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Sample records for membrane fixed ion

  1. Specific ion effects on membrane potential and the permselectivity of ion exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geise, Geoffrey M; Cassady, Harrison J; Paul, Donald R; Logan, Bruce E; Hickner, Michael A

    2014-10-21

    Membrane potential and permselectivity are critical parameters for a variety of electrochemically-driven separation and energy technologies. An electric potential is developed when a membrane separates electrolyte solutions of different concentrations, and a permselective membrane allows specific species to be transported while restricting the passage of other species. Ion exchange membranes are commonly used in applications that require advanced ionic electrolytes and span technologies such as alkaline batteries to ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis, but membranes are often only characterized in sodium chloride solutions. Our goal in this work was to better understand membrane behaviour in aqueous ammonium bicarbonate, which is of interest for closed-loop energy generation processes. Here we characterized the permselectivity of four commercial ion exchange membranes in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and ammonium bicarbonate. This stepwise approach, using four different ions in aqueous solution, was used to better understand how these specific ions affect ion transport in ion exchange membranes. Characterization of cation and anion exchange membrane permselectivity, using these ions, is discussed from the perspective of the difference in the physical chemistry of the hydrated ions, along with an accompanying re-derivation and examination of the basic equations that describe membrane potential. In general, permselectivity was highest in sodium chloride and lowest in ammonium bicarbonate solutions, and the nature of both the counter- and co-ions appeared to influence measured permselectivity. The counter-ion type influences the binding affinity between counter-ions and polymer fixed charge groups, and higher binding affinity between fixed charge sites and counter-ions within the membrane decreases the effective membrane charge density. As a result permselectivity decreases. The charge density and polarizability

  2. Specific ion effects on membrane potential and the permselectivity of ion exchange membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2014-08-26

    © the Partner Organisations 2014. Membrane potential and permselectivity are critical parameters for a variety of electrochemically-driven separation and energy technologies. An electric potential is developed when a membrane separates electrolyte solutions of different concentrations, and a permselective membrane allows specific species to be transported while restricting the passage of other species. Ion exchange membranes are commonly used in applications that require advanced ionic electrolytes and span technologies such as alkaline batteries to ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis, but membranes are often only characterized in sodium chloride solutions. Our goal in this work was to better understand membrane behaviour in aqueous ammonium bicarbonate, which is of interest for closed-loop energy generation processes. Here we characterized the permselectivity of four commercial ion exchange membranes in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and ammonium bicarbonate. This stepwise approach, using four different ions in aqueous solution, was used to better understand how these specific ions affect ion transport in ion exchange membranes. Characterization of cation and anion exchange membrane permselectivity, using these ions, is discussed from the perspective of the difference in the physical chemistry of the hydrated ions, along with an accompanying re-derivation and examination of the basic equations that describe membrane potential. In general, permselectivity was highest in sodium chloride and lowest in ammonium bicarbonate solutions, and the nature of both the counter- and co-ions appeared to influence measured permselectivity. The counter-ion type influences the binding affinity between counter-ions and polymer fixed charge groups, and higher binding affinity between fixed charge sites and counter-ions within the membrane decreases the effective membrane charge density. As a result permselectivity decreases. The

  3. Membrane potentials of membranes with fixed ionic sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Albert; van der Wal, P.D.; van der Wal, P.D.; Skowronska-ptasinska, M.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Sudholter, Ernst; Bergveld, Piet; Reinhoudt, David

    1990-01-01

    A theoretical model has been developed to simulate the formation of a membrane potential as a function of physically accessible parameters. The description is an extension of the well-known Teorell-Meyer-Sievers (TMS) model, now including free and fixed ionic sites and free and fixed neutral

  4. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

  5. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Hou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  6. Ion-conducting membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Sajjad, Syed Dawar; Gao, Yan; Liu, Zengcai; Chen, Qingmei

    2017-12-26

    An anion-conducting polymeric membrane comprises a terpolymer of styrene, vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s and vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x. R.sub.s is a positively charged cyclic amine group. R.sub.x is at least one constituent selected from the group consisting Cl, OH and a reaction product between an OH or Cl and a species other than a simple amine or a cyclic amine. The total weight of the vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x groups is greater than 0.3% of the total weight of the membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.

  7. Ion transport Modeling in a Bipolar Membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Soo; Park, Kwang Heon; Kim, Kwang Wook

    2010-01-01

    The COL(Carbonate-based Oxidative Leaching) process is an environmentally-friendly technique for collecting only uranium from spent fuel with oxidation leaching/ precipitation of carbonate solution. The bipolar membrane used for the electrolyte circulation of the salt used in the COL process is a special form of ion exchange membrane which combines CEM(cation exchange membrane) and AEM(anion exchange membrane). After arranging positive ion exchange layer toward negative terminal and positive ion exchange layer toward positive terminal, then supply electricity, water molecules are decomposed into protons and hydroxyl ions by a strong electric field in the transition region inside bipolar membrane.1) In this study, a theoretical approach to increase the efficiency of Na + and NO3 - ion collecting device using bipolar membrane was taken and simulating using the COMSOL program was tried. The details of results are also discussed

  8. Specific ion effects on membrane potential and the permselectivity of ion exchange membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.; Cassady, Harrison J.; Paul, Donald R.; Logan, Bruce E.; Hickner, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    -ions also appeared to influence permselectivity leading to ion-specific effects; co-ions that are charge dense and have low polarizability tended to result in high membrane permselectivity. This journal is

  9. Study of Aging ion exchange membranes used in separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellakhal, N.; Ghalloussi, R.; Dammak, L.

    2009-01-01

    Presently, the most important application of ion exchange membranes (IEM) is the electrodialysis. This technique consists of a membrane separation using a series of anion exchange membranes alternately and cations, often used for the desalination of brackish water. These membranes are confronted with problems of aging. Indeed, the more they are used more physical and chemical properties will change. A comparative study of the behavior of both EMI and new but the same treatment is carried out by measuring a magnitude transfer characteristic: ion permeability. Ionic permeability is a physical quantity can have an idea about the selectivity of the membrane towards the charged species and the p orosity o f the membrane. It is a transport of ions (cations + anions) through the membrane. Thus, determining the ion permeability is to determine the diffusion flux of a strong electrolyte through a membrane separating two compartments (one containing electrolytes and other water initially ultrapure who will gradually electrolyte through the membrane). The measurement technique used is that by conductimetric detection because of the ease of its implementation and its accuracy. Thus, the variation of the concentration of the electrolyte is continuously monitored by measuring the conductivity of the solution diluted with time. The curves s = f (t) MEA and MEC new and used varying concentration of the electrolyte membranes show that let in less waste of strong electrolyte (NaCl and HCl) than new ones. This can be explained by: - The functional sites are combined with polyvalent ions present even in trace amounts in the solution process and become inactive. The membrane loses its hydrophilic character and turns into a film almost hydrophobic. - The chemical attacks and electrodialysis operations have degraded and eliminated much of the fixed sites leading to the same effects on the hydrophilic membrane. - These two assumptions have been reinforced by the extent of exchange

  10. New beam for the CERN fixed target heavy ion programme

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, C E; O'Neill, M

    2002-01-01

    The physicists of the CERN heavy ion community (SPS fixed target physics) have requested lighter ions than the traditional lead ions, to scale their results and to check their theories. Studies have been carried out to investigate the behaviour of the ECR4 for the production of an indium beam. Stability problems and the low melting point of indium required some modifications to the oven power control system which will also benefit normal lead ion production. Present results of the source behaviour and the ion beam characteristics will be presented.

  11. Ion beam heating of thin silicon membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot, P.E.; Hart, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    For silicon membranes irradiated by an ion beam in a vacuum environment, such as the masks used for ion beam lithography and the membranes used for thin film self-annealing, the heat transfer modes are radiation and limited conduction through the thin membrane. The radiation component depends on the total hemispherical emissivity which varies with the thickness and temperature of the membrane. A semiempirical correlation for the absorption coefficient of high resistivity silicon was derived and the variation of the total emissivity with temperature was computed for membranes with thicknesses between 0.1 and 10 μm. Based on this result, the temperatures reached during exposure to ion beams of varying intensities were computed. A proper modeling of the emissivity is shown to be important for beam heating of thin silicon membranes. (orig.)

  12. The Role of Ion Exchange Membranes in Membrane Capacitive Deionisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanvand, Armineh; Wei, Kajia; Talebi, Sahar; Chen, George Q; Kentish, Sandra E

    2017-09-14

    Ion-exchange membranes (IEMs) are unique in combining the electrochemical properties of ion exchange resins and the permeability of a membrane. They are being used widely to treat industrial effluents, and in seawater and brackish water desalination. Membrane Capacitive Deionisation (MCDI) is an emerging, energy efficient technology for brackish water desalination in which these ion-exchange membranes act as selective gates allowing the transport of counter-ions toward carbon electrodes. This article provides a summary of recent developments in the preparation, characterization, and performance of ion exchange membranes in the MCDI field. In some parts of this review, the most relevant literature in the area of electrodialysis (ED) is also discussed to better elucidate the role of the ion exchange membranes. We conclude that more work is required to better define the desalination performance of the proposed novel materials and cell designs for MCDI in treating a wide range of feed waters. The extent of fouling, the development of cleaning strategies, and further techno-economic studies, will add value to this emerging technique.

  13. Environment-sensitive ion-track membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Masaru

    1996-01-01

    Development of an environment-sensitive porous membrane from ion-track membranes may realize by combining the techniques of ion beam radiation and those of molecular designing and synthesis for intelligent materials. Now, the development of such membrane is progressing with an aim at selecting some specific substances and accurately control its pore size in response to any small environmental stimulus such as temperature change. The authors have been studying the molecular design, synthesis and functional expression of intelligent materials, which are called here as environment-sensitive gels. In this report, the outlines of the apparatus for the production of such porous membrane was described. An organic polymer membrane was irradiated with an ion beam and followed by chemical etching to make ion track pores. Scanning electron microscopic observation for the cross section of the membrane showed that the pore shape varies greatly depending on the ion nuclide used. The characteristics of newly produced porous membranes consisting of CR-30/A-ProDMe and polyethylene-telephtharate were investigated in respect of pore size change responding to temperature. These studies of design, synthesis and functions of such gels would enable to substitute artificial materials for the functions of human sensors. (M.N.). 54 refs

  14. Salt stress induced ion accumulation, ion homeostasis, membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salt stress induced ion accumulation, ion homeostasis, membrane injury and sugar contents in salt-sensitive rice ( Oryza sativa L. spp. indica ) roots under isoosmotic conditions. ... The accumulation of sugars in PT1 roots may be a primary salt-defense mechanism and may function as an osmotic control. Key words: ...

  15. Metal ion separations using reactive membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Way, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    A membrane is a barrier between two phases. If one component of a mixture moves through the membrane faster than another mixture component, a separation can be accomplished. Membranes are used commercially for many applications including gas separations, water purification, particle filtration, and macromolecule separations (Abelson). There are two points to note concerning this definition. First, a membrane is defined based on its function, not the material used to make the membrane. Secondly, a membrane separation is a rate process. The separation is accomplished by a driving force, not by equilibrium between phases. Liquids that are immiscible with the feed and product streams can also be used as membrane materials. Different solutes will have different solubilities and diffusion coefficients in a liquid. The product of the diffusivity and the solubility is known as the permeability coefficient, which is proportional to the solute flux. Differences in permeability coefficient will produce a separation between solutes at constant driving force. Because the diffusion coefficients in liquids are typically orders of magnitude higher than in polymers, a larger flux can be obtained. Further enhancements can be accomplished by adding a nonvolatile complexation agent to the liquid membrane. One can then have either coupled or facilitated transport of metal ions through a liquid membrane. The author describes two implementations of this concept, one involving a liquid membrane supported on a microporous membrane, and the other an emulsion liquid membrane, where separation occurs to internal receiving phases. Applications and costing studies for this technology are reviewed, and a brief summary of some of the problems with liquid membranes is presented

  16. An albumin-fixed membrane for the removal of protein-bound toxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Dongtao; Wu Dewang; Shi Wei; Ma Yuanyuan; Tian Xiangdong; Liang Pengfei; Zhang Qiqing

    2006-01-01

    Established methods for kidney dialysis do not work for liver failure because kidney dialysis removes only water-soluble toxins, while the liver normally removes albumin-bound toxins. In the present study, a polysulfone dialysis membrane with a -OH reactive group was prepared by hydrolyzing the chloromethylated polysulfone membrane, and the bovine serum albumin molecules were fixed into the membrane with 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole activation. The content of albumin of the albumin-fixed membrane was 121.3 mg (g membrane) -1 . The albumin-fixed dialysis membranes were used to remove protein-bound toxins, bilirubin, from the bilirubin-albumin solution. The transfer rate of bilirubin of the albumin-fixed membrane was obviously higher compared to the normal dialysis membrane. The clearance of bilirubin with the albumin-fixed membrane was 49.8%. The albumin-fixed membrane can easily be regenerated by the bovine serum albumin and NaOH solution. Regeneration of the membrane suggested good mechanical and chemical stability, as well as good clearance of bilirubin. In addition, the effects of membrane thickness and bilirubin initial concentration on the removal of bilirubin were discussed

  17. Microfluidic systems with ion-selective membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slouka, Zdenek; Senapati, Satyajyoti; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2014-01-01

    When integrated into microfluidic chips, ion-selective nanoporous polymer and solid-state membranes can be used for on-chip pumping, pH actuation, analyte concentration, molecular separation, reactive mixing, and molecular sensing. They offer numerous functionalities and are hence superior to paper-based devices for point-of-care biochips, with only slightly more investment in fabrication and material costs required. In this review, we first discuss the fundamentals of several nonequilibrium ion current phenomena associated with ion-selective membranes, many of them revealed by studies with fabricated single nanochannels/nanopores. We then focus on how the plethora of phenomena has been applied for transport, separation, concentration, and detection of biomolecules on biochips.

  18. 21 CFR 173.21 - Perfluorinated ion exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Perfluorinated ion exchange membranes. 173.21... ion exchange membranes. Substances identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as ion exchange membranes intended for use in the treatment of bulk quantities of liquid food under the...

  19. A study on ion microporous membrane and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hongying; Huang Zhengde

    2002-01-01

    The author depicted the physical, chemical character and the applied fields of ion microporous membrane. The technological procedure of making ion microporous membrane, applications in microporous counter-feinting trademark by heavy ion imaging and medical filtrater in authors' institute were stated

  20. Electrically Driven Ion Separations in Permeable Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruening, Merlin [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2017-04-21

    Membranes are attractive for a wide range of separations due to their low energy costs and continuous operation. To achieve practical fluxes, most membranes consist of a thin, selective skin on a highly permeable substrate that provides mechanical strength. Thus, this project focused on creating new methods for forming highly selective ultrathin skins as well as modeling transport through these coatings to better understand their unprecedented selectivities. The research explored both gas and ion separations, and the latter included transport due to concentration, pressure and electrical potential gradients. This report describes a series of highlights of the research and then provides a complete list of publications supported by the grant. These publications have been cited more than 4000 times. Perhaps the most stunning finding is the recent discovery of monovalent/divalent cation and anion selectivities around 1000 when modifying cation- and anion-exchange membranes with polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs). This discovery builds on many years of exciting research. (Citation numbers refer to the journal articles in the bibliography.)

  1. Transport of Ions Across the Inner Envelope Membrane of Chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarty, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    The technical report outlines the results of nine years of research on how ions cross the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts. The ions include protons, nitrite, calcium and ferrous iron. Bicarbonate transport was also studied

  2. Poisoning of liquid membrane carriers in extraction of metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuchun; Wang, Dexian

    1992-01-01

    As means of effective separation and preconcentration, emulsion liquid membranes (ELMs) have found application in many fields including biochemical separation, wastewater treatment, hydrometallurgy, and preconcentration in analytical chemistry. In the extraction of desired metal (scandium, mixed rare earths) ions using chelating extractants (TTA, HDEHP) as liquid membrane carriers, the carriers will become poisoned owing to the presence of even minute quantity of certain high ionic potential ions in the feed solution. The reason for the poisoning of carriers is that those ions have so much greater affinity than the desired ions for the membrane carrier that the ion-carrier coordination compound cannot be stripped at the interior interface of the membrane and gradually no more free carrier transports any metal ions across the membrane. The calculated results are in agreement with the experiments, and methods to avoid the poisoning are given in the paper

  3. Computer-aided modeling framework – a generic modeling template for catalytic membrane fixed bed reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    and users to generate and test models systematically, efficiently and reliably. In this way, development of products and processes can be faster, cheaper and very efficient. In this contribution, as part of the framework a generic modeling template for the systematic derivation of problem specific catalytic...... membrane fixed bed models is developed. The application of the modeling template is highlighted with a case study related to the modeling of a catalytic membrane reactor coupling dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene with hydrogenation of nitrobenzene....

  4. Theory of Ion and Water Transport in Reverse-Osmosis Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Y. S.; Biesheuvel, P. M.

    2018-02-01

    We present a theory for ion and water transport through reverse-osmosis (RO) membranes based on a Maxwell-Stefan framework combined with hydrodynamic theory for the reduced motion of particles in thin pores. We take into account all driving forces and frictions both on the fluid (water) and on the ions including ion-fluid friction and ion-wall friction. By including the acid-base characteristic of the carbonic acid system, the boric acid system, H3O+/OH- , and the membrane charge, we locally determine p H , the effective charge of the membrane, and the dissociation degree of carbonic acid and boric acid. We present calculation results for an experiment with fixed feed concentration, where effluent composition is a self-consistent function of fluxes through the membrane. A comparison with experimental results from literature for fluid flow vs pressure, and for salt and boron rejection, shows that our theory agrees very well with the available data. Our model is based on realistic assumptions for the effective size of the ions and makes use of a typical pore size of a commercial RO membrane.

  5. Uranium refining process using ion exchange membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira

    1977-01-01

    As for the method of refining uranium ore being carried out in Europe and America at present, uranium ore is roughly refined at the mine sites to yellow cake, then this is transported to refineries and refined by dry method. This method has the following faults, namely the number of processes is large, it requires expensive corrosion-resistant materials because of high temperature treatment, and the impurities in uranium tend to increase. On the other hand, in case of EXCER method, treatment is carried out at low temperature, and high purity uranium can be obtained, but the efficiency of electrolytic reduction process is extremely low, and economically infeasible. In the wet refining method called PNC process, uranium tetrafluoride is produced from uranium ore without making yellow cake, therefore the process is rationalized largely, and highly economical. The electrolytic reduction process in this method was developed by Asahi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. by constructing the pilot plant in Ningyotoge Mine. The ion exchange membrane, the electrodes, and the problems concerning the process and the engineering for commercial plants were investigated. The electrolytic reduction process, the pilot plant, the development of the elements of electrolytic cells, the establishment of analytical process, the measurement of the electrolytic characteristics, the demonstration operation, and the life time of the electrolytic diaphragm are reported. (Kako, I.)

  6. Fragmentation of organic ions bearing fixed multiple charges observed in MALDI MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xianwen; Li, Bao; de Waal, Bas F M; Schill, Jurgen; Baker, Matthew B; Bovee, Ralf A A; van Dongen, Joost L J; Milroy, Lech-Gustav; Meijer, E W

    2018-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) was used to analyze a series of synthetic organic ions bearing fixed multiple charges. Despite the multiple intrinsic charges, only singly charged ions were recorded in each case. In addition to the pseudo-molecular ions formed by counterion adduction, deprotonation and electron capture, a number of fragment ions were also observed. Charge splitting by fragmentation was found to be a viable route for charge reduction leading to the formation of the observed singly charged fragment ions. Unlike multivalent metal ions, organic ions can rearrange and/or fragment during charge reduction. This fragmentation process will evidently complicate the interpretation of the MALDI MS spectrum. Because MALDI MS is usually considered as a soft ionization technique, the fragment ion peaks can easily be erroneously interpreted as impurities. Therefore, the awareness and understanding of the underlying MALDI-induced fragmentation pathways is essential for a proper interpretation of the corresponding mass spectra. Due to the fragment ions generated during charge reduction, special care should be taken in the MALDI MS analysis of multiply charged ions. In this work, the possible mechanisms by which the organic ions bearing fixed multiple charges fragment are investigated. With an improved understanding of the fragmentation mechanisms, MALDI TOF MS should still be a useful technique for the characterization of organic ions with fixed multiple charges. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Etched ion track polymer membranes for sustained drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Vijayalakshmi; Amar, J.V.; Avasthi, D.K.; Narayana Charyulu, R.

    2003-01-01

    The method of track etching has been successfully used for the production of polymer membranes with capillary pores. In the present paper, micropore membranes have been prepared by swift heavy ion irradiation of polycarbonate (PC). PC films were irradiated with ions of gold, silicon and oxygen of varying energies and fluence. The ion tracks thus obtained were etched chemically for various time intervals to get pores and these etched films were used as membranes for the drug release. Ciprofloxacine hydrochloride was used as model drug for the release studies. The drug content was estimated spectrophotometrically. Pore size and thus the drug release is dependent on the etching conditions, ions used, their energy and fluence. Sustained drug release has been observed in these membranes. The films can be selected for practical utilization by optimizing the irradiation and etching conditions. These films can be used as transdermal patches after medical treatment

  8. Modification of electrical properties of polymer membranes by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dworecki, K.; Hasegawa, T.; Sudlitz, K.; Wasik, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the electrical properties of polymer ion irradiated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membranes. The polymer samples have been implanted with a variety of ions (O 5+ , N 4+ , Kr 9+ ) by the energy of 10 keV/q up to doses of 10 15 ions/cm 2 and then they were polarized in an electric field of 4.16x10 6 V/m at non-isothermal conditions. The electrical properties and the changes in the chemical structure of implanted membrane were measured by conductivity and discharge currents and FTIR spectra. Electrical conductivity of the membranes PET increases to 1-3 orders of magnitude after implantation and is determined by the charge transport caused by free space charge and by thermal detrapping of charge carriers. The spectra of thermally induced discharge current (TDC) shows that ion irradiated PET membranes are characterized by high ability to accumulate charge

  9. Triple-membrane reduces need for ion exchange regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcour, H.

    1989-01-01

    Triple-membrane water treatment systems are comprised of ultrafiltration units for pretreatment, electrodialysis reversal primary demineralizers, reverse osmosis secondary demineralizers, portable ion exchange unit polishing demineralizers, and ultraviolet sterilizers. The triple-membrane process is designed to provide an unprecedented degree of pretreatment to maximize efficiency, durability and reliability of the reverse osmosis, whilst reducing the required regeneration frequency of the ion exchange demineralizer by one to two orders of magnitude. (author)

  10. Recent developments on ion-exchange membranes and electro-membrane processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarale, R K; Gohil, G S; Shahi, Vinod K

    2006-02-28

    Rapid growth of chemical and biotechnology in diversified areas fuels the demand for the need of reliable green technologies for the down stream processes, which include separation, purification and isolation of the molecules. Ion-exchange membrane technologies are non-hazardous in nature and being widely used not only for separation and purification but their application also extended towards energy conversion devices, storage batteries and sensors etc. Now there is a quite demand for the ion-exchange membrane with better selectivities, less electrical resistance, high chemical, mechanical and thermal stability as well as good durability. A lot of work has been done for the development of these types of ion-exchange membranes during the past twenty-five years. Herein we have reviewed the preparation of various types of ion-exchange membranes, their characterization and applications for different electro-membrane processes. Primary attention has been given to the chemical route used for the membrane preparation. Several general reactions used for the preparation of ion-exchange membranes were described. Methodologies used for the characterization of these membranes and their applications were also reviewed for the benefit of readers, so that they can get all information about the ion-exchange membranes at one platform. Although there are large number of reports available regarding preparations and applications of ion-exchange membranes more emphasis were predicted for the usefulness of these membranes or processes for solving certain type of industrial or social problems. More efforts are needed to bring many products or processes to pilot scale and extent their applications.

  11. Electric Field Mediated Ion Transport Through Charged Mesoporous Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmuhl, R.; de Lint, W.B.S.; Keizer, Klaas; van den Berg, Albert; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Burganos, Vasilis N.; Noble, Richard D.; Asaeda, Masashi; Ayral, Andre; LeRoux, Johann D.

    2003-01-01

    The transport of ions from aqueous solutions through a stacked Au/alpha-alumina/gamma-alumina/Au membrane under the influence of a dc potential difference is reported. The membrane shows high cation permselectivity at ionic strengths of ~1 mM at pH 4.3-6.5, which is associated with a combination of

  12. Increasing selectivity of a heterogeneous ion-exchange membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivčík, J.; Neděla, D.; Hadrava, J.; Brožová, Libuše

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 12 (2015), s. 3160-3166 ISSN 1944-3994. [International Conference on Membrane and Electromembrane Processes - MELPRO 2014. Prague, 18.05.2014-21.05.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : ion-exchange membrane * selectivity * permselectivity Subject RIV: JP - Industrial Processing Impact factor: 1.272, year: 2015

  13. Heavy ion scattering; a fixed energy inverse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, K.

    1993-01-01

    Heavy ion scattering has been studied quite intensively in the last decade and central in most analyses of data from such experiments be they on fusion, particle transfer or internal state excitations of the colliding pair, is the inter-ion interaction affecting their relative motion. It is customary to use the elastic scattering data to constrain solutions of the (nonrelativistic) Schroedinger equation to ascertain the character of that (central and complex) heavy ion potential. These matters for projectiles ranging from the lightest 'heavy' ion, a proton, to Oxygen nuclei are considered in brief herein. The targets range from 12 C to 208 Pb. The central entity in the analyses to be discussed will be the S-function, and so for completeness, the simple potential scattering theory details are presented that specify the S-function and relate it to measured cross-sections. 20 refs., 18 figs

  14. Light-induced modification of plant plasma membrane ion transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marten, I; Deeken, R; Hedrich, R; Roelfsema, M R G

    2010-09-01

    Light is not only the driving force for electron and ion transport in the thylakoid membrane, but also regulates ion transport in various other membranes of plant cells. Light-dependent changes in ion transport at the plasma membrane and associated membrane potential changes have been studied intensively over the last century. These studies, with various species and cell types, revealed that apart from regulation by chloroplasts, plasma membrane transport can be controlled by phytochromes, phototropins or channel rhodopsins. In this review, we compare light-dependent plasma membrane responses of unicellular algae (Eremosphaera and Chlamydomonas), with those of a multicellular alga (Chara), liverworts (Conocephalum), mosses (Physcomitrella) and several angiosperm cell types. Light-dependent plasma membrane responses of Eremosphaera and Chara are characterised by the dominant role of K(+) channels during membrane potential changes. In most other species, the Ca(2+)-dependent activation of plasma membrane anion channels represents a general light-triggered event. Cell type-specific responses are likely to have evolved by modification of this general response or through the development of additional light-dependent signalling pathways. Future research to elucidate these light-activated signalling chains is likely to benefit from the recent identification of S-type anion channel genes and proteins capable of regulating these channels.

  15. Ion sieving in graphene oxide membranes via cationic control of interlayer spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Shi, Guosheng; Shen, Jie; Peng, Bingquan; Zhang, Bowu; Wang, Yuzhu; Bian, Fenggang; Wang, Jiajun; Li, Deyuan; Qian, Zhe; Xu, Gang; Liu, Gongping; Zeng, Jianrong; Zhang, Lijuan; Yang, Yizhou; Zhou, Guoquan; Wu, Minghong; Jin, Wanqin; Li, Jingye; Fang, Haiping

    2017-10-01

    Graphene oxide membranes—partially oxidized, stacked sheets of graphene—can provide ultrathin, high-flux and energy-efficient membranes for precise ionic and molecular sieving in aqueous solution. These materials have shown potential in a variety of applications, including water desalination and purification, gas and ion separation, biosensors, proton conductors, lithium-based batteries and super-capacitors. Unlike the pores of carbon nanotube membranes, which have fixed sizes, the pores of graphene oxide membranes—that is, the interlayer spacing between graphene oxide sheets (a sheet is a single flake inside the membrane)—are of variable size. Furthermore, it is difficult to reduce the interlayer spacing sufficiently to exclude small ions and to maintain this spacing against the tendency of graphene oxide membranes to swell when immersed in aqueous solution. These challenges hinder the potential ion filtration applications of graphene oxide membranes. Here we demonstrate cationic control of the interlayer spacing of graphene oxide membranes with ångström precision using K+, Na+, Ca2+, Li+ or Mg2+ ions. Moreover, membrane spacings controlled by one type of cation can efficiently and selectively exclude other cations that have larger hydrated volumes. First-principles calculations and ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy reveal that the location of the most stable cation adsorption is where oxide groups and aromatic rings coexist. Previous density functional theory computations show that other cations (Fe2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Cr2+ and Pb2+) should have a much stronger cation-π interaction with the graphene sheet than Na+ has, suggesting that other ions could be used to produce a wider range of interlayer spacings.

  16. Electrodialytic separation of alkali-element ions with the aid of ion-exchange membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurskii, V.S.; Moskvin, L.N.

    1988-01-01

    Electrodialytic separation of ions bearing charges of the same sign with the aid of ion-exchange membranes has been examined in the literature in relation to the so-called ideal membranes, which do not exhibit selectivity with respect to one ion type in ion exchange. It has been shown that separation on such membranes is effective only for counterions differing in size of charge. A matter of greater importance from the practical standpoint is the possibility of using electrodialysis for separating ions bearing like charges and having similar properties, including ionic forms of isotopes of the same element. In this paper they report a comparative study of ion separation, with reference to the Cs-Na pair, by electrodialysis through various types of cation-exchange membranes. Changes of the solution concentration in the cathode compartment were monitored by measurement of 22 Na and 137 Cs activities

  17. Fragmentation of organic ions bearing fixed multiple charges observed in MALDI MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, X.; Li, B.; de Waal, B.F.M.; Schill, J.; Baker, M.B.; Bovee, R.A.A.; van Dongen, J.L.J.; Milroy, L.G.; Meijer, E.W.

    2018-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) was used to analyze a series of synthetic organic ions bearing fixed multiple charges. Despite the multiple intrinsic charges, only singly charged ions were recorded in each case. In addition to the

  18. Biological Membrane Ion Channels Dynamics, Structure, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Shin-Ho; Krishnamurthy, Vikram

    2007-01-01

    Ion channels are biological nanotubes that are formed by membrane proteins. Because ion channels regulate all electrical activities in living cells, understanding their mechanisms at a molecular level is a fundamental problem in biology. This book deals with recent breakthroughs in ion-channel research that have been brought about by the combined effort of experimental biophysicists and computational physicists, who together are beginning to unravel the story of these exquisitely designed biomolecules. With chapters by leading experts, the book is aimed at researchers in nanodevices and biosensors, as well as advanced undergraduate and graduate students in biology and the physical sciences. Key Features Presents the latest information on the molecular mechanisms of ion permeation through membrane ion channels Uses schematic diagrams to illustrate important concepts in biophysics Written by leading researchers in the area of ion channel investigations

  19. Computational simulation of lithium ion transport through polymer nanocomposite membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, P.; Sandi, G.; Kizilel, R.; Stevens, D.

    2003-01-01

    We think of membranes as simple devices to facilitate filtration. In fact, membranes play a role in chemical, biological, and engineering processes such as catalysis, separation, and sensing by control of molecular transport and recognition. Critical factors that influence membrane discrimination properties include composition, pore size (as well as homogeneity), chemical functionalization, and electrical transport properties. There is increasing interest in using nanomaterials for the production of novel membranes due to the unique selectivity that can be achieved. Clay-polymer nanocomposites show particular promise due to their ease of manufacture (large sheets), their rigidity (self supporting), and their excellent mechanical properties. However, the process of lithium ion transport through the clay-polymer nanocomposite and mechanisms of pore size selection are poorly understood at the ionic and molecular level. In addition, manufacturing of clay-polymer nanocomposite membranes with desirable properties has proved challenging. We have built a general membrane-modeling tool (simulation system) to assist in developing improved membranes for selection, electromigration, and other electrochemical applications. Of particular interest are the recently formulated clay-polymer membranes. The transport mechanisms of the lithium ions membranes are not well understood and, therefore, they make an interesting test case for the model. In order to validate the model, we synthesized polymer nanocomposites membranes.

  20. Ion transport restriction in mechanically strained separator membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannarella, John; Arnold, Craig B.

    2013-03-01

    We use AC impedance methods to investigate the effect of mechanical deformation on ion transport in commercial separator membranes and lithium-ion cells as a whole. A Bruggeman type power law relationship is found to provide an accurate correlation between porosity and tortuosity of deformed separators, which allows the impedance of a separator membrane to be predicted as a function of deformation. By using mechanical compression to vary the porosity of the separator membranes during impedance measurements it is possible to determine both the α and γ parameters from the modified Bruggeman relation for individual separator membranes. From impedance testing of compressed pouch cells it is found that separator deformation accounts for the majority of the transport restrictions arising from compressive stress in a lithium-ion cell. Finally, a charge state dependent increase in the impedance associated with charge transfer is observed with increasing cell compression.

  1. Ion Transport through Diffusion Layer Controlled by Charge Mosaic Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yamauchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic transport behaviors in near interface of the membranes were studied using commercial anion and cation exchange membrane and charge mosaic membrane. Current-voltage curve gave the limiting current density that indicates the ceiling of conventional flux. From chronopotentiometry above the limiting current density, the transition time was estimated. The thickness of boundary layer was derived with conjunction with the conventional limiting current density and the transition time from steady state flux. On the other hand, the charge mosaic membrane was introduced in order to examine the ion transport on the membrane surface in detail. The concentration profile was discussed by the kinetic transport number with regard to the water dissociation (splitting on the membrane surface.

  2. Fixed target experiments with heavy ions at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialkowska, H.

    1997-11-01

    A concise review of recent results from CERN experiments with relativistic ion beams, from oxygen and sulphur up to lead, at 160 and 200 GeV/c/N, is presented. Both leptonic and hadronic signals are reviewed. Two results from leptonic signals look very promising. One is an excess (over conventional expectations) in the invariant mass spectrum of electron pairs produced in nuclear collisions, for masses up to 1.5 GeV. Another is a strong psi resonance suppression, observed in central lead-lead collisions. These effects could possibly indicate the importance of partonic degrees of freedom, and may be a harbinger of the quark-gluon plasma creation. The hadronic signals concern the nuclear stopping power, transverse mass spectra and their relation to temperature, strange particle production and particle source sizes, as determined by the interferometric method. (author)

  3. Modeling the ion transfer and polarization of ion exchange membranes in bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnisch, Falk; Warmbier, Robert; Schneider, Ralf; Schröder, Uwe

    2009-06-01

    An explicit numerical model for the charge balancing ion transfer across monopolar ion exchange membranes under conditions of bioelectrochemical systems is presented. Diffusion and migration equations have been solved according to the Nernst-Planck Equation and the resulting ion concentrations, pH values and the resistance values of the membrane for different conditions were computed. The modeling results underline the principle limitations of the application of ion exchange membranes in biological fuel cells and electrolyzers, caused by the inherent occurrence of a pH-gradient between anode and cathode compartment, and an increased ohmic membrane resistance at decreasing electrolyte concentrations. Finally, the physical and numerical limitations of the model are discussed.

  4. Carbonate and Bicarbonate Ion Transport in Alkaline Anion Exchange Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    comparable assumptions, a similar equation can be derived starting with the Nernst -Planck equation . σ = ∑ σi = ∑ F2z2i RT (ε− ε0)q D0i 1 + δi Ci [1] Using Eq...an appropriate ion-membrane diffusion coefficient. Finally, an equation derived from the dusty fluid model can be used to calculate the ionic...Finally, an equation derived from the dusty fluid model can be used to calculate the ionic conductivity of the membrane in different counter ion forms

  5. Monitoring Ion Activities In and Around Cells Using Ion-Selective Liquid-Membrane Microelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Parker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining the effective concentration (i.e., activity of ions in and around living cells is important to our understanding of the contribution of those ions to cellular function. Moreover, monitoring changes in ion activities in and around cells is informative about the actions of the transporters and/or channels operating in the cell membrane. The activity of an ion can be measured using a glass microelectrode that includes in its tip a liquid-membrane doped with an ion-selective ionophore. Because these electrodes can be fabricated with tip diameters that are less than 1 μm, they can be used to impale single cells in order to monitor the activities of intracellular ions. This review summarizes the history, theory, and practice of ion-selective microelectrode use and brings together a number of classic and recent examples of their usefulness in the realm of physiological study.

  6. Novel Ultrathin Membranes Composed of Organic Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, Vitaly V.; Verspeek, Bram; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2013-01-01

    of artificial bilayers composed of long-chained organic ions, such as dodecyltrimethylammonium (DMA(+)) and perfluorooctaonate (PFO-). Various ratios of DMA/PFO surfactants result in bilayers of different stability, thickness, area per molecule, and density profiles. In our quest for water filtration, we...

  7. The effect of organic ion-exchange resin on properties of heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivčík, J.; Vladařová, J.; Hadrava, J.; Černín, A.; Brožová, Libuše

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 14, - (2010), s. 179-184 ISSN 1944-3994. [Membrane Science and Technology Conference of Visegrad Countries /4./ PERMEA 2009, 07.07.2009-11.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA4/116 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : heterogeneous ion-exchange membrane * membrane modification * particle size of distribution Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.752, year: 2010

  8. Ultrastructural analysis of nanoparticles and ions released in periprosthetic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, Maurizio; Gatti, Giorgio; Renò, Filippo; Bosetti, Michela; Marchese, Leonardo; Cannas, Mario

    2014-12-30

    The distribution and relationship of hydroxyapatite debris, nanometric organic and metal wear particles and metal ions on periimplant interface membranes following aseptic and septic arthroplastic loosening were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopic analysis were used to analyze debris and ion distribution. Hydroxyapatite debris appeared with different morphology in a particular distribution among several membranes. These differences may reflect the occurrence of different friction forces taking place between prosthesis and bone interface in the several types of prostheses studied. Metal wear particles were detected in greater numbers in membranes from noncemented prostheses compared with those from cemented ones. In contrast, more organic particles were present in membrane from cemented prosthesis. No differences were observed between aseptic and septic membranes. Our findings support the need to evaluate the occurrence of friction forces that periprosthetic bone debris production may induce to exacerbate cellular reactivity. Furthermore, cellular engulfment of debris and the high level of different ions released indicate the occurrence of a toxic environment that may induce failure of any reparative pathways.

  9. Study of ion separation through solid-supported liquid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young Ho; Kim, Jung Do; Kim, Kyoung Ho

    1990-01-01

    The membranes used in this study consist of a microporous polymeric support with the solvent contraining alamine 336, Tri-N-Octyl phosphine oxide, Tri-N-butyl phosphate, Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid as a carrier within the pores by the capillary forces. When this liquid membrane is interposed between aqueous feed and product solutions, the carrier serving as a complexing agent, can pick up the uranium ions on the feed side of the membrane and carry them across the membrane by diffusion. In this study, the uranium flux through the solid-supported liquid membrane was analyzed as a function of carrier concentration and acidity of the feed solution for the carrier species. Also, the Gel-liquid extraction of uranium ions from aqueous solution was performed. The adsorbents were prepared by casting the polymer solution composed of polyvinyl chloride, TOPO, and additions. The extraction of uranyl nitrate ions has been investigated as a function of TOPO/PVC ratio, evaporation time, and the stability. The results show that is maybe possible to develop an alternative uranium purification process. (author)

  10. Monovalent-ion-selective membranes for reserve electrodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güler, E.; van Baak, Willem; Saakes, Michel; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    2014-01-01

    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a process that can be used to generate energy from salinity gradients. Since its application in practice requires the use of natural seawater and river water, the presence of multivalent ions is inevitable, but this currently limits RED performance. Membranes with

  11. Theory of the formation of the electric double layer at the ion exchange membrane-solution interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, A A

    2015-02-21

    This work aims to extend the study of the formation of the electric double layer at the interface defined by a solution and an ion-exchange membrane on the basis of the Nernst-Planck and Poisson equations, including different values of the counter-ion diffusion coefficient and the dielectric constant in the solution and membrane phases. The network simulation method is used to obtain the time evolution of the electric potential, the displacement electric vector, the electric charge density and the ionic concentrations at the interface between a binary electrolyte solution and a cation-exchange membrane with total co-ion exclusion. The numerical results for the temporal evolution of the interfacial electric potential and the surface electric charge are compared with analytical solutions derived in the limit of the shortest times by considering the Poisson equation for a simple cationic diffusion process. The steady-state results are justified from the Gouy-Chapman theory for the diffuse double layer in the limits of similar and high bathing ionic concentrations with respect to the fixed-charge concentration inside the membrane. Interesting new physical insights arise from the interpretation of the process of the formation of the electric double layer at the ion exchange membrane-solution interface on the basis of a membrane model with total co-ion exclusion.

  12. Feed gas contaminant control in ion transport membrane systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael Francis [Allentown, PA; Minford, Eric [Laurys Station, PA; Waldron, William Emil [Whitehall, PA

    2009-07-07

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising an enclosure having an interior and an interior surface, inlet piping having an internal surface and adapted to introduce a heated feed gas into the interior of the enclosure, and outlet piping adapted to withdraw a product gas from the interior of the enclosure; one or more planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the enclosure, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide material; and a preheater adapted to heat a feed gas to provide the heated feed gas to the inlet piping, wherein the preheater comprises an interior surface. Any of the interior surfaces of the enclosure, the inlet piping, and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining. Alternatively, any of the interior surfaces of the inlet piping and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining and the enclosure may comprise copper.

  13. Tunable sieving of ions using graphene oxide membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jijo; Vasu, Kalangi S.; Williams, Christopher D.; Gopinadhan, Kalon; Su, Yang; Cherian, Christie T.; Dix, James; Prestat, Eric; Haigh, Sarah J.; Grigorieva, Irina V.; Carbone, Paola; Geim, Andre K.; Nair, Rahul R.

    2017-07-01

    Graphene oxide membranes show exceptional molecular permeation properties, with promise for many applications. However, their use in ion sieving and desalination technologies is limited by a permeation cutoff of ˜9 Å (ref. 4), which is larger than the diameters of hydrated ions of common salts. The cutoff is determined by the interlayer spacing (d) of ˜13.5 Å, typical for graphene oxide laminates that swell in water. Achieving smaller d for the laminates immersed in water has proved to be a challenge. Here, we describe how to control d by physical confinement and achieve accurate and tunable ion sieving. Membranes with d from ˜9.8 Å to 6.4 Å are demonstrated, providing a sieve size smaller than the diameters of hydrated ions. In this regime, ion permeation is found to be thermally activated with energy barriers of ˜10-100 kJ mol-1 depending on d. Importantly, permeation rates decrease exponentially with decreasing sieve size but water transport is weakly affected (by a factor of <2). The latter is attributed to a low barrier for the entry of water molecules and large slip lengths inside graphene capillaries. Building on these findings, we demonstrate a simple scalable method to obtain graphene-based membranes with limited swelling, which exhibit 97% rejection for NaCl.

  14. Ultrafiltration Membrane Fouling and the Effect of Ion Exchange Resins

    KAUST Repository

    Jamaly, Sanaa

    2011-12-01

    Membrane fouling is a challenging process for the ultrafiltration membrane during wastewater treatment. This research paper determines the organic character of foulants of different kinds of wastewater before and after adding some ion exchange resins. Two advanced organic characterization methods are compared in terms of concentration of dissolved organic carbons: The liquid chromatography with organic carbon (LC-OCD) and Shimadzu total organic carbon (TOC). In this study, two secondary wastewater effluents were treated using ultrafiltration membrane. To reduce fouling, pretreatment using some adsorbents were used in the study. Six ion exchange resins out of twenty were chosen to compare the effect of adsorbents on fouling membrane. Based on the percent of dissolved organic carbon’s removal, three adsorbents were determined to be the most efficient (DOWEX Marathon 11 anion exchange resin, DOWEX Optipore SD2 polymeric adsorbent, and DOWEX PSR2 anion exchange), and three other ones were determined to the least efficient (DOWEX Marathon A2 anion exchange resin, DOWEX SAR anion exchange resin, and DOWEX Optipore L493 polymeric adsorbent). Organic characterization for feed, permeate, and backwash samples were tested using LC-OCD and TOC to better understand the characteristics of foulants to prevent ultrafiltration membrane fouling. The results suggested that the polymeric ion exchange resin, DOWEX SD2, reduced fouling potential for both treated wastewaters. All the six ion exchange resins removed more humic fraction than other organic fractions in different percent, so this fraction is not the main for cause for UF membrane fouling. The fouling of colloids was tested before and after adding calcium. There is a severe fouling after adding Ca2+ to effluent colloids.

  15. Cell Membrane Transport Mechanisms: Ion Channels and Electrical Properties of Cell Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbacka, Julita; Choromańska, Anna; Rossowska, Joanna; Weżgowiec, Joanna; Saczko, Jolanta; Rols, Marie-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Cellular life strongly depends on the membrane ability to precisely control exchange of solutes between the internal and external (environmental) compartments. This barrier regulates which types of solutes can enter and leave the cell. Transmembrane transport involves complex mechanisms responsible for passive and active carriage of ions and small- and medium-size molecules. Transport mechanisms existing in the biological membranes highly determine proper cellular functions and contribute to drug transport. The present chapter deals with features and electrical properties of the cell membrane and addresses the questions how the cell membrane accomplishes transport functions and how transmembrane transport can be affected. Since dysfunctions of plasma membrane transporters very often are the cause of human diseases, we also report how specific transport mechanisms can be modulated or inhibited in order to enhance the therapeutic effect.

  16. Development of Nanoporous Polymer Membranes by Swift Heavy Ion Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Divya; Predeep, P.

    2011-10-01

    This study reveals the preparation of conical pores in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) by track etching. The polymer membrane is etched from one side by keeping between the clamps of conductivity cell followed by irradiation with swift heavy ion of 197Au. Electrical stopping supports chemical stopping. During etching process current is measured as a function of time till a sharp increase -breakthrough-observed. After etching membranes are thoroughly washed with stopping solution and water. Resultant films are characterized using Optical microscope and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Polymer films with uniform pores can be a cheaper templating material in the fields of photonic crystals and micro- electronics.

  17. Bremsstrahlung from Relativistic Heavy Ions in a Fixed Target Experiment at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, Rune E.; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I.; Sørensen, Allan H.

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the emission of bremsstrahlung from lead and argon ions in ultraperipheral collisions in a fixed target experiment (AFTER) that uses the LHC beams. With nuclear charges of Ze equal to 82e and 18e, respectively, these ions are accelerated to energies of 7 Tev × Z. The bremsstrahlung peaks around ≈100 GeV and the spectrum exposes the nuclear structure of the incoming ion. The peak structure is significantly different from the flat power spectrum pertaining to a point charge. Photons are predominantly emitted within an angle of 1/γ to the direction of ion propagation. Our calculations are based on the Weizsäcker-Williams method of virtual quanta with application of existing experimental data on photonuclear interactions.

  18. Rejection of Bromide and Bromate Ions by a Ceramic Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslemi, Mohammadreza; Davies, Simon H; Masten, Susan J

    2012-12-01

    Effects of pH and the addition of calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) on bromate (BrO(3) (-)) and bromide (Br(-)) rejection by a ceramic membrane were investigated. Rejection of both ions increased with pH. At pH 8, the rejection of BrO(3) (-) and Br(-) was 68% and 63%, respectively. Donnan exclusion appears to play an important role in determining rejection of BrO(3) (-) and Br(-). In the presence of CaCl(2), rejection of BrO(3) (-) and Br(-) ions was greatly reduced, confirming the importance of electrostatic interactions in determining rejection of BrO(3) (-) and Br(-). The effect of Ca(2+) is so pronounced that in most natural waters, rejection of both BrO(3) (-) and Br(-) by the membrane would be extremely small.

  19. Ion exchange and luminescence of Eu3+ in Nafion membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petushkov, A.A.; Shilov, S.M.; Pak, V.N.

    2006-01-01

    Dehydration of Nafion perfluorosulphonic membranes at 110 deg C results in a significant reduction of their void space volume, the accessibility of sulphonic groups and the total exchange capacity towards Eu 3+ cations. Nevertheless, the ion exchange sorption of Eu 3+ takes place in accordance with stoichiometric ratio [-SO 3 H]/[Eu 3+ ]=3. The membranes thermal pretreatment also affects noticeably the spectroscopic features of the fastened Eu 3+ ions, such as the relationship between the intensities of the hypersensitive 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 and magnetic dipolar 5 D 0 → 7 F 1 transitions, the excited state life time, as well as the luminescence quenching in the course of water adsorption

  20. Coupling membrane pervaporation with a fixed-bed reactor for enhanced esterification of oleic acid with ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Ying; Lv, Enmin; Ma, Lingling; Lu, Jie; Chen, Kexun; Ding, Jincheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The reactor coupling membrane pervaporation with a fixed-bed reactor was studied. • The factors effecting the esterification of oleic acid were investigated. • NaA zeolite membrane was used for dehydration in the coupled reactor. - Abstract: Process intensification through membrane pervaporation (PV) integrated with a fixed-bed reactor could be successfully applied to the esterification of oleic acid and ethanol, which is a crucial step in the biodiesel synthesis using waste oil and grease as resource. The properties of the NaA zeolite membrane such as structure, formulation and separation were investigated by scanning electronic microscopy–energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM–EDS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and PV dehydration. Results showed that the NaA zeolite membrane had good separating property for removing water from the organics mixture. The operating conditions were optimized as the ethanol to oleic acid molar ratio of 15:1, feedstock flow rate of 1.0 ml/min, reaction temperature of 80.0 °C and catalyst bed height of 132 mm. The final conversion of oleic acid increased from 84.23% to 87.18% by PV using the NaA zeolite membrane at 24.0 h of operation. The membrane showed good PV performance after used for eight successive runs in the PV-assisted esterification. The resin exhibited a much high catalytic activity and operation stability after used for 100 h in the consecutive single pass fixed-bed esterification.

  1. Transport of Zn(OH)4(-2) ions across a polyolefin microporous membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejci, Ivan; Vanysek, Peter; Trojanek, Antonin

    1993-04-01

    Transport of ZN(OH)4(2-) ions through modified microporous polypropylene membranes (Celgard 3401, 350140) was studied using polarography and conductometry. Soluble Nafion as an ion exchange modifying agent was applied to the membrane by several techniques. The influence of Nafion and a surfactant on transport of zinc ions through the membrane was studied. A relationship between membrane impedance and the rate of Zn(OH)4(2-) transport was found. The found correlation between conductivity, ion permeability and Nafion coverage suggests a suitable technique of membrane preparation to obtain desired zinc ion barrier properties.

  2. Junction Potentials Bias Measurements of Ion Exchange Membrane Permselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, Ryan S; Flotron, Sophie; Zhu, Shan; Call, Douglas F; Coronell, Orlando

    2018-04-17

    Ion exchange membranes (IEMs) are versatile materials relevant to a variety of water and waste treatment, energy production, and industrial separation processes. The defining characteristic of IEMs is their ability to selectively allow positive or negative ions to permeate, which is referred to as permselectivity. Measured values of permselectivity that equal unity (corresponding to a perfectly selective membrane) or exceed unity (theoretically impossible) have been reported for cation exchange membranes (CEMs). Such nonphysical results call into question our ability to correctly measure this crucial membrane property. Because weighing errors, temperature, and measurement uncertainty have been shown to not explain these anomalous permselectivity results, we hypothesized that a possible explanation are junction potentials that occur at the tips of reference electrodes. In this work, we tested this hypothesis by comparing permselectivity values obtained from bare Ag/AgCl wire electrodes (which have no junction) to values obtained from single-junction reference electrodes containing two different electrolytes. We show that permselectivity values obtained using reference electrodes with junctions were greater than unity for CEMs. In contrast, electrodes without junctions always produced permselectivities lower than unity. Electrodes with junctions also resulted in artificially low permselectivity values for AEMs compared to electrodes without junctions. Thus, we conclude that junctions in reference electrodes introduce two biases into results in the IEM literature: (i) permselectivity values larger than unity for CEMs and (ii) lower permselectivity values for AEMs compared to those for CEMs. These biases can be avoided by using electrodes without a junction.

  3. Modulation and interactions of charged biomimetic membranes with bivalent ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazadi Badiambile, Adolphe

    The biological membrane of an eukaryotic cell is a two-dimensional structure of mostly phospholipids with embedded proteins. This two-dimensional structure plays many key roles in the life of a cell. Transmembrane proteins, for example, play the role of a gate for different ions (such as Ca2+). Also found are peripheral proteins that are used as enzymes for different purposes in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Phospholipids, in particular play three key roles. Firstly, some members of this group are used to store energy. Secondly, the hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties inherent to phospholipids enable them to be used as building blocks of the cell membrane by forming an asymmetric bilayer. This provides a shielding protection against the outer environment while at the same time keeping the organelles and cytosol from leaking out of the cell. Finally lipids are involved in regulating the aggregation of proteins in the membrane. In addition, some subspecies such as phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) are second messenger molecules in their own right, thus playing an important role in cellular signaling events. In my work presented in this thesis, I am focusing on the role of some phospholipids as signaling molecules and in particular the physicochemical underpinnings that could be used in their spatiotemporal organization in the cellular plasma membrane. I am specifically concerned with the important family of phosphatidylinositol lipids. PtdIns are very well known for their role as signaling molecules in numerous cell events. They are located in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane as well as part of the membrane of other organelles. Studies of these signaling molecules in their in vivo environment present many challenges: Firstly, the complexity of interactions due to the numerous entities present in eukaryotic cell membranes makes it difficult to establish clear cause and effect relationships. Secondly, due to their size, our inability to probe these

  4. Investigation of interactions between water and ion exchanger perfluorinated membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Said, Chakir

    1983-01-01

    In this research thesis, the author, by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), shows the privileged situation of the first absorbed water molecules which come and fix about cations and fill up the first hydration sphere. He reports the study of Nafion membranes provided by DuPont de Nemours: chemical definition (chemical structure, properties, and microstructure), interest of the use of NMR, results and discussion (influence of water content, of temperature, of thermal cycling), and other results obtained by using different techniques (electronic paramagnetic resonance or EPR, differential calorimetry and thermo-porometry, mechanical measurements) [fr

  5. Wastewater treatment with ion-exchange chitin membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulenova, A.; Fjeld, R. A.; Visacky, V.

    2001-01-01

    Chitin, poly(N-acetyl-D glucosamine) and chitosan, its deacetylated derivates have recently obtained attention as bio-sorbents, because they shown a great ability to accumulate heavy metals and other pollutants. It was found that recovery of metals is strongly affected by pH. At low acidic pH range 4-5 chitin membrane exhibits better selectivity for lead than for cadmium or zinc. Sorption preference for metals decreases in the order: Pb > Cd > Zn. For uranium, as well for strontium was observed significant increase of recovery at decrease of pH to slightly acidic, close to neutral value. It was shown that chemical behavior of chitin membrane is excellent; ion-exchange nature of chitin was not changed during chitin membrane manufacturing process. Using of chitin membrane instead of chitin flake column brings significant increasing of driving force of the separation process, limited in the case of column experimental design by diffusion coefficient, while in the case of membrane process only by mass transfer coefficient. (authors)

  6. Neutralized ion beam modification of cellulose membranes for study of ion charge effect on ion-beam-induced DNA transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakrajang, K.; Sangwijit, K.; Anuntalabhochai, S.; Wanichapichart, P.; Yu, L. D.

    2012-02-01

    Low-energy ion beam biotechnology (IBBT) has recently been rapidly developed worldwide. Ion-beam-induced DNA transfer is one of the important applications of IBBT. However, mechanisms involved in this application are not yet well understood. In this study plasma-neutralized ion beam was applied to investigate ion charge effect on induction of DNA transfer. Argon ion beam at 7.5 keV was neutralized by RF-driven plasma in the beam path and then bombarded cellulose membranes which were used as the mimetic plant cell envelope. Electrical properties such as impedance and capacitance of the membranes were measured after the bombardment. An in vitro experiment on plasmid DNA transfer through the cellulose membrane was followed up. The results showed that the ion charge input played an important role in the impedance and capacitance changes which would affect DNA transfer. Generally speaking, neutral particle beam bombardment of biologic cells was more effective in inducing DNA transfer than charged ion beam bombardment.

  7. Release of metal ions from fixed orthodontic appliance: an in vitro study in continuous flow system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulewicz, Marcin; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Wołowiec, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the release of metal ions from fixed orthodontic appliances. A new system for in vitro testing of dental materials was constructed and consisted of a thermostatic glass reactor that enabled immersion of the studied material. Experimental conditions reflected the human oral cavity, with a temperature of 37°C and a saliva flow rate of 0.5mL/min. The simulated fixed orthodontic appliance made of stainless steel was evaluated. Sampling was performed at several time points during the 28-day study, and the metal ion concentration was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The total mass of released metal ions from the appliance during 4 weeks of the experiment was as follows nickel 18.7 μg, chromium 5.47 μg, copper 31.3 μg. The estimated doses of nickel, chromium, and copper determined by extrapolation of experimental data released during the treatment period were far below the toxic dose to humans. This shows that orthodontic treatment might not be a significant source of exposure to these metal ions.

  8. Kinetic energy budget for electroconvective flows near ion selective membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Karen; Mani, Ali

    2017-11-01

    Electroconvection occurs when ions are driven from a bulk fluid through an ion-selective surface. When the driving voltage is beyond a threshold, this process undergoes a hydrodynamic instability called electroconvection, which can become chaotic due to nonlinear coupling between ion-transport, fluid flow, and electrostatic forces. Electroconvection significantly enhances ion transport and plays an important role in a wide range of electrochemical applications. We investigate this phenomenon by considering a canonical geometry consisting of a symmetric binary electrolyte between an ion-selective membrane and a reservoir using 2D direct numerical simulation (DNS). Our simulations reveal that for most practical regimes, DNS of electroconvection is expensive. Thus, a plan towards development of reduced-order models is necessary to facilitate the adoption of analysis of this phenomenon in industry. Here we use DNS to analyze the kinetic energy budget to shed light into the mechanisms sustaining flow and mixing in electroconvective flows. Our analysis reveals the relative dominance of kinetic energy sources, dissipation, and transport mechanisms sustaining electroconvection at different distances from the interface and over a wide range of input parameters. Karen Wang was supported by the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG). Ali Mani was supported by the National Science Foundation Award.

  9. Ion transport through biological membranes an integrated theoretical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, Michael C

    1975-01-01

    This book illustrates some of the ways physics and mathematics have been, and are being, used to elucidate the underlying mechan­ isms of passive ion movement through biological membranes in general, and the membranes of excltable cells in particular. I have made no effort to be comprehensive in my introduction of biological material and the reader interested in a brief account of single cell electro­ physlology from a physically-oriented biologists viewpoint will find the chapters by Woodbury (1965) an excellent introduction. Part I is introductory in nature, exploring the basic electrical properties of inexcitable and excitable cell plasma membranes. Cable theory is utilized to illustrate the function of the non-decrementing action potential as a signaling mechanism for the long range trans­ mission of information in the nervous system, and to gain some in­ sight into the gross behaviour of neurons. The detailed analysis of Hodgkin and Huxley on the squid giant axon membrane ionic conductance properties...

  10. A novel BEV concept based on fixed and swappable li-ion battery packs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela; Pinto, C.; de Castro, R.

    2015-01-01

    -based ownership models to distribute the cost of the large battery pack over the vehicle lifetime. A methodology is proposed for the analysis and evaluation of the proposed concept in comparison with a direct owned non swappable single pack BEV, proving that significant improvements on city fuel economy (up to 20......In this paper a novel battery electric vehicle (BEV) concept based on a small fixed and a big swappable li-ion battery pack is proposed in order to achieve: longer range, lower initial purchase price and lower energy consumption at short ranges. For short ranges the BEV is only powered...... by the relatively small fixed battery pack, without the large swappable battery pack. In this way the mass of the vehicle is reduced and therefore the energy consumed per unit distance is improved. For higher ranges the BEV is powered by both battery packs. This concept allows the introduction of subscription...

  11. Evaluation of a Novel BEV Concept Based on Fixed and Swappable Li-Ion Battery Packs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela; Pinto, Claudio; de Castro, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    -based ownership models to distribute the cost of the large battery pack over the vehicle lifetime. A methodology is proposed for the analysis and evaluation of the proposed concept in comparison with a direct owned nonswappable single-pack BEV, proving that significant improvements on city fuel economy (up to 14......In this paper, a novel battery electric vehicle (BEV) concept based on a small fixed and a big swappable Li-ion battery pack is proposed in order to achieve longer range, lower initial purchase priceand lower energy consumption at short ranges. For short ranges, the BEV is only powered...... by the relatively small-fixed battery pack, without the large swappable battery pack. In this way, the mass of the vehicle is reduced and, therefore, the energy consumed per unit distance is improved. For higher ranges, the BEV is powered by both battery packs. This concept allows the introduction of subscription...

  12. The fixABCX genes in Rhodospirillum rubrum encode a putative membrane complex participating in electron transfer to nitrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgren, Tomas; Nordlund, Stefan

    2004-04-01

    In our efforts to identify the components participating in electron transport to nitrogenase in Rhodospirillum rubrum, we used mini-Tn5 mutagenesis followed by metronidazole selection. One of the mutants isolated, SNT-1, exhibited a decreased growth rate and about 25% of the in vivo nitrogenase activity compared to the wild-type values. The in vitro nitrogenase activity was essentially wild type, indicating that the mutation affects electron transport to nitrogenase. Sequencing showed that the Tn5 insertion is located in a region with a high level of similarity to fixC, and extended sequencing revealed additional putative fix genes, in the order fixABCX. Complementation of SNT-1 with the whole fix gene cluster in trans restored wild-type nitrogenase activity and growth. Using Western blotting, we demonstrated that expression of fixA and fixB occurs only under conditions under which nitrogenase also is expressed. SNT-1 was further shown to produce larger amounts of both ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and polyhydroxy alkanoates than the wild type, indicating that the redox status is affected in this mutant. Using Western blotting, we found that FixA and FixB are soluble proteins, whereas FixC most likely is a transmembrane protein. We propose that the fixABCX genes encode a membrane protein complex that plays a central role in electron transfer to nitrogenase in R. rubrum. Furthermore, we suggest that FixC is the link between nitrogen fixation and the proton motive force generated in the photosynthetic reactions.

  13. Ion track membranes providing heat pipe surfaces with capillary structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akapiev, G.N.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Erler, B.; Shirkova, V.V.; Schulz, A.; Pietsch, H.

    2003-01-01

    The microgalvanic method for metal filling of etched ion tracks in organic foils is of particular interest for the fabrication of microsized structures. Microstructures like copper whiskers with a high aspect ratio produced in ion track membranes are suitable for the generation of high-performance heat transfer surfaces. A surface with good heat transfer characteristics is defined as a surface on which a small temperature difference causes a large heat transfer from the surface material to the liquid. It is well-known that a porous surface layer transfers to an evaporating liquid a given quantity of heat at a smaller temperature difference than does a usual smooth surface. Copper whiskers with high aspect ratio and a density 10 5 per cm 2 form such a porous structure, which produces strong capillary forces and therefore a maximum of heat transfer coefficients

  14. Electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibrous membranes with varied fiber diameters and different membrane porosities as lithium-ion battery separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Xiaojing; Kolla, Praveen; Yang, Ruidong; Wang, Zhao; Zhao, Yong; Smirnova, Alevtina L.; Fong, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Nine types of electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibrous membranes were prepared. • These membranes had varied fiber diameters and different membrane porosities. • The membranes were explored as innovative Li-ion battery (LIB) separators. • The hot-pressed membrane with thin fibers had superior performance as LIB separator. - Abstract: In this study, nine types of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous membranes with varied fiber diameters and different membrane porosities are prepared by electrospinning followed by hot-pressing. Subsequently, these membranes are explored as Li-ion battery (LIB) separators. The impacts of fiber diameter and membrane porosity on electrolyte uptake, Li"+ ion transport through the membrane, electrochemical oxidation potential, and membrane performance as LIB separator (during charge/discharge cycling and rate capability tests of a cathodic half-cell) have been investigated. When compared to commercial Celgard PP separator, hot-pressed electrospun PAN nanofibrous membranes exhibit larger electrolyte uptake, higher thermal stability, wider electrochemical potential window, higher Li"+ ion permeability, and better electrochemical performance in LiMn_2O_4/separator/Li half-cell. The results also indicate that the PAN-based membrane/separator with small fiber diameters of 200–300 nm and hot-pressed under high pressure of 20 MPa surpasses all other membranes/separators and demonstrates the best performance, leading to the highest discharge capacity (89.5 mA h g"−"1 at C/2 rate) and cycle life (with capacity retention ratio being 97.7%) of the half-cell. In summary, this study has revealed that the hot-pressed electrospun PAN nanofibrous membranes (particularly those consisting of thin nanofibers) are promising as high-performance LIB separators.

  15. Electrical Resistance and Transport Numbers of Ion-Exchange Membranes Used in Electrodialytic Soil Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    1999-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a recently developed method to decontaminate heavy metal polluted soil using ion-exchange membranes. In this method one side of the ion-exchange membrane is in direct contact with the polluted soil. It is of great importance to know if this contact with the soil...... different electrodialytic soil remediation experiments. The experiments showed that after the use in electrodialytic soil remediation, the ion-exchange membranes had transport numbers in the same magnitude as new membranes. The electrical resistance for six membranes did not differ from that of new...

  16. Picomolar detection limits with current-polarized Pb2+ ion-selective membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergel, E; Gyurcsányi, R E; Tóth, K; Lindner, E

    2001-09-01

    Minor ion fluxes across ion-selective membranes bias submicromolar activity measurements with conventional ion-selective electrodes. When ion fluxes are balanced, the lower limit of detection is expected to be dramatically improved. As proof of principle, the flux of lead ions across an ETH 5435 ionophore-based lead-selective membrane was gradually compensated by applying a few nanoamperes of galvanostatic current. When the opposite ion fluxes were matched, and the undesirable leaching of primary ions was eliminated, Nernstian response down to 3 x 10(-12) M was achieved.

  17. Smart membranes for nitrate removal, water purification, and selective ion transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William D [Pleasanton, CA; Schaldach, Charlene M [Pleasanton, CA; Bourcier, William L [Livermore, CA; Paul, Phillip H [Livermore, CA

    2009-12-15

    A computer designed nanoengineered membrane for separation of dissolved species. One embodiment provides an apparatus for treatment of a fluid that includes ions comprising a microengineered porous membrane, a system for producing an electrical charge across the membrane, and a series of nanopores extending through the membrane. The nanopores have a pore size such that when the fluid contacts the membrane, the nanopores will be in a condition of double layer overlap and allow passage only of ions opposite to the electrical charge across the membrane.

  18. Design and implementation of fixed-order robust controllers for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fu-Cheng; Chen, Hsuan-Tsung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, 10617 Taipei (China)

    2009-03-15

    This paper applies fixed-order multivariable robust control strategies to a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system, and implements the designed controllers on a microchip for system miniaturization. In previous studies, robust control was applied to guarantee system stability and to reduce hydrogen consumption for a PEMFC system. It was noted that for standard robust control design, the order of resulting H{sub {infinity}} controllers is dictated by the plants and weighting functions. However, for hardware implementation, controllers with lower orders are preferable in terms of computing efforts and cost. Therefore, in this paper the PEMFC is modeled as multivariable transfer matrices, then three fixed-order robust control algorithms are applied to design controllers with specified orders for a PEMFC. Finally, the designed controllers are implemented on a microchip to regulate the air and hydrogen flow rates. From the experimental results, fixed-order robust control is deemed effective in supplying steady power and reducing fuel consumption. (author)

  19. Electrochemical evidences and consequences of significant differences in ions diffusion rate in polyacrylate-based ion-selective membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźnica, Emilia; Mieczkowski, Józef; Michalska, Agata

    2011-11-21

    The origin and effect of surface accumulation of primary ions within the ion-selective poly(n-butyl acrylate)-based membrane, obtained by thermal polymerization, is discussed. Using a new method, based on the relation between the shape of a potentiometric plot and preconditioning time, the diffusion of copper ions in the membrane was found to be slow (the diffusion coefficient estimated to be close to 10(-11) cm(2) s(-1)), especially when compared to ion-exchanger counter ions--sodium cations diffusion (a diffusion coefficient above 10(-9) cm(2) s(-1)). The higher mobility of sodium ions than those of the copper-ionophore complex results in exposed ion-exchanger role leading to undesirably exposed sensitivity to sodium or potassium ions.

  20. Polyrhodanine modified anodic aluminum oxide membrane for heavy metal ions removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jooyoung; Oh, Hyuntaek; Kong, Hyeyoung; Jang, Jyongsik

    2011-03-15

    Polyrhodanine was immobilized onto the inner surface of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane via vapor deposition polymerization method. The polyrhodanine modified membrane was applied to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous solution because polyrhodanine could be coordinated with specific metal ions. Several parameters such as initial metal concentration, contact time and metal species were evaluated systematically for uptake efficiencies of the fabricated membrane under continuous flow condition. Adsorption isotherms of Hg(II) ion on the AAO-polyrhodanine membrane were analyzed with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The adsorption rate of Hg(II) ion on the membrane was obeyed by a pseudo-second order equation, indicating the chemical adsorption. The maximum removal capacity of Hg(II) ion onto the fabricated membrane was measured to be 4.2 mmol/g polymer. The AAO-polyrhodanine membrane had also remarkable uptake performance toward Ag(I) and Pb(II) ions. Furthermore, the polyrhodanine modified membrane could be recycled after recovery process. These results demonstrated that the polyrhodanine modified AAO membrane provided potential applications for removing the hazardous heavy metal ions from wastewater. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Flux studies on ion microporous membrane for the use of medical filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hongying; Huang Zhengde

    2002-01-01

    The influences of the irradiating condition (divergent and perpendicular irradiation) and hole shapes (cylinder and cone holes) on the flux are studied for ion microporous membrane. The results show that divergent irradiation and cone hole both can improve the flux of ion microporous membrane for the use of medical filtration

  2. Barodiffusion phenomena at active transport of na+ and K+ ions through the cell membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrapijchuk, G.V.; Chalyi, A.V.; Nurishchenko, N.Je.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of ultrasound as the significant motive force of barodiffusion phenomena at the processes of active transport of Na + and K + ions through the cell membrane is considered. The dependence of membrane potential is theoretically estimated at active transport of natrium and potassium ions on the ultrasound intensity and pressure overfall between external and internal medium of the cell.

  3. Unique thylakoid membrane architecture of a unicellular N2-fixing cyanobacterium revealed by electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberton, Michelle; Austin II, Jotham R; Berg, R. Howard; Pakrasi, Himadri B

    2011-04-01

    Cyanobacteria, descendants of the endosymbiont that gave rise to modern-day chloroplasts, are vital contributors to global biological energy conversion processes. A thorough understanding of the physiology of cyanobacteria requires detailed knowledge of these organisms at the level of cellular architecture and organization. In these prokaryotes, the large membrane protein complexes of the photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains function in the intracellular thylakoid membranes. Like plants, the architecture of the thylakoid membranes in cyanobacteria has direct impact on cellular bioenergetics, protein transport, and molecular trafficking. However, whole-cell thylakoid organization in cyanobacteria is not well understood. Here we present, by using electron tomography, an in-depth analysis of the architecture of the thylakoid membranes in a unicellular cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142. Based on the results of three-dimensional tomographic reconstructions of near-entire cells, we determined that the thylakoids in Cyanothece 51142 form a dense and complex network that extends throughout the entire cell. This thylakoid membrane network is formed from the branching and splitting of membranes and encloses a single lumenal space. The entire thylakoid network spirals as a peripheral ring of membranes around the cell, an organization that has not previously been described in a cyanobacterium. Within the thylakoid membrane network are areas of quasi-helical arrangement with similarities to the thylakoid membrane system in chloroplasts. This cyanobacterial thylakoid arrangement is an efficient means of packing a large volume of membranes in the cell while optimizing intracellular transport and trafficking.

  4. Unique Thylakoid Membrane Architecture of a Unicellular N2-Fixing Cyanobacterium Revealed by Electron Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberton, Michelle L.; Austin, Jotham R.; Berg, R. H.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2011-04-01

    Cyanobacteria, descendants of the endosymbiont that gave rise to modern-day chloroplasts, are vital contributors to global biological energy conversion processes. A thorough understanding of the physiology of cyanobacteria requires detailed knowledge of these organisms at the level of cellular architecture and organization. In these prokaryotes, the large membrane protein complexes of the photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains function in the intracellular thylakoid membranes. Like plants, the architecture of the thylakoid membranes in cyanobacteria has direct impact on cellular bioenergetics, protein transport, and molecular trafficking. However, whole-cell thylakoid organization in cyanobacteria is not well understood. Here we present, by using electron tomography, an in-depth analysis of the architecture of the thylakoid membranes in a unicellular cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142. Based on the results of three-dimensional tomographic reconstructions of near-entire cells, we determined that the thylakoids in Cyanothece 51142 form a dense and complex network that extends throughout the entire cell. This thylakoid membrane network is formed from the branching and splitting of membranes and encloses a single lumenal space. The entire thylakoid network spirals as a peripheral ring of membranes around the cell, an organization that has not previously been described in a cyanobacterium. Within the thylakoid membrane network are areas of quasi-helical arrangement with similarities to the thylakoid membrane system in chloroplasts. This cyanobacterial thylakoid arrangement is an efficient means of packing a large volume of membranes in the cell while optimizing intracellular transport and trafficking.

  5. The effects of heavy metal ions on the chlorophyll content and cell membrane permeability of charophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Hualong; Chen Hao; Dong Bin; Qing Renwei

    2001-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of several heavy metal ions in different concentrations (Cd 2+ , Hg 2+ , Pb 2+ , Cr 6+ ) on the chlorophyll content and cell membrane permeability of Chara vulgaris L. It was discovered that the effects of heavy metal ions on the chlorophyll content and cell membrane permeability of Chara vulgaris L. changed with their different concentration. The trend was that the chlorophyll content and cell membrane permeability were decreased with the increase of the heavy metal ions. The degree of chlorophyll content affected was Cr 6+ , Cd 2+ , Hg 2+ , Pb 2+ , and that of cell membrane permeability affected was Cd 2+ , Cr 6+ , Hg 2+ , Pb 2+

  6. Multicomponent ion transport in a mono and bilayer cation-exchange membrane at high current density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moshtari Khah, S.; Oppers, N.A.W.; de Groot, M.T.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Schouten, J.C.; van der Schaaf, J.

    2017-01-01

    This work describes a model for bilayer cation-exchange membranes used in the chlor-alkali process. The ion transport inside the membrane is modeled with the Nernst–Planck equation. A logistic function is used at the boundary between the two layers of the bilayer membrane to describe the change in

  7. An investigation into the efficiency of ion-exchange membranes in simulated PWR coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clune, T.

    1980-11-01

    This report describes an investigation of the retention efficiency of cation-exchange membranes for magnesium, calcium and nickel ions in PWR-coolant type solutions containing 2 ppm lithium (as lithium hydroxide) and 1000 ppm boron (as boric acid). By analysis of the membranes themselves or of the effluent, the retention characteristics of the membranes in various experimental conditions have been examined. (author)

  8. The structure of ions and zwitterionic lipids regulates the charge of dipolar membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Or; Steiner, Ariel; Szekely, Pablo; Amit, Einav; Asor, Roi; Tamburu, Carmen; Raviv, Uri

    2011-06-21

    In pure water, zwitterionic lipids form lamellar phases with an equilibrium water gap on the order of 2 to 3 nm as a result of the dominating van der Waals attraction between dipolar bilayers. Monovalent ions can swell those neutral lamellae by a small amount. Divalent ions can adsorb onto dipolar membranes and charge them. Using solution X-ray scattering, we studied how the structure of ions and zwitterionic lipids regulates the charge of dipolar membranes. We found that unlike monovalent ions that weakly interact with all of the examined dipolar membranes, divalent and trivalent ions adsorb onto membranes containing lipids with saturated tails, with an association constant on the order of ∼10 M(-1). One double bond in the lipid tail is sufficient to prevent divalent ion adsorption. We suggest that this behavior is due to the relatively loose packing of lipids with unsaturated tails that increases the area per lipid headgroup, enabling their free rotation. Divalent ion adsorption links two lipids and limits their free rotation. The ion-dipole interaction gained by the adsorption of the ions onto unsaturated membranes is insufficient to compensate for the loss of headgroup free-rotational entropy. The ion-dipole interaction is stronger for cations with a higher valence. Nevertheless, polyamines behave as monovalent ions near dipolar interfaces in the sense that they interact weakly with the membrane surface, whereas in the bulk their behavior is similar to that of multivalent cations. Advanced data analysis and comparison with theory provide insight into the structure and interactions between ion-induced regulated charged interfaces. This study models biologically relevant interactions between cell membranes and various ions and the manner in which the lipid structure governs those interactions. The ability to monitor these interactions creates a tool for probing systems that are more complex and forms the basis for controlling the interactions between dipolar

  9. Nano and Mesoscale Ion and Water Transport in Perfluorosulfonic AcidMembranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Nano- and Mesoscale Ion and Water Transport in Perfluorosulfonic-Acid Membranes A. R. Crothers a,b , C. J. Radke a,b , A. Z. Weber a a...Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Water and aqueous cations transport along multiple length scales in perfluorosulfonic-acid membranes. Molecular interactions...as a function of hydration. A resistor network upscales the nanoscale properties to predict effective membrane ion and water transport and their

  10. Metal ions released from fixed orthodontic appliance affect hair mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulewicz, Marcin; Wołowiec, Paulina; Loster, Bartłomiej; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate metal ion accumulation in hair of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances in time. The patients (N = 47) participated in a questionnaire survey. Hair sampling was performed at the beginning and in the 4th, 8th, and 12th month of the treatment. The content of metals (Cr, Ni, Fe) in hair was analyzed by ICP-OES equipped with USN nebulizer. The peak release of Cr and Fe occurred after 4 months of the treatment, and the peak release of Ni gradually increased throughout the whole year of the therapy. During 1 year treatment, an average accumulation of metals in hair tissue was 7.42 ± 14.19 μg of Ni, 8.94 ± 13.1 μg of Cr, and 131 ± 279 μg of Fe. The mean content of Cr was higher than the 90th percentile value for this element. The upper limit of literature reference ranges for Cr, Ni, and Fe in hair was not exceeded. The value of exposure (kinetics and dose) of orthodontic patients to metal ions released from orthodontic appliances can be assessed by hair mineral analysis. The content of Cr was statistically significantly higher during the treatment than before the beginning of therapy.

  11. The Effects of Changing Membrane Compositions and Internal Electrolytes on the Respon of Potassium Ion Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Ulianas, Alizar; Heng, Lee Yook

    2015-01-01

    A study on the changing of membrane compositions and internal solution towards the response potassium ion sensor was carried out. Potassium ion sensor based on photocured cross linking poly(n-butyl acrylate) membranes with varying composition of valinomycin (val), sodium tetrakis [3.5-bis(trifluoro-methyl) phenyl] borat (NaTFPB), types ion of internal solution were investigated. Effects of varying composition of val, NaTFPB, types and concentration of internal solution were observed on potass...

  12. Ion Permeability of Artificial Membranes Evaluated by Diffusion Potential and Electrical Resistance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlyonsky, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    In the present article, a novel model of artificial membranes that provides efficient assistance in teaching the origins of diffusion potentials is proposed. These membranes are made of polycarbonate filters fixed to 12-mm plastic rings and then saturated with a mixture of creosol and "n"-decane. The electrical resistance and potential…

  13. A study of the fixing of phosphoric ions by zirconium-montmorillonite; Etude de la fixation d'ions phosphoriques par la montmorillonite-zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittel, R; Boursat, C; Platzer, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    In connection with the research carried out on the purification of nuclear reactor water, we have undertaken a study of the ion-exchange properties of acid montmorillonite. In a previous paper, we described the preparation of zirconium-montmorillonite small plate. The present article aims to study some of the properties of the clay obtained. We have observed that zirconium-montmorillonite fixes very strongly the phosphorus from solutions of phosphoric acid or of phosphates: on 1 g of clay it is possible to fix 1,2 milli-atoms-gram of zirconium and the zirconium montmorillonite itself fixes 2,1 milli-atoms-gram of phosphorus. An explanation of these experimental results, which is as much chemical as mineralogical, is the hypothesis that the fixing of phosphoric ions modifies the distribution of the ions between the platelets and precipitates a very slightly soluble product of the type diphospho-zirconic acid. (author) [French] En rapport avec des recherches sur I'epuration de l'eau des reacteurs nucleaires nous avons entrepris une etude sur les proprietes d'echangeur d'ions de la montmorillonite-acide. Dans une precedente publication, nous avons decrit la preparation des plaquettes de montmorillonite-zirconium. La presente communication a pour but d'etudier quelques proprietes de l'argile obtenue. Nous avons constate que la montmorilionite-zirconium fixe le phosphore de solutions d'acide phosphorique ou de phosphate avec une grande intensite: sur 1 g d'argile, on peut fixer 1,2 atomes-gramme de zirconium, et la montmorillonite-zirconium fixe a son tour 2,1 milli-atomesgramme de phosphore. Une explication des resultats experimentaux, tant d'ordre chimique que d'ordre mineralogique, consiste en l'hypothese suivant laquelle la fixation d'ions phosphoriques modifierait la repartition des ions entre les feuillets avec precipitation du compose tres peu soluble (type: acide diphosphozirconique). (auteur)

  14. Amphotericin B channels in phospholipid membrane-coated nanoporous silicon surfaces: implications for photovoltaic driving of ions across membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilma, Solomon; Liu, Nangou; Samoylov, Alexander; Lo, Ting; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Vodyanoy, Vitaly

    2007-03-15

    The antimycotic agent amphotericin B (AmB) functions by forming complexes with sterols to form ion channels that cause membrane leakage. When AmB and cholesterol mixed at 2:1 ratio were incorporated into phospholipid bilayer membranes formed on the tip of patch pipettes, ion channel current fluctuations with characteristic open and closed states were observed. These channels were also functional in phospholipid membranes formed on nanoporous silicon surfaces. Electrophysiological studies of AmB-cholesterol mixtures that were incorporated into phospholipid membranes formed on the surface of nanoporous (6.5 nm pore diameter) silicon plates revealed large conductance ion channels ( approximately 300 pS) with distinct open and closed states. Currents through the AmB-cholesterol channels on nanoporous silicon surfaces can be driven by voltage applied via conventional electrical circuits or by photovoltaic electrical potential entirely generated when the nanoporous silicon surface is illuminated with a narrow laser beam. Electrical recordings made during laser illumination of AmB-cholesterol containing membrane-coated nanoporous silicon surfaces revealed very large conductance ion channels with distinct open and closed states. Our findings indicate that nanoporous silicon surfaces can serve as mediums for ion-channel-based biosensors. The photovoltaic properties of nanoporous silicon surfaces show great promise for making such biosensors addressable via optical technologies.

  15. Ion permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane limits the maximum growth temperature of bacteria and archaea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vossenberg, J.L C M; Ubbink-Kok, T.; Elferink, M.G.L.; Driessen, A.J.M.; Konings, W.N

    1995-01-01

    Protons and sodium ions are the most commonly used coupling ions in energy transduction in bacteria and archaea. At their growth temperature, the permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane of thermophilic bacteria to protons is high compared with that of sodium ions. In some thermophiles, sodium is

  16. Method of detecting defects in ion exchange membranes of electrochemical cells by chemochromic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Robert Paul; Mohajeri, Nahid

    2016-01-05

    A method of detecting defects in membranes such as ion exchange membranes of electrochemical cells. The electrochemical cell includes an assembly having an anode side and a cathode side with the ion exchange membrane in between. In a configuration step a chemochromic sensor is placed above the cathode and flow isolation hardware lateral to the ion exchange membrane which prevents a flow of hydrogen (H.sub.2) between the cathode and anode side. The anode side is exposed to a first reactant fluid including hydrogen. The chemochromic sensor is examined after the exposing for a color change. A color change evidences the ion exchange membrane has at least one defect that permits H.sub.2 transmission therethrough.

  17. Ion Transport across Biological Membranes by Carborane-Capped Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzelczak, Marcin P; Danks, Stephen P; Klipp, Robert C; Belic, Domagoj; Zaulet, Adnana; Kunstmann-Olsen, Casper; Bradley, Dan F; Tsukuda, Tatsuya; Viñas, Clara; Teixidor, Francesc; Abramson, Jonathan J; Brust, Mathias

    2017-12-26

    Carborane-capped gold nanoparticles (Au/carborane NPs, 2-3 nm) can act as artificial ion transporters across biological membranes. The particles themselves are large hydrophobic anions that have the ability to disperse in aqueous media and to partition over both sides of a phospholipid bilayer membrane. Their presence therefore causes a membrane potential that is determined by the relative concentrations of particles on each side of the membrane according to the Nernst equation. The particles tend to adsorb to both sides of the membrane and can flip across if changes in membrane potential require their repartitioning. Such changes can be made either with a potentiostat in an electrochemical cell or by competition with another partitioning ion, for example, potassium in the presence of its specific transporter valinomycin. Carborane-capped gold nanoparticles have a ligand shell full of voids, which stem from the packing of near spherical ligands on a near spherical metal core. These voids are normally filled with sodium or potassium ions, and the charge is overcompensated by excess electrons in the metal core. The anionic particles are therefore able to take up and release a certain payload of cations and to adjust their net charge accordingly. It is demonstrated by potential-dependent fluorescence spectroscopy that polarized phospholipid membranes of vesicles can be depolarized by ion transport mediated by the particles. It is also shown that the particles act as alkali-ion-specific transporters across free-standing membranes under potentiostatic control. Magnesium ions are not transported.

  18. Separation of some metal ions using coupled transport supported liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Liquid membrane extraction processes has become very popular due to their superiority in many ways over other separation techniques. In coupled transport membranes the metal ions can be transported across the membrane against their concentration gradient under the influence of chemical potential difference. Liquid membranes consisting of a carrier-cum-diluent, supported in microporous polymeric hydrophobic films have been studied for transport of metal ions like U(VI), Cr(VI), Be(II), V(V), Ti(IV), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hf(IV), W(VI), and Co(II). The present paper presents basic data with respect to flux and permeabilities of these metal ions across membranes based on experimental results and theoretical equations, using different carriers and diluents and provides a brief reference to possibility of such membranes for large scale applications. (author)

  19. Separation and Extraction of Some Heavy and Toxic Metal Ions from Their Wastes by Ionic Membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed Hegazy, A.; Kamal, H.; Mahmoud, Gh. A.; Khalifa, N.A.

    1999-01-01

    Preparation and characterisation of a series of ion-exchange membranes for the purpose of separation and extraction of some heavy and toxic metal ions from their wastes have been studied. Such ion exchange membranes prepared by γ-radiation grafting of acrylonitrile (AN) and vinyl acetate (VAc) in a binary monomers mixture onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) using direct technique of grafting. The reaction conditions at which grafting process proceeds successfully have been determined. Many modification treatments have been attempted for the prepared membranes to improve their ion-exchange properties. The possibility of their practical use in waste water treatment from some heavy and toxic metal ions such as Pb 2+ , Cd 2+ ,Cu 2+ ,Fe 3+ ,Sr 2+ and Li + have been investigated. These grafted membranes showed great promise for its use in the field of extraction and removal of some heavy and toxic metals from their wastes

  20. Novel adsorptive ultrafiltration membranes derived from polyvinyltetrazole-co-polyacrylonitrile for Cu(II) ions removal

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Mahendra

    2016-05-04

    Novel adsorptive ultrafiltration membranes were manufactured from synthesized polyvinyltetrazole−co−polyacrylonitrile (PVT−co−PAN) by nonsolvent induced phase separation (NIPS). PVT−co−PAN with various degree of functionalization (DF) was synthesized via a [3+2] cycloaddition reaction at 60°C using a commercial PAN. PVT−co−PAN with varied DF was then explored to prepare adsorptive membranes. The membranes were characterized by surface zeta potential and static water contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. It was shown that PVT segments contributed to alter the pore size, charge and hydrophilic behavior of the membranes. The membranes became more negatively charged and hydrophilic after addition of PVT segments. The PVT segments in the membranes served as the major binding sites for adsorption of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution. The maximum adsorption of Cu(II) ions by the membranes in static condition and in a continuous ultrafiltration of 10 ppm solution was attained at pH = 5. The adsorption data suggest that the Freundlich isotherm model describes well Cu(II) ions adsorption on the membranes from aqueous solution. The adsorption capacity obtained from the Freundlich isotherm model was 44.3 mg g−1; this value is higher than other membrane adsorption data reported in the literature. Overall, the membranes fabricated from PVT−co−PAN are attractive for efficient removal of heavy metal ions under the optimized conditions.

  1. Novel adsorptive ultrafiltration membranes derived from polyvinyltetrazole-co-polyacrylonitrile for Cu(II) ions removal

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Mahendra; Shevate, Rahul; Hilke, Roland; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Novel adsorptive ultrafiltration membranes were manufactured from synthesized polyvinyltetrazole−co−polyacrylonitrile (PVT−co−PAN) by nonsolvent induced phase separation (NIPS). PVT−co−PAN with various degree of functionalization (DF) was synthesized via a [3+2] cycloaddition reaction at 60°C using a commercial PAN. PVT−co−PAN with varied DF was then explored to prepare adsorptive membranes. The membranes were characterized by surface zeta potential and static water contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. It was shown that PVT segments contributed to alter the pore size, charge and hydrophilic behavior of the membranes. The membranes became more negatively charged and hydrophilic after addition of PVT segments. The PVT segments in the membranes served as the major binding sites for adsorption of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution. The maximum adsorption of Cu(II) ions by the membranes in static condition and in a continuous ultrafiltration of 10 ppm solution was attained at pH = 5. The adsorption data suggest that the Freundlich isotherm model describes well Cu(II) ions adsorption on the membranes from aqueous solution. The adsorption capacity obtained from the Freundlich isotherm model was 44.3 mg g−1; this value is higher than other membrane adsorption data reported in the literature. Overall, the membranes fabricated from PVT−co−PAN are attractive for efficient removal of heavy metal ions under the optimized conditions.

  2. Surface-Modified Membrane as A Separator for Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Young Kim

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the fabrication of novel modified polyethylene (PE membranes using plasma technology to create high-performance and cost-effective separator membranes for practical applications in lithium-ion polymer batteries. The modified PE membrane via plasma modification process plays a critical role in improving wettability and electrolyte retention, interfacial adhesion between separators and electrodes, and cycle performance of lithium-ion polymer batteries. This paper suggests that the performance of lithium-ion polymer batteries can be greatly enhanced by the plasma modification of commercial separators with proper functional materials for targeted application.

  3. Monitoring changes in membrane polarity, membrane integrity, and intracellular ion concentrations in Streptococcus pneumoniae using fluorescent dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Emily A; Marks, Laura R; Roche-Håkansson, Hazeline; Håkansson, Anders P

    2014-02-17

    Membrane depolarization and ion fluxes are events that have been studied extensively in biological systems due to their ability to profoundly impact cellular functions, including energetics and signal transductions. While both fluorescent and electrophysiological methods, including electrode usage and patch-clamping, have been well developed for measuring these events in eukaryotic cells, methodology for measuring similar events in microorganisms have proven more challenging to develop given their small size in combination with the more complex outer surface of bacteria shielding the membrane. During our studies of death-initiation in Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), we wanted to elucidate the role of membrane events, including changes in polarity, integrity, and intracellular ion concentrations. Searching the literature, we found that very few studies exist. Other investigators had monitored radioisotope uptake or equilibrium to measure ion fluxes and membrane potential and a limited number of studies, mostly in Gram-negative organisms, had seen some success using carbocyanine or oxonol fluorescent dyes to measure membrane potential, or loading bacteria with cell-permeant acetoxymethyl (AM) ester versions of ion-sensitive fluorescent indicator dyes. We therefore established and optimized protocols for measuring membrane potential, rupture, and ion-transport in the Gram-positive organism S. pneumoniae. We developed protocols using the bis-oxonol dye DiBAC4(3) and the cell-impermeant dye propidium iodide to measure membrane depolarization and rupture, respectively, as well as methods to optimally load the pneumococci with the AM esters of the ratiometric dyes Fura-2, PBFI, and BCECF to detect changes in intracellular concentrations of Ca(2+), K(+), and H(+), respectively, using a fluorescence-detection plate reader. These protocols are the first of their kind for the pneumococcus and the majority of these dyes have not been used in any other bacterial

  4. Single-ion polymer electrolyte membranes enable lithium-ion batteries with a broad operating temperature range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weiwei; Zhang, Yunfeng; Li, Jing; Sun, Yubao; Cheng, Hansong

    2014-04-01

    Conductive processes involving lithium ions are analyzed in detail from a mechanistic perspective, and demonstrate that single ion polymeric electrolyte (SIPE) membranes can be used in lithium-ion batteries with a wide operating temperature range (25-80 °C) through systematic optimization of electrodes and electrode/electrolyte interfaces, in sharp contrast to other batteries equipped with SIPE membranes that display appreciable operability only at elevated temperatures (>60 °C). The performance is comparable to that of batteries using liquid electrolyte of inorganic salt, and the batteries exhibit excellent cycle life and rate performance. This significant widening of battery operation temperatures coupled with the inherent flexibility and robustness of the SIPE membranes makes it possible to develop thin and flexible Li-ion batteries for a broad range of applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Electrochemical acidification of Kraft black liquor by electrodialysis with bipolar membrane: Ion exchange membrane fouling identification and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Maryam; Mikhaylin, Sergey; Bazinet, Laurent; Savadogo, Oumarou; Paris, Jean

    2017-02-15

    Integrated forest biorefinery offers promising pathways to sustainably diversify the revenue of pulp and paper industry. In this context, lignin can be extracted from a residual stream of Kraft pulping process, called black liquor, and subsequently converted into a wide spectrum of bio-based products. Electrochemical acidification of Kraft black liquor by electrodialysis with bipolar membrane results in lignin extraction and caustic soda production. Even though the implementation of this method requires less chemicals than the chemical acidification process, fouling of the ion exchange membranes and especially bipolar membrane impairs its productivity. Membrane thickness and ash content measurements along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), elemental analysis (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) analysis were performed to identify the nature and mechanisms of the membrane fouling. The results revealed that the fouling layer mostly consisted of organic components and particularly lignin. Based on our proposed fouling mechanisms, throughout the electrodialysis process the pH of the black liquor gradually decreased and as a result more proton ions were available to trigger protonation reaction of lignin phenolic groups and decrease the lignin solubility. Due to the abundance of the proton ions on the surface of the cation exchange layers of the bipolar membrane, destabilized lignin macro-molecules started to self-aggregate and formed lignin clusters on its surface. Over the time, these lignin clusters covered the entire surface of the bipolar membrane and the spaces between the membranes and, eventually, attached to the surface of the cation exchange membrane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mass and Heat Transfer in Ion-Exchange Membranes Applicable to Solid Polymer Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otteroey, M

    1996-04-01

    In this doctoral thesis, an improved emf method for determination of transference numbers of two counter ions in ion-exchange membranes is presented. Transference numbers were obtained as a continuous function of the composition. The method avoids problems with diffusion by using a stack of membranes. Water transference coefficients in ion-exchange membranes is discussed and reversible and irreversible water transfer is studied by emf methods. Efforts were made to get data relevant to the solid polymer fuel cell. The results support the findings of other researchers that the reversible water transfer is lower than earlier predicted. A chapter on the conductivity of ion-exchange membranes establishes a method to separate the very thin liquid layers surrounding the membranes in a stack. Using the method it was found that the conductivity is obtained with high accuracy and that the liquid layer in a membrane stack can contribute significantly to the total measured resistance. A four point impedance method was tested to measure the conductivity of membranes under fuel cell conditions. Finally, there is a discussion of reversible heat effects and heat transfer in ion-exchange membranes. 155 refs., 45 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Heavy ion and fixed target physics at LHCb: results and prospects

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, the LHCb collaboration endorsed the proposal to pursue an ambitious heavy ion physics program. In 2013, LHCb has demonstrated its capabilities to operate successfully in p-Pb and Pb-p collisions, leading already to several important publications in the field. The measurements of the nuclear modification factors and forward-backward production of prompt and displaced J/psi, psi(2S) and Upsilon states, as well as the production of prompt D0 mesons, have allowed to extend the knowledge of Cold Nuclear Matter effects on open heavy flavours and quarkonium production. The measurement of Z-boson production, important to constrain nuclear PDFs, and the measurement of two-particle angular correlations, probing collective effects in the dense environment of high energy collisions, have also been performed. Furthermore, LHCb is the only experiment at the LHC that can be operated in fixed-target mode, owing to the injection of a small amount of gas inside the LHCb collision area. There have been several p-gas an...

  8. Electrical equivalent circuit of an ion-exchange membrane system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikonenko, Victor V., E-mail: v_nikonenko@mail.r [Membrane Institute, Kuban State University, Krasnodar (Russian Federation); Kozmai, Anton E. [Membrane Institute, Kuban State University, Krasnodar (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-01

    Usually, the current flowing through an electrochemical cell is divided into the faradaic current going to an electrochemical interface reaction, and the current charging electric double layer (EDL). This division leads to the Randles-Ershler equivalent circuit with an EDL capacitance in one branch, and the faradaic impedance in the other, specific for each particular system. However, the physics of the separation of the impedance into faradaic and capacitive components for different electrochemical systems is not sufficiently clear. The most of derivations resulting in the formal construction of the Randles-Ershler or similar equivalent circuits are based on the a priori separation of the electroneutral and the double-layer regions. In this paper, we derive an equation for the impedance of a three-layer system consisted of an ion-exchange membrane and two adjoining diffusion boundary layers (DBL) starting from the Poisson equation. The system is polarized by a constant electric current over which a small sinusoidal signal is applied. The equation shows that the impedance of the considered system can be formally interpreted via an equivalent circuit with a frequency dependent capacitance in one branch and a finite-length Warburg-type impedance in the other. To take into account this dependence, the impedance of the system may be presented as a series connection of five circuits. Three of them are consisted of a geometric capacitance connected in parallel with an ohmic resistance, respectively, for both diffusion layers and for the membrane bulk; the two others being the double-layer capacitance in parallel with the finite-length Warburg impedance for the left and the right interfaces, respectively. The comparison of the impedance spectra calculated within our analytical approach with those obtained by the full numerical solution of the Nernst-Planck-Poisson (NPP) equations shows a good agreement. Different possible situations, which might arise in real systems

  9. Surface oxygen vacancy and oxygen permeation flux limits of perovskite ion transport membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Hunt, Anton; Dimitrakopoulos, Georgios; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The mechanisms and quantitative models for how oxygen is separated from air using ion transport membranes (ITMs) are not well understood, largely due to the experimental complexity for determining surface exchange reactions

  10. Numerical simulation of ion transport membrane reactors: Oxygen permeation and transport and fuel conversion

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup; Kirchen, Patrick; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2012-01-01

    Ion transport membrane (ITM) based reactors have been suggested as a novel technology for several applications including fuel reforming and oxy-fuel combustion, which integrates air separation and fuel conversion while reducing complexity

  11. Ion Transport in Organic Electrolyte Solution through the Pore Channels of Anodic Nanoporous Alumina Membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutsuka, Tomokazu; Koyamada, Kohei; Maruyama, Shohei; Miyazaki, Kohei; Abe, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ion transport in organic electrolyte solution in macro- and meso-pores was focused. • Anodic nanoporous alumina membrane was used as a porous material. • The specific ion conductivities drastically decreased in macro- and meso-pores. - Abstract: For the development of high energy density lithium-ion batteries with the high rate performance, the enhancement of the ion transport in the electrolyte solutions impregnated in the porous electrodes is a key. To study the ion transport in porous electrodes, anodic nanoporous alumina (APA) self-standing membranes with macro- or meso-pores were used as model porous materials. These membranes had nearly spherical pore channels of discrete 20–68 nm in diameters. By using the geometric shape of the pores, we attempted to evaluate the specific ion conductivities of the organic electrolyte solution dissolving lithium salt simply. AC impedance spectroscopy measurement of a four-electrode cell with membranes showed one depressed semi-circle in the Nyquist plots and this semi-circle can be assigned as the ion transport resistance in the pores. The specific ion conductivities evaluated from the ion transport resistances and the geometric parameters showed very small values, even in the macro-pores, as compared with that of the bulk electrolyte solution.

  12. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  13. New membrane materials for potassium-selective ion-sensitive field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, P.D.; van der Wal, Peter D.; Skowronska-Ptasinska, Maria; van den Berg, Albert; Bergveld, Piet; Sudholter, Ernst; Sudholter, Ernst J.R.; Reinhoudt, David

    1990-01-01

    Several polymeric materials were studied as membrane materials for potassium-selective ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) to overcome the problems related with the use of conventional plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membranes casted on ISFET gate surfaces. Several acrylate materials,

  14. Recent Advances in the Fabrication of Membranes Containing “Ion Pairs” for Nanofiltration Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Li Ji

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the face of serious environmental pollution and water scarcity problems, the membrane separation technique, especially high efficiency, low energy consumption, and environmental friendly nanofiltration, has been quickly developed. Separation membranes with high permeability, good selectivity, and strong antifouling properties are critical for water treatment and green chemical processing. In recent years, researchers have paid more and more attention to the development of high performance nanofiltration membranes containing “ion pairs”. In this review, the effects of “ion pairs” characteristics, such as the super-hydrophilicity, controllable charge character, and antifouling property, on nanofiltration performances are discussed. A systematic survey was carried out on the various approaches and multiple regulation factors in the fabrication of polyelectrolyte complex membranes, zwitterionic membranes, and charged mosaic membranes, respectively. The mass transport behavior and antifouling mechanism of the membranes with “ion pairs” are also discussed. Finally, we present a brief perspective on the future development of advanced nanofiltration membranes with “ion pairs”.

  15. The influence of activation of heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes on their electrochemical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brožová, Libuše; Křivčík, J.; Neděla, D.; Kysela, V.; Žitka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 12 (2015), s. 3228-3232 ISSN 1944-3994. [International Conference on Membrane and Electromembrane Processes - MELPRO 2014. Prague, 18.05.2014-21.05.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes * electrochemical properties * activation Subject RIV: JP - Industrial Processing Impact factor: 1.272, year: 2015

  16. Release of nickel and chromium ions in the saliva of patients with fixed orthodontic appliance: An in-vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Anoop; Tikku, Tripti; Khanna, Rohit; Maurya, Rana Pratap; Verma, Geeta; Murthy, R C

    2015-01-01

    Various components of fixed orthodontic appliances are continuously interacting with saliva and other fluids in the mouth releasing various metal ions including nickel and chromium that can cause damaging effects if their concentration exceeds above the toxic dose. To determine and compare the level of nickel and chromium in the saliva of patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment at different time periods. The sample of saliva of 13 patients was taken at different time periods that is: Group 1 (before appliance placement), Group II, III, and IV (after 1-week, 1-month, and 3 months of appliance placement respectively). The fixed appliance comprised of brackets, bands, buccal tubes, lingual sheath, transpalatal arch and wires composed of Ni-Ti and stainless steel. The level of ions was determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectro-photometry. The data thus obtained were statistically analyzed using SPSS Statistical Analysis Software (Version 15.0). Level of nickel and chromium in saliva was highest in Group II and lowest in Groups I for both the ions. On comparison among different Groups, it was statistically significant for all the groups (<0.001) except between Group III and Group IV. The release of nickel and chromium was maximum at 1-week and then the level gradually declined. These values were well below the toxic dose of these ions. The results should be viewed with caution in subjects with Ni hypersensitivity.

  17. Patterned ion exchange membranes for improved power production in microbial reverse-electrodialysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jia

    2014-12-01

    Power production in microbial reverse-electrodialysis cells (MRCs) can be limited by the internal resistance of the reverse electrodialysis stack. Typical MRC stacks use non-conductive spacers that block ion transport by the so-called spacer shadow effect. These spacers can be relatively thick compared to the membrane, and thus they increase internal stack resistance due to high solution (ohmic) resistance associated with a thick spacer. New types of patterned anion and cation exchange membranes were developed by casting membranes to create hemispherical protrusions on the membranes, enabling fluid flow between the membranes without the need for a non-conductive spacer. The use of the patterned membrane decreased the MRC stack resistance by ∼22 Ω, resulting in a 38% increase in power density from 2.50 ± 0.04 W m-2 (non-patterned membrane with a non-conductive spacer) to 3.44 ± 0.02 W m-2 (patterned membrane). The COD removal rate, coulombic efficiency, and energy efficiency of the MRC also increased using the patterned membranes compared to the non-patterned membranes. These results demonstrate that these patterned ion exchange membranes can be used to improve performance of an MRC. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Modification of retinal photoreceptor membranes and Ca ion binding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchagin, V P; Berman, A L; Shukoliukov, S A; Rychkova, M P; Etingof, R N

    1978-10-01

    Calcium binding by modified photoreceptor membranes of cattle retina has been studied. Ca2+-binding the membranes significantly changes after C-phospholipase treatment, displaying the initial growth (less than 65% of lipid phosphorus removed) with subsequent decrease (more than 65% of phosphorus removed). Liposomes of the photoreceptor membranes lipids were found to bind more calcium than do the native photoreceptor membranes. Proteolytic enzymes (papaine, pronase) splitting some rhodopsin fragments do not affect the ability of the membrane to bind Ca2+. The increase of light-induced Ca-binding is observed only after the outer segments preincubation under conditions providing for rhodopsin phosphorylation. This effect was observed also after the splitting of the rhodopsin fragment by papaine. It is concluded that calcium binding in the photoreceptor membranes is mainly due to the phosphate groups of phospholipids.

  19. Ionic Resistance and Permselectivity Tradeoffs in Anion Exchange Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.; Hickner, Michael A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    (sulfone) and poly(phenylene oxide) polymer backbones and developed structure-property relationships between the transport properties and the water content and fixed charge concentration of the membranes. Ion transport and ion exclusion properties depend

  20. Evaluation of Two Biosorbents in the Removal of Metal Ions in Aqueous Using a Pilot Scale Fixed-bed System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Gadelha Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to investigate the adsorption of toxic metal ions copper, nickel and zinc from aqueous solutions using low cost natural biomass (sugar cane bagasse and green coconut fiber in pilot scale fixed-bed system. The Hydraulic retention time (HRT was 229 minutes and the lowest adsorbent usage rate (AUR found was 0.10 g.L-1 for copper using green coconut fibers. The highest values of adsorption capacities founded were 1.417 and 2.772 mg.g-1 of Cu(II ions for sugarcane bagasse and green coconut fibers, respectively. The results showed that both sugarcane bagasse and green coconut fiber presented potential in the removal of metal ions copper, nickel and zinc ions from aqueous solution and the possible use in wastewater treatment station.

  1. Evaluation of the Standard Ion Transfer Potentials for PVC Plasticized Membranes from Voltammetric Measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langmaier, Jan; Stejskalová, Květoslava; Samec, Zdeněk

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 496, č. 1 (2001), s. 143-147 ISSN 0022-0728. [Symposium in Kyoto. Kyoto, 02.03.2000] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4040902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : ion voltammetry * PVC plasticized membrane * standard ion transfer potential Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.960, year: 2001

  2. The ion-step induced response of membrane-coated ISFETs: theoretical description and experimental verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schasfoort, Richardus B.M.; Bergveld, Piet; Kooyman, R.P.H.; Greve, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Recently a new method was introduced to operate an immunological field effect transistor (ImmunoFET). By changing the electrolyte concentration of the sample solution stepwise (the so-called ion-step), a transient diffusion of ions through the membrane-protein layer occurs, resulting in a transient

  3. Transport of Carbonate Ions by Novel Cellulose Fiber Supported Solid Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Gaikwad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport of carbonate ions was explored through fiber supported solid membrane. A novel fiber supported solid membrane was prepared by chemical modification of cellulose fiber with citric acid, 2′2-bipyridine and magnesium carbonate. The factors affecting the permeability of carbonate ions such as immobilization of citric acid-magnesium metal ion -2′2-bipyridine complex (0 to 2.5 mmol/g range over cellulose fiber, carbon-ate ion concentration in source phase and NaOH concentration in receiving phase were investigated. Ki-netic of carbonate, sulfate, and nitrate ions was investigated through fiber supported solid membrane. Transport of carbonate ions with/without bubbling of CO2 (0 to 10 ml/min in source phase was explored from source to receiving phase. The novel idea is to explore the adsorptive transport of CO2 from source to receiving phase through cellulose fiber containing magnesium metal ion organic framework. Copyright © 2012 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.Received: 25th November 2011; Revised: 17th December 2011; Accepted: 19th December 2011[How to Cite: A.G. Gaikwad. (2012. Transport of Carbonate Ions by Novel Cellulose Fiber Supported Solid Membrane. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (1: 49– 57.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1225.49-57][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1225.49-57 ] | View in 

  4. Plasma membrane surface potential: dual effects upon ion uptake and toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical properties of plasma membranes (PMs), partially controlled by the ionic composition of the bathing medium, play significant roles in the distribution of ions at the exterior surface of PMs and in the transport of ions across PMs. The effects of coexistent cations (commonly Al3+, Ca2+, Mg...

  5. The enduring legacy of the “constant-field equation” in membrane ion transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In 1943, David Goldman published a seminal paper in The Journal of General Physiology that reported a concise expression for the membrane current as a function of ion concentrations and voltage. This body of work was, and still is, the theoretical pillar used to interpret the relationship between a cell’s membrane potential and its external and/or internal ionic composition. Here, we describe from an historical perspective the theory underlying the constant-field equation and its application to membrane ion transport. PMID:28931632

  6. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system with directed internal gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michael Jerome; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2010-02-09

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an inlet adapted to introduce gas into the interior of the vessel, an outlet adapted to withdraw gas from the interior of the vessel, and an axis; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region; and (c) one or more gas flow control partitions disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and adapted to change a direction of gas flow within the vessel.

  7. PVDF-HFP-based porous polymer electrolyte membranes for lithium-ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Ruiying; Liu, Bowen; Zhu, Zhongzheng

    2008-01-01

    As a potential electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries, a porous polymer electrolyte membrane based on poly(vinylidenefluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) was prepared by a phase inversion method. The casting solution, effects of the solvent and non-solvent and addition of micron scale TiO2...... particles were investigated. The membranes were characterized by SEM, XRD, AC impedance, and charge/discharge tests. By using acetone as the solvent and water as the non-solvent, the prepared membranes showed good ability to absorb and retain the lithium ion containing electrolyte. Addition of micron TiO2...

  8. On the resistances of membrane, diffusion boundary layer and double layer in ion exchange membrane transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Długołȩcki, P.; Ogonowski, P.; Metz, S.J.; Saakes, M.; Nijmeijer, K.; Wessling, M.

    2010-01-01

    Membrane resistances are often measured under direct current conditions using a standard 0.5 M NaCl characterization solution, although several electro-membrane processes (e.g. reverse electrodialysis, electrodialysis, fuel cells, microbial fuel cells and membrane capacitive deionization) operate in

  9. Dense ceramic membranes based on ion conducting oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, M.L.; Larring, Y.; Bredesen, R.; Norby, T.; Grande, T.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter reviews the recent progress made in the fields of high temperature oxygen and hydrogen separation membranes. Studies of membranes for oxygen separation are mainly focusing on materials design to improve flux, and to lesser extent, related to stability issues. High oxygen fluxes satisfying industrial requirements can be obtained but, for many materials, the surface exchange rate is limiting the performance. The current status on electrolyte-type and mixed proton and electron conducting membranes is outlined, highlighting materials with improved stability in typical applications as solid oxide fuel cell technology and gas separation. In our presentation more fundamental aspects related to transport properties, chemical and mechanical stability of membrane materials are also treated. It is concluded that a significantly better understanding of the long term effects of operation in chemical gradients is needed for these types of membrane materials. (authors)

  10. Plasma-modified polyethylene membrane as a separator for lithium-ion polymer battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Young; Lee, Yongbeom; Lim, Dae Young

    2009-01-01

    The surface of polyethylene (PE) membranes as a separator for lithium-ion polymer battery was modified with acrylonitrile (AN) using the plasma technology. The plasma-induced acrylonitrile coated PE (PiAN-PE) membrane was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and contact angle measurement. The electrochemical performance of the lithium-ion polymer cell fabricated with the PE and the PiAN-PE membranes were also analyzed. The surface characterization demonstrates that the enhanced adhesion of the PiAN-PE membrane resulted from the increased polar component of surface energy for the PiAN-PE membrane. The presence of the PiAN induced onto the surface of the membrane via the plasma modification plays a critical role in improving the wettability and electrolyte retention, the interfacial adhesion between the electrodes and the separator, the cycle performance of the resulting lithium-ion polymer cell assembly. The PiAN-PE membrane modified by the plasma treatment holds a great potential to be used as a high-performance and cost-effective separator for lithium-ion polymer battery.

  11. Influence of Active Layer on Separation Potentials of Nanofiltration Membranes for Inorganic Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadekar, Shardul S; Vidic, Radisav D

    2017-05-16

    Active layers of two fully aromatic and two semi-aromatic nanofiltration membranes were studied along with surface charge at different electrolyte composition and effective pore size to elucidate their influence on separation mechanisms for inorganic ions by steric, charge, and dielectric exclusion. The membrane potential method used for pore size measurement is underlined as the most appropriate measurement technique for this application owing to its dependence on the diffusional potentials of inorganic ions. Crossflow rejection experiments with dilute feed composition indicate that both fully aromatic membranes achieved similar rejection despite the differences in surface charge, which suggests that rejection by these membranes is exclusively dependent on size exclusion and the contribution of charge exclusion is weak. Rejection experiments with higher ionic strength and different composition of the feed solution confirmed this hypothesis. On the other hand, increase in the ionic strength of feed solution when the charge exclusion effects are negligible due to charge screening strongly influenced ion rejection by semi-aromatic membranes. The experimental results confirmed that charge exclusion contributes significantly to the performance of semi-aromatic membranes in addition to size exclusion. The contribution of dielectric exclusion to overall ion rejection would be more significant for fully aromatic membranes.

  12. Influence of nonionic surfactants on the potentiometric response of hydrogen ion-selective polymeric membrane electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espadas-Torre, C; Bakker, E; Barker, S; Meyerhoff, M E

    1996-05-01

    The influence of poly(ethylene oxide)-based nonionic surfactants (i.e., Triton X-100 and Brij 35) in the sample phase on the response properties of hydrogen ion-selective polymeric membrane electrodes containing mobile (lipophilic amines) or covalently bound (aminated-poly-(vinyl chloride)) hydrogen ion carriers is reported. In the presence of these nonionic surfactants, membrane electrode response toward interfering cation activity (e.g., Na+) in the sample phase is increased substantially and the pH measuring range shortened. The degree of cation interference for pH measurements is shown to correlate with the basicity of the hydrogen ion carrier doped within the membrane phase. The observed deterioration in selectivity arises from the partitioning of the surfactant into the membrane and concomitant extraction of metal cations by the surfactants in the organic phase. The effect of nonionic surfactants on pH electrodes prepared with aminated-PVC membranes is shown to be more complex, with additional large shifts in EMF values apparently arising from multidentate interactions between the surfactant molecules and the polymeric amine in the membrane, leading to a change in the apparent pKa values for the amine sites. The effects induced by nonionic surfactants on the EMF response function of hydrogen ion-selective polymeric membrane electrodes are modeled, and experimental results are shown to correlate well with theoretical predictions.

  13. All-solid-state ion-selective silicone rubber membrane electrodes with a new conducting polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eun Rang; Chung, Yeon Joon; Hwang, Sun Woo

    2012-01-01

    New conducting polymers containing heterocyclic rings with carbazole, ethylene dioxythiophene (EDOT) and benzobisthiazole were synthesized and the characterized by using organic spectroscopic methods. Potentiometric ion-selective membrane electrodes (ISMEs) have been extensively used for ion analysis in clinical, environmental, and industrial fields owing to their wide response range (4 to 7 orders of magnitude), no effect of sample turbidity, fast response time, and ease of miniaturization. Considerable attention has been given to alternative use of room-temperature vulcanizing (RTV)-type silicone rubber (SR) owing to its strong adhesion and high thermal durability. Unfortunately, the high membrane resistance of SR-based ion-selective membranes (ISMs) (2 to 3 higher orders of magnitude compared to those of poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC)-based ones) has significantly restricted their application. Herein, we demonstrate a new method to reduce the membrane resistance via addition of a new conducting polymer into the SR-based ISMs.

  14. Preparation and characterization of polymer inclusion membrane based optode for determination of Al{sup 3+} ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suah, Faiz Bukhari Mohd, E-mail: fsuah@usm.my [School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Ahmad, Musa [Faculty of Science & Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, 71800, Bandar Baru Nilai, Negeri Sembilan (Malaysia)

    2017-01-25

    The use of a polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) as a sensing material is a new approach to overcome the selectivity and stability drawbacks of the optical chemical sensor (optode). In this study, non-plasticized PIM containing poly(vinyl chloride) as a support base, sodium morin-5-sulfonate (NaMSA) as a reagent and Aliquat 336 as a fixed carrier (ionophore) was prepared and its performance was tested for application in an optode to determine Al{sup 3+} ions. The results showed that PIM properties are greatly influenced by the membrane composition. The studies revealed that the optode response was dependent on film thickness, the presence of plasticizer, stirring effect, concentration of NaMSA, concentration of Aliquat 336 and pH of the aqueous solution used. The dynamic range of Al{sup 3+} ions concentration determined using this optode was linear from 5.19 × 10{sup −7} to 6.00 × 10{sup −5} mol L{sup −1} and the calculated limit of detection (L.O.D.) was found to be 4.07 × 10{sup −7} mol L{sup −1}. The maximum emission wavelength (λ{sub em}) for the PIM based optode was 512 nm. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the PIM revealed that a dense texture was formed. Fourier transform infra-red and thermal gravimetry analysis characterizations proved that all of the constituents of the PIM remain within the membrane. The PIM developed in this work was found to be stable, has good mechanical strength, and is sensitive and reusable. Lastly, the PIM was successfully applied as an optical sensor for determination of Al{sup 3+} ions in an aqueous solution. - Highlights: • A novel non-plasticized polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) based optode has been developed for determination of Al{sup 3+} ions. • A novel use of sulphonated morin (NaMSA) for determination of Al{sup 3+} ions by using fluorescence technique. • The optode is fully reversible. • It shows good repeatability and reproducibility without significant decrease in fluorescence

  15. Design of polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes for ion rejection and wastewater effluent treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Oishi

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) membranes present a special class of nanostructured membranes which have potential applications in a variety of water treatment operations. These membranes are fabricated by the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of alternately charged polyelectrolytes on commercial membrane surfaces. A large variety of polyelectrolytes and their varied deposition conditions (pH, number of bilayers etc.) allow very fine tuning of the membrane performance in terms of permeability and rejection. The first part of this thesis is about the application of PEM membranes to the removal of perchlorate ion from water. Being a monovalent ion, it is most effectively removed by a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane. However, these membranes inherently have very low fluxes which lead to high pressure requirements. In our work, we modified the surface of a nanofiltration (NF) membrane by the LbL assembly of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes. The appropriate tuning of the LbL conditions led to the development of a membrane with significantly higher flux than RO membranes but with equivalent perchlorate rejection. This was one of the best trade-offs offered by PEM membranes for monovalent ion rejection as has been reported in literature so far. While PEM membranes have mostly shown great potential in ion-rejection studies, they have seldom been tested for real wastewater effluents. The second part of this thesis, therefore, deals with evaluating the applicability of PEM membranes to treating an electrocoagulation (EC)-treated high strength wastewater. Two types of very commonly used polyelectrolyte combinations were tried out -- one of which was an ionically crosslinked system and the other one was covalently crosslinked. Both the types of PEM membranes showed a high level of COD reduction from the feed stream with higher fluxes than commercial RO membranes. One major challenge in using membranes for wastewater treatment is their fouling propensity. Like many other

  16. 2D fluorescence spectroscopy for monitoring ion-exchange membrane based technologies - Reverse electrodialysis (RED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Sylwin; Galinha, Claudia F; Crespo, João G; Velizarov, Svetlozar

    2016-01-01

    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is one of the emerging, membrane-based technologies for harvesting salinity gradient energy. In RED process, fouling is an undesirable operation constraint since it leads to a decrease of the obtainable net power density due to increasing stack electric resistance and pressure drop. Therefore, early fouling detection is one of the main challenges for successful RED technology implementation. In the present study, two-dimensional (2D) fluorescence spectroscopy was used, for the first time, as a tool for fouling monitoring in RED. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) of ion-exchange membrane surfaces and of natural aqueous streams were acquired during one month of a RED stack operation. Fouling evolvement on the ion-exchange membrane surfaces was successfully followed by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy and quantified using principal components analysis (PCA). Additionally, the efficiency of cleaning strategy was assessed by measuring the membrane fluorescence emission intensity before and after cleaning. The anion-exchange membrane (AEM) surface in contact with river water showed to be significantly affected due to fouling by humic compounds, which were found to cross through the membrane from the lower salinity (river water) to higher salinity (sea water) stream. The results obtained show that the combined approach of using 2D fluorescence spectroscopy and PCA has a high potential for studying fouling development and membrane cleaning efficiency in ion exchange membrane processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Polymethylmethacrylate/Polyacrylonitrile Membranes via Centrifugal Spinning as Separator in Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Yanilmaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun nanofiber membranes have been extensively studied as separators in Li-ion batteries due to their large porosity, unique pore structure, and high electrolyte uptake. However, the electrospinning process has some serious drawbacks, such as low spinning rate and high production cost. The centrifugal spinning technique can be used as a fast, cost-effective and safe technique to fabricate high-performance fiber-based separators. In this work, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA/polyacrylonitrile (PAN membranes with different blend ratios were produced via centrifugal spinning and characterized by using different electrochemical techniques for use as separators in Li-ion batteries. Compared with commercial microporous polyolefin membrane, centrifugally-spun PMMA/PAN membranes had larger ionic conductivity, higher electrochemical oxidation limit, and lower interfacial resistance with lithium. Centrifugally-spun PMMA/PAN membrane separators were assembled into Li/LiFePO4 cells and these cells delivered high capacities and exhibited good cycling performance at room temperature. In addition, cells using centrifugally-spun PMMA/PAN membrane separators showed superior C-rate performance compared to those using microporous polypropylene (PP membranes. It is, therefore, demonstrated that centrifugally-spun PMMA/PAN membranes are promising separator candidate for high-performance Li-ion batteries.

  18. Electrically driven ion separations and nanofiltration through membranes coated with polyelectrolyte multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nicholas

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films deposited using the layer-by-layer (LBL) method are attractive for their simple deposition, tailorable nature, scalability, and charge or size-based selectivity for solutes. This dissertation explores ion separations in electrodialysis (ED) and solute removal through nanofiltration with PEMs deposited on polymer membranes. ED membranes typically exhibit modest selectivities between monovalent and divalent ions. In contrast, this work shows that K+/Mg 2+ ED selectivities reach values >1000 when using Nafion 115 cation-exchange membranes coated with multilayer poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS)/protonated poly(allylamine) (PAH) films. For comparison, the corresponding K+ /Mg2+ selectivity of bare Nafion 115 is salt concentrations, the K+ transference number approaches unity and the K+/Mg2+ selectivity is >20,000, presumably because the applied current is below the limiting value for K+ and H+ transport is negligible at this high K+ concentration. The high selectivities of these membranes may enable electrodialysis applications such as purification of salts that contain divalent or trivalent ions. The high ED selectivities of (PAH/PSS)5PAH-coated Nafion membranes translate to separations with Li+/Co2+ and K +/La3+. Even with adsorption of only 3 polyelectrolyte layers, Nafion membranes exhibit a Li+/Co2+ selectivity >23. However, the resistance to monovalent-ion passage does not decrease significantly with fewer polyelectrolyte layers. At overlimiting currents, hydroxides from water splitting form insoluble metal hydroxides to foul the membrane. With 0.1 M source-phase salt concentrations, transference numbers for monovalent cations approach unity and selectivities are >5000 because the diffusion-limited K+ or Li+ currents exceed the applied current. However, ED selectivities gradually decline with time. Thus, future research should aim to increase membrane stability and limiting currents to fully exploit the remarkable selectivity

  19. Performance Evaluations of Ion Exchanged Zeolite Membranes on Alumina Supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhave, Ramesh R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nair, Sankar [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-08-27

    This report describes the synthesis and evaluation of molecular sieve zeolite membranes to separate and concentrate tritiated water (HTO) from dilute HTO-bearing aqueous streams. In the first phase of this effort, several monovalent and divalent cation-exchanged silico alumino phosphate (SAPO-34) molecular sieve zeolite membranes were synthesized on disk supports and characterized with gas and vapor permeation measurements. In the second phase, Linde Type A (LTA) zeolite membranes were synthesized in disk and tubular supports. The pervaporation process performance was evaluated for the separation and concentration of tritiated water.

  20. Aqua-vanadyl ion interaction with Nafion® membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar eMurugesan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lack of comprehensive understanding about the interactions between Nafion membrane and battery electrolytes prevents the straightforward tailoring of optimal materials for redox flow battery applications. In this work, we analyzed the interaction between aqua-vanadyl cation and sulfonic sites within the pores of Nafion membranes using combined theoretical and experimental X-ray spectroscopic methods. Molecular level interactions namely solvent share and contact pair mechanisms are discussed based on Vanadium and Sulfur K-edge spectroscopic analysis.

  1. Transport of Alkali Metal Ions through a Liquid Membrane System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    crown-6, [K(MF18C6)](picrate) was determined by X-ray crystallography and showed that each potassium ion is eight-coordinate; each K+ ion is coordinated to the six oxygen atoms of the crown, to the phenolate oxygen atom and to one of the ...

  2. Low-energy ion beam bombardment effect on the plant-cell-envelope mimetic membrane for DNA transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakrajang, K., E-mail: k.prakrajang@gmail.com [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Sangwijit, K.; Anuntalabhochai, S. [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wanichapichart, P. [Membrane Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkla 90112 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2012-09-01

    This study is a systematic analysis of the mechanisms involved in ion-beam induced DNA transfer, an important application of ion beam biotechnology. Cellulose membranes were used to mimic the plant cell envelope. Ion beams of argon (Ar) or nitrogen (N) at an energy of 25 keV bombarded the cellulose membranes at fluences ranging from 10{sup 15} to 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. The damage to the ion-beam-bombarded membranes was characterized using infrared spectroscopy, a micro tensile test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chain scission was the dominant radiation damage type in the membrane. DNA diffusion across the membrane was significantly increased after ion beam bombardment. The increase in DNA transfer is therefore attributed to chain scission, which increases the permeability by increasing the number of pores in the membrane.

  3. Low-energy ion beam bombardment effect on the plant-cell-envelope mimetic membrane for DNA transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakrajang, K.; Sangwijit, K.; Anuntalabhochai, S.; Wanichapichart, P.; Yu, L.D.

    2012-01-01

    This study is a systematic analysis of the mechanisms involved in ion-beam induced DNA transfer, an important application of ion beam biotechnology. Cellulose membranes were used to mimic the plant cell envelope. Ion beams of argon (Ar) or nitrogen (N) at an energy of 25 keV bombarded the cellulose membranes at fluences ranging from 10 15 to 10 16 ions/cm 2 . The damage to the ion-beam-bombarded membranes was characterized using infrared spectroscopy, a micro tensile test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chain scission was the dominant radiation damage type in the membrane. DNA diffusion across the membrane was significantly increased after ion beam bombardment. The increase in DNA transfer is therefore attributed to chain scission, which increases the permeability by increasing the number of pores in the membrane.

  4. Removal of toxic ions (chromate, arsenate, and perchlorate) using reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and ultrafiltration membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Jaekyung

    2009-09-01

    Rejection characteristics of chromate, arsenate, and perchlorate were examined for one reverse osmosis (RO, LFC-1), two nanofiltration (NF, ESNA, and MX07), and one ultrafiltration (UF and GM) membranes that are commercially available. A bench-scale cross-flow flat-sheet filtration system was employed to determine the toxic ion rejection and the membrane flux. Both model and natural waters were used to prepare chromate, arsenate, and perchlorate solutions (approximately 100 μg L-1 for each anion) in mixtures in the presence of other salts (KCl, K2SO4, and CaCl2); and at varying pH conditions (4, 6, 8, and 10) and solution conductivities (30, 60, and 115 mS m-1). The rejection of target ions by the membranes increases with increasing solution pH due to the increasingly negative membrane charge with synthetic model waters. Cr(VI), As(V), and ClO4 - rejection follows the order LFC-1 (>90%) > MX07 (25-95%) ≅ ESNA (30-90%) > GM (3-47%) at all pH conditions. In contrast, the rejection of target ions by the membranes decreases with increasing solution conductivity due to the decreasingly negative membrane charge. Cr(VI), As(V), and ClO4 - rejection follows the order CaCl2 < KCl ≅ K2SO4 at constant pH and conductivity conditions for the NF and UF membranes tested. For natural waters the LFC-1 RO membrane with a small pore size (0.34 nm) had a significantly greater rejection for those target anions (>90%) excluding NO3 - (71-74%) than the ESNA NF membrane (11-56%) with a relatively large pore size (0.44 nm), indicating that size exclusion is at least partially responsible for the rejection. The ratio of solute radius (ri,s) to effective membrane pore radius (rp) was employed to compare ion rejection. For all of the ions, the rejection is higher than 70% when the ri,s/rp ratio is greater than 0.4 for the LFC-1 membrane, while for di-valent ions (CrO4 2 -, SO4 2 -, and HAsSO4 2 -) the rejection (38-56%) is fairly proportional to the ri,s/rp ratio (0.32-0.62) for the ESNA

  5. Chemotherapy drugs form ion pores in membranes due to physical interactions with lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad; Tseng, Chih-Yuan; Duszyk, Marek; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2012-12-01

    We demonstrate the effects on membrane of the tubulin-binding chemotherapy drugs: thiocolchicoside and taxol. Electrophysiology recordings across lipid membranes in aqueous phases containing drugs were used to investigate the drug effects on membrane conductance. Molecular dynamics simulation of the chemotherapy drug-lipid complexes was used to elucidate the mechanism at an atomistic level. Both drugs are observed to induce stable ion-flowing pores across membranes. Discrete pore current-time plots exhibit triangular conductance events in contrast to rectangular ones found for ion channels. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that drugs and lipids experience electrostatic and van der Waals interactions for short periods of time when found within each other's proximity. The energies from these two interactions are found to be similar to the energies derived theoretically using the screened Coulomb and the van der Waals interactions between peptides and lipids due to mainly their charge properties while forming peptide-induced ion channels in lipid bilayers. Experimental and in silico studies together suggest that the chemotherapy drugs induce ion pores inside lipid membranes due to drug-lipid physical interactions. The findings reveal cytotoxic effects of drugs on the cell membrane, which may aid in novel drug development for treatment of cancer and other diseases. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Mitochondrial membranes with mono- and divalent salt: changes induced by salt ions on structure and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pöyry, Sanja; Róg, Tomasz; Karttunen, Mikko

    2009-01-01

    We employ atomistic simulations to consider how mono- (NaCl) and divalent (CaCl(2)) salt affects properties of inner and outer membranes of mitochondria. We find that the influence of salt on structural properties is rather minute, only weakly affecting lipid packing, conformational ordering......, and membrane electrostatic potential. The changes induced by salt are more prominent in dynamical properties related to ion binding and formation of ion-lipid complexes and lipid aggregates, as rotational diffusion of lipids is slowed down by ions, especially in the case of CaCl(2). In the same spirit, lateral...... diffusion of lipids is slowed down rather considerably for increasing concentration of CaCl(2). Both findings for dynamic properties can be traced to the binding of ions with lipid head groups and the related changes in interaction patterns in the headgroup region, where the binding of Na(+) and Ca(2+) ions...

  7. Failure of the Nernst-Einstein equation to correlate electrical resistances and rates of ionic self-exchange across certain fixed charge membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, M H; Sollner, K

    1968-05-01

    The electrical resistances and rates of self-exchange of univalent critical ions across several types of collodion matrix membranes of high ionic selectivity were studied over a wide range of conditions. The relationship which was observed between these quantities with membranes of a certain type, namely those activated with poly-2-vinyl-N-methyl pyridinium bromide, cannot be explained on the basis of current concepts of the movement of ions across ion exchange membranes. Rates of self-exchange across these membranes were several times greater than those calculated from the electrical resistances of the membranes on the basis of an expression derived by the use of the Nernst-Einstein equation. The magnitude of the discrepancy was greatest at low concentrations of the ambient electrolyte solution and was independent of the species of both critical and noncritical ions. The data obtained with other types of collodion matrix membranes were, at least approximately, in agreement with the predictions based on the Nernst-Einstein equation. Self-exchange rates across the anion permeable protamine collodion membranes, and across the cation permeable polystyrene sulfonic acid collodion membranes, were about 20% less than those calculated from the electrical resistances. The direction and magnitude of these differences, also observed by other investigators, are qualitatively understood as an electroosmotic effect. With cation permeable membranes prepared by the oxidation of preformed collodion membranes, almost exact agreement was obtained between measured and calculated self-exchange rates; the cause of the apparent absence of an electroosmotic effect with these membranes is unknown.

  8. Non-Native Metal Ion Reveals the Role of Electrostatics in Synaptotagmin 1-Membrane Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katti, Sachin; Nyenhuis, Sarah B; Her, Bin; Srivastava, Atul K; Taylor, Alexander B; Hart, P John; Cafiso, David S; Igumenova, Tatyana I

    2017-06-27

    C2 domains are independently folded modules that often target their host proteins to anionic membranes in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner. In these cases, membrane association is triggered by Ca 2+ binding to the negatively charged loop region of the C2 domain. Here, we used a non-native metal ion, Cd 2+ , in lieu of Ca 2+ to gain insight into the contributions made by long-range Coulombic interactions and direct metal ion-lipid bridging to membrane binding. Using X-ray crystallography, NMR, Förster resonance energy transfer, and vesicle cosedimentation assays, we demonstrate that, although Cd 2+ binds to the loop region of C2A/B domains of synaptotagmin 1 with high affinity, long-range Coulombic interactions are too weak to support membrane binding of individual domains. We attribute this behavior to two factors: the stoichiometry of Cd 2+ binding to the loop regions of the C2A and C2B domains and the impaired ability of Cd 2+ to directly coordinate the lipids. In contrast, electron paramagnetic resonance experiments revealed that Cd 2+ does support membrane binding of the C2 domains in full-length synaptotagmin 1, where the high local lipid concentrations that result from membrane tethering can partially compensate for lack of a full complement of divalent metal ions and specific lipid coordination in Cd 2+ -complexed C2A/B domains. Our data suggest that long-range Coulombic interactions alone can drive the initial association of C2A/B with anionic membranes and that Ca 2+ further augments membrane binding by the formation of metal ion-lipid coordination bonds and additional Ca 2+ ion binding to the C2 domain loop regions.

  9. Nanostructured Block Polymer Membranes as High Capacity Adsorbers for the Capture of Metal Ions from Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudouris, Bryan; Weidman, Jacob; Mulvenna, Ryan; Phillip, William

    The efficient removal of metal ions from aqueous streams is of significant import in applications ranging from industrial waste treatment to the purification of drinking water. An emerging paradigm associated with this separation is one that utilizes membrane adsorbers as a means by which to bind metal salt contaminants. Here, we demonstrate that the casting of an A-B-C triblock polymer using the self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation (SNIPS) methodology results in a nanoporous membrane geometry. The nature of the triblock polymer affords an extremely high density of binding sites within the membrane. As such, we demonstrate that the membranes with binding capacities equal to that of state-of-the-art packed bed columns. Moreover, because the affinity of the C moiety can be tuned, highly selective binding events can occur based solely on the chemistry of the block polymer and the metal ions in solution (i.e., in a manner that is independent of the size of the metal ions). Due to these combined facts, these membranes efficiently remove heavy metal (e.g., lead- and cadmium-based) salts from contaminated water streams with greater than 95% efficiency. Finally, we show that the membranes can be regenerated through a simple treatment in order to provide long-lasting adsorber systems as well. Thus, it is anticipated that these nanostructured triblock polymer membranes are a platform by which to obtain next-generation water purification processes.

  10. Electrochemical membrane reactor: In situ separation and recovery of chromic acid and metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Jeeshan; Tripathi, Bijay P.; Saxena, Arunima; Shahi, Vinod K.

    2007-01-01

    An electrochemical membrane reactor with three compartments (anolyte, catholyte and central compartment) based on in-house-prepared cation- and anion-exchange membrane was developed to achieve in situ separation and recovery of chromic acid and metal ions. The physicochemical and electrochemical properties of the ion-exchange membrane under standard operating conditions reveal its suitability for the proposed reactor. Experiments using synthetic solutions of chromate and dichromate of different concentrations were carried out to study the feasibility of the process. Electrochemical reactions occurring at the cathode and anode under operating conditions are proposed. It was observed that metal ion migrated through the cation-exchange membrane from central compartment to catholyte and OH - formation at the cathode leads to the formation of metal hydroxide. Simultaneously, chromate ion migrated through the anion-exchange membrane from central compartment to the anolyte and formed chromic acid by combining H + produced their by oxidative water splitting. Thus a continuous decay in the concentration of chromate and metal ion was observed in the central compartment, which was recovered separately in the anolyte and catholyte, respectively, from their mixed solution. This process was completely optimized in terms of operating conditions such as initial concentration of chromate and metal ions in the central compartment, the applied cell voltage, chromate and metal ion flux, recovery percentage, energy consumption, and current efficiency. It was concluded that chromic acid and metal ions can be recovered efficiently from their mixed solution leaving behind the uncharged organics and can be reused as their corresponding acid and base apart from the purifying water for further applications

  11. Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes and Ion-Jelly® Membranes with [BMIM][DCA]: Comparison of Its Performance for CO2 Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Couto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a supported ionic liquid membrane (SILM was prepared by impregnating a PVDF membrane with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([BMIM][DCA] ionic liquid. This membrane was tested for its permeability to pure gases (CO2, N2 and O2 and ideal selectivities were calculated. The SILM performance was also compared to that of Ion-Jelly® membranes, a new type of gelled membranes developed recently. It was found that the PVDF membrane presents permeabilities for pure gases similar or lower to those presented by the Ion-Jelly® membranes, but with increased ideal selectivities. This membrane presents also the highest ideal selectivity (73 for the separation of CO2 from N2 when compared with SILMs using the same PVDF support but with different ionic liquids.

  12. Membrane potential and ion transport in lung epithelial type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallo, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The alveolar type II pneumocyte is critically important to the function and maintenance of pulmonary epithelium. To investigate the nature of the response of type II cells to membrane injury, and describe a possible mechanism by which these cells regulate surfactant secretion, the membrane potential of isolated rabbit type II cells was characterized. This evaluation was accomplished by measurements of the accumulation of the membrane potential probes: [ 3 H]triphenylmethylphosphonium ([ 3 H]TPMP + ), rubidium 86, and the fluorescent dye DiOC 5 . A compartmental analysis of probe uptake into mitochondrial, cytoplasmic, and non-membrane potential dependent stores was made through the use of selective membrane depolarizations with carbonycyanide M-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). These techniques and population analysis with flow cytometry, permitted the accurate evaluation of type II cell membrane potential under control conditions and under conditions which stimulated cell activity. Further analysis of ion transport by cells exposed to radiation or adrenergic stimulation revealed a common increase in Na + /K + ATPase activity, and an increase in sodium influx across the plasma membrane. This sodium influx was found to be a critical step in the initiation of surfactant secretion. It is concluded that radiation exposure as well as other pulmonary toxicants can directly affect the membrane potential and ionic regulation of type II cells. Ion transport, particularly of sodium, plays an important role in the regulation of type II cell function

  13. Nanofiber Ion-Exchange Membranes for the Rapid Uptake and Recovery of Heavy Metals from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithinart Chitpong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the performance of polyelectrolyte-modified nanofiber membranes was undertaken to determine their efficacy in the rapid uptake and recovery of heavy metals from impaired waters. The membranes were prepared by grafting poly(acrylic acid (PAA and poly(itaconic acid (PIA to cellulose nanofiber mats. Performance measurements quantified the dynamic ion-exchange capacity for cadmium (Cd, productivity, and recovery of Cd(II from the membranes by regeneration. The dynamic binding capacities of Cd(II on both types of nanofiber membrane were independent of the linear flow velocity, with a residence time of as low as 2 s. Analysis of breakthrough curves indicated that the mass flow rate increased rapidly at constant applied pressure after membranes approached equilibrium load capacity for Cd(II, apparently due to a collapse of the polymer chains on the membrane surface, leading to an increased porosity. This mechanism is supported by hydrodynamic radius (Rh measurements for PAA and PIA obtained from dynamic light scattering, which show that Rh values decrease upon Cd(II binding. Volumetric productivity was high for the nanofiber membranes, and reached 0.55 mg Cd/g/min. The use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as regeneration reagent was effective in fully recovering Cd(II from the membranes. Ion-exchange capacities were constant over five cycles of binding-regeneration.

  14. Intrinsic potential of cell membranes: opposite effects of lipid transmembrane asymmetry and asymmetric salt ion distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurtovenko, Andrey A; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2009-01-01

    Using atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we consider the intrinsic cell membrane potential that is found to originate from a subtle interplay between lipid transmembrane asymmetry and the asymmetric distribution of monovalent salt ions on the two sides of the cell membrane. It turns out......Cl saline solution and the PE leaflet is exposed to KCl, the outcome is that the effects of asymmetric lipid and salt ion distributions essentially cancel one another almost completely. Overall, our study highlights the complex nature of the intrinsic potential of cell membranes under physiological...... that both the asymmetric distribution of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipids across a membrane and the asymmetric distribution of NaCl and KCl induce nonzero drops in the transmembrane potential. However, these potential drops are opposite in sign. As the PC leaflet faces a Na...

  15. Application of Photocured Polymer Ion Selective Membranes for Solid-State Chemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Abramova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Application of conducting polymers with additional functional groups for a solid contact formation and photocurable membranes as sensitive elements of solid-state chemical sensors is discussed. Problems associated with application of UV-curable polymers for sensors are analyzed. A method of sensor fabrication using copolymerized conductive layer and sensitive membrane is presented and the proof of concept is confirmed by two examples of solid-contact electrodes for Ca ions and pH.

  16. Ion transport membrane reactor systems and methods for producing synthesis gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael

    2015-05-12

    Embodiments of the present invention provide cost-effective systems and methods for producing a synthesis gas product using a steam reformer system and an ion transport membrane (ITM) reactor having multiple stages, without requiring inter-stage reactant injections. Embodiments of the present invention also provide techniques for compensating for membrane performance degradation and other changes in system operating conditions that negatively affect synthesis gas production.

  17. Water Uptake Profile In a Model Ion-Exchange Membrane: Conditions For Water-Rich Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    these issues, more research is needed to improve their performance. Aqueous alkaline electrolytes such as potassium hydroxide (KOH) trace their begin...1.2 Water distribution Motivation Hydroxide ion transport through the membrane is fundamentally dependent on the amount and distribution of water...hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic ratio, for several reasons. First, this is the case for Nafion, the gold standard for PEM membranes; its unique pore structure

  18. Characterization of inclusion complexes of organic ions with hydrophilic hosts by ion transfer voltammetry with solvent polymeric membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, José Manuel; Laborda, Eduardo; Ortuño, Joaquín Ángel; Molina, Ángela

    2017-03-01

    The quantitative characterization of inclusion complexes formed in aqueous phase between organic ions and hydrophilic hosts by ion-transfer voltammetry with solvent polymeric membrane ion sensors is studied, both in a theoretical and experimental way. Simple analytical solutions are presented for the determination of the binding constant of the complex from the variation with the host concentration of the electrochemical signal. These solutions are valid for any voltammetric technique and for solvent polymeric membrane ion sensors comprising one polarisable interface (1PI) and also, for the first time, two polarisable interfaces (2PIs). Suitable experimental conditions and data analysis procedures are discussed and applied to the study of the interactions of a common ionic liquid cation (1-octyl-3-metyl-imidazolium) and an ionisable drug (clomipramine) with two hydrophilic cyclodextrins: α-cyclodextrin and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin. The experimental study is performed via square wave voltammetry with 2PIs and 1PI solvent polymeric membranes and in both cases the electrochemical experiments enable the detection of inclusion complexes and the determination of the corresponding binding constant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultrathin and Ion-Selective Janus Membranes for High-Performance Osmotic Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Sui, Xin; Li, Pei; Xie, Ganhua; Kong, Xiang-Yu; Xiao, Kai; Gao, Longcheng; Wen, Liping; Jiang, Lei

    2017-07-05

    The osmotic energy existing in fluids is recognized as a promising "blue" energy source that can help solve the global issues of energy shortage and environmental pollution. Recently, nanofluidic channels have shown great potential for capturing this worldwide energy because of their novel transport properties contributed by nanoconfinement. However, with respect to membrane-scale porous systems, high resistance and undesirable ion selectivity remain bottlenecks, impeding their applications. The development of thinner, low-resistance membranes, meanwhile promoting their ion selectivity, is a necessity. Here, we engineered ultrathin and ion-selective Janus membranes prepared via the phase separation of two block copolymers, which enable osmotic energy conversion with power densities of approximately 2.04 W/m 2 by mixing natural seawater and river water. Both experiments and continuum simulation help us to understand the mechanism for how membrane thickness and channel structure dominate the ion transport process and overall device performance, which can serve as a general guiding principle for the future design of nanochannel membranes for high-energy concentration cells.

  20. Radiation deterioration of ion-exchange Nafion N117CS membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Yasunori; Hiroki, Akihiro; Tamada, Masao; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

    2010-01-01

    The cation-exchange Nafion N117 membranes swelling in electrolyte solution were irradiated with γ-rays or electron beams at various doses up to 1500 kGy in the temperature range from room temperature to 343 K to obtain detailed information on the effect of ion-exchange on the radiation deterioration in mechanical properties and ion-exchange capacity. Considerable deterioration in mechanical properties was observed when the Nafion membranes swelling in electrolyte solution were irradiated. A reason is the promotion of degradation with oxygen molecules produced by the irradiation of electrolyte solution. The concentration of electrolyte solution influenced strongly the radiation deterioration in mechanical properties. Keeping the concentration of metal ions to be negligible is important when electrolyzed highly radioactive solution in the light of the durability of polyperfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) membrane. A sort of cation in electrolyte solution negligibly influenced radiation deterioration in mechanical properties. A sort of anion in electrolyte solution had negligible effect on radiation deterioration in mechanical properties and ion-exchange capacity. The discrepancy in the radiation deterioration in mechanical properties of Nafion membranes swelling in NaCl solution was observed between the specimens irradiated with γ-rays and electron beams. This discrepancy can be explained from the low diffusivity of oxygen from bulk into the membrane.

  1. Exceptional ion rejection ability of directional solvent for non-membrane desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rish, Daniel [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Department of Civil Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Luo, Shirui; Kurtz, Brien [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Luo, Tengfei, E-mail: tluo@nd.edu [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Center for Sustainable Energy at Notre Dame, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2014-01-13

    The recently demonstrated directional solvent extraction (DSE) is promising for very low temperature, membrane-free water desalination. In this paper, we combine atomistic simulations and experimental validation to demonstrate that the currently used directional solvent, decanoic acid, can reject all major salt ions in seawater, with very high rejection rates. The salinities of the DSE recovered water show that ion rejection rates are ∼98%–99%—similar to those of the best reverse osmosis membranes. Our test also shows that the DSE process can desalt seawater to produce fresh water that meets drinking water standards.

  2. Exceptional ion rejection ability of directional solvent for non-membrane desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rish, Daniel; Luo, Shirui; Kurtz, Brien; Luo, Tengfei

    2014-01-01

    The recently demonstrated directional solvent extraction (DSE) is promising for very low temperature, membrane-free water desalination. In this paper, we combine atomistic simulations and experimental validation to demonstrate that the currently used directional solvent, decanoic acid, can reject all major salt ions in seawater, with very high rejection rates. The salinities of the DSE recovered water show that ion rejection rates are ∼98%–99%—similar to those of the best reverse osmosis membranes. Our test also shows that the DSE process can desalt seawater to produce fresh water that meets drinking water standards

  3. [A probability wave theory on the ion movement across cell membrane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Xu, Jiadong; Niu, Zhongqi

    2007-04-01

    The ionic quantity across the channel of the cell membrane decides the cell in a certain life state. The theory analysis that existed on the bio-effects of the electro-magnetic field (EMF) does not unveil the relationship between the EMF exerted on the cell and the ionic quantity across the cell membrane. Based on the cell construction, the existed theory analysis and the experimental results, an ionic probability wave theory is proposed in this paper to explain the biological window-effects of the electromagnetic wave. The theory regards the membrane channel as the periodic potential barrier and gives the physical view of the ion movement across cell-membrane. The theory revises the relationship between ion's energy in cell channel and the frequency exerted EMF. After the application of the concept of the wave function, the ionic probability across the cell membrane is given by the method of the quantum mechanics. The numerical results analyze the physical factors that influences the ion's movement across the cell membrane. These results show that the theory can explain the phenomenon of the biological window-effects.

  4. Modification of electrical properties of polymer membranes by ion implantation (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dworecki, K.; Hasegawa, T.; Sudlitz, K.; Slezak, A.; Wasik, S.

    2001-01-01

    In the present work we report on the results of an experimental study of the electrical properties of polymer ion irradiated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membranes. The polymer samples have been implanted under vacuum at room temperature with a variety of ions (C 4+ , O 6+ , S 7+ ) at energy of 10 keV/q up to the dose of 10 15 ions/cm 2 and then they were polarized in an electric field of 4.16x10 6 V/m at non-isothermal conditions. The electrical properties and changes in chemical structure of ion implanted membranes were studied by the conductivity and discharge currents measurements, FTIR spectra and differential thermal analysis. The electrical conductivity of the PET membranes is determined by the charge transport caused by free space charge and by thermal releasing of charge carriers. The spectra of thermally induced discharge current (TDC) shows that ion irradiated PET membranes are characterized by high ability of charge accumulation

  5. PVC membrane based potentiometric sensor for uranyl ion using thenoyl trifluoro acetone as ionophore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, D.; Chouhan, H.P.S.; Maiti, B.

    2004-01-01

    Uranyl ion selective electrode based on thenoyl trifluoro acetone (TTA) incorporated into a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane has been developed where dibutyl phthalate and sodium tetraphenyl borate have been used as plasticizer and anion excluder respectively. The PVC membrane containing the active ionophore, TTA, and the other ingredients has been directly cast a graphite electrode. The electrode shows near Nernstian response to UO 2 2+ in the concentration range of 10 -1 to 10 -6 mol. L -1 an average slope of 30 mV/decade. Alkali and alkaline earth ions do not interfere with the determination of uranyl ion. Interference of transition metal ions and Th (IV) is eliminated using EDTA. (author)

  6. Anatomic Dissection of Arachnoid Membranes Encircling the Pituitary Stalk on Fresh, Non-Formalin-Fixed Specimens: Anatomoradiologic Correlations and Clinical Applications in Craniopharyngioma Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciappetta, Pasqualino; Pescatori, Lorenzo

    2017-12-01

    The anatomy of the arachnoid membranes and cisternal spaces around the pituitary stalk has not been yet exhaustively described and understood. In this study, we performed a detailed anatomic study on fresh, non-formalin-fixed cadavers of the arachnoid membranes encircling the pituitary stalk and correlate our anatomic findings with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten fresh, non-formalin-fixed, non-silicon-injected adult cadaveric heads were analyzed in this study. The membrane and cisterns that were studied for our study were as follows: 1) the diaphragma sellae and its dural components; 2) the basal arachnoid membrane; 3) the Liliequist membrane with its diencephalic and mesencephalic portion; 4) the medial carotid membrane; 5) the chiasmatic cistern; and 6) the pituitary stalk. MRI examinations of the sellar region were performed in 15 healthy volunteers (9 men, mean age 40 years; and 6 women mean age, 37 years) to visualize the arachnoid membrane encircling the pituitary stalk. MRI examinations were performed with a 3-T unit. A 3-dimensional constructive interference in steady state pulse magnetic resonance sequence was used. All the membranes examined were visualized clearly in all the dissections performed. Their 3-dimensional organization around the pituitary stalk was clarified and confirmed by MRI. Our study gives a detailed description of the pituitary stalk arachnoid sheets on fresh, non-formalin-fixed cadavers. This technique allowed us to clearly identify a funnel-shaped arachnoid collar encircling the pituitary stalk and delimiting a distinct cisternal space belonging to the stalk itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Helium Ion Microscopy of proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrode structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiriaev, Serguei; Dam Madsen, Nis; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2017-01-01

    electrode interface structure dependence on ionomer content, systematically studied by Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM). A special focus was on acquiring high resolution images of the electrode structure and avoiding interface damage from irradiation and tedious sample preparation. HIM demonstrated its....... In the hot-pressed electrodes, we found more closed contact between the electrode components, reduced particle size, polymer coalescence and formation of nano-sized polymer fiber architecture between the particles. Keywords: proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs); Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM...

  8. Fabrication of electrospun polyacrylonitrile ion-exchange membranes for application in lysozyme adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ion exchange (IEX chromatography is commonly used in separation and purification systems. However, micropore blockage within its resin structure can easily lead to a reduction in the effectiveness of purification. To tackle this problem, we adopted the concept of membrane separation by combining electrospinning techniques with rapid alkaline hydrolysis to prepare a weak acid IEX nanofibrous membrane (AEA-COOH, consisting of polyethyleneterephthalate (PET meltblown fabric as a supporting layer, with upper and lower IEX layers consisting of polyacrylonitrile (PAN nanofibrous membranes. To determine the characteristics of the AEA-COOH membrane, we used the commercial product Sartobind© C IEX membrane as the standard of comparison. Results showed that the base weight and thickness of AEACOOH were 33 and 64%, relative to Sartobind© C membrane. The thermo-degradable temperature of AEA-COOH membrane (320°C was far higher than that of Sartobind© C (115°C, indicating high thermal stability. Finally, comparisons between the lysozyme adsorption rates and capacity of various IEX membranes confirmed that AEA-COOH was lighter, thinner, faster, possessing higher protein adsorption efficiency than Sartobind© C membrane.

  9. Axial ion channeling patterns from ultra-thin silicon membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motapothula, M.; Dang, Z.Y.; Venkatesan, T.; Breese, M.B.H.; Rana, M.A.; Osman, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present channeling patterns produced by MeV protons transmitted through 55 nm thick [0 0 1] silicon membranes showing the early evolution of the axially channeled beam angular distribution for small tilts away from the [0 0 1], [0 1 1] and [1 1 1] axes. Instead of a ring-like “doughnut” distribution previously observed at small tilts to major axes in thicker membranes, geometric shapes such as squares and hexagons are observed along different axes in ultra-thin membranes. The different shapes arise because of the highly non-equilibrium transverse momentum distribution of the channeled beam during its initial propagation in the crystal and the reduced multiple scattering which allows the fine angular structure to be resolved. We describe a simple geometric construction of the intersecting planar channels at an axis to gain insight into the origin of the geometric shapes observed in such patterns and how they evolve into the ‘doughnut’ distributions in thicker crystals.

  10. Micro- and nanofabrication methods for ion channel reconstitution in bilayer lipid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadaki, Daisuke; Yamaura, Daichi; Arata, Kohei; Ohori, Takeshi; Ma, Teng; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Niwano, Michio; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi

    2018-03-01

    The self-assembled bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) forms the basic structure of the cell membrane and serves as a major barrier against ion movement. Ion channel proteins function as gated pores that permit ion permeation across the BLM. The reconstitution of ion channel proteins in artificially formed BLMs represents a well-defined system for investigating channel functions and screening drug effects on ion channels. In this review, we will discuss our recent microfabrication approaches to the formation of stable BLMs containing ion channel proteins as a potential platform for next-generation drug screening systems. BLMs formed in a microaperture having a tapered edge exhibited highly stable properties, such as a lifetime of ∼65 h and tolerance to solution changes even after the incorporation of the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel. We also explore a new method of efficiently incorporating human ion channels into BLMs by centrifugation. Our approaches to the formation of stable BLMs and efficient channel incorporation markedly improve the experimental efficiency of BLM reconstitution systems, leading to the realization of a BLM-based high-throughput platform for functional assays of various ion channels.

  11. Development of a mathematical model for a single alkaline membrane fuel cell (AMFC) with fixed volume and general square section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Elise Meister; Vargas, Jose Viriato Coelho [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Setor de Tecnologia], Email: jvargas@demec.ufpr.br; Martins, Lauber de Souza; Ordonez, Juan Carlos [Florida State University, Tallahasse, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Center for Advanced Power Systems], Emails: martins@caps.fsu.edu, ordonez@eng.fsu.edu

    2010-07-01

    The Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell (AMFC) is a recently developed fuel cell type, which has shown good experimental results in the laboratory. This paper introduces a mathematical model for the single AMFC with fixed volume and general square section. The main objective is to produce a reliable model (and computationally fast) to predict the response of the single AMFC according to variations of the physical properties of manufacturing materials and operating and design parameters. The model is based on mass, momentum, energy and species conservation, and electrochemical principles, and takes into account pressure drops in the gas channels and temperature gradients with respect to space in the flow direction. The simulation results comprise the AMFC temperature distribution, net power and polarization curves. It is shown that temperature spatial gradients and gas channels pressure drops significantly affect fuel cell performance. Such effects are not usually investigated in the models available in the literature, with most of them assuming uniform pressure and temperature operation. Therefore, the model is expected to be a useful tool for AMFC design and optimization. (author)

  12. Asymmetric Membranes Containing Micron-Size Silicon for High Performance Lithium Ion Battery Anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, Ian; Wu, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Micron-size Si anode is notorious for having extremely poor cycle life. It is mainly caused by the large volume change (∼300%) and poor mechanical strength of the Si electrode. Satisfying methods to address this issue are seriously lacking in literature. In this study, novel single-layer, double-layer and triple-layer asymmetric membranes containing micron-size silicon have been fabricated using a simple phase inversion method to dramatically improve its cyclability. The electrochemical performance of these asymmetric membranes as lithium ion battery anodes are evaluated and compared to pure micron-size Si powders and carbonaceous asymmetric membranes. All three types of asymmetric membrane electrodes demonstrate significantly enhanced stability as compared to pure Si powders. The single-layer asymmetric membrane has the largest capacity degradation due to the loss of pulverized Si powders from the membrane surface, only 40% of whose capacity can be retained in 100 cycles. But this performance is still much better than pure micron-size silicon electrode. After being coated with nanoporous carbonaceous layers on both sides of a single-layer asymmetric membrane to make a triple-layer asymmetric membrane (sandwich structure), the capacity retention is notably increased to 88% in 100 cycles at 610 mAh g"−"1 and 0.5C. The enhanced stability is attributed to the extra nanoporous coatings that can prevent the fractured Si powders from being leached out and allow facile lithium ion diffusions. Such a novel, efficient and scalable method may provide beneficiary guidance for designing high capacity lithium ion battery anodes with large volume change issues.

  13. Ion Transport in Nanostructured Block Copolymer/Ionic Liquid Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Hoarfrost, Megan Lane

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating an ionic liquid into one block copolymer microphase provides a platform for combining the outstanding electrochemical properties of ionic liquids with a number of favorable attributes provided by block copolymers. In particular, block copolymers thermodynamically self-assemble into well-ordered nanostructures, which can be engineered to provide a durable mechanical scaffold and template the ionic liquid into continuous ion-conducting nanochannels. Understanding how the additio...

  14. Preparation of fluoropolymer-based ion-track membranes. Structure of latent tracks and pretreatment effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaki, Tetsuya; Nuryanthi, Nuryanthi; Koshikawa, Hiroshi; Sawada, Shinichi; Hakoda, Teruyuki; Hasegawa, Shin; Asano, Masaharu; Maekawa, Yasunari

    2012-01-01

    High-energy heavy-ion induced damage, called latent tracks m organic polymers can sometimes be etched out chemically to give submicro- and nano-sized pores. Our focus is placed on ion-track membranes of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), a type of fluoropolymer, which were previously considered as a matrix of polymer electrolyte fuel-cell membranes. There have been no optimized methods of preparing the PVDF-based ion-track membranes. We thus examined chemical structures of the defects created in the track, and accordingly, presented a pretreatment technique for achieving more efficient track etching. A 25 μm-thick PVDF film was bombarded with 1.1 GeV 238 U or 450 MeV 129 Xe ions. In the multi-purpose chamber, degradation processes were monitored in-situ by FT-IR spectroscopy and residual gas analysis as a function of the fluence up to 6.0 x 10 11 ions/cm 2 . The films irradiated at 8 ions/cm 2 were etched in a 9 M KOH aqueous solution at 80degC. We also performed the conductometric etching, which allows monitoring of pore evolution versus etching time by recording the electrical conductance through the membrane. At fluences above 1 x 10 10 ions/cm 2 , the film showed two new absorption bands identified as double-bond stretching vibrations of in-chain unsaturations -CH=CF- and fluorinated vinyl groups -CF 2 CH=CF 2 . These defects would result from the evolution of HF. The knowledge of the solubility in a permanganate alkaline solution and our preliminary experiment suggested the importance of oxidized tracks for the easy introduction of the etching agent. We finally found that the pretreatment with ozone could oxidize the double bonds in the tracks, thereby vigorously promoting track etching before breakthrough. (author)

  15. Nernst-Planck modeling of multicomponent ion transport in a Nafion membrane at high current density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moshtari Khah, S.; Oppers, N.A.W.; de Groot, M.T.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Schouten, J.C.; van der Schaaf, J.

    A mathematical model of multicomponent ion transport through a cation-exchange membrane is developed based on the Nernst–Planck equation. A correlation for the non-linear potential gradient is derived from current density relation with fluxes. The boundary conditions are determined with the Donnan

  16. Glucose determination using a re-usable enzyme-modified ion track membrane sensor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fink, Dietmar; Klinkovich, I.; Bukelman, O.; Marks, R.S.; Kiv, A.; Fuks, D.; Fahrner, W. R.; Alfonta, L.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 8 (2009), s. 2702-2706 ISSN 0956-5663 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Glucose sensor * etched tracks * Ion track membranes Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 5.429, year: 2009

  17. Free flow zone electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing using a microfabricated glass device with ion permeable membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohlheyer, D.; Besselink, G.A.J.; Schlautmann, Stefan; Schasfoort, Richardus B.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a microfabricated free-flow electrophoresis device with integrated ion permeable membranes. In order to obtain continuous lanes of separated components an electrical field is applied perpendicular to the sample flow direction. This sample stream is sandwiched between two sheath

  18. A metal ion charged mixed matrix membrane for selective adsorption of hemoglobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetala, K.K.R.; Skrzypek, K.; Levisson, M.; Stamatialis, D.F.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we developed a mixed matrix membrane by incorporating 20–40 µm size iminodiacetic acid modified immobeads within porous Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVAL) polymer matrix. The MMM were charged with copper ions for selective adsorption of bovine hemoglobin in presence of bovine serum albumin.

  19. Determination of the ion-exchange capacity of anion-selective membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karas, F.; Hnát, J.; Paidar, M.; Schauer, Jan; Bouzek, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 10 (2014), s. 5054-5062 ISSN 0360-3199 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : ion-exchange capacity * anion-selective membranes * titration Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.313, year: 2014

  20. Cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Allan J; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2014-01-28

    Novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials are disclosed that operate at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes based on oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  1. Heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes based on sulfonated poly(1,4-phenylene sulfide)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schauer, Jan; Kůdela, Vlastimil; Richau, K.; Mohr, R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 198, 1-3 (2006), s. 256-264 ISSN 0011-9164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0080 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : poly(1,4-phenylene sulfide) sulfonated * ion-exchange membrane Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.917, year: 2006

  2. A metal ion charged mixed matrix membrane for selective adsorption of hemoglobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetala, K.K.R.; Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Levisson, M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we developed a mixed matrix membrane by incorporating 20–40 μm size iminodiacetic acid modified immobeads within porous Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVAL) polymer matrix. The MMM were charged with copper ions for selective adsorption of bovine hemoglobin in presence of bovine serum albumin.

  3. Ph responsive permeability and Ion- exchange characteristics of (PE/EPDM)-g-PMAA membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El- Awady, M.M.; El-Awady, N.I.; Eissa, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical grafting of methacrylic acid (MAA) on low density exchange membranes for recovery of different cations from their solutions was investigated. When the dialysis permeability of two solutes (glucose + urea) through the membrane were tested at different ph values and compared, glucose was found to be less efficient than urea for permeation through the membrane. The permeability response of such solute was noticed only at higher ph value (ph 8). The grafted film (membrane) with graft yield of 185% is experimentally adequate to permeate all molecules with radius of lower than 4.3 x 10 polyethylene blended with EPDM with a ratio (90/10) films was carried out using sodium bisulphite as initiator. Factors affecting grafting and the properties of the grafted films were studied in details and showed improved hydrophilic properties, good thermal stability and nearly unaffected strength properties which make them acceptable for practical uses.In the present work, the possibility of practical uses of such grafted films as ph-responsive membranes in a dialysis process and as ion--7 mm. Grafted membranes in different forms (COOH-form), (Na-methacrylate form) and (K methacrylate- form) were prepared to evaluate the membranes uptake selectivity to different mono, di-and trivalent cations from their solutions. The results obtained showed very good efficiency of the prepared membranes as compared with the values obtained for the commercial cation exchange resin (Dowex)

  4. Removal of Cu(II) ions from contaminated waters using a conducting microfiltration membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueye; Wang, Zhiwei; Chen, Haiqin; Wu, Zhichao

    2017-10-05

    Efficient removal of toxic metals using low-pressure membrane processes from contaminated waters is an important but challenging task. In the present work, a conducting microfiltration membrane prepared by embedding a stainless steel mesh in the active layer of a polyvinylidene fluoride membrane is developed to remove Cu(II) ions from contaminated waters. Results showed that the conducting membrane had favorable electrochemical properties and stability as cathode. Batch tests showed that Cu(II) removal efficiency increased with the increase of voltages and leveled off with the further enhancement of electric field. The optimal voltages were determined to be 1.0V and 2.0V for the influent Cu(II) concentrations of 5mg/L and 30mg/L, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction results demonstrated the presence of Cu(0) and Cu(OH) 2 on the membrane surface. The removal mechanisms involved the intrinsic adsorption of membrane, electrosorption of membrane, adsorption of deposited layer, chemical precipitation of Cu(OH) 2 and deposition of Cu(0) which were aided by electrophoresis and electrochemical oxidation-reduction. Long-term tests showed that the major contributors for Cu(II) removal were the deposition of Cu(0) by electrochemical reduction-oxidation (47.3%±8.5%) and chemical precipitation (41.1%±0.2%), followed by electrosorption, adsorption by the fouling layer and membrane intrinsic sorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Swift heavy ion induced modification in polycarbonate membrane for gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh Kumar; Prasad, Rajendra; Vijay, Y.K.; Das, D.

    2003-01-01

    Polymeric membranes are extensively used for commercial gas separation applications. Makrofol-KG (polycarbonate) is a glassy polymer. 40 μm thick sheet of Makrofol-KG was irradiated with 40 Ar (14.9 MeV/n) of fluence 10 3 ions/cm 2 and 20 μm thick sheet with 5.3 MeV α-particles of fluence 10 7 ions/cm 2 . The permeability of these polycarbonate membranes for H 2 and CO 2 was measured and also after etching in 6 N NaOH at 60 degC for different periods. Permeability is found to be increased with etching time. At a definite time, critical etching time, the permeability rapidly increases in PC. Positron annihilation lifetimes for unirradiated and irradiated membranes were measured with fast fast coincidence system to study the correlation of free volume hole concentration with gas separation properties. (author)

  6. Ion channel activity of membrane vesicles released from sea urchin sperm during the acrosome reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Joseph R.; Vega-Beltran, Jose L. de la; Beltran, Carmen; Vacquier, Victor D.; Darszon, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    The sperm acrosome reaction (AR) involves ion channel activation. In sea urchin sperm, the AR requires Ca 2+ and Na + influx and K + and H + efflux. During the AR, the plasma membrane fuses with the acrosomal vesicle membrane forming hybrid membrane vesicles that are released from sperm into the medium. This paper reports the isolation and preliminary characterization of these acrosome reaction vesicles (ARVs), using synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) as a marker. Isolated ARVs have a unique protein composition. The exocytosis regulatory proteins vesicle-associated membrane protein and SNAP-25 are inside ARVs, as judged by protease protection experiments, and membrane associated based on Triton X-114 partitioning. ARVs fused with planar bilayers display three main types of single channel activity. The most frequently recorded channel is cationic, weakly voltage dependent and has a low open probability that increases with negative potentials. This channel is activated by cAMP, blocked by Ba 2+ , and has a PK + /PNa + selectivity of 4.5. ARVs represent a novel membrane preparation suitable to deepen our understanding of ion channel activity in the AR and during fertilization

  7. Sorptive Removal of Cesium and Cobalt Ions in a Fixed bed Column Using Lewatit S100 Cation Exchange Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, M.R.; Ibrahim, H.A.; El-Kamash, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The sorptive removal of cesium and cobalt ions from aqueous solutions in a fixed bed column packed with Lewatit S100® cation exchange resin has been investigated. A preliminary batch studies were performed to estimate the effect of pH and contact time on the sorption process. Results indicated that Cs + and Co 2+ could be efficiently removed using Lewatit S100® at a ph range of 4-7 with more affinity towards Cs than Co 2+ . Kinetic models have been applied to the sorption rate data and the relevant parameters were determined. The obtained results indicated that the sorption of both Cs + and Co 2+ on Lewatit S100 followed pseudo second-order rather than pseudo first-order or Morris-Webber model. Fixed bed experiments were conducted at a constant initial concentration of 100 mg/l whereas the effect of bed depth (3, 4.5 and 6 cm) and volumetric flow rate (3 and 5 ml/min.) on the breakthrough characteristics of the fixed bed sorption systems were determined. The experimental sorption data were fitted to the well-established column models namely; Thomas and BDST models to compute the different model parameters. The higher column sorption capacities were obtained at bed depth of 3 cm with a flow rate of 3 ml/min., for both Cs + and Co 2+ . The BDST model appeared to describe experimental results better than Thomas model. Results indicate that Lewatit S100® is an efficient material for the removal of cesium and cobalt ions from aqueous solutions.

  8. Desalination by electrodialysis with ion-exchange membrane prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seong-Ho; Jeong, Young Han; Ryoo, Jae Jeong; Lee, Kwang-Pill [Department of Chemistry Graduate School, Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea)

    2000-07-01

    Ion-exchange membranes modified with triethylamine [-N(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}){sub 3}] and phosphoric acid (-PO{sub 3}H) groups were prepared by radiation-induced grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto polyolefin nonwavon fabric (PNF) and subsequent chemical modification of poly (GMA) graft chains. The physical and chemical properties of the GMA-grafted PNF and the PNF modified with ion-exchange groups were investigated by SEM and XPS. The ion-exchange capacities of the cation- and anion-exchange membrane were 0.20 and 1.24mmol/g, respectively. The content of cation- and anion exchange group increased with increasing grafting yield (d.g.=100%). Electrical resistance of PNF modified with TEA and -PO{sub 3}H group decreased with increasing ion-exchange group capacities. Application of the graft-type ion-exchange membranes as separators for electrodialysis enabled use to reduce the time required to achieve 85.5% desalination of the 0.5M NaCl solution. (author)

  9. Selective transport of metal ions through cation exchange membrane in the presence of a complexing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingchia Huang; Jaukai Wang (National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China))

    1993-01-01

    Selective transport of metal ions through a cation exchange membrane was studied in stirred batch dialyzer for the systems Ni[sup 2+]-Cu[sup 2+] and Cu[sup 2+]-Fe[sup 3+]. Oxalic acid, malonic acid, citric acid, glycine, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid were employed as the complexing agents added in the feed solution in order to increase the permselectivity of metal ions. The experimental results show that the selective transport behavior of metal ions depends on the valence and the concentration of metal ions, the stoichiometric ratio of complexing agent to metal ions, and the pH value of the feed solution, but is independent of the concentration of counterion in the stripping phase. A theoretical approach was formulated on the basis of the Nernst-Planck equation and interface quasi-equilibrium. Theoretical solutions obtained from numerical calculation were in agreement with the experimental data.

  10. Identification of membrane proteins by tandem mass spectrometry of protein ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Joe; Altman, Matthew C.; Fearnley, Ian M.; Walker, John E.

    2007-01-01

    The most common way of identifying proteins in proteomic analyses is to use short segments of sequence (“tags”) determined by mass spectrometric analysis of proteolytic fragments. The approach is effective with globular proteins and with membrane proteins with significant polar segments between membrane-spanning α-helices, but it is ineffective with other hydrophobic proteins where protease cleavage sites are either infrequent or absent. By developing methods to purify hydrophobic proteins in organic solvents and by fragmenting ions of these proteins by collision induced dissociation with argon, we have shown that partial sequences of many membrane proteins can be deduced easily by manual inspection. The spectra from small proteolipids (1–4 transmembrane α-helices) are dominated usually by fragment ions arising from internal amide cleavages, from which internal sequences can be obtained, whereas the spectra from larger membrane proteins (5–18 transmembrane α-helices) often contain fragment ions from N- and/or C-terminal parts yielding sequences in those regions. With these techniques, we have, for example, identified an abundant protein of unknown function from inner membranes of mitochondria that to our knowledge has escaped detection in proteomic studies, and we have produced sequences from 10 of 13 proteins encoded in mitochondrial DNA. They include the ND6 subunit of complex I, the last of its 45 subunits to be analyzed. The procedures have the potential to be developed further, for example by using newly introduced methods for protein ion dissociation to induce fragmentation of internal regions of large membrane proteins, which may remain partially folded in the gas phase. PMID:17720804

  11. Effect of copper (II) ion against elongation behavior of amyloid {beta} fibrils on liposome membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimanouchi, T.; Onishi, R.; Kitaura, N.; Umakoshi, H.; Kuboi, R. [Division of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    The fibril growth behavior of amyloid {beta} protein (A{beta}) on cell membranes is relating to the progression of Alzheimer's disease. This growth behavior of A{beta} fibrils is sensitively affected by the metal ions, neurotransmitters, or bioreactive substrate. The inhibitory effect of those materials was quantitatively estimated from the viewpoints of ''crystal growth''. In a bulk aqueous solution, copper (II) ion showed the strong inhibitory effect on the growth of A{beta} fibrils. Meanwhile, the addition of a closed-phospholipid bilayer membrane (liposome) could reduce the above inhibitory effect of copper (II) ion. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Liquid membrane ion-selective electrodes for potentiometric dosage of coper and nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA PLENICEANY

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental and theoretical data regarding the preparation and characterization of three liquid-membrane electrodes, which have not been mentioned in the specialized literature so far. The active substances, the solutions of which in nitrobenzene formed the membranes on a graphite rod, are simple complex combinations of Cu(II and Ni(II ions with an organic ligand belonging to the Schiff base class: N-[2-thienylmethilidene]-2-aminoethanol (TNAHE. The Cu2+ -selective and Ni2+ -selective electrodes were used to determine the copper and nickel ions in aqueous solutions, both by direct potentiometry and by potentiometric titration with EDTA. They were also used for the determination of Cu2+ and Ni2+ ions in industrial waters by direct potentiometry.

  13. Preparation and selected properties of ion-containing reverse osmosis membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, E.S.A.; Dessouki, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Ion-containing reverse osmosis membranes were prepared by the post radiation grafting of 4-vinylpyridine onto low density polyethylene films, followed by quaternization of the pyridine rings in the graft chains to confer ionic character to the membranes. The effect of some preparation conditions on the grafting yield was investigated. Different quaternizing agents such as methyl iodide, allyl bromide, and hydrochloric acid were used for the quaternization of the graft chains. The effect of quaternizing agent and degree of grafting on the properties of the membranes such as swelling behaviour, specific electric resistance, water flux and salt rejection, was investigated. The properties of these ionic membranes did not deteriorate with the operation time and they show a great promise for the use in the field of reverse osmosis desalination of sea water. (author)

  14. Mercury removal from water streams through the ion exchange membrane bioreactor concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehmen, Adrian; Vergel, Dario; Fradinho, Joana; Reis, Maria A M; Crespo, João G; Velizarov, Svetlozar

    2014-01-15

    Mercury is a highly toxic heavy metal that causes human health problems and environmental contamination. In this study, an ion exchange membrane bioreactor (IEMB) process was developed to achieve Hg(II) removal from drinking water and industrial effluents. Hg(II) transport through a cation exchange membrane was coupled with its bioreduction to Hg(0) in order to achieve Hg removal from concentrated streams, with minimal production of contaminated by-products observed. This study involves (1) membrane selection, (2) demonstration of process effectiveness for removing Hg from drinking water to below the 1ppb recommended limit, and (3) process application for treatment of concentrated water streams, where >98% of the Hg was removed, and the throughput of contaminated water was optimised through membrane pre-treatment. The IEMB process represents a novel mercury treatment technology with minimal generation of contaminated waste, thereby reducing the overall environmental impact of the process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. ELECTRODEPOSITION OF COPPER IONS ON FIXED BED ELECTRODES: KINETIC AND HYDRODYNAMIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A.M. Ruotolo

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic and hydrodynamic behaviour of a fixed-bed electrochemical reactor was studied in terms of current efficiency (CE and energy efficiency (EE. In the kinetic experiments the effects of fixed bed thickness (L, current density (i and initial concentration of copper (C0 were studied. In the hydrodynamic experiments the permeability (k of the electrode and the coefficient for inertial forces (c were also studied as functions of the applied current density. At low current densities and bed thicknesses greater than 1.0 cm, negative CE and EE were observed as a consequence of the dissolution of the porous matrix. At high current densities low CE and EE were observed and a powdery deposit was formed on the surface of the particles. From the results of the kinetic study bed thickness and the range of current densities employed in the hydrodynamic experiments were chosen. In these experiments the electrodeposition process continued until the whole electrode had been clogged and no more electrolyte could pass through it. The relationship between pressure drop and flow rate was well described by the Forchheimer equation. It was observed that the reduction in porosity due to copper electrodeposition causes the flow rate to decrease because of the decrease in electrode permeability, but it had no influence on current efficiency.

  16. Ion permeability of artificial membranes evaluated by diffusion potential and electrical resistance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlyonsky, Vadim

    2013-12-01

    In the present article, a novel model of artificial membranes that provides efficient assistance in teaching the origins of diffusion potentials is proposed. These membranes are made of polycarbonate filters fixed to 12-mm plastic rings and then saturated with a mixture of creosol and n-decane. The electrical resistance and potential difference across these membranes can be easily measured using a low-cost volt-ohm meter and home-made Ag/AgCl electrodes. The advantage of the model is the lack of ionic selectivity of the membrane, which can be modified by the introduction of different ionophores to the organic liquid mixture. A membrane treated with the mixture containing valinomycin generates voltages from -53 to -25 mV in the presence of a 10-fold KCl gradient (in to out) and from -79 to -53 mV in the presence of a bi-ionic KCl/NaCl gradient (in to out). This latter bi-ionic gradient potential reverses to a value from +9 to +20 mV when monensin is present in the organic liquid mixture. Thus, the model can be build stepwise, i.e., all factors leading to the development of diffusion potentials can be introduced sequentially, helping students to understand the quantitative relationships of ionic gradients and differential membrane permeability in the generation of cell electrical signals.

  17. Use of marker ion and cationic surfactant plastic membrane electrode for potentiometric titration of cationic polyelectrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadome, Takashi; Imato, Toshihiko

    2003-07-04

    A plasticized poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane electrode sensitive to stearyltrimethylammonium (STA) ion is applied to the determination of cationic polyelectrolytes such as poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (Cat-floc) by potentiometric titration, using a potassium poly (vinyl sulfate) (PVSK) solution as a titrant. The end-point of the titration is detected as the potential change of the plasticized PVC membrane electrode caused by decrease in the concentration of STA ion added to the sample solution as a marker ion due to the ion association reaction between the STA ion and PVSK. The effects of the concentration of STA ion, coexisting electrolytes in the sample solution and pH of the sample on the degree of the potential change at the end-point were examined. A linear relationship between the concentration of cationic polyelectrolyte and the end-point volume of the titrant exists in the concentration range from 2x10(-5) to 4x10(-4) N for Cat-floc, glycol chitosan, and methylglycol chitosan.

  18. Mathematical simulation of hazardous ion retention from radioactive waste in fixed bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohsah, M.A.; Gohneim, M.M.; Othman, S.H.; El-Anadouli, B.E.

    2007-01-01

    Reactor design for fluid-solid, noncatalytic reaction depends on the prediction of the performance of the reactor kinetically. The most mathematical models used to handle fixed bed reactor in which the solid bed constitute one of the reactants, while a second reactant is in the fluid phase are complex and difficult to handle. A new mathematical model which easier to handle has been developed to describe the system under investigation. The model was examined theoretically and experimentally. A column backed with chelating cloth filter to separate radionuclide form radioactive waste solution is used as a practical application for the model. Comparison of the model predictions with the experimental results gives satisfactory agreement at most of the process stages

  19. Oxidative degradation of acid doped polybenzimidazole membranes and fuel cell durability in the presence of ferrous ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Jianhui; Yang, Jingshuai; Li, Qingfeng

    2013-01-01

    Phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole membranes have been explored as proton exchange membranes for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Long-term durability of the membrane is of critical concern and has been evaluated by accelerated degradation tests under Fenton conditions...... of the polymer. Fuel cell durability tests with contaminations of ferrous ions did show considerable performance degradation, however, primarily due to the catalyst deterioration rather than the membrane degradation........ In this study effects of phosphoric acid and ferrous ions were investigated by measurements of the weight loss, intrinsic viscosity and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) of the polymer membranes. Ferrous ions resulted in, as expected, catalytic formation of peroxide radicals and hence the accelerated polymer...

  20. NMR experiments on ion permeation in irradiated model membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprinz, H.; Winkler, E.; Schaefer, H.

    1981-01-01

    In aqueous solutions of egg-lecithin vesicles treated with ultrasonics the 1 H NMR parameters line width, area, and chemical shift of the signal of the (CH 3 ) 3 N + group were determined as a function of the gamma dose (0 ... 12 kGy). Using europium and the line shape analysis, it has been possible to calculate these parameters for the inside as well as for the outside lipid layer. Increasing 60 Co radiation dose leads to linear increases of the line widths, which are significantly more rapid for the outer than for the inner layer. From that it can be concluded that the outside lipid layer has been more damaged by irradiation. The asymmetry may be the consequence of a radiation effect induced by the radicals of water radiolysis. From the temporal changes of the NMR parameters information can be obtained about the radiation effect on transport processes in the vesicles. Beginning at a threshold (approx. 5 kGy) the permeation of Eu +++ ions to the (CH 3 ) 3 N + head groups, previously not accessible, increases significantly. (author)

  1. Investigation on degradation mechanism of ion exchange membrane immersed in highly concentrated tritiated water under the Broader Approach Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Yasunori, E-mail: iwai.yasunori@jaea.go.jp; Sato, Katsumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Endurance of Nafion ion exchange membrane immersed into 1.38 × 10{sup 12} Bq/kg of highly concentrated tritiated water has been demonstrated. • The formation of free hydrophobic free products by reactions between radicals on the membrane and oxygen caused the decrease in ionic conductivity. • From the {sup 19}F NMR spectrum, no distinctive degradation in the membrane structure by interaction with tritium was measured. - Abstract: The ion exchange membrane is a key material for electrolysis cells of the water detritiation system. Durability of ion exchange membrane has been demonstrated under the Broader Approach Activities. Long-term exposure of Nafion{sup ®} ion exchange membrane in 1.38 × 10{sup 12} Bq/kg of tritiated water was conducted at room temperature for up to 2 years. The ionic conductivity of Nafion{sup ®} membrane after immersed in tritiated water was changed. The change in color of membrane from colorless to yellowish was caused by reactions of radicals on the polymer and oxygen molecules in air. Infrared Fourier transform spectrum of a yellowish membrane revealed a small peak for bending vibration of C-H situated at 1437 cm{sup −1}, demonstrating the formation of hydrophobic functional group in the membrane. The hydrophilic network in Nafion{sup ®} membrane was partially obstructed by the hydrophobic free products. This caused the decrease in ionic conductivity. The peak for bending vibration was clearly eliminated in the spectrum of the membrane after treatment by acid for removal of free products. The high-resolution solid state {sup 19}F NMR spectrum of a membrane after immersed in tritiated water was similar to that of a membrane irradiated with gamma-rays. From the {sup 19}F NMR spectrum, no distinctive degradation in the membrane structure by interaction with tritium was measured.

  2. Investigation on degradation mechanism of ion exchange membrane immersed in highly concentrated tritiated water under the Broader Approach Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Yasunori; Sato, Katsumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Endurance of Nafion ion exchange membrane immersed into 1.38 × 10 12 Bq/kg of highly concentrated tritiated water has been demonstrated. • The formation of free hydrophobic free products by reactions between radicals on the membrane and oxygen caused the decrease in ionic conductivity. • From the 19 F NMR spectrum, no distinctive degradation in the membrane structure by interaction with tritium was measured. - Abstract: The ion exchange membrane is a key material for electrolysis cells of the water detritiation system. Durability of ion exchange membrane has been demonstrated under the Broader Approach Activities. Long-term exposure of Nafion ® ion exchange membrane in 1.38 × 10 12 Bq/kg of tritiated water was conducted at room temperature for up to 2 years. The ionic conductivity of Nafion ® membrane after immersed in tritiated water was changed. The change in color of membrane from colorless to yellowish was caused by reactions of radicals on the polymer and oxygen molecules in air. Infrared Fourier transform spectrum of a yellowish membrane revealed a small peak for bending vibration of C-H situated at 1437 cm −1 , demonstrating the formation of hydrophobic functional group in the membrane. The hydrophilic network in Nafion ® membrane was partially obstructed by the hydrophobic free products. This caused the decrease in ionic conductivity. The peak for bending vibration was clearly eliminated in the spectrum of the membrane after treatment by acid for removal of free products. The high-resolution solid state 19 F NMR spectrum of a membrane after immersed in tritiated water was similar to that of a membrane irradiated with gamma-rays. From the 19 F NMR spectrum, no distinctive degradation in the membrane structure by interaction with tritium was measured

  3. Determination of membrane hydration numbers of alkali metal ions by insertion in a conducting polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen; Junaid Mohamed Jafeen, Mohamed; Careem, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    , and a secondary (or outer) solvation shell, consisting of all other water molecules whose properties are still influenced significantly by the cation. Knowing the hydration number is important when considering, for instance, the transport of Na+ and K+ in biological cell membranes, since their different behavior...... may depend on the details of ion hydration. Although the solvation of alkali metal ions in aqueous solution has been discussed for many years, there is still no clear consensus. Part of the discrepancy is simply that different methods measure over different time scales, and therefore do...... not necessarily define the same hydration shell. This work presents a systematic study of one special variant of the hydration numbers of the 5 alkali metal ions, using the electrochemical insertion of the ions in a conducting polymer (polypyrrole containing the large immobile anion DBS-). The technique...

  4. Materials Genomics Screens for Adaptive Ion Transport Behavior by Redox-Switchable Microporous Polymer Membranes in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ashleigh L; Doris, Sean E; Li, Longjun; Hughes, Mark A; Qu, Xiaohui; Persson, Kristin A; Helms, Brett A

    2017-05-24

    Selective ion transport across membranes is critical to the performance of many electrochemical energy storage devices. While design strategies enabling ion-selective transport are well-established, enhancements in membrane selectivity are made at the expense of ionic conductivity. To design membranes with both high selectivity and high ionic conductivity, there are cues to follow from biological systems, where regulated transport of ions across membranes is achieved by transmembrane proteins. The transport functions of these proteins are sensitive to their environment: physical or chemical perturbations to that environment are met with an adaptive response. Here we advance an analogous strategy for achieving adaptive ion transport in microporous polymer membranes. Along the polymer backbone are placed redox-active switches that are activated in situ, at a prescribed electrochemical potential, by the device's active materials when they enter the membrane's pore. This transformation has little influence on the membrane's ionic conductivity; however, the active-material blocking ability of the membrane is enhanced. We show that when used in lithium-sulfur batteries, these membranes offer markedly improved capacity, efficiency, and cycle-life by sequestering polysulfides in the cathode. The origins and implications of this behavior are explored in detail and point to new opportunities for responsive membranes in battery technology development.

  5. Design of fixed-bed ion exchange columns for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Arnold, W.D.; Byers, C.H.

    1990-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory plans to use chabazite zeolites for decontamination of process wastewater which contains ppb levels of Sr-90 and Cs-137. Treatability studies have indicated that chabazite zeolites have high selectivities and loadings for removal of trace amounts of Cs-137 and Sr-90 from wastewater containing high concentrations of calcium and magnesium. These studies also indicated that the efficiency of the zeolite system is dependent on the column design and operating conditions. Results from 20-mL, 566-L, and 3,760-L column tests indicated that the optimized design of full-scale columns could halve the generation rate of loaded zeolite. The corresponding annual waste disposal costs for loaded zeolite generated at the ORNL plant varied from $80,000 to $170,000 based on the present disposal charges of $1400/m 3 indicating that design of zeolite ion exchange systems for minimization of secondary waste is imperative. This report summarizes the results of study to model multicomponent ion-exchange columns. 7 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Design of fixed-bed ion exchange columns for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Arnold, W.D.; Byers, C.H.

    1990-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory plans to use chabazite zeolites for decontamination of process wastewater which contains ppb levels of Sr-90 and Cs-137. Treatability studies have indicated that chabazite zeolites have high selectivities and loadings for removal of trace amounts of Cs-137 and Sr-90 from wastewater containing high concentrations of calcium and magnesium. These studies also indicated that the efficiency of the zeolite system is dependent on the column design and operating conditions. Results from 20-mL, 566-L, and 3,760-L column tests indicated that the optimized design of full-scale columns could halve the generation rate of loaded zeolite. The corresponding annual waste disposal costs for loaded zeolite generated at the ORNL plant varied from $80,000 to $170,000 based on the present disposal charges of $1400/m 3 indicating that design of zeolite ion exchange systems for minimization of secondary waste is imperative. This report summarizes the results of a study to model multicomponent ion-exchange columns. 7 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Trace metal ions release from fixed orthodontic appliances and DNA damage in oral mucosa cells by in vivo studies: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downarowicz, Patrycja; Mikulewicz, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    An overview of professional literature referring to the release of metal ions from fixed orthodontic appliances and their influence on oral mucosa in conditions of in vivo are presented, along with a detailed analysis of the exposure of the cells of cheek mucosa epithelium to metal ions. Electronic databases (PubMed, Elsevier, Ebsco) were searched with no language restrictions. The relevant orthodontic journals and reference lists were checked for all eligible studies. A total of 38 scientific articles were retrieved in the initial search. However, only 7 articles met the inclusion criteria. Statistically significant differences in the levels of the amount of nickel ions, cobalt ions and chromium ions were observed in cells of cheek mucosa. The most biocompatible material used in the production of fixed orthodontic appliances is titanium, and the least biocompatible material is steel, which releases the largest amount of nickel and chromium. Metal ions are released from fixed orthodontic appliances only in the first phase of treatment. It is recommended to conduct further, long-term research on a larger number of patients to define the influence of using fixed orthodontic appliances and biological effect they might have on tissues.

  8. Desalination by electrodialysis with the ion-exchange membrane prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seong-Ho; Han Jeong, Young; Jeong Ryoo, Jae; Lee, Kwang-Pill E-mail: kplee@kyungpook.ac.kr

    2001-07-01

    Ion-exchange membranes modified with the triethylamine [-N(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}){sub 3}] and phosphoric acid (-PO{sub 3} H) groups were prepared by radiation-induced grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto the polyolefin nonwavon fabric (PNF) and subsequent chemical modification of poly(GMA) graft chains. The physical and chemical properties of the GMA-grafted PNF and the PNF modified with ion-exchange groups were investigated by SEM, XPS, TGA, and DSC. Furthermore, electrochemical properties such as specific electric resistance, transport number of K{sup +}, and desalination were examined. The grafting yield increased with increasing reaction time and reaction temperature. The maximum grafting yield was obtained with 40% (vol.%) monomer concentration in dioxane at 60 deg. C. The content of the cation- and anion-exchange group increased with increasing grafting yield. Electrical resistance of the PNF modified with TEA and -PO{sub 3} H group decreased, while the water uptake (%) increased with increasing ion-exchange group capacities. Transport number of the PNF modified with ion-exchange group were the range of ca. 0.82-0.92. The graft-type ion-exchange membranes prepared by radiation-induced graft copolymerization were successfully applied as separators for electrodialysis. (author)

  9. Ion transport property studies on PEO-PVP blended solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Angesh; Agrawal, R C; Mahipal, Y K

    2009-01-01

    The ion transport property studies on Ag + ion conducting PEO-PVP blended solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membranes, (1 - x)[90PEO : 10AgNO 3 ] : xPVP, where x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 (wt%), are reported. SPE films were caste using a novel hot-press technique instead of the traditional solution cast method. The conventional solid polymeric electrolyte (SPE) film, (90PEO : 10AgNO 3 ), also prepared by the hot-press method and identified as the highest conducting composition at room temperature on the basis of PEO-AgNO 3 -salt concentration dependent conductivity studies, was used as the first-phase polymer electrolyte host into which PVP were dispersed as second-phase dispersoid. A two-fold conductivity enhancement from that of the PEO host could be achieved at room temperature for PVP blended SPE film composition: 98(90PEO : 10AgNO 3 ) : 2PVP. This has been referred to as optimum conducting composition (OCC). The formation of SPE membranes and material characterizations were done with the help of the XRD and DSC techniques. The ion transport mechanism in this SPE OCC has been characterized with the help of basic ionic parameters, namely ionic conductivity (σ), ionic mobility (μ), mobile ion concentration (n) and ionic transference number (t ion ). Solid-state polymeric batteries were fabricated using OCC as electrolyte and the cell-potential discharge characteristics were studied under different load conditions.

  10. A Highly Ion-Selective Zeolite Flake Layer on Porous Membranes for Flow Battery Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhizhang; Zhu, Xiangxue; Li, Mingrun; Lu, Wenjing; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin

    2016-02-24

    Zeolites are crystalline microporous aluminosilicates with periodic arrangements of cages and well-defined channels, which make them very suitable for separating ions of different sizes, and thus also for use in battery applications. Herein, an ultra-thin ZSM-35 zeolite flake was introduced onto a poly(ether sulfone) based porous membrane. The pore size of the zeolite (ca. 0.5 nm) is intermediary between that of hydrated vanadium ions (>0.6 nm) and protons (99 % and an energy efficiency of >81 % at 200 mA cm(-2), which is by far the highest value ever reported. These convincing results indicate that zeolite-coated membranes are promising in battery applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Electrochemical activation and inhibition of neuromuscular systems through modulation of ion concentrations with ion-selective membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong-Ak; Melik, Rohat; Rabie, Amr N.; Ibrahim, Ahmed M. S.; Moses, David; Tan, Ara; Han, Jongyoon; Lin, Samuel J.

    2011-12-01

    Conventional functional electrical stimulation aims to restore functional motor activity of patients with disabilities resulting from spinal cord injury or neurological disorders. However, intervention with functional electrical stimulation in neurological diseases lacks an effective implantable method that suppresses unwanted nerve signals. We have developed an electrochemical method to activate and inhibit a nerve by electrically modulating ion concentrations in situ along the nerve. Using ion-selective membranes to achieve different excitability states of the nerve, we observe either a reduction of the electrical threshold for stimulation by up to approximately 40%, or voluntary, reversible inhibition of nerve signal propagation. This low-threshold electrochemical stimulation method is applicable in current implantable neuroprosthetic devices, whereas the on-demand nerve-blocking mechanism could offer effective clinical intervention in disease states caused by uncontrolled nerve activation, such as epilepsy and chronic pain syndromes.

  12. Effect of the type of ion exchange membrane on performance, ion transport, and pH in biocatalyzed electrolysis of wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendal, R.A.; Sleutels, T.H.J.A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the application of cation exchange membranes (CEMs) in bioelectrochemical systems running on wastewater can cause operational problems. In this paper the effect of alternative types of ion exchange membrane is studied in biocatalyzed electrolysis cells. Four types of

  13. Membrane-based assay for iodide ions based on anti-leaching of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Wei; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Unnikrishnan, Binesh; Li, Yu-Jia; Huang, Chih-Ching

    2014-02-26

    We report a label-free colorimetric strategy for the highly selective and sensitive detection of iodide (I(-)) ions in human urine sample, seawater and edible salt. A poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)-stabilized Au nanoparticle (34.2-nm) was prepared to detect I(-) ions using silver (Ag(+)) and cyanide (CN(-)) ions as leaching agents in a glycine-NaOH (pH 9.0) solution. For the visual detection of the I(-) ions by naked eye, and for long time stability of the probe, Au nanoparticles (NPs) decorated mixed cellulose ester membrane (MCEM) was prepared (Au NPs/MCEM). The Au NPs-based probe (CN(-)/Ag(+)-Au NPs/MCEM) operates on the principle that Ag(+) ions form a monolyar silver atoms/ions by aurophilic/argentophilic interactions on the Au NPs and it accelerates the leaching rate of Au atoms in presence of CN(-) ions. However, when I(-) is introduced into this system, it inhibits the leaching of Au atoms because of the strong interactions between Ag/Au ions and I(-) ions. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to characterize the surface properties of the Au NPs in the presence of Ag(+) and I(-). Under optimal solution conditions, the CN(-)/Ag(+)-Au NPs/MCEM probe enabled the detection of I(-) by the naked eye at nanomolar concentrations with high selectivity (at least 1000-fold over other anions). In addition, this cost-effective probe allowed the determination of I(-) ions in complex samples, such as urine, seawater, and edible salt samples.

  14. Heterogeneous structure and its effect on properties and electrochemical behavior of ion-exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariono, D.; Khoiruddin; Subagjo; Wenten, I. G.

    2017-02-01

    Generally, commercially available ion-exchange membrane (IEM) can be classified into homogeneous and heterogeneous membranes. The classification is based on degree of heterogeneity in membrane structure. It is well known that the heterogeneity greatly affects the properties of IEM, such as conductivity, permselectivity, chemical and mechanical stability. The heterogeneity also influences ionic and electrical current transfer behavior of IEM-based processes during their operation. Therefore, understanding the role of heterogeneity in IEM properties is important to provide preliminary information on their operability and applicability. In this paper, the heterogeneity and its effect on IEM properties are reviewed. Some models for describing the heterogeneity of IEM and methods for characterizing the degree of heterogeneity are discussed. In addition, the influence of heterogeneity on the performance of IEM-based processes and their electrochemical behavior are described.

  15. Extraction of lithium ion from alkaline aqueous media by a liquid surfactant membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinugasa, Takumi; Ono, Yuri; Kawamura, Yuko; Watanabe, Kunio; Takeuchi, Hiroshi.

    1995-01-01

    Extraction of lithium ion from aqueous alkaline media by a liquid surfactant membrane was performed using a mixture of LIX54 and TOPO as the extractant. Stripping of lithium from the kerosene solution to the acid solution was suppressed with increasing content of polyamine (ECA) surfactant. The extraction rate of lithium by the liquid membrane could be interpreted taking account of an interfacial resistance due to ECA. It was confirmed that swelling of the (W/O) emulsion drops by water permeation through the liquid membrane is evaluated in terms of a change in osmotic pressure gradient between the external and internal aqueous phases during the lithium extraction. In the present operation, the extraction ratio of Li + from the external feed and the uptake into the internal phase reached as high as 95%. (author)

  16. Strategy Selection of Film Irradiation by Accelerated ^{40}Ar^{8+} Ions for Manufacturing of Track Membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Denisov, Yu N; Kalinichenko, V V; Karamysheva, G A; Fedorenko, S B

    2004-01-01

    The industrial cyclotron CYTRACK is dedicated to the production of the track membranes. It is the basic instrument for the industry of membrane products to be consumed in medicine, biotechnology, pharmacology, microelectronics and many other industries. The cyclotron CYTRACK started working in the August of 2002. Argon ions were accelerated to a project energy of 2.4 MeV/nucleon, the extracted beam intensity was about 200 nA, the extraction efficiency totaled \\sim 50 %. In starting up operation the film was exposed in various controlled ways to charged particles with a view to achieving the values of parameters required for production of "Rosa" membranous plasmafilters. The pore uniformity in transverse direction was provided by beam scanning with a scanning magnet voltage of 73 V, the one in the longitudinal direction was provided by constancy of the film motion rate and stability of beam intensity during all the time of exposition.

  17. A Hydrogen Ion-Selective Sensor Based on Non-Plasticised Methacrylic-acrylic Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ahmad

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A methacrylic-acrylic polymer was synthesised for use as a non-plasticised membrane for hydrogen ion-selective sensor incorporating tridodecylamine as an ionophore. The copolymer consisted of methyl methacrylate and n-butyl acrylate monomers in a ratio of 2:8. Characterisation of the copolymer using FTNMR demonstrated that the amount of each monomer incorporated during solution polymerisation was found to be similar to the amount used in the feed before polymerisation. The glass transition temperature of the copolymer determined by differential scanning calorimetry was -30.9 ºC. Potentiometric measurements conducted showed a linear pH response range of 4.3 – 9.6 with the response slope of 56.7 mV/decade. The selectivity of the sensors towards hydrogen ions was similar to other plasticiser based membrane electrodes and the logarithmic selectivity coefficients for discrimination against interference cations is close to –9.7. However, the incorporation of a lipophilic anion as membrane additive is essential in ensuring optimum performance of the hydrogen ion sensor.

  18. Haemocompatibility and ion exchange capability of nanocellulose polypyrrole membranes intended for blood purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Natalia; Carlsson, Daniel O.; Hong, Jaan; Larsson, Rolf; Fellström, Bengt; Nyholm, Leif; Strømme, Maria; Mihranyan, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Composites of nanocellulose and the conductive polymer polypyrrole (PPy) are presented as candidates for a new generation of haemodialysis membranes. The composites may combine active ion exchange with passive ultrafiltration, and the large surface area (about 80 m2 g−1) could potentially provide compact dialysers. Herein, the haemocompatibility of the novel membranes and the feasibility of effectively removing small uraemic toxins by potential-controlled ion exchange were studied. The thrombogenic properties of the composites were improved by applying a stable heparin coating. In terms of platelet adhesion and thrombin generation, the composites were comparable with haemocompatible polymer polysulphone, and regarding complement activation, the composites were more biocompatible than commercially available membranes. It was possible to extract phosphate and oxalate ions from solutions with physiological pH and the same tonicity as that of the blood. The exchange capacity of the materials was found to be 600 ± 26 and 706 ± 31 μmol g−1 in a 0.1 M solution (pH 7.4) and in an isotonic solution of phosphate, respectively. The corresponding values with oxalate were 523 ± 5 in a 0.1 M solution (pH 7.4) and 610 ± 1 μmol g−1 in an isotonic solution. The heparinized PPy–cellulose composite is consequently a promising haemodialysis material, with respect to both potential-controlled extraction of small uraemic toxins and haemocompatibility. PMID:22298813

  19. Silver nanoparticles embedded in zeolite membranes: release of silver ions and mechanism of antibacterial action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Amber; Harrison, Alistair; Sabbani, Supriya; Munson, Robert S; Dutta, Prabir K; Waldman, W James

    2011-01-01

    Background The focus of this study is on the antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles embedded within a zeolite membrane (AgNP-ZM). Methods and Results These membranes were effective in killing Escherichia coli and were bacteriostatic against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. E. coli suspended in Luria Bertani (LB) broth and isolated from physical contact with the membrane were also killed. Elemental analysis indicated slow release of Ag+ from the AgNP-ZM into the LB broth. The E. coli killing efficiency of AgNP-ZM was found to decrease with repeated use, and this was correlated with decreased release of silver ions with each use of the support. Gene expression microarrays revealed upregulation of several antioxidant genes as well as genes coding for metal transport, metal reduction, and ATPase pumps in response to silver ions released from AgNP-ZM. Gene expression of iron transporters was reduced, and increased expression of ferrochelatase was observed. In addition, upregulation of multiple antibiotic resistance genes was demonstrated. The expression levels of multicopper oxidase, glutaredoxin, and thioredoxin decreased with each support use, reflecting the lower amounts of Ag+ released from the membrane. The antibacterial mechanism of AgNP-ZM is proposed to be related to the exhaustion of antioxidant capacity. Conclusion These results indicate that AgNP-ZM provide a novel matrix for gradual release of Ag+. PMID:21931480

  20. Silver-coated ion exchange membrane electrode applied to electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Y.; Ito, H.; Okano, K.; Nagasu, K.; Sato, S.

    2003-01-01

    Silver-coated ion exchange membrane electrodes (solid polymer electrolyte, SPE) were prepared by electroless deposition of silver onto ion exchange membranes. The SPE electrodes were used for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) reduction with 0.2 M K 2 SO 4 as the electrolyte with a platinum plate (Pt) for the counterelectrode. In an SPE electrode system prepared from a cation exchange membrane (CEM), the surface of the SPE was partly ruptured during CO 2 reduction, and the reaction was rapidly suppressed. SPE electrodes made of an anion exchange membrane (SPE/AEM) sustained reduction of CO 2 to CO for more than 2 h, whereas, the electrode potential shifted negatively during the electrolysis. The reaction is controlled by the diffusion of CO 2 through the metal layer of the SPE electrode at high current density. Ultrasonic radiation, applied to the preparation of SPE/AEM, was effective to improve the electrode properties, enhancing the electrolysis current of CO 2 reduction. Observation by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the electrode metal layer became more porous by the ultrasonic radiation treatment. The partial current density of CO 2 reduction by SPE/AEM amounted to 60 mA cm -2 , i.e. three times the upper limit of the conventional electrolysis by a plate electrode. Application of SPE device may contribute to an advancement of CO 2 fixation at ambient temperature and pressure

  1. Electrospun polyimide-based fiber membranes as polymer electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiujun; Song, Wei-Li; Wang, Luning; Song, Yu; Shi, Qiao; Fan, Li-Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Polymer electrolytes based on electrospun polyimide (PI) membranes are incorporated with electrolyte solution containing 1 mol L −1 LiPF 6 /ethylene carbonate/ethylmethyl carbonate/dimethyl carbonate to examine their potential application for lithium ion batteries. The as-electrospun non-woven membranes demonstrate a uniformly interconnected structure with an average fiber diameter of 800 nm. The membranes, showing superior thermal stability and flame retardant property compared to the commercial Celgard® membranes, exhibit high porosity and high uptake when activated with the liquid electrolyte. The resulting PI electrolytes (PIs) have a high ionic conductivity up to 2.0 × 10 −3 S cm −1 at 25 °C, and exhibit a high electrochemical stability potential more than 5.0 V (vs. Li/Li + ). They also possess excellent charge/discharge performance and capacity retention. The initial discharge capacities of the Li/PIs/Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 cells are 178.4, 167.4, 160.3, 148.3 and 135.9 mAh g −1 at the charge/discharge rates of 0.2 C, 1 C, 2 C, 5 C and 10 C, respectively. After 200 cycles at 5 C, a capacity around ∼146.8 mAh g −1 can be still achieved. The PI-based polymer electrolytes with strong mechanical properties and good electrochemical performance are proved to be promising electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

  2. Development of Detector Systems for Internal and Fixed Target Heavy Ion Physics Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, Pavel

    2003-04-01

    This thesis deals with intermediate energy heavy ion reactions with the particular aim to study the nuclear matter equation of state which defines the relation between statistical parameters of a fermionic system. The development of equipment for two experiments, CA47 at The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala, Sweden and R16 at Kernfysisch Versneller Inst. (KVI), Groningen, The Netherlands, are described. CA47 contains the CHICSi detector, a modular, ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible, multi-detector system, covering a solid angle of 3pi sr around the collision point. Together with two auxiliary detector systems CHICSi is placed at the cluster-jet target chamber of the CELSIUS storage ring. This thesis gives a technical overview of the detector and the development carried out in order to achieve the desired detection performance. Some laboratory and in-beam tests are described and the analysis of the first experimental results is discussed. The nuclear intensity interferometry experiment (R16) was performed in a dedicated beam-line of the AGOR superconducting cyclotron. Small-angle two-particle correlations were measured for the E/A = 61 MeV 36 Ar + 27 Al, 112 Sn, 124 Sn reactions, together with singles spectra. The experimental energy distributions of neutrons and light charged particles for the 36 Ar + 27 Al reaction have been analyzed with a Maxwellian multi-source prescription. These results, together with correlation function data, are used to extract information on the size of the emitting sources and their time evolution

  3. Mutual influence of the Na+ and Cs+ ions during their mass electrotransport through a perfluorinated sulfocation membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zezina, E.A.; Popkov, Yu.M.; Timashev, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that by the Na + and Cs + ions sorption equilibrium conditions in perfluorinated cation-exchange membranes from the 0.1M NaCl and 0.1M CsCl mixtures the Cs + ions are sorbed primarily. The effective self-diffusion coefficients of the Na + and Cs + ions from individual solutions within the range of 0.01-1.00 M concentrations and in the above-mentioned equimolar mixture are found. It is shown that the membranes moisture content is the determining factor for the Cs + ions electrodialysis separation fro the above-mentioned electrolytes mixture

  4. Novel polyvinylidene fluoride nanofiltration membrane blended with functionalized halloysite nanotubes for dye and heavy metal ions removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Guangyong; He, Yi; Zhan, Yingqing; Zhang, Lei; Pan, Yang; Zhang, Chunli; Yu, Zongxue

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel PVDF nanofiltration membrane was prepared by incorporation of A-HNTs. • HNTs dispersed well in membrane matrix after APTES modification. • The membrane exhibited excellent hydrophilicity and antifouling properties. • A high dye and heavy metal ions removal was realized by membrane separation. - Abstract: Membrane separation is an effective method for the removal of hazardous materials from wastewater. Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), and novel polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofiltration membranes were prepared by blending with various concentrations of APTES grafted HNTs (A-HNTs). The morphology structure of the membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The contact angle (CA), pure water flux (PWF) and antifouling capacity of membranes were investigated in detail. In addition, the separation performance of membranes were reflected by the removal of dye and heavy metal ions in simulated wastewater. The results revealed that the hydrophilicity of A-HNTs blended PVDF membrane (A-HNTs@PVDF) was enhanced significantly. Owing to the electrostatic interaction between membrane surface and dye molecules, the dye rejection ratio of 3% A-HNTs@PVDF membrane reached 94.9%. The heavy metal ions rejection ratio and adsorption capacity of membrane were also improved with the addition of A-HNTs. More importantly, A-HNTs@PVDF membrane exhibited excellent rejection stability and reuse performances after several times fouling and washing tests. It can be expected that the present work will provide insight into a new method for membrane modification in the field of wastewater treatment.

  5. Novel polyvinylidene fluoride nanofiltration membrane blended with functionalized halloysite nanotubes for dye and heavy metal ions removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Guangyong [State Key Laboratory of Oil & Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); Oil & Gas Field Applied Chemistry Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); He, Yi, E-mail: heyi@swpu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oil & Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); Oil & Gas Field Applied Chemistry Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); Zhan, Yingqing; Zhang, Lei; Pan, Yang; Zhang, Chunli; Yu, Zongxue [State Key Laboratory of Oil & Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • A novel PVDF nanofiltration membrane was prepared by incorporation of A-HNTs. • HNTs dispersed well in membrane matrix after APTES modification. • The membrane exhibited excellent hydrophilicity and antifouling properties. • A high dye and heavy metal ions removal was realized by membrane separation. - Abstract: Membrane separation is an effective method for the removal of hazardous materials from wastewater. Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), and novel polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofiltration membranes were prepared by blending with various concentrations of APTES grafted HNTs (A-HNTs). The morphology structure of the membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The contact angle (CA), pure water flux (PWF) and antifouling capacity of membranes were investigated in detail. In addition, the separation performance of membranes were reflected by the removal of dye and heavy metal ions in simulated wastewater. The results revealed that the hydrophilicity of A-HNTs blended PVDF membrane (A-HNTs@PVDF) was enhanced significantly. Owing to the electrostatic interaction between membrane surface and dye molecules, the dye rejection ratio of 3% A-HNTs@PVDF membrane reached 94.9%. The heavy metal ions rejection ratio and adsorption capacity of membrane were also improved with the addition of A-HNTs. More importantly, A-HNTs@PVDF membrane exhibited excellent rejection stability and reuse performances after several times fouling and washing tests. It can be expected that the present work will provide insight into a new method for membrane modification in the field of wastewater treatment.

  6. Unique battery with an active membrane separator having uniform physico-chemically functionalized ion channels and a method making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Ruscic, Katarina J [Chicago, IL; Sears, Devin N [Spruce Grove, CA; Smith, Luis J [Natick, MA; Klingler, Robert J [Glenview, IL; Rathke, Jerome W [Homer Glen, IL

    2012-02-21

    The invention relates to a unique battery having an active, porous membrane and method of making the same. More specifically the invention relates to a sealed battery system having a porous, metal oxide membrane with uniform, physicochemically functionalized ion channels capable of adjustable ionic interaction. The physicochemically-active porous membrane purports dual functions: an electronic insulator (separator) and a unidirectional ion-transporter (electrolyte). The electrochemical cell membrane is activated for the transport of ions by contiguous ion coordination sites on the interior two-dimensional surfaces of the trans-membrane unidirectional pores. The membrane material is designed to have physicochemical interaction with ions. Control of the extent of the interactions between the ions and the interior pore walls of the membrane and other materials, chemicals, or structures contained within the pores provides adjustability of the ionic conductivity of the membrane.

  7. Charge collection characteristics of a super-thin diamond membrane detector measured with high-energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, N.; Makino, T.; Onoda, S.; Ohshima, T.; Kamiya, T.; Kada, W.; Skukan, N.; Grilj, V.; Jaksic, M.; Pomorski, M.

    2014-01-01

    A transmission particle detector based on a super-thin diamond membrane film which can also be used simultaneously as a vacuum window for ion beam extraction has been developed. Charge collection characteristics of a μ-thick diamond membrane detector for high-energy heavy ions including 75 MeV Ne, 150 MeV Ar, 322 MeV Kr, and 454 MeV Xe have been investigated for the first time. Charge collection signals under single particle flux from the thin part are stable and are well distinguishable from background signals. This behavior suggests that the diamond membrane detector could be used for counting single ions. On the other hand, charge collection efficiency is found to decrease with increasing of charge generated in the diamond membrane detector. This suggests that the pulse height defect, which has been previously reported for Si and SiC detectors, also occurs in the diamond membrane detector. (authors)

  8. Development of Detector Systems for Internal and Fixed Target Heavy Ion Physics Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubev, Pavel

    2003-04-01

    This thesis deals with intermediate energy heavy ion reactions with the particular aim to study the nuclear matter equation of state which defines the relation between statistical parameters of a fermionic system. The development of equipment for two experiments, CA47 at The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala, Sweden and R16 at Kernfysisch Versneller Inst. (KVI), Groningen, The Netherlands, are described. CA47 contains the CHICSi detector, a modular, ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible, multi-detector system, covering a solid angle of 3pi sr around the collision point. Together with two auxiliary detector systems CHICSi is placed at the cluster-jet target chamber of the CELSIUS storage ring. This thesis gives a technical overview of the detector and the development carried out in order to achieve the desired detection performance. Some laboratory and in-beam tests are described and the analysis of the first experimental results is discussed. The nuclear intensity interferometry experiment (R16) was performed in a dedicated beam-line of the AGOR superconducting cyclotron. Small-angle two-particle correlations were measured for the E/A = 61 MeV {sup 36}Ar + {sup 27}Al, {sup 112}Sn, {sup 124}Sn reactions, together with singles spectra. The experimental energy distributions of neutrons and light charged particles for the {sup 36}Ar + {sup 27}Al reaction have been analyzed with a Maxwellian multi-source prescription. These results, together with correlation function data, are used to extract information on the size of the emitting sources and their time evolution.

  9. A novel ion transport membrane reactor for fundamental investigations of oxygen permeation and oxy-combustion under reactive flow conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Kirchen, Patrick; Apo, Daniel J.; Hunt, Anton; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2013-01-01

    Ion transport membrane (ITM) reactors present an attractive technology for combined air separation and fuel conversion in applications such as syngas production, oxidative coupling or oxy-combustion, with the promise of lower capital and operating

  10. Beyond voltage-gated ion channels: Voltage-operated membrane proteins and cellular processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianping; Chen, Xingjuan; Xue, Yucong; Gamper, Nikita; Zhang, Xuan

    2018-04-18

    Voltage-gated ion channels were believed to be the only voltage-sensitive proteins in excitable (and some non-excitable) cells for a long time. Emerging evidence indicates that the voltage-operated model is shared by some other transmembrane proteins expressed in both excitable and non-excitable cells. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about voltage-operated proteins, which are not classic voltage-gated ion channels as well as the voltage-dependent processes in cells for which single voltage-sensitive proteins have yet to be identified. Particularly, we will focus on the following. (1) Voltage-sensitive phosphoinositide phosphatases (VSP) with four transmembrane segments homologous to the voltage sensor domain (VSD) of voltage-gated ion channels; VSPs are the first family of proteins, other than the voltage-gated ion channels, for which there is sufficient evidence for the existence of the VSD domain; (2) Voltage-gated proton channels comprising of a single voltage-sensing domain and lacking an identified pore domain; (3) G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate the depolarization-evoked potentiation of Ca 2+ mobilization; (4) Plasma membrane (PM) depolarization-induced but Ca 2+ -independent exocytosis in neurons. (5) Voltage-dependent metabolism of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns[4,5]P 2 , PIP 2 ) in the PM. These recent discoveries expand our understanding of voltage-operated processes within cellular membranes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Membrane Anchoring and Ion-Entry Dynamics in P-type ATPase Copper Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønberg, Christina; Sitsel, Oleg; Lindahl, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Cu(+)-specific P-type ATPase membrane protein transporters regulate cellular copper levels. The lack of crystal structures in Cu(+)-binding states has limited our understanding of how ion entry and binding are achieved. Here, we characterize the molecular basis of Cu(+) entry using molecular-dynamics...... simulations, structural modeling, and in vitro and in vivo functional assays. Protein structural rearrangements resulting in the exposure of positive charges to bulk solvent rather than to lipid phosphates indicate a direct molecular role of the putative docking platform in Cu(+) delivery. Mutational analyses...... and simulations in the presence and absence of Cu(+) predict that the ion-entry path involves two ion-binding sites: one transient Met148-Cys382 site and one intramembranous site formed by trigonal coordination to Cys384, Asn689, and Met717. The results reconcile earlier biochemical and x-ray absorption data...

  12. Calculation of ion currents across the inner membrane of functionally intact mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Daniel A; Pavlov, Evgeny V

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial ion transport systems play a central role in cell physiology. Rates of Ca2+ and K+ transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane have been derived from the measurement of ion accumulation over time within functional isolated mitochondria or mitochondria of cultured cells. Alternatively, the electrical currents generated by ionic flux have been directly measured in purified and swollen mitochondrial samples (mitoplasts) or reconstituted channels, and typically range from 1 pA to several 100s pA. However, the direct electrophysiological approach necessarily requires extensive processing of the mitochondria prior to measurement, which can only be performed on isolated mitoplasts. To compare rates of mitochondrial ion transport measured in electrophysiological experiments to those measured in intact mitochondria and cells, we converted published rates of mitochondrial ion uptake into units of ionic current. We estimate that for monovalent ions, uptake by intact mitochondria at the rate of 1 nmol ∙ mg−1 protein ∙ min−1 is equivalent to 0.2 fA of current per whole single mitochondrion (0.4 fA for divalent ions). In intact mitochondria, estimated rates of electrogenic cation uptake are limited to 1–100 fA of integral current per single mitochondrion. These estimates are orders of magnitude lower than the currents through mitochondrial channels directly measured via patch-clamp or artificial lipid bilayer approaches. PMID:24037064

  13. Proton-sensing transistor systems for detecting ion leakage from plasma membranes under chemical stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Yuki; Goda, Tatsuro; Schaffhauser, Daniel F; Okada, Jun-Ichi; Matsumoto, Akira; Miyahara, Yuji

    2017-03-01

    The membrane integrity of live cells is routinely evaluated for cytotoxicity induced by chemical or physical stimuli. Recent progress in bioengineering means that high-quality toxicity validation is required. Here, we report a pH-sensitive transistor system developed for the continuous monitoring of ion leakage from cell membranes upon challenge by toxic compounds. Temporal changes in pH were generated with high reproducibility via periodic flushing of HepG2 cells on a gate insulator of a proton-sensitive field-effect transistor with isotonic buffer solutions with/without NH 4 Cl. The pH transients at the point of NH 4 Cl addition/withdrawal originated from the free permeation of NH 3 across the semi-permeable plasma membranes, and the proton sponge effect produced by the ammonia equilibrium. Irreversible attenuation of the pH transient was observed when the cells were subjected to a membrane-toxic reagent. Experiments and simulations proved that the decrease in the pH transient was proportional to the area of the ion-permeable pores on the damaged plasma membranes. The pH signal was correlated with the degree of hemolysis produced by the model reagents. The pH assay was sensitive to the formation of molecularly sized pores that were otherwise not measurable via detection of the leakage of hemoglobin, because the hydrodynamic radius of hemoglobin was greater than 3.1nm in the hemolysis assay. The pH transient was not disturbed by inherent ion-transporter activity. The ISFET assay was applied to a wide variety of cell types. The system presented here is fast, sensitive, practical and scalable, and will be useful for validating cytotoxins and nanomaterials. The plasma membrane toxicity and hemolysis are widely and routinely evaluated in biomaterials science and biomedical engineering. Despite the recent development of a variety of methods/materials for efficient gene/drug delivery systems to the cytosol, the methodologies for safety validation remain unchanged in

  14. Organoboron compounds as Lewis acid receptors of fluoride ions in polymeric membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jańczyk, Martyna; Adamczyk-Woźniak, Agnieszka; Sporzyński, Andrzej; Wróblewski, Wojciech

    2012-07-06

    Newly synthesized organoboron compounds - 4-octyloxyphenylboronic acid (OPBA) and pinacol ester of 2,4,6-trifluorophenylboronic acid (PE-PBA) - were applied as Lewis acid receptors of fluoride anions. Despite enhanced selectivity, the polymer membrane electrodes containing the lipophilic receptor OPBA exhibited non-Nernstian slopes of the responses toward fluoride ions in acidic conditions. Such behavior was explained by the lability of the B-O bond in the boronic acids, and the OH(-)/F(-) exchange at higher fluoride content in the sample solution. In consequence, the stoichiometry of the OPBA-fluoride complexes in the membrane could vary during the calibration, changing the equilibrium concentration of the primary anion in membrane and providing super-Nernstian responses. The proposed mechanism was supported by (19)F NMR studies, which indicated that the fluoride complexation proceeds more effectively in acidic solution leading mainly to PhBF(3)(-) species. Finally, the performances of the membranes based on the phenylboronic acid pinacol ester, with a more stable B-O bond, were tested. As it was expected, Nernstian fluoride responses were recorded for such membranes with worsened fluoride selectivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Phosphate barrier on pore-filled cation-exchange membrane for blocking complexing ions in presence of non-complexing ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Vivek; Agarwal, Chhavi; Shinde, Rakesh N.

    2018-06-01

    In present work, an approach has been used to form a phosphate groups bearing surface barrier on a cation-exchange membrane (CEM). Using optimized conditions, the phosphate bearing monomer bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] phosphate has been grafted on the surface of the host poly(ethersulfone) membranes using UV light induced polymerization. The detailed characterizations have shown that less than a micron layer of phosphate barrier is formed without disturbing the original microporous structure of the host membrane. The pores of thus formed membrane have been blocked by cationic-gel formed by in situ UV-initiator induced polymerization of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulphonic acid along with crosslinker ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the pores of the membrane. UV-initiator is required for pore-filling as UV light would not penetrate the interior matrix of the membrane. The phosphate functionalized barrier membrane has been examined for permselectivity using a mixture of representative complexing Am3+ ions and non-complexing Cs+ ions. This experiment has demonstrated that complex forming Am3+ ions are blocked by phosphate barrier layer while non-complexing Cs+ ions are allowed to pass through the channels formed by the crosslinked cationic gel.

  16. Materials Genomics Screens for Adaptive Ion Transport Behavior by Redox-Switchable Microporous Polymer Membranes in Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Selective ion transport across membranes is critical to the performance of many electrochemical energy storage devices. While design strategies enabling ion-selective transport are well-established, enhancements in membrane selectivity are made at the expense of ionic conductivity. To design membranes with both high selectivity and high ionic conductivity, there are cues to follow from biological systems, where regulated transport of ions across membranes is achieved by transmembrane proteins. The transport functions of these proteins are sensitive to their environment: physical or chemical perturbations to that environment are met with an adaptive response. Here we advance an analogous strategy for achieving adaptive ion transport in microporous polymer membranes. Along the polymer backbone are placed redox-active switches that are activated in situ, at a prescribed electrochemical potential, by the device’s active materials when they enter the membrane’s pore. This transformation has little influence on the membrane’s ionic conductivity; however, the active-material blocking ability of the membrane is enhanced. We show that when used in lithium–sulfur batteries, these membranes offer markedly improved capacity, efficiency, and cycle-life by sequestering polysulfides in the cathode. The origins and implications of this behavior are explored in detail and point to new opportunities for responsive membranes in battery technology development. PMID:28573201

  17. Ion beam evaluation of silicon carbide membrane structures intended for particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallon, J., E-mail: jan.pallon@nuclear.lu.se [Division of Nuclear Physics, Physics Department, Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Syväjärvi, M. [Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Graphensic AB, Teknikringen 1F, SE-58330 Linköping (Sweden); Wang, Q. [Sensor System, ACREO Swedish ICT AB, Box 1070, SE-164 25 Kista (Sweden); Yakimova, R.; Iakimov, T. [Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Graphensic AB, Teknikringen 1F, SE-58330 Linköping (Sweden); Elfman, M.; Kristiansson, P.; Nilsson, E.J.C.; Ros, L. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Physics Department, Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2016-03-15

    Thin ion transmission detectors can be used as a part of a telescope detector for mass and energy identification but also as a pre-cell detector in a microbeam system for studies of biological effects from single ion hits on individual living cells. We investigated a structure of graphene on silicon carbide (SiC) with the purpose to explore a thin transmission detector with a very low noise level and having mechanical strength to act as a vacuum window. In order to reach very deep cavities in the SiC wafers for the preparation of the membrane in the detector, we have studied the Inductive Coupled Plasma technique to etch deep circular cavities in 325 μm prototype samples. By a special high temperature process the outermost layers of the etched SiC wafers were converted into a highly conductive graphitic layer. The produced cavities were characterized by electron microscopy, optical microscopy and proton energy loss measurements. The average membrane thickness was found to be less than 40 μm, however, with a slightly curved profile. Small spots representing much thinner membrane were also observed and might have an origin in crystal defects or impurities. Proton energy loss measurement (also called Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy, STIM) is a well suited technique for this thickness range. This work presents the first steps of fabricating a membrane structure of SiC and graphene which may be an attractive approach as a detector due to the combined properties of SiC and graphene in a monolithic materials structure.

  18. Polyurethane Ionophore-Based Thin Layer Membranes for Voltammetric Ion Activity Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuartero, Maria; Crespo, Gaston A; Bakker, Eric

    2016-06-07

    We report on a plasticized polyurethane ionophore-based thin film material (of hundreds of nanometer thickness) for simultaneous voltammetric multianalyte ion activity detection triggered by the oxidation/reduction of an underlying poly(3-octylthiophene) film. This material provides excellent mechanical, physical, and chemical robustness compared to other polymers. Polyurethane films did not exhibit leaching of lipophilic additives after rinsing with a direct water jet and exhibited resistance to detachment from the underlying electrode surface, resulting in a voltammetric current response with less than acrylate) ionophore-based membranes of the same thickness and composition exhibited a significant deterioration of the signal after identical treatment. While previously reported works emphasized fundamental advancement of multi-ion detection with multi-ionophore-based thin films, polyurethane thin membranes allow one to achieve real world measurements without sacrificing analytical performance. Indeed, polyurethane membranes are demonstrated to be useful for the simultaneous determination of potassium and lithium in undiluted human serum and blood with attractive precision.

  19. Recyclable fluorescent gold nanocluster membrane for visual sensing of copper(II) ion in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhijin; Luo, Fenqiang; Dong, Tongqing; Zheng, Liyan; Wang, Yaxian; Chi, Yuwu; Chen, Guonan

    2012-05-21

    Recently, metal-selective fluorescent chemosensors have attracted intense attention for their simple and real-time tracking of metal ions in environmental samples. However, most of the existing fluorescent sensors are one-off sensors and thus suffer from large amount of reagent consumption, significant experimental cost and raising the risk of environmental pollution. In this paper, we developed a green (low reagent consumption, low-toxicity reagent use), recyclable, and visual sensor for Cu(2+) in aqueous solution by using a fluorescent gold nanoclusters membrane (FGM) as the sensing unit, basing on our findings on gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) that the bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated Au NCs exhibit excellent membrane-forming ability under the isoelectric point of BSA, and thus enable us to obtain a new type of sensing membrane (i.e. FGM) by denaturing Au NCs; the fluorescence of FGM can be significantly quenched by Cu(2+) ion, and the quenched fluorescence can be totally recovered by histidine; the as-prepared FGM is very stable and recyclable, which makes it an ideal sensing material.

  20. Direct evidence of ionic fluxes across ion-selective membranes: a scanning electrochemical microscopic and potentiometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyurcsányi, R E; Pergel, E; Nagy, R; Kapui, I; Lan, B T; Tóth, K; Bitter, I; Lindner, E

    2001-05-01

    Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) supplemented with potentiometric measurements was used to follow the time-dependent buildup of a steady-state diffusion layer at the aqueous-phase boundary of lead ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). Differential pulse voltammetry is adapted to SECM for probing the local concentration profiles at the sample side of solvent polymeric membranes. Major factors affecting the membrane transport-related surface concentrations were identified from SECM data and the potentiometric transients obtained under different experimental conditions (inner filling solution composition, membrane thickness, surface pretreatment). The amperometrically determined surface concentrations correlated well with the lower detection limits of the lead ion-selective electrodes.

  1. Diode-like single-ion track membrane prepared by electro-stopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel, P.Yu.; Korchev, Yu.E.; Siwy, Z.; Spohr, R.; Yoshida, M.

    2001-01-01

    The preparation of an asymmetric membrane in poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is described, using a combination of chemical and electro-stopping. For this purpose, a single-ion-irradiated PET film is inserted into an electrolytic cell and etched from one side in 9 M sodium hydroxide while bathing the other side in a mixture of 2 M KCl and 2 M HCOOH (1:1 by volume), electrically retracting the OH - ions from the tip of the etch pit during pore break-through. When a preset current has been reached, the etch process is interrupted by replacing the etching solution with acidic 1 M potassium chloride solution. After etching, the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic is determined under symmetric bathing conditions, immersing both sides of the membrane in KCl solutions of identical concentration (0.01-1 M) and pH (3-8). The I-V characteristic is strongly non-linear, comparable to that of an electrical diode. If the polarity during etching is reversed, pushing the OH - ions into the tip of the etch pit, the resulting pores are larger and the degree of asymmetry smaller. The importance of electro-stopping is compared with chemical stopping

  2. Imbalance of plasma membrane ion leak and pump relationship as a new aetiological basis of certain disease states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquist, G; Waldenström, A

    2003-12-01

    The basis for life is the ability of the cell to maintain ion gradients across biological membranes. Such gradients are created by specific membrane-bound ion pumps [adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases)]. According to physicochemical rules passive forces equilibrate (dissipate) ion gradients. The cholesterol/phospholipid ratio of the membrane and the degree of saturation of phospholipid fatty acids are important factors for membrane molecular order and herewith a determinant of the degree of non-specific membrane leakiness. Other operative principles, i.e. specific ion channels can be opened and closed according to mechanisms that are specific to the cell. Certain compounds called ionophores can be integrated in the plasma membrane and permit specific inorganic ions to pass. Irrespective of which mechanism ions leak across the plasma membrane the homeostasis may be kept by increasing ion pumping (ATPase activity) in an attempt to restore the physiological ion gradient. The energy source for this work seems to be glycolytically derived ATP formation. Thus an increase in ion pumping is reflected by increased ATP hydrolysis and rate of glycolysis. This can be measured as an accumulation of breakdown products of ATP and end-products of anaerobic glycolysis (lactate). In certain disease entities, the balance between ATP formation and ion pumping may be disordered resulting in a decrease in inter alia (i.a.) cellular energy charge, and an increase in lactate formation and catabolites of adenylates. Cardiac syndrome X is proposed to be due to an excessive leakage of potassium ions, leading to electrocardiographic (ECG) changes, abnormal Tl-scintigraphy of the heart and anginal pain (induced by adenosine). Cocksackie B3 infections, a common agent in myocarditis might also induce an ionophore-like effect. Moreover, Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the formation of extracellular amyloid deposits in the brain of patients. Perturbation of cellular membranes by the

  3. Influence of nitrogen ion implantation on filtration of fluoride and cadmium using polysulfone/chitosan blend membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanichapichart, P., E-mail: pikul.v@psu.ac.th [Membrane Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90110 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Bootluck, W. [Membrane Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90110 (Thailand); Thopan, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2014-05-01

    Composite membranes between polysulfone and biopolymer chitosan were produced with variations of the chitosan content and temperature during the phase inversion process. The lower chitosan content led to lower water permeability and smaller membrane cut off. When the temperature of the phase inversion process was reduced from 25 °C to 5 °C, membrane pores were further decreased from somewhat greater than 10 kDa to a value smaller than 2 kDa. After being implanted with N-ions of 50 keV to a fluence of 1 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}, the composite membranes showed an improvement in the rejection by about 15% for fluoride and 10% for cadmium. In addition, a slight increase in permeation flux was observed in the ion implanted membranes. Filtration tests using the N-ion implanted membranes showed that fluoride was rejected from 100 ppm NaF solution by 47% and the rejection was increased to 60% when 2.20 ppm underground water was filtered. In the case of cadmium, the rejection was increased from 80% to 90% as an effect of the N-ion implantation.

  4. Selective transport and incorporation of highly charged metal and metal complex ions in self-assembled polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toutianoush, Ali; Tieke, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    The transport of aqueous salts containing mono-, di- and trivalent metal and tetravalent metal complex ions across ultrathin polyvinylammonium/polyvinylsulphate (PVA/PVS) membranes is described. The membranes were prepared by electrostatic layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of the two polyelectrolytes. Using spectroscopic measurements and permeability studies, it is demonstrated that the transport of copper(II) chloride, lanthanum(III) chloride, barium chloride and potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) is accompanied by the permanent incorporation of the metal and metal complex ions in the membrane. Upon the uptake of copper, lanthanum and hexacyanoferrate ions, the membranes become cross-linked so that the permeation rates of other salts not taken up by the membrane, e.g. sodium chloride, potassium chloride and magnesium chloride, are decreased. The uptake of barium ions leads to a decrease of the cross-linking density of the membrane so that the permeation rate of NaCl is increased. Possible mechanisms for the ion uptake are discussed

  5. Ion-Exchanged SAPO-34 Membranes for Krypton-Xenon Separation: Control of Permeation Properties and Fabrication of Hollow Fiber Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yeon Hye; Min, Byunghyun; Yang, Shaowei; Koh, Dong-Yeun; Bhave, Ramesh R; Nair, Sankar

    2018-02-21

    Separation of radioisotope 85 Kr from 136 Xe is of importance in used nuclear fuel reprocessing. Membrane separation based on zeolite molecular sieves such as chabazite SAPO-34 is an attractive alternative to energy-intensive cryogenic distillation. We report the synthesis of SAPO-34 membranes with considerably enhanced performance via thickness reduction based upon control of a steam-assisted vapor-solid conversion technique followed by ion exchange with alkali metal cations. The reduction of membrane thickness leads to a large increase in Kr permeance from 7.5 to 26.3 gas permeation units (GPU) with ideal Kr/Xe selectivities >20 at 298 K. Cation-exchanged membranes show large (>50%) increases in selectivity at ambient or slight subambient conditions. The adsorption, diffusion, and permeation characteristics of ion-exchanged SAPO-34 materials and membranes are investigated in detail, with potassium-exchanged SAPO-34 membranes showing particularly attractive performance. We then demonstrate the fabrication of selective SAPO-34 membranes on α-alumina hollow fibers.

  6. Highly porous polytriazole ion exchange membranes cast from solutions in non-toxic cosolvents

    KAUST Repository

    Chisca, Stefan

    2017-04-04

    The development of highly functionalized porous materials for protein separation is important for biotech processes. We report the preparation of highly porous polytriazole with sulfonic acid functionalization. The resulting ion exchange membranes are selective for protein adsorption. The starting material was a hydroxyl-functionalized polytriazole, which is an advantageous platform for further modification. The polymer was dissolved in a mixture of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim]OAc) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC), which can be both considered green solvents. The polymer solubilization was only possible due to an interesting effect of cosolvency, which is discussed, based in phase diagrams. Membranes were prepared by solution casting, followed by immersion in a non-solvent bath. We then grafted sulfone groups on the membranes, by reacting the hydroxyl groups with 1,3-propane sultone and 1,4-butane sultone. Lysozyme adsorption was successfully evaluated. Membranes modified with 1,4-butane sultone adsorbed more protein than those with 1,3-propane sultone.

  7. Numerical simulation of ion transport membrane reactors: Oxygen permeation and transport and fuel conversion

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup

    2012-07-01

    Ion transport membrane (ITM) based reactors have been suggested as a novel technology for several applications including fuel reforming and oxy-fuel combustion, which integrates air separation and fuel conversion while reducing complexity and the associated energy penalty. To utilize this technology more effectively, it is necessary to develop a better understanding of the fundamental processes of oxygen transport and fuel conversion in the immediate vicinity of the membrane. In this paper, a numerical model that spatially resolves the gas flow, transport and reactions is presented. The model incorporates detailed gas phase chemistry and transport. The model is used to express the oxygen permeation flux in terms of the oxygen concentrations at the membrane surface given data on the bulk concentration, which is necessary for cases when mass transfer limitations on the permeate side are important and for reactive flow modeling. The simulation results show the dependence of oxygen transport and fuel conversion on the geometry and flow parameters including the membrane temperature, feed and sweep gas flow, oxygen concentration in the feed and fuel concentration in the sweep gas. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Synthesis of ion exchange membrane by radiation grafting of acrylic acid onto polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigaki, I.; Sugo, T.; Senoo, K.; Takayama, T.; Machi, S.; Okamoto, J.; Okada, T.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation grafting of vinyl monomers onto polymer films has been extensively studied by many workers. In the preirradiation method of grafting a polymer substrate is activated by irradiation (either in the presence or absence of oxygen) and subsequently allowed to react with a monomer. The preirradiation method was utilized in this study to synthesize an ion exchange membrane useful for a battery separator by grafting acrylic acid onto polyethylene film. The battery separator should be chemically and thermally stable, sufficiently durable in electrolyte as well as highly electrically conductive. Membranes made from regenerated cellulose, e.g., cellophane, have long been used as a separator in the batteries with alkaline electrolyte, such as silver oxide primary cell. However, it has poor durability, as short as one year, due to breakdown of the membrane during operation or storing. The acrylic acid-grafted polyethylene film was found to be quite useful for a separator in the alkaline batteries. This membrane has a high electric conductivity and an excellent durability. (author)

  9. In situ metal ion contamination and the effects on proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulek, Mark; Adams, Jim; Kaberline, Steve; Ricketts, Mark; Waldecker, James R.

    Automotive fuel cell technology has made considerable progress, and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are regarded as a possible long-term solution to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, reduce fossil fuel dependency and increase energy efficiency. Even though great strides have been made, durability is still an issue. One key challenge is controlling MEA contamination. Metal ion contamination within the membrane and the effects on fuel cell performance were investigated. Given the possible benefits of using stainless steel or aluminum for balance-of-plant components or bipolar plates, cations of Al, Fe, Ni and Cr were studied. Membranes were immersed in metal sulfide solutions of varying concentration and then assembled into fuel cell MEAs tested in situ. The ranking of the four transition metals tested in terms of the greatest reduction in fuel cell performance was: Al 3+ ≫ Fe 2+ > Ni 2+, Cr 3+. For iron-contaminated membranes, no change in cell performance was detected until the membrane conductivity loss was greater than approximately 15%.

  10. The obtaining and properties of asymmetric ion transport membrane for separating of oxygen from air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovieva, A. A.; Kulbakin, I. V.

    2018-04-01

    The bilayer oxygen-permeable membrane, consisting of a thin-film dense composite based on Co3O4 - 36 wt. % Bi2O3, and of a porous ceramic substrate of Co2SiO4, was synthesized and characterized. The way for obtaining of porous ceramic based on cobalt silicate was found, while the microstructure and the mechanical properties of porous ceramic were studied. Layered casting with post-pressing was used to cover the surface of porous support of Co2SiO4 by the Co3O4 - 36 wt. % Bi2O3 - based film. Transport properties of the asymmetric membrane have been studied, the kinetic features of oxygen transport have been established, and the characteristic thickness of the membrane has been estimated. The methods to prevent the high-temperature creep of ion transport membranes based on solid/molten oxides, which are the promising ones for obtaining of pure oxygen from air, are proposed and discussed.

  11. Mechanical sensitivity of Piezo1 ion channels can be tuned by cellular membrane tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amanda H; Grandl, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Piezo1 ion channels mediate the conversion of mechanical forces into electrical signals and are critical for responsiveness to touch in metazoans. The apparent mechanical sensitivity of Piezo1 varies substantially across cellular environments, stimulating methods and protocols, raising the fundamental questions of what precise physical stimulus activates the channel and how its stimulus sensitivity is regulated. Here, we measured Piezo1 currents evoked by membrane stretch in three patch configurations, while simultaneously visualizing and measuring membrane geometry. Building on this approach, we developed protocols to minimize resting membrane curvature and tension prior to probing Piezo1 activity. We find that Piezo1 responds to lateral membrane tension with exquisite sensitivity as compared to other mechanically activated channels and that resting tension can drive channel inactivation, thereby tuning overall mechanical sensitivity of Piezo1. Our results explain how Piezo1 can function efficiently and with adaptable sensitivity as a sensor of mechanical stimulation in diverse cellular contexts. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12088.001 PMID:26646186

  12. Influence of nano-fiber membranes on the silver ions released from hollow fibers containing silver particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Huigai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyether sulfone was dissolved into dimethylacetamide with the concentration of 20% to prepare a uniform solution for fabrication of nanofiber membranes by bubble electrospinning technique. Morphologies of the nanofiber film were carried out with a scanning electron microscope. The influence on the silver ions escaped from hollow fiber loaded with silver particles was exerted by using different release liquid. The water molecular clusters obtained from the nanofiber membranes filter can slow down the release of silver ions. However, the effect of slowing was weakened with the time increasing. In the end, the trend of change is gradually consistent with the trend of release of silver ions in the deionized water.

  13. Effect of CO2 absorption on ion and water mobility in an anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jing; Roy, Asa L.; Greenbaum, Steve G.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.

    2018-03-01

    We report the measured water uptake, density, ionic conductivity and water transport properties in Tokuyama A201 membrane in OH-, HCO3- and Cl- forms. The water uptake of the AEM varies with anion type in the order λ(OH-) > λ(HCO3-) > λ(Cl-) for samples equilibrated with the same water vapor activity (aw). The conductivity of the AEM is reduced by absorption of CO2. Pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) measurements were utilized to characterize the diffusivity of water and HCO3- ion. The anion diffusion coefficient and membrane conductivity are used to probe the applicability of the Nernst-Einstein equation in these AEMs.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of ceramic/carbon nanotubes composite adsorptive membrane for copper ion removal from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tofighy, Maryam Ahmadzadeh; Mohammadi, Toraj [Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    We prepared a novel adsorptive membrane by implanting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in pore channels of ceramic (α-alumina) support via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method using cyclohexanol and ferrocene as carbon precursor and catalyst, respectively. Optimization of CNTs growth conditions resulted in uniform distribution of the CNTs in the pore channels of the support. The optimized CNTs-ceramic membrane was oxidized with concentrated nitric acid, and chitosan was employed for filling intertube-CNT gaps. The modified CNTs-ceramic membrane was used for copper ion removal from water, and the effects of the modification steps (oxidation and filling intertube-CNT gaps with chitosan) and pH on permeation flux and rejection of the prepared adsorptive membrane were investigated. Moreover, static adsorption was also investigated and Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and two kinetics models were used to describe adsorption behavior of copper ions by the prepared adsorptive membrane.

  15. Water flow in carbon-based nanoporous membranes impacted by interactions between hydrated ions and aromatic rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Shi, Guosheng; Fang, Haiping

    2017-02-24

    Carbon-based nanoporous membranes, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene/graphene oxide and graphyne, have shown great potential in water desalination and purification, gas and ion separation, biosensors, and lithium-based batteries, etc. A deep understanding of the interaction between hydrated ions in an aqueous solution and the graphitic surface in systems composed of water, ions and a graphitic surface is essential for applications with carbon-based nanoporous membrane platforms. In this review, we describe the recent progress of the interaction between hydrated ions and aromatic ring structures on the carbon-based surface and its applications in the water flow in a carbon nanotube. We expect that these works can be extended to the understanding of water flow in other nanoporous membranes, such as nanoporous graphene, graphyne and stacked sheets of graphene oxide.

  16. Novel modified poly vinyl chloride blend membranes for removal of heavy metals from mixed ion feed sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, Vignesh; Jyothi, M.S. [Centre for Nano and Material Sciences, Jain University, Jain Global Campus, Kanakapura Ramanagaram, Bangalore, 562112 (India); Balakrishna, R. Geetha, E-mail: br.geetha@jainuniversity.ac.in [Centre for Nano and Material Sciences, Jain University, Jain Global Campus, Kanakapura Ramanagaram, Bangalore, 562112 (India); Padaki, Mahesh, E-mail: sp.mahesh@jainuniversity.ac.in [Centre for Nano and Material Sciences, Jain University, Jain Global Campus, Kanakapura Ramanagaram, Bangalore, 562112 (India); National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow, 119049 (Russian Federation); Deon, Sebastien [Institut UTINAM, UMR CNRS 6213, Université de Bourgogne-Franche-Comté,16 route de Gray, Besançon Cedex 25030 (France)

    2017-06-05

    Highlights: • Work reports the novel modification of poly vinyl chloride (PVC) using newly developed method. • Blend membranes were prepared using modified PVC and polysulfone in different compositions. • The prepared blend membranes were used for separation of different heavy metal ions. • The blend membranes showed improved rejection of heavy metal ions in comparison to Commercial NF 270 membrane. - Abstract: Herein, an attempt has been made to prepare a novel membrane with good efficiency for removal of heavy metal ions namely lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr). 4-amino benzoic acid (ABA) was covalently grafted onto the poly vinyl chloride (PVC) backbone by C−N bond to enhance the hydrophilicity. {sup 1}H NMR and ATR-IR spectroscopy analysis confirmed the chemical modification of PVC. Further the modified polymer was blended in different compositions with polysulfone (PSf) for optimization. Morphological changes that occurred in blend membranes, due to the incorporation of modified PVC was studied by AFM and SEM techniques. The effect on hydrophilicity and performance of blends owing to incorporation of modified PVC was evaluated by water uptake, contact angle and flux studies. The density of functional groups in blends was analyzed by its ion-exchange capacity. Batch wise filtration of metal ions was carried out and the effect of pressure, feed pH and interference of ions was thoroughly investigated. Essentially, 100% rejection was obtained for all the metal ions in acidic pH with a productivity of 2.56 l/m{sup 2} h. The results were correlated with the results of commercially available NF 270 membrane under the same operating conditions.

  17. Novel modified poly vinyl chloride blend membranes for removal of heavy metals from mixed ion feed sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, Vignesh; Jyothi, M.S.; Balakrishna, R. Geetha; Padaki, Mahesh; Deon, Sebastien

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Work reports the novel modification of poly vinyl chloride (PVC) using newly developed method. • Blend membranes were prepared using modified PVC and polysulfone in different compositions. • The prepared blend membranes were used for separation of different heavy metal ions. • The blend membranes showed improved rejection of heavy metal ions in comparison to Commercial NF 270 membrane. - Abstract: Herein, an attempt has been made to prepare a novel membrane with good efficiency for removal of heavy metal ions namely lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr). 4-amino benzoic acid (ABA) was covalently grafted onto the poly vinyl chloride (PVC) backbone by C−N bond to enhance the hydrophilicity. 1 H NMR and ATR-IR spectroscopy analysis confirmed the chemical modification of PVC. Further the modified polymer was blended in different compositions with polysulfone (PSf) for optimization. Morphological changes that occurred in blend membranes, due to the incorporation of modified PVC was studied by AFM and SEM techniques. The effect on hydrophilicity and performance of blends owing to incorporation of modified PVC was evaluated by water uptake, contact angle and flux studies. The density of functional groups in blends was analyzed by its ion-exchange capacity. Batch wise filtration of metal ions was carried out and the effect of pressure, feed pH and interference of ions was thoroughly investigated. Essentially, 100% rejection was obtained for all the metal ions in acidic pH with a productivity of 2.56 l/m 2 h. The results were correlated with the results of commercially available NF 270 membrane under the same operating conditions.

  18. A Moessbauer study on the interaction between biomolecular lipid membranes and ferric ferrous ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvaly, B.; Badinka, C.; Keszthelyi, L.; Erdei, L.

    1975-01-01

    The results of Moessbauer experiments made on liposome systems of a large specific area are presented. In the study lecithin was used as a membrane-forming material. The measurements were carried out on frozen liposome systems, at various 57 Fe/lipid concentration ratios, pH values and temperatures. Since the presence of liposomes had no noticeable influence on the Moessbauer spectra of Fe 2+ ions, only lecithin Fe 3+ systems were considered. Moessbauer spectra in case of Fe 3+ solutions with lecithin showed marked quadrupole splitting (exhibiting an anomalous temperature dependence) which is not shown in case of pure Fe 3+ solution. (Z.S.)

  19. Ion transfer through solvent polymeric membranes driven by an exponential current flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, A; Torralba, E; González, J; Serna, C; Ortuño, J A

    2011-03-21

    General analytical equations which govern ion transfer through liquid membranes with one and two polarized interfaces driven by an exponential current flux are derived. Expressions for the transient and stationary E-t, dt/dE-E and dI/dE-E curves are obtained, and the evolution from transient to steady behaviour has been analyzed in depth. We have also shown mathematically that the voltammetric and stationary chronopotentiometric I(N)-E curves are identical (with E being the applied potential for voltammetric techniques and the measured potential for chronopotentiometric techniques), and hence, their derivatives provide identical information.

  20. Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability through modulation of intracellular calcium levels in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klíma, Petr; Laňková, Martina; Vandenbussche, Filip; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Petrášek, Jan

    2018-05-01

    Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability for water and small organic compounds through their stimulatory effect on plasma membrane calcium channels, with subsequent modulation of intracellular calcium levels and ion homeostasis. The action of silver ions at the plant plasma membrane is largely connected with the inhibition of ethylene signalling thanks to the ability of silver ion to replace the copper cofactor in the ethylene receptor. A link coupling the action of silver ions and cellular auxin efflux has been suggested earlier by their possible direct interaction with auxin efflux carriers or by influencing plasma membrane permeability. Using tobacco BY-2 cells, we demonstrate here that besides a dramatic increase of efflux of synthetic auxins 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), treatment with AgNO 3 resulted in enhanced efflux of the cytokinin trans-zeatin (tZ) as well as the auxin structural analogues tryptophan (Trp) and benzoic acid (BA). The application of AgNO 3 was accompanied by gradual water loss and plasmolysis. The observed effects were dependent on the availability of extracellular calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) as shown by comparison of transport assays in Ca 2+ -rich and Ca 2+ -free buffers and upon treatment with inhibitors of plasma membrane Ca 2+ -permeable channels Al 3+ and ruthenium red, both abolishing the effect of AgNO 3 . Confocal microscopy of Ca 2+ -sensitive fluorescence indicator Fluo-4FF, acetoxymethyl (AM) ester suggested that the extracellular Ca 2+ availability is necessary to trigger the response to silver ions and that the intracellular Ca 2+ pool alone is not sufficient for this effect. Altogether, our data suggest that in plant cells the effects of silver ions originate from the primal modification of the internal calcium levels, possibly by their interaction with Ca 2+ -permeable channels at the plasma membrane.

  1. Surface Electrical Potentials of Root Cell Plasma Membranes: Implications for Ion Interactions, Rhizotoxicity, and Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Min Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many crop plants are exposed to heavy metals and other metals that may intoxicate the crop plants themselves or consumers of the plants. The rhizotoxicity of heavy metals is influenced strongly by the root cell plasma membrane (PM surface’s electrical potential (ψ0. The usually negative ψ0 is created by negatively charged constituents of the PM. Cations in the rooting medium are attracted to the PM surface and anions are repelled. Addition of ameliorating cations (e.g., Ca2+ and Mg2+ to the rooting medium reduces the effectiveness of cationic toxicants (e.g., Cu2+ and Pb2+ and increases the effectiveness of anionic toxicants (e.g., SeO42− and H2AsO4−. Root growth responses to ions are better correlated with ion activities at PM surfaces ({IZ}0 than with activities in the bulk-phase medium ({IZ}b (IZ denotes an ion with charge Z. Therefore, electrostatic effects play a role in heavy metal toxicity that may exceed the role of site-specific competition between toxicants and ameliorants. Furthermore, ψ0 controls the transport of ions across the PM by influencing both {IZ}0 and the electrical potential difference across the PM from the outer surface to the inner surface (Em,surf. Em,surf is a component of the driving force for ion fluxes across the PM and controls ion-channel voltage gating. Incorporation of {IZ}0 and Em,surf into quantitative models for root metal toxicity and uptake improves risk assessments of toxic metals in the environment. These risk assessments will improve further with future research on the application of electrostatic theory to heavy metal phytotoxicity in natural soils and aquatic environments.

  2. Effect of Mobile Phone Usage on Nickel Ions Release and pH of Saliva in Patients Undergoing Fixed Orthodontic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjannawar, Lalita Girish; Girme, Tejashree Suresh; Agrawal, Jiwanasha Manish; Agrawal, Manish Suresh; Fulari, Sangamesh Gurunath; Shetti, Shraddha Subhash; Kagi, Vishwal Ajith

    2017-09-01

    Hand held mobile phones are presently the most popular means of communication worldwide and have transformed our lives in many aspects. The widespread use of such devices have resulted in growing concerns regarding harmful effects of radiations emitted by them. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of mobile phone usage on nickel ion release as well as pH of saliva in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. To assess the level of nickel ions in saliva and pH of saliva in mobile phone users undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. A total of 42 healthy patients with fixed orthodontic appliance in mouth for a duration of six to nine months were selected for the study. They were divided into experimental group (n=21) consisting of mobile phone users and control group (n=21) of non mobile phone users. Saliva samples were collected from both the groups and nickel ion levels were measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. The pH values were also assessed for both groups using pH meter. Unpaired t-test was used for the data analysis. Statistical analysis revealed that though the pH levels were reduced and the nickel ion levels were higher in the experimental group compared to the control group, the results were non significant. Mobile phone usage may affect the pH of saliva and result in increased release of nickel ions in saliva of patients with fixed orthodontic appliances in the oral cavity.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOTYPE TITANATE ION EXCHANGE LOADED MEMBRANES FOR STRONTIUM, CESIUM AND ACTINIDE DECONTAMINATION FROM AQUEOUS MEDIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L; Keisha Martin, K; David Hobbs, D

    2008-05-30

    We have successfully incorporated high surface area particles of titanate ion exchange materials (monosodium titanate and crystalline silicotitanate) with acceptable particle size distribution into porous and inert support membrane fibrils consisting of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon{reg_sign}), polyethylene and cellulose materials. The resulting membrane sheets, under laboratory conditions, were used to evaluate the removal of surrogate radioactive materials for cesium-137 and strontium-90 from high caustic nuclear waste simulants. These membrane supports met the nominal requirement for nonchemical interaction with the embedded ion exchange materials and were porous enough to allow sufficient liquid flow. Some of this 47-mm size stamped out prototype titanium impregnated ion exchange membrane discs was found to remove more than 96% of dissolved cesium-133 and strontium-88 from a caustic nuclear waste salt simulants. Since in traditional ion exchange based column technology monosodium titanate (MST) is known to have great affinity for the sorbing of other actinides like plutonium, neptunium and even uranium, we expect that the MST-based membranes developed here, although not directly evaluated for uptake of these three actinides because of costs associated with working with actinides which do not have 'true' experimental surrogates, would also show significant affinity for these actinides in aqueous media. It was also observed that crystalline silicotitanate impregnated polytetrafluoroethylene or polyethylene membranes became less selective and sorbed both cesium and strontium from the caustic aqueous salt simulants.

  4. Stuides on a Pb2+-selective electrode with a macrocyclic liquid membrane. Potentiometric determination of Pb2+ ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIAN ISVORANU

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental and theoretical data regarding the design, characterization and analytical applications of a non-expensive, liquid-membrane ion-selective electrode for Pb2+ ions. The membrane is a solution of the active complex formed by Pb2+ ions with dibenzo-18-crown-6-ionophore (DB-[18]-C-6 extracted in propylene carbonate (PC. The sucessful application of the developed electrode for the determination of Pb2+ ions in aqueos solution samples by direct potentiometry and potentiometric titration is presented. For the presented analytical results, there are insignificant systematic errors between the direct potentiometric method with the developed ion-selective electrode and atomic absorption spectrometry.

  5. Development of nano-structure controlled polymer electrolyte fuel-cell membranes by high-energy heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaki, Tetsuya; Asano, Masaharu; Maekawa, Yasunari; Yoshida, Masaru; Kobayashi, Misaki; Nomura, Kumiko; Takagi, Shigeharu

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing interest in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) together with recent worldwide energy demand and environmental issues. In order to develop proton-conductive membranes for PEFCs, we have been using high-energy heavy ion beams from the cyclotron accelerator of Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA), JAEA. Our strategic focus is centered on using nano-scale controllability of the ion-beam processing; the membrane preparation involves (1) the irradiation of commercially-available base polymer films with MeV ions, (2) graft polymerization of vinyl monomers into electronically-excited parts along the ion trajectory, called latent tracks, and (3) sulfonation of the graft polymers. Interestingly, the resulting membranes exhibited anisotropic proton transport, i.e., higher conductivity in the thickness direction. According to microscopic observations, this is probably because the columnar electrolyte phase extended, with a width of tens-to-hundreds nanometers, through the membrane. Other excellent membrane properties, e.g., sufficient mechanical strength, high dimensional stability, and low gas permeability should be due to such a controlled structure. (author)

  6. Quasi-equilibrium analysis of the ion-pair mediated membrane transport of low-permeability drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan M; Dahan, Arik; Gupta, Deepak; Varghese, Sheeba; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this research was to gain a mechanistic understanding of ion-pair mediated membrane transport of low-permeability drugs. Quasi-equilibrium mass transport analyses were developed to describe the ion-pair mediated octanol-buffer partitioning and hydrophobic membrane permeation of the model basic drug phenformin. Three lipophilic counterions were employed: p-toluenesulfonic acid, 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, and 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (HNAP). Association constants and intrinsic octanol-buffer partition coefficients (Log P(AB)) of the ion-pairs were obtained by fitting a transport model to double reciprocal plots of apparent octanol-buffer distribution coefficients versus counterion concentration. All three counterions enhanced the lipophilicity of phenformin, with HNAP providing the greatest increase in Log P(AB), 3.7 units over phenformin alone. HNAP also enhanced the apparent membrane permeability of phenformin, 27-fold in the PAMPA model, and 4.9-fold across Caco-2 cell monolayers. As predicted from a quasi-equilibrium analysis of ion-pair mediated membrane transport, an order of magnitude increase in phenformin flux was observed per log increase in counterion concentration, such that log-log plots of phenformin flux versus HNAP concentration gave linear relationships. These results provide increased understanding of the underlying mechanisms of ion-pair mediated membrane transport, emphasizing the potential of this approach to enable oral delivery of low-permeability drugs.

  7. Demonstration on endurance of ion exchange membrane immersed in high-concentration tritiated water under the Broader Approach Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Yasunori, E-mail: iwai.yasunori@jaea.go.jp; Sato, Katsumi; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Endurance of Nafion ion exchange membrane immersed in 1.38 × 10{sup 12} Bq/kg of highly concentrated tritiated water was demonstrated. • Degradation of Nafion backbone structure by tritium beta was similar to that by gamma rays and electron beams at an equivalent dose. • Degradation directly by radiation was dominant at room temperature compared with that by reactions with radicals produced from water radiolysis. -- Abstract: The Nafion{sup ®} ion exchange membrane is a key material for electrolysis cells of the water detritiation system. Endurance of Nafion ion exchange membrane immersed in 1.38 × 10{sup 12} Bq/kg of highly concentrated tritiated water has been demonstrated at room temperature for up to 2 years under the Broader Approach Activities. The curves of percent elongation at break vs. dose and tensile strength vs. dose for the Nafion membranes immersed in tritiated water were well consistent with those for Nafion membranes irradiated to an equivalent dose with gamma rays and electron beams. This shows that the degradation of Nafion backbone structure by tritium beta is similar to that by gamma rays and electron beams. The results of ferric Fenton test indicated that the degradation directly by radiation was dominant at room temperature compared with that by reactions with radicals produced from water radiolysis. The curve of ion exchange capacity vs. dose for the Nafion membranes immersed in tritiated water was also well consistent with that for Nafion membranes irradiated to an equivalent dose with gamma rays and electron beams. These results showed irradiation tests with gamma rays and electron beams were alternative for predicting degradation of ion exchange membrane by tritium beta.

  8. Study of the ion-channel behavior on glassy carbon electrode supported bilayer lipid membranes stimulated by perchlorate anion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhiquan; Shi, Jun; Huang, Weimin, E-mail: huangwm@jlu.edu.cn

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a kind of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) layer membranes was supported on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). We studied the ion channel behavior of the supported bilayer lipid membrane by scanning electrochemical microscopy (SCEM) in tris(2,2′-bipyridine) ruthenium(II) solution. Perchlorate anion was used as a presence of stimulus and ruthenium(II) complex cations as the probing ions for the measurement of SECM, the lipid membrane channel was opened and exhibited the behavior of distinct SECM positive feedback curve. The channel was in a closed state in the absence of perchlorate anions while reflected the behavior of SECM negative feedback curve. The rates of electron transfer reaction in the lipid membranes surface were detected and it was dependant on the potential of SECM. - Highlights: • The rates of electron transfer reaction in the lipid membranes surface were detected. • Dynamic investigations of ion-channel behavior of supported bilayer lipid membranes by scanning electrochemical microscopy • A novel way to explore the interaction between molecules and supported bilayer lipid membranes.

  9. Polyamines control of cation transport across plant membranes: implications for ion homeostasis and abiotic stress signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottosin, Igor; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Polyamines are unique polycationic metabolites, controlling a variety of vital functions in plants, including growth and stress responses. Over the last two decades a bulk of data was accumulated providing explicit evidence that polyamines play an essential role in regulating plant membrane transport. The most straightforward example is a blockage of the two major vacuolar cation channels, namely slow (SV) and fast (FV) activating ones, by the micromolar concentrations of polyamines. This effect is direct and fully reversible, with a potency descending in a sequence Spm(4+) > Spd(3+) > Put(2+). On the contrary, effects of polyamines on the plasma membrane (PM) cation and K(+)-selective channels are hardly dependent on polyamine species, display a relatively low affinity, and are likely to be indirect. Polyamines also affect vacuolar and PM H(+) pumps and Ca(2+) pump of the PM. On the other hand, catabolization of polyamines generates H2O2 and other reactive oxygen species (ROS), including hydroxyl radicals. Export of polyamines to the apoplast and their oxidation there by available amine oxidases results in the induction of a novel ion conductance and confers Ca(2+) influx across the PM. This mechanism, initially established for plant responses to pathogen attack (including a hypersensitive response), has been recently shown to mediate plant responses to a variety of abiotic stresses. In this review we summarize the effects of polyamines and their catabolites on cation transport in plants and discuss the implications of these effects for ion homeostasis, signaling, and plant adaptive responses to environment.

  10. Radiation induced grafting of tetrafluoroethylene on Nafion Films for ion exchange membrane application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldes, Adriana Napoleao; Silva, Dionisio Furtunato da; Ferreto, Helio Fernando Rodrigues; Souza, Camila Pinheiro; Parra, Duclerc Fernandes; Lugao, Ademar Benevolo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Grafting of TFE nanocomposites onto Nafion was studied for synthesis of ion exchange membranes. Radiation-induced grafting of TFE gas onto Nafion films was investigated after simultaneous irradiation using a {sup 60}Co source. The thermal degradation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) waste has been used for production of TFE. Nafion films were irradiated at 15 kGy dose at room temperature and chemical changes were monitored after contact with TFE gas for grafting. The modified films were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Characterization by XRD suggests crystallinity changes after TFE grafting. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of membranes was determined by acid-base titration and the values for modified films were achieved similar to Nafion pristine films. DSC measurements revealed a displacement in the endothermic peaks and it was probably associated with the TFE graft. The graft forces the Nafion polymer chains to re-organize themselves and form a more cross-linked structure within the clusters. (author)

  11. Porous Materials to Support Bilayer Lipid Membranes for Ion Channel Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thai Phung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify materials suitable as membrane supports for ion channel biosensors, six filter materials of varying hydrophobicity, tortuosity, and thickness were examined for their ability to support bilayer lipid membranes as determined by electrical impedance spectroscopy. Bilayers supported by hydrophobic materials (PTFE, polycarbonate, nylon, and silanised silver had optimal resistance (14–19 GΩ and capacitance (0.8–1.6 μF values whereas those with low hydrophobicity did not form BLMs (PVDF or were short-lived (unsilanised silver. The ability of ion channels to function in BLMs was assessed using a method recently reported to improve the efficiency of proteoliposome incorporation into PTFE-supported bilayers. Voltage-gated sodium channel activation by veratridine and inhibition by saxitoxin showed activity for PTFE, nylon, and silanised silver, but not polycarbonate. Bilayers on thicker, more tortuous, and hydrophobic materials produced higher current levels. Bilayers that self-assembled on PTFE filters were the longest lived and produced the most channel activity using this method.

  12. Radiation induced grafting of tetrafluoroethylene on Nafion Films for ion exchange membrane application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldes, Adriana Napoleao; Silva, Dionisio Furtunato da; Ferreto, Helio Fernando Rodrigues; Souza, Camila Pinheiro; Parra, Duclerc Fernandes; Lugao, Ademar Benevolo

    2011-01-01

    Grafting of TFE nanocomposites onto Nafion was studied for synthesis of ion exchange membranes. Radiation-induced grafting of TFE gas onto Nafion films was investigated after simultaneous irradiation using a 60 Co source. The thermal degradation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) waste has been used for production of TFE. Nafion films were irradiated at 15 kGy dose at room temperature and chemical changes were monitored after contact with TFE gas for grafting. The modified films were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Characterization by XRD suggests crystallinity changes after TFE grafting. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of membranes was determined by acid-base titration and the values for modified films were achieved similar to Nafion pristine films. DSC measurements revealed a displacement in the endothermic peaks and it was probably associated with the TFE graft. The graft forces the Nafion polymer chains to re-organize themselves and form a more cross-linked structure within the clusters. (author)

  13. Surfactant-controlled etching of ion track nanopores and its practical applications in membrane technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel, P.Yu.; Blonskaya, I.V.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Mamonova, T.I.; Orelovitch, O.L.; Sartowska, B.; Yamauchi, Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of surfactants on chemical development of ion tracks in polymers has been studied. It has been shown that surface-active agents added to an alkaline etching solution adsorb on the polymer surface at the pore entrances. This reduces the etch rate, which leads to the formation of pores tapered toward the surface. Self-assembly of surfactant molecules at the pore entrance creates a barrier for their penetration into the etched-out nanopores, whereas hydroxide ions diffuse freely. Due to this, the internal pore volume grows faster than the pore surface diameter. The ability to control pore shape is demonstrated with the fabrication of profiled nano- and micropores in polyethylene terephthalate, polycarbonate. Some earlier published data on small track-etched pores in polycarbonate (in particular, the pore diameter vs. etching time curves measured conductometrically) have been revised in light of the above findings. Adding surfactants to chemical etchants makes it possible to optimize the structure of track membranes, thus improving their retention and permeation properties. Asymmetric membranes with thin skin retention layers have been produced and their performance studied

  14. Functionalization of mesoporous silica membrane with a Schiff base fluorophore for Cu(II) ion sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xiaotong [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku 980-8578, Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yamaguchi, Akira [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo 2-1-1, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Frontier Research Center for Applied Atomic Sciences, Ibaraki University, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Namekawa, Manato [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku 980-8578, Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture (Japan); Kamijo, Toshio [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku 980-8578, Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture (Japan); Tsuruoka National College of Technology, Aza-Sawada, Tsuruoka 997-8511 (Japan); Teramae, Norio, E-mail: teramae@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku 980-8578, Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture (Japan); Tong, Aijun, E-mail: tongaj@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2011-06-24

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: > A hybrid mesoporous membrane (SB-HMM) functionalized by Schiff base fluorophores was fabricated. > SB-HMM showed strong fluorescence with aggregation-induced emission enhancement properties. > SB-HMM was applicable for the detection of Cu(II) in an aqueous solution with good reversibility and reproducibility. - Abstract: A Schiff base (SB) immobilized hybrid mesoporous silica membrane (SB-HMM) was prepared by immobilizing a Schiff base onto the pore surface of mesoporous silica (pore size = 3.1 nm) embedded in the pores of a porous anodic alumina membrane. In contrast to the non-fluorescent analogous SB molecule in homogeneous solutions, SB-HMM exhibited intense fluorescence due to emission enhancement caused by aggregation of SB groups on the pore surface. The high quantum efficiency of the surface SB groups allows SB-HMM to function as a fluorescent sensor for Cu(II) ions in an aqueous solution with good sensitivity, selectivity and reproducibility. Under the optimal conditions described, the linear ranges of fluorescence intensity for Cu(II) are 1.2-13.8 (M (R{sup 2} = 0.993) and 19.4-60 (R{sup 2} = 0.992) (M. The limit of detection for Cu(II) is 0.8 {mu}M on basis of the definition by IUPAC (C{sub LOD} = 3.3S{sub b}/m).

  15. Increased Uptake of Chelated Copper Ions by Lolium perenne Attributed to Amplified Membrane and Endodermal Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthea Johnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The contributions of mechanisms by which chelators influence metal translocation to plant shoot tissues are analyzed using a combination of numerical modelling and physical experiments. The model distinguishes between apoplastic and symplastic pathways of water and solute movement. It also includes the barrier effects of the endodermis and plasma membrane. Simulations are used to assess transport pathways for free and chelated metals, identifying mechanisms involved in chelate-enhanced phytoextraction. Hypothesized transport mechanisms and parameters specific to amendment treatments are estimated, with simulated results compared to experimental data. Parameter values for each amendment treatment are estimated based on literature and experimental values, and used for model calibration and simulation of amendment influences on solute transport pathways and mechanisms. Modeling indicates that chelation alters the pathways for Cu transport. For free ions, Cu transport to leaf tissue can be described using purely apoplastic or transcellular pathways. For strong chelators (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA, transport by the purely apoplastic pathway is insufficient to represent measured Cu transport to leaf tissue. Consistent with experimental observations, increased membrane permeability is required for simulating translocation in EDTA and DTPA treatments. Increasing the membrane permeability is key to enhancing phytoextraction efficiency.

  16. Hybrid flotation--membrane filtration process for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöcher, C; Dorda, J; Mavrov, V; Chmiel, H; Lazaridis, N K; Matis, K A

    2003-09-01

    A promising process for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions involves bonding the metals firstly to a special bonding agent and then separating the loaded bonding agents from the wastewater stream by separation processes. For the separation stage, a new hybrid process of flotation and membrane separation has been developed in this work by integrating specially designed submerged microfiltration modules directly into a flotation reactor. This made it possible to combine the advantages of both flotation and membrane separation while overcoming the limitations. The feasibility of this hybrid process was proven using powdered synthetic zeolites as bonding agents. Stable fluxes of up to 80l m(-2)h(-1) were achieved with the ceramic flat-sheet multi-channel membranes applied at low transmembrane pressure (copper, nickel and zinc, were reduced from initial concentrations of 474, 3.3 and 167mg x l(-1), respectively, to below 0.05 mg x l(-1), consistently meeting the discharge limits.

  17. A Novel Ion - selective Polymeric Membrane Sensor for Determining Thallium(I) With High Selectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassim, Anuar; Rezayi, Majid; Ahmadzadeh, Saeid; Yusof, Noor Azah; Tee, Tan Wee; Abdullah, Abd Halim; Rounaghi, Gholamhossein; Mohajeri, Masoomeh; Heng, Lee Yook

    2011-01-01

    Thallium is a toxic metal that introduced into the environment mainly as a waste from the production of zinc, cadmium, and lead and by combustion of coal. Thallium causes gastrointestinal irritation and nerve damage when people are exposed to it for relatively short period of time. For long term, thallium has the potential to cause the following effects: change in blood chemistry, damage to liver, kidney, intestinal and testicular tissue, and hair loss. In this work a membrane was prepared by use of 4'-nitrobenzo -18-crown-6 (4'NB18C6) as an ion carrier, polyvinylchloride (PVC) as a matrix, and diocthylphetalate (DOP) as a plasticizer for making an ion selective electrode for measurement of Tl + cation in solutions. The amount of 4'-nitrobenzo-18C6 and polyvinylchloride were optimized in the preparation of the membrane. The response of the electrode was Nernstian within the concentration range 1.0 x 10 -8 to 1.0 x 10 -1 M. This sensor displays a drift in Nernstian response for this cation with increasing the amount of ionophore and decreasing the amount of polyvinylchloride.The results of potentiometric measurements showed that, this electrode also responses to Cu 2+ Ni 2+ and Pb 2+ cations, but the electrode has a wider dynamic range and a lower detection limit to Tl + cation. The effects of various parameters such as pH, different cations interferences, effect of the amount of ionophore and polyvinylchloride and time on response of the coated ion selective electrode were investigated. Finally the constructed electrode was used in complexometric and precipitation titrations of Tl + cation with EDTA and KBr, respectively. The response of the fabricated electrode at concentration range from 1.0 x 10 -8 to 1.0 x 10 -1 M is linear with a Nernstian slope of 57.27 mV.

  18. A Novel Ion - selective Polymeric Membrane Sensor for Determining Thallium(I) With High Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Anuar; Rezayi, Majid; Ahmadzadeh, Saeid; Rounaghi, Gholamhossein; Mohajeri, Masoomeh; Azah Yusof, Noor; Tee, Tan Wee; Yook Heng, Lee; Halim Abdullah, Abd

    2011-02-01

    Thallium is a toxic metal that introduced into the environment mainly as a waste from the production of zinc, cadmium, and lead and by combustion of coal. Thallium causes gastrointestinal irritation and nerve damage when people are exposed to it for relatively short period of time. For long term, thallium has the potential to cause the following effects: change in blood chemistry, damage to liver, kidney, intestinal and testicular tissue, and hair loss. In this work a membrane was prepared by use of 4'-nitrobenzo -18-crown-6 (4'NB18C6) as an ion carrier, polyvinylchloride (PVC) as a matrix, and diocthylphetalate (DOP) as a plasticizer for making an ion selective electrode for measurement of Tl+ cation in solutions. The amount of 4'-nitrobenzo-18C6 and polyvinylchloride were optimized in the preparation of the membrane. The response of the electrode was Nernstian within the concentration range 1.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-1M. This sensor displays a drift in Nernstian response for this cation with increasing the amount of ionophore and decreasing the amount of polyvinylchloride.The results of potentiometric measurements showed that, this electrode also responses to Cu2+ Ni2+ and Pb2+ cations, but the electrode has a wider dynamic range and a lower detection limit to Tl+ cation. The effects of various parameters such as pH, different cations interferences, effect of the amount of ionophore and polyvinylchloride and time on response of the coated ion selective electrode were investigated. Finally the constructed electrode was used in complexometric and precipitation titrations of Tl+ cation with EDTA and KBr, respectively. The response of the fabricated electrode at concentration range from 1.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-1M is linear with a Nernstian slope of 57.27 mV.

  19. Preparation of Nafion 117™-SnO2 Composite Membranes using an Ion-Exchange Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Casper Frydendal; Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Skou, Eivind Morten

    2012-01-01

    Nafion 117™-SnO2 composite membranes were prepared by in-situ particle formation using an ion-exchange method. SnO2 was incorporated into Nafion 117ä membranes by ion-exchange in solutions of SnCl2 ∙2 H2O in methanol, followed by oxidation to SnO2 in air. By adjustment of the concentration of SnCl2...... ∙ 2 H2O used in the ion-exchange step, compositions ranging from 2 to 8 wt% SnO2 with SnO2 homogeneously distributed as nanoparticles were obtained. The prepared nanocomposite membranes were characterized by powder XRD, 119Sn MAS NMR spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, water uptake...

  20. A structural overview of the plasma membrane Na+,K+-ATPase and H+-ATPase ion pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morth, Jens Preben; Pedersen, Bjørn Panella; Buch-Pedersen, Morten Jeppe

    2011-01-01

    transport systems that are responsible for uptake and extrusion of metabolites and other ions. The ion gradients are also both directly and indirectly used to control pH homeostasis and to regulate cell volume. The plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase maintains a proton gradient in plants and fungi and the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase...... maintains a Na(+) and K(+) gradient in animal cells. Structural information provides insight into the function of these two distinct but related P-type pumps.......Plasma membrane ATPases are primary active transporters of cations that maintain steep concentration gradients. The ion gradients and membrane potentials derived from them form the basis for a range of essential cellular processes, in particular Na(+)-dependent and proton-dependent secondary...

  1. A structural overview of the plasma membrane Na+,K+-ATPase and H+-ATPase ion pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morth, Jens Preben; Pedersen, Bjørn Panella; Buch-Pedersen, Morten Jeppe

    2011-01-01

    transport systems that are responsible for uptake and extrusion of metabolites and other ions. The ion gradients are also both directly and indirectly used to control pH homeostasis and to regulate cell volume. The plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase maintains a proton gradient in plants and fungi and the Na......Plasma membrane ATPases are primary active transporters of cations that maintain steep concentration gradients. The ion gradients and membrane potentials derived from them form the basis for a range of essential cellular processes, in particular Na(+)-dependent and proton-dependent secondary......(+),K(+)-ATPase maintains a Na(+) and K(+) gradient in animal cells. Structural information provides insight into the function of these two distinct but related P-type pumps....

  2. Removal of Sr ions from nuclear wastes by D2EHPA+TBP based supported liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudry, M.A.; Ahmad, I.

    2000-01-01

    Sr ions removal from nuclear wastes is of great importance. /sup 90/Sr radionuclide, due to its long half-life to disintegrate into daughter products and release of radiations, resulting from fission of uranium, produce heat and is a real problem for disposal of radioactive wastes. The separation study of Sr ions from aqueous solutions is, therefore, very important in the nuclear industry. n the present article some of the work done to develop the separation technique based on coupled transport phenomenon for Sr ions is reported. Di-2-ethyl-hexyl phosphoric acid mixed with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), diluted in kerosene oil, as an organic liquid has been used as a membrane, supported in polypropylene hydrophobic films to transport Sr ions. The optimum conditions and mechanism of transport for these ions across the membrane have been described. The effect of feed complexing components i.e. tartaric acid and citric acid concentration on the flux and permeability of the Sr/sup 2+/ ions has been studied. It is shown that supported liquid membrane technique can be used as an alternate process to classical solvent extraction to remove Sr ions from nuclear industry wastes. (author)

  3. Ion-conduction mechanisms in NaSICON-type membranes for energy storage and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Anthony H. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ihlefeld, Jon F. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bartelt, Norman Charles [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Next generation metal-ion conducting membranes are key to developing energy storage and utilization technologies like batteries and fuel ce lls. Sodium super-ionic conductors (aka NaSICON) are a class of compounds with AM 1 M 2 (PO 4 ) 3 stoichiometry where the choice of "A" and "M" cation varies widely. This report, which de scribes substitutional derivatives of NZP (NaZr 2 P 3 O 12 ), summarizes the accomplishments of a Laboratory D irected Research and Development (LDRD) project to analyze transport mec hanisms using a combination of in situ studies of structure, composition, and bonding, com bined with first principles theory and modeling. We developed an experimental platform and applied methods, such as synchrotron- based X-ray spectroscopies, to probe the electronic structure of compositionally well-controlled NaSICON films while in operation ( i.e ., conducting Na ions exposed to oxygen or water va por atmospheres). First principles theory and modeling were used to interpret the experimental observations and develop an enhanced understanding of atomistic processes that give rise to, and affect, ion conduction.

  4. Li ion transport in sputter deposited LiCoO{sub 2} thin films and glassy borate membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockhoff, Tobias; Gallasch, Tobias; Schmitz, Guido [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Materialphysik, Muenster (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    LiCoO{sub 2} membranes are key components of current battery technology. We investigate sputter-deposited thin films of these materials aiming at the application in all-solid-state thin film batteries. For this, LiCoO{sub 2} films (10-200 nm) were deposited onto ITO-coated glass substrates by ion beam sputtering. In addition, a part of these films are coated by an ion-conductive membrane of Li{sub 2}O-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses in the thickness range of 50 to 300 nm. Structural, chemical and electrical properties of the layers are studied by means of TEM(EELS) and various electrical methods (cyclic voltammetry, chrono-amperometry/-potentiometry). Since the color of the LiCoO{sub 2} films changes from red-brown to grey during de-intercalation of Li and the substrate as well as the glassy membrane deposited on top are optical transparent, reversible Li de- and intercalation can be directly demonstrated and quantified by a measurement of light transmission through the layered system. Samples coated with an ion-conductive membrane reveal a characteristic delay in switching optical transparency which is due to the slower transport across the membrane. Varying the thickness of the glassy membrane, the d.c. ion-conductivity and permeation through the membrane is determined quantitatively. Using thin membranes in the range of a few tens of nanometers the critical current densities are way sufficient for battery applications.

  5. Preparation of microporous Cellulose/Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) membrane for lithium ion batteries by phase inversion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Muhammad Rehman; Zhang, Yao; Wu, Aiming; Yan, Xiaohui; Shen, Shuiyun; Ke, Changchun; Zhang, Junliang

    2018-03-01

    In this work, a porous and honeycomb-structured Cellulose/Poly (vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) membrane is prepared via a facile and ecofriendly phase inversion method by using glycerol as pore forming agent. Cellulose acetate, the source of cellulose, is easily converted into cellulose by hydrolysis in the presence of lithium hydroxide. Owing to the unique microstructure, the Cellulose/PVDF-HFP membrane offers several advantages, including high porosity, elevated electrolyte uptake, high ion conductivity, and wide electrochemical window (5.35 V). Compared with conventional polypropylene (PP) separator and PVDF-HFP membrane, the membrane developed in this work enables higher discharge capacity, higher lithium-ion transference number (0.89) and improved rate performance, which is able to maintain a high discharge capacity of 136 mAh g-1 at 8 C, using LiCoO2 as cathode and Li metal as anode. In addition, the Cellulose/PVDF-HFP membrane based batteries exhibit superior cycling performance that can maintain 91.7% capacity after 100 cycles at 0.2 C. The characterization and battery test results demonstrate that the membrane is highly compatible with lithium ion batteries.

  6. Voltammetry of ion transfer across a polarized room-temperature ionic liquid membrane facilitated by valinomycin: theoretical aspects and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmaier, Jan; Samec, Zdenek

    2009-08-01

    Cyclic voltammetry is used to investigate the transfer of alkali-metal cations, protons, and ammonium ions facilitated by the complex formation with valinomycin at the interface between an aqueous electrolyte solution and a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) membrane. The membrane is made of a thin (approximately 112 microm) microporous filter impregnated with an RTIL that is composed of tridodecylmethylammonium cations and tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate anions. An extension of the existing theory of voltammetry of ion transfer across polarized liquid membranes makes it possible to evaluate the standard ion-transfer potentials for the hydrophilic cations studied, as well as the stability constants (K(i)) of their 1:1 complexes with valinomycin, as log K(i) = 9.0 (H(+)), 11.1 (Li(+)), 12.8 (Na(+)), 17.2 (K(+)), 15.7 (Rb(+)), 15.1 (Cs(+)), and 14.7 (NH(4)(+)). These data point to the remarkably enhanced stability of the valinomycin complexes within RTIL, and to the enhanced selectivity of valinomycin for K(+) over all other univalent ions studied, compared to the conventional K(+) ion-selective liquid-membrane electrodes. Selective complex formation allows one to resolve voltammetric responses of K(+) and Na(+) in the presence of an excess of Mg(2+) or Ca(2+), which is demonstrated by determination of K(+) and Na(+) in the table and tap water samples.

  7. Noninvasive microelectrode ion flux estimation technique (MIFE) for the study of the regulation of root membrane transport by cyclic nucleotides

    KAUST Repository

    Ordoñ ez, Natalia Maria; Shabala, Lana; Gehring, Christoph A; Shabala, Sergey Nikolayevich

    2013-01-01

    Changes in ion permeability and subsequently intracellular ion concentrations play a crucial role in intracellular and intercellular communication and, as such, confer a broad array of developmental and adaptive responses in plants. These changes are mediated by the activity of plasma-membrane based transport proteins many of which are controlled by cyclic nucleotides and/or other signaling molecules. The MIFE technique for noninvasive microelectrode ion flux measuring allows concurrent quantification of net fluxes of several ions with high spatial (μm range) and temporal (ca. 5 s) resolution, making it a powerful tool to study various aspects of downstream signaling events in plant cells. This chapter details basic protocols enabling the application of the MIFE technique to study regulation of root membrane transport in general and cyclic nucleotide mediated transport in particular. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  8. Poly(vinyl chloride) membrane alkali metal ion-selective electrodes based on crystalline synthetic zeolite of the Faujasite type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghai, H.; Giahi, M.; Arvand Barmehi, M.

    2002-01-01

    Potentiometric electrodes based on the incorporation of zeolite particle in to poly (vinyl chloride) (pvc) membranes are described. The electrodes characteristics are evaluated regarding the response towards alkali ions. Pvc membranes plasticised with dibutyl phthalate and without lipophilic additives (co-exchanger) were used throughout this study. The electrode exhibits a Nernst ion response over the alkali metal cations concentration a range of 1.0x10 - 4 - 1.0 x 10 1 M with a slop of 57.0 ± 0.9 mV per decade of concentration a working ph range (3.0- 9.0) and a fast response time (≤15 c). The selective coefficients for cesium ion as test species with respect to alkaline earth, ammonium and some heavy metal ions were determined. Zeolite-PVC electrodes were applied to the determination of ionic surfactant

  9. Noninvasive microelectrode ion flux estimation technique (MIFE) for the study of the regulation of root membrane transport by cyclic nucleotides

    KAUST Repository

    Ordoñez, Natalia Maria

    2013-09-03

    Changes in ion permeability and subsequently intracellular ion concentrations play a crucial role in intracellular and intercellular communication and, as such, confer a broad array of developmental and adaptive responses in plants. These changes are mediated by the activity of plasma-membrane based transport proteins many of which are controlled by cyclic nucleotides and/or other signaling molecules. The MIFE technique for noninvasive microelectrode ion flux measuring allows concurrent quantification of net fluxes of several ions with high spatial (μm range) and temporal (ca. 5 s) resolution, making it a powerful tool to study various aspects of downstream signaling events in plant cells. This chapter details basic protocols enabling the application of the MIFE technique to study regulation of root membrane transport in general and cyclic nucleotide mediated transport in particular. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  10. Interactions between oxygen permeation and homogeneous-phase fuel conversion on the sweep side of an ion transport membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup

    2013-02-01

    The interactions between oxygen permeation and homogeneous fuel oxidation reactions on the sweep side of an ion transport membrane (ITM) are examined using a comprehensive model, which couples the dependency of the oxygen permeation rate on the membrane surface conditions and detailed chemistry and transport in the vicinity of the membrane. We assume that the membrane surface is not catalytic to hydrocarbon or syngas oxidation. Results show that increasing the sweep gas inlet temperature and fuel concentration enhances oxygen permeation substantially. This is accomplished through promoting oxidation reactions (oxygen consumption) and the transport of the products and reaction heat towards the membrane, which lowers the oxygen concentration and increases the gas temperature near the membrane. Faster reactions at higher fuel concentration and higher inlet gas temperature support substantial fuel conversion and lead to a higher oxygen permeation flux without the contribution of surface catalytic activity. Beyond a certain maximum in the fuel concentration, extensive heat loss to the membrane (and feed side) reduces the oxidation kinetic rates and limits oxygen permeation as the reaction front reaches the membrane. The sweep gas flow rate and channel height have moderate impacts on oxygen permeation and fuel conversion due to the residence time requirements for the chemical reactions and the location of the reaction zone relative to the membrane surface. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Optimization of polymeric triiodide membrane electrode based on clozapine-triiodide ion-pair using experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Khalil; Bahram, Morteza; Shokatynia, Donya; Salehiyan, Floria

    2008-07-15

    Central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were developed as experimental strategies for modeling and optimization of the influence of some variables on the performance of a new PVC membrane triiodide ion-selective electrode. This triiodide sensor is based on triiodide-clozapine ion-pair complexation. PVC, plasticizers, ion-pair amounts and pH were investigated as four variables to build a model to achieve the best Nernstian slope (59.9 mV) as response. The electrode is prepared by incorporating the ion-exchanger in PVC matrix plasticized with 2-nitrophenyl octal ether, which is directly coated on the surface of a graphite electrode. The influence of foreign ions on the electrode performance was also investigated. The optimized membranes demonstrate Nernstian response for triiodide ions over a wide linear range from 5.0 x 10(-6) to 1.0 x 10(-2)mol L(-1) with a limit of detection 2.0 x 10(-6) mol L(-1) at 25 degrees C. The electrodes could be used over a wide pH range 4-8, and have the advantages of easy to prepare, good selectivity and fast response time, long lifetime (over 3 months) and small interferences from hydrogen ion. The proposed electrode was successfully used as indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of triiodide ions and ascorbic acid.

  12. Organometallics and quaternary ammonium salts affect calcium ion desorption from lecithin liposome membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kral, T.E.; Kuczera, J.; Przestalski, S.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to compare the effects of groups of tin and lead organometallic compounds and their mixtures with amphiphilic quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) on the process of calcium ion desorption from lecithin liposome membranes, as dependent on the properties of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts of QAS. In the investigations the method of radioactive labels was applied. Synergism and antagonism in the action of both groups of compounds were found. The effectiveness of the cooperation depended more on chain length of QAS compounds than on the size and polarity of their hydrophobic parts. The most effective of all compounds studied was a the mixture of benzyldimethylammonium chloride in a mixture with tripropyltin. Since the rate of calcium desorption proved to be a good measure of efficacy of biologically active surfactants, it seems that the conclusions reached in this paper may be useful for choosing compounds which are able to decontaminate the environment polluted with heavy metals. (orig.)

  13. Laminar oxy-fuel diffusion flame supported by an oxygen-permeable-ion-transport membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup

    2013-03-01

    A numerical model with detailed gas-phase chemistry and transport was used to predict homogeneous fuel conversion processes and to capture the important features (e.g., the location, temperature, thickness and structure of a flame) of laminar oxy-fuel diffusion flames stabilized on the sweep side of an oxygen permeable ion transport membrane (ITM). We assume that the membrane surface is not catalytic to hydrocarbon or syngas oxidation. It has been demonstrated that an ITM can be used for hydrocarbon conversion with enhanced reaction selectivity such as oxy-fuel combustion for carbon capture technologies and syngas production. Within an ITM unit, the oxidizer flow rate, i.e., the oxygen permeation flux, is not a pre-determined quantity, since it depends on the oxygen partial pressures on the feed and sweep sides and the membrane temperature. Instead, it is influenced by the oxidation reactions that are also dependent on the oxygen permeation rate, the initial conditions of the sweep gas, i.e., the fuel concentration, flow rate and temperature, and the diluent. In oxy-fuel combustion applications, the sweep side is fuel-diluted with CO2, and the entire unit is preheated to achieve a high oxygen permeation flux. This study focuses on the flame structure under these conditions and specifically on the chemical effect of CO2 dilution. Results show that, when the fuel diluent is CO2, a diffusion flame with a lower temperature and a larger thickness is established in the vicinity of the membrane, in comparison with the case in which N2 is used as a diluent. Enhanced OH-driven reactions and suppressed H radical chemistry result in the formation of products with larger CO and H2O and smaller H2 concentrations. Moreover, radical concentrations are reduced due to the high CO2 fraction in the sweep gas. CO2 dilution reduces CH3 formation and slows down the formation of soot precursors, C2H2 and C2H4. The flame location impacts the species diffusion and heat transfer from the

  14. Removal of some ions from the radioactive liquid wastes by means of membrane techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Gabriela; Garganciuc, Dana; Batrinescu, Gheorghe; Popescu, Georgeta

    2000-01-01

    The radioactive wastes imply important problems in the pollution control. Contrary to the case of other liquid wastes, which are specifically treated depending on the nature of pollutants, the liquid radioactive wastes are treated as a function of their activity (high, medium or low) and not depending on the nature of radioisotopes. The paper presents the advantages of the membrane processes as comparing with the classical processes in the removal of some ions from liquid radioactive waste up to values admissible of the current standards. Two types of radioactive liquid solutions were processed namely: one solution from the decontamination of the parts of an installation and other from the decontamination of primary circuit of the nuclear power plant. The first solution was treated with ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis, the retention for radioactive and toxic elements ranging between 14 - 69% for ultrafiltration and 63 - 99% for reverse osmosis. The second solution was processed only with reverse osmosis, a retention between 64 - 98% being obtained. The tests proved that by reverse osmosis membrane process a good removal efficiency of radioactive elements from liquid waste is obtained, corresponding to the requirements imposed by the current regulations. (author)

  15. Analysis of Light-Induced Transmembrane Ion Gradients and Membrane Potential in Photosystem I Proteoliposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennisi, Cristian P.; Greenbaum, Elias; Yoshida, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Photosystem I (PSI) complexes can support a light-driven electrochemical gradient for protons, which is the driving force for energy-conserving reactions across biological membranes. In this work, a computational model that enables a quantitative description of the light-induced proton gradients across the membrane of PSI proteoliposomes is presented. Using a set of electrodiffusion equations, a compartmental model of a vesicle suspended in aqueous medium was studied. The light-mediated proton movement was modeled as a single proton pumping step with backpressure of the electric potential. The model fits determinations of pH obtained from PSI proteoliposomes illuminated in the presence of mediators of cyclic electron transport. The model also allows analysis of the proton gradients in relation to the transmembrane ion fluxes and electric potential. Sensitivity analysis enabled a determination of the parameters that have greater influence on steady-state levels and onset/decay rates of transmembrane pH and electric potential. This model could be used as a tool for optimizing PSI proteoliposomes for photo-electrochemical applications.

  16. FINAL REPORT:Observation and Simulations of Transport of Molecules and Ions Across Model Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MURAD, SOHAIL [University of Illinois at Chicago; JAMESON, CYNTHIA J [University of Illinois at Chicago

    2013-10-22

    During the this new grant we developed a robust methodology for investigating a wide range of properties of phospho-lipid bilayers. The approach developed is unique because despite using periodic boundary conditions, we can simulate an entire experiment or process in detail. For example, we can follow the entire permeation process in a lipid-membrane. This includes transport from the bulk aqueous phase to the lipid surface; permeation into the lipid; transport inside the lipid; and transport out of the lipid to the bulk aqueous phase again. We studied the transport of small gases in both the lipid itself and in model protein channels. In addition, we have examined the transport of nanocrystals through the lipid membrane, with the main goal of understanding the mechanical behavior of lipids under stress including water and ion leakage and lipid flip flop. Finally we have also examined in detail the deformation of lipids when under the influence of external fields, both mechanical and electrostatic (currently in progress). The important observations and conclusions from our studies are described in the main text of the report

  17. Customizable in situ TEM devices fabricated in freestanding membranes by focused ion beam milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Anders; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Booth, Timothy John; Homann, Lasse Vinther; Kallesoe, Christian; Sukas, Ozlem Sardan; Molhave, Kristian; Boggild, Peter; Gyrsting, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    Nano- and microelectromechanical structures for in situ operation in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) were fabricated with a turnaround time of 20 min and a resolution better than 100 nm. The structures are defined by focused ion beam (FIB) milling in 135 nm thin membranes of single crystalline silicon extending over the edge of a pre-fabricated silicon microchip. Four-terminal resistance measurements of FIB-defined nanowires showed at least two orders of magnitude increase in resistivity compared to bulk. We show that the initial high resistance is due to amorphization of silicon, and that current annealing recrystallizes the structure, causing the electrical properties to partly recover to the pristine bulk resistivity. In situ imaging of the annealing process revealed both continuous and abrupt changes in the crystal structure, accompanied by instant changes of the electrical conductivity. The membrane structures provide a simple way to design electron-transparent nanodevices with high local temperature gradients within the field of view of the TEM, allowing detailed studies of surface diffusion processes. We show two examples of heat-induced coarsening of gold on a narrow freestanding bridge, where local temperature gradients are controlled via the electrical current paths. The separation of device processing into a one-time batch-level fabrication of identical, generic membrane templates, and subsequent device-specific customization by FIB milling, provides unparalleled freedom in device layout combined with very short effective fabrication time. This approach significantly speeds up prototyping of nanodevices such as resonators, actuators, sensors and scanning probes with state-of-art resolution.

  18. Customizable in situ TEM devices fabricated in freestanding membranes by focused ion beam milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Anders; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Booth, Timothy John; Homann, Lasse Vinther; Kallesoe, Christian; Sukas, Ozlem Sardan; Molhave, Kristian; Boggild, Peter [DTU Nanotech, Department of Nano- and Microtechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Gyrsting, Yvonne, E-mail: Anders.Lei@nanotech.dtu.dk [DTU Danchip, National Center for Micro- and Nanofabrication, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2010-10-08

    Nano- and microelectromechanical structures for in situ operation in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) were fabricated with a turnaround time of 20 min and a resolution better than 100 nm. The structures are defined by focused ion beam (FIB) milling in 135 nm thin membranes of single crystalline silicon extending over the edge of a pre-fabricated silicon microchip. Four-terminal resistance measurements of FIB-defined nanowires showed at least two orders of magnitude increase in resistivity compared to bulk. We show that the initial high resistance is due to amorphization of silicon, and that current annealing recrystallizes the structure, causing the electrical properties to partly recover to the pristine bulk resistivity. In situ imaging of the annealing process revealed both continuous and abrupt changes in the crystal structure, accompanied by instant changes of the electrical conductivity. The membrane structures provide a simple way to design electron-transparent nanodevices with high local temperature gradients within the field of view of the TEM, allowing detailed studies of surface diffusion processes. We show two examples of heat-induced coarsening of gold on a narrow freestanding bridge, where local temperature gradients are controlled via the electrical current paths. The separation of device processing into a one-time batch-level fabrication of identical, generic membrane templates, and subsequent device-specific customization by FIB milling, provides unparalleled freedom in device layout combined with very short effective fabrication time. This approach significantly speeds up prototyping of nanodevices such as resonators, actuators, sensors and scanning probes with state-of-art resolution.

  19. Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based ion track membranes with different pore diameters and shapes. SEM observations and conductometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuryanthi, Nunung; Yamaki, Tetsuya; Koshikawa, Hiroshi; Asano, Masaharu; Enomoto, Kazuyuki; Sawada, Shin-ichi; Maekawa, Yasunari; Voss, Kay-Obbe; Trautmann, Christina; Neumann, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes with conical and cylindrical nanopores were prepared in a controlled manner by the ion-track technique, which involved heavy-ion beam irradiation and subsequent alkaline etching. The etching behavior mainly depended on the energy deposition of the ion beams, and thus its depth distribution, estimated by theoretical simulation, was successfully applied to control the shapes and diameters of the etched pores. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrolytic conductometry provided an insight into the critical experimental parameters. Interestingly, applying a higher voltage to the conductometry cell promoted track etching up to breakthrough probably because electrophoretic migration of the dissolved products occurred out of each pore. (author)

  20. Polystyrene Sulfonate Threaded through a Metal-Organic Framework Membrane for Fast and Selective Lithium-Ion Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi; Ying, Yulong; Mao, Yiyin; Peng, Xinsheng; Chen, Banglin

    2016-11-21

    Extraction of lithium ions from salt-lake brines is very important to produce lithium compounds. Herein, we report a new approach to construct polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) threaded HKUST-1 metal-organic framework (MOF) membranes through an in situ confinement conversion process. The resulting membrane PSS@HKUST-1-6.7, with unique anchored three-dimensional sulfonate networks, shows a very high Li + conductivity of 5.53×10 -4  S cm -1 at 25 °C, 1.89×10 -3  S cm -1 at 70 °C, and Li + flux of 6.75 mol m -2  h -1 , which are five orders higher than that of the pristine HKUST-1 membrane. Attributed to the different size sieving effects and the affinity differences of the Li + , Na + , K + , and Mg 2+ ions to the sulfonate groups, the PSS@HKUST-1-6.7 membrane exhibits ideal selectivities of 78, 99, and 10296 for Li + /Na + , Li + /K + , Li + /Mg 2+ and real binary ion selectivities of 35, 67, and 1815, respectively, the highest ever reported among ionic conductors and Li + extraction membranes. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Analyte-triggered luminescence of Eu{sup 3+} ions encapsulated in Nafion membranes -preparation of hybrid materials from in membrane chemical reactions-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Sánchez, Rocío, E-mail: raguilar@ifuap.buap.mx [Depto. Química Analítica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Zelocualtecatl-Montiel, Iván [Depto. Química Analítica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Gálvez-Vázquez, María de Jesús [Depto. Química Analítica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Instituto de Física, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apartado postal J-48, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Silva-González, Rutilo [Instituto de Física, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apartado postal J-48, Puebla 72570 (Mexico)

    2017-04-15

    The possibility to perform chemical reactions inside polymer materials opens a unique opportunity to control and prepare materials for diverse solid-state applications. Based on the affinity of Eu{sup 3+} ions for oxygen functionalities, in this work we report the luminescence enhancement of Eu{sup 3+} ions inserted in Nafion membranes (Naf/Eu{sup 3+}) by in-situ complexing to oxalate. The formation of a europium-oxalate type complex enhances Eu{sup 3+} luminescence emission, which could be exploited for the construction of devices for oxalate sensing and the fabrication of highly luminescent materials. Possible analytical applications of Naf/Eu{sup 3+} membranes were evaluated by fluorescence spectroscopy through the linear response with concentration. The complex formation was followed by infrared spectroscopy and SEM-EDS analysis. - Highlights: • Luminescence enhancement by complexation of Eu{sup 3+} ions to oxalate inside Nafion. • Performance of chemical reactions inside Nafion/polymer membranes. • An easy and novel method to prepare luminescent solid devices. • Possibility to develop luminescent sensors by analyte-triggered optical response.

  2. Rapid fabrication of microfluidic polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell in PDMS by surface patterning of perfluorinated ion-exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yong-Ak; Han, Jongyoon [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Batista, Candy [Roxbury Community College, 1234 Columbus Ave., Roxbury Crossing, MA 02120 (United States); Sarpeshkar, Rahul [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a simple and rapid fabrication method for a microfluidic polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which has become the de facto standard material in BioMEMS. Instead of integrating a Nafion sheet film between two layers of a PDMS device in a traditional ''sandwich format,'' we pattern a perfluorinated ion-exchange resin such as a Nafion resin on a glass substrate using a reversibly bonded PDMS microchannel to generate an ion-selective membrane between the fuel-cell electrodes. After this patterning step, the assembly of the microfluidic fuel cell is accomplished by simple oxygen plasma bonding between the PDMS chip and the glass substrate. In an example implementation, the planar PEM microfluidic fuel cell generates an open circuit voltage of 600-800 mV and delivers a maximum current output of nearly 4 {mu}A. To enhance the power output of the fuel cell we utilize self-assembled colloidal arrays as a support matrix for the Nafion resin. Such arrays allow us to increase the thickness of the ion-selective membrane to 20 {mu}m and increase the current output by 166%. Our novel fabrication method enables rapid prototyping of microfluidic fuel cells to study various ion-exchange resins for the polymer electrolyte membrane. Our work will facilitate the development of miniature, implantable, on-chip power sources for biomedical applications. (author)

  3. Methods for using novel cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Allan J.; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2016-01-12

    Methods using novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials operating at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes include oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  4. Cyclic voltammetry of ion transfer across a room temperature ionic liquid membrane supported by a microporous filter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langmaier, Jan; Samec, Zdeněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 9 (2007), s. 2633-2638 ISSN 1388-2481 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400704 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : room-temperature ionic membrane * cyclic voltammetry * standard Gibbs energy of ion transfer * linear Gibbs energy relationship Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.186, year: 2007

  5. Effect of the Phase Volume Ratio on the Potential of a Liquid-Membrane Ion-Selective Electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samec, Zdeněk; Girault, H. H.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 14 (2004), s. 4150-4155 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : liquit-membrane * ion-selective electrode * two.phase liquid system Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 5.450, year: 2004

  6. Determination of the free ion concentration of trace metals in soil solution using a soil column Donnan membrane technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weng, L.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2001-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the free metal ion is difficult, especially for trace metals present in very small concentrations (less than micromolar) in natural systems. The recently developed Donnan membrane technique can measure the concentrations in solution in the presence of inorganic and organic

  7. Dynamic filtration and static adsorption of lead ions in aqueous solution by use of blended polysulfone membranes with nano size MCM-41 particles coated by polyaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toosi, Mohammad Reza; Emami, Mohammad Reza Sarmasti; Hajian, Sudeh

    2018-05-11

    MCM-41 mesopore was prepared by hydrothermal method and used for synthesis of polyaniline/MCM-41 nanocomposite via in situ polymerization. The nanocomposite was blended with polysulfone to prepare mixed matrix membrane in different content of nanocomposite by phase inversion method. Structural and surface properties of the samples were characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, AFM, TGA, BET, and zeta potential measurements. Effect of the nanocomposite content on the hydrophilicity, porosity, and permeability of the membrane was determined. Membrane performance was evaluated for removal of lead ions in dynamic filtration and static adsorption. The membranes were found as effective adsorptive filters for removal of lead ions via interactions between active sites of nanocomposite in membrane structure and lead ions during filtration. Results of batch experiments proved adsorptive mechanism of membranes for removal of lead ions with the maximum adsorption capacity of 19.6 mg/g.

  8. Application of acidogenic fixed-bed reactor prior to anaerobic membrane bioreactor for sustainable slaughterhouse wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddoud, Ahlem; Sayadi, Sami

    2007-11-19

    High rate anaerobic treatment systems such as anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AMBR) are less popular for slaughterhouse wastewater due to the presence of high fat oil and suspended matters in the effluent. This affects the performance and efficiency of the treatment system. In this work, AMBR has been tried for slaughterhouse wastewater treatment. After the start up period, the reactor was operated with an average organic loading rate (OLR) of 4.37 kg TCODm(-3)d(-1) with gradual increase to an average of 13.27 kg TCODm(-3)d(-1). At stable conditions, the treatment efficiency was high with an average COD and BOD(5) reduction of 93.7 and 93.96%, respectively. However, a reduction in the AMBR performance was shown with the increase of the OLR to 16.32 kg TCODm(-3)d(-1). The removal efficiencies of SCOD and BOD(5) were drastically decreased to below 53.6 and 73.3%, respectively. The decrease of the AMBR performance was due to the accumulation of VFAs. Thus, a new integrated system composed of a FBR for the acidogenesis step followed by the AMBR for methanogenesis step was developed. At high ORL, the integrated system improved the performance of the anaerobic digestion and it successfully overcame the VFA accumulation problem in the AMBR. The anaerobic treatment led to a total removal of all tested pathogens. Thus, the microbiological quality of treated wastewater fits largely with WHO guidelines.

  9. Application of acidogenic fixed-bed reactor prior to anaerobic membrane bioreactor for sustainable slaughterhouse wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saddoud, Ahlem; Sayadi, Sami

    2007-01-01

    High rate anaerobic treatment systems such as anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AMBR) are less popular for slaughterhouse wastewater due to the presence of high fat oil and suspended matters in the effluent. This affects the performance and efficiency of the treatment system. In this work, AMBR has been tried for slaughterhouse wastewater treatment. After the start up period, the reactor was operated with an average organic loading rate (OLR) of 4.37 kg TCOD m -3 d -1 with gradual increase to an average of 13.27 kg TCOD m -3 d -1 . At stable conditions, the treatment efficiency was high with an average COD and BOD 5 reduction of 93.7 and 93.96%, respectively. However, a reduction in the AMBR performance was shown with the increase of the OLR to 16.32 kg TCOD m -3 d -1 . The removal efficiencies of SCOD and BOD 5 were drastically decreased to below 53.6 and 73.3%, respectively. The decrease of the AMBR performance was due to the accumulation of VFAs. Thus, a new integrated system composed of a FBR for the acidogenesis step followed by the AMBR for methanogenesis step was developed. At high ORL, the integrated system improved the performance of the anaerobic digestion and it successfully overcame the VFA accumulation problem in the AMBR. The anaerobic treatment led to a total removal of all tested pathogens. Thus, the microbiological quality of treated wastewater fits largely with WHO guidelines

  10. A Novel Ion - selective Polymeric Membrane Sensor for Determining Thallium(I) With High Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassim, Anuar; Rezayi, Majid; Ahmadzadeh, Saeid; Yusof, Noor Azah; Tee, Tan Wee; Abdullah, Abd Halim [Department of Chemistry Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rounaghi, Gholamhossein; Mohajeri, Masoomeh [Department of Chemistry, Factuality of Sciences, Islamic Azad University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Heng, Lee Yook, E-mail: anuar@science.upm.edu.my [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Thallium is a toxic metal that introduced into the environment mainly as a waste from the production of zinc, cadmium, and lead and by combustion of coal. Thallium causes gastrointestinal irritation and nerve damage when people are exposed to it for relatively short period of time. For long term, thallium has the potential to cause the following effects: change in blood chemistry, damage to liver, kidney, intestinal and testicular tissue, and hair loss. In this work a membrane was prepared by use of 4'-nitrobenzo -18-crown-6 (4'NB18C6) as an ion carrier, polyvinylchloride (PVC) as a matrix, and diocthylphetalate (DOP) as a plasticizer for making an ion selective electrode for measurement of Tl{sup +} cation in solutions. The amount of 4'-nitrobenzo-18C6 and polyvinylchloride were optimized in the preparation of the membrane. The response of the electrode was Nernstian within the concentration range 1.0 x 10{sup -8} to 1.0 x 10{sup -1}M. This sensor displays a drift in Nernstian response for this cation with increasing the amount of ionophore and decreasing the amount of polyvinylchloride.The results of potentiometric measurements showed that, this electrode also responses to Cu{sup 2+} Ni{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} cations, but the electrode has a wider dynamic range and a lower detection limit to Tl{sup +} cation. The effects of various parameters such as pH, different cations interferences, effect of the amount of ionophore and polyvinylchloride and time on response of the coated ion selective electrode were investigated. Finally the constructed electrode was used in complexometric and precipitation titrations of Tl{sup +} cation with EDTA and KBr, respectively. The response of the fabricated electrode at concentration range from 1.0 x 10{sup -8} to 1.0 x 10{sup -1}M is linear with a Nernstian slope of 57.27 mV.

  11. Polydopamine-mediated surface functionalization of electrospun nanofibrous membranes: Preparation, characterization and their adsorption properties towards heavy metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chunlin; Wang, Heyun; Wei, Zhong; Li, Chuan; Luo, Zhidong

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A simple and versatile approach to produce PEI-functionalized nanofibers. • Novel PEI-functionalized PVC nanofibrous membrane was prepared. • Adsorption of PVC@PDA and PVC@PDA-PEI nanofibrous membranes for Cu 2+ was tested. • Isotherms, kinetic model and thermodynamic parameters were investigated. • Adsorption mechanism of Cu 2+ on modified membranes was inferred. - Abstract: In this paper, a simple and versatile approach for the fabrication of a polyethyleneimine (PEI)-functionalized nanofibrous membrane utilizing polydopamine (PDA) as a mediator is proposed. The morphology and structure of the PDA-coated and PEI-grafted nanofibrous membranes were confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Due to a large specific surface area and long fibrous morphology, the synthesized membranes were used as novel adsorbents for copper ion (Cu 2+ ) removal from aqueous solutions. The adsorption of Cu 2+ was investigated on the synthesized membranes regarding the membrane dosages, initial solution pH values, initial solution concentrations, contact times and temperatures. In addition, the adsorption equilibrium data of PEI-grafted membranes were well fitted with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and a maximum adsorption capacity value of 33.59 mg g −1 was determined (while it was 21.94 mg g −1 for the PDA-coated membranes). The thermodynamic parameters indicated that Cu 2+ absorption was a spontaneous and exothermic adsorption process. In addition, XPS peak differentiation imitating analysis permitted the proposal of a copper-amine coordination adsorption mechanism that can be used to explain changes in the adsorption properties compared to PDA coating nanofibrous membranes

  12. Adsorbents/ion exchangers-PVA blend membranes: Preparation, characterization and performance for the removal of Zn2+ by electrodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprarescu, Simona; Radu, Anita-Laura; Purcar, Violeta; Ianchis, Raluca; Sarbu, Andrei; Ghiurea, Marius; Nicolae, Cristian; Modrogan, Cristina; Vaireanu, Danut-Ionel; Périchaud, Alain; Ebrasu, Daniela-Ion

    2015-02-01

    The present paper was aimed at studying the possibility of zinc (Zn) removal from the wastewater discharged from zinc electroplating processes. In order to save industrial and environmental resources, the concentrated solution could be reused after electrodialysis process. A mini-electrodialysis system with three cylindrical compartments and different membranes containing various resins (Purolite A500 and Hypersol-Macronet MN500) was employed, which can be further applied for the treatment of synthetic effluent which contained zinc ions. The electrodialysis system was operated at constant voltage using different concentrations of synthetic solutions of zinc ions, without and with electrolyte recirculation for 1.5 h. The pH and conductivity of solutions were measured before and after the electrodialysis process occurs. Also the removal ratio (Rr) and mass flow (J) of zinc ions, energy consumption (EC) and current efficiency (CE) were determined. It was found that electrodialysis treatment generated a very low conductivity solution, enabling its reuse as rinse water. According to the obtained results when using a membrane pair with higher ion exchange capacity (IEC) the removal ratio is improved (over 80%). The physico-chemical, structural and mechanical properties of prepared membranes were registered, before and after electrodialysis process takes place, by means of complementary analytical techniques, namely, ion-exchange capacity, water content and thickness measurements. Furthermore analysis were also carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).

  13. Synthesis and characterization of ionic liquid (EMImBF{sub 4})/Li{sup +} - chitosan membranes for ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasaribu, Marvin H., E-mail: marvin-shady88@yahoo.com; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id; Wahyuningrum, Deana, E-mail: deana@chem.itb.ac.id [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, InstitutTeknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Lithium ion battery has been currently developed and produced because it has a longer life time, high energycapacity, and the efficient use of lithium ion battery that is suitable for storing electrical energy. However, this battery has some drawbacks such as use liquid electrolytes that are prone to leakage and flammability during the battery charging process in high temperature. In this study, an ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMImBF4) containing Li{sup +} ions was synthesized and combined with chitosan polymer host as a polymer electrolyte membrane for lithium-ion batteries to solve this problems. This ionic liquid was obtained from the anion metathesis reaction between EMImBr and LiBF4 salt, while EMImBr was synthesized from the reaction between 1-methylimidazole and ethyl bromide utilizing Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS) method. The ionic liquid obtained was characterized by microstructure analysis with using NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The polymer electrolyte membrane was characterized by analysis functional groups (FTIR), ionic conductivity (EIS), and surface morphology (SEM). The analysis results of ion conductivity by the EIS method showed the increase the ionic conductivity value of membranes from 1.30 × 10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} for chitosan to 1.30 × 10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} for chitosan with EMImBF4/Li{sup +}, and this result was supported by analysis the surface morphology (SEM)

  14. Application of acidogenic fixed-bed reactor prior to anaerobic membrane bioreactor for sustainable slaughterhouse wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saddoud, Ahlem [Laboratoire des Bio-procedes, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, BP: K, Sfax 3038 (Tunisia); Sayadi, Sami [Laboratoire des Bio-procedes, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, BP: K, Sfax 3038 (Tunisia)], E-mail: sami.sayadi@cbs.rnrt.tn

    2007-11-19

    High rate anaerobic treatment systems such as anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AMBR) are less popular for slaughterhouse wastewater due to the presence of high fat oil and suspended matters in the effluent. This affects the performance and efficiency of the treatment system. In this work, AMBR has been tried for slaughterhouse wastewater treatment. After the start up period, the reactor was operated with an average organic loading rate (OLR) of 4.37 kg TCOD m{sup -3} d{sup -1} with gradual increase to an average of 13.27 kg TCOD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. At stable conditions, the treatment efficiency was high with an average COD and BOD{sub 5} reduction of 93.7 and 93.96%, respectively. However, a reduction in the AMBR performance was shown with the increase of the OLR to 16.32 kg TCOD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. The removal efficiencies of SCOD and BOD{sub 5} were drastically decreased to below 53.6 and 73.3%, respectively. The decrease of the AMBR performance was due to the accumulation of VFAs. Thus, a new integrated system composed of a FBR for the acidogenesis step followed by the AMBR for methanogenesis step was developed. At high ORL, the integrated system improved the performance of the anaerobic digestion and it successfully overcame the VFA accumulation problem in the AMBR. The anaerobic treatment led to a total removal of all tested pathogens. Thus, the microbiological quality of treated wastewater fits largely with WHO guidelines.

  15. Complexation induced phase separation: preparation of composite membranes with a nanometer thin dense skin loaded with metal ions

    KAUST Repository

    Villalobos Vazquez de la Parra, Luis Francisco

    2015-04-21

    We present the development of a facile phase-inversion method for forming asymmetric membranes with a precise high metal ion loading capacity in only the dense layer. The approach combines the use of macromolecule-metal intermolecular complexes to form the dense layer of asymmetric membranes with nonsolvent-induced phase separation to form the porous support. This allows the independent optimization of both the dense layer and porous support while maintaining the simplicity of a phase-inversion process. Moreover, it facilitates control over (i) the thickness of the dense layer throughout several orders of magnitude—from less than 15 nm to more than 6 μm, (ii) the type and amount of metal ions loaded in the dense layer, (iii) the morphology of the membrane surface, and (iv) the porosity and structure of the support. This simple and scalable process provides a new platform for building multifunctional membranes with a high loading of well-dispersed metal ions in the dense layer.

  16. Complexation induced phase separation: preparation of composite membranes with a nanometer thin dense skin loaded with metal ions

    KAUST Repository

    Villalobos Vazquez de la Parra, Luis Francisco; Karunakaran, Madhavan; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2015-01-01

    We present the development of a facile phase-inversion method for forming asymmetric membranes with a precise high metal ion loading capacity in only the dense layer. The approach combines the use of macromolecule-metal intermolecular complexes to form the dense layer of asymmetric membranes with nonsolvent-induced phase separation to form the porous support. This allows the independent optimization of both the dense layer and porous support while maintaining the simplicity of a phase-inversion process. Moreover, it facilitates control over (i) the thickness of the dense layer throughout several orders of magnitude—from less than 15 nm to more than 6 μm, (ii) the type and amount of metal ions loaded in the dense layer, (iii) the morphology of the membrane surface, and (iv) the porosity and structure of the support. This simple and scalable process provides a new platform for building multifunctional membranes with a high loading of well-dispersed metal ions in the dense layer.

  17. Preparation of silica nanocomposite anion-exchange membranes with low vanadium-ion crossover for vanadium redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.K.; Xu, Q.; Zhao, T.S.; Zeng, L.; Zhang, C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The permeability of vanadium ions through the silica nanocomposite AEM (SNAEM) is ten times lower than that for Nafion 115. • The rates of self-discharge and capacity fading of the VRFB are substantially reduced with the use of the SNAEM. • The Coulombic and energy efficiencies are as high as 92% and 73%, respectively, at 40 mA cm −2 . -- Abstract: Crossover of vanadium ions through the membranes of all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB) is an issue that limits the performance of this type of flow battery. This paper reports on the preparation of a sol–gel derived silica nanocomposite anion exchange membrane (AEM) for VRFBs. The EDS and FT-IR characterizations confirm the presence and the uniformity of the silica nanoparticles formed in the membrane via an in situ sol–gel process. The properties of the obtained membrane, including the ion-exchange capacity, the area resistance, and the water uptake, are evaluated and compared to the pristine AEM and the Nafion cation exchange membrane (CEM). The experimental results show that the permeability of the vanadium ions through the silica nanocomposite AEM is about 20% lower than that of the pristine AEM, and one order of magnitude lower than that of the Nafion CEM. As a result, the rates of self-discharge and the capacity fading of the VRFB are substantially reduced. The Coulombic and energy efficiencies at a current density of 40 mA cm −2 are, respectively, as high as 92% and 73%

  18. Amphoteric Ion-Exchange Membranes with Significantly Improved Vanadium Barrier Properties for All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibel, Olga; Rojek, Tomasz; Schmidt, Thomas J; Gubler, Lorenz

    2017-07-10

    All-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs) have attracted considerable interest as promising energy-storage devices that can allow the efficient utilization of renewable energy sources. The membrane, which separates the porous electrodes in a redox flow cell, is one of the key components in VRBs. High rates of crossover of vanadium ions and water through the membrane impair the efficiency and capacity of a VRB. Thus, membranes with low permeation rate of vanadium species and water are required, also characterized by low resistance and stability in the VRB environment. Here, we present a new design concept for amphoteric ion-exchange membranes, based on radiation-induced grafting of vinylpyridine into an ethylene tetrafluoroethylene base film and a two-step functionalization to introduce cationic and anionic exchange sites, respectively. During long-term cycling, redox flow cells containing these membranes showed higher efficiency, less pronounced electrolyte imbalance, and significantly reduced capacity decay compared to the cells with the benchmark material Nafion 117. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Coordination kinetics of different metal ions with the amidoximated polyacrylonitrile nanofibrous membranes and catalytic behaviors of their complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fu; Dong, Yong Chun; Kang, Wei Min; Cheng, Bowen; Qu, Xiang; Cui, Guixin [School of Textiles, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin (China)

    2016-12-15

    Two transition metal ions (Fe{sup 3+} and Cu{sup 2+}) and a rare earth metal ion (Ce{sup 3+}) were selected to coordinate with amidoximated polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous membrane for preparing three metal modified PAN nanofibrous membrane complexes (M-AO-n-PANs, M = Fe, Cu, or Ce) as the heterogeneous Fenton catalysts for the dye degradation in water under visible irradiation. The coordination kinetics of three metal ions with modified PAN nanofibrous membranes was studied and the catalytic properties of the resulting complexes were also compared. The results indicated that increasing metal ion concentrations in solution or higher coordination temperature led to a significant increase in metal content, particularly in Fe and Cu contents of the complexes. Their coordination process could be described using Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic equations. Moreover, Fe-AO-n-PAN had the best photocatalytic efficiency for the dye degradation in acidic medium, but a lower photocatalytic activity than Cu-AO-n-PAN in alkali medium.

  20. Characteristics of separation of carnitine and metal ions in cheese whey model solution by loose reverse osmosis membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.; Echizen, H.; Xing, X.; Yamamoto, S.; Unno, H. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-20

    Aiming at recovering carnitine from cheese whey by using loose reverse osmosis membranes, rejection characteristics of several components in the whey were examined by using model solutions. An electroneutral membrane was found to be most effective for the separation. The rejection of carnitine was above 0.95 independent of the pH of solutions, while monovalent metal ions showed low rejections of 0.1-0.3. On the other hand, the rejections of divalent metal ions deceased with increase of the pH, and reached a minimum of about 0.5. As a result, mono-and divalent metal ions could be removed simultaneously by adjusting the pH of the feed solutions. To clarify the effect of pH on the rejection the permeate of MgCl2 aqueous solution was examined. The rejections of MgCl2 were greatly affected by the pH and showed the same tendency as the mixed station. The effect of the pH on permeation of electrolyte was considered to be caused mainly by the adsorption of ions on the membrane. 16 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Thermo- and pH-responsive poly(A-ProOMe)-graft-poly(AAc) membrane for selective separation of metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Shin; Maekawa, Yasunari; Yoshida, Masaru; Ohashi, Hitoshi; Katakai, Ryoichi

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the permeation behavior of Li, Co, and Ni ions through thermo- and pH-responsive gel membranes, which were prepared by γ-ray grafting of pH-responsive poly(acrylic acid) (poly(AAc)) onto a thermo-responsive polymer gel of acryloyl-L-proline methyl ester (A-ProOMe). Using 15% AAc grafted membranes, the permeation constants of Li ions are 2.8 and 3.5 times higher than those of Co and Ni ions in a pH 6.0 buffer solution at 30degC. These ratios are two and three times higher than those of 5 and 43% grafted gel membranes, respectively. By comparison with the permeation of metal ions through the non-thermo-responsive porous polyethylene membranes grafted with AAc chains or random copolymer gel membranes (poly(A-ProOMe-co-AAc)), it is clear that the structure in which adjacent carboxyl groups of poly(AAc) are surrounded by thermo-responsive A-ProOMe matrix causes selective permeability of Li ion over Co and Ni ions. The distributions of Co and Ni ions in the microscopic structures clearly show that the structure consisting of flexible chains of the carboxyl groups grafted onto the thermo-response gel membrane plays a decisive role in the superior selective permeation of a Li ion. (author)

  2. A complicated complex: Ion channels, voltage sensing, cell membranes and peptide inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Alan H; Sharma, Gagan; Undheim, Eivind A B; Jia, Xinying; Mobli, Mehdi

    2018-04-21

    Voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs) are specialised ion channels that have a voltage dependent mode of action, where ion conduction, or gating, is controlled by a voltage-sensing mechanism. VGICs are critical for electrical signalling and are therefore important pharmacological targets. Among these, voltage-gated sodium channels (Na V s) have attracted particular attention as potential analgesic targets. Na V s, however, comprise several structurally similar subtypes with unique localisations and distinct functions, ranging from amplification of action potentials in nociception (e.g. Na V 1.7) to controlling electrical signalling in cardiac function (Na V 1.5). Understanding the structural basis of Na V function is therefore of great significance, both to our knowledge of electrical signalling and in development of subtype and state selective drugs. An important tool in this pursuit has been the use of peptides from animal venoms as selective Na V modulators. In this review, we look at peptides, particularly from spider venoms, that inhibit Na V s by binding to the voltage sensing domain (VSD) of this channel, known as gating modifier toxins (GMT). In the first part of the review, we look at the structural determinants of voltage sensing in VGICs, the gating cycle and the conformational changes that accompany VSD movement. Next, the modulation of the analgesic target Na V 1.7 by GMTs is reviewed to develop bioinformatic tools that, based on sequence information alone, can identify toxins that are likely to inhibit this channel. The same approach is also used to define VSD sequences, other than that from Na V 1.7, which are likely to be sensitive to this class of toxins. The final section of the review focuses on the important role of the cellular membrane in channel modulation and also how the lipid composition affects measurements of peptide-channel interactions both in binding kinetics measurements in solution and in cell-based functional assays. Copyright © 2018

  3. A polymeric membrane ion selective electrode based on organic-inorganic composite ion exchanger for the determination of thorium(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Agarwal, Himanshu; Chandan Kumar, Singh; Sindhu, Susheel Kumar; Pankaj Kumar

    2005-01-01

    A poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrode based on organic- inorganic composite ion exchanger, tin(IV) tungstoselenate-pyridine, has been prepared and tested for the selective determination of thorium(IV) ions. The PVC membrane electrode comprising 16% composite ion exchanger as the electroactive phase, 50% o-dioctyl phthalate as plasticizer, 4% tetraphenyl borate as anionic excluder and 30% poly(vinylchloride) displays a linear response to thorium(IV) ions over a wide concentration range of 1.0 x 10 -1 -8.0 x 10 -6 M with a Nernstain slope of 14.2 mV/ decade. The electrode shows a very short response time (∼15 s) and may be used in the pH range 2.5-9.0. The selectivity coefficient for alkali, alkaline earth and transition is smaller than 4.0 x 10 -4 . The sensor has been successfully used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Th 4+ with EDTA as well as also for the determination of Th 4+ in the binary mixtures. (author)

  4. Helium Ion Microscopy of proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrode structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Chiriaev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of composite materials with microscopy techniques is an essential route to understanding their properties and degradation mechanisms, though the observation with a suitable type of microscopy is not always possible. In this work, we present proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrode interface structure dependence on ionomer content, systematically studied by Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM. A special focus was on acquiring high resolution images of the electrode structure and avoiding interface damage from irradiation and tedious sample preparation. HIM demonstrated its advantages in surface imaging, which is paramount in studies of the interface morphology of ionomer covered or absorbed catalyst structures in a combination with electrochemical characterization and accelerated stress test. The electrode porosity was found to depend on the ionomer content. The stressed electrodes demonstrated higher porosity in comparison to the unstressed ones on the condition of no external mechanical pressure. Moreover, formation of additional small grains was observed for the electrodes with the low ionomer content, indicating Pt redeposition through Ostwald ripening. Polymer nanofiber structures were found in the crack regions of the catalyst layer, which appear due to the internal stress originated from the solvent evaporation. These fibers have fairly uniform diameters of a few tens of nanometers, and their density increases with the increasing ionomer content in the electrodes. In the hot-pressed electrodes, we found more closed contact between the electrode components, reduced particle size, polymer coalescence and formation of nano-sized polymer fiber architecture between the particles.

  5. Fouling on ion-exchange membranes: Classification, characterization and strategies of prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylin, Sergey; Bazinet, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    The environmentally friendly ion-exchange membrane (IEM) processes find more and more applications in the modern industries in order to demineralize, concentrate and modify products. Moreover, these processes may be applied for the energy conversion and storage. However, the main drawback of the IEM processes is a formation of fouling, which significantly decreases the process efficiency and increases the process cost. The present review is dedicated to the problematic of IEM fouling phenomena. Firstly, the major types of IEM fouling such as colloidal fouling, organic fouling, scaling and biofouling are discussed along with consideration of the main factors affecting fouling formation and development. Secondly, the review of the possible methods of IEM fouling characterization is provided. This section includes the methods of fouling visualization and characterization as well as methods allowing investigations of characteristics of the fouled IEMs. Eventually, the reader will find the conventional and modern strategies of prevention and control of different fouling types. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrochemical analysis of ion-exchange membranes with respect to a possible use in electrodialytic decontamination of soil polluted with heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Laursen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    Transport numbers in different metal chloride solutions were estimated using the emf method for two ion-exchange membranes: Ionics CR67 HMR412 (cation-exchange membrane) and Ionics AR204 SXRA 7639 (anion-exchange membrane). The cation-exchange membrane was found to work nearly ideally for Na...... experiments taken as a simplified simulation of the electrokinetic decontamination method showed that it was possible to remove all ions in the simulated soil volume, with a sharp increase in the potential difference over the soil volume as a result, and that it was possible to control the metal content...

  7. Earliest Results in the Use of Activated Composite Membranes for the Transport of Silver Ions from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucundo Mendoza-Tolentino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results concerning the first use of activated composite membranes (ACMs for the facilitated transport of silver ions containing di-(2-ethylhexyl-dithiophosphoric acid (DTPA as the carrier. DTPA was immobilized by interfacial polymerization in a dense layer that was deposited in a porous layer, which was prepared on a nonwoven fabric support by phase inversion. The influence of fundamental parameters affecting the transport of silver ion as the carrier concentration in the membrane phase and stripping agent variation of the stripping solution have been studied. In the optimal conditions, the amount of silver transported across the ACMs was greater than 50%, whereas if the content of the carrier is modified, more than the 90% of the initial silver is removed from the feed phase.

  8. Molecular model of a cell plasma membrane with an asymmetric multicomponent composition: Water permeation and ion effects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Robert; Berkowitz, M. L.; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 11 (2009), s. 4493-4501 ISSN 0006-3495 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD203/05/H001; GA ČR GA203/08/0114 Grant - others:NSF(US) MCB-0615469 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : membrane * ions * molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.390, year: 2009

  9. Determination of cerium ion by polymeric membrane and coated graphite electrode based on novel pendant armed macrocycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ashok K.; Singh, Prerna

    2010-01-01

    Plasticized membranes using 2,3,4:12,13,14-dipyridine-1,3,5,8,11,13,15,18-octaazacycloicosa-2,12-diene (L 1 ) and 2,3,4:12,13,14-dipyridine-1,5,8,11,15,18-hexamethylacrylate- 1,3,5,8,11,13,15,18-octaazacycloicosa-2,12-diene (L 2 ) have been prepared and explored as Ce(III) selective sensors. Effect of various plasticizers viz. dibutylphthalate (DBP), tri-n-butylphthalate (TBP), o-nitrophenyloctylether (o-NPOE), dioctylphthalate (DOP), benzylacetate (BA) and anion excluders, sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) and potassium tetrakis p-(chlorophenyl) borate was studied in detail and improved performance was observed. Optimum performance was observed for the membrane sensor having a composition of L 2 :PVC:o-NPOE:KTpClPB in the ratio of 6:34:58:2 (w/w, mg). The performance of the membrane based on L 2 was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) as well as with coated graphite electrode (CGE). The electrodes exhibit Nernstian slope for Ce(III) ions with limits of detection of 8.3 x 10 -8 mol L -1 for PME and 7.7 x 10 -9 mol L -1 for CGE. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 12 s and 10 s respectively. The potentiometric responses are independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 3.5-7.5 for PME and 2.5-8.5 for CGE. The CGE could be used for a period of 5 months. The practical utility of the CGE has been demonstrated by its usage as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of oxalate and fluoride ions with Ce(III) solution. The proposed electrode was also successfully applied to the determination of fluoride ions in mouthwash solution and oxalate ions in real samples.

  10. Heterogeneous ion-exchange polyethylene-based membranes with sulfonated poly(1,4-phenylene sulfide) particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schauer, Jan; Brožová, Libuše; Pientka, Zbyněk; Bouzek, K.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 200, 1-3 (2006), s. 632-633 ISSN 0011-9164. [Conference Euromembrane. Giardini Naxos - Taormina, 24.09.2006-28.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0080 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : ion-exchange membrane * poly(phenylene sulfide) * fuel cell Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.917, year: 2006

  11. H+ and Na+ Ion Transport Properties of Sulfonated Poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenyleneoxide)Membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bouzek, K.; Moravcová, S.; Samec, Zdeněk; Schauer, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 150, č. 6 (2003), s. E329-E336 ISSN 0013-4651 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/99/0575; GA ČR GA104/02/0664 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913; CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : H+ and Na+ ion * sulfonated * membranes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.361, year: 2003

  12. Development of ion exchanging membranes synthesized by means of radiation grafting coplolymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jie; Xu Yunshu; Huang Wei

    2006-01-01

    Separation material is an important type of functional materials. In this paper, the development of cation- exchange membranes was reviewed, the synthesis of fluoropolymer based sulfonic acid type membranes and other polymers based cation-exchange membranes were selectively introduced. (authors)

  13. Ethylenediamine-functionalized graphene oxide incorporated acid-base ion exchange membranes for vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shuai; Li, Dan; Wang, Lihua; Yang, Haijun; Han, Xutong; Liu, Biqian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ethylenediamine functionalized graphene oxide. • Layered structure of functionalized graphene oxide block vanadium ions crossover. • Protonated N-containing groups suppress vanadium ions permeation. • Ion transport channels are narrowed by electrostatic interactions. • Vanadium crossover decreased due to enhanced Donnan effect and special structure. - Abstract: As a promising large-scale energy storage battery, vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is urgently needed to develop cost-effective membranes with excellent performance. Novel acid-base ion exchange membranes (IEMs) are fabricated based on sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) matrix and modified graphene oxide (GO) by solution blending. N-based functionalized graphene oxide (GO-NH 2 ) is fabricated by grafting ethylenediamine onto the edge of GO via a facile method. On one hand, the impermeable layered structures effectively block ion transport pathway to restrain vanadium ions crossover. On the other hand, acid-base pairs form between −SO 3 − groups and N-based groups on the edge of GO nanosheets, which not only suppress vanadium ions contamination but also provide a narrow pathway for proton migration. The structure is beneficial for achieving an intrinsic balance between conductivity and permeability. By altering amounts of GO-NH 2 , a sequence of acid-base IEMs are characterized in detail. The single cells assembled with acid-base IEMs show self-discharge time for 160 h, capacity retention 92% after 100 cycle, coulombic efficiency 97.2% and energy efficiency 89.5%. All data indicate that acid-base IEMs have promising prospects for VRFB applications.

  14. Radiation syntheses and characteristics of PTFE-g-PSSA ion exchange membranes for applications in vanadium redox battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Jinfen; Qiu Jinyi; Zhai Maolin; Xu Peng; Peng Jing; Li Jiuqiang; Wei Genshuan

    2006-01-01

    Radiation-induced grafting of styrene onto polyterafluorothylene (PTFE) films was studied by simultaneous irradiation technique. The grafting was induced by 60 Co γ-rays at room temperatures. Effects of the solvent, absorbed dose, dose rate, atmosphere and initial monomer concentration on the grafting yield were investigated and optimal grafting conditions were obtained. Subsequently, sulphonation of the grafted PTFE films (PTFE-g-PS) was investigated and a series of ion exchange membranes (PTFE-g-PSSA) was prepared. FTIR, TGA, XRD and SEM measurements showed that grafting and sulfonation of the PTFE films were successfully carried out; moreover, grafting of styrene mainly occurred in the pores of PTFE films and crystallization degree of the PTFE films decreased with increase grafting yield. Water uptake, ion exchange capacity (IEC) and conductivity of the PTFE-g-PSSA membrane increased with the grafting yield. The results indicated that by 20 kGy irradiation, ion exchange membrane which was suitable for vanadium redox battery can be prepared. (authors)

  15. Energy efficient reconcentration of diluted human urine using ion exchange membranes in bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Ryan C; Kim, Younggy

    2014-11-01

    Nutrients can be recovered from source separated human urine; however, nutrient reconcentration (i.e., volume reduction of collected urine) requires energy-intensive treatment processes, making it practically difficult to utilize human urine. In this study, energy-efficient nutrient reconcentration was demonstrated using ion exchange membranes (IEMs) in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) where substrate oxidation at the MEC anode provides energy for the separation of nutrient ions (e.g., NH4(+), HPO4(2-)). The rate of nutrient separation was magnified with increasing number of IEM pairs and electric voltage application (Eap). Ammonia and phosphate were reconcentrated from diluted human urine by a factor of up to 4.5 and 3.0, respectively (Eap = 1.2 V; 3-IEM pairs). The concentrating factor increased with increasing degrees of volume reduction, but it remained stationary when the volume ratio between the diluate (urine solution that is diluted in the IEM stack) and concentrate (urine solution that is reconcentrated) was 6 or greater. The energy requirement normalized by the mass of nutrient reconcentrated was 6.48 MJ/kg-N (1.80 kWh/kg-N) and 117.6 MJ/kg-P (32.7 kWh/kg-P). In addition to nutrient separation, the examined MEC reactor with three IEM pairs showed 54% removal of COD (chemical oxygen demand) in 47-hr batch operation. The high sulfate concentration in human urine resulted in substantial growth of both of acetate-oxidizing and H2-oxidizing sulfate reducing bacteria, greatly diminishing the energy recovery and Coulombic efficiency. However, the high microbial activity of sulfate reducing bacteria hardly affected the rate of nutrient reconcentration. With the capability to reconcentrate nutrients at a minimal energy consumption and simultaneous COD removal, the examined bioelectrochemical treatment method with an IEM application has a potential for practical nutrient recovery and sustainable treatment of source-separated human urine. Copyright © 2014

  16. A practical method for measuring the ion exchange capacity decrease of hydroxide exchange membranes during intrinsic degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuer, Klaus-Dieter; Jannasch, Patric

    2018-01-01

    In this work we present a practical thermogravimetric method for quantifying the IEC (ion exchange capacity) decrease of hydroxide exchange membranes (HEMs) during intrinsic degradation mainly occurring through nucleophilic attack of the anion exchanging group by hydroxide ions. The method involves measuring weight changes under controlled temperature and relative humidity. These conditions are close to these in a fuel cell, i.e. the measured degradation rate includes all effects originating from the polymeric structure, the consumption of hydroxide ions and the release of water. In particular, this approach involves no added solvents or base, thereby avoiding inaccuracies that may arise in other methods due to the presence of solvents (other than water) or co-ions (such as Na+ or K+). We demonstrate the method by characterizing the decomposition of membranes consisting of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) functionalized with trimethyl-pentyl-ammonium side chains. The decomposition rate is found to depend on temperature, relative humidity RH (controlling the hydration number λ) and the total water content (controlled by the actual IEC and RH).

  17. Acquisition of Co metal from spent lithium-ion battery using emulsion liquid membrane technology and emulsion stability test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliusman; Wulandari, P. T.; Amiliana, R. A.; Huda, M.; Kusumadewi, F. A.

    2018-03-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are the most common type to be used as energy source in mobile phone. The amount of lithium-ion battery wastes is approximated by 200 – 500 ton/year. In one lithium-ion battery, there are 5 – 20% of cobalt metal, depend on the manufacturer. One of the way to recover a valuable metal from waste is leaching process then continued with extraction, which is the aim of this study. Spent lithium-ion batteries will be characterized with EDX and AAS, the result will show the amount of cobalt metal with form of LiCoO2 in the cathode. Hydrochloric acid concentration used is 4 M, temperature 80°C, and reaction time 1 hour. This study will discuss the emulsion stability test on emulsion liquid membrane. The purpose of emulsion stability test in this study was to determine optimum concentration of surfactant and extractant to produce a stable emulsion. Surfactant and extractant used were SPAN 80 and Cyanex 272 respectively with both concentrations varied. Membrane and feed phase ratios used in this experiment was 1 : 2. The optimum results of this study were SPAN 80 concentrations of 10% w/v and Cyanex 272 0.7 M.

  18. A Ho(III) potentiometric polymeric membrane sensor based on a new four dentate neutral ion carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Hassan Ali; Zanganeh-Asadabadi, Abbas; Rohani, Mitra; Zabihi, Mohammad Saleh; Fadaee, Javad; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Faridbod, Farnoush; Meghdadi, Soraia

    2013-03-01

    In this research, we report a new Ho(3+)-PVC membrane electrode based on N-(4,5-dimethyl-2-(picolinamido)phenyl)picolinamide (H(2)Me(2)bpb) as a suitable ion carrier. Poly vinylchloride (PVC)-based membrane composed of H(2)Me(2)bpb with oleic acid (OA) as anionic additives, and o-nitrophenyloctyl ether (NPOE) as plasticized solvent mediator. The sensor exhibits a Nernstian slope of 20.1 ± 0.2 mV decade(-1) over the concentration range of 1.0 × 10(-6) to 1.0 × 1(-2) mol L(-1), and a detection limit of 5.0 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) of Ho(3+) ions. The potentiometric response of the sensor is independent of the solution pH in the range of 3.5-9.4. It has a very short response time, in the whole concentration range (titration of Ho(3+) ion solutions in certified reference materials, alloy samples and for the determination of the fluoride ion in two mouthwash preparations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Effect of high magnesium ion concentration on the electron transport rate and proton exchange in thylakoid membranes in higher plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat'ev, A R; Khorobrykh, S A; Ivanov, B N

    2001-01-01

    The effects of magnesium ion concentration on the rate of electron transport in isolated pea thylakoids were investigated in the pH range from 4.0 up to 8.0. In the absence of magnesium ions in the medium and in the presence of 5 mM MgCl2 in the experiments not only without added artificial acceptors but also with ferricyanide or methylviologen as an acceptor, this rate had a well-expressed maximum at pH 5.0. It was shown that, after depression to minimal values at pH 5.5-6.5, it gradually rose with increasing pH. An increase in magnesium ion concentration up to 20 mM essentially affected the electron transfer rate: it decreased somewhat at pH 4.0-5.0 but increased at higher pH values. At this magnesium ion concentration, the maximum rate was at pH 6.0-6.5 and the minimum, at pH 7.0. Subsequent rise upon increasing pH to 8.0 was expressed more sharply. The influence of high magnesium ion concentration on the rate of electron transport was not observed in the presence of gramicidin D. It was found that without uncoupler, the changes in the electron transfer rate under the influence of magnesium ions correlated to the changes in the first-order rate constant of the proton efflux from thylakoids. It is supposed that the change in the ability of thylakoids to keep protons by the action of magnesium ions is the result of electrostatic interactions of these ions with the charges on the external surface of membranes. A possible role of regulation of the electron transport rate by magnesium ions in vivo is discussed.

  20. Surface oxygen vacancy and oxygen permeation flux limits of perovskite ion transport membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Hunt, Anton

    2015-09-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The mechanisms and quantitative models for how oxygen is separated from air using ion transport membranes (ITMs) are not well understood, largely due to the experimental complexity for determining surface exchange reactions at extreme temperatures (>800°C). This is especially true when fuels are present at the permeate surface. For both inert and reactive (fuels) operations, solid-state oxygen surface vacancies (δ) are ultimately responsible for driving the oxygen flux, JO2. In the inert case, the value of δ at either surface is a function of the local PO2 and temperature, whilst the magnitude of δ dictates both the JO2 and the inherent stability of the material. In this study values of δ are presented based on experimental measurements under inert (CO2) sweep: using a permeation flux model and local PO2 measurements, collected by means of a local gas-sampling probe in our large-scale reactor, we can determine δ directly. The ITM assessed was La0.9Ca0.1FeO3-δ (LCF); the relative resistances to JO2 were quantified using the pre-defined permeation flux model and local PO2 values. Across a temperature range from 825°C to 1056°C, δ was found to vary from 0.007 to 0.029 (<1%), safely within material stability limits, whilst the permeate surface exchange resistance dominates. An inert JO2 limit was identified owing to a maximum sweep surface δ, δmaxinert. The physical presence of δmaxinert is attributed to a rate limiting step shift from desorption to associative electron transfer steps on the sweep surface as PO2 is reduced. Permeate surface exchange limitations under non-reactive conditions suggest that reactive (fuel) operation is necessary to accelerate surface chemistry for future work, to reduce flux resistance and push δpast δmaxinert in a stable manner.

  1. Synthesis of polymer electrolyte membranes from cellulose acetate/poly(ethylene oxide)/LiClO{sub 4} for lithium ion battery application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurhadini,, E-mail: nur-chem@yahoo.co.id; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institiut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of cellulose acetate on poly(ethylene oxide)-LiClO{sub 4} membranes as the polymer electrolyte. Cellulose acetate is used as an additive to increase ionic conductivity and mechanical property of polymer electrolyte membranes. The increase the percentage of cellulose acetate in membranes do not directly effect on the ionic conductivity, and the highest ionic conductivity of membranes about 5,7 × 10{sup −4} S/cm was observed in SA/PEO/LiClO{sub 4} membrane with cellulose ratio of 10-25% (w/w). Cellulose acetate in membranes increases mechanical strength of polymer electrolyte membranes. Based on TGA analysis, this polymer electrolyte thermally is stable until 270 °C. The polymer electrolyte membrane prepared by blending the cellulose acetate, poly(ethylene oxide), and lithium chlorate could be potentially used as a polymer electrolyte for lithium ion battery application.

  2. Immobilization of ionophore and surface characterization studies of the titanium(III) ion in a PVC-membrane sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezayi, Majid; Heng, Lee Yook; Kassim, Anuar; Ahmadzadeh, Saeid; Abdollahi, Yadollah; Jahangirian, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Novel ionophores comprising various hydroxide and amine structures were immobilized onto poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrices, and these were examined to determine Ti(III) selectivity. To predict the selectivity of Ti(III), a PVC membrane was used to investigate the binding of Ti(III) to c-methylcalix[4]resorcinarene (CMCR). The study showed that the chelating ligand, CMCR, was coordinated selectively to Ti(III) at eight coordination sites involving the oxygen atoms at the interface of the membrane/solution. The membrane was prepared, based on CMCR as an ionophore, sodium tetrakis(4-fluorophenyl) borate (NaTFPB) as a lipophilic ionic additive, and dioctylphthalate (DOP) as a plasticizer. The immobilization of the ionophore and surface characterization studies revealed that the performance of CMCR-immobilized PVC was equivalent to that of mobile ionophores in supported liquid membranes (SLMs). The strengths of the ion-ionophore (CMCR-Ti(OH)(OH(2))(5) (2+)) interactions and the role of ionophores on membranes were studied via UV-Vis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and and X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  3. Ion separation from dilute electrolyte solutions by nanofiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Corazon M.

    2000-03-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) is a pressure-driven process which is considered potential for the separation of ionic species selectively from solutions containing mixture of electrolyte solutes. The lower operating pressure requirement of NF than reverse osmosis (RO) makes the earlier potentially economical. In the separation of ions, many authors believed that there are membranes with characteristic fixed surface charge and that the mechanism of separation of ions is by the differences in valences of the ions. In this study, experiments involving dilute single-solute and multiple-solute electrolyte solutions were performed using three different NF membranes. Permeate fluxes and ion rejections of the different species of ions in samples of permeate solutions were measured at varied conditions. The mechanism of separation in NF was determined based on the analysis of the trends and behavior of ion rejection relative to the solution temperature, pressure, type of solute, feed concentration and feed solution pH. The results of the experiments show that there is no evidence of the presence of fixed surface charge on the NF membranes. Ion separation was made possible by the combination of sieve effect and ion-hydration effect. Ions having higher hydration numbers showed higher ion rejection than those having lower hydration numbers. A method to determine the effective membrane pore size of NF membranes using hydrodynamic model was proposed. The proposed method is based on the assumptions that the membrane is neutral and that the separation is based on sieving effect. (Author)

  4. Pore-Size-Tuned Graphene Oxide Frameworks as Ion-Selective and Protective Layers on Hydrocarbon Membranes for Vanadium Redox-Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soohyun; Choi, Junghoon; Choi, Chanyong; Heo, Jiyun; Kim, Dae Woo; Lee, Jang Yong; Hong, Young Taik; Jung, Hee-Tae; Kim, Hee-Tak

    2018-05-07

    The laminated structure of graphene oxide (GO) membranes provides exceptional ion-separation properties due to the regular interlayer spacing ( d) between laminate layers. However, a larger effective pore size of the laminate immersed in water (∼11.1 Å) than the hydrated diameter of vanadium ions (>6.0 Å) prevents its use in vanadium redox-flow batteries (VRFB). In this work, we report an ion-selective graphene oxide framework (GOF) with a d tuned by cross-linking the GO nanosheets. Its effective pore size (∼5.9 Å) excludes vanadium ions by size but allows proton conduction. The GOF membrane is employed as a protective layer to address the poor chemical stability of sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES) membranes against VO 2 + in VRFB. By effectively blocking vanadium ions, the GOF/SPAES membrane exhibits vanadium-ion permeability 4.2 times lower and a durability 5 times longer than that of the pristine SPAES membrane. Moreover, the VRFB with the GOF/SPAES membrane achieves an energy efficiency of 89% at 80 mA cm -2 and a capacity retention of 88% even after 400 cycles, far exceeding results for Nafion 115 and demonstrating its practical applicability for VRFB.

  5. Ion channel regulation of the dynamical instability of the resting membrane potential in saccular hair cells of the green frog (Rana esculenta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorgensen, F; Kroese, ABA

    2005-01-01

    Aims: We investigated the ion channel regulation of the resting membrane potential of hair cells with the aim to determine if the resting membrane potential is poised close to instability and thereby a potential cause of the spontaneous afferent spike activity. Methods: The ionic mechanism and the

  6. Ion-containing reverse osmosis membranes obtained by radiation grafting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, E.-S.A.; El-Assy, N.B.; Dessouki, A.M.; Shaker, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Cationic membranes obtained by radiation grafting of aqueous acrylic acid onto low density polyethylene films followed by alkaline treatment to confer ionic character in the graft chains, were tested for reverse osmosis desalination of saline water. Selected physical properties of such membranes were investigated. The grafted membranes possess good mechanical and electrical properties. Water uptake for the alkali-treated membrane was much higher than that of the alkali-untreated one. The effect of operation time, degree of grafting, applied pressure and feed concentration on the water flux and salt rejection for the grafted membranes was investigated. Such cationic membranes showed good durability, thermal and chemical stability, acceptable water flux and salt rejection which may make them acceptable for practical use in reverse osmosis desalination of sea water. (author)

  7. Membrane architectures for ion-channel switch-based electrochemical biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansinena, Jose-Maria; Redondo, Antonio; Swanson, Basil I.; Yee, Chanel Kitmon; Sapuri/Butti, Annapoorna R.; Parikh, Atul N.; Yang, Calvin

    2008-10-28

    The present invention is directed to a process of forming a bilayer lipid membrane structure by depositing an organic layer having a defined surface area onto an electrically conductive substrate, removing portions of said organic layer upon said electrically conductive substrate whereby selected portions of said organic layer are removed to form defined voids within said defined surface area of said organic layer and defined islands of organic layer upon said electrically conductive substrate, and, depositing a bilayer lipid membrane over the defined voids and defined islands of organic layer upon said substrate whereby aqueous reservoirs are formed between said electrically conductive substrate and said bilayer lipid membrane, said bilayer lipid membrane characterized as spanning across the defined voids between said defined islands. A lipid membrane structure is also described together with an array of such lipid membrane structure.

  8. Sodium ion conducting polymer electrolyte membrane prepared by phase inversion technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshlata, Mishra, Kuldeep; Rai, D. K.

    2018-04-01

    A mechanically stable porous polymer membrane of Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) has been prepared by phase inversion technique using steam as a non-solvent. The membrane possesses semicrystalline network with enhanced amorphicity as observed by X-ray diffraction. The membrane has been soaked in an electrolyte solution of 0.5M NaPF6 in Ethylene Carbonate/Propylene Carbonate (1:1) to obtain the gel polymer electrolyte. The porosity and electrolyte uptake of the membrane have been found to be 67% and 220% respectively. The room temperature ionic conductivity of the membrane has been obtained as ˜ 0.3 mS cm-1. The conductivity follows Arrhenius behavior with temperature and gives activation energy as 0.8 eV. The membrane has been found to possess significantly large electrochemical stability window of 5.0 V.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of organic–inorganic core–shell structure nanocomposite and application for Zn ions removal from aqueous solution in a fixed-bed column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemi, Shokoofeh [Faculty of Chemical, Gas and Petroleum Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35131-19111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghorbani, Mohsen, E-mail: M.ghorbani@nit.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, P.O. Box 484, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghazi, Mohsen Mehdipour [Faculty of Chemical, Gas and Petroleum Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35131-19111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were prepared in one step using ultrasonic radiation and coated by polyrhodanine. • Nanocomposite synthesized with core average diameter of 15 nm and polyrhodanine as shell with thickness of 1.5 nm • Application of products was investigated to separate zinc ions from aqueous solution in a fixed-bed column. • The Adams–Bohart, BDST, Thomas and Yoon–Nelson models used to predict model parameters. • The models were nearly in good agreement with the experimental data. - Abstract: An organic–inorganic core/shell structure, γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/polyrhodanine nanocomposite with γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticle as core with average diameter of 15 nm and polyrhodanine as shell with thickness of 1.5 nm, has been synthesized via chemical oxidation polymerization and applied for adsorption of Zn ions from aqueous solution in a fixed-bed column. The properties of nanocomposite were characterized with transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The performance of the column was assessed under variable bed heights (10, 15 and 20 cm) and influent Zn concentrations (50, 100 and 150 ppm) at a constant flow rate (0.5 mL/min). The results demonstrated that the breakthrough curves are S-shaped and the breakthrough time increases with increasing bed height and decreases with increasing influent concentration. Moreover, the dynamics of the adsorption process were evaluated by using Adams–Bohart, bed depth service time (BDST), Thomas and Yoon–Nelson kinetic models. The models were nearly in good agreement with the experimental data.

  10. Recent progress in the applications of layer-by-layer assembly to the preparation of nanostructured ion-rejecting water purification membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Oishi; Lee, Ilsoon

    2014-03-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) are the two dominant membrane separation processes responsible for ion rejection. While RO is highly efficient in removal of ions it needs a high operating pressure and offers very low selectivity between ions. Nanofiltration on the other hand has a comparatively low operating pressure and most commercial membranes offer selectivity in terms of ion rejection. However in many nanofiltration operations rejection of monovalent ions is not appreciable. Therefore a high flux high rejection membrane is needed that can be applied to water purification systems. One such alternative is the usage of polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes that are prepared by the deposition of alternately charged polyelectrolytes via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly method. LbL is one of the most common self-assembly techniques and finds application in various areas. It has a number of tunable parameters like deposition conditions, number of bilayers deposited etc. which can be manipulated as per the type of application. This technique can be applied to make a nanothin membrane skin which gives high rejection and at the same time allow a high water flux across it. Several research groups have applied this highly versatile technique to prepare membranes that can be employed for water purification. Some of these membranes have shown better performance than the commercial nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes. These membranes have the potential to be applied to various different aspects of water treatment like water softening, desalination and recovery of certain ions. Besides the conventional method of LbL technique other alternative methods have also been suggested that can make the technique fast, more efficient and thereby make it more commercially acceptable.

  11. Hierarchically porous carbon membranes containing designed nanochannel architectures obtained by pyrolysis of ion-track etched polyimide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muench, Falk, E-mail: muench@ca.tu-darmstadt.de [Department of Material- and Geoscience, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Seidl, Tim; Rauber, Markus [Department of Material- and Geoscience, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Material Research Department, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Peter, Benedikt; Brötz, Joachim [Department of Material- and Geoscience, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Krause, Markus; Trautmann, Christina [Department of Material- and Geoscience, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Material Research Department, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Roth, Christina [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustraße 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Katusic, Stipan [Evonik Industries AG, Rodenbacher Chaussee 4, 63457 Hanau (Germany); Ensinger, Wolfgang [Department of Material- and Geoscience, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Well-defined, porous carbon monoliths are highly promising materials for electrochemical applications, separation, purification and catalysis. In this work, we present an approach allowing to transfer the remarkable degree of synthetic control given by the ion-track etching technology to the fabrication of carbon membranes with porosity structured on multiple length scales. The carbonization and pore formation processes were examined with Raman, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, while model experiments demonstrated the viability of the carbon membranes as catalyst support and pollutant adsorbent. Using ion-track etching, specifically designed, continuous channel-shaped pores were introduced into polyimide foils with precise control over channel diameter, orientation, density and interconnection. At a pyrolysis temperature of 950 °C, the artificially created channels shrunk in size, but their shape was preserved, while the polymer was transformed to microporous, amorphous carbon. Channel diameters ranging from ∼10 to several 100 nm could be achieved. The channels also gave access to previously closed micropore volume. Substantial surface increase was realized, as it was shown by introducing a network consisting of 1.4 × 10{sup 10} channels per cm{sup 2} of 30 nm diameter, which more than tripled the mass-normalized surface of the pyrolytic carbon from 205 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} to 732 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. At a pyrolysis temperature of 3000 °C, membranes consisting of highly ordered graphite were obtained. In this case, the channel shape was severely altered, resulting in a pronounced conical geometry in which the channel diameter quickly decreased with increasing distance to the membrane surface. - Highlights: • Pyrolysis of ion-track etched polyimide yields porous carbon membranes. • Hierarchic porosity: continuous nanochannels embedded in a microporous carbon matrix.

  12. Hierarchically porous carbon membranes containing designed nanochannel architectures obtained by pyrolysis of ion-track etched polyimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, Falk; Seidl, Tim; Rauber, Markus; Peter, Benedikt; Brötz, Joachim; Krause, Markus; Trautmann, Christina; Roth, Christina; Katusic, Stipan; Ensinger, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Well-defined, porous carbon monoliths are highly promising materials for electrochemical applications, separation, purification and catalysis. In this work, we present an approach allowing to transfer the remarkable degree of synthetic control given by the ion-track etching technology to the fabrication of carbon membranes with porosity structured on multiple length scales. The carbonization and pore formation processes were examined with Raman, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, while model experiments demonstrated the viability of the carbon membranes as catalyst support and pollutant adsorbent. Using ion-track etching, specifically designed, continuous channel-shaped pores were introduced into polyimide foils with precise control over channel diameter, orientation, density and interconnection. At a pyrolysis temperature of 950 °C, the artificially created channels shrunk in size, but their shape was preserved, while the polymer was transformed to microporous, amorphous carbon. Channel diameters ranging from ∼10 to several 100 nm could be achieved. The channels also gave access to previously closed micropore volume. Substantial surface increase was realized, as it was shown by introducing a network consisting of 1.4 × 10 10 channels per cm 2 of 30 nm diameter, which more than tripled the mass-normalized surface of the pyrolytic carbon from 205 m 2  g −1 to 732 m 2  g −1 . At a pyrolysis temperature of 3000 °C, membranes consisting of highly ordered graphite were obtained. In this case, the channel shape was severely altered, resulting in a pronounced conical geometry in which the channel diameter quickly decreased with increasing distance to the membrane surface. - Highlights: • Pyrolysis of ion-track etched polyimide yields porous carbon membranes. • Hierarchic porosity: continuous nanochannels embedded in a microporous carbon matrix. • Freely adjustable meso- or

  13. Detection of trace fluoride in serum and urine by online membrane-based distillation coupled with ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Chaoyan; Guo, Dandan; Wang, Nani; Wu, Shuchao; Zhang, Peimin; Zhu, Yan

    2017-06-02

    An online membrane-based distillation (MBD) coupled with ion chromatography (IC) method was proposed for automatic detection of trace fluoride (F - ) in serum and urine samples. The system consisted of a sample vessel, a lab-made membrane module and an ion chromatograph. Hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) hollow fiber membrane was used in MBD which was directly performed in serum and urine samples to eliminate the matrix interferences and enrich fluoride, while enabling automation. The determination of fluoride in biological samples was carried out by IC with suppressed conductometric detection. The proposed method feasibly determined trace fluoride in serum and urine matrices with the optimized parameters, such as acid concentration, distillation temperature, and distillation time, etc. Fluoride exhibited satisfactory linearity in the range of 0.01-5.0mg/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.9992. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N=3) and limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N=10) were 0.78μg/L and 2.61μg/L, respectively. The relative standard deviations of peak area and peak height were all less than 5.15%. The developed method was validated for the determination of fluoride in serum and urine with good spiked recoveries ranging between 97.1-101.9%. This method also can be proposed as a suitable alternative for the analysis of fluoride in other complex biological samples. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Multivariate analysis of the transport in an ion exchange membrane bioreactor for removal of anionic micropollutants from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, A R; Velizarov, S; Crespo, J G; Reis, M A M

    2011-01-01

    The present study focuses on investigating the effects of biological compartment conditions on the transport of nitrate and perchlorate in an Ion Exchange Membrane Bioreactor (IEMB). In this hybrid process, the transport depends not only on the membrane properties but also on the biological compartment conditions. The experiments were planned according to the Plackett-Burman statistical design in order to cover a broader range of experimental conditions, under which a previously developed mechanistic transport model was not able to predict correctly the transport fluxes of the target pollutants. Using Principal Component Analysis, it was possible to identify not only the concentrations of target (nitrate and perchlorate) and of major driving counter-ion (chloride) but also those of some biomedium components (e.g. ammonia, ethanol and sulphate) as variables that affect the transport rate of micropollutants across the membrane. These conclusions are based on the loadings of the two first principal components that describe 84% of the data variance. The present study also revealed that the hydraulic retention time and the hydrodynamic conditions in the biocompartment have a minor contribution to the micropollutants transport. The results obtained are important for process optimization purposes.

  15. A facile method to prepare dual-functional membrane for efficient oil removal and in situ reversible mercury ions adsorption from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingdong; Liu, Na; Cao, Yingze; Zhang, Weifeng; Wei, Yen; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Lei

    2018-03-01

    In this work, a novel thiol covered polyamide (nylon 66) microfiltration membrane was fabricated by combining mussel-inspired chemistry and coupling reaction, which owns excellent dual-function that can simultaneously remove oil from water efficiently and adsorb the mercury ions contained in the wastewater reversibly. Such membrane exhibited high oil/water separation efficiency, outstanding mercury adsorption ability, and good stability. Moreover, it can be regenerated in nitric acid solution, and maintain its good adsorption performance. The as-prepared membrane showed great potentials for water purification to reduce the heavy metal ion pollution and complicated industrial oily wastewater and living wastewater.

  16. Performance of single chamber biocatalyzed electrolysis with different types of ion exchange membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendal, R.A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Molenkamp, R.J.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper hydrogen production through biocatalyzed electrolysis was studied for the first time in a single chamber configuration. Single chamber biocatalyzed electrolysis was tested in two configurations: (i) with a cation exchange membrane (CEM) and (ii) with an anion exchange membrane (AEM).

  17. Ionizable polyethers as specific metal ion carriers in liquid-liquid extraction and liquid membrane separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkowiak, W.; Charewicz, W.A.; Bartsch, R.A.; Ndip, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Consideration is given to results of investigations into competitive extraction and penetration through a liquid membrane of alkali and alkaline earth cations from aqueous solutions by a series of lipophilic and ionizable acyclic polyethers of various molecular structure. It is shown that specificity and selectiviy of cation carriers in liquid-liquid extraction and liquid membrane separation depend on molecular structure of acyclic polyethers

  18. Determination of Cd2+ in aqueous solution using polyindole-Ce(IV) vanadophosphate conductive nanocomposite ion-selective membrane electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif Ali; Quasim Khan, Mohd; Hussain, Rizwan

    2017-09-01

    In the present study an organic-inorganic nanocomposite ion exchanger Polyindole-Ce(IV) vanadophosphate (PIn-CVP) was synthesized via sol-gel process showing excellent ion exchange capacity (IEC‒1.90 meqg-1). The material was characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, FTIR, and TGA. A heterogeneous ion exchange membrane of PIn-CVP (IEC‒0.90 meqg-1) was also prepared by solution casting method. PIn-CVP shows high electrical conductivity (5.5  ×  10-2 S cm-1) and it is stable up to 120 °C under ambient conditions. Cd2+ selective membrane electrode was fabricated and its linear working range (3.98  ×  10-7 M to 1.0  ×  10-1 M), response time (25 s), Nerstian slope 25.00 mV dec-1 and working pH range (4-7) were calculated. It was employed as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Cd2+.

  19. Fabrication of different pore shapes by multi-step etching technique in ion-irradiated PET membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, D.; Liu, J. D.; Duan, J. L.; Yao, H. J.; Latif, H.; Cao, D. L.; Chen, Y. H.; Zhang, S. X.; Zhai, P. F.; Liu, J.

    2014-08-01

    A method for the fabrication of different pore shapes in polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-based track etched membranes (TEMs) is reported. A multi-step etching technique involving etchant variation and track annealing was applied to fabricate different pore shapes in PET membranes. PET foils of 12-μm thickness were irradiated with Bi ions (kinetic energy 9.5 MeV/u, fluence 106 ions/cm2) at the Heavy Ion Research Facility (HIRFL, Lanzhou). The cross-sections of fundamental pore shapes (cylinder, cone, and double cone) were analyzed. Funnel-shaped and pencil-shaped pores were obtained using a two-step etching process. Track annealing was carried out in air at 180 °C for 120 min. After track annealing, the selectivity of the etching process decreased, which resulted in isotropic etching in subsequent etching steps. Rounded cylinder and rounded cone shapes were obtained by introducing a track-annealing step in the etching process. Cup and spherical funnel-shaped pores were fabricated using a three- and four-step etching process, respectively. The described multi-step etching technique provides a controllable method to fabricate new pore shapes in TEMs. Introduction of a variety of pore shapes may improve the separation properties of TEMs and enrich the series of TEM products.

  20. Enhancement of proton transfer in ion channels by membrane phosphate headgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Debra L; de Godoy, Carlos Marcelo G; Cukierman, Samuel

    2009-05-14

    The transfer of protons (H+) in gramicidin (gA) channels is markedly distinct in monoglyceride and phospholipid membranes. In this study, the molecular groups that account for those differences were investigated using a new methodology. The rates of H+ transfer were measured in single gA channels reconstituted in membranes made of plain ceramides or sphingomyelins and compared to those in monoglyceride and phospholipid bilayers. Single-channel conductances to protons (gH) were significantly larger in sphingomyelin than in ceramide membranes. A novel and unsuspected finding was that H+ transfer was heavily attenuated or completely blocked in ceramide (but not in sphingomyelin) membranes in low-ionic-strength solutions. It is reasoned that H-bond dynamics at low ionic strengths between membrane ceramides and gA makes channels dysfunctional. The rate of H+ transfer in gA channels in ceramide membranes is significantly higher than that in monoglyceride bilayers. This suggests that solvation of the hydrophobic surface of gA channels by two acyl chains in ceramides stabilizes the gA channels and the water wire inside the pore, leading to an enhancement of H+ transfer in relation to that occurring in monoglyceride membranes. gH values in gA channels are similar in ceramide and monoglyceride bilayers and in sphingomyelin and phospholipid membranes. It is concluded that phospho headgroups in membranes have significant effects on the rate of H+ transfer at the membrane gA channel/solution interfaces, enhancing the entry and exit rates of protons in channels.

  1. Selective capillary diffusion of equimolar H2/D2 gas mixtures through etched ion track membranes prepared from polyethylene terephthalate and polyimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, K.; Angert, N.; Trautmann, C.

    1996-01-01

    The selective capillary diffusion of equimolar H 2 /D 2 gas mixtures through ion track membranes prepared from polyethylene terephthalate and polyimide was investigated at a temperature of 293 K, a primary pressure of 0.15 MPa and a secondary pressure of 10 -4 MPa. Different values of the separation factor Z(H 2 /D 2 ) between experiment and computer simulation exists in the case of polyethylene terephthalate ion track membranes because of multiple pores. Membranes for which multiple pores were reduced by varying the irradiation angle showed an increased separation factor. The separation factor is a function of the pore diameter. This is shown for polyimide ion track membranes with a pore size in the range of 0.17 and 0.5 μm. After grafting with styrene the separation factor increased, indicating grafting within the pores. (orig.)

  2. A novel ion transport membrane reactor for fundamental investigations of oxygen permeation and oxy-combustion under reactive flow conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Kirchen, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Ion transport membrane (ITM) reactors present an attractive technology for combined air separation and fuel conversion in applications such as syngas production, oxidative coupling or oxy-combustion, with the promise of lower capital and operating costs, as well higher product selectivities than traditional technologies. The oxygen permeation rate through a given ITM is defined by the membrane temperature and oxygen chemical potential difference across it. Both of these parameters can be strongly influenced by thermochemical reactions occurring in the vicinity of the membrane, though in the literature they are often characterized in terms of the well mixed product stream at the reactor exit. This work presents the development of a novel ITM reactor for the fundamental investigation of the coupling between fuel conversion and oxygen permeation under well defined fluid dynamic and thermodynamic conditions, including provisions for spatially resolved, in-situ investigations. A planar, finite gap stagnation flow reactor with optical and probe access to the reaction zone is used to facilitate in-situ measurements and cross-validation with detailed numerical simulations. Using this novel reactor, baseline measurements are presented to elucidate the impact of the sweep gas fuel (CH4) fraction on the oxygen permeation and fuel conversion. In addition, the difference between well-mixed gas compositions measured at the reactor outlet and those measured in the vicinity of the membrane surface are discussed, demonstrating the unique utility of the reactor. © 2012 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Zero-Gap Alkaline Water Electrolysis Using Ion-Solvating Polymer Electrolyte Membranes at Reduced KOH Concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraglund, Mikkel Rykær; Aili, David; Jankova Atanasova, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Membranes based on poly(2,2'-(m-phenylene)-5,5-bibenzimidazole) (m-PBI) can dissolve large amounts of aqueous KOH to give electrolyte systems with ion conductivity in a practically useful range. The conductivity of the membrane strongly depends on the concentration of the aqueous KOH phase......, reaching about 10-1 S cm-1 or higher in 15-25 wt% KOH. Herein, m-PBI membranes are systematically characterized with respect to performance and short-term stability as electrolyte in a zero-gap alkaline water electrolyzer at different KOH concentrations. Using plain uncatalyzed nickel foam electrodes......, the cell based on m-PBI outperforms the cell based on the commercially available state-of-the-art diaphragm and reaches a current density of 1500 mA cm-2 at 2.4 V in 20 wt% KOH at 80°C. The cell performance remained stable during two days of operation, though post analysis of the membrane using size...

  4. Capturing Lithium from Wastewater Using a Fixed Bed Packed with 3-D MnO2 Ion Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xubiao; Zhang, Kai; Luo, Jinming; Luo, Shenglian; Crittenden, John

    2016-12-06

    3-D MnO 2 ion cages (CMO) were fabricated and shown to have a high capacity for lithium removal from wastewater. CMO had a maximum Li(I) adsorption capacity of 56.87 mg/g, which is 1.38 times greater than the highest reported value (41.36 mg/g). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the stability of the -Mn-O-Mn-O- skeleton played an essential role in Li adsorption. The lattice clearance had a high charge density, forming a strong electrostatic field. The Dubinin-Ashtakhov (DA) site energy distribution model based on Polanyi theory described the linear increase of Li adsorption capacity (Q 0 ) with increasing temperature (Q 0 = k 3 × E m + d 3 = k 3 × (a × T) + d 3 ). Furthermore, the pore diffusion model (PDM) accurately predicted the lithium breakthrough (R 2 ≈ 0.99). The maximum number of bed volumes (BVs) treated was 1374, 1972, and 2493 for 200 μg/L at 20, 30, and 40 °C, respectively. Higher temperatures increased the number of BVs that may be treated, which implies that CMO will be useful in treating industrial Li(I) wastewater in regions with different climates (e.g., Northern or Southern China).

  5. Optimization of fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies for transition metal ion-chelating ordered mesoporous carbon cathode catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna K. Dombrovskis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal ion-chelating ordered mesoporous carbon (TM-OMC materials were recently shown to be efficient polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC catalysts. The structure and properties of these catalysts are largely different from conventional catalyst materials, thus rendering membrane electrode assembly (MEA preparation parameters developed for conventional catalysts not useful for applications of TM-OMC catalysts. This necessitates development of a methodology to incorporate TM-OMC catalysts in the MEA. Here, an efficient method for MEA preparation using TM-OMC catalyst materials for PEMFC is developed including effects of catalyst/ionomer loading and catalyst/ionomer-mixing and application procedures. An optimized protocol for MEA preparation using TM-OMC catalysts is described.

  6. Ion-exchange composite membranes pore-filled with sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) and Engelhard titanosilicate-10 for improved performance of vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihoon; Lee, Yongkyu; Jeon, Jae-Deok; Kwak, Seung-Yeop

    2018-04-01

    A series of ion-exchange membranes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs) are prepared by filling the pores of a poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) substrate with sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and microporous Engelhard titanosilicate-10 (ETS-10). The effects of ETS-10 incorporation and PTFE reinforcement on membrane properties and VRB single-cell performance are investigated using various characterization tools. The results show that these composite membranes exhibit improved mechanical properties and reduced vanadium-ion permeabilities owing to the interactions between ETS-10 and SPEEK, the suppressed swelling of PTFE, and the unique ETS-10 framework. The composite membrane with 3 wt% ETS-10 (referred to as "SE3/P") exhibits the best membrane properties and highest ion selectivity. The VRB system with the SE3/P membrane exhibits higher cell capacity, higher cell efficiency, and lower capacity decay than that with a Nafion membrane. These results indicate that this composite membrane has potential as an alternative to Nafion in VRB systems.

  7. Uranyl ion transport across tri-n-butyl phosphate/n-dodecane liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, J.P.; Misra, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    Carrier-facilitated transport of uranium (VI) against its concentration gradient from aqueous nitrate acidic solutions across organic bulk liquid membranes (BLM) and supported liquid membranes (SLM) containing TBP as the mobile carrier and n-dodecane as the membrane solvent was investigated. Extremely dilute uranyl nitrate solutions in about 2.5 M nitric acid generally constituted as the source phase. Uranyl transport appreciably increased with both stirring of the receiving phase and the carrier concentration in the organic membrane, while enhanced acidity of the strip side adversely affected the partioning of the cation into this phase. Among the several reagents tested, diluted ammonium carbonate (∼1M) solutions served efficiently as the stripant. Besides Accurel polypropylene (PP) film as the solid support for SLM, some silicon flat-sheet membranes with different inorganic fillers like silica, calcium silicate, calcium carbonate, chromium oxide, zinc oxide etc. and teflon membranes transported about 70% of uranium in nearly 7-8 hr employing 1 M ammonium carbonate as the strippant. Specifically, 30% TBP supported on Accurel flat-sheet supports transfered better than 70% of uranium from moderate acid feeds (2.5M) under similar conditions. Membranes supporting Aliquat-336, TLA, TOPO etc. yielded somewhat poor uranium recoveries. The feed : strip volume ratio showed an inverse relationship to the fraction of cation transported. (author). 9 refs., 2 tab s

  8. Ion Channels Induced by Antimicrobial Agents in Model Lipid Membranes are Modulated by Plant Polyphenols Through Surrounding Lipid Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimova, Svetlana S; Zakharova, Anastasiia A; Medvedev, Roman Ya; Ostroumova, Olga S

    2018-03-16

    The potential therapeutic applications of plant polyphenols in various neurological, cardiovascular, metabolic and malignant disorders determine the relevance of studying the molecular mechanisms of their action on the cell membranes. Here, the quantitative changes in the physical parameters of model bilayer lipid membranes upon the adsorption of plant polyphenols were evaluated. It was shown that butein and naringenin significantly decreased the intrinsic dipole potential of cholesterol-free and cholesterol-enriched membranes. Cardamonin, 4'-hydroxychalcone, licochalcone A and liquiritigenin demonstrated the average efficiency, while resveratrol did not characterized by the ability to modulate the bilayer electrostatics. At the same time, the tested polyphenols affected melting of phospholipids with saturated acyl chains. The effects were attributed to the lipid disordering and a promotion of the positive curvature stress. According to DSC data and results of measurements of the threshold voltages that cause bilayer breakdown licochalcone A is the most effective agent. Furthermore, the role of the polyphenol induced changes in the electric and elastic properties of lipid host in the regulation of reconstituted ion channels was examined. The ability of the tested polyphenols to decrease the conductance of single ion channels produced by the antifungal cyclic lipopeptide syringomycin E was in agreement with their effects on the dipole potential of the lipid bilayers. The greatest effect of licochalcone A on the steady-state membrane conductance induced by the antifungal polyene macrolide antibiotic nystatin correlated with its greatest efficacy to induce the positive curvature stress. We also found that butein and naringenin bind specifically to a single pore formed by α-hemolysin from Staphylococcus aureus.

  9. Hybrid ion-exchange membranes for fuel cells and separation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Carretero, F.J.; Compan, V. [Departamento de Termodinamica Aplicada, ETSII, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Riande, E. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros (CSIC), 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-11-08

    This work reports the preparation and characterization of hybrid membranes cast from dispersions of inorganic fillers in sulfonated polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene solutions. Silica gel, SBA-15 and sepiolite, all of them functionalized with phenylsulfonic acid groups, were used as fillers. For comparative purposes, the performance of composite membranes cast from dispersions of functionalized inorganic fillers in Nafion {sup registered} solutions was investigated. Inspection of the texture of the membranes by using SEM techniques shows that the fillers are better dispersed in sulfonated polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene than in Nafion {sup registered}. The value of the water uptake for the membranes prepared from the former polyelectrolyte is in most cases at least three times that measured for hybrid Nafion {sup registered} membranes. The conductivity of the membranes was measured at 80 C by impedance spectroscopy obtaining values of 3.44, 6.90 and 3.54 S m{sup -1} for the hybrid membranes based on the triblock copolymer containing functionalized silica gel, SBA-15 and sepiolite fillers, respectively. These results compare very favourably with those obtained at 80 C for Nafion {sup registered} hybrid membranes containing silica gel, SBA-15 and sepiolite, all of them fuctionalized with phenylsulfonic acid groups, whose conductivities are, 2.84, 6.75 and 3.31 S m{sup -1}, respectively. Resistance measurements carried out under controlled humidity conditions show that the conductivity of sulfonated triblock copolymer membranes containing functionalized SBA-15 filler undergoes a rather sharp increase when they are conditioned under an atmosphere of 75%, or larger, relative humidity. (author)

  10. Ion-Exchange Membranes Based on Polynorbornenes with Fluorinated Imide Side Chain Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlette A. Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical characteristics of cation-exchange membranes based on polynorbornenes with fluorinated and sulfonated dicarboximide side chain groups were reported. This study was extended to a block copolymer containing structural units with phenyl and 4-oxybenzenesulfonic acid, 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl moieties replacing the hydrogen atom of the dicarboximide group. A thorough study on the electrochemical characteristics of the membranes involving electromotive forces of concentration cells and proton conductivity is reported. The proton permselectivity of the membranes is also discussed.

  11. Determination of cerium ion by polymeric membrane and coated graphite electrode based on novel pendant armed macrocycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashok K; Singh, Prerna

    2010-08-24

    Plasticized membranes using 2,3,4:12,13,14-dipyridine-1,3,5,8,11,13,15,18-octaazacycloicosa-2,12-diene (L(1)) and 2,3,4:12,13,14-dipyridine-1,5,8,11,15,18-hexamethylacrylate-1,3,5,8,11,13,15,18-octaazacycloicosa-2,12-diene (L(2)) have been prepared and explored as Ce(III) selective sensors. Effect of various plasticizers viz. dibutylphthalate (DBP), tri-n-butylphthalate (TBP), o-nitrophenyloctylether (o-NPOE), dioctylphthalate (DOP), benzylacetate (BA) and anion excluders, sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) and potassium tetrakis p-(chlorophenyl) borate was studied in detail and improved performance was observed. Optimum performance was observed for the membrane sensor having a composition of L(2):PVC:o-NPOE:KTpClPB in the ratio of 6:34:58:2 (w/w, mg). The performance of the membrane based on L(2) was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) as well as with coated graphite electrode (CGE). The electrodes exhibit Nernstian slope for Ce(III) ions with limits of detection of 8.3x10(-8) mol L(-1) for PME and 7.7x10(-9) mol L(-1) for CGE. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 12 s and 10 s respectively. The potentiometric responses are independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 3.5-7.5 for PME and 2.5-8.5 for CGE. The CGE could be used for a period of 5 months. The practical utility of the CGE has been demonstrated by its usage as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of oxalate and fluoride ions with Ce(III) solution. The proposed electrode was also successfully applied to the determination of fluoride ions in mouthwash solution and oxalate ions in real samples. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of cerium ion by polymeric membrane and coated graphite electrode based on novel pendant armed macrocycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ashok K., E-mail: akscyfcy@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India); Singh, Prerna [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India)

    2010-08-24

    Plasticized membranes using 2,3,4:12,13,14-dipyridine-1,3,5,8,11,13,15,18-octaazacycloicosa-2,12-diene (L{sub 1}) and 2,3,4:12,13,14-dipyridine-1,5,8,11,15,18-hexamethylacrylate- 1,3,5,8,11,13,15,18-octaazacycloicosa-2,12-diene (L{sub 2}) have been prepared and explored as Ce(III) selective sensors. Effect of various plasticizers viz. dibutylphthalate (DBP), tri-n-butylphthalate (TBP), o-nitrophenyloctylether (o-NPOE), dioctylphthalate (DOP), benzylacetate (BA) and anion excluders, sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) and potassium tetrakis p-(chlorophenyl) borate was studied in detail and improved performance was observed. Optimum performance was observed for the membrane sensor having a composition of L{sub 2}:PVC:o-NPOE:KTpClPB in the ratio of 6:34:58:2 (w/w, mg). The performance of the membrane based on L{sub 2} was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) as well as with coated graphite electrode (CGE). The electrodes exhibit Nernstian slope for Ce(III) ions with limits of detection of 8.3 x 10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1} for PME and 7.7 x 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1} for CGE. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 12 s and 10 s respectively. The potentiometric responses are independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 3.5-7.5 for PME and 2.5-8.5 for CGE. The CGE could be used for a period of 5 months. The practical utility of the CGE has been demonstrated by its usage as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of oxalate and fluoride ions with Ce(III) solution. The proposed electrode was also successfully applied to the determination of fluoride ions in mouthwash solution and oxalate ions in real samples.

  13. ATPase activity of erythrocyte membranes and their permeability for the K-ions as influenced by irradiation and serotonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhegnevskaya, V.V.; Vinogradova, M.F.; Polevoj, V.V.

    1982-01-01

    Na, K-ATPase activity of membranes of erytrocytes after 1 hour of X-ray irradiation of citrate blood of rats (25.8 Kl/kg)-increased, and after irradiation of isolated erytrocytes, placed in the isotonic solution of NaCl did not change. The exflux of K-ions out of irradiated erytrocytes increased equally in both cases. Serotonin (2x10 -4 M), added to the probes 10 minutes before irradiation, decreased the exflux of K + by irradiated erytrocytes, but Na, K-ATPase activity under the influence of amine was without changes

  14. Removal of heavy-metal ions from dilute waste streams using membrane-based hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesen, D.T.; Edlund, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    At Bend research, the authors have developed hybrid systems that couple a process that removes solvent (water) and a process that removes solute (metal ions) such that toxic heavy-metal ions can be efficiently and selectively removed to very low levels while simultaneously concentrating the heavy-metal ions in relatively pure form. Although this technology is broadly applicable, the authors are focusing on the development of a system to treat groundwater that is contaminated with heavy-metal ions. The process utilizes coupled transport and reverse osmosis to reduce chromium and uranium concentration down to parts-per-billion levels

  15. Measurement of Membrane Characteristics Using the Phenomenological Equation and the Overall Mass Transport Equation in Ion-Exchange Membrane Electrodialysis of Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinobu Tanaka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall membrane pair characteristics included in the overall mass transport equation are understandable using the phenomenological equations expressed in the irreversible thermodynamics. In this investigation, the overall membrane pair characteristics (overall transport number , overall solute permeability , overall electro-osmotic permeability and overall hydraulic permeability were measured by seawater electrodialysis changing current density, temperature and salt concentration, and it was found that occasionally takes minus value. For understanding the above phenomenon, new concept of the overall concentration reflection coefficient ∗ is introduced from the phenomenological equation. This is the aim of this investigation. ∗ is defined for describing the permselectivity between solutes and water molecules in the electrodialysis system just after an electric current interruption. ∗ is expressed by the function of and . ∗ is generally larger than 1 and is positive, but occasionally ∗ becomes less than 1 and becomes negative. Negative means that ions are transferred with water molecules (solvent from desalting cells toward concentrating cells just after an electric current interruption, indicating up-hill transport or coupled transport between water molecules and solutes.

  16. Electrochemical ion transfer mediated by a lipophilic Os(ii)/Os(iii) dinonyl bipyridyl probe incorporated in thin film membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansod, Sutida; Wang, Lu; Cuartero, Maria; Bakker, Eric

    2017-09-28

    A new lipophilic dinonyl bipyridyl Os(ii)/Os(iii) complex successfully mediates ion transfer processes across voltammetric thin membranes. An added lipophilic cation-exchanger may impose voltammetric anion or cation transfer waves of Gaussian shape that are reversible and repeatable. The peak potential is found to shift with the ion concentration in agreement with the Nernst equation. The addition of tridodecylmethylammonium nitrate to the polymeric film dramatically reduces the peak separation from 240 mV to 65 mV, and the peak width to a near-theoretical value of 85 mV, which agrees with a surface confined process. It is suggested that the cationic additive serves as a phase transfer catalyst.

  17. Lipophilicity of acetylcholine and related ions examined by ion transfer voltammetry at a polarized room-temperature ionic liquid membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langmaier, Jan; Záliš, Stanislav; Samec, Zdeněk

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 815, APR 2018 (2018), s. 183-188 ISSN 1572-6657 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-03139S; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-05387S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : acetylcholine * choline * ion transfer voltammetry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis) Impact factor: 3.012, year: 2016

  18. Sulfonation degree effect on ion-conducting SPEEK-titanium oxide membranes properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero, Jacqueline Costa; Gomes, Ailton de Souza; Dutra Filho, José Carlos, E-mail: jacquecosta@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoléculas Professora Eloisa Mano; Hui, Wang Shu [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais; Oliveira, Vivianna Silva de [Escola Técnica Rezende Rammel (ETRR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Polymeric membranes were developed using a SPEEK (sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)) polymer matrix, containing titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) (incorporated by sol-gel method). SPEEK with different sulfonation degrees (SD): 63% and 50% were used. The influence of sulfonation degree on membrane properties was investigated. The thermal analysis (TGA and DTGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were carried out to characterize the membranes and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was carried out to evaluate the proton conductivity of the membranes. The proton conductivities in water were of 3.25 to 37.08 mS.cm{sup -1}. Experimental data of impedance spectroscopy were analyzed with equivalent circuits using the Zview software, and the results showed that, the best fitted was at 80 °C. (author)

  19. The influence of erythrocyte maturity on ion transport and membrane lipid composition in the rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vokurková, Martina; Rauchová, Hana; Dobešová, Zdenka; Loukotová, Jana; Nováková, O.; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 1 (2016), s. 91-99 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-25396A; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : reticulocytes * immature erythrocytes * mean cellular hemoglobin content * membrane phospholipids * membrane cholesterol Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  20. Involvement of membrane lipids in radiation damage to potassium-ion permeability of Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Medical Science; Akamatsu, Y

    1978-02-01

    Radiation damage to K/sup +/ permeability of an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph of E.coli grown with oleate or linolenate was investigated at different temperatures. A remarkable effect of radiation was observed at 0/sup 0/C with cells that had been grown in linolenate at 42/sup 0/C. This indicates that, besides protein, membrane lipids at least are involved in the radiation damage. The damage also seems to be affected by the fluidity of membrane lipids.

  1. Synthesis of Ni(OH)2 Nanoflakes Through a Novel Ion Diffusion Method Controlled by Ion Exchange Membrane and Electrochemical Supercapacitive Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jiangshan; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We synthesized β-Ni(OH) 2 nanoflakes through a novel ion diffusion method. • The possible formation mechanism of the Ni(OH) 2 nanoflakes was discussed. • The temperature influence on growth of Ni(OH) 2 nanocrystals and its subsequent effect on electrochemical supercapacitive properties were examined. • The β-Ni(OH) 2 nanoflakes prepared at 50 °C for 12 h exhibits the highest specific capacitance of 2102 F g −1 . - Abstract: A novel method, ion diffusion method controlled by ion exchange membrane was reported for the synthesis of Ni(OH) 2 nanomaterials in the absence of any template or organic surfactant. The structure and morphology of as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), BET specific surface area and pore size distribution analyzer. It can be observed that β-Ni(OH) 2 nanoflake-like structure was obtained, and the sheet size, thickness and pore size of as-prepared samples can be controlled by altering reaction time and reaction temperature. The BET specific surface area of Ni(OH) 2 nanomaterials obtained by this method can be up to 280.5 m 2 /g at 30 °C. The electrochemical supercapacitive properties of Ni(OH) 2 nanostructures have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. All these Ni(OH) 2 samples exhibit good capacity for electrochemical supercapacitor in KOH electrolyte. The flake nanostructures synthesized at 50 °C for 12 h exhibit a highest specific capacitance of 2102 F g −1 at a current density of 20 mA cm −2 within the potential range of 0.5 V and the Ni(OH) 2 sample retains 85.1% of the initial capacitance even after 1000 continuous charge–discharge cycles. The results indicate that ion diffusion method controlled by ion exchange membrane is a useful method for synthesizing inorganic nanomaterials.

  2. PVC-membrane potentiometric sensors based on a recently synthesized Schiff base for Fe(III ion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yousef Ebrahimipur

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A potentiometric iron sensor based on the use 3-(2-diethylamino-ethylimino-1,3-dihydro-indol-2-one (DEDIO as an ionophore in poly(vinyl chloride (PVC matrix, is reported. The plasticized membrane sensor exhibits a Nernstian response for Fe(III ions over a wide concentration range (2.0 × 10-6 - 5.0 × 10-2 M with a super Nernstian slope of 26(plus or minus 1 mV per decade. It has a fast response time of less than 12 s and can be used for ten weeks without any considerable divergences in its potentials the electrode can be used in the pH range 4.5-8.0. The proposed sensor shows fairly good discriminating ability towards Fe(III ion in comparison with a large number of alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. The sensor was used as indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of Fe(III ions vs. EDTA.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v26i1.7

  3. Fabrication of nano structures in thin membranes with focused ion beam technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadgil, V.J.; Tong, D.H.; Cesa, Y.; Bennink, Martin L.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technology has emerged as an important tool for nanotechnology [V.J. Gadgil, F. Morrissey, Encyclopaedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 1, American Science Publishers, ISBN: 1-58883-057-8, 2004, p101.]. In this paper, applications of focused ion beam

  4. Synthesis and characterization of functional peek for ion-exchange membranes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Luo, H

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The sulfonated and sulfinated polyetheretherketone (SsPEEK) was prepared via a novel method. SsPEEK has two types of functional groups, the functional groups for ion-exchange and the functional groups for further strengthening of the ion...

  5. Pilot production of track etch membranes (TEMS) using heavy ion beam scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, J.P.; Surendran, P.; Sparrow, Hillary; Ninawe, N.G.; Bhagwat, P.V.; Acharya, N.; Kulshreshta, V.; Rajesh Kumar; Vijay, Y.K.; Kurup, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Various methods for making TEMs were conducted at Pelletron Accelerator Facility. The technique for production using ion beam scattering was also established. This is an effort to make TEMs on pilot basis at BARC- TIFR Pelletron Accelerator using Heavy Ion Beam Scanner till large rolling mechanism is implemented

  6. Production of multi-, oligo- and single-pore membranes using a continuous ion beam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Apel, P. Yu.; Ivanov, O.; Lizunov, N. E.; Mamonova, T. I.; Nechaev, A. N.; Olejniczak, K.; Vacík, Jiří; Dmitriev, S. N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 365, DEC (2015), s. 641-645 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : ion beam * irradiation * ion track * etching * single nanopore Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.389, year: 2015

  7. Dynamic adsorption of mixtures of Rhodamine B, Pb (II), Cu (II) and Zn(II) ions on composites chitosan-silica-polyethylene glycol membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahatmanti, F. W.; Rengga, W. D. P.; Kusumastuti, E.; Nuryono

    2018-04-01

    The adsorption of a solution mixture of Rhodamine B, Pb (II), Cu (II) and Zn(II) was studied using dynamic methods employing chitosan-silica-polyethylene glycol (Ch/Si/P) composite membrane as an adsorptive membrane. The composite Ch/Si/P membrane was prepared by mixing a chitosan-based membrane with silica isolated from rice husk ash (ASP) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a plasticizer. The resultant composite membrane was a stronger and more flexible membrane than the original chitosan-based membrane as indicated by the maximum percentage of elongation (20.5 %) and minimum Young’s Modulus (80.5 MPa). The composite membrane also showed increased mechanical and hydrophilic properties compared to the chitosan membranes. The membrane was used as adsorption membrane for Pb (II), Cu (II), Cd (II) ions and Rhodamine B dyes in a dynamic system where the permeation and selectivity were determined. The permeation of the components was observed to be in the following order: Rhodamine B > Cd (II) > Pb (II) > Cu (II) whereas the selectivity was shown to decrease the order of Cu (II) > Pb (II) > Cd (II) > Rhodamine B.

  8. A laser microsurgical method of cell wall removal allows detection of large-conductance ion channels in the guard cell plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedema, H.; Henriksen, G. H.; Assmann, S. M.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Application of patch clamp techniques to higher-plant cells has been subject to the limitation that the requisite contact of the patch electrode with the cell membrane necessitates prior enzymatic removal of the plant cell wall. Because the wall is an integral component of plant cells, and because cell-wall-degrading enzymes can disrupt membrane properties, such enzymatic treatments may alter ion channel behavior. We compared ion channel activity in enzymatically isolated protoplasts of Vicia faba guard cells with that found in membranes exposed by a laser microsurgical technique in which only a tiny portion of the cell wall is removed while the rest of the cell remains intact within its tissue environment. "Laser-assisted" patch clamping reveals a new category of high-conductance (130 to 361 pS) ion channels not previously reported in patch clamp studies on plant plasma membranes. These data indicate that ion channels are present in plant membranes that are not detected by conventional patch clamp techniques involving the production of individual plant protoplasts isolated from their tissue environment by enzymatic digestion of the cell wall. Given the large conductances of the channels revealed by laser-assisted patch clamping, we hypothesize that these channels play a significant role in the regulation of ion content and electrical signalling in guard cells.

  9. Determining time-weighted average concentrations of nitrate and ammonium in freshwaters using DGT with ion exchange membrane-based binding layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Jianyin; Bennett, William W.; Welsh, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Commercially-available AMI-7001 anion exchange and CMI-7000 cation exchange membranes were utilised as binding layers for DGT measurements of NO3-N and NH4-N in freshwaters. These ion exchange membranes are easier to prepare and handle than DGT binding layers consisting of hydrogels cast with ion...... exchange resins. The membranes showed good uptake and elution efficiencies for both NO3-N and NH4-N. The membrane-based DGTs are suitable for pH 3.5-8.5 and ionic strength ranges (0.0001-0.014 and 0.0003-0.012 mol L−1 as NaCl for the AMI-7001 and CMI-7000 membrane, respectively) typical of most natural...... freshwaters. The binding membranes had high intrinsic binding capacities for NO3-N and NH4-N of 911 ± 88 μg and 3512 ± 51 μg, respectively. Interferences from the major competing ions for membrane-based DGTs are similar to DGTs employing resin-based binding layers but with slightly different selectivity...

  10. Rapid Screening of Carboxylic Acids from Waste and Surface Waters by ESI-MS/MS Using Barium Ion Chemistry and On-Line Membrane Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kyle D.; Volmer, Dietrich A.; Gill, Chris G.; Krogh, Erik T.

    2016-03-01

    Negative ion tandem mass spectrometric analysis of aliphatic carboxylic acids often yields only non-diagnostic ([M - H]-) ions with limited selective fragmentation. However, carboxylates cationized with Ba2+ have demonstrated efficient dissociation in positive ion mode, providing structurally diagnostic product ions. We report the application of barium adducts followed by collision induced dissociation (CID), to improve selectivity for rapid screening of carboxylic acids in complex aqueous samples. The quantitative MS/MS method presented utilizes common product ions of [M - H + Ba]+ precursor ions. The mechanism of product ion formation is investigated using isotopically labeled standards and a series of structurally related carboxylic acids. The results suggest that hydrogen atoms in the β and γ positions yield common product ions ([BaH]+ and [BaOH]+). Furthermore, the diagnostic product ion at m/z 196 serves as a qualifying ion for carboxylate species. This methodology has been successfully used in conjunction with condensed phase membrane introduction mass spectrometry (CP-MIMS), with barium acetate added directly to the methanol acceptor phase. The combination enables rapid screening of carboxylic acids directly from acidified water samples (wastewater effluent, spiked natural waters) using a capillary hollow fiber PDMS membrane immersion probe. We have applied this technique for the direct analysis of complex naphthenic acid mixtures spiked into natural surface waters using CP-MIMS. Selectivity at the ionization and tandem mass spectrometry level eliminate isobaric interferences from hydroxylated species present within the samples, which have been observed in negative electrospray ionization.

  11. Rapid Screening of Carboxylic Acids from Waste and Surface Waters by ESI-MS/MS Using Barium Ion Chemistry and On-Line Membrane Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kyle D; Volmer, Dietrich A; Gill, Chris G; Krogh, Erik T

    2016-03-01

    Negative ion tandem mass spectrometric analysis of aliphatic carboxylic acids often yields only non-diagnostic ([M - H](-)) ions with limited selective fragmentation. However, carboxylates cationized with Ba(2+) have demonstrated efficient dissociation in positive ion mode, providing structurally diagnostic product ions. We report the application of barium adducts followed by collision induced dissociation (CID), to improve selectivity for rapid screening of carboxylic acids in complex aqueous samples. The quantitative MS/MS method presented utilizes common product ions of [M - H + Ba](+) precursor ions. The mechanism of product ion formation is investigated using isotopically labeled standards and a series of structurally related carboxylic acids. The results suggest that hydrogen atoms in the β and γ positions yield common product ions ([BaH](+) and [BaOH](+)). Furthermore, the diagnostic product ion at m/z 196 serves as a qualifying ion for carboxylate species. This methodology has been successfully used in conjunction with condensed phase membrane introduction mass spectrometry (CP-MIMS), with barium acetate added directly to the methanol acceptor phase. The combination enables rapid screening of carboxylic acids directly from acidified water samples (wastewater effluent, spiked natural waters) using a capillary hollow fiber PDMS membrane immersion probe. We have applied this technique for the direct analysis of complex naphthenic acid mixtures spiked into natural surface waters using CP-MIMS. Selectivity at the ionization and tandem mass spectrometry level eliminate isobaric interferences from hydroxylated species present within the samples, which have been observed in negative electrospray ionization.

  12. Molecular Mechanisms of Ultrafiltration Membrane Fouling in Polymer-Flooding Wastewater Treatment: Role of Ions in Polymeric Fouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guicai; Yu, Shuili; Yang, Haijun; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yi; He, Bo; Li, Lei; Liu, Zhiyuan

    2016-02-02

    Polymer (i.e., anionic polyacrylamide (APAM)) fouling of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes and its relationships to intermolecular interactions were investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Distinct relations were obtained between the AFM force spectroscopy measurements and calculated fouling resistance over the concentration polarization layer (CPL) and gel layer (GL). The measured maximum adhesion forces (Fad,max) were closely correlated with the CPL resistance (Rp), and the proposed molecular packing property (largely based on the shape of AFM force spectroscopy curve) of the APAM chains was related to the GL resistance (Rg). Calcium ions (Ca(2+)) and sodium ions (Na(+)) caused more severe fouling. In the presence of Ca(2+), the large Rp corresponded to high foulant-foulant Fad,max, resulting in high flux loss. In addition, the Rg with Ca(2+) was minor, but the flux recovery rate after chemical cleaning was the lowest, indicating that Ca(2+) created more challenges in GL cleaning. With Na(+), the fouling behavior was complicated and concentration-dependent. The GL structures with Na(+), which might correspond to the proposed molecular packing states among APAM chains, played essential roles in membrane fouling and GL cleaning.

  13. Calcium and Magnesium Ions Are Membrane-Active against Stationary-Phase Staphylococcus aureus with High Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuntao; Yang, Lihua

    2016-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is notorious for its ability to acquire antibiotic-resistance, and antibiotic-resistant S. aureus has become a wide-spread cause of high mortality rate. Novel antimicrobials capable of eradicating S. aureus cells including antibiotic-resistant ones are thus highly desired. Membrane-active bactericides and species-specific antimicrobials are two promising sources of novel anti-infective agents for fighting against bacterial antibiotic-resistance. We herein show that Ca2+ and Mg2+, two alkaline-earth-metal ions physiologically essential for diverse living organisms, both disrupt model S. aureus membranes and kill stationary-phase S. aureus cells, indicative of membrane-activity. In contrast to S. aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis exhibit unaffected survival after similar treatment with these two cations, indicative of species-specific activity against S. aureus. Moreover, neither Ca2+ nor Mg2+ lyses mouse red blood cells, indicative of hemo-compatibility. This works suggests that Ca2+ and Mg2+ may have implications in targeted eradication of S. aureus pathogen including the antibiotic-resistant ones.

  14. Fixed Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Fixed Points - From Russia with Love - A Primer of Fixed Point Theory. A K Vijaykumar. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 101-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. Conductivity of Cellulose Acetate Membranes from Pandan Duri Leaves (Pandanus tectorius for Li-ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laksono Endang W.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to know the influence of lithium chloride composition on membrane conductivity. Cellulose was extracted from pandan duri leaves (P. tectorius by dilute alkaline and bleaching with 0.5% NaOCl followed by synthesis of cellulose acetate using acetic anhydride as acetylating agent, acetic acid as solvent and sulfuric acid as catalyst. The membranes were prepared by casting polymer solution method and the composition of CA/LiCl were 60/40, 65/35, 70/30, 75/25, 80/20 and 100/0. Structural analysis was carried out by FTIR and X-ray diffraction. The conductivity was measured using Elkahfi 100. The highest conductivity of cellulose acetate membrane was 2.20 × 10-4 S cm-1 that measured at room temperature for 65/35 composition

  16. chemical studies on the extraction of certain metal ions from aqueous solution by liquid emulsion membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis four systems are addressed related to the use of liquid emulsion membranes (ELM) based on Co(III)dicarbiolide and. The system was dedicated for permeation of cadmium , cobalt Nickel and lead for use of this system for preconcentration and separation of cadmium, cobalt, nickel and lead. The work carried out in this thesis is presented in three parts, namely; introduction, experimental and results and discussion.The first chapter is the introduction which includes aim of work, basic concepts of liquid membranes; liquid emulsion membranes; different models of emulsion permeation, literature survey of extraction chemistry of cadmium, cobalt, nickel and lead. Chapter two includes the experimental part. In this part detailed outlines on the chemicals and different elements used were given. Different instruments as well as analytical techniques were outlines. The preparation of liquid emulsion membrane and the permeation techniques were presented in details. The third chapter deals with the results and discussion. This chapter is divided into four main parts, the four parts is concerned with cadmium/Co(III) dicarbolide/NTA, EDTA, DPTA and DCTA systems. In this part the permeation of Cd(II) aqueous solution by the membrane used was experimented based on liquid-liquid extraction studies of cadmium from different sodium chloride molarities (from 0.01 to 0.1 M) by 0.01 M Cobalt(III) dicarbolides. It was found that the extraction of with cadmium is higher following in the first system, the permeation of the toxic elements, Cd(II) from HCl/sodium chloride medium was carried out using liquid emulsion membrane containing Co(III)dicarbiolide in xylene as carrier, Spain 80/ Spain 85(1:3) as surfactant and NTA, EDTA, DPTA and DCTA as a stripping solutions.

  17. Coupled chemical reactions in dynamic nanometric confinement: Ag2O membrane formation during ion track etching

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hernandez, G. M.; Cruz, S. A.; Quintero, R.; Arellano, H. G.; Fink, Dietmar; Alfonta, L.; Mandabi, Y.; Kiv, A.; Vacík, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 168, č. 9 (2013), s. 675-695 ISSN 1042-0150 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : track * polymers * etching * chemistry * ions * nanostructure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.603, year: 2013

  18. Patterned ion exchange membranes for improved power production in microbial reverse-electrodialysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jia; Geise, Geoffrey M.; Luo, Xi; Hou, Huijie; Zhang, Fang; Feng, Yujie; Hickner, Michael A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Power production in microbial reverse-electrodialysis cells (MRCs) can be limited by the internal resistance of the reverse electrodialysis stack. Typical MRC stacks use non-conductive spacers that block ion transport by the so-called spacer shadow

  19. A new type of Na(+-driven ATP synthase membrane rotor with a two-carboxylate ion-coupling motif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Schulz

    Full Text Available The anaerobic bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum uses glutamate decarboxylation to generate a transmembrane gradient of Na⁺. Here, we demonstrate that this ion-motive force is directly coupled to ATP synthesis, via an F₁F₀-ATP synthase with a novel Na⁺ recognition motif, shared by other human pathogens. Molecular modeling and free-energy simulations of the rotary element of the enzyme, the c-ring, indicate Na⁺ specificity in physiological settings. Consistently, activity measurements showed Na⁺ stimulation of the enzyme, either membrane-embedded or isolated, and ATP synthesis was sensitive to the Na⁺ ionophore monensin. Furthermore, Na⁺ has a protective effect against inhibitors targeting the ion-binding sites, both in the complete ATP synthase and the isolated c-ring. Definitive evidence of Na⁺ coupling is provided by two identical crystal structures of the c₁₁ ring, solved by X-ray crystallography at 2.2 and 2.6 Å resolution, at pH 5.3 and 8.7, respectively. Na⁺ ions occupy all binding sites, each coordinated by four amino acids and a water molecule. Intriguingly, two carboxylates instead of one mediate ion binding. Simulations and experiments demonstrate that this motif implies that a proton is concurrently bound to all sites, although Na⁺ alone drives the rotary mechanism. The structure thus reveals a new mode of ion coupling in ATP synthases and provides a basis for drug-design efforts against this opportunistic pathogen.

  20. SEPARATION OF Fe (III, Cr(III, Cu(II, Ni(II, Co(II, AND Pb(II METAL IONS USING POLY(EUGENYL OXYACETIC ACID AS AN ION CARRIER BY A LIQUID MEMBRANE TRANSPORT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Harimu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fe (III, Cr(III, Cu(II, Ni(II, Co(II, and Pb(II  metal ions had been separated using poly(eugenyl oxyacetic acid as an ion carrier by bulk liquid membrane transport method. The effect of pH, polyeugenyl oxyacetic acid ion carrier concentration, nitric acid concentration in the stripping solution, transport time, and metal concentration were optimized. The result showed that the optimum condition for transport of metal ions was at pH 4 for ion Fe(III and at pH 5 for Cr(III, Cu(II, Ni(II, Co(II, and Pb(II ions. The carrier volumes were optimum with concentration of 1 x 10-3 M at 7.5 mL for Cr(III, Cu (II,  Ni(II, Co(II ions and at 8.5 mL for Fe(III and Pb(II ions. The concentration of HNO3 in stripping phase was optimum at 2 M for Fe(III and Cu(II ions, 1 M for Cr(III, Ni(II and Co(II ions, and 0.5 M for Pb(II ion. The optimum transport times were 36 h for Fe(III and Co(II ions, and 48 h for Cr(III, Cu (II, Ni(II, and Pb(II ions. The concentration of metal ions accurately transported were 2.5 x 10-4 M for Fe(III and Cr(III ions, and 1 M for Cu (II, Ni(II, Co(II, and Pb(II ions. Compared to other metal ions the transport of Fe(III was the highest with selectivity order of Fe(III > Cr(III > Pb(II > Cu(II > Ni(II > Co(II. At optimum condition, Fe(III ion was transported through the membrane at 46.46%.   Keywords: poly(eugenyl oxyacetic acid, transport, liquid membrane, Fe (III, Cr(III, Cu(II, Ni(II, Co(II, and Pb(II ions

  1. Influence of phosphate buffer and proteins on the potentiometric response of a polymeric membrane-based solid-contact Pb(II) ion-selective electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joon, Narender Kumar; He, Ning; Wagner, Michal

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the influence of phosphate buffer and proteins on the potentiometric response of a polymeric membrane-based solid-contact Pb2+-selective electrode (Pb2+-ISE) was studied. The effects of bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption at the surface of the ion-selective membrane combined...... ions studied (Cu2+, Cd2+). Conditioning of the Pb2+-ISE in 0.01 mol dm–3 PBS resulted in a super-Nernstian response which was related to fixation/extraction of Pb2+ in the ion-selective membrane via precipitation of Pb3(PO4)2 by PO43– anions present in PBS. By conditioning of the Pb2+-ISE in 0.01 mol...

  2. Cyclic Voltammetry of Highly Hydrophilic Ions at a Supported Liquid Membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ulmeanu, S. M.; Jensen, H.; Samec, Zdeněk; Bouchard, G.; Carrupt, P. A.; Giraut, H. H.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 530, 1/2 (2002), s. 10-15 ISSN 0022-0728 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4040902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : liquid-liquid interface * membrane * cyclic voltammetry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.027, year: 2002

  3. Polymer Inclusion Membrane Containing a Tripodal Diglycolamide Ligand: Actinide Ion Uptake and Transport Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahanty, B.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Raut, D.R.; Das, D.K.; Behere, P.G.; Afzal, M.; Verboom, Willem

    2016-01-01

    A cellulose triacetate (CTA)-based polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) containing a C-pivot tripodal diglycolamide (T-DGA) as the carrier extractant and 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) as the plasticizer shows potential for the uptake of actinides from acidic feed solutions. The uptake of actinides

  4. Mitochondrial membranes with mono- and divalent salt: Changes induced by salt ions on structure and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pöyry, S.; Róg, T.; Karttunen, M.E.J.; Vattulainen, I.

    2009-01-01

    We employ atomistic simulations to consider how mono- (NaCl) and divalent (CaCl2) salt affects properties of inner and outer membranes of mitochondria. We find that the influence of salt on structural properties is rather minute, only weakly affecting lipid packing, conformational ordering, and

  5. Removal of chromium (VI) ions from aqueous solutions using amine-impregnated TiO2 nanoparticles modified cellulose acetate membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebru, Kibrom Alebel; Das, Chandan

    2018-01-01

    In this work, TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) were modified using tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), ethylenediamine (EDA), and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) amines using impregnation process. The prepared amine modified TiO 2 samples were explored as an additive to fabricate ultrafiltration membranes with enhanced capacity towards the removal of chromium ions from aqueous solution. Modified membranes were prepared from cellulose acetate (CA) polymer blended with polyethylene glycol (PEG) additive, and amine modified TiO 2 by using phase inversion technique. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), zeta potential (ζ), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), water contact angle (WCA), and atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) studies were done to characterize the membranes in terms of chemical structure, electric charge, thermal stability, morphology, hydrophilicity, and removal performance. The pure water permeability and Cr (VI) ion removal efficiency of the unmodified (i.e. CA/U-Ti) and the amine modified (CA/Ti-HMTA, CA/Ti-EDA, and CA/Ti-TEPA) membranes were dependent on pH and metal ion concentration. Incorporation of amine modified TiO 2 composite to the CA polymer was found to improve the fouling and removal characteristics of the membranes during the chromium ultrafiltration process. The maximum removal efficiency result of Cr (VI) ions at pH of 3.5 using CA/Ti-TEPA membrane was 99.8%. The washing/regeneration cycle results in this study described as an essential part for prospect industrial applications of the prepared membranes. The maximum Cr (VI) removal results by using CA/Ti-TEPA membrane for four washing/regeneration cycles are 99.6%, 99.5%, 98.6% and, 96.6%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mixed complex combinations with a new schiff base used as membranes ion-selective for copper and nickel ions, analytical applications)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitu, L.; Tigae, C.

    2009-01-01

    Four electrodes with liquid membrane, Cu/sup 2+/ -selective and Ni/sup 2+/ -selective, not previously described in the literature, were prepared and characterized. Electrodes 1 and 2 are based on mixed complexes of Cu(II) and Ni(II) with isonicotinoylhydrazone-2-aldehyde pyrrole (INH2AP= HL/sup 1/) as ligand and electrodes 3 and 4 are based on the mixed complexes with isonicotinoyl- hydrazone-2-hydroxy-l-naphthaldehyde (INH2HNA = H/sub 2/L/sup 2/ ) Cu/sup 2+/. selective and Ni/sup 2+/ -selective electrodes have been used to determine the copper and nickel ions in aqueous solutions, by both direct potentiometric and potentiometric titration with EDTA. They have also been used for determining the Cu/sup 2+/ and Ni/sup 2+/ ions in industrial waters by direct potentiometry. The analytical results obtained have been checked by the standard addition method and by comparison with determinations through atomic absorption spectrometry. (author)

  7. Fix 40!

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Ansambel Fix peab 13. detsembril Tallinnas Saku Suurhallis oma 40. sünnipäeva. Kontserdi erikülaline on ansambel Apelsin, kaastegevad Jassi Zahharov ja HaleBopp Singers. Õhtut juhib Tarmo Leinatamm

  8. Preparation and performances of porous polyacrylonitrile-methyl methacrylate membrane for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, D.Y.; Wang, G.Z.; Tan, C.L.; Rao, M.M.; Liao, Y.H. [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li, W.S.; Li, G.L. [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Key Lab of Technology on Electrochemical Energy Storage and Power Generation in Guangdong Universities, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2008-10-01

    A copolymer, polyacrylonitrile-methyl methacrylate P(AN-MMA), was synthesized by suspension polymerization with acrylonitrile (AN) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) as monomers. With this copolymer, polymer membrane was prepared by phase inversion. The performances of the polymer were characterized by FTIR, SEM, DSC/TG, EIS and LSV. The copolymer contains CH{sub 2}, CN and CO bonds, and shows its thermal stability up to 300 C. The polymer membrane has a porous structure with an average pore diameter of 0.5 {mu}m. The conductivity of the polymer electrolyte is 1.25 mS cm{sup -1} at room temperature, and it is electrochemically stable up to 5 V (vs. Li). Using the polymer electrolyte as the gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), the cell Li/GPE/LiCoO{sub 2} shows its cyclic stability as good as the cell with liquid electrolyte. (author)

  9. Membrane associated ion transport enzymes in normal and transformed fibroblasts and epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, C.

    1982-01-01

    In an effort to evaluate membrane changes associated with neoplastic transformation of fibroblasts and epithelial cells by radiation and chemicals, alterations in membrane-associated (Na + + K + )-ATPase and 5'-nucleotidase activities were investigated. Cell cultures consisted of normal and radiation transformed hamster embryo fibroblasts (HE) and mouse C3H 10T 1/2 fibroblasts, normal and chemically transformed adult rat liver epithelial cells (ARL), as well as hepatocarcinoma cells induced by the liver transformants. Transformed fibroblasts demonstrated a 1-2 fold increase in (Na + + K + )-ATPase activity over the normal, while the transformed liver epithelial cells and carcinoma cells showed a 60% and 40% decrease in activity compared to the normal values, respectively. The 5'-nucleotidase activity was 2 to 3 times higher in the transformed fibroblasts

  10. Influence of Global and Local Membrane Curvature on Mechanosensitive Ion Channels: A Finite Element Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Bavi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mechanosensitive (MS channels are ubiquitous molecular force sensors that respond to a number of different mechanical stimuli including tensile, compressive and shear stress. MS channels are also proposed to be molecular curvature sensors gating in response to bending in their local environment. One of the main mechanisms to functionally study these channels is the patch clamp technique. However, the patch of membrane surveyed using this methodology is far from physiological. Here we use continuum mechanics to probe the question of how curvature, in a standard patch clamp experiment, at different length scales (global and local affects a model MS channel. Firstly, to increase the accuracy of the Laplace’s equation in tension estimation in a patch membrane and to be able to more precisely describe the transient phenomena happening during patch clamping, we propose a modified Laplace’s equation. Most importantly, we unambiguously show that the global curvature of a patch, which is visible under the microscope during patch clamp experiments, is of negligible energetic consequence for activation of an MS channel in a model membrane. However, the local curvature (RL < 50 and the direction of bending are able to cause considerable changes in the stress distribution through the thickness of the membrane. Not only does local bending, in the order of physiologically relevant curvatures, cause a substantial change in the pressure profile but it also significantly modifies the stress distribution in response to force application. Understanding these stress variations in regions of high local bending is essential for a complete understanding of the effects of curvature on MS channels.

  11. Electrokinetic salt removal from porous building materials using ion exchange membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamran, K.; Van Soestbergen, M.; Pel, L.

    The removal of salt from porous building materials under the influence of an applied voltage gradient normally results in high pH gradients due to the formation of protons and hydroxyl ions at the electrodes. The formed acidic and alkaline regions not only lead to disintegration of the porous

  12. Electrokinetic salt removal from porous building materials using ion exchange membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamran, K.; Soestbergen, van M.; Pel, L.

    2012-01-01

    The removal of salt from porous building materials under the influence of an applied voltage gradient normally results in high pH gradients due to the formation of protons and hydroxyl ions at the electrodes. The formed acidic and alkaline regions not only lead to disintegration of the porous

  13. Membrane tubulation in lipid vesicles triggered by the local application of calcium ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali Doosti, Baharan; Pezeshkian, Weria; Bruhn, Dennis Skjøth

    2017-01-01

    , generates spontaneous curvature and triggers the formation of tubular protrusions that point away from the ion source. This behavior is rationalized by strong binding of the divalent cations to the surface of the charged bilayer which effectively neutralizes the surface charge density of outer leaflet...

  14. Effect of acute hyperglycemia on erythrocyte membrane ion transport in offspring of hypertensive parents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchánková, G.; Vlasáková, Z.; Zicha, Josef; Vokurková, Martina; Dobešová, Zdenka; Pelikánová, T.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (2003), s. 1325-1330 ISSN 0263-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/00/1638; GA MZd NB6682 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : ion transport * hypertension * insulin resistance Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 3.572, year: 2003

  15. Hydrophobization of track membrane surface by ion-plasma sputtering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklin, I. E.; Khlebnikov, N. A.; Barashev, N. R.; Serkov, K. V.; Polyakov, E. V.; Zdorovets, M. V.; Borgekov, D. B.; Zhidkov, I. S.; Cholakh, S. O.; Kozlovskiy, A. L.

    2017-09-01

    This article reviews the possibility of applying inorganic coatings of metal compounds on PTM by ion-plasma sputtering. The main aim of this research is to increase the contact angle of PTM surfaces and to impart the properties of a hydrophobic material to it. After the modification, the initial contact angle increased from 70° to 120°.

  16. Effects of inorganic ions on morphology of octacalcium phosphate grown on cation selective membrane at physiological temperature and pH in relation to enamel formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Mayumi; Moriwaki, Yutaka

    1989-05-01

    The crystal growth of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) is of particular interest, since there is a possibility that OCP is formed in the early stage of tooth enamel formation. In this study, the effects of CO2-3, Mg2+ and F-ions on the morphology of OCP were investigated in a membrane system, where a cation selective membrane was used to simulate amelogenesis. Reactions were carried out at pH 6.3, 6.5 and 6.8 for 3 days at 37°C. In most cases, these ions suppressed the crystal growth in the c-axis direction of OCP, particularly when they coexisted. The morphology of OCP crystal changed from ribbon-like to flake-like, depending on the inhibitory activity. The inhibitory activity, particularly that of F - ion, was suppressed at pH lower than pH 6.8. Antagonistic effect of Mg2+ and F-ion was observed at pH 6.5. In the case of F - ion, OCP crystals showed a unique pattern, which suggests hydrolysis of OCP and subsequent growth of apatite. These findings indicate that inorganic ions, particularly F - ion, influence the growth of OCP. Although CO2-3, Mg2+andF-ions coexisted, extended growth in the c-axis direction of OCP took place at pH 6.0.

  17. A Cadmium Ion-selective Membrane Electrode Based on Strong Acidic Organic-inorganic Composite Cation-exchanger: Polyaniline Ce(IV Molybdate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ashfaq NABI

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A cadmium ion-selective composite cation-exchanger polyaniline Ce(IV molybdate was used as electroactive component for the construction of a ion-selective membrane electrode. The membrane electrode showed a Nerstian response for Cd(II ions over a wide concentration range 5 × 10-6 – 1 × 10-1 with a sub-Nerstian slope of 27 mV per decade change in concentration of cadmium ions. The limit of detection was also ascertained to be 5 × 10-6 M. It has a fast response time 15 s and can be very well utilized for more than three months with out any appreciable divergence in potentials. The optimum pH for the smooth functioning of this electrode was found to be in the Ph range of 2.5 – 7.5. The electrode also showed better selectivity for Cd(II ions over many other interfering ions. The practical utility of membrane electrode was demonstrated by using as indicator electrode for the potentiometric titration of Cd(II with EDTA and determination of cadmium content in drain water.

  18. Promotion of radiation peroxidation in models of lipid membranes by caesium and rubidium counter-ions: micellar linolenic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raleigh, J A; Kremers, W [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, Manitoba. Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment

    1978-11-01

    Caesium and rubidium counter-ions increase peroxidation in irradiated micelles of linoleic (18 : 2) and linolenic (18 :3) acids. The effect was specific to Cs/sup +/ and Rb/sup +/ in the alkali metal series. The effect was independent of the salts used (Cl/sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, Cl0/sub 4//sup -/) and, therefore, independent of the chaotropic nature, and reactivity with hydroxyl radicals of Cl/sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/ and ClO/sub 4//sup -/. The promotion of peroxidation by Cs/sup +/ and Rb/sup +/ is interpreted in terms of their effect on fatty acid micelle structure. The dependence of radiation peroxidation on lipid structure in the micelles may be significant for studies of peroxidation in highly structured cell membranes.

  19. Anion-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells with Improved CO2 Tolerance: Impact of Chemically Induced Bicarbonate Ion Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Yu; Yamauchi, Kosuke; Hayashi, Kohei; Okanishi, Takeou; Muroyama, Hiroki; Matsui, Toshiaki; Kikkawa, Yuuki; Negishi, Takayuki; Watanabe, Shin; Isomura, Takenori; Eguchi, Koichi

    2017-08-30

    Over the last few decades, because of the significant development of anion exchange membranes, increasing efforts have been devoted the realization of anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) that operate with the supply of hydrogen generated on-site. In this paper, ammonia was selected as a hydrogen source, following which the effect of conceivable impurities, unreacted NH 3 and atmospheric CO 2 , on the performance of AEMFCs was established. As expected, we show that these impurities worsen the performance of AEMFCs significantly. Furthermore, with the help of in situ attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, it was revealed that the degradation of the cell performance was primarily due to the inhibition of the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR). This is attributed to the active site occupation by CO-related adspecies derived from (bi)carbonate adspecies. Interestingly, this degradation in the HOR activity is suppressed in the presence of both NH 3 and HCO 3 - because of the bicarbonate ion consumption reaction induced by the existence of NH 3 . Further analysis using in situ ATR-IR and electrochemical methods revealed that the poisonous CO-related adspecies were completely removed under NH 3 -HCO 3 - conditions, accompanied by the improvement in HOR activity. Finally, a fuel cell test was conducted by using the practical AEMFC with the supply of NH 3 -contained H 2 gas to the anode and ambient air to the cathode. The result confirmed the validity of this positive effect of NH 3 -HCO 3 - coexistence on CO 2 -tolerence of AEMFCs. The cell performance achieved nearly 95% of that without any impurity in the fuels. These results clearly show the impact of the chemically induced bicarbonate ion consumption reaction on the realization of highly CO 2 -tolerent AEMFCs.

  20. An approach to the research on ion and water properties in the interphase between the plasma membrane and bulk extracellular solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, Hiroshi; Takai, Madoka; Noguchi, Hidenori; Sawamura, Seishiro; Takahashi, Yasufumi; Sakai, Hideki; Shiku, Hitoshi

    2017-07-01

    In vivo, cells are immersed in an extracellular solution that contains a variety of bioactive substances including ions and water. Classical electrophysiological analyses of epithelial cells in the stomach and small intestine have revealed that within a distance of several hundred micrometers above their apical plasma membrane, lies an extracellular layer that shows ion concentration gradients undetectable in the bulk phase. This "unstirred layer", which contains stagnant solutes, may also exist between the bulk extracellular solution and membranes of other cells in an organism and may show different properties. On the other hand, an earlier study using a bacterial planar membrane indicated that H + released from a transporter migrates in the horizontal direction along the membrane surface much faster than it diffuses vertically toward the extracellular space. This result implies that between the membrane surface and unstirred layer, there is a "nanointerface" that has unique ionic dynamics. Advanced technologies have revealed that the nanointerface on artificial membranes possibly harbors a highly ordered assembly of water molecules. In general, hydrogen bonds are involved in formation of the ordered water structure and can mediate rapid transfer of H + between neighboring molecules. This description may match the phenomenon on the bacterial membrane. A recent study has suggested that water molecules in the nanointerface regulate the gating of K + channels. Here, the region comprising the unstirred layer and nanointerface is defined as the interphase between the plasma membrane and bulk extracellular solution (iMES). This article briefly describes the physicochemical properties of ions and water in the iMES and their physiological significance. We also describe the methodologies that are currently used or will be applicable to the interphase research.

  1. Novel polymer inclusion membranes containing T2EHDGA as carrier extractant for actinide ion uptake from acidic feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahanty, Bholanath; Das, Dillip Kumar; Behere, Praveen Gajanan; Afzal, Mohammad [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur, Maharashtra (India). Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility; Mohapatra, Prasanta Kumar; Raut, Dhaval Ramakant [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Radiochemistry Div.

    2015-06-01

    Polymer inclusion membranes (PIM) containing N,N,N',N'-tetra(2-ethylhexyl) diglycolamide (T2EHDGA) were evaluated for the separation of actinide ions such as Am{sup 3+}, Pu{sup 4+}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Th{sup 4+} from acidic feeds. The PIMs were prepared using cellulose triacetate (CTA) as the polymer matrix, 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether (NPOE) as the plasticizer and T2EHDGA as the carrier extractant and the optimized membrane composition was found to be 68.4% T2EHDGA, 17.9% NPOE and 13.7% CTA which resulted in 74% Am{sup 3+} uptake at 1 M HNO{sub 3} in 2 h. The uptake studies were carried out using feed solutions containing varying concentrations of nitric acid (0.5-3.0 M) and showed the trend: Pu{sup 4+} > Am{sup 3+} > Th{sup 4+} > UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. Quantitative stripping (> 99%) of the sorbed Am{sup 3+} was possible using a solution containing 0.01 M EDTA at pH 3.0. Reusability studies indicated deterioration of the PIM on continuous use.

  2. Imaging and structural studies of DNA–protein complexes and membrane ion channels

    KAUST Repository

    Marini, Monica; Limongi, Tania; Falqui, Andrea; Genovese, Alessandro; Allione, Marco; Moretti, Manola; Lopatin, Sergei; Tirinato, Luca; Das, Gobind; Torre, Bruno; Giugni, Andrea; Cesca, F.; Benfenati, F.; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2017-01-01

    In bio-imaging by electron microscopy, damage of the sample and limited contrast are the two main hurdles for reaching high image quality. We extend a new preparation method based on nanofabrication and super-hydrophobicity to the imaging and structural studies of nucleic acids, nucleic acid-protein complexes (DNA/Rad51 repair protein complex) and neuronal ion channels (gap-junction, K+ and GABA(A) channels) as paradigms of biological significance and increasing complexity. The preparation method is based on the liquid phase and is compatible with physiological conditions. Only in the very last stage, samples are dried for TEM analysis. Conventional TEM and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) were used to achieve a resolution of 3.3 and 1.5 angstrom, respectively. The EM dataset quality allows the determination of relevant structural and metrological information on the DNA structure, DNA-protein interactions and ion channels, allowing the identification of specific macromolecules and their structure.

  3. Imaging and structural studies of DNA–protein complexes and membrane ion channels

    KAUST Repository

    Marini, Monica

    2017-01-17

    In bio-imaging by electron microscopy, damage of the sample and limited contrast are the two main hurdles for reaching high image quality. We extend a new preparation method based on nanofabrication and super-hydrophobicity to the imaging and structural studies of nucleic acids, nucleic acid-protein complexes (DNA/Rad51 repair protein complex) and neuronal ion channels (gap-junction, K+ and GABA(A) channels) as paradigms of biological significance and increasing complexity. The preparation method is based on the liquid phase and is compatible with physiological conditions. Only in the very last stage, samples are dried for TEM analysis. Conventional TEM and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) were used to achieve a resolution of 3.3 and 1.5 angstrom, respectively. The EM dataset quality allows the determination of relevant structural and metrological information on the DNA structure, DNA-protein interactions and ion channels, allowing the identification of specific macromolecules and their structure.

  4. An ion displacement membrame model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladky, S B; Harris, J D

    1967-09-01

    The usual assumption in treating the diffusion of ions in an electric field has been that the movement of each ion is independent of the movement of the others. The resulting equation for diffusion by a succession of spontaneous jumps has been well stated by Parlin and Eyring. This paper will consider one simple case in which a different assumption is reasonable. Diffusion of monovalent positive ions is considered as a series of jumps from one fixed negative site to another. The sites are assumed to be full (electrical neutrality). Interaction occurs by the displacement of one ion by another. An ion leaves a site if and only if another ion, not necessarily of the same species, attempts to occupy the same site. Flux ratios and net fluxes are given as functions of the electrical potential, concentration ratios, and number of sites encountered in crossing the membrane. Quantitative comparisons with observations of Hodgkin and Keynes are presented.

  5. Ion exchange membranes based on vinylphosphonic acid-co-acrylonitrile copolymers for fuel cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žitka, Jan; Bleha, Miroslav; Schauer, Jan; Galajdová, Barbora; Paidar, M.; Hnát, J.; Bouzek, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 12 (2015), s. 3167-3173 ISSN 1944-3994. [International Conference on Membrane and Electromembrane Processes - MELPRO 2014. Prague, 18.05.2014-21.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP106/12/P643 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 608931 - MAT4BAT Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : vinylphosphonic acid * poly(vinylphosphonic acid-co-acrylonitrile) * ionic conductivity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.272, year: 2015

  6. Simultaneous determination of free calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium ion concentrations in simulated milk ultrafiltrate and reconstituted skim milk using the Donnan Membrane Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, R.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Eisner, M.D.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on determination of free Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ concentrations in a series of CaCl2 solutions, simulated milk ultrafiltrate and reconstituted skim milk using a recently developed Donnan Membrane Technique (DMT). A calcium ion selective electrode was used to compare the DMT

  7. Study the effect of ion-complex on the properties of composite gel polymer electrolyte based on Electrospun PVdF nanofibrous membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Weili; Xing, Yujin; Wu, Yuhui; Wang, Jiawei; Chen, Lizhuang; Yang, Gang; Tang, Benzhong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, nanofibrous membranes based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) doped with ion-complex (SiO 2 -PAALi) were prepared by electrospinning technique and the corresponding composite gel-polymer electrolytes (CGPEs) were obtained after being activated in liquid electrolyte. The microstructure, physical and electrochemical performances of the nanofibrous membranes and the corresponding CGPEs were studied by various measurements such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy(FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Stress-strain test, Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV), AC impedance measurement and Charge/discharge cycle test. As to the ion-complex doped nanofibrous membranes, PVdF can provide mechanical support with network structure composed of fully interconnection; while the ion-complexes are absorbed onto the surface of the PVdF nanofibers evenly instead of being aggregated. With the help of doped ion-complex, the prepared nanofibrous membranes present good liquid electrolyte absorbability, excellent mechanical performance, and high decomposition temperature. For the corresponding CGPEs, they possess high ionic conductivity, wide electrochemical window, and good charge/discharge cycle performance

  8. PAN-Immobilized PVC-NPOE Membrane for Environmentally Friendly Sensing of Cd(II Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moersilah Moersilah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple, cheap and environmentally friendly analytical method of Cd(II in the aqueous system has been developed by immobilization of 1-(2-pyridilazo-2-naphtol (PAN in poly vinyl chloride (PVC matrix and nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE as a plasticizer. Upon contact with Cd(II in solution, the color of sensor membrane changes from dark yellow to dark red, which is due to the formation of Cd(II–PAN complex. The best sensing results were obtained at pH 8.0 and λmax 558 nm. The dimension of the proposed sensor membrane was 0.8 cm x 2 cm with a thickness of 0.05 mm, the volume of sample was 2 mL with the Cd(II concentration range of  0 – 1.2 ppm. The limit of detection of the method was found to be 0.432 + 0.104 ppm, which was reversible. The proposed methods have been applied in the determination of Cd(II in water samples after addition of internal standard.

  9. Metalophthalocyanine complexes as ion-carriers in membrane-selective electrodes for detection of thiosalicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahrokhian, Saeed; Souri, Ali

    2004-01-01

    The potentiometric response properties of several PVC-based membrane electrodes using phthalocyanine complexes of aluminum (AlPc), nickel (NiPc) and copper (CuPc) as anion carriers, toward thiosalicylic acid (TSA) were investigated. The influences of lipophilic ionic additives (cationic and anionic) and the pH of the buffered solutions were used for the interpretation of the mechanism of the potentiometric response of sensors. The sensitivity, linear range, detection limit, and potentiometric selectivity of the membrane sensors show a considerable dependence on the nature of central metal of the ionophore. The membrane electrodes based on AlPc demonstrate sub-Nernstian responses toward TSA over the range of 0.01 to 1x10 -5 M. In the case of NiPc and CuPc as ionophores and in the presence of trioctylmethyl ammonium (TOMA + ) as a cationic additive, a Nernstian response could be established in a range of 4 orders of magnitudes of TSA concentration (0.01 to 1x10 -6 M). The results of potentiometric investigations revealed that from thermodynamic point of view, the axial coordination of thiosalicylate with the central metal of NiPc and CuPc is more efficient with respect to AlPc. This preference in response to TSA was discussed on the basis of the softness nature of NiPc and CuPc and more affinity for coordination with the thiolate group of thiosalicylate as a soft anion. These potentiometric sensors manifest prominent advantages of high selectivity for TSA over the various inorganic and organic anions, fast response times and micromolar detection limits and can be used over a wide pH range of 4.0-8.0. The prepared electrodes based on NiPc and CuPc were successfully applied in the potentiometric titration of sub-milimolar quantities of Hg 2+ in aqueous solutions and very good recovery results were obtained in these measurements. The results of complexometric studies between Hg 2+ and TSA using electrodes based on NiPc and CuPc as indicator electrodes were compared with

  10. Ion-Exchange Membrane Chromatography as an Alternative Method of Separation of Potato y Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treder Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Procedures of separation of virus particles from a plant material are multistage. Furthermore often they are difficult in terms of methodology and require use of expensive, highly specialist equipment and yield of separation is often low. The antigen obtained is often degraded and contains admixtures of other proteins. Therefore, generation of high quality and specificity antibodies based on such antigen is very difficult and quality of the antibodies has impact on reliability, sensitivity and unambiguity of results of immunodiagnostic tests (e.g. ELISA that are currently conventionally used to detect vegetable viruses. In this study three conventionally-performed methods of separation of potato virus Y (PVY were compared and a method of separation based on membrane chromatography, as an alternative separation technique, has been presented. It has been demonstrated that in proper process conditions good quality virus preparation can be obtained.

  11. Alkali metal ion-proton exchange equilibria and water sorption studies on nafon 117 membrane and dowex 50 W exchange resins: effect of long storage or aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramkumar, Jayshree; Venkataramani, B.

    2004-09-01

    Alkali metal ion -H + exchanges on Nafion 117 membrane treated differently, Dowex 50 W x 4 and Dowex 50 W x 8 resins have been studied at a total ionic strength of 0.1 mol dm -3 . The water sorption isotherms of these exchangers in different ionic forms generated over the entire range of water activity, have been analysed by the D'Arcy and Watt equation (DWE). Water sorption studies have shown that the physical structure of the exchangers have changed due to long -storage or aging, resulting in poorer water sorption and even formation of pores in the case of Dowex 50 W x 8 resin. As a result, the counter ions in the exchangers are not hydrated and the water is present in a free form, albeit structured, in the resin phase. The selectivity sequence for the alkali metal ions with reference to the H + (Li + + + ) for the exchangers used in the present study is in accordance with that reported in the literature for the ionomers having sulphonic acid as the functional group. In view of the absence of hydration of the cations in the resin phase, the driving force for the selectivity of the cation, namely, the net gain in entropy, is expected to come from the loss of structured water during the exchange process. Pre treating the Nafion 117 membrane with boiling acid solution activates the clustered region of the membrane in the H + form, while pretreatment with boiling water expands the non-ionic domain (the region connecting the clusters). These modifications influence the state of water present in the Nafion 117 membrane and the ion exchange equilibria. As a result of long storage or aging, the ion exchangers lose their elasticity or swelling characteristics. The results obtained in the present study indicate that in aged materials, the ionogenic groups are existing as isolated ion -pairs rather than in a clustered morphology. (author)

  12. Finite elements-based 2D theoretical analysis of the effect of IEX membrane thickness and salt solution residence time on the ion transport within a salinity gradient power reverse electrodialysis half cell pair

    OpenAIRE

    Etienne, Brauns

    2013-01-01

    Reverse electrodialysis electrical power generation is based on the transport of salt ions through ion conductive membranes. The ion flux, equivalent to an electric current, results from a salinity gradient, induced by two salt solutions at significantly different concentrations. Such equivalent electric current in combination with the corresponding electrochemical potential difference across the membrane, equivalent to an electric potential, results in a battery equivalency. While having a c...

  13. Interpretation of the measurement of ions fluxes through a biological membrane with a cellular compartment: example of the movements of sodium through the skin of frogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, F.

    1959-01-01

    Two-way ion fluxes which can be measured in vitro through a living epithelial membrane (such as frog skin) by the indicator method take place across the cells which behave like an intermediate ionic 'compartment'. Two membranes and four fluxes have thus to be considered. Measurements in vitro of the total sodium fluxes as a function of the sodium concentration in the medium in contact with the external face of the skin have been interpreted in this spirit. Making use of certain hypotheses, the permeability coefficients for sodium of the two cellular membranes, the four sodium fluxes, the intracellular sodium concentration and the membrane potentials have been calculated for each value of the sodium concentration in the external medium. (author) [fr

  14. The solution structure of ChaB, a putative membrane ion antiporter regulator from Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannuzzi Pietro

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ChaB is a putative regulator of ChaA, a Na+/H+ antiporter that also has Ca+/H+ activity in E. coli. ChaB contains a conserved 60-residue region of unknown function found in other bacteria, archaeabacteria and a series of baculoviral proteins. As part of a structural genomics project, the structure of ChaB was elucidated by NMR spectroscopy. Results The structure of ChaB is composed of 3 α-helices and a small sheet that pack tightly to form a fold that is found in the cyclin-box family of proteins. Conclusion ChaB is distinguished from its putative DNA binding sequence homologues by a highly charged flexible loop region that has weak affinity to Mg2+ and Ca2+ divalent metal ions.

  15. Role of ion transfer membrane in the production of uranous nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, M.K.T.; Singh, R.K.; Bajpai, D.D.; Venugopalan, A.K.; Singh, R.R.; Gurba, P.B.; Thomas, Mathew

    1992-01-01

    In Purex process, plutonium and uranium are co-extracted into organic phase and these are partitioned by reducing Pu(IV) to Pu(III) using hydrazine stabilized uranous nitrate solution. Usually, uranous nitrate is added in much higher quantity than the stoichiometric requirement to effect complete reduction of plutonium. In conventional electrolytic cells only 60 to 70% of uranyl to uranous conversion is achieved. Use of this solution results in dilution of plutonium product. In addition to this, each externally fed uranous nitrate batch increases uranium processing load and affects the plant throughput. In order to keep the additional uranium processing load to a minimum, it is necessary to increase the uranous content to near cent percent level in the externally fed uranous nitrate solution. The studies carried out at PREFRE (Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing) laboratory have shown that it is possible to produce concentrated uranous nitrate solution, nearly free from uranyl nitrate, by using a cation exchange membrane. This paper describes the development work carried out at PREFRE plant, Tarapur for production of cent percent uranous nitrate solution. Development of electrolytic cells for uranous production, from laboratory scale to pilot plant scale, has been explained. (author). 24 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  16. [3H]PN200-110 and [3H]ryanodine binding and reconstitution of ion channel activity with skeletal muscle membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, S.L.; Alvarez, R.M.; Fill, M.; Hawkes, M.J.; Brush, K.L.; Schilling, W.P.; Stefani, E.

    1989-01-01

    Skeletal muscle membranes derived either from the tubular (T) network or from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) were characterized with respect to the binding of the dihydropyridine, [ 3 H]PN200-110, and the alkaloid, [ 3 H]ryanodine; polypeptide composition; and ion channel activity. Conditions for optimizing the binding of these radioligands are discussed. A bilayer pulsing technique is described and is used to examine the channels present in these membranes. Fusion of T-tubule membranes into bilayers revealed the presence of chloride channels and dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels with three distinct conductances. The dihydropyridine-sensitive channels were further characterized with respect to their voltage dependence. Pulsing experiments indicated that two different populations of dihydropyridine-sensitive channels existed. Fusion of heavy SR vesicles revealed three different ion channels; the putative calcium release channel, a potassium channel, and a chloride channel. Thus, this fractionation procedure provides T-tubules and SR membranes which, with radioligand binding and single channel recording techniques, provide a useful tool to study the characteristics of skeletal muscle ion channels and their possible role in excitation-contraction coupling

  17. The use of ion-selective membranes for the recovery of sulphuric acid out of contaminated solutions. Comparing electrodialysis, electro electrodialysis and diffusion dialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattoir, S.

    1998-02-01

    The amount of waste arising from dismantled reactors is minimized by decontamination processes. These processes result in contaminated effluents, containing acid and metal salts. The quantity of final waste can be substantially reduced when the acid is extracted out of the decontamination effluents prior to neutralisation. This report discusses three membrane techniques for the displacement of acids out of mixed acid/salt solutions: electrodialysis (ED), electro electrodialysis (EED) and diffusion dialysis (DD). EED uses an electrical potential difference across an anion-selective membrane; DD uses a concentration difference across an anion-selective membrane; ED uses an electrical potential difference, across an anion- and a cation-selective membrane. EED can displace up to 90% of the sulphuric acid, the amount of metal ions in the displaced-acid solution is less than 1% of the ions in the original contaminated solution. Treatment costs are estimated to about 18 Belgian Francs per litre. In DD the purity of the displaced acid is comparable to EED. Treatment costs are about 21 Belgian Francs per litre. In ED 90% acid-displacement is easily reached, but 5% metal ions are also displaced. Treatment costs are about 6 Belgian Francs per litre. Therefore, in spite of the lower purity of the resulting acid, ED is economically speaking the best choice

  18. Multilayer membranes of p-sulfonato-calix[8]arene and polyvinylamine and their use for selective enrichment of rare earth metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toutianoush, Ali [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie der Universitaet zu Koeln, Luxemburger Str. 116, D-50939 Cologne (Germany); El-Hashani, Ashraf [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie der Universitaet zu Koeln, Luxemburger Str. 116, D-50939 Cologne (Germany); Schnepf, Judit [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie der Universitaet zu Koeln, Luxemburger Str. 116, D-50939 Cologne (Germany); Tieke, Bernd [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie der Universitaet zu Koeln, Luxemburger Str. 116, D-50939 Cologne (Germany)]. E-mail: Tieke@Uni-Koeln.de

    2005-06-30

    Using alternating electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly of p-octasulfonato-calix[8]arene and polyvinylamine, multilayer assemblies were built up on porous polymer supports. The resulting composite membranes with ultrathin separation layer were studied on their permeability for various metal chloride salts in aqueous solution. The membranes were permeable for sodium chloride, but much less permeable for divalent metal chlorides such as magnesium and zinc chloride, the theoretical separation factors {alpha} (NaCl/MgCl{sub 2}) and {alpha} (NaCl/ZnCl{sub 2}) being 43 and 20. Rare earth metal chlorides LnCl{sub 3} with Ln being La, Ce, Pr and Sm and the related YCl{sub 3} were strongly rejected from the membrane, the theoretical separation factors {alpha} (NaCl/LaCl{sub 3}) and {alpha} (NaCl/YCl{sub 3}) being 138 and 160, for example. Possible origins for the selective ion transport are discussed in terms of Donnan rejection of the highly charged ions and complex formation of the rare earth metal ions with the p-sulfonato-calixarene units in the membrane.

  19. Multilayer membranes of p-sulfonato-calix[8]arene and polyvinylamine and their use for selective enrichment of rare earth metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toutianoush, Ali; El-Hashani, Ashraf; Schnepf, Judit; Tieke, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    Using alternating electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly of p-octasulfonato-calix[8]arene and polyvinylamine, multilayer assemblies were built up on porous polymer supports. The resulting composite membranes with ultrathin separation layer were studied on their permeability for various metal chloride salts in aqueous solution. The membranes were permeable for sodium chloride, but much less permeable for divalent metal chlorides such as magnesium and zinc chloride, the theoretical separation factors α (NaCl/MgCl 2 ) and α (NaCl/ZnCl 2 ) being 43 and 20. Rare earth metal chlorides LnCl 3 with Ln being La, Ce, Pr and Sm and the related YCl 3 were strongly rejected from the membrane, the theoretical separation factors α (NaCl/LaCl 3 ) and α (NaCl/YCl 3 ) being 138 and 160, for example. Possible origins for the selective ion transport are discussed in terms of Donnan rejection of the highly charged ions and complex formation of the rare earth metal ions with the p-sulfonato-calixarene units in the membrane

  20. Osmotic tolerance of avian spermatozoa: Influence of time, temperature, cryoprotectant and membrane ion pump function on sperm viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, J.M.; Long, J.A.; Gee, G.; Donoghue, A.M.; Wildt, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Potential factors influencing sperm survival under hypertonic conditions were evaluated in the Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) and turkey (Meleagridis gallopavo). Sperm osmotolerance (300-3000 mOsm/kg) was evaluated after: (1) equilibration times of 2, 10, 45 and 60 min at 4 ?C versus 21 ?C; (2) pre-equilibrating with dimethylacetamide (DMA) or dimethylsulfoxide (Me2SO) at either 4 ?C or 21 ?C; and (3) inhibition of the Na+/K+ and the Na+/H+ antiporter membrane ionic pumps. Sperm viability was assessed using the eosin-nigrosin live/dead stain. Species-specific differences occurred in response to hypertonic conditions with crane sperm remaining viable under extreme hypertonicity (3000 mOsm/kg), whereas turkey sperm viability was compromised with only slightly hypertonic (500 mOsm/kg) conditions. The timing of spermolysis under hypertonic conditions was also species-specific, with a shorter interval for turkey (2 min) than crane (10 min) sperm. Turkey sperm osmotolerance was slightly improved by lowering the incubation temperature from 21 to 4 ?C. Pre-equilibrating sperm with DMA reduced the incidence of hypertonic spermolysis only in the crane, at both room and refrigeration temperature. Inhibiting the Na+/K+ and the Na+/H+ antiporter membrane ion pumps did not impair resistance of crane and turkey spermatozoa to hypertonic stress; pump inhibition actually increased turkey sperm survival compared to control sperm. Results demonstrate marked species specificity in osmotolerance between crane and turkey sperm, as well as in the way temperature and time of exposure affect sperm survival under hypertonic conditions. Differences are independent of the role of osmotic pumps in these species.

  1. Post-irradiation time effects on the graft of poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films for ion exchange membrane application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldes, Adriana N., E-mail: angeral@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente (CQMA), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Zen, Heloisa A.; Ribeiro, Geise; Ferreira, Henrique P.; Souza, Camila P.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Santiago, Elisabete I.; Lugao, Ademar B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente (CQMA), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    Grafting of styrene followed by sulfonation onto poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) was studied for synthesis of ion exchange membranes. Radiation-induced grafting of styrene onto ETFE films was investigated after simultaneous irradiation (in post-irradiation condition) using a {sup 60}Co source. The ETFE films were irradiated at 20 kGy dose at room temperature and chemical changes were monitored after contact with styrene for grafting. The post-irradiation time was established at 14 days when the films were remained in styrene/toluene 1:1 v/v. After this period the grafting degree was evaluated in the samples. The grafted films were sulfonated using chlorosulfonic acid and 1, 2-dichloroethane 20:80 (v/v) at room temperature for 5 h. The membranes were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermogravimetric measurements (TG) and degree of grafting (DOG). The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of membranes was determined by acid-base titration and the values for ETFE membranes were achieved higher than Nafion films. Preliminary single cell performance was made using pure H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} as reactants at a cell temperature of 80 deg. C and atmospheric gas pressure. The fuel cell performance of ETFE films was satisfactory when compared to state-of-art Nafion membranes.

  2. Post-irradiation time effects on the graft of poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films for ion exchange membrane application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldes, Adriana N.; Zen, Heloísa A.; Ribeiro, Geise; Ferreira, Henrique P.; Souza, Camila P.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Santiago, Elisabete I.; Lugão, Ademar B.

    2010-03-01

    Grafting of styrene followed by sulfonation onto poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) was studied for synthesis of ion exchange membranes. Radiation-induced grafting of styrene onto ETFE films was investigated after simultaneous irradiation (in post-irradiation condition) using a 60Co source. The ETFE films were irradiated at 20 kGy dose at room temperature and chemical changes were monitored after contact with styrene for grafting. The post-irradiation time was established at 14 days when the films were remained in styrene/toluene 1:1 v/v. After this period the grafting degree was evaluated in the samples. The grafted films were sulfonated using chlorosulfonic acid and 1, 2-dichloroethane 20:80 (v/v) at room temperature for 5 h. The membranes were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermogravimetric measurements (TG) and degree of grafting (DOG). The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of membranes was determined by acid-base titration and the values for ETFE membranes were achieved higher than Nafion ® films. Preliminary single cell performance was made using pure H 2 and O 2 as reactants at a cell temperature of 80 °C and atmospheric gas pressure. The fuel cell performance of ETFE films was satisfactory when compared to state-of-art Nafion ® membranes.

  3. Stabilization of the H,K-ATPase M5M6 membrane hairpin by K+ ions. Mechanistic significance for p2-type atpases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, C; Lutsenko, S; Shin, J M; Sachs, G; Kaplan, J H

    1999-05-14

    The integral membrane protein, the gastric H,K-ATPase, is an alpha-beta heterodimer, with 10 putative transmembrane segments in the alpha-subunit and one such segment in the beta-subunit. All transmembrane segments remain within the membrane domain following trypsinization of the intact gastric H,K-ATPase in the presence of K+ ions, identified as M1M2, M3M4, M5M6, and M7, M8, M9, and M10. Removal of K+ ions from this digested preparation results in the selective loss of the M5M6 hairpin from the membrane. The release of the M5M6 fragment is directed to the extracellular phase as evidenced by the accumulation of the released M5M6 hairpin inside the sealed inside out vesicles. The stabilization of the M5M6 hairpin in the membrane phase by the transported cation as well as loss to the aqueous phase in the absence of the transported cation has been previously observed for another P2-type ATPase, the Na, K-ATPase (Lutsenko, S., Anderko, R., and Kaplan, J. H. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 92, 7936-7940). Thus, the effects of the counter-transported cation on retention of the M5M6 segment in the membrane as compared with the other membrane pairs may be a general feature of P2-ATPase ion pumps, reflecting a flexibility of this region that relates to the mechanism of transport.

  4. Thermo-mechanical properties of mixed ion-electron conducting membrane materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Bingxin

    2011-07-01

    The thesis presents thermo-mechanical properties of La{sub 0.58}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCF) and Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BSCF) perovskite materials, which are considered as oxygen transport membranes (OTM) for gas separation units. Ring-on-ring bending test with disk-shaped samples and depth-sensitive micro-indentation have been used as macroscopic and microscopic tests, respectively. In addition, the thermo-mechanical properties of a third OTM candidate material La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} (LNO) were investigated. The results of the thermo-mechanical measurements with the BSCF revealed an anomaly between 200 C and 400 C. In particular, the temperature dependence of Young's modulus shows a minimum at {proportional_to} 200 C. Fracture stress and toughness exhibit a qualitatively similar behavior with a minimum between 200 C and 400 C, before recovering between 500 C and 800 C. X-ray diffraction analyses verified that BSCF remains cubic in the relevant temperature range. Hence the anomalies were assumed to be related to the transition of Co{sup 3+} spin states reported for other Co-containing perovskites. This assumption could be experimentally confirmed by magnetic susceptibility measurements. The fracture surfaces of the specimens are not affected by the mechanical anomalies at intermediate temperatures, since only a transgranular fracture mode has been observed. Complementary to the mechanical characterization of BSCF, also the temperature dependency of fracture stress and elastic behavior of LSCF have been determined. Phase compositions of LSCF have been studied by in-situ high temperature XRD. Changes in phase composition with temperature are observed. At ambient temperature the LSCF perovskite material comprises two phases: rhombohedral and cubic symmetry. The ratio of the two phases depends on both cooling rate and atmosphere. The transition of rhombohedral to cubic occurs between 700 C and

  5. Stripping analysis of nanomolar perchlorate in drinking water with a voltammetric ion-selective electrode based on thin-layer liquid membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yushin; Amemiya, Shigeru

    2008-08-01

    A highly sensitive analytical method is required for the assessment of nanomolar perchlorate contamination in drinking water as an emerging environmental problem. We developed the novel approach based on a voltammetric ion-selective electrode to enable the electrochemical detection of "redox-inactive" perchlorate at a nanomolar level without its electrolysis. The perchlorate-selective electrode is based on the submicrometer-thick plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membrane spin-coated on the poly(3-octylthiophene)-modified gold electrode. The liquid membrane serves as the first thin-layer cell for ion-transfer stripping voltammetry to give low detection limits of 0.2-0.5 nM perchlorate in deionized water, commercial bottled water, and tap water under a rotating electrode configuration. The detection limits are not only much lower than the action limit (approximately 246 nM) set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency but also are comparable to the detection limits of the most sensitive analytical methods for detecting perchlorate, that is, ion chromatography coupled with a suppressed conductivity detector (0.55 nM) or electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (0.20-0.25 nM). The mass transfer of perchlorate in the thin-layer liquid membrane and aqueous sample as well as its transfer at the interface between the two phases were studied experimentally and theoretically to achieve the low detection limits. The advantages of ion-transfer stripping voltammetry with a thin-layer liquid membrane against traditional ion-selective potentiometry are demonstrated in terms of a detection limit, a response time, and selectivity.

  6. Adsorbents/ion exchangers-PVA blend membranes: Preparation, characterization and performance for the removal of Zn{sup 2+} by electrodialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caprarescu, Simona [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry Department, 1-7 Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Radu, Anita-Laura, E-mail: raduanita@gmail.com [Polymer Department, National Research and Development Institute for Chemistry and Petrochemistry – ICECHIM, Splaiul Independentei, No. 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Purcar, Violeta; Ianchis, Raluca; Sarbu, Andrei; Ghiurea, Marius; Nicolae, Cristian [Polymer Department, National Research and Development Institute for Chemistry and Petrochemistry – ICECHIM, Splaiul Independentei, No. 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Modrogan, Cristina [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Inorganic Substances and Environmental Protection Department, 1-7 Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Vaireanu, Danut-Ionel [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry Department, 1-7 Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Périchaud, Alain [Catalyse, lot 25, Master Park – 116, Bd de la Pomme, 13011 Marseille (France); Ebrasu, Daniela-Ion [National Research & Development Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies-ICSI-Rm. Valcea, P.O. Box Raureni 7, 240050 Ramnicu Valcea (Romania)

    2015-02-28

    Highlights: • Removal of Zn{sup 2+} from the wastewater discharged from electroplating processes was studied. • A mini-electrodialysis system and different resin membranes were used. • The electrodialysis experiments were carried out at 25 °C, with and without recirculation. • The EIS measurements were carried out using new stainless steel disk electrodes. • The efficiency of the electrodialysis cell, mass flow, energy consumption was investigated. - Abstract: The present paper was aimed at studying the possibility of zinc (Zn) removal from the wastewater discharged from zinc electroplating processes. In order to save industrial and environmental resources, the concentrated solution could be reused after electrodialysis process. A mini-electrodialysis system with three cylindrical compartments and different membranes containing various resins (Purolite A500 and Hypersol-Macronet MN500) was employed, which can be further applied for the treatment of synthetic effluent which contained zinc ions. The electrodialysis system was operated at constant voltage using different concentrations of synthetic solutions of zinc ions, without and with electrolyte recirculation for 1.5 h. The pH and conductivity of solutions were measured before and after the electrodialysis process occurs. Also the removal ratio (R{sub r}) and mass flow (J) of zinc ions, energy consumption (EC) and current efficiency (CE) were determined. It was found that electrodialysis treatment generated a very low conductivity solution, enabling its reuse as rinse water. According to the obtained results when using a membrane pair with higher ion exchange capacity (IEC) the removal ratio is improved (over 80%). The physico-chemical, structural and mechanical properties of prepared membranes were registered, before and after electrodialysis process takes place, by means of complementary analytical techniques, namely, ion-exchange capacity, water content and thickness measurements. Furthermore

  7. Metal oxide nanosensors using polymeric membranes, enzymes and antibody receptors as ion and molecular recognition elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willander, Magnus; Khun, Kimleang; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain

    2014-05-16

    The concept of recognition and biofunctionality has attracted increasing interest in the fields of chemistry and material sciences. Advances in the field of nanotechnology for the synthesis of desired metal oxide nanostructures have provided a solid platform for the integration of nanoelectronic devices. These nanoelectronics-based devices have the ability to recognize molecular species of living organisms, and they have created the possibility for advanced chemical sensing functionalities with low limits of detection in the nanomolar range. In this review, various metal oxides, such as ZnO-, CuO-, and NiO-based nanosensors, are described using different methods (receptors) of functionalization for molecular and ion recognition. These functionalized metal oxide surfaces with a specific receptor involve either a complex formation between the receptor and the analyte or an electrostatic interaction during the chemical sensing of analytes. Metal oxide nanostructures are considered revolutionary nanomaterials that have a specific surface for the immobilization of biomolecules with much needed orientation, good conformation and enhanced biological activity which further improve the sensing properties of nanosensors. Metal oxide nanostructures are associated with certain unique optical, electrical and molecular characteristics in addition to unique functionalities and surface charge features which shows attractive platforms for interfacing biorecognition elements with effective transducing properties for signal amplification. There is a great opportunity in the near future for metal oxide nanostructure-based miniaturization and the development of engineering sensor devices.

  8. Metal Oxide Nanosensors Using Polymeric Membranes, Enzymes and Antibody Receptors as Ion and Molecular Recognition Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Willander

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of recognition and biofunctionality has attracted increasing interest in the fields of chemistry and material sciences. Advances in the field of nanotechnology for the synthesis of desired metal oxide nanostructures have provided a solid platform for the integration of nanoelectronic devices. These nanoelectronics-based devices have the ability to recognize molecular species of living organisms, and they have created the possibility for advanced chemical sensing functionalities with low limits of detection in the nanomolar range. In this review, various metal oxides, such as ZnO-, CuO-, and NiO-based nanosensors, are described using different methods (receptors of functionalization for molecular and ion recognition. These functionalized metal oxide surfaces with a specific receptor involve either a complex formation between the receptor and the analyte or an electrostatic interaction during the chemical sensing of analytes. Metal oxide nanostructures are considered revolutionary nanomaterials that have a specific surface for the immobilization of biomolecules with much needed orientation, good conformation and enhanced biological activity which further improve the sensing properties of nanosensors. Metal oxide nanostructures are associated with certain unique optical, electrical and molecular characteristics in addition to unique functionalities and surface charge features which shows attractive platforms for interfacing biorecognition elements with effective transducing properties for signal amplification. There is a great opportunity in the near future for metal oxide nanostructure-based miniaturization and the development of engineering sensor devices.

  9. Flow Injection Potentiometric Determination of Cd2+ Ions Using a Coated Graphite Plasticized PVC-Membrane Electrode Based on 1, 3-Bis(2-cyanobenzene)triazene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Sahari, Shokat; Payehghadr, Mahmood; Alizadeh, Kamal

    2011-09-01

    1, 3-Bis(2-cyanobenzene)triazene, L, was used as a suitable ionophore for the fabrication of a new PVC-based polymeric membrane coated graphite electrode for selective sensing of Cd2+ ion. The electrode exhibited a selective linear Nernstian response to Cd2+ ion at an optimal pH range of 6-9 with a limit of detection of 8.0 × 10-6 M and a fast response time of about 2 s. The electrode was used as a proper detection system in flow-injection potentiometry of cadmium ion and resulted in well defined peaks for cadmium ions with stable baseline, excellent reproducibility and high sampling rates of over 100 injections per hour. It showed good stability, reproducibility and fast response time. The practical utility of the proposed system has also been reported.

  10. Electrostatic control by lipids upon the membrane-bound (Na+ + K+)-ATPase. II. The influence of surface potential upon the activating ion equilibria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, M L

    1983-07-13

    Electrostatic influences upon the enzymatic activity of the (Na+ + K+)-ATPase from ox brain (EC 3.6.1.3) have been studied. (1) The characteristics of the temperature dependence of the activity - the slopes and inflection temperature, Ti, of the Arrhenius plots - have been shown to depend on the total concentration, but not on the specific properties of added monovalent ions. (2) The enzymatic activity has been shown to be subject simultaneously to unspecific and specific influences of alkali-metal ions or NH+4. Ion-specific effects result from different binding constants of complexation between activating ions and enzyme. These stability constants are affected by the formation of an electrical double layer at the membrane surface. With increasing electrostatic screening, the complex formation is destabilized and, as a consequence, the enzymatic activity decreases. (3) This interaction between ion binding and surface electrostatics enables the enzyme to adapt its activity to the actual ionic conditions. This gives rise to a complex net dependence of the enzymatic activity upon the concentrations of activating ions. Such dependencies are analyzed, and an 'activity surface' has been constructed which represents the enzymatic activity as a function of simultaneously varying concentrations of sodium and potassium. The shape of this activity surface is determined by the relations between ion concentrations, surface potential and the resulting stability of the complexation between the activating ions and the enzyme. By means of three-dimensional representation it is demonstrated that the adaptability of the stability constants is of great importance with respect to the maintenance of the optimal ionic concentrations within the living cell. Therefore, by means of the surrounding membrane, the ATPase is provided with a quality, in addition to its substrate specificity and catalytic ability, which is necessary for its function as a transport enzyme.

  11. Optimized cryo-focused ion beam sample preparation aimed at in situ structural studies of membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Miroslava; Mahamid, Julia; Engel, Benjamin D; Laugks, Tim; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Plitzko, Jürgen M

    2017-02-01

    While cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) can reveal biological structures in their native state within the cellular environment, it requires the production of high-quality frozen-hydrated sections that are thinner than 300nm. Sample requirements are even more stringent for the visualization of membrane-bound protein complexes within dense cellular regions. Focused ion beam (FIB) sample preparation for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a well-established technique in material science, but there are only few examples of biological samples exhibiting sufficient quality for high-resolution in situ investigation by cryo-ET. In this work, we present a comprehensive description of a cryo-sample preparation workflow incorporating additional conductive-coating procedures. These coating steps eliminate the adverse effects of sample charging on imaging with the Volta phase plate, allowing data acquisition with improved contrast. We discuss optimized FIB milling strategies adapted from material science and each critical step required to produce homogeneously thin, non-charging FIB lamellas that make large areas of unperturbed HeLa and Chlamydomonas cells accessible for cryo-ET at molecular resolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Joint influence of temperature and ions of metals on level of activity alkaline phosphatase the mucous membrane of intestines beluga, the starlet and their hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Bednyakov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In work joint influence of ions of bivalent metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn and temperatures on level of activity alkaline phosphatase mucous membrane beluga, starlet and their hybrid is shown. Dependence of response of enzyme on action of ions of metals according to their position in a periodic table of chemical elements is shown. The given dependence remains and at temperature change incubation, only at low temperatures the activating effect of metals being in the period beginning is maximum, and at high, is maximum inhibiting effect of metals being in the period end.

  13. Membrane capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Wal, van der A.

    2010-01-01

    Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is an ion-removal process based on applying an electrical potential difference across an aqueous solution which flows in between oppositely placed porous electrodes, in front of which ion-exchange membranes are positioned. Due to the applied potential, ions

  14. CO2/CH4 Separation Performance of Ionic-Liquid-Based Epoxy-Amine Ion Gel Membranes under Mixed Feed Conditions Relevant to Biogas Processing.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Friess, K.; Lanč, M.; Pilnáček, Kryštof; Fíla, V.; Vopička, O.; Sedláková, Zuzana; Cowan, M.G.; McDaniel, W.M.; Noble, R.D.; Gin, D.L.; Izák, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 528, APRIL (2017), s. 64-71 ISSN 0376-7388 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-12695S; GA MŠk LH14006; GA TA ČR TE01020080 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : epoxy-amine-based ion gel membranes * biogas processing * humid mixed-gas permeation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 6.035, year: 2016

  15. Fouling prevention of peptides from a tryptic whey hydrolysate during electromembrane processes by use of monovalent ion permselective membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Persico, Mathieu; Bazinet, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Peptide adsorption occurring on conventional anion- and cation-exchange membranes is one of the main technological locks in electrodialysis (ED) for hydrolysate demineralization. Hence, the peptide fouling of monovalent anion (MAP) and monovalent cation (MCP) permselective membranes was studied and compared to conventional membranes (AMX-SB and CMX-SB). It appeared that the main peptide sequences responsible for fouling were TPEVDDEALEKFDK, VAGTWY and VLVLDTDYK for both anionic membranes; and...

  16. Influence of potassium fluoride on the syntheses of methylpiperazine-modified poly(vinyl chloride)s for use as fixed-site proton carrier membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudman, A R; Kusy, R P

    1998-03-15

    Aminated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membranes were prepared that had a Nernstian response over a wide range of pH. The reaction between PVC and methyl-piperazine (MePIP) in dimethylformamide (DMF) was studied over a wide range of time and temperature, and in the presence of the catalyst, potassium fluoride (KF). Time, temperature, and KF increased the nitrogen (N) content of the resulting polymers, but sometimes at the expense of decreasing their specific viscosities (molecular weights). Activation energies of processes that occurred in different temperature ranges were estimated assuming an Arrhenius relationship. A Nernstian response occurred once the N content approached to about 0.3 w/w %, and was accelerated by the presence of KF at elevated temperatures. Increasing the N content above about 3% led to a loss of the Nernstian response either because of an increase in the double bond content and a subsequent decrease in polymer mobility, or because of a decrease in the molecular weight of the copolymer and concomitant difficulties in film preparation.

  17. Potentiometric flow injection system for determination of reductants using a polymeric membrane permanganate ion-selective electrode based on current-controlled reagent delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjing; Ding, Jiawang; Liang, Rongning; Qin, Wei

    2011-10-17

    A polymeric membrane permanganate-selective electrode has been developed as a current-controlled reagent release system for potentiometric detection of reductants in flow injection analysis. By applying an external current, diffusion of permanganate ions across the polymeric membrane can be controlled precisely. The permanganate ions released at the sample-membrane interface from the inner filling solution of the electrode are consumed by reaction with a reductant in the sample solution thus changing the measured membrane potential, by which the reductant can be sensed potentiometrically. Ascorbate, dopamine and norepinephrine have been employed as the model reductants. Under the optimized conditions, the potential peak heights are proportional to the reductant concentrations in the ranges of 1.0×10(-5) to 2.5×10(-7)M for ascorbate, of 1.0×10(-5) to 5.0×10(-7)M for dopamine, and of 1.0×10(-5) to 5.0×10(-7)M for norepinephrine, respectively with the corresponding detection limits of 7.8×10(-8), 1.0×10(-7) and 1.0×10(-7)M. The proposed system has been successfully applied to the determination of reductants in pharmaceutical preparations and vegetables, and the results agree well with those of iodimetric analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Highly selective and sensitive optical sensor for determination of Pb2+and Hg2+ ions based on the covalent immobilization of dithizone on agarose membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargoosh, Kiomars; Babadi, Fatemeh Farhadian

    2015-02-01

    A highly sensitive and selective optical membrane for determination of Hg2+ and Pb2+ was prepared by covalent immobilization of dithizone on agarose membrane. In addition to its high stability, reproducibility and relatively long lifetime, the proposed optical sensor revealed good selectivity for target ions over a large number of alkali, alkaline earth, transition, and heavy metal ions. The proposed optical membrane displays linear responses from 1.1 × 10-8 to 2.0 × 10-6 mol L-1 and 1.2 × 10-8 to 2.4 × 10-6 mol L-1 for Hg2+ and Pb2+, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) were 2.0 × 10-9 mol L-1 and 4.0 × 10-9 mol L-1 for Hg2+ and Pb2, respectively. The prepared optical membrane was successfully applied to the determination of Hg2+ and Pb2+ in industrial wastes, spiked tap water and natural waters without any preconcentration step.

  19. Monte Carlo simulations of the distributions of intra- and extra-vesicular ions and membrane associated charges in hybrid liposomes composed of negatively charged tetraether and zwitterionic diester phospholipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István P. Sugár

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Here, we model a negatively charged lipid vesicle, composed of a mixture of bipolar tetraether and diester (or diether phospholipid molecules, by a spherical shell that has zero ion permeability. We take into consideration all the charge-charge interactions between intra-vesicular ions, extra-vesicular ions, and membrane lipid associated charges. Monte Carlo simulations result in homogeneous and double-exponential ion distribution, respectively, in the intra- and extra-vesicular space. The extra-vesicular ion concentration close to the membrane surface is proportional to the total amount of the membrane charges (Nm and is independent of the partitioning of the membrane charges between the outer (Nom and inner membrane (Nim surface. This result shows that one should not disregard the effect of the charges on the inner membrane surface when calculating the ion distributions around a charged vesicle. If the partitioning of the membrane charges is not restricted (i.e., lipid flip-flop is allowed, then at different Nm, the Nom/Nim ratio remains constant and the value of Nom/Nim, as a consequence of the interaction between every charges of the model, is close to, but significantly higher than, the ratio of the outer to the inner surface area of the membrane. These results indicate that the amount and the orientation of the negatively-charged tetraether lipids in the membrane are important determinants of membrane properties in tetraether/zwitterionic diester phospholipid liposomes. Finally we compared the results of our discrete charge model and continuous models based on the solutions of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation and pointed out qualitative similarities and sometimes major quantitative differences between these two types of models.

  20. Increase of radiation damage to potassium-ion permeability in E. coli cells with decrease in membrane fluidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.

    1980-01-01

    Membrane lipids of an auxotroph of E. coli requiring unsaturated fatty acid were manipulated by supplementing the growth medium with unsaturated fatty acids of different chain lengths and/or configurations, and the radiation damage to K + -permeability of the resulting modified cells was investigated in relation with factors influencing membrane fluidity, such as temperature and procaine. Radiation had greater effects on membranes supplemented with unsaturated fatty acids of the trans configuration with a longer chain than on those of the cis configuration with a shorter chain. Radiation damage also increased with decrease in temperature. Furthermore, procaine-treated membranes showed increased resistance to radiation. All these results indicate that the damage was affected by the physical character of membrane lipids and that it was greater in membranes with decreased fluidity. (author)

  1. Electrochemical Properties of LLTO/Fluoropolymer-Shell Cellulose-Core Fibrous Membrane for Separator of High Performance Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A superfine Li0.33La0.557TiO3 (LLTO, 69.4 nm was successfully synthesized by a facile solvent-thermal method to enhance the electrochemical properties of the lithium-ion battery separator. Co-axial nanofiber of cellulose and Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP was prepared by a co-axial electrospinning technique, in which the shell material was PVDF-HFP and the core was cellulose. LLTO superfine nanoparticles were incorporated into the shell of the PVDF-HFP. The core–shell composite nanofibrous membrane showed good wettability (16.5°, contact angle, high porosity (69.77%, and super electrolyte compatibility (497%, electrolyte uptake. It had a higher ionic conductivity (13.897 mS·cm−1 than those of pure polymer fibrous membrane and commercial separator. In addition, the rate capability (155.56 mAh·g−1 was also superior to the compared separator. These excellent performances endowed LLTO composite nanofibrous membrane as a promising separator for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Electrochemical Properties of LLTO/Fluoropolymer-Shell Cellulose-Core Fibrous Membrane for Separator of High Performance Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fenglin; Liu, Wenting; Li, Peiying; Ning, Jinxia; Wei, Qufu

    2016-01-01

    A superfine Li0.33La0.557TiO3 (LLTO, 69.4 nm) was successfully synthesized by a facile solvent-thermal method to enhance the electrochemical properties of the lithium-ion battery separator. Co-axial nanofiber of cellulose and Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) was prepared by a co-axial electrospinning technique, in which the shell material was PVDF-HFP and the core was cellulose. LLTO superfine nanoparticles were incorporated into the shell of the PVDF-HFP. The core–shell composite nanofibrous membrane showed good wettability (16.5°, contact angle), high porosity (69.77%), and super electrolyte compatibility (497%, electrolyte uptake). It had a higher ionic conductivity (13.897 mS·cm−1) than those of pure polymer fibrous membrane and commercial separator. In addition, the rate capability (155.56 mAh·g−1) was also superior to the compared separator. These excellent performances endowed LLTO composite nanofibrous membrane as a promising separator for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. PMID:28787873

  3. Iron-complexed adsorptive membrane for As(V) species in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, Rakesh N.; Das, Sadananda; Acharya, R.; Rajurkar, N.S.; Pandey, Ashok K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Functionalized membrane was prepared by graft polymerization in host membrane. ► Fe 3+ ions fixed in membrane made it selective for As(V) ions. ► As(V) preconcentrated selectively in membrane samples was quantified by INAA. ► As(V) in ground water sample was easily quantified in 2–3 ppb using membrane. ► Total inorganic arsenic could be quantified by oxidation of As(III) to As(V). - Abstract: Selective preconcentration of a target analyte in the solid phase is an effective route not only to enhance detection limit of the conventional analytical method but also for elimination of interfering matrix. An adsorptive membrane was developed for selective preconcentration and quantification of ultra-trace (ppb) amounts of As(V) present in a variety of aqueous samples. The precursor membrane was prepared by UV-initiator induced graft polymerization of sulphate and phosphate bearing monomers (1:1 mol proportion) in pores of the host microporous poly(propylene) membrane. Fe 3+ ions were loaded in the precursor membrane to make it selective for As(V) ions. The presence of phosphate functional groups prevent leaching of Fe 3+ ions from the membrane when it comes in contact with solution like seawater having high ionic strength. The optimized membrane was characterized in terms of its physical structure, chemical structure and experimental conditions affecting As(V) uptake in the membrane. The possibility of quantifying total preconcentration of As content was also explored by converting As(III) to As(V). To quantify As(V), the membrane samples were subjected to instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The studies carried in the present work showed that quantification of inorganic arsenic species in natural water samples is easily possible in 2–3 ppb concentration range.

  4. Preparation and characterization of electrically conducting polypyrrole Sn(IV phosphate cation-exchanger and its application as Mn(II ion selective membrane electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Khan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Polypyrrole Sn(IV phosphate, an organic–inorganic composite cation-exchanger was synthesized via sol-gel mixing of an organic polymer, polypyrrole, into the matrices of the inorganic precipitate of Sn(IV phosphate. The physico-chemical properties of the material were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS, CHN elemental analysis (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, ICP-MS, UV–VIS spectrophotometry, FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy, TGA–DTA (Thermogravimetric Analysis–Differential Thermal Analysis, and XRD (X-ray diffraction. Ion-exchange behavior was observed to characterize the material. On the basis of distribution studies, the material was found to be highly selective for toxic heavy metal ion Mn2+. Due to its selective nature, the material was used as an electroactive component for the construction of an ion-selective membrane electrode. The proposed electrode shows fairly good discrimination of mercury ion over several other inorganic ions. The analytical utility of this electrode was established by employing it as an indicator electrode in electrometric titrations for Mn(II in water.

  5. Constructing a proton titration curve from ion-step measurements, applied to a membrane with adsorbed protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Bosch, Coen; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet

    1997-01-01

    A new measuring method is described for obtaining a proton titration curve. The curve is obtained from a microporous composite membrane, consisting of polystyrene beads in an agarose matrix, with lysozyme molecules adsorbed to the bead surface. The membrane is incorporated into a sensor system by

  6. Dehydration of an ethanol/water azeotrope through alginate-DNA membranes cross-linked with metal ions by pervaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uragami, Tadashi; Banno, Masashi; Miyata, Takashi

    2015-12-10

    To obtain high dehydration membranes for an ethanol/water azeotrope, dried blend membranes prepared from mixtures of sodium alginate (Alg-Na) and sodium deoxyribonucleate (DNA-Na) were cross-linked by immersing in a methanol solution of CaCl2 or MaCl2. In the dehydration of an ethanol/water azeotropic mixture by pervaporation, the effects of immersion time in methanol solution of CaCl2 or MaCl2 on the permeation rate and water/ethanol selectivity through Alg-DNA/Ca(2+) and Alg-DNA/Mg(2+) cross-linked membranes were investigated. Alg-DNA/Mg(2+) cross-linked membrane immersed for 12h in methanol solution of MaCl2 exhibited the highest water/ethanol selectivity. This results from depressed swelling of the membranes by formation of a cross-linked structure. However, excess immersion in solution containing cross-linker led to an increase in the hydrophobicity of cross-linked membrane. Therefore, the water/ethanol selectivity of Alg-DNA/Mg(2+) cross-linked membranes with an excess immersion in cross-linking solution was lowered. The relationship between the structure of Alg-DNA/Ca(2+) and Alg-DNA/Mg(2+) cross-linked membranes and their permeation and separation characteristics during pervaporation of an ethanol/water azeotropic mixture is discussed in detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy of bacterial bioremediation: Demonstration of complete incorporation of hydrocarbons into membrane phospholipids from Rhodococcus hydrocarbon degrading bacteria by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, R.P.; Blumer, E.N.; Emmett, M.R.; Marshall, A.G.

    2000-02-01

    The authors present a method and example to establish complete incorporation of hydrocarbons into membrane phospholipids of putatively bioremediative bacteria. Bacteria are grown on minimal media containing a specified carbon source, either natural abundance or enriched. After extraction (but no other prior separation) of the membrane lipids, electrospray ionization yields a negative-ion FT-ICR mass spectrum containing prominent phospholipid parent ions. If {sup 13}C-enriched hydrocarbon incorporation is complete, then the mass of the parent ion will increase by n Da, in which n is the number of its constituent carbon atoms; moreover, the {sup 13}C isotopic distribution pattern will be reversed. The identities of the constituent fatty acids and polar headgroup are obtained by collisional dissociation (MS/MS), and their extent of {sup 13}C incorporation determined individually. The method is demonstrated for Rhodococcus rhodochrous (ATCC No. 53968), for which all 44 carbons of a representative phosphatidylinositol are shown to derive from the hydrocarbon source. Interestingly, although only C{sub 16} and C{sub 18} alkanes are provided in the growth medium, the bacteria synthesize uniformly enriched C16:0 and C19:0 fatty acids.

  8. Growth and morphological analysis of segmented AuAg alloy nanowires created by pulsed electrodeposition in ion-track etched membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Schubert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multicomponent heterostructure nanowires and nanogaps are of great interest for applications in sensorics. Pulsed electrodeposition in ion-track etched polymer templates is a suitable method to synthesise segmented nanowires with segments consisting of two different types of materials. For a well-controlled synthesis process, detailed analysis of the deposition parameters and the size-distribution of the segmented wires is crucial.Results: The fabrication of electrodeposited AuAg alloy nanowires and segmented Au-rich/Ag-rich/Au-rich nanowires with controlled composition and segment length in ion-track etched polymer templates was developed. Detailed analysis by cyclic voltammetry in ion-track membranes, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy was performed to determine the dependency between the chosen potential and the segment composition. Additionally, we have dissolved the middle Ag-rich segments in order to create small nanogaps with controlled gap sizes. Annealing of the created structures allows us to influence their morphology.Conclusion: AuAg alloy nanowires, segmented wires and nanogaps with controlled composition and size can be synthesised by electrodeposition in membranes, and are ideal model systems for investigation of surface plasmons.

  9. Novel ion-exchange nanocomposite membrane containing in-situ formed FeOOH nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization and transport properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidary, Farhad; Kharat, Ali Nemati [University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodabakhshi, Ali Reza [Faculty of Science, Arak University, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    A new type of cation-exchange nanocomposite membrane was prepared via in-situ formation of FeOOH nanoparticles in a blend containing sulfonated poly (2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) and sulfonated polyvinylchloride by a simple one-step chemical method. Prepared nanocomposite membranes were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The SEM images showed uniform dispersion of FeOOH nanoparticles throughout the polymeric matrices. The effect of additive loading on physicochemical and electrochemical properties of prepared cation-exchange nanocomposite membranes was studied. Various characterizations showed that the incorporation of different amounts of FeOOH nanoparticles into the basic membrane structure had a significant influence on the membrane performance and could improve the electrochemical properties.

  10. All-Solid-State, PVC Membrane, and Carbon Paste Ion-Selective Electrodes for Determination of Donepezil Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamees, Nesreen; Mohamed, Tagreed Abdel-Fattah; Derar, Abeer Rashad; Aziz, Azza

    2017-09-01

    All-solid-state, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane, and carbon paste potentiometric ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) were proposed for the determination of donepezil hydrochloride (DON) in the drug substance and a pharmaceutical formulation. The potentiometric response toward DON was based on the existence of donepezil-tetraphenyl borate (DON-TPB) in a PVC membrane or a carbon paste in the presence of dioctylphthalate. In contrast, the solid-state electrode was prepared by direct incorporation of DON-TPB into a commercial nail varnish without external additives. The electrodes exhibited Nernstian slopes of 55.0, 57.0, and 53.0 mV/decade over the concentration ranges of 1 × 10-5 to 1 × 10-3, 1 × 10-4 to 10-2, and 1 × 10-4 to 5 × 10-3 for the solid-state, PVC membrane, and carbon paste electrodes, respectively. The response of the electrodes is independent of pH in the range of 2-≤8. The electrodes showed good selectivity for DON with respect to a number of inorganic cations and amino acids. The electrodes were used for the determination of DON in pure solution and in pharmaceutical tablets with high accuracy (±2%) and precision (RSD ≤2%). The solid-state electrode is simple, economical, and rapid when compared to the PVC membrane and carbon paste electrodes.

  11. Flow-Injection Amperometric Determination of Tacrine based on Ion Transfer across a Water–Plasticized Polymeric Membrane Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rueda

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A flow-injection pulse amperometric method for determining tacrine, based onion transfer across a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride (PVC membrane, was developed. Afour-electrode potentiostat with ohmic drop compensation was used, while a flow-throughcell incorporated the four electrodes and the membrane, which containedtetrabutylammonium tetraphenylborate. The influence of the applied potential and of theflow-injection variables on the determination of tacrine was studied. In the selectedconditions, a linear relationship between peak height and tacrine concentration was foundup to 4x10-5M tacrine. The detection limit was 1x10-7M. Good repeatability was obtained.Some common ions and pharmaceutical excipients did not interfere.

  12. Cation Recognition: Novel Potentiometric PVC-Membrane Sensor based on Meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole for the Determination of Trace Amounts of Titanium (III) Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeid Ahmadzadeh; Anuar Kassim Majid Rezayi

    2011-01-01

    The present work deals with developing a novel high selective membrane electrode based on meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole for accurate determination of trace amount of titanium (III) ions in real sample solutions. The amounts of ionophore (4 mg), PVC (33 mg), dioctyl phthalate (DOP) as plasticizer (62.8 mg) and sodium tetrakis [3,5-bis (trifluoromethyl) phenyl] borate (NaTFPB) as an ionic additive (0.2 mg) were optimized in the preparation of the membrane. The electrode exhibited a linear response with a near Nernstian slope of 29.49±0.16 (mV per decade of activity) over the pH range from 1 to 3 with a satisfactory concentration range of 1.0 x 10 -6 to 1.0 x x10 -2 M. The developed sensor exhibited good reproducibility over a period of about 3 months with a fast response time of 15 seconds. (author)

  13. Development of a ceramic membrane from a lithian spinel, Li1+xMyMn2-yO4 (M=trivalent or tetravalent cations) for a Li ion-selective electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, H.; Venugopal, N.; Rim, T.; Yang, B.; Chung, K.; Ko, T.

    2010-12-01

    Recently a few lithium containing ceramics are reported as promising cathodes for application in lithium batteries. Among them, a spinel-type lithium manganate (LM) exhibits an exceptionally high ion selectivity at room temperature. Thus, LM could have a great potential as an ion selective membrane material for screening interfering ions from lithium ion for the determination of lithium ion in salt solution. In this study, we developed an ion-selective electrode based on LM as a membrane material and investigated its lithium ion selectivity by varying the content of M in composition. A sol-gel process was successfully applied for preparing LM films without resorting to calcination at a high temperature. The LM thin film-type membranes exhibit a high selectivity for Li ion over other cations, a wide operation detection range of 10-5 ~ 10-2 M, and a fast response time less than 60 s. Furthermore, our result demonstrates a linear potentiometric response over a wide range of lithium concentration, which is compared to that of a lithium ion-selective electrode based on an ionophore. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by a grant from the Development of Technology for Extraction of Resources Dissolved in Sea Water Program funded by Ministry of Land Transport and Maritime Affairs in Korean Government (2010).

  14. Digging into Lipid Membrane Permeation for Cardiac Ion Channel Blocker d-Sotalol with All-Atom Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Kevin R; Bekker, Slava; Clancy, Colleen E; Noskov, Sergei Y; Vorobyov, Igor

    2018-01-01

    Interactions of drug molecules with lipid membranes play crucial role in their accessibility of cellular targets and can be an important predictor of their therapeutic and safety profiles. Very little is known about spatial localization of various drugs in the lipid bilayers, their active form (ionization state) or translocation rates and therefore potency to bind to different sites in membrane proteins. All-atom molecular simulations may help to map drug partitioning kinetics and thermodynamics, thus providing in-depth assessment of drug lipophilicity. As a proof of principle, we evaluated extensively lipid membrane partitioning of d-sotalol, well-known blocker of a cardiac potassium channel K v 11.1 encoded by the hERG gene, with reported substantial proclivity for arrhythmogenesis. We developed the positively charged (cationic) and neutral d-sotalol models, compatible with the biomolecular CHARMM force field, and subjected them to all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of drug partitioning through hydrated lipid membranes, aiming to elucidate thermodynamics and kinetics of their translocation and thus putative propensities for hydrophobic and aqueous hERG access. We found that only a neutral form of d-sotalol accumulates in the membrane interior and can move across the bilayer within millisecond time scale, and can be relevant to a lipophilic channel access. The computed water-membrane partitioning coefficient for this form is in good agreement with experiment. There is a large energetic barrier for a cationic form of the drug, dominant in water, to cross the membrane, resulting in slow membrane translocation kinetics. However, this form of the drug can be important for an aqueous access pathway through the intracellular gate of hERG. This route will likely occur after a neutral form of a drug crosses the membrane and subsequently re-protonates. Our study serves to demonstrate a first step toward a framework for multi-scale in silico safety pharmacology

  15. Digging into Lipid Membrane Permeation for Cardiac Ion Channel Blocker d-Sotalol with All-Atom Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. DeMarco

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Interactions of drug molecules with lipid membranes play crucial role in their accessibility of cellular targets and can be an important predictor of their therapeutic and safety profiles. Very little is known about spatial localization of various drugs in the lipid bilayers, their active form (ionization state or translocation rates and therefore potency to bind to different sites in membrane proteins. All-atom molecular simulations may help to map drug partitioning kinetics and thermodynamics, thus providing in-depth assessment of drug lipophilicity. As a proof of principle, we evaluated extensively lipid membrane partitioning of d-sotalol, well-known blocker of a cardiac potassium channel Kv11.1 encoded by the hERG gene, with reported substantial proclivity for arrhythmogenesis. We developed the positively charged (cationic and neutral d-sotalol models, compatible with the biomolecular CHARMM force field, and subjected them to all-atom molecular dynamics (MD simulations of drug partitioning through hydrated lipid membranes, aiming to elucidate thermodynamics and kinetics of their translocation and thus putative propensities for hydrophobic and aqueous hERG access. We found that only a neutral form of d-sotalol accumulates in the membrane interior and can move across the bilayer within millisecond time scale, and can be relevant to a lipophilic channel access. The computed water-membrane partitioning coefficient for this form is in good agreement with experiment. There is a large energetic barrier for a cationic form of the drug, dominant in water, to cross the membrane, resulting in slow membrane translocation kinetics. However, this form of the drug can be important for an aqueous access pathway through the intracellular gate of hERG. This route will likely occur after a neutral form of a drug crosses the membrane and subsequently re-protonates. Our study serves to demonstrate a first step toward a framework for multi-scale in silico safety

  16. The impact of auxins used in assisted phytoextraction of metals from the contaminated environment on the alterations caused by lead(II) ions in the organization of model lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna; Sroka, Aleksandra; Jabłońska, Klaudia

    2016-07-01

    Auxins are successfully used to improve phytoextraction efficiency of metal ions from the contaminated environment, however, the mechanism of their activity in this field is not explained. Auxins are known to exert various biochemical alterations in the plant membranes and cells, but their activity involves also direct interactions with lipids leading to changes in membrane organization. Following the suggestion that the auxins-induced modifications in membrane properties alleviate toxic effect of metal ions in this paper we have undertaken the comparative studies on the effect of metal ions and metal ions/auxins mixtures on model membrane systems. The experiments were done on lipid monolayers differing in their composition spread on water subphase and on Pb(2+), Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and Pb(2+)/IAA and Pb(2+)/NAA water solutions. The analysis of the collected data suggests that metal ions and auxins can change fluidity of the lipid systems and weaken the interactions between monolayer components. This manifested in the increase of the mean area per molecule and the excess area per molecule values for the films on Pb(2+), auxins as well as Pb(2+)/auxin solutions as compared to the values on pure water subphase. However, the presence of auxin in the mixture with lead(II) ions makes the alterations induced by sole metal ions weaker. This effect was more pronounced for the membranes of a higher packing. Thus it was proposed that auxins may enhance phytoextraction of metal ions by weakening their destabilizing effect on membrane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Large-scale analysis of in Vivo phosphorylated membrane proteins by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nühse, Thomas S; Stensballe, Allan; Jensen, Ole N

    2003-01-01

    specificity. We investigated the potential of IMAC in combination with capillary liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the identification of plasma membrane phosphoproteins of Arabidopsis. Without chemical modification of peptides, over 75% pure phosphopeptides were isolated from...... plasma membrane digests and detected and sequenced by mass spectrometry. We present a scheme for two-dimensional peptide separation using strong anion exchange chromatography prior to IMAC that both decreases the complexity of IMAC-purified phosphopeptides and yields a far greater coverage...... of monophosphorylated peptides. Among the identified sequences, six originated from different isoforms of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and defined two previously unknown phosphorylation sites at the regulatory C terminus. The potential for large-scale identification of phosphorylation sites on plasma membrane...

  18. Interactions between oxygen permeation and homogeneous-phase fuel conversion on the sweep side of an ion transport membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup; Kirchen, Patrick; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2013-01-01

    concentration enhances oxygen permeation substantially. This is accomplished through promoting oxidation reactions (oxygen consumption) and the transport of the products and reaction heat towards the membrane, which lowers the oxygen concentration and increases

  19. Inhibition of K+ transport through Na+, K+-ATPase by capsazepine: role of membrane span 10 of the α-subunit in the modulation of ion gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmmoud, Yasser A; Shattock, Michael; Cornelius, Flemming; Pavlovic, Davor

    2014-01-01

    Capsazepine (CPZ) inhibits Na+,K+-ATPase-mediated K+-dependent ATP hydrolysis with no effect on Na+-ATPase activity. In this study we have investigated the functional effects of CPZ on Na+,K+-ATPase in intact cells. We have also used well established biochemical and biophysical techniques to understand how CPZ modifies the catalytic subunit of Na+,K+-ATPase. In isolated rat cardiomyocytes, CPZ abolished Na+,K+-ATPase current in the presence of extracellular K+. In contrast, CPZ stimulated pump current in the absence of extracellular K+. Similar conclusions were attained using HEK293 cells loaded with the Na+ sensitive dye Asante NaTRIUM green. Proteolytic cleavage of pig kidney Na+,K+-ATPase indicated that CPZ stabilizes ion interaction with the K+ sites. The distal part of membrane span 10 (M10) of the α-subunit was exposed to trypsin cleavage in the presence of guanidinum ions, which function as Na+ congener at the Na+ specific site. This effect of guanidinium was amplified by treatment with CPZ. Fluorescence of the membrane potential sensitive dye, oxonol VI, was measured following addition of substrates to reconstituted inside-out Na+,K+-ATPase. CPZ increased oxonol VI fluorescence in the absence of K+, reflecting increased Na+ efflux through the pump. Surprisingly, CPZ induced an ATP-independent increase in fluorescence in the presence of high extravesicular K+, likely indicating opening of an intracellular pathway selective for K+. As revealed by the recent crystal structure of the E1.AlF4-.ADP.3Na+ form of the pig kidney Na+,K+-ATPase, movements of M5 of the α-subunit, which regulate ion selectivity, are controlled by the C-terminal tail that extends from M10. We propose that movements of M10 and its cytoplasmic extension is affected by CPZ, thereby regulating ion selectivity and transport through the K+ sites in Na+,K+-ATPase.

  20. Inhibition of K+ transport through Na+, K+-ATPase by capsazepine: role of membrane span 10 of the α-subunit in the modulation of ion gating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser A Mahmmoud

    Full Text Available Capsazepine (CPZ inhibits Na+,K+-ATPase-mediated K+-dependent ATP hydrolysis with no effect on Na+-ATPase activity. In this study we have investigated the functional effects of CPZ on Na+,K+-ATPase in intact cells. We have also used well established biochemical and biophysical techniques to understand how CPZ modifies the catalytic subunit of Na+,K+-ATPase. In isolated rat cardiomyocytes, CPZ abolished Na+,K+-ATPase current in the presence of extracellular K+. In contrast, CPZ stimulated pump current in the absence of extracellular K+. Similar conclusions were attained using HEK293 cells loaded with the Na+ sensitive dye Asante NaTRIUM green. Proteolytic cleavage of pig kidney Na+,K+-ATPase indicated that CPZ stabilizes ion interaction with the K+ sites. The distal part of membrane span 10 (M10 of the α-subunit was exposed to trypsin cleavage in the presence of guanidinum ions, which function as Na+ congener at the Na+ specific site. This effect of guanidinium was amplified by treatment with CPZ. Fluorescence of the membrane potential sensitive dye, oxonol VI, was measured following addition of substrates to reconstituted inside-out Na+,K+-ATPase. CPZ increased oxonol VI fluorescence in the absence of K+, reflecting increased Na+ efflux through the pump. Surprisingly, CPZ induced an ATP-independent increase in fluorescence in the presence of high extravesicular K+, likely indicating opening of an intracellular pathway selective for K+. As revealed by the recent crystal structure of the E1.AlF4-.ADP.3Na+ form of the pig kidney Na+,K+-ATPase, movements of M5 of the α-subunit, which regulate ion selectivity, are controlled by the C-terminal tail that extends from M10. We propose that movements of M10 and its cytoplasmic extension is affected by CPZ, thereby regulating ion selectivity and transport through the K+ sites in Na+,K+-ATPase.

  1. Hydrogen superpermeable membrane operation under plasma conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacal, M.; Bruneteau, A.M.; Livshits, A.I.; Alimov, V.N.; Notkin, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of ion bombardment on hydrogen plasma-driven permeation through a superpermeable niobium membrane was investigated. It was found that the increase of membrane temperature and the doping of membrane material with oxygen results in the decrease of ion bombardment effect and in permeability increase. It was demonstrated that membrane decarbonization leads to the formation of a membrane state resistant to sputtering. Possible applications of the membrane resistant to ion bombardment as plasma facing components are considered

  2. Interpretation of the measurement of ions fluxes through a biological membrane with a cellular compartment: example of the movements of sodium through the skin of frogs; Interpretation de la mesure des flux d'ions a travers une membrane biologique comportant un ''compartiment'' cellulaire; exemple des mouvements de sodium a travers la peau de grenouille

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Two-way ion fluxes which can be measured in vitro through a living epithelial membrane (such as frog skin) by the indicator method take place across the cells which behave like an intermediate ionic 'compartment'. Two membranes and four fluxes have thus to be considered. Measurements in vitro of the total sodium fluxes as a function of the sodium concentration in the medium in contact with the external face of the skin have been interpreted in this spirit. Making use of certain hypotheses, the permeability coefficients for sodium of the two cellular membranes, the four sodium fluxes, the intracellular sodium concentration and the membrane potentials have been calculated for each value of the sodium concentration in the external medium. (author) [French] Les flux ioniques bidirectionnels que l'on peut mesurer in vitro a travers une membrane epitheliale vivante (comme la peau de grenouille) a l'aide de la methode des indicateurs, s'effectuent a travers les cellules qui se comportent comme un 'compartiment' ionique intermediaire. On doit donc considerer deux membranes et quatre flux. Des mesures in vitro des flux totaux de sodium en fonction de la concentration du sodium dans le milieu baignant la face externe de la peau ont ete interpretees dans cette perspective. Moyennant certaines hypotheses, les coefficients de permeabilite pour le sodium des deux membranes cellulaires, les quatre flux de sodium ainsi que la concentration du sodium intracellulaire et les potentiels de membrane ont pu etre calcules pour chaque valeur de la concentration du sodium dans le milieu externe. (auteur)

  3. Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Determination of Ultra Traces of Thallium(I) ion after Solid Phase Extraction by Octadecyl Silica Membrane Disk Modified by a New Schiff Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashhadizadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Moatafavi, Ali; Allah-Abadi, Hossein; Zadmehr, Mohammad Reza

    2004-01-01

    A simple and reliable method has been developed to selectively separate and concentrate trace amounts of thallium ion from real samples for the subsequent measurement by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Thallium ions are absorbed quantitatively during passage of aqueous real samples through an octadecyl bonded silica membrane disk modified by 4-(4-Chloro-phenylazo)-2-[(4-hydroxy-phenylamino)- methyl]-phenol. The retained Tl + ions are then stripped from the disk quantitatively with a minimal amount of thiosulfate solution as eluent. The proposed method permitted large enrichment factors of about 130 and higher. The relative standard deviation for ten replicate extraction of thallium from 1 L samples containing 5 μg thallium is 1.2%. The break through volume for 5 μg thallium is 1000 mL. The limit of detection of the proposed method is 11.2 ng of Tl + per 1000 mL. The effects of various cationic interferences on the recovery of thallium in binary mixtures were studied. The method was applied to the recovery of Tl + ions from natural water and human hair samples

  4. Continuous Fixed-Bed Column Study and Adsorption Modeling: Removal of Lead Ion from Aqueous Solution by Charcoal Originated from Chemical Carbonization of Rubber Wood Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarup Biswas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust for the removal of lead ion from the aqueous stream was investigated by column process. Chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust was prepared by treating the sawdust with H2SO4 and HNO3. Maximum removal of lead ion in column process was found as 38.56 mg/g. The effects of operating parameters such as flow rate, bed depth, concentration, and pH were studied in column mode. Experimental data confirmed that the adsorption capacity increased with the increasing inlet concentration and bed depth and decreased with increasing flow rate. Thomas, Yoon-Nelson, and Adams-Bohart models were used to analyze the column experimental data and the relationship between operating parameters. Chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscope was also utilized for morphological analysis of the adsorbent. Furthermore X-ray fluorescence spectrum analysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were also used for the confirmation of lead adsorption process.

  5. Effects of inorganic substances on water splitting in ion-exchange membranes; II. Optimal contents of inorganic substances in preparing bipolar membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Moon-Sung; Choi, Yong-Jin; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

    2004-05-15

    An approach to enhancing the water-splitting performance of bipolar membranes (BPMs) is introducing an inorganic substance at the bipolar (BP) junction. In this study, the immobilization of inorganic matters (i.e., iron hydroxides and silicon compounds) at the BP junction and the optimum concentration have been investigated. To immobilize these inorganic matters, novel methods (i.e., electrodeposition of the iron hydroxide and processing of the sol-gel to introduce silicon groups at the BP junction) were suggested. At optimal concentrations, the immobilized inorganic matters significantly enhanced the water-splitting fluxes, indicating that they provide alternative paths for water dissociation, but on the other hand possibly reduce the polarization of water molecules between the sulfonic acid and quaternary ammonium groups at high contents. Consequently, the amount of inorganic substances introduced should be optimized to obtain the maximum water splitting in the BPM.

  6. Comparative Study of PVC-Free All-Solid-State, PVC Membrane, and Carbon Paste Ion-Selective Electrodes for the Determination of Dapoxetine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Azza; Khamees, Nesrin; Mohamed, Tagreed Abdel-Fattah; Derar, Abeer Rashad

    2016-11-01

    The potentiometric response characteristics and analytical applications of a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-free all-solid-state ion-selective electrode for dapoxetine hydrochloride (DAP) are examined. The Nernstian response of the electrode was evaluated by comparison with PVC-based liquid membrane and carbon paste electrodes. The PVC-free electrode is prepared by direct incorporation of dapoxetine-tetraphenyl borate (DAP-TPB) as a sensing element into a commercial nail varnish containing cellulose acetate propionate. The composite was applied onto a 3 mm diameter graphite disk electrode. The electrode exhibited a Nernstian slope of 56.0 mV/decade in the concentration range of 1 × 10-4 to 1 × 10-2 mol/L with an LOD of 2 × 10-5 mol/L. The electrode is independent of pH in the range of 2 to 6 and showed good selectivity for DAP with respect to a large number of inorganic cations and amino acids. Comparable Nernstian slope, sensitivity, pH range, and selectivity pattern were obtained with a PVC membrane and a carbon paste incorporating DAP-TPB as a sensing element and dioctylphthalate as a solvent mediator. The electrodes were used for the determination of DAP in pure solution and in tablets without extraction with high accuracy and precision (RSD ≤ 2%). The nail varnish solid-state electrode is simple, economical, and rapid when compared with PVC membrane and carbon paste electrodes.

  7. Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael

    2012-10-16

    A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

  8. Aluminum ions alter the function of non-specific phospholipase C through the changes in plasma membrane physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejchar, Přemysl; Martinec, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The first indication of the aluminum (Al) toxicity in plants growing in acidic soils is the cessation of root growth, but the detailed mechanism of Al effect is unknown. Here we examined the impact of Al stress on the activity of non-specific phospholipase C (NPC) in the connection with the processes related to the plasma membrane using fluorescently labeled phosphatidylcholine. We observed a rapid and significant decrease of labeled diacylglycerol (DAG), product of NPC activity, in Arabidopsis seedlings treated with AlCl₃. Interestingly, an application of the membrane fluidizer, benzyl alcohol, restored the level of DAG during Al treatment. Our observations suggest that the activity of NPC is affected by Al-induced changes in plasma membrane physical properties.

  9. The polarized distribution of poly(A+)-mRNA-induced functional ion channels in the Xenopus oocyte plasma membrane is prevented by anticytoskeletal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, A B; Schittny, J C; Niggli, V; Reuter, H; Sigel, E

    1991-08-01

    Foreign mRNA was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Newly expressed ion currents localized in defined plasma membrane areas were measured using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique in combination with a specially designed chamber, that exposed only part of the surface on the oocytes to channel agonists or inhibitors. Newly expressed currents were found to be unequally distributed in the surface membrane of the oocyte. This asymmetry was most pronounced during the early phase of expression, when channels could almost exclusively be detected in the animal hemisphere of the oocyte. 4 d after injection of the mRNA, or later, channels could be found at a threefold higher density at the animal than at the vegetal pole area. The pattern of distribution was observed to be similar with various ion channels expressed from crude tissue mRNA and from cRNAs coding for rat GABAA receptor channel subunits. Electron microscopical analysis revealed very similar microvilli patterns at both oocyte pole areas. Thus, the asymmetric current distribution is not due to asymmetric surface structure. Upon incubation during the expression period in either colchicine or cytochalasin D, the current density was found to be equal in both pole areas. The inactive control substance beta-lumicolchicine had no effect on the asymmetry of distribution. Colchicine was without effect on the amplitude of the expressed whole cell current. Our measurements reveal a pathway for plasma membrane protein expression endogenous to the Xenopus oocyte, that may contribute to the formation and maintenance of polarity of this highly organized cell.

  10. Electrospun LiFePO₄/C Composite Fiber Membrane as a Binder-Free, Self-Standing Cathode for Power Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Li; Shen, Xiang-Qian; Jing, Mao-Xiang; Zhu, Sheng-Wen; Pi, Zhi-Chao; Li, Jing-Quan; Zhai, Hong-Ai; Xiao, Ke-Song

    2018-07-01

    A LiFePO4/C composite fiber membrane was fabricated by the electrospinning method and subsequent thermal treatment. The thermal decomposition process was analyzed by TG/DSC, the morphology, microstructure and composition were studied using SEM, TEM, XRD, Raman, respectively. The results indicated that the prepared LiFePO4/C composite fibers were composed of nanosized LiFePO4 crystals and amorphous carbon coatings, which formed a three dimensional (3D) long-range networks, greatly enhanced the electronic conductivity of LiFePO4 electrode up to 3.59× 10-2 S · cm-2. The 3D LiFePO4/C fiber membrane could be directly used as a binder-free, self-standing cathode for lithium-ion battery, and exhibited an improved capacity and rate performance. The LiFePO4/C composite electrode delivered a discharge capacity of 116 mAh·g-1, 109 mAh·g-1, 103 mAh·g-1, 91 mAh·g-1, 80 mAh·g-1 at 0.1 C, 0.5 C, 1 C, 3 C, 5 C, respectively. And a stable cycling performance was also achieved that the specific capacity could retain 75 mA·g-1 after 500 cycles at 5 C. Therefore, this LiFePO4/C composite fiber membrane was promising to be used as a cathode for power lithium ion battery.

  11. Role of plasma membrane and of cytomatrix in maintenance of intracellular to extracellular ion gradients in chicken erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, I.L.; Hunter, K.E.; Smith, N.K.; Hazlewood, C.F.; Ludany, A.; Kellermayer, M.

    1988-01-01

    Ultrastructural observations in combination with electron probe X-ray microanalysis on detergent (Brij 58) permeabilized (disruption of the plasma membrane) nucleated chicken erythrocytes support the view that a large fraction of cytoplasmic and nuclear K+ is not freely diffusible and that adsorption of K+ on detergent released mobilizable proteins exists within the cell. The data also suggest that the detergent proteins are normally immobilized by a detergent-resistant cytoskeleton so that they are not immediately free to diffuse from the cell for several minutes after detergent disruption of the plasma membrane

  12. Preparation and characterization of structures of oxygen-ion-conductive thin-film membranes; Herstellung und Charakterisierung von sauerstoffionenleitenden Duennschichtmembranstrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betz, Michael

    2010-07-01

    In power plants using Oxyfuel technology, fossil fuels are combusted with pure oxygen. This leads to carbon dioxide of high purity, which is necessary for its transport and storage. Oxygen separation by means of perovskitic membranes have great potential to decrease the efficiency losses caused by the allocation of the enormous amounts of oxygen. The aim of this work is the preparation and characterisation of thin film membranes on porous substrates and the analysis of their oxygen permeation properties. Therefore the material system A{sub 0,68}Sr{sub 0,3}Fe{sub 0,8}Co{sub 0,2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (A68SFC) was analysed, where the A-site was substituted with Lanthanides (La, Pr, Nd, Eu, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er) or alkaline earth metals (Ba, Ca). After an extensive characterisation, the selection was reduced to the substitutions with La, Pr and Nd. Other compounds could not meet the demands with regard to phase purity, chemical stability or extension behaviour. All analyses were conducted in comparison to Ba{sub 0,5}Sr{sub 0,5}Co{sub 0,8}Fe{sub 0,2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BSCF) which is known to exhibit higher permeation rates, but is more sensitive to stability issues. The dependency of permeation rates on membrane thickness or oxygen partial pressures on both membrane surfaces is discussed by means of permeation measurements conducted on bulk BSCF membranes. These cannot be described completely by the Wagner equation. This is due to changes of the driving force originating from influences of the surface reaction kinetics and concentration polarisation on the membrane surface, which are not considered. Porous substrates for asymmetric membranes were manufactured by tape casting and warm pressing. The application of the functional layer was performed via screen printing. Permeation measurements show that the asymmetric structures exhibit higher permeation rates in comparison to bulk membranes with L=1 mm. The moderate increase can be attributed to the low gas permeability of the

  13. Construction and performance characteristics of polymeric membrane electrode and coated graphite electrode for the selective determination of Fe³⁺ ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandi, Koteswara Rao; Singh, Ashok K; Upadhyay, Anjali

    2014-03-01

    Novel Fe(3+) ion-selective polymeric membrane electrodes (PMEs) were prepared using three different ionophores N-(4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene)thiazol-2-amine [L1], 5-((3-methylthiophene-2yl) methyleneamino)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol [L2] and N-((3-methylthiophene-2yl)methylene)thiazol-2-amine [L3] and their potentiometric characteristics were discussed. Effect of various plasticizers and anion excluders was also studied in detail and improved performance was observed. The best performance was obtained for the membrane electrode having a composition of L2:PVC:o-NPOE:NaTPB as 3:38.5:56:2.5 (w/w; mg). A coated graphite electrode (CGE) was also prepared with the same composition and compared. CGE is found to perform better as it shows a wider working concentration range of 8.3×10(-8)-1.0×10(-1)molL(-1), a lower detection limit of 2.3×10(-8)molL(-1), and a near Nernstian slope of 19.5 ± 0.4 mVdecade(-1) of activity with a response time of 10s. The CGE shows a shelf life of 6 weeks and in view of high selectivity, it can be used to quantify Fe(3+) ion in water, soil, vegetable and medicinal plants. It can also be used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of EDTA with Fe(3+) ion. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Current-Induced Membrane Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo; van Soestbergen, M.; Mani, A.

    2012-01-01

    . Salt depletion leads to a large electric field resulting in a local pH shift within the membrane with the effect that the membrane discharges and loses its ion selectivity. Since salt co-ions, H+ ions, and OH- ions contribute to OLC, CIMD interferes with electrodialysis (salt counterion removal...... neglects chemical effects and remains to be quantitatively tested. Here, we show that charge regulation and water self-ionization can lead to OLC by "current-induced membrane discharge'' (CIMD), even in the absence of fluid flow, in ion-exchange membranes much thicker than the local Debye screening length...

  15. Poly(ionic liquid)/Ionic Liquid Ion-Gels with High "Free" Ionic Liquid Content: Platform Membrane Materials for CO2/Light Gas Separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Matthew G; Gin, Douglas L; Noble, Richard D

    2016-04-19

    -films (ca. 100-nm-thick active layer). Traditional polymeric membrane materials are limited by a trade-off between permeability and selectivity empirically described by the "Robeson upper bound"-placing the desired membrane properties beyond reach. Therefore, the investigation of advanced and composite materials that can overcome the limitations of traditional polymeric materials is the focus of significant academic and industrial research. In particular, there has been substantial work on ionic-liquid (IL)-based materials due to their gas transport properties. This review provides an overview of our collaborative work on developing poly(ionic liquid)/ionic liquid (PIL/IL) ion-gel membrane technology. We detail developmental work on the preparation of PIL/IL composites and describe how this chemical technology was adapted to allow the roll-to-roll processing and preparation of membranes with defect-free active layers ca. 100 nm thick, CO2 permeances of over 6000 GPU, and CO2/N2 selectivity of ≥20-properties with the potential to reduce the cost of CO2 removal from coal-fired power plant flue gas to ca. $15 per ton of CO2 captured. Additionally, we examine the materials developments that have produced advanced PIL/IL composite membranes. These advancements include cross-linked PIL/IL blends, step-growth PIL/IL networks with facilitated transport groups, and PIL/IL composites with microporous additives for CO2/CH4 separations.

  16. Fixed-bed column study for the removal of cadmium (II) and nickel (II) ions from aqueous solutions using peat and mollusk shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Chenxi [Civil Engineering Department, Queen' s University, 58 University Avenue, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Champagne, Pascale, E-mail: champagne@civil.queensu.ca [Civil Engineering Department, Queen' s University, 58 University Avenue, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    The study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of 4.0-4.75 mm crushed shells and Sphagnum peat moss as low-cost natural adsorbent filter materials for the removal of cadmium and nickel ions from binary aqueous solutions. The effects of column depth and flow rate on effluent metal breakthrough, metal removal and pH were investigated as a function of throughput volume (TPV). Metal removal efficiencies and adsorption capacities for each of the columns were estimated to identify the better filter material and operational conditions for the treatment of cadmium and nickel. During the column testing, a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min (surface loading of 27.5 cm{sup 3}/cm{sup 2} day) and bed depth of 15 cm were found to represent the better operational conditions, where 47.9% and 42.7% cadmium and nickel cumulative removals were obtained under these operational conditions, respectively. The results will be valuable in the development of a mixed-media adsorption system for the treatment of metal-rich wastewaters such as municipal landfill leachate.

  17. Fixed-bed column study for the removal of cadmium (II) and nickel (II) ions from aqueous solutions using peat and mollusk shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chenxi; Champagne, Pascale

    2009-01-01

    The study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of 4.0-4.75 mm crushed shells and Sphagnum peat moss as low-cost natural adsorbent filter materials for the removal of cadmium and nickel ions from binary aqueous solutions. The effects of column depth and flow rate on effluent metal breakthrough, metal removal and pH were investigated as a function of throughput volume (TPV). Metal removal efficiencies and adsorption capacities for each of the columns were estimated to identify the better filter material and operational conditions for the treatment of cadmium and nickel. During the column testing, a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min (surface loading of 27.5 cm 3 /cm 2 day) and bed depth of 15 cm were found to represent the better operational conditions, where 47.9% and 42.7% cadmium and nickel cumulative removals were obtained under these operational conditions, respectively. The results will be valuable in the development of a mixed-media adsorption system for the treatment of metal-rich wastewaters such as municipal landfill leachate.

  18. Determination of cobalt ions at nano-level based on newly synthesized pendant armed macrocycle by polymeric membrane and coated graphite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashok K; Singh, Prerna; Bhattacharjee, G

    2009-12-15

    Poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) based membranes of macrocycles 2,3,4:9,10,11-dipyridine-1,3,5,8,10,12-hexaazacyclotetradeca-2,9-diene (L(1)) and 2,3,4:9,10,11-dipyridine-1,5,8,12-tetramethylacrylate-1,3,5,8,10,12-hexaazacyclotetradeca-2,9-diene (L(2)) with NaTPB and KTpClPB as anion excluders and dibutylphthalate (DBP), benzyl acetate (BA), dioctylphthalate (DOP), o-nitrophenyloctyl ether (o-NPOE) and tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) as plasticizing solvent mediators were prepared and investigated as Co(2+) selective electrodes. The best performance was observed with the membranes having the composition L(2):PVC:TBP:NaTPB in the ratio of 6:39:53:2 (w/w; mg). The performance of the membrane based on L(2) was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) and coated graphite electrode (CGE). The PME exhibits detection limit of 4.7x10(-8)M with a Nernstian slope of 29.7 mV decade(-1) of activity between pH 2.5 and 8.5 whereas CGE exhibits the detection limit of 6.8x10(-9)M with a Nernstian slope of 29.5 mV decade(-1) of activity between pH 2.0 and 9.0. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 11 and 8s, respectively. The CGE has been found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media up to 35% (v/v) content of methanol, ethanol and 25% (v/v) content of acetonitrile and could be used for a period of 4 months. The CGE was successfully applied for the determination of Co(2+) in real and pharmaceutical samples and as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of cobalt ion.

  19. Combination of cupric ion with hydroxylamine and hydrogen peroxide for the control of bacterial biofilms on RO membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Eun; Lee, Changha

    2017-03-01