cloisite Na (CL Na) in the proportion of 3 to 5% (wt.). By Xray diffraction (XRD), the membranes with 3% of MMT and CL Na clays apparently had partially exfoliated structures. For the composition with 5% of CL Na a small peak was observed, which indicates that this is possibly an intercalated structure or microcomposite. By scanning electron microscopy (SEM), visualizes that the pure surface of the pure PES membrane a structure apparently without pores was observed in the used magnification and without roughness surface when compared to membranes with clay. The measurements of contact angle indicated that the inclusion of clay altered the wetting ability of the membranes. The flow with distilled water for all membranes started high and over time reached a stabilization level. Thus, it can be concluded that the presence and the content of clay altered the morphology of the membrane, contributing to an increase in water flow. (author)

  9. Blood brain barrier permeability and tPA-mediated neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Taher; Yarovoi, Sergey; Rayan, Anwar; Lamensdorf, Itschak; Karakoveski, Michael; Vadim, Polianski; Fanne, Rami Abu; Jamal, Mahmud; Cines, Douglas B.; Higazi, Abd Al-Roof

    2015-01-01

    Tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA) induces neuronal apoptosis, disrupt the blood-brain-barrier (BBB), and promotes dilation of the cerebral vasculature. The timing, sequence and contributions of these and other deleterious effects of tPA and their contribution to post-ischemic brain damage after stroke, have not been fully elucidated. To dissociate the effects of tPA on BBB permeability, cerebral vasodilation and protease-dependent pathways, we developed several tPA mutants and PAI-1 derived peptides constructed by computerized homology modeling of tPA. Our data show that intravenous administration of human tPA to rats increases BBB permeability through a non-catalytic process, which is associated with reversible neurotoxicity, brain damage, edema, mortality and contributes significantly to its brief therapeutic window. Furthermore, our data show that inhibiting the effect of tPA on BBB function without affecting its catalytic activity, improves outcome and significantly extends its therapeutic window in mechanical as well as thromboembolic models of stroke. PMID:20060006

  10. Treatment of radioactive liquid wastes on semi-permeable membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonescu, M.; Deleanu, N.; Nechifor, G.

    1997-01-01

    At present, among the currently world-wide applied separation processes, those using membranes are thought to be most advanced due to their advantages: high efficiency, cost-effectiveness in application, universality of the utilized equipment, operation in non-destructive and non-polluting conditions. The most significant results of the treatment experiments are: - a reduction of more than 70% in the chemical oxygen consumption for the solution simulating the POD waste; - the solution simulating the secondary waste from decontamination by POD procedure, appear to be the best (with retentions of 88.5%, 76.5% and 65.7% for strontium, cobalt and manganese, respectively). Important reduction of costs and efficient technological schemes can be obtained by combining the semi-permeable membrane separation techniques with other efficient currently used procedures of separation, concentration and purification, adequate for given situations

  11. Factors Determining the Oxygen Permeability of Biological Membranes: Oxygen Transport Across Eye Lens Fiber-Cell Plasma Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subczynski, Witold Karol; Widomska, Justyna; Mainali, Laxman

    2017-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-label oximetry allows the oxygen permeability coefficient to be evaluated across homogeneous lipid bilayer membranes and, in some cases, across coexisting membrane domains without their physical separation. The most pronounced effect on oxygen permeability is observed for cholesterol, which additionally induces the formation of membrane domains. In intact biological membranes, integral proteins induce the formation of boundary and trapped lipid domains with a low oxygen permeability. The effective oxygen permeability coefficient across the intact biological membrane is affected not only by the oxygen permeability coefficients evaluated for each lipid domain but also by the surface area occupied by these domains in the membrane. All these factors observed in fiber cell plasma membranes of clear human eye lenses are reviewed here.

  12. Improving the performance of water desalination through ultra-permeable functionalized nanoporous graphene oxide membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Azamat, Jafar; Erfan-Niya, Hamid

    2018-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the water desalination performance of nanoporous graphene oxide (NPGO) membranes. The simulated systems consist of a NPGO as a membrane with a functionalized pore in its center immersed in an aqueous ionic solution and a graphene sheet as a barrier. The considered NPGO membranes are involved four types of pore with different size and chemistry. The results indicated that the NPGO membrane has effective efficiency in salt rejection as well as high performance in water flux. For all types of pore with the radius size of 2.9-4.5 Å, the NPGO shows salt rejection of >89%. Functional groups on the surface and edge of pores have a great effect on water flux. To precisely understand the effect of functional groups on the surface of nanostructured membranes, nanoporous graphene was simulated under the same condition for comparison. Hydrophilic groups on the surface make the NPGO as an ultra-permeable membrane. As a result, the obtained water flux for NPGO was about 77% greater than graphene. Also, it was found that the water flux of NPGO is 2-5 orders of magnitude greater than other existing reverse osmosis membranes. Therefore, the investigated systems can be recommended as a model for the water desalination.

  13. SURFACE-ALTERED ZEOLITES AS PERMEABLE BARRIERS FOR IN SITU TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, Robert S.; Li, Zhaohui; Roy, Stephen J.; Burt, Todd; Johnson, Timothy L.; Johnson, Richard L.

    1999-01-01

    The overall objective of this effort is to develop and test a zeolite-based permeable barrier system for containing and remediating contaminated groundwater. The projected product is an engineered and tested permeable barrier system that can be adopted by the commercial sector

  14. ECONOMICS ANALYSIS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS FOR REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents an analysis of the cost of using permeable reactive barriers to remediate contaminated ground water. When possible, these costs are compared with the cost of pump-and-treat technology for similar situations. Permeable reactive barriers are no longer perceiv...

  15. SURFACE-ALTERED ZEOLITES AS PERMEABLE BARRIERS FOR IN SITU TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Bowman; Zhaohui Li; Stephen J. Roy; Todd Burt; Timothy L. Johnson; Richard L. Johnson

    1999-08-30

    The overall objective of this effort is to develop and test a zeolite-based permeable barrier system for containing and remediating contaminated groundwater. The projected product is an engineered and tested permeable barrier system that can be adopted by the commercial sector.

  16. LOCALIZATION OF PERMEABILITY BARRIERS IN THE FROG SKIN EPITHELIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Palomo, A.; Erlij, D.; Bracho, H.

    1971-01-01

    Ruthenium red and colloidal lanthanum were used to determine the site of the structural barriers to diffusion within the intercellular spaces of frog skin epithelium. Electron micrographs show that occluding zonules located at the outer border of the stratum corneum and at the outer layer of the stratum granulosum are true tight junctions since they are impermeable to these tracers. Measurement of 140La uptake by the living skin shows that lanthanum moves across the external surface of the skin readily, into and out of a compartment that has a limited capacity and is bounded on its internal side by a barrier impermeable to lanthanum. Examination of these skins with the electron microscope suggests that the compartment is localized between the external membrane of the cells at the outer layer of the s. granulosum and at the outermost surface of the skin. These observations and other findings described in the literature indicate that the site of the external high resistance barrier of the frog skin is localized at the outer border of the s. granulosum. PMID:4329611

  17. The effects of heavy metal ions on the chlorophyll content and cell membrane permeability of charophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Hualong; Chen Hao; Dong Bin; Qing Renwei

    2001-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of several heavy metal ions in different concentrations (Cd 2+ , Hg 2+ , Pb 2+ , Cr 6+ ) on the chlorophyll content and cell membrane permeability of Chara vulgaris L. It was discovered that the effects of heavy metal ions on the chlorophyll content and cell membrane permeability of Chara vulgaris L. changed with their different concentration. The trend was that the chlorophyll content and cell membrane permeability were decreased with the increase of the heavy metal ions. The degree of chlorophyll content affected was Cr 6+ , Cd 2+ , Hg 2+ , Pb 2+ , and that of cell membrane permeability affected was Cd 2+ , Cr 6+ , Hg 2+ , Pb 2+

  18. [Removal of nitrate from groundwater using permeable reactive barrier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Li; Yang, Jun-Jun; Lu, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Shu; Hou, Zhen

    2013-03-01

    To provide a cost-effective method for the remediation of nitrate-polluted groundwater, column experiments were performed to study the removal of nitrate by permeable reactive barrier filled with fermented mulch and sand (biowall), and the mechanisms and influence factors were explored. The experimental results showed that the environmental condition in the simulated biowall became highly reduced after three days of operation (oxidation-reduction potential was below - 100 mV), which was favorable for the reduction of nitrate. During the 15 days of operation, the removal rate of nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-) -N) by the simulated biowall was 80%-90% (NO3(-)-N was reduced from 20 mg x L(-1) in the inlet water to 1.6 mg x L(-1) in the outlet water); the concentration of nitrite nitrogen (NO2(-) -N) in the outlet water was below 2.5 mg x L(-1); the concentration of ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+) -N) was low in the first two days but increased to about 12 mg x L(-1) since day three. The major mechanisms involved in the removal of nitrate nitrogen were adsorption and biodegradation. When increasing the water flow velocity in the simulated biowall, the removal rate of NO3(-) -N was reduced and the concentration of NH4(+) -N in the outlet water was significantly reduced. A simulated zeolite wall was set up following the simulated biowall and 98% of the NH4(+) -N could be removed from the water.

  19. Biomimetic carriers mimicking leukocyte plasma membrane to increase tumor vasculature permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomba, R.; Parodi, A.; Evangelopoulos, M.; Acciardo, S.; Corbo, C.; De Rosa, E.; Yazdi, I. K.; Scaria, S.; Molinaro, R.; Furman, N. E. Toledano; You, J.; Ferrari, M.; Salvatore, F.; Tasciotti, E.

    2016-10-01

    Recent advances in the field of nanomedicine have demonstrated that biomimicry can further improve targeting properties of current nanotechnologies while simultaneously enable carriers with a biological identity to better interact with the biological environment. Immune cells for example employ membrane proteins to target inflamed vasculature, locally increase vascular permeability, and extravasate across inflamed endothelium. Inspired by the physiology of immune cells, we recently developed a procedure to transfer leukocyte membranes onto nanoporous silicon particles (NPS), yielding Leukolike Vectors (LLV). LLV are composed of a surface coating containing multiple receptors that are critical in the cross-talk with the endothelium, mediating cellular accumulation in the tumor microenvironment while decreasing vascular barrier function. We previously demonstrated that lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA-1) transferred onto LLV was able to trigger the clustering of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on endothelial cells. Herein, we provide a more comprehensive analysis of the working mechanism of LLV in vitro in activating this pathway and in vivo in enhancing vascular permeability. Our results suggest the biological activity of the leukocyte membrane can be retained upon transplant onto NPS and is critical in providing the particles with complex biological functions towards tumor vasculature.

  20. Mitochondrial Membrane Permeability Inhibitors in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory Trankle, MD

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite therapeutic advances, acute myocardial infarction (AMI remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. One potential limitation of the current treatment paradigm is the lack of effective therapies to optimize reperfusion after ischemia and prevent reperfusion-mediated injury. Experimental studies indicate that this process accounts for up to 50% of the final infarct size, lending it importance as a potential target for cardioprotection. However, multiple therapeutic approaches have shown potential in pre-clinical and early phase trials but a paucity of clear clinical benefit when expanded to larger studies. Here we explore this history of trials and errors of the studies of cyclosporine A and other mitochondrial membrane permeability inhibitors, agents that appeared to have a promising pre-clinical record yet provided disappointing results in phase III clinical trials.

  1. Permeability of the blood-brain barrier predicts conversion from optic neuritis to multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Stig P; Modvig, Signe; Simonsen, Helle Juhl

    2015-01-01

    in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in normal-appearing white matter of patients with multiple sclerosis and here, for the first time, we present a study on the capability of blood-brain barrier permeability in predicting conversion from optic neuritis to multiple sclerosis and a direct comparison...... with cerebrospinal fluid markers of inflammation, cellular trafficking and blood-brain barrier breakdown. To this end, we applied dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T to measure blood-brain barrier permeability in 39 patients with monosymptomatic optic neuritis, all referred for imaging...... fluid as well as levels of CXCL10 and MMP9 in the cerebrospinal fluid. These findings suggest that blood-brain barrier permeability, as measured by magnetic resonance imaging, may provide novel pathological information as a marker of neuroinflammation related to multiple sclerosis, to some extent...

  2. Recovery of ammonia and phosphate minerals from swine wastewater using gas-permeable membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gas-permeable membrane technology is useful to recover ammonia from liquid manures. In this study, phosphorus (P) recovery via magnesium chloride precipitation was enhanced by combining it with ammonia recovery through gas-permeable membranes. Anaerobically digested swine effluent containing approx...

  3. Permeable reactive barrier - innovative technology for ground-water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidic, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Significant advances in the application of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for ground-water remediation have been witnessed in the last 5 years. From only a few full-scale systems and pilot-scale demonstrations, there are currently at least 38 full-scale PRBs using zero-valent iron (ZVI) as a reactive material. Of those, 26 are continuous reactive walls, 9 are funnel-and- gate systems and 3 are in situ reactive vessels. Most of the PRB systems have used granular iron media and have been applied to address the control of contamination caused by chlorinated volatile organic compounds or heavy metals. Many regulatory agencies have expressed interest in PRB systems and are becoming more comfortable in issuing permits. The main advantage of PRB systems is that the installation costs are comparable with those of other ground-water remediation technologies, while the O and M costs are significantly lower and are mostly due to monitoring requirements, which are required for all remediation approaches. In addition, the land use can resume after the installation of the PRB systems, since there are few visible signs of the installation above grounds except for the monitoring wells. It is difficult to make any definite conclusions about the long-term performance of PRB systems because there is no more than 5 years of the record of performance that can be used for such analysis. The two main challenges still facing this technology are: (1) evaluating the longevity (geochemistry) of a PRB; and (2) ensuring/verifying hydraulic performance. A number of public/private partnerships have been established in recent years that are working together to resolve some of these problems. This organized approach by combining the efforts of several government agencies and private companies will likely result in better understanding and, hopefully, better acceptance of this technology in the future. (author)

  4. Heavy Cigarette Smokers in a Chinese Population Display a Compromised Permeability Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Shujun; Ye, Li; Lv, Chengzhi; Elias, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with various cutaneous disorders with defective permeability. Yet, whether cigarette smoking influences epidermal permeability barrier function is largely unknown. Here, we measured skin biophysical properties, including permeability barrier homeostasis, stratum corneum (SC) integrity, SC hydration, skin surface pH, and skin melanin/erythema index, in cigarette smokers. A total of 99 male volunteers were enrolled in this study. Smokers were categorized as light-to-moderate (hydration and skin melanin/erythema index on the dorsal hand, forehead, and cheek. Basal transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and barrier recovery rates were assessed on the forearm. A Skin-pH-Meter pH900 was used to measure skin surface pH. Our results showed that heavy cigarette smokers exhibited delayed barrier recovery after acute abrogation (1.02% ± 13.06 versus 16.48% ± 6.07), and barrier recovery rates correlated negatively with the number of daily cigarettes consumption (p = 0.0087). Changes in biophysical parameters in cigarette smokers varied with body sites. In conclusion, heavy cigarette smokers display compromised permeability barrier homeostasis, which could contribute, in part, to the increased prevalence of certain cutaneous disorders characterized by defective permeability. Thus, improving epidermal permeability barrier should be considered for heavy cigarette smokers. PMID:27437403

  5. PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS FOR IN-SITU TREATMENT OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory and field research has shown that permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) containing a variety of materials can treat arsenic (As) contaminated groundwater. Sites where these PRBs are located include a mine tailings facility, fertilizer and chemical manufacturing sites, a...

  6. Permeable Barrier Materials for Strontium Immobilization: - UFA Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity. - Column Sorption Experiments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moody, T

    1996-01-01

    Selected materials were tested to emulate a permeable barrier and to examine the: (1) capture efficiency of these materials relating to the immobilization of strontium-90 and hexavalent chromium in Hanford groundwater...

  7. Permeable barrier materials for strontium immobilization: Unsaturated flow apparatus determination of hydraulic conductivity -- Column sorption experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, T.E.; Conca, J.

    1996-09-01

    Selected materials were tested to emulate a permeable barrier and to examine the (1) capture efficiency of these materials relating to the immobilization of strontium-90 and hexavalent chromium (Cr 6+ ) in Hanford Site groundwater; and (2) hydraulic conductivity of the barrier material relative to the surrounding area. The emplacement method investigated was a permeable reactive barrier to treat contaminated groundwater as it passes through the barrier. The hydraulic conductivity function was measured for each material, and retardation column experiments were performed for each material. Measurements determining the hydraulic conductivity at unsaturated through saturated water content were executed using the Unsaturated Flow Apparatus

  8. Calculating the permeability coefficients of mixed matrix membranes of polydimethylsiloxane and silicalite crystals to various ethanol-water solutions using molecular simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The permeability coefficients of mixed matrix membranes of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and silicalite crystal are taken as the sum of the permeability coefficients of membrane components each weighted by their associated mass fraction. The permeability coefficient of a membrane c...

  9. Dewatering of Yoghurt Using Permeable Membrane and Acrylic Superabsorbent Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmadpour

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Conventional processes of food dewatering, such as thermal, have undesirable and destruction effects on vitamins, aromatic compounds and pigments. In addition, they are accompanied with some technological complications and energy consumption. Thus, food concentration processes are directed to non-thermal techniques or methods with reduced heat effects. Superabsorbents are highly hydrophilic polymer networks which can absorb water and aqueous solutions some hundred times of their weights and retain them. These materials are subgroups of hydrogel family that are transformed into gels after absorbing water. In the present research, the possibilities of yoghurt dewatering using superabsorbents have been investigated for the first time in Iran and some remarkable results are obtained for this vital product. In the experiments carried out to investigate the effect of these absorbents on normal method of yoghurt concentration (use of permeable membrane, type of bed (wide and vertical and time are also studied. The percentage of total soluble solids and dry solids of dewatered samples were measured in different time intervals up to 180 min. The results showed that superabsorbent on a wide bed would reduce the concentration time to one third. In other words, in a certain time interval, more than 70% increase in yoghurt dry solids was observed compared to normal method. These results show that acrylic superabsorbent hydrogel can be applied as highly hydrophilic material in non-thermal food dewatering methods.

  10. Coxsackievirus protein 2B modifies endoplasmic reticulum membrane and plasma membrane permeability and facilitates virus release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kuppeveld, F J; Hoenderop, J G; Smeets, R L; Willems, P H; Dijkman, H B; Galama, J M; Melchers, W J

    1997-01-01

    Digital-imaging microscopy was performed to study the effect of Coxsackie B3 virus infection on the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration and the Ca2+ content of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). During the course of infection a gradual increase in the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration was observed, due to the influx of extracellular Ca2+. The Ca2+ content of the ER decreased in time with kinetics inversely proportional to those of viral protein synthesis. Individual expression of protein 2B was sufficient to induce the influx of extracellular Ca2+ and to release Ca2+ from ER stores. Analysis of mutant 2B proteins showed that both a cationic amphipathic alpha-helix and a second hydrophobic domain in 2B were required for these activities. Consistent with a presumed ability of protein 2B to increase membrane permeability, viruses carrying a mutant 2B protein exhibited a defect in virus release. We propose that 2B gradually enhances membrane permeability, thereby disrupting the intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and ultimately causing the membrane lesions that allow release of virus progeny. PMID:9218794

  11. Hydraulic performance of permeable barriers for in situ treatment of contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, D.J.A.; Shikaze, S.G.; Cherry, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The passive interception and in situ treatment of dissolved contaminants in groundwater by permeable reactive barriers has recently gained favor at an increasing number of sites as an alternative to conventional approaches to groundwater remediation such as the pump-and-treat method. Permeable reactive barriers have two essential functions. The first is that the barriers must be installed in a position such that all of the plume passes through the reactive system. The second function is to achieve acceptable treatment of the contamination by physical, chemical or biological means within or downgradient of the barrier. In this paper, issues associated with the hydraulic performance of permeable reaction barriers are evaluated using a three-dimensional groundwater flow model. The efficiency of plume capture by permeable wall and funnel-and-gate systems is examined for some generic and for site-specific hydrogeologic systems. The results have important implications to decisions pertaining to the selection, design and installation of permeable reactive barrier systems

  12. Permeability measurement of some barrier materials as a function of temperature and pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqsood, M.; Faisal, S.; Ali, J.; Usman, A.; Alamgir, K.; Farooq, K.

    2011-01-01

    Barrier materials possess the ability to restrict the passage of gases, vapors, and organic liquids through their boundaries. These barrier materials have large number of applications in industry and scientific research. To measure the permeability of barrier materials, a specific gas flow system has been developed, pure helium gas is used to measure the back ground reading through SS-316. The permeability and break-through time has been measured through Inconel X-750, NBR and Viton below and above the atmospheric pressure and at different temperatures 20 deg. C, 40 deg. C and 70 deg. C. (author)

  13. Microporous membranes from polyamide 6/national clay nanocomposites - Part 2: microstructural and permeability evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Amanda M.D.; Araujo, Edcleide M.; Lira, Helio de L.; Paz, Rene Anisio da; Medeiros, Vanessa da Nobrega

    2014-01-01

    Organic/inorganic hybrid membranes of polyamide 6 and mineral clay containing layers of silicate were prepared and compared to those of the pure polymer. Use was made of an as-received sodium clay from industry and another organophilized with ammonium quaternary salts (Dodigen and Cetremide). The salts make the clays surface hydrophobic and improve their incorporation into the polymer matrix in the molten state. Membranes were prepared with these nanocomposites using the immersion-precipitation technique with formic acid as a solvent, and precipitation in a water bath as non-solvent. The acid concentration in the solution containing the polymer and the hybrids was varied to study its influence in morphology and permeability of the membranes. An asymmetric morphology consisting of a filter skin and a porous support was observed, with pores both on the surface and in the cross section being affected by the different salts. This asymmetric morphology was also affected significantly by the acid concentration, with thicker filter skins for higher concentrations. The acid concentration affected the pores size and their distribution. The clay particles probably acted as a barrier to the flow. The permeating flux for the two acid concentrations varied as a function of the distinct morphologies. (author)

  14. Mass transfer rate through liquid membranes: interfacial chemical reactions and diffusion as simultaneous permeability controlling factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danesi, P.R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Chiarizia, R.

    1981-01-01

    Equations describing the permeability of a liquid membrane to metal cations have been derived taking into account aqueous diffusion, membrane diffusion, and interfacial chemical reactions as simultaneous permeability controlling factors. Diffusion and chemical reactions have been coupled by a simple model analogous to the one previously described by us to represent liquid-liquid extraction kinetics. The derived equations, which make use of experimentally determined interfacial reaction mechanisms, qualitatively fit unexplained literature data regarding Cu 2+ transfer through liquid membranes. Their use to predict and optimize membrane permeability in practical separation processes by setting the appropriate concentration of the membrane carrier [LIX 64 (General Mills), a commercial β-hydroxy-oxime] and the pH of the aqueous copper feed solution is briefly discussed. 4 figures

  15. The influence of naphthenic acids and their fractions onto cell membrane permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Ksenija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of naphthenic acids (NAs mixture and their narrow fractions (called NA pH 4, pH 8 and pH 10 onto permeability of beetroot cell membrane is examined. The results showed that the effect depends on treatment duration, concentration and NAs structure. Longer treatment of plant cell membranes with sodium naphthenate (Na-naph resulted in the increase of membrane permeability (e.g. 4-hour treatment with Na-naph (C=100 μmol L-1 increased membrane permeability about 3 times, while prolongation of treatment to 24 hour resulted in the 18 times increasing of the effect. NAs in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10 μmol L-1 does not change membrane permeability, while membrane permeability is increasing linearly with concentration increasing from 10-100 μmol L-1. The strongest effect expressed fraction pH 8, where bi- and tricyclic carboxylic acids are the most abundant. These structures are predominant in the total NAs mixture as well. Thereby could be explained their closest, but a little bit weaker effect, comparing to NAs present in fraction pH 8. The effect of NAs onto beetroot cell membrane is between the effects of anionic (SDS and LS and non-ionic surfactants (Triton X-100. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172006. i br. TR31036

  16. Long-term Performance of Permeable Reactive Barriers Using Zero-valent Iron: An Evaluation at Two Sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkin, Richard T; Puls, Robert W; Sewell, Guy W

    2002-01-01

    Research described in this research brief explores the geochemical and microbiological processes occurring within zero-valent iron treatment zones in permeable reactive barriers that may contribute...

  17. design of ceramic membrane supports: permeability, tensile strength and stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, Pieter Maarten; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Verweij, H.

    1999-01-01

    A membrane support provides mechanical strength to a membrane top layer to withstand the stress induced by the pressure difference applied over the entire membrane and must simultaneously have a low resistance to the filtrate flow. In this paper an experimental and a theoretical approach toward the

  18. Selective imipenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa associated with diminished outer membrane permeability.

    OpenAIRE

    Studemeister, A E; Quinn, J P

    1988-01-01

    The permeability of the outer membranes of imipenem-susceptible and imipenem-resistant clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated by the liposome swelling assay. Sugars and cephaloridine penetrated rapidly, whereas imipenem penetrated poorly into liposomes constructed from porin-rich outer membrane fractions of the resistant isolates.

  19. Carbon-based building blocks for alcohol dehydration membranes with disorder-enhanced water permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Etmimi, H.; Mallon, P.E.

    2017-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) thin films have demonstrated outstanding water permeability and excellent selectivity towards organic molecules and inorganic salts, unlocking a new exciting direction in the development of nanofiltration, desalination and pervaporation membranes. However, there are still high......-HAL membranes promising devices for alcohol dehydration technologies....

  20. Polybenzimidazole-based mixed membranes with exceptional high water vapor permeability and selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Akhtar, Faheem Hassan

    2017-09-13

    Polybenzimidazole (PBI), a thermal and chemically stable polymer, is commonly used to fabricate membranes for applications like hydrogen recovery at temperatures of more than 300 °C, fuel cells working in a highly acidic environment, and nanofiltration in aggressive solvents. This report shows for the first time use of PBI dense membranes for water vapor/gas separation applications. They showed an excellent selectivity and high water vapor permeability. Incorporation of inorganic hydrophilic titanium-based nano-fillers into the PBI matrix further increased the water vapor permeability and water vapor/N2 selectivity. The most selective mixed matrix membrane with 0.5 wt% loading of TiO2 nanotubes yielded a water vapor permeability of 6.8×104 Barrer and a H2O/N2 selectivity of 3.9×106. The most permeable membrane with 1 wt% loading of carboxylated TiO2 nanoparticles had a 7.1×104 Barrer water vapor permeability and a H2O/N2 selectivity of 3.1×106. The performance of these membranes in terms of water vapor transport and selectivity is among the highest reported ones. The remarkable ability of PBI to efficiently permeate water versus other gases opens the possibility to fabricate membranes for dehumidification of streams in harsh environments. This includes the removal of water from high temperature reaction mixtures to shift the equilibrium towards products.

  1. Polybenzimidazole-based mixed membranes with exceptional high water vapor permeability and selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Akhtar, Faheem Hassan; Kumar, Mahendra; Villalobos, Luis Francisco; Shevate, Rahul; Vovusha, Hakkim; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Polybenzimidazole (PBI), a thermal and chemically stable polymer, is commonly used to fabricate membranes for applications like hydrogen recovery at temperatures of more than 300 °C, fuel cells working in a highly acidic environment, and nanofiltration in aggressive solvents. This report shows for the first time use of PBI dense membranes for water vapor/gas separation applications. They showed an excellent selectivity and high water vapor permeability. Incorporation of inorganic hydrophilic titanium-based nano-fillers into the PBI matrix further increased the water vapor permeability and water vapor/N2 selectivity. The most selective mixed matrix membrane with 0.5 wt% loading of TiO2 nanotubes yielded a water vapor permeability of 6.8×104 Barrer and a H2O/N2 selectivity of 3.9×106. The most permeable membrane with 1 wt% loading of carboxylated TiO2 nanoparticles had a 7.1×104 Barrer water vapor permeability and a H2O/N2 selectivity of 3.1×106. The performance of these membranes in terms of water vapor transport and selectivity is among the highest reported ones. The remarkable ability of PBI to efficiently permeate water versus other gases opens the possibility to fabricate membranes for dehumidification of streams in harsh environments. This includes the removal of water from high temperature reaction mixtures to shift the equilibrium towards products.

  2. Permeability of hydrogen isotopes through Pd-Ag membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi

    1981-01-01

    This paper represents the permeabilities, diffusion coefficients and isotope effects for hydrogen and deuterium through Pd-25 wt.% Ag alloy tubes The feed gas H 2 or D 2 flowing into the permeation cell was preheated before it reached to the outer surface of the permeation tube made of palladium-silver alloy. Permeation time lag method could be successfully carried out with the present apparatus to measure both permeability and diffusion coefficient. The square-root pressure dependence for the permeation of hydrogen isotopes was observed. The observed systematic temperature dependence indicates that the approximation of the Arrhenius' relation was effective within this experimental conditions. Some tendency of permeation fluxes in relation to the reciprocal temperature, 1/T, was seen. The permeability ratio was larger than the square root of isotopic mass ratio, and it decreased with temperature rise. On the contrary, the diffusion coefficient ratio was much smaller than the square root of isotopic mass ratio. (Kato, T.)

  3. [Research on ultrasonic permeability of low intensity pulsed ultrasound through PTFE membrane and Bio-Gide collagen membrane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Zhaowu; Zhao, Chunliang; Song, Jinlin; Deng, Feng; Yang, Ji; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Minyi

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to detect the transmission rate of ultrasonic low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) through polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane (Thickness: 0.01 mm) and Bio-Gide collagen membrane, and to provide the basis for the barrier membrane selection on the study of LIPUS combined with guided tissue regeneration (GTR). The ultrasonic (LIPUS, frequency 1.5 MHz, pulse width 200 micros, repetition rate 1.0 kHz) transmission coefficient of the two kinds of barrier membrane were detected respectively through setting ten groups from 10 to 100mW/cm2 every other 10 mW/cm2. We found in the study that the ultrasonic transmission coefficient through 0.01 mm PTFE membrane was 78.1% to 92.%, and the ultrasonic transmission coefficient through Bio-Gide collagen membrane was 43.9% to 55.8%. The ultrasonic transmission coefficient through PTFE membrane was obviously higher than that through Bio-Gide collagen membrane. The transmission coefficient of the same barrier membrane of the ultrasonic ion was statistically different under different powers (P PTFE membrane and Bio-Gide collagen membrane were relatively high. We should select barrier membranes based on different experimental needs, and exercise ultrasonic transmission coefficient experiments to ensure effective power.

  4. Development of Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRB) Using Edible Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    naturally occurring processes of advection and dispersion to bring the contaminants to the treatment barrier. A large scale approach would be to form a...process has been developed for distributing soybean oil as an oil-in-water emulsion consisting of small oil droplets dispersed in a continuous...Thiele Kaolin Company, Sandersville, Georgia) was added to certain materials to evaluate the effect of increasing clay content. Grain size

  5. Mapping the Fluid Pathways and Permeability Barriers of a Large Gas Hydrate Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A.; Zhang, Y. L.; Sun, L. F.; Saleh, R.; Pun, W.; Bellefleur, G.; Milkereit, B.

    2012-12-01

    An understanding of the relationship between the physical properties of gas hydrate saturated sedimentary basins aids in the detection, exploration and monitoring one of the world's upcoming energy resources. A large gas hydrate reservoir is located in the MacKenzie Delta of the Canadian Arctic and geophysical logs from the Mallik test site are available for the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) between depths of approximately 850 m to 1100 m. The geophysical data sets from two neighboring boreholes at the Mallik test site are analyzed. Commonly used porosity logs, as well as nuclear magnetic resonance, compressional and Stoneley wave velocity dispersion logs are used to map zones of elevated and severely reduced porosity and permeability respectively. The lateral continuity of horizontal permeability barriers can be further understood with the aid of surface seismic modeling studies. In this integrated study, the behavior of compressional and Stoneley wave velocity dispersion and surface seismic modeling studies are used to identify the fluid pathways and permeability barriers of the gas hydrate reservoir. The results are compared with known nuclear magnetic resonance-derived permeability values. The aim of investigating this heterogeneous medium is to map the fluid pathways and the associated permeability barriers throughout the gas hydrate stability zone. This provides a framework for an understanding of the long-term dissociation of gas hydrates along vertical and horizontal pathways, and will improve the knowledge pertaining to the production of such a promising energy source.

  6. Permeability of EVOH Barrier Material Used in Automotive Applications: Metrology Development for Model Fuel Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jing

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available EVOH (Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol materials are widely used in automotive applications in multi-layer fuel lines and tanks owing to their excellent barrier properties to aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. These barrier materials are essential to limit environmental fuel emissions and comply with the challenging requirements of fast changing international regulations. Nevertheless, the measurement of EVOH permeability to model fuel mixtures or to their individual components is particularly difficult due to the complexity of these systems and their very low permeability, which can vary by several orders of magnitude depending on the permeating species and their relative concentrations. This paper describes the development of a new automated permeameter capable of taking up the challenge of measuring minute quantities as low as 1 mg/(m2.day for partial fluxes for model fuel mixtures containing ethanol, i-octane and toluene at 50°C. The permeability results are discussed as a function of the model fuel composition and the importance of EVOH preconditioning is emphasized for accurate permeability measurements. The last part focuses on the influence of EVOH conditioning on its mechanical properties and its microstructure, and further illustrates the specific behavior of EVOH in presence of ethanol oxygenated fuels. The new metrology developed in this work offers a new insight in the permeability properties of a leading barrier material and will help prevent the consequences of (bioethanol addition in fuels on environmental emissions through fuel lines and tanks.

  7. Treatment of fue diesel with a permeable reactive barrier technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANTIAGO ALONSO CARDONA GALLO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación estudió el tratamiento de diesel combustibles de producción mexicana contenidos en agua con un sistema de barrera reactiva permeables a escala de laboratorio (siete columnas. Se uso un suelo agrícola como medio reactivo. Se aplico peroxido de hidrógeno al 50% industrial como fuente de oxigeno y nitrógeno en urea al 46% como nutriente. Se caracterizo el medio reactivo con los principales parámetros de interés (humedad, materia orgánica, pH, nitrógeno total, fósforo disponible, clasificación del suelo, conductividad eléctrica, sólidos suspendidos volátiles, densidad real y aparente, porosidad, textura, color, salinidad, conductividad hidráulica, capacidad de campo y densidad de bacterias. Se determinaron las cinéticas de degradación y la capacidad de adsorción del diesel en el medio reactivo. Las barreras reactivas permeables se diseñaron con los resultados cinéticos obtenidos en los reactores por lotes. Las columnas tenían dimensiones de 30 cm de longitud y 10 cm de diámetro. Las cinéticas de determinaron durante 18 días y las columnas se corrieron durante 70 días presentando remociones arriba del 80%. Se usaron concentraciones iniciales de diesel de 15,000 mg/L. Para la modelación de la adsorción se aplicaron las ecuaciones de Freundlich y Langmuir, donde esta ultima presentó un mejor ajuste a los datos a los datos experimentales y una mayor capacidad de adsorción. Para el suministro de los nutrientes y oxigeno se aplico el modelo propuesto por McCarty y la ecuación media para diesel propuesta por Jackson. Se determinó una velocidad de degradación de 0.0908 d-1, un coeficiente de distribución del diesel en el medio reactivo de 0.8 ml/g, una capacidad de adsorción de diesel en el medio reactivo de 13.50 mg/L y un factor de retardo de 3.69

  8. MHD flow of a uniformly stretched vertical permeable membrane in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a magneto - hydrodynamic flow of a uniformly stretched vertical permeable surface undergoing Arrhenius heat reaction. The analytical solutions are obtained for concentration, temperature and velocity fields using an asymptotic approximation, similar to that of Ayeni et al 2004. It is shown that the temperature ...

  9. A framework for understanding semi-permeable barrier effects on migratory ungulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Hall; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Middleton, Arthur D.; Morrison, Thomas A.; Nielson, Ryan M.; Wyckoff, Teal B.

    2013-01-01

    1. Impermeable barriers to migration can greatly constrain the set of possible routes and ranges used by migrating animals. For ungulates, however, many forms of development are semi-permeable, and making informed management decisions about their potential impacts to the persistence of migration routes is difficult because our knowledge of how semi-permeable barriers affect migratory behaviour and function is limited. 2. Here, we propose a general framework to advance the understanding of barrier effects on ungulate migration by emphasizing the need to (i) quantify potential barriers in terms that allow behavioural thresholds to be considered, (ii) identify and measure behavioural responses to semi-permeable barriers and (iii) consider the functional attributes of the migratory landscape (e.g. stopovers) and how the benefits of migration might be reduced by behavioural changes. 3. We used global position system (GPS) data collected from two subpopulations of mule deer Odocoileus hemionus to evaluate how different levels of gas development influenced migratory behaviour, including movement rates and stopover use at the individual level, and intensity of use and width of migration route at the population level. We then characterized the functional landscape of migration routes as either stopover habitat or movement corridors and examined how the observed behavioural changes affected the functionality of the migration route in terms of stopover use. 4. We found migratory behaviour to vary with development intensity. Our results suggest that mule deer can migrate through moderate levels of development without any noticeable effects on migratory behaviour. However, in areas with more intensive development, animals often detoured from established routes, increased their rate of movement and reduced stopover use, while the overall use and width of migration routes decreased. 5. Synthesis and applications. In contrast to impermeable barriers that impede animal movement

  10. A Tracer Test to Characterize Treatment of TCE in a Permeable Reactive Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    A tracer test was conducted to characterize the flow of ground water surrounding a permeable reactive barrier constructed with plant mulch (a biowall) at the OU-1 site on Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma. This biowall is intended to intercept and treat ground water contaminated by ...

  11. Blood-brain barrier permeability and monocyte infiltration in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis : a quantitative MRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floris, S.; Blezer, E.L.A.; Schreibelt, Gerty; Dopp, E.; Pol, van der S.M.A.; Schadee-Eestermans, I.L.; Nicolaij, K.; Dijkstra, C.D.; Vries, de H.E.

    2004-01-01

    Enhanced cerebrovascular permeability and cellular infiltration mark the onset of early multiple sclerosis lesions. So far, the precise sequence of these events and their role in lesion formation and disease progression remain unknown. Here we provide quantitative evidence that blood–brain barrier

  12. The Effect of Ovariectomy and Estrogen on Penetrating Brain Arterioles and Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cipolla, Marilyn J.; Godfrey, Julie A.; Wiegman, Marchien J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the effect of estrogen replacement on the structure and function of penetrating brain arterioles (PA) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Materials and Methods: Female ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were replaced with estradiol (E-2) and estriol (E-3) (OVX + E;

  13. Exploration of permeability and antifouling performance on modified cellulose acetate ultrafiltration membrane with cellulose nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jinling; Zhang, Guoquan; Zhang, Hanmin; Yang, Fenglin

    2017-10-15

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were introduced into cellulose diacetate (CDA) matrix via immerged phase-inversion process, aiming to improve the filtration and antifouling performance of CNCs/CDA blending membrane. The effects of CNCs on membrane morphologies, hydrophilicity, permeability and antifouling property were investigated. Results showed that the incorporation of CNCs into CDA membrane could effectively enhance the permeability and antifouling property of CNCs/CDA blending membrane by optimizing membrane microstructure and improving membrane hydrophilicity. A high pure water flux of 173.8L/m 2 h was achieved for the CNCs/CDA blending membrane at 200KPa, which is 24 times that of the CDA membrane (7.2L/m 2 h). The bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption amount of the CNCs/CDA blending membrane decreased about 48% compared to that of the CDA membrane. Additionally, the CNCs/CDA blending membrane exhibited better antifouling performance with the flux recovery ratio (FRR) of 89.5% after three fouling cycles, compared to 59.7% for the CDA membrane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of hypoglycemic and alcoholic coma on the blood-brain barrier permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorulmaz, Hatice; Seker, Fatma Burcu; Oztas, Baria

    2011-01-01

    In this investigation, the effects of hypoglycemic coma and alcoholic coma on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability have been compared. Female adult Wistar albino rats weighing 180-230 g were divided into three groups: Control group (n=8), Alcoholic Coma Group (n=18), and Hypoglycemic Coma group (n=12). The animals went into coma approximately 3-4 hours after insulin administration and 3-5 minutes after alcohol administration. Evans blue (4mL/kg) was injected intravenously as BBB tracer. It was observed that the alcoholic coma did not significantly increase the BBB permeability in any of the brain regions when compared to control group. Changes in BBB permeability were significantly increased by the hypoglycemic coma in comparison to the control group values (pcoma have different effects on the BBB permeability depending on the energy metabolism. PMID:21619558

  15. Stable catalyst layers for hydrogen permeable composite membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, J. Douglas; Wolden, Colin A

    2014-01-07

    The present invention provides a hydrogen separation membrane based on nanoporous, composite metal carbide or metal sulfide coated membranes capable of high flux and permselectivity for hydrogen without platinum group metals. The present invention is capable of being operated over a broad temperature range, including at elevated temperatures, while maintaining hydrogen selectivity.

  16. Redox-active media for permeable reactive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivavec, T.M.; Mackenzie, P.D.; Horney, D.P.; Baghel, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, three classes of redox-active media are described and evaluated in terms of their long-term effectiveness in treating TCE-contaminated groundwater in permeable reactive zones. Zero-valent iron, in the form of recycled cast iron filings, the first class, has received considerable attention as a reactive media and has been used in about a dozen pilot- and full-scale subsurface wall installations. Criteria used in selecting commercial sources of granular iron, will be discussed. Two other classes of redox-active media that have not yet seen wide use in pilot- or full-scale installations will also be described: Fe(II) minerals and bimetallic systems. Fe(II) minerals, including magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), and ferrous sulfide (troilite, FeS), are redox-active and afford TCE reduction rates and product distributions that suggest that they react via a reductive mechanism similar to that which operates in the FeO system. Fe(II) species within the passive oxide layer coating the iron metal may act as electron transfer mediators, with FeO serving as the bulk reductant. Bimetallic systems, the third class of redox-active media, are commonly prepared by plating a second metal onto zero-valent iron (e.g., Ni/Fe and Pd/Fe) and have been shown to accelerate solvent degradation rates relative to untreated iron metal. The long-term effectiveness of this approach, however, has not yet been determined in groundwater treatability tests. The results of a Ni-plated iron column study using site groundwater indicate that a change in reduction mechanism (to catalytic dehydrohalogenation/hydrogenation) accounts for the observed rate enhancement. A significant loss in media reactivity was observed over time, attributable to Ni catalyst deactivation or poisoning. Zero-valent iron systems have not shown similar losses in reactivity in long-term laboratory, pilot or field investigations

  17. Exploring bacterial outer membrane barrier to combat bad bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Ishan; Ghai, Shashank

    2017-01-01

    One of the main fundamental mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria comprises an effective change in the membrane permeability to antibiotics. The Gram-negative bacterial complex cell envelope comprises an outer membrane that delimits the periplasm from the exterior environment. The outer membrane contains numerous protein channels, termed as porins or nanopores, which are mainly involved in the influx of hydrophilic compounds, including antibiotics. Bacterial adaptation to reduce influx through these outer membrane proteins (Omps) is one of the crucial mechanisms behind antibiotic resistance. Thus to interpret the molecular basis of the outer membrane permeability is the current challenge. This review attempts to develop a state of knowledge pertinent to Omps and their effective role in antibiotic influx. Further, it aims to study the bacterial response to antibiotic membrane permeability and hopefully provoke a discussion toward understanding and further exploration of prospects to improve our knowledge on physicochemical parameters that direct the translocation of antibiotics through the bacterial membrane protein channels.

  18. Exploring bacterial outer membrane barrier to combat bad bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghai I

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ishan Ghai,1 Shashank Ghai2 1School of Engineering and Life Sciences, Jacobs University, Bremen, 2Leibniz University, Hannover, Germany Abstract: One of the main fundamental mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria comprises an effective change in the membrane permeability to antibiotics. The Gram-negative bacterial complex cell envelope comprises an outer membrane that delimits the periplasm from the exterior environment. The outer membrane contains numerous protein channels, termed as porins or nanopores, which are mainly involved in the influx of hydrophilic compounds, including antibiotics. Bacterial adaptation to reduce influx through these outer membrane proteins (Omps is one of the crucial mechanisms behind antibiotic resistance. Thus to interpret the molecular basis of the outer membrane permeability is the current challenge. This review attempts to develop a state of knowledge pertinent to Omps and their effective role in antibiotic influx. Further, it aims to study the bacterial response to antibiotic membrane permeability and hopefully provoke a discussion toward understanding and further exploration of prospects to improve our knowledge on physicochemical parameters that direct the translocation of antibiotics through the bacterial membrane protein channels. Keywords: antibiotics, Gram-negative bacteria, cell envelope, protein channels, nanopores, influx, antibiotic resistance

  19. Altered Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Novel Imaging Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Gaurav; Jones, Jordan T; Lee, Gregory; Altaye, Mekibib; Beebe, Dean W; Meyers-Eaton, Jamie; Wiley, Kasha; Brunner, Hermine I; DiFrancesco, Mark W

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate a safe, noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method to measure regional blood-brain barrier integrity and investigate its relationship with neurocognitive function and regional gray matter volume in juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this cross-sectional, case-control study, capillary permeability was measured as a marker of blood-brain barrier integrity in juvenile SLE patients and matched healthy controls, using a combination of arterial spin labeling and diffusion-weighted brain MRI. Regional gray matter volume was measured by voxel-based morphometry. Correlation analysis was done to investigate the relationship between regional capillary permeability and regional gray matter volume. Formal neurocognitive testing was completed (measuring attention, visuoconstructional ability, working memory, and psychomotor speed), and scores were regressed against regional blood-brain barrier integrity among juvenile SLE patients. Formal cognitive testing confirmed normal cognitive ability in all juvenile SLE subjects (n = 11) included in the analysis. Regional capillary permeability was negatively associated (P = 0.026) with neurocognitive performance concerning psychomotor speed in the juvenile SLE cohort. Compared with controls (n = 11), juvenile SLE patients had significantly greater capillary permeability involving Brodmann's areas 19, 28, 36, and 37 and caudate structures (P < 0.05 for all). There is imaging evidence of increased regional capillary permeability in juvenile SLE patients with normal cognitive performance using a novel noninvasive MRI technique. These blood-brain barrier outcomes appear consistent with functional neuronal network alterations and gray matter volume loss previously observed in juvenile SLE patients with overt neurocognitive deficits, supporting the notion that blood-brain barrier integrity loss precedes the loss of cognitive ability in juvenile SLE. Longitudinal studies are needed to

  20. Prospects and problems of dense oxygen permeable membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, P.V.; Larsen, P.H.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2000-01-01

    The prospects of using mixed ionic/electronic conducting ceramics for syngas production in a catalytic membrane reactor are analysed. Problems relating to limited thermodynamic stability and poor dimensional stability of candidate materials are addressed, The consequences for these problems......, of flux improving measures like minimization of membrane thickness and minimization of the losses due to oxygen exchange over the membrane surfaces, are discussed. The analysis is conducted on two candidate materials: La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-delta and SrFeCo0.5Ox. Finally. experimental investigations...

  1. Selectively gas-permeable composite membrane and process for production thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okita, K.; Asako, S.

    1984-01-01

    A selectively gas-permeable composite membrane and a process for producing said composite membrane are described. The composite membrane comprises a polymeric material support and a thin membrane deposited on the support, said thin membrane being obtained by glow discharge plasma polymerization of an organosilane compound containing at least one double bond or triple bond. Alternatively, the composite membrane comprises a polymeric material support having an average pore diameter of at least 0.1 micron, a hardened or cross-linked polyorganosiloxane layer on the support, and a thin membrane on the polyorganosiloxane layer, said thin membrane being obtained by plasma polymerization due to glow discharge of an organosilane compound containing at least one double bond or triple bond

  2. Use of jet grouting to create a low permeability horizontal barrier below an incinerator ash landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, A.J.; Burke, G.K.; Deutsch, W.L. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The City of Philadelphia's Division of Aviation (DOA) has begun construction of a new commuter runway, designated as Runway 8-26, at the Philadelphia International Airport. A portion of this runway will be constructed over a former Superfund site known as the Enterprise Avenue Landfill, which for many years was used to dispose of solid waste incinerator ash and other hazardous materials. The site was clay capped in the 1980's, but in order for the DOA to use the site, additional remediation was needed to meet US EPA final closure requirements. One component of the closure plan included installation of a low permeability horizontal barrier above a very thin (approximately 0.61 to 0.91 meters) natural clay stratum which underlies an approximately 1020 m 2 area of the landfill footprint so as to insure that a minimum 1.52 meter thick low permeability barrier exists beneath the entire 150,000 m 2 landfill. The new barrier was constructed using jet grouting techniques to achieve remote excavation and replacement of the bottom 0.91 meters of the waste mass with a low permeability grout. The grout was formulated to meet the low permeability, low elastic modulus and compressive strength requirements of the project design. This paper will discuss the advantages of using jet grouting for the work and details the development of the grout mixture, modeling of the grout zone under load, field construction techniques, performance monitoring and verification testing

  3. An in vitro transport model for rapid screening and predicting the permeability of candidate compounds at blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Xiao; Mei, Chao; Sun, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Qi

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to design and develop a simple in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeation model for elementarily and rapidly predicting the permeability of candidate compounds at BBB and further evaluating whether P-glycoprotein (P-gp) affects them across BBB. The model was mainly composed of cultured rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (rBMECs), glass contraption, and micropore membrane. First, we evaluated the model by morphological observation. Second, the restriction effects of paracellular transport were verified by measuring marker probes transport, and monitoring transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and leakage. Finally, protein expression and activity of P-gp were confirmed by carrying out Western blot analysis and polarized transport of rhodamine-123 (Rho123) in rBMECs. The rBMECs retained both endothelial cells and BBB features. The rBMECs model reproducibly attained approximately 130 Ω cm² on the steady-state TEER value, and displayed a barrier function to marker probes transport by decreasing the permeability. Protein band of 170 kDa manifested the existence of P-gp in the rBMECs, and the findings of cyclosporin A-sensitive decrease of Rho123 efflux confirmed the presence of P-gp activity. A simple, rapid, and convenient in vitro BBB permeation model was successfully established and applied to evaluate the BBB transport profiles of three natural flavonoids: quercetin, naringenin, and rutin.

  4. Low Permeable Hydrocarbon Polymer Electrolyte Membrane for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ho-Young; Moon, Geon-O; Jung, Seunghun; Kim, Hee Tak; Kim, Sang-Chai; Roh, Sung-Hee

    2017-04-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) confirms the life span of vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). Products from Dupont, Nafion membrane, is mainly used for PEM in VRFB. However, permeation of vanadium ion occurs because of Nafion’s high permeability. Therefore, the efficiency of VRFB decreases and the prices becomes higher, which hinders VRFB’s commercialization. In order to solve this problem, poly(phenylene oxide) (PPO) is sulfonated for the preparation of low-priced hydrocarbon polymer electrolyte membrane. sPPO membrane is characterized by fundamental properties and VRFB cell test.

  5. Algae Bioreactor Using Submerged Enclosures with Semi-Permeable Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan D (Inventor); Gormly, Sherwin J (Inventor); Embaye, Tsegereda N (Inventor); Delzeit, Lance D (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T (Inventor); Liggett, Travis A (Inventor); Buckwalter, Patrick W (Inventor); Baertsch, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for producing hydrocarbons, including oil, by processing algae and/or other micro-organisms in an aquatic environment. Flexible bags (e.g., plastic) with CO.sub.2/O.sub.2 exchange membranes, suspended at a controllable depth in a first liquid (e.g., seawater), receive a second liquid (e.g., liquid effluent from a "dead zone") containing seeds for algae growth. The algae are cultivated and harvested in the bags, after most of the second liquid is removed by forward osmosis through liquid exchange membranes. The algae are removed and processed, and the bags are cleaned and reused.

  6. Influence of electrolyte nature on steel membrane hydrogen permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisovskij, A.P.; Nazarov, A.P.; Mikhajlovskij, Yu.N.

    1993-01-01

    Effect of electrolyte nature on hydrogen absorption of carbonic steel membrane at its cathode polarization is studied. Electrolyte buffering by anions of subdissociated acids is shown to increase hydrogen flow though the membrane in acid electrolytes. Mechanisms covering dissociation of proton-bearing anion in the electrolyte near-the-electron layer or dissociative adsorption on steel surface are suggested. Effect of proton-bearing bases forming stable complex compounds with iron, is studied. Activation of anode process of iron solution is shown to increase the rate of hydrogen penetration

  7. Involvement of membrane lipids in radiation damage to potassium-ion permeability of Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Medical Science; Akamatsu, Y

    1978-02-01

    Radiation damage to K/sup +/ permeability of an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph of E.coli grown with oleate or linolenate was investigated at different temperatures. A remarkable effect of radiation was observed at 0/sup 0/C with cells that had been grown in linolenate at 42/sup 0/C. This indicates that, besides protein, membrane lipids at least are involved in the radiation damage. The damage also seems to be affected by the fluidity of membrane lipids.

  8. Oxidation of trichloroethylene, toluene, and ethanol vapors by a partially saturated permeable reactive barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodlu, Mojtaba G.; Hassanizadeh, S. Majid; Hartog, Niels; Raoof, Amir

    2014-08-01

    The mitigation of volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors in the unsaturated zone largely relies on the active removal of vapor by ventilation. In this study we considered an alternative method involving the use of solid potassium permanganate to create a horizontal permeable reactive barrier for oxidizing VOC vapors. Column experiments were carried out to investigate the oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE), toluene, and ethanol vapors using a partially saturated mixture of potassium permanganate and sand grains. Results showed a significant removal of VOC vapors due to the oxidation. We found that water saturation has a major effect on the removal capacity of the permeable reactive layer. We observed a high removal efficiency and reactivity of potassium permanganate for all target compounds at the highest water saturation (Sw = 0.6). A change in pH within the reactive layer reduced oxidation rate of VOCs. The use of carbonate minerals increased the reactivity of potassium permanganate during the oxidation of TCE vapor by buffering the pH. Reactive transport of VOC vapors diffusing through the permeable reactive layer was modeled, including the pH effect on the oxidation rates. The model accurately described the observed breakthrough curve of TCE and toluene vapors in the headspace of the column. However, miscibility of ethanol in water in combination with produced water during oxidation made the modeling results less accurate for ethanol. A linear relationship was found between total oxidized mass of VOC vapors per unit volume of permeable reactive layer and initial water saturation. This behavior indicates that pH changes control the overall reactivity and longevity of the permeable reactive layer during oxidation of VOCs. The results suggest that field application of a horizontal permeable reactive barrier can be a viable technology against upward migration of VOC vapors through the unsaturated zone.

  9. Permeability of PEGylated immunoarsonoliposomes through in vitro blood brain barrier-medulloblastoma co-culture models for brain tumor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shehri, Abdulghani; Favretto, Marco E; Ioannou, Panayiotis V; Romero, Ignacio A; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Weksler, Babette Barbash; Parker, Terry L; Kallinteri, Paraskevi

    2015-03-01

    Owing to restricted access of pharmacological agents into the brain due to blood brain barrier (BBB) there is a need: 1. to develop a more representative 3-D-co-culture model of tumor-BBB interaction to investigate drug and nanoparticle transport into the brain for diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation. 2. to address the lack of new alternative methods to animal testing according to replacement-reduction-refinement principles. In this work, in vitro BBB-medulloblastoma 3-D-co-culture models were established using immortalized human primary brain endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3). hCMEC/D3 cells were cultured in presence and in absence of two human medulloblastoma cell lines on Transwell membranes. In vitro models were characterized for BBB formation, zonula occludens-1 expression and permeability to dextran. Transferrin receptors (Tfr) expressed on hCMEC/D3 were exploited to facilitate arsonoliposome (ARL) permeability through the BBB to the tumor by covalently attaching an antibody specific to human Tfr. The effect of anticancer ARLs on hCMEC/D3 was assessed. In vitro BBB and BBB-tumor co-culture models were established successfully. BBB permeability was affected by the presence of tumor aggregates as suggested by increased permeability of ARLs. There was a 6-fold and 8-fold increase in anti-Tfr-ARL uptake into VC312R and BBB-DAOY co-culture models, respectively, compared to plain ARLs. The three-dimensional models might be appropriate models to study the transport of various drugs and nanocarriers (liposomes and immunoarsonoliposomes) through the healthy and diseased BBB. The immunoarsonoliposomes can be potentially used as anticancer agents due to good tolerance of the in vitro BBB model to their toxic effect.

  10. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-Dextran Extravasation as a Measure of Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Reka; Northrop, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is formed in part by vascular endothelial cells that constitute the capillaries and microvessels of the brain. The function of this barrier is to maintain homeostasis within the brain microenvironment and buffer the brain from changes in the periphery. A dysfunction of the BBB would permit circulating molecules and pathogens typically restricted to the periphery to enter the brain and interfere with normal brain function. As increased permeability of the BBB is associated with several neuropathologies, it is important to have a reliable and sensitive method that determines BBB permeability and the degree of BBB disruption. A detailed protocol is presented for assessing the integrity of the BBB by transcardial perfusion of a 10,000 Da FITC labeled dextran molecule and its visualization to determine the degree of extravasation from brain microvessels. PMID:28398646

  11. Surfactant-modified zeolites as permeable barriers to organic and inorganic groundwater contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, R.S.; Sullivan, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    We have shown in laboratory experiments that natural zeolites treated with hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) are effective sorbents for nonpolar organics, inorganic cations, and inorganic anions. Due to their low cost (∼$0.75/kg) and granular nature, HDTMA-zeolites appear ideal candidates for reactive, permeable subsurface barriers. The HDTMA-zeolites are stable over a wide range of pH (3-13), ionic strength (1 M Cs + or Ca 2+ ), and in organic solvents. Surfactant-modified zeolites sorb nonpolar organics (benzene, toluene, xylene, chlorinated aliphatics) via a partitioning mechanism, inorganic cations (Pb 2+ ) via ion exchange and surface complexation, and inorganic anions (CrO 4 2- , SeO 4 2- , SO 4 2- ) via surface precipitation.The goal of this work is to demonstrate the use of surfactant-modified zeolite as a permeable barrier to ground water contaminants

  12. Enhanced recovery of ammonia from swine manure anaerobic digester effluent using gas-permeable membranes and aeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric ammonia pollution from livestock wastes can be reduced using gas-permeable membrane technology by converting ammonia contained in the manure into ammonium salt for use in fertilizers. In this study, gas-permeable membrane technology was enhanced using aeration combined with nitrificatio...

  13. Recovery of ammonia from swine manure using gas-permeable membranes: Effect of aeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gas-permeable membranes can recover ammonia from manure, reducing pollution whilst converting ammonia into ammonium salt fertilizer. The process involves manure pH control to increase ammonium (NH4) recovery rate that is normally carried out using an alkali. In this study a new strategy to avoid the...

  14. Abatement of ammonia emissions from digested manure using gas-permeable membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new strategy to avoid ammonia emissions from anaerobically digested swine manure was tested using the gas-permeable membrane process. Evaluation of the efficiency of ammonia recovery from digestate as well as mitigation of ammonia emissions to the atmosphere were carried out. Digestate was colle...

  15. Free flow zone electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing using a microfabricated glass device with ion permeable membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohlheyer, D.; Besselink, G.A.J.; Schlautmann, Stefan; Schasfoort, Richardus B.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a microfabricated free-flow electrophoresis device with integrated ion permeable membranes. In order to obtain continuous lanes of separated components an electrical field is applied perpendicular to the sample flow direction. This sample stream is sandwiched between two sheath

  16. Ion permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane limits the maximum growth temperature of bacteria and archaea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vossenberg, J.L C M; Ubbink-Kok, T.; Elferink, M.G.L.; Driessen, A.J.M.; Konings, W.N

    1995-01-01

    Protons and sodium ions are the most commonly used coupling ions in energy transduction in bacteria and archaea. At their growth temperature, the permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane of thermophilic bacteria to protons is high compared with that of sodium ions. In some thermophiles, sodium is

  17. In vitro and in vivo activation of mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore using triiodothyronine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Endlicher, R.; Drahota, Zdeněk; Červinková, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 2 (2016), s. 321-331 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GB14-36804G Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : rat liver mitochondria * membrane permeability transition pore * thyroid hormones Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  18. Gas-permeable hydrophobic tubular membranes for ammonia recovery in bio-electrochemical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, P.; Zamora, P.; Saakes, M.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2016-01-01

    The application of a gas-permeable hydrophobic tubular membrane in bio-electrochemical systems enables efficient recovery of ammonia (NH3) from their cathode compartments. Due to a hydrogen evolution reaction at the cathode, no chemical addition was required to increase the pH for

  19. Synergistic permeability enhancing effect of lysophospholipids and fatty acids on lipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jesper; Mouritsen, O.G.; Jørgensen, K.

    2002-01-01

    The permeability-enhancing effects of the two surfactants, 1-paltnitoyl-2-lyso-sn-gycero-3-pllosplloclloline (lysoPPC) and palmitic acid (PA), on lipid membranes that at physiological temperatures are in the gel, fluid, and liquid-ordered phases were determined using the concentration-dependent s...

  20. Reactive Membrane Barriers for Containment of Subsurface Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William A. Arnold; Edward L. Cussler

    2007-02-26

    The overall goal of this project was to develop reactive membrane barriers--a new and flexible technique to contain and stabilize subsurface contaminants. Polymer membranes will leak once a contaminant is able to diffuse through the membrane. By incorporating a reactive material in the polymer, however, the contaminant is degraded or immobilized within the membrane. These processes increase the time for contaminants to breakthrough the barrier (i.e. the lag time) and can dramatically extend barrier lifetimes. In this work, reactive barrier membranes containing zero-valent iron (Fe{sup 0}) or crystalline silicotitanate (CST) were developed to prevent the migration of chlorinated solvents and cesium-137, respectively. These studies were complemented by the development of models quantifying the leakage/kill time of reactive membranes and describing the behavior of products produced via the reactions within the membranes. First, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes containing Fe{sup 0} and CST were prepared and tested. Although PVA is not useful in practical applications, it allows experiments to be performed rapidly and the results to be compared to theory. For copper ions (Cu{sup 2+}) and carbon tetrachloride, the barrier was effective, increasing the time to breakthrough over 300 times. Even better performance was expected, and the percentage of the iron used in the reaction with the contaminants was determined. For cesium, the CST laden membranes increased lag times more than 30 times, and performed better than theoretical predictions. A modified theory was developed for ion exchangers in reactive membranes to explain this result. With the PVA membranes, the effect of a groundwater matrix on barrier performance was tested. Using Hanford groundwater, the performance of Fe{sup 0} barriers decreased compared to solutions containing a pH buffer and high levels of chloride (both of which promote iron reactivity). For the CST bearing membrane, performance improved by a

  1. Reactive Membrane Barriers for Containment of Subsurface Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William A. Arnold; Edward L. Cussler

    2007-01-01

    The overall goal of this project was to develop reactive membrane barriers--a new and flexible technique to contain and stabilize subsurface contaminants. Polymer membranes will leak once a contaminant is able to diffuse through the membrane. By incorporating a reactive material in the polymer, however, the contaminant is degraded or immobilized within the membrane. These processes increase the time for contaminants to breakthrough the barrier (i.e. the lag time) and can dramatically extend barrier lifetimes. In this work, reactive barrier membranes containing zero-valent iron (Fe 0 ) or crystalline silicotitanate (CST) were developed to prevent the migration of chlorinated solvents and cesium-137, respectively. These studies were complemented by the development of models quantifying the leakage/kill time of reactive membranes and describing the behavior of products produced via the reactions within the membranes. First, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes containing Fe 0 and CST were prepared and tested. Although PVA is not useful in practical applications, it allows experiments to be performed rapidly and the results to be compared to theory. For copper ions (Cu 2+ ) and carbon tetrachloride, the barrier was effective, increasing the time to breakthrough over 300 times. Even better performance was expected, and the percentage of the iron used in the reaction with the contaminants was determined. For cesium, the CST laden membranes increased lag times more than 30 times, and performed better than theoretical predictions. A modified theory was developed for ion exchangers in reactive membranes to explain this result. With the PVA membranes, the effect of a groundwater matrix on barrier performance was tested. Using Hanford groundwater, the performance of Fe 0 barriers decreased compared to solutions containing a pH buffer and high levels of chloride (both of which promote iron reactivity). For the CST bearing membrane, performance improved by a factor of three when

  2. Gas permeability of bentonite barriers: development, construction and testing of a measurement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraldo Nunes Pitanga

    Full Text Available Abstract This article proposes a testing device to quickly and reliably estimate the gas permeability of bentonite-based clay barriers used in landfill cover systems. The testing methodology is based on a transient gas flow regime that passes through the barrier, therefore not requiring the use of sophisticated equipment that aim to maintain constant differential pressure and measure the gas flow, common requirements for testing methods under a permanent flow regime. To confirm the feasibility of the proposed technique, tests were performed on a pure hydrated bentonite layer, which subsequently encompassed samples of geosynthetic clay liner (GCL at different moisture contents. Geosynthetic clay liners are often selected as a part of the barrier layer for cover systems in solid waste landfills to prevent infiltration of rainfall and migration of biogas into the atmosphere. The results confirmed the equipment reliability and differentiate the different responses of the gas flow barriers studied, considering their different compositions and different moistures.

  3. /GD-Tracker/ A software for blood-brain barrier permeability assessment\

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kala, David; Svoboda, Jan; Litvinec, Andrej; Pošusta, Antonín; Lisý, J.; Šulc, V.; Tomek, A.; Marusič, P.; Jiruška, Přemysl; Otáhal, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2017), s. 43-48 ISSN 0301-5491 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-33115A; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : blood-brain barrier * MRI * Gd-DTPA * permeability * stroke * epileptogenesis * MATLAB * freeware * Gd-Tracker Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology

  4. Removal of chromate in a permeable reactive barrier using zero-valent iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Locht, T

    2002-01-01

    Chromate is a commonly found groundwater contaminant. Permeable reactive barriers containing zero-valent iron as iron filings are able to remove the chromate by a combined reduction/precipitation reaction. However, due to the passivation of the reduction capability of the iron surfaces by the pre......). Mixing in sand had no significant enhancing effect on the removal capacity, in contrast to a pH adjustment of the groundwater to pH 4, which significantly increased the removal capacity....

  5. The diffusion permeability to water of the rat blood-brain barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, T G; Lassen, N A

    1975-01-01

    The diffusion permeability to water of the rat blood-brain-barrier (BBB) was studied. Preliminary data obtained with the Oldendorf tissue uptake method (Oldendorf 1970) in seizure experiments suggested that the transfer from blood to brain of labelled water is diffusion-limited. More definite...... passage increased from 0.26 to 0.67 when the arterial carbon dioxide tension was changed from 15 to 85 mm Hg, a change increasing the cerebral blood flow about sixfold. This finding suggests that water does not pass the blood-brain barrier as freely as lipophilic gases....

  6. Achieving high permeability and enhanced selectivity for Angstrom-scale separations using artificial water channel membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yue-Xiao; Song, Woochul C; Barden, D Ryan; Ren, Tingwei; Lang, Chao; Feroz, Hasin; Henderson, Codey B; Saboe, Patrick O; Tsai, Daniel; Yan, Hengjing; Butler, Peter J; Bazan, Guillermo C; Phillip, William A; Hickey, Robert J; Cremer, Paul S; Vashisth, Harish; Kumar, Manish

    2018-06-12

    Synthetic polymer membranes, critical to diverse energy-efficient separations, are subject to permeability-selectivity trade-offs that decrease their overall efficacy. These trade-offs are due to structural variations (e.g., broad pore size distributions) in both nonporous membranes used for Angstrom-scale separations and porous membranes used for nano to micron-scale separations. Biological membranes utilize well-defined Angstrom-scale pores to provide exceptional transport properties and can be used as inspiration to overcome this trade-off. Here, we present a comprehensive demonstration of such a bioinspired approach based on pillar[5]arene artificial water channels, resulting in artificial water channel-based block copolymer membranes. These membranes have a sharp selectivity profile with a molecular weight cutoff of ~ 500 Da, a size range challenging to achieve with current membranes, while achieving a large improvement in permeability (~65 L m -2  h -1  bar -1  compared with 4-7 L m -2  h -1  bar -1 ) over similarly rated commercial membranes.

  7. Ph responsive permeability and Ion- exchange characteristics of (PE/EPDM)-g-PMAA membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El- Awady, M.M.; El-Awady, N.I.; Eissa, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical grafting of methacrylic acid (MAA) on low density exchange membranes for recovery of different cations from their solutions was investigated. When the dialysis permeability of two solutes (glucose + urea) through the membrane were tested at different ph values and compared, glucose was found to be less efficient than urea for permeation through the membrane. The permeability response of such solute was noticed only at higher ph value (ph 8). The grafted film (membrane) with graft yield of 185% is experimentally adequate to permeate all molecules with radius of lower than 4.3 x 10 polyethylene blended with EPDM with a ratio (90/10) films was carried out using sodium bisulphite as initiator. Factors affecting grafting and the properties of the grafted films were studied in details and showed improved hydrophilic properties, good thermal stability and nearly unaffected strength properties which make them acceptable for practical uses.In the present work, the possibility of practical uses of such grafted films as ph-responsive membranes in a dialysis process and as ion--7 mm. Grafted membranes in different forms (COOH-form), (Na-methacrylate form) and (K methacrylate- form) were prepared to evaluate the membranes uptake selectivity to different mono, di-and trivalent cations from their solutions. The results obtained showed very good efficiency of the prepared membranes as compared with the values obtained for the commercial cation exchange resin (Dowex)

  8. Modelling water vapour permeability through atomic layer deposition coated photovoltaic barrier defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elrawemi, Mohamed, E-mail: Mohamed.elrawemi@hud.ac.uk [EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Advanced Metrology, School of Computing and Engineering, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield (United Kingdom); Blunt, Liam; Fleming, Leigh [EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Advanced Metrology, School of Computing and Engineering, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield (United Kingdom); Bird, David, E-mail: David.Bird@uk-cpi.com [Centre for Process Innovation Limited, Sedgefield, County Durham (United Kingdom); Robbins, David [Centre for Process Innovation Limited, Sedgefield, County Durham (United Kingdom); Sweeney, Francis [EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Advanced Metrology, School of Computing and Engineering, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-03

    Transparent barrier films such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} used for prevention of oxygen and/or water vapour permeation are the subject of increasing research interest when used for the encapsulation of flexible photovoltaic modules. However, the existence of micro-scale defects in the barrier surface topography has been shown to have the potential to facilitate water vapour ingress, thereby reducing cell efficiency and causing internal electrical shorts. Previous work has shown that small defects (≤ 3 μm lateral dimension) were less significant in determining water vapour ingress. In contrast, larger defects (≥ 3 μm lateral dimension) seem to be more detrimental to the barrier functionality. Experimental results based on surface topography segmentation analysis and a model presented in this paper will be used to test the hypothesis that the major contributing defects to water vapour transmission rate are small numbers of large defects. The model highlighted in this study has the potential to be used for gaining a better understanding of photovoltaic module efficiency and performance. - Highlights: • A model of water vapour permeation through barrier defects is presented. • The effect of the defects on the water vapour permeability is investigated. • Defect density correlates with water vapour permeability. • Large defects may dominate the permeation properties of the barrier film.

  9. A study on H{sub 2}S permeability of CsHSO{sub 4} membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbah, Jonathan; Wolan, John T. [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Clean Energy Research Center, College of Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33617 (United States); Krakow, Burton [Clean Energy Research Center, College of Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33617 (United States); Stefanakos, Elias [Clean Energy Research Center, College of Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33617 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33617 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    The gas permeability of H{sub 2}S gas at 150 C through ultra-thin cesium hydrogen sulfate (CsHSO{sub 4}) membranes has been investigated. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses indicate that CsHSO{sub 4} membrane is impermeable to H{sub 2}S gas under test conditions. The apparent micropore diameter of the membrane averaged between 9.5 and 11.5 Aa with a maximum permeance of 0.09 Barrer (6.75 x 10{sup -19} m{sup 2} s{sup -1} Pa{sup -1}). Atomic force microscope and X-ray diffraction analyses show respectively that the surface morphology and crystal structure of the membranes are preserved, with no adverse effect from prolonged exposure to H{sub 2}S gas. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis confirm over a 30% decrease in membrane resistance via an 80% reduction in membrane thickness. (author)

  10. Research on permeability of poly(ethylene) terephthalate track membranes modified in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, S.N.; Kravets, L.I.; Sleptsov, V.V.; Elinson, V.M.; Potryasaj, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The properties of poly(ethylene) terephthalate track membranes subjected to the plasma RF-discharge treatment in air have been investigated. The effect of the treatment conditions in plasma on the structure and the properties of the membranes formed in the gas-discharge etching has been studied. It has been figured out that the influence of the air plasma on the membranes under study leads to a formation of asymmetric membranes with a higher flow rate, the structure and chemical composition of their superficial layer are changed. It is shown that the presence of the modified layer on the surface of the membranes causes changing their hydrodynamic characteristics - water permeability of the membranes treated in plasma in a greater degree depends upon pH of the filtered solution. (author)

  11. Research on Permeability of Poly(ethylene) Terephthalate Track Membranes Modified in Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Dmitriev, S N; Sleptsov, V V; Elinson, V M; Potrjasaj, V V

    2001-01-01

    The properties of poly(ethylene) terephthalate track membranes subjected to the plasma RF-discharge treatment in air have been investigated. The effect of the treatment conditions in plasma on the structure and the properties of the membranes formed in the gas-discharge etching has been studied. It has been figured out that the influence of the air plasma on the membranes under study leads to a formation of asymmetric membranes with a higher flow rate, the structure and chemical composition of their superficial layer are changed. It is shown that the presence of the modified layer on the surface of the membranes causes changing their hydrodynamic characteristics - water permeability of the membranes treated in plasma in a greater degree depends upon {pH} of the filtered solution.

  12. Research on water permeability of poly(ethylene) terephthalate track membranes modified with plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravets, L.I.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Sleptsov, V.V.; Elinson, V.M.; Potryasay, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The properties of poly(ethylene) terephthalate track membranes subjected to effect of plasma of the RF-discharge in air have been investigated. The influence conditions of a plasma treatment on the surface properties and hydrodynamic characteristics of the membranes has been studied. It has been found that the effect of the air plasma on the researched membranes results in a formation of asymmetric track membranes with a higher flow rate, the structure and chemical composition of their superficial layer are changed. It was shown that the availability of the modified layer on the membrane surface caused changing in their hydrodynamic characteristics - the water permeability of the membranes, processed in plasma, in a greater degree depends upon pH of a filtered solution. (author)

  13. Effect of Adsorbed Protein on the Hydraulic Permeability, Membrane and Streaming Potential Values Measured across a Microporous Membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benavente, Juana; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    1998-01-01

    permeability decreases strongly when the pH decreases, having its minimum value at the isoelectric point of the protein; the apparent zeta potential values are also dependent on both pH and salt concentration. Differences in the streaming potential coefficient determined for two membranes fouled under......The effect of the adsorption of a protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), on the membrane potential, flux reduction and streaming potential measured across a microporous polysulphone membrane with different NaCl solutions and pH values is studied. From electrokinetic phenomena, information about...... the electrical properties of the membrane (fixed charge concentration and ionic transport numbers) or the membrane/solute interactions (streaming and zeta potentials) can be obtained. The influence of pH and ionic strength on volume flux and streaming potential values is considered. Results show that hydraulic...

  14. Prediction of Placental Barrier Permeability: A Model Based on Partial Least Squares Variable Selection Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hong Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the human placental barrier permeability of drugs is very important to guarantee drug safety during pregnancy. Quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR method was used as an effective assessing tool for the placental transfer study of drugs, while in vitro human placental perfusion is the most widely used method. In this study, the partial least squares (PLS variable selection and modeling procedure was used to pick out optimal descriptors from a pool of 620 descriptors of 65 compounds and to simultaneously develop a QSAR model between the descriptors and the placental barrier permeability expressed by the clearance indices (CI. The model was subjected to internal validation by cross-validation and y-randomization and to external validation by predicting CI values of 19 compounds. It was shown that the model developed is robust and has a good predictive potential (r2 = 0.9064, RMSE = 0.09, q2 = 0.7323, rp2 = 0.7656, RMSP = 0.14. The mechanistic interpretation of the final model was given by the high variable importance in projection values of descriptors. Using PLS procedure, we can rapidly and effectively select optimal descriptors and thus construct a model with good stability and predictability. This analysis can provide an effective tool for the high-throughput screening of the placental barrier permeability of drugs.

  15. Overcoming barriers to membrane protein structure determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, Roslyn M; Henderson, Peter J F; Iwata, So; Kunji, Edmund R S; Michel, Hartmut; Neutze, Richard; Newstead, Simon; Poolman, Bert; Tate, Christopher G; Vogel, Horst

    2011-04-01

    After decades of slow progress, the pace of research on membrane protein structures is beginning to quicken thanks to various improvements in technology, including protein engineering and microfocus X-ray diffraction. Here we review these developments and, where possible, highlight generic new approaches to solving membrane protein structures based on recent technological advances. Rational approaches to overcoming the bottlenecks in the field are urgently required as membrane proteins, which typically comprise ~30% of the proteomes of organisms, are dramatically under-represented in the structural database of the Protein Data Bank.

  16. Myxoviruses do not induce non-specific alterations in membrane permeability early on in infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, K.A.; Micklem, K.J.; Bogomolova, N.N.; Boriskin, Y.S.; Pasternak, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The permeability characteristics of cells infected with myxoviruses have been studied by measuring the concentrative uptake of nutrients, the concentration of intracellular K + , and the maintenance of the Na + gradient across the plasma membrane. Cells either show no change at all (Sendai virus-infected BHK cells and measles virus-infected Vero cells) or they show a decreased ability to concentrate nutrients, while intracellular K + and the Na + gradient remain unchanged (Sendai and influenza virus-infected L-1210 cells, measles virus-infected lymphocytes and mumps virus-infected L-41 cells). In no case, therefore, was a change observed that resembles the non-specific increase in membrane permeability induced by haemolytic paramyxoviruses (35, 42) or the non-specific membrane leakiness postulated to take place in infected cells (8, 9). A preliminary account of some of these findings has been presented (39)

  17. The casting and mechanism of formation of semi-permeable polymer membranes in a microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, I.

    The National Electric Company of Venezuela, C.A.D.A.F.E., is sponsoring the development of this experiment which represents Venezuela's first scientific experiment in space. The apparatus for the automatic casting of polymer thin films will be contained in NASA's payload No. G-559 of the Get Away Special program for a future orbital space flight in the U.S. Space Shuttle. Semi-permeable polymer membranes have important applications in a variety of fields, such as medecine, energy, and pharmaceuticals, and in general fluid separation processes such as reverse osmosis, ultra-filtration, and electro-dialysis. The casting of semi-permeable membranes in space will help to identify the roles of convection in determining the strucutre of these membranes.

  18. Water-Permeable Dialysis Membranes for Multi-Layered Micro Dialysis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya eTo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of water-permeable dialysis membranes that are suitable for an implantable microdialysis system that does not use dialysis fluid. We developed a microdialysis system integrating microfluidic channels and nanoporous filtering membranes made of polyethersulfone (PES, aiming at a fully implantable system that drastically improves the quality of life of patients. Simplicity of the total system is crucial for the implantable dialysis system, where the pumps and storage tanks for the dialysis fluid pose problems. Hence, we focus on hemofiltration, which does not require the dialysis fluid but water-permeable membranes. We investigated the water-permeability of the PES membrane with respect to the concentrations of the PES, the additives, and the solvents in the casting solution. Sufficiently water-permeable membranes were found through in vitro experiments using whole bovine blood. The filtrate was verified to have the concentrations of low-molecular-weight molecules, such as sodium, potassium, urea, and creatinine, while proteins, such as albumin, were successfully blocked by the membrane. We conducted in vivo experiments using rats, where the system was connected to the femoral artery and jugular vein. The filtrate was successfully collected without any leakage of blood inside the system and it did not contain albumin but low-molecular-weight molecules whose concentrations were identical to those of the blood. The rat model with renal failure showed 100% increase of creatinine in 5 h, while rats connected to the system showed only a 7.4% increase, which verified the effectiveness of the proposed microdialysis system.

  19. Strength and Numerical Analysis in the Design of Permeable Reactive Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluk, Katarzyna; Wrzesiński, Grzegorz; Lendo-Siwicka, Marzena

    2017-10-01

    Permeable reactive barriers are one of the most important in situ technologies in groundwater remediation. Most of the installed PRBs have tended to use singular reactive media, but there is an increasing number of applications using combined or sequenced media to treat mixtures of contaminants within a groundwater plume. The concept of a multi-layered permeable reactive barrier (MPRB) to prevent and protect groundwater along traffic routes, especially in ecologically and naturally valuable areas, was developed following several field and laboratory investigations conducted in the Department of Geotechnical Engineering of the Warsaw University of Life Sciences. In accordance with the guidelines of the Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council for the selection of reactive materials, numerous laboratory and field investigations should be performed to determine the environmental conditions, type and concentrations of the contaminants, and the physical-chemical and permeability properties of the reactive materials. However, the deformation and strength properties of the reactive materials should be also considered in the design and evaluation of the safety conditions. In this paper, strength and deformation properties of silica spongolite, zeolite, and activated carbon were investigated using direct shear and oedometer tests. The laboratory test results were used in numerical calculations with the application of the finite element method. The aim of this study was to define the impact of the installation stages of a multi-layered permeable reactive barrier on the stability of a road embankment. Numerical analysis may prevent, reduce or eliminate the risk in the case of a breakdown during the construction or/and exploitation of a PRB.

  20. Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Optimization, Clare Water Supply Superfund Site, Permeable Reactive Barrier and Soil Remedy Areas, Clare, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report contains a review of the long-term groundwater monitoring network for the Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) and Soil Remedy Areas at the Clare Water Supply Superfund Site in Clare, Michigan.

  1. Lifelong consumption of sodium selenite: gender differences on blood-brain barrier permeability in convulsive, hypoglycemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, F Burcu; Akgul, Sibel; Oztas, Baria

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of hypoglycemia and induced convulsions on the blood-brain barrier permeability in rats with or without lifelong administration of sodium selenite. There is a significant decrease of the blood-brain barrier permeability in three brain regions of convulsive, hypoglycemic male rats treated with sodium selenite when compared to sex-matched untreated rats (p0.05). The blood-brain barrier permeability of the left and right hemispheres of untreated, moderately hypoglycemic convulsive rats of both genders was better than their untreated counterparts (peffect against blood-brain barrier permeability during convulsions and that the effects of sodium selenite are gender-dependent.

  2. The Mechanisms and Quantification of the Selective Permeability in Transport Across Biological Barriers : the Example of Kyotorphin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, Isa D.; Freire, Joao M.; Carvalho, Miguel V.; Neves, Mafalda; Melo, Manuel N.; Castanho, Miguel A. R. B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the mechanisms behind selective endothelial permeability and their regulations. The singular properties of each of the seven blood-tissues barriers. Then, it further revisits the physical, quantitative meaning of permeability, and the way it should be measured based on sound

  3. Water and vapor permeability at different temperatures of poly (3-Hydroxybutyrate dense membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz H. Poley

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are polymers produced from renewable resources with biodegradability and biocompatibility, being therefore attractive for medical and pharmaceutical purposes. Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB is the most important polymer of this family by considering the biotechnology process of its synthesis. In the present study, dense films of PHB were prepared by casting from chloroform solutions (1% m/m. Permeability studies with water, methanol, ethanol and n-propanol were performed using the gravimetric method at different temperatures (from 50 ºC to 65 ºC. Results provide new data on permeability coefficients of PHB membranes.

  4. Abnormal blood-brain barrier permeability in normal appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis investigated by MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Stig Præstekær; Simonsen, Helle Juhl; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is disrupted in normal appearing white matter in MS patients, when compared to healthy controls and whether it is correlated with MS clinical characteristics.......To investigate whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is disrupted in normal appearing white matter in MS patients, when compared to healthy controls and whether it is correlated with MS clinical characteristics....

  5. The rights and wrongs of blood-brain barrier permeability studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Norman R; Dreifuss, Jean-Jacques; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M

    2014-01-01

    Careful examination of relevant literature shows that many of the most cherished concepts of the blood-brain barrier are incorrect. These include an almost mythological belief in its immaturity that is unfortunately often equated with absence or at least leakiness in the embryo and fetus....... The original concept of a blood-brain barrier is often attributed to Ehrlich; however, he did not accept that permeability of cerebral vessels was different from other organs. Goldmann is often credited with the first experiments showing dye (trypan blue) exclusion from the brain when injected systemically......, but not when injected directly into it. Rarely cited are earlier experiments of Bouffard and of Franke who showed methylene blue and trypan red stained all tissues except the brain. The term "blood-brain barrier" "Blut-Hirnschranke" is often attributed to Lewandowsky, but it does not appear in his papers...

  6. Overcoming barriers to membrane protein structure determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bill, Roslyn M.; Henderson, Peter J. F.; Iwata, So; Kunji, Edmund R. S.; Michel, Hartmut; Neutze, Richard; Newstead, Simon; Poolman, Bert; Tate, Christopher G.; Vogel, Horst

    After decades of slow progress, the pace of research on membrane protein structures is beginning to quicken thanks to various improvements in technology, including protein engineering and microfocus X-ray diffraction. Here we review these developments and, where possible, highlight generic new

  7. Highly permeable polymeric membranes based on the incorporation of the functional water channel protein Aquaporin Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Grzelakowski, Mariusz; Zilles, Julie; Clark, Mark; Meier, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    The permeability and solute transport characteristics of amphiphilic triblock-polymer vesicles containing the bacterial water-channel protein Aquaporin Z (AqpZ) were investigated. The vesicles were made of a block copolymer with symmetric poly-(2-methyloxazoline)-poly-(dimethylsiloxane)-poly-(2-methyloxazoline) (PMOXA15-PDMS110-PMOXA15) repeat units. Light-scattering measurements on pure polymer vesicles subject to an outwardly directed salt gradient in a stopped-flow apparatus indicated that the polymer vesicles were highly impermeable. However, a large enhancement in water productivity (permeability per unit driving force) of up to ≈800 times that of pure polymer was observed when AqpZ was incorporated. The activation energy (Ea) of water transport for the protein-polymer vesicles (3.4 kcal/mol) corresponded to that reported for water-channel-mediated water transport in lipid membranes. The solute reflection coefficients of glucose, glycerol, salt, and urea were also calculated, and indicated that these solutes are completely rejected. The productivity of AqpZ-incorporated polymer membranes was at least an order of magnitude larger than values for existing salt-rejecting polymeric membranes. The approach followed here may lead to more productive and sustainable water treatment membranes, whereas the variable levels of permeability obtained with different concentrations of AqpZ may provide a key property for drug delivery applications. PMID:18077364

  8. Stress induces endotoxemia and low-grade inflammation by increasing barrier permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin ede Punder

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs are the leading causes of work absence, disability and mortality worldwide. Most of these diseases are associated with low-grade inflammation. Here we hypothesize that stresses (defined as homeostatic disturbances can induce low-grade inflammation by increasing the availability of water, sodium and energy-rich substances to meet the increased metabolic demand induced by the stressor. One way of triggering low-grade inflammation is by increasing intestinal barrier permeability through activation of various components of the stress system. Although beneficial to meet the demands necessary during stress, increased intestinal barrier permeability also raises the possibility of the translocation of bacteria and their toxins across the intestinal lumen into the blood circulation. In combination with modern life-style factors, the increase in bacteria/bacterial toxin translocation arising from a more permeable intestinal wall causes a low-grade inflammatory state. We support this hypothesis with numerous studies finding associations with NCDs and markers of endotoxemia, suggesting that this process plays a pivotal and perhaps even a causal role in the development of low-grade inflammation and its related diseases.

  9. Computational Prediction of Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Using Decision Tree Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Huwyler

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Predicting blood-brain barrier (BBB permeability is essential to drug development, as a molecule cannot exhibit pharmacological activity within the brain parenchyma without first transiting this barrier. Understanding the process of permeation, however, is complicated by a combination of both limited passive diffusion and active transport. Our aim here was to establish predictive models for BBB drug permeation that include both active and passive transport. A database of 153 compounds was compiled using in vivo surface permeability product (logPS values in rats as a quantitative parameter for BBB permeability. The open source Chemical Development Kit (CDK was used to calculate physico-chemical properties and descriptors. Predictive computational models were implemented by machine learning paradigms (decision tree induction on both descriptor sets. Models with a corrected classification rate (CCR of 90% were established. Mechanistic insight into BBB transport was provided by an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO-based binary classifier analysis to identify the most predictive chemical substructures. Decision trees revealed descriptors of lipophilicity (aLogP and charge (polar surface area, which were also previously described in models of passive diffusion. However, measures of molecular geometry and connectivity were found to be related to an active drug transport component.

  10. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation causes loss of intestinal epithelial barrier in the newborn piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurundkar, Ashish R; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; McIlwain, R Britt; Timpa, Joseph G; Hartman, Yolanda E; He, Dongning; Karnatak, Rajendra K; Neel, Mary L; Clancy, John P; Anantharamaiah, G M; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2010-08-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an important life-support system used in neonates and young children with intractable cardiorespiratory failure. In this study, we used our porcine neonatal model of venoarterial ECMO to investigate whether ECMO causes gut barrier dysfunction. We subjected 3-wk-old previously healthy piglets to venoarterial ECMO for up to 8 h and evaluated gut mucosal permeability, bacterial translocation, plasma levels of bacterial products, and ultrastructural changes in gut epithelium. We also measured plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels in a small cohort of human neonates receiving ECMO. In our porcine model, ECMO caused a rapid increase in gut mucosal permeability within the first 2 h of treatment, leading to a 6- to 10-fold rise in circulating bacterial products. These changes in barrier function were associated with cytoskeletal condensation in epithelial cells, which was explained by phosphorylation of a myosin II regulatory light chain. In support of these findings, we also detected elevated plasma LPS levels in human neonates receiving ECMO, indicating a similar loss of gut barrier function in these infants. On the basis of these data, we conclude that ECMO is an independent cause of gut barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation may be an important contributor to ECMO-related inflammation.

  11. Changes in permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier in firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minty, B D; Royston, D; Jones, J G; Smith, D J; Searing, C S; Beeley, M

    1985-09-01

    The effect on alveolar-capillary barrier permeability of chronic exposure to a smoke produced by the partial combusion of diesel oil, paraffin, and wood was examined. An index of permeability was determined from the rate of transfer from the lung into the blood of the hydrophilic, labelled chelate 99mTc diethylene triamine penta-acetate (MW 492 dalton). The results of this test were expressed as the half time clearance of the tracer from the lung into the blood (T1/2 LB). The study was carried out at the Royal Naval Firefighting School, HMS Excellent. Permeability index was measured on seven non-smoking naval firefighting instructors who had worked at the school for periods of longer than two and a half months. Tests of airway function and carbon monoxide transfer factor were performed on four of these seven instructors. The results of the permeability index showed a T1/2 LB of 26 min +/- 5 (SEM) which differed significantly from that of normal non-smokers. By contrast all other lung function tests had values within the predicted normal range.

  12. Vascular endothelial growth factors enhance the permeability of the mouse blood-brain barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shize Jiang

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier (BBB impedes entry of many drugs into the brain, limiting clinical efficacy. A safe and efficient method for reversibly increasing BBB permeability would greatly facilitate central nervous system (CNS drug delivery and expand the range of possible therapeutics to include water soluble compounds, proteins, nucleotides, and other large molecules. We examined the effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF on BBB permeability in Kunming (KM mice. Human VEGF165 was administered to treatment groups at two concentrations (1.6 or 3.0 µg/mouse, while controls received equal-volume saline. Changes in BBB permeability were measured by parenchymal accumulation of the contrast agent Gd-DTPA as assessed by 7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Mice were then injected with Evans blue, sacrificed 0.5 h later, and perfused transcardially. Brains were removed, fixed, and sectioned for histological study. Both VEGF groups exhibited a significantly greater signal intensity from the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia than controls (P<0.001. Evans blue fluorescence intensity was higher in the parenchyma and lower in the cerebrovasculature of VEGF-treated animals compared to controls. No significant brain edema was observed by diffusion weighted MRI (DWI or histological staining. Exogenous application of VEGF can increase the permeability of the BBB without causing brain edema. Pretreatment with VEGF may be a feasible method to facilitate drug delivery into the CNS.

  13. Influence of CO2 on electrophysiology and ionic permeability of the basolateral membrane of frog skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddard, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    When short-circuited epithelia of frog skin bathed in an alkaline Ringer solution equilibrated with room air, are exposed to a Ringer solution equilibrated with 5% CO 2 , inhibition of transepithelial Na + transport is observed accompanied by a marked depolarization of the basolateral membrane voltage as measured with intracellular microelectrodes. To study further the mechanisms involved, basolateral membrane influxes and effluxes of 24 Na, 42 K, and 36 Cl were measured in control and CO 2 -treated isolated epithelia. In control epithelia, studies of the bidirectional 24 Na fluxes confirmed the existence of an important basolateral membrane permeability to Na + . In control epithelia, the apical membranes of the cells were found to be virtually impermeable to Cl - , while basolateral membranes were highly permeable to Cl - . Although CO 2 caused a partial inhibition of pump activity as assessed from decreases of pump-mediated Na + efflux and K + influx, CO 2 caused little or no change of the leak influx of Na + or K + . K + efflux was increased markedly with CO 2 resulting in a net loss of K + from the cells. Cl - influx was increased and Cl - efflux was decreased by CO 2 leading to a net influx of Cl - . Analysis of the data according to criteria involving changes of flux, ionic equilibrium potentials, mass and charge balance restrictions indicated that the principle changes involve a transient decrease in electrical conductance to K + with a concurrent increase in electrical conductance to HCO 3 - (OH - or H + ) of the basolateral membranes of the cells

  14. Convection due to an unstable density difference across a permeable membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthenveettil, Baburaj A.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.

    We study natural convection driven by unstable concentration differences of sodium chloride (NaCl) across a horizontal permeable membrane at Rayleigh numbers (Ra) of 1010 to 1011 and Schmidt number (Sc)=600. A layer of brine lies over a layer of distilled water, separated by the membrane, in square-cross-section tanks. The membrane is permeable enough to allow a small flow across it at higher driving potentials. Based on the predominant mode of transport across the membrane, three regimes of convection, namely an advection regime, a diffusion regime and a combined regime, are identified. The near-membrane flow in all the regimes consists of sheet plumes formed from the unstable layers of fluid near the membrane. In the advection regime observed at higher concentration differences (Bb) show a common log-normal probability density function at all Ra. We propose a phenomenology which predicts /line{lambda}_b sqrt{Z_w Z_{V_i}}, where Zw and Z_{V_i} are, respectively, the near-wall length scales in Rayleighnard convection (RBC) and due to the advection velocity. In the combined regime, which occurs at intermediate values of C/2)4/3. At lower driving potentials, in the diffusion regime, the flux scaling is similar to that in turbulent RBC.

  15. Acylation of salmon calcitonin modulates in vitro intestinal peptide flux through membrane permeability enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Sofie; Linderoth, Lars; Bjerregaard, Simon

    2015-01-01

    hypothesize that tailoring the acylation may be used to optimize intestinal translocation. This work aims to characterize acylated analogues of the therapeutic peptide salmon calcitonin (sCT), which lowers blood calcium, by systematically increasing acyl chain length at two positions, in order to elucidate...... to be optimal, as elongating the chain causes greater binding to the cell membrane but similar permeability, and we speculate that increasing the chain length further may decrease the permeability. In conclusion, acylated sCT acts as its own in vitro intestinal permeation enhancer, with reversible effects...... on Caco-2 cells, indicating that acylation of sCT may represent a promising tool to increase intestinal permeability without adding oral permeation enhancers....

  16. Blood-brain barrier permeability and brain uptake mechanism of kainic Acid and dihydrokainic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gynther, Mikko; Petsalo, Aleksanteri; Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2015-01-01

    tools in various in vivo central nervous system disease models in rodents, as well as being templates in the design of novel ligands affecting the glutamatergic system. Both molecules are highly polar but yet capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We used an in situ rat brain perfusion...... technique to determine the brain uptake mechanism and permeability across the BBB. To determine KA and DHK concentrations in the rat brain, simple and rapid sample preparation and liquid chromatography mass spectrometer methods were developed. According to our results the BBB permeability of KA and DHK...... is low, 0.25 × 10(-6) and 0.28 × 10(-6) cm/s for KA and DHK, respectively. In addition, the brain uptake is mediated by passive diffusion, and not by active transport. Furthermore, the non-specific plasma and brain protein binding of KA and DHK was determined to be low, which means that the unbound drug...

  17. Enhancing the intestinal membrane permeability of zanamivir: a carrier mediated prodrug approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sheeba Varghese; Gupta, Deepak; Sun, Jing; Dahan, Arik; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Hilfinger, John; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L

    2011-12-05

    The purpose of this study was to improve the membrane permeability and oral absorption of the poorly permeable anti-influenza agent, zanamivir. The poor oral bioavailability is attributed to the high polarity (cLogP ∼ -5) resulting from the polar and zwitterionic nature of zanamivir. In order to improve the permeability of zanamivir, prodrugs with amino acids were developed to target the intestinal membrane transporter, hPepT1. Several acyloxy ester prodrugs of zanamivir conjugated with amino acids were synthesized and characterized. The prodrugs were evaluated for their chemical stability in buffers at various pHs and for their transport and tissue activation by enzymes. The acyloxy ester prodrugs of zanamivir were shown to competitively inhibit [(3)H]Gly-Sar uptake in Caco-2 cells (IC(50): 1.19 ± 0.33 mM for L-valyl prodrug of zanamivir). The L-valyl prodrug of zanamivir exhibited ∼3-fold higher uptake in transfected HeLa/hPepT1 cells compared to wild type HeLa cells, suggesting, at least in part, carrier mediated transport by the hPepT1 transporter. Further, enhanced transcellular permeability of prodrugs across Caco-2 monolayer compared to the parent drug (P(app) = 2.24 × 10(-6) ± 1.33 × 10(-7) cm/s for L-valyl prodrug of zanamivir), with only parent zanamivir appearing in the receiver compartment, indicates that the prodrugs exhibited both enhanced transport and activation in intestinal mucosal cells. Most significantly, several of these prodrugs exhibited high intestinal jejunal membrane permeability, similar to metoprolol, in the in situ rat intestinal perfusion system, a system highly correlated with human jejunal permeability. In summary, this mechanistic targeted prodrug strategy, to enhance oral absorption via intestinal membrane carriers such as hPepT1, followed by activation to parent drug (active pharmaceutical ingredient or API) in the mucosal cell, significantly improves the intestinal epithelial cell permeability of zanamivir and has the

  18. The food contaminant deoxynivalenol, decreases intestinal barrier permeability and reduces claudin expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinton, Philippe; Nougayrede, Jean-Philippe; Del Rio, Juan-Carlos; Moreno, Carolina; Marin, Daniela E.; Ferrier, Laurent; Bracarense, Ana-Paula; Kolf-Clauw, Martine; Oswald, Isabelle P.

    2009-01-01

    'The gastrointestinal tract represents the first barrier against food contaminants as well as the first target for these toxicants. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin that commonly contaminates cereals and causes various toxicological effects. Through consumption of contaminated cereals and cereal products, human and pigs are exposed to this mycotoxin. Using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo approaches, we investigated the effects of DON on the intestinal epithelium. We demonstrated that, in intestinal epithelial cell lines from porcine (IPEC-1) or human (Caco-2) origin, DON decreases trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and increases in a time and dose-dependent manner the paracellular permeability to 4 kDa dextran and to pathogenic Escherichia coli across intestinal cell monolayers. In pig explants treated with DON, we also observed an increased permeability of intestinal tissue. These alterations of barrier function were associated with a specific reduction in the expression of claudins, which was also seen in vivo in the jejunum of piglets exposed to DON-contaminated feed. In conclusion, DON alters claudin expression and decreases the barrier function of the intestinal epithelium. Considering that high levels of DON may be present in food or feed, consumption of DON-contaminated food/feed may induce intestinal damage and has consequences for human and animal health.

  19. Breaking down the barriers: the gut microbiome, intestinal permeability and stress-related psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John R.; Kennedy, Paul J.; Cryan, John F.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Clarke, Gerard; Hyland, Niall P.

    2015-01-01

    The emerging links between our gut microbiome and the central nervous system (CNS) are regarded as a paradigm shift in neuroscience with possible implications for not only understanding the pathophysiology of stress-related psychiatric disorders, but also their treatment. Thus the gut microbiome and its influence on host barrier function is positioned to be a critical node within the brain-gut axis. Mounting preclinical evidence broadly suggests that the gut microbiota can modulate brain development, function and behavior by immune, endocrine and neural pathways of the brain-gut-microbiota axis. Detailed mechanistic insights explaining these specific interactions are currently underdeveloped. However, the concept that a “leaky gut” may facilitate communication between the microbiota and these key signaling pathways has gained traction. Deficits in intestinal permeability may underpin the chronic low-grade inflammation observed in disorders such as depression and the gut microbiome plays a critical role in regulating intestinal permeability. In this review we will discuss the possible role played by the gut microbiota in maintaining intestinal barrier function and the CNS consequences when it becomes disrupted. We will draw on both clinical and preclinical evidence to support this concept as well as the key features of the gut microbiota which are necessary for normal intestinal barrier function. PMID:26528128

  20. Effects of an elastic membrane on tube waves in permeable formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H; Johnson, D

    1996-10-01

    In this paper, the modified properties were calculated for tube wave propagation in a fluid-filled borehole penetrating a permeable rock due to the presence of a mudcake which forms on the borehole wall. The mudcake was characterized by an impermeable elastic layer. The mudcake partial sealing mechanism was simulated using a finite membrane stiffness. Consequently, it was shown that the mudcake can reduce, but not eliminate, the permeability effects on the tube wave slowness and attenuation. Moreover, this paper discusses a variety of values for the relevant parameters especially the mudcake thickness and membrane stiffness. The important combinations of mudcake parameters were clarified by using an analytic expression for the low-frequency limit.

  1. Diffusion studies on permeable nitroxyl spin probes through bilayer lipid membranes: A low frequency ESR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meenakumari, V.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin; Utsumi, Hideo; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Ken-ichi; Hyodo, Fuminori; Jawahar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies were carried out for permeable 2mM 14 N-labeled deutrated 3 Methoxy carbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine-1-oxyl (MC-PROXYL) in pure water and 1mM, 2mM, 3mM, 4mM concentration of 14N-labeled deutrated MC-PROXYL in 400mM concentration of liposomal solution by using a 300 MHz ESR spectrometer. The ESR parameters such as linewidth, hyperfine coupling constant, g-factor, partition parameter and permeability were reported for these samples. The line broadening was observed for the nitroxyl spin probe in the liposomal solution. The line broadening indicates that the high viscous nature of the liposomal solution. The partition parameter and permeability values indicate the maximum diffusion of nitroxyl spin probes in the bilayer lipid membranes at 2 mM concentration of nitroxyl radical. This study illustrates that ESR can be used to differentiate between the intra and extra- membrane water by loading the liposome vesicles with a lipid-permeable nitroxyl spin probe. From the ESR results, the spin probe concentration was optimized as 2mM in liposomal solution for ESR phantom studies/imaging, invivo and invitro experiments

  2. In vitro blood-brain barrier permeability predictions for GABAA receptor modulating piperine analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenmann, Daniela Elisabeth; Dürig, Carmen; Jähne, Evelyn Andrea; Smieško, Martin; Culot, Maxime; Gosselet, Fabien; Cecchelli, Romeo; Helms, Hans Christian Cederberg; Brodin, Birger; Wimmer, Laurin; Mihovilovic, Marko D; Hamburger, Matthias; Oufir, Mouhssin

    2016-06-01

    The alkaloid piperine from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and several synthetic piperine analogs were recently identified as positive allosteric modulators of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. In order to reach their target sites of action, these compounds need to enter the brain by crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We here evaluated piperine and five selected analogs (SCT-66, SCT-64, SCT-29, LAU397, and LAU399) regarding their BBB permeability. Data were obtained in three in vitro BBB models, namely a recently established human model with immortalized hBMEC cells, a human brain-like endothelial cells (BLEC) model, and a primary animal (bovine endothelial/rat astrocytes co-culture) model. For each compound, quantitative UHPLC-MS/MS methods in the range of 5.00-500ng/mL in the corresponding matrix were developed, and permeability coefficients in the three BBB models were determined. In vitro predictions from the two human BBB models were in good agreement, while permeability data from the animal model differed to some extent, possibly due to protein binding of the screened compounds. In all three BBB models, piperine and SCT-64 displayed the highest BBB permeation potential. This was corroborated by data from in silico prediction. For the other piperine analogs (SCT-66, SCT-29, LAU397, and LAU399), BBB permeability was low to moderate in the two human BBB models, and moderate to high in the animal BBB model. Efflux ratios (ER) calculated from bidirectional permeability experiments indicated that the compounds were likely not substrates of active efflux transporters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Recovery of ammonia from poultry litter using flat gas permeable membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, M J; Szögi, A A; Vanotti, M B

    2013-06-01

    The use of flat gas-permeable membranes was investigated as components of a new process to capture and recover ammonia (NH3) in poultry houses. This process includes the passage of gaseous NH3 through a microporous hydrophobic membrane, capture with a circulating dilute acid on the other side of the membrane, and production of a concentrated ammonium (NH4) salt. Bench- and pilot-scale prototype systems using flat expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes and a sulfuric acid solution consistently reduced headspace NH3 concentrations from 70% to 97% and recovered 88% to 100% of the NH3 volatilized from poultry litter. The potential benefits of this technology include cleaner air inside poultry houses, reduced ventilation costs, and a concentrated liquid ammonium salt that can be used as a plant nutrient solution. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound to increase localized blood-spinal cord barrier permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Allison H; Hawryluk, Gregory W; Anzai, Yoshimi; Odéen, Henrik; Ostlie, Megan A; Reichert, Ethan C; Stump, Amanda J; Minoshima, Satoshi; Cross, Donna J

    2017-12-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) affects thousands of people every year in the USA, and most patients are left with some permanent paralysis. Therapeutic options are limited and only modestly affect outcome. To address this issue, we used magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) as a non-invasive approach to increase permeability in the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB). We hypothesize that localized, controlled sonoporation of the BSCB by MRgFUS will aid delivery of therapeutics to the injury. Here, we report our preliminary findings for the ability of MRgFUS to increase BSCB permeability in the thoracic spinal cord of a normal rat model. First, an excised portion of normal rat spinal column was used to characterize the acoustic field and to estimate the insertion losses that could be expected in an MRgFUS blood spinal cord barrier opening. Then, in normal rats, MRgFUS was applied in combination with intravenously administered microbubbles to the spinal cord region. Permeability of the BSCB was indicated as signal enhancement by contrast administered prior to T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and verified by Evans blue dye. Neurological testing using the Basso, Beattie, and Breshnahan scale and the ladder walk was normal in 8 of 10 rats tested. Two rats showed minor impairment indicating need for further refinement of parameters. No gross tissue damage was evident by histology. In this study, we have opened successfully the blood spinal cord barrier in the thoracic region of the normal rat spine using magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles.

  5. Decreased outer membrane permeability in imipenem-resistant mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Trias, J; Dufresne, J; Levesque, R C; Nikaido, H

    1989-01-01

    The outer membrane of imipenem-resistant mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to have decreased permeability to imipenem but not to cephaloridine. These experiments were performed with intact cells and liposomes containing imipenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase derived from Pseudomonas maltophilia, in both cases utilizing an imipenem concentration of 50 microM. In contrast, liposome swelling assays using imipenem at 8 mM detected no significant difference between the imipenem-resistant mu...

  6. Proton permeability of membranes of Streptococcus faecalis and submitochondrial particles of rats after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomenko, B.S.; Pinchukova, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    It has been shown that at a changed, by HCl impulse, pH of Streptococcus faecalis suspension and submitochondrial liver particles (SLP) of rats, H + concentration decreases more rapidly in the irradiated bacteria and SLP than in the controls. The curves of energy dependence of accumulation of the penetrating ions were also displaced toward the alkaline zone depending on pH. These effects are suggested to be connected with an increased proton permeability of irradiated membranes

  7. Aging time on the aluminum basic acetate gel and its influence on the membrane permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clar, C; Scian, A. N; Aglietti, E.F

    2003-01-01

    Alumina ceramic membranes are new materials with important applications in separation processes with low energy requirements, high selectivity and ability to work at high and low temperatures.The preparation of alumina ceramic membranes from hydrates or aluminum salts as precursors implies obtaining a system of controlled porosity with a suitable mechanical resistance as well as the densification of the material thanks to the stable phases remaining after the thermal treatment.The metal carboxylates are potential precursors for the deposition and the subsequent formation of oxides at low temperatures.Aluminum basic acetate gel was synthesised in this work from commercial pseudobohemite. The influence of the aging time on the composition, crystalline structure and transition temperatures of the phases on the carboxylate was studied by XRD and DTA-TG.From suspensions of this aged gel at different times alumina ceramic membranes were prepared by dipcoating on different α-Al 2 O 3 supports and the influence of aging on the permeability of those membranes face to N 2 was also studied. It was observed that this is a parameter to be considered as it determines the thickness, permeability and integrity of the membranes

  8. Use of novel permeable membrane and air cathodes in acetate microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pant, Deepak, E-mail: deepak.pant@vito.b [Separation and Conversion Technology, VITO - Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Boeretang 200, Mol 2400 (Belgium); Van Bogaert, Gilbert; De Smet, Mark; Diels, Ludo; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien [Separation and Conversion Technology, VITO - Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Boeretang 200, Mol 2400 (Belgium)

    2010-11-01

    In the existing microbial fuel cells (MFCs), the use of platinized electrodes and Nafion as proton exchange membrane (PEM) leads to high costs leading to a burden for wastewater treatment. In the present study, two different novel electrode materials are reported which can replace conventional platinized electrodes and can be used as very efficient oxygen reducing cathodes. Further, a novel membrane which can be used as an ion permeable membrane (Zirfon) can replace Nafion as the membrane of choice in MFCs. The above mentioned gas porous electrodes were first tested in an electrochemical half cell configuration for their ability to reduce oxygen and later in a full MFC set up. It was observed that these non-platinized air electrodes perform very well in the presence of acetate under MFC conditions (pH 7, room temperature) for oxygen reduction. Current densities of -0.43 mA cm{sup -2} for a non-platinized graphite electrode and -0.6 mA cm{sup -2} for a non-platinized activated charcoal electrode at -200 mV vs. Ag/AgCl of applied potential were obtained. The proposed ion permeable membrane, Zirfonwas tested for its oxygen mass transfer coefficient, K{sub 0} which was compared with Nafion. The K{sub 0} for Zirfon was calculated as 1.9 x 10{sup -3} cm s{sup -1}.

  9. Bile salt-induced increases in duodenal brush-border membrane proton permeability, fluidity, and fragility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, D.L.; Hirst, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    Rabbit duodenal brush-border membrane vesicles were treated in vitro with deoxycholate, glycodeoxycholate, or taurodeoxycholate. Intravesicular [14C]glucose space at equilibrium, 0.54 microliters/mg protein, was reduced by exposure to the three bile salts in a concentration (0.1-5.0 mM)-dependent manner, equatable with increased membrane fragility. Net proton permeability (Pnet), determined by acridine orange fluorescence quenching, was increased from 6.3 x 10(-4) cm/sec in untreated vesicles, by approximately 120, 150, and 170%, by treatment with bile salts at 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mM, respectively. The three bile salts were equipotent. The increases in membrane fragility and Pnet were not accompanied by significant increases in membrane fluidity, as assessed from steady-state and time-resolved diphenylhexatriene fluorescence anisotropy. The data demonstrate direct effects of bile salts on duodenal apical membrane fragility and proton permeability that are likely to be early events in bile salt-induced mucosal damage

  10. Hydrogen solubility and permeability of Nb-W-Mo alloy membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awakura, Y.; Nambu, T.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yukawa, H.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The concept for alloy design of Nb-based hydrogen permeable membrane has been applied to Nb-W-Mo ternary alloy in order to improve further the resistance to hydrogen embrittlement and hydrogen permeability. → The alloying effects of Mo on the hydriding properties of Nb-W alloy have been elucidated. → The addition of Mo and/or W into niobium improves the resistance to hydrogen embrittlement by reducing the dissolved hydrogen concentration in the alloy. → Nb-W-Mo alloy possesses excellent hydrogen permeability together with strong resistance to hydrogen embrittlement. - Abstract: The alloying effects of molybdenum on the hydrogen solubility, the resistance to hydrogen embrittlement and the hydrogen permeability are investigated for Nb-W-Mo system. It is found that the hydrogen solubility decreases by the addition of molybdenum into Nb-W alloy. As a result, the resistance to hydrogen embrittlement improves by reducing the hydrogen concentration in the alloy. It is demonstrated that Nb-5 mol%W-5 mol%Mo alloy possesses excellent hydrogen permeability without showing any hydrogen embrittlement when used under appropriate hydrogen permeation conditions, i.e., temperature and hydrogen pressures.

  11. Positive zeta potential of a negatively charged semi-permeable plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shayandev; Jing, Haoyuan; Das, Siddhartha

    2017-08-01

    The negative charge of the plasma membrane (PM) severely affects the nature of moieties that may enter or leave the cells and controls a large number of ion-interaction-mediated intracellular and extracellular events. In this letter, we report our discovery of a most fascinating scenario, where one interface (e.g., membrane-cytosol interface) of the negatively charged PM shows a positive surface (or ζ) potential, while the other interface (e.g., membrane-electrolyte interface) still shows a negative ζ potential. Therefore, we encounter a completely unexpected situation where an interface (e.g., membrane-cytosol interface) that has a negative surface charge density demonstrates a positive ζ potential. We establish that the attainment of such a property by the membrane can be ascribed to an interplay of the nature of the membrane semi-permeability and the electrostatics of the electric double layer established on either side of the charged membrane. We anticipate that such a membrane property can lead to such capabilities of the cell (in terms of accepting or releasing certain kinds of moieties as well regulating cellular signaling) that was hitherto inconceivable.

  12. LONG-TERM GEOCHEMICAL BEHAVIOR OF A ZEROVALENT IRON PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER FOR THE TREATMENT OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM IN GROUNDWATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passive, in-situ reactive barriers have proven to be viable, cost-effective systems for the remediation of Cr-contaminated groundwater at some sites. Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are installed in the flow-path of groundwater, most typically as vertical treatment walls. Re...

  13. A calcite permeable reactive barrier for the remediation of Fluoride from spent potliner (SPL) contaminated groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, B.D.; Binning, Philip John; Sloan, S.W.

    2008-01-01

    The use of calcite (CaCO3) as a substrate for a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for removing fluoride from contaminated groundwater is proposed and is illustrated by application to groundwater contaminated by spent potliner leachate (SPL), a waste derived from the aluminium smelting process...... leachate indicate that the complex chemical matrix of the SPL leachate can impact fluoride removal significantly. For SPL contaminant mixtures, fluoride removal is initially less than expected from idealized, pure, solutions. However, with time, the effect of other contaminants on fluoride removal...... diminishes. Column tests also show that pH control is important for optimizing fluoride removal with the mass removed increasing with decreasing pH. Barrier pH can be regulated by CO2 addition with the point of injection being critical for optimising the remediation performance. Experimental and model...

  14. Assessment of peritoneal membrane permeability by Tc-99m-excretion in patients undergoing CAPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, B.K.; Senthilnathan, M.S.; Pradhan, P.K.; Jeloka, T.K.; Sharma, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Among various conservative treatment modalities for end stage renal disease (ESRD), continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is increasingly being used in many centers. The success of CAPD depends largely on the permeable characteristics of the peritoneal membrane. Peritoneal Equilibration Test (PET), first described by Twardowski in 1987, is the most commonly used method for determination of peritoneal membrane characteristics. However, this test has several limitations. In order to find an alternative method for assessing peritoneal membrane characteristics we undertook this prospective study involving 20 patients. The main objective was to determine whether peritoneal excretion of intravenously applied Tc-99m-DTPA can be used for this purpose. 20 patients undergoing regular CAPD were included in this study. 370 MBq (10 mCi) of Tc-99m-DTPA was injected intravenously in the same standard preconditions as for the PET evaluation. A standard dose of 370 MBq (10 mCi) DTPA was kept and used later for calculations. At the end of 4 hours, a dialysate fluid sample was collected and the total dialysis effluent volume was measured. Excretion of Tc-99m-DTPA into the dialysate fluid as percentage of injected dose was calculated. Simultaneously standard PET values were determined. The peritoneal excretion of Tc-99m-DTPA ranged from 8 to 16 % of the injected dose depending upon the peritoneal membrane permeability. The patients were divided into following four groups depending upon DTPA excretion. High transporters (15 % and above); high average(12-15 %); low average (10-12 %); low transporters (10 % and less). When the results were compared with standard PET values, a good correlation could be established. We conclude that the radioisotope method using Tc-99m-DTPA can a good alternative technique to assess peritoneal membrane permeability. (author)

  15. Effects of insulin combined with idebenone on blood-brain barrier permeability in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan-Na; Liu, Li-Bo; Xue, Yi-Xue; Wang, Ping

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the effect of insulin combined with idebenone on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in experimental streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats as well as the underlying mechanisms. With a diabetic rat model, we show that insulin and idebenone normalize body weight and water intake and restore BBB permeability and that their combination displays a synergistic effect. The results from transmission electron microscopy show that the combination of insulin and idebenone significantly closed the tight junction (TJ) in diabetic rats. The results from Western blotting in diabetic rats show that the upregulation of TJ-associated proteins occludin, and zonula occludens (ZO)-1 caused by the combination of insulin and idebenone is more remarkable than that with either agent alone. In addition, the activations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and the expression levels of receptors for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were significantly decreased after treatment with insulin and idebenone in diabetic rats. These results suggest that the combination of insulin and idebenone could decrease the BBB permeability in diabetic rats by upregulating the expression of occludin, claudin-5, and ZO-1 and that the ROS/AGE/RAGE/NF-κB signal pathway might be involved in the process. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Aging and sex influence the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saija, A.; Princi, P.; D'Amico, N.; De Pasquale, R.; Costa, G.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the existence of aging- and sex-related alterations in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the rat, by calculating a unidirectional blood-to-brain transfer constant (Ki) for the circulating tracer [ 14 C]-α-aminoisobutyric acid. The authors observed that: (a) the permeability of the BBB significantly increased within the frontal and temporo-parietal cortex, hypothalamus and cerebellum in 28-30 week old rats, in comparison with younger animals; (b) in several brain areas of female intact rats higher Ki values (even though not significantly different) were calculated at oestrus than at proestrus; (c) in 1-week ovariectomized rats there was a marked increase of Ki values at the level of the frontal, temporo-parietal and occipital cortex, cerebellum and brain-stem. One can speculate that aging and sex-related alterations in thee permeability of the BBB reflect respectively changes in brain neurochemical system activity and in plasma steroid hormone levels

  17. Implementation of a permeable reactive barrier for treatment of groundwater impacted by strontium-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przepiora, A.; Bodine, D.; Dollar, P.; Smith, P.

    2014-01-01

    A funnel and gate permeable reactive barrier (PRB) system was constructed to treat strontium-90 (Sr- 90) in groundwater migrating from a legacy waste disposal area into an adjacent wetland. The PRB system was designed to contain and direct the Sr-90 impacted groundwater into treatment 'gates' containing zeolite using a low permeability 'funnel' sections constructed with soil-bentonite slurry. The constructed PRB met all dimension and permeability specifications. Initial performance monitoring results indicate that the PRB captured the Sr-90 impacted groundwater plume and the beta radiation values in groundwater emerging from the treatment gates ranged from 35 to 86 Becquerel's per litre (Bq/L), equivalent to a reduction by 88% to 99% from the influent values. Those initial performance results were influenced by residual impacts present in the aquifer material prior to PRB installation. It is anticipated that the clean-up target of 5 Bq/L will be achieved with time as treated groundwater emerging from the PRB flushes through the downgradient aquifer zone. (author)

  18. Membrane permeability of the human granulocyte to water, dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, propylene glycol and ethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, Alex M; Higgins, Adam Z

    2014-02-01

    Granulocytes are currently transfused as soon as possible after collection because they rapidly deteriorate after being removed from the body. This short shelf life complicates the logistics of granulocyte collection, banking, and safety testing. Cryopreservation has the potential to significantly increase shelf life; however, cryopreservation of granulocytes has proven to be difficult. In this study, we investigate the membrane permeability properties of human granulocytes, with the ultimate goal of using membrane transport modeling to facilitate development of improved cryopreservation methods. We first measured the equilibrium volume of human granulocytes in a range of hypo- and hypertonic solutions and fit the resulting data using a Boyle-van't Hoff model. This yielded an isotonic cell volume of 378 μm(3) and an osmotically inactive volume of 165 μm(3). To determine the permeability of the granulocyte membrane to water and cryoprotectant (CPA), cells were injected into well-mixed CPA solution while collecting volume measurements using a Coulter Counter. These experiments were performed at temperatures ranging from 4 to 37°C for exposure to dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol. The best-fit water permeability was similar in the presence of all of the CPAs, with an average value at 21°C of 0.18 μmatm(-1)min(-1). The activation energy for water transport ranged from 41 to 61 kJ/mol. The CPA permeability at 21°C was 6.4, 1.0, 8.4, and 4.0 μm/min for dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol, respectively, and the activation energy for CPA transport ranged between 59 and 68 kJ/mol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. In silico modeling on ADME properties of natural products: Classification models for blood-brain barrier permeability, its application to traditional Chinese medicine and in vitro experimental validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuqing; Liu, Ting; Fan, Xiaohui; Ai, Ni

    2017-08-01

    In silico modeling of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability plays an important role in early discovery of central nervous system (CNS) drugs due to its high-throughput and cost-effectiveness. Natural products (NP) have demonstrated considerable therapeutic efficacy against several CNS diseases. However, BBB permeation property of NP is scarcely evaluated both experimentally and computationally. It is well accepted that significant difference in chemical spaces exists between NP and synthetic drugs, which calls into doubt on suitability of available synthetic chemical based BBB permeability models for the evaluation of NP. Herein poor discriminative performance on BBB permeability of NP are first confirmed using internal constructed and previously published drug-derived computational models, which warrants the need for NP-oriented modeling. Then a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) study on a NP dataset was carried out using four different machine learning methods including support vector machine, random forest, Naïve Bayes and probabilistic neural network with 67 selected features. The final consensus model was obtained with approximate 90% overall accuracy for the cross-validation study, which is further taken to predict passive BBB permeability of a large dataset consisting of over 10,000 compounds from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). For 32 selected TCM molecules, their predicted BBB permeability were evaluated by in vitro parallel artificial membrane permeability assay and overall accuracy for in vitro experimental validation is around 81%. Interestingly, our in silico model successfully predicted different BBB permeation potentials of parent molecules and their known in vivo metabolites. Finally, we found that the lipophilicity, the number of hydrogen bonds and molecular polarity were important molecular determinants for BBB permeability of NP. Our results suggest that the consensus model proposed in current work is a reliable tool for

  20. Calcium reduces the sodium permeability of luminal membrane vesicles from toad bladder. Studies using a fast-reaction apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, H.S. Jr.; Al-Awqati, Q.

    1983-01-01

    Regulation of the sodium permeability of the luminal membrane is the major mechanism by which the net rate of sodium transport across tight epithelia is varied. Previous evidence has suggested that the permeability of the luminal membrane might be regulated by changes in intracellular sodium or calcium activities. To test this directly, we isolated a fraction of the plasma membrane from the toad urinary bladder, which contains a fast, amiloride-sensitive sodium flux with characteristics similar to those of the native luminal membrane. Using a flow-quench apparatus to measure the initial rate of sodium efflux from these vesicles in the millisecond time range, we have demonstrated that the isotope exchange permeability of these vesicles is very sensitive to calcium. Calcium reduces the sodium permeability, and the half-maximal inhibitory concentration is 0.5 microM, well within the range of calcium activity found in cells. Also, the permeability of the luminal membrane vesicles is little affected by the ambient sodium concentration. These results, when taken together with studies on whole tissue, suggest that cell calcium may be an important regulator of transepithelial sodium transport by its effect on luminal sodium permeability. The effect of cell sodium on permeability may be mediated by calcium rather than by sodium itself

  1. Pannexin 1 channels mediate 'find-me' signal release and membrane permeability during apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekeni, Faraaz B; Elliott, Michael R; Sandilos, Joanna K; Walk, Scott F; Kinchen, Jason M; Lazarowski, Eduardo R; Armstrong, Allison J; Penuela, Silvia; Laird, Dale W; Salvesen, Guy S; Isakson, Brant E; Bayliss, Douglas A; Ravichandran, Kodi S

    2010-10-14

    Apoptotic cells release 'find-me' signals at the earliest stages of death to recruit phagocytes. The nucleotides ATP and UTP represent one class of find-me signals, but their mechanism of release is not known. Here, we identify the plasma membrane channel pannexin 1 (PANX1) as a mediator of find-me signal/nucleotide release from apoptotic cells. Pharmacological inhibition and siRNA-mediated knockdown of PANX1 led to decreased nucleotide release and monocyte recruitment by apoptotic cells. Conversely, PANX1 overexpression enhanced nucleotide release from apoptotic cells and phagocyte recruitment. Patch-clamp recordings showed that PANX1 was basally inactive, and that induction of PANX1 currents occurred only during apoptosis. Mechanistically, PANX1 itself was a target of effector caspases (caspases 3 and 7), and a specific caspase-cleavage site within PANX1 was essential for PANX1 function during apoptosis. Expression of truncated PANX1 (at the putative caspase cleavage site) resulted in a constitutively open channel. PANX1 was also important for the 'selective' plasma membrane permeability of early apoptotic cells to specific dyes. Collectively, these data identify PANX1 as a plasma membrane channel mediating the regulated release of find-me signals and selective plasma membrane permeability during apoptosis, and a new mechanism of PANX1 activation by caspases.

  2. Discontinuous permeable adsorptive barrier design and cost analysis: a methodological approach to optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santonastaso, Giovanni Francesco; Bortone, Immacolata; Chianese, Simeone; Di Nardo, Armando; Di Natale, Michele; Erto, Alessandro; Karatza, Despina; Musmarra, Dino

    2017-09-19

    The following paper presents a method to optimise a discontinuous permeable adsorptive barrier (PAB-D). This method is based on the comparison of different PAB-D configurations obtained by changing some of the main PAB-D design parameters. In particular, the well diameters, the distance between two consecutive passive wells and the distance between two consecutive well lines were varied, and a cost analysis for each configuration was carried out in order to define the best performing and most cost-effective PAB-D configuration. As a case study, a benzene-contaminated aquifer located in an urban area in the north of Naples (Italy) was considered. The PAB-D configuration with a well diameter of 0.8 m resulted the best optimised layout in terms of performance and cost-effectiveness. Moreover, in order to identify the best configuration for the remediation of the aquifer studied, a comparison with a continuous permeable adsorptive barrier (PAB-C) was added. In particular, this showed a 40% reduction of the total remediation costs by using the optimised PAB-D.

  3. Heavy metal uptake and leaching from polluted soil using permeable barrier in DTPA-assisted phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shulan; Shen, Zhiping; Duo, Lian

    2015-04-01

    Application of sewage sludge (SS) in agriculture is an alternative technique of disposing this waste. But unreasonable application of SS leads to excessive accumulation of heavy metals in soils. A column experiment was conducted to test the availability of heavy metals to Lolium perenne grown in SS-treated soils following diethylene triamine penta acetic acid (DTPA) application at rates of 0, 10 and 20 mmol kg(-1) soil. In order to prevent metal leaching in DTPA-assisted phytoextraction process, a horizontal permeable barrier was placed below the treated soil, and its effectiveness was also assessed. Results showed that DTPA addition significantly increased metal uptake by L. perenne shoots and metal leaching. Permeable barriers increased metal concentrations in plant shoots and effectively decreased metal leaching from the treated soil. Heavy metals in SS-treated soils could be gradually removed by harvesting L. perenne many times in 1 year and adding low dosage of DTPA days before each harvest.

  4. A computational assessment of the permeability and salt rejection of carbon nanotube membranes and their application to water desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael; Corry, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Membranes made from nanomaterials such as nanotubes and graphene have been suggested to have a range of applications in water filtration and desalination, but determining their suitability for these purposes requires an accurate assessment of the properties of these novel materials. In this study, we use molecular dynamics simulations to determine the permeability and salt rejection capabilities for membranes incorporating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at a range of pore sizes, pressures and concentrations. We include the influence of osmotic gradients and concentration build up and simulate at realistic pressures to improve the reliability of estimated membrane transport properties. We find that salt rejection is highly dependent on the applied hydrostatic pressure, meaning high rejection can be achieved with wider tubes than previously thought; while membrane permeability depends on salt concentration. The ideal size of the CNTs for desalination applications yielding high permeability and high salt rejection is found to be around 1.1 nm diameter. While there are limited energy gains to be achieved in using ultra-permeable CNT membranes in desalination by reverse osmosis, such membranes may allow for smaller plants to be built as is required when size or weight must be minimized. There are diminishing returns in further increasing membrane permeability, so efforts should focus on the fabrication of membranes containing narrow or functionalized CNTs that yield the desired rejection or selection properties rather than trying to optimize pore densities. PMID:26712639

  5. Ozone alteration of membrane permeability in Chlorella. I. Permeability of potassium ion as measured by 86Rubidium tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, R.L.; Frederick, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    The addition of ozone to a suspension of Chlorella sorokiniana causes a rapid loss of K + , as measured by efflux of 86 Rb from prelabeled cells. The efflux of the tracer is stimulated some 15 to 20 times over that of the control. For about 100 microliters per liter ozone, about 25 minutes (6 x 10 -8 moles O 3 delivered per minute) of exposure are required for a 50% depletion of the intracellular K + . The stimulation of K + efflux is nearly linearly dependent upon the amount of ozone delivered into the solution. Following short pulses of ozone (lasting 1 to 5 minutes), efflux rates return to the control level but only after about 15 minutes. While influx of K + is ultimately inhibited by ozone, at low concentrations or for short exposure times the tracer influx is stimulated 100 to 200%. Ozone stimulation of an active pump mechanism is unlikely in view of a concomitant decrease in respiration. Thus, this influx may represent movement of K + along its electrochemical gradient. Assuming that influx and efflux are in steady-state according to the Goldman equation, it was calculated that the membrane potential for K + of -80 to -90 millivolts in control cells drops to -40 millivolts with ozone exposure and is accompanied by a calculated increased permeability to K + of 2- to 3-fold. 25 references, 6 figures

  6. Permeable Reactive Barriers: a multidisciplinary approach of a new emerging sustainable groundwater treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diels, L.; Bastiaens, L. [Vito, Mol (BL); O' Hannessin, S. [EnviroMetal Technologies Inc., Ontario (Canada); Cortina, J.L. [Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. d' Enginyeria Quimica; Alvarez, P.J. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa-City (United States). Center for Biocatalysis and Bioprocessing; Ebert, M. [Christian-Albrechts Univ. Kiel (Germany). Inst. fuer Geowissenschaften; Schad, H. [I.M.E.S. GmbH, Amtzell (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Permeable reactive barriers or zones are becoming an interesting sustainable and cost-effective technology for in situ treatment of contaminated groundwater. The technology is based on chemical processes as the dehalogenating activity of zerovalent iron, biological processes in bioscreens or reactive zones and on sorption technology (e.g. heavy metal adsorption or adsorption on granular activated carbon). Three technical sessions will be devoted to this nowadays becoming mature technology. This special session intends to pay attention to the discussion about some questions related to PRBs. These include the sustainability (e.g. life time and clogging) especially for zerovalent iron barriers, the need and quality of feasibility tests, drawbacks and restrictions of PRBs. Combined with long term performance monitoring os these systems will be discussed. Further attention will be paid to cost evaluation and the relationship between zerovalent barriers and bacterial growth. Also attention will be paid to new reactive materials (e.g. activated carbon for organics and inorganic materials for heavy metals) and consequences (e.g. environmental impact). Finally the session will combine al these approaches in a discussion about combined barriers or multibarriers for treatment of mixed pollution (e.g. landfill leachates contaminated groundwater). Specialists involved in these subjects will introduce these topics and allow for a large and intensive discussion to improve future applications of this technology. (orig.)

  7. Bexarotene reduces blood-brain barrier permeability in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injured rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xu

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 over-expression disrupts the blood-brain barrier (BBB in the ischemic brain. The retinoid X receptor agonist bexarotene suppresses MMP-9 expression in endothelial cells and displays neuroprotective effects. Therefore, we hypothesized that bexarotene may have a beneficial effect on I/R-induced BBB dysfunction.A total of 180 rats were randomized into three groups (n = 60 each: (i a sham-operation group, (ii a cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R group, and (iii an I/R+bexarotene group. Brain water content was measured by the dry wet weight method. BBB permeability was analyzed by Evans Blue staining and the magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent Omniscan. MMP-9 mRNA expression, protein expression, and activity were assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and gelatin zymography, respectively. Apolipoprotein E (apoE, claudin-5, and occludin expression were analyzed by Western blotting.After 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h post-I/R, several effects were observed with bexarotene administration: (i brain water content and BBB permeability were significantly reduced; (ii MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression as well as activity were significantly decreased; (iii claudin-5 and occludin expression were significantly increased; and (iv apoE expression was significantly increased.Bexarotene decreases BBB permeability in rats with cerebral I/R injury. This effect may be due in part to bexarotene's upregulation of apoE expression, which has been previously shown to reduce BBB permeability through suppressing MMP-9-mediated degradation of the tight junction proteins claudin-5 and occludin. This work offers insight to aid future development of therapeutic agents for cerebral I/R injury in human patients.

  8. Relating transport modeling to nanofiltration membrane fabrication: Navigating the permeability-selectivity trade-off in desalination pretreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Labban, Omar; Lienhard, John H

    2018-01-01

    Faced with a pressing need for membranes with a higher permeability and selectivity, the field of membrane technology can benefit from a systematic framework for designing membranes with the necessary physical characteristics. In this work, we present an approach through which transport modeling is employed in fabricating specialized nanofiltration membranes, that experimentally demonstrate enhanced selectivity. Specifically, the Donnan-Steric Pore Model with dielectric exclusion (DSPM-DE) is...

  9. Effects of impurities on hydrogen permeability through palladium alloy membrane at comparatively high pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Konishi, Satoshi; Katsuta, Hiroji; Naruse, Yuji

    1982-02-01

    Palladium alloy membrane method is considered to be a useful technique for fusion reactor fuel purification process. To study the feasibility of this method, the effects of impurities on permeation characteristics of palladium alloy membrane were examined. Experiments were carried out at practical conditions: pressure; 120 - 1200 kPa, temperature; about 700 K. No poisoning effect on hydrogen permeability of commercial Pd-Ag (Au.Ru) alloy was observed for impurities such as NH 3 , CH 4 , CO, CO 2 , O 2 and N 2 , which were mixed with hyper-pure H 2 at low concentration level (10 - 10000 ppm). Deterioration occurred by contamination with oil vapor. However, regeneration of the membrane was easily performed by air baking followed by hydrogen reduction. Chemical reactions in the permeation cell were also examined. (author)

  10. Safety, efficacy, and molecular mechanism of claudin-1-specific peptides to enhance blood-nerve-barrier permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Reine-Solange; Krug, Susanne M; Hackel, Dagmar; Staat, Christian; Konasin, Natalia; Yang, Shaobing; Niedermirtl, Benedikt; Bosten, Judith; Günther, Ramona; Dabrowski, Sebastian; Doppler, Kathrin; Sommer, Claudia; Blasig, Ingolf E; Brack, Alexander; Rittner, Heike L

    2014-07-10

    The blood-nerve barrier consists of the perineurium and endoneurial vessels. The perineurial barrier is composed of a basal membrane and a layer of perineurial cells sealed by tight junction proteins preventing e.g. application of analgesics for selective regional pain control. One of the barrier-sealing proteins in the blood-nerve barrier is claudin-1. Therefore, the claudin-1-peptidomimetics (C1C2), derived from the first extracellular loop (ECL1) on claudin-1 was developed. In this study, we further evaluated the expression of tight junction proteins in the perineurium in Wistar rats and characterized the specificity, in vivo applicability, mechanism of action as well as the biocompatibility of C1C2. In the perineurium, claudin-19, tricellulin and ZO-1, but no claudin-2, 3, 8 and -11 were expressed. C1C2 specifically bound to the ECL1 of claudin-1 and fluorescent 5,6-carboxytetramethylrhodamine-C1C2 was rapidly internalized. Opening the perineurium with C1C2 reduced the mRNA and protein expression of claudin-1 and increased small and macromolecule permeability into the peripheral nerve. Application of C1C2 facilitated regional analgesia using μ-opioid receptor agonists like DAMGO or morphine without motor impairment in naïve rats as well as rats with hind paw inflammation. In contrast the control peptide C2C2 derived from ECL1 on claudin-2 did neither open the barrier nor facilitated opioid-mediated regional analgesia. C1C2 delivery was well tolerated and caused no morphological and functional nerve damage. C1C2 effects could be reversed by interference with the wnt-signal-transduction pathway, specifically the homeobox transcription factor cdx2, using a glycogen-synthase-kinase-3 inhibitor. In summary, we describe the composition of and a pathway to open the perineurial barrier employing a peptide to deliver hydrophilic substances to the peripheral nerve. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Captura de amonio procedente de estiercol mediante membranas permeables de gases (capture of ammonnia from turkey manure using gas-permeable membranes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper, written in Spanish, describes the capture and recovery of gaseous ammonia from turkey manure using gas-permeable membranes technology with formation of stabilized ammonium salts. Bench experiments were carried out in Maryland using a pilot prototype system with turkey litter inside contr...

  12. Diffusion studies on permeable nitroxyl spin probe through lipid bilayer membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benial, A. Milton Franklin; Meenakumari, V.; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Ken-ichi; Utsumi, Hideo; Hyodo, Fuminori; Jawahar, A.

    2014-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies were carried out for 2mM 14 N labeled deutrated permeable 3- methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine-1-oxyl (MC-PROXYL) in pure water, 1 mM, 2 mM, 3 mM and 4 mM concentration of MC-PROXYL in 300 mM concentration of liposomal solution by using a L-band ESR spectrometer. The ESR parameters such as linewidth, hyperfine coupling constant, g-factor, partition parameter and permeability were reported. The partition parameter and permeability values indicate the maximum spin distribution in the lipid phase at 2 mM concentration. This study illustrates that ESR can be used to differentiate between the intra and extra-membrane water by loading the liposome vesicles with a lipid-permeable nitroxyl spin probe. From the ESR results, the radical concentration was optimized as 2 mM in liposomal solution for ESR phantom studies and experiments

  13. Ion permeability of artificial membranes evaluated by diffusion potential and electrical resistance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlyonsky, Vadim

    2013-12-01

    In the present article, a novel model of artificial membranes that provides efficient assistance in teaching the origins of diffusion potentials is proposed. These membranes are made of polycarbonate filters fixed to 12-mm plastic rings and then saturated with a mixture of creosol and n-decane. The electrical resistance and potential difference across these membranes can be easily measured using a low-cost volt-ohm meter and home-made Ag/AgCl electrodes. The advantage of the model is the lack of ionic selectivity of the membrane, which can be modified by the introduction of different ionophores to the organic liquid mixture. A membrane treated with the mixture containing valinomycin generates voltages from -53 to -25 mV in the presence of a 10-fold KCl gradient (in to out) and from -79 to -53 mV in the presence of a bi-ionic KCl/NaCl gradient (in to out). This latter bi-ionic gradient potential reverses to a value from +9 to +20 mV when monensin is present in the organic liquid mixture. Thus, the model can be build stepwise, i.e., all factors leading to the development of diffusion potentials can be introduced sequentially, helping students to understand the quantitative relationships of ionic gradients and differential membrane permeability in the generation of cell electrical signals.

  14. Polyhydroxybutyrate Targets Mammalian Mitochondria and Increases Permeability of Plasmalemmal and Mitochondrial Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elustondo, Pia A.; Angelova, Plamena R.; Kawalec, Michał; Michalak, Michał; Kurcok, Piotr; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Pavlov, Evgeny V.

    2013-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is a polyester of 3-hydroxybutyric acid (HB) that is ubiquitously present in all organisms. In higher eukaryotes PHB is found in the length of 10 to 100 HB units and can be present in free form as well as in association with proteins and inorganic polyphosphate. It has been proposed that PHB can mediate ion transport across lipid bilayer membranes. We investigated the ability of PHB to interact with living cells and isolated mitochondria and the effects of these interactions on membrane ion transport. We performed experiments using a fluorescein derivative of PHB (fluo-PHB). We found that fluo-PHB preferentially accumulated inside the mitochondria of HeLa cells. Accumulation of fluo-PHB induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization. This membrane depolarization was significantly delayed by the inhibitor of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore - Cyclosporin A. Further experiments using intact cells as well as isolated mitochondria confirmed that the effects of PHB directly linked to its ability to facilitate ion transport, including calcium, across the membranes. We conclude that PHB demonstrates ionophoretic properties in biological membranes and this effect is most profound in mitochondria due to the selective accumulation of the polymer in this organelle. PMID:24086638

  15. Genetic Manipulation of Outer Membrane Permeability: Generating Porous Heterogeneous Catalyst Analogs in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, TN; Park, AHA; Bantat, S

    2014-12-01

    The limited permeability of the E. coli outer membrane can significantly hinder whole-cell biocatalyst performance. In this study, the SARS coronavirus small envelope protein (SCVE) was expressed in E. coli cells previously engineered for periplasmic expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity. This maneuver increased small molecule uptake by the cells, resulting in increased apparent CA activity of the biocatalysts. The enhancements in activity were quantified using methods developed for traditional heterogeneous catalysis. The expression of the SCVE protein was found to significantly reduce the Thiele moduli (phi), as well as increase the effectiveness factors (eta), effective diffusivities (D-e), and permeabilities (P) of the biocatalysts. These catalytic improvements translated into superior performance of the biocatalysts for the precipitation of calcium carbonate from solution which is an attractive strategy for long-term sequestration of captured carbon dioxide. Overall, these results demonstrate that synthetic biology approaches can be used to enhance heterogeneous catalysts incorporated into microbial whole-cell scaffolds.

  16. In vitro and in vivo activation of mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore using triiodothyronine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endlicher, R; Drahota, Z; Červinková, Z

    2016-06-20

    Using a novel method for evaluating mitochondrial swelling (Drahota et al. 2012a) we studied the effect of calcium (Ca(2+)), phosphate (P(i)), and triiodothyronine (T(3)) on the opening of mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore and how they interact in the activation of swelling process. We found that 0.1 mM P(i), 50 microM Ca(2+) and 25 microM T(3) when added separately increase the swelling rate to about 10 % of maximal values when all three factors are applied simultaneously. Our findings document that under experimental conditions in which Ca(2+) and P(i) are used as activating factors, the addition of T(3) doubled the rate of swelling. T(3) has also an activating effect on mitochondrial membrane potential. The T(3) activating effect was also found after in vivo application of T(3). Our data thus demonstrate that T(3) has an important role in opening the mitochondrial membrane permeability pore and activates the function of the two key physiological swelling inducers, calcium and phosphate ions.

  17. Effects of GSM modulated radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation on permeability of blood-brain barrier in male & female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sırav, Bahriye; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    With the increased use of mobile phones, their biological and health effects have become more important. Usage of mobile phones near the head increases the possibility of effects on brain tissue. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of pulse modulated 900MHz and 1800MHz radio-frequency radiation on the permeability of blood-brain barrier of rats. Study was performed with 6 groups of young adult male and female wistar albino rats. The permeability of blood-brain barrier to intravenously injected evans blue dye was quantitatively examined for both control and radio-frequency radiarion exposed groups. For male groups; Evans blue content in the whole brain was found to be 0.08±0.01mg% in the control, 0.13±0.03mg% in 900MHz exposed and 0.26±0.05mg% in 1800MHz exposed animals. In both male radio-frequency radiation exposed groups, the permeability of blood-brain barrier found to be increased with respect to the controls (pradiation exposure was found more effective on the male animals (p0.01). However 900MHz pulse modulated radio-frequency exposure was found effective on the permeability of blood-brain barrier of female animals. Results have shown that 20min pulse modulated radio-frequency radiation exposure of 900MHz and 1800MHz induces an effect and increases the permeability of blood-brain barrier of male rats. For females, 900MHz was found effective and it could be concluded that this result may due to the physiological differences between female and male animals. The results of this study suggest that mobile phone radation could lead to increase the permeability of blood-brain barrier under non-thermal exposure levels. More studies are needed to demonstrate the mechanisms of that breakdown. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Towards high water permeability in triazine-framework-based microporous membranes for dehydration of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu Pan; Wang, Huan; Chung, Tai Shung

    2015-01-01

    The microstructural evolution of a series of triazine framework-based microporous (TFM) membranes under different conditions has been explored in this work. The pristine TFM membrane is in situ fabricated in the course of polymer synthesis via a facile Brønsted-acid-catalyzed cyclotrimerizaiton reaction. The as-synthesized polymer exhibits a microporous network with high thermal stability. The free volume size of the TFM membranes gradually evolved from a unimodal distribution to a bimodal distribution under annealing, as analyzed by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The emergence of the bimodal distribution is probably ascribed to the synergetic effect of quenching and thermal cyclization reaction. In addition, the fractional free volume (FFV) of the membranes presents a concave trend with increasing annealing temperature. Vapor sorption tests reveal that the mass transport properties are closely associated with the free volume evolution, which provides an optimal condition for dehydration of biofuels. A promising separation performance with extremely high water permeability has been attained for dehydration of an 85 wt % ethanol aqueous solution at 45 °C. The study on the free volume evolution of the TFM membranes may provide useful insights about the microstructure and mass transport behavior of the microporous polymeric materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. A process efficiency assessment of serum protein removal from milk using ceramic graded permeability microfiltration membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay-Marchand, D; Doyen, A; Britten, M; Pouliot, Y

    2016-07-01

    Microfiltration (MF) is a well-known process that can be used in the dairy industry to separate caseins from serum proteins (SP) in skim milk using membranes with a pore diameter of 0.1μm. Graded permeability ceramic membranes have been studied widely as means of improving milk fractionation by overcoming problems encountered with other MF membranes. The ideal operating parameters for process efficiency in terms of membrane selectivity, permeate flux, casein loss, SP transmission, energy consumption, and dilution with water remain to be determined for this membrane. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of transmembrane pressure (TMP), volumetric concentration factor (VCF), and diafiltration on overall process efficiency. Skim milk was processed using a pilot-scale MF system equipped with 0.72-m(2) graded permeability membranes with a pore size of 0.1μm. In the first experiment, in full recycle mode, TMP was set at 124, 152, 179, or 207 kPa by adjusting the permeate pressure at the outlet. Whereas TMP had no significant effect on permeate and retentate composition, 152 kPa was found to be optimal for SP removal during concentration and concentration or diafiltration experiments. When VCF was increased to 3×, SP rejection coefficient increased along with energy consumption and total casein loss, whereas SP removal rate decreased. Diafiltering twice allowed an increase in total SP removal but resulted in a substantial increase in energy consumption and casein loss. It also reduced the SP removal rate by diluting permeate. The membrane surface area required for producing cheese milk by blending whole milk, cream, and MF retentate (at different VCF) was estimated for different cheese milk casein concentrations. For a given casein concentration, the same quantity of permeate and SP would be produced, but less membrane surface area would be needed at a lower retentate VCF. Microfiltration has great potential as a process of adding value to conventional

  20. Study on the application of permeable reactive barriers for remediation of uranium mine pit water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Na'na; Zhu Yucheng

    2012-01-01

    Permeable reactive barrier (PRB) is economical and convenient on in suit remediation of polluted groundwater. In this paper, according to characteristics of uranium mine pit water, laboratory-scale PRB reactors were designed with the mixture of valent iron, active carbon, hydrated lime and quartz sands as reaction media. The feasibility and effectiveness of treating uranium mine pit water by PRB were tested under 3 different proportions of contaminants through dynamic simulation tests, which came out the optimal proportion of contaminants. The result indicated that the remediation effect of reactor B was the best, whose average removal rate to U was up to 99%. The quality of effluent attained the relevant standards, which indicated that the PRB technology is a feasible method for the treatment of uranium mine pit water. (authors)

  1. Cell-penetrating peptides for drug delivery across membrane barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Camilla; Nielsen, Hanne Moerck

    2008-01-01

    During the last decade, cell-penetrating peptides have been investigated for their ability to overcome the plasma membrane barrier of mammalian cells for the intracellular or transcellular delivery of cargoes as diverse as low molecular weight drugs, imaging agents, oligonucleotides, peptides......, proteins and colloidal carriers such as liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles. Their ability to cross biological membranes in a non-disruptive way without apparent toxicity is highly desired for increasing drug bioavailability. This review provides an overview of the application of cell......-penetrating peptides as transmembrane drug delivery agents, according to the recent literature, and discusses critical issues and future challenges in relation to fully understanding the fundamental principles of the cell-penetrating peptide-mediated membrane translocation of cargoes and the exploitation...

  2. Retention behavior of flavonoids on immobilized artificial membrane chromatography and correlation with cell-based permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsopelas, Fotios; Tsagkrasouli, Maria; Poursanidis, Pavlos; Pitsaki, Maria; Vasios, George; Danias, Panagiotis; Panderi, Irene; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, Anna; Giaginis, Constantinos

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) retention mechanism for a set of flavonoids and to evaluate the potential of IAM chromatography to model Caco-2 permeability. For this purpose, the retention behavior of 41 flavonoid analogs on two IAM stationary phases, IAM.PC.MG and IAM.PC.DD2, was investigated. Correlations between retention factors, logk w(IAM) and octanol-water partitioning (logP) were established and the role of hydroxyl groups of flavonoids to the underlying retention mechanism was explored. IAM retention and logP values were used to establish sound linear models with Caco-2 permeability (logP app ) taken from the literature. Both stepwise regression and multivariate analysis confirmed the contribution of hydrogen bond descriptors, as additional parameters in the either logk w(IAM) or logP models. Retention factors on both IAM stationary phases showed comparable performance with n-octanol-water partitioning towards Caco-2 permeability. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Calcium permeability of the T lymphocyte plasma membrane: counteraction of phorbol ester and A23187

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csermely, P.; Szamel, M.; Somogyi, J.

    1986-01-01

    The intracellular calcium concentration (Ca/sub i/) of T lymphocytes was measured using the fluorescent indicator quin2. Different ionophores effectively enhanced the Ca permeability of the plasma membrane. The effective concentration of the ionophores required for permeabilization increased in the order of ionomycin, A23187 and X537-A (lasalocid-A). 12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in submicromolar concentrations did not change Ca/sub i/. The addition of TPA immediately before the A23187-permeabilization did not alter the Ca ionophoretic effect of A23187. However, prolonged incubation with TPA decreased the efficiency of A23187 permeabilizing the plasma membrane for calcium ions. This effect was concentration and time dependent, being maximal at TPA concentrations higher than 10 nM with a preincubation time of 1.5 hours. TPA induced relative A23187 insensitivity is most probably not due to a direct effect of TPA on the ionophore as it is concentration and time dependent. Moreover the fluorescence and fluorescence polarization of A23187 as well as the energy transfer between the tryptophan groups of the membrane proteins and A23187 showed no significant change during incubation with TPA. These results indicate that membrane fluidity changes or A23187 immobilization also do not play a prominent role in the explanation of the phenomenon. However the supposed intracellular heavy metal content of T lymphocyte might be a possible source of the TPA induced relative insensitization towards A23187.

  4. Evaluation of blood--brain barrier permeability changes in rhesus monkeys and man using 82Rb and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, C.K.; Budinger, T.F.

    1981-01-01

    Dynamic positron tomography of the brain with 82 Rb, obtained from a portable generator [ 82 Sr (25 days) -- 82 Rb (76 sec)], provides a means of studying blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in physiological and clinical investigations. The BBB in rhesus monkeys was opened unilaterally by intracarotid infusion of 3 M urea. This osmotic barrier opening allowed entry into the brain of intravenously administered rubidium chloride. The BBB opening was demonstrated noninvasively using 82 Rb and positron emission tomography and corroborated by the accumulation of 86 Rb in tissue samples. Positron emission tomography studies can be repeated every 5 min and indicate that dynamic tomography or static imaging can be used to study BBB permeability changes induced by a wide variety of noxious stimuli. Brain tumors in human subjects are readily detected because of the usual BBB permeability disruption in and around the tumors

  5. Transformation of Reactive Iron Minerals in a Permeable Reactive Barrier (Biowall) Used to Treat TCE in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Iron and sulfur reducing conditions are generally created in permeable reactive barrier (PRB) systems constructed for groundwater treatment, which usually leads to formation of iron sulfide phases. Iron sulfides have been shown to play an important role in degrading ch...

  6. Accurate determination of blood–brain barrier permeability using dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Stig P; Larsson, Henrik B W

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is increasingly used to estimate permeability in situations with subtle blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage. However, the method's ability to differentiate such low values from zero is unknown, and no consensus exists on optimal selection...

  7. Fifteen-year Assessment of a Permeable Reactive Barrier for Treatment of Chromate and Trichloroethylene in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fifteen-year performance of a granular iron, permeable reactive barrier (PRB; Elizabeth City, North Carolina) is reviewed with respect to contaminant treatment (hexavalent chromium and trichloroethylene) and hydraulic performance. Due to in-situ treatment of the chromium sou...

  8. Evaluation of the Membrane Permeability (PAMPA and Skin) of Benzimidazoles with Potential Cannabinoid Activity and their Relation with the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS)

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-Figueroa, M. Javiera; Pessoa-Mahana, C. David; Palavecino-González, M. Elisa; Mella-Raipán, Jaime; Espinosa-Bustos, Cristián; Lagos-Muñoz, Manuel E.

    2011-01-01

    The permeability of five benzimidazole derivates with potential cannabinoid activity was determined in two models of membranes, parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) and skin, in order to study the relationship of the physicochemical properties of the molecules and characteristics of the membranes with the permeability defined by the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. It was established that the PAMPA intestinal absorption method is a good predictor for classifying thes...

  9. Phasic changes of blood-brain-barrier permeability in mice after non-uniform γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushakov, I.B.

    1986-01-01

    Early changes of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in mice after irradiation of head or body were studied. The experiments were carried out on male-mice F 1 (C57xCBA) with medium mass of 25.1±0.8 g, irradiated in 2.58 C/kg dose to head or body. Correlation between BBB permeability decrease and radiation disease clinical manifestation frequency is determined. In early periods after irradiation, minimum two phases of BBB permeability change were observed: increase (0-2 h) and decrease (2-6 h) of permeability. BBB changes were expressed in later periods (24-120 h) as well. BBB permeability progressively increased after irradiation of head. According to the author's suggestion, this phenomenon gives evidence of generalization of vessel permeability disturbance (primarily of brain vessels) which leads to complete BBB dysfunction and to the loss of this morphofunctional formation's ability to perform its protective function. When considering BBB permeability connection with the frequency of neurologycal sign (tremor, ataxia) appearance, reversible correlation between these indicators is marked, beginning with the first period. The presence connection of fluid redistribution between blood and internal brain medium (edema growth) with the development of clinical manifestations of CNS affection is suggested

  10. Do phosphoinositides regulate membrane water permeability of tobacco protoplasts by enhancing the aquaporin pathway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaohong; Shatil-Cohen, Arava; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Wigoda, Noa; Perera, Imara Y; Im, Yang Ju; Diminshtein, Sofia; Yu, Ling; Boss, Wendy F; Moshelion, Menachem; Moran, Nava

    2015-03-01

    Enhancing the membrane content of PtdInsP 2 , the already-recognized protein-regulating lipid, increased the osmotic water permeability of tobacco protoplasts, apparently by increasing the abundance of active aquaporins in their membranes. While phosphoinositides are implicated in cell volume changes and are known to regulate some ion channels, their modulation of aquaporins activity has not yet been reported for any organism. To examine this, we compared the osmotic water permeability (P f) of protoplasts isolated from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cultured cells (NT1) with different (genetically lowered or elevated relative to controls) levels of inositol trisphosphate (InsP3) and phosphatidyl inositol [4,5] bisphosphate (PtdInsP2). To achieve this, the cells were transformed with, respectively, the human InsP3 5-phosphatase ('Ptase cells') or human phosphatidylinositol (4) phosphate 5-kinase ('PIPK cells'). The mean P f of the PIPK cells was several-fold higher relative to that of controls and Ptase cells. Three results favor aquaporins over the membrane matrix as underlying this excessive P f: (1) transient expression of the maize aquaporin ZmPIP2;4 in the PIPK cells increased P f by 12-30 μm s(-1), while in the controls only by 3-4 μm s(-1). (2) Cytosol acidification-known to inhibit aquaporins-lowered the P f in the PIPK cells down to control levels. (3) The transcript of at least one aquaporin was elevated in the PIPK cells. Together, the three results demonstrate the differences between the PIPK cells and their controls, and suggest a hitherto unobserved regulation of aquaporins by phosphoinositides, which could occur through direct interaction or indirect phosphoinositides-dependent cellular effects.

  11. ABOUT CORRELATION BETWEEN THE PERCOLATION RATE OF MOISTURE THROUGH THE SEMI-PERMEABLE MEMBRANES AND THE STANDARD MEASUREMENTS OF THEIR PERMEABILITY OR EVAPORATIVE RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.Б. Роганков

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A variety of test methods to estimate the water vapour transmission (WVT-rate of thin membranes do not provide, unfortunately, the reliable basis to compare the permeability of different fabrics. Their results are crucially dependent on the details and construction of experimental methodologies as well as on the accepted by the different authors conditions of measurement. In this work, we propose the universal approach and demonstrate its adequate realization to compare the transport properties of any semi-permeable membranes measured by the conventional test-methods. The purpose is to avoid any confusion in such procedure of comparison. We have analysed below the WVT-rates measured by six alternative test-methods, which have been applied step-by-step to six different fabrics. In opposite to the widespread search for a pair correlation between the above results obtained by any two methods we treat them, in total, for each fabric in terms of the reduced variables. This approach is based on the novel concept of the moisture percolation (MP-rate which combines the diffusion and convective contributions in a transport process. It leads to the well-established general estimates of the normalized WVT-rates measured by the standard test-methods. Another advantage of the developed approach is its thermodynamic consistency, which offers the appropriate fluctuation model to take into account the porosity of any semi-permeable membranes.

  12. Evaluation of the membrane permeability (PAMPA and skin) of benzimidazoles with potential cannabinoid activity and their relation with the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Figueroa, M Javiera; Pessoa-Mahana, C David; Palavecino-González, M Elisa; Mella-Raipán, Jaime; Espinosa-Bustos, Cristián; Lagos-Muñoz, Manuel E

    2011-06-01

    The permeability of five benzimidazole derivates with potential cannabinoid activity was determined in two models of membranes, parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) and skin, in order to study the relationship of the physicochemical properties of the molecules and characteristics of the membranes with the permeability defined by the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. It was established that the PAMPA intestinal absorption method is a good predictor for classifying these molecules as very permeable, independent of their thermodynamic solubility, if and only if these have a Log P(oct) value permeability is conditioned on the solubility of the molecule so that it can only serve as a model for classifying the permeability of molecules that possess high solubility (class I: high solubility, high permeability; class III: high solubility, low permeability).

  13. Transcranial direct current stimulation transiently increases the blood-brain barrier solute permeability in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Da Wi; Khadka, Niranjan; Fan, Jie; Bikson, Marom; Fu, Bingmei M.

    2016-03-01

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive electrical stimulation technique investigated for a broad range of medical and performance indications. Whereas prior studies have focused exclusively on direct neuron polarization, our hypothesis is that tDCS directly modulates endothelial cells leading to transient changes in blood-brain-barrier (BBB) permeability (P) that are highly meaningful for neuronal activity. For this, we developed state-of-the-art imaging and animal models to quantify P to various sized solutes after tDCS treatment. tDCS was administered using a constant current stimulator to deliver a 1mA current to the right frontal cortex of rat (approximately 2 mm posterior to bregma and 2 mm right to sagittal suture) to obtain similar physiological outcome as that in the human tDCS application studies. Sodium fluorescein (MW=376), or FITC-dextrans (20K and 70K), in 1% BSA mammalian Ringer was injected into the rat (SD, 250-300g) cerebral circulation via the ipsilateral carotid artery by a syringe pump at a constant rate of ~3 ml/min. To determine P, multiphoton microscopy with 800-850 nm wavelength laser was applied to take the images from the region of interest (ROI) with proper microvessels, which are 100-200 micron below the pia mater. It shows that the relative increase in P is about 8-fold for small solute, sodium fluorescein, ~35-fold for both intermediate sized (Dex-20k) and large (Dex-70k) solutes, 10 min after 20 min tDCS pretreatment. All of the increased permeability returns to the control after 20 min post treatment. The results confirmed our hypothesis.

  14. Effects of Streptococcus sanguinis Bacteriocin on Cell Surface Hydrophobicity, Membrane Permeability, and Ultrastructure of Candida Thallus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengli Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans (C.a and Candida tropicalis (C.t were treated with Streptococcus sanguinis bacteriocin (S.s bacteriocin, respectively; the bacteriostatic dynamics of S.s bacteriocin, their effects on cell surface hydrophobicity, leakage of inorganic phosphorus and macromolecular substance, cytosolic calcium concentration, and ultrastructure changes of Candida thallus were detected and analyzed. The results showed that inhibitory effect of S.s bacteriocin on C.a and C.t reached peak level at 24 h, the cell-surface hydrophobicity decreased significantly (P < 0.05 after S.s bacteriocin treatment, and there was leakage of cytoplasmic inorganic phosphorus and macromolecular substance from C.a and C.t; cytosolic calcium concentration decreased greatly. After 24 h treatment by S.s bacteriocin, depressive deformity and defect could be found in the cell surface of C.a and C.t; the thallus displayed irregular forms: C.a was shrunken, there was unclear margins abutting upon cell wall and cell membrane, nucleus disappeared, and cytoplasm was inhomogeneous; likewise, C.t was first plasmolysis, and then the cytoplasm was shrunk, the ultrastructure of cell wall and cell membrane was continuously damaged, and the nucleus was karyolysis. It was illustrated that S.s bacteriocin had similar antifungal effect on C.a and C.t; their cell surface hydrophobicity, membrane permeability, and ultrastructure were changed significantly on exposure to S.s bacteriocin.

  15. Enhancing hydrophilicity and water permeability of PET track-etched membranes by advanced oxidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolkov, Ilya V.; Mashentseva, Anastassiya A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Ibrahimov Str., 1, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan); The L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Satpaev Str., 5, 010008 Astana (Kazakhstan); Güven, Olgun [Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, 06800 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Zdorovets, Maxim V. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Ibrahimov Str., 1, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan); The L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Satpaev Str., 5, 010008 Astana (Kazakhstan); Taltenov, Abzal A. [The L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Satpaev Str., 5, 010008 Astana (Kazakhstan)

    2015-12-15

    In this study we present results on the application of advanced oxidation systems for effective and non-toxic oxidation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) track-etched membranes (PET TeMs) to improve their wettability and water transport properties. Two oxidizing systems: H{sub 2}O{sub 2} under UV irradiation (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) and Fenton system under visible light (Fenton/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Vis) were compared. The surface of functionalized PET TeMs was characterized by using colorimetric assay, contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results clearly showed that water permeability of PET TeMs treated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV was improved by 28 ± 5% compared with etched-only membrane, the same parameter was found to increase by 13 ± 4% in the case of Fenton/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Vis treatment. The proposed oxidation technique is very simple, environment friendly and not requiring special equipment or expensive chemicals. The surface hydrophilicity of the membranes stored for 360 days in air between paper sheets was analyzed by contact angle test, colorimetric assay to measure concentration of carboxylic groups on the surface with toluidine blue and XPS analysis. The hydrophilic properties of oxidized PET TeMs were found to be stable for a long period of time.

  16. Enhancing hydrophilicity and water permeability of PET track-etched membranes by advanced oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolkov, Ilya V.; Mashentseva, Anastassiya A.; Güven, Olgun; Zdorovets, Maxim V.; Taltenov, Abzal A.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we present results on the application of advanced oxidation systems for effective and non-toxic oxidation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) track-etched membranes (PET TeMs) to improve their wettability and water transport properties. Two oxidizing systems: H 2 O 2 under UV irradiation (H 2 O 2 /UV) and Fenton system under visible light (Fenton/H 2 O 2 /Vis) were compared. The surface of functionalized PET TeMs was characterized by using colorimetric assay, contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results clearly showed that water permeability of PET TeMs treated with H 2 O 2 /UV was improved by 28 ± 5% compared with etched-only membrane, the same parameter was found to increase by 13 ± 4% in the case of Fenton/H 2 O 2 /Vis treatment. The proposed oxidation technique is very simple, environment friendly and not requiring special equipment or expensive chemicals. The surface hydrophilicity of the membranes stored for 360 days in air between paper sheets was analyzed by contact angle test, colorimetric assay to measure concentration of carboxylic groups on the surface with toluidine blue and XPS analysis. The hydrophilic properties of oxidized PET TeMs were found to be stable for a long period of time.

  17. Enhancing hydrophilicity and water permeability of PET track-etched membranes by advanced oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolkov, Ilya V.; Mashentseva, Anastassiya A.; Güven, Olgun; Zdorovets, Maxim V.; Taltenov, Abzal A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we present results on the application of advanced oxidation systems for effective and non-toxic oxidation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) track-etched membranes (PET TeMs) to improve their wettability and water transport properties. Two oxidizing systems: H2O2 under UV irradiation (H2O2/UV) and Fenton system under visible light (Fenton/H2O2/Vis) were compared. The surface of functionalized PET TeMs was characterized by using colorimetric assay, contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results clearly showed that water permeability of PET TeMs treated with H2O2/UV was improved by 28 ± 5% compared with etched-only membrane, the same parameter was found to increase by 13 ± 4% in the case of Fenton/H2O2/Vis treatment. The proposed oxidation technique is very simple, environment friendly and not requiring special equipment or expensive chemicals. The surface hydrophilicity of the membranes stored for 360 days in air between paper sheets was analyzed by contact angle test, colorimetric assay to measure concentration of carboxylic groups on the surface with toluidine blue and XPS analysis. The hydrophilic properties of oxidized PET TeMs were found to be stable for a long period of time.

  18. Enhanced permeability, selectivity, and antifouling ability of CNTs/Al2O3 membrane under electrochemical assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xinfei; Zhao, Huimin; Liu, Yanming; Quan, Xie; Yu, Hongtao; Chen, Shuo

    2015-02-17

    Membrane filtration provides effective solutions for removing contaminants, but achieving high permeability, good selectivity, and antifouling ability remains a great challenge for existing membrane filtration technologies. In this work, membrane filtration coupled with electrochemistry has been developed to enhance the filtration performance of a CNTs/Al2O3 membrane. The as-prepared CNTs/Al2O3 membrane, obtained by coating interconnected CNTs on an Al2O3 substrate, presented good pore-size tunability, mechanical stability, and electroconductivity. For the removal of a target (silica spheres as a probe) with a size comparable to the membrane pore size, the removal efficiency and flux at +1.5 V were 1.1 and 1.5 times higher, respectively, than those without electrochemical assistance. Moreover, the membrane also exhibited a greatly enhanced removal efficiency for contaminants smaller than the membrane pores, providing enhancements of 4 orders of magnitude and a factor of 5.7 for latex particles and phenol, respectively. These results indicated that both the permeability and the selectivity of CNTs/Al2O3 membranes can be significantly improved by electrochemical assistance, which was further confirmed by the removal of natural organic matter (NOM). The permeate flux and NOM removal efficiency at +1.5 V were about 1.6 and 3.0 times higher, respectively, than those without electrochemical assistance. In addition, the lost flux of the fouled membrane was almost completely recovered by an electrochemically assisted backwashing process.

  19. Dynamic behaviour of a flexible membrane tsunami Barrier with Dyneema®

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofland, B.; Marissen, R.; Bergsma, O.K.

    2016-01-01

    Proof-of-concept model tests on a novel self-deploying on-shore tsunami barrier were executed. The tsunami barrier consists of a membrane, floater and cables that are stored underground. Due to buoyancy the barrier self-deploys when struck by a tsunami. The membrane and cables consist of the strong,

  20. Dynamic /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA radioaerosol lung scanning for the evaluation of alveolar-capillary barrier permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maini, C L; Marchetti, L; Bonetti, M G; Giordano, A; Pistelli, R; Antonelli Incalzi, R

    1987-01-01

    Pulmonary clearance of small droplet /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA radioaerosol was studied in 100 patients (12 normal subjects, N; 10 asymptomatic healthy smoker, FA; 31 patients with interstitial lung diseases, IP; 47 patients with chronic obstructive lung disease, BPCO). The first seven minutes of clearance were described with the function At=Ao*exp(-K*t) and the time constant K was considered representative of the /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance rate and hence of the alveolar-capillary barrier permeability. Groups FA, IP and BPCO showed a significant (p<0.05) or a highly significant (p<0.01) increase in permeability when compared to group N. No correlation was found between permeability and bronchial obstraction tests. The following conclusions were drawn: 1) /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA dynamic lung scanning is an easy, non-invasive method to assess derangements of alveolar-capillary barrier permeability secondary to epithelial damage; 2) permeability increase is a very early effect of cigarette smoke damafe to the epithelium; 3) other mechanisms of epithelial injury are present in diffuse lung disease; 4) while the clinical role of this new pathophysiological test is not yet clear, it is likely that it may become a very early marker of pulmonary epithelial damage in diffuse lung disease. 35 refs.

  1. Evaluation of a permeable reactive barrier technology for use at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, Brian P.

    2000-01-01

    Three reactive materials were evaluated at laboratory scale to identify the optimum treatment reagent for use in a Permeable Reactive Barrier Treatment System at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). The contaminants of concern (COCS) are uranium, TCE, PCE, carbon tetrachloride, americium, and vinyl chloride. The three reactive media evaluated included high carbon steel iron filings, an iron-silica alloy in the form of a foam aggregate, and a peculiar humic acid based sorbent (Humasorb from Arctech) mixed with sand. Each material was tested in the laboratory at column scale using simulated site water. All three materials showed promise for the 903 Mound Site however, the iron filings were determined to be the least expensive media. In order to validate the laboratory results, the iron filings were further tested at a pilot scale (field columns) using actual site water. Pilot test results were similar to laboratory results; consequently, the iron filings were chosen for the fill-scale demonstration of the reactive barrier technology. Additional design parameters including saturated hydraulic conductivity, treatment residence time, and head loss across the media were also determined and provided to the design team in support of the final design. The final design was completed by the Corps of Engineers in 1997 and the system was constructed in the summer of 1998. The treatment system began fill operation in December, 1998 and despite a few problems has been operational since. Results to date are consistent with the lab and pilot scale findings, i.e., complete removal of the contaminants of concern (COCs) prior to discharge to meet RFETS cleanup requirements. Furthermore, it is fair to say at this point in time that laboratory developed design parameters for the reactive barrier technology are sufficient for fuel scale design; however,the treatment system longevity and the long-term fate of the contaminants are questions that remain unanswered. This

  2. Capsid protein VP4 of human rhinovirus induces membrane permeability by the formation of a size-selective multimeric pore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Panjwani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-enveloped viruses must deliver their viral genome across a cell membrane without the advantage of membrane fusion. The mechanisms used to achieve this remain poorly understood. Human rhinovirus, a frequent cause of the common cold, is a non-enveloped virus of the picornavirus family, which includes other significant pathogens such as poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus. During picornavirus cell entry, the small myristoylated capsid protein VP4 is released from the virus, interacts with the cell membrane and is implicated in the delivery of the viral RNA genome into the cytoplasm to initiate replication. In this study, we have produced recombinant C-terminal histidine-tagged human rhinovirus VP4 and shown it can induce membrane permeability in liposome model membranes. Dextran size-exclusion studies, chemical crosslinking and electron microscopy demonstrated that VP4 forms a multimeric membrane pore, with a channel size consistent with transfer of the single-stranded RNA genome. The membrane permeability induced by recombinant VP4 was influenced by pH and was comparable to permeability induced by infectious virions. These findings present a molecular mechanism for the involvement of VP4 in cell entry and provide a model system which will facilitate exploration of VP4 as a novel antiviral target for the picornavirus family.

  3. Tuning Liposome Membrane Permeability by Competitive Peptide Dimerization and Partitioning-Folding Interactions Regulated by Proteolytic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seng Koon; Sandén, Camilla; Selegård, Robert; Liedberg, Bo; Aili, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Membrane active peptides are of large interest for development of drug delivery vehicles and therapeutics for treatment of multiple drug resistant infections. Lack of specificity can be detrimental and finding routes to tune specificity and activity of membrane active peptides is vital for improving their therapeutic efficacy and minimize harmful side effects. We describe a de novo designed membrane active peptide that partition into lipid membranes only when specifically and covalently anchored to the membrane, resulting in pore-formation. Dimerization with a complementary peptide efficiently inhibits formation of pores. The effect can be regulated by proteolytic digestion of the inhibitory peptide by the matrix metalloproteinase MMP-7, an enzyme upregulated in many malignant tumors. This system thus provides a precise and specific route for tuning the permeability of lipid membranes and a novel strategy for development of recognition based membrane active peptides and indirect enzymatically controlled release of liposomal cargo.

  4. Permeability of human placenta and fetal membranes to thyrotropin-stimulating hormone in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoria, R; Fisk, N M

    1998-05-01

    We determined the placental transfer of TSH in an in vitro model of dually perfused isolated lobule in 28 human term placentas by adding varying concentrations (5-60 microIU mL(-1)) of TSH as a single bolus dose to the closed maternal circulation. Transmembrane transfer of TSH was also studied by adding 45 microIU mL(-1) to the maternal or fetal compartment of a dual chamber of fetal membranes in culture. Passage of freely diffusible markers creatinine and antipyrine were also studied in this model. TSH concentration was measured by third generation chemiluminescence assay with a sensitivity of 10 mIU mL(-1). In the perfusion experiments, at physiologic concentrations the slow decline of TSH in the maternal circulation was associated with a small linear increase in fetal levels to 0.11 +/- 0.04% of initial dose at 2 h. The placental transfer rate was 0.08 microIU min(-1). Increasing maternal concentrations of TSH were associated with proportional increases in transfer rate (y = 0.002x; R2 = 0.99) and placental uptake (y = 0.01x; R2 = 0.97). The placental permeability of TSH was 2.4 x 10(-4) mL min(-1) g(-1) and was proportional to its coefficients of diffusion in water and molecular size. The transmembrane transfer and permeability of TSH was comparable to those of the placenta. We conclude that TSH crosses the human term placenta and fetal membranes sparingly.

  5. Assessment of a Hydroxyapatite Permeable Reactive Barrier to Remediate Uranium at the Old Rifle Site Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Robert C.; Szecsody, James; Rigali, Mark J.; Vermuel, Vince; Leullen, Jon

    2016-01-01

    We have performed an initial evaluation and testing program to assess the effectiveness of a hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) permeable reactive barrier and source area treatment to decrease uranium mobility at the Department of Energy (DOE) former Old Rifle uranium mill processing site in Rifle, western Colorado. Uranium ore was processed at the site from the 1940s to the 1970s. The mill facilities at the site as well as the uranium mill tailings previously stored there have all been removed. Groundwater in the alluvial aquifer beneath the site still contains elevated concentrations of uranium, and is currently used for field tests to study uranium behavior in groundwater and investigate potential uranium remediation technologies. The technology investigated in this work is based on in situ formation of apatite in sediment to create a subsurface apatite PRB and also for source area treatment. The process is based on injecting a solution containing calcium citrate and sodium into the subsurface for constructing the PRB within the uranium plume. As the indigenous sediment micro-organisms biodegrade the injected citrate, the calcium is released and reacts with the phosphate to form hydroxyapatite (precipitate). This paper reports on proof-of-principle column tests with Old Rifle sediment and synthetic groundwater.

  6. Assessment of a Hydroxyapatite Permeable Reactive Barrier to Remediate Uranium at the Old Rifle Site Colorado.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert C.; Szecsody, James (PNNL); Rigali, Mark J.; Vermuel, Vince (PNNL); Leullen, Jon (AECOM)

    2016-02-01

    We have performed an initial evaluation and testing program to assess the effectiveness of a hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) permeable reactive barrier and source area treatment to decrease uranium mobility at the Department of Energy (DOE) former Old Rifle uranium mill processing site in Rifle, western Colorado. Uranium ore was processed at the site from the 1940s to the 1970s. The mill facilities at the site as well as the uranium mill tailings previously stored there have all been removed. Groundwater in the alluvial aquifer beneath the site still contains elevated concentrations of uranium, and is currently used for field tests to study uranium behavior in groundwater and investigate potential uranium remediation technologies. The technology investigated in this work is based on in situ formation of apatite in sediment to create a subsurface apatite PRB and also for source area treatment. The process is based on injecting a solution containing calcium citrate and sodium into the subsurface for constructing the PRB within the uranium plume. As the indigenous sediment micro-organisms biodegrade the injected citrate, the calcium is released and reacts with the phosphate to form hydroxyapatite (precipitate). This paper reports on proof-of-principle column tests with Old Rifle sediment and synthetic groundwater.

  7. Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barriers: A Review of Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korte, NE

    2001-01-01

    This report briefly reviews issues regarding the implementation of the zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology at sites managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Initially, the PRB technology, using zero-valent iron for the reactive media, was received with great enthusiasm, and DOE invested millions of dollars testing and implementing PRBs. Recently, a negative perception of the technology has been building. This perception is based on the failure of some deployments to satisfy goals for treatment and operating expenses. The purpose of this report, therefore, is to suggest reasons for the problems that have been encountered and to recommend whether DOE should invest in additional research and deployments. The principal conclusion of this review is that the most significant problems have been the result of insufficient characterization, which resulted in poor engineering implementation. Although there are legitimate concerns regarding the longevity of the reactive media, the ability of zero-valent iron to reduce certain chlorinated hydrocarbons and to immobilize certain metals and radionuclides is well documented. The primary problem encountered at some DOE full-scale deployments has been an inadequate assessment of site hydrology, which resulted in misapplication of the technology. The result is PRBs with higher than expected flow velocities and/or incomplete plume capture

  8. Assessment of solid reactive mixtures for the development of biological permeable reactive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagnanelli, Francesca; Viggi, Carolina Cruz; Mainelli, Sara; Toro, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Solid reactive mixtures were tested as filling material for the development of biological permeable reactive barriers for the treatment of heavy metals contaminated waters. Mixture selection was performed by taking into account the different mechanisms operating in sulphate and cadmium removal with particular attention to bioprecipitation and sorption onto the organic matrices in the mixtures. Suspensions of eight reactive mixtures were tested for sulphate removal (initial concentration 3 g L -1 ). Each mixture was made up of four main functional components: a mix of organic sources for bacterial growth, a neutralizing agent, a porous medium and zero-valent iron. The best mixture among the tested ones (M8: 6% leaves, 9% compost, 3% zero-valent iron, 30% silica sand, 30% perlite, 22% limestone) presented optimal conditions for SRB growth (pH 7.8 ± 0.1; E h = -410 ± 5 mV) and 83% sulphate removal in 22 days (25% due to bioreduction, 32% due to sorption onto compost and 20% onto leaves). M8 mixture allowed the complete abatement of cadmium with a significant contribution of sorption over bioprecipitation (6% Cd removal due to SRB activity). Sorption properties, characterised by potentiometric titrations and related modelling, were mainly due to carboxylic sites of organic components used in reactive mixtures.

  9. Laboratory study on sequenced permeable reactive barrier remediation for landfill leachate-contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Jun; Zhao Yongsheng; Zhang Weihong; Hong Mei

    2009-01-01

    Permeable reactive barrier (PRB) was a promising technology for groundwater remediation. Landfill leachate-polluted groundwater riches in various hazardous contaminants. Two lab-scale reactors (reactors A and B) were designed for studying the feasibility of PRB to remedy the landfill leachate-polluted groundwater. Zero valent iron (ZVI) and the mixture of ZVI and zeolites constitute the first section of the reactors A and B, respectively; the second section of two reactors consists of oxygen releasing compounds (ORCs). Experimental results indicated that BOD 5 /COD increased from initial 0.32 up to average 0.61 and 0.6 through reactors A and B, respectively. Removal efficiency of mixed media for pollutants was higher than that of single media (ZVI only). Zeolites exhibited selective removal of Zn, Mn, Mg, Cd, Sr, and NH 4 + , and removal efficiency was 97.2%, 99.6%, 95.9%, 90.5% and 97.4%, respectively. The maximum DO concentration of reactors A and B were 7.64 and 6.78 mg/L, respectively, while the water flowed through the ORC. Therefore, sequenced PRB system was effective and was proposed as an alternative method to remedy polluted groundwater by landfill leachate

  10. Evaluation of five strategies to limit the impact of fouling in permeable reactive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lin; Benson, Craig H.

    2010-01-01

    Ground water flow and geochemical reactive transport models were used to assess the effectiveness of five strategies used to limit fouling and to enhance the long-term hydraulic behavior of continuous-wall permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) employing granular zero valent iron (ZVI). The flow model accounted for geological heterogeneity and the reactive transport model included a geochemical algorithm for simulating iron corrosion and mineral precipitation reactions that have been observed in ZVI PRBs. The five strategies that were evaluated are pea gravel equalization zones, a sacrificial pre-treatment zone, pH adjustment, large ZVI particles, and mechanical treatment. Results of simulations show that installation of pea gravel equalization zones results in flow equalization and a more uniform distribution of residence times within the PRB. Residence times within the PRB are less affected by mineral precipitation when a pre-treatment zone is employed. pH adjustment limits the total amount of hydroxide ions in ground water to reduce porosity reduction and to retain larger residence times. Larger ZVI particles reduce porosity reduction as a result of the smaller iron surface area for iron corrosion, and retain longer residence time. Mechanical treatment redistributes the porosity uniformly throughout the PRB over time, which is effective in maintaining residence time.

  11. Proton conducting membranes prepared by incorporation of organophosphorus acids into alcohol barrier polymers for direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhongyi; Zheng, Xiaohong; Wu, Hong; Pan, Fusheng

    A novel type of DMFC membrane was developed via incorporation of organophosphorus acids (OPAs) into alcohol barrier materials (polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan, PVA/CS) to simultaneously acquire high proton conductivity and low methanol permeability. Three kinds of OPAs including amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP), ethylene diamine tetra(methylene phosphonic acid) (EDTMP) and hexamethylene diamine tetra(methylene phosphonic acid) (HDTMP), with different molecular structure and phosphonic acid groups content were added into PVA/CS blends and served the dual functions as proton conductor as well as crosslinker. The as-prepared OPA-doped PVA/CS membranes exhibited remarkably enhanced proton conducting ability, 2-4 times higher than that of the pristine PVA/CS membrane, comparable with that for Nafion ®117 membrane (5.04 × 10 -2 S cm -1). The highest proton conductivities 3.58 × 10 -2, 3.51 × 10 -2 and 2.61 × 10 -2 S cm -1 for ATMP-, EDTMP- and HDTMP-doped membranes, respectively were all achieved at highest initial OPA doping content (23.1 wt.%) at room temperature. The EDTMP-doped PVA/CS membrane with an acid content of 13.9 wt.% showed the lowest methanol permeability of 2.32 × 10 -7 cm 2 s -1 which was 16 times lower than that of Nafion ®117 membrane. In addition, the thermal stability and oxidative durability were both significantly improved by the incorporation of OPAs in comparison with pristine PVA/CS membranes.

  12. Proton conducting membranes prepared by incorporation of organophosphorus acids into alcohol barrier polymers for direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Zhongyi; Zheng, Xiaohong; Wu, Hong; Pan, Fusheng [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2008-10-15

    A novel type of DMFC membrane was developed via incorporation of organophosphorus acids (OPAs) into alcohol barrier materials (polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan, PVA/CS) to simultaneously acquire high proton conductivity and low methanol permeability. Three kinds of OPAs including amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP), ethylene diamine tetra(methylene phosphonic acid) (EDTMP) and hexamethylene diamine tetra(methylene phosphonic acid) (HDTMP), with different molecular structure and phosphonic acid groups content were added into PVA/CS blends and served the dual functions as proton conductor as well as crosslinker. The as-prepared OPA-doped PVA/CS membranes exhibited remarkably enhanced proton conducting ability, 2-4 times higher than that of the pristine PVA/CS membrane, comparable with that for Nafion {sup registered} 117 membrane (5.04 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1}). The highest proton conductivities 3.58 x 10{sup -2}, 3.51 x 10{sup -2} and 2.61 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} for ATMP-, EDTMP- and HDTMP-doped membranes, respectively were all achieved at highest initial OPA doping content (23.1 wt.%) at room temperature. The EDTMP-doped PVA/CS membrane with an acid content of 13.9 wt.% showed the lowest methanol permeability of 2.32 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} which was 16 times lower than that of Nafion {sup registered} 117 membrane. In addition, the thermal stability and oxidative durability were both significantly improved by the incorporation of OPAs in comparison with pristine PVA/CS membranes. (author)

  13. Recovery of ammonia and production of high-grade phosphates from side-stream digester effluents using gas-permeable membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus recovery was combined with ammonia recovery using gas-permeable membranes. In a first step, the ammonia and alkalinity were removed from municipal side-stream wastewater using low-rate aeration and a gas-permeable membrane manifold. In a second step, the phosphorus was removed using magne...

  14. Permeability and Diffusion Coefficients of Single Methyl Lactate Enantiomers in Nafion® and Cellophane Membranes Measured in Diffusion Cell.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hovorka, Š.; Randová, A.; Borbášová, T.; Sysel, P.; Vychodilová, Hana; Červenková Šťastná, Lucie; Brožová, Libuše; Žitka, Jan; Storch, Jan; Kačírková, Marie; Drašar, P.; Izák, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 158, JAN 28 (2016), s. 322-332 ISSN 1383-5866 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0569 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : diffusion coefficient measurement * permeability * nafion * cellophane * chirality of polymer membrane Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.359, year: 2016

  15. Design, installation, and performance of a multi-layered permeable reactive barrier, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszuba, John P.; Longmire, Patrick A.; Strietelmeier, Elizabeth A.; Taylor, Tammy P.; Den-Baars, Peter S.

    2004-01-01

    A multi-layered permeable reactive barrier (PRB) has been installed in Mortandad Canyon, on the Pajarito Plateau in the north-central part of LANL, to demonstrate in-situ treatment of a suite of contaminants with dissimilar geochemical properties. The PRB will also mitigate possible vulnerabilities from downgradient contaminant movement within alluvial and deeper perched groundwater. Mortandad Canyon was selected as the location for this demonstration project because the flow of alluvial groundwater is constrained by the geology of the canyon, a large network of monitoring wells already were installed along the canyon reach, and the hydrochemistry and contaminant history of the canyon is well-documented. The PRB uses a funnel-and-gate system with a series of four reactive media cells to immobilize or destroy contaminants present in alluvial groundwater, including strontium-90, plutonium-238,239,240, americium-241, perchlorate, and nitrate. The four cells, ordered by sequence of contact with the groundwater, consist of gravel-sized scoria (for colloid removal); phosphate rock containing apatite (for metals and radionuclides); pecan shells and cotton seed admixed with gravel (bio-barrier, to deplete dissolved oxygen and destroy potential RCRA organic compounds, nitrate and perchlorate); and limestone (pH buffering and anion adsorption). Design elements of the PRB are based on laboratory-scale treatability studies and on a field investigation of hydrologic, geochemical, and geotechnical parameters. The PRB was designed with the following criteria: 1-day residence time within the biobarrier, 10-year lifetime, minimization of surface water infiltration and erosion, optimization of hydraulic capture, and minimization of excavated material requiring disposal. Each layer has been equipped with monitoring wells or ports to allow sampling of groundwater and reactive media, and monitor wells are located immediately adjacent to the up- and down-gradient perimeter of the

  16. Recovery of ammonia from anaerobically digested manure using gas-permeable membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cruz García-González

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen (N can be recovered from different types of wastewaters. Among these wastewaters, anaerobically digested swine manure (digestate has the highest N content in ammonia form (NH3. It is desirable to reduce N in digestate effluents to safely incorporate them in arable soil in N vulnerable zones (NVZ and to mitigate NH3 emissions during N land application. Additional benefit is to minimize inhibition of the anaerobic process by removing NH3 during the anaerobic digestion process. This work aimed to apply the gas-permeable membrane technology to evaluate ammonia (NH3 recovery from high-ammonia digested swine manure. Anaerobically digested swine manure with NH4+ content of 4,293 mg N L−1 was reduced by 91 % (to 381 mg N L−1 during the 32-day experiment. Although the results showed a total N recovery efficiency of 71 %, it is possible to increase this recovery efficiency to > 90 % by adjusting the area of the membrane system to match the high free ammonia concentration (FA in digested swine manure. Moreover, final digestate pH and alkalinity were kept around 8.1 and 8,923 mgCaCO3 L−1, which are convenient for the anaerobic process or incorporation in arable soil when the process is finished.

  17. Enhancing recovery of ammonia from swine manure anaerobic digester effluent using gas-permeable membrane technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, P J; Vanotti, M B; Szogi, A A; García-González, M C

    2016-03-01

    Gas-permeable membrane technology is useful to recover ammonia from manure. In this study, the technology was enhanced using aeration instead of alkali chemicals to increase pH and the ammonium (NH4(+)) recovery rate. Digested effluents from covered anaerobic swine lagoons containing 1465-2097 mg NH4(+)-N L(-1) were treated using submerged membranes (0.13 cm(2) cm(-3)), low-rate aeration (120 mL air L-manure(-1) min(-1)) and nitrification inhibitor (22 mg L(-1)) to prevent nitrification. The experiment included a control without aeration. The pH of the manure with aeration rose from 8.6 to 9.2 while the manure without aeration decreased from 8.6 to 8.1. With aeration, 97-99% of the NH4(+) was removed in about 5 days of operation with 96-98% recovery efficiency. In contrast, without aeration it took 25 days to treat the NH4(+). Therefore, the recovery of NH4(+) was five times faster with the low-rate aeration treatment. This enhancement could reduce costs by 70%. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. A fractal analytical model for the permeabilities of fibrous gas diffusion layer in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Boqi; Fan, Jintu; Ding, Feng

    2014-01-01

    The study of water and gas transport through fibrous gas diffusion layer (GDL) is important to the optimization of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In this work, analytical models of dimensionless permeability, and water and gas relative permeabilities of fibrous GDL in PEMFCs are derived using fractal theory. In our models, the structure of fibrous GDL is characterized in terms of porosity, tortuosity fractal dimension (D T ), pore area fractal dimensions (d f ), water phase (d f,w ) and gas phase (d f,g ) fractal dimensions. The predicted dimensionless permeability, water and gas relative permeabilities based on the proposed models are in good agreement with experimental data and predictions of numerical simulations reported in the literature. The model reveals that, although water phase and gas phase fractal dimensions strongly depend on porosity, the water and gas relative permeabilities are independent of porosity and are a function of water saturation only. It is also shown that the dimensionless permeability decreases significantly with the increase of tortuosity fractal dimension. On the other hand, there is only a small decrease in the water and gas relative permeabilities when tortuosity fractal dimension increases. One advantage of the proposed analytical model is that it contains no empirical constant, which is normally required in past models

  19. Permeability and Selectivity of PPO/Graphene Composites as Mixed Matrix Membranes for CO2 Capture and Gas Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Rea

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated novel composite (mixed matrix membranes based on a permeable glassy polymer, Poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide (PPO, and variable loadings of few-layer graphene, to test their potential in gas separation and CO2 capture applications. The permeability, selectivity and diffusivity of different gases as a function of graphene loading, from 0.3 to 15 wt %, was measured at 35 and 65 °C. Samples with small loadings of graphene show a higher permeability and He/CO2 selectivity than pure PPO, due to a favorable effect of the nanofillers on the polymer morphology. Higher amounts of graphene lower the permeability of the polymer, due to the prevailing effect of increased tortuosity of the gas molecules in the membrane. Graphene also allows dramatically reducing the increase of permeability with temperature, acting as a “stabilizer” for the polymer matrix. Such effect reduces the temperature-induced loss of size-selectivity for He/N2 and CO2/N2, and enhances the temperature-induced increase of selectivity for He/CO2. The study confirms that, as observed in the case of other graphene-based mixed matrix glassy membranes, the optimal concentration of graphene in the polymer is below 1 wt %. Below such threshold, the morphology of the nanoscopic filler added in solution affects positively the glassy chains packing, enhancing permeability and selectivity, and improving the selectivity of the membrane at increasing temperatures. These results suggest that small additions of graphene to polymers can enhance their permselectivity and stabilize their properties.

  20. Increase of radiation damage to potassium-ion permeability in E. coli cells with decrease in membrane fluidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.

    1980-01-01

    Membrane lipids of an auxotroph of E. coli requiring unsaturated fatty acid were manipulated by supplementing the growth medium with unsaturated fatty acids of different chain lengths and/or configurations, and the radiation damage to K + -permeability of the resulting modified cells was investigated in relation with factors influencing membrane fluidity, such as temperature and procaine. Radiation had greater effects on membranes supplemented with unsaturated fatty acids of the trans configuration with a longer chain than on those of the cis configuration with a shorter chain. Radiation damage also increased with decrease in temperature. Furthermore, procaine-treated membranes showed increased resistance to radiation. All these results indicate that the damage was affected by the physical character of membrane lipids and that it was greater in membranes with decreased fluidity. (author)

  1. Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 Restores Gut Barrier Permeability in Chronically Low-Grade Inflamed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Rebeca; Laval, Laure; Chain, Florian; Miquel, Sylvie; Natividad, Jane; Cherbuy, Claire; Sokol, Harry; Verdu, Elena F; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan; Bermudez-Humaran, Luis G; Smokvina, Tamara; Langella, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the efficacy of many probiotic strains in the management of gastrointestinal disorders associated with deregulated intestinal barrier function and/or structure. In particular, bifidobacteria have been studied for their efficacy to both prevent and treat a broad spectrum of animal and/or human gut disorders. The aim of the current work was thus to evaluate effects on intestinal barrier function of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494, a strain used in fermented dairy products. A chronic dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced low-grade inflammation model causing gut dysfunction in mice was used in order to study markers of inflammation, intestinal permeability, and immune function in the presence of the bacterial strain. In this chronic low-grade inflammation mice model several parameters pointed out the absence of an over active inflammation process. However, gut permeability, lymphocyte populations, and colonic cytokines were found to be altered. B. animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 was able to protect barrier functions by restoring intestinal permeability, colonic goblet cell populations, and cytokine levels. Furthermore, tight junction (TJ) proteins levels were also measured by qRT-PCR showing the ability of this strain to specifically normalize the level of several TJ proteins, in particular for claudin-4. Finally, B. lactis strain counterbalanced CD4(+) lymphocyte alterations in both spleen and mesenteric lymphoid nodes. It restores the Th1/Th2 ratio altered by the DNBS challenge (which locally augments CD4(+) Th1 cells) by increasing the Th2 response as measured by the increase in the production of major representative Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10). Altogether, these data suggest that B. animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 may efficiently prevent disorders associated with increased barrier permeability.

  2. Laminar oxy-fuel diffusion flame supported by an oxygen-permeable-ion-transport membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup

    2013-03-01

    A numerical model with detailed gas-phase chemistry and transport was used to predict homogeneous fuel conversion processes and to capture the important features (e.g., the location, temperature, thickness and structure of a flame) of laminar oxy-fuel diffusion flames stabilized on the sweep side of an oxygen permeable ion transport membrane (ITM). We assume that the membrane surface is not catalytic to hydrocarbon or syngas oxidation. It has been demonstrated that an ITM can be used for hydrocarbon conversion with enhanced reaction selectivity such as oxy-fuel combustion for carbon capture technologies and syngas production. Within an ITM unit, the oxidizer flow rate, i.e., the oxygen permeation flux, is not a pre-determined quantity, since it depends on the oxygen partial pressures on the feed and sweep sides and the membrane temperature. Instead, it is influenced by the oxidation reactions that are also dependent on the oxygen permeation rate, the initial conditions of the sweep gas, i.e., the fuel concentration, flow rate and temperature, and the diluent. In oxy-fuel combustion applications, the sweep side is fuel-diluted with CO2, and the entire unit is preheated to achieve a high oxygen permeation flux. This study focuses on the flame structure under these conditions and specifically on the chemical effect of CO2 dilution. Results show that, when the fuel diluent is CO2, a diffusion flame with a lower temperature and a larger thickness is established in the vicinity of the membrane, in comparison with the case in which N2 is used as a diluent. Enhanced OH-driven reactions and suppressed H radical chemistry result in the formation of products with larger CO and H2O and smaller H2 concentrations. Moreover, radical concentrations are reduced due to the high CO2 fraction in the sweep gas. CO2 dilution reduces CH3 formation and slows down the formation of soot precursors, C2H2 and C2H4. The flame location impacts the species diffusion and heat transfer from the

  3. The long noncoding RNA TUG1 regulates blood-tumor barrier permeability by targeting miR-144.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Heng; Xue, Yixue; Wang, Ping; Wang, Zhenhua; Li, Zhen; Hu, Yi; Li, Zhiqing; Shang, Xiuli; Liu, Yunhui

    2015-08-14

    Blood-tumor barrier (BTB) limits the delivery of chemotherapeutic agent to brain tumor tissues. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play critical regulatory roles in various biologic processes of tumors. However, the role of lncRNAs in BTB permeability is unclear. LncRNA TUG1 (taurine upregulated gene 1) was highly expressed in glioma vascular endothelial cells from glioma tissues. It also upregulated in glioma co-cultured endothelial cells (GEC) from BTB model in vitro. Knockdown of TUG1 increased BTB permeability, and meanwhile down-regulated the expression of the tight junction proteins ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5. Both bioinformatics and luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that TUG1 influenced BTB permeability via binding to miR-144. Furthermore, Knockdown of TUG1 also down-regulated Heat shock transcription factor 2 (HSF2), a transcription factor of the heat shock transcription factor family, which was defined as a direct and functional downstream target of miR-144. HSF2 up-regulated the promoter activities and interacted with the promoters of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 in GECs. In conclusion, our results indicate that knockdown of TUG1 increased BTB permeability via binding to miR-144 and then reducing EC tight junction protein expression by targeting HSF2. Thus, TUG1 may represent a useful future therapeutic target for enhancing BTB permeability.

  4. Monitoring trichloroethene remediation at an iron permeable reactive barrier using stable carbon isotopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanStone, Nancy; Przepiora, Andrzej; Vogan, John; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Powers, Brian; Perez, Ernesto; Mabury, Scott; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara

    2005-08-01

    Stable carbon isotopic analysis, in combination with compositional analysis, was used to evaluate the performance of an iron permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for the remediation of ground water contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE) at Spill Site 7 (SS7), F.E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyoming. Compositional data indicated that although the PRB appeared to be reducing TCE to concentrations below treatment goals within and immediately downgradient of the PRB, concentrations remained higher than expected at wells further downgradient (i.e. > 9 m) of the PRB. At two wells downgradient of the PRB, TCE concentrations were comparable to upgradient values, and δ13C values of TCE at these wells were not significantly different than upgradient values. Since the process of sorption/desorption does not significantly fractionate carbon isotope values, this suggests that the TCE observed at these wells is desorbing from local aquifer materials and was present before the PRB was installed. In contrast, three other downgradient wells show significantly more enriched δ13C values compared to the upgradient mean. In addition, δ13C values for the degradation products of TCE, cis-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride, show fractionation patterns expected for the products of the reductive dechlorination of TCE. Since concentrations of both TCE and degradation products drop to below detection limit in wells within the PRB and directly below it, these downgradient chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations are attributed to desorption from local aquifer material. The carbon isotope values indicate that this dissolved contaminant is subject to local degradation, likely due to in situ microbial activity.

  5. Monitoring trichloroethene remediation at an iron permeable reactive barrier using stable carbon isotopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanStone, Nancy; Przepiora, Andrzej; Vogan, John; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Powers, Brian; Perez, Ernesto; Mabury, Scott; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara

    2005-08-01

    Stable carbon isotopic analysis, in combination with compositional analysis, was used to evaluate the performance of an iron permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for the remediation of ground water contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE) at Spill Site 7 (SS7), F.E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyoming. Compositional data indicated that although the PRB appeared to be reducing TCE to concentrations below treatment goals within and immediately downgradient of the PRB, concentrations remained higher than expected at wells further downgradient (i.e. >9 m) of the PRB. At two wells downgradient of the PRB, TCE concentrations were comparable to upgradient values, and delta13C values of TCE at these wells were not significantly different than upgradient values. Since the process of sorption/desorption does not significantly fractionate carbon isotope values, this suggests that the TCE observed at these wells is desorbing from local aquifer materials and was present before the PRB was installed. In contrast, three other downgradient wells show significantly more enriched delta13C values compared to the upgradient mean. In addition, delta13C values for the degradation products of TCE, cis-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride, show fractionation patterns expected for the products of the reductive dechlorination of TCE. Since concentrations of both TCE and degradation products drop to below detection limit in wells within the PRB and directly below it, these downgradient chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations are attributed to desorption from local aquifer material. The carbon isotope values indicate that this dissolved contaminant is subject to local degradation, likely due to in situ microbial activity.

  6. Evaluation of [14C] and [13C]Sucrose as Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Mohammad K; Chowdhury, Ekram A; Bickel, Ulrich; Mehvar, Reza

    2017-06-01

    Nonspecific quantitation of [ 14 C]sucrose in blood and brain has been routinely used as a quantitative measure of the in vivo blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. However, the reported apparent brain uptake clearance (K in ) of the marker varies widely (∼100-fold). We investigated the accuracy of the use of the marker in comparison with a stable isotope of sucrose ([ 13 C]sucrose) measured by a specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Rats received single doses of each marker, and the K in values were determined. Surprisingly, the K in value of [ 13 C]sucrose was 6- to 7-fold lower than that of [ 14 C]sucrose. Chromatographic fractionation after in vivo administration of [ 14 C]sucrose indicated that the majority of the brain content of radioactivity belonged to compounds other than the intact [ 14 C]sucrose. However, mechanistic studies failed to reveal any substantial metabolism of the marker. The octanol:water partition coefficient of [ 14 C]sucrose was >2-fold higher than that of [ 13 C]sucrose, indicating the presence of lipid-soluble impurities in the [ 14 C]sucrose solution. Our data indicate that [ 14 C]sucrose overestimates the true BBB permeability to sucrose. We suggest that specific quantitation of the stable isotope ( 13 C) of sucrose is a more accurate alternative to the current widespread use of the radioactive sucrose as a BBB marker. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Blood-brain barrier permeability and monocyte infiltration in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: a quantitative MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, S; Blezer, E L A; Schreibelt, G; Döpp, E; van der Pol, S M A; Schadee-Eestermans, I L; Nicolay, K; Dijkstra, C D; de Vries, H E

    2004-03-01

    Enhanced cerebrovascular permeability and cellular infiltration mark the onset of early multiple sclerosis lesions. So far, the precise sequence of these events and their role in lesion formation and disease progression remain unknown. Here we provide quantitative evidence that blood-brain barrier leakage is an early event and precedes massive cellular infiltration in the development of acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal correlate of multiple sclerosis. Cerebrovascular leakage and monocytes infiltrates were separately monitored by quantitative in vivo MRI during the course of the disease. Magnetic resonance enhancement of the contrast agent gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (Gd-DTPA), reflecting vascular leakage, occurred concomitantly with the onset of neurological signs and was already at a maximal level at this stage of the disease. Immunohistochemical analysis also confirmed the presence of the serum-derived proteins such as fibrinogen around the brain vessels early in the disease, whereas no cellular infiltrates could be detected. MRI further demonstrated that Gd-DTPA leakage clearly preceded monocyte infiltration as imaged by the contrast agent based on ultra small particles of iron oxide (USPIO), which was maximal only during full-blown EAE. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical investigation revealed that USPIOs were present in newly infiltrated macrophages within the inflammatory lesions. To validate the use of USPIOs as a non-invasive tool to evaluate therapeutic strategies, EAE animals were treated with the immunomodulator 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, lovastatin, which ameliorated clinical scores. MRI showed that the USPIO load in the brain was significantly diminished in lovastatin-treated animals. Data indicate that cerebrovascular leakage and monocytic trafficking into the brain are two distinct processes in the development of inflammatory lesions during multiple sclerosis, which can

  8. Impact of drug permeability of blood-brain barrier after whole brain conventional fractionation irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Longzhen; Cao Yuandong; Chen Yong; Yu Changzhou; Zhuang Ming

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of drug permeability in rat blood-brain barrier(BBB) after different doses of whole brain conventional fractionation irradiation in rats and provide the experimental basis for the optimum time of clinical chemotherapy. Methods: According to different irradiation doses, 100 adult Sprague-Dowley rats were divided randomly into 5 groups: the normal control group(0 Gy); 10 Gy; 20 Gy; 30 Gy; and 40 Gy group. All rats were exposed to conventional fractionation(2 Gy/d, 5 d/w) with 60 Co γ-ray. MTX(25 mg/kg) was injected through the tail mainline 16 hours after whole brain irradiation. Cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) and blood were collected 2 hours later. Those samples were used to assay MTX concentration using RP-HPLC. Results: MTX mean concentrations in CSF was 0.07, 0.08, 0.12, 0.24, 0.23 mg/L in the control, 10 Gy, 20 Gy, 30 Gy, 40 Gy groups, respectively. All the data was analyzed with rank test of transform. MTX concentration of CSF was significantly different except the control and 10 Gy, 30 Gy and 40 Gy group. MTX concentration of blood was not significantly different in all groups (P>0.05). Conclusions: Irradiation can directly damage the function of BBB. BBB would be opened gradually following the increase of irradiation dose. It could be considered as the optimum time of chemotherapy when the whole brain irradiation ranges from 20 Gy to 30 Gy. (authors)

  9. Quasi-equilibrium analysis of the ion-pair mediated membrane transport of low-permeability drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan M; Dahan, Arik; Gupta, Deepak; Varghese, Sheeba; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this research was to gain a mechanistic understanding of ion-pair mediated membrane transport of low-permeability drugs. Quasi-equilibrium mass transport analyses were developed to describe the ion-pair mediated octanol-buffer partitioning and hydrophobic membrane permeation of the model basic drug phenformin. Three lipophilic counterions were employed: p-toluenesulfonic acid, 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, and 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (HNAP). Association constants and intrinsic octanol-buffer partition coefficients (Log P(AB)) of the ion-pairs were obtained by fitting a transport model to double reciprocal plots of apparent octanol-buffer distribution coefficients versus counterion concentration. All three counterions enhanced the lipophilicity of phenformin, with HNAP providing the greatest increase in Log P(AB), 3.7 units over phenformin alone. HNAP also enhanced the apparent membrane permeability of phenformin, 27-fold in the PAMPA model, and 4.9-fold across Caco-2 cell monolayers. As predicted from a quasi-equilibrium analysis of ion-pair mediated membrane transport, an order of magnitude increase in phenformin flux was observed per log increase in counterion concentration, such that log-log plots of phenformin flux versus HNAP concentration gave linear relationships. These results provide increased understanding of the underlying mechanisms of ion-pair mediated membrane transport, emphasizing the potential of this approach to enable oral delivery of low-permeability drugs.

  10. Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability through modulation of intracellular calcium levels in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klíma, Petr; Laňková, Martina; Vandenbussche, Filip; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Petrášek, Jan

    2018-05-01

    Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability for water and small organic compounds through their stimulatory effect on plasma membrane calcium channels, with subsequent modulation of intracellular calcium levels and ion homeostasis. The action of silver ions at the plant plasma membrane is largely connected with the inhibition of ethylene signalling thanks to the ability of silver ion to replace the copper cofactor in the ethylene receptor. A link coupling the action of silver ions and cellular auxin efflux has been suggested earlier by their possible direct interaction with auxin efflux carriers or by influencing plasma membrane permeability. Using tobacco BY-2 cells, we demonstrate here that besides a dramatic increase of efflux of synthetic auxins 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), treatment with AgNO 3 resulted in enhanced efflux of the cytokinin trans-zeatin (tZ) as well as the auxin structural analogues tryptophan (Trp) and benzoic acid (BA). The application of AgNO 3 was accompanied by gradual water loss and plasmolysis. The observed effects were dependent on the availability of extracellular calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) as shown by comparison of transport assays in Ca 2+ -rich and Ca 2+ -free buffers and upon treatment with inhibitors of plasma membrane Ca 2+ -permeable channels Al 3+ and ruthenium red, both abolishing the effect of AgNO 3 . Confocal microscopy of Ca 2+ -sensitive fluorescence indicator Fluo-4FF, acetoxymethyl (AM) ester suggested that the extracellular Ca 2+ availability is necessary to trigger the response to silver ions and that the intracellular Ca 2+ pool alone is not sufficient for this effect. Altogether, our data suggest that in plant cells the effects of silver ions originate from the primal modification of the internal calcium levels, possibly by their interaction with Ca 2+ -permeable channels at the plasma membrane.

  11. Contribution of liver mitochondrial membrane-bound glutathione transferase to mitochondrial permeability transition pores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Quazi Sohel; Ulziikhishig, Enkhbaatar; Lee, Kang Kwang; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Aniya, Yoko

    2009-01-01

    We recently reported that the glutathione transferase in rat liver mitochondrial membranes (mtMGST1) is activated by S-glutathionylation and the activated mtMGST1 contributes to the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore and cytochrome c release from mitochondria [Lee, K.K., Shimoji, M., Quazi, S.H., Sunakawa, H., Aniya, Y., 2008. Novel function of glutathione transferase in rat liver mitochondrial membrane: role for cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Toxcol. Appl. Pharmacol. 232, 109-118]. In the present study we investigated the effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS), generator gallic acid (GA) and GST inhibitors on mtMGST1 and the MPT. When rat liver mitochondria were incubated with GA, mtMGST1 activity was increased to about 3 fold and the increase was inhibited with antioxidant enzymes and singlet oxygen quenchers including 1,4-diazabicyclo [2,2,2] octane (DABCO). GA-mediated mtMGST1 activation was prevented by GST inhibitors such as tannic acid, hematin, and cibacron blue and also by cyclosporin A (CsA). In addition, GA induced the mitochondrial swelling which was also inhibited by GST inhibitors, but not by MPT inhibitors CsA, ADP, and bongkrekic acid. GA also released cytochrome c from the mitochondria which was inhibited completely by DABCO, moderately by GST inhibitors, and somewhat by CsA. Ca 2+ -mediated mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release were inhibited by MPT inhibitors but not by GST inhibitors. When the outer mitochondrial membrane was isolated after treatment of mitochondria with GA, mtMGST1 activity was markedly increased and oligomer/aggregate of mtMGST1 was observed. These results indicate that mtMGST1 in the outer mitochondrial membrane is activated by GA through thiol oxidation leading to protein oligomerization/aggregation, which may contribute to the formation of ROS-mediated, CsA-insensitive MPT pore, suggesting a novel mechanism for regulation of the MPT by mtMGST1

  12. Silver nanoparticles interact with the cell membrane and increase endothelial permeability by promoting VE-cadherin internalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xia; Shi, Junpeng; Zou, Xiaoyan; Wang, Chengcheng; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Hongwu, E-mail: hwzhang@iue.ac.cn

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Short-term exposure to AgNPs at low doses induces increase HUVECs monolayer permeability. • AgNPs interact with the cell membrane and increase endothelial permeability by promoting VE-Cadherin internalization. • Particle effect is a major factor leading to endothelial dysfunction. - Abstract: The toxicological risks of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted widespread attention, and many studies have been published that have contributed to understanding AgNPs-induced toxicity. However, little attention has been paid to the low-dose effects of AgNPs and the related toxicological mechanism is still unclear. Here, we show that short-term exposure to AgNPs at low doses induces a substantial increase in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) monolayer permeability, whereas Ag ions at low doses do not induce an observable increase in monolayer permeability. This effect is independent of oxidative stress and apoptosis. Scanning electron microscopy confirms that AgNPs adhere to the cell membrane after 1 h exposure. Furthermore, adhesion of AgNPs to the cell membrane can trigger vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin phosphorylation at Y658 followed by VE-cadherin internalization, which lead to the increase in endothelial monolayer permeability. Our data show that surface interactions of AgNPs with the cell membrane, in other words, the particle effect, is a major factor leading to endothelial dysfunction following low-dose and short-term exposure. Our findings will contribute to understanding the health effects and the toxicological mechanisms of AgNPs.

  13. Guided bone regeneration : the influence of barrier membranes on bone grafts and bone defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielkens, Pepijn Frans Marie

    2008-01-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) can be described as the use of a barrier membrane to provide a space available for new bone formation in a bony defect. The barrier membrane protects the defect from in-growth of soft tissue cells and allows bone progenitor cells to develop bone within a blood clot

  14. Prediction of Groundwater Quality Improvement Down-Gradient of In Situ Permeable Treatment Barriers and Fully-Remediated Source Zones. ESTCP Cost and Performance Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Paul C; Carlson, Pamela M; Dahlen, Paul

    2008-01-01

    In situ permeable treatment barriers (PTB) are designed so that contaminated groundwater flows through an engineered treatment zone within which contaminants are eliminated or the concentrations are significantly reduced...

  15. Lysosomal membrane permeability stimulates protein aggregate formation in neurons of a lysosomal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micsenyi, Matthew C; Sikora, Jakub; Stephney, Gloria; Dobrenis, Kostantin; Walkley, Steven U

    2013-06-26

    Protein aggregates are a common pathological feature of neurodegenerative diseases and several lysosomal diseases, but it is currently unclear what aggregates represent for pathogenesis. Here we report the accumulation of intraneuronal aggregates containing the macroautophagy adapter proteins p62 and NBR1 in the neurodegenerative lysosomal disease late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN2 disease). CLN2 disease is caused by a deficiency in the lysosomal enzyme tripeptidyl peptidase I, which results in aberrant lysosomal storage of catabolites, including the subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase (SCMAS). In an effort to define the role of aggregates in CLN2, we evaluated p62 and NBR1 accumulation in the CNS of Cln2(-/-) mice. Although increases in p62 and NBR1 often suggest compromised degradative mechanisms, we found normal ubiquitin-proteasome system function and only modest inefficiency in macroautophagy late in disease. Importantly, we identified that SCMAS colocalizes with p62 in extra-lysosomal aggregates in Cln2(-/-) neurons in vivo. This finding is consistent with SCMAS being released from lysosomes, an event known as lysosomal membrane permeability (LMP). We predicted that LMP and storage release from lysosomes results in the sequestration of this material as cytosolic aggregates by p62 and NBR1. Notably, LMP induction in primary neuronal cultures generates p62-positive aggregates and promotes p62 localization to lysosomal membranes, supporting our in vivo findings. We conclude that LMP is a previously unrecognized pathogenic event in CLN2 disease that stimulates cytosolic aggregate formation. Furthermore, we offer a novel role for p62 in response to LMP that may be relevant for other diseases exhibiting p62 accumulation.

  16. Controlled synthesis of N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan for modulated bioadhesion and nasal membrane permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardeshi, Chandrakantsing V; Belgamwar, Veena S

    2016-01-01

    In an experiment to explore the bioadhesion, biocompatibility, and membrane permeation properties, the controlled synthesis of N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) was carried out by two-step reductive methylation of chitosan (CHT). Methylation was confirmed by (1)H NMR (δ=3.1 ppm) and FTIR analysis (CH stretch at 1,485 cm(-1)). The TMC was further characterized by DSC, TGA, XRD, HR-TEM, SEM, and elemental analysis. Findings revealed improved solubility, enhanced viscosity, increased swelling index and higher molecular weight of TMC over CHT. Comparative evaluation validated increased bioadhesion potential, and improved ex vivo biocompatibility of TMC compared to CHT. Increased bioadhesion of TMC NPs over CHT NPs can be attributed to the strong electrostatic interactions between cationic amino groups with anionic sialic and sulfonic acid moieties contained in the mucin of the nasal mucus. Ex vivo biocompatibility studies suggested that the NP formulations of both biopolymers were biocompatible and could be applied safely on the nasal epithelium. Ex vivo permeation studies executed on excised cattle nasal mucosa illustrated improved permeability of TMC NPs over CHT NPs. In the author's opinion, two-step reductive methylation of CHT could be an attractive strategy to improve its solubility, bioadhesion, and permeation characteristics without affecting biocompatibility across the mucosal surfaces. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Tritiated 2-deoxy-D-glucose as a probe for cell membrane permeability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walum, E.; Peterson, A.

    1982-01-01

    Tritiated 2-deoxy-D-glucose was taken up and phosphorylated by cultured cells of neuronal (NIE 115), glial (138 MG), muscle (L 6) and liver (BRL 123) origin. Upon perfusion the cells slowly released 2-deoxy-D-glucose 6-phosphate. The following values for rate constants, half-lives, and activation energies for the efflux were obtained: NIE 115: 0.0048 min -1 , 143 min, and 72 kJ mol -1 ; 138 MG: 0.0013 min -1 , 547 min, and 85 kJ mol -1 ; L 6: 0.0022 min -1 , 311 min, and 60 kJ mol -1 ; and BRL 123: 0.0013 min -1 , 528 min and 63 kJ mol -1 . When the cultures were perfused with buffer containing Triton X-100 a time- and concentration-dependent increase in the rate of efflux of 2-deoxy-D-glucose 6-phosphate was obtained. It is suggested that 2-deoxy-D-[ 3 H]glucose can be used as a probe in studies of general cell membrane permeability changes

  18. Dynamic 99mTc-DTPA radioaerosol lung scanning for the evaluation of alveolar-capillary barrier permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maini, C.L.; Marchetti, L.; Bonetti, M.G.; Giordano, A.; Pistelli, R.; Antonelli Incalzi, R.

    1987-01-01

    Pulmonary clearance of small droplet 99m Tc-DTPA radioaerosol was studied in 100 patients (12 normal subjects, N; 10 asymptomatic healthy smoker, FA; 31 patients with interstitial lung diseases, IP; 47 patients with chronic obstructive lung disease, BPCO). The first seven minutes of clearance were described with the function At=Ao*exp(-K*t) and the time constant K was considered representative of the 99m Tc-DTPA clearance rate and hence of the alveolar-capillary barrier permeability. Groups FA, IP and BPCO showed a significant (p 99m Tc-DTPA dynamic lung scanning is an easy, non-invasive method to assess derangements of alveolar-capillary barrier permeability secondary to epithelial damage; 2) permeability increase is a very early effect of cigarette smoke damafe to the epithelium; 3) other mechanisms of epithelial injury are present in diffuse lung disease; 4) while the clinical role of this new pathophysiological test is not yet clear, it is likely that it may become a very early marker of pulmonary epithelial damage in diffuse lung disease

  19. Prediction of Central Nervous System Side Effects Through Drug Permeability to Blood-Brain Barrier and Recommendation Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jun; Yang, Jing; Jiang, Zhenran

    2018-04-01

    Drug side effects are one of the public health concerns. Using powerful machine-learning methods to predict potential side effects before the drugs reach the clinical stages is of great importance to reduce time consumption and protect the security of patients. Recently, researchers have proved that the central nervous system (CNS) side effects of a drug are closely related to its permeability to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Inspired by this, we proposed an extended neighborhood-based recommendation method to predict CNS side effects using drug permeability to the BBB and other known features of drug. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to predict CNS side effects considering drug permeability to the BBB. Computational experiments demonstrated that drug permeability to the BBB is an important factor in CNS side effects prediction. Moreover, we built an ensemble recommendation model and obtained higher AUC score (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) and AUPR score (area under the precision-recall curve) on the data set of CNS side effects by integrating various features of drug.

  20. Essential Role of the ESX-5 Secretion System in Outer Membrane Permeability of Pathogenic Mycobacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Ates, Louis S.

    2015-05-04

    Mycobacteria possess different type VII secretion (T7S) systems to secrete proteins across their unusual cell envelope. One of these systems, ESX-5, is only present in slow-growing mycobacteria and responsible for the secretion of multiple substrates. However, the role of ESX-5 substrates in growth and/or virulence is largely unknown. In this study, we show that esx-5 is essential for growth of both Mycobacterium marinum and Mycobacterium bovis. Remarkably, this essentiality can be rescued by increasing the permeability of the outer membrane, either by altering its lipid composition or by the introduction of the heterologous porin MspA. Mutagenesis of the first nucleotide-binding domain of the membrane ATPase EccC5 prevented both ESX-5-dependent secretion and bacterial growth, but did not affect ESX-5 complex assembly. This suggests that the rescuing effect is not due to pores formed by the ESX-5 membrane complex, but caused by ESX-5 activity. Subsequent proteomic analysis to identify crucial ESX-5 substrates confirmed that all detectable PE and PPE proteins in the cell surface and cell envelope fractions were routed through ESX-5. Additionally, saturated transposon-directed insertion-site sequencing (TraDIS) was applied to both wild-type M. marinum cells and cells expressing mspA to identify genes that are not essential anymore in the presence of MspA. This analysis confirmed the importance of esx-5, but we could not identify essential ESX-5 substrates, indicating that multiple of these substrates are together responsible for the essentiality. Finally, examination of phenotypes on defined carbon sources revealed that an esx-5 mutant is strongly impaired in the uptake and utilization of hydrophobic carbon sources. Based on these data, we propose a model in which the ESX-5 system is responsible for the transport of cell envelope proteins that are required for nutrient uptake. These proteins might in this way compensate for the lack of MspA-like porins in slow

  1. Essential Role of the ESX-5 Secretion System in Outer Membrane Permeability of Pathogenic Mycobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis S Ates

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacteria possess different type VII secretion (T7S systems to secrete proteins across their unusual cell envelope. One of these systems, ESX-5, is only present in slow-growing mycobacteria and responsible for the secretion of multiple substrates. However, the role of ESX-5 substrates in growth and/or virulence is largely unknown. In this study, we show that esx-5 is essential for growth of both Mycobacterium marinum and Mycobacterium bovis. Remarkably, this essentiality can be rescued by increasing the permeability of the outer membrane, either by altering its lipid composition or by the introduction of the heterologous porin MspA. Mutagenesis of the first nucleotide-binding domain of the membrane ATPase EccC5 prevented both ESX-5-dependent secretion and bacterial growth, but did not affect ESX-5 complex assembly. This suggests that the rescuing effect is not due to pores formed by the ESX-5 membrane complex, but caused by ESX-5 activity. Subsequent proteomic analysis to identify crucial ESX-5 substrates confirmed that all detectable PE and PPE proteins in the cell surface and cell envelope fractions were routed through ESX-5. Additionally, saturated transposon-directed insertion-site sequencing (TraDIS was applied to both wild-type M. marinum cells and cells expressing mspA to identify genes that are not essential anymore in the presence of MspA. This analysis confirmed the importance of esx-5, but we could not identify essential ESX-5 substrates, indicating that multiple of these substrates are together responsible for the essentiality. Finally, examination of phenotypes on defined carbon sources revealed that an esx-5 mutant is strongly impaired in the uptake and utilization of hydrophobic carbon sources. Based on these data, we propose a model in which the ESX-5 system is responsible for the transport of cell envelope proteins that are required for nutrient uptake. These proteins might in this way compensate for the lack of Msp

  2. Essential Role of the ESX-5 Secretion System in Outer Membrane Permeability of Pathogenic Mycobacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Ates, Louis S.; Ummels, Roy; Commandeur, Susanna; van der Weerd, Robert; Sparrius, Marion; Weerdenburg, Eveline; Alber, Marina; Kalscheuer, Rainer; Piersma, Sander R.; Abdallah, Abdallah; Abd El Ghany, Moataz; Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M.; Pain, Arnab; Jimé nez, Connie R.; Bitter, Wilbert; Houben, Edith N.G.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacteria possess different type VII secretion (T7S) systems to secrete proteins across their unusual cell envelope. One of these systems, ESX-5, is only present in slow-growing mycobacteria and responsible for the secretion of multiple substrates. However, the role of ESX-5 substrates in growth and/or virulence is largely unknown. In this study, we show that esx-5 is essential for growth of both Mycobacterium marinum and Mycobacterium bovis. Remarkably, this essentiality can be rescued by increasing the permeability of the outer membrane, either by altering its lipid composition or by the introduction of the heterologous porin MspA. Mutagenesis of the first nucleotide-binding domain of the membrane ATPase EccC5 prevented both ESX-5-dependent secretion and bacterial growth, but did not affect ESX-5 complex assembly. This suggests that the rescuing effect is not due to pores formed by the ESX-5 membrane complex, but caused by ESX-5 activity. Subsequent proteomic analysis to identify crucial ESX-5 substrates confirmed that all detectable PE and PPE proteins in the cell surface and cell envelope fractions were routed through ESX-5. Additionally, saturated transposon-directed insertion-site sequencing (TraDIS) was applied to both wild-type M. marinum cells and cells expressing mspA to identify genes that are not essential anymore in the presence of MspA. This analysis confirmed the importance of esx-5, but we could not identify essential ESX-5 substrates, indicating that multiple of these substrates are together responsible for the essentiality. Finally, examination of phenotypes on defined carbon sources revealed that an esx-5 mutant is strongly impaired in the uptake and utilization of hydrophobic carbon sources. Based on these data, we propose a model in which the ESX-5 system is responsible for the transport of cell envelope proteins that are required for nutrient uptake. These proteins might in this way compensate for the lack of MspA-like porins in slow

  3. Guided bone regeneration in rat mandibular defects using resorbable poly(trimethylene carbonate) barrier membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, A. C.; Huddleston Slater, J. J. R.; Gielkens, P. F. M.; de Jong, J. R.; Grijpma, D. W.; Bos, R. R. M.

    The present study evaluates a new synthetic degradable barrier membrane based on poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) for use in guided bone regeneration. A collagen membrane and an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) membrane served as reference materials. In 192 male Sprague-Dawley rats, a

  4. Guided bone regeneration in rat mandibular defects using resorbable poly(trimethylene carbonate) barrier membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, A.C.; Huddelston Slater, J.J.R.; Gielkens, P.F.M.; de Jong, J.R.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Bos, R.R.M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluates a new synthetic degradable barrier membrane based on poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) for use in guided bone regeneration. A collagen membrane and an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) membrane served as reference materials. In 192 male Sprague–Dawley rats, a

  5. Effect of mixed γ-plus neutron-radiation on permeability to taurine of peripheral blood leukocyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokshina, G.A.; Naumenko, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of permeability to taurine of cellular membranes of peripheral blood leukocytes in vitro under normal conditions and 24 k following mixed γ-plus neutron-irradiation in a dose of 3.5 Gy. It was established that radiation increases the taurine content of cells. The protein content of leukocytes also increases probably due to a better sorption of serum proteins of blood

  6. Effect of Light-Activated Hypocrellin B on the Growth and Membrane Permeability of Gram-Negative Escherichia coli Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the effect of light-activated hypocrellin B on the growth and membrane permeability of Gram-negative bacteria. Methods. Escherichia coli (E. coli as a model bacterium of Gram-negative bacteria was incubated with various concentrations of hypocrellin B for 60 min and was subsequently irradiated by blue light with wavelength of 470 nm at the dose of 12 J/cm2. Colony forming units were counted and the growth inhibition rate of E. coli cells was calculated after light-activated hypocrellin B. Membrane permeability was measured using flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM with propidium iodide (PI staining. Bacterial morphology was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Reactive oxygen species in bacterial cells were measured using flow cytometry with DCFH-DA staining. Results. Significant growth inhibition rate of E. coli cells was observed after photodynamic action of hypocrellin B. Remarkable damage to the ultrastructure of E. coli was also observed by TEM. Flow cytometry and CLSM observation showed that light-activated hypocrellin B markedly increased membrane permeability of E. coli. Flow cytometry showed the intracellular ROS increase in E. coli treated by photodynamic action of hypocrellin B. Conclusion. Light-activated hypocrellin B caused intracellular ROS increase and structural damages and inhibited the growth of Gram-negative E. coli cells.

  7. Enhancement of Gene Silencing Effect and Membrane Permeability by Peptide-Conjugated 27-Nucleotide Small Interfering RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Seyama

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two different sizes of siRNAs, of which one type was 21-nucleotide (nt siRNA containing 2-nt dangling ends and the other type was 27-nt siRNA with blunt ends, were conjugated with a nuclear export signal peptide of HIV-1 Rev at the 5′-sense end. Processing by Dicer enzyme, cell membrane permeability, and RNAi efficiency of the peptide-conjugated siRNAs were examined. Dicer cleaved the peptide-conjugated 27-nt siRNA leading to the release of 21-nt siRNA, whereas the peptide-conjugated 21-nt siRNA was not cleaved. High membrane permeability and cytoplasmic localization was found in the conjugates. Moreover, the peptide-conjugated 27-nt siRNA showed increased potency of RNAi in comparison with the nonmodified 21-nt and 27-nt siRNAs, whereas the peptide-conjugated 21-nt siRNA showed decreased RNAi efficacy. This potent RNAi efficacy is probably owing to acceleration of RISC through recognition by Dicer, as well as to the improvement of cell membrane permeability and intracellular accumulation.

  8. Arabidopsis SNAREs SYP61 and SYP121 coordinate the trafficking of plasma membrane aquaporin PIP2;7 to modulate the cell membrane water permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachez, Charles; Laloux, Timothée; Reinhardt, Hagen; Cavez, Damien; Degand, Hervé; Grefen, Christopher; De Rycke, Riet; Inzé, Dirk; Blatt, Michael R; Russinova, Eugenia; Chaumont, François

    2014-07-01

    Plant plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) are aquaporins that facilitate the passive movement of water and small neutral solutes through biological membranes. Here, we report that post-Golgi trafficking of PIP2;7 in Arabidopsis thaliana involves specific interactions with two syntaxin proteins, namely, the Qc-SNARE SYP61 and the Qa-SNARE SYP121, that the proper delivery of PIP2;7 to the plasma membrane depends on the activity of the two SNAREs, and that the SNAREs colocalize and physically interact. These findings are indicative of an important role for SYP61 and SYP121, possibly forming a SNARE complex. Our data support a model in which direct interactions between specific SNARE proteins and PIP aquaporins modulate their post-Golgi trafficking and thus contribute to the fine-tuning of the water permeability of the plasma membrane. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  9. Relation between histamine release and dye permeability of pulmonary blood-air barrier in x-irradiated rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, H [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1976-04-01

    The histamine-release kinetics and the influence of released histamine on the permeability of the pulmonary blood-air(BA) barrier during the early period after either whole-body or thoracic x irradiation of the rat were studied. Histamine contents of skin and lung of the irradiated rat decreased rapidly, reaching a minimum at 5 h, and this histamine depletion continued for at least 7 days. Conversely, in circulating blood histamine increased during the early period of 5 h and then decreased gradually. This early increase was linear up to 500R and then became saturated between 500 and 1,000R. Administration of polymixine B (5mg/100g body weight) to rats liberated histamine similarly. Rat sera containg histamine released soon after irradiation enhanced the capillary permeability of Evans blue(EB) in the guinea pig skin reaction, which was effectively countered by pretreatment of the guinea pig with anti-histaminic pyribenzamine (29..mu..g/100g body weight), but not by anti-serotonic chlorpromazine (0.3mg/100g body weight). Similarly, perhaps only the EB-bound serum albumin (EB-albumin), that was seen in alveolar perfusate, penetrated more through the pulmonary BA-barrier with increasing x-ray dose, in parallel with the increase in blood histamine. Pyribenzamine inhibited this effect effectively, but cysteamine (a radical scavenger) did so only partially. Thus, it seems possible that at soon after x irradiation the enhanced permeability of EB-albumin through the BA barrier of rat lung is due preferentially to the pharmacologic action of released histamine and subsidiarily to radiation damage to pulmonary cells.

  10. Tuning biomimetic membrane barrier properties by hydrocarbon, cholesterol and polymeric additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palanco, Marta Espina; Skovgaard, Nils; Hansen, Jesper Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    The barrier properties of cellular membranes are increasingly attracting attention as a source of inspiration for designing biomimetic membranes. The broad range of potential technological applications makes the use of lipid and lately also polymeric materials a popular choice for constructing...... biomimetic membranes, where the barrier properties can be controlled by the composition of the membrane constituent elements. Here we investigate the membrane properties reported by the light-induced proton pumping activity of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) reconstituted in three vesicle systems of different...... membrane composition. Specifically we quantify how the resulting proton influx and efflux rates are influenced by the membrane composition using a variety of membrane modulators. We demonstrate that by adding hydrocarbons to vesicles with reconstituted bR formed from asolectin lipids the resulting...

  11. Current progress in the permeability and its enhancement approches for TCM active ingredients across blood-eye barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yang Bai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Blood-eye barrier(BEBis one of the most important structures of organism to maintain homeostasis of the eye. However, it is the major constraint for the medication of intraocular diseases. Traditional Chinese medicines have distinctive advantages for the treatment of intraocular diseases, which can be used to regulate the physiological function of human body with low toxicity. In this article, we have briefly summarized the feature of BEB, with the domestic and foreign literatures combined, and mainly reviewed current progress in the field of study on the permeability of traditional Chinese medicines and effective components in BEB and promoting methods.

  12. Fine-Tuned Intrinsically Ultramicroporous Polymers Redefine the Permeability/Selectivity Upper Bounds of Membrane-Based Air and Hydrogen Separations

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Raja; Ghanem, Bader; Pinnau, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsically ultramicroporous (<7 Å) polymers represent a new paradigm in materials development for membrane-based gas separation. In particular, they demonstrate that uniting intrachain “rigidity”, the traditional design metric of highly permeable

  13. Synthesis of ceramic hollow fiber supported zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) membranes with high hydrogen permeability

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Yichang; Wang, Bo; Lai, Zhiping

    2012-01-01

    Purification and recovery of hydrogen from hydrocarbons in refinery streams in the petrochemical industry is an emerging research field in the study of membrane gas separation. Hollow fiber membrane modules can be easily implemented into separation processes at the industrial scale. In this report, hollow yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) fiber-supported zeolitic imidazole framework-8 (ZIF-8) membranes were successfully prepared using a mild and environmentally friendly seeded growth method. Our single-component permeation studies demonstrated that the membrane had a very high hydrogen permeance (~15×10 -7mol/m 2sPa) and an ideal selectivity of H 2/C 3H 8 of more than 1000 at room temperature. This high membrane permeability and selectivity caused serious concentration polarization in the separation of H 2/C 3H 8 mixtures, which led to almost 50% drop in both the H 2 permeance and the separation factor. Enhanced mixing on the feed side could reduce the effect of the concentration polarization. Our experimental data also indicated that the membranes had excellent reproducibility and long-term stability, indicating that the hollow fiber-supported ZIF-8 membranes developed in this study have great potential in industry-scale separation of hydrogen. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Synthesis of ceramic hollow fiber supported zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) membranes with high hydrogen permeability

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Yichang

    2012-12-01

    Purification and recovery of hydrogen from hydrocarbons in refinery streams in the petrochemical industry is an emerging research field in the study of membrane gas separation. Hollow fiber membrane modules can be easily implemented into separation processes at the industrial scale. In this report, hollow yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) fiber-supported zeolitic imidazole framework-8 (ZIF-8) membranes were successfully prepared using a mild and environmentally friendly seeded growth method. Our single-component permeation studies demonstrated that the membrane had a very high hydrogen permeance (~15×10 -7mol/m 2sPa) and an ideal selectivity of H 2/C 3H 8 of more than 1000 at room temperature. This high membrane permeability and selectivity caused serious concentration polarization in the separation of H 2/C 3H 8 mixtures, which led to almost 50% drop in both the H 2 permeance and the separation factor. Enhanced mixing on the feed side could reduce the effect of the concentration polarization. Our experimental data also indicated that the membranes had excellent reproducibility and long-term stability, indicating that the hollow fiber-supported ZIF-8 membranes developed in this study have great potential in industry-scale separation of hydrogen. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Effect of cryoprotectants for maintaining drug permeability barriers in porcine buccal mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marxen, Eva; Axelsen, Mary Carlos; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2016-01-01

    fresh or frozen/thawed tissue was determined using modified Ussing chambers. Haematoxylin-eosin stained tissue sections for histology were prepared. The permeability of nicotine across tissue frozen without cryoprotectants was significantly higher compared to tissue frozen with cryoprotectants or fresh...

  16. Enhanced Proton Conductivity and Methanol Permeability Reduction via Sodium Alginate Electrolyte-Sulfonated Graphene Oxide Bio-membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaari, N.; Kamarudin, S. K.; Basri, S.; Shyuan, L. K.; Masdar, M. S.; Nordin, D.

    2018-03-01

    The high methanol crossover and high cost of Nafion® membrane are the major challenges for direct methanol fuel cell application. With the aim of solving these problems, a non-Nafion polymer electrolyte membrane with low methanol permeability and high proton conductivity based on the sodium alginate (SA) polymer as the matrix and sulfonated graphene oxide (SGO) as an inorganic filler (0.02-0.2 wt%) was prepared by a simple solution casting technique. The strong electrostatic attraction between -SO3H of SGO and the sodium alginate polymer increased the mechanical stability, optimized the water absorption and thus inhibited the methanol crossover in the membrane. The optimum properties and performances were presented by the SA/SGO membrane with a loading of 0.2 wt% SGO, which gave a proton conductivity of 13.2 × 10-3 Scm-1, and the methanol permeability was 1.535 × 10-7 cm2 s-1 at 25 °C, far below that of Nafion (25.1 × 10-7 cm2 s-1) at 25 °C. The mechanical properties of the sodium alginate polymer in terms of tensile strength and elongation at break were improved by the addition of SGO.

  17. Hybrid biofilm-membrane bioreactor (Bf-MBR) for minimization of bulk liquid-phase organic substances and its positive effect on membrane permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, F Y; Li, P; Li, J; Li, H J; Ou, Q M; Sun, T T; Dong, Z J

    2015-12-01

    Four biofilm membrane bioreactors (Bf-MBRs) with various fixed carrier volumes (C:M) were operated in parallel to investigate the effect of attached-growth mode biomass involvement to the change of liquid-phase organics characteristics and membrane permeability, by comparing with conventional MBR. The experiments displayed that C:M and co-existence of biofilm with suspended solids in Bf-MBRs resulted in slight difference in pollutants removal effectiveness, and in rather distinct biomass properties and bacterial activities. The membrane permeability and specific resistance of bulk suspension of Bf-MBRs related closely with the liquid-phase organic substance, including soluble microbial products (SMP) and biopolymer cluster (BPC). Compared with conventional MBR, Bf-MBR with proper C:M had a low total biomass content and food-chain, where biofilm formation and its dominance affected liquid-phase organics, especially through reducing their content and minimizing strongly and weakly hydrophobic components with small molecular weight, and thus to mitigate membrane fouling significantly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A technique to investigate the mechanism of uniform corrosion in the presence of a semi-permeable membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.

    1987-01-01

    A technique to investigate the mechanism of uniform corrosion in the presence of a semi-permeable membrane is described. For both the anodic and cathodic half-reactions three possible rate-determining steps are considered: transport of species through the bulk solution diffusion layer, transport of species through the membrane and the electrochemical reaction itself. The technique is based on the measurement of the corrosion potential, E CORR , of a rotating disc electrode under steady-state conditions. The variation of E CORR with the oxidant concentration, the thickness of the diffusion layer and the membrane thickness is used to identify the rate-determining step for each half-reaction. This technique should be of use in the study of the corrosion behaviour of candidate materials for nuclear waste disposal containers. An understanding of the mechanism of uniform corrosion will enable confident predictions to be made concerning the long-term behaviour of such containers

  19. AAnti-leakage mechanism and effect of sodium aescinate on the permeability of blood-brain barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping GUO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study the anti-leakage mechanism and protective effect of sodium aescinate on the blood-brain barrier of rats acutely exposed to hypoxia. Methods  Seventy-five healthy SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (25 each: normoxic control (NC, simple hypoxic (SH and drug treated (DT group. Acute hypoxia brain edema rat model was established by a simulation of acute high-altitude hypoxia for 5 days. The cerebral water content was determined by dry-wet method. The permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB was evaluated by Evans blue (EB method. The pathological change of the brain was detected by HE staining. The state of BBB tight junction (TJ and ultrastructures of the brain tissues were observed by lanthanum nitrate tracer method under transmission electron microscope (TEM. Protein and mRNA expression of Occludin, Zo-1 and Claudin-5 were investigated by immunohistochemistry, Western-blotting and real-time PCR respectively. Results  After exposure to acute hypoxia for 5 days, compared with NC group, the water content of brain in SH group increased obviously (PPPPPConclusion  Acute hypoxia exposure may lead to a remarkable decline of the expressions of rat's brain Occludin protein and the Occludin, Zo-1 and Claudin-5 mRNA, and an obvious increase of BBB permeability. Sodium aescinate can up-regulate the expression level of these molecules and decrease BBB permeability, thus playing a profitable role of anti-leakage and BBB protection.

  20. Use of a permeable biological reaction barrier for groundwater remediation at a uranium mill tailings remedial action (UMTRA) site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thombre, M.S.; Thomson, B.M.; Barton, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    Previous work at the University of New Mexico and elsewhere has shown that sulfate reducing bacteria are capable of reducing uranium from the soluble +6 oxidation state to the insoluble +4 oxidation state. This chemistry forms the basis of a proposed groundwater remediation strategy in which microbial reduction would be used to immobilize soluble uranium. One such system would consist of a subsurface permeable barrier which would stimulate microbial growth resulting in the reduction of sulfate and nitrate and immobilization of metals while permitting the unhindered flow of ground water through it. This research investigated some of the engineering considerations associated with a microbial reducing barrier such as identifying an appropriate biological substrate, estimating the rate of substrate utilization, and identifying the final fate of the contaminants concentrated in the barrier matrix. The performance of batch reactors and column systems that treated simulated plume water was evaluated using cellulose, wheat straw, alfalfa hay, sawdust, and soluble starch as substrates. The concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, and U(VI) were monitored over time. Precipitates from each system were collected and the precipitated U(IV) was determined to be crystalline UO 2 (s) by X-ray Diffraction. The results of this study support the proposed use of cellulosic substrates as candidate barrier materials

  1. Polyethersulfone/clay membranes and its water permeability; Membranas de polietersulfona/argila e sua permeabilidade a agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalho, Thamyres Cardoso de; Medeiros, Vanessa da Nobrega; Araujo, Edcleide Maria de; Lira, Helio Lucena, E-mail: thamyrescc@gmail.com, E-mail: vanismedeiros@gmail.com, E-mail: edcleide.araujo@ufcg.edu.br, E-mail: helio.lira@ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMa/CCT/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Leite, Amanda Melissa Damiao, E-mail: amanda.leite@ect.ufrn.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (ECT/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Escola de Ciencia e Tecnologia

    2017-04-15

    Membranes can be considered polymeric or inorganic films that function as a semipermeable barrier to filtration on a molecular scale, separating two phases and restricting, totally or partially, the transportation of one or more chemical species (solute) present in the solution. Therefore, the aim of this work is to produce polyethersulfone membranes (PES) and polyethersulfone/clay by phase inversion technique and evaluate the presence of clay in obtaining membranes for wastewater treatment. The used solvent was dimethylformamide (DMF) and clays were Brasgel PA (MMT) and Cloisite Na (CL Na) in the proportion of 3 to 5% (wt.). By Xray diffraction (XRD), the membranes with 3% of MMT and CL Na clays apparently had partially exfoliated structures. For the composition with 5% of CL Na a small peak was observed, which indicates that this is possibly an intercalated structure or microcomposite. By scanning electron microscopy (SEM), visualizes that the pure surface of the pure PES membrane a structure apparently without pores was observed in the used magnification and without roughness surface when compared to membranes with clay. The measurements of contact angle indicated that the inclusion of clay altered the wetting ability of the membranes. The flow with distilled water for all membranes started high and over time reached a stabilization level. Thus, it can be concluded that the presence and the content of clay altered the morphology of the membrane, contributing to an increase in water flow. (author)

  2. In vivo EPR pharmacokinetic evaluation of the redox status and the blood brain barrier permeability in the SOD1G93A ALS rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenković, Stefan; Pavićević, Aleksandra; Mojović, Miloš; Popović-Bijelić, Ana; Selaković, Vesna; Andjus, Pavle; Bačić, Goran

    2017-07-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder affecting the motor pathways of the central nervous system. Although a number of pathophysiological mechanisms have been described in the disease, post mortem and animal model studies indicate blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and elevated production of reactive oxygen species as major contributors to disease pathology. In this study, the BBB permeability and the brain tissue redox status of the SOD1 G93A ALS rat model in the presymptomatic (preALS) and symptomatic (ALS) stages of the disease were investigated by in vivo EPR spectroscopy using three aminoxyl radicals with different cell membrane and BBB permeabilities, Tempol, 3-carbamoyl proxyl (3CP), and 3-carboxy proxyl (3CxP). Additionally, the redox status of the two brain regions previously implicated in disease pathology, brainstem and hippocampus, was investigated by spectrophotometric biochemical assays. The EPR results indicated that among the three spin probes, 3CP is the most suitable for reporting the intracellular redox status changes, as Tempol was reduced in vivo within minutes (t 1/2 =2.0±0.5min), thus preventing reliable kinetic modeling, whereas 3CxP reduction kinetics gave divergent conclusions, most probably due to its membrane impermeability. It was observed that the reduction kinetics of 3CP in vivo, in the head of preALS and ALS SOD1 G93A rats was altered compared to the controls. Pharmacokinetic modeling of 3CP reduction in vivo, revealed elevated tissue distribution and tissue reduction rate constants indicating an altered brain tissue redox status, and possibly BBB disruption in these animals. The preALS and ALS brain tissue homogenates also showed increased nitrilation, superoxide production, lipid peroxidation and manganese superoxide dismutase activity, and a decreased copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activity. The present study highlights in vivo EPR spectroscopy as a reliable tool for the investigation of

  3. Hydrogen-permeable TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} membranes formed by chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Heung Yong; Nam, Suk Woo; Yoon, Sung Pil [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Thin films of TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} were deposited on the inner surface of the porous support tubes by the decomposition of tetraisopropyl titanate (TIPT) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) at atmospheric pressure. Dense and hydrogen-permeable membranes were formed at 400-600{degrees}C. The permeation rate of H{sub 2} through the membrane at 600{degrees}C was about 0.3 cm{sup 3}(STP)/min-cm{sup 2}-atm and H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} permeation ratio was above 1000. The permeation properties of the membranes were investigated at various deposition temperatures and TIPT/TEOS concentrations. Decomposition of TIPT alone at temperatures above 400{degrees}C produced porous crystalline TiO{sub 2} films which were not H{sub 2}-selective. Decomposition of TEOS, however produced H{sub 2}-permeable SiO{sub 2} films at 400-600{degrees}C but film deposition rate was very low. Addition of TIPT to the TEOS stream significantly accelerated the deposition rate and produced highly H{sub 2}-selective films. Increasing the TEPT/TEOS ratios increased the deposition rate. The TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} membranes have the permeation properties comparable to those of SiO{sub 2} membranes. The TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} membranes were stable and did not show significant densification during the treatment at high temperature.

  4. Design Guidance for Application of Permeable Barriers to Remediate Dissolved Chlorinated Solvents,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    fill slurry composed of a reactive medium, such as iron powder and guar gum , can then be injected into the fracture to form a reactive treatment zone...slurry (Owaidat, 1996). The slurry, which is composed of powdered guar bean, acts to maintain the integrity of the trench walls during installation of...the cell. The guar gum will later biodegrade to mostly water after wall completion, and will have minimal effect on the permeability of the trench

  5. Tumor necrosis factor alpha increases epithelial barrier permeability by disrupting tight junctions in Caco-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Cui

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α on intestinal epithelial cell permeability and the expression of tight junction proteins. Caco-2 cells were plated onto Transwell® microporous filters and treated with TNF-α (10 or 100 ng/mL for 0, 4, 8, 16, or 24 h. The transepithelial electrical resistance and the mucosal-to-serosal flux rates of the established paracellular marker Lucifer yellow were measured in filter-grown monolayers of Caco-2 intestinal cells. The localization and expression of the tight junction protein occludin were detected by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis, respectively. SYBR-Green-based real-time PCR was used to measure the expression of occludin mRNA. TNF-α treatment produced concentration- and time-dependent decreases in Caco-2 transepithelial resistance and increases in transepithelial permeability to the paracellular marker Lucifer yellow. Western blot results indicated that TNF-α decreased the expression of phosphorylated occludin in detergent-insoluble fractions but did not affect the expression of non-phosphorylated occludin protein. Real-time RT-PCR data showed that TNF-α did not affect the expression of occludin mRNA. Taken together, our data demonstrate that TNF-α increases Caco-2 monolayer permeability, decreases occludin protein expression and disturbs intercellular junctions.

  6. Effects of temperature and anion species on CO2 permeability and CO2/N2 separation coefficient through ionic liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jindaratsamee, Pinyarat; Shimoyama, Yusuke; Morizaki, Hironobu; Ito, Akira

    2011-01-01

    The permeability of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) through imidazolium-based ionic liquid membranes was measured by a sweep gas method. Six species of ionic liquids were studied in this work as follows: [emim][BF 4 ], [bmim][BF 4 ], [bmim][PF 6 ], [bmim][Tf 2 N], [bmim][OTf], and [bmim][dca]. The ionic liquids were supported with a polyvinylidene fluoride porous membrane. The measurements were performed at T = (303.15 to 343.15) K. The partial pressure difference between feed and permeate sides was 0.121 MPa. The permeability of the CO 2 increases with temperature for the all ionic liquid species. Base on solution diffusion theory, it can be explained that the diffusion coefficient of CO 2 in an ionic liquid affects the temperature dependence more strongly than the solubility coefficient. The greatest permeability was obtained with the [bmim][Tf 2 N] membrane. The membrane of [bmim][PF 6 ] presents the lowest permeability. The separation coefficient between CO 2 and N 2 through the ionic liquid membranes was also investigated at the volume fraction of CO 2 at feed side 0.10. The separation coefficient decreases with the increase of temperature for the all ionic liquid species. The membrane of [emim][BF 4 ] and [bmim][BF 4 ] gives the highest separation coefficient at constant temperature. The lowest separation coefficient was obtained from [bmim][Tf 2 N] membrane which presents the highest permeability of CO 2 .

  7. Measurement of blood-brain barrier permeability with positron emission tomography in patients with multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieschi, C.; Pozzilli, C.; Bernardi, S.; Bozzao, L.; Lenzi, G.L.; Picozzi, P.; Iannotti, F.; Conforti, P.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to elucidate the role of positron emission tomography using 68 Ga-EDTA in the study of blood-brain barrier abnormalities associated with multiple sclerosis. 14 refs.; 1 figure

  8. Permeability recovery of fouled forward osmosis membranes by chemical cleaning during a long-term operation of anaerobic osmotic membrane bioreactors treating low-strength wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhua; Hu, Taozhan; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Xiufen; Ren, Yueping

    2017-10-15

    Anaerobic osmotic membrane bioreactor (AnOMBR) has gained increasing interests in wastewater treatment owing to its simultaneous recovery of biogas and water. However, the forward osmosis (FO) membrane fouling was severe during a long-term operation of AnOMBRs. Here, we aim to recover the permeability of fouled FO membranes by chemical cleaning. Specifically speaking, an optimal chemical cleaning procedure was searched for fouled thin film composite polyamide FO (TFC-FO) membranes in a novel microfiltration (MF) assisted AnOMBR (AnMF-OMBR). The results indicated that citric acid, disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA-2Na), hydrochloric acid (HCl), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) had a low cleaning efficiency of less than 15%, while hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) could effectively remove foulants from the TFC-FO membrane surface (almost 100%) through oxidizing the functional group of the organic foulants and disintegrating the colloids and microbe flocs into fine particles. Nevertheless, the damage of H 2 O 2 to the TFC-FO membrane was observed when a high cleaning concentration and a long duration were applied. In this case, the optimal cleaning conditions including cleaning concentration and time for fouled TFC-FO membranes were selected through confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and the flux recovery rate. The results suggested that the optimal cleaning procedure for fouled TFC-FO membranes was use of 0.5% H 2 O 2 at 25 °C for 6 h, and after that, the cleaned TFC-FO membrane had the same performance as a virgin one including water flux and rejection for organic matters and phosphorus during the operation of AnMF-OMBR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A modified parallel artificial membrane permeability assay for evaluating the bioconcentration of highly hydrophobic chemicals in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Escher, Beate I

    2008-03-01

    Low cost in vitro tools are needed at the screening stage of assessment of bioaccumulation potential of new and existing chemicals because the number of chemical substances that needs to be tested highly exceeds the capacity of in vivo bioconcentration tests. Thus, the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) system was modified to predict passive uptake/ elimination rate in fish. To overcome the difficulties associated with low aqueous solubility and high membrane affinity of highly hydrophobic chemicals, we measured the rate of permeation from the donor poly(dimethylsiloxane)(PDMS) disk to the acceptor PDMS disk through aqueous and PDMS membrane boundary layers and term the modified PAMPA system "PDMS-PAMPA". Twenty chemicals were selected for validation of PDMS-PAMPA. The measured permeability is proportional to the passive elimination rate constant in fish and was used to predict the "minimum" in vivo elimination rate constant. The in vivo data were very close to predicted values except for a few polar chemicals and metabolically active chemicals, such as pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene. Thus, PDMS-PAMPA can be an appropriate in vitro system for nonmetabolizable chemicals. Combination with metabolic clearance rates using a battery of metabolic degradation assays would enhance the applicability for metabolizable chemicals.

  10. NMR studies of human blood cells in health and disease. I. Alterations of the plasma membrane water permeability of erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katona, Eva; Doaga, I. O.; Radulet, Diana; Caplanusi, A.; Negreanu, Cezarina; Mihele, Denisa

    1999-01-01

    Alterations in pathological cases of the human erythrocyte membrane water permeability were investigated by using a Mn 2+ -doping 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. The temperature dependence of the apparent water diffusional exchange through erythrocyte membranes in chronic hepatitis, diabetes, dyslipidemia and essential hypertension was measured and compared to healthy controls. Using moderate manganese concentrations (9-18 mM) and Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill pulse sequences with a large number of refocusing π pulses and short interpulse delay (100 μs) our values of the water exchange times (τ e ) across erythrocyte membranes, obtained within a 10 min time period following the moment of doping, were independent of the actual manganese concentration and the Arrhenius plot for water exchange was linear over the range of 22-42 deg C. A marked increase of the water exchange times values was observed in all studied disease states. In case of chronic hepatitis, diabetes and dyslipidemia the changes observed in transmembrane water exchange time were associated with significant increase in the apparent activation energy of the diffusional water permeability thus, pointing out alterations in the function of the erythrocyte water channel. (author)

  11. NMR studies of human blood cells in health and disease. I. Alterations of the plasma membrane water permeability of erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katona, Eva; Doaga, I O; Radulet, Diana [Department of Biophysics, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmaceutics, 8 Blvd. Eroilor Sanitari, POB 15-205, RO-76241 Bucharest (Romania); Caplanusi, A [Medical Biochemistry Department, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmaceutics, 8 Blvd. Eroilor Sanitari, POB 15-205, RO-76241 Bucharest (Romania); Negreanu, Cezarina [Division of New Energy Conversion Methods, Institute of Research and Design for Thermoenergetic Equipment, ICPET-CERCETARE, Bucharest (Romania); Mihele, Denisa [Clinical Laboratory Department, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmaceutics, 8 Blvd. Eroilor Sanitari, POB 15-205, RO-76241 Bucharest (Romania)

    1999-07-01

    Alterations in pathological cases of the human erythrocyte membrane water permeability were investigated by using a Mn{sup 2+}-doping {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. The temperature dependence of the apparent water diffusional exchange through erythrocyte membranes in chronic hepatitis, diabetes, dyslipidemia and essential hypertension was measured and compared to healthy controls. Using moderate manganese concentrations (9-18 mM) and Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill pulse sequences with a large number of refocusing {pi} pulses and short interpulse delay (100 {mu}s) our values of the water exchange times ({tau}{sub e}) across erythrocyte membranes, obtained within a 10 min time period following the moment of doping, were independent of the actual manganese concentration and the Arrhenius plot for water exchange was linear over the range of 22-42 deg C. A marked increase of the water exchange times values was observed in all studied disease states. In case of chronic hepatitis, diabetes and dyslipidemia the changes observed in transmembrane water exchange time were associated with significant increase in the apparent activation energy of the diffusional water permeability thus, pointing out alterations in the function of the erythrocyte water channel. (author)

  12. EDTA-assisted phytoextraction of heavy metals by turfgrass from municipal solid waste compost using permeable barriers and associated potential leaching risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shulan; Lian, Fei; Duo, Lian

    2011-01-01

    A column experiment with horizontal permeable barriers was conducted to investigate phytoextraction of heavy metals by Lolium perenne L. from municipal solid waste compost following EDTA application, as well as to study the effects of L. perenne and permeable barriers on preventing metal from leaching. In columns with barriers, EDTA addition yielded maximum concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb of 155, 541 and 33.5 mg kg(-1) in shoot, respectively. This led to 4.2, 2.1 and 7.4 times higher concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb compared to treatment with no chelating agent, respectively. In treatments with 10 mmol kg(-1) EDTA, the barriers reduced leaching of Cu, Zn and Pb by approximately three times, respectively, resulting in leaching of total initial Cu, Zn and Pb by 27.3%, 25.2% and 28.8%, respectively, after four times' irrigation. These results indicate that L. perenne and permeable barriers are effective to reduce leaching of heavy metals and minimize the risk of contaminating groundwater in EDTA-enhanced phytoremediation. Thus these findings highlight that turfgrass and permeable barriers can effectively prevent metal leaching. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Confirmation tests of construction method and initial performance quality for low permeable engineered barrier in side part of radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Atsuo; Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Komine, Hideo; Iizuka, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    As for the low permeable layer, important functions are expected as an engineered barrier of radioactive waste disposal for low-level waste with comparatively high radiation levels. On examining the construction methods of this low permeable layer, it is important to confirm the possibility of the construction in the conditions similar to the actual constructed conditions with a true scale size. Therefore, the construction examination for the side part of the low permeable layer by bentonite and the performance check test of the low permeable layer were carried out. The result of the construction examination showed that the possibility of the construction were confirmed, and the result of performance check test showed that it was possible to ensure the required performance of the low permeable layer, such as hydraulic conductivity. (author)

  14. Effects of propranolol and clonidine on brain edema, blood-brain barrier permeability, and endothelial glycocalyx disruption after fluid percussion brain injury in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genét, Gustav Folmer; Bentzer, Peter; Hansen, Morten Bagge

    2018-01-01

    clonidine would decrease brain edema, blood-brain barrier permeability, and glycocalyx disruption at 24 hours after trauma. METHODS: We subjected 53 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to lateral fluid percussion brain injury and randomized infusion with propranolol (n = 16), propranolol + clonidine (n = 16......), vehicle (n = 16), or sham (n = 5) for 24 hours. Primary outcome was brain water content at 24 hours. Secondary outcomes were blood-brain barrier permeability and plasma levels of syndecan-1 (glycocalyx disruption), cell damage (histone-complexed DNA fragments), epinephrine, norepinephrine, and animal.......555). We found no effect of propranolol and propranolol/clonidine on blood-brain barrier permeability and animal motor scores. Unexpectedly, propranolol and propranolol/clonidine caused an increase in epinephrine and syndecan-1 levels. CONCLUSION: This study does not provide any support for unselective...

  15. Acoustic cavitation-based monitoring of the reversibility and permeability of ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Tao; Samiotaki, Gesthimani; Wang, Shutao; Acosta, Camilo; Chen, Cherry C; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2015-01-01

    Cavitation events seeded by microbubbles have been previously reported to be associated with MR- or fluorescent-contrast enhancement after focused ultrasound (FUS)-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening. However, it is still unknown whether bubble activity can be correlated with the reversibility (the duration of opening and the likelihood of safe reinstatement) and the permeability of opened BBB, which is critical for the clinical translation of using passive cavitation detection to monitor, predict and control the opening. In this study, the dependence of acoustic cavitation on the BBB opening duration, permeability coefficient and histological damage occurrence were thus investigated. Transcranial pulsed FUS at 1.5 MHz in the presence of systemically circulating microbubbles was applied in the mouse hippocampi (n  =  60). The stable and inertial cavitation activities were monitored during sonication. Contrast-enhanced MRI was performed immediately after sonication and every 24 h up to 6 d thereafter, to assess BBB opening, brain tissue permeability and potential edema. Histological evaluations were used to assess the occurrence of neurovascular damages. It was found that stable cavitation was well correlated with: (1) the duration of the BBB opening (r 2   =  0.77); (2) the permeability of the opened BBB (r 2   =  0.82); (3) the likelihood of safe opening (P  <  0.05, safe opening compared to cases of damage; P  <  0.0001, no opening compared to safe opening). The inertial cavitation dose was correlated with the resulting BBB permeability (r 2   =  0.72). Stable cavitation was found to be more reliable than inertial cavitation at assessing the BBB opening within the pressure range used in this study. This study demonstrates that the stable cavitation response during BBB opening holds promise for predicting and controlling the restoration and pharmacokinetics of FUS-opened BBB. The stable cavitation response

  16. Acoustic cavitation-based monitoring of the reversibility and permeability of ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Samiotaki, Gesthimani; Wang, Shutao; Acosta, Camilo; Chen, Cherry C.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2015-12-01

    Cavitation events seeded by microbubbles have been previously reported to be associated with MR- or fluorescent-contrast enhancement after focused ultrasound (FUS)-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening. However, it is still unknown whether bubble activity can be correlated with the reversibility (the duration of opening and the likelihood of safe reinstatement) and the permeability of opened BBB, which is critical for the clinical translation of using passive cavitation detection to monitor, predict and control the opening. In this study, the dependence of acoustic cavitation on the BBB opening duration, permeability coefficient and histological damage occurrence were thus investigated. Transcranial pulsed FUS at 1.5 MHz in the presence of systemically circulating microbubbles was applied in the mouse hippocampi (n  =  60). The stable and inertial cavitation activities were monitored during sonication. Contrast-enhanced MRI was performed immediately after sonication and every 24 h up to 6 d thereafter, to assess BBB opening, brain tissue permeability and potential edema. Histological evaluations were used to assess the occurrence of neurovascular damages. It was found that stable cavitation was well correlated with: (1) the duration of the BBB opening (r2  =  0.77) (2) the permeability of the opened BBB (r2  =  0.82) (3) the likelihood of safe opening (P  cases of damage; P  <  0.0001, no opening compared to safe opening). The inertial cavitation dose was correlated with the resulting BBB permeability (r2  =  0.72). Stable cavitation was found to be more reliable than inertial cavitation at assessing the BBB opening within the pressure range used in this study. This study demonstrates that the stable cavitation response during BBB opening holds promise for predicting and controlling the restoration and pharmacokinetics of FUS-opened BBB. The stable cavitation response therefore showed great promise in predicting the

  17. Acoustic cavitation-based monitoring of the reversibility and permeability of ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Samiotaki, Gesthimani; Wang, Shutao; Acosta, Camilo; Chen, Cherry C; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2015-12-07

    Cavitation events seeded by microbubbles have been previously reported to be associated with MR- or fluorescent-contrast enhancement after focused ultrasound (FUS)-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening. However, it is still unknown whether bubble activity can be correlated with the reversibility (the duration of opening and the likelihood of safe reinstatement) and the permeability of opened BBB, which is critical for the clinical translation of using passive cavitation detection to monitor, predict and control the opening. In this study, the dependence of acoustic cavitation on the BBB opening duration, permeability coefficient and histological damage occurrence were thus investigated. Transcranial pulsed FUS at 1.5 MHz in the presence of systemically circulating microbubbles was applied in the mouse hippocampi (n  =  60). The stable and inertial cavitation activities were monitored during sonication. Contrast-enhanced MRI was performed immediately after sonication and every 24 h up to 6 d thereafter, to assess BBB opening, brain tissue permeability and potential edema. Histological evaluations were used to assess the occurrence of neurovascular damages. It was found that stable cavitation was well correlated with: (1) the duration of the BBB opening (r(2)  =  0.77); (2) the permeability of the opened BBB (r(2)  =  0.82); (3) the likelihood of safe opening (P  cavitation dose was correlated with the resulting BBB permeability (r(2)  =  0.72). Stable cavitation was found to be more reliable than inertial cavitation at assessing the BBB opening within the pressure range used in this study. This study demonstrates that the stable cavitation response during BBB opening holds promise for predicting and controlling the restoration and pharmacokinetics of FUS-opened BBB. The stable cavitation response therefore showed great promise in predicting the BBB opening duration, enabling thus control of opening according to the drug

  18. Remediation of groundwater contaminated with the lead-phenol binary system by granular dead anaerobic sludge-permeable reactive barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Ayad A H; Abd Ali, Ziad T

    2017-10-01

    Computer solutions (COMSOL) Multiphysics 3.5a software was used for simulating the one-dimensional equilibrium transport of the lead-phenol binary system including the sorption process through saturated sandy soil as the aquifer and granular dead anaerobic sludge (GDAS) as the permeable reactive barrier. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis proved that the carboxylic and alcohol groups are responsible for the bio-sorption of lead onto GDAS, while phosphines, aromatic and alkane are the functional groups responsible for the bio-sorption of phenol. Batch tests have been performed to characterize the equilibrium sorption properties of the GDAS and sandy soil in lead and/or phenol containing aqueous solutions. Numerical and experimental results proved that the barrier plays a potential role in the restriction of the contaminant plume migration and there is a linear relationship between longevity and thickness of the barrier. A good agreement between these results was recognized with root mean squared error not exceeding 0.04.

  19. Radioactive rare gas separation using a separation cell with two kinds of membrane differing in gas permeability tendency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masayoshi; Ozaki, Osamu; Sato, Hajime; Kimura, Shoji; Miyauchi, Terukatsu.

    1977-01-01

    A separation cell embodying two kinds of membrane-porous and nonporous, i.e. differing in gas permeability - has a separation factor higher than possible with a conventional separation cell with a single kind of membrane. The performance of such separation cells and of cascades constituted thereof are analyzed theoretically and measured experimentally for different conditions of operation, to determine the applicability of the concept to the separation of rare gases from gaseous waste out of nuclear plants. Theoretical considerations indicate that, in a cascade composed of symmetric separation cells, the separation performance can be improved by recycling part of the effluent from a cell back through the same cell (recycling cascade). It is shown that its performance is better than with the arrangement of diverting another effluent several stages upstream. With the recycling cascade, the symmetric separation recycling rate is determined by the depletion separation and enrichment separation factors relevant to the respective membranes. The separation performance of a 9-stage recycling cascade composed of separation cells with silicone rubber tubular membranes and cellulose acetate tubular membranes is derived for a case of Kr separation from N 2 -Kr mixture. The experimental data coincide well with the analytical results. From both the experimental and the analytical results, it is found that the attainable separation coefficient per stage of the cascade comes to average approximately 0.97. (auth.)

  20. Acrolein Disrupts Tight Junction Proteins and Causes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mediated Epithelial Cell Death Leading to Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction and Permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Yang; Wang, Min; Zhang, Jingwen; Barve, Shirish S; McClain, Craig J; Joshi-Barve, Swati

    2017-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that environmental and dietary factors can affect intestinal epithelial integrity leading to gut permeability and bacterial translocation. Intestinal barrier dysfunction is a pathogenic process associated with many chronic disorders. Acrolein is an environmental and dietary pollutant and a lipid-derived endogenous metabolite. The impact of acrolein on the intestine has not been investigated before and is evaluated in this study, both in vitro and in vivo. Our data demonstrate that oral acrolein exposure in mice caused damage to the intestinal epithelial barrier, resulting in increased permeability and subsequently translocation of bacterial endotoxin-lipopolysaccharide into the blood. Similar results were seen in vitro using established Caco-2 cell monolayers wherein acrolein decreased barrier function and increased permeability. Acrolein also caused the down-regulation and/or redistribution of three representative tight junction proteins (ie, zonula occludens-1, Occludin, Claudin-1) that critically regulate epithelial paracellular permeability. In addition, acrolein induced endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated death of epithelial cells, which is an important mechanism contributing to intestinal barrier damage/dysfunction, and gut permeability. Overall, we demonstrate that exposure to acrolein affects the intestinal epithelium by decrease/redistribution of tight junction proteins and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated epithelial cell death, thereby resulting in loss of barrier integrity and function. Our findings highlight the adverse consequences of environmental and dietary pollutants on intestinal barrier integrity/function with relevance to gut permeability and the development of disease. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Topical antihistamines display potent anti-inflammatory activity linked in part to enhanced permeability barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Tzu-Kai; Man, Mao-Qiang; Santiago, Juan-Luis

    2013-01-01

    antagonists likely oppose mast cell-derived histamines. In four immunologically diverse, murine disease models, characterized by either inflammation alone (acute irritant contact dermatitis, acute allergic contact dermatitis) or by prominent barrier abnormalities (subacute allergic contact dermatitis, atopic...... of epidermal differentiation, leading to thickened cornified envelopes; and (ii) enhanced epidermal lipid synthesis and secretion. As barrier homeostasis was enhanced to a comparable extent in mast cell-deficient mice, with no further improvement following application of topical H1/2r antagonists, H1/2r...... dermatitis), topical H1/2r agonists aggravated, whereas H1/2r antagonists improved, inflammation and/or barrier function. The apparent ability of topical H1r/2r antagonists to target epidermal H1/2r could translate into increased efficacy in the treatment of inflammatory dermatoses, likely due to decreased...

  2. Creation of a subsurface permeable treatment barrier using in situ redox manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchter, J.S.; Cole, C.R.; Williams, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of in situ redox manipulation is to create a permeable treatment zone in the subsurface for remediating redox-sensitive contaminants in groundwater. The permeable treatment zone is created just downstream of the contaminant plume or contaminant source through the injection of reagents and/or microbial nutrients to alter the redox potential of the aquifer fluids and sediments. Contaminant plumes migrating through this manipulated zone can then be destroyed or immobilized. In a field test at the Hanford Site, ∼77,000 L of buffered sodium dithionite solution were successfully injected into the unconfined aquifer at the 100-H Area in September 1995. The target contaminant was chromate. No significant plugging of the well screen or the formation was detected during any phase of the test. Dithionite was detected in monitoring wells at least 7.5 m from the injection point. Data were obtained from all three phases of the test (i.e., injection, reaction, withdrawal). Preliminary core data show that from 60% to 100% of the available reactive iron in the targeted aquifer sediments was reduced by the injected dithionite. One year after the injection, groundwater in the treatment zone remains anoxic. Total and hexavalent chromium levels in groundwater have been reduced from a preexperiment concentration of ∼60 μg/L to below the detection limit of the analytical methods

  3. Diel coral reef acidification driven by porewater advection in permeable sands, Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Isaac R.; Glud, Ronnie N.; Maher, Damien

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how biogeochemical processes in permeable sediments affect the pH of coastal waters. We demonstrate that seawater recirculation in permeable sands can play a major role in proton (H+) cycling in a coral reef lagoon. The diel pH range (up to 0.75 units) in the Heron Island...... lagoon was the broadest ever reported for reef waters, and the night‐time pH (7.69) was comparable to worst‐case scenario predictions for seawater pH in 2100. The net contribution of coarse carbonate sands to the whole system H+ fluxes was only 9% during the day, but approached 100% at night when small...... scale (i.e., flow and topography‐induced pressure gradients) and large scale (i.e., tidal pumping as traced by radon) seawater recirculation processes were synergistic. Reef lagoon sands were a net sink for H+, and the sink strength was a function of porewater flushing rate. Our observations suggest...

  4. Lipopolysaccharide precipitates hepatic encephalopathy and increases blood-brain barrier permeability in mice with acute liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastre, Anne; Bélanger, Mireille; Nguyen, Bich N; Butterworth, Roger F

    2014-03-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is frequently complicated by infection leading to precipitation of central nervous system complications such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and increased mortality. There is evidence to suggest that when infection occurs in ALF patients, the resulting pro-inflammatory mechanisms may be amplified that could, in turn, have a major impact on blood-brain barrier (BBB) function. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of endotoxemia on the progression of encephalopathy in relation to BBB permeability during ALF. Adult male C57-BL6 mice with ALF resulting from azoxymethane-induced toxic liver injury were administered trace amounts of the endotoxin component lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Effects on the magnitude of the systemic inflammatory response, liver pathology and BBB integrity were measured as a function of progression of HE, defined as time to loss of corneal reflex (coma). Lipopolysaccharide caused additional two- to seven-fold (P liver pathology and associated increases of circulating transaminases as well as increased hyperammonaemia consistent with a further loss of viable hepatocytes. LPS treatment of ALF mice led to a rapid precipitation of hepatic coma and the BBB became permeable to the 25-kDa protein immunoglobulin G (IgG). This extravasation of IgG was accompanied by ignificant up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), an endopeptidase known to modulate opening of the BBB in a wide range of neurological disorders. These findings represent the first direct evidence of inflammation-related BBB permeability changes in ALF. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Publishing by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Modelling of fast hydrogen permeability of alloys for membrane gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaika, Yu. V.; Rodchenkova, N. I.

    2017-05-01

    The method of measuring the specific hydrogen permeability is used to study various alloys that are promising for gas separation installations. The nonlinear boundary value problem of hydrogen permeability complying with the specific features of the experiment and its modifications taking into account the high transfer rate is presented. Substantial difference from the quasi-equilibrium model (Richardson approximation in the assumption of the equilibrium Sieverts' law near the surface) has been discussed. The model is tested on published experimental data on Ta77Nb23 alloy.

  6. Lack of IL-6 increases blood–brain barrier permeability in fungal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Interleukin (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine, and numerous studies have shown that IL‐6 influences the integrity of the blood–brain barrier. In this study we investigated the role of IL-6 in Cryptococcus meningitis. First, wild-type or IL-6−/− mice were injected with Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) and the survival ...

  7. Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability of Normal Appearing White Matter in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Krakauer, Martin; Skimminge, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Contrast-enhanced T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used to characterize location and extent of BBB disruptions in focal MS lesions. We employed quantitative T1 measurements before...

  8. The exhibition to ozone diminishes the adherence and increases the membrane permeability of macrophages alveolar of rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.

    2000-01-01

    Ozone gas is generated photochemically in areas with high levels of automotive or industrial emissions, and causes irritation and inflammation of the airways if inhaled. Rat alveolar macrophages were obtained by lung lavage from male Sprague Dawley rats and used as a model to assess ozone induced cell damage (0,594 ppm for up to 60 minutes). Ozone exposure caused loss of cell adherence to a polystyrene substrate and increased membrane permeability, as noted by increases in specific 51 Cr release and citoplasmic calcium levels. The results indicate that the cell membrane is a target for ozone damage. Elevations of cytoplasmic calcium could mediate other macrophage responses to ozone , including eicosanoid and nitric oxide production, with concomitant decreases in phagocytic ability and superoxide production. (Author) [es

  9. Highly organic natural media as permeable reactive barriers: TCE partitioning and anaerobic degradation profile in eucalyptus mulch and compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Zuhal; Tansel, Berrin; Katsenovich, Yelena; Sukop, Michael; Laha, Shonali

    2012-10-01

    Batch and column experiments were conducted with eucalyptus mulch and commercial compost to evaluate suitability of highly organic natural media to support anaerobic decomposition of trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater. Experimental data for TCE and its dechlorination byproducts were analyzed with Hydrus-1D model to estimate the partitioning and kinetic parameters for the sequential dechlorination reactions during TCE decomposition. The highly organic natural media allowed development of a bioactive zone capable of decomposing TCE under anaerobic conditions. The first order TCE biodecomposition reaction rates were 0.23 and 1.2d(-1) in eucalyptus mulch and compost media, respectively. The retardation factors in the eucalyptus mulch and compost columns for TCE were 35 and 301, respectively. The results showed that natural organic soil amendments can effectively support the anaerobic bioactive zone for remediation of TCE contaminated groundwater. The natural organic media are effective environmentally sustainable materials for use in permeable reactive barriers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Organic substrates as electron donors in permeable reactive barriers for removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijjanapanich, P; Pakdeerattanamint, K; Lens, P N L; Annachhatre, A P

    2012-12-01

    This research was conducted to select suitable natural organic substrates as potential carbon sources for use as electron donors for biological sulphate reduction in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB). A number of organic substrates were assessed through batch and continuous column experiments under anaerobic conditions with acid mine drainage (AMD) obtained from an abandoned lignite coal mine. To keep the heavy metal concentration at a constant level, the AMD was supplemented with heavy metals whenever necessary. Under anaerobic conditions, sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) converted sulphate into sulphide using the organic substrates as electron donors. The sulphide that was generated precipitated heavy metals as metal sulphides. Organic substrates, which yielded the highest sulphate reduction in batch tests, were selected for continuous column experiments which lasted over 200 days. A mixture of pig-farm wastewater treatment sludge, rice husk and coconut husk chips yielded the best heavy metal (Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn) removal efficiencies of over 90%.

  11. [Chromogranin A derived peptide CGA47-66 inhibits hyper-permeability of blood brain barrier in mice with sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Dan; Jiang, Liping; Wei, Fu; Xu, Shan

    2016-02-01

    To explore the effect of chromofungin (CHR), a chromogranin A (CGA) derived peptide CGA47-66, on hyper-permeability of blood brain barrier in septic mice. 120 healthy male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into groups, with 12 mice in each group. Seventy-two mice were used for dynamic observation of the contents of water and Evan blue (EB) in brain tissue after being treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Another 48 mice were divided into normal saline control group (NS group), LPS induced sepsis model group (LPS group), low-dose CHR pretreatment group (CL+LPS group), and high-dose CHR pretreatment group (CH+LPS group). The septic model was reproduced by intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg LPS 0.1 mL, and the mice in NS group was given equal volume of normal saline. The mice in CL+LPS group and CH+LPS group were intraperitoneally injected with 15.5 μg/kg and 77.5 μg/kg CHR 10 minutes before LPS injection. Six hours after LPS injection, 4 mL/kg of 2% EB was injected via caudal vein, the contents of water and EB in brain tissue were determined, and EB immune fluorescence in brain tissue was determined to assess the changes in permeability of blood brain barrier. Brain pathology was observed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. With the extension of time after LPS injection, the contents of water and EB in brain tissue were gradually increased, and the time of difference with statistical significance appeared earlier when compared with that of control group in the contents of water than that in EB contents (3 hours and 6 hours, respectively). The contents of water and EB in brain tissue in LPS group were significantly increased as compared with NS group [water content: (79.77±0.62)% vs. (78.28±0.44)%, P water and EB contents in brain tissue induced by LPS, and the effect was more significant in CH+LPS group [water content: (78.15±0.73)% vs. (79.77±0.62)%, EB (μg/g): 7.09±2.59 vs. 13.87±4.50, both P leakage in LPS group was more marked than that of NS

  12. The effect of high energy electron irradiation on blood-brain barrier permeability to haloperidol and stobadin in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trnovec, T; Kallay, Z [Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine; Volenec, K [Karlova Univ., Hradec Kralove (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta; Bezek, S; Durisova, M; Scasnar, V; Kubu, M [Slovenska Akademia Vied, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Ustav Experimentalnej Farmakologie; Svoboda, V [Medical Academy J.E. Purkyne, Hradec Kralove (Czechoslovakia)

    1991-10-01

    The heads of rats were irradiated by 4 MeV electrons in doses 90, 180, and 360 Gy. The observed times of deaths ranged 120-600, 60-420, and 150-370 min after 90, 180, and 360 Gy, respectively. A dose dependent decrease of the brain uptake index of haloperidol was observed 1 and 3 h post radiation. On the other hand an increased brain uptake index was found for stobadin after head irradiation with doses of 180 and 360 Gy. Regional cerebral blood flow, blood pressure, and heart rate were not significantly altered in the period following irradiation with 180 Gy. The observed changes in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability seem to be the result of the damaged function of morphological structures forming the BBB rather than altered regional blood flow. (orig.).

  13. The role of multidrug resistance protein (MRP-1) as an active efflux transporter on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingineni, Karthik; Belekar, Vilas; Tangadpalliwar, Sujit R; Garg, Prabha

    2017-05-01

    Drugs acting on central nervous system (CNS) may take longer duration to reach the market as these compounds have a higher attrition rate in clinical trials due to the complexity of the brain, side effects, and poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability compared to non-CNS-acting compounds. The roles of active efflux transporters with BBB are still unclear. The aim of the present work was to develop a predictive model for BBB permeability that includes the MRP-1 transporter, which is considered as an active efflux transporter. A support vector machine model was developed for the classification of MRP-1 substrates and non-substrates, which was validated with an external data set and Y-randomization method. An artificial neural network model has been developed to evaluate the role of MRP-1 on BBB permeation. A total of nine descriptors were selected, which included molecular weight, topological polar surface area, ClogP, number of hydrogen bond donors, number of hydrogen bond acceptors, number of rotatable bonds, P-gp, BCRP, and MRP-1 substrate probabilities for model development. We identified 5 molecules that fulfilled all criteria required for passive permeation of BBB, but they all have a low logBB value, which suggested that the molecules were effluxed by the MRP-1 transporter.

  14. Modeling localized delivery of Doxorubicin to the brain following focused ultrasound enhanced blood-brain barrier permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nhan, Tam; Burgess, Alison; Hynynen, Kullervo; Lilge, Lothar

    2014-01-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is a well-established chemotherapeutic agent, however it has limited efficacy in treating brain malignancies due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Recent preclinical studies have demonstrated that focused ultrasound induced BBB disruption (BBBD) enables efficient delivery of Dox to the brain. For future treatment planning of BBBD-based drug delivery, it is crucial to establish a mathematical framework to predict the effect of transient BBB permeability enhancement on the spatiotemporal distribution of Dox at the targeted area. The constructed model considers Dox concentrations within three compartments (plasma, extracellular, intracellular) that are governed by various transport processes (e.g. diffusion in interstitial space, exchange across vessel wall, clearance by cerebral spinal fluid, uptake by brain cells). By examining several clinical treatment aspects (e.g. sonication scheme, permeability enhancement, injection mode), our simulation results support the experimental findings of optimal interval delay between two consecutive sonications and therapeutically-sufficient intracellular concentration with respect to transfer constant K trans range of 0.01–0.03 min −1 . Finally, the model suggests that infusion over a short duration (20–60 min) should be employed along with single-sonication or multiple-sonication at 10 min interval to ensure maximum delivery to the intracellular compartment while attaining minimal cardiotoxicity via suppressing peak plasma concentration. (paper)

  15. Permeability of endothelial and astrocyte cocultures: in vitro blood-brain barrier models for drug delivery studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanglei; Simon, Melissa J; Cancel, Limary M; Shi, Zhong-Dong; Ji, Xinying; Tarbell, John M; Morrison, Barclay; Fu, Bingmei M

    2010-08-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major obstacle for drug delivery to the brain. To seek for in vitro BBB models that are more accessible than animals for investigating drug transport across the BBB, we compared four in vitro cultured cell models: endothelial monoculture (bEnd3 cell line), coculture of bEnd3 and primary rat astrocytes (coculture), coculture with collagen type I and IV mixture, and coculture with Matrigel. The expression of the BBB tight junction proteins in these in vitro models was assessed using RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. We also quantified the hydraulic conductivity (L (p)), transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) and diffusive solute permeability (P) of these models to three solutes: TAMRA, Dextran 10K and Dextran 70K. Our results show that L (p) and P of the endothelial monoculture and coculture models are not different from each other. Compared with in vivo permeability data from rat pial microvessels, P of the endothelial monoculture and coculture models are not significantly different from in vivo data for Dextran 70K, but they are 2-4 times higher for TAMRA and Dextran 10K. This suggests that the endothelial monoculture and all of the coculture models are fairly good models for studying the transport of relatively large solutes across the BBB.

  16. Influence of blood-brain barrier permeability on O-(2-{sup 18}F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine uptake in rat gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegmayr, Carina; Bandelow, Ulrike; Oliveira, Dennis; Lohmann, Philipp; Willuweit, Antje; Galldiks, Norbert; Luebke, Joachim H.R. [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Filss, Christian; Ermert, Johannes; Langen, Karl-Josef [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); RWTH/University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Neurology, Aachen (Germany); Shah, N. Jon [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); RWTH/University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Neurology, Aachen (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA) - Section JARA-Brain, Aachen (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    O-(2-{sup 18}F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ({sup 18}F-FET) is an established tracer for the diagnosis of brain tumors with PET. This study investigates the influence of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability on {sup 18}F-FET uptake in two rat glioma models and one human xenograft model. F98 glioma, 9L gliosarcoma or human U87 glioblastoma cells were implanted into the striatum of 56 Fischer or RNU rats. Thereafter, animals were divided into a control group and a group receiving injections of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex). After 12-13 days of tumor growth animals received injection of Evans blue dye (EBD) to visualize BBB disturbance and underwent {sup 18}F-FET PET followed by autoradiography. Time activity curves, standardized uptake values (SUV) and Tumor-to-brain ratios (TBR) of {sup 18}F-FET uptake [18-61 min post injection (p.i.)] were evaluated using a volume-of-Interest (VOI) analysis. BBB disturbance was quantitatively evaluated by EBD fluorescence. The membrane gaps of blood vessel endothelial tight junctions were measured using electron microscopy to visualize ultrastructural BBB alterations in one untreated and one Dex treated F98 glioma. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVAs. In Dex treated animals EBD extravasation was significantly reduced in 9L (P < 0.001) and U87 (P = 0.008) models and showed a trend in F98 models (P = 0.053). In contrast, no significant differences of {sup 18}F-FET uptake were observed between Dex treated animals and control group except a decrease of the TBR in the 9L tumor model in PET (P < 0.01). Ultrastructural evaluation of tumor blood vessel endothelia revealed significant reduction of the cleft diameter between endothelial cells after Dex treatment in F98 model (P = 0.010). Despite a considerable reduction of BBB permeability in rat gliomas after Dex treatment, no relevant changes of {sup 18}F-FET uptake were noted in this experimental study. Thus, {sup 18}F-FET uptake in gliomas appears to be widely independent of the

  17. Micelle-template synthesis of hollow silica spheres for improving water vapor permeability of waterborne polyurethane membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yan; Wang, Tong; Kang, Qiaoling; Shi, Chunhua; Ma, Jianzhong

    2017-04-01

    Hollow silica spheres (HSS) with special interior spaces, high specific surface area and excellent adsorption and permeability performance were synthesized via micelle-template method using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micelles as soft template and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as silica precursor. SEM, TEM, FT-IR, XRD, DLS and BET-BJH were carried out to characterize the morphology and structure of as-obtained samples. The results demonstrated that the samples were amorphous with a hollow structure and huge specific surface area. The growth of HSS was an inward-growth mechanism along template. Notably, we have provided a new and interesting fundamental principle for HSS materials by precisely controlling the ethanol-to-water volume ratio. In addition, the as-obtained HSS were mixed with waterborne polyurethane (WPU) to prepare WPU/HSS composite membrane. Various characterizations (SEM, TEM, FT-IR and TGA) revealed the morphology, polydispersity and adherence between HSS and WPU. Performance tests showed that the introduction of HSS can improve the water vapor permeability of composite membrane, promoting its water resistance and mechanical performance at the same time.

  18. Unexpected effects of peripherally administered kynurenic acid on cortical spreading depression and related blood–brain barrier permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oláh G

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gáspár Oláh,1 Judit Herédi,1 Ákos Menyhárt,1 Zsolt Czinege,2 Dávid Nagy,1 János Fuzik,1 Kitti Kocsis,1 Levente Knapp,1 Erika Krucsó,1 Levente Gellért,1 Zsolt Kis,1 Tamás Farkas,1 Ferenc Fülöp,3 Árpád Párdutz,4 János Tajti,4 László Vécsei,4 József Toldi1 1Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, 2Department of Software Engineering, 3Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and MTA-SZTE Research Group for Stereochemistry, 4Department of Neurology and MTA-SZTE Neuroscience Research Group, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary Abstract: Cortical spreading depression (CSD involves a slowly-propagating depolarization wave in the cortex, which can appear in numerous pathophysiological conditions, such as migraine with aura, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Neurons and glial cells are also depolarized transiently during the phenomena. CSD is followed by a massive increase in glutamate release and by changes in the brain microcirculation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, endogenous kynurenic acid (KYNA and dizocilpine, on CSD and the related blood–brain barrier (BBB permeability in rats. In intact animals, KYNA hardly crosses the BBB but has some positive features as compared with its precursor L-Kynurenine, which is frequently used in animal studies (KYNA cannot be metabolized to excitotoxic agents such as 3-hydroxy-L-kynurenine and quinolinic acid. We therefore investigated the possible effects of peripherally administered KYNA. Repetitive CSD waves were elicited by the application of 1 M KCl solution to the cortex. Direct current-electrocorticograms were measured for 1 hour. Four parameters of the waves were compared. Evans blue dye and fluorescent microscopy were used to study the possible changes in the permeability of the BBB. The results demonstrated that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists can reduce the number of CSD waves and decrease

  19. The proton permeability of self-assembled polymersomes and their neuroprotection by enhancing a neuroprotective peptide across the blood-brain barrier after modification with lactoferrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuan; Jiang, Xinguo; Gong, Shuyu; Feng, Liang; Zhong, Yanqiang; Pang, Zhiqing

    2014-02-01

    Biotherapeutics such as peptides possess strong potential for the treatment of intractable neurological disorders. However, because of their low stability and the impermeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), biotherapeutics are difficult to transport into brain parenchyma via intravenous injection. Herein, we present a novel poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymersome-based nanomedicine with self-assembled bilayers, which was functionalized with lactoferrin (Lf-POS) to facilitate the transport of a neuroprotective peptide into the brain. The apparent diffusion coefficient (D*) of H+ through the polymersome membrane was 5.659 × 10-26 cm2 s-1, while that of liposomes was 1.017 × 10-24 cm2 s-1. The stability of the polymersome membrane was much higher than that of liposomes. The uptake of polymersomes by mouse brain capillary endothelial cells proved that the optimal density of lactoferrin was 101 molecules per polymersome. Fluorescence imaging indicated that Lf101-POS was effectively transferred into the brain. In pharmacokinetics, compared with transferrin-modified polymersomes and cationic bovine serum albumin-modified polymersomes, Lf-POS obtained the greatest BBB permeability surface area and percentage of injected dose per gram (%ID per g). Furthermore, Lf-POS holding S14G-humanin protected against learning and memory impairment induced by amyloid-β25-35 in rats. Western blotting revealed that the nanomedicine provided neuroprotection against over-expression of apoptotic proteins exhibiting neurofibrillary tangle pathology in neurons. The results indicated that polymersomes can be exploited as a promising non-invasive nanomedicine capable of mediating peptide therapeutic delivery and controlling the release of drugs to the central nervous system.

  20. On the Mechanism(s of Membrane Permeability Transition in Liver Mitochondria of Lamprey, Lampetra fluviatilis L.: Insights from Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Belyaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously we have shown that opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in its low conductance state is the case in hepatocytes of the Baltic lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis L. during reversible metabolic depression taking place in the period of its prespawning migration when the exogenous feeding is switched off. The depression is observed in the last year of the lamprey life cycle and is conditioned by reversible mitochondrial dysfunction (mitochondrial uncoupling in winter and coupling in spring. To further elucidate the mechanism(s of induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in the lamprey liver, we used Cd2+ and Ca2+ plus Pi as the pore inducers. We found that Ca2+ plus Pi induced the high-amplitude swelling of the isolated “winter” mitochondria both in isotonic sucrose and ammonium nitrate medium while both low and high Cd2+ did not produce the mitochondrial swelling in these media. Low Cd2+ enhanced the inhibition of basal respiration rate of the “winter” mitochondria energized by NAD-dependent substrates whereas the same concentrations of the heavy metal evoked its partial stimulation on FAD-dependent substrates. The above changes produced by Cd2+ or Ca2+ plus Pi in the “winter” mitochondria were only weakly (if so sensitive to cyclosporine A (a potent pharmacological desensitizer of the nonselective pore added alone and they were not sensitive to dithiothreitol (a dithiol reducing agent. Under monitoring of the transmembrane potential of the “spring” lamprey liver mitochondria, we revealed that Cd2+ produced its decrease on both types of the respiratory substrates used that was strongly hampered by cyclosporine A, and the membrane potential was partially restored by dithiothreitol. The effects of different membrane permeability modulators on the lamprey liver mitochondria function and the seasonal changes in their action are discussed.

  1. Development of vinylic and acetylenic functionalized structures based on high permeable glassy polymers as membrane materials for gas mixtures separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roizard, D.; Kiryukhina, Y.; Masalev, A.; Khotimskiy, V.; Teplyakov, V.; Barth, D.

    2013-03-01

    There are several challenging separation problems in industries which can be solved with the help of membrane technologies. It is the case for instance of the purification of gas energy carriers (i.e. H2, CH4) from CO2 as well as the CO2 recovery from flue gas. Glassy polymers containing trimethylsilyl residues like poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) [PTMSP] and polyvinyltrimethylsilane [PVTMS] are known to exhibit good membrane properties for gas separation. This paper reports two ways of improving their performances based on the controlled introduction of selective groups - alkyl imidazomium salts (C4I) and polyethyleneglycol (M-PEG)- able to enhance CO2 selectivity. CO2 Isotherm sorption data and permeability measurements have shown that the membrane performances could be significantly improved when C4I and M-PEG were introduced as residues covalently bounded to the main polymer chain. Moreover the introduced bromine reactive centres could also be used to induce chemical crosslinking giving rise to more resistant and stable membranes to organic vapours. With the C4I groups, the CO2 sorption could be enhanced by a factor 4.4.

  2. Ion Permeability of Artificial Membranes Evaluated by Diffusion Potential and Electrical Resistance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlyonsky, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    In the present article, a novel model of artificial membranes that provides efficient assistance in teaching the origins of diffusion potentials is proposed. These membranes are made of polycarbonate filters fixed to 12-mm plastic rings and then saturated with a mixture of creosol and "n"-decane. The electrical resistance and potential…

  3. Evaluation of the permeability of microporous membranes polyamide 6 / clay bentonite for water-oil separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, P.S.S.; Medeiros, K.M.; Araujo, E.M.; Lira, H.L.

    2014-01-01

    The petroleum refining industries have faced major problems in relation to the treatment of their effluents before disposal into the environment. Among the conventional technologies treatment of these effluents, the process of oil-water separation by means of membranes has been extensively used, for having enormous potentiality. Therefore, in this study, hybrid membranes of polyamide 6/ bentonite clay were produced by the technique of phase inversion and by precipitation of the solution from the nanocomposites obtained by melt intercalation. The clay was organically modified with the quaternary ammonium salt (Cetremide®). The nanocomposites were obtained from (PA6) with untreated (AST) and treated clay (ACT), which were subsequently characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Already membranes were characterized by XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and flow measurements. From the XRD results, it was observed an exfoliated and/or partially exfoliated structure for the nanocomposites and for the membranes. From SEM images it was observed that the presence of AST and ACT clays in the polymeric matrix caused changes in membrane morphology and pore formation. The flow with distilled water in the membranes showed a decrease initially and then followed by stability. All membranes tested in the process of separating emulsions of oil in water, particularly those of nanocomposites obtained a significant reduction of oil concentration in the permeate, thus showing that these membranes have a great potential to be applied to the water-oil separation. (author)

  4. HIGH PERMEABILITY MEMBRANES FOR THE DEHYDRATION OF LOW WATER CONTENT ETHANOL BY PERVAPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy efficient dehydration of low water content ethanol is a challenge for the sustainable production of fuel-grade ethanol. Pervaporative membrane dehydration using a recently developed hydrophilic polymer membrane formulation consisting of a cross-linked mixture of poly(allyl...

  5. Micro pore arrays in free standing cyclic olefin copolymer membranes: fabrication and surface functionalization strategies for in-vitro barrier tissue models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gel, M.; Kandasamy, S.; Cartledge, K.; Be, C. L.; Haylock, D.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years there has been growing interest in micro engineered in-vitro models of tissues and organs. These models are designed to mimic the in-vivo like physiological conditions with a goal to study human physiology in an organ-specific context or to develop in-vitro disease models. One of the challenges in the development of these models is the formation of barrier tissues in which the permeability is controlled locally by the tissues cultured at the interface. In-vitro models of barrier tissues are typically created by generating a monolayer of cells grown on thin porous membranes. This paper reports a robust preparation method for free standing porous cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) membranes. We also demonstrate that gelatin coated membranes facilitate formation of highly confluent monolayer of HUVECs. Membranes with thickness in the range of 2-3 um incorporating micro pores with diameter approximately 20 um were fabricated and integrated with microfluidic channels. The performance of the device was demonstrated with a model system mimicking the endothelial barrier in bone marrow sinusoids.

  6. Degassing, gas retention and release in Fe(0) permeable reactive barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Aki S; Jekel, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Corrosion of Fe(0) has been successfully utilized for the reductive treatment of multiple contaminants. Under anaerobic conditions, concurrent corrosion leads to the generation of hydrogen and its liberation as a gas. Gas bubbles are mobile or trapped within the irregular pore structure leading to a reduction of the water filled pore volume and thus decreased residence time and permeability (gas clogging). With regard to the contaminant transport to the reactive site, the estimation of surface properties of the reactive material indicated that individual gas bubbles only occupied minor contact areas of the reactive surface. Quantification of gas entrapment by both gravimetrical and tracer investigations revealed that development of preferential flow paths was not significant. A novel continuous gravimetrical method was implemented to record variations in gas entrapment and gas bubble releases from the reactive filling. Variation of grain size fractions revealed that the pore geometry had a significant impact on gas release. Large pores led to the release of comparably large gas amounts while smaller volumes were released from finer pores with a higher frequency. Relevant processes are explained with a simplified pictorial sequence that incorporates relevant mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxidation of volatile organic compound vapours by potassium permanganate in a horizontal permeable reactive barrier under unsaturated conditions: experiments and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghareh Mahmoodlu, Mojtaba|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357287746

    2014-01-01

    In this research we evaluated the potential of using solid potassium permanganate to create a horizontal permeable reactive barrier (HPRB) for oxidizing VOC vapours in the unsaturated zone. We have performed batch experiments, short column, and long column experiments, and have fully analyzed the

  8. Analytical model for the design of in situ horizontal permeable reactive barriers (HPRBs) for the mitigation of chlorinated solvent vapors in the unsaturated zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verginelli, Iason; Capobianco, Oriana; Hartog, Niels; Baciocchi, Renato

    In this work we introduce a 1-D analytical solution that can be used for the design of horizontal permeable reactive barriers (HPRBs) as a vapor mitigation system at sites contaminated by chlorinated solvents. The developed model incorporates a transient diffusion-dominated transport with a

  9. REMOVAL OF ADDED NITRATE IN THE SINGLE, BINARY, AND TERNARY SYSTEMS OF COTTON BURR COMPOST, ZEROVALENT IRON, AND SEDIMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR GROUNDWATER NITRATE REMEDIATION USING PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent research has shown that carbonaceous solid materials and zerovalent iron (Fe0) may potentially be used as media in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to degrade groundwater nitrate via heterotrophic denitrification in the solid carbon system, and via abiotic reduction and ...

  10. Blood-retinal barrier glycerol permeability in diabetic macular edema and healthy eyes: estimations from macular volume changes after peroral glycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornit, Dorte Nellemann; Vinten, Carl Martin; Sander, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the changes in macular volume (MV) between healthy subjects and patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) after an osmotic load and to determine the glycerol permeability (P(gly)) of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). METHODS: In this unmasked study, 13 patients with DME and 5...

  11. Dissociation of changes in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier from catecholamine-induced changes in blood pressure of normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, R.; Domer, F.R.; Taylor, B.

    1982-01-01

    Researchers have studied the effects of the pressor catecholamine, dopamine, and the depressor catecholamine, isoproterenol, on the systemic blood pressure and the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to albumin in normotensive (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. The rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital. The permeability of the BBB to protein was measured by the extravasation of radioiodinated serum albumin (RISA). The permeability was decreased by both catecholamines despite the dose-dependent, yet opposite, changes in blood pressure in the WKY rats. The blood pressure response to both of the catecholamines was enhanced in the SHR rats. Isoproterenol caused a decrease in the permeability of the BBB in the SHR but dopamine did not. Results with both WKY and SHR rats are suggestive of an adrenergically-mediated decrease in movement across the BBB of compounds of large molecular weight, regardless of changes in blood pressure

  12. Application of kinetic models to the design of a calcite permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for fluoride remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qianqian; Turner, Brett D; Sheng, Daichao; Sloan, Scott

    2018-03-01

    The kinetics of fluoride sorption by calcite in the presence of metal ions (Co, Mn, Cd and Ba) have been investigated and modelled using the intra-particle diffusion (IPD), pseudo-second order (PSO), and the Hill 4 and Hill 5 kinetic models. Model comparison using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), the Schwarz Bayseian Information Criterion (BIC) and the Bayes Factor allows direct comparison of model results irrespective of the number of model parameters. Information Criterion results indicate "very strong" evidence that the Hill 5 model was the best fitting model for all observed data due to its ability to fit sigmoidal data, with confidence contour analysis showing the model parameters were well constrained by the data. Kinetic results were used to determine the thickness of a calcite permeable reactive barrier required to achieve up to 99.9% fluoride removal at a groundwater flow of 0.1 m.day -1 . Fluoride removal half-life (t 0.5 ) values were found to increase in the order Ba ≈ stonedust (a 99% pure natural calcite) barrier width of 0.97 ± 0.02 m was found to be required for the fluoride/calcite (stonedust) only system when using no factor of safety, whilst in the presence of Mn and Co, the width increased to 2.76 ± 0.28 and 19.83 ± 0.37 m respectively. In comparison, the PSO model predicted a required barrier thickness of ∼46.0, 62.6 & 50.3 m respectively for the fluoride/calcite, Mn and Co systems under the same conditions. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Permeable reactive barriers for the remediation of groundwater in a mining area: results for a pilot-scale project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Martinez-Lopez, Salvadora; Perez-Espinosa, Victor; Gonzalez-Ciudad, Eva; Belen Martinez-Martinez, Lucia; Hernandez, Carmen; Molina-Ruiz, Jose

    2017-04-01

    The Sierra Minera of Cartagena-La Union is located in the Region of Murcia, Southeast of Spain. This zone presents high levels of heavy metals due to natural, geogenic reasons. In addition, the prolonged mining activity, and subsequent abandonment of farms, has had consequences on the environment, including severe affectation of the groundwater in the area. To remediate this situation, the Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) technology was assayed, which required in addition to the hydro-geological study of the zone, a careful optimization study for the design and construction of PRBs. For such a purpose a pilot-scale project was developed, and this communication reports some of the most relevant findings obtained after a four-years monitorization period. The selected reactive material for the PRBs was limestone filler. The filler is a waste material produced in many factories in the zone. These residues have good adsorption properties, high alkalinity, low cost and high availability, which make them suitable for use in remediation. The PRB was constituted by a 50% limestone filler and 50% sand, a proportion optimized by means of independent batch experiments. A layer of gravel was placed at the top, and on it a layer of natural soil. The barrier was designed in the form of a continuous trench, because the level of the contaminated groundwater was not very deep. In this way, the barrier could be prepared with standard excavation equipment. Parallel to the barrier, 6 wells where arranged downstream for sample collection. The pH and conductivity of the samples was measured directly in situ, and the content of Zn, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Pb were analyzed in the laboratory. All the samples collected after the PRB was constructed had basic pH values between 7.5 and 8. The conductivity was between 5 and 11 mS / cm except for the well 4, which had a value of 3.70 mS / cm. The concentration values of trace elements were below the detection limit (atomic absorption measurement) in

  14. Influence of phosphorus precipitation on permeability and soluble microbial product concentration in a membrane bioreactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gómez, M.; Dvořák, L.; Růžičková, I.; Wanner, J.; Holba, Marek; Sýkorová, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 129, Feb 2013 (2013), s. 164-169 ISSN 0960-8524 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : membrane bioreactor * coagulant adition * soluble microbial products Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.039, year: 2013

  15. Breaking down barriers: construction of a hybrid heterochiral membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siliakus, Melvin

    2016-01-01

    Because of a chemical disparity between Archaeal and Bacterial membrane-lipids, these organisms thrive under distinct environmental conditions. Archaea are generally more resistant to extreme habitats like low pH, high temperature or presence of solvents. It has therefore long been hypothesized

  16. Graphene immobilized enzyme/polyethersulfone mixed matrix membrane: Enhanced antibacterial, permeable and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Linlin; Wang, Yuanming; Zhang, Yatao; Liu, Jindun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Lysozyme was immobilized on the surface of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced GO (RGO). • The novel hybrid membranes based on lysozyme and graphene were fabricated firstly. • These membranes showed good antibacterial and mechanical performance. - Abstract: Enzyme immobilization has been developed to address lots of issues of free enzyme, such as instability, low activity and difficult to retain. In this study, graphene was used as an ideal carrier for lysozyme immobilization, including graphene oxide (GO) immobilized lysozyme (GO-Ly) and chemically reduced graphene oxide (CRGO) immobilized lysozyme (CRGO-Ly). Herein, lysozyme as a bio-antibacterial agent has excellent antibacterial performance and the products of its catalysis are safety and nontoxic. Then the immobilized lysozyme materials were blended into polyethersulfone (PES) casting solution to prepare PES ultrafiltration membrane via phase inversion method. GO and CRGO were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultraviolet–visible spectrum (UV), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the immobilized lysozyme composites were observed by fluorescent microscopy. The results revealed that GO and CRGO were successfully synthesized and lysozyme was immobilized on their surfaces. The morphology, hydrophilicity, mechanical properties, separation properties and antibacterial activity of the hybrid membranes were characterized in detail. The hydrophilicity, water flux and mechanical strength of the hybrid membranes were significantly enhanced after adding the immobilized lysozyme. In the antibacterial experiment, the hybrid membranes exhibited an effective antibacterial performance against Escherichia coli (E. coli).

  17. A numerical method for interaction problems between fluid and membranes with arbitrary permeability for fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Suguru; Takeuchi, Shintaro; Kajishima, Takeo

    2017-09-01

    We develop a numerical method for fluid-membrane interaction accounting for permeation of the fluid using a non-conforming mesh to the membrane shape. To represent the permeation flux correctly, the proposed finite element discretization incorporates the discontinuities in the velocity gradient and pressure on the membrane surface with specially selected base functions. The discontinuities are represented with independent variables and determined to satisfy the governing equations including the interfacial condition on the permeation. The motions of the fluid, membrane and permeation flux are coupled monolithically and time-advanced fully-implicitly. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by several two-dimensional fluid-membrane interaction problems of Stokes flows by comparing with the analytical models and numerical results obtained by other methods. The reproduced sharp discontinuities are found to be essential to suppress the non-physical permeation flux. Further, combined with the numerical treatment for the solute concentration across the membrane, the proposed method is applied to a fluid-structure interaction problem including the osmotic pressure difference.

  18. Octopus microvasculature: permeability to ferritin and carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, J

    1979-01-01

    The permeability of Octopus microvasculature was investigated by intravascular injection of carbon and ferritin. Vessels were tight to carbon while ferritin penetrated the pericyte junction, and was found extravascularly 1-2 min after its introduction. Vesicles occurred rarely in pericytes; fenestrae were absent. The discontinuous endothelial layer did not consitute a permeability barrier. The basement membrane, although retarding the movement of ferritin, was permeable to it; carbon did not penetrate the basement membrane. Evidence indicated that ferritin, and thus similarly sized and smaller water soluble materials, traverse the pericyte junction as a result of bulk fluid flow. Comparisons are made with the convective (or junctional) and slower, diffusive (or vesicular) passage of materials known to occur across the endothelium of continuous capillaries in mammals. Previous macrophysiological determinations concerning the permeability of Octopus vessels are questioned in view of these findings. Possible reasons for some major structural differences in the microcirculatory systems of cephalopods and vertebrates are briefly discussed.

  19. Permeability of the blood-brain barrier to the neurotensin8-13 analog NT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, W A; Wustrow, D J; Cody, W L; Davis, M D; Kastin, A J

    1995-10-09

    Neurotensin (NT) has been suggested to be a neuropeptide with therapeutic potential. We used multiple-time regression analysis to measure the unidirectional influx constant (Ki) of a tritiated analog of NT8-13, NT1, with improved metabolic stability. The Ki of [3H]NT1 across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was 5.12(10(-4)) ml/g-min and was decreased 66% by unlabeled NT1 system. The amount of NT1 crossing the BBB, 0.087% of the injected dose per gram of brain, is consistent with its exerting central effects after peripheral administration. The stable [3H]NT1 crossed the BBB in intact form as assessed by HPLC and completely crossed the endothelial cells that comprise the BBB as assessed by the capillary depletion method. The presence of a transport system could be important for the development of NT analogs.

  20. Negotiation of intracellular membrane barriers by TAT-modified gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krpetić, Zeljka; Saleemi, Samia; Prior, Ian A; Sée, Violaine; Qureshi, Rumana; Brust, Mathias

    2011-06-28

    This paper contributes to the debate on how nanosized objects negotiate membrane barriers inside biological cells. The uptake of peptide-modified gold nanoparticles by HeLa cells has been quantified using atomic emission spectroscopy. The TAT peptide from the HIV virus was singled out as a particularly effective promoter of cellular uptake. The evolution of the intracellular distribution of TAT-modified gold nanoparticles with time has been studied in detail by TEM and systematic image analysis. An unusual trend of particles disappearing from the cytosol and the nucleus and accumulating massively in vesicular bodies was observed. Subsequent release of the particles, both by membrane rupture and by direct transfer across the membrane boundary, was frequently found. Ultimately, near total clearing of particles from the cells occurred. This work provides support for the hypothesis that cell-penetrating peptides can enable small objects to negotiate membrane barriers also in the absence of dedicated transport mechanisms.

  1. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 2 expression modulates cell roughness and membrane permeability: An atomic force microscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R Cattaneo

    Full Text Available In mammalian cells, de novo glycerolipid synthesis begins with the acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate, catalyzed by glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPAT. GPAT2 is a mitochondrial isoform primarily expressed in testis under physiological conditions, and overexpressed in several types of cancers and cancer-derived human cell lines where its expression contributes to the tumor phenotype. Using gene silencing and atomic force microscopy, we studied the correlation between GPAT2 expression and cell surface topography, roughness and membrane permeability in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, we analyzed the glycerolipid composition by gas-liquid chromatography. GPAT2 expression altered the arachidonic acid content in glycerolipids, and the lack of GPAT2 seems to be partially compensated by the overexpression of another arachidonic-acid-metabolizing enzyme, AGPAT11. GPAT2 expressing cells exhibited a rougher topography and less membrane damage than GPAT2 silenced cells. Pore-like structures were present only in GPAT2 subexpressing cells, correlating with higher membrane damage evidenced by lactate dehydrogenase release. These GPAT2-induced changes are consistent with its proposed function as a tumor-promoting gene, and might be used as a phenotypic differentiation marker. AFM provides the basis for the identification and quantification of those changes, and demonstrates the utility of this technique in the study of cancer cell biology.

  2. Characterizing the Performance of Gas-Permeable Membranes as an Ammonia Recovery Strategy from Anaerobically Digested Dairy Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingham, Melanie; VanderZaag, Andrew; Singh, Jessica; Burtt, Stephen; Crolla, Anna; Kinsley, Chris; MacDonald, J Douglas

    2017-10-07

    Capturing ammonia from anaerobically digested manure could simultaneously decrease the adverse effects of ammonia inhibition on biogas production, reduce reactive nitrogen (N) loss to the environment, and produce mineral N fertilizer as a by-product. In this study, gas permeable membranes (GPM) were used to capture ammonia from dairy manure and digestate by the diffusion of gaseous ammonia across the membrane where ammonia is captured by diluted acid, forming an aqueous ammonium salt. A lab-scale prototype using tubular expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) GPM was used to (1) characterize the effect of total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) concentration, temperature, and pH on the ammonia capture rate using GPM, and (2) to evaluate the performance of a GPM system in conditions similar to a mesophilic anaerobic digester. The GPM captured ammonia at a rate between 2.2 to 6.3% of gaseous ammonia in the donor solution per day. Capture rate was faster in anaerobic digestate than raw manure. The ammonia capture rate could be predicted using non-linear regression based on the factors of total ammonium nitrogen concentration, temperature, and pH. This use of membranes shows promise in reducing the deleterious impacts of ammonia on both the efficiency of biogas production and the release of reactive N to the environment.

  3. Integrated evaluation of the performance of a more than seven year old permeable reactive barrier at a site contaminated with chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchitsch, Nanna; Nooten, Thomas Van; Bastiaens, Leen

    2011-01-01

    An important issue of concern for permeable reactive iron barriers is the long-term efficiency of the barriers due to the long operational periods required. Mineral precipitation resulting from the anaerobic corrosion of the iron filings and bacteria present in the barrier may play an important...... performed equally well as virgin granular iron of the same type based on determined degradation rates despite that parts of the cored iron material were covered by mineral precipitates (especially iron sulfides, carbonate green rust and aragonite). The PCR analysis performed on the iron core samples...

  4. 基于压水试验的深部煤层底板岩层阻渗性能研究∗%Study on permeability barrier performance of deep coal seam floor based on packer permeability test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓倩; 张冬; 张新武; 王言剑

    2014-01-01

    In situ field packer permeability test,being a reliable method to obtain the param-eters of permeability barrier performance of strata,was used to explore this performance of deep coal seam floor. A large amount of measured data were obtained after the test on two layers of floor strata. The test results showed that these two layers of floor strata could not seep in initial state due to stronger barrier performance until the fracture and connection led to seepage. Co MPared with the first and repeated packer permeability tests on these two layers of floor strata, the variation of water pressure in measured pore was associated with that in water injection hole, but the seepage pressure in the first time was higher than that in second time,showing that the permeability barrier performance of strata turned weaker after first packer permeability test and was easy to form seepage. Using permeability coefficient and permeability barrier strength as in-dexes,the permeability barrier performance of floor strata has been quantitatively evaluated,and the results showed that the tested strata was characterized with high barrier performance and weak permeability.%原位现场压水试验是获取岩层阻渗性能参数的可靠方法,为探究某煤矿深部煤层底板阻渗能力,采用现场压水试验方法对底板两段岩层进行了测试并获取了大量的实测数据。结果分析表明:该底板两测试段岩层在原始状态均不导渗,阻渗性较强,直至压裂导通才形成导渗条件;对两段岩层均进行了初次和重复两个压水过程,对比两次试验可知,测渗孔水压力与注水孔水压力的关联变化趋势大致相同,但初次压水的起始导渗水压明显高于重复压水,表明在初次压水后岩层的阻渗能力降低,更易形成导渗;采用渗透系数和阻渗强度作为指标,对底板岩层的阻渗性能进行了量化评价,结果表明测试岩层表现出明显的高阻弱渗的特点。

  5. Hydrogen selective NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al) MOF membranes with high permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Feng; Zou, Xiaoqin; Gao, Xue; Fan, Songjie; Sun, Fuxing; Ren, Hao; Zhu, Guangshan [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic, Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun (China)

    2012-09-11

    Hydrogen-based energy is a promising renewable and clean resource. Thus, hydrogen selective microporous membranes with high performance and high stability are demanded. Novel NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al) membranes are evaluated for hydrogen separation for this goal. Continuous NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al) membranes have been prepared successfully on macroporous glass frit discs assisted with colloidal seeds. The gas sorption ability of NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al) materials is studied by gas adsorption measurement. The isosteric heats of adsorption in a sequence of CO{sub 2}> N{sub 2}> CH{sub 4}{approx} H{sub 2} indicates different interactions between NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al) framework and these gases. As-prepared membranes are measured by single and binary gas permeation at different temperatures. The results of singe gas permeation show a decreasing permeance in an order of H{sub 2}> CH{sub 4}> N{sub 2}> CO{sub 2}, suggesting that the diffusion and adsorption properties make significant contributions in the gas permeation through the membrane. In binary gas permeation, the NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al) membrane shows high selectivity for H{sub 2} with separation factors of 20.7, 23.9 and 30.9 at room temperature (288 K) for H{sub 2} over CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, respectively. In comparison to single gas permeation, a slightly higher separation factor is obtained due to the competitive adsorption effect between the gases in the porous MOF membrane. Additionally, the NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al) membrane exhibits very high permeance for H{sub 2} in the mixtures separation (above 1.5 x 10{sup -6} mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} Pa{sup -1}) due to its large cavity, resulting in a very high separation power. The details of the temperature effect on the permeances of H{sub 2} over other gases are investigated from 288 to 353 K. The supported NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al) membranes with high hydrogen separation power possess high stability, resistance to cracking, temperature cycling and show high reproducibility

  6. Synthesis and deposition of basement membrane proteins by primary brain capillary endothelial cells in a murine model of the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Maj Schneider; Birkelund, Svend; Burkhart, Annette; Stensballe, Allan; Moos, Torben

    2017-03-01

    The brain vascular basement membrane is important for both blood-brain barrier (BBB) development, stability, and barrier integrity and the contribution hereto from brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs), pericytes, and astrocytes of the BBB is probably significant. The aim of this study was to analyse four different in vitro models of the murine BBB for expression and possible secretion of major basement membrane proteins from murine BCECs (mBCECs). mBCECs, pericytes and glial cells (mainly astrocytes and microglia) were prepared from brains of C57BL/6 mice. The mBCECs were grown as monoculture, in co-culture with pericytes or mixed glial cells, or as a triple-culture with both pericytes and mixed glial cells. The integrity of the BBB models was validated by measures of transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and passive permeability to mannitol. The expression of basement membrane proteins was analysed using RT-qPCR, mass spectrometry and immunocytochemistry. Co-culturing mBCECs with pericytes, mixed glial cells, or both significantly increased the TEER compared to the monoculture, and a low passive permeability was correlated with high TEER. The mBCECs expressed all major basement membrane proteins such as laminin-411, laminin-511, collagen [α1(IV)] 2 α2(IV), agrin, perlecan, and nidogen 1 and 2 in vitro. Increased expression of the laminin α5 subunit correlated with the addition of BBB-inducing factors (hydrocortisone, Ro 20-1724, and pCPT-cAMP), whereas increased expression of collagen IV α1 primarily correlated with increased levels of cAMP. In conclusion, BCECs cultured in vitro coherently form a BBB and express basement membrane proteins as a feature of maturation. Cover Image for this issue: doi: 10.1111/jnc.13789. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  7. Perovskite-related oxide materials for oxygen-permeable electrochemical membrans

    OpenAIRE

    Naumovich, E. N.; Yaremchenko, A. A.; Viskup, A. P.; Kharton, V. V.

    2003-01-01

    This brief review is focused on the studies of mixed ionic-electronic conductors on the basis of lanthanum gallate doped with transition metal cations in the В sublattice. The substitution of gallium with iron, cobalt or nickel results in greater electronic conductivity, simultaneously keeping high level of the oxy-gen ionic transport. In particular, La0 90Sr0 10Ga0 65Ni0 20Mg0 1503d perovskite exhib-its attractive oxygen permeability, which is quite similar to that of La2Ni04- and (...

  8. Vanadium alloy membranes for high hydrogen permeability and suppressed hydrogen embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Hee; Park, Hyeon Cheol; Lee, Jaeho; Cho, Eunseog; Lee, Sang Mock

    2013-01-01

    The structural properties and hydrogen permeation characteristics of ternary vanadium–iron–aluminum (V–Fe–Al) alloy were investigated. To achieve not only high hydrogen permeability but also strong resistance to hydrogen embrittlement, the alloy composition was modulated to show high hydrogen diffusivity but reduced hydrogen solubility. We demonstrated that matching the lattice constant to the value of pure V by co-alloying lattice-contracting and lattice-expanding elements was quite effective in maintaining high hydrogen diffusivity of pure V

  9. Bistable Bacterial Growth Rate in Response to Antibiotics with Low Membrane Permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elf, Johan; Nilsson, Karin; Tenson, Tanel; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2006-12-01

    We demonstrate that growth rate bistability for bacterial cells growing exponentially at a fixed external antibiotic concentration can emerge when the cell wall permeability for the drug is low and the growth rate sensitivity to the intracellular drug concentration is high. Under such conditions, an initially high growth rate can remain high, due to dilution of the intracellular drug concentration by rapid cell volume increase, while an initially low growth rate can remain low, due to slow cell volume increase and insignificant drug dilution. Our findings have implications for the testing of novel antibiotics on growing bacterial strains.

  10. Barriers to Superfast Water Transport in Carbon Nanotube Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Jens Honore; Ritos, Konstantinos; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo R.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) membranes hold the promise of extraordinary fast water transport for applications such as energy efficient filtration and molecular level drug delivery. However, experiments and computations have reported flow rate enhancements over continuum hydrodynamics that contradict each...... over the continuum predictions. These rates are far below those reported experimentally. The results suggest that the reported superfast water transport rates cannot be attributed to interactions of water with pristine CNTs alone....

  11. Transdermal therapeutic system of narcotic analgesics using nonporous membrane (I) : Effect of the ethanol permeability on vinylacetate content of EVA membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, H.; Song, H.Y. [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea); Khang, G.S. [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea); Lee, H.B. [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-05-01

    The fundamental properties of transdermal therapeutic patch as narcotic analgesics agent has been investigated. From the study of drug and ethanol release patterns from the fentanyl base (FB) patches through diffusion cell and hairless mouse skin, it was observed that the FB release patterns were largely affected by the content of vinyl acetate (VA) of ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) membrane, and volume fraction of ethanolic solution. Additionally, a variety of control membrane as a function of VA content were examined for swelling following equilibration with ethanolic solutions. Generally, ethanol was incorporated into a transdermal therapeutic device to enable the controlled delivery of enhancer and drug to the skin surface. In vitro skin permeation analysis of the control membrane showed that ethanol flux was linearly related to the ethanol volume fraction. This result was shown that drug permeability increased with increasing as the content of VA. But, the FB flux from saturated aqueous ethanol solutions increases until 80% ethanol volume fraction. Over 80% ethanol volume fraction, the FB flux through skin samples is independent of ethanol volume. These results showed that the decrease in skin permeation due to dehydration nis the dominant effect. 26 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Liposomal membrane disruption by means of miniaturized dielectric-barrier discharge in air: liposome characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svarnas, P.; Asimakoulas, L.; Katsafadou, M.; Pachis, K.; Kostazos, N.; Antimisiaris, S. G.

    2017-08-01

    The increasing interest of the plasma community in the application of atmospheric-pressure cold plasmas to bio-specimen treatment has led to the creation of the emerging field of plasma biomedicine. Accordingly, plasma setups based on dielectric-barrier discharges have already been widely tested for the inactivation of various cells. Most of these systems refer to the plasma jet concept where noble gases penetrate atmospheric air and are subjected to the influence of high electric fields, thus forming guided streamers. Following the original works of our group where liposomal membranes were proposed as models for studying the interaction between plasma jets and cells, we present herein a study on liposomal membrane disruption by means of miniaturized dielectric-barrier discharge running in atmospheric air. Liposomal membranes of various lipid compositions, lamellarities, and sizes are treated at different times. It is shown that the dielectric-barrier discharge of low mean power leads to efficient liposomal membrane disruption. The latter is achieved in a controllable manner and depends on liposome properties. Additionally, it is clearly demonstrated that liposomal membrane disruption takes place even after plasma extinction, i.e. during post-treatment, resembling thus an ‘apoptosis’ effect, which is well known today mainly for cell membranes. Thus, the adoption of the present concept would be beneficial for tailoring studies on plasma-treated cell-mimics. Finally, the liposome treatment is discussed with respect to possible physicochemical mechanisms and potential discharge modification due to the various compositions of the liquid electrode.

  13. Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Nonthermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris Argyle; John Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Gui-Bing Zhao; Sanil John; Ji-Jun Zhang; Linna Wang

    2007-09-30

    The goal of this experimental project was to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a nonthermal plasma and to recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), but it was not achieved at the moderate pressure conditions used in this study. However, H{sub 2}S was successfully decomposed at energy efficiencies higher than any other reports for the high H{sub 2}S concentration and moderate pressures (corresponding to high reactor throughputs) used in this study.

  14. The development of orally administrable gemcitabine prodrugs with D-enantiomer amino acids: enhanced membrane permeability and enzymatic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Incecayir, Tuba; Song, Xueqin; Hilfinger, John M; Amidon, Gordon L

    2014-04-01

    Gemcitabine prodrugs with D- and L-configuration amino acids were synthesized and their chemical stability in buffers, resistance to glycosidic bond metabolism, enzymatic activation, permeability in Caco-2 cells and mouse intestinal membrane, anti-proliferation activity in cancer cell were determined and compared to that of parent drug, gemcitabine. Prodrugs containing D-configuration amino acids were enzymatically more stable than ones with L-configuration amino acids. The activation of all gemcitabine prodrugs was 1.3-17.6-fold faster in cancer cell homogenate than their hydrolysis in buffer, suggesting enzymatic action. The enzymatic activation of amino acid monoester prodrugs containing D-configuration amino acids in cell homogenates was 2.2-10.9-fold slower than one of amino acid monoester prodrugs with L-configuration amino acids. All prodrugs exhibited enhanced resistance to glycosidic bond metabolism by thymidine phosphorylase compared to parent gemcitabine. Gemcitabine prodrugs showed superior the effective permeability in mouse jejunum to gemcitabine. More importantly, the high plasma concentration of d-amino acid gemcitabine prodrugs was observed more than one of L-amino acid gemcitabine prodrugs. In general, the 5'-mono-amino acid monoester gemcitabine prodrugs exhibited higher permeability and uptake than their parent drug, gemcitabine. Cell proliferation assays in AsPC-1 pancreatic ductal cell line indicated that gemcitabine prodrugs were more potent than their parent drug, gemcitabine. The transport and enzymatic profiles of 5'-D-valyl-gemcitabine and 5'-D-phenylalanyl-gemcitabine suggest their potential for increased oral uptake and delayed enzymatic bioconversion as well as enhanced uptake and cytotoxic activity in cancer cells, would facilitate the development of oral dosage form for anti-cancer agents and, hence, improve the quality of life for the cancer patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Modelling of hydrogen permeability of membranes for high-purity hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaika, Yury V.; Rodchenkova, Natalia I.

    2017-11-01

    High-purity hydrogen is required for clean energy and a variety of chemical technology processes. Different alloys, which may be well-suited for use in gas-separation plants, were investigated by measuring specific hydrogen permeability. One had to estimate the parameters of diffusion and sorption to numerically model the different scenarios and experimental conditions of the material usage (including extreme ones), and identify the limiting factors. This paper presents a nonlinear mathematical model taking into account the dynamics of sorption-desorption processes and reversible capture of diffusing hydrogen by inhomogeneity of the material’s structure, and also modification of the model when the transport rate is high. The results of numerical modelling allow to obtain information about output data sensitivity with respect to variations of the material’s hydrogen permeability parameters. Furthermore, it is possible to analyze the dynamics of concentrations and fluxes that cannot be measured directly. Experimental data for Ta77Nb23 and V85Ni15 alloys were used to test the model. This work is supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Project No. 15-01-00744).

  16. Effects of Different Carbon Sources on Growth, Membrane Permeability, β-Sitosterol Consumption, Androstadienedione and Androstenedione Production by Mycobacterium neoaurum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yanli

    2016-03-01

    Effects of different carbon sources on growth, membrane permeability, β-sitosterol consumption, androstadienedione and androstenedione (AD(D)) production by Mycobacterium neoaurum were investigated. The results indicated that glucose was advantageous to the growth and resulted in the adverse effects on the phytosterols consumption and AD(D) production compared to the results of propanol and isopropanol as sole carbon source. The cell wall widths of 9.76 by propanol and 8.00 nm by isopropanol were 38.3 and 49.4 % thinner than that of 15.82 nm by glucose, respectively. The partition coefficient of the cell grown in propanol and isopropanol was 18.1 and 22.2, which were 7.23- and 9.09-fold higher than that of the cell grown in glucose.

  17. Influence of local porosity and local permeability on the performances of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiki, Tilda [Universite Saint Esprit Kaslik (Lebanon); Universite de Technologie de Belfort-Montbeliard, FCLAB Institute for Research on Fuel Cell Systems, 90010 Belfort (France); Charon, Willy; Iltchev, Marie-Christine; Kouta, Raed [Universite de Technologie de Belfort-Montbeliard, FCLAB Institute for Research on Fuel Cell Systems, 90010 Belfort (France); Accary, Gilbert [Universite Saint Esprit Kaslik (Lebanon)

    2010-08-15

    In the literature, many models and studies focused on the steady-state aspect of fuel cell systems while their dynamic transient behavior is still a wide area of research. In the present paper, we study the effects of mechanical solicitations on the performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell as well as the coupling between the physico-chemical phenomena and the mechanical behavior. We first develop a finite element method to analyze the local porosity distribution and the local permeability distribution inside the gas diffusion layer induced by different pressures applied on deformable graphite or steel bipolar plates. Then, a multi-physical approach is carried out, taking into account the chemical phenomena and the effects of the mechanical compression of the fuel cell, more precisely the deformation of the gas diffusion layer, the changes in the physical properties and the mass transfer in the gas diffusion layer. The effects of this varying porosity and permeability fields on the polarization and on the power density curves are reported, and the local current density is also investigated. Unlike other studies, our model accounts for a porosity field that varies locally in order to correctly simulate the effect of an inhomogeneous compression in the cell. (author)

  18. A polygeneration from a dual-gas partial catalytic oxidation coupling with an oxygen-permeable membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Yanhong; Huang, Yi; Gong, Minhui; Li, Wenying; Feng, Jie; Yi, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new polygeneration system (PL-PCO-OPMR) to DME/methanol/power is proposed. • Exergeo-economic analysis is adopted to disclose the performance of systems. • Key technological conditions and parameters for PL-PCO-OPMR are optimized. • PL-PCO-OPMR shows high energy efficiency and low CO_2 emission. • PL-PCO-OPMR is an attractive way for high efficient and clean use of COG and CGG. - Abstract: Polygeneration system, typically involving chemicals/fuels and electricity co-production, is a promising technology for the sustainable development of energy and environment. In this study, a new polygeneration system based on coal and coke oven gas (COG) inputs for co-production of dimethyl ether (DME)/methanol and electricity is proposed. In the new system, an appropriate syngas for the synthesis of DME is from coal gasified gas (CGG) reforming of COG coupled with an oxygen-permeable membrane reactor, in which both COG and CGG reforming process and fuel combustion process are incorporated, which reduces exergy destruction in the whole reforming process. In order to obtain the best performance of CO_2 reduction, energy saving and economic benefit, the key operation parameters of the proposed process are analyzed and optimized. The new system is compared with the process based on CH_4/CO_2 dry reforming, in terms of exergy efficiency, exergy cost and CO_2 emissions. Through the new system, the exergy efficiency can be increased by 7.8%, the exergy cost can be reduced by 0.88 USD/GJ and the CO_2 emission can be reduced by 0.023 kg/MJ. These results suggest that the polygeneration system from CGG and COG partial catalytic oxidation coupling with an oxygen-permeable membrane reactor (PL-PCO-OPMR) would be a more attractive way for highly efficient and clean use of CGG and COG.

  19. Inhibition of free radical scavenging enzymes affects mitochondrial membrane permeability transition during growth and aging of yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryabina, Yulia; Isakova, Elena; Sekova, Varvara; Antipov, Alexey; Saris, Nils-Erik L

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the change in the antioxidant enzymes activity, cell respiration, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and impairment of membrane mitochondria permeability in the Endomyces magnusii yeasts during culture growth and aging. We showed that the transition into stationary phase is the key tool to understanding interaction of these processes. This growth stage is distinguished by two-fold increase in ROS production and respiration rate as compared to those in the logarithmic phase. It results in induction of alternative oxidase (AO) in the stationary phase, decline of the main antioxidant enzymes activities, ROS-production, and mitochondria membrane permeability. Significant increase in the share of mitochondrial isoform of superoxide dismutase (SOD2) occurred in the stationary phase from 51.8% (24 h of cultivation) to 68.6% (48 h of cultivation). Upon blocking the essential ROS-scavenging enzymes, SODs and catalases (CATs) some heterogeneity of cell population was observed: 80-90% of cells displayed evident signs of early apoptosis (such as disorientation of mitochondria cristae, mitochondrial fragmentation and deformation of nuclear chromatine). However, 10-20% of the population were definitely healthy. It allowed to draw the conclusion that a complete system of cell antioxidant protection underlies normal mitochondria functioning while the E. magnusii yeasts grow and age. Moreover, this system provides unimpaired cell physiology under oxidative stress during culture aging in the stationary phase. Failures in mitochondria functions due to inhibition of ROS-scavenging enzymes of CATs and SODs could lead to damage of the cells and some signs of early apoptosis.

  20. Cisplatin impairs rat liver mitochondrial functions by inducing changes on membrane ion permeability: Prevention by thiol group protecting agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custodio, Jose B.A.; Cardoso, Carla M.P.; Santos, Maria S.; Almeida, Leonor M.; Vicente, Joaquim A.F.; Fernandes, Maria A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Cisplatin (CisPt) is the most important platinum anticancer drug widely used in the treatment of head, neck, ovarian and testicular cancers. However, the mechanisms by which CisPt induces cytotoxicity, namely hepatotoxicity, are not completely understood. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of CisPt on rat liver mitochondrial functions (Ca 2+ -induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), mitochondrial bioenergetics, and mitochondrial oxidative stress) to better understand the mechanism underlying its hepatotoxicity. The effect of thiol group protecting agents and some antioxidants against CisPt-induced mitochondrial damage was also investigated. Treatment of rat liver mitochondria with CisPt (20 nmol/mg protein) induced Ca 2+ -dependent mitochondrial swelling, depolarization of membrane potential (ΔΨ), Ca 2+ release, and NAD(P)H fluorescence intensity decay. These effects were prevented by cyclosporine A (CyA), a potent and specific inhibitor of the MPT. In the concentration range of up to 40 nmol/mg protein, CisPt slightly inhibited state 3 and stimulated state 2 and state 4 respiration rates using succinate as respiratory substrate. The respiratory indexes, respiratory control ratio (RCR) and ADP/O ratios, the ΔΨ, and the ADP phosphorylation rate were also depressed. CisPt induced mitochondrial inner membrane permeabilization to protons (proton leak) but did not induce significant changes on mitochondrial H 2 O 2 generation. All the effects induced by CisPt on rat liver mitochondria were prevented by thiol group protecting agents namely, glutathione (GSH), dithiothreitol (DTT), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and cysteine (CYS), whereas superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate (ASC) were without effect. In conclusion, the anticancer drug CisPt: (1) increases the sensitivity of mitochondria to Ca 2+ -induced MPT; (2) interferes with mitochondrial bioenergetics by increasing mitochondrial inner membrane permeabilization to

  1. Bacterial community succession during pig manure and wheat straw aerobic composting covered with a semi-permeable membrane under slight positive pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuangshuang; Fang, Chen; Sun, Xiaoxi; Han, Lujia; He, Xueqin; Huang, Guangqun

    2018-07-01

    Bacteria play an important role in organic matter degradation and maturity during aerobic composting. This study analyzed composting with or without a membrane cover in laboratory-scale aerobic composting reactor systems. 16S rRNA gene analysis was used to study the bacterial community succession during composting. The richness of the bacterial community decreased and the diversity increased after covering with a semi-permeable membrane and applying a slight positive pressure. Principal components analysis based on operational taxonomic units could distinguish the main composting phases. Linear Discriminant Analysis Effect Size analysis indicated that covering with a semi-permeable membrane reduced the relative abundance of anaerobic Clostridiales and pathogenic Pseudomonas and increased the abundance of Cellvibrionales. In membrane-covered aerobic composting systems, the relative abundance of some bacteria could be affected, especially anaerobic bacteria. Covering could effectively promote fermentation, reduce emissions and ensure organic fertilizer quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of chemical permeation enhancers on stratum corneum barrier lipid organizational structure and interferon alpha permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Shadi H; Saliaj, Evi; Wettig, Shawn D; Dong, Chilbert; Ivanova, Marina V; Huzil, J Torin; Foldvari, Marianna

    2013-06-03

    The outermost layer of the skin, known as the stratum corneum (SC), is composed of dead corneocytes embedded in an intercellular lipid matrix consisting of ceramides, free fatty acids, and cholesterol. The high level of organization within this matrix protects the body by limiting the permeation of most compounds through the skin. While essential for its protective functions, the SC poses a significant barrier for the delivery of topically applied pharmaceutical agents. Chemical permeation enhancers (CPEs) can increase delivery of small drug compounds into the skin by interacting with the intercellular lipids through physical processes including extraction, fluidization, increased disorder, and phase separation. However, it is not clear whether these same mechanisms are involved in delivery of biotherapeutic macromolecules, such as proteins. Here we describe the effect of three categories of CPEs {solvents [ethanol, propylene glycol, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (transcutol), oleic acid], terpenes [menthol, nerol, camphor, methyl salicylate], and surfactants [Tween 80, SDS, benzalkonium chloride, polyoxyl 40 hydrogenated castor oil (Cremophor RH40), didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), didecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB)]} on the lipid organizational structure of human SC as determined by X-ray scattering studies. Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering studies were conducted to correlate the degree of structural changes and hydrocarbon chain packing in SC lipids caused by these various classes of CPEs to the extent of permeation of interferon alpha-2b (IFNα), a 19 kDa protein drug, into human skin. With the exception of solvents, propylene glycol and ethanol, all classes of CPEs caused increased disordering of lamellar and lateral packing of lipids. We observed that the highest degree of SC lipid disordering was caused by surfactants (especially SDS, DDAB, and DTAB) followed by terpenes, such as nerol. Interestingly, in vitro skin permeation studies

  3. Modulation of ocular surface glycocalyx barrier function by a galectin-3 N-terminal deletion mutant and membrane-anchored synthetic glycopolymers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Mauris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interaction of transmembrane mucins with the multivalent carbohydrate-binding protein galectin-3 is critical to maintaining the integrity of the ocular surface epithelial glycocalyx. This study aimed to determine whether disruption of galectin-3 multimerization and insertion of synthetic glycopolymers in the plasma membrane could be used to modulate glycocalyx barrier function in corneal epithelial cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Abrogation of galectin-3 biosynthesis in multilayered cultures of human corneal epithelial cells using siRNA, and in galectin-3 null mice, resulted in significant loss of corneal barrier function, as indicated by increased permeability to the rose bengal diagnostic dye. Addition of β-lactose, a competitive carbohydrate inhibitor of galectin-3 binding activity, to the cell culture system, transiently disrupted barrier function. In these experiments, treatment with a dominant negative inhibitor of galectin-3 polymerization lacking the N-terminal domain, but not full-length galectin-3, prevented the recovery of barrier function to basal levels. As determined by fluorescence microscopy, both cellobiose- and lactose-containing glycopolymers incorporated into apical membranes of corneal epithelial cells, independently of the chain length distribution of the densely glycosylated, polymeric backbones. Membrane incorporation of cellobiose glycopolymers impaired barrier function in corneal epithelial cells, contrary to their lactose-containing counterparts, which bound to galectin-3 in pull-down assays. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that galectin-3 multimerization and surface recognition of lactosyl residues is required to maintain glycocalyx barrier function at the ocular surface. Transient modification of galectin-3 binding could be therapeutically used to enhance the efficiency of topical drug delivery.

  4. Surface and permeability properties of membranes from polyelectrolyte complexes and polyelectrolyte surfactant complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwarz, H. H.; Lukáš, Jaromír; Richau, K.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 218, 1-2 (2003), s. 1-9 ISSN 0376-7388 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Keywords : polyelectrolyte complex membranes * pervaporation * dehydration of organics Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.081, year: 2003

  5. Growth of single crystals from solutions using semi-permeable membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varkey, A. J.; Okeke, C. E.

    1983-05-01

    A technique suitable for growth of single crystals from solutions using semi-preamble membranes is described. Using this technique single crystals of copper sulphate, potassium bromide and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate have been successfully grown. Advantages of this technique over other methods are discussed.

  6. Interleukin-6 in CAPD patients without peritonitis: relationship to the intrinsic permeability of the peritoneal membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zemel, D.; ten Berge, R. J.; Struijk, D. G.; Bloemena, E.; Koomen, G. C.; Krediet, R. T.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated whether day to day changes in the transport characteristics of the peritoneal membrane to macromolecules in patients treated with CAPD, were related to the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the effluent of an overnight dwell. Four stable CAPD patients without peritonitis collected

  7. Low methanol permeable composite Nafion/silica/PWA membranes for low temperature direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Weilin; Lu Tianhong; Liu Changpeng; Xing Wei

    2005-01-01

    Nafion/silica/phosphotungstic acid (PWA) composite membranes were studied for low temperature ( max = 70 mW/cm 2 ) than those of commercial Nafion without treatment (OCV = 0.68 V, P max = 62 mW/cm 2 ) at 80 deg. C

  8. Development of modified flyash as a permeable reactive barrier medium for a former manufactured gas plant site, Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, R.; Phillips, D. H.; McGeough, K. L.; Walsh, K. P.; Kalin, R. M.

    2006-05-01

    A sequential biological permeable reactive barrier (PRB) was determined to be the best option for remediating groundwater that has become contaminated with a wide range of organic contaminants (i.e., benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene and polyaromatic hydrocarbons), heavy metals (i.e., lead and arsenic), and cyanide at a former manufactured gas plant after 150 years of operation in Portadown, Northern Ireland. The objective of this study was to develop a modified flyash that could be used in the initial cell within a sequential biological PRB to filter complex contaminated groundwater containing ammonium. Flyash modified with lime (CaOH) and alum was subjected to a series of batch tests which investigated the modified cation exchange capacity (CEC) and rate of removal of anions and cations from the solution. These tests showed that a high flyash composition medium (80%) could remove 8.65 mol of ammonium contaminant for every kilogram of medium. The modified CEC procedure ruled out the possibility of cation exchange as the major removal mechanism. The medium could also adsorb anions as well as cations (i.e., Pb and Cr), but not with the same capacity. The initial mechanism for Pb and Cr removal is probably precipitation. This is followed by sorption, which is possibly the only mechanism for the removal of dichromate anions. Scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed very small (productive zeolite formation. Surface area measurements showed that biofilm growth on the medium could be a major factor in the comparative reduction of surface area between real and synthetic contaminant groundwaters. The modified flyash was found to be a highly sorptive granular material that did not inhibit microbiological activity, however, leaching tests revealed that the medium would fail as a long-term barrier material.

  9. Tri-membrane nanoparticles produced by combining liposome fusion and a novel patchwork of bicelles to overcome endosomal and nuclear membrane barriers to cargo delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Asako; Mitsueda, Asako; Hasan, Mahadi; Ueda, Miho; Hama, Susumu; Warashina, Shota; Nakamura, Takashi; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Kogure, Kentaro

    2016-03-01

    Membrane fusion is a rational strategy for crossing intracellular membranes that present barriers to liposomal nanocarrier-mediated delivery of plasmid DNA into the nucleus of non-dividing cells, such as dendritic cells. Based on this strategy, we previously developed nanocarriers consisting of a nucleic acid core particle coated with four lipid membranes [Akita, et al., Biomaterials, 2009, 30, 2940-2949]. However, including the endosomal membrane and two nuclear membranes, cells possess three intracellular membranous barriers. Thus, after entering the nucleus, nanoparticles coated with four membranes would still have one lipid membrane remaining, and could impede cargo delivery. Until now, coating a core particle with an odd number of lipid membranes was challenging. To produce nanocarriers with an odd number of lipid membranes, we developed a novel coating method involving lipid nano-discs, also known as bicelles, as a material for packaging DNA in a carrier with an odd number of lipid membranes. In this procedure, bicelles fuse to form an outer coating that resembles a patchwork quilt, which allows the preparation of nanoparticles coated with only three lipid membranes. Moreover, the transfection activity of dendritic cells with these three-membrane nanoparticles was higher than that for nanoparticles coated with four lipid membranes. In summary, we developed novel nanoparticles coated with an odd number of lipid membranes using the novel "patchwork-packaging method" to deliver plasmid DNA into the nucleus via membrane fusion.

  10. Examples of Department of Energy Successes for Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater: Permeable Reactive Barrier and Dynamic Underground Stripping ASTD Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, C.; Gerdes, K.; Aljayoushi, J.; Kaback, D.; Ivory, T.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1998, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management has funded the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) Program to expedite deployment of alternative technologies that can save time and money for the environmental cleanup at DOE sites across the nation. The ASTD program has accelerated more than one hundred deployments of new technologies under 76 projects that focus on a broad spectrum of EM problems. More than 25 environmental restoration projects have been initiated to solve the following types of problems: characterization of the subsurface using chemical, radiological, geophysical, and statistical methods; treatment of groundwater contaminated with DNAPLs, metals, or radionuclides; and other projects such as landfill covers, purge water management systems, and treatment of explosives-contaminated soils. One of the major goals of the ASTD Program is to deploy a new technology or process at multiple DOE sites. ASTD projects are encouraged to identify subsequent deployments at other sites. Some of the projects that have successfully deployed technologies at multiple sites focusing on cleanup of contaminated groundwater include: Permeable Reactive Barriers (Monticello, Rocky Flats, and Kansas City), treating uranium and organics in groundwater; and Dynamic Underground Stripping (Portsmouth, and Savannah River), thermally treating DNAPL source zones. Each year more and more new technologies and approaches are being used at DOE sites due to the ASTD program. DOE sites are sharing their successes and communicating lessons learned so that the new technologies can replace the baseline or standard approaches at DOE sites, thus expediting cleanup and saving money

  11. Remediation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater using media-injected permeable reactive barriers with a modified montmorillonite: sand tank studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ximing; Liu, Haifei; Huang, Guoxin; Li, Ye; Zhao, Yan; Li, Xu

    2016-01-01

    A modified montmorillonite (MMT) was prepared using an acid activation-sodium activation-iron oxide coating method to improve the adsorption capacities of natural MMTs. For MMT, its interlamellar distance increased from 12.29 to 13.36 Å, and goethite (α-FeOOH) was intercalated into its clay layers. Two novel media-injected permeable reactive barrier (MI-PRB) configurations were proposed for removing arsenic from groundwater. Sand tank experiments were conducted to investigate the performance of the two MI-PRBs: Tank A was filled with quartz sand. Tank B was packed with quartz sand and zero-valent iron (ZVI) in series, and the MMT slurry was respectively injected into them to form reactive zones. The results showed that for tank A, total arsenic (TA) removal of 98.57% was attained within the first 60 mm and subsequently descended slowly to 88.84% at the outlet. For tank B, a similar spatial variation trend was observed in the quartz sand layer, and subsequently, TA removal increased to ≥99.80% in the ZVI layer. TA removal by MMT mainly depended on both surface adsorption and electrostatic adhesion. TA removal by ZVI mainly relied on coagulation/precipitation and adsorption during the iron corrosion. The two MI-PRBs are feasible alternatives for in situ remediation of groundwater with elevated As levels.

  12. Biological permeable reactive barriers coupled with electrokinetic soil flushing for the treatment of diesel-polluted clay soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Esperanza; Ruiz, Clara; Villaseñor, José; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Cañizares, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Removal of diesel from spiked kaolin has been studied in the laboratory using coupled electrokinetic soil flushing (EKSF) and bioremediation through an innovative biological permeable reactive barriers (Bio-PRBs) positioned between electrode wells. The results show that this technology is efficient in the removal of pollutants and allows the soil to maintain the appropriate conditions for microorganism growth in terms of pH, temperature, and nutrients. At the same time, EKSF was demonstrated to be a very interesting technology for transporting pollutants, microorganisms and nutrients, although results indicate that careful management is necessary to avoid the depletion of nutrients, which are effectively transported by electro-migration. After two weeks of operation, 30% of pollutants are removed and energy consumption is under 70 kWh m(-3). Main fluxes (electroosmosis and evaporation) and changes in the most relevant parameters (nutrients, diesel, microorganisms, surfactants, moisture conductivity and pH) during treatment and in a complete post-study analysis are studied to give a comprehensive description of the most relevant processes occurring in the soil (pollutant transport and biodegradation). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental life cycle assessment of permeable reactive barriers: effects of construction methods, reactive materials and groundwater constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Mark S H; Lo, Irene M C

    2011-12-01

    The effects of the construction methods, materials of reactive media and groundwater constituents on the environmental impacts of a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) were evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The PRB is assumed to be installed at a simulated site contaminated by either Cr(VI) alone or Cr(VI) and As(V). Results show that the trench-based construction method can reduce the environmental impacts of the remediation remarkably compared to the caisson-based method due to less construction material consumption by the funnel. Compared to using the zerovalent iron (Fe(0)) and quartz sand mixture, the use of the Fe(0) and iron oxide-coated sand (IOCS) mixture can reduce the environmental impacts. In the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) in groundwater, the environmental impacts generated by the reactive media were significantly increased because of the higher usage of Fe(0). The environmental impacts are lower by using the Fe(0) and IOCS mixture in the groundwater with NOM, compared with using the Fe(0) and quartz sand mixture. Since IOCS can enhance the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) and As(V), the usage of the Fe(0) can be reduced, which in turn reduces the impacts induced by the reactive media.

  14. Determination of glucose exchange rates and permeability of erythrocyte membrane in preeclampsia and subsequent oxidative stress-related protein damage using dynamic-{sup 19}F-NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, Elizabeth, E-mail: elizabeth.dickinson@york.ac.uk [University of York, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom); Arnold, John R. P. [Selby College (United Kingdom); Fisher, Julie [University of Leeds, School of Chemistry (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    The cause of the pregnancy condition preeclampsia (PE) is thought to be endothelial dysfunction caused by oxidative stress. As abnormal glucose tolerance has also been associated with PE, we use a fluorinated-mimic of this metabolite to establish whether any oxidative damage to lipids and proteins in the erythrocyte membrane has increased cell membrane permeability. Data were acquired using {sup 19}F Dynamic-NMR (DNMR) to measure exchange of 3-fluoro-3-deoxyglucose (3-FDG) across the membrane of erythrocytes from 10 pregnant women (5 healthy control women, and 5 from women suffering from PE). Magnetisation transfer was measured using the 1D selective inversion and 2D EXSY pulse sequences, over a range of time delays. Integrated intensities from these experiments were used in matrix diagonalisation to estimate the values of the rate constants of exchange and membrane permeability. No significant differences were observed for the rate of exchange of 3-FDG and membrane permeability between healthy pregnant women and those suffering from PE, leading us to conclude that no oxidative damage had occurred at this carrier-protein site in the membrane.

  15. Determination of glucose exchange rates and permeability of erythrocyte membrane in preeclampsia and subsequent oxidative stress-related protein damage using dynamic-"1"9F-NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, Elizabeth; Arnold, John R. P.; Fisher, Julie

    2017-01-01

    The cause of the pregnancy condition preeclampsia (PE) is thought to be endothelial dysfunction caused by oxidative stress. As abnormal glucose tolerance has also been associated with PE, we use a fluorinated-mimic of this metabolite to establish whether any oxidative damage to lipids and proteins in the erythrocyte membrane has increased cell membrane permeability. Data were acquired using "1"9F Dynamic-NMR (DNMR) to measure exchange of 3-fluoro-3-deoxyglucose (3-FDG) across the membrane of erythrocytes from 10 pregnant women (5 healthy control women, and 5 from women suffering from PE). Magnetisation transfer was measured using the 1D selective inversion and 2D EXSY pulse sequences, over a range of time delays. Integrated intensities from these experiments were used in matrix diagonalisation to estimate the values of the rate constants of exchange and membrane permeability. No significant differences were observed for the rate of exchange of 3-FDG and membrane permeability between healthy pregnant women and those suffering from PE, leading us to conclude that no oxidative damage had occurred at this carrier-protein site in the membrane.

  16. Retinal pathology is associated with increased blood-retina barrier permeability in a diabetic and hypercholesterolaemic pig model: Beneficial effects of the LpPLA2 inhibitor Darapladib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Nimish K; Qi, Xin; Goldwaser, Eric L; Godsey, George A; Wu, Hao; Kosciuk, Mary C; Freeman, Theresa A; Macphee, Colin H; Wilensky, Robert L; Venkataraman, Venkat; Nagele, Robert G

    2017-05-01

    Using a porcine model of diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia, we previously showed that diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia is associated with a chronic increase in blood-brain barrier permeability in the cerebral cortex, leading to selective binding of immunoglobulin G and deposition of amyloid-beta 1-42 peptide in pyramidal neurons. Treatment with Darapladib (GlaxoSmithKline, SB480848), an inhibitor of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase-A2, alleviated these effects. Here, investigation of the effects of chronic diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia on the pig retina revealed a corresponding increased permeability of the blood-retina barrier coupled with a leak of plasma components into the retina, alterations in retinal architecture, selective IgG binding to neurons in the ganglion cell layer, thinning of retinal layers due to cell loss and increased glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in Müller cells, all of which were curtailed by treatment with Darapladib. These findings suggest that chronic diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia induces increased blood-retina barrier permeability that may be linked to altered expression of blood-retina barrier-associated tight junction proteins, claudin and occludin, leading to structural changes in the retina consistent with diabetic retinopathy. Additionally, results suggest that drugs with vascular anti-inflammatory properties, such as Darapladib, may have beneficial effects on eye diseases strongly linked to vascular abnormalities such as diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration.

  17. In vitro evaluation of various bioabsorbable and nonresorbable barrier membranes for guided tissue regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smeets Ralf

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different types of bioabsorbable and nonresorbable membranes have been widely used for guided tissue regeneration (GTR with its ultimate goal of regenerating lost periodontal structures. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the biological effects of various bioabsorbable and nonresorbable membranes in cultures of primary human gingival fibroblasts (HGF, periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF and human osteoblast-like (HOB cells in vitro. Methods Three commercially available collagen membranes [TutoDent® (TD, Resodont® (RD and BioGide® (BG] as well as three nonresorbable polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE membranes [ACE (AC, Cytoplast® (CT and TefGen-FD® (TG] were tested. Cells plated on culture dishes (CD served as positive controls. The effect of the barrier membranes on HGF, PDLF as well as HOB cells was assessed by the Alamar Blue fluorometric proliferation assay after 1, 2.5, 4, 24 and 48 h time periods. The structural and morphological properties of the membranes were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results The results showed that of the six barriers tested, TD and RD demonstrated the highest rate of HGF proliferation at both earlier (1 h and later (48 h time periods (P P ≤ 0.001. In HOB cell culture, the highest rate of cell proliferation was also calculated for TD at all time periods (P Conclusion Results from the present study suggested that GTR membrane materials, per se, may influence cell proliferation in the process of periodontal tissue/bone regeneration. Among the six membranes examined, the bioabsorbable membranes demonstrated to be more suitable to stimulate cellular proliferation compared to nonresorbable PTFE membranes.

  18. Bone conditioned media (BCM) improves osteoblast adhesion and differentiation on collagen barrier membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka-Kobayashi, Masako; Caballé-Serrano, Jordi; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Gruber, Reinhard; Buser, Daniel; Miron, Richard J

    2016-07-04

    The use of autogenous bone chips during guided bone regeneration procedures has remained the gold standard for bone grafting due to its excellent combination of osteoconduction, osteoinduction and osteogenesis. Recent protocols established by our group have characterized specific growth factors and cytokines released from autogenous bone that have the potential to be harvested and isolated into bone conditioned media (BCM). Due to the advantageous osteo-promotive properties of BCM, the aims of the present study was to pre-coat collagen barrier membranes with BCM and investigate its effect on osteoblast adhesion, proliferation and differentiation for possible future clinical use. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was first used to qualitative assess BCM protein accumulation on the surface of collagen membranes. Thereafter, undifferentiated mouse ST2 stromal bone marrow cells were seeded onto BioGide porcine derived collagen barrier membranes (control) or barrier membranes pre-coated with BCM (test group). Control and BCM samples were compared for cell adhesion at 8 h, cell proliferation at 1, 3 and 5 days and real-time PCR at 5 days for osteoblast differentiation markers including Runx2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN) and bone sialoprotein (BSP). Mineralization was further assessed with alizarin red staining at 14 days post seeding. SEM images demonstrated evidence of accumulated proteins found on the surface of collagen membranes following coating with BCM. Analysis of total cell numbers revealed that the additional pre-coating with BCM markedly increased cell attachment over 4 fold when compared to cells seeded on barrier membranes alone. No significant difference could be observed for cell proliferation at all time points. BCM significantly increased mRNA levels of osteoblast differentiation markers including ALP, OCN and BSP at 5 days post seeding. Furthermore, barrier membranes pre-coated with BCM demonstrated a 5-fold increase in alizarin

  19. Arabidopsis annexin1 mediates the radical-activated plasma membrane Ca²+- and K+-permeable conductance in root cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laohavisit, Anuphon; Shang, Zhonglin; Rubio, Lourdes; Cuin, Tracey A; Véry, Anne-Aliénor; Wang, Aihua; Mortimer, Jennifer C; Macpherson, Neil; Coxon, Katy M; Battey, Nicholas H; Brownlee, Colin; Park, Ohkmae K; Sentenac, Hervé; Shabala, Sergey; Webb, Alex A R; Davies, Julia M

    2012-04-01

    Plant cell growth and stress signaling require Ca²⁺ influx through plasma membrane transport proteins that are regulated by reactive oxygen species. In root cell growth, adaptation to salinity stress, and stomatal closure, such proteins operate downstream of the plasma membrane NADPH oxidases that produce extracellular superoxide anion, a reactive oxygen species that is readily converted to extracellular hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals, OH•. In root cells, extracellular OH• activates a plasma membrane Ca²⁺-permeable conductance that permits Ca²⁺ influx. In Arabidopsis thaliana, distribution of this conductance resembles that of annexin1 (ANN1). Annexins are membrane binding proteins that can form Ca²⁺-permeable conductances in vitro. Here, the Arabidopsis loss-of-function mutant for annexin1 (Atann1) was found to lack the root hair and epidermal OH•-activated Ca²⁺- and K⁺-permeable conductance. This manifests in both impaired root cell growth and ability to elevate root cell cytosolic free Ca²⁺ in response to OH•. An OH•-activated Ca²⁺ conductance is reconstituted by recombinant ANN1 in planar lipid bilayers. ANN1 therefore presents as a novel Ca²⁺-permeable transporter providing a molecular link between reactive oxygen species and cytosolic Ca²⁺ in plants.

  20. Comparative study between chemostat and batch reactors to quantify membrane permeability changes on bacteria exposed to silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anaya, Nelson M.; Faghihzadeh, Fatemeh [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 1 Lippitt Rd., Bliss Hall 203, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States); Ganji, Nasim; Bothun, Geoff [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 16 Greenhouse Rd., Crawford Hall, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States); Oyanedel-Craver, Vinka, E-mail: craver@uri.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 1 Lippitt Rd., Bliss Hall 203, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Continuous and batch reactors were used to assess the effect of the exposure of casein-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on Escherichia coli (E. coli). Additionally, E. coli membrane extracts, membrane permeability and Langmuir film balance assays were used to determine integrity and changes in lipid composition in response to AgNPs exposure. Results showed that batch conditions were not appropriate for the tests due to the production of exopolymeric substances (EPS) during the growth phase. After 5 h of contact between AgNPs and the used growth media containing EPS, the nanoparticles increased in size from 86 nm to 282 nm reducing the stability and thus limiting cell-nanoparticle interactions. AgNPs reduced E. coli growth by 20% at 1 mg/L, in terms of Optical Density 670 (OD670), while no effect was detected at 15 mg/L. At 50 mg/L of AgNPs was not possible to perform the test due to aggregation and sedimentation of the nanoparticles. Membrane extract assays showed that at 1 mg/L AgNPs had a greater change in area (− 4.4cm{sup 2}) on bacteria compared to 15 mg/L (− 4.0cm{sup 2}). This area increment suggested that membrane disruption caused by AgNPs had a stabilizing/rigidifying effect where the cells responded by shifting their lipid composition to more unsaturated lipids to counteract membrane rigidification. In chemostats, the constant inflow of fresh media and aeration resulted in less AgNPs aggregation, thus increased the AgNPs-bacteria interactions, in comparison to batch conditions. AgNPs at 1 mg/L, 15 mg/L, and 50 mg/L inhibited the growth (OD670 reduction) by 0%, 11% and 16.3%, respectively. Membrane extracts exposed to 1 mg/L, 15 mg/L, and 50 mg/L of AgNPs required greater changes in area by − 0.5 cm{sup 2}, 2.7 cm{sup 2} and 3.6 cm{sup 2}, respectively, indicating that the bacterial membranes were disrupted and bacteria responded by synthesizing lipids that stabilize or strengthen membranes. This study showed that the chemostat is more

  1. Avidin-biotin-based approach to forming heterotypic cell clusters and cell sheets on a gas-permeable membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamon, M; Ozawa, T; Montagne, K; Kojima, N; Ishii, R; Sakai, Y [Institute of Industrial Science (IIS), University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Yamaguchi, S; Nagamune, T [Department of Bioengineering, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Ushida, T, E-mail: mzh0026@auburn.edu [Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    Implantation of sheet-like liver tissues is a promising method in hepatocyte-based therapies, because angiogenesis is expected to occur upon implantation from the surrounding tissues. In this context, we introduce here a new methodology for the formation of a functional thick hepatic tissue usable for cell sheet technology. First, we report the formation of composite tissue elements in suspension culture. Composite elements were composed of human hepatoma Hep G2 cells and mouse NIH/3T3 fibroblasts which are important modulators for thick-tissue formation. To overcome the very low attachment and organization capability between different cells in suspension, we synthesized a new cell-to-cell binding molecule based on the avidin-biotin binding system that we previously applied to attach hepatocytes on artificial substrata. This newly synthesized biotin-conjugated biocompatible anchoring molecule was inserted in the plasma membrane of both cell types. NIH/3T3 cells were further conjugated with avidin and incubated with biotin-presenting Hep G2 cells to form highly composite tissue elements. Then, we seeded those elements on highly gas-permeable membranes at their closest packing density to induce the formation of a thick, composite, functional hepatic tissue without any perfusion. This methodology could open a new way to engineer implantable thick liver tissue sheets where different cell types are spatially organized and well supplied with oxygen.

  2. Concerted regulation of retinal pigment epithelium basement membrane and barrier function by angiocrine factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedicto, Ignacio; Lehmann, Guillermo L; Ginsberg, Michael; Nolan, Daniel J; Bareja, Rohan; Elemento, Olivier; Salfati, Zelda; Alam, Nazia M; Prusky, Glen T; Llanos, Pierre; Rabbany, Sina Y; Maminishkis, Arvydas; Miller, Sheldon S; Rafii, Shahin; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

    2017-05-19

    The outer blood-retina barrier is established through the coordinated terminal maturation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), fenestrated choroid endothelial cells (ECs) and Bruch's membrane, a highly organized basement membrane that lies between both cell types. Here we study the contribution of choroid ECs to this process by comparing their gene expression profile before (P5) and after (P30) the critical postnatal period when mice acquire mature visual function. Transcriptome analyses show that expression of extracellular matrix-related genes changes dramatically over this period. Co-culture experiments support the existence of a novel regulatory pathway: ECs secrete factors that remodel RPE basement membrane, and integrin receptors sense these changes triggering Rho GTPase signals that modulate RPE tight junctions and enhance RPE barrier function. We anticipate our results will spawn a search for additional roles of choroid ECs in RPE physiology and disease.

  3. Long-term performance of elemental iron and hydroxyapatite for uranium retention in permeable reactive barriers used for groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, V.

    2007-01-01

    Elemental iron (Fe 0 ) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) were evaluated as reactive mate-rials for use in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to remove uranium from conta-minated groundwater. Special attention was given to the long-term performance of the materials, which was investigated by means of column tests with a duration of up to 30 months using two different artificial groundwaters (AGW) with varying composition and uranium concentration. The interaction of the materials with AGW was studied in column tests using 237 U as a radiotracer to monitor the movement of the contamination front through the columns. The tested materials were shredded cast iron (granulated grey cast iron, 0.3 - 1.3 mm) supplied by Gotthard Mayer, Rheinfelden, Germany, and food quality grade hydroxyapatite (Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 OH, 99 % 0 (AGW with 9.6 mg U/L and low bicarbonate content of 120 mg/L). No breakthrough was observed for the Fe 0 columns with effluent uranium con-centrations being below the detection limit of 10 μg/L after treating more than 2,000 pore volumes (PV) and no uranium could be leached from loaded Fe 0 columns with 200 PV of uranium free AGW. However, columns with high Fe 0 content (≥ 50%) suffered from severe loss of permeability when AGW with ≥ 320 mg/L bicarbonate was used. In the HAP columns a breakthrough occurred with effluent uranium concentrations > 15 μg/l after treating 1,240 PV (10% and 50% breakthrough after 1,460 PV and 2,140 PV respectively). 12.2% of the accu-mulated uranium could be desorbed again with 840 PV of uranium free AGW. Adsorption was found to be the dominant reaction mechanism for uranium and HAP. Image analysis of high uranium content samples showed uranium and phosphate bearing crystals growing from HAP surfaces. The uranium phases chernikovite and meta-ankoleite of the autunite group were identified by x-ray diffraction. The existence of these mineral phases proves that surface precipitation also occurs under favourable conditions. No uranium

  4. Application of proton-conducting ceramics and polymer permeable membranes for gaseous tritium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Yamato; Sugiyama, Takahiko; Kawano, Takao; Uda, Tatsuhiko; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tsuji, Naruhito; Katahira, Koji; Iwahara, Hiroyasu

    2004-01-01

    In order to carry out deuterium plasma experiments on the Large Helical Device (LHD), the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) is planning to install a system for the recovery of tritium from exhaust gas and effluent liquid. As well as adopting proven conventional tritium recovery systems, NIFS is planning to apply the latest technologies such as proton-conducting ceramics and membrane-type dehumidifiers in an overall strategy to ensure minimal risk in the tritium recovery process. Application of these new technologies to the tritium recovery system for the LHD deuterium plasma experiment is evaluated quantitatively using recent experimental data. (author)

  5. Permeable reactive barrier of surface hydrophobic granular activated carbon coupled with elemental iron for the removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Ji, E-mail: yangji@ecust.edu.cn [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Cao Limei; Guo Rui; Jia Jinping [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Granular activated carbon was modified with dimethyl dichlorosilane to improve its surface hydrophobicity, and therefore to improve the performance of permeable reactive barrier constructed with the modified granular activated carbon and elemental iron. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the surface silicon concentration of the modified granular activated carbon is higher than that of the original one, leading to the increased surface hydrophobicity. Although the specific surface area decreased from 895 to 835 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, the modified granular activated carbon could adsorb 20% more 2,4-dichlorophenol than the original one did in water. It is also proven that the permeable reactive barrier with the modified granular activated carbon is more efficient at 2,4-dichlorophenol dechlorination, in which process 2,4-dichlorophenol is transformed to 2-chlorophenol or 4-chlorophenol then to phenol, or to phenol directly.

  6. Permeable reactive barrier of surface hydrophobic granular activated carbon coupled with elemental iron for the removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ji; Cao Limei; Guo Rui; Jia Jinping

    2010-01-01

    Granular activated carbon was modified with dimethyl dichlorosilane to improve its surface hydrophobicity, and therefore to improve the performance of permeable reactive barrier constructed with the modified granular activated carbon and elemental iron. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the surface silicon concentration of the modified granular activated carbon is higher than that of the original one, leading to the increased surface hydrophobicity. Although the specific surface area decreased from 895 to 835 m 2 g -1 , the modified granular activated carbon could adsorb 20% more 2,4-dichlorophenol than the original one did in water. It is also proven that the permeable reactive barrier with the modified granular activated carbon is more efficient at 2,4-dichlorophenol dechlorination, in which process 2,4-dichlorophenol is transformed to 2-chlorophenol or 4-chlorophenol then to phenol, or to phenol directly.

  7. Permeable reactive barrier of surface hydrophobic granular activated carbon coupled with elemental iron for the removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji; Cao, Limei; Guo, Rui; Jia, Jinping

    2010-12-15

    Granular activated carbon was modified with dimethyl dichlorosilane to improve its surface hydrophobicity, and therefore to improve the performance of permeable reactive barrier constructed with the modified granular activated carbon and elemental iron. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the surface silicon concentration of the modified granular activated carbon is higher than that of the original one, leading to the increased surface hydrophobicity. Although the specific surface area decreased from 895 to 835 m(2)g(-1), the modified granular activated carbon could adsorb 20% more 2,4-dichlorophenol than the original one did in water. It is also proven that the permeable reactive barrier with the modified granular activated carbon is more efficient at 2,4-dichlorophenol dechlorination, in which process 2,4-dichlorophenol is transformed to 2-chlorophenol or 4-chlorophenol then to phenol, or to phenol directly. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Combining Nitrilotriacetic Acid and Permeable Barriers for Enhanced Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals from Municipal Solid Waste Compost by and Reduced Metal Leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shulan; Jia, Lina; Duo, Lian

    2016-05-01

    Phytoextraction has the potential to remove heavy metals from contaminated soil, and chelants can be used to improve the capabilities of phytoextraction. However, environmentally persistent chelants can cause metal leaching and groundwater pollution. A column experiment was conducted to evaluate the viability of biodegradable nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) to increase the uptake of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, and Zn) by L. in municipal solid waste (MSW) compost and to evaluate the effect of two permeable barrier materials, bone meal and crab shell, on metal leaching. The application of NTA significantly increased the concentrations and uptake of heavy metals in . The enhancement was more pronounced at higher dosages of NTA. In the 15 mmol kg NTA treatment using a crab shell barrier, the Cr and Ni concentrations in the plant shoots increased by approximately 8- and 10-fold, respectively, relative to the control. However, the addition of NTA also caused significant heavy metal leaching from the MSW compost. Bone meal and crab shell barriers positioned between the compost and the subsoil were effective in preventing metal leaching down through the soil profile by the retention of metals in the barrier. The application of a biodegradable chelant and the use of permeable barriers is a viable form of enhanced phytoextraction to increase the removal of metals and to reduce possible leaching. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. The Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability of Six Indole Alkaloids from Uncariae Ramulus Cum Uncis in the MDCK-pHaMDR Cell Monolayer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Nan Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Uncariae Ramulus Cum Uncis (URCU is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine, and is reported to have various central nervous system effects. Alkaloids have been demonstrated to be the predominant pharmacological active components of URCU. In order to evaluate the blood-brain barrier (BBB permeability and transport mechanism of six typical indole alkaloids from URCU, the MDCK-pHaMDR cell monolayer model was used as an in vitro surrogate model for BBB. The samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the apparent permeability coefficients (Papp were calculated. Among the six alkaloids, isorhynchophylline (2, isocorynoxeine (4, hirsutine (5 and hirsuteine (6 showed high permeability, with Papp values at 10−5 cm/s level in bidirectional transport. For rhynchophylline (1 and corynoxeine (3, they showed moderate permeability, with Papp values from the apical (AP side to the basolateral (BL side at 10−6 cm/s level and efflux ratio (Papp BL→AP/Papp AP→BL above 2. The time- and concentration-dependency experiments indicated that the main mechanism for 2, 4, 5 and 6 through BBB was passive diffusion. The efflux mechanism involved in the transports of compounds 1 and 3 could be reduced significantly by verapamil, and molecular docking screening also showed that 1 and 3 had strong bindings to P-glycoprotein. This study provides useful information for predicting the BBB permeability for 1–6, as well as better understanding of their central nervous system pharmacological activities.

  10. Metabolic activation of hepatotoxic drug (benzbromarone) induced mitochondrial membrane permeability transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirakawa, Maho; Sekine, Shuichi; Tanaka, Ayaka [The Laboratory of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Horie, Toshiharu [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Teikyo Heisei University, Tokyo (Japan); Ito, Kousei, E-mail: itokousei@chiba-u.jp [The Laboratory of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan)

    2015-10-01

    The risk of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is of great concern to the pharmaceutical industry. It is well-known that metabolic activation of drugs to form toxic metabolites (TMs) is strongly associated with DILI onset. Drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is also strongly associated with increased risk of DILI. However, it is difficult to determine the target of TMs associated with exacerbation of DILI because of difficulties in identifying and purifying TMs. In this study, we propose a sequential in vitro assay system to assess TM formation and their ability to induce mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) in a one-pot process. In this assay system, freshly-isolated rat liver mitochondria were incubated with reaction solutions of 44 test drugs preincubated with liver microsomes in the presence or absence of NADPH; then, NADPH-dependent MPT pore opening was assessed as mitochondrial swelling. In this assay system, several hepatotoxic drugs, including benzbromarone (BBR), significantly induced MPT in a NADPH-dependent manner. We investigated the rationality of using BBR as a model drug, since it showed the most prominent MPT in our assay system. Both the production of a candidate toxic metabolite of BBR (1′,6-(OH){sub 2} BBR) and NADPH-dependent MPT were inhibited by several cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibitors (clotrimazole and SKF-525A, 100 μM). In summary, this assay system can be used to evaluate comprehensive metabolite-dependent MPT without identification or purification of metabolites. - Highlights: • We constructed a sequential assay system for toxic metabolite induced MPT in one pot. • 14 drugs (e.g. benzbromarone (BBR)) induced toxic metabolite dependent MPT. • Both the production of toxic metabolite and MPT could be inhibited by CYP inhibitors. • This system could evaluate the comprehensive MPT without purification of metabolites.

  11. Delayed astrocytic contact with cerebral blood vessels in FGF-2 deficient mice does not compromise permeability properties at the developing blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Norman R; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Unsicker, Klaus; Ek, C Joakim

    2016-11-01

    The brain functions within a specialized environment tightly controlled by brain barrier mechanisms. Understanding the regulation of barrier formation is important for understanding brain development and may also lead to finding new ways to deliver pharmacotherapies to the brain; access of many potentially promising drugs is severely hindered by these barrier mechanisms. The cellular composition of the neurovascular unit of the blood-brain barrier proper and their effects on regulation of its function are beginning to be understood. One hallmark of the neurovascular unit in the adult is the astroglial foot processes that tightly surround cerebral blood vessels. However their role in barrier formation is still unclear. In this study we examined barrier function in newborn, juvenile and adult mice lacking fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), which has been shown to result in altered astroglial differentiation during development. We show that during development of FGF-2 deficient mice the astroglial contacts with cerebral blood vessels are delayed compared with wild-type animals. However, this delay did not result in changes to the permeability properties of the blood brain barrier as assessed by exclusion of either small or larger sized molecules at this interface. In addition cerebral vessels were positive for tight-junction proteins and we observed no difference in the ultrastructure of the tight-junctions. The results indicate that the direct contact of astroglia processes to cerebral blood vessels is not necessary for either the formation of the tight-junctions or for basic permeability properties and function of the blood-brain barrier. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 1201-1212, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Tidal and Seasonal River Stage Fluctuations Impact the Formation of Permeable Natural Reactive Barriers in Riverbank Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, P.; Myers, K.; Knappett, P.; Cardenas, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    River stage fluctuations, induced by ocean tides and rainfall, enhance the exchange between oxic river water and reducing groundwater. When mixing occurs within riverbank aquifers high in dissolved iron (Fe) and arsenic (As), the timing and extent of mixing likely control the accumulation and mobility of arsenic (As) within the hyporheic zone. Here we analyzed the impact of tidal and seasonal water level fluctuations on the formation of a Permeable Natural Reactive Barrier (PNRB) within an aquifer adjacent to the Meghna River, Bangladesh and its impact on As mobility. We found that the periodicity and amplitude of river stage fluctuations strongly control the spatial and temporal distribution of the PNRB, comprised of rapidly precipitated iron oxides, in this riverbank along a relatively straight reach of the Meghna River. The PNRB forms much faster and with higher concentration of Fe-oxide under semi-diurnal (12 hr) tidal fluctuations compared to simulations run assuming only neap-spring tides (14 day). As tidal amplitude increases, a larger contact area between oxic river water and reducing groundwater results which in turn leads to the horizontal expansion of the PNRB into the riverbank. Seasonal fluctuations expand the PNRB up to 60 m horizontally and 5 m vertically. In contrast neap-spring tidal fluctuations result in a smaller PNRB that is 10 and 3 m in the horizontal and vertical dimensions. The predicted changes in the spatial distribution of iron oxides within the riverbank would trap and release As at different times of the year. The PNRB could act as a secondary source of As to drinking water aquifers under sustained groundwater pumping scenarios near the river.

  13. Linking field and laboratory studies to investigate nitrate removal using permeable reactive barrier technology during managed recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, G.; Beganskas, S.; Weir, W. B.; Redford, K.; Saltikov, C.; Fisher, A. T.

    2017-12-01

    We present data from a series of field and laboratory studies investigating mechanisms for the enhanced removal of nitrate during infiltration as a part of managed recharge. These studies combine physical, geochemical, and microbiological data collected during controlled infiltration experiments at both a plot and a laboratory scale using permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology. The presence of a PRB, made of wood chips or biochar, enhances nitrate removal by stimulating the growth and productivity of native soil microbes to process nitrate via denitrification. Earlier work has shown that unamended soil can remove up to 50% of nitrate during infiltration at rates microbiological data show significant population changes below the PRB where most of the cycling occurs. Coupled with isotopic analyses, these results suggest that a PRB expands the range of infiltration rates at which significant nitrate can be removed by microbial activity. Further, nitrate removal occurs at different depths below the biochar and redwood chips, suggesting different mechanisms of nitrate removal in the presence of different PRB materials. In laboratory studies we flowed artificial groundwater through intact sediment cores collected at the same field site where we also ran infiltration tests. These experiments show that the fluid flow rate and the presence of a PRB exhibit primary control on nitrate removal during infiltration, and that the relationship between flow rate and nitrate removal is fundamentally different in the presence of a PRB. These data from multiple scales and flow regimes are combined to offer a deeper understanding how the use of PRB technology during infiltration can help address a significant non-point source issue at the surface-subsurface interface.

  14. Enhanced chitosan beads-supported Fe(0)-nanoparticles for removal of heavy metals from electroplating wastewater in permeable reactive barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingyi; Yang, Xi; Wang, Zhong-Liang; Yan, Xiaoxing

    2013-11-01

    The removal of heavy metals from electroplating wastewater is a matter of paramount importance due to their high toxicity causing major environmental pollution problems. Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) became more effective to remove heavy metals from electroplating wastewater when enhanced chitosan (CS) beads were introduced as a support material in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). The removal rate of Cr (VI) decreased with an increase of pH and initial Cr (VI) concentration. However, the removal rates of Cu (II), Cd (II) and Pb (II) increased with an increase of pH while decreased with an increase of their initial concentrations. The initial concentrations of heavy metals showed an effect on their removal sequence. Scanning electron microscope images showed that CS-NZVI beads enhanced by ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDE) had a loose and porous surface with a nucleus-shell structure. The pore size of the nucleus ranged from 19.2 to 138.6 μm with an average aperture size of around 58.6 μm. The shell showed a tube structure and electroplating wastewaters may reach NZVI through these tubes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) demonstrated that the reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) was complete in less than 2 h. Cu (II) and Pb (II) were removed via predominant reduction and auxiliary adsorption. However, main adsorption and auxiliary reduction worked for the removal of Cd (II). The removal rate of total Cr, Cu (II), Cd (II) and Pb (II) from actual electroplating wastewater was 89.4%, 98.9%, 94.9% and 99.4%, respectively. The findings revealed that EGDE-CS-NZVI-beads PRBs had the capacity to remediate actual electroplating wastewater and may become an effective and promising technology for in situ remediation of heavy metals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. FeS-coated sand for removal of arsenic(III) under anaerobic conditions in permeable reactive barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y.-S.; Gallegos, T.J.; Demond, A.H.; Hayes, K.F.

    2011-01-01

    Iron sulfide (as mackinawite, FeS) has shown considerable promise as a material for the removal of As(III) under anoxic conditions. However, as a nanoparticulate material, synthetic FeS is not suitable for use in conventional permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). This study developed a methodology for coating a natural silica sand to produce a material of an appropriate diameter for a PRB. Aging time, pH, rinse time, and volume ratios were varied, with a maximum coating of 4.0 mg FeS/g sand achieved using a pH 5.5 solution at a 1:4 volume ratio (sand: 2 g/L FeS suspension), three days of aging and no rinsing. Comparing the mass deposited on the sand, which had a natural iron-oxide coating, with and without chemical washing showed that the iron-oxide coating was essential to the formation of a stable FeS coating. Scanning electron microscopy images of the FeS-coated sand showed a patchwise FeS surface coating. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed a partial oxidation of the Fe(II) to Fe(III) during the coating process, and some oxidation of S to polysulfides. Removal of As(III) by FeS-coated sand was 30% of that by nanoparticulate FeS at pH 5 and 7. At pH 9, the relative removal was 400%, perhaps due to the natural oxide coating of the sand or a secondary mineral phase from mackinawite oxidation. Although many studies have investigated the coating of sands with iron oxides, little prior work reports coating with iron sulfides. The results suggest that a suitable PRB material for the removal of As(III) under anoxic conditions can be produced through the deposition of a coating of FeS onto natural silica sand with an iron-oxide coating. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Feasibility Of Coupling Permeable Bio-Barriers And Electrokinetics For The Treatment Of Diesel Hydrocarbons Polluted Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramírez, Esperanza Mena; Jiménez, Cristina Sáez; Camacho, José Villaseñor; Rodrigo, Manuel A.Rodrigo; Cañizares, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrokinetics and a biobarrier were combined to remediate of a diesel polluted soil. • pH gradients did not affect the biobarrier activity located in soil central position. • Microorganisms were partially detached from the biobarrier and moved across the soil. • An anionic surfactant helped the contact between pollutant and microorganisms. • A 39% of the diesel biodegradable fraction was homogeneously removed across the soil. - Abstract: In this study, the remediation of a diesel hydrocarbon-polluted clay soil using an electrochemical-biological combined technology is assessed. The polluted soil was subjected to an electrokinetic (EK) treatment with a biological permeable reactive barrier. A lab-scale electrochemical cell for soil treatment was used. The biological barrier placed in the soil was a biofilm reactor previously adapted for diesel degradation. A batch experiment of 336 h was conducted in a synthetic clay soil spiked with 10 g·kg −1 of diesel and a constant voltage gradient of 1.0 V cm −1 . Sodium dodecyl sulphate was used as an anionic surfactant in the cathodic well to allow for hydrocarbon emulsification during the treatment. At the end of the experiment, extreme pH values were observed near the electrodes. However, the pH remained constant at approximately 7.7 in the central biobarrier zone, which allowed for biological processes. Biological growth was observed in the biobarrier, and a part of the biofilm was detached and transported through the soil in both directions. Furthermore, the surfactant was transported across the soil due to electromigration and electroosmosis, which resulted in diesel emulsification. The combination of biological and EK phenomena finally resulted in a homogenous hydrocarbon removal of approximately 27% in the polluted soil, which indicated a 39% removal of the diesel biodegradable fraction. Due to the electroosmotic flow and the biological degradation, some of the water, surfactant and

  17. Effect of laser light on the fragility and permeability of the red blood cell membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Yassin, H. D.

    2005-01-01

    The resistance of red blood cells to hypotonic hemolysis is often characterized in terms of their osmotic fragility. The percentage of cells that hemolize when plotted as a function of different concentrations of NaCl forms fragility curve, which has a sigmoidal shape. In this study we show that the exposure of red blood cells to laser light converts the sigmoidal shape of the fragility curve to a hyperbolic one, which means that the old population of the red blood cells are the ones more affected by the light which cause their destruction. At the same time it seems that transport across the cell membrane is affected also. The biochemical and physiological implications of this finding are discussed. (author)

  18. Cellular pH measurements in Emiliania huxleyi reveal pronounced membrane proton permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffrian, K; Schulz, K G; Gutowska, M A; Riebesell, U; Bleich, M

    2011-05-01

    • To understand the influence of changing surface ocean pH and carbonate chemistry on the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, it is necessary to characterize mechanisms involved in pH homeostasis and ion transport. • Here, we measured effects of changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on the fluorescence emission ratio of BCECF (2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein) as a measure of intracellular pH (pH(i)). Out of equilibrium solutions were used to differentiate between membrane permeation pathways for H(+), CO(2) and HCO(3)(-). • Changes in fluorescence ratio were calibrated in single cells, resulting in a ratio change of 0.78 per pH(i) unit. pH(i) acutely followed the pH of seawater (pH(e)) in a linear fashion between pH(e) values of 6.5 and 9 with a slope of 0.44 per pH(e) unit. pH(i) was nearly insensitive to changes in seawater CO(2) at constant pH(e) and HCO(3)(-). An increase in extracellular HCO(3)(-) resulted in a slight intracellular acidification. In the presence of DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid), a broad-spectrum inhibitor of anion exchangers, E. huxleyi acidified irreversibly. DIDS slightly reduced the effect of pH(e) on pH(i). • The data for the first time show the occurrence of a proton permeation pathway in E. huxleyi plasma membrane. pH(i) homeostasis involves a DIDS-sensitive mechanism. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. In vitro evaluation of electrospun chitosan mats crosslinked with genipin as guided tissue regeneration barrier membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norowski, Peter Andrew, Jr.

    Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) is a surgical technique commonly used to exclude bacteria and soft tissues from bone graft sites in oral/maxillofacial bone graft sites by using a barrier membrane to maintain the graft contour and space. Current clinical barrier membrane materials based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) and bovine type 1 collagen are non-ideal and experience a number of disadvantages including membrane exposure, bacterial colonization/biofilm formation and premature degradation, all of which result in increased surgical intervention and poor bone regeneration. These materials do not actively participate in tissue regeneration, however bioactive materials, such as chitosan, may provide advantages such as the ability to stimulate wound healing and de novo bone formation. Our hypothesis is that electrospun chitosan GTR membranes will support cell attachment and growth but prevent cell infiltration/penetration of membrane, demonstrate in vitro degradation predictive of 4--6 month in vivo functionality, and will deliver antibiotics locally to prevent/inhibit periopathogenic complications. To test this hypothesis a series of chitosan membranes were electrospun, in the presence or absence of genipin, a natural crosslinking agent, at concentrations of 5 and 10 mM. These membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, tensile testing, suture pullout testing, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and gel permeation chromatography, and in vitro biodegradation for diameter/morphology of fibers, membrane strengths, degree of crosslinking, crystallinity, molecular weight, and degradation kinetics, respectively. Cytocompability of membranes was evaluated in osteoblastic, fibroblastic and monocyte cultures. The activity of minocycline loaded and released from the membranes was determined in zone of inhibition tests using P. gingivalis microbe. The results demonstrated that genipin crosslinking extended the in vitro

  20. Facile fabrication of aloe vera containing PCL nanofibers for barrier membrane application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Princeton; Rahman, Shekh M; Bhattarai, Narayan

    2016-01-01

    Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) is a widely used method in dental surgical procedures that utilizes a barrier membrane to exclude migration of epithelium and ensure repopulation of periodontal ligament cells at the sites having insufficient gingiva. Commercial GTR membranes are typically composed of synthetic polymers that have had mild clinical success mostly because of their lack of proper bioactivity and appropriate degradation profile. In this study, a natural polymer, aloe vera was blended with polycaprolactone (PCL) to create nanofibrous GTR membranes by electrospinning. Aloe vera has proven anti-inflammatory properties and enhances the regeneration of periodontium tissues. PCL, a synthetic polymer, is well known to produce miscible polyblends nanofibers with natural polymers. Nanofibrous membranes with varying composition of PCL to aloe vera were fabricated, and several physicochemical and biological properties, such as fiber morphology, wettability, chemical structure, mechanical strength, and cellular compatibility of the membranes were analyzed. PCL/aloe vera membranes with ratios from 100/00 to 70/30 showed good uniformity in fiber morphology and suitable mechanical properties, and retained the integrity of their fibrous structure in aqueous solutions. Experimental results, using cell viability assay and cell attachment observation, showed that the nanofibrous membranes support 3T3 cell viability and could be a potential candidate for GTR therapy.

  1. Research in Water Permeability of Poly(ethylene) Terephthalate Track Membranes Modified by Polymerization of Dimethylaniline under the Action of Direct Current Discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Kravets, L I; Drachev, A I

    2004-01-01

    The properties of poly(ethylene) terephthalate track membranes modified by polymerization of dimethylaniline in a discharge of direct current are investigated. The influence of conditions of plasma treatment on the basic characteristics of the membranes (pore size, wettability, surface charge, water permeability) is studied. It is shown that under the action of discharge, a polymeric layer is formed on the membrane surface that can swell in solutions with low pH values. It has been found that the degree of the swelling stipulated by the conformation transfer of macromolecules of the deposited polymeric layer depends upon the size of relative magnification of the mass of the membrane during its plasma treatment. It is also shown that the obtained membranes can reversibly react to changing the pH of solution and applied pressure.

  2. Evaluation of flexible membrane liners as long-term barriers for uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The National Uranium Tailings Program has commissioned a study to evaluate flexible membrane liners (geomembranes) as long-term barriers for Canadian uranium mill tailings. This study reviews the common liner type and addresses flexible liners (polymeric membranes and asphalt) in detail. Liner fabrication, design, installation, and performance are reviewed. Conceptual designs are presented for basins to accommodate 20 years accumulation of uranium tailings from mills in Elliot Lake and southeastern Athabasca. Nine polymeric and three asphalt liner types have been considered with respect to the physical and chemical environment in the uranium producing areas of Canada. All materials indicate good chemical resistance to uranium wastes but are subject to installation problems

  3. Multiphoton-generated localized electron plasma for membrane permeability modification in single cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, T.; Leblanc, M.; McMillan, J.; Westwood, J.; Khodaparast, G. A.

    2014-03-01

    Successful incorporation of a specific macromolecule into a single cell would be ideal for characterizing trafficking dynamics through plasmodesmata or for studying intracellular localizations. Here, we demonstrate NIR femtosecond laser-mediated infiltration of a membrane impermeable dextran-conjugated dye into living cells of Arabidopsis thaliana seedling stems. Based on the reactions of fluorescing vacuoles of transgenic cells and artificial cell walls comprised of nanocellulose, laser intensity and exposure time were adjusted to avoid deleterious effects. Using these plant-tailored laser parameters, cells were injected with the fluorophores and long-term dye retention was observed, all while preserving vital cell functions. This method is ideal for studies concerning cell-to-cell interactions and potentially paves the way for introducing transgenes to specific cells. This work was supported by NSF award IOS-0843372 to JHW, with additional support from and U.S. Department of Agriculture Hatch Project no. 135997, and by the Institute of Critical Technology and Applied Sciences (ICTAS) at Virginia Tech.

  4. Ca(2+)-dependent nonspecific permeability of the inner membrane of liver mitochondria in the guinea fowl (Numida meleagris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedernikov, Aleksander A; Dubinin, Mikhail V; Zabiakin, Vladimir A; Samartsev, Victor N

    2015-06-01

    This comparative study presents the results of the induction of Ca(2+)-dependent nonspecific permeability of the inner membrane (pore opening) of rat and guinea fowl liver mitochondria by mechanisms that are both sensitive and insensitive to cyclosporin A (CsA). It was established that energized rat and guinea fowl liver mitochondria incubated with 1 mM of inorganic phosphate (Pi) are capable of swelling upon addition of at least 125 and 875 nmol of CaCl2 per 1 mg protein, respectively. Under these conditions, the Ca(2+) release from the mitochondria of these animals and a drop in Δψ are observed. All of these processes are inhibited by 1 μM of CsA. FCCP, causing organelle de-energization, induces pore opening in rat and guinea fowl liver mitochondria upon addition of 45 и 625 nmol of CaCl2 per 1 mg protein, respectively. These results suggest the existence of a CsA-sensitive mechanism for the induction of Ca(2+)-dependent pores in guinea fowl liver mitochondria, which has been reported in rat liver mitochondria. However, guinea fowl liver mitochondria have a significantly greater resistance to Ca(2+) as a pore inducer compared to rat liver mitochondria. It was found that the addition of α,ω-hexadecanedioic acid (HDA) to rat and guinea fowl liver mitochondria incubated with CsA and loaded with Ca(2+) causes organelle swelling and Ca(2+) release from the matrix. It is assumed that in contrast to the CsA-sensitive pore, the CsA-insensitive pore induced by HDA in the inner membrane of guinea fowl liver mitochondria, as well as in rat liver mitochondria, is lipid in nature.

  5. Response of exfoliated human buccal epithelium cells to combined gamma radiation, microwaves, and magnetic field exposure estimated by changes in chromatin condensation and cell membrane permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. А. Kuznetsov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of the biological effects produced by ionizing radiation (IR using microwave and magnetic fields has important theoretical and practical applications. Response of human buccal epithelium cells to different physical agents (single and combined exposure to 0.5–5 Gy γ-radiation (60Co; microwaves with the frequency of 36.64 GHz and power densities of 0.1 and 1 W/m2, and static magnetic field with the intensity of 25 mT has been investigated. The stress response of the cells was evaluated by counting heterochromatin granules quantity (HGQ in the cell nuclei stained with orcein. Membrane permeability was assessed by the percentage of cells stained with indigocarmine (cells with damaged membrane. The increase of heterochromatin granules quantity (HGQ, i.e. chromatin condensation was detected at the doses of 2 Gy and higher. Changes in the cell membrane permeability to indigocarmine expressed the threshold effect. Membrane permeability reached the threshold at the doses of 2–3 Gy for the cells of different donors and did not change with the increase of the dose of γ-radiation. Cells obtained from different donors revealed some individual peculiarities in their reaction to γ-radiation. The static magnetic field and microwaves applied before or after γ-radiation decreased its impact, as revealed by means of HGQ assessment.

  6. Identification of two immortalized cell lines, ECV304 and bEnd3, for in vitro permeability studies of blood-brain barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Yang

    Full Text Available To identify suitable cell lines for a mimetic system of in vivo blood-brain barrier (BBB for drug permeability assessment, we characterized two immortalized cell lines, ECV304 and bEnd3 in the respect of the tightness, tight junction proteins, P-glycoprotein (P-gp function and discriminative brain penetration. The ECV304 monoculture achieved higher transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER and lower permeability to Lucifer yellow than bEnd3. However, co-culture with rat glioma C6 cells impaired the integrity of ECV304 and bEnd3 cell layers perhaps due to the heterogeneity among C6 cells in inducing BBB characteristics. The immunostaining of ZO-1 delivered distinct bands along cell borders on both cell lines while those of occludin and claudin-5 were diffused and weak. P-gp functionality was only proved in bEnd3 by Rhodamine 123 (R123 uptake assay. A permeability test of reference compounds displayed a similar rank order (digoxin < R123 < quinidine, verapamil < propranolol in ECV304 and bEnd3 cells. In comparison with bEnd3, ECV304 developed tighter barrier for the passage of reference compounds and higher discrimination between transcellular and paracellular transport. However, the monoculture models of ECV304 and bEnd3 fail to achieve the sufficient tightness of in vitro BBB permeability models with high TEER and evident immunostaining of tight junction proteins. Further strategies to enhance the paracellular tightness of both cell lines to mimic in vivo BBB tight barrier deserve to be conducted.

  7. Characterization of NaA Zeolite Oxygen Permeable Membrane on TiO2/α-Al2O3 Composite Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Mengfu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The NaA zeolite membrane was synthesized on the surface of TiO2/α-Al2O3 composite support with TiO2 as modifier of α-Al2O3 porous tubular ceramic membrane support by crystallization method. The structure characterization indicated that the TiO2 of the support surface could effectively improve the surface properties of the support. It didn’t affect the crystallization of NaA synthesis liquid and synthesis process of NaA zeolite membrane. There were no obvious defects between the crystal particles with size of approximate 6μm. The perfect and complete membrane with thickness of approximate 15μm combined closely with support to connection together by TiO2 modified. The oxygen permeability of the membrane on TiO2/α-Al2O3 composite support improves of 47% compared with that of α-Al2O3 support. So the process of TiO2 modifying the surface of α-Al2O3 support should increase the oxygen permeability of the NaA zeolite membrane.

  8. Long-term air monitoring of organochlorine pesticides using Semi Permeable Membrane Devices (SPMDs) in the Alps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, W.; Henkelmann, B.; Pfister, G.; Bernhoeft, S.; Kirchner, M.; Jakobi, G. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Bassan, R. [Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention and Protection of Veneto, Via Matteotti 27, 35137 Padova (Italy); Kraeuchi, N. [WSL-Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Zuercherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Schramm, K.-W., E-mail: schramm@helmholtz-muenchen.d [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); TUM-Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department fuer Biowissenschaftliche Grundlagen Weihenstephaner Steig 23, D-85350 Freising (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    Atmospheric sampling of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was conducted using Semi Permeable Membrane Devices (SPMDs) deployed in the Alps at different altitudinal transects for two consecutive exposure periods of half a year and a third simultaneous year-long period. Along all the altitude profiles, the sequestered amounts of OCPs increased in general with altitude. SPMDs were still working as kinetic samplers after half a year for the majority of the OCPs. However, compounds with the lowest octanol-air partition coefficient (K{sub oa}), reached equilibrium within six months. This change in the SPMD uptake was determined for the temperature gradient along the altitude profile influencing K{sub oa}, OCPs availability in the gaseous phase, and SPMD performance. In sum, it seems two effects are working in parallel along the altitude profiles: the change in SPMD performance and the different availability of OCPs along the altitudinal transects determined by their compound properties and concentrations in air. - SPMDs were in different uptake stages regarding OCPs, as they were influenced by the temperature (season, triolein state, and altitude) and K{sub oa}.

  9. Knockout of the alanine racemase gene in Aeromonas hydrophila HBNUAh01 results in cell wall damage and enhanced membrane permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Lu; Xue, Wen; Wang, Yaping; Ju, Jiansong; Zhao, Baohua

    2015-07-01

    This study focused on the alanine racemase gene (alr-2), which is involved in the synthesis of d-alanine that forms the backbone of the cell wall. A stable alr-2 knockout mutant of Aeromonas hydrophila HBNUAh01 was constructed. When the mutant was supplemented with d-alanine, growth was unaffected; deprivation of d-alanine caused the growth arrest of the starved mutant cells, but not cell lysis. No alanine racemase activity was detected in the culture of the mutant. Additionally, a membrane permeability assay showed increasing damage to the cell wall during d-alanine starvation. No such damage was observed in the wild type during culture. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed deficiencies of the cell envelope and perforation of the cell wall. Leakage of UV-absorbing substances from the mutants was also observed. Thus, the partial viability of the mutants and their independence of d-alanine for growth indicated that inactivation of alr-2 does not impose an auxotrophic requirement for d-alanine. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Determination of membrane behaviour during transport of pollutants n clay barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musso, M.; Pejon, O.

    2010-01-01

    The study of the transport of contaminants in clay barriers had a extensive development in environmental geotechnics. The most studied transport processes are solutes by advection - dispersion and diffusion generated by hydraulic and chemical gradients respectively. Greater attention should be given to the chemical - osmotic flow and behavior membrane clay barriers, since in one case the water molecules move through the existence of a chemical gradient and on the other the means totally or partially inhibits the passage of solutes. The team developed to measure these processes was constructed based on items international literature and performance was verified using two types of materials KCl solution . One material is a bentonite geocomposite (Geosynthetic Clay Liner GCL ) similar to that used by other researchers. The other material is a soil barrier compacted clay (Compacted Clay Liner CCL) Fm. Corumbataí (Permian), belonging to the Paraná basin in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil . The results show the proper performance of the equipment built . Osmotic pressure generation and membrane performance was verified for both samples. Further corroborated influence of the type of clay mineral in the osmotic pressure generated value and membrane behavior

  11. Exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) affects pollen tube growth via modulating putative Ca2+-permeable membrane channels and is coupled to negative regulation on glutamate decarboxylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guang-Hui; Zou, Jie; Feng, Jing; Peng, Xiong-Bo; Wu, Ju-You; Wu, Ying-Liang; Palanivelu, Ravishankar; Sun, Meng-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is implicated in pollen tube growth, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms that it mediates are largely unknown. Here, it is shown that exogenous GABA modulates putative Ca2+-permeable channels on the plasma membranes of tobacco pollen grains and pollen tubes. Whole-cell voltage-clamp experiments and non-invasive micromeasurement technology (NMT) revealed that the influx of Ca2+ increases in pollen tubes in response to exogenous GABA. It is also demonstrated that glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), the rate-limiting enzyme of GABA biosynthesis, is involved in feedback controls of Ca2+-permeable channels to fluctuate intracellular GABA levels and thus modulate pollen tube growth. The findings suggest that GAD activity linked with Ca2+-permeable channels relays an extracellular GABA signal and integrates multiple signal pathways to modulate tobacco pollen tube growth. Thus, the data explain how GABA mediates the communication between the style and the growing pollen tubes. PMID:24799560

  12. Thin-film Nanofibrous Composite Membranes Containing Cellulose or Chitin Barrier Layers Fabricated by Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H Ma; B Hsiao; B Chu

    2011-12-31

    The barrier layer of high-flux ultrafiltration (UF) thin-film nanofibrous composite (TFNC) membranes for purification of wastewater (e.g., bilge water) have been prepared by using cellulose, chitin, and a cellulose-chitin blend, regenerated from an ionic liquid. The structures and properties of regenerated cellulose, chitin, and a cellulose-chitin blend were analyzed with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). The surface morphology, pore size and pore size distribution of TFNC membranes were determined by SEM images and molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) methods. An oil/water emulsion, a model of bilge water, was used as the feed solution, and the permeation flux and rejection ratio of the membranes were investigated. TFNC membranes based on the cellulose-chitin blend exhibited 10 times higher permeation flux when compared with a commercial UF membrane (PAN10, Sepro) with a similar rejection ratio after filtration over a time period of up to 100 h, implying the practical feasibility of such membranes for UF applications.

  13. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Neurotrophic Factors and Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Induced by Oxidative-Nitrosative Stress in Male College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Hee-Tae; Cho, Su-Youn; Yoon, Hyung-Gi; So, Wi-Young

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the effects of aerobic exercise intensity on oxidative-nitrosative stress, neurotrophic factor expression, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Fifteen healthy men performed treadmill running under low-intensity (LI), moderate-intensity (MI), and high-intensity (HI) conditions. Blood samples were collected immediately before exercise (IBE), immediately after exercise (IAE), and 60 min after exercise (60MAE) to examine oxidative-nitrosative stress (reactive oxygen species [ROS]; nitric oxide [NO]), neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF]; nerve growth factor [NGF]), and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability (S-100β; neuron-specific enolase). ROS concentration significantly increased IAE and following HI (4.9 ± 1.7 mM) compared with that after LI (2.8 ± 1.4 mM) exercise (p exercise (p exercise (p exercise (p exercise (p .05). Moderate- and/or high-intensity exercise may induce higher oxidative-nitrosative stress than may low-intensity exercise, which can increase peripheral neurotrophic factor levels by increasing BBB permeability.

  14. Integrin-based diffusion barrier separates membrane domains enabling the formation of microbiostatic frustrated phagosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, Michelle E; Naj, Xenia; O'Meara, Teresa R; Plumb, Jonathan D; Cowen, Leah E

    2018-01-01

    Candida albicans hyphae can reach enormous lengths, precluding their internalization by phagocytes. Nevertheless, macrophages engulf a portion of the hypha, generating incompletely sealed tubular phagosomes. These frustrated phagosomes are stabilized by a thick cuff of F-actin that polymerizes in response to non-canonical activation of integrins by fungal glycan. Despite their continuity, the surface and invaginating phagosomal membranes retain a strikingly distinct lipid composition. PtdIns(4,5)P2 is present at the plasmalemma but is not detectable in the phagosomal membrane, while PtdIns(3)P and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 co-exist in the phagosomes yet are absent from the surface membrane. Moreover, endo-lysosomal proteins are present only in the phagosomal membrane. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching revealed the presence of a diffusion barrier that maintains the identity of the open tubular phagosome separate from the plasmalemma. Formation of this barrier depends on Syk, Pyk2/Fak and formin-dependent actin assembly. Antimicrobial mechanisms can thereby be deployed, limiting the growth of the hyphae. PMID:29553370

  15. In-situ treatment of a mixed hydrocarbon plume through a permeable reactive barrier and enhanced bio-remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglietto, I.; Bretti, L.L.

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater is frequently polluted with mixtures of contaminants that are amenable to different types of remediation. One example is the combination of petroleum hydrocarbons (mostly BTEX) and chlorinated solvents (chlorinated ethenes and propanes), as it occurs in the groundwater beneath the industrial site that is the objective of the present case study. The site is located in Italy near a main river (Arno), which is supposed to be the final recipient of the contamination and where a possible exposure might take place. The aim of the treatment is the plume containment within the site boundaries in order to avoid further migration of the contaminants towards the river. The design of the remediation system was based on an extensive site characterization that included - but was not limited to - the following information: geological and geochemical, microbiological and hydrological data, together with analytical data (i.e. contaminant concentrations). Pilot tests were also implemented in order to collect the necessary parameters for the full-scale treatment design and calibration. The site was contaminated by a mixed plume of more than 30 different contaminants, ranging from BTEX, to MTBE, to PAH, to chlorinated solvents. The concentration peaks were in the order of 1-100 mg/l for each contaminant. Petroleum hydrocarbons are quickly degradable through oxidative mechanisms (especially aerobic biodegradation), whereas fully-chlorinated compounds are only degradable via reductive pathways. A mixed plume of both types of contaminants therefore requires a combined approach with the application of different treatment technologies. The remediation strategy elaborated combines a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) in a funnel and gate configuration for the down-gradient plume containment, with the enhanced bio-remediation of the contaminants for the control of the plume boundaries and for the abatement of the concentration peaks. Pilot tests were carried out in order to assess

  16. Oxcarbazepine-loaded polymeric nanoparticles: development and permeability studies across in vitro models of the blood-brain barrier and human placental trophoblast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopalco, Antonio; Ali, Hazem; Denora, Nunzio; Rytting, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Encapsulation of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) into nanoparticles may offer promise for treating pregnant women with epilepsy by improving brain delivery and limiting the transplacental permeability of AEDs to avoid fetal exposure and its consequent undesirable adverse effects. Oxcarbazepine-loaded nanoparticles were prepared by a modified solvent displacement method from biocompatible polymers (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) [PLGA] with or without surfactant and PEGylated PLGA [Resomer(®) RGPd5055]). The physical properties of the developed nanoparticles were determined with subsequent evaluation of their permeability across in vitro models of the blood-brain barrier (hCMEC/D3 cells) and human placental trophoblast cells (BeWo b30 cells). Oxcarbazepine-loaded nanoparticles with encapsulation efficiency above 69% were prepared with sizes ranging from 140-170 nm, polydispersity indices below 0.3, and zeta potential values below -34 mV. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the amorphous state of the nanoencapsulated drug. The apparent permeability (Pe ) values of the free and nanoencapsulated oxcarbazepine were comparable across both cell types, likely due to rapid drug release kinetics. Transport studies using fluorescently-labeled nanoparticles (loaded with coumarin-6) demonstrated increased permeability of surfactant-coated nanoparticles. Future developments in enzyme-prodrug therapy and targeted delivery are expected to provide improved options for pregnant patients with epilepsy.

  17. Oxcarbazepine-loaded polymeric nanoparticles: development and permeability studies across in vitro models of the blood–brain barrier and human placental trophoblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopalco, Antonio; Ali, Hazem; Denora, Nunzio; Rytting, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Encapsulation of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) into nanoparticles may offer promise for treating pregnant women with epilepsy by improving brain delivery and limiting the transplacental permeability of AEDs to avoid fetal exposure and its consequent undesirable adverse effects. Oxcarbazepine-loaded nanoparticles were prepared by a modified solvent displacement method from biocompatible polymers (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) [PLGA] with or without surfactant and PEGylated PLGA [Resomer® RGPd5055]). The physical properties of the developed nanoparticles were determined with subsequent evaluation of their permeability across in vitro models of the blood–brain barrier (hCMEC/D3 cells) and human placental trophoblast cells (BeWo b30 cells). Oxcarbazepine-loaded nanoparticles with encapsulation efficiency above 69% were prepared with sizes ranging from 140–170 nm, polydispersity indices below 0.3, and zeta potential values below -34 mV. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the amorphous state of the nanoencapsulated drug. The apparent permeability (Pe) values of the free and nanoencapsulated oxcarbazepine were comparable across both cell types, likely due to rapid drug release kinetics. Transport studies using fluorescently-labeled nanoparticles (loaded with coumarin-6) demonstrated increased permeability of surfactant-coated nanoparticles. Future developments in enzyme-prodrug therapy and targeted delivery are expected to provide improved options for pregnant patients with epilepsy. PMID:25792832

  18. Improved Prediction of Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Through Machine Learning with Combined Use of Molecular Property-Based Descriptors and Fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yaxia; Zheng, Fang; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2018-03-21

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of a compound determines whether the compound can effectively enter the brain. It is an essential property which must be accounted for in drug discovery with a target in the brain. Several computational methods have been used to predict the BBB permeability. In particular, support vector machine (SVM), which is a kernel-based machine learning method, has been used popularly in this field. For SVM training and prediction, the compounds are characterized by molecular descriptors. Some SVM models were based on the use of molecular property-based descriptors (including 1D, 2D, and 3D descriptors) or fragment-based descriptors (known as the fingerprints of a molecule). The selection of descriptors is critical for the performance of a SVM model. In this study, we aimed to develop a generally applicable new SVM model by combining all of the features of the molecular property-based descriptors and fingerprints to improve the accuracy for the BBB permeability prediction. The results indicate that our SVM model has improved accuracy compared to the currently available models of the BBB permeability prediction.

  19. Syntheses of prodrug-type phosphotriester oligonucleotides responsive to intracellular reducing environment for improvement of cell membrane permeability and nuclease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Junsuke; Samezawa, Yusuke; Ochi, Yosuke; Wada, Shun-Ichi; Urata, Hidehito

    2017-07-15

    We synthesized prodrug-type phosphotriester (PTE) oligonucleotides containing the six-membered cyclic disulfide moiety by using phosphoramidite chemistry. Prodrug-type oligonucleotides named "Reducing-Environment-Dependent Uncatalyzed Chemical Transforming (REDUCT) PTE oligonucleotides" were converted into natural oligonucleotides under cytosol-mimetic reductive condition. Furthermore, the REDUCT PTE oligonucleotides were robust to nuclease digestion and exhibited good cell membrane permeability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Microporous membranes from polyamide 6/national clay nanocomposites - Part 2: microstructural and permeability evaluation; Obtencao de membranas microporosas a partir de nanocompositos de polimida 6/argila nacional - Parte 2: avaliacao microestrutural e de permeabilidade das membranas obtidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Amanda M.D.; Araujo, Edcleide M.; Lira, Helio de L.; Paz, Rene Anisio da; Medeiros, Vanessa da Nobrega, E-mail: amandamelissa.lins@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2014-06-01

    Organic/inorganic hybrid membranes of polyamide 6 and mineral clay containing layers of silicate were prepared and compared to those of the pure polymer. Use was made of an as-received sodium clay from industry and another organophilized with ammonium quaternary salts (Dodigen and Cetremide). The salts make the clays surface hydrophobic and improve their incorporation into the polymer matrix in the molten state. Membranes were prepared with these nanocomposites using the immersion-precipitation technique with formic acid as a solvent, and precipitation in a water bath as non-solvent. The acid concentration in the solution containing the polymer and the hybrids was varied to study its influence in morphology and permeability of the membranes. An asymmetric morphology consisting of a filter skin and a porous support was observed, with pores both on the surface and in the cross section being affected by the different salts. This asymmetric morphology was also affected significantly by the acid concentration, with thicker filter skins for higher concentrations. The acid concentration affected the pores size and their distribution. The clay particles probably acted as a barrier to the flow. The permeating flux for the two acid concentrations varied as a function of the distinct morphologies. (author)

  1. Microwave-assisted extraction of pyrethroid insecticides from semi permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) used to indoor air monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A.; Pastor, Agustin; Guardia, Miguel de la

    2006-01-01

    A rapid and environmentally friendly methodology was developed for the extraction of pyrethroid insecticides from semi permeable membrane devices (SPMDs), in which they were preconcentrated in gas phase. The method was based on gas chromatography mass-mass spectrometry determination after a microwave-assisted extraction, in front of the widely employed dialysis method. SPMDs were extracted twice with 30 mL hexane:acetone, irradiated with 250 W power output, until 90 deg. C in 10 min, this temperature being held for another 10 min. Clean-up of the extracts was performed by acetonitrile-hexane partitioning and solid-phase extraction (SPE) with a combined cartridge of 2 g basic-alumina, deactivated with 5% water, and 500 mg C 18 . Pyrethroids investigated were Allethrin, Prallethrin, Tetramethrin, Bifenthrin, Phenothrin, λ-Cyhalothrin, Permethrin, Cyfluthrin, Cypermethrin, Flucythrinate, Esfenvalerate, Fluvalinate and Deltamethrin. The main pyrethroid synergist compound, Pyperonyl Butoxide, was also studied. Limit of detection values ranging from 0.3 to 0.9 ng/SPMD and repeatability data, as relative standard deviation, from 2.9 to 9.4%, were achieved. Pyrethroid recoveries, for spiked SPMDs, with 100 ng of each one of the pyrethroids evaluated, were from 61 ± 8 to 103 ± 7% for microwave-assisted extraction, versus 54 ± 4 to 104 ± 3% for dialysis reference method. Substantial reduction of solvent consumed (from 400 to 60 mL) and analysis time (from 48 to 1 h) was achieved by using the developed procedure. High concentration levels of pyrethroid compounds, from 0.14 to 7.3 μg/SPMD, were found in indoor air after 2 h of a standard application

  2. Microwave-assisted extraction of pyrethroid insecticides from semi permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) used to indoor air monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A. [Analytical Chemistry Department, University of Valencia, Edifici Jeroni Munoz, 50th Dr. Moliner, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Pastor, Agustin [Analytical Chemistry Department, University of Valencia, Edifici Jeroni Munoz, 50th Dr. Moliner, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: agustin.pastor@uv.es; Guardia, Miguel de la [Analytical Chemistry Department, University of Valencia, Edifici Jeroni Munoz, 50th Dr. Moliner, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2006-02-23

    A rapid and environmentally friendly methodology was developed for the extraction of pyrethroid insecticides from semi permeable membrane devices (SPMDs), in which they were preconcentrated in gas phase. The method was based on gas chromatography mass-mass spectrometry determination after a microwave-assisted extraction, in front of the widely employed dialysis method. SPMDs were extracted twice with 30 mL hexane:acetone, irradiated with 250 W power output, until 90 deg. C in 10 min, this temperature being held for another 10 min. Clean-up of the extracts was performed by acetonitrile-hexane partitioning and solid-phase extraction (SPE) with a combined cartridge of 2 g basic-alumina, deactivated with 5% water, and 500 mg C{sub 18}. Pyrethroids investigated were Allethrin, Prallethrin, Tetramethrin, Bifenthrin, Phenothrin, {lambda}-Cyhalothrin, Permethrin, Cyfluthrin, Cypermethrin, Flucythrinate, Esfenvalerate, Fluvalinate and Deltamethrin. The main pyrethroid synergist compound, Pyperonyl Butoxide, was also studied. Limit of detection values ranging from 0.3 to 0.9 ng/SPMD and repeatability data, as relative standard deviation, from 2.9 to 9.4%, were achieved. Pyrethroid recoveries, for spiked SPMDs, with 100 ng of each one of the pyrethroids evaluated, were from 61 {+-} 8 to 103 {+-} 7% for microwave-assisted extraction, versus 54 {+-} 4 to 104 {+-} 3% for dialysis reference method. Substantial reduction of solvent consumed (from 400 to 60 mL) and analysis time (from 48 to 1 h) was achieved by using the developed procedure. High concentration levels of pyrethroid compounds, from 0.14 to 7.3 {mu}g/SPMD, were found in indoor air after 2 h of a standard application.

  3. Effects of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury on the blood-brain barrier permeability to [14C] and [13C]sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Mohammad K; Bickel, Ulrich; Mehvar, Reza

    2017-12-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy that is associated with severe liver failure may compromise the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. However, the effects of less severe liver diseases, in the absence of overt encephalopathy, on the BBB are not well understood. The goal of the current study was to investigate the effects of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury on the BBB tight junction permeability to small, hydrophilic molecules using the widely used [ 14 C]sucrose and recently-proposed alternative [ 13 C]sucrose as markers. Rats were subjected to 20 min of hepatic ischemia or sham surgery, followed by 8 h of reperfusion before administration of a single bolus dose of [ 14 C] or [ 13 C]sucrose and collection of serial (0-30 min) blood and plasma and terminal brain samples. The concentrations of [ 14 C] and [ 13 C]sucrose in the samples were determined by measurement of total radioactivity (nonspecific) and LC-MS/MS (specific), respectively. IR injury significantly increased the blood, plasma, and brain concentrations of both [ 14 C] and [ 13 C]sucrose. However, when the brain concentrations were corrected for their respective area under the blood concentration-time curve, only [ 14 C]sucrose showed significantly higher (30%) BBB permeability values in the IR animals. Because [ 13 C]sucrose is a more specific BBB permeability marker, these data indicate that our animal model of hepatic IR injury does not affect the BBB tight junction permeability to small, hydrophilic molecules. Methodological differences among studies of the effects of liver diseases on the BBB permeability may confound the conclusions of such studies.

  4. Selective and membrane-permeable small molecule inhibitors of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase reverse high fat diet-induced obesity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, Harshini; Vance, Virginia; Wetzel, Michael D; Wang, Hua-Yu Leo; McHardy, Stanton F; Finnerty, Celeste C; Hommel, Jonathan D; Watowich, Stanley J

    2018-01-01

    There is a critical need for new mechanism-of-action drugs that reduce the burden of obesity and associated chronic metabolic comorbidities. A potentially novel target to treat obesity and type 2 diabetes is nicotinamide-N-methyltransferase (NNMT), a cytosolic enzyme with newly identified roles in cellular metabolism and energy homeostasis. To validate NNMT as an anti-obesity drug target, we investigated the permeability, selectivity, mechanistic, and physiological properties of a series of small molecule NNMT inhibitors. Membrane permeability of NNMT inhibitors was characterized using parallel artificial membrane permeability and Caco-2 cell assays. Selectivity was tested against structurally-related methyltransferases and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) salvage pathway enzymes. Effects of NNMT inhibitors on lipogenesis and intracellular levels of metabolites, including NNMT reaction product 1-methylnicotianamide (1-MNA) were evaluated in cultured adipocytes. Effects of a potent NNMT inhibitor on obesity measures and plasma lipid were assessed in diet-induced obese mice fed a high-fat diet. Methylquinolinium scaffolds with primary amine substitutions displayed high permeability from passive and active transport across membranes. Importantly, methylquinolinium analogues displayed high selectivity, not inhibiting related SAM-dependent methyltransferases or enzymes in the NAD + salvage pathway. NNMT inhibitors reduced intracellular 1-MNA, increased intracellular NAD + and S-(5'-adenosyl)-l-methionine (SAM), and suppressed lipogenesis in adipocytes. Treatment of diet-induced obese mice systemically with a potent NNMT inhibitor significantly reduced body weight and white adipose mass, decreased adipocyte size, and lowered plasma total cholesterol levels. Notably, administration of NNMT inhibitors did not impact total food intake nor produce any observable adverse effects. These results support development of small molecule NNMT inhibitors as therapeutics to

  5. Membrane organization determines barrier properties of endothelial cells and short-chain sphingolipid-facilitated doxorubicin influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hell, A J; Klymchenko, A; Gueth, D M; van Blitterswijk, W J; Koning, G A; Verheij, M

    2014-09-01

    The endothelial lining and its outer lipid membrane are the first major barriers drug molecules encounter upon intravenous administration. Our previous work identified lipid analogs that counteract plasma membrane barrier function for a series of amphiphilic drugs. For example, short-chain sphingolipids (SCS), like N-octanoyl-glucosylceramide, effectively elevated doxorubicin accumulation in tumor cells, both in vitro and in vivo, and in endothelial cells, whereas other (normal) cells remained unaffected. We hypothesize here that local membrane lipid composition and the degree of lipid ordering define SCS efficacy in individual cells. To this end, we study the differential effect of SCS on bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) in its confluent versus proliferative state, as a model system. While their (plasma membrane) lipidome stays remarkably unaltered when BAECs reach confluency, their lipids segregate to form apical and basolateral domains. Using probe NR12S, we reveal that lipids in the apical membrane are more condensed/liquid-ordered. SCS preferentially attenuate the barrier posed by these condensed membranes and facilitate doxorubicin influx in these particular membrane regions. We confirm these findings in MDCK cells and artificial membranes. In conclusion, SCS-facilitated drug traversal acts on condensed membrane domains, elicited by confluency in resting endothelium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Contamination movement around a permeable reactive barrier at Solid Waste Management Unit 12, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Conlon, Kevin J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast investigated natural and engineered remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound groundwater contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12 at the Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, beginning in 2000. In early 2004, groundwater contaminants began moving around the southern end of a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) installed by a consultant in December 2002. The PRB is a 130-foot-long and 3-foot-wide barrier consisting of varying amounts of zero-valent iron with or without sand mixture. Contamination moving around the PRB probably has been transported at least 75 feet downgradient from the PRB at a rate of about 15 to 29 feet per year.

  7. Anti-fouling and high water permeable forward osmosis membrane fabricated via layer by layer assembly of chitosan/graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Hasan; Rastgar, Masoud; Shakeri, Alireza

    2017-08-01

    To date, forward osmosis (FO) has received considerable attention due to its potential application in seawater desalination. FO does not require external hydraulic pressure and consequently is believed to have a low fouling propensity. Despite the numerous privileges of FO process, a major challenge ahead for its development is the lack of high performance membranes. In this study, we fabricated a novel highly-efficient FO membrane using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of positive chitosan (CS) and negative graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets via electrostatic interaction on a porous support layer. The support layer was prepared by blending hydrophilic sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES) into polyethersulfone (PES) matrix using wet phase inversion process. Various characterization techniques were used to confirm successful fabrication of LbL membrane. The number of layers formed on the SPES-PES support layer was easily adjusted by repeating the CS and GO deposition cycles. Thin film composite (TFC) membrane was also prepared by the same SPES-PES support layer and polyamide (PA) active layer to compare membranes performances. The water permeability and salt rejection of the fabricated membranes were obtained by two kinds of draw solutions (including Na2SO4 and sucrose) under two different membrane orientations. The results showed that membrane coated by a CS/GO bilayers had water flux of 2-4 orders of magnitude higher than the TFC one. By increasing the number of CS/GO bilayers, the selectivity of the LbL membrane was improved. The novel fabricated LbL membrane showed better fouling resistance than the TFC one in the feed solution containing 200 ppm of sodium alginate as a foulant model.

  8. Adjunctive Effect of Autologus Platelet-Rich Fibrin to Barrier Membrane in the Treatment of Periodontal Intrabony Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Saurav; Sankari, Malaiappan; Satpathy, Anurag; Jayakumar, Doraiswamy; Mozzati, Marco; Mortellaro, Carmen; Gallesio, Giorgia; Taschieri, Silvio; Del Fabbro, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    Autologous platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and barrier membranes in the treatment of intrabony defects in chronic periodontitis patients have shown significant clinical benefits. This study evaluates the additive effect of autologous PRF in combination with a barrier membrane versus the use of barrier membrane alone for the treatment of intrabony defects in chronic periodontitis patients. A randomized split-mouth design was used. Sixteen patients with 32 paired intrabony defects were included. In each patient 1 defect was treated using a resorbable collagen membrane along with PRF (test group) and the other defect by guided tissue regeneration alone (control group). The following clinical parameters were measured at baseline and after 9 months: plaque index, modified sulcus bleeding index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, and gingival marginal level. The radiographic defect depth was also assessed at baseline and after 9 months. Test group showed a statistically significant improvement for probing depth (P = 0.002), clinical attachment level (P = 0.001), and radiographic defect depth (P < 0.001) after 9 months as compared with the control sites. Radiographic defect depth reduction was 58.19 ± 13.24% in the test group as compared with 24.86 ± 9.94% reduction in the control group. The adjunctive use of PRF in combination with barrier membrane is more effective in the treatment of intrabony defects in chronic periodontitis as compared with barrier membrane alone.

  9. Diabetic and sympathetic influences on the water permeability barrier function of human skin as measured using transepidermal water loss: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Hoon; Park, Ji Woong

    2017-11-01

    The presence of long-standing hyperglycemic conditions has been suggested to lead to many skin problems associated with an impaired skin barrier function. However, the relationship between impaired skin barrier status and altered peripheral nervous system function has not yet been determined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the water evaporation rate as a measure of the permeability barrier function of diabetic skin and its relationship to diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) and peripheral autonomic neuropathy (PAN) using well-controlled confounding variables.This case-control study included 42 participants with chronic diabetes and 43 matched healthy controls. The diabetic group underwent a nerve conduction study and sympathetic skin response (SSR) test to confirm the presence of DSPN and PAN, respectively. Different skin regions were analyzed using the noninvasive Tewameter instrument (Courage + Khazaka Electronic GmbH, Cologne, Germany). The impacts of PAN, DSPN, age, and diabetes duration on the values of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were each analyzed and compared between the groups.Regardless of the presence of DSPN or PAN, the TEWL values as measured on the distal extremities were significantly lower in the diabetic group than in the control group. In the diabetic group, participants with abnormal SSR test results showed decreased TEWL values in the finger, sole, and first toe, as compared with participants with normal SSR test results. In the control group, age showed a negative correlation with the TEWL values with respect to some measured regions. However, in the diabetic group, there was no significant correlation between either patient age or diabetes duration and TEWL values.The presence of a long-term hyperglycemic state can reduce the permeability barrier function of the skin, a phenomenon that might be related to the presence of an impaired peripheral sympathetic nervous system, rather than peripheral sensorimotor

  10. Effect of porosity heterogeneity on the permeability and tortuosity of gas diffusion layers in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabovati, Aydin; Hinebaugh, James; Bazylak, Aimy; Amon, Cristina H.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of porosity heterogeneity on the bulk hydrodynamic properties (permeability and tortuosity) of simulated gas diffusion layers (GDLs). The porosity distributions of the heterogeneous reconstructed samples are similar to those previously reported in the literature for Toray TGP-H 120™ GDLs. We use the lattice Boltzmann method to perform pore-level flow simulations in the reconstructed GDL samples. Using the results of pore-level simulations, the effect of porosity distribution is characterized on the predicted in- and cross-plane permeability and tortuosity. It was found that porosity heterogeneity causes a higher in-plane permeability and lower in-plane tortuosity, while the effect is opposite in the cross-plane direction, that is a lower cross-plane permeability and a higher cross-plane tortuosity. We further investigate the effect of adding poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE) & binder material to the reconstructed GDL samples. Three fiber volume percentages of 50, 75, and 100% are considered. Overall, increasing the fiber volume percentage reduces the predicted in- and cross-plane permeability and tortuosity values. A previously reported relationship for permeability of fibrous materials is fitted to the predicted permeability values, and the magnitude of the fitting parameter is reported as a function of fiber volume percentage.

  11. Measurement of brain perfusion, blood volume, and blood-brain barrier permeability, using dynamic contrast-enhanced T(1)-weighted MRI at 3 tesla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Henrik B W; Courivaud, Frédéric; Rostrup, Egill

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of vascular properties is essential to diagnosis and follow-up and basic understanding of pathogenesis in brain tumors. In this study, a procedure is presented that allows concurrent estimation of cerebral perfusion, blood volume, and blood-brain permeability from dynamic T(1)-weighted...... on a pixel-by-pixel basis of cerebral perfusion, cerebral blood volume, and blood-brain barrier permeability.......Assessment of vascular properties is essential to diagnosis and follow-up and basic understanding of pathogenesis in brain tumors. In this study, a procedure is presented that allows concurrent estimation of cerebral perfusion, blood volume, and blood-brain permeability from dynamic T(1)-weighted...... imaging of a bolus of a paramagnetic contrast agent passing through the brain. The methods are applied in patients with brain tumors and in healthy subjects. Perfusion was estimated by model-free deconvolution using Tikhonov's method (gray matter/white matter/tumor: 72 +/- 16/30 +/- 8/56 +/- 45 mL/100 g...

  12. A polymeric micelle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent reveals blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability for macromolecules in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Kouichi; Wang, Zuojun; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Aoki, Ichio; Yokoyama, Masayuki

    2017-05-10

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening is a key phenomenon for understanding ischemia-reperfusion injuries that are directly linked to hemorrhagic transformation. The recombinant human tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA) increases the risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhages. Recent imaging technologies have advanced our understanding of pathological BBB disorders; however, an ongoing challenge in the pre-"rtPA treatment" stage is the task of developing a rigorous method for hemorrhage-risk assessments. Therefore, we examined a novel method for assessment of rtPA-extravasation through a hyper-permeable BBB. To examine the image diagnosis of rtPA-extravasation for a rat transient occlusion-reperfusion model, in this study we used a polymeric micelle MRI contrast-agent (Gd-micelles). Specifically, we used two MRI contrast agents at 1h after reperfusion. Gd-micelles provided very clear contrast images in 15.5±10.3% of the ischemic hemisphere at 30min after i.v. injection, whereas a classic gadolinium chelate MRI contrast agent provided no satisfactorily clear images. The obtained images indicate both the hyper-permeable BBB area for macromolecules and the distribution area of macromolecules in the ischemic hemisphere. Owing to their large molecular weight, Gd-micelles remained in the ischemic hemisphere through the hyper-permeable BBB. Our results indicate the feasibility of a novel clinical diagnosis for evaluating rtPA-related hemorrhage risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Polymeric membrane materials: new aspects of empirical approaches to prediction of gas permeability parameters in relation to permanent gases, linear lower hydrocarbons and some toxic gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykh, O V; Golub, A Yu; Teplyakov, V V

    2011-05-11

    Membrane gas separation technologies (air separation, hydrogen recovery from dehydrogenation processes, etc.) use traditionally the glassy polymer membranes with dominating permeability of "small" gas molecules. For this purposes the membranes based on the low free volume glassy polymers (e.g., polysulfone, tetrabromopolycarbonate and polyimides) are used. On the other hand, an application of membrane methods for VOCs and some toxic gas recovery from air, separation of the lower hydrocarbons containing mixtures (in petrochemistry and oil refining) needs the membranes with preferable penetration of components with relatively larger molecular sizes. In general, this kind of permeability is characterized for rubbers and for the high free volume glassy polymers. Data files accumulated (more than 1500 polymeric materials) represent the region of parameters "inside" of these "boundaries." Two main approaches to the prediction of gas permeability of polymers are considered in this paper: (1) the statistical treatment of published transport parameters of polymers and (2) the prediction using model of ≪diffusion jump≫ with consideration of the key properties of the diffusing molecule and polymeric matrix. In the frames of (1) the paper presents N-dimensional methods of the gas permeability estimation of polymers using the correlations "selectivity/permeability." It is found that the optimal accuracy of prediction is provided at n=4. In the frames of the solution-diffusion mechanism (2) the key properties include the effective molecular cross-section of penetrating species to be responsible for molecular transportation in polymeric matrix and the well known force constant (ε/k)(eff i) of {6-12} potential for gas-gas interaction. Set of corrected effective molecular cross-section of penetrant including noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe), permanent gases (H(2), O(2), N(2), CO), ballast and toxic gases (CO(2), NO(,) NO(2), SO(2), H(2)S) and linear lower hydrocarbons (CH(4

  14. Polyurethane Membranes Modified with Isopropyl Myristate as a Potential Candidate for Encapsulating Electronic Implants: A Study of Biocompatibility and Water Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepen Paul

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Medical polyurethanes have shown good bio-stability and mechanical properties and have been used as coating for implantable medical devices. However, despite their excellent properties, they are relatively permeable to liquid water and water vapour which is a drawback for electronic implant encapsulation. In this study polyether polyurethanes with different soft segment molecular weights were modified by incorporating isopropyl myristate (IPM, as a hydrophobic modifying agent, and the effect of IPM on water resistant and biocompatibility of membranes were investigated. IPM changed the surface properties of the polyurethane film and reduced its surface energy. Polyurethane films were found to be stable with IPM concentrations of 1–5 wt% based upon their chemistry; however it leached out in BSA at higher concentrations. Though, low concentrations of IPM reduced both liquid water and water vapour permeability; at higher IPM content liquid permeability did not improved significantly. In general, the polyurethane materials showed much lower water permeability compared with currently used silicone packaging material for electronic implants. In addition, cytotoxicity assessment of IPM containing polyurethanes showed no evidence of cytotoxcity up to 5 wt% IPM.

  15. Nanoporous Membrane Technologies for Pathogen Collection, Separation, and Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Sang W; Shang, Hao; Lee, Gil U; Griffin, Matthew T; Fulton, Jack

    2003-01-01

    Partial contents: Nanoporous Membranes, Membrane Chemistries, Characterization of Membrane Chemistries,Protein Fouling, Collector,Gas and Liquid Permeabilities, Membrane Permeabilities in the Presence of Water...

  16. Effects of casein glycomacropeptide supplementation on growth performance, intestinal morphology, intestinal barrier permeability and inflammatory responses in Escherichia coli K88 challenged piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yili Rong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP is a bioactive peptide derived from milk with multiple functions. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of CGMP as a potential feed additive on growth performance, intestinal morphology, intestinal barrier permeability and inflammatory responses of Escherichia coli K88 (E. coli K88 challenged piglets. Eighteen weaning piglets were randomly assigned to three groups. Control group and K88 challenged group received a basal diet, and CGMP treated group received the basal diet supplemented with 1% of CGMP powder. The trail lasted for 12 days, K88 was orally administered to the piglets of K88 challenged group and CGMP treated group on days 8–10. The results showed that the diet containing 1% CGMP significantly alleviated the decrease in average daily gain (P  0.05 and barrier permeability damage (P < 0.05, and acute inflammatory response (P < 0.05 induced by E. coli K88 infection. In conclusion, CGMP supplementation in the diet protected the weaning piglets against E. coli K88 infection.

  17. Hydrogen permeability through metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarev, A.A.; Tsvetkov, I.V.; Marenkov, E.D.; Yarko, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms of hydrogen permeability through one-layer and multi-layer membranes are considered. The effect of surface roughness, crystal defects, cracks and pores is described. Mathematical description of the processes is given [ru

  18. Using dissolved gas analysis to investigate the performance of an organic carbon permeable reactive barrier for the treatment of mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.L.; Mayer, K.U.; Amos, R.T.; Blowes, D.W.; Ptacek, C.J.; Bain, J.G.

    2007-01-01

    The strongly reducing nature of permeable reactive barrier (PRB) treatment materials can lead to gas production, potentially resulting in the formation of gas bubbles and ebullition. Degassing in organic C based PRB systems due to the production of gases (primarily CO2 and CH4) is investigated using the depletion of naturally occurring non-reactive gases Ar and N2, to identify, confirm, and quantify chemical and physical processes. Sampling and analysis of dissolved gases were performed at the Nickel Rim Mine Organic Carbon PRB, which was designed for the treatment of groundwater contaminated by low quality mine drainage characterized by slightly acidic pH, and elevated Fe(II) and SO4 concentrations. A simple 4-gas degassing model was used to analyze the dissolved gas data, and the results indicate that SO4 reduction is by far the dominant process of organic C consumption within the barrier. The data provided additional information to delineate rates of microbially mediated SO4 reduction and confirm the presence of slow and fast flow zones within the barrier. Degassing was incorporated into multicomponent reactive transport simulations for the barrier and the simulations were successful in reproducing observed dissolved gas trends.

  19. Oxygen permeability of transition metal-containing La(Sr,PrGa(MgO3-δ ceramic membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frade, J. R.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Acceptor-type doping of perovskite-type La1-xSrxGa0.80-yMgyM0.20O3-δ (x = 0-0.20, y = 0.15-0.20, M = Fe, Co, Ni leads to significant enhancement of ionic conductivity and oxygen permeability due to increasing oxygen vacancy concentration. The increase in strontium and magnesium content is accompanied, however, with increasing role of surface exchange kinetics as permeation-limiting factor. At temperatures below 1223 K, the oxygen permeation fluxes through La(SrGa(Mg,MO3-δ membranes with thickness less than 1.5 mm are predominantly limited by the exchange rates at membrane surface. The oxygen transport in transition metal-containing La(SrGa(MgO3-δ ceramics increase in the sequence Co El dopado aceptor de cerámicas tipo perovskita La1-xSrxGa0.80-yMgyM0.20O3-δ (x = 0-0.20, y = 0.15-0.20, M = Fe, Co, Ni da lugar a una mejora significativa de la conductividad iónica y de la permeabilidad al oxígeno debido al aumento de la concentración de vacantes de oxígeno. Sin embargo, el aumento de la cantidad de estroncio y magnesio viene acompañado de un aumento de la participación de las cinéticas de intercambio superficial como factor limitante de la permeabilidad. A temperaturas por debajo de 1223 K la permeabilidad al flujo de oxígeno a través de las membranas de La(SrGa(Mg,MO3-δ con espesor menor de 1.5 mm está limitado principalmente por las velocidades de intercambio en la superficie de la membrana. El transporte de oxígeno en las cerámicas La(SrGa(MgO3-δ que contienen M aumenta en la secuencia Co < Fe < Ni. La conductividad iónica en estas fases es, sin embargo, menor que en la de los compuestos La1-xSrxGa1-yMgyO3-δ. El mayor nivel de permeabilidad de oxígeno, comparable a la de las fases basadas en La(SrFe(CoO3 y La2NiO4, se observa para las membranas de La0.90Sr0.10Ga0.65Mg0.15Ni0.20O3-δ. Los coeficientes de dilatación térmica medios de las cerámicas La(SrGa(Mg,MO3-δ en aire son del orden de (11.6–18.4 × 10-6 K-1 a 373

  20. Characteristics of membranes which are suitable for isotopic separation by gaseous diffusion; Caracteristiques des barrieres utilisables pour la separation isotopique par diffusion gazeuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massignon, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    In this article we shall briefly describe how results obtained from the experimental analysis of the structure of membranes can be used on the one hand for determining this structure and on the other hand as a result for example of the detection of too many large pores or micro fissures and the existence of leaks at the joints, for eliminating membranes which can not be used industrially. Here we shall only consider the utilisation of information given by measurement of the specific permeability G{sub 0}, the pore radius for the molecular (diffusion) regime r{sub mol.}, the pore radius for the viscous diffusion regime the pore radius for the intermediate stage of diffusion, r{sub wicke}, the pore radius r{sub sep.} which is used for determining the actual separation, the distribution of the pore radius defined by mercury symmetry, the B.E.T. and central X ray diffusion. First of all we shall give the definition which is adopted in practice for these empirical values, which can be adapted for a rapid analysis of the quality of membranes by comparing them with the same measurements carried out on standard porous samples. In a second section we show in a few cases which have occurred in routine measurement how by comparison it is possible to eliminate membranes which do not have a suitable structure. (author) [French] Dans cet expose, nous allons montrer sommairement comment les resultats donnes par les methodes experimentales de controle de la structure des barrieres peuvent, d'une part, conduire a une certaine representation de cette structure et, d'autre part, permettre d'eliminer les barrieres non utilisables industriellement en detectant par exemple les trop nombreux gros pores ou microfissures et l'existence de fuites aux joints. Nous nous limiterons ici a l'exploitation des renseignements donnes par la permeabilite specifique G{sub 0}, le rayon de pore r{sub mol.} effectif en regime moleculaire, le rayon de pore r{sub visq.} effectif en regime visqueux, le

  1. Fine-Tuned Intrinsically Ultramicroporous Polymers Redefine the Permeability/Selectivity Upper Bounds of Membrane-Based Air and Hydrogen Separations

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Raja

    2015-08-20

    Intrinsically ultramicroporous (<7 Å) polymers represent a new paradigm in materials development for membrane-based gas separation. In particular, they demonstrate that uniting intrachain “rigidity”, the traditional design metric of highly permeable polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs), with gas-sieving ultramicroporosity yields high-performance gas separation membranes. Highly ultramicroporous PIMs have redefined the state-of-the-art in large-scale air (e.g., O2/N2) and hydrogen recovery (e.g., H2/N2, H2/CH4) applications with unprecedented molecular sieving gas transport properties. Accordingly, presented herein are new 2015 permeability/selectivity “upper bounds” for large-scale commercial membrane-based air and hydrogen applications that accommodate the substantial performance enhancements of recent PIMs over preceding polymers. A subtle balance between intrachain rigidity and interchain spacing has been achieved in the amorphous microstructures of PIMs, fine-tuned using unique bridged-bicyclic building blocks (i.e., triptycene, ethanoanthracene and Tröger’s base) in both ladder and semiladder (e.g., polyimide) structures.

  2. On the methanol permeability through pristine Nafion {sup registered} and Nafion/PVA membranes measured by different techniques. A comparison of methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molla, S.; Compan, V. [Departmento de Termodinamica Aplicada, Escuela de Ingenieria Tecnica Industrial (ETSII), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Instituto Tecnologico de la Energia (ITE), Av. Juan de la Cierva 24, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Luis Lafuente, S. [Departmento de Quimica Organica, Universidad Jaume I, 12072 Castellon (Spain); Prats, J. [Departmento de Termodinamica Aplicada, Escuela de Ingenieria Tecnica Industrial (ETSII), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Methanol crossover through polymer electrolyte membranes is a critical issue and causes an important reduction of performance in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Measuring the evolution of CO{sub 2} gas in the cathode is a common method to determine the methanol crossover under real operating conditions, although an easier and simpler method is preferable for the screening of membranes during their step of development. In this sense, this work has been focused on the ex situ characterization of the methanol permeability in novel nanofiber-reinforced composite Nafion/PVA membranes for DMFC application by means of three different experimental procedures: (a) potentiometric method, (b) gas chromatography technique, and (c) measuring the density. It was found that all these methods resulted in comparable results and it was observed that the incorporation of the PVA nanofiber phase within the Nafion {sup registered} matrix causes a remarkable reduction of the methanol permeability. The optimal choice of the most suitable technique depends on the accuracy expected for the methanol concentration, the availability of the required instrumental, and the complexity of the procedure. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. KB-R7943, a plasma membrane Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger inhibitor, blocks opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiczer, Brian M; Marcu, Raluca; Hawkins, Brian J

    2014-01-31

    The isothiourea derivative, KB-R7943, inhibits the reverse-mode of the plasma membrane sodium/calcium exchanger and protects against ischemia/reperfusion injury. The mechanism through which KB-R7943 confers protection, however, remains controversial. Recently, KB-R7943 has been shown to inhibit mitochondrial calcium uptake and matrix overload, which may contribute to its protective effects. While using KB-R7943 for this purpose, we find here no evidence that KB-R7943 directly blocks mitochondrial calcium uptake. Rather, we find that KB-R7943 inhibits opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in permeabilized cells and isolated liver mitochondria. Furthermore, we find that this observation correlates with protection against calcium ionophore-induced mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and cell death, without detrimental effects to basal mitochondrial membrane potential or complex I-dependent mitochondrial respiration. Our data reveal another mechanism through which KB-R7943 may protect against calcium-induced injury, as well as a novel means to inhibit the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Practical Application of Sheet Lead for Sound Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead Industries Association, New York, NY.

    Techniques for improving sound barriers through the use of lead sheeting are described. To achieve an ideal sound barrier a material should consist of the following properties--(1) high density, (2) freedom from stiffness, (3) good damping capacity, and (4) integrity as a non-permeable membrane. Lead combines these desired properties to a greater…

  5. A model of protocell based on the introduction of a semi-permeable membrane in a stochastic model of catalytic reaction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Villani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we introduce some preliminary analyses on the role of a semi-permeable membrane in the dynamics of a stochastic model of catalytic reaction sets (CRSs of molecules. The results of the simulations performed on ensembles of randomly generated reaction schemes highlight remarkable differences between this very simple protocell description model and the classical case of the continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR. In particular, in the CSTR case, distinct simulations with the same reaction scheme reach the same dynamical equilibrium, whereas, in the protocell case, simulations with identical reaction schemes can reach very different dynamical states, despite starting from the same initial conditions.

  6. Sol-gel synthesized of nanocomposite palladium-alumina ceramic membrane for H{sub 2} permeability: Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, A.L.; Mustafa, N.N.N. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2007-08-15

    Palladium-alumina membrane with mesopore and narrow pore size distribution was prepared by the sol-gel method. Effect of the finely dispersed metal on the microstructure and the characteristic properties of the palladium-alumina membrane were investigated. Observations were made on membrane weight loss, morphology, pore structure, pore size, surface area, pore surface fractal and membrane's crystal structure. Autosorb analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis were employed in the membrane characterization. Autosorb analysis found that, BET surface area decreased and pore size of the membrane increased with the increasing of calcinations temperature (500-1100{sup o}C) and with the increasing of palladium amount in the membrane. FTIR and TG/DTA analysis show that the suitable temperature for calcinations of palladium-alumina membrane is at 700{sup o}C. Palladium metals are highly dispersed at calcinations temperature of 700{sup o}C as observed by TEM analysis. The fine crystallinity of the palladium and {gamma}-alumina phase was obtained after calcined at 700{sup o}C. The SEM morphology shows a smooth and free crack layer of palladium-alumina membrane after repeating the process of dipping, drying and calcinations at temperature of 700{sup o}C. The membrane also successfully coated with a good adhesion on support. The thickness of the final membrane layer was estimated as 9{mu} m. (author)

  7. Enhanced permeability and antifouling performance of cellulose acetate ultrafiltration membrane assisted by l-DOPA functionalized halloysite nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Keguang; Zhang, Dalun; Shao, Ziqiang; Qin, Dujian; Wang, Yalong; Wang, Shuo

    2017-10-15

    l-Dopa functionalized halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were prepared by the self-polymerization of l-dopa in the weak alkaline condition. Then different contents of l-dopa coated HNTs (LPDHNTs) were blended into cellulose acetate to prepare enhanced performance ultrafiltration membranes via the phase inversion method. The HNTs and LPDHNTs were characterized by FTIR, XPS, and TEM anysis. And the membranes morphologies, separation performance, antifouling performance, mechanical properties and hydrophilicity were also investigated. It was found that the composite membranes exhibited excellent antifouling performance. The pure water flux of 3.0wt% LPDHNTs/CA membrane increased from 11.4Lm -2 h -1 to 92.9Lm -2 h -1 , while the EA rejection ratio of the membrane was about 91.2%. In addition, the mechanical properties of the resultant membranes were strengthened compared with the CA ultrafiltration membrane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Minoxidil sulfate induced the increase in blood-brain tumor barrier permeability through ROS/RhoA/PI3K/PKB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yan-ting; Xue, Yi-xue; Wang, Yan-feng; Wang, Jin-hui; Chen, Xia; ShangGuan, Qian-ru; Lian, Yan; Zhong, Lei; Meng, Ying-nan

    2013-12-01

    Adenosine 5'-triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel (KATP channel) activator, minoxidil sulfate (MS), can selectively increase the permeability of the blood-tumor barrier (BTB); however, the mechanism by which this occurs is still under investigation. Using a rat brain glioma (C6) model, we first examined the expression levels of occludin and claudin-5 at different time points after intracarotid infusion of MS (30 μg/kg/min) by western blotting. Compared to MS treatment for 0 min group, the protein expression levels of occludin and claudin-5 in brain tumor tissue of rats showed no changes within 1 h and began to decrease significantly after 2 h of MS infusion. Based on these findings, we then used an in vitro BTB model and selective inhibitors of diverse signaling pathways to investigate whether reactive oxygen species (ROS)/RhoA/PI3K/PKB pathway play a key role in the process of the increase of BTB permeability induced by MS. The inhibitor of ROS or RhoA or PI3K or PKB significantly attenuated the expression of tight junction (TJ) protein and the increase of the BTB permeability after 2 h of MS treatment. In addition, the significant increases in RhoA activity and PKB phosphorylation after MS administration were observed, which were partly inhibited by N-2-mercaptopropionyl glycine (MPG) or C3 exoenzyme or LY294002 pretreatment. The present study indicates that the activation of signaling cascades involving ROS/RhoA/PI3K/PKB in BTB was required for the increase of BTB permeability induced by MS. Taken together, all of these results suggested that MS might increase BTB permeability in a time-dependent manner by down-regulating TJ protein expression and this effect could be related to ROS/RhoA/PI3K/PKB signal pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Altered blood-brain barrier permeability in rats with prehepatic portal hypertension turns to normal when portal pressure is lowered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizayaga, Francisco; Scorticati, Camila; Prestifilippo, Juan P; Romay, Salvador; Fernandez, Maria A; Castro, José L; Lemberg, Abraham; Perazzo, Juan C

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the blood-brain barrier integrity in prehepatic portal hypertensive rats induced by partial portal vein ligation, at 14 and 40 d after ligation when portal pressure is spontaneously normalized. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Group I: Sham14d , sham operated; Group II: PH14d , portal vein stenosis; (both groups were used 14 days after surgery); Group III: Sham40d, Sham operated and Group IV: PH40d Portal vein stenosis (Groups II and IV used 40 d after surgery). Plasma ammonia, plasma and cerebrospinal fluid protein and liver enzymes concentrations were determined. Trypan and Evans blue dyes, systemically injected, were investigated in hippocampus to study blood-brain barrier integrity. Portal pressure was periodically recorded. RESULTS: Forty days after stricture, portal pressure was normalized, plasma ammonia was moderately high, and both dyes were absent in central nervous system parenchyma. All other parameters were reestablished. When portal pressure was normalized and ammonia level was lowered, but not normal, the altered integrity of blood-brain barrier becomes reestablished. CONCLUSION: The impairment of blood-brain barrier and subsequent normalization could be a mechanism involved in hepatic encephalopathy reversibility. Hemodynamic changes and ammonia could trigger blood-brain barrier alterations and its reestablishment. PMID:16552803

  10. Dietary Virgin Olive Oil Reduces Blood Brain Barrier Permeability, Brain Edema, and Brain Injury in Rats Subjected to Ischemia-Reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mohagheghi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that dietary virgin olive oil (VOO reduces hypoxia-reoxygenation injury in rat brain slices. We sought to extend these observations in an in vivo study of rat cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Four groups, each consisting of 18 Wistar rats, were studied. One group (control received saline, while three treatment groups received oral VOO (0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 mL/kg/day, respectively. After 30 days, blood lipid profiles were determined, before a 60-min period of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO. After 24-h reperfusion, neurological deficit scores, infarct volume, brain edema, and blood brain barrier permeability were each assessed in subgroups of six animals drawn from each main group. VOO reduced the LDL/HDL ratio in doses of 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 mL/kg/day in comparison to the control group (p < 0.05, and offered cerebroprotection from ischemia-reperfusion. For controls vs. doses of 0.25 vs. 0.5 vs. 0.75 mL/kg/day, attenuated corrected infarct volumes were 207.82 ± 34.29 vs. 206.41 ± 26.23 vs. 124.21 ± 14.73 vs. 108.46 ± 31.63 mm3; brain water content of the infarcted hemisphere was 82 ±± 0.25 vs. 81.5 ± 0.56 vs. 80.5 ± 0.22 vs. 80.5 ± 0.34%; and blood brain barrier permeability of the infarcted hemisphere was 11.31 ± 2.67 vs. 9.21 ± 2.28 vs. 5.83 ± 1.6 vs. 4.43 ± 0.93 µg/g tissue (p < 0.05 for measures in doses 0.5 and 0.75 mL/kg/day vs. controls. Oral administration of VOO reduces infarct volume, brain edema, blood brain barrier permeability, and improves neurologic deficit scores after transient MCAO in rats.

  11. Permeable membranes - a tool for simplified sampling of hydrocarbon gases?; Permeable Membranen - Ein Wekzeug zur vereinfachten Probenahme von Kohlenwasserstoff-Gasen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, E.; Hollerbach, A.; Poggenburg, J.; Stahl, W. [BGR, Hannover (Germany); Kaiser, H. [KaiserGEOconsult GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Huebner, M. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Tobschall, H.J. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Geologie

    1998-12-31

    Tissue membranes are commonly used for leak detection in gas pipes. Another interesting application is in the isolation of hydrocarbons in water, sediments and soils. this requires knowledge of the time variations of the parameters of the diffusion gases, e.g. gas and isotope fractionations. Laboratory experiments were carried out in order to describe these parameters. (orig.) [Deutsch] Membranen haben die spezifische Eigenschaft fuer bestimmte Stoffe in der Gasphase durchlaessig, fuer andere mehr oder weniger undurchlaessig zu sein. Grundlage fuer ein derartiges Trennverhalten ist die Gasdiffusion durch Membranen, die mit unterschiedlichen Diffusionskoeffizienten der verschiedenen Komponenten erfolgt. Membranen in Schlauchform sind in industriellem Massstab verfuegbar und werden zur Erkennung von Ortung von Gas-Leckagen eingesetzt (Huebner und Lilie, 1997). Ueber die Leckage-Thematik hinaus besteht Interesse, das Membransystem fuer neue Anwendungsbereiche wie z.B. die Isolierung von Kohlenwasserstoffgasen aus Wasser, Sedimenten oder auch Boeden zu verwenden, um detaillierte Informationen ueber ihre Natur und ihre Herkunft aus der Gaszusammensetzung und den Kohlenstoff-Isotopenwerten (Faber, 1987) abzuleiten. Voraussetzung hierfuer ist die Kenntnis ueber die zeitlichen Aenderungen der Parameter der diffundierenden Gase, d.h. ueber die bei Diffusionsvorgaengen grundsaetzlich auftretenden Gas- und Isotopenfraktionierungen. Verschiedene Laborversuche wurden durchgefuehrt, um diese Parameter zu bestimmen. (orig.)

  12. Noise alters guinea pig's blood-labyrinth barrier ultrastructure and permeability along with a decrease of cochlear Claudin-5 and Occludin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yong-Xiang; Zhu, Guo-Xia; Liu, Xin-Qin; Sun, Fei; Zhou, Ke; Wang, Shuang; Wang, Chun-Mei; Jia, Jin-Wen; Song, Jian-Tao; Lu, Lian-Jun

    2014-12-24

    Noise exposure (NE) is a severe modern health hazard that induces hearing impairment. However, the noise-induced ultrastructural changes of blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB) and the potential involvements of tight junction proteins (TJP) remain inconclusive. We investigated the effects of NE on not only the ultrastructure of cochlea and permeability of BLB but also the expression of TJP within the guinea pig cochlea. Male albino guinea pigs were exposed to white noise for 4 h or 2 consecutive days (115 dB sound pressure level, 6 hours per day) and the hearing impairments and light microscopic change of BLB were evaluated with auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and the cochlear sensory epithelia surface preparation, respectively. The cochlear ultrastructure and BLB permeability after NE 2d were revealed with transmission electron microscope (TEM) and lanthanum nitrate-tracing techniques, respectively. The potential alterations of TJPs Claudin-5 and Occludin were quantified with immunohistochemistry and western blot. NE induced significant hearing impairment and NE 2d contributed to significant outer hair cell (OHC) loss that is most severe in the first row of outer hair cells. Furthermore, the loosen TJ and an obvious leakage of lanthanum nitrate particles beneath the basal lamina were revealed with TEM. Moreover, a dose-dependent decrease of Claudin-5 and Occludin was observed in the cochlea after NE. All these findings suggest that both decrease of Claudin-5 and Occludin and increased BLB permeability are involved in the pathologic process of noise-induced hearing impairment; however, the causal relationship and underlying mechanisms should be further investigated.

  13. Methamphetamine transiently increases the blood-brain barrier permeability in the hippocampus: role of tight junction proteins and matrix metalloproteinase-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Tânia; Baptista, Sofia; Gonçalves, Joana; Leal, Ermelindo; Milhazes, Nuno; Borges, Fernanda; Ribeiro, Carlos F; Quintela, Oscar; Lendoiro, Elena; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Ambrósio, António F; Silva, Ana P

    2011-09-09

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful stimulant drug of abuse that has steadily gained popularity worldwide. It is known that METH is highly neurotoxic and causes irreversible damage of brain cells leading to neurological and psychiatric abnormalities. Recent studies suggested that METH-induced neurotoxicity might also result from its ability to compromise blood-brain barrier (BBB) function. Due to the crucial role of BBB in the maintenance of brain homeostasis and protection against toxic molecules and pathogenic organisms, its dysfunction could have severe consequences. In this study, we investigated the effect of an acute high dose of METH (30mg/kg) on BBB permeability after different time points and in different brain regions. For that, young adult mice were sacrificed 1h, 24h or 72h post-METH administration. METH increased BBB permeability, but this effect was detected only at 24h after administration, being therefore a transitory effect. Interestingly, we also found that the hippocampus was the most susceptible brain region to METH, comparing to frontal cortex and striatum. Moreover, in an attempt to identify the key players in METH-induced BBB dysfunction we further investigated potential alterations in tight junction (TJ) proteins and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). METH was able to decrease the protein levels of zonula occludens (ZO)-1, claudin-5 and occludin in the hippocampus 24h post-injection, and increased the activity and immunoreactivity of MMP-9. The pre-treatment with BB-94 (30mg/kg), a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, prevented the METH-induced increase in MMP-9 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus. Overall, the present data demonstrate that METH transiently increases the BBB permeability in the hippocampus, which can be explained by alterations on TJ proteins and MMP-9. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Charge modification of the endothelial surface layer modulates the permeability barrier of isolated rat mesenteric small arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haaren, Paul M. A.; VanBavel, Ed; Vink, Hans; Spaan, Jos A. E.

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesized that modulation of the effective charge density of the endothelial surface layer ( ESL) results in altered arterial barrier properties to transport of anionic solutes. Rat mesenteric small arteries ( diameter similar to 190 mu m) were isolated, cannulated, perfused, and superfused

  15. Examination of blood-brain barrier permeability in dementia of the Alzheimer type with [68Ga]EDTA and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlageter, N.L.; Carson, R.E.; Rapoport, S.I.

    1987-01-01

    Positron emission tomography with [ 68 Ga]ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ([ 68 Ga]EDTA) was used to examine the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in five patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type and in five healthy age-matched controls. Within a scanning time of 90 min, there was no evidence that measurable intravascular tracer entered the brain in either the dementia or the control group. An upper limit for the cerebrovascular permeability-surface area product of [68Ga]EDTA was estimated as 2 X 10(-6) s-1 in both groups. The results provide no evidence for breakdown of the BBB in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type

  16. Examination of blood-brain barrier permeability in dementia of the Alzheimer type with [68Ga]EDTA and positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlageter, N L; Carson, R E; Rapoport, S I

    1987-02-01

    Positron emission tomography with [68Ga]ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ([68Ga]EDTA) was used to examine the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in five patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type and in five healthy age-matched controls. Within a scanning time of 90 min, there was no evidence that measurable intravascular tracer entered the brain in either the dementia or the control group. An upper limit for the cerebrovascular permeability-surface area product of [68Ga]EDTA was estimated as 2 X 10(-6) s-1 in both groups. The results provide no evidence for breakdown of the BBB in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type.

  17. Examination of blood-brain barrier permeability in dementia of the Alzheimer type with (68Ga)EDTA and positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlageter, N.L.; Carson, R.E.; Rapoport, S.I.

    1987-02-01

    Positron emission tomography with (/sup 68/Ga)ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ((/sup 68/Ga)EDTA) was used to examine the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in five patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type and in five healthy age-matched controls. Within a scanning time of 90 min, there was no evidence that measurable intravascular tracer entered the brain in either the dementia or the control group. An upper limit for the cerebrovascular permeability-surface area product of (68Ga)EDTA was estimated as 2 X 10(-6) s-1 in both groups. The results provide no evidence for breakdown of the BBB in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type.

  18. Uranium Removal from Groundwater by Permeable Reactive Barrier with Zero-Valent Iron and Organic Carbon Mixtures: Laboratory and Field Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys Kornilovych

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Zhovty Vody city, located in south-central Ukraine, has long been an important center for the Ukrainian uranium and iron industries. Uranium and iron mining and processing activities during the Cold War resulted in poorly managed sources of radionuclides and heavy metals. Widespread groundwater and surface water contamination has occurred, which creates a significant risk to drinking water supplies. Hydrogeologic and geochemical conditions near large uranium mine tailings storage facility (TSF were characterized to provide data to locate, design and install a permeable reactive barrier (PRB to treat groundwater contaminated by leachate infiltrating from the TSF. The effectiveness of three different permeable reactive materials was investigated: zero-valent iron (ZVI for reduction, sorption, and precipitation of redox-sensitive oxyanions; phosphate material to transform dissolved metals to less soluble phases; and organic carbon substrates to promote bioremediation processes. Batch and column experiments with Zhovty Vody site groundwater were conducted to evaluate reactivity of the materials. Reaction rates, residence time and comparison with site-specific clean-up standards were determined. Results of the study demonstrate the effectiveness of the use of the PRB for ground water protection near uranium mine TSF. The greatest decrease was obtained using ZVI-based reactive media and the combined media of ZVI/phosphate/organic carbon combinations.

  19. Kinetics of the flash-induced P515 response in relation to the H+-permeability of the membrane bound ATPase in spinach chloroplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.L.; van Kooten, O.; Vredenberg, W.J.

    1985-08-01

    The effect of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) on the kinetics of the flash-induced P515 response and on the activity of the ATPase was investigated in isolated spinach chloroplasts. It was found that after the addition of 5 X 10(-8)mol DCCD the rate of ATP hydrolysis induced by a period of 60 sec illumination was decreased to less than 5% of its original value. At this concentration, hardly any effect, if at all, could be detected on the kinetics of the flash-induced P515 response, neither in dark-adapted nor in light-activated chloroplasts. It was concluded that the presence of concentrations of DCCD, sufficiently high to affect the ATPase activity, does not affect the kinetics of the flash-induced P515 response. Since DCCD decreases the H+ permeability of the membrane-bound ATPase, it was concluded that this permeability coefficient for protons is not an important factor in the regulation of the flash-induced membrane potential and, therefore, does not affect the kinetics of the flash-induced P515 response.

  20. Utilization of coal/biomass fly ash and bentonite as a low permeability barrier for the containment of acid-generating mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penney, K.; Mohamedelhassan, E.; Catalan, L.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    The control and treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) in decommissioned mine sites is a major environmental challenge. In general, AMD has a low pH, high acidity, and elevated concentrations of heavy metals. This study investigated the use of coal/biomass fly ash (CBFA) and CBFA/bentonite mixtures as a low permeability seal to contain acid generating mine tailings and treat AMD. Although pure CBFA is effective as a reactive barrier to treat most toxic metals in AMD, its initial hydraulic conductivity exceeds the maximum regulatory requirement of 1 x 10 -7 cm/s. Therefore, 3 cases were investigated, notably CBFA only; CBFA amended with low percentages of bentonite; and layering of CBFA and CBFA amended with bentonite. Practical geoenvironmental applications for low permeability CBFA or bentonite/CBFA mixtures include a cap overlying reactive mine tailings, a containment pond liner, and a core in containment dams and dykes. Mixing 10 per cent by mass bentonite with CBFA decreased the hydraulic conductivity to 1 x 10 -7 cm/s or less throughout the entire permeation by water and AMD. The installation of a layer of pure CBFA upstream of the bentonite/CBFA mixture resulted in a further decrease in hydraulic conductivity over time by preventing the collapse of the bentonite double layer and promoting precipitation of gypsum and ettringite in the CBFA layer. The effluent from all tested bentonite/CBFA barriers met the regulatory requirements for chemical parameters, except for aluminum which was leached from the CBFA. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs.

  1. Membrane dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications...... for the lateral organization of membranes as wells as for physical properties like bending, permeability and elasticity...

  2. Tunable permeability and selectivity : Heatable inorganic porous hollow fiber membrane with a thermo-responsive microgel coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohaus, T.; de Wit, P.; Kather, M.; Menne, D.; Benes, N. E.; Pich, A.; Wessling, M.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in responsive materials to design membranes with tunable properties increased in order to customize membranes for adaptable process requirements. The majority of development methods require external adjustment of the feed stream temperature to achieve a responsiveness

  3. Highly permeable double-skinned forward osmosis membranes for anti-fouling in the emulsified oil-water separation process

    KAUST Repository

    Duong, Hoang Hanh Phuoc; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung; Wei, Shawn; Irish, Lana

    2014-01-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) has attracted wide attention in recent years. However, the FO performance may be restricted due to internal concentration polarization (ICP) and fast fouling propensity that occurs in the membrane sublayer. Particularly, these problems significantly affect the membrane performance when treating highly contaminated oily wastewater. Recently, double-skinned flat sheet cellulose acetate (CA) membranes consisting of two selective skins via the phase inversion method have demonstrated less ICP and fouling propensity over typical single-skinned membranes. However, these membranes exhibit low water fluxes of <12 LMH under 2 M NaCl draw solution. Therefore, a novel double-skinned FO membrane with a high water flux has been aimed for in this study for emulsified oil-water treatment. The double-skinned FO membrane comprises a fully porous sublayer sandwiched between (i) a truly dense skin for salt rejection and (ii) a fairly loose dense skin for emulsified oil particle rejection. The former dense skin is a polyamide synthesized via interfacial polymerization, while the latter one is a self-assembled sulfonated pentablock copolymer (Nexar copolymer) layer. The resultant double-skinned membrane exhibits a high water flux of 17.2 LMH and a low reverse salt transport of 4.85 gMH using 0.5 M NaCl as the draw solution and DI water as the feed. The double-skinned membrane outperforms the single-skinned membrane with much lower fouling propensity for emulsified oil-water separation. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  4. Highly permeable double-skinned forward osmosis membranes for anti-fouling in the emulsified oil-water separation process

    KAUST Repository

    Duong, Hoang Hanh Phuoc

    2014-04-15

    Forward osmosis (FO) has attracted wide attention in recent years. However, the FO performance may be restricted due to internal concentration polarization (ICP) and fast fouling propensity that occurs in the membrane sublayer. Particularly, these problems significantly affect the membrane performance when treating highly contaminated oily wastewater. Recently, double-skinned flat sheet cellulose acetate (CA) membranes consisting of two selective skins via the phase inversion method have demonstrated less ICP and fouling propensity over typical single-skinned membranes. However, these membranes exhibit low water fluxes of <12 LMH under 2 M NaCl draw solution. Therefore, a novel double-skinned FO membrane with a high water flux has been aimed for in this study for emulsified oil-water treatment. The double-skinned FO membrane comprises a fully porous sublayer sandwiched between (i) a truly dense skin for salt rejection and (ii) a fairly loose dense skin for emulsified oil particle rejection. The former dense skin is a polyamide synthesized via interfacial polymerization, while the latter one is a self-assembled sulfonated pentablock copolymer (Nexar copolymer) layer. The resultant double-skinned membrane exhibits a high water flux of 17.2 LMH and a low reverse salt transport of 4.85 gMH using 0.5 M NaCl as the draw solution and DI water as the feed. The double-skinned membrane outperforms the single-skinned membrane with much lower fouling propensity for emulsified oil-water separation. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  5. Ultrastructural studies on the blood-brain barrier. Mainly as to changes in the permeability of cerebral capillary walls induced by experimental x-ray irradiation and the effect of glucocorticoid on such changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichitsubo, H [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1977-03-01

    In the present study, an ultrastructural examination was made of the role of capillary endothelial cells of the brain which is one of the constituent factors of the blood-brain barrier. In normal cerebral capillaries, both endothelial cells and the basement membrane were demonstrated to be not crossed by a tracer (horseradish peroxidase) even in 60 minutes after its intravenous administration, thus suggesting the blood-brain barrier effect. Author investigated changes in the permeability of cerebral capillary walls induced by experimental brain irradiation and the effect of glucocorticoid on such changes. On forty-eight hours following an appropriate irradiation a marked brain edema was developed; under such circumstances when the tracer was injected intravenously, on 60 minutes thereafter the tracer was demonstrated to be transferred into the neutral tissue, and this was interpreted as indicating that capillary hyperpermeability was induced. These findings were suggested that the mechanism of capillary hyperpermeability might not be based on the passage of a tight junction of the cells of capillary wall but rather on account of activated active transport via an increased number of pinocytotic vesicles. The mechanism of increase of pinocytotic vesicle appeared to be resulting from a breakdown of the controlling system of pinocytotic vesicle production. However, the existence of this controlling system is still speculative. Pre-and post-irradiation administration of glucocorticoid proved to be effective in the prevention of irradiation-induced hyperpermeability of cerebral capillaries, and to be indicating the possible usefulness of the drug for the maintenance or repair of the aforementioned system.

  6. Oxcarbazepine-loaded polymeric nanoparticles: development and permeability studies across in vitro models of the blood–brain barrier and human placental trophoblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopalco A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Lopalco,1–3,* Hazem Ali,1,* Nunzio Denora,3 Erik Rytting1,4,5 1Department of Obstretrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA; 3Department of Pharmacy – Drug Sciences, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy; 4Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA; 5Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Encapsulation of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs into nanoparticles may offer promise for treating pregnant women with epilepsy by improving brain delivery and limiting the transplacental permeability of AEDs to avoid fetal exposure and its consequent undesirable adverse effects. Oxcarbazepine-loaded nanoparticles were prepared by a modified solvent displacement method from biocompatible polymers (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid [PLGA] with or without surfactant and PEGylated PLGA [Resomer® RGPd5055]. The physical properties of the developed nanoparticles were determined with subsequent evaluation of their permeability across in vitro models of the blood–brain barrier (hCMEC/D3 cells and human placental trophoblast cells (BeWo b30 cells. Oxcarbazepine-loaded nanoparticles with encapsulation efficiency above 69% were prepared with sizes ranging from 140–170 nm, polydispersity indices below 0.3, and zeta potential values below −34 mV. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the amorphous state of the nanoencapsulated drug. The apparent permeability (Pe values of the free and nanoencapsulated oxcarbazepine were comparable across both cell types, likely due to rapid drug release kinetics. Transport studies using fluorescently-labeled nanoparticles (loaded with coumarin-6 demonstrated increased permeability of surfactant-coated nanoparticles

  7. Micelle-template synthesis of hollow silica spheres for improving water vapor permeability of waterborne polyurethane membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Yan; Wang, Tong; Kang, Qiaoling; Shi, Chunhua; Ma, Jianzhong

    2017-01-01

    Hollow silica spheres (HSS) with special interior spaces, high specific surface area and excellent adsorption and permeability performance were synthesized via micelle-template method using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micelles as soft template and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as silica precursor. SEM, TEM, FT-IR, XRD, DLS and BET-BJH were carried out to characterize the morphology and structure of as-obtained samples. The results demonstrated that the samples were amorphous with a hol...

  8. Is there evidence that barrier membranes prevent bone resorption in autologous bone grafts during the healing period? A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielkens, Pepijn F. M.; Bos, Ruud R. M.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Stegenga, Boudewijn

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Autologous bone is considered the "reference standard" for bone-grafting procedures. A barrier membrane covering an autologous bone graft (guided bone regeneration [GBR]) is expected to prevent graft resorption. Good clinical results have been reported for GBR, although potential

  9. Development of a novel multi-functional active membrane capping barrier for the remediation of nitrobenzene-contaminated sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Li, Yi; Wang, Chao; Wu, Yue; Wang, Peifang

    2014-07-15

    A novel bio-reactive capping barrier composed of polysulfone/granular activated carbon (PS/GAC) hybrid membranes immobilized with microorganism was developed for the remediation of nitrobenzene in sediments. The SEM observation demonstrated that all the membranes had a dense top layer and a porous sublayer, this structure can block the transfer of nitrobenzene from sediment to the water and enhance nitrobenzene degradation. Adsorption behaviors of nitrobenzene on membranes showed that the membrane impregnated with GAC had better performance than the pure PS membrane. The values of Kads increased from 4.64 (without GAC) to 6.19 (1:2 GAC). 20mg/L nitrobenzene can be completely degraded by Pseudomonas putida immobilized on membranes. The biodegradation rate of activated carbon-filled membrane system was little higher than that of pure PS membrane system. For remediation experiments, only about 21.7, 28.3 and 43.9% of nitrobenzene in the sediment was removed by the end of the experiments for PS/GAC membrane, sand-alone and sand amended with activated carbon capping systems, respectively. While for PS/GAC+microorganisms capping system, more than 70% of nitrobenzene loss was observed. This demonstrated that nitrobenzene can be effectively removed from contaminated sediments by microbial degradation in the bio-reactive capping system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Adrenergic-induced enhancement of brain barrier system permeability to small nonelectrolytes: choroid plexus versus cerebral capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, V.A.; Johanson, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Acute hypertension induced by adrenergic agents opens up the blood-CSF barrier (choroid plexus) to nonelectrolyte and protein tracers. Sprague-Dawley adult rats anesthetized with ketamine were given an intravenous bolus of either epinephrine (10 micrograms/kg), phenylephrine (100 micrograms/kg), isoproterenol (10 micrograms/kg), or D,L-amphetamine (2 mg/kg). Tracers were injected simultaneously with test agents, and the animals killed 10 min later. Epinephrine raised MABP by 57 mm Hg, to a peak pressure of 160 mm Hg; and it increased the volume of distribution (Vd) of urea, mannitol, and 125 I-bovine serum albumin in CSF by 1.5-, 2.7-, and 30-fold, respectively. There was enhanced uptake by lateral and fourth ventricle choroid plexuses, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, medulla, and thalamus. Phenylephrine also elevated MABP to 160 mm Hg, but it increased permeation of tracers into CSF (and several brain regions) to a lesser extent than epinephrine, attributable to protective vasoconstriction associated with alpha-agonist activity. Ratio analysis of Vd data provides evidence that augmented permeation of nonelectrolyte tracers in acute hypertension occurs predominantly by diffusion rather than vesicular transport. It is postulated that elevated MABP distends the central cores of choroid plexus villi and cerebral capillaries, with resultant stretching and opening of tight junctions in both barrier systems; with less hindrance to diffusion, urea and mannitol are cleared at rates closer to free diffusion. Neither isoproterenol (decreased MABP by 40 mm Hg) nor amphetamine (did not alter MABP) significantly opened the choroid plexus or blood-brain barrier to tracers

  11. Measurement, with steady pressure rise, of the permeability of a gas through a porous membrane; Mesure, en montee continue de pression, de la permeabilite d'un gaz a travers une membrane poreuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davion, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    This study concerns a device for following the variations in the permeability of a gas across a porous membrane as a function of the average pressure, increasing steadily, which is applied to the membrane: P-bar; from these variations is deduced a value of an equivalent pore radius. A constant gas flow is introduced into an enclosure separated into two compartments by the membrane; the simultaneous variations of the pressure in the enclosure and of the pressure difference {delta} P between the two compartments are followed. After a transient period, {delta} P is given by an asymptotic expansion as a function of a dimensionless variable, w, whose expression includes several parameters (ratio of the compartment volumes, physical properties of the gas, pore radius, value of {delta} P in the steady state) and the variable pressure P. When w is large compared to unity, condition which gives an upper limit to the flow for a given membrane, the expansion is practically equal to its first term; the changes in {delta} P and in the permeability are then inversely proportional. The perturbing influences of various secondary effects (e. g. changes in the enclosure temperature) on the pore radius measurement have been estimated. (author) [French] Cette etude concerne un dispositif permettant de suivre les variations de permeabilite d'un gaz a travers une membrane poreuse en fonction de la pression moyenne, continument croissante, appliquee a cette membrane: P-bar; de ces variations se deduit la valeur d'un rayon de pore equivalent. Un debit de gaz constant est introduit dans une enceinte separee par la membrane en deux compartiments, et l'on suit les variations simultanees de la pression dans l'enceinte et de la difference de pression entre ces compartiments, {delta} P. A l'issue d'un stade transitoire, {delta}P est donne par un developpement asymptotique en fonction d'une variable sans dimensions, w, dont l'expression groupe plusieurs parametres (rapport des volumes des

  12. Effect of GAPDH-derived antimicrobial peptides on sensitive yeasts cells: membrane permeability, intracellular pH and H+-influx/-efflux rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Patrícia; Albergaria, Helena; Arneborg, Nils; Prista, Catarina

    2018-05-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae secretes antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) derived from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), which induce the death of several non-Saccharomyces yeasts. Previously, we demonstrated that the naturally secreted GAPDH-derived AMPs (i.e. saccharomycin) caused a loss of culturability and decreased the intracellular pH (pHi) of Hanseniaspora guilliermondii cells. In this study, we show that chemically synthesised analogues of saccharomycin also induce a pHi drop and loss of culturability in H. guilliermondii, although to a lesser extent than saccharomycin. To assess the underlying causes of the pHi drop, we evaluated the membrane permeability to H+ cations of H. guilliermondii cells, after being exposed to saccharomycin or its synthetic analogues. Results showed that the H+-efflux decreased by 75.6% and the H+-influx increased by 66.5% in cells exposed to saccharomycin at pH 3.5. Since H+-efflux via H+-ATPase is energy dependent, reduced glucose consumption would decrease ATP production and consequently H+-ATPase activity. However, glucose uptake rates were not affected, suggesting that the AMPs rather than affecting glucose transporters may affect directly the plasma membrane H+-ATPase or increase ATP leakage due to cell membrane disturbance. Thus, our study revealed that both saccharomycin and its synthetic analogues induced cell death of H. guilliermondii by increasing the proton influx and inhibiting the proton efflux.

  13. Fabrication of Novel Hydrogel with Berberine-Enriched Carboxymethylcellulose and Hyaluronic Acid as an Anti-Inflammatory Barrier Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chih Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An antiadhesion barrier membrane is an important biomaterial for protecting tissue from postsurgical complications. However, there is room to improve these membranes. Recently, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC incorporated with hyaluronic acid (HA as an antiadhesion barrier membrane and drug delivery system has been reported to provide excellent tissue regeneration and biocompatibility. The aim of this study was to fabricate a novel hydrogel membrane composed of berberine-enriched CMC prepared from bark of the P. amurense tree and HA (PE-CMC/HA. In vitro anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated to determine possible clinical applications. The PE-CMC/HA membranes were fabricated by mixing PE-CMC and HA as a base with the addition of polyvinyl alcohol to form a film. Tensile strength and ultramorphology of the membrane were evaluated using a universal testing machine and scanning electron microscope, respectively. Berberine content of the membrane was confirmed using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 260 nm. Anti-inflammatory property of the membrane was measured using a Griess reaction assay. Our results showed that fabricated PE-CMC/HA releases berberine at a concentration of 660 μg/ml while optimal plasticity was obtained at a 30 : 70 PE-CMC/HA ratio. The berberine-enriched PE-CMC/HA had an inhibited 60% of inflammation stimulated by LPS. These results suggest that the PE-CMC/HA membrane fabricated in this study is a useful anti-inflammatory berberine release system.

  14. Conformational analysis investigation into the influence of nano-porosity of ultra-permeable ultra-selective polyimides on its diffusivity as potential membranes for use in the ''green'' separation of natural gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madkour, Tarek M

    2013-01-01

    Nano-porous polymers of intrinsic microporosity, PIM, have exhibited excellent permeability and selectivity characteristics that could be utilized in an environmentally friendly gas separation process. A full understanding of the mechanism through which these membranes effectively and selectively allow for the permeation of specific gases will lead to further development of these membranes. Three factors obviously influenced the conformational behavior of these polymers, which are the presence of electronegative atoms, the presence of non-linearity in the polymeric backbones (backbone kinks) and the presence of bulky side groups on the polymeric chains. The dipole moment increased sharply with the presence of backbone kinks more than any other factor. Replacing the fluorine atoms with bulky alkyl groups didn't influence the dipole moment greatly indicating that the size of the side chains had much less dramatic influence on the dipole moment than having a bent backbone. Similarly, the presence of the backbone kinks in the polymeric chains influenced the polymeric chains to assume less extended configuration causing the torsional angles around the interconnecting bonds unable to cross the high potential energy barriers. The presence of the bulky side groups also caused the energy barriers of the cis-configurations to increase dramatically, which prevented the polymeric segments from experiencing full rotation about the connecting bonds. For these polymers, it was clear that the fully extended configurations are the preferred configurations in the absence of strong electronegative atoms, backbones kinks or bulky side groups. The addition of any of these factors to the polymeric structures resulted in the polymeric chains being forced to assume less extended configurations. Rather interestingly, the length or bulkiness of the side groups didn't affect the end-to-end distance distribution to a great deal since the presence of quite large bulky side chain such as the

  15. Long-term performance monitoring for a permeable reactive barrier at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center, Elizabeth City, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puls, R W; Blowes, D W; Gillham, R W

    1999-08-12

    A continuous hanging iron wall was installed in June, 1996, at the U. S. Coast Guard (USCG) Support Center near Elizabeth City, NC, United States, to treat overlapping plumes of chromate and chlorinated solvent compounds. The wall was emplaced using a continuous trenching machine whereby native soil and aquifer sediment was removed and the iron simultaneously emplaced in one continuous excavation and fill operation. To date, there have been seven rounds (November 1996, March 1997, June 1997, September 1997, December 1997, March 1998, and June 1998) of performance monitoring of the wall. At this time, this is the only full-scale continuous 'hanging' wall installed as a permeable reactive barrier to remediate both chlorinated solvent compounds and chromate in groundwater. Performance monitoring entails the following: sampling of 10-5 cm PVC compliance wells and 15 multi-level samplers for the following constituents: TCE, cis-dichloroethylene (c-DCE), vinyl chloride, ethane, ethene, acetylene, methane, major anions, metals, Cr(VI), Fe(II), total sulfides, dissolved H(2), Eh, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, alkalinity, and turbidity. Electrical conductivity profiles have been conducted using a Geoprobe to verify emplacement of the continuous wall as designed and to locate upgradient and downgradient wall interfaces for coring purposes. Coring has been conducted in November, 1996, in June and September, 1997, and March, 1998, to evaluate the rate of corrosion on the iron surfaces, precipitate buildup (particularly at the upgradient interface), and permeability changes due to wall emplacement. In addition to several continuous vertical cores, angled cores through the 0.6-m thick wall have been collected to capture upgradient and downgradient wall interfaces along approximate horizontal flow paths for mineralogic analyses.

  16. Effects of Pringle maneuver and partial hepatectomy on the pharmacokinetics and blood-brain barrier permeability of sodium fluorescein in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Mohammad K; Shaik, Imam H; Bickel, Ulrich; Mehvar, Reza

    2015-08-27

    Liver diseases are known to affect the function of remote organs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Pringle maneuver, which results in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, and partial hepatectomy (Hx) on the pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of sodium fluorescein (FL), which is a widely used marker of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Rats were subjected to Pringle maneuver (total hepatic ischemia) for 20 min with (HxIR) or without (IR) 70% hepatectomy. Sham-operated animals underwent laparotomy only. After 15 min or 8h of reperfusion, a single 25-mg/kg dose of FL was injected intravenously and serial (0-30 min) blood and bile and terminal brain samples were collected. Total and free (ultrafiltration) plasma, total brain homogenate, and bile concentrations of FL and/or its glucuronidated metabolite (FL-Glu) were determined by HPLC. Both IR and HxIR caused significant reductions in the biliary excretions of FL and FL-Glu, resulting in significant increases in the plasma AUC of the marker. Additionally, the free fraction of FL in plasma was significantly increased by HxIR. Although the brain concentrations of FL were increased by almost twofold in both IR and HxIR animals, the brain concentrations corrected by the free FL AUC (and not the total AUC) were similar in both groups at either time points. It is concluded that Pringle maneuver and/or partial hepatectomy substantially alters the hepatobiliary disposition, plasma AUC, plasma free fraction, and brain accumulation of FL without altering the BBB permeability to the marker. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Induction of selective blood-tumor barrier permeability and macromolecular transport by a biostable kinin B1 receptor agonist in a glioma rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Jérôme; Bovenzi, Veronica; Savard, Martin; Dubuc, Céléna; Fortier, Audrey; Neugebauer, Witold; Tremblay, Luc; Müller-Esterl, Werner; Tsanaclis, Ana-Maria; Lepage, Martin; Fortin, David; Gobeil, Fernand

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of malignant glioma with chemotherapy is limited mostly because of delivery impediment related to the blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB). B1 receptors (B1R), inducible prototypical G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) can regulate permeability of vessels including possibly that of brain tumors. Here, we determine the extent of BTB permeability induced by the natural and synthetic peptide B1R agonists, LysdesArg(9)BK (LDBK) and SarLys[dPhe(8)]desArg(9)BK (NG29), in syngeneic F98 glioma-implanted Fischer rats. Ten days after tumor inoculation, we detected the presence of B1R on tumor cells and associated vasculature. NG29 infusion increased brain distribution volume and uptake profiles of paramagnetic probes (Magnevist and Gadomer) at tumoral sites (T(1)-weighted imaging). These effects were blocked by B1R antagonist and non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors, but not by B2R antagonist and non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitors. Consistent with MRI data, systemic co-administration of NG29 improved brain tumor delivery of Carboplatin chemotherapy (ICP-Mass spectrometry). We also detected elevated B1R expression in clinical samples of high-grade glioma. Our results documented a novel GPCR-signaling mechanism for promoting transient BTB disruption, involving activation of B1R and ensuing production of COX metabolites. They also underlined the potential value of synthetic biostable B1R agonists as selective BTB modulators for local delivery of different sized-therapeutics at (peri)tumoral sites.

  18. Induction of selective blood-tumor barrier permeability and macromolecular transport by a biostable kinin B1 receptor agonist in a glioma rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Côté

    Full Text Available Treatment of malignant glioma with chemotherapy is limited mostly because of delivery impediment related to the blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB. B1 receptors (B1R, inducible prototypical G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR can regulate permeability of vessels including possibly that of brain tumors. Here, we determine the extent of BTB permeability induced by the natural and synthetic peptide B1R agonists, LysdesArg(9BK (LDBK and SarLys[dPhe(8]desArg(9BK (NG29, in syngeneic F98 glioma-implanted Fischer rats. Ten days after tumor inoculation, we detected the presence of B1R on tumor cells and associated vasculature. NG29 infusion increased brain distribution volume and uptake profiles of paramagnetic probes (Magnevist and Gadomer at tumoral sites (T(1-weighted imaging. These effects were blocked by B1R antagonist and non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors, but not by B2R antagonist and non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitors. Consistent with MRI data, systemic co-administration of NG29 improved brain tumor delivery of Carboplatin chemotherapy (ICP-Mass spectrometry. We also detected elevated B1R expression in clinical samples of high-grade glioma. Our results documented a novel GPCR-signaling mechanism for promoting transient BTB disruption, involving activation of B1R and ensuing production of COX metabolites. They also underlined the potential value of synthetic biostable B1R agonists as selective BTB modulators for local delivery of different sized-therapeutics at (peritumoral sites.

  19. Assessment of Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI in Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model after Localized Brain Cooling in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Soo [Department of Radiology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang 14068 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung-Koo [Department of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Mi Jung [Department of Pathology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang 14068 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Phil Hye [Department of Neurology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Ju, Young-Su [Department of Industrial Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang 14068 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Dae Young [Department of Radiology, Hallym University Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul 05355 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hye Jeong [Department of Radiology, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul 07441 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwan Seop [Department of Radiology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang 14068 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of localized brain cooling on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in rats, by using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI. Thirty rats were divided into 3 groups of 10 rats each: control group, localized cold-saline (20℃) infusion group, and localized warm-saline (37℃) infusion group. The left middle cerebral artery (MCA) was occluded for 1 hour in anesthetized rats, followed by 3 hours of reperfusion. In the localized saline infusion group, 6 mL of cold or warm saline was infused through the hollow filament for 10 minutes after MCA occlusion. DCE-MRI investigations were performed after 3 hours and 24 hours of reperfusion. Pharmacokinetic parameters of the extended Tofts-Kety model were calculated for each DCE-MRI. In addition, rotarod testing was performed before tMCAO, and on days 1-9 after tMCAO. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) immunohisto-chemistry was performed to identify infiltrating neutrophils associated with the inflammatory response in the rat brain. Permeability parameters showed no statistical significance between cold and warm saline infusion groups after 3-hour reperfusion 0.09 ± 0.01 min{sup -1} vs. 0.07 ± 0.02 min{sup -1}, p = 0.661 for K{sup trans}; 0.30 ± 0.05 min{sup -1} vs. 0.37 ± 0.11 min{sup -1}, p = 0.394 for kep, respectively. Behavioral testing revealed no significant difference among the three groups. However, the percentage of MPO-positive cells in the cold-saline group was significantly lower than those in the control and warm-saline groups (p < 0.05). Localized brain cooling (20℃) does not confer a benefit to inhibit the increase in BBB permeability that follows transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in an animal model, as compared with localized warm-saline (37℃) infusion group.