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Sample records for membrane eventually incorporated

  1. Silica incorporated membrane for wastewater based filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, C. S.; Bilad, M. R.; Nordin, N. A. H. M.

    2017-10-01

    Membrane technology has long been applied for waste water treatment industries due to its numerous advantages compared to other conventional processes. However, the biggest challenge in pressure driven membrane process is membrane fouling. Fouling decreases the productivity and efficiency of the filtration, reduces the lifespan of the membrane and reduces the overall efficiency of water treatment processes. In this study, a novel membrane material is developed for water filtration. The developed membrane incorporates silica nanoparticles mainly to improve its structural properties. Membranes with different loadings of silica nanoparticles were applied in this study. The result shows an increase in clean water permeability and filterability of the membrane for treating activated sludge, microalgae solution, secondary effluent and raw sewage as feed. Adding silica into the membrane matrix does not significantly alter contact angle and membrane pore size. We believe that silica acts as an effective pore forming agent that increases the number of pores without significantly altering the pore sizes. A higher number of small pores on the surface of the membrane could reduce membrane fouling because of a low specific loading imposed to individual pores.

  2. Fuel cell subassemblies incorporating subgasketed thrifted membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Eric J.; Pierpont, Daniel M.; Yandrasits, Michael A.; Hamrock, Steven J.; Obradovich, Stephan J.; Peterson, Donald G.

    2016-03-01

    A fuel cell roll good subassembly is described that includes a plurality of individual electrolyte membranes. One or more first subgaskets are attached to the individual electrolyte membranes. Each of the first subgaskets has at least one aperture and the first subgaskets are arranged so the center regions of the individual electrolyte membranes are exposed through the apertures of the first subgaskets. A second subgasket comprises a web having a plurality of apertures. The second subgasket web is attached to the one or more first subgaskets so the center regions of the individual electrolyte membranes are exposed through the apertures of the second subgasket web. The second subgasket web may have little or no adhesive on the subgasket surface facing the electrolyte membrane.

  3. Membrane Incorporation, Channel Formation, and Disruption of Calcium Homeostasis by Alzheimer's β-Amyloid Protein

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    Masahiro Kawahara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oligomerization, conformational changes, and the consequent neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's β-amyloid protein (AβP play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Mounting evidence suggests that oligomeric AβPs cause the disruption of calcium homeostasis, eventually leading to neuronal death. We have demonstrated that oligomeric AβPs directly incorporate into neuronal membranes, form cation-sensitive ion channels (“amyloid channels”, and cause the disruption of calcium homeostasis via the amyloid channels. Other disease-related amyloidogenic proteins, such as prion protein in prion diseases or α-synuclein in dementia with Lewy bodies, exhibit similarities in the incorporation into membranes and the formation of calcium-permeable channels. Here, based on our experimental results and those of numerous other studies, we review the current understanding of the direct binding of AβP into membrane surfaces and the formation of calcium-permeable channels. The implication of composition of membrane lipids and the possible development of new drugs by influencing membrane properties and attenuating amyloid channels for the treatment and prevention of AD is also discussed.

  4. Mechanical performance of laminated composites incorporated with nanofibrous membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.; Huang, Z.-M.; He, C.L.; Han, X.J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of non-woven nanofibrous membranes as interlaminar interfaces on the mechanical performance of laminated composites was investigated experimentally. The nanofibrous membranes are porous, thin and lightweight, and exhibit toughness and strength to some extent. They give little increase in weight and thickness when incorporated into a laminate. More important, they can be used as a functional agent carrier for the laminate. The nanofiber membranes used in this paper were prepared by electrospinning of Nylon-6 (PA6), Epoxy 609 (EPO 1691-410) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), with a thickness ranging from 20 to 150 μm. The non-woven fabrics were attached to one side of a glass/epoxy fabric lamina prior to lamination and each fabric was arranged in between two adjacent plies of the laminate. The nanofibrous membranes were characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tensile testing, whereas the mechanical properties of the laminate were understood in terms of three-point bending and short-beam shear tests. Results have shown that the nanofibrous membranes in the ply interfaces with a proper thickness did not affect the mechanical performance of the composite laminates significantly

  5. Microfluidic platform for efficient Nanodisc assembly, membrane protein incorporation, and purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, James H; Jones, Joshua D; Lenov, Ivan L; Riordan, Colleen M; Sligar, Stephen G; Bailey, Ryan C

    2017-08-22

    The characterization of integral membrane proteins presents numerous analytical challenges on account of their poor activity under non-native conditions, limited solubility in aqueous solutions, and low expression in most cell culture systems. Nanodiscs are synthetic model membrane constructs that offer many advantages for studying membrane protein function by offering a native-like phospholipid bilayer environment. The successful incorporation of membrane proteins within Nanodiscs requires experimental optimization of conditions. Standard protocols for Nanodisc formation can require large amounts of time and input material, limiting the facile screening of formation conditions. Capitalizing on the miniaturization and efficient mass transport inherent to microfluidics, we have developed a microfluidic platform for efficient Nanodisc assembly and purification, and demonstrated the ability to incorporate functional membrane proteins into the resulting Nanodiscs. In addition to working with reduced sample volumes, this platform simplifies membrane protein incorporation from a multi-stage protocol requiring several hours or days into a single platform that outputs purified Nanodiscs in less than one hour. To demonstrate the utility of this platform, we incorporated Cytochrome P450 into Nanodiscs of variable size and lipid composition, and present spectroscopic evidence for the functional active site of the membrane protein. This platform is a promising new tool for membrane protein biology and biochemistry that enables tremendous versatility for optimizing the incorporation of membrane proteins using microfluidic gradients to screen across diverse formation conditions.

  6. Enhancement of antibacterial activity in nanofillers incorporated PSF/PVP membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramila, P.; Gopalakrishnan, N.

    2018-04-01

    An attempt has been made to investigate the nanofillers incorporated polysulfone (PSF) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) polymer membranes prepared by phase inversion method. Initially, the nanofillers, viz, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle, Graphene Oxide-Zinc Oxide (GO-ZnO) nanocomposite were synthesized and then directly incorporated into PSF/PVP blend during the preparation of membranes. The prepared membranes have been subjected to FE-SEM, AFM, BET, contact angle, tensile test and anti-bacterial studies. Significant membrane morphologies and nanoporous properties have been observed by FE-SEM and BET, respectively. It has been observed that hydrophilicity, mechanical strength and water permeability of the ZnO and GO-ZnO incorporated membranes were enhanced than bare membrane. Antibacterial activity was assessed by measuring the inhibition zones formed around the membrane by disc-diffusion method using Escherichia coli (gram-negative) as a model bacterium. Again, it has been observed that nanofillers incorporated membrane exhibits high antibacterial performance compared to bare membrane.

  7. Covalent modification of serum transferrin with phospholipid and incorporation into liposomal membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, P; Demant, E J; Hansen, Gert Helge

    1989-01-01

    A method is described for incorporation of water-soluble proteins into liposomal membranes using covalent protein-phospholipid conjugates in detergent solution. A disulfide derivative of phosphatidylethanolamine containing a reactive N-hydroxysuccinimide ester group is synthesized, and the deriva......A method is described for incorporation of water-soluble proteins into liposomal membranes using covalent protein-phospholipid conjugates in detergent solution. A disulfide derivative of phosphatidylethanolamine containing a reactive N-hydroxysuccinimide ester group is synthesized...

  8. Study of the Photocatalytic Property of Polysulfone Membrane Incorporating TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingxing; Zhou, Weiqi; Chen, Zhe; Yao, Lei

    In order to investigate the effect of the incorporated nanoparticles on the photocatalytic property of the hybrid membranes, the uncovered and covered polysulfone/TiO2 hybrid membranes were prepared. Positron annihilation γ-ray spectroscopy coupled with a positron beam was utilized to examine the depth profiles of the two membranes. The photocatalytic activities of the membranes were evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) aqueous solution under the irradiation of Xe lamp. UV-Vis spectroscopy was applied to study the UV transmission through the polysulfone layer. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to detect the photo-generated charges by the covered membrane during the irradiation. It can be found that UV light can penetrate through the covered layer (about 230nm), and the incorporated nanoparticles can still generate charges under irradiation, which endows the photocatalytic ability of the covered membrane.

  9. Incorporation of adenylate cyclase into membranes of giant liposomes using membrane fusion with recombinant baculovirus-budded virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takaaki; Kamiya, Koki; Tomita, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Tetsuro; Tsumoto, Kanta

    2014-06-01

    Recombinant transmembrane adenylate cyclase (AC) was incorporated into membranes of giant liposomes using membrane fusion between liposomes and baculovirus-budded virus (BV). AC genes were constructed into transfer vectors in a form fused with fluorescent protein or polyhistidine at the C-terminus. The recombinant BVs were collected by ultracentrifugation and AC expression was verified using western blotting. The BVs and giant liposomes generated using gentle hydration were fused under acidic conditions; the incorporation of AC into giant liposomes was demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy through the emission of fluorescence from their membranes. The AC-expressing BVs were also fused with liposomes containing the substrate (ATP) with/without a specific inhibitor (SQ 22536). An enzyme immunoassay on extracts of the sample demonstrated that cAMP was produced inside the liposomes. This procedure facilitates direct introduction of large transmembrane proteins into artificial membranes without solubilization.

  10. Incorporation of Graphene-Related Carbon Nanosheets in Membrane Fabrication for Water Treatment: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Lawler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The minimization of the trade-off between the flux and the selectivity of membranes is a key area that researchers are continually working to optimise, particularly in the area of fabrication of novel membranes. Flux versus selectivity issues apply in many industrial applications of membranes, for example the unwanted diffusion of methanol in fuel cells, retention of valuable proteins in downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals, rejection of organic matter and micro-organisms in water treatment, or salt permeation in desalination. The incorporation of nanosheets within membrane structures can potentially lead to enhancements in such properties as the antifouling ability, hydrophilicy and permeability of membranes, with concomitant improvements in the flux/selectivity balance. Graphene nanosheets and derivatives such as graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide have been investigated for this purpose, for example inclusion of nanosheets within the active layer of Reverse Osmosis or Nanofiltration membranes or the blending of nanosheets as fillers within Ultrafiltration membranes. This review summarizes the incorporation of graphene derivatives into polymeric membranes for water treatment with a focus on a number of industrial applications, including desalination and pharmaceutical removal, where enhancement of productivity and reduction in fouling characteristics have been afforded by appropriate incorporation of graphene derived nanosheets during membrane fabrication.

  11. Ab initio vel ex eventu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, P. A.; Treder, H.-J.

    Der gegenwärtige Stand der physikalischen Erkenntnis, in Sonderheit die Atomistik und die Quantentheorie, ermöglicht (in wohldefinierten Energie-Bereichen) eine ab initio-Berechnung aller physikalischen und chemischen Prozesse und Strukturen. Die Schrödinger-Gleichung erlaubt zusammen mit den Prinzipien der Quantenstatistik (Pauli-Prinzip) aus dem Planckschen Wirkungsquantum h und den atomischen Konstanten die Berechnung aller Energieumsätze, Zeitabläufe etc., die insbesondere die chemische Physik bestimmen. Die Rechenresultate gelten auch quantitativ bis auf die unvermeidliche Stochastik.Die ab initio-Berechnungen korrespondieren einerseits und sind andererseits komplementär zu den auf den Methoden der theoretischen Chemie und der klassischen Thermodynamik beruhenden Ergebnissen ex eventu. Die theoretische Behandlung ab initio führt zu mathematischen Experimenten, die die Laboratoriums-Experimente ergänzen oder auch substituieren.Translated AbstractAb initio vel ex eventuThe present state of physical knowledge, in peculiar atomistic and quantum theory, makes an ab initio calculation of all physical and chemical processes and structures possible (in well defined reaches of energy). The Schrödinger equation together with the principles of quantum statistics (Pauli principle) permits from the Planck and atomistic constants to calculate all exchanges of energy, courses of time, etc. which govern chemical physics. The calculated results are valid even quantitatively apart from the unavoidable stochastics.These ab initio calculations on the one hand correspond and are on the other complimentary to results ex eventu based on the methods of theoretical chemistry and classical thermodynamics. Theoretical treatment ab initio leads to mathematical experiments which add to or even substitute experiments in the laboratory.

  12. Incorporation of Human Recombinant Tropoelastin into Silk Fibroin Membranes with the View to Repairing Bruch’s Membrane

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    Audra M. A. Shadforth

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bombyx mori silk fibroin membranes provide a potential delivery vehicle for both cells and extracellular matrix (ECM components into diseased or injured tissues. We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of growing retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE on fibroin membranes with the view to repairing the retina of patients afflicted with age-related macular degeneration (AMD. The goal of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating the ECM component elastin, in the form of human recombinant tropoelastin, into these same membranes. Two basic strategies were explored: (1 membranes prepared from blended solutions of fibroin and tropoelastin; and (2 layered constructs prepared from sequentially cast solutions of fibroin, tropoelastin, and fibroin. Optimal conditions for RPE attachment were achieved using a tropoelastin-fibroin blend ratio of 10 to 90 parts by weight. Retention of tropoelastin within the blend and layered constructs was confirmed by immunolabelling and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. In the layered constructs, the bulk of tropoelastin was apparently absorbed into the initially cast fibroin layer. Blend membranes displayed higher elastic modulus, percentage elongation, and tensile strength (p < 0.01 when compared to the layered constructs. RPE cell response to fibroin membranes was not affected by the presence of tropoelastin. These findings support the potential use of fibroin membranes for the co-delivery of RPE cells and tropoelastin.

  13. Studies on carboxylated graphene oxide incorporated polyetherimide mixed matrix ultrafiltration membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaleekkal, Noel Jacob, E-mail: noeljacob89@gmail.com [Membrane Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, ACT, Anna University, Chennai, 600025 (India); Thanigaivelan, A., E-mail: thanichemstar@gmail.com [Membrane Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, ACT, Anna University, Chennai, 600025 (India); Rana, Dipak, E-mail: rana@uottawa.ca [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur Private, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Mohan, D., E-mail: mohantarun@gmail.com [Membrane Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, ACT, Anna University, Chennai, 600025 (India)

    2017-01-15

    In this work the graphene oxide prepared by the modified Hummers’ method was effectively carboxylated. These carboxylated graphene oxide (c-GO) microsheets was characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, Raman shift, zeta potential, and their morphology was observed using a high resolution scanning/transmission electron microscopy. Polyetherimide mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) were fabricated by the non-solvent induced phase separation technique with varying concentration of this microsheet. The presence of these microsheets on the membrane surface was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and could also be confirmed visually by optical images. The membranes were further characterized; they showed a greater water flux, higher porosity, and sufficient thermal stability. Incorporation of these microsheets improved the hydrophilicity of the membrane confirmed by the lower contact angle values, which in turn explained the lower interfacial free energy, the increase in work of adhesion, the higher solid-vapor free energy and the spreading coefficient. Membranes loaded with 0.3 wt% of c-GO showed a flux recovery of 94% and only a small flux decline even after 180 min of filtration of humic acid (HA) solution. The efficiency of these membranes in removal of HA, toxic metal ions was also investigated. The bacterial anti-adhesion property of c-GO in the membranes was also explored using Escherichia coli, as a model bio-foulant. The charge of the microsheets and their unique architecture imparts higher hydrophilicity and greater fouling resistance along with improved permeation flux when incorporated into the polymer matrix. - Highlights: • Novel membranes by incorporating carboxylated GO into polyetherimide matrix. • Modified membranes exhibited greater porosity, flux and high humic acid rejection. • Nanoplatelets improved the flux recovery ratio to >94%. • Liquid phase polymer based retention utilized for toxic heavy metal

  14. Modified cable equation incorporating transverse polarization of neuronal membranes for accurate coupling of electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Boshuo; Aberra, Aman S; Grill, Warren M; Peterchev, Angel V

    2018-04-01

    We present a theory and computational methods to incorporate transverse polarization of neuronal membranes into the cable equation to account for the secondary electric field generated by the membrane in response to transverse electric fields. The effect of transverse polarization on nonlinear neuronal activation thresholds is quantified and discussed in the context of previous studies using linear membrane models. The response of neuronal membranes to applied electric fields is derived under two time scales and a unified solution of transverse polarization is given for spherical and cylindrical cell geometries. The solution is incorporated into the cable equation re-derived using an asymptotic model that separates the longitudinal and transverse dimensions. Two numerical methods are proposed to implement the modified cable equation. Several common neural stimulation scenarios are tested using two nonlinear membrane models to compare thresholds of the conventional and modified cable equations. The implementations of the modified cable equation incorporating transverse polarization are validated against previous results in the literature. The test cases show that transverse polarization has limited effect on activation thresholds. The transverse field only affects thresholds of unmyelinated axons for short pulses and in low-gradient field distributions, whereas myelinated axons are mostly unaffected. The modified cable equation captures the membrane's behavior on different time scales and models more accurately the coupling between electric fields and neurons. It addresses the limitations of the conventional cable equation and allows sound theoretical interpretations. The implementation provides simple methods that are compatible with current simulation approaches to study the effect of transverse polarization on nonlinear membranes. The minimal influence by transverse polarization on axonal activation thresholds for the nonlinear membrane models indicates that

  15. Incorporation of layered double nanomaterials in thin film nanocomposite nanofiltration membrane for magnesium sulphate removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajuddin Muhammad Hanis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin film nanocomposite (TFN membrane with copper-aluminium layered double hydroxides (LDH incorporated into polyamide (PA selective layer has been prepared for magnesium sulphate salt removal. 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 wt% of LDH were dispersed in the trimesoyl chloride (TMC in n-hexane as organic solution and embedded into PA layer during interfacial polymerization with piperazine. The fabricated membranes were further characterized to evaluate its morphological structure and membrane surface hydrophilicity. The TFN membranes performance were evaluated with divalent salt magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 removal and compared with thin film composite (TFC. The morphological structures of TFN membranes were altered and the surface hydrophilicity were enhanced with addition of LDH. Incorporation of LDH has improved the permeate water flux by 82.5% compared to that of TFC membrane with satisfactory rejection of MgSO4. This study has experimentally validated the potential of LDH to improve the divalent salt separation performance for TFN membranes.

  16. Incorporation of layered double nanomaterials in thin film nanocomposite nanofiltration membrane for magnesium sulphate removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanis Tajuddin, Muhammad; Yusof, Norhaniza; Salleh, Wan Norharyati Wan; Fauzi Ismail, Ahmad; Hanis Hayati Hairom, Nur; Misdan, Nurasyikin

    2018-03-01

    Thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane with copper-aluminium layered double hydroxides (LDH) incorporated into polyamide (PA) selective layer has been prepared for magnesium sulphate salt removal. 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 wt% of LDH were dispersed in the trimesoyl chloride (TMC) in n-hexane as organic solution and embedded into PA layer during interfacial polymerization with piperazine. The fabricated membranes were further characterized to evaluate its morphological structure and membrane surface hydrophilicity. The TFN membranes performance were evaluated with divalent salt magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) removal and compared with thin film composite (TFC). The morphological structures of TFN membranes were altered and the surface hydrophilicity were enhanced with addition of LDH. Incorporation of LDH has improved the permeate water flux by 82.5% compared to that of TFC membrane with satisfactory rejection of MgSO4. This study has experimentally validated the potential of LDH to improve the divalent salt separation performance for TFN membranes.

  17. Monoolein lipid phases as incorporation and enrichment materials for membrane protein crystallization.

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    Ellen Wallace

    Full Text Available The crystallization of membrane proteins in amphiphile-rich materials such as lipidic cubic phases is an established methodology in many structural biology laboratories. The standard procedure employed with this methodology requires the generation of a highly viscous lipidic material by mixing lipid, for instance monoolein, with a solution of the detergent solubilized membrane protein. This preparation is often carried out with specialized mixing tools that allow handling of the highly viscous materials while minimizing dead volume to save precious membrane protein sample. The processes that occur during the initial mixing of the lipid with the membrane protein are not well understood. Here we show that the formation of the lipidic phases and the incorporation of the membrane protein into such materials can be separated experimentally. Specifically, we have investigated the effect of different initial monoolein-based lipid phase states on the crystallization behavior of the colored photosynthetic reaction center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. We find that the detergent solubilized photosynthetic reaction center spontaneously inserts into and concentrates in the lipid matrix without any mixing, and that the initial lipid material phase state is irrelevant for productive crystallization. A substantial in-situ enrichment of the membrane protein to concentration levels that are otherwise unobtainable occurs in a thin layer on the surface of the lipidic material. These results have important practical applications and hence we suggest a simplified protocol for membrane protein crystallization within amphiphile rich materials, eliminating any specialized mixing tools to prepare crystallization experiments within lipidic cubic phases. Furthermore, by virtue of sampling a membrane protein concentration gradient within a single crystallization experiment, this crystallization technique is more robust and increases the efficiency of identifying productive

  18. Monitoring the Orientational Changes of Alamethicin during Incorporation into Bilayer Lipid Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbrig, Enrico; Staffa, Jana K; Salewski, Johannes; Mroginski, Maria Andrea; Hildebrandt, Peter; Kozuch, Jacek

    2018-02-13

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are the first line of defense after contact of an infectious invader, for example, bacterium or virus, with a host and an integral part of the innate immune system of humans. Their broad spectrum of biological functions ranges from cell membrane disruption over facilitation of chemotaxis to interaction with membrane-bound or intracellular receptors, thus providing novel strategies to overcome bacterial resistances. Especially, the clarification of the mechanisms and dynamics of AMP incorporation into bacterial membranes is of high interest, and different mechanistic models are still under discussion. In this work, we studied the incorporation of the peptaibol alamethicin (ALM) into tethered bilayer lipid membranes on electrodes in combination with surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy. This approach allows monitoring the spontaneous and potential-induced ion channel formation of ALM in situ. The complex incorporation kinetics revealed a multistep mechanism that points to peptide-peptide interactions prior to penetrating the membrane and adopting the transmembrane configuration. On the basis of the anisotropy of the backbone amide I and II infrared absorptions determined by density functional theory calculations, we employed a mathematical model to evaluate ALM reorientations monitored by SEIRA spectroscopy. Accordingly, ALM was found to adopt inclination angles of ca. 69°-78° and 21° in its interfacially adsorbed and transmembrane incorporated states, respectively. These orientations can be stabilized efficiently by the dipolar interaction with lipid head groups or by the application of a potential gradient. The presented potential-controlled mechanistic study suggests an N-terminal integration of ALM into membranes as monomers or parallel oligomers to form ion channels composed of parallel-oriented helices, whereas antiparallel oligomers are barred from intrusion.

  19. Progress on Incorporating Zeolites in Matrimid®5218 Mixed Matrix Membranes towards Gas Separation

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    Roberto Castro-Muñoz

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Membranes, as perm-selective barriers, have been widely applied for gas separation applications. Since some time ago, pure polymers have been used mainly for the preparation of membranes, considering different kinds of polymers for such preparation. At this point, polyimides (e.g., Matrimid®5218 are probably one of the most considered polymers for this purpose. However, the limitation on the performance relationship of polymeric membranes has promoted their enhancement through the incorporation of different inorganic materials (e.g., zeolites into their matrix. Therefore, the aim of this work is to provide an overview about the progress of zeolite embedding in Matrimid®5218, aiming at the preparation of mixed matrix membranes for gas separation. Particular attention is paid to the relevant experimental results and current findings. Finally, we describe the prospects and future trends in the field.

  20. Effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids and phospholipids on [3H]-vitamin E incorporation into pulmonary artery endothelial cell membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekharam, K.M.; Patel, J.M.; Block, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Vitamin E, a dietary antioxidant, is presumed to be incorporated into the lipid bilayer of biological membranes to an extent proportional to the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids or phospholipids in the membrane. In the present study we evaluated the distribution of incorporated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in various membranes of pulmonary artery endothelial cells. We also studied whether incorporation of PUFA or PE is responsible for increased incorporation of [3H]-vitamin E into the membranes of these cells. Following a 24-hr incubation with linoleic acid (18:2), 18:2 was increased by 6.9-, 9.2-, and 13.2-fold in plasma, mitochondrial, and microsomal membranes, respectively. Incorporation of 18:2 caused significant increases in the unsaturation indexes of mitochondrial and microsomal polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains (P less than .01 versus control in both membranes). Incubation with arachidonic acid (20:4) for 24 hr resulted in 1.5-, 2.3-, and 2.4-fold increases in 20:4 in plasma, mitochondrial, and microsomal membranes, respectively. The unsaturation indexes of polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains of mitochondrial and microsomal membranes also increased (P less than .01 versus control in both membranes). Although incubations with 18:2 or 20:4 resulted in several-fold increases in membrane 18:2 or 20:4 fatty acids, incorporation of [3H]-vitamin E into these membranes was similar to that in controls. Following a 24-hr incubation with PE, membrane PE content was significantly increased, and [3H]-vitamin E incorporation was also increased to a comparable degree, i.e., plasma membrane greater than mitochondria greater than microsomes. Endogenous vitamin E content of the cells was not altered because of increased incorporation of PE and [3H]-vitamin E

  1. Highly permeable polymeric membranes based on the incorporation of the functional water channel protein Aquaporin Z

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    Kumar, Manish; Grzelakowski, Mariusz; Zilles, Julie; Clark, Mark; Meier, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    The permeability and solute transport characteristics of amphiphilic triblock-polymer vesicles containing the bacterial water-channel protein Aquaporin Z (AqpZ) were investigated. The vesicles were made of a block copolymer with symmetric poly-(2-methyloxazoline)-poly-(dimethylsiloxane)-poly-(2-methyloxazoline) (PMOXA15-PDMS110-PMOXA15) repeat units. Light-scattering measurements on pure polymer vesicles subject to an outwardly directed salt gradient in a stopped-flow apparatus indicated that the polymer vesicles were highly impermeable. However, a large enhancement in water productivity (permeability per unit driving force) of up to ≈800 times that of pure polymer was observed when AqpZ was incorporated. The activation energy (Ea) of water transport for the protein-polymer vesicles (3.4 kcal/mol) corresponded to that reported for water-channel-mediated water transport in lipid membranes. The solute reflection coefficients of glucose, glycerol, salt, and urea were also calculated, and indicated that these solutes are completely rejected. The productivity of AqpZ-incorporated polymer membranes was at least an order of magnitude larger than values for existing salt-rejecting polymeric membranes. The approach followed here may lead to more productive and sustainable water treatment membranes, whereas the variable levels of permeability obtained with different concentrations of AqpZ may provide a key property for drug delivery applications. PMID:18077364

  2. Improved separation and antifouling properties of thin-film composite nanofiltration membrane by the incorporation of cGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbin; Shi, Wenying; Du, Qiyun; Zhou, Rong; Zhang, Haixia; Qin, Xiaohong

    2017-06-01

    Poly(piperazine amide) composite nanofiltration (NF) membranes were modified through the incorporation of carboxylated graphene oxide (cGO) in the polyamide layer during the interfacial polymerization (IP) process on the polysulfone (PSF)/nonwoven fabric (NWF) ultrafiltration (UF) substrate membrane surface. The composition and morphology of the prepared NF membrane surface were determined by means of ATR-FTIR, SEM-EDX and AFM. The effects of cGO contents on membrane hydrophilicity, separation performance and antifouling properties were investigated through Water Contact Angle (WCA) analysis, the permeance and three-cycle fouling measurements. The growth model of cGO-incorporated polyamide thin-film was proposed. Compared to the original NF membranes, the surface hydrophilicity, water permeability, salt rejection and antifouling properties of the cGO-incorporated NF membrane had all improved. When cGO content was 100 ppm, the MgSO4 rejection of composite NF membrane reached a maximum value of 99.2% meanwhile membrane obtained an obvious enhanced water flux (81.6 L m-2 h-1, at 0.7 MPa) which was nearly three times compared to the virginal NF membrane. The cGO-incorporated NF membrane showed an excellent selectivity of MgSO4 and NaCl with the rejection ratio of MgSO4/NaCl of approximately 8.0.

  3. Silver nanoparticles incorporated into nanostructured biopolymer membranes produced by electrospinning: a study of antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Segala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract This study examines the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles incorporated into nanostructured membranes made of cellulose acetate (CA and blends of chitosan/poly-(ethylene oxide, CTS/PEO and prepared by electrospinning. The formation of chemically synthesized Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The size distribution of the AgNPs was measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS, with an average size of approximately 20 nm. The presence of AgNPs on the surface of electrospun nanofibers was observed by field emission electron microscopy (FEG and confirmed by TEM. The antimicrobial activity of AgNPs incorporated into nanostructured membranes made of CA and CTS/PEO electrospun nanofibers was evaluated in the presence of both Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and Propionibacterium acnes ATCC 6919, and Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli ATCC 25992 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 17933. Microbiological results showed that the presence of AgNPs in CA and CTS/PEO nanostructured membranes has significant antimicrobial activity for the Gram-positive bacteria Escherichia coli and Propionibacterium acnes.

  4. Self-supported supercapacitor membrane through incorporating MnO2 nanowires into carbon nanotube networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yueping; Liu, Jianwei; Li, Jun

    2010-08-01

    We report on a study on the development of a self-supported membrane of carbon nanotube (CNT) mixed with MnO2 nanowires as supercapacitors. Both single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) and multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) have been explored to serve as the electrically conductive networks to connect redox active MnO2 nanowires. High-quality alpha-MnO2 nanowires were synthesized using bulk alpha-MnO2 crystals as the precursor by a facile hydrothermal method. The morphology and structure of the as-prepared alpha-MnO2 nanowires were characterized by X-ray and electron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Supercapacitor membranes were prepared by filtration of mixture solutions of MnO2 nanowires and CNTs at various ratios, forming entangled networks which are self-supported and directly used as supercapacitor electrodes without binders or backing metals. Cyclic voltammetry at various scan rates and charge--discharging measurements are used to characterize the supercapacitance of the CNT-MnO2 nanowire membranes. The specific capacitance has been found to be increased by several times over that of pure CNT membranes after incorporation of MnO2 nanowires.

  5. Palmitoylation of Sindbis Virus TF Protein Regulates Its Plasma Membrane Localization and Subsequent Incorporation into Virions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jolene; Renzi, Emily C; Arnold, Randy J; Trinidad, Jonathan C; Mukhopadhyay, Suchetana

    2017-02-01

    Palmitoylation is a reversible, posttranslational modification that helps target proteins to cellular membranes. The alphavirus small membrane proteins 6K and TF have been reported to be palmitoylated and to positively regulate budding. 6K and TF are isoforms that are identical in their N termini but unique in their C termini due to a -1 ribosomal frameshift during translation. In this study, we used cysteine (Cys) mutants to test differential palmitoylation of the Sindbis virus 6K and TF proteins. We modularly mutated the five Cys residues in the identical N termini of 6K and TF, the four additional Cys residues in TF's unique C terminus, or all nine Cys residues in TF. Using these mutants, we determined that TF palmitoylation occurs primarily in the N terminus. In contrast, 6K is not palmitoylated, even on these shared residues. In the C-terminal Cys mutant, TF protein levels increase both in the cell and in the released virion compared to the wild type. In viruses with the N-terminal Cys residues mutated, TF is much less efficiently localized to the plasma membrane, and it is not incorporated into the virion. The three Cys mutants have minor defects in cell culture growth but a high incidence of abnormal particle morphologies compared to the wild-type virus as determined by transmission electron microscopy. We propose a model where the C terminus of TF modulates the palmitoylation of TF at the N terminus, and palmitoylated TF is preferentially trafficked to the plasma membrane for virus budding. Alphaviruses are a reemerging viral cause of arthritogenic disease. Recently, the small 6K and TF proteins of alphaviruses were shown to contribute to virulence in vivo Nevertheless, a clear understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which either protein acts to promote virus infection is missing. The TF protein is a component of budded virions, and optimal levels of TF correlate positively with wild-type-like particle morphology. In this study, we show that the

  6. Characterization of natural organic matter treated by iron oxide nanoparticle incorporated ceramic membrane-ozonation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hosik; Kim, Yohan; An, Byungryul; Choi, Heechul

    2012-11-15

    In this study, changes in the physical and structural properties of natural organic matter (NOM) were observed during hybrid ceramic membrane processes that combined ozonation with ultrafiltration ceramic membrane (CM) or with a reactive ceramic membrane (RM), namely, an iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) incorporated-CM. NOM from feed water and NOM from permeate treated with hybrid ceramic membrane processes were analyzed by employing several NOM characterization techniques. Specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA), high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and fractionation analyses showed that the hybrid ceramic membrane process effectively removed and transformed relatively high contents of aromatic, high molecular weight and hydrophobic NOM fractions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and 3-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that this process caused a significant decrease of the aromaticity of humic-like structures and an increase in electron withdrawing groups. The highest removal efficiency (46%) of hydroxyl radical probe compound (i.e., para-Chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA)) in RM-ozonation process compared with that in CM without ozonation process (8%) revealed the hydroxyl radical formation by the surface-catalyzed reaction between ozone and IONs on the surface of RM. In addition, experimental results on flux decline showed that fouling of RM-ozonation process (15%) was reduced compared with that of CM without ozonation process (30%). These results indicated that the RM-ozonation process enhanced the destruction of NOM and reduced the fouling by generating hydroxyl radicals from the catalytic ozonation in the RM-ozonation process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fabrication of Functionalized MOFs Incorporated Mixed Matrix Hollow Fiber Membrane for Gas Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The metal-organic framework (MOFs of MIL-53 was functionalized by aminosilane grafting and then incorporated into Ultem®1000 polymer matrix to fabricate mixed matrix hollow fiber membrane (MMHFM with high separation performance. SEM, XRD, and TGA were performed to characterize the functionalized MIL-53 and prepared MMHFM. The filler particles were embedded in membrane successfully and dispersed well in the polymer matrix. The incorporation of MOFs endowed MMHFM better thermal stability. Moreover, effects of solvent ratio in spinning dope, spinning condition, and testing temperature on gas separation performance of MMHFM were investigated. By optimizing dope composition, air gap distance, and bore fluid composition, MMHFM containing functionalized MIL-53 achieved excellent gas permeance and CO2/N2 selectivity. The CO2 permeance increased from 12.2 GPU for pure Ultem HFM to 30.9 GPU and the ideal CO2/N2 selectivity was enhanced from 25.4 to 34.7 simultaneously. Additionally, gas permeance increased but the selectivity decreased with the temperature increase, which followed the solution-diffusion based transport mechanism.

  8. Thermo-and pH-sensitive hydrogel membranes composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-hyaluronan for biomedical applications: Influence of hyaluronan incorporation on the membrane properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoun, Elbadawy A; Fahmy, Alaa; Taha, Tarek H; El-Fakharany, Esmail M; Makram, Mohamed; Soliman, Hesham M A; Shehata, Hassan

    2018-01-01

    Interpenetrating hydrogel membranes consisting of pH-sensitive hyaluronan (HA) and thermo-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAM) were synthesized using redox polymerization, followed by N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS) and epichlorohydrin (EPI) were added as chemical crosslinkers. The interaction between membrane compositions has been characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and discussed intensively. The result indicates that HA incorporation in membranes increase the gel fraction, swelling uptake, and the flexibility/elasticity of crosslinked membranes, however it reduced oppositely the mechanical elongation of membranes. PNIPAAm-HA hydrogels responded to both temperature and pH changes and the stimuli-responsiveness was reversible. However, in vitro bioevaluation results revealed that the released ampicillin during the burst release time was sharply influenced and increased with increasing HA contents in membranes; afterwards it became sustainable. Whereas, high HA contents in hydrogels unexpectedly impacted negatively on the cells viability, owing to the viscosity of cell culture media changed. A big resistance was observed against microbial growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Candida albicans in case of pure PNIPAAm hydrogel membranes without HA or ampicillin. However, HA incorporation or the loaded ampicillin in membranes showed unexpected easily microbial growth. The fast release performance with dual pH-thermo-sensitive hydrogels were suggested as promising materials for quick drug carrier in the biomedical field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Biosynthetic incorporation of [75Se]selenomethionine: a new method for labelling lymphocyte membrane antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosseto, M.; Rohner, C.; Pierres, M.; Goridis, C.

    1981-01-01

    A novel approach for radiolabelling lymphocyte membrane antigens is described. This technique is based on the use of the γ-emitting amino acid analogue [ 75 Se]selenomethionine. Human HLA-A, B, C and DR heavy and light chains and mouse Ia antigens were efficiently labelled by this technique and were precipitated with monoclonal antibodies. Approximately the same radioactivity was incorporated into the HLA-A, B, C chains whether [ 75 Se]selenomethionine, [ 35 S]methionine or [ 3 H]leucine were used as precursors. Easily detectable as a γ-emitter, [ 75 Se]selenomethionine thus constitutes a useful biosynthetic label of lymphocyte surface antigens. The same method was used to label immunoglobulins produced by hybridomas and to determine the nature of the secreted light chains. (Auth.)

  10. Synthesis of nickel-incorporated larch-based carbon membranes with controllable porous structure for gas separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin; Li, Wei; Huang, Zhanhua; Liu, Shouxin, E-mail: chemist@126.com, E-mail: liushouxin@126.com [Northeast Forestry University, College of Material Science and Engineering (China)

    2015-11-15

    Ni-incorporated larch-based carbon membranes have been synthesized by introducing the Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} into the liquefied larch using liquefied larch sawdust as precursors and F127 as the soft template. The porous structure can be tailored by the amount of Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, and the Ni and NiO nanoparticles with a size of 10 nm incorporated in the carbon frameworks. The increase in Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} content can lead to the formation of disordered porous structure and shrinkage of carbon frameworks. The Ni-incorporated carbon membranes with largest pores possess highest gas permeation for N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} of 37.5, 19.8, and 55.5 m{sup 3} cm/m{sup 2} h kPa, which is larger than that of the pure carbon membranes, respectively. However, the poor ordered porous structure caused by adding large amount of Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} can reduce the gas separation performance, which is attributed to the weaken of the molecular sieve function. The results indicate that the incorporation of few nanoparticles into larch-based carbon membranes can improve molecular sieve function.Graphical abstractNi-incorporated larch-based carbon membranes have been synthesized by introducing the Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} into the liquefied larch. The porous structure can be tailored by the amount of Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, and the Ni and NiO nanoparticles incorporated in the carbon frameworks. The Ni-incorporated carbon membranes with largest pores possess highest gas permeation and gas permseparation.

  11. Surface nanostructuring of thin film composite membranes via grafting polymerization and incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isawi, Heba; El-Sayed, Magdi H.; Feng, Xianshe; Shawky, Hosam; Abdel Mottaleb, Mohamed S.

    2016-11-01

    A new approach for modification of polyamid thin film composite membrane PA(TFC) using synthesized ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) was shown to enhance the membrane performances for reverse osmosis water desalination. First, active layer of synthesis PA(TFC) membrane was activated with an aqueous solution of free radical graft polymerization of hydrophilic methacrylic acid (MAA) monomer onto the surface of the PA(TFC) membrane resulting PMAA-g-PA(TFC). Second, the PA(TFC) membrane has been developed by incorporation of ZnO NPs into the MAA grafting solution resulting the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membrane. The surface properties of the synthesized nanoparticles and prepared membranes were investigated using the FTIR, XRD and SEM. Morphology studies demonstrated that ZnO NPs have been successfully incorporated into the active grafting layer over PA(TFC) composite membranes. The zinc leaching from the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) was minimal, as shown by batch tests that indicated stabilization of the ZnO NPs on the membrane surfaces. Compared with the a pure PA(TFC) and PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membranes, the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) was more hydrophilic, with an improved water contact angle (∼50 ± 3°) over the PMAA-g-PA(TFC) (63 ± 2.5°). The ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membrane showed salt rejection of 97% (of the total groundwater salinity), 99% of dissolved bivalent ions (Ca2+, SO42-and Mg2+), and 98% of mono valent ions constituents (Cl- and Na+). In addition, antifouling performance of the membranes was determined using E. coli as a potential foulant. This demonstrates that the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membrane can significantly improve the membrane performances and was favorable to enhance the selectivity, permeability, water flux, mechanical properties and the bio-antifouling properties of the membranes for water desalination.

  12. Will black holes eventually engulf the Universe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Moruno, Prado; Jimenez Madrid, Jose A.; Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F.

    2006-01-01

    The Babichev-Dokuchaev-Eroshenko model for the accretion of dark energy onto black holes has been extended to deal with black holes with non-static metrics. The possibility that for an asymptotic observer a black hole with large mass will rapidly increase and eventually engulf the Universe at a finite time in the future has been studied by using reasonable values for astronomical parameters. It is concluded that such a phenomenon is forbidden for all black holes in quintessential cosmological models

  13. Separation of Binary Mixtures of Propylene and Propane by Facilitated Transport through Silver Incorporated Poly(Ether-Block-Amide Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Murali R.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The separation of propylene and propane is a challenging task in petroleum refineries due to the similar molecular sizes and physical properties of two gases. Composite Poly(ether-block-amide (Pebax-1657 membranes incorporated with silver tetra fluoroborate (AgBF4 in concentrations of 0-50% of the polymer weight were prepared by solution casting and solvent evaporation technique. The membranes were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR and wide-angle X-ray Diffraction (XRD to study surface and cross-sectional morphologies, effect of incorporation on intermolecular interactions and degree of crystallinity, respectively. Experimental data was measured with an indigenously built high-pressure gas separation manifold having an effective membrane area of 42 cm2. Permeability and selectivity of membranes were determined for three different binary mixtures of propylene-propane at pressures varying in the range 2-6 bar. Selectivity of C3H6/C3H8 enhanced from 2.92 to 17.22 and 2.11 to 20.38 for 50/50 and 66/34 C3H6+C3H8 feed mixtures, respectively, with increasing loading of AgBF4. Pebax membranes incorporated with AgBF4 exhibit strong potential for the separation of C3H6/C3H8 mixtures in petroleum refineries.

  14. Synthesis of nickel-incorporated larch-based carbon membranes with controllable porous structure for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Li, Wei; Huang, Zhanhua; Liu, Shouxin

    2015-11-01

    Ni-incorporated larch-based carbon membranes have been synthesized by introducing the Ni(NO3)2 into the liquefied larch using liquefied larch sawdust as precursors and F127 as the soft template. The porous structure can be tailored by the amount of Ni(NO3)2, and the Ni and NiO nanoparticles with a size of 10 nm incorporated in the carbon frameworks. The increase in Ni(NO3)2 content can lead to the formation of disordered porous structure and shrinkage of carbon frameworks. The Ni-incorporated carbon membranes with largest pores possess highest gas permeation for N2, CO2, and O2 of 37.5, 19.8, and 55.5 m3 cm/m2 h kPa, which is larger than that of the pure carbon membranes, respectively. However, the poor ordered porous structure caused by adding large amount of Ni(NO3)2 can reduce the gas separation performance, which is attributed to the weaken of the molecular sieve function. The results indicate that the incorporation of few nanoparticles into larch-based carbon membranes can improve molecular sieve function.

  15. Biological evaluation of silver nanoparticles incorporated into chitosan-based membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, J.; Yu, N.; Kolwijck, E.; Wang, B.; Tan, K.W.; Jansen, J.A.; Walboomers, X.F.; Yang, F.

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the antibacterial potential and biological performance of silver nanoparticles in chitosan-based membranes. MATERIALS & METHODS: Electrospun chitosan/poly(ethylene oxide) membranes with different amounts of silver nanoparticles were evaluated for antibacterial properties and

  16. The coronavirus spike protein : mechanisms of membrane fusion and virion incorporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    The coronavirus spike protein is a membrane-anchored glycoprotein responsible for virus-cell attachment and membrane fusion, prerequisites for a successful virus infection. In this thesis, two aspects are described regarding the molecular biology of the coronavirus spike protein: its membrane fusion

  17. Proton conducting membranes prepared by incorporation of organophosphorus acids into alcohol barrier polymers for direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhongyi; Zheng, Xiaohong; Wu, Hong; Pan, Fusheng

    A novel type of DMFC membrane was developed via incorporation of organophosphorus acids (OPAs) into alcohol barrier materials (polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan, PVA/CS) to simultaneously acquire high proton conductivity and low methanol permeability. Three kinds of OPAs including amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP), ethylene diamine tetra(methylene phosphonic acid) (EDTMP) and hexamethylene diamine tetra(methylene phosphonic acid) (HDTMP), with different molecular structure and phosphonic acid groups content were added into PVA/CS blends and served the dual functions as proton conductor as well as crosslinker. The as-prepared OPA-doped PVA/CS membranes exhibited remarkably enhanced proton conducting ability, 2-4 times higher than that of the pristine PVA/CS membrane, comparable with that for Nafion ®117 membrane (5.04 × 10 -2 S cm -1). The highest proton conductivities 3.58 × 10 -2, 3.51 × 10 -2 and 2.61 × 10 -2 S cm -1 for ATMP-, EDTMP- and HDTMP-doped membranes, respectively were all achieved at highest initial OPA doping content (23.1 wt.%) at room temperature. The EDTMP-doped PVA/CS membrane with an acid content of 13.9 wt.% showed the lowest methanol permeability of 2.32 × 10 -7 cm 2 s -1 which was 16 times lower than that of Nafion ®117 membrane. In addition, the thermal stability and oxidative durability were both significantly improved by the incorporation of OPAs in comparison with pristine PVA/CS membranes.

  18. Proton conducting membranes prepared by incorporation of organophosphorus acids into alcohol barrier polymers for direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Zhongyi; Zheng, Xiaohong; Wu, Hong; Pan, Fusheng [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2008-10-15

    A novel type of DMFC membrane was developed via incorporation of organophosphorus acids (OPAs) into alcohol barrier materials (polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan, PVA/CS) to simultaneously acquire high proton conductivity and low methanol permeability. Three kinds of OPAs including amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP), ethylene diamine tetra(methylene phosphonic acid) (EDTMP) and hexamethylene diamine tetra(methylene phosphonic acid) (HDTMP), with different molecular structure and phosphonic acid groups content were added into PVA/CS blends and served the dual functions as proton conductor as well as crosslinker. The as-prepared OPA-doped PVA/CS membranes exhibited remarkably enhanced proton conducting ability, 2-4 times higher than that of the pristine PVA/CS membrane, comparable with that for Nafion {sup registered} 117 membrane (5.04 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1}). The highest proton conductivities 3.58 x 10{sup -2}, 3.51 x 10{sup -2} and 2.61 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} for ATMP-, EDTMP- and HDTMP-doped membranes, respectively were all achieved at highest initial OPA doping content (23.1 wt.%) at room temperature. The EDTMP-doped PVA/CS membrane with an acid content of 13.9 wt.% showed the lowest methanol permeability of 2.32 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} which was 16 times lower than that of Nafion {sup registered} 117 membrane. In addition, the thermal stability and oxidative durability were both significantly improved by the incorporation of OPAs in comparison with pristine PVA/CS membranes. (author)

  19. Effects of dietary fat on lipid composition of serum and erythrocytes of the swine and in vitro incorporation of fatty acids into erythrocyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroaki

    1974-01-01

    Changes in ftty acid patterns of lipids in serum and erythrocytes induced by dietary fats and in vitro incorporation of fatty acids into erythrocyte membranes were investigated with pigs. On feeding various diets, it was found that fatty acid composition of serum and erythrocytes could be modified and altered toward the fatty acid pattern of the diet. In vitro, the incorporation of labelled fatty acids into erythrocyte membranes was accelerated by the addition of cofactors such as lysolecithin, CoA and ATP. Dietary fats also had certain effects on the incorporation of fatty acids into erythrocyte membranes. Erythrocytes, collected from the blood of pigs fed corn oil, incorporated and also released more labelled linoleate than those of pigs fed hydrogenated soybean oil. Palmitic acid was more slowly incorporated into erythrocyte membranes than linoleic acid in the pigs fed both a commercial chow and scheduled meals, indicating selective esterification of fatty acids in the erythrocyte membranes. (author)

  20. Characterisation of a re-cast composite Nafion 1100 series of proton exchange membranes incorporating inert inorganic oxide particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slade, S.M.; Smith, J.R.; Campbell, S.A.; Ralph, T.R.; Ponce de Leon, C.; Walsh, F.C.

    2010-01-01

    A series of cation exchange membranes was produced by impregnating and coating both sides of a quartz web with a Nafion solution (1100 EW, 10%wt in water). Inert filler particles (SiO 2 , ZrO 2 or TiO 2 ; 5-20%wt) were incorporated into the aqueous Nafion solution to produce robust, composite membranes. Ion-exchange capacity/equivalent weight, water take-up, thickness change on hydration and ionic and electrical conductivity were measured in 1 mol dm -3 sulfuric acid at 298 K. The TiO 2 filler significantly impacted on these properties, producing higher water take-up and increased conductivity. Such membranes may be beneficial for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell operation at low humidification. The PEM fuel cell performance of the composite membranes containing SiO 2 fillers was examined in a Ballard Mark 5E unit cell. While the use of composite membranes offers a cost reduction, the unit cell performance was reduced, in practice, due to drying of the ionomer at the cathode.

  1. Selective transport and incorporation of highly charged metal and metal complex ions in self-assembled polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toutianoush, Ali; Tieke, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    The transport of aqueous salts containing mono-, di- and trivalent metal and tetravalent metal complex ions across ultrathin polyvinylammonium/polyvinylsulphate (PVA/PVS) membranes is described. The membranes were prepared by electrostatic layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of the two polyelectrolytes. Using spectroscopic measurements and permeability studies, it is demonstrated that the transport of copper(II) chloride, lanthanum(III) chloride, barium chloride and potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) is accompanied by the permanent incorporation of the metal and metal complex ions in the membrane. Upon the uptake of copper, lanthanum and hexacyanoferrate ions, the membranes become cross-linked so that the permeation rates of other salts not taken up by the membrane, e.g. sodium chloride, potassium chloride and magnesium chloride, are decreased. The uptake of barium ions leads to a decrease of the cross-linking density of the membrane so that the permeation rate of NaCl is increased. Possible mechanisms for the ion uptake are discussed

  2. Sensibilization of escherichia coli cells by cholesterol incorporated into their membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breslev, S.E.; Rozenberg, O.A.; Noskin, L.A.; Stepanova, I.M.; Beketova, A.G.; Loshakova, L.V.; Kovaleva, I.G.

    1984-01-01

    It has been established earlier that a level of cell radiosensitivity is defined by membrane viscosity changing in a wide temperature range. Therefore in epsilon coli cells of a natural type lethal doses of gamma rays are increased approximately a 3.5 times at 45 deg C, as compared to 4 deg C. Cholesterol changing a phase state of membrane lipids was used as a modifying factor. Liposomes were used with the goal of effective bacteria transfer to a membrane. It is established that liposomes without cholesterol do not affect their radioresistance and an increase of its content leads to resistance decrease. The effect is attained only at a sufficient long time of incubation of cells with liposomes (10-16 h). At 4 deg C lipids of E. coli membrane are in a solid-crystalline state independently on pholesterol presence, because of this, radiosensitivity does not change. Temperature increase up to 45 deg C transfer a part of lipids to a liquid-crystalline state, thus decreasing membrane viscosity. In this case cholesterol manifests itself. The authors explain viscosity increase with a violation in functioning of those enzyme systems, which activity is connected with membrane structural state, including enzymes of DNA repair. The authors assume that the radiosensibilization effect of cholesterol introduction into a bacterial membrane in high-temperature cell irradiation is explained by this phenomenon

  3. Incorporating Graphene Oxide into Alginate Polymer with a Cationic Intermediate To Strengthen Membrane Dehydration Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Kecheng; Liang, Feng; Zhu, Haipeng; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Wanqin

    2018-04-25

    Two-dimensional graphene oxide (GO) in hybrid membranes provides fast water transfer across its surface due to the abundant oxygenated functional groups to afford water sorption and the hydrophobic basal plane to create fast transporting pathways. To establish more compatible and efficient interactions for GO and sodium alginate (SA) polymer chains, cations sourced from lignin are employed to decorate GO (labeled as cation-functionalized GO (CG)) nanosheets via cation-π and π-π interactions, providing more interactive sites to confer synergetic benefits with polymer matrix. Cations from CG are also functional to partially interlock SA chains and intensify water diffusion. And with the aid of two-dimensional pathways of CG, fast selective water permeation can be realized through hybrid membranes with CG fillers. In dehydrating aqueous ethanol solution, the hybrid membrane exhibits considerable performance compared with bare SA polymer membrane (long-term stable permeation flux larger than 2500 g m -2 h -1 and water content larger than 99.7 wt %, with feed water content of 10 wt % under 70 °C). The effects of CG content in SA membrane were investigated, and the transport mechanism was correspondingly studied through varying operation conditions and membrane materials. In addition, such a membrane possesses long-term stability and almost unchanged high dehydration capability.

  4. Incorporation of zinc for fabrication of low-cost spinel-based composite ceramic membrane support to achieve its stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingling; Dong, Xinfa; Dong, Yingchao; Zhu, Li; You, Sheng-Jie; Wang, Ya-Fen

    2015-04-28

    In order to reduce environment risk of zinc, a spinel-based porous membrane support was prepared by the high-temperature reaction of zinc and bauxite mineral. The phase evolution process, shrinkage, porosity, mechanical property, pore size distribution, gas permeation flux and microstructure were systematically studied. The XRD results, based on a Zn/Al stoichiometric composition of 1/2, show a formation of ZnAl2O4 structure starting from 1000°C and then accomplished at 1300°C. For spinel-based composite membrane, shrinkage and porosity are mainly influenced by a combination of an expansion induced by ZnAl2O4 formation and a general densification due to amorphous liquid SiO2. The highest porosity, as high as 44%, is observed in ZnAl4 membrane support among all the investigated compositions. Compared with pure bauxite (Al), ZnAl4 composite membrane support is reinforced by ZnAl2O4 phase and inter-locked mullite crystals, which is proved by the empirical strength-porosity relationships. Also, an increase in average pore diameter and gas flux can be observed in ZnAl4. A prolonged leaching experiment reveals the zinc can be successfully incorporated into ceramic membrane support via formation of ZnAl2O4, which has substantially better resistance toward acidic attack. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Absorption of Ethylene on Membranes Containing Potassium Permanganate Loaded into Alumina-Nanoparticle-Incorporated Alumina/Carbon Nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirgar, Ashkan; Han, Daewoo; Steckl, Andrew J

    2018-06-06

    Ethylene is a natural aging hormone in plants, and controlling its concentration has long been a subject of research aimed at reducing wastage during packaging, transport, and storage. We report on packaging membranes, produced by electrospinning, that act as efficient carriers for potassium permanganate (PPM), a widely used ethylene oxidant. PPM salt loaded on membranes composed of alumina nanofibers incorporating alumina nanoparticles outperform other absorber systems and oxidize up to 73% of ethylene within 25 min. Membrane absorption of ethylene generated by avocados was totally quenched in 21 h, and a nearly zero ethylene concentration was observed for more than 5 days. By comparison, the control experiments exhibited a concentration of 53% of the initial value after 21 h and 31% on day 5. A high surface area of the alumina nanofiber membranes provides high capacity for ethylene absorption over a long period of time. In combination with other properties, such as planar form, flexibility, ease of handling, and lightweight, these membranes are a highly desirable component of packaging materials engineered to enhance product lifetime.

  6. Field test of methane fermentation incorporating with membrane module for sewage sludge. Bunrimaku wo fukugoshita gesui odei no methane hakko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiriyama, K.; Tanaka, Y. (Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Adachi, T. (Nitto Denko Corp., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-02-01

    Field test results of methane fermentation incorporating with a membrane module were reported for sewage sludge. The methane fermentation was conducted at 25[degree]C using only raw sludge charged from a suspended solid (SS) separating device until the mid-stage of experiments and adding gradually concentrated backwash of a biological aerated filter after the mid-stage. As a result, the reduction rate of volatile SS (VSS) charged into the reactor increased from 76.8% to 84.8% until the mid-stage, while from 52% to 70% even after the mid-stage giving the effect of the membrane module. Stable operation of the membrane module was achieved at 20,000-25,000 mg/l in SS concentration at its inlet and 0.6 m/s in membrane linear velocity, together with the easy recovery of flux by back washing. The power consumption in membrane separation at 23,000 mg/l in SS concentration was estimated to be 2.15 kWh per m[sup 3] of permeant at both motor and pump efficiencies of 1.0, suggesting possible energy saving. 3 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Effect of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) incorporation on water uptake and conductivity of proton exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproll, Véronique; Schmidt, Thomas J.; Gubler, Lorenz

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate how hygroscopic moieties like hydrolyzed glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) influence the properties of sulfonated polysytrene based proton exchange membranes (PEM). Therefore, several membranes were synthesized by electron beam treatment of the ETFE (ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) base film with a subsequent co-grafting of styrene and GMA at different ratios. The obtained membranes were sulfonated to introduce proton conducting groups and the epoxide moiety of the GMA unit was hydrolyzed for a better water absorption. The PEM was investigated regarding its structural composition, water uptake and through-plane conductivity. It could be shown that the density of sulfonic acid groups has a higher influence on the proton conductivity of the PEM than an increased water uptake.

  8. Membrane fusion between baculovirus budded virus-enveloped particles and giant liposomes generated using a droplet-transfer method for the incorporation of recombinant membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigami, Misako; Mori, Takaaki; Tomita, Masahiro; Takiguchi, Kingo; Tsumoto, Kanta

    2017-07-01

    Giant proteoliposomes are generally useful as artificial cell membranes in biochemical and biophysical studies, and various procedures for their preparation have been reported. We present here a novel preparation technique that involves the combination of i) cell-sized lipid vesicles (giant unilamellar vesicles, GUVs) that are generated using the droplet-transfer method, where lipid monolayer-coated water-in-oil microemulsion droplets interact with oil/water interfaces to form enclosed bilayer vesicles, and ii) budded viruses (BVs) of baculovirus (Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus) that express recombinant transmembrane proteins on their envelopes. GP64, a fusogenic glycoprotein on viral envelopes, is activated by weak acids and is thought to cause membrane fusion with liposomes. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), we observed that the single giant liposomes fused with octadecyl rhodamine B chloride (R18)-labeled wild-type BV envelopes with moderate leakage of entrapped soluble compounds (calcein), and the fusion profile depended on the pH of the exterior solution: membrane fusion occurred at pH ∼4-5. We further demonstrated that recombinant transmembrane proteins, a red fluorescent protein (RFP)-tagged GPCR (corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1, CRHR1) and envelope protein GP64 could be partly incorporated into membranes of the individual giant liposomes with a reduction of the pH value, though there were also some immobile fluorescent spots observed on their circumferences. This combination may be useful for preparing giant proteoliposomes containing the desired membranes and inner phases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A study of chemical modifications of a Nafion membrane by incorporation of different room temperature ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez de Yuso, M.V.; Rodriguez-Castellon, E. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga (Spain); Neves, L.A.; Coelhoso, I.M.; Crespo, J.G. [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Benavente, J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Surface and bulk chemical changes in a Nafion membrane as a result of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) incorporation were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and elemental analysis, respectively. RTILs with different physicochemical properties were selected. Two imidazolium based RTIL-cations (1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) were used to detect the effect of cation size on membrane modification, while the effect of the RTIL hydrophilic/hydrophobic character was also considered by choosing different anions. Angle resolved XPS measurements (ARXPS) were carried out varying the angle of analysis between 15 and 75 to get elemental information on the Nafion/RTIL-modified membranes interactions for a deepness of around 10 nm. Moreover, changes in the RTIL-modified membranes associated to thermal effect were also considered by analyzing the samples after their heating at 120 C for 24 h. Agreement between both chemical techniques, bulk and destructive elemental analysis and surface and non-destructive XPS, were obtained. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Estimating the concentration of gold nanoparticles incorporated on natural rubber membranes using multi-level starlet optimal segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, A. F. de, E-mail: siqueiraaf@gmail.com; Cabrera, F. C., E-mail: flavioccabrera@yahoo.com.br [UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Dep de Física, Química e Biologia (Brazil); Pagamisse, A., E-mail: aylton@fct.unesp.br [UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Dep de Matemática e Computação (Brazil); Job, A. E., E-mail: job@fct.unesp.br [UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Dep de Física, Química e Biologia (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    This study consolidates multi-level starlet segmentation (MLSS) and multi-level starlet optimal segmentation (MLSOS) techniques for photomicrograph segmentation, based on starlet wavelet detail levels to separate areas of interest in an input image. Several segmentation levels can be obtained using MLSS; after that, Matthews correlation coefficient is used to choose an optimal segmentation level, giving rise to MLSOS. In this paper, MLSOS is employed to estimate the concentration of gold nanoparticles with diameter around 47  nm, reduced on natural rubber membranes. These samples were used for the construction of SERS/SERRS substrates and in the study of the influence of natural rubber membranes with incorporated gold nanoparticles on the physiology of Leishmania braziliensis. Precision, recall, and accuracy are used to evaluate the segmentation performance, and MLSOS presents an accuracy greater than 88 % for this application.

  11. Microfluidic Device for Controllable Chemical Release via Field-Actuated Membrane Incorporating Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a robust magnetic-membrane-based microfluidic platform for controllable chemical release. The magnetic membrane was prepared by mixing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and carbonyl-iron nanoparticles together to obtain a flexible thin film. With combined, simultaneous regulation of magnetic stimulus and mechanical pumping, the desired chemical release rate can easily be realized. For example, the dose release experimental data was well fitted by a mathematical sigmoidal model, exhibiting a typical dose-response relationship, which shows promise in providing significant guidance for on-demand drug delivery. To test the platform’s feasibility, our microfluidic device was employed in an experiment involving Escherichia coli culture under controlled antibiotic ciprofloxacin exposure, and the expected outcomes were successfully obtained. Our experimental results indicate that such a microfluidic device, with high accuracy and easy manipulation properties, can legitimately be characterized as active chemical release system.

  12. Microfluidic Device for Controllable Chemical Release via Field-Actuated Membrane Incorporating Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Shunbo; Wang, Limu; Yi, Xin; Hui, Yu Sanna; Qin, Jianhua; Wen, Weijia

    2013-01-01

    We report a robust magnetic-membrane-based microfluidic platform for controllable chemical release. The magnetic membrane was prepared by mixing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and carbonyl-iron nanoparticles together to obtain a flexible thin film. With combined, simultaneous regulation of magnetic stimulus and mechanical pumping, the desired chemical release rate can easily be realized. For example, the dose release experimental data was well fitted by a mathematical sigmoidal model, exhibiting a typical dose-response relationship, which shows promise in providing significant guidance for on-demand drug delivery. To test the platform’s feasibility, our microfluidic device was employed in an experiment involving Escherichia coli culture under controlled antibiotic ciprofloxacin exposure, and the expected outcomes were successfully obtained. Our experimental results indicate that such a microfluidic device, with high accuracy and easy manipulation properties, can legitimately be characterized as active chemical release system.

  13. Microfluidic Device for Controllable Chemical Release via Field-Actuated Membrane Incorporating Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    We report a robust magnetic-membrane-based microfluidic platform for controllable chemical release. The magnetic membrane was prepared by mixing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and carbonyl-iron nanoparticles together to obtain a flexible thin film. With combined, simultaneous regulation of magnetic stimulus and mechanical pumping, the desired chemical release rate can easily be realized. For example, the dose release experimental data was well fitted by a mathematical sigmoidal model, exhibiting a typical dose-response relationship, which shows promise in providing significant guidance for on-demand drug delivery. To test the platform’s feasibility, our microfluidic device was employed in an experiment involving Escherichia coli culture under controlled antibiotic ciprofloxacin exposure, and the expected outcomes were successfully obtained. Our experimental results indicate that such a microfluidic device, with high accuracy and easy manipulation properties, can legitimately be characterized as active chemical release system.

  14. The Effect of Reactive Ionic Liquid or Plasticizer Incorporation on the Physicochemical and Transport Properties of Cellulose Acetate Propionate-Based Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Rynkowska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pervaporation is a membrane-separation technique which uses polymeric and/or ceramic membranes. In the case of pervaporation processes applied to dehydration, the membrane should transport water molecules preferentially. Reactive ionic liquid (RIL (3-(1,3-diethoxy-1,3-dioxopropan-2-yl-1-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium was used to prepare novel dense cellulose acetate propionate (CAP based membranes, applying the phase-inversion method. The designed polymer-ionic liquid system contained ionic liquid partially linked to the polymeric structure via the transesterification reaction. The various physicochemical, mechanical, equilibrium and transport properties of CAP-RIL membranes were determined and compared with the properties of CAP membranes modified with plasticizers, i.e., tributyl citrate (TBC and acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA testified that CAP-RIL membranes as well as CAP membranes modified with TBC and ATBC are thermally stable up to at least 120 °C. Tensile tests of the membranes revealed improved mechanical properties reflected by reduced brittleness and increased elongation at break achieved for CAP-RIL membranes in contrast to pristine CAP membranes. RIL plasticizes the CAP matrix, and CAP-RIL membranes possess preferable mechanical properties in comparison to membranes with other plasticizers investigated. The incorporation of RIL into CAP membranes tuned the surface properties of the membranes, enhancing their hydrophilic character. Moreover, the addition of RIL into CAP resulted in an excellent improvement of the separation factor, in comparison to pristine CAP membranes, in pervaporation dehydration of propan-2-ol. The separation factor β increased from ca. 10 for pristine CAP membrane to ca. 380 for CAP-16.7-RIL membranes contacting an azeotropic composition of water-propan-2-ol mixture (i.e., 12 wt % water.

  15. Phase behavior and nanoscale structure of phospholipid membranes incorporated with acylated C-14-peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, T.B.; Kaasgaard, Thomas; Jensen, M.O.

    2005-01-01

    The thermotropic phase behavior and lateral structure of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayers containing an acylated peptide has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) on vesicles and atomic force microscopy (AFM) on mica-supported bilayers. The acylated...... peptide, which is a synthetic decapeptide N-terminally linked to a C-14 acyl chain (C-14-peptide), is incorporated into DPPC bilayers in amounts ranging from 0-20 mol %. The calorimetric scans of the two-component system demonstrate a distinct influence of the C-14-peptide on the lipid bilayer...... gel phase DPPC bilayers, inserts preferentially into preexisting defect regions and has a noticeable influence on the organization of the surrounding lipids. The presence of the C-14-peptide gives rise to a laterally heterogeneous bilayer structure with coexisting lipid domains characterized by a 10...

  16. Surfactant-Assisted Perovskite Nanofillers Incorporated in Quaternized Poly (Vinyl Alcohol Composite Membrane as an Effective Hydroxide-Conducting Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Rajesh Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite LaFeO3 nanofillers (0.1% are incorporated into a quaternized poly(vinyl alcohol (QPVA matrix for use as hydroxide-conducting membranes in direct alkaline methanol fuel cells (DAMFCs. The as-synthesized LaFeO3 nanofillers are amorphous and functionalized with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB surfactant. The annealed LaFeO3 nanofillers are crystalline without CTAB. The QPVA/CTAB-coated LaFeO3 composite membrane shows a defect-free structure while the QPVA/annealed LaFeO3 film has voids at the interfaces between the soft polymer and rigid nanofillers. The QPVA/CTAB-coated LaFeO3 composite has lower methanol permeability and higher ionic conductivity than the pure QPVA and QPVA/annealed LaFeO3 films. We suggest that the CTAB-coated LaFeO3 provides three functions to the polymeric composite: increasing polymer free volume, ammonium group contributor, and plasticizer to enhance the interfacial compatibility. The composite containing CTAB-coated LaFeO3 results in superior cell performance. A maximum power density of 272 mW cm−2 is achieved, which is among the highest power outputs reported for DAMFCs in the literature.

  17. A Meningococcal Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccine Incorporating Genetically Attenuated Endotoxin Dissociates Inflammation From Immunogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Dowling

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Group B Neisseria meningitidis, an endotoxin-producing gram-negative bacterium, causes the highest incidence of group B meningococcus (MenB disease in the first year of life. The Bexsero vaccine is indicated in Europe from 8 weeks of age. Endotoxin components of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs or soluble lipopolysaccharide (LPS represent a potential source of inflammation and residual reactogenicity. The purpose of this study was to compare novel candidate MenB vaccine formulations with licensed vaccines, including Bexsero, using age-specific in vitro culture systems.Methods. OMVs from wild type and inactivated lpxL1 gene mutant N. meningitidis strains were characterized in human neonatal and adult in vitro whole blood assays and dendritic cell arrays. OMVs were benchmarked against licensed vaccines, including Bexsero and whole cell pertussis formulations, with respect to Th-polarizing cytokine and PGE2 production, as well as cell surface activation markers (HLA-DR, CD86, CCR7. OMV immunogenicity was assessed in mice.Results. ΔlpxLI native OMVs demonstrated significantly less cytokine induction in human blood and DCs than Bexsero and most of the other pediatric vaccines (e.g., PedvaxHib, EasyFive, Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG tested. Despite a much lower inflammatory profile in vitro than Bexsero, ΔlpxLI native OMVs still had moderate DC maturing ability and induced robust anti-N. meningitidis antibody responses after murine immunization.Conclusions. A meningococcal vaccine comprised of attenuated LPS-based OMVs with a limited inflammatory profile in vitro induces robust antigen-specific immunogenicity in vivo.

  18. Biogenic nanosilver incorporated reverse osmosis membrane for antibacterial and antifungal activities against selected pathogenic strains: an enhanced eco-friendly water disinfection approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjumeena, R; Duraibabu, D; Sudha, J; Kalaichelvan, P T

    2014-01-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) membranes have been used extensively in water desalination plants, waste water treatment in industries, agricultural farms and drinking water production applications. The objective of this work is to impart antibacterial and antifungal activities to commercially available RO membrane used in water purification systems by incorporating biogenic silver nanoparticles(AgNPs) synthesized using Rosa indica wichuriana hybrid leaf extract. The morphology and surface topography of uncoated and AgNPs-coated RO membrane were studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Elemental composition of the AgNPs-coated RO membrane was analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX). The functional groups were identified by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Hydrophilicity of the uncoated and AgNPs-coated RO membrane was analyzed using water contact angle measurements. The thermal properties were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The AgNPs incorporated RO membrane exhibited good antibacterial and antifungal activities against pathogenic bacterial strains such as E. coli, S. aureus, M. luteus, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa and fungal strains such as Candida tropicalis, C. krusei, C. glabrata, and C. albicans.

  19. Towards a Perron--Frobenius Theory for Eventually Positive Operators

    OpenAIRE

    Glück, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    This article is a contribution to the spectral theory of so-called eventually positive operators, i.e.\\ operators $T$ which may not be positive but whose powers $T^n$ become positive for large enough $n$. While the spectral theory of such operators is well understood in finite dimensions, the infinite dimensional case has received much less attention in the literature. We show that several sensible notions of "eventual positivity" can be defined in the infinite dimensional setting, and in con...

  20. Combustion systems and power plants incorporating parallel carbon dioxide capture and sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijmans, Johannes G [Menlo Park, CA; Merkel, Timothy C [Menlo Park, CA; Baker, Richard W [Palo Alto, CA

    2011-10-11

    Disclosed herein are combustion systems and power plants that incorporate sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases. In its most basic embodiment, the invention is a combustion system that includes three discrete units: a combustion unit, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In a preferred embodiment, the invention is a power plant including a combustion unit, a power generation system, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In both of these embodiments, the carbon dioxide capture unit and the sweep-based membrane separation unit are configured to be operated in parallel, by which we mean that each unit is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the combustion unit without such gases first passing through the other unit.

  1. Incorporation of stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha in PCL/gelatin electrospun membranes for guided bone regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, W.; Yang, F.; Ma, J.L.; Bouma, M.J.; Boerman, O.C.; Chen, Z.; Beucken, J.J.J.P van den; Jansen, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of membrane functionalization with a chemotactic factor on cell recruitment and bone formation in order to develop a bioactive membrane for guided bone regeneration (GBR) applications. To this end. GBR membranes were prepared by electrospinning using

  2. A plasma membrane localization signal in the HIV-1 envelope cytoplasmic domain prevents localization at sites of vesicular stomatitis virus budding and incorporation into VSV virions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J E; Rodgers, W; Rose, J K

    1998-11-25

    Previous studies showed that the HIV-1 envelope (Env) protein was not incorporated into vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) virions unless its cytoplasmic tail was replaced with that of the VSV glycoprotein (G). To determine whether the G tail provided a positive incorporation signal for Env, or if sequences in the Env tail prevented incorporation, we generated mutants of Env with its 150-amino-acid tail shortened to 29, 10, or 3 amino acids (Envtr mutants). Cells infected with VSV recombinants expressing these proteins or an Env-G tail hybrid showed similar amounts of Env protein at the surface. The Env-G tail hybrid or the Envtr3 mutant were incorporated at the highest levels into budding VSV virions. In contrast, the Envtr29 or Envtr10 mutants were incorporated poorly. These results defined a signal preventing incorporation within the 10 membrane-proximal amino acids of the Env tail. Confocal microscopy revealed that this signal functioned by causing localization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Env to plasma membrane domains distinct from the VSV budding sites, where VSV proteins were concentrated. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  3. Fabrication and Characterization of Chitosan Nanoparticle-Incorporated Quaternized Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Composite Membranes as Solid Electrolytes for Direct Methanol Alkaline Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Pin-Chieh; Liao, Guan–Ming; Kumar, S. Rajesh; Shih, Chao-Ming; Yang, Chun-Chen; Wang, Da-Ming; Lue, Shingjiang Jessie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Preparation of chitosan nanoparticles from bulk to enhance the degree of deacetylation. • The incorporation of chitosan nanoparticles into a QPVA matrix to form a nanocomposite membrane. • The nanocomposite constructed into thin-film membranes using the solution casting method. • To improve permeability, glutaraldehyde was cross-linked with the nanocomposite membranes. • A direct methanol alkaline fuel cell was studied at different temperatures. - Abstract: In this study, we designed a method for the preparation of chitosan nanoparticles incorporated into a quaternized poly(vinyl alcohol) (QPVA) matrix for direct methanol alkaline fuel cells (DMAFCs). The structural and morphological properties of the prepared nanocomposites were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and dynamic laser-light scattering (DLS). The crystallinity of the nanocomposite solid electrolytes containing 0 and 10% chitosan nanoparticles were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The electrochemical measurement of resulting nanocomposite membranes were analyzed according to the following parameters: methanol permeability, liquid uptakes, ionic conductivity and cell performances. The composite membranes with 10% chitosan nanoparticles in a QPVA matrix (CQPVA) show suppressed methanol permeability and higher ionic conductivity than pristine QPVA. In addition, the glutaraldehyde cross-linked nanocomposite film exhibited improvement on the methanol barrier property at 80 °C. The peak power density of the DMAFCs reached 67 mW cm −2 when fed into 1 M of methanol in 6 M of KOH.

  4. Characterisation of a re-cast composite Nafion® 1100 series of proton exchange membranes incorporating inert inorganic oxide particles

    OpenAIRE

    Slade, S.; Smith, James; Campbell, S.; Ralph, T.; Ponce de Leon, C.; Walsh, F.

    2010-01-01

    A series of cation exchange membranes was produced by impregnating and coating both sides of a quartz web with a Nafion® solution (1100 EW, 10%wt in water). Inert filler particles (SiO2, ZrO2 or TiO2; 5–20%wt) were incorporated into the aqueous Nafion® solution to produce robust, composite membranes. Ion-exchange capacity/equivalent weight, water take-up, thickness change on hydration and ionic and electrical conductivity were measured in 1 mol dm−3 sulfuric acid at 298 K. The TiO2 filler sig...

  5. Enhanced Performance of Polyurethane Hybrid Membranes for CO2 Separation by Incorporating Graphene Oxide: The Relationship between Membrane Performance and Morphology of Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Zhao, Li; Shen, Jiang-nan; Wu, Li-guang; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2015-07-07

    Polyurethane hybrid membranes containing graphene oxide (GO) with different morphologies were prepared by in situ polymerization. The separation of CO2/N2 gas mixtures was studied using these novel membranes. The results from the morphology characterization of GO samples indicated that the oxidation process in the improved Hummers method introduced oxygenated functional groups into graphite, making graphite powder exfoliate into GO nanosheets. The surface defects on the GO sheets increased when oxidation increased due to the introduction of more oxygenated functional groups. Both the increase in oxygenated functional groups on the GO surface and the decrease in the number of GO layers leads to a better distribution of GO in the polymer matrix, increasing thermal stability and gas separation performance of membranes. The addition of excess oxidant destroyed the structure of GO sheets and forms structural defects, which depressed the separation performance of membranes. The hybrid membranes containing well-distributed GO showed higher permeability and permeability selectivity for the CO2. The formation of GO aggregates in the hybrid membranes depressed the membrane performance at a high content of GO.

  6. Enhancement in Proton Conductivity and Thermal Stability in Nafion Membranes Induced by Incorporation of Sulfonated Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chongshan; Li, Jingjing; Zhou, Yawei; Zhang, Haining; Fang, Pengfei; He, Chunqing

    2018-04-25

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising green power sources, in which perfluorinated sulfonic acid ionomer-based membranes (e.g., Nafion) are widely used. However, the widespread application of PEMFCs is greatly limited by the sharp degradation in electrochemical properties of the proton exchange membranes under high temperature and low humidity conditions. In this work, the high-performance sulfonated carbon nanotubes/Nafion composite membranes (Su-CNTs/Nafion) for the PEMFCs were prepared and the mechanism of the microstructures on the macroscopic properties of membranes was intensively studied. Microstructure evolution in Nafion membranes during water uptake was investigated by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, and results strongly showed that the Su-CNTs or CNTs in Nafion composite membranes significantly reinforced Nafion matrices, which influenced the development of ionic-water clusters in them. Proton conductivities in Su-CNTs/Nafion composite membranes were remarkably enhanced due to the mass formation of proton-conducting pathways (water channels) along the Su-CNTs. In particular, these pathways along Su-CNTs in Su-CNTs/Nafion membranes interconnected the isolated ionic-water clusters at low humidity and resulted in less tortuosity of the water channel network for proton transportation at high humidity. At a high temperature of 135 °C, Su-CNTs/Nafion membranes maintained high proton conductivity because the reinforcement of Su-CNTs on Nafion matrices reduced the evaporation of water molecules from membranes as well as the hydrophilic Su-CNTs were helpful for binding water molecules.

  7. Self diffusion and spectral modifications of a membrane protein, the Rubrivivax gelatinosus LH2 complex, incorporated into a monoolein cubic phase.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsapis, N; Reiss-Husson, F; Ober, R; Genest, M; Hodges, R S; Urbach, W

    2001-01-01

    The light-harvesting complex LH2 from a purple bacterium, Rubrivivax gelatinosus, has been incorporated into the Q230 cubic phase of monoolein. We measured the self-diffusion of LH2 in detergent solution and in the cubic phase by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. We investigated also the absorption and fluorescence properties of this oligomeric membrane protein in the cubic phase, in comparison with its beta-octyl glucoside solution. In these experiments, native LH2 and LH2 labeled ...

  8. Enhanced Proton Conductivity of Sulfonated Hybrid Poly(arylene ether ketone) Membranes by Incorporating an Amino-Sulfo Bifunctionalized Metal-Organic Framework for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Chunyu; Li, Zhenhua; Zhao, Chengji; Duan, Yuting; Zhuang, Zhuang; Bu, Fanzhe; Na, Hui

    2018-03-07

    Novel side-chain-type sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) (SNF-PAEK) containing naphthalene and fluorine moieties on the main chain was prepared in this work, and a new amino-sulfo-bifunctionalized metal-organic framework (MNS, short for MIL-101-NH 2 -SO 3 H) was synthesized via a hydrothermal technology and postmodification. Then, MNS was incorporated into a SNF-PAEK matrix as an inorganic nanofiller to prepare a series of organic-inorganic hybrid membranes (MNS@SNF-PAEK-XX). The mechanical property, methanol resistance, electrochemistry, and other properties of MNS@SNF-PAEK-XX hybrid membranes were characterized in detail. We found that the mechanical strength and methanol resistances of these hybrid membranes were improved by the formation of an ionic cross-linking structure between -NH 2 of MNS and -SO 3 H on the side chain of SNF-PAEK. Particularly, the proton conductivity of these hybrid membranes increased obviously after the addition of MNS. MNS@SNF-PAEK-3% exhibited the proton conductivity of 0.192 S·cm -1 , which was much higher than those of the pristine membrane (0.145 S·cm -1 ) and recast Nafion (0.134 S·cm -1 ) at 80 °C. This result indicated that bifunctionalized MNS rearranged the microstructure of hybrid membranes, which could accelerate the transfer of protons. The hybrid membrane (MNS@SNF-PAEK-3%) showed a better direct methanol fuel cell performance with a higher peak power density of 125.7 mW/cm 2 at 80 °C and a higher open-circuit voltage (0.839 V) than the pristine membrane.

  9. Paramagnetic relaxation enhancement of membrane proteins by incorporation of the metal-chelating unnatural amino acid 2-amino-3-(8-hydroxyquinolin-3-yl)propanoic acid (HQA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Ho; Wang, Vivian S.; Radoicic, Jasmina; Angelis, Anna A. De; Berkamp, Sabrina; Opella, Stanley J., E-mail: sopella@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States)

    2015-04-15

    The use of paramagnetic constraints in protein NMR is an active area of research because of the benefits of long-range distance measurements (>10 Å). One of the main issues in successful execution is the incorporation of a paramagnetic metal ion into diamagnetic proteins. The most common metal ion tags are relatively long aliphatic chains attached to the side chain of a selected cysteine residue with a chelating group at the end where it can undergo substantial internal motions, decreasing the accuracy of the method. An attractive alternative approach is to incorporate an unnatural amino acid that binds metal ions at a specific site on the protein using the methods of molecular biology. Here we describe the successful incorporation of the unnatural amino acid 2-amino-3-(8-hydroxyquinolin-3-yl)propanoic acid (HQA) into two different membrane proteins by heterologous expression in E. coli. Fluorescence and NMR experiments demonstrate complete replacement of the natural amino acid with HQA and stable metal chelation by the mutated proteins. Evidence of site-specific intra- and inter-molecular PREs by NMR in micelle solutions sets the stage for the use of HQA incorporation in solid-state NMR structure determinations of membrane proteins in phospholipid bilayers.

  10. Characterization and Evaluation of the Improved Performance of Modified Reverse Osmosis Membranes by Incorporation of Various Organic Modifiers and SnO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. M. AL-Sheetan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse osmosis (RO membranes modified with SnO2 nanoparticles of varied concentrations (0.001–0.1 wt.% were developed via in situ interfacial polymerization (IP of trimesoyl chloride (TMC and m-phenylenediamine (MPD on nanoporous polysulfone supports. The nanoparticles dispersed in the dense nodular polyamide on the polysulfone side. The effects of IP reaction time and SnO2 loading on membrane separation performance were studied. The modified reverse osmosis membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffractometer (XRD, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, contact angle measurement, and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The synthesized SnO2 nanoparticles size varies between 10 and 30 nm. The results exhibited a smooth membrane surface and average surface roughness from 31 to 68 nm. Moreover, hydrophilicity was enhanced and contact angle decreased. The outcomes showed that an IP reaction time was essential to form a denser SnO2-polyamide layer for higher salt rejection, the developed reverse osmosis membranes with the incorporation of the SnO2 nanoparticles were examined by measuring permeate fluxes and salt rejection, and the permeate flux increased from 26 to 43.4 L/m2·h, while salt rejection was high at 98% (2000 ppm NaCl solution at 225 psi (1.55 MPa, 25°C.

  11. Adsorbent filled membranes for gas separation. Part 1. Improvement of the gas separation properties of polymeric membranes by incorporation of microporous adsorbents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duval, J.M.; Duval, J.-M.; Folkers, Albertje; Mulder, M.H.V.; Desgrandchamps, G.; Smolders, C.A.; Smolders, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of the introduction of specific adsorbents on the gas separation properties of polymeric membranes has been studied. For this purpose both carbon molecular sieves and zeolites are considered. The results show that zeolites such as silicate-1, 13X and KY improve to a large extent the

  12. Efficacy of bacterial bioremediation: Demonstration of complete incorporation of hydrocarbons into membrane phospholipids from Rhodococcus hydrocarbon degrading bacteria by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, R.P.; Blumer, E.N.; Emmett, M.R.; Marshall, A.G.

    2000-02-01

    The authors present a method and example to establish complete incorporation of hydrocarbons into membrane phospholipids of putatively bioremediative bacteria. Bacteria are grown on minimal media containing a specified carbon source, either natural abundance or enriched. After extraction (but no other prior separation) of the membrane lipids, electrospray ionization yields a negative-ion FT-ICR mass spectrum containing prominent phospholipid parent ions. If {sup 13}C-enriched hydrocarbon incorporation is complete, then the mass of the parent ion will increase by n Da, in which n is the number of its constituent carbon atoms; moreover, the {sup 13}C isotopic distribution pattern will be reversed. The identities of the constituent fatty acids and polar headgroup are obtained by collisional dissociation (MS/MS), and their extent of {sup 13}C incorporation determined individually. The method is demonstrated for Rhodococcus rhodochrous (ATCC No. 53968), for which all 44 carbons of a representative phosphatidylinositol are shown to derive from the hydrocarbon source. Interestingly, although only C{sub 16} and C{sub 18} alkanes are provided in the growth medium, the bacteria synthesize uniformly enriched C16:0 and C19:0 fatty acids.

  13. Function of membrane protein in silica nanopores: incorporation of photosynthetic light-harvesting protein LH2 into FSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Ippei; Hirata, Kotaro; Watanabe, Syoko; Shibata, Yutaka; Kajino, Tsutomu; Fukushima, Yoshiaki; Iwai, Satoshi; Itoh, Shigeru

    2006-01-26

    A high amount of functional membrane protein complex was introduced into a folded-sheet silica mesoporous material (FSM) that has nanometer-size pores of honeycomb-like hexagonal cylindrical structure inside. The photosynthetic light-harvesting complex LH2, which is a typical membrane protein, has a cylindrical structure of 7.3 nm diameter and contains 27 bacteriochlorophyll a and nine carotenoid molecules. The complex captures light energy in the anoxygenic thermophilic purple photosynthetic bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum. The amount of LH2 adsorbed to FSM was determined optically and by the adsorption isotherms of N2. The FSM compounds with internal pore diameters of 7.9 and 2.7 nm adsorbed LH2 at 1.11 and 0.24 mg/mg FSM, respectively, suggesting the high specific affinity of LH2 to the interior of the hydrophobic nanopores with a diameter of 7.9 nm. The LH2 adsorbed to FSM showed almost intact absorption bands of bacteriochlorophylls, and was fully active in the capture and transfer of excitation energy. The LH2 complex inside the FSM showed increased heat stability of the exciton-type absorption band of bacteriochlorophylls (B850), suggesting higher circular symmetry. The environment inside the hydrophobic silica nanopores can be a new matrix for the membrane proteins to reveal their functions. The silica-membrane protein adduct will be useful for the construction of new probes and reaction systems.

  14. Sensitivity enhancement for membrane proteins reconstituted in parallel and perpendicular oriented bicelles obtained by using repetitive cross-polarization and membrane-incorporated free radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koroloff, Sophie N. [North Carolina State University, Department of Chemistry (United States); Tesch, Deanna M. [Shaw University (United States); Awosanya, Emmanuel O.; Nevzorov, Alexander A., E-mail: alex-nevzorov@ncsu.edu [North Carolina State University, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Multidimensional separated local-field and spin-exchange experiments employed by oriented-sample solid-state NMR are essential for structure determination and spectroscopic assignment of membrane proteins reconstituted in macroscopically aligned lipid bilayers. However, these experiments typically require a large number of scans in order to establish interspin correlations. Here we have shown that a combination of optimized repetitive cross polarization (REP-CP) and membrane-embedded free radicals allows one to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio by factors 2.4-3.0 in the case of Pf1 coat protein reconstituted in magnetically aligned bicelles with their normals being either parallel or perpendicular to the main magnetic field. Notably, spectral resolution is not affected at the 2:1 radical-to-protein ratio. Spectroscopic assignment of Pf1 coat protein in the parallel bicelles has been established as an illustration of the method. The proposed methodology will advance applications of oriented-sample NMR technique when applied to samples containing smaller quantities of proteins and three-dimensional experiments.

  15. Lebensraum: paradoxically, population growth may eventually end wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J L

    1989-03-01

    Population growth may progressively reduce 1 of the motives for making war. Namely, population growth threatens shortages of resources, and especially land. Impending shortages cause a search for ways to mitigate the shortages. The discoveries eventually produce greater availability of resources than if population growth and pressure on resources had never occurred. The argument runs as follows: 1) Rhetoric about resources scarcity induced by population density has often contributed to international conflict, even if economics has not been the main motive in making war. 2) In the pre-modern era, war to obtain land and other resources may sometimes have been an economically sound policy. 3) Politicians and others in industrially developed nations believe resources may still be a casus belli. 4) Land and other productive resources are no longer worth acquiring at the cost of war.

  16. Membrane Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Physics, mathematics and chemistry all play a vital role in understanding the true nature and functioning of biological membranes, key elements of living processes. Besides simple spectroscopic observations and electrical measurements of membranes we address in this book the phenomena of coexistence and independent existence of different membrane components using various theoretical approaches. This treatment will be helpful for readers who want to understand biological processes by applying both simple observations and fundamental scientific analysis. It provides a deep understanding of the causes and effects of processes inside membranes, and will thus eventually open new doors for high-level pharmaceutical approaches towards fighting membrane- and cell-related diseases.

  17. Why do even satisfied newlyweds eventually go on to divorce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavner, Justin A; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2012-02-01

    Although divorce typically follows an extended period of unhappiness that begins early in marriage, some couples who are very happy throughout the first several years of marriage will also go on to divorce. This study aimed to identify risk factors early in marriage that distinguish initially satisfied couples who eventually divorce from those who remain married. We identified 136 couples reporting stably high levels of relationship satisfaction in the first 4 years of marriage. We compared the couples who went on to divorce by the 10-year follow-up with the couples who remained married on initial measures of commitment, observed communication, stress, and personality. Divorcing couples displayed more negative communication, emotion, and social support as newlyweds compared with couples who did not divorce. No significant differences were found in the other domains, in relationship satisfaction, or in positive behaviors. Overall, results indicate that even couples who are very successful at navigating the early years of marriage can be vulnerable to later dissolution if their interpersonal exchanges are poorly regulated. We speculate that, paradoxically, the many strengths possessed by these couples may mask their potent interpersonal liabilities, posing challenges for educational interventions designed to help these couples.

  18. Electrolysis with diamond anodes: Eventually, there are refractory species!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Ismael F; Cotillas, Salvador; Díaz, Elena; Sáez, Cristina; Rodríguez, Juan J; Cañizares, P; Mohedano, Ángel F; Rodrigo, Manuel A

    2018-03-01

    In this work, synthetic wastewater polluted with ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (Bmim) bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (NTf 2 ) undergoes four electrolytic treatments with diamond anodes (bare electrolysis, electrolysis enhanced with peroxosulfate promoters, irradiated with UV light and with US) and results obtained were compared with those obtained with the application of Catalytic Wet Peroxide Oxidation (CWPO). Despite its complex heterocyclic structure, Bmim + cation is successfully depleted with the five technologies tested, being transformed into intermediates that eventually can be mineralized. Photoelectrolysis attained the lowest concentration of intermediates, while CWPO is the technology less efficient in their degradation. However, the most surprising result is that concentration of NTf 2 - anion does not change during the five advanced oxidation processes tested, pointing out its strong refractory character, being the first species that exhibits this character in wastewater undergoing electrolysis with diamond. This means that the hydroxyl and sulfate radicals mediated oxidation and the direct electrolysis are inefficient for breaking the C-S, C-F and S-N bounds of the NTf 2 - anion, which is a very interesting mechanistic information to understand the complex processes undergone in electrolysis with diamond. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrochemical ion transfer mediated by a lipophilic Os(ii)/Os(iii) dinonyl bipyridyl probe incorporated in thin film membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansod, Sutida; Wang, Lu; Cuartero, Maria; Bakker, Eric

    2017-09-28

    A new lipophilic dinonyl bipyridyl Os(ii)/Os(iii) complex successfully mediates ion transfer processes across voltammetric thin membranes. An added lipophilic cation-exchanger may impose voltammetric anion or cation transfer waves of Gaussian shape that are reversible and repeatable. The peak potential is found to shift with the ion concentration in agreement with the Nernst equation. The addition of tridodecylmethylammonium nitrate to the polymeric film dramatically reduces the peak separation from 240 mV to 65 mV, and the peak width to a near-theoretical value of 85 mV, which agrees with a surface confined process. It is suggested that the cationic additive serves as a phase transfer catalyst.

  20. Ethylenediamine-functionalized graphene oxide incorporated acid-base ion exchange membranes for vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shuai; Li, Dan; Wang, Lihua; Yang, Haijun; Han, Xutong; Liu, Biqian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ethylenediamine functionalized graphene oxide. • Layered structure of functionalized graphene oxide block vanadium ions crossover. • Protonated N-containing groups suppress vanadium ions permeation. • Ion transport channels are narrowed by electrostatic interactions. • Vanadium crossover decreased due to enhanced Donnan effect and special structure. - Abstract: As a promising large-scale energy storage battery, vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is urgently needed to develop cost-effective membranes with excellent performance. Novel acid-base ion exchange membranes (IEMs) are fabricated based on sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) matrix and modified graphene oxide (GO) by solution blending. N-based functionalized graphene oxide (GO-NH 2 ) is fabricated by grafting ethylenediamine onto the edge of GO via a facile method. On one hand, the impermeable layered structures effectively block ion transport pathway to restrain vanadium ions crossover. On the other hand, acid-base pairs form between −SO 3 − groups and N-based groups on the edge of GO nanosheets, which not only suppress vanadium ions contamination but also provide a narrow pathway for proton migration. The structure is beneficial for achieving an intrinsic balance between conductivity and permeability. By altering amounts of GO-NH 2 , a sequence of acid-base IEMs are characterized in detail. The single cells assembled with acid-base IEMs show self-discharge time for 160 h, capacity retention 92% after 100 cycle, coulombic efficiency 97.2% and energy efficiency 89.5%. All data indicate that acid-base IEMs have promising prospects for VRFB applications.

  1. Fabrication of 6FDA-durene membrane incorporated with zeolite T and aminosilane grafted zeolite T for CO2/CH4 separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, Norwahyu; Fong Yeong, Yin; Keong Lau, Kok; Shariff, Azmi Mohd

    2017-08-01

    In the present work, zeolite T and aminosilane grafted zeolite T are embedded into 6FDA-durene polyimide phase for the fabrication of mixed matrix membranes (MMMs). FESEM images demonstrated that the improvement of interfacial adhesion between zeolite and polymer phases in MMM loaded with aminosilane grafted zeolite T was not significant as compared to zeolite T/6FDA-durene MMM. From the gas permeation test, CO2/CH4 selectivity up to 26.4 was achieved using MMM containing aminosilane grafted zeolite T, while MMM loaded with ungrafted zeolite T showed CO2/CH4 selectivity of 19.1. In addition, MMM incorporated with aminosilane grafted zeolite T particles successfully lies on Robeson upper bound 2008, which makes it an attractive candidate for CO2/CH4 separation.

  2. Selective sensing of mercury(II) using PVC-based membranes incorporating recently synthesized 1,3-alternate thiacalix[4]crown ionophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar; Kamal, Ajar; Kumar, Naresh; Bhalla, Vandana; Kumar, Manoj

    2013-05-01

    The construction and electrodes characteristics of poly(vinylchloride) (PVC)-based polymeric membrane electrode (PME) and coated graphite electrode (CGE), incorporating 1,3-alternate thiacalix[4]crown as ionophore for estimation of Hg(II) ions, are reported here. The best potential response was observed for PME-1 having membrane composition of: ionophore (6.2 mg), PVC (100.0 mg), 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (2-NPOE; 200.0 mg), and sodium tetraphenyl borate (NaTPB; 2.0 mg); for CGE-1 with the membrane composition: ionophore (3.5 mg), PVC (40.0 mg), 2-NPOE (80.0 mg), and NaTPB (2.0 mg). The electrodes exhibits Nernstian slope of 29.16 mV/decade with PME-1 and 30.39 mV/decade with CGE-1 for Hg(II) ions over wide concentration range, i.e., 1.0 × 10(-1) to 5.0 × 10(-6) M with PME-1 and 1.0 × 10(-1) to 5.0 × 10(-7) M with CGE-1. Lower detection limits were found to be 9.77 × 10(-6) M for PME-1 and 7.76 × 10(-7) M for CGE-1 with response time varying from 10 to 20 s. Also, these electrodes work within pH range of 2.0-6.0 for PME-1 and 1.5-6.5 for CGE-1. Overall, CGE-1 has been found to be better than PME-1. CGE-1 has been used as indicator electrode for the potentiometric titration of Hg(II) ions with EDTA as well as successfully applied for determination of Hg(II) content in wastewater, insecticide, dental amalgam, and ayurvedic medicines samples with very good performance (0.9974 correlation coefficient in the comparison against volumetric method).

  3. Sifat Strong Perron-Frobenius Pada Solusi Positif Eventual Sistem Persamaan Differensial Linier Orde Satu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulian Sari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini membicarakan tentang sifat strong Perron-Frobenius pada solusi positif eventual sistem persamaan differensial linier orde satu. Syarat perlu agar solusi positif eventual sistem persamaan differensial linier orde satu diajukan. Beberapa kriteria tentang matriks eksponensial positif eventual dan matriks positif eventual juga akan digunakan dalam teorema.

  4. Sifat Strong Perron-Frobenius Pada Solusi Positif Eventual Sistem Persamaan Differensial Linier Orde Satu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulian Sari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini membicarakan tentang sifat strong Perron-Frobenius pada solusi positif eventual sistem persamaan differensial linier orde satu. Syarat perlu agar solusi positif eventual sistem persamaan differensial linier orde satu diajukan. Beberapa kriteria tentang matriks eksponensial positif eventual dan matriks positif eventual juga akan digunakan dalam teorema.

  5. Incorporation of membrane-anchored flagellin or Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit enhances the immunogenicity of rabies virus-like particles in mice and dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinglin eQi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies remains an important worldwide public health threat, so safe, effective and affordable vaccines are still being sought. Virus-like particle (VLP-based vaccines targeting various viral pathogens have been successfully produced, licensed and commercialized. Here, we designed and constructed two chimeric rabies virus-like particles (cRVLPs containing rabies virus (RABV glycoprotein (G, matrix (M protein, and membrane-anchored flagellin (EVLP-F or Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (EVLP-L as molecular adjuvants to enhance the immune response against rabies. The immunogenicity and potential of cRVLPs as novel rabies vaccine were evaluated by intramuscular vaccination in mouse and dog models. Mouse studies demonstrated that both EVLP-F and EVLP-L induced faster and larger virus-neutralizing antibodies (VNA responses and elicited greater numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells secreting IFN-γ or IL-4 compared with a standard rabies VLP (sRVLP containing only G and M. Moreover, cRVLPs recruited and/or activated more B cells and dendritic cells in inguinal lymph nodes. EVLP-F induced a strong, specific IgG2a response but not an IgG1 response, suggesting the activation of Th1 class immunity; in contrast, Th2 class immunity was observed with EVLP-L. The significantly enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses induced by cRVLPs provided complete protection against lethal challenge with RABV. Most importantly, dogs vaccinated with EVLP-F or EVLP-L exhibited increased VNA titers in sera and enhanced IFN-γ and IL-4 secretion from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Taken together, these results illustrate that when incorporated into sRVLP, membrane-anchored flagellin and LTB possess strong adjuvant activity. EVLP-F and EVLP-L induce significantly enhanced RABV-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in both mouse and dog. Therefore, these cRVLPs may be developed as safe and more efficacious rabies vaccine candidate for animals.

  6. Incorporating Embedded Microporous Layers into Topologically Equivalent Pore Network Models for Oxygen Diffusivity Calculations in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Gas Diffusion Layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazeli, Mohammadreza; Hinebaugh, James; Bazylak, Aimy

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pore network model for modeling PEMFC MPL-coated GDL effective diffusivity. • Bilayered GDL (substrate and MPL) is modeled with a hybrid network of block MPL elements combined with discrete substrate pores. • Diffusivities of MPL-coated GDLs agree with analytical solutions. - Abstract: In this work, a voxel-based methodology is introduced for the hybridization of a pore network with interspersed nano-porous material elements allowing pore network based oxygen diffusivity calculations in a 3D image of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell gas diffusion layer (GDL) with an embedded microporous layer (MPL). The composite GDL is modeled by combining a hybrid network of block MPL elements with prescribed bulk material properties and a topologically equivalent network of larger discrete pores and throats that are directly derived from the 3D image of the GDL substrate. This hybrid network was incorporated into a pore network model, and effective diffusivity predictions of GDL materials with MPL coatings were obtained. Stochastically generated numerical models of carbon paper substrates with and without MPLs were used, and the pore space was directly extracted from this realistic geometry as the input for the pore network model. The effective diffusion coefficient of MPL-coated GDL materials was predicted from 3D images in a pore network modeling environment without resolving the nano-scale structure of the MPL. This method is particularly useful due to the disparate length scales that are involved when attempting to capture pore-scale transport in the GDL. Validation was performed by comparing our predicted diffusivity values to analytical predictions, and excellent agreement was observed. Upon conducting a mesh sensitivity study, it was determined that an MPL element size of 7 μm provided sufficiently high resolution for accurately describing the MPL nano-structure.

  7. Effect of incorporating graphene oxide and surface imprinting on polysulfone membranes on flux, hydrophilicity and rejection of salt and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibechu, Rose Waithiegeni; Ndinteh, Derek Tantoh; Msagati, Titus Alfred Makudali; Mamba, Bhekie Briliance; Sampath, S.

    2017-08-01

    We report a significant enhancement of hydrophillity of polysulfone (Psf) membranes after modification with graphene oxide (GO) as a filler followed by surface imprinting on the surface of GO/Psf composite imprinted membranes (CIMs). The surface imprinting on the GO-Psf membrane was employed in order to enhance its selectivity towards polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water. The CIMs were prepared through a process of phase inversion of a mixture of graphene oxide and polysulfone (Psf) in N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP). Fourier-transform spectroscopy (FT-IR) of the imprinted showed new peaks at 935 cm-1 and 1638 cm-1 indicating success in surface imprinting on the GO-Psf membrane. The CIM also showed improvement in flux from 8.56 LM-2 h-1 of unmodified polysulfone membrane to 15.3 LM-2 h-1 in the CIM, salt rejection increased from 57.2 ± 4.2% of polysulfone membrane to 76 ± 4.5%. The results obtained from the contact angle measurements showed a decrease with increase in GO content from 72 ± 2.7% of neat polysulfone membrane to 62.3 ± 2.1% of CIM indicating an improvement in surface hydrophilicity. The results from this study shows that, it is possible to improve the hydrophilicity of the membranes without affecting the performance of the membranes.

  8. Effect of colchicine on rat small intestinal absorptive cells. II. Distribution of label after incorporation of [3H]fucose into plasma membrane glycoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellinger, A.; Pavelka, M.; Gangl, A.

    1983-01-01

    By means of radioautography the influence was tested of various periods (5, 15, 30, 40 min, 2 hr) of pretreatment with colchicine, administered intraperitoneally to rats at a dosage of 0.5 mg/100 g of body weight, on the intracellular pathway of [ 3 H]fucose in absorptive cells of the small intestine. Administration of colchicine for 30 min and longer time intervals causes delay in the insertion of [ 3 H]fucose into the oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates in the Golgi apparatus, and results in redistribution of the label apparent over the different portions of the plasma membrane. In controls, at 2 and 4 hr after administration of [ 3 H]fucose the apical plasma membrane is strongly labeled. Colchicine causes equalization of the reaction of apical and basolateral regions of the plasma membrane: the number of silver grains attributable to the apical plasma membrane is reduced; following treatment with colchicine, apical portions of the plasma membrane comprise 31.6 +/- 1.8% of the silver grains, 38.6 +/- 3.8% are attributable to basolateral membrane regions. The colchicine-induced equalization of the density of label of apical and basolateral regions of the plasma membrane, in addition to the occurrence of basolateral microvillus borders, suggests microtubules to be important in the maintenance of the polar organization of small intestinal absorptive cells

  9. Fixed Point of Generalized Eventual Cyclic Gross in Fuzzy Norm Spaces for Contractive Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. M. Mohsenialhosseini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We define generalized eventual cyclic gross contractive mapping in fuzzy norm spaces, which is a generalization of the eventual cyclic gross contractions. Also we prove the existence of a fixed point for this type of contractive mapping on fuzzy norm spaces.

  10. Distribution of rhodopin and spirilloxanthin between LH1 and LH2 complexes when incorporating carotenoid mixture into the membrane of purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium minutissimum in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolshakov, M A; Ashikhmin, A A; Makhneva, Z K; Moskalenko, A A

    2016-11-01

    Carotenoid mixture enriched by rhodopin and spirilloxanthin was incorporated in LH2 and LH1 complexes from Allochromatium (Alc.) minutissimum in vitro. The maximum incorporating level was ~95%. Rhodopin (56.4%) and spirilloxanthin (13.8%) were incorporated into the LH1 complex, in contrast to the control complex, which contained primarily spirilloxanthin (66.8%). After incorporating, the LH2 complex contained rhodopin (66.7%) and didehydrorhodopin (14.6%), which was close to their content in the control (67.4 and 20.5%, respectively). Thus, it was shown that carotenoids from the total pool are not selectively incorporated into LH2 and LH1 complexes in vitro in the proportion corresponding to the carotenoid content in the complexes in vivo.

  11. Vinculin is a permanent component of the membrane skeleton and is incorporated into the (re)organising cytoskeleton upon platelet activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asijee, G. M.; Sturk, A.; Bruin, T.; Wilkinson, J. M.; ten Cate, J. W.

    1990-01-01

    Vinculin, a 130-kDa protein discovered in chicken gizzard smooth-muscle cells and subsequently also described in platelets, is believed to be involved in membrane-cytoskeleton interactions. In this study we investigated vinculin distribution in human blood platelets. Two skeletal fractions and a

  12. Incorporation of membrane-bound, mammalian-derived immunomodulatory proteins into influenza whole virus vaccines boosts immunogenicity and protection against lethal challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Paul C

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza epidemics continue to cause morbidity and mortality within the human population despite widespread vaccination efforts. This, along with the ominous threat of an avian influenza pandemic (H5N1, demonstrates the need for a much improved, more sophisticated influenza vaccine. We have developed an in vitro model system for producing a membrane-bound Cytokine-bearing Influenza Vaccine (CYT-IVAC. Numerous cytokines are involved in directing both innate and adaptive immunity and it is our goal to utilize the properties of individual cytokines and other immunomodulatory proteins to create a more immunogenic vaccine. Results We have evaluated the immunogenicity of inactivated cytokine-bearing influenza vaccines using a mouse model of lethal influenza virus challenge. CYT-IVACs were produced by stably transfecting MDCK cell lines with mouse-derived cytokines (GM-CSF, IL-2 and IL-4 fused to the membrane-anchoring domain of the viral hemagglutinin. Influenza virus replication in these cell lines resulted in the uptake of the bioactive membrane-bound cytokines during virus budding and release. In vivo efficacy studies revealed that a single low dose of IL-2 or IL-4-bearing CYT-IVAC is superior at providing protection against lethal influenza challenge in a mouse model and provides a more balanced Th1/Th2 humoral immune response, similar to live virus infections. Conclusion We have validated the protective efficacy of CYT-IVACs in a mammalian model of influenza virus infection. This technology has broad applications in current influenza virus vaccine development and may prove particularly useful in boosting immune responses in the elderly, where current vaccines are minimally effective.

  13. Fumed Silica Nanoparticles Incorporated in Quaternized Poly(Vinyl Alcohol Nanocomposite Membrane for Enhanced Power Densities in Direct Alcohol Alkaline Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Rajesh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A nanocomposite polymer membrane based on quaternized poly(vinyl alcohol/fumed silica (QPVA/FS was prepared via a quaternization process and solution casting method. The physico-chemical properties of the QPVA/FS membrane were investigated. Its high ionic conductivity was found to depend greatly on the concentration of fumed silica in the QPVA matrix. A maximum conductivity of 3.50 × 10−2 S/cm was obtained for QPVA/5%FS at 60 °C when it was doped with 6 M KOH. The permeabilities of methanol and ethanol were reduced with increasing fumed silica content. Cell voltage and peak power density were analyzed as functions of fumed silica concentration, temperature, methanol and ethanol concentrations. A maximum power density of 96.8 mW/cm2 was achieved with QPVA/5%FS electrolyte using 2 M methanol + 6 M KOH as fuel at 80 °C. A peak power density of 79 mW/cm2 was obtained using the QPVA/5%FS electrolyte with 3 M ethanol + 5 M KOH as fuel. The resulting peak power densities are higher than the majority of published reports. The results confirm that QPVA/FS exhibits promise as a future polymeric electrolyte for use in direct alkaline alcoholic fuel cells.

  14. Eventual Suicide in Interrupted and Uninterrupted Attempters: A Challenge to the Cry-for-Help Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, Robert A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Followed patients (N=499) hospitalized for suicide attempts (attempters) between 1970 and 1975 until 1982. Found under six percent eventually committed suicide. Found the interrupted attempters were approximately three times more likely to commit suicide than were the uninterrupted attempters. (Author/ABL)

  15. Defending the Counseling Model and Its Eventual Synthesis with the Medical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Madison, III

    This paper explores the strengths and weaknesses of the medical model in an effort to promote a counseling perspective that embraces some of the medical models strengths. Through inclusion, rather than exclusion, it is believed that the counseling model will eventually infiltrate the medical model by way of its own documentation system. With its…

  16. Neural Indices of Semantic Processing in Early Childhood Distinguish Eventual Stuttering Persistence and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidler, Kathryn; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Usler, Evan; Weber, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Maturation of neural processes for language may lag in some children who stutter (CWS), and event-related potentials (ERPs) distinguish CWS who have recovered from those who have persisted. The current study explores whether ERPs indexing semantic processing may distinguish children who will eventually persist in stuttering…

  17. In vitro Plasmodium falciparum drug sensitivity assay: inhibition of parasite growth by incorporation of stomatocytogenic amphiphiles into the erythrocyte membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegler, Hanne L; Staerk, Dan; Christensen, Jette

    2002-01-01

    Lupeol, which shows in vitro inhibitory activity against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 27.7 +/- 0.5 microM, was shown to cause a transformation of the human erythrocyte shape toward that of stomatocytes. Good correlation between the IC50 value...... culture continued to grow well in untreated erythrocytes. Thus, the antiplasmodial activity of lupeol appears to be indirect, being due to stomatocytic transformation of the host cell membrane and not to toxic effects via action on a drug target within the parasite. A number of amphiphiles that cause...... for development of new antimalarial drugs, care must be exercised in the interpretation of results of screening of plant extracts and natural product libraries by an in vitro Plasmodium toxicity assay....

  18. Insect Analogue to the Lotus Leaf: A Planthopper Wing Membrane Incorporating a Low-Adhesion, Nonwetting, Superhydrophobic, Bactericidal, and Biocompatible Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Gregory S; Green, David W; Cribb, Bronwen W; Brown, Christopher L; Meritt, Christopher R; Tobin, Mark J; Vongsvivut, Jitraporn; Sun, Mingxia; Liang, Ai-Ping; Watson, Jolanta A

    2017-07-19

    Nature has produced many intriguing and spectacular surfaces at the micro- and nanoscales. These small surface decorations act for a singular or, in most cases, a range of functions. The minute landscape found on the lotus leaf is one such example, displaying antiwetting behavior and low adhesion with foreign particulate matter. Indeed the lotus leaf has often been considered the "benchmark" for such properties. One could expect that there are animal counterparts of this self-drying and self-cleaning surface system. In this study, we show that the planthopper insect wing (Desudaba danae) exhibits a remarkable architectural similarity to the lotus leaf surface. Not only does the wing demonstrate a topographical likeness, but some surface properties are also expressed, such as nonwetting behavior and low adhering forces with contaminants. In addition, the insect-wing cuticle exhibits an antibacterial property in which Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis) are killed over many consecutive waves of attacks over 7 days. In contrast, eukaryote cell associations, upon contact with the insect membrane, lead to a formation of integrated cell sheets (e.g., among human stem cells (SHED-MSC) and human dermal fibroblasts (HDF)). The multifunctional features of the insect membrane provide a potential natural template for man-made applications in which specific control of liquid, solid, and biological contacts is desired and required. Moreover, the planthopper wing cuticle provides a "new" natural surface with which numerous interfacial properties can be explored for a range of comparative studies with both natural and man-made materials.

  19. Visualization of the African swine fever virus infection in living cells by incorporation into the virus particle of green fluorescent protein-p54 membrane protein chimera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernaez, Bruno; Escribano, Jose M.; Alonso, Covadonga

    2006-01-01

    Many stages of African swine fever virus infection have not yet been studied in detail. To track the behavior of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in the infected cells in real time, we produced an infectious recombinant ASFV (B54GFP-2) that expresses and incorporates into the virus particle a chimera of the p54 envelope protein fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The incorporation of the fusion protein into the virus particle was confirmed immunologically and it was determined that p54-EGFP was fully functional by confirmation that the recombinant virus made normal-sized plaques and presented similar growth curves to the wild-type virus. The tagged virus was visualized as individual fluorescent particles during the first stages of infection and allowed to visualize the infection progression in living cells through the viral life cycle by confocal microscopy. In this work, diverse potential applications of B54GFP-2 to study different aspects of ASFV infection are shown. By using this recombinant virus it was possible to determine the trajectory and speed of intracellular virus movement. Additionally, we have been able to visualize for first time the ASFV factory formation dynamics and the cytophatic effect of the virus in live infected cells. Finally, we have analyzed virus progression along the infection cycle and infected cell death as time-lapse animations

  20. Membrane Lipid Replacement for chronic illnesses, aging and cancer using oral glycerolphospholipid formulations with fructooligosaccharides to restore phospholipid function in cellular membranes, organelles, cells and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolson, Garth L; Ash, Michael E

    2017-09-01

    Membrane Lipid Replacement is the use of functional, oral supplements containing mixtures of cell membrane glycerolphospholipids, plus fructooligosaccharides (for protection against oxidative, bile acid and enzymatic damage) and antioxidants, in order to safely replace damaged, oxidized, membrane phospholipids and restore membrane, organelle, cellular and organ function. Defects in cellular and intracellular membranes are characteristic of all chronic medical conditions, including cancer, and normal processes, such as aging. Once the replacement glycerolphospholipids have been ingested, dispersed, complexed and transported, while being protected by fructooligosaccharides and several natural mechanisms, they can be inserted into cell membranes, lipoproteins, lipid globules, lipid droplets, liposomes and other carriers. They are conveyed by the lymphatics and blood circulation to cellular sites where they are endocytosed or incorporated into or transported by cell membranes. Inside cells the glycerolphospholipids can be transferred to various intracellular membranes by lipid globules, liposomes, membrane-membrane contact or by lipid carrier transfer. Eventually they arrive at their membrane destinations due to 'bulk flow' principles, and there they can stimulate the natural removal and replacement of damaged membrane lipids while undergoing further enzymatic alterations. Clinical trials have shown the benefits of Membrane Lipid Replacement in restoring mitochondrial function and reducing fatigue in aged subjects and chronically ill patients. Recently Membrane Lipid Replacement has been used to reduce pain and other symptoms as well as removing hydrophobic chemical contaminants, suggesting that there are additional new uses for this safe, natural medicine supplement. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Lipid Therapy: Drugs Targeting Biomembranes edited by Pablo V. Escribá. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  1. Considerations on the role of natural ecosystems in the eventual contamination of man and his environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmet, G.; Myttenaere, C.

    1988-01-01

    After the Chernobyl event, the problem of contamination of natural and semi-natural ecosystems has been particularly salient even where these non-agricultural land areas appear to generate only a small fraction of the annual food intakes of certain populations. A concise discussion of some features of natural ecosystems is presented here, with the objective of stimulating a closer inspection of the relative impact of these natural ecosystems on the eventual dose to man. The ability of natural systems to scavenge considerable amounts of contamination is emphasized and it is suggested that there is a need for further work to quantify the importance of these environments, relative to agricultural systems, in terms of producing eventual transfers to man. (author)

  2. A qualitative study of medical students in a rural track: views on eventual rural practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseamelia, Carrie; Greenwald, James L; Bush, Tiffany; Pratte, Morgan; Wilcox, Jessica; Morley, Christopher P

    2014-04-01

    Rural tracks (RTs) exist within medical schools across the United States. These programs often target those students from rural areas and those with primary care career interests, given that these factors are robust predictors of eventual rural practice. However, only 26% to 64% of graduates from RTs enter eventual rural practice. We conducted a qualitative, exploratory study of medical students enrolled in one school's RT, examining their interests in rural training, specialization, and eventual rural practice, via open coding of transcripts from focus groups and in-depth individual interviews, leading to identification of emerging themes. A total of 16 out of 54 eligible first- and second-year preclinical medical students participated in focus group sessions, and a total of seven out of 17 eligible third- and fourth-year medical students participated in individual interviews. Analyses revealed the recognition of a "Rural Identity," typical characteristics, and the importance of "Program Fit" and "Intentions for Practice" that trended toward family medicine specialization and rural practice. However, nuances within the comments reveal incomplete commitment to rural practice. In many cases, student preference for rural practice was driven largely by a disinterest in urban practice. Students with rural and primary care practice interests are often not perfectly committed to rural practice. However, RTs may provide a haven for such students within medical school.

  3. The predictive value of 2-year posttreatment biopsy after prostate cancer radiotherapy for eventual biochemical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, Waseet; Tucker, Susan L.; Crevoisier, Renaud de; Kuban, Deborah A.; Cheung, M. Rex

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the value of a 2-year post-radiotherapy (RT) prostate biopsy for predicting eventual biochemical failure in patients who were treated for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: This study comprised 164 patients who underwent a planned 2-year post-RT prostate biopsy. The independent prognostic value of the biopsy results for forecasting eventual biochemical outcome and overall survival was tested with other factors (the Gleason score, 1992 American Joint Committee on Cancer tumor stage, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level, risk group, and RT dose) in a multivariate analysis. The current nadir + 2 (CN + 2) definition of biochemical failure was used. Patients with rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or suspicious digital rectal examination before the biopsy were excluded. Results: The biopsy results were normal in 78 patients, scant atypical and malignant cells in 30, carcinoma with treatment effect in 43, and carcinoma without treatment effect in 13. Using the CN + 2 definition, we found a significant association between biopsy results and eventual biochemical failure. We also found that the biopsy status provides predictive information independent of the PSA status at the time of biopsy. Conclusion: A 2-year post-RT prostate biopsy may be useful for forecasting CN + 2 biochemical failure. Posttreatment prostate biopsy may be useful for identifying patients for aggressive salvage therapy

  4. La Estructura del Dolo Eventual y las Nuevas Fenomenologías de Riesgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Canestrari

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El texto aborda la discusión acerca de la estructura del dolo eventual, a partir de su fenomenología contemporánea, y el tratamiento que la jurisprudencia y doctrina alemana e italiana le han dado, particularmente en relación a supuestos relacionados con la transmisión de enfermedades de carácter sexual y de negativa de transfusión de sangre a menores por padres Testigos de Jehová. Se afirma que la doctrina dominante del consentimiento o aceptación no resuelve adecuadamente la fenomenología analizada y se plantea superar las dificultades que ello acarrea mediante la regulación legal del concepto de dolo eventual que se propone como conclusiónThe article discusses the structure of dolus eventualis (recklessness, considering its contemporary phenomenology, and the contributions of judicial decisions and legal scholarship in Germany and Italy. Especial consideration is given to the cases of sexually transmitted diseases and the refusal of blood transfusions to children by their Jehova's Witnesses parents. It is argued that the dominant doctrine of consent or acceptance does nor adequately resolve the analyzed phenomena, and a proposal is advanced towards a legal definition of the concept of recklessness.

  5. PRESCHOOL SPEECH ARTICULATION AND NONWORD REPETITION ABILITIES MAY HELP PREDICT EVENTUAL RECOVERY OR PERSISTENCE OF STUTTERING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Caroline; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In preschool children, we investigated whether expressive and receptive language, phonological, articulatory, and/or verbal working memory proficiencies aid in predicting eventual recovery or persistence of stuttering. Methods Participants included 65 children, including 25 children who do not stutter (CWNS) and 40 who stutter (CWS) recruited at age 3;9–5;8. At initial testing, participants were administered the Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language, 3rd edition (TACL-3), Structured Photographic Expressive Language Test, 3rd edition (SPELT-3), Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology-Consonant Inventory subtest (BBTOP-CI), Nonword Repetition Test (NRT; Dollaghan & Campbell, 1998), and Test of Auditory Perceptual Skills-Revised (TAPS-R) auditory number memory and auditory word memory subtests. Stuttering behaviors of CWS were assessed in subsequent years, forming groups whose stuttering eventually persisted (CWS-Per; n=19) or recovered (CWS-Rec; n=21). Proficiency scores in morphosyntactic skills, consonant production, verbal working memory for known words, and phonological working memory and speech production for novel nonwords obtained at the initial testing were analyzed for each group. Results CWS-Per were less proficient than CWNS and CWS-Rec in measures of consonant production (BBTOP-CI) and repetition of novel phonological sequences (NRT). In contrast, receptive language, expressive language, and verbal working memory abilities did not distinguish CWS-Rec from CWS-Per. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that preschool BBTOP-CI scores and overall NRT proficiency significantly predicted future recovery status. Conclusion Results suggest that phonological and speech articulation abilities in the preschool years should be considered with other predictive factors as part of a comprehensive risk assessment for the development of chronic stuttering. PMID:25173455

  6. One Step Biomass Gas Reforming-Shift Separation Membrane Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Michael J. [Gas Technology Institute; Souleimanova, Razima [Gas Technology Institute

    2012-12-28

    GTI developed a plan where efforts were concentrated in 4 major areas: membrane material development, membrane module development, membrane process development, and membrane gasifier scale-up. GTI assembled a team of researchers to work in each area. Task 1.1 Ceramic Membrane Synthesis and Testing was conducted by Arizona State University (ASU), Task 1.2 Metallic Membrane Synthesis and Testing was conducted by the U.S. National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Task 1.3 was conducted by SCHOTT, and GTI was to test all membranes that showed potential. The initial focus of the project was concentrated on membrane material development. Metallic and glass-based membranes were identified as hydrogen selective membranes under the conditions of the biomass gasification, temperatures above 700C and pressures up to 30 atmospheres. Membranes were synthesized by arc-rolling for metallic type membranes and incorporating Pd into a glass matrix for glass membranes. Testing for hydrogen permeability properties were completed and the effects of hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide were investigated for perspective membranes. The initial candidate membrane of Pd80Cu20 chosen in 2008 was selected for preliminary reactor design and cost estimates. Although the H2A analysis results indicated a $1.96 cost per gge H2 based on a 5A (micron) thick PdCu membrane, there was not long-term operation at the required flux to satisfy the go/no go decision. Since the future PSA case yielded a $2.00/gge H2, DOE decided that there was insufficient savings compared with the already proven PSA technology to further pursue the membrane reactor design. All ceramic membranes synthesized by ASU during the project showed low hydrogen flux as compared with metallic membranes. The best ceramic membrane showed hydrogen permeation flux of 0.03 SCFH/ft2 at the required process conditions while the metallic membrane, Pd80Cu20 showed a flux of 47.2 SCFH/ft2 (3 orders of magnitude difference). Results from

  7. Assessing the Eventual Publication of Clinical Trial Abstracts Submitted to a Large Annual Oncology Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Paul R; Wang, Ruibin; Prasad, Vinay; Bates, Susan E; Fojo, Tito

    2016-03-01

    Despite the ethical imperative to publish clinical trials when human subjects are involved, such data frequently remain unpublished. The objectives were to tabulate the rate and ascertain factors associated with eventual publication of clinical trial results reported as abstracts in the Proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (American Society of Clinical Oncology). Abstracts describing clinical trials for patients with breast, lung, colorectal, ovarian, and prostate cancer from 2009 to 2011 were identified by using a comprehensive online database (http://meetinglibrary.asco.org/abstracts). Abstracts included reported results of a treatment or intervention assessed in a discrete, prospective clinical trial. Publication status at 4-6 years was determined by using a standardized search of PubMed. Primary outcomes were the rate of publication for abstracts of randomized and nonrandomized clinical trials. Secondary outcomes included factors influencing the publication of results. A total of 1,075 abstracts describing 378 randomized and 697 nonrandomized clinical trials were evaluated. Across all years, 75% of randomized and 54% of nonrandomized trials were published, with an overall publication rate of 61%. Sample size was a statistically significant predictor of publication for both randomized and nonrandomized trials (odds ratio [OR] per increase of 100 participants = 1.23 [1.11-1.36], p publication (OR 2.37, p = .013; and 2.21, p = .01, respectively). Among nonrandomized studies, phase II trials were more likely to be published than phase I (p publication in randomized (OR 0.76 [0.38-1.52]; p = .441) or nonrandomized trials (OR 0.89 [0.61-1.29]; p = .532). This is the largest reported study examining why oncology trials are not published. The data show that 4-6 years after appearing as abstracts, 39% of oncology clinical trials remain unpublished. Larger sample size and advanced trial phase were associated with eventual publication; among randomized

  8. Preschool speech articulation and nonword repetition abilities may help predict eventual recovery or persistence of stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Caroline; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2014-09-01

    In preschool children, we investigated whether expressive and receptive language, phonological, articulatory, and/or verbal working memory proficiencies aid in predicting eventual recovery or persistence of stuttering. Participants included 65 children, including 25 children who do not stutter (CWNS) and 40 who stutter (CWS) recruited at age 3;9-5;8. At initial testing, participants were administered the Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language, 3rd edition (TACL-3), Structured Photographic Expressive Language Test, 3rd edition (SPELT-3), Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology-Consonant Inventory subtest (BBTOP-CI), Nonword Repetition Test (NRT; Dollaghan & Campbell, 1998), and Test of Auditory Perceptual Skills-Revised (TAPS-R) auditory number memory and auditory word memory subtests. Stuttering behaviors of CWS were assessed in subsequent years, forming groups whose stuttering eventually persisted (CWS-Per; n=19) or recovered (CWS-Rec; n=21). Proficiency scores in morphosyntactic skills, consonant production, verbal working memory for known words, and phonological working memory and speech production for novel nonwords obtained at the initial testing were analyzed for each group. CWS-Per were less proficient than CWNS and CWS-Rec in measures of consonant production (BBTOP-CI) and repetition of novel phonological sequences (NRT). In contrast, receptive language, expressive language, and verbal working memory abilities did not distinguish CWS-Rec from CWS-Per. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that preschool BBTOP-CI scores and overall NRT proficiency significantly predicted future recovery status. Results suggest that phonological and speech articulation abilities in the preschool years should be considered with other predictive factors as part of a comprehensive risk assessment for the development of chronic stuttering. At the end of this activity the reader will be able to: (1) describe the current status of nonlinguistic and linguistic predictors for

  9. Diagnosis, Surgical Treatment, Recovery, and Eventual Necropsy of a Leopard (Panthera pardus with Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Malmlov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year-old, male, castrated, captive-born leopard (Panthera pardus presented to Colorado State University’s Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a two-week history of regurgitation. Thoracic radiographs and ultrasound revealed a well-differentiated cranioventral mediastinal mass measuring 7.5 × 10 × 5.5 cm, impinging the esophagus. A sternotomy followed by mass excision was performed. The mass was diagnosed as an ectopic thyroid carcinoma. The leopard recovered from surgery with minimal complications and returned to near-normal activity levels for just under 6 months before rapidly declining. He had an acute onset of severe dyspnea and lethargy and was euthanized. On postmortem examination the tumor was found to involve the lung, liver, thyroid, parietal pleura, bronchial lymph nodes, and the internal intercostal muscles. This case report describes the history, diagnosis, surgical treatment, postoperative care, and recovery as well as the eventual decline, euthanasia, and necropsy of a leopard with thyroid carcinoma. When compared to thyroid carcinomas of domestic animals, the leopard’s disease process more closely resembles the disease process seen in domestic canines compared to domestic cats.

  10. K. Schmitt’s Theory of Partisan: Socio - Political Eventuality of Partisan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Petrovich Ostromenskij

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eventual socio-political conditions of the appearance of a partisan are considered. It is shown that the appearance of the partisan becomes possible when the socio-political uncertainty in the state and social anomie in society caused serious set into question the legitimacy of the sovereign. In such circumstances, falling value of public institutions, the rule of law and the rules of the routine, but the role of the individual and adopt independent decisions, in each case, increases. And increasing the area of independent ad hoc decisions. Such conditions arise in the occupied territory, especially in a situation of the continuing war. Besides, here indigenous people without taking any illegal actions, from the point of view of both clashing sovereigns, it is struck in the rights. All this makes a real opportunity to show the political subjectivity of the citizen, even with low social status. The behavior of the occupied population can follow three models: expectations of the solution of the conflict between sovereigns and the subsequent acceptance of its results as due - absolute majority population, the active help to the occupying sovereign for the purpose of the statement new political - the collaborator, active opposition of the occupying authority for the purpose of return former political - the partisan.

  11. Patient and family physician preferences for care and communication in the eventuality of anthrax terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Ernesto; Fogelman, Yacov; Kitai, Eliezer; Vinker, Shlomo

    2003-08-01

    The threat of bioterrorism consequent to the September 11, 2001 attack in the USA generated suggestions for improved medical response mainly through hospital preparedness. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of this period of tension on patients' first choice for care and for receiving relevant information, and on primary care doctors' feelings of responsibility in the eventuality of an anthrax attack. During October 11-31, 2001, 500 patients from 30 clinics throughout Israel were asked to complete a questionnaire on their awareness of the anthrax threat, measures taken to prepare for it, and preferred sources of care and information. Their 30 physicians, and an additional 20, completed a questionnaire on knowledge about anthrax and anthrax-related patient behaviours and clinic visits. The outstanding finding was the low rate (30%) of patients who chose the hospital emergency department as their first choice for care or information if they were worried about an anthrax attack or the media communicated that an attack was in progress. The other two-thirds preferred their family doctor or the health authorities. Most of the physicians (89%) felt it was their responsibility to treat anthrax-infected patients and that they should therefore be supplied with appropriate guidelines. This study suggests that in Israel, a country with a high degree of awareness of civil defence aspects, both patients and primary care doctors believe that family physicians should have a major role in the case of bioterrorist attacks. This must be seriously considered during formulation of relevant health services programmes.

  12. The evolution, etiology and eventualities of the global health security regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J

    2010-11-01

    Attention to global health security governance is more important now than ever before. Scientists predict that a possible influenza pandemic could affect 1.5 billion people, cause up to 150 million deaths and leave US$3 trillion in economic damages. A public health emergency in one country is now only hours away from affecting many others. Using regime analysis from political science, the principles, norms, rules and decision-making procedures by which states govern health security are examined in the historical context of their punctuated evolution. This methodology illuminates the catalytic agents of change, distributional consequences and possible future orders that can help to better inform progress in this area. Four periods of global health security governance are identified. The first is characterized by unilateral quarantine regulations (1377-1851), the second by multiple sanitary conferences (1851-92), the third by several international sanitary conventions and international health organizations (1892-1946) and the fourth by the hegemonic leadership of the World Health Organization (1946-????). This final regime, like others before it, is challenged by globalization (e.g. limitations of the new International Health Regulations), changing diplomacy (e.g. proliferation of global health security organizations), new tools (e.g. global health law, human rights and health diplomacy) and shock-activated vulnerabilities (e.g. bioterrorism and avian/swine influenza). This understanding, in turn, allows us to appreciate the impact of this evolving regime on class, race and gender, as well as to consider four possible future configurations of power, including greater authority for the World Health Organization, a concert of powers, developing countries and civil society organizations. This regime analysis allows us to understand the evolution, etiology and eventualities of the global health security regime, which is essential for national and international health

  13. Anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  14. Incorporation of Hyperbranched Supramolecules into Nafion Ionic Domains via Impregnation and In-Situ Photopolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiruto Kudo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nafion membranes were impregnated with photocurable supramolecules, viz., hyperbranched polyester having pendant functional carboxylic acid groups (HBPEAc-COOH by swelling in methanol and subsequently photocured in-situ after drying. Structure-property relationships of the HBPEAc-COOH impregnated Nafion membranes were analyzed on the basis of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. FTIR and SSNMR investigations revealed that about 7 wt % of HBPEAc-COOH was actually incorporated into the ionic domains of Nafion. The FTIR study suggests possible complexation via inter-species hydrogen bonding between the carboxylic groups of HBPEAc-COOH and the sulfonate groups of Nafion. The α-relaxation peak corresponding to the glass transition temperature of the ionic domains of the neat Nafion-acid form was found to increase from ~100 to ~130 °C upon impregnation with enhanced modulus afforded by the cured polyester network within the ionic domains. The AC impedance fuel cell measurement of the impregnated membrane exhibited an increasing trend of proton conductivity with increasing temperature, which eventually surpassed that of neat Nafion above 100 °C. Of particular importance is that the present paper is the first to successfully incorporate polymer molecules/networks into the Nafion ionic domains by means of impregnation with hyperbranched supramolecules followed by in-situ photopolymerization.

  15. Nanodisc-solubilized membrane protein library reflects the membrane proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Michael T; Wilcox, Kyle C; Klein, William L; Sligar, Stephen G

    2013-05-01

    The isolation and identification of unknown membrane proteins offers the prospect of discovering new pharmaceutical targets and identifying key biochemical receptors. However, interactions between membrane protein targets and soluble ligands are difficult to study in vitro due to the insolubility of membrane proteins in non-detergent systems. Nanodiscs, nanoscale discoidal lipid bilayers encircled by a membrane scaffold protein belt, have proven to be an effective platform to solubilize membrane proteins and have been used to study a wide variety of purified membrane proteins. This report details the incorporation of an unbiased population of membrane proteins from Escherichia coli membranes into Nanodiscs. This solubilized membrane protein library (SMPL) forms a soluble in vitro model of the membrane proteome. Since Nanodiscs contain isolated proteins or small complexes, the SMPL is an ideal platform for interactomics studies and pull-down assays of membrane proteins. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the protein population before and after formation of the Nanodisc library indicates that a large percentage of the proteins are incorporated into the library. Proteomic identification of several prominent bands demonstrates the successful incorporation of outer and inner membrane proteins into the Nanodisc library.

  16. Ion-conducting membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Sajjad, Syed Dawar; Gao, Yan; Liu, Zengcai; Chen, Qingmei

    2017-12-26

    An anion-conducting polymeric membrane comprises a terpolymer of styrene, vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s and vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x. R.sub.s is a positively charged cyclic amine group. R.sub.x is at least one constituent selected from the group consisting Cl, OH and a reaction product between an OH or Cl and a species other than a simple amine or a cyclic amine. The total weight of the vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x groups is greater than 0.3% of the total weight of the membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.

  17. The cancer of bureaucracy: how it will destroy science, medicine, education; and eventually everything else.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2010-06-01

    Everyone living in modernizing 'Western' societies will have noticed the long-term, progressive growth and spread of bureaucracy infiltrating all forms of social organization: nobody loves it, many loathe it, yet it keeps expanding. Such unrelenting growth implies that bureaucracy is parasitic and its growth uncontrollable - in other words it is a cancer that eludes the host immune system. Old-fashioned functional, 'rational' bureaucracy that incorporated individual decision-making is now all-but extinct, rendered obsolete by computerization. But modern bureaucracy evolved from it, the key 'parasitic' mutation being the introduction of committees for major decision-making or decision-ratification. Committees are a fundamentally irrational, incoherent, unpredictable decision-making procedure; which has the twin advantages that it cannot be formalized and replaced by computerization, and that it generates random variation or 'noise' which provides the basis for natural selection processes. Modern bureaucracies have simultaneously grown and spread in a positive feedback cycle; such that interlinking bureaucracies now constitute the major environmental feature of human society which affects organizational survival and reproduction. Individual bureaucracies must become useless parasites which ignore the 'real-world' in order to adapt to rapidly-changing 'bureaucratic reality'. Within science, the major manifestation of bureaucracy is peer review, which - cancer-like - has expanded to obliterate individual authority and autonomy. There has been local elaboration of peer review and metastatic spread of peer review to include all major functions such as admissions, appointments, promotions, grant review, project management, research evaluation, journal and book refereeing and the award of prizes. Peer review eludes the immune system of science since it has now been accepted by other bureaucracies as intrinsically valid, such that any residual individual decision-making (no

  18. Membrane dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications...... for the lateral organization of membranes as wells as for physical properties like bending, permeability and elasticity...

  19. Correlation of Admission Metrics with Eventual Success in Mathematics Academic Performance of Freshmen in AMAIUB's Business Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calucag, Lina S.; Talisic, Geraldo C.; Caday, Aileen B.

    2016-01-01

    This is a correlational study research design, which aimed to determine the correlation of admission metrics with eventual success in mathematics academic performance of the admitted 177 first year students of Bachelor of Science in Business Informatics and 59 first year students of Bachelor of Science in International Studies. Using Pearson's…

  20. Machine Learning Algorithms Utilizing Quantitative CT Features May Predict Eventual Onset of Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome After Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Eduardo J Mortani; Lanclus, Maarten; Vos, Wim; Van Holsbeke, Cedric; De Backer, William; De Backer, Jan; Lee, James

    2018-02-19

    Long-term survival after lung transplantation (LTx) is limited by bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), defined as a sustained decline in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV 1 ) not explained by other causes. We assessed whether machine learning (ML) utilizing quantitative computed tomography (qCT) metrics can predict eventual development of BOS. Paired inspiratory-expiratory CT scans of 71 patients who underwent LTx were analyzed retrospectively (BOS [n = 41] versus non-BOS [n = 30]), using at least two different time points. The BOS cohort experienced a reduction in FEV 1 of >10% compared to baseline FEV 1 post LTx. Multifactor analysis correlated declining FEV 1 with qCT features linked to acute inflammation or BOS onset. Student t test and ML were applied on baseline qCT features to identify lung transplant patients at baseline that eventually developed BOS. The FEV 1 decline in the BOS cohort correlated with an increase in the lung volume (P = .027) and in the central airway volume at functional residual capacity (P = .018), not observed in non-BOS patients, whereas the non-BOS cohort experienced a decrease in the central airway volume at total lung capacity with declining FEV 1 (P = .039). Twenty-three baseline qCT parameters could significantly distinguish between non-BOS patients and eventual BOS developers (P machine), we could identify BOS developers at baseline with an accuracy of 85%, using only three qCT parameters. ML utilizing qCT could discern distinct mechanisms driving FEV 1 decline in BOS and non-BOS LTx patients and predict eventual onset of BOS. This approach may become useful to optimize management of LTx patients. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of clayey masses compositions starting from the residue incorporation of the red ceramic industry to obtain tubular ceramic membranes; Avaliacao das composicoes de massas argilosas a partir da incorporacao de residuo da industria de ceramica vermelha na obtencao de membranas ceramicas tubulares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Adriano Lima da; Chaves, Alexsandra Cristina; Luna, Carlos Bruno Barreto; Neves, Gelmires de Araujo; Lira, Helio de Lucena, E-mail: adrianolimadasilva@hotmail.com, E-mail: alexsandra.chaves@ifap.edu.br, E-mail: brunobarretodemaufcg@hotmail.com, E-mail: gelmires@ufcg.edu.br, E-mail: helio@ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMa/CCT/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2017-01-15

    The inappropriate residue disposal of red ceramic industry is very high. Nowadays, one of the major challenges is the investigation of processes to obtain alternative materials, enabling the use of these residues to manufacture new materials. This work's objective is to study clayey masses' compositions starting from the residue incorporation of the red ceramic industry to be used in tubular ceramic membranes. Two compositions of ceramic masses were established, composition A (50% of residue) and composition B (70% of residue). Granulometric analysis of the ceramic masses presented an average size of particles, what indicates membranes in the microfiltration scale. Another observed factor is related to the increase of residue amount, what favored a decrease in the ceramic mass' plasticity. A rise in the apparent porosity was also observed, probably because of a possible growing in the bigger pores numbers, due to the sintering high temperature and the elevation of residue quantity itself. (author)

  2. Site-specific incorporation of 5-fluorotryptophan as a probe of the structure and function of the membrane-bound D-lactate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli: A 19F nuclear magnetic resonance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peersen, O.B.; Pratt, E.A.; Truong, H.T. N.; Ho, C.; Rule, G.S.

    1990-01-01

    The structure and function of the membrane-bound D-lactate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli have been investigated by fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of 5-fluorotryptophan-labeled enzyme in conjunction with oligonucleotide-directed, site-specific mutagenesis. 5-Fluorotryptophan has been substituted for nine phenylalanine, tyrosine, and leucine residues in the enzyme molecule without loss of activity. The 19 F signals from these additional tryptophan residues have been used as markers for sensitivity to substrate, exposure to aqueous solvent, and proximity to a lipid-bound spin-label. The nuclear magnetic resonance data show that two mutational sites, at amino acid residues 340 and 361, are near the lipid environment used to stabilize the enzyme. There are a number of amino acid residues on the carboxyl side of this region that are strongly sensitive to the aqueous solvent. The environment of the wide-type tryptophan residue at position 469 changes as a result of two of the substitution mutations, suggesting some amino acid residue-residue interactions. Secondary structure prediction methods indicate a possible binding site for the flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor in the carboxyl end of the enzyme molecule. These results suggest that the membrane-bound D-lactate dehydrogenase may have the two-domain structure of many cytoplasmic dehydrogenases but with the addition of a membrane-binding domain between the catalytic and cofactor-binding domains. This type of three-domain structure may be of general significance for understanding the structure of membrane-bound proteins which do not traverse the lipid bilayer of membranes

  3. Structure and physical properties of bio membranes and model membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibor Hianik

    2006-01-01

    Bio membranes belong to the most important structures of the cell and the cell organelles. They play not only structural role of the barrier separating the external and internal part of the membrane but contain also various functional molecules, like receptors, ionic channels, carriers and enzymes. The cell membrane also preserves non-equilibrium state in a cell which is crucial for maintaining its excitability and other signaling functions. The growing interest to the bio membranes is also due to their unique physical properties. From physical point of view the bio membranes, that are composed of lipid bilayer into which are incorporated integral proteins and on their surface are anchored peripheral proteins and polysaccharides, represent liquid s crystal of smectic type. The bio membranes are characterized by anisotropy of structural and physical properties. The complex structure of bio membranes makes the study of their physical properties rather difficult. Therefore several model systems that mimic the structure of bio membranes were developed. Among them the lipid monolayers at an air-water interphase, bilayer lipid membranes, supported bilayer lipid membranes and liposomes are most known. This work is focused on the introduction into the physical word of the bio membranes and their models. After introduction to the membrane structure and the history of its establishment, the physical properties of the bio membranes and their models are stepwise presented. The most focus is on the properties of lipid monolayers, bilayer lipid membranes, supported bilayer lipid membranes and liposomes that were most detailed studied. This lecture has tutorial character that may be useful for undergraduate and graduate students in the area of biophysics, biochemistry, molecular biology and bioengineering, however it contains also original work of the author and his co-worker and PhD students, that may be useful also for specialists working in the field of bio membranes and model

  4. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  5. Changing rooster sperm membranes to facilitate cryopreservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryopreservation damages rooster sperm membranes. Part of this damage is due to membrane transitioning from the fluid to the gel state as temperature is reduced. This damage may be prevented by increasing membrane fluidity at low temperatures by incorporating cholesterol or unsaturated lipids into t...

  6. Biogenesis of plasma membrane cholesterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Y.

    1986-01-01

    A striking feature of the molecular organization of eukaryotic cells is the singular enrichment of their plasma membranes in sterols. The authors studies are directed at elucidating the mechanisms underlying this inhomogeneous disposition. Cholesterol oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of plasma membrane cholesterol in intact cells, leaving intracellular cholesterol pools untouched. With this technique, the plasma membrane was shown to contain 95% of the unesterified cholesterol of cultured human fibroblasts. Cholesterol synthesized from [ 3 H] acetate moved to the plasma membrane with a half-time of 1 h at 37 0 C. They used equilibrium gradient centrifugation of homogenates of biosynthetically labeled, cholesterol oxidase treated cells to examine the distribution of newly synthesized sterols among intracellular pools. Surprisingly, lanosterol, a major precursor of cholesterol, and intracellular cholesterol both peaked at much lower buoyant density than did 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase. This suggests that cholesterol biosynthesis is not taken to completion in the endoplasmic reticulum. The cholesterol in the buoyant fraction eventually moved to the plasma membrane. Digitonin treatment increased the density of the newly synthesized cholesterol fractions, indicating that nascent cholesterol in transit is associated with cholesterol-rich membranes. The authors are testing the hypothesis that the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis is spatially organized in various intracellular membranes such that the sequence of biosynthetic steps both concentrates the sterol and conveys it to the plasma membrane

  7. Comparative evaluation of red cell-labelling parameters of three lipid-soluble 111-In-chelates: Effect of lipid solubility on membrane incorporation and stability constant on transchelation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.A.; Dewanjee, M.K.

    1982-01-01

    A rabbit red cell model was used to determined the cell labeling properties of three lipid-soluble 111 In-complexes: 111 In-oxine, 111 In-acetylacetone, and 111 In-tropolone. Partition coefficients (olive oil/buffer) were measured to determine the lipid solubility and were 3.54, 7.93, and 18.18 for 111 In-oxine, 111 In-acetylacetone, and 111 In-tropolone respectively. The effect of the concentration of these three chelating agents on labeling efficiencies was studied. The factors influencing the labeling efficiencies of these complexes such as cell density, time of incubation, influence of temperature, pH, effect of plasma proteins, and citrate ion concentration in the cell-labeling medium were studied. Labeling yields as high as 95.15 +- 4.15% were achieved with 111 In-tropolone after a 10-min incubation at 37 0 C. The optimum pH for cell labeling was 6.5 Excess critrate ion (> 3.02 mg/ml) and small amounts of plasma proteins (> 10 μl/ml) decreased the labeling efficiencies in all three cases. Distribution of these 111 In-complexes in membrane, membrane frgments, and hemoglobin was studied after hemolysis. In spite of the higher lipid solubility of 111 In-tropolone, the transchelation capacity appears to be similar to that of 111 In-oxine. 111 In-acetylacetone had the highest transchelation capacity. (orig.)

  8. Evidence for the Involvement of Membranous Bodies in the Processes Leading to Genetic Transformation in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolstenholme, David R.; Vermeulen, Cornelius A.; Venema, Gerhardus

    1966-01-01

    Wolstenholme, David R. (Max-Planck-Institut für Biologie, Tübingen, Germany), Cornelius A. Vermeulen, and Gerhardus Venema. Evidence for the involvement of membranous bodies in the processes leading to genetic transformation in Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 92:1111–1121. 1966.—Data obtained from electron microscopic autoradiographs of profiles of cells of a Bacillus subtilis population exposed to H3-thymidine-labeled donor deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) during the phase of maximal competence indicated that molecules originating from absorbed DNA are closely associated with membranous bodies, particularly with those situated in the cytoplasm, but that most if not all of the radioactive molecules are outside the bodies. It is suggested that membranous bodies produce enzymes essential to the eventual incorporation of transforming DNA into the bacterial genome, or to the breakdown and utilization or expulsion of absorbed DNA not incorporated as transformant (or to both processes). During the phase of maximal competence, the total number of membranous bodies seen in profiles increased continuously to as much as 2.3 times the numbers found during earlier stages of culture. This increase was not accounted for by a decrease in bacterial cell volume, but resulted from an actual increase in total volume of membranous bodies. The number of membranous bodies visibly connecting plasma membrane and nuclear region increased during maximal competence to as much as 30 times the numbers found in earlier stages. As both increases were found in the absence of donor DNA and only began after maximal competence was attained, it seemed most probable that they were an expression of a physiological state influenced by the continuing deficiency of nutrients in the growth medium during this phase of culture. Images PMID:4959042

  9. Cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane: histopathologic evidence for a tympanic membrane origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhoff, H; Linthicum, F H

    2001-07-01

    Several theories have been proposed with respect to the origin and pathogenesis of cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane. The authors describe a case of cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane in a 71-year-old man with a history of tympanic membrane retraction fixed to the incus without evidence of a perforation. The membrane eventually became detached, and remnants of keratinizing squamous epithelium were found on the incus. Mechanisms such as metaplasia, ectopic epidermis rests, or ingrowth of meatal epidermis have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane. These findings, based on temporal bone histopathology, support the role of an acquired epidermal rest. This case report provides evidence that cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane can be established from a resolved retraction of the pars tensa of the tympanic membrane.

  10. Zwitterionic materials for antifouling membrane surface construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingrui; Gao, Kang; Zhou, Linjie; Jiao, Zhiwei; Wu, Mengyuan; Cao, Jialin; You, Xinda; Cai, Ziyi; Su, Yanlei; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2016-08-01

    Membrane separation processes are often perplexed by severe and ubiquitous membrane fouling. Zwitterionic materials, keeping electric neutrality with equivalent positive and negative charged groups, are well known for their superior antifouling properties and have been broadly utilized to construct antifouling surfaces for medical devices, biosensors and marine coatings applications. In recent years, zwitterionic materials have been more and more frequently utilized for constructing antifouling membrane surfaces. In this review, the antifouling mechanisms of zwitterionic materials as well as their biomimetic prototypes in cell membranes will be discussed, followed by the survey of common approaches to incorporate zwitterionic materials onto membrane surfaces including surface grafting, surface segregation, biomimetic adhesion, surface coating and so on. The potential applications of these antifouling membranes are also embedded. Finally, we will present a brief perspective on the future development of zwitterionic materials modified antifouling membranes. Membrane fouling is a severe problem hampering the application of membrane separation technology. The properties of membrane surfaces play a critical role in membrane fouling and antifouling behavior/performance. Antifouling membrane surface construction has evolved as a hot research issue for the development of membrane processes. Zwitterionic modification of membrane surfaces has been recognized as an effective strategy to resist membrane fouling. This review summarizes the antifouling mechanisms of zwitterionic materials inspired by cell membranes as well as the popular approaches to incorporate them onto membrane surfaces. It can help form a comprehensive knowledge about the principles and methods of modifying membrane surfaces with zwitterionic materials. Finally, we propose the possible future research directions of zwitterionic materials modified antifouling membranes. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc

  11. Lifetime risk of developing impaired glucose metabolism and eventual progression from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligthart, Symen; van Herpt, Thijs T W; Leening, Maarten J G; Kavousi, Maryam; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H C; van Hoek, Mandy; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Franco, Oscar H; Dehghan, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Data are scarce for the lifetime risk of developing impaired glucose metabolism, including prediabetes, as are data for the risk of eventual progression from prediabetes to diabetes and for initiation of insulin treatment in previously untreated patients with diabetes. We aimed to calculate the lifetime risk of the full range of glucose impairments, from normoglycaemia to prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, and eventual insulin use. In this prospective population-based cohort analysis, we used data from the population-based Rotterdam Study. We identified diagnostic events by use of general practitioners' records, hospital discharge letters, pharmacy dispensing data, and serum fasting glucose measurements taken at the study centre (Rotterdam, Netherlands) visits. Normoglycaemia, prediabetes, and diabetes were defined on the basis of WHO criteria for fasting glucose (normoglycaemia: ≤6·0 mmol/L; prediabetes: >6·0 mmol/L and prediabetes to overt diabetes and from diabetes free of insulin treatment to insulin use. Additionally, we calculated years lived with healthy glucose metabolism. We used data from 10 050 participants from the Rotterdam Study. During a follow-up of up to 14·7 years (between April 1, 1997, and Jan 1, 2012), 1148 participants developed prediabetes, 828 developed diabetes, and 237 started insulin treatment. At age 45 years, the remaining lifetime risk was 48·7% (95% CI 46·2-51·3) for prediabetes, 31·3% (29·3-33·3) for diabetes, and 9·1% (7·8-10·3) for insulin use. In individuals aged 45 years, the lifetime risk to progress from prediabetes to diabetes was 74·0% (95% CI 67·6-80·5), and 49·1% (38·2-60·0) of the individuals with overt diabetes at this age started insulin treatment. The lifetime risks attenuated with advancing age, but increased with increasing BMI and waist circumference. On average, individuals with severe obesity lived 10 fewer years without glucose impairment compared with normal-weight individuals. Impaired glucose

  12. REMOVAL OF CHLORINATED ALKENE SOLVENTS FROM DRINKING WATER BY VARIOUS REVERSE OSMOSIS MEMBRANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historically, membranes have been used to desalinate water. As new membrane materials are developed, traditional water treatment schemes may incorporate membrane technologies, such as reverse osmosis, to address a variety of new concerns such as low molecular weight volatile org...

  13. High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity, Polymer-type Membranes Based on Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether) Block and Random Copolymers Optionally Incorporating Protonic Conducting Layered Water insoluble Zirconium Fillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, James E.; Baird, Donald G.

    2010-06-03

    hydrophobic segments. If, like in Nafion, connectivity is established between the hydrophilic domains in these multiblock copolymers, they will not need as much water, and hence will show much better protonic conductivity than the random copolymers (with similar degree of sulfonation, or IEC) at partially hydrated conditions. The goal of this research is to develop a material suitable for use as a polymer electrolyte membrane which by the year 2010 will meet all the performance requirements associated with fuel cell operation at high temperatures and low relative humidity, and will out-perform the present standard Nafion{reg_sign}. In particular, it is our objective to extend our previous research based on the use of thermally, oxidatively, and hydrolytically, ductile, high Tg ion containing polymers based on poly(arylene ethers) to the production of polymer electrolyte membranes which will meet all the performance requirements in addition to having an areal resistance of < 0.05 ohm-cm{sup 2} at a temperature of up to 120 C, relative humidity of 25 to 50%, and up to 2.5 atm total pressure. In many instances, our materials already out performs Nafion{reg_sign}, and it is expected that with some modification by either combining with conductive inorganic fillers and/or synthesizing as a block copolymer it will meet the performance criteria at high temperatures and low relative humidity. A key component in improving the performance of the membranes (and in particular proton conductivity) and meeting the cost requirements of $40/m{sup 2} is our development of a film casting process, which shows promise for generation of void free thin films of uniform thickness with controlled polymer alignment and configuration.

  14. Transcriptome patterns from primary cutaneous Leishmania braziliensis infections associate with eventual development of mucosal disease in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Maretti-Mira

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Localized Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (LCL and Mucosal Leishmaniasis (ML are two extreme clinical forms of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis that usually begin as solitary primary cutaneous lesions. Host and parasite factors that influence the progression of LCL to ML are not completely understood. In this manuscript, we compare the gene expression profiles of primary cutaneous lesions from patients who eventually developed ML to those that did not. METHODS: Using RNA-seq, we analyzed both the human and Leishmania transcriptomes in primary cutaneous lesions. RESULTS: Limited number of reads mapping to Leishmania transcripts were obtained. For human transcripts, compared to ML patients, lesions from LCL patients displayed a general multi-polarization of the adaptive immune response and showed up-regulation of genes involved in chemoattraction of innate immune cells and in antigen presentation. We also identified a potential transcriptional signature in the primary lesions that may predict long-term disease outcome. CONCLUSIONS: We were able to simultaneously sequence both human and Leishmania mRNA transcripts in primary cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions. Our results suggest an intrinsic difference in the immune capacity of LCL and ML patients. The findings correlate the complete cure of L. braziliensis infection with a controlled inflammatory response and a balanced activation of innate and adaptive immunity.

  15. Eventual sport performance level: What about the role of type of sport, perception of critical life events, and practice quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toering, Tynke

    2017-01-01

    The target article describes an interesting study, which provides some challenging findings regarding athletes' pathway to excellence. The suggested links between critical life events, need for success, personal characteristics, and eventual performance level make sense from a psychodynamic perspective. This commentary will discuss some critical points related to the application of the findings in talent identification and -development programs. These are (1) the possible effect of the selection of participants on the results (including the impact of dependence on others for team sport athletes and the opportunity for multiple medal attainment), (2) a lack of detail in the description of how the athletes approached the critical life events (the perception of an event may contribute more to development than the event itself), and (3) a lack of detail in the description of the practice process throughout development. Some interesting differences were found in the motivation for and approach to practice, but little detail was given about what the athletes exactly were doing at the time. The concept of self-regulated learning may be useful in explaining how super-elite athletes action their goals through quality practice. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. United Kingdom. Development plan for the eventual closure of the UK Drigg nuclear surface low level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Drigg site, owned and operated by BNFL, is the UK's principal site for the disposal of low level radioactive waste. The site has operated since 1959 and receives wastes from a wide range of sources including nuclear power stations, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, isotope manufacturing sites, universities, general industry and cleanup of historically contaminated sites. Disposals until the late 1980s were solely by tipping essentially loose wastes into excavated trenches. More recently, trench disposals have been phased out in preference to emplacement of containerised, conditioned wastes in concrete vaults. The standardised wasteform consists of high force compacted (or non-compactable) waste immobilised within 20 m 3 steel overpack containers by the addition of cementitious grout. Larger items of wastes are grouted directly, in situ in the vault. The disposal trenches have been completed with an interim cap, as will the vaults when filled. It is currently estimated that sufficient capacity remains at Drigg for disposals to continue until at least 2050. Post-operations it is planned that the site will enter a phase including shut down of operational facilities, emplacement of long term site closure features including a final closure cap and then to an institutional management phase. Planning has therefore been carried out as to the strategy for eventual closure of the site. This closure strategy is also underpinned by an engineering evaluation studies programme to develop and evaluate appropriate closure measures including assessment of the long term performance of such measures. This appendix summarizes some of this work

  17. OpenStack Swift as Multi-Region Eventual Consistency Storage for ownCloud Primary Storage

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    As more users adopt AARNet’s CloudStor Plus offering within Australia, interim solutions deployed to overcome failures of various distributed replicated storage technologies haven’t kept pace with the growth in data volume. AARNet’s original design goal of user proximal data storage, combined with national and even international data replication for redundancy reasons continues to be a key driver for design choices. AARNet’s national network is over 90ms from end to end, and accommodating this has been a key issue with numerous software solutions, hindering attempts to provide both original design goals in a reliable real-time manner. With the addition of features to the ownCloud software allowing primary data storage on OpenStack Swift, AARNet has chosen to deploy Swift in a nation spanning multi-region ring to take advantage of Swift’s eventual consistency capabilities and the local region quorum functionality for fast writes. The scaling capability of Swift resolves the twin problems of geogr...

  18. Clinical medical education in rural and underserved areas and eventual practice outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond Guilbault, Ryan William; Vinson, Joseph Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate medical students are enrolled in clinical education programs in rural and underserved urban areas to increase the likelihood that they will eventually practice in those areas and train in a primary care specialty to best serve those patient populations. MEDLINE and Cochrane Library online databases were searched to identify articles that provide a detailed description of the exposure and outcome of interest. A qualitative review of articles reporting outcome data without comparison or control groups was completed using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI). A meta-analysis of articles reporting outcome data with comparison or control groups was completed with statistical and graphical summary estimates. Seven hundred and nine articles were retrieved from the initial search and reviewed based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of those, ten articles were identified for qualitative analysis and five articles included control groups and thus were included in the quantitative analysis. Results indicated that medical students with clinical training in underserved areas are almost three times as likely to practice in underserved areas than students who do not train in those areas (relative risk [RR] = 2.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.17, 4.00). Furthermore, medical students training in underserved areas are about four times as likely to practice primary care in underserved areas than students who do not train in those locations (RR = 4.35; 95% CI: 1.56, 12.10). These estimates may help guide medical school administrators and policymakers to expand underserved clinical training programs to help relieve some of the problems associated with access to medical care among underserved populations.

  19. Hrs and SNX3 functions in sorting and membrane invagination within multivesicular bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Pons

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available After internalization, ubiquitinated signaling receptors are delivered to early endosomes. There, they are sorted and incorporated into the intralumenal invaginations of nascent multivesicular bodies, which function as transport intermediates to late endosomes. Receptor sorting is achieved by Hrs--an adaptor--like protein that binds membrane PtdIns3P via a FYVE motif-and then by ESCRT complexes, which presumably also mediate the invagination process. Eventually, intralumenal vesicles are delivered to lysosomes, leading to the notion that EGF receptor sorting into multivesicular bodies mediates lysosomal targeting. Here, we report that Hrs is essential for lysosomal targeting but dispensable for multivesicular body biogenesis and transport to late endosomes. By contrast, we find that the PtdIns3P-binding protein SNX3 is required for multivesicular body formation, but not for EGF receptor degradation. PtdIns3P thus controls the complementary functions of Hrs and SNX3 in sorting and multivesicular body biogenesis.

  20. A study of design features of civil works of nuclear installations facilitating their eventual refurbishing, renewal, dismantling or demolition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paton, A.A.; Benwell, P.; Irwin, T.F.; Hunter, I.

    1984-03-01

    This report describes a study that has been carried out to identify civil engineering features which could be incorporated in future gas cooled and light water cooled nuclear power plants to facilitate their decommissioning. The report reviews the problems likely to be met in decommissioning present day nuclear power plants and concludes that there is a number of such features which could be introduced in future designs to overcome or eliminate the problems. The report identifies and describes these features and recommends that further work be carried out to confirm their feasibility. The study briefly considered the possibility of refurbishing nuclear plants and concluded that this is not a realistic option in present circumstances. (author)

  1. Membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The membrane paradigm is a modified frozen star approach to modeling black holes, with particles and fields assuming a complex, static, boundary-layer type structure (membrane) near the event horizon. The membrane has no effects on the present or future evolution of particles and fields above itself. The mathematical representation is a combination of a formalism containing terms for the shear and bulk viscosity, surface pressure, momentum, temperature, entropy, etc., of the horizon and the 3+1 formalism. The latter model considers a family of three-dimensional spacelike hypersurfaces in one-dimensional time. The membrane model considers a magnetic field threading the hole and undergoing torque from the hole rotation. The field is cleaned by the horizon and distributed over the horizon so that ohmic dissipation is minimized. The membrane paradigm is invalid inside the horizon, but is useful for theoretically probing the properties of slowly evolving black holes

  2. Membrane processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The membrane processes have played important role in the industrial separation process. These technologies can be found in all industrial areas such as food, beverages, metallurgy, pulp and paper, textile, pharmaceutical, automotive, biotechnology and chemical industry, as well as in water treatment for domestic and industrial application. Although these processes are known since twentieth century, there are still many studies that focus on the testing of new membranes' materials and determining of conditions for optimal selectivity, i. e. the optimum transmembrane pressure (TMP) or permeate flux to minimize fouling. Moreover the researchers proposed some calculation methods to predict the membrane processes properties. In this article, the laboratory scale experiments of membrane separation techniques, as well their validation by calculation methods are presented. Because membrane is the "heart" of the process, experimental and computational methods for its characterization are also described.

  3. Membrane-based technologies for biogas separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Subhankar; Khan, Asim L; Cano-Odena, Angels; Liu, Chunqing; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

    2010-02-01

    Over the past two decades, membrane processes have gained a lot of attention for the separation of gases. They have been found to be very suitable for wide scale applications owing to their reasonable cost, good selectivity and easily engineered modules. This critical review primarily focuses on the various aspects of membrane processes related to the separation of biogas, more in specific CO(2) and H(2)S removal from CH(4) and H(2) streams. Considering the limitations of inorganic materials for membranes, the present review will only focus on work done with polymeric materials. An overview on the performance of commercial membranes and lab-made membranes highlighting the problems associated with their applications will be given first. The development studies carried out to enhance the performance of membranes for gas separation will be discussed in the subsequent section. This review has been broadly divided into three sections (i) performance of commercial polymeric membranes (ii) performance of lab-made polymeric membranes and (iii) performance of mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) for gas separations. It will include structural modifications at polymer level, polymer blending, as well as synthesis of mixed matrix membranes, for which addition of silane-coupling agents and selection of suitable fillers will receive special attention. Apart from an overview of the different membrane materials, the study will also highlight the effects of different operating conditions that eventually decide the performance and longevity of membrane applications in gas separations. The discussion will be largely restricted to the studies carried out on polyimide (PI), cellulose acetate (CA), polysulfone (PSf) and polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) membranes, as these membrane materials have been most widely used for commercial applications. Finally, the most important strategies that would ensure new commercial applications will be discussed (156 references).

  4. Primordial membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    2017-01-01

    Cellular membranes, which are self-assembled bilayer structures mainly composed of lipids, proteins and conjugated polysaccharides, are the defining feature of cell physiology. It is likely that the complexity of contemporary cells was preceded by simpler chemical systems or protocells during...... the various evolutionary stages that led from inanimate to living matter. It is also likely that primitive membranes played a similar role in protocell 'physiology'. The composition of such ancestral membranes has been proposed as mixtures of single hydrocarbon chain amphiphiles, which are simpler versions...

  5. Membranous nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin-lightening creams Systemic lupus erythematosus , rheumatoid arthritis, Graves disease, and other autoimmune disorders The disorder occurs at ... diagnosis. The following tests can help determine the cause of membranous nephropathy: Antinuclear antibodies test Anti-double- ...

  6. Membrane fouling mechanism of biofilm-membrane bioreactor (BF-MBR): Pore blocking model and membrane cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Wenxiang; Tang, Bing; Ding, Jie; Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Zhien

    2018-02-01

    Biofilm membrane bioreactor (BF-MBR) is considered as an important wastewater treatment technology that incorporates advantages of both biofilm and MBR process, as well as can alleviate membrane fouling, with respect to the conventional activated sludge MBR. But, to be efficient, it necessitates the establishment of proper methods for the assessment of membrane fouling. Four Hermia membrane blocking models were adopted to quantify and evaluate the membrane fouling of BF-MBR. The experiments were conducted with various operational conditions, including membrane types, agitation speeds and transmembrane pressure (TMP). Good agreement between cake formation model and experimental data was found, confirming the validity of the Hermia models for assessing the membrane fouling of BF-MBR and that cake layer deposits on membrane. Moreover, the influences of membrane types, agitation speeds and transmembrane pressure on the Hermia pore blocking coefficient of cake layer were investigated. In addition, the permeability recovery after membrane cleaning at various operational conditions was studied. This work confirms that, unlike conventional activated sludge MBR, BF-MBR possesses a low degree of membrane fouling and a higher membrane permeability recovery after cleaning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Four-port gas separation membrane module assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Nicholas P.; Fulton, Donald A.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; Kaschemekat, Jurgen

    2010-07-20

    A gas-separation membrane assembly, and a gas-separation process using the assembly. The assembly incorporates multiple gas-separation membranes in an array within a single vessel or housing, and is equipped with two permeate ports, enabling permeate gas to be withdrawn from both ends of the membrane module permeate pipes.

  8. Axionic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurilia, A.; Spallucci, E.

    1992-01-01

    A metal ring removed from a soap-water solution encloses a film of soap which can be mathematically described as a minimal surface having the ring as its only boundary. This is known to everybody. In this letter we suggest a relativistic extension of the above fluidodynamic system where the soap film is replaced by a Kalb-Ramand gauge potential B μν (x) and the ring by a closed string. The interaction between the B μν field and the string current excites a new configuration of the system consisting of a relativistic membrane bounded by the string. We call such a classical solution of the equation of motion an axionic membrane. As a dynamical system, the axionic membrane admits a Hamilton-Jacobi formulation which is an extension of the HJ theory of electromagnetic strings. (orig.)

  9. Metamaterial membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan Manuel; Maldovan, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new class of metamaterial device to achieve separation of compounds by using coordinate transformations and metamaterial theory. By rationally designing the spatial anisotropy for mass diffusion, we simultaneously concentrate different compounds in different spatial locations, leading to separation of mixtures across a metamaterial membrane. The separation of mixtures into their constituent compounds is critically important in biophysics, biomedical, and chemical applications. We present a practical case where a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen diffusing through a polymeric planar matrix is separated. This work opens doors to new paradigms in membrane separations via coordinate transformations and metamaterials by introducing novel properties and unconventional mass diffusion phenomena. (paper)

  10. Incorporation feasibility of leather residues in bricks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, J.B. [Minho Univ. (Portugal). Civil Engineering Dept.; Valente, A.; Pires, M.J. [Inst. of Development and Innovation Technology of Minho, Braga (Portugal); Tavares, T. [Biological Engineering Dept., Univ. of Minho, Braga (Portugal)

    2002-07-01

    The footwear industry has strips of leather as one of its by-products. These leather residues, due to their high chromium content, can be regarded as a threat to the environment, particularly if no care is taken with their disposal. With the incorporation of the residues in ceramic products, after trituration, is possible to neutralise the eventual toxicity of chromium. In a laboratory study we produced prismatic bricks using clay from the region and incorporating 1, 3 and 5% (by mass) of leather residues. This corresponds at about 20, 60 and 100% (by apparent volume). The moulds were filled up with paste and, in order to have some compactness, the ceramic paste was compressed with a spatula. After that, it began the process of drying and burning the bricks. They were tested to flexure, compression and leaching. The results showed that the toxicity of chromium disappeared in the bricks. The mechanical tests showed a decrease in strength for the specimens with leather residue. The compressive strength decreases about 22% for 1% of incorporation of leather residue. However, as bricks were lighter and more porous, we can expect that they are better for thermal isolation. (orig.)

  11. Chelating polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Villalobos Vazquez de la Parra, Luis Francisco; Hilke, Roland

    2015-01-01

    microporous chelating polymeric membrane. Embodiments include, but are not limited to, microporous chelating polymeric membranes, device comprising the membranes, and methods of using and making the same.

  12. Incorporating Feminist Standpoint Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2005-01-01

    As has been noted by Alvin Goldman, there are some very interesting similarities between his Veritistic Social Epistemology (VSE) and Sandra Harding’s Feminist Standpoint Theory (FST). In the present paper, it is argued that these similarities are so significant as to motivate an incorporation...

  13. Differentiating leucine incorporation of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokokawa, T.; Sintes, E.; de Corte, D.; Olbrich, K.; Herndl, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    The abundance (based on catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybrid ization, CARD-FISH) and leucine incorporation rates of Archaea and Bacteria were determined throughout the water column in the eastern Atlantic. Bacteria dominated throughout the water column, although their

  14. Lignin-based membranes for electrolyte transference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiao; Garcia-Valls, Ricard [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola Tecnica Superior d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Benavente, Juana [Department of Applied Fisics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaga, Malaga (Spain)

    2005-08-18

    Homogeneous PSf-LS membranes are formed by incorporating Lignosulfonate (LS) into the Polysulfone (PSf) network. LS obtained from sulfite pulping process contains sulfonic acid groups that will act as proton transport media. PSf-LS membranes were characterized by reflectance Infrared and scanning electron microscopy. LS showed significant influence on membrane morphology. Higher LS concentration caused a decrease in macrovoid formation and induced larger pores. Precipitation temperature was investigated as influencing parameter. Proton fluxes through PSf-LS membranes were measured by transport experiments. Impedance analysis confirmed that PSf-LS membranes possess ion conductivity. The selected PSf-LS membranes exhibited high selectivity for proton over methanol, which indicates their potential applicability in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). (author)

  15. Multilayer sulfur-resistant composite metal membranes and methods of making and repairing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, J. Douglas; Hatlevik, Oyvind

    2014-07-15

    The invention relates to thin, hydrogen-permeable, sulfur-resistant membranes formed from multi-layers of palladium or palladium-alloy coatings on porous, ceramic or metal supports, methods of making these membranes, methods of repairing layers of these membranes and devices that incorporate these membranes.

  16. Model of mouth-to-mouth transfer of bacterial lipoproteins through inner membrane LolC, periplasmic LolA, and outer membrane LolB

    OpenAIRE

    Okuda, Suguru; Tokuda, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    Outer membrane-specific lipoproteins in Escherichia coli are released from the inner membrane by an ATP-binding cassette transporter, the LolCDE complex, which causes the formation of a soluble complex with a periplasmic molecular chaperone, LolA. LolA then transports lipoproteins to the outer membrane where an outer membrane receptor, LolB, incorporates lipoproteins into the outer membrane. The molecular mechanisms underlying the Lol-dependent lipoprotein sorting have been clarified in detai...

  17. Photocuring of stimulus responsive membranes for controlled-release of drugs having different molecular weights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Loo-Teck; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Kaetsu, Isao; Uchida, Kumao

    2005-01-01

    Intelligent drug delivery membranes were prepared by photocuring poly(acrylic acid) coatings onto poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) membranes each with model drugs of different molecular weights being incorporated. pH-responsive release behaviours of the model drugs which included sodium salicylate, nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, methylene blue, brilliant green and crystal violet were investigated. Only the membrane with methylene blue incorporated showed a clear pH-responsive release and other drug-incorporated membranes showed no intelligent behaviour. These phenomena were explained in terms of the difference in diffusivity of drugs through polymer matrices of the membranes attributable to the difference in the molecular weights of drugs

  18. Photocuring of stimulus responsive membranes for controlled-release of drugs having different molecular weights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Loo-Teck [School of Science, Food and Horticulture, University of Western Sydney, Locked bag 1797, Penrith South DC, NSW 1797 (Australia)]. E-mail: l.ng@uws.edu.au; Nakayama, Hiroshi [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Science and technology, Kinki University, Kowakae, 3-4-1, Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Kaetsu, Isao [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Science and technology, Kinki University, Kowakae, 3-4-1, Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)]. E-mail: kaetsu@ned.kindai.ac.jp; Uchida, Kumao [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Science and technology, Kinki University, Kowakae, 3-4-1, Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)

    2005-06-01

    Intelligent drug delivery membranes were prepared by photocuring poly(acrylic acid) coatings onto poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) membranes each with model drugs of different molecular weights being incorporated. pH-responsive release behaviours of the model drugs which included sodium salicylate, nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, methylene blue, brilliant green and crystal violet were investigated. Only the membrane with methylene blue incorporated showed a clear pH-responsive release and other drug-incorporated membranes showed no intelligent behaviour. These phenomena were explained in terms of the difference in diffusivity of drugs through polymer matrices of the membranes attributable to the difference in the molecular weights of drugs.

  19. Improved antifouling potential of polyether sulfone polymeric membrane containing silver nanoparticles: self-cleaning membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Sidra; Nazar, Umair; Ali, Jafar; Ali, Qurat Ul Ain; Ahmad, Nasir M; Sarwar, Fiza; Waseem, Hassan; Jamil, Syed Umair Ullah

    2018-06-01

    A new strategy to enhance the antifouling potential of polyether sulfone (PES) membrane is presented. Chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were used to prepare a mixed-matrix PES membrane by the phase inversion technique. Primarily, AgNPs synthesis was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance at 410-430 nm using UV-Visible spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that AgNPs were crystalline with a diameter of 21 ± 2 nm. Furthermore, PES membranes were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to confirm the incorporation of AgNPs in membranes. Hydrophilicity of the membranes was enhanced, whereas roughness, mechanical strength and biofouling were relatively reduced after embedding the AgNPs. Antibacterial potential of AgNPs was evaluated for E. coli in the disc diffusion and colony-forming unit (CFU) count method. All of the membranes were assessed for antifouling activity by filtering a control dilution (10 6  CFU/ml) of E. coli and by counting CFU. Anti-biofouling activity of the membrane was observed with different concentrations of AgNPs. Maximum reduction (66%) was observed in membrane containing 1.5% of AgNPs. The addition of antibiotic ceftriaxone enhanced the antibacterial effect of AgNPs in PES membranes. Our practicable antifouling strategy may be applied to other polymeric membranes which may pave the new way to achieve sustainable and self-cleaning membrane reactors on large scale.

  20. Organic membrane photonic integrated circuits (OMPICs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, Toru; Hiratani, Takuo; Inoue, Daisuke; Gu, Zhichen; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Urakami, Tatsuhiro; Arai, Shigehisa

    2017-08-07

    We propose the concept of organic membrane photonic integrated circuits (OMPICs), which incorporate various functions needed for optical signal processing into a flexible organic membrane. We describe the structure of several devices used within the proposed OMPICs (e.g., transmission lines, I/O couplers, phase shifters, photodetectors, modulators), and theoretically investigate their characteristics. We then present a method of fabricating the photonic devices monolithically in an organic membrane and demonstrate the operation of transmission lines and I/O couplers, the most basic elements of OMPICs.

  1. Progress of Nanocomposite Membranes for Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ursino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of membrane-based technologies has been applied for water treatment applications; however, the limitations of conventional polymeric membranes have led to the addition of inorganic fillers to enhance their performance. In recent years, nanocomposite membranes have greatly attracted the attention of scientists for water treatment applications such as wastewater treatment, water purification, removal of microorganisms, chemical compounds, heavy metals, etc. The incorporation of different nanofillers, such as carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide, graphene oxide, silver and copper nanoparticles, titanium dioxide, 2D materials, and some other novel nano-scale materials into polymeric membranes have provided great advances, e.g., enhancing on hydrophilicity, suppressing the accumulation of pollutants and foulants, enhancing rejection efficiencies and improving mechanical properties and thermal stabilities. Thereby, the aim of this work is to provide up-to-date information related to those novel nanocomposite membranes and their contribution for water treatment applications.

  2. Immobilized fluid membranes for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Canfield, Nathan L; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xiaohong Shari; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-03-18

    Provided herein are immobilized liquid membranes for gas separation, methods of preparing such membranes and uses thereof. In one example, the immobilized membrane includes a porous metallic host matrix and an immobilized liquid fluid (such as a silicone oil) that is immobilized within one or more pores included within the porous metallic host matrix. The immobilized liquid membrane is capable of selective permeation of one type of molecule (such as oxygen) over another type of molecule (such as water). In some examples, the selective membrane is incorporated into a device to supply oxygen from ambient air to the device for electrochemical reactions, and at the same time, to block water penetration and electrolyte loss from the device.

  3. Progress of Nanocomposite Membranes for Water Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursino, Claudia; Castro-Muñoz, Roberto; Drioli, Enrico; Gzara, Lassaad; Albeirutty, Mohammad H; Figoli, Alberto

    2018-04-03

    The use of membrane-based technologies has been applied for water treatment applications; however, the limitations of conventional polymeric membranes have led to the addition of inorganic fillers to enhance their performance. In recent years, nanocomposite membranes have greatly attracted the attention of scientists for water treatment applications such as wastewater treatment, water purification, removal of microorganisms, chemical compounds, heavy metals, etc. The incorporation of different nanofillers, such as carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide, graphene oxide, silver and copper nanoparticles, titanium dioxide, 2D materials, and some other novel nano-scale materials into polymeric membranes have provided great advances, e.g., enhancing on hydrophilicity, suppressing the accumulation of pollutants and foulants, enhancing rejection efficiencies and improving mechanical properties and thermal stabilities. Thereby, the aim of this work is to provide up-to-date information related to those novel nanocomposite membranes and their contribution for water treatment applications.

  4. Microporous Silica Based Membranes for Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C. Diniz da Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This review provides a global overview of microporous silica based membranes for desalination via pervaporation with a focus on membrane synthesis and processing, transport mechanisms and current state of the art membrane performance. Most importantly, the recent development and novel concepts for improving the hydro-stability and separating performance of silica membranes for desalination are critically examined. Research into silica based membranes for desalination has focussed on three primary methods for improving the hydro-stability. These include incorporating carbon templates into the microporous silica both as surfactants and hybrid organic-inorganic structures and incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles into the silica matrix. The literature examined identified that only metal oxide silica membranes have demonstrated high salt rejections under a variety of feed concentrations, reasonable fluxes and unaltered performance over long-term operation. As this is an embryonic field of research several target areas for researchers were discussed including further improvement of the membrane materials, but also regarding the necessity of integrating waste or solar heat sources into the final process design to ensure cost competitiveness with conventional reverse osmosis processes.

  5. Robotic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between digital and analogue is often constructed as one of opposition. The perception that the world is permeated with underlying patterns of data, describing events and matter alike, suggests that information can be understood apart from the substance to which it is associated......, and that its encoded logic can be constructed and reconfigured as an isolated entity. This disembodiment of information from materiality implies that an event like a thunderstorm, or a material like a body, can be described equally by data, in other words it can be read or written. The following prototypes......, Vivisection and Strange Metabolisms, were developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen as a means of engaging intangible digital data with tactile physical material. As robotic membranes, they are a dual examination...

  6. Treatment of textile wastewater with membrane bioreactor: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Veeriah; Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Chen, Jingyu; Navaratna, Dimuth; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Shu, Li

    2016-03-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has been used widely for various industrial wastewater treatments due to its distinct advantages over conventional bioreactors. Treatment of textile wastewater using MBR has been investigated as a simple, reliable and cost-effective process with a significant removal of contaminants. However, a major drawback in the operation of MBR is membrane fouling, which leads to the decline in permeate flux and therefore requires membrane cleaning. This eventually decreases the lifespan of the membrane. In this paper, the application of aerobic and anaerobic MBR for textile wastewater treatment as well as fouling and control of fouling in MBR processes have been reviewed. It has been found that long sludge retention time increases the degradation of pollutants by allowing slow growing microorganisms to establish but also contributes to membrane fouling. Further research aspects of MBR for textile wastewater treatment are also considered for sustainable operations of the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. ZirfonR-composite membranes: properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leysen, R.; Doyen, W.; Adriansen, W.; Vermeiren, Ph.

    1993-01-01

    In this report, the fabrication and the applications of a new type of composite membrane, the zirconium-oxide-polysulphone membrane (registered trade mark name: Zirfon), are described. The investigated Zirfon membranes are fabricated by the film casting technique and are composed of zirconium oxide powder and a polymeric binder, polysulphone. Zirfon membranes have been developed first for use as separators in electrochemical applications (e.g. alkaline water electrolysis and alkaline fuel cells). Besides their applications in electrochemical systems, Zirfon membranes have been tested as separating membranes for several ultrafiltration purposes. The most recent application of Zirfon membranes is their use for the removal of heavy metals in waste streams by means of incorporated bacteria. In this application, micro-organisms are immobilized on the porous structure of the membrane. Potential future applications are in the field of energy production (fuel cells) and the treatment of non-nuclear or nuclear waste water. (A.S.)

  8. Incorporation of squalene into rod outer segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, R.K.; Fliesler, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    We have reported previously that squalene is the major radiolabeled nonsaponifiable lipid product derived from [ 3 H]acetate in short term incubations of frog retinas. In the present study, we demonstrate that newly synthesized squalene is incorporated into rod outer segments under similar in vitro conditions. We show further that squalene is an endogenous constituent of frog rod outer segment membranes; its concentration is approximately 9.5 nmol/mumol of phospholipid or about 9% of the level of cholesterol. Pulse-chase experiments with radiolabeled precursors revealed no metabolism of outer segment squalene to sterols in up to 20 h of chase. Taken together with our previous absolute rate studies, these results suggest that most, if not all, of the squalene synthesized by the frog retina is transported to rod outer segments. Synthesis of protein is not required for squalene transport since puromycin had no effect on squalene incorporation into outer segments. Conversely, inhibition of isoprenoid synthesis with mevinolin had no effect on the incorporation of opsin into the outer segment. These latter results support the conclusion that the de novo synthesis and subsequent intracellular trafficking of opsin and isoprenoid lipids destined for the outer segment occur via independent mechanisms

  9. Characterising antimicrobial protein-membrane complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xun, Gloria; Dingley, Andrew; Tremouilhac, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) are host defence molecules that protect organisms from microbial infection. A number of hypotheses for AMP activity have been proposed which involve protein membrane interactions. However, there is a paucity of information describing AMP-membrane complexes in detail. The aim of this project is to characterise the interactions of amoebapore-A (APA-1) with membrane models using primarily solution-state NMR spectroscopy. APA-1 is an AMP which is regulated by a pH-dependent dimerisation event. Based on the atomic resolution solution structure of monomeric APA-1, it is proposed that this dimerisation is a prerequisite for ring-like hexameric pore formation. Due to the cytotoxicity of APA-1, we have developed a cell-free system to produce this protein. To facilitate our studies, we have adapted the cell-free system to isotope label APA-1. 13 C /15 N -enriched APA-1 sample was achieved and we have begun characterising APA-1 dimerisation and membrane interactions using NMR spectroscopy and other biochemical/biophysical methods. Neutron reflectometry is a surface-sensitive technique and therefore represents an ideal technique to probe how APA-1 interacts with membranes at the molecular level under different physiological conditions. Using Platypus, the pH-induced APA-1-membrane interactions should be detectable as an increase of the amount of protein adsorbed at the membrane surface and changes in the membrane properties. Specifically, detailed information of the structure and dimensions of the protein-membrane complex, the position and amount of the protein in the membrane, and the perturbation of the membrane phospholipids on protein incorporation can be extracted from the neutron reflectometry measurement. Such information will enable critical assessment of current proposed mechanisms of AMP activity in bacterial membranes and complement our NMR studies

  10. Metabolism of fatty acids in rat brain in microsomal membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeberhard, E.E.; Gan-Elepano, M.; Mead, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    Using a technique in which substrate fatty acids are incorporated into microsomal membranes followd by comparison of their rates of desaturation or elongation with those of exogenous added fatty acids it has been found that the desaturation rate is more rapid for the membrane-bound substrate than for the added fatty acid. Moreover, the product of the membrane-bound substrate is incorporated into membrane phospholipid whereas the product of the exogenous substrate is found in di- and triacyl glycerols and in free fatty acids as well. These and other findings point to a normal sequence of reaction of membrane liqids with membrane-bound substrates involving transfer of fatty acid from phospholipid to the coupled enzyme systems without ready equilibration with the free fatty acid pool

  11. In-situcross-linked PVDF membranes with enhanced mechanical durability for vacuum membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Zuo, Jian; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2016-01-01

    A novel and effective one-step method has been demonstrated to fabricate cross-linked polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes with better mechanical properties and flux for seawater desalination via vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). This method involves the addition of two functional nonsolvent additives; namely, water and ethylenediamine (EDA), into the polymer casting solution. The former acts as a pore forming agent, while the latter performs as a cross-linking inducer. The incorporation of water tends to increase membrane flux via increasing porosity and pore size but sacrifices membrane mechanical properties. Conversely, the presence of EDA enhances membrane mechanical properties through in-situ cross-linking reaction. Therefore, by synergistically combining the effects of both functional additives, the resultant PVDF membranes have shown good MD performance and mechanical properties simultaneously. The parameters that affect the cross-link reaction and membrane mechanical properties such as reaction duration and EDA concentration have been systematically studied. The membranes cast from an optimal reaction condition comprising 0.8 wt % EDA and 3-hour reaction not only shows a 40% enhancement in membrane Young's Modulus compared to the one without EDA but also achieves a good VMD flux of 43.6 L/m2-h at 60°C. This study may open up a totally new approach to design next-generation high performance MD membranes. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 62: 4013–4022, 2016

  12. In-situcross-linked PVDF membranes with enhanced mechanical durability for vacuum membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Zuo, Jian

    2016-05-12

    A novel and effective one-step method has been demonstrated to fabricate cross-linked polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes with better mechanical properties and flux for seawater desalination via vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). This method involves the addition of two functional nonsolvent additives; namely, water and ethylenediamine (EDA), into the polymer casting solution. The former acts as a pore forming agent, while the latter performs as a cross-linking inducer. The incorporation of water tends to increase membrane flux via increasing porosity and pore size but sacrifices membrane mechanical properties. Conversely, the presence of EDA enhances membrane mechanical properties through in-situ cross-linking reaction. Therefore, by synergistically combining the effects of both functional additives, the resultant PVDF membranes have shown good MD performance and mechanical properties simultaneously. The parameters that affect the cross-link reaction and membrane mechanical properties such as reaction duration and EDA concentration have been systematically studied. The membranes cast from an optimal reaction condition comprising 0.8 wt % EDA and 3-hour reaction not only shows a 40% enhancement in membrane Young\\'s Modulus compared to the one without EDA but also achieves a good VMD flux of 43.6 L/m2-h at 60°C. This study may open up a totally new approach to design next-generation high performance MD membranes. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 62: 4013–4022, 2016

  13. Mixed-matrix membrane adsorbers for protein separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avramescu, M.E.; Borneman, Z.; Wessling, M.

    2003-01-01

    The separation of two similarly sized proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine hemoglobin (Hb) was carried out using a new type of ion-exchange mixed-matrix adsorber membranes. The adsorber membranes were prepared by incorporation of various types of Lewatit ion-exchange resins into an

  14. MÉXICO EN UN EVENTUAL ACUERDO DE LIBRE COMERCIO DE LAS AMÉRICAS: PERSPECTIVAS Y APROXIMACIÓN DESDE LA HISTORIA ACTUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Nahuel Oddone

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En el texto se analiza la posición del Gobierno de México respecto de una eventual conformación del Área de Libre Comercio de las Américas, más conocida como el ALCA. La aproximación del estudio se hace desde lo que se ha denominado “historia actual”; en este sentido el TLCAN se constituye en una herramienta metodológica importante al momento de realizar las prospecciones del tema en cuestión. Asimismo, son analizados los problemas que existen hoy en el TLCAN y que difícilmente se solucionarán con el ALCA.

  15. In Silico Design of Robust Bolalipid Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulacu, Monica; Periole, Xavier; Marrink, Siewert J.; Périole, Xavier

    The robustness of microorganisms used in industrial fermentations is essential for the efficiency and yield of the production process. A viable tool to increase the robustness is through engineering of the cell membrane and especially by incorporating lipids from species that survive under harsh

  16. Arct'Alg release from hydrogel membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Renata H.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Shihomatsu, Helena M.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2009-01-01

    The hydrogel properties make them attractive for a variety of biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, primarily in drug delivery system. Synthetic hydrogels have been studied to develop new devices for drugs or cosmetic active agents release. Arct'Alg R is an extract derived from red algae biomass which has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and tissue regeneration stimulant properties. This extract was incorporated to poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel membranes obtained by gamma rays crosslinking technique. The ionizing radiation presents the advantage to occur polymerization and sterilization simultaneously in the same process. The aim of this work was the in vitro release kinetic study of Arct'Alg R from hydrogel membranes during 24 hours to verify the possibility of use in cosmetic and dermatological treatments. Results showed that about 50% and 30% of incorporated Arct'Alg R was released from PVP and PVA hydrogel membrane devices respectively. (author)

  17. Nepal CRS project incorporates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Nepal Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) Project, 5 years after lauching product sales in June 1978, incorporated as a private, nonprofit company under Nepalese management. The transition was finalized in August 1983. The Company will work through a cooperative agreement with USAID/Kathmandu to complement the national family planning goals as the program continues to provide comtraceptives through retail channels at subsidized prices. Company objectives include: increase contraceptive sales by at least 15% per year; make CRS cost effective and move towards self sufficiency; and explore the possibility of marketing noncontraceptive health products to improve primary health care. After only5 years the program can point to some impressive successes. The number of retial shops selling family planning products increased from 100 in 1978 to over 8000, extending CRS product availability to 66 of the country's 75 districts. Retail sales have climbed dramatically in the 5-year period, from Rs 46,817 in 1978 to Rs 271,039 in 1982. Sales in terms of couple year protection CYP) have grown to 24,451 CYP(1982), a 36% increase over 1980 CYP. Since the beginning of the CRS marketing program, total distribution of contraceptives--through both CRS and the Family Planning Maternal and Child Haelth (FP/MCH) Project--has been increasing. While the FP/MCH program remains the largest distributor,contribution of CRS Products is increasing, indicating that CRS is creating new product acceptors. CRS market share in 1982 was 43% for condoms and 16% for oral contraceptives (OCs). CRS markets 5 products which are subsidized in order to be affordable to consumers as well as attractive to sellers. The initial products launched in June 1978 were Gulaf standard dose OCs and Dhaal lubricated colored condoms. A less expensive lubricates, plain Suki-Dhaal condom was introduced in June 1980 in an attempt to reach poorer rural populations, but rural distribution costs are excessive and Suki

  18. Recent advances on polymeric membranes for membrane reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Buonomenna, M. G.; Choi, Seung Hak

    2012-01-01

    . The successful use of membranes in membrane reactors is primary the result of two developments concerning: (i) membrane materials and (ii) membrane structures. The selection of a suited material and preparation technique depends on the application the membrane

  19. FATE OF REVERSE OSMOSIS (RO) MEMBRANES DURING OXIDATION BY DISINFECTANTS USED IN WATER TREATMENT: IMPACT ON MEMBRANE STRUCTURE AND PERFORMANCES

    KAUST Repository

    Maugin, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Providing pretreatment prior RO filtration is essential to avoid biofouling and subsequent loss of membrane performances. Chlorine is known to degrade polymeric membrane, improving or reducing membrane efficiency depending on oxidation conditions. This study aimed to assess the impact of alternative disinfectant, NH2Cl, as well as secondary oxidants formed during chloramination of seawater, e.g. HOBr, HOI, or used in water treatment e.g. ClO2, O3, on membrane structure and performances. Permeability, total and specific rejection (Cl-, SO4 2-, Br-, Boron), FTIR profile, elemental composition were analyzed. Results showed that each oxidant seems to react differently with the membrane. HOCl, HOBr, ClO2 and O3 improved membrane permeability but decreased rejection in different extent. In comparison, chloramines resulted in identical trends but oxidized membrane very slowly. On the contrary, iodine improved membrane rejection e.g. boron, but decreased permeability. Reaction conducted with chlorine, bromine, iodine and chloramines resulted in the incorporation of halogen in the membrane structure. All oxidant except iodine were able to break amide bonds of the membrane structure in our condition. In addition, chloramine seemed to react with membrane differently, involving a potential addition of nitrogen. Chloramination of seawater amplified membrane performances evolutions due to generation of bromochloramine. Moreover, chloramines reacted both with NOM and membrane during oxidation in natural seawater, leading to additional rejection drop.

  20. Development of novel nano-composite membranes as introduction systems for mass spectrometers: Contrasting nano-composite membranes and conventional inlet systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Luis Diego

    This dissertation presents the development of novel nano-composite membranes as introduction systems for mass spectrometers. These nano-composite membranes incorporate anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes as templates that can be used by themselves or modified by a variety of chemical deposition processes. Two types of nano-composite membranes are presented. The first nano-composite membrane has carbon deposited within the pores of an AAO membrane. The second nano-composite membrane is made by coating an AAO membrane with a thin polymer film. The following chapters describe the transmission properties these nano-composite membranes and compare them to conventional mass spectrometry introduction systems. The nano- composite membranes were finally coupled to the inlet system of an underwater mass spectrometer revealing their utility in field deployments.

  1. Magnetically controlled permeability membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jurgen

    2013-10-31

    A bioactive material delivery system can include a thermoresponsive polymer membrane and nanowires distributed within the thermoresponsive polymer membrane. Magnetic activation of a thermoresponsive polymer membrane can take place via altering the magnetization or dimensions of nanowires dispersed or ordered within the membrane matrix.

  2. Magnetically controlled permeability membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jü rgen; Khashab, Niveen M.; Zaher, Amir

    2013-01-01

    A bioactive material delivery system can include a thermoresponsive polymer membrane and nanowires distributed within the thermoresponsive polymer membrane. Magnetic activation of a thermoresponsive polymer membrane can take place via altering the magnetization or dimensions of nanowires dispersed or ordered within the membrane matrix.

  3. Incorporation of a bioceramic in polymeric matrix for the production of a composite biomaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junior, E.A. de O.; Bastos, J.S.B.; Silva, R. C. de S.; Macedo, H.R.A.; Macedo, M.O.C.; Bradim, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    The incorporation of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) into a chitosan matrix for the production of membranes was proposed as a biomaterial with possible application in the treatment of bone tissue. The incorporation process was evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Dispersive Energy (EDX) and X-Ray Fluorescence (FRX). SEM images showed the presence of CaCO 3 on the surface of the polymer matrix, the particles presented spherical, cubic and lamellar forms. Through the EDX analysis, the presence of calcium was observed, thus evidencing the proposed incorporation, confirmed by the FRX analysis that showed the presence of calcium in all membranes

  4. Photolabeling of brain membrane proteins by lysergic acid diethylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahon, A.C.; Hartig, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    3 H-Lysergic acid diethylamide ( 3 H-LSD) is irreversibly incorporated into bovine caudate membranes during ultraviolet light illumination. The incorporated radioligand apparently forms a covalent bond with a sub-population of the membrane proteins. Although the photolabeling pattern differs significantly from the Coomassie blue staining pattern on SDS gels, the photolabeling is apparently not specific for LSD binding sites associated with neurotransmitter receptors. 3 H-LSD photolabeling can occur during prolonged exposure of membrane samples to room lighting and thus may introduce artifacts into receptor binding assays

  5. Field-effect detection using phospholipid membranes -Topical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiho Kataoka-Hamai and Yuji Miyahara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of field-effect devices to biosensors has become an area of intense research interest. An attractive feature of field-effect sensing is that the binding or reaction of biomolecules can be directly detected from a change in electrical signals. The integration of such field-effect devices into cell membrane mimics may lead to the development of biosensors useful in clinical and biotechnological applications. This review summarizes recent studies on the fabrication and characterization of field-effect devices incorporating model membranes. The incorporation of black lipid membranes and supported lipid monolayers and bilayers into semiconductor devices is described.

  6. Gas Permeation Characteristics across Nano-Porous Inorganic Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Othman, H. Mukhtar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An overview of parameters affecting gas permeation in inorganic membranes is presented. These factors include membrane physical characteristics, operational parameters and gas molecular characteristics. The membrane physical characteristics include membrane materials and surface area, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution and membrane morphology. The operational parameters include feed flow rate and concentration, stage cut, temperature and pressure. The gas molecular characteristics include gas molecular weight, diameter, critical temperature, critical pressure, Lennard-Jones parameters and diffusion volumes. The current techniques of material characterization may require complementary method in describing microscopic heterogeneity of the porous ceramic media. The method to be incorporated in the future will be to apply a stochastic model and/or fractal dimension. Keywords: Inorganic membrane, surface adsorption, Knudsen diffusion, Micro-porous membrane, permeation, gas separation.

  7. Biocompatibility studies of polyacrylonitrile membranes modified with carboxylated polyetherimide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthilkumar, S.; Rajesh, S.; Jayalakshmi, A.; Mohan, D., E-mail: mohantarun@gmail.com

    2013-10-15

    Poly (ether-imide) (PEI) was carboxylated and used as the hydrophilic modification agent for the preparation of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membranes. Membranes were prepared with different blend compositions of PAN and CPEI by diffusion induced precipitation. The modified membranes were characterized by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), mechanical analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurement to understand the influence of CPEI on the properties of the membranes. The biocompatibility studies exhibited reduced plasma protein adsorption, platelet adhesion and thrombus formation on the modified membrane surface. The complete blood count (CBC) results of CPEI incorporated membranes showed stable CBC values and significant decrease in the complement activation were also observed. In addition to good cytocompatibility, monocytes cultured on these modified membranes exhibited improved functional profiles in 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Thus it could be concluded that PAN/CPEI membranes with excellent biocompatibility can be useful for hemodialysis. Highlights: • Carboxylated PEI was prepared and utilized as hydrophilic modification agent. • CPEI incorporated into PAN to improved biocompatibility and cyto compatibility • Biocompatibility of membranes was correlated with morphology and hydrophilicity. • Antifouling studies of the PAN/CPEI membranes was studied by BSA as model foulant.

  8. Zinc-substituted ZIF-67 nanocrystals and polycrystalline membranes for propylene/propane separation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Chongqing

    2016-09-09

    Continuous ZIF-67 polycrystalline membranes with effective propylene/propane separation performances were successfully fabricated through the incorporation of zinc ions into the ZIF-67 framework. The separation factor increases from 1.4 for the pure ZIF-67 membrane to 50.5 for the 90% zinc-substituted ZIF-67 membrane.

  9. Aroma Stripping under various Forms of Membrane Distillation Processes: Experiments and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    Concentration of fruit juices by membrane distillation is an interesting process as it can be done at low temperature giving a gentle concentration process with little deterioration of the juices. Since the juices contains many different aroma compounds with a wide range of chemical properties...... such as volatility, activity coefficient and vapor pressure, it is important to know how these aroma compounds will eventually pass through the membrane. Experiments have been made on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up which can be operated in various types...... of MD configurations: Vacuum Membrane Distillation , Sweeping Gas Membrane Distillation , Direct Contact Membrane Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation. The influence of feed temperature and feed flow rate on the permeate flux and concentration factor for different types of aroma compounds have...

  10. Photoconductivity of Germanium Nanowire Arrays Incorporated in Anodic Aluminum Oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, B; Prikulis, J; Grigorjeva, L; Millers, D; Daly, B; Holmes, J D; Erts, D

    2007-01-01

    Photoconductivity of germanium nanowire arrays of 50 and 100 nm diameter incorporated into Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) membranes illuminated with visible light is investigated. Photocurrent response to excitation radiation with time constants faster than 10 -4 s were governed by absorption of incident light by nanowires, while photokinetics with time constants of the order of 10 -3 s originates from the photoluminescence of the AAO matrix. Possible applications of nanowire arrays inside AAO as photoresistors are discussed

  11. Solutocapillary Convection Effects on Polymeric Membrane Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, William B.; Todd, Paul W.; Kinagurthu, Sanjay

    1996-01-01

    Macro voids are undesirable large pores in membranes used for purification. They form when membranes are cast as thin films on a smooth surface by evaporating solvent (acetone) from a polymer solution. There are two un-tested hypotheses explaining the growth of macro voids. One states that diffusion of the non-solvent (water) is solely responsible, while the other states that solutocapillary convection is the primary cause of macro void growth. Solutocapillary convection is flow-caused by a concentration induced surface-tension gradient. Macrovoid growth in the former hypothesis is gravity independent, while in the latter it is opposed by gravity. To distinguish between these two hypotheses, experiments were designed to cast membranes in zero-gravity. A semi-automated apparatus was designed and built for casting membranes during the 20 secs of zero-g time available in parabolic aircraft flight such as NASA's KC-135. The phase changes were monitored optically, and membrane morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These studies appear to be the first quantitative studies of membrane casting in micro-gravity which incorporate real-time data acquisition. Morphological studies of membranes cast at 0, 1, and 1.8 g revealed the presence of numerous, sparse and no macrovoids respectively. These results are consistent with the predictions of the solutocapillary hypothesis of macrovoid growth.

  12. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membrane for Coal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Joseph [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States); Porter, Jason [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Patki, Neil [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Kelley, Madison [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Stanislowski, Josh [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Tolbert, Scott [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Way, J. Douglas [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Makuch, David [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

    2015-12-23

    A pilot-scale hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) separator was built that incorporated 98 membranes that were each 24 inches long. This separator used an advanced design to minimize the impact of concentration polarization and separated over 1000 scfh of hydrogen from a hydrogen-nitrogen feed of 5000 scfh that contained 30% hydrogen. This mixture was chosen because it was representative of the hydrogen concentration expected in coal gasification. When tested with an operating gasifier, the hydrogen concentration was lower and contaminants in the syngas adversely impacted membrane performance. All 98 membranes survived the test, but flux was lower than expected. Improved ceramic substrates were produced that have small surface pores to enable membrane production and large pores in the bulk of the substrate to allow high flux. Pd-Au was chosen as the membrane alloy because of its resistance to sulfur contamination and good flux. Processes were developed to produce a large quantity of long membranes for use in the demonstration test.

  13. Studies of radiation induced membrane damage in lymphocytes using fluorescent probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikesch, W.

    1974-01-01

    The fluorescent probes perylene (PER), 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonic acid (ANS), and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) were used to investigate membrane changes caused by ionizing radiation. Probe response to various other perturbations (variation of pH, temperature, and salt concentration, and treatment with phythohemagglutinin (PHA) and saponins) was also investigated to better understand membrane-probe interactions. ANS was used to probe the membrane surface, PER to probe the membrane interior, and FDA to investigate membrane integrity. Polarization of fluorescent light from ANS and PER was used to investigate the microviscosity and order of the membrane surface and interior respectively. Irradiated cells (600 R) were shown to have a decreased rate of hydrolysis of FDA probably due to cytoplasmic changes effecting the enzymatic reaction. Also evident was an increase in loss of intracellular fluorescein and a decrease in PER polarization indicating that the cells have a decreased membrane integrity, possibly the result of an increased disorganization of the phospholipid hydrocarbon chains in the membrane interior. Experiments with PHA link the decreased membrane integrity with the eventual interphase death of the cells. In general it is shown that the fluorescent probes ANS, PER, and FDA provide useful ways to investigate order and microviscosity in the cell membrane surface and interior, membrane surface charges, internal membrane polarity changes, and membrane integrity. (U.S.)

  14. Polymeric blend nanocomposite membranes for ethanol dehydration-effect of morphology and membrane-solvent interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanocomposite membranes (NCMs) of sodium alginate/poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) blend polymers incorporated with varying concentrations of phosphotungstic acid (H3PW12O40) (PWA) nanoparticles have been prepared and used in ethanol dehydration by the pervaporation (PV) technique. Effe...

  15. Formation of carrageenan-CaCO{sub 3} bioactive membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Lucas F.B.; Maniglia, Bianca C.; Pereira, Lourivaldo S.; Tapia-Blácido, Delia R.; Ramos, Ana P., E-mail: anapr@ffclrp.usp.br

    2016-01-01

    The high biocompatibility and resorbability of polymeric membranes have encouraged their use to manufacture medical devices. Here, we report on the preparation of membranes consisting of carrageenan, a naturally occurring sulfated polysaccharide that forms helical structures in the presence of calcium ions. We incorporated CaCO{sub 3} particles into the membranes to enhance their bioactivity and mechanical properties. Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction data confirmed CaCO{sub 3} incorporation into the polymeric matrix. We tested the bioactivity of the samples by immersing them in a solution that mimics the ionic composition and pH of the human body fluid. The hybrid membranes generated hydroxyapatite, as attested by X-ray diffraction data. Scanning electron and atomic force microscopies aided investigation of membrane topography before and after CaCO{sub 3} deposition. The wettability and surface free energy, evaluated by contact angle measures, increased in the presence of CaCO{sub 3} particles. These parameters are important for membrane implantation in the body. Moreover, membrane stiffness was up to 110% higher in the presence of the inorganic particles, as revealed by Young's modulus. - Highlights: • Hybrid kappa and iota carrageenan-CaCO{sub 3} membranes were formed. • The hybrid membrane's origin hydroxyapatite after exposure to simulated body fluid • The carrageenan's specificity to bind Ca{sup 2+} ions tailors the surface properties.

  16. Alterations in membrane protein-profile during cold treatment of alfalfa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, S.S.; Poole, R.J.; Dhindsa, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in pattern of membrane proteins during cold acclimation of alfalfa have been examined. Cold acclimation for 2 to 3 days increases membrane protein content. Labeling of membrane proteins in vivo with [ 35 S]methionine indicates increases in the rate of incorporation as acclimation progresses. Cold acclimation induces the synthesis of about 10 new polypeptides as shown by SDS-PAGE and fluorography of membrane proteins labeled in vivo

  17. Role for chlamydial inclusion membrane proteins in inclusion membrane structure and biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Mital

    Full Text Available The chlamydial inclusion membrane is extensively modified by the insertion of type III secreted effector proteins. These inclusion membrane proteins (Incs are exposed to the cytosol and share a common structural feature of a long, bi-lobed hydrophobic domain but little or no primary amino acid sequence similarity. Based upon secondary structural predictions, over 50 putative inclusion membrane proteins have been identified in Chlamydia trachomatis. Only a limited number of biological functions have been defined and these are not shared between chlamydial species. Here we have ectopically expressed several C. trachomatis Incs in HeLa cells and find that they induce the formation of morphologically distinct membranous vesicular compartments. Formation of these vesicles requires the bi-lobed hydrophobic domain as a minimum. No markers for various cellular organelles were observed in association with these vesicles. Lipid probes were incorporated by the Inc-induced vesicles although the lipids incorporated were dependent upon the specific Inc expressed. Co-expression of Inc pairs indicated that some colocalized in the same vesicle, others partially overlapped, and others did not associate at all. Overall, it appears that Incs may have an intrinsic ability to induce membrane formation and that individual Incs can induce membranous structures with unique properties.

  18. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  19. Premature rupture of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000512.htm Premature rupture of membranes To use the sharing features on this page, ... water that surrounds your baby in the womb. Membranes or layers of tissue hold in this fluid. ...

  20. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  1. Membrane with integrated spacer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balster, J.H.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Wessling, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Many membrane processes are severely influenced by concentration polarisation. Turbulence promoting spacers placed in between the membranes can reduce the diffusional resistance of concentration polarisation by inducing additional mixing. Electrodialysis (ED) used for desalination suffers from

  2. In-vitro Degradation Behaviour of Irradiated Bacterial Cellulose Membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwis, D.; Khusniya, T.; Hardiningsih, L.; Nurlidar, F.; Winarno, H.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose membrane synthesized by Acetobacter xylinum in coconut water medium has potential application for Guided bone Regeneration. However, this membrane may not meet some application requirements due to its low biodegradation properties. In this paper, incorporation of gamma irradiation into the membrane is a developed strategy to increase its biodegradability properties. The in-vitro degradation study in synthetic body fluid (SBF) of the irradiated membrane has been analyzed during periods of 6 months by means of weight loss, mechanical properties and scanning electron microscopy observation compared to that the un-irradiated one. The result showed that weight loss of irradiated membrane with 25 kGy and 50 kGy and immersed in SBF solution for 6 months reached 18% and 25% respectively. While un-irradiated membrane did not give significant weight loss. Tensile strength of membranes decreases with increasing of irradiation dose and further decreases in tensile strength is observed when irradiated membrane was followed by immersion in SBF solution. Microscope electron image of cellulose membranes shows that un-irradiated bacterial cellulose membrane consists of dense ultrafine fibril network structures, while irradiation result in cleavage of fibrils network of cellulose. The fibrils network become loosely after irradiated membrane immersed in SBF solution due to released of small molecular weight carbohydrates formed during by irradiation from the structure (author)

  3. Gel layer formation on membranes in Membrane Bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Brink, P.F.H.

    2014-01-01

    The widespread application of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for municipal wastewater treatment is hampered by membrane fouling. Fouling increases energy demand, reduces process performance and creates the need for more frequent (chemical) membrane cleaning or replacement. Membrane fouling in MBRs is

  4. Smart membranes for monitoring membrane based desalination processes

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Karam, Ayman M.

    2017-01-01

    Various examples are related to smart membranes for monitoring membrane based process such as, e.g., membrane distillation processes. In one example, a membrane, includes a porous surface and a plurality of sensors (e.g., temperature, flow and

  5. Model cell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther-Pomorski, Thomas; Nylander, Tommy; Cardenas Gomez, Marite

    2014-01-01

    The high complexity of biological membranes has motivated the development and application of a wide range of model membrane systems to study biochemical and biophysical aspects of membranes in situ under well defined conditions. The aim is to provide fundamental understanding of processes control...

  6. Idiopathic epiretinal membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bu, Shao-Chong; Kuijer, Roelof; Li, Xiao-Rong; Hooymans, Johanna M M; Los, Leonoor I

    2014-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM) is a fibrocellular membrane that proliferates on the inner surface of the retina at the macular area. Membrane contraction is an important sight-threatening event and is due to fibrotic remodeling. Methods: Analysis of the current literature

  7. Meniscus Membranes For Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C.; Jorgensen, Betty; Pesiri, David R.

    2005-09-20

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  8. Meniscus membranes for separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C [Irvine, CA; Jorgensen, Betty [Jemez Springs, NM; Pesiri, David R [Aliso Viejo, CA

    2004-01-27

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  9. Comparison of Polytetrafluoroethylene Flat-Sheet Membranes with Different Pore Sizes in Application to Submerged Membrane Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Motoori

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on phase separation of activated sludge mixed liquor by flat-sheet membranes of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE. A 20 liter working volume lab-scale MBR incorporating immersed PTFE flat-sheet membrane modules with different pore sizes (0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 μm was operated for 19 days treating a synthetic wastewater. The experiment was interrupted twice at days 5 and 13 when the modules were removed and cleaned physically and chemically in sequence. The pure water permeate flux of each membrane module was measured before and after each cleaning step to calculate membrane resistances. Results showed that fouling of membrane modules with 0.3 μm pore size was more rapid than other membrane modules with different pore sizes (0.5 and 1.0 μm. On the other hand, it was not clear whether fouling of the 0.5 μm membrane module was more severe than that of the 1.0 μm membrane module. This was partly because of the membrane condition after chemical cleaning, which seemed to determine the fouling of those modules over the next period. When irreversible resistance (Ri i.e., differences in membrane resistance before use and after chemical cleaning was high, the transmembrane pressure increased quickly during the next period irrespective of membrane pore size.

  10. Poly (ether ether ketone) membranes for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero, Jacqueline C.; Gomes, Ailton de S.; Filho, Jose C.D.; Hui, Wang S.; Oliveira, Vivianna S. de

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric membranes were developed using a SPEEK polymer matrix (sulphonated poly (ether ether ketone)), containing hygroscopic particles of zirconia (Zr) (incorporated by sol-gel method), for use as electrolyte membranes in fuel cells. SPEEK with different sulfonation degrees were used: 63 and 86%. The thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) was carried out to characterize the membranes and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was carried out to evaluating the proton conductivity of the membranes. Additional analysis were underway in order to characterize these membranes, which include: X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in order to evaluate the influence of zirconia and sulfonation degree on the properties of the membranes. (author)

  11. Separation membrane development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.W. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    A ceramic membrane has been developed to separate hydrogen from other gases. The method used is a sol-gel process. A thin layer of dense ceramic material is coated on a coarse ceramic filter substrate. The pore size distribution in the thin layer is controlled by a densification of the coating materials by heat treatment. The membrane has been tested by permeation measurement of the hydrogen and other gases. Selectivity of the membrane has been achieved to separate hydrogen from carbon monoxide. The permeation rate of hydrogen through the ceramic membrane was about 20 times larger than Pd-Ag membrane.

  12. Microporous silica membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermal stability is a crucial factor for the application of microporous silica-based membranes in industrial processes. Indeed, it is well established that steam exposure may cause densification and defect formation in microporous silica membranes, which are detrimental to both membrane...... permeability and selectivity. Numerous previous studies show that microporous transition metal doped-silica membranes are hydrothermally more stable than pure silica membranes, but less permeable. Here we present a quantitative study on the impact of type and concentration of transition metal ions...... on the microporous structure, stability and permeability of amorphous silica-based membranes, providing information on how to design chemical compositions and synthetic paths for the fabrication of silica-based membranes with a well accessible and highly stabile microporous structure....

  13. Clustering on Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannes, Ludger; Pezeshkian, Weria; Ipsen, John H

    2018-01-01

    Clustering of extracellular ligands and proteins on the plasma membrane is required to perform specific cellular functions, such as signaling and endocytosis. Attractive forces that originate in perturbations of the membrane's physical properties contribute to this clustering, in addition to direct...... protein-protein interactions. However, these membrane-mediated forces have not all been equally considered, despite their importance. In this review, we describe how line tension, lipid depletion, and membrane curvature contribute to membrane-mediated clustering. Additional attractive forces that arise...... from protein-induced perturbation of a membrane's fluctuations are also described. This review aims to provide a survey of the current understanding of membrane-mediated clustering and how this supports precise biological functions....

  14. Application of dynamic membranes in anaerobic membranes in anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erşahin, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) physically ensure biomass retention by the application of a membrane filtration process. With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs), the combination of membrane and anaerobic processes has received much attention and become

  15. Obtenção e caracterização de membranas cerâmicas tubulares a partir de massas incorporadas com argila, caulim e quartzo Preparation and characterization of tubular ceramic membranes using mass incorporated with clay, kaolin and quartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Chaves

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A tecnologia que envolve a utilização de membranas cerâmicas tem nas ultimas décadas se transformado numa importante técnica de separação. Os principais motivos no avanço dessa tecnologia estão relacionados ao fato de que trabalham sem a adição de agentes químicos, baixo consumo de energia, facilidade de processamento e arranjos físicos compactos. Hoje a principal preocupação no desenvolvimento dessas membranas é minimização dos custos e a obtenção de processos de produção mais eficientes. Diante disto, a utilização de matérias-primas naturais vem como uma alternativa para obtenção de membranas cerâmicas, utilizando como método de produção a extrusão. Visando contribuir com a pesquisa tecnológica, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo a utilização de matérias-primas naturais, tais como argila, quartzo e caulim na confecção em escala laboratorial de membranas cerâmicas tubulares utilizando como processo de produção a extrusão. A massa cerâmica foi submetida às caracterizações: física e mineralógica através de ensaios de análise granulométrica, termogravimétrica, difração de raios X e análise química por fluorescência de raios X. As amostras foram sinterizadas a 800, 900, 1000 e 1100 ºC com o objetivo de verificar a influência nas características das membranas. As membranas cerâmicas obtidas foram caracterizadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura e porosimetria por intrusão de mercúrio, sendo possível verificar a ausência de defeitos e trincas em sua estrutura. Com relação à análise de porosimetria, foram observados poros na faixa de ultrafiltração.The technology that involves the use of ceramic membranes has become in the last decades an important separation technique. The main reasons in the advance of this technology are related to the fact that work without addition of chemical reagents, low consumption of energy, ease to processing and compact physical arrangements

  16. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  17. Dosimetry techniques for applications of incorporated radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.W.; Rao, D.V.; Haydock, C.

    1989-01-01

    Beta particle emitters are attracting attention as the radiolabels of choice for therapeutic radiopharmaceutical. Their use in cancer therapy has drawn attention to a variety of problems in estimating the absorbed dose to primary tumors and metastases from incorporated Β-emitters. Experimental evidence indicates that the distribution of radiopharmaceutical, such as radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, is highly nonuniform in tumor tissue. Three levels of nonuniformity may be noted: (1) inhomogeneity at the macroscopic level due to poor penetration of the radiopharmaceutical into the tumor, (2) microscopic inhomogeneity due to large variations in the number of binding sites on the tumor cells, and (3) nonuniformity at the subcellular level. Conventional application of the MIRD Schema for calculating absorbed doses from incorporated radionuclides may be inadequate under these circumstances since this approach assumes that the, distribution of radioactivity in the organ is uniform. The conventional dosimetry may be modified to handle inhomogeneous activity distributions by dividing the tumor into a number of subregions. At the macroscopic level a spherical tumor may be broken up into a group of concentric annular regions of tissue. At the microscopic level the tumor or metastasis may be considered as a multicellular cluster which in essence divides the tumor into many subtumors of cellular dimensions. Finally, at the subcellular level, a cancer cell may be viewed as consisting of several compartments: the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus. In each case absorbed fractions, and therefore the total absorbed doses, may be calculated for the various subregions of the tumor using standard MIRD procedures. Using macroscopic and multicellular dosimetry models, the relative importance of these various levels of inhomogeneity in radionuclide distribution is examined. A dosimetry model which accounts for the possible time dependence of the tumor mass is formulated

  18. Temporal succession in carbon incorporation from macromolecules by particle-attached bacteria in marine microcosms: Particle-attached bacteria incorporating organic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayali, Xavier [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stewart, Benjamin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mabery, Shalini [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Weber, Peter K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-12-21

    Here, we investigated bacterial carbon assimilation from stable isotope-labelled macromolecular substrates (proteins; lipids; and two types of polysaccharides, starch and cellobiose) while attached to killed diatom detrital particles during laboratory microcosms incubated for 17 days. Using Chip-SIP (secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis of RNA microarrays), we identified generalist operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from the Gammaproteobacteria, belonging to the genera Colwellia, Glaciecola, Pseudoalteromonas and Rheinheimera, and from the Bacteroidetes, genera Owenweeksia and Maribacter, that incorporated the four tested substrates throughout the incubation period. Many of these OTUs exhibited the highest isotope incorporation relative to the others, indicating that they were likely the most active. Additional OTUs from the Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria exhibited generally (but not always) lower activity and did not incorporate all tested substrates at all times, showing species succession in organic carbon incorporation. We also found evidence to suggest that both generalist and specialist OTUs changed their relative substrate incorporation over time, presumably in response to changing substrate availability as the particles aged. This pattern was demonstrated by temporal succession from relatively higher starch incorporation early in the incubations, eventually switching to higher cellobiose incorporation after 2 weeks.

  19. Nanomaterials for membrane fouling control: accomplishments and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Mi, Baoxia

    2013-11-01

    We report a review of recent research efforts on incorporating nanomaterials-including metal/metal oxide nanoparticles, carbon-based nanomaterials, and polymeric nanomaterials-into/onto membranes to improve membrane antifouling properties in biomedical or potentially medical-related applications. In general, nanomaterials can be incorporated into/onto a membrane by blending them into membrane fabricating materials or by attaching them to membrane surfaces via physical or chemical approaches. Overall, the fascinating, multifaceted properties (eg, high hydrophilicity, superparamagnetic properties, antibacterial properties, amenable functionality, strong hydration capability) of nanomaterials provide numerous novel strategies and unprecedented opportunities to fully mitigate membrane fouling. However, there are still challenges in achieving a broader adoption of nanomaterials in the membrane processes used for biomedical applications. Most of these challenges arise from the concerns over their long-term antifouling performance, hemocompatibility, and toxicity toward humans. Therefore, rigorous investigation is still needed before the adoption of some of these nanomaterials in biomedical applications, especially for those nanomaterials proposed to be used in the human body or in contact with living tissue/body fluids for a long period of time. Nevertheless, it is reasonable to predict that the service lifetime of membrane-based biomedical devices and implants will be prolonged significantly with the adoption of appropriate fouling control strategies. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Physical Properties of Ceramides in Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Félix M

    2018-05-20

    Ceramides are sphingolipids containing a sphingosine or a related base, to which a fatty acid is linked through an amide bond. When incorporated into a lipid bilayer, ceramides exhibit a number of properties not shared by almost any other membrane lipid: Ceramides ( a) are extremely hydrophobic and thus cannot exist in suspension in aqueous media; ( b) increase the molecular order (rigidity) of phospholipids in membranes; ( c) give rise to lateral phase separation and domain formation in phospholipid bilayers; ( d) possess a marked intrinsic negative curvature that facilitates formation of inverted hexagonal phases; ( e) make bilayers and cell membranes permeable to small and large (i.e., protein-size) solutes; and ( f) promote transmembrane (flip-flop) lipid motion. Unfortunately, there is hardly any link between the physical studies reviewed here and the mass of biological and clinical studies on the effects of ceramides in health and disease.

  1. Plasma membrane of a marine T cell lymphoma: surface labelling, membrane isolation, separation of membrane proteins and distribution of surface label amongst these proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crumpton, M.J.; Marchalonis, J.J.; Haustein, D.; Atwell, J.L.; Harris, A.W.

    1976-01-01

    Two established techniques for analysis of plasma membranes, namely, lactoperoxidase catalyzed surface radioiodination of intact cells and bulk membrane isolation following disruption of cells by shear forces, were applied in studies of membrane proteins of continuously cultured cells of the monoclonal T lymphoma line WEHI-22. It was found that macromolecular 125 I-iodide incorporated into plasma membrane proteins of intact cells was at least as good a marker for the plasma as was the commonly used enzyme 5'-nucleotidase, T lymphoma plasma membrane proteins were complex when analysed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecylsulphate-containing buffers and more than thirty distinct components were resolved. More than fifteen of the components observed on a mass basis were also labelled with 125 I-iodide. Certain bands, however, exhibited a degree of label disproportionate to their staining properties with Coomassie Blue. This was interpreted in terms of their accessibility to the solvent in the intact cells. (author)

  2. Probing lipid membrane electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi

    The electrostatic properties of lipid bilayer membranes play a significant role in many biological processes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is highly sensitive to membrane surface potential in electrolyte solutions. With fully characterized probe tips, AFM can perform quantitative electrostatic analysis of lipid membranes. Electrostatic interactions between Silicon nitride probes and supported zwitterionic dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayer with a variable fraction of anionic dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS) were measured by AFM. Classical Gouy-Chapman theory was used to model the membrane electrostatics. The nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation was numerically solved with finite element method to provide the potential distribution around the AFM tips. Theoretical tip-sample electrostatic interactions were calculated with the surface integral of both Maxwell and osmotic stress tensors on tip surface. The measured forces were interpreted with theoretical forces and the resulting surface charge densities of the membrane surfaces were in quantitative agreement with the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model of membrane charge regulation. It was demonstrated that the AFM can quantitatively detect membrane surface potential at a separation of several screening lengths, and that the AFM probe only perturbs the membrane surface potential by external field created by the internai membrane dipole moment. The analysis yields a dipole moment of 1.5 Debye per lipid with a dipole potential of +275 mV for supported DOPC membranes. This new ability to quantitatively measure the membrane dipole density in a noninvasive manner will be useful in identifying the biological effects of the dipole potential. Finally, heterogeneous model membranes were studied with fluid electric force microscopy (FEFM). Electrostatic mapping was demonstrated with 50 nm resolution. The capabilities of quantitative electrostatic measurement and lateral charge density mapping make AFM a unique and powerful

  3. Emulsification using microporous membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran T. Vladisavljević

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Membrane emulsification is a process of injecting a pure dispersed phase or pre-emulsion through a microporous membrane into the continuous phase. As a result of the immiscibility of the two phases, droplets of the dispersed phase are formed at the outlets of membrane pores. The droplets formed in the process are removed from the membrane surface by applying cross-flow or stirring of the continuous phase or using a dynamic (rotating or vibrating membrane. The most commonly used membrane for emulsification is the Shirasu Porous Glass (SPG membrane, fabricated through spinodal decomposition in a melt consisting of Japanese volcanic ash (Shirasu, boric acid and calcium carbonate. Microsieve membranes are increasingly popular as an alternative to highly tortuous glass and ceramic membranes. Microsieves are usually fabricated from nickel by photolithography and electroplating or they can be manufactured from silicon nitride via Reactive Ion Etching (RIE. An advantage of microsieves compared to the SPG membrane is in much higher transmembrane fluxes and higher tolerance to fouling by the emulsion ingredients due to the existence of short, straight through pores. Unlike conventional emulsification devices such as high-pressure valve homogenisers and rotor-stator devices, membrane emulsification devices permit a precise control over the mean pore size over a wide range and during the process insignificant amount of energy is dissipated as heat. The drop size is primarily determined by the pore size, but it depends also on other parameters, such as membrane wettability, emulsion formulation, shear stress on the membrane surface, transmembrane pressure, etc.

  4. Ba incorporation in benthic foraminifera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nooijer, L.J.; Brombacher, Anieke; Mewes, A.; Langer, Gerald; Nehrke, G.; Bijma, Jelle; Reichart, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Barium (Ba) incorporated in the calcite of many foraminiferal species is proportional to the concentration of Ba in seawater. Since the open ocean concentration of Ba closely follows seawater alkalinity, foraminiferal Ba ∕ Ca can be used to reconstruct the latter. Alternatively, Ba ∕ Ca from

  5. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  6. EFFECT OF INCORPORATING EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Incorporating expanded polystyrene granules in concrete matrix can produce lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete of ... structure. [1] reported that the standard workability tests are not suitable for the polystyrene aggregate concrete since they are sensitive to the unit weight of concrete. [2] made ...

  7. Specific interaction of postsynaptic densities with membrane rafts isolated from synaptic plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Yao, Wei-Dong; Suzuki, Tatsuo

    2013-06-01

    Postsynaptic membrane rafts are believed to play important roles in synaptic signaling, plasticity, and maintenance. We recently demonstrated the presence, at the electron microscopic level, of complexes consisting of membrane rafts and postsynaptic densities (PSDs) in detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) prepared from synaptic plasma membranes (SPMs) ( Suzuki et al., 2011 , J Neurochem, 119, 64-77). To further explore these complexes, here we investigated the nature of the binding between purified SPM-DRMs and PSDs in vitro. In binding experiments, we used SPM-DRMs prepared after treating SPMs with n-octyl-β-d-glucoside, because at concentrations of 1.0% or higher it completely separates SPM-DRMs and PSDs, providing substantially PSD-free unique SPM-DRMs as well as DRM-free PSDs. PSD binding to PSD-free DRMs was identified by mass spectrometry, Western blotting, and electron microscopy. PSD proteins were not incorporated into SPMs, and significantly less PSD proteins were incorporated into DRMs prepared from liver membranes, providing in vitro evidence that binding of PSDs to DRMs is specific and suggestion of the presence of specific interacting molecules. These specific interactions may have important roles in synaptic development, function, and plasticity in vivo. In addition, the binding system we developed may be a good tool to search for binding molecules and binding mechanisms between PSDs and rafts.

  8. Reverse osmosis membrane of high urea rejection properties. [water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. C.; Wydeven, T. J. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Polymeric membranes suitable for use in reverse osmosis water purification because of their high urea and salt rejection properties are prepared by generating a plasma of an unsaturated hydrocarbon monomer and nitrogen gas from an electrical source. A polymeric membrane is formed by depositing a polymer of the unsaturated monomer from the plasma onto a substrate, so that nitrogen from the nitrogen gas is incorporated within the polymer in a chemically combined form.

  9. Gas separation with membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, G.; Michele, H.; Werner, U.

    1982-01-01

    Gas separation with membranes has already been tested in numerous fields of application, e.g. uranium enrichment of H 2 separation. In many of these processes the mass transfer units, so-called permeators, have to be connected in tandem in order to achieve high concentrations. A most economical operating method provides for each case an optimization of the cascades with regard to the membrane materials, construction and design of module. By utilization of the concentration gradient along the membrane a new process development has been accomplished - the continuously operating membrane rectification unit. Investment and operating costs can be reduced considerably for a number of separating processes by combining a membrane rectification unit with a conventional recycling cascade. However, the new procedure requires that the specifications for the module construction, flow design, and membrane properties be reconsidered. (orig.) [de

  10. Chelating polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2015-01-22

    The present application offers a solution to the current problems associated with recovery and recycling of precious metals from scrap material, discard articles, and other items comprising one or more precious metals. The solution is premised on a microporous chelating polymeric membrane. Embodiments include, but are not limited to, microporous chelating polymeric membranes, device comprising the membranes, and methods of using and making the same.

  11. Numerical Simulation of Particle Distribution in Capillary Membrane during Backwash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anik Keller

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The membrane filtration with inside-out dead-end driven UF-/MF- capillary membranes is an effective process for particle removal in water treatment. Its industrial application increased in the last decade exponentially. To date, the research activities in this field were aimed first of all at the analysis of filtration phenomena disregarding the influence of backwash on the operation parameters of filtration plants. However, following the main hypothesis of this paper, backwash has great potential to increase the efficiency of filtration. In this paper, a numerical approach for a detailed study of fluid dynamic processes in capillary membranes during backwash is presented. The effect of particle size and inlet flux on the backwash process are investigated. The evaluation of these data concentrates on the analysis of particle behavior in the cross sectional plane and the appearance of eventually formed particle plugs inside the membrane capillary. Simulations are conducted in dead-end filtration mode and with two configurations. The first configuration includes a particle concentration of 10% homogeneously distributed within the capillary and the second configuration demonstrates a cake layer on the membrane surface with a packing density of 0:6. Analyzing the hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles shows that the lift force plays the main role in defining the particle enrichment areas. The operation parameters contribute in enhancing the lift force and the heterogeneity to anticipate the clogging of the membrane.

  12. Gas separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, William J.

    1979-01-01

    A dry, fabric supported, polymeric gas separation membrane, such as cellulose acetate, is prepared by casting a solution of the polymer onto a shrinkable fabric preferably formed of synthetic polymers such as polyester or polyamide filaments before washing, stretching or calendering (so called griege goods). The supported membrane is then subjected to gelling, annealing, and drying by solvent exchange. During the processing steps, both the fabric support and the membrane shrink a preselected, controlled amount which prevents curling, wrinkling or cracking of the membrane in flat form or when spirally wound into a gas separation element.

  13. Photoresponsive nanostructured membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Madhavan, Poornima

    2016-07-26

    The perspective of adding stimuli-response to isoporous membranes stimulates the development of separation devices with pores, which would open or close under control of environment chemical composition, temperature or exposure to light. Changes in pH and temperature have been previously investigated. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the preparation of photoresponsive isoporous membranes, applying self-assembly non-solvent induced phase separation to a new light responsive block copolymer. First, we optimized the membrane formation by using poly(styrene-b-anthracene methyl methacrylate-b-methylmethacrylate) (PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA) copolymer, identifying the most suitable solvent, copolymer block length, and other parameters. The obtained final triblock copolymer membrane morphologies were characterized using atomic force and electron microscopy. The microscopic analysis reveals that the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer can form both lamellar and ordered hexagonal nanoporous structures on the membrane top layer in appropriate solvent compositions. The nanostructured membrane emits fluorescence due to the presence of the anthracene mid-block. On irradiation of light the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer membranes has an additional stimuli response. The anthracene group undergoes conformational changes by forming [4 + 4] cycloadducts and this alters the membrane\\'s water flux and solute retention. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Incorporation of 14C-amino acids proteins by abomasa from cow, buffalo calves and goat kid in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelo, I.A.; Ganguli, N.C.

    1975-01-01

    The capability of abomasal tissue to incorporate 14 C-amino acids in vitro into its tissue protein complex was demonstrated. The tissues from younger animals manifested higher activity. Amongst the species, abomasa from cow and buffalo calves exhibited higher incorporation efficiency than that observed with kid abomasum. Mucous membrane of abomasum was more potent in respect of the uptake of amino acid than the whole tissue. The impact of additives on the incorporation of amino acid showed distinct variation when tested with whole tissue and its mucous membrane fraction. (author)

  15. The Rheological Properties of Lipid Monolayers Modulate the Incorporation of l-Ascorbic Acid Alkyl Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Yenisleidy de Las Mercedes Zulueta; Mottola, Milagro; Vico, Raquel V; Wilke, Natalia; Fanani, María Laura

    2016-01-19

    In this work, we tested the hypothesis that the incorporation of amphiphilic drugs into lipid membranes may be regulated by their rheological properties. For this purpose, two members of the l-ascorbic acid alkyl esters family (ASCn) were selected, ASC16 and ASC14, which have different rheological properties when organized at the air/water interface. They are lipophilic forms of vitamin C used in topical pharmacological preparations. The effect of the phase state of the host lipid membranes on ASCn incorporation was explored using Langmuir monolayers. Films of pure lipids with known phase states have been selected, showing liquid-expanded, liquid-condensed, and solid phases as well as pure cholesterol films in liquid-ordered state. We also tested ternary and quaternary mixed films that mimic the properties of cholesterol containing membranes and of the stratum corneum. The compressibility and shear properties of those monolayers were assessed in order to define its phase character. We found that the length of the acyl chain of the ASCn compounds induces differential changes in the rheological properties of the host membrane and subtly regulates the kinetics and extent of the penetration process. The capacity for ASCn uptake was found to depend on the phase state of the host film. The increase in surface pressure resultant after amphiphile incorporation appears to be a function of the capacity of the host membrane to incorporate such amphiphile as well as the rheological response of the film. Hence, monolayers that show a solid phase state responded with a larger surface pressure increase to the incorporation of a comparable amount of amphiphile than liquid-expanded ones. The cholesterol-containing films, including the mixture that mimics stratum corneum, allowed a very scarce ASCn uptake independently of the membrane diffusional properties. This suggests an important contribution of Cho on the maintenance of the barrier function of stratum corneum.

  16. Electrochemical acidification of Kraft black liquor by electrodialysis with bipolar membrane: Ion exchange membrane fouling identification and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Maryam; Mikhaylin, Sergey; Bazinet, Laurent; Savadogo, Oumarou; Paris, Jean

    2017-02-15

    Integrated forest biorefinery offers promising pathways to sustainably diversify the revenue of pulp and paper industry. In this context, lignin can be extracted from a residual stream of Kraft pulping process, called black liquor, and subsequently converted into a wide spectrum of bio-based products. Electrochemical acidification of Kraft black liquor by electrodialysis with bipolar membrane results in lignin extraction and caustic soda production. Even though the implementation of this method requires less chemicals than the chemical acidification process, fouling of the ion exchange membranes and especially bipolar membrane impairs its productivity. Membrane thickness and ash content measurements along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), elemental analysis (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) analysis were performed to identify the nature and mechanisms of the membrane fouling. The results revealed that the fouling layer mostly consisted of organic components and particularly lignin. Based on our proposed fouling mechanisms, throughout the electrodialysis process the pH of the black liquor gradually decreased and as a result more proton ions were available to trigger protonation reaction of lignin phenolic groups and decrease the lignin solubility. Due to the abundance of the proton ions on the surface of the cation exchange layers of the bipolar membrane, destabilized lignin macro-molecules started to self-aggregate and formed lignin clusters on its surface. Over the time, these lignin clusters covered the entire surface of the bipolar membrane and the spaces between the membranes and, eventually, attached to the surface of the cation exchange membrane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Modification of membrane sulfhydryl groups in bacteriostatic action of nitrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchman, G.W. III; Hansen, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism by which nitrite inhibits outgrowing spores of bacillus cereus T was examined by using techniques developed earlier for nitrite analogs. The morphological stage of inhibition, cooperativity effects, effect of pH on inhibition, kinetics of protection against tritiated iodoacetate incorporation into membrane sulfhydryl groups, and protection against the bacteriocidal effect of carboxymethylation of iodoacetate indicate that nitrite acts as a membrane-directed sulfhydryl agent. The mechanism by which nitrite modifies the chemical reactivity of the sulfhyrdyl group could be either direct covalent modification or inactivation through communication with another modified membrane component. Profiles of pH effects suggest that the active agent is the protonated form of nitrite. The nitrite concentrations which modify membrane sulfhydryl activity coincide with those which have a bacteriostatic effect. These results are consistent with membrane sulfhydryl modification as a component of the mechanism of nitrite-induced bacteriostasis in this aerobic sporeformer

  18. Hydrostatic and Flow Measurements on Wrinkled Membrane Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsun, Ozgur; Ekinci, Kamil

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we investigate structural properties of wrinkled silicon nitride (SiN) membranes, under both hydrostatic perturbations and flow conditions, through surface profile measurements. Rectangular SiN membranes with linear dimensions of 15 mm × 1 . 5 mm × 1 μ m are fabricated on a 500 - μ m-thick silicon substrate using standard lithography techniques. These thin, initially flat, tension-dominated membranes are wrinkled by bending the silicon substrate. The wrinkled membranes are subsequently incorporated as walls into rectangular micro-channels, which allow both hydrostatic and flow measurements. The structural response of the wrinkles to hydrostatic pressure provides a measure of the various energy scales in the problem. Flow experiments show that the elastic properties and the structural undulations on a compliant membrane completely dominate the flow, possibly providing drag reduction. These measurements pave the way for building and using compliant walls for drag reduction in micro-channels.

  19. Membrane fusion and exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, R; Südhof, T C

    1999-01-01

    Membrane fusion involves the merger of two phospholipid bilayers in an aqueous environment. In artificial lipid bilayers, fusion proceeds by means of defined transition states, including hourglass-shaped intermediates in which the proximal leaflets of the fusing membranes are merged whereas the distal leaflets are separate (fusion stalk), followed by the reversible opening of small aqueous fusion pores. Fusion of biological membranes requires the action of specific fusion proteins. Best understood are the viral fusion proteins that are responsible for merging the viral with the host cell membrane during infection. These proteins undergo spontaneous and dramatic conformational changes upon activation. In the case of the paradigmatic fusion proteins of the influenza virus and of the human immunodeficiency virus, an amphiphilic fusion peptide is inserted into the target membrane. The protein then reorients itself, thus forcing the fusing membranes together and inducing lipid mixing. Fusion of intracellular membranes in eukaryotic cells involves several protein families including SNAREs, Rab proteins, and Sec1/Munc-18 related proteins (SM-proteins). SNAREs form a novel superfamily of small and mostly membrane-anchored proteins that share a common motif of about 60 amino acids (SNARE motif). SNAREs reversibly assemble into tightly packed helical bundles, the core complexes. Assembly is thought to pull the fusing membranes closely together, thus inducing fusion. SM-proteins comprise a family of soluble proteins that bind to certain types of SNAREs and prevent the formation of core complexes. Rab proteins are GTPases that undergo highly regulated GTP-GDP cycles. In their GTP form, they interact with specific proteins, the effector proteins. Recent evidence suggests that Rab proteins function in the initial membrane contact connecting the fusing membranes but are not involved in the fusion reaction itself.

  20. Syntheses and characterization of liposome-incorporated adamantyl aminoguanidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šekutor, Marina; Štimac, Adela; Mlinarić-Majerski, Kata; Frkanec, Ruža

    2014-08-21

    A series of mono and bis-aminoguanidinium adamantane derivatives has been synthesized and incorporated into liposomes. They combine two biomedically significant molecules, the adamantane moiety and the guanidinium group. The adamantane moiety possesses the membrane compatible features while the cationic guanidinium subunit was recognized as a favourable structural feature for binding to complementary molecules comprising phosphate groups. The liposome formulations of adamantyl aminoguanidines were characterized and it was shown that the entrapment efficiency of the examined compounds is significant. In addition, it was demonstrated that liposomes with incorporated adamantyl aminoguanidines effectively recognized the complementary liposomes via the phosphate group. These results indicate that adamantane derivatives bearing guanidinium groups might be versatile tools for biomedical application, from studies of molecular recognition processes to usage in drug formulation and cell targeting.

  1. Direct Capture of Functional Proteins from Mammalian Plasma Membranes into Nanodiscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jahnabi; Pondenis, Holly; Fan, Timothy M; Das, Aditi

    2015-10-20

    Mammalian plasma membrane proteins make up the largest class of drug targets yet are difficult to study in a cell free system because of their intransigent nature. Herein, we perform direct encapsulation of plasma membrane proteins derived from mammalian cells into a functional nanodisc library. Peptide fingerprinting was used to analyze the proteome of the incorporated proteins in nanodiscs and to further demonstrate that the lipid composition of the nanodiscs directly affects the class of protein that is incorporated. Furthermore, the functionality of the incorporated membrane proteome was evaluated by measuring the activity of membrane proteins: Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and receptor tyrosine kinases. This work is the first report of the successful establishment and characterization of a cell free functional library of mammalian membrane proteins into nanodiscs.

  2. Assessing the efficacy of vesicle fusion with planar membrane arrays using a mitochondrial porin as reporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pszon-Bartosz, Kamila Justyna; Hansen, Jesper S.; Stibius, Karin B.

    2011-01-01

    Reconstitution of functionally active membrane protein into artificially made lipid bilayers is a challenge that must be overcome to create a membrane-based biomimetic sensor and separation device. In this study we address the efficacy of proteoliposome fusion with planar membrane arrays. We...... establish a protein incorporation efficacy assay using the major non-specific porin of Fusobacterium nucleatum (FomA) as reporter. We use electrical conductance measurements and fluorescence microscopy to characterize proteoliposome fusion with an array of planar membranes. We show that protein...... reconstitution in biomimetic membrane arrays may be quantified using the developed FomA assay. Specifically, we show that FomA vesicles are inherently fusigenic. Optimal FomA incorporation is obtained with a proteoliposome lipid-to-protein molar ratio (LPR)=50 more than 105 FomA proteins could be incorporated...

  3. Aroma Stripping under various Forms of Membrane Distillation Processes: Experiments and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    the large different in permeate flux and concentration factor that was observed for the different MD configurations. This is highly related to the heat and mass transfer resistances in the membrane as well as in the boundary layers adjacent to the membrane surface and how the driving force develops along......Concentration of fruit juices by membrane distillation is an interesting process as it can be done at low temperature giving a gentle concentration process with little deterioration of the juices. Since the juices contains many different aroma compounds with a wide range of chemical properties...... such as volatility, activity coefficient and vapor pressure, it is important to know how these aroma compounds will eventually pass through the membrane. Experiments have been made on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up which can be operated in various types...

  4. Fabrication of Polybenzimidazole/Palladium Nanoparticles Hollow Fiber Membranes for Hydrogen Purification

    KAUST Repository

    Villalobos, Luis Francisco

    2017-09-13

    A novel scheme to fabricate polybenzimidazole (PBI) hollow fiber membranes with a thin skin loaded with fully dispersed palladium nanoparticles is proposed for the first time. Palladium is added to the membrane during the spinning process in the form of ions that coordinate to the imidazole groups of the polymer. This is attractive for membrane production because agglomeration of nanoparticles is minimized and the high-cost metal is incorporated in only the selective layer—where it is required. Pd-containing membranes achieve three orders of magnitude higher H2 permeances and a twofold improvement in H2/CO2 selectivity compared to pure PBI hollow fiber membranes.

  5. Polybenzimidazole/Mxene composite membranes for intermediate temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Mingming; Lin, Ruizhi; Deng, Yuming; Xian, Hongxi; Bian, Renji; Zhang, Xiaole; Cheng, Jigui; Xu, Chenxi; Cai, Dongyu

    2018-01-01

    This report demonstrated the first study on the use of a new 2D nanomaterial (Mxene) for enhancing membrane performance of intermediate temperature (>100 °C) polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (ITPEMFCs). In this study, a typical Ti3C2T x -MXene was synthesized and incorporated into polybenzimidazole (PBI)-based membranes by using a solution blending method. The composite membrane with 3 wt% Ti3C2T x -MXene showed the proton conductivity more than 2 times higher than that of pristine PBI membrane at the temperature range of 100 °C-170 °C, and led to substantial increase in maximum power density of fuel cells by ˜30% tested at 150 °C. The addition of Ti3C2T x -MXene also improved the mechanical properties and thermal stability of PBI membranes. At 3 wt% Ti3C2T x -MXene, the elongation at break of phosphoric acid doped PBI remained unaffected at 150 °C, and the tensile strength and Young’s modulus was increased by ˜150% and ˜160%, respectively. This study pointed out promising application of MXene in ITPEMFCs.

  6. Development of nano-composite membranes to improve alkaline fuel cell performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nonjola, P

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The work presented here describes modification of commercially available polysulfone (PSU) as well as the formation of nano-composite membrane i.e. TiO2 nano particles incorporated into anion exchange polymer matrix....

  7. Plasma membrane ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael Broberg; Bækgaard, Lone; Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    2011-01-01

    The plasma membrane separates the cellular contents from the surrounding environment. Nutrients must enter through the plasma membrane in order to reach the cell interior, and toxic metabolites and several ions leave the cell by traveling across the same barrier. Biological pumps in the plasma me...

  8. Polymide gas separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin; Nelson, Joyce Katz

    2004-09-14

    Soluble polyamic acid salt (PAAS) precursors comprised of tertiary and quaternary amines, ammonium cations, sulfonium cations, or phosphonium cations, are prepared and fabricated into membranes that are subsequently imidized and converted into rigid-rod polyimide articles, such as membranes with desirable gas separation properties. A method of enhancing solubility of PAAS polymers in alcohols is also disclosed.

  9. Enantioseparation with liquid membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gössi, Angelo; Riedl, Wolfgang; Schuur, Boelo

    Chiral resolution of racemic products is a challenging and important task in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, flavor, polymer and fragrances industries. One of the options for these challenging separations is to use liquid membranes. Although liquid membranes have been known for almost four decades

  10. Silicon nitride nanosieve membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tong, D.H.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Gadgil, V.J.; Bostan, C.G.; Berenschot, Johan W.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2004-01-01

    An array of very uniform cylindrical nanopores with a pore diameter as small as 25 nm has been fabricated in an ultrathin micromachined silicon nitride membrane using focused ion beam (FIB) etching. The pore size of this nanosieve membrane was further reduced to below 10 nm by coating it with

  11. Membrane capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Wal, van der A.

    2010-01-01

    Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is an ion-removal process based on applying an electrical potential difference across an aqueous solution which flows in between oppositely placed porous electrodes, in front of which ion-exchange membranes are positioned. Due to the applied potential, ions

  12. Photoresponsive nanostructured membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Madhavan, Poornima; Sutisna, Burhannudin; Sougrat, Rachid; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The perspective of adding stimuli-response to isoporous membranes stimulates the development of separation devices with pores, which would open or close under control of environment chemical composition, temperature or exposure to light. Changes in pH and temperature have been previously investigated. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the preparation of photoresponsive isoporous membranes, applying self-assembly non-solvent induced phase separation to a new light responsive block copolymer. First, we optimized the membrane formation by using poly(styrene-b-anthracene methyl methacrylate-b-methylmethacrylate) (PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA) copolymer, identifying the most suitable solvent, copolymer block length, and other parameters. The obtained final triblock copolymer membrane morphologies were characterized using atomic force and electron microscopy. The microscopic analysis reveals that the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer can form both lamellar and ordered hexagonal nanoporous structures on the membrane top layer in appropriate solvent compositions. The nanostructured membrane emits fluorescence due to the presence of the anthracene mid-block. On irradiation of light the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer membranes has an additional stimuli response. The anthracene group undergoes conformational changes by forming [4 + 4] cycloadducts and this alters the membrane's water flux and solute retention. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Multi-layer membrane model for mass transport in a direct ethanol fuel cell using an alkaline anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Hafez; Faghri, Amir

    2012-11-01

    A one-dimensional, isothermal, single-phase model is presented to investigate the mass transport in a direct ethanol fuel cell incorporating an alkaline anion exchange membrane. The electrochemistry is analytically solved and the closed-form solution is provided for two limiting cases assuming Tafel expressions for both oxygen reduction and ethanol oxidation. A multi-layer membrane model is proposed to properly account for the diffusive and electroosmotic transport of ethanol through the membrane. The fundamental differences in fuel crossover for positive and negative electroosmotic drag coefficients are discussed. It is found that ethanol crossover is significantly reduced upon using an alkaline anion exchange membrane instead of a proton exchange membrane, especially at current densities higher than 500 A m

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in model bacterial membranes - Langmuir monolayer studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broniatowski, Marcin; Binczycka, Martyna; Wójcik, Aneta; Flasiński, Michał; Wydro, Paweł

    2017-12-01

    High molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) are persistent organic pollutants which due to their limited biodegradability accumulate in soils where their increased presence can lead to the impoverishment of the decomposer organisms. As very hydrophobic PAHs easily penetrate cellular membranes of soil bacteria and can be incorporated therein, changing the membrane fluidity and other functions which in consequence can lead to the death of the organism. The structure and size of PAH molecule can be crucial for its membrane activity; however the correlation between PAH structure and its interaction with phospholipids have not been investigated so far. In our studies we applied phospholipid Langmuir monolayers as model bacterial membranes and investigated how the incorporation of six structurally different PAH molecules change the membrane texture and physical properties. In our studies we registered surface pressure and surface potential isotherms upon the monolayer compression, visualized the monolayer texture with the application of Brewster angle microscopy and searched the ordering of the film-forming molecules with molecular resolution with the application of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) method. It turned out that the phospholipid-PAH interactions are strictly structure dependent. Four and five-ring PAHs of the angular or cluster geometry can be incorporated into the model membranes changing profoundly their textures and fluidity; whereas linear or large cluster PAHs cannot be incorporated and separate from the lipid matrix. The observed phenomena were explained based on structural similarities of the applied PAHs with membrane steroids and hopanoids. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Molecular Interactions at Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagalski, Vivien

    . Today, we know more than ever before about the properties of biological membranes. Advanced biophysical techniques and sophisticated membrane models allow us to answer specific questions about the structure of the components within membranes and their interactions. However, many detailed structural...... the surface-immobilization of LeuT by exchanging the detergent with natural phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids. Various surface sensitive techniques, including neutron reflectometry (NR), are employed and finally enabled us to confirm the gross structure of LeuT in a lipid environment as predicted by molecular...... dynamic simulations. In a second study, the co-localization of three toxic plant-derived diterpene resin acids (RAs) within DPPC membranes was investigated. These compounds are reported to disrupt the membrane and increase its fluidity. The RAs used in this study vary in their toxicity while...

  16. Membrane technology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, F.H.

    1997-01-01

    The main purpose of this dissertation is to prepare and characterize some synthetic membranes obtained by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of and A Am unitary and binary system onto nylon-6 films. The optimum conditions at which the grafting process proceeded homogeneously were determined. Some selected properties of the prepared membranes were studied. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), x-ray diffraction (XRD), mechanical properties and U.V./vis, instruments and techniques were used to characterize the prepared membranes. The use of such membranes for the decontamination of radioactive waste and some heavy metal ions as water pollutants were investigated. These grafted membranes showed good cation exchange properties and may be of practical interest in waste water treatment whether this water was radioactive or not. 4 tabs., 68 figs., 146 refs

  17. Sorting of bacterial lipoproteins to the outer membrane by the Lol system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Shin-ichiro; Tokuda, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins comprise a subset of membrane proteins with a lipid-modified cysteine residue at their amino termini through which they are anchored to the membrane. In Gram-negative bacteria, lipoproteins are localized on either the inner or the outer membrane. The Lol system is responsible for the transport of lipoproteins to the outer membrane.The Lol system comprises an inner-membrane ABC transporter LolCDE complex, a periplasmic carrier protein, LolA, and an outer membrane receptor protein, LolB. Lipoproteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytosol and then translocated across the inner membrane by the Sec translocon to the outer leaflet of the inner membrane, where lipoprotein precursors are processed to mature lipoproteins. The LolCDE complex then mediates the release of outer membrane-specific lipoproteins from the inner membrane while the inner membrane-specific lipoproteins possessing Asp at position 2 are not released by LolCDE because it functions as a LolCDE avoidance signal, causing the retention of these lipoproteins in the inner membrane. A water-soluble lipoprotein-LolA complex is formed as a result of the release reaction mediated by LolCDE. This complex traverses the hydrophilic periplasm to reach the outer membrane, where LolB accepts a lipoprotein from LolA and then catalyzes its incorporation into the inner leaflet of the outer membrane.

  18. Radiation exposure from incorporated isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beleznay, F [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. Central Research Inst. for Physics

    1985-01-01

    Recommendations for the limitation of the burden of the human body from radiation exposure were developed to avoid direct radiation health damage such that the occurrence of stochastic damage can be held below a resonable risk level. The recommendations, published under ICRP 26 and ICRP 30, contain several guidelines and concepts which are discussed here. They include the primary internal dose exposure limits, secondary and implied limits for the monitoring of internal radiation exposure (Annual Limit of Intake, Derived Air Concentrations). Methods are presented for inspection and monitoring of internal exposure in medical laboratories, inspection of incorporation of sup(131)I and sup(99m)Tc.

  19. Polyethersulfone/Graphene Oxide Ultrafiltration Membranes from Solutions in Ionic Liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Mahalingam, Dinesh. K.; Kim, DooLi.; Nunes, Suzana. P.

    2017-01-01

    Novel high flux polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration membranes were fabricated by incorporating different amounts of graphene oxide (GO) sheets to PES as nanofillers. The membranes were prepared from solutions in 50/50 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-diethylphosphate/N,N-dimethyl formamide. It was observed that the water permeance increased from 550 to 800 L m-2h-1bar-1, with incorporation of 1 wt% GO, keeping a molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of approximately 32-34 kg mol-1. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy images of GO/PES membranes showed the formation of ultrathin selective layer unlike pristine membranes. Contact angle measurements confirmed the increase of hydrophilicity, by increasing the GO concentration. The rejection of humic acid and bovine serum albumin was demonstrated. The mechanical properties were improved, compared with the pristine membranes. The performance was just above the trade-off relationship between permeance and separation factor for PES membranes reported in the literature.

  20. Polyethersulfone/Graphene Oxide Ultrafiltration Membranes from Solutions in Ionic Liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Mahalingam, Dinesh. K.

    2017-07-18

    Novel high flux polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration membranes were fabricated by incorporating different amounts of graphene oxide (GO) sheets to PES as nanofillers. The membranes were prepared from solutions in 50/50 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-diethylphosphate/N,N-dimethyl formamide. It was observed that the water permeance increased from 550 to 800 L m-2h-1bar-1, with incorporation of 1 wt% GO, keeping a molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of approximately 32-34 kg mol-1. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy images of GO/PES membranes showed the formation of ultrathin selective layer unlike pristine membranes. Contact angle measurements confirmed the increase of hydrophilicity, by increasing the GO concentration. The rejection of humic acid and bovine serum albumin was demonstrated. The mechanical properties were improved, compared with the pristine membranes. The performance was just above the trade-off relationship between permeance and separation factor for PES membranes reported in the literature.

  1. METHANE INCORPORATION BY PROCARYOTIC PHOTOSYNTHETICMICROORGANISMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, Charles J.; Kirk, Martha; Calvin, Melvin

    1970-08-01

    The procaryotic photosynthetic microorganisms Anacystis nidulans, Nostoc and Rhodospirillum rubrum have cell walls and membranes that are resistant to the solution of methane in their lipid components and intracellular fluids. But Anacystis nidulans, possesses a limited bioxidant system, a portion of which may be extracellularly secreted, which rapidly oxidizes methane to carbon dioxide. Small C{sup 14} activities derived from CH{sub 4} in excess of experimental error are detected in all the major biochemical fractions of Anacystis nidulans and Nostoc. This limited capacity to metabolize methane appears to be a vestigial potentiality that originated over two billion years ago in the early evolution of photosynthetic bacteria and blue-green algae.

  2. Zeolite-imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) membrane synthesis on a mixed-matrix substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barankova, Eva; Pradeep, Neelakanda; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2013-10-21

    A thin, dense, compact and hydrogen selective ZIF-8 membrane was synthesized on a polymer/metal oxide mixed-matrix support by a secondary seeding method. The new concept of incorporating ZnO particles into the support and PDMS coating of the ZIF-8 layer is introduced to improve the preparation of ZIF-polymer composite membranes.

  3. Applying fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to investigate peptide-induced membrane disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kasper; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2017-01-01

    to quantify leakage of fluorescent molecules of different sizes from large unilamellar lipid vesicles, thereby providing a tool for estimating the size of peptide-induced membrane disruptions. If fluorescently labeled lipids are incorporated into the membranes of the vesicles, FCS can also be used to obtain...

  4. Assessing the efficacy of vesicle fusion with planar membrane arrays using a mitochondrial porin as reporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pszon-Bartosz, Kamila; Hansen, Jesper S.; Stibius, Karin B.; Groth, Jesper S.; Emneus, Jenny; Geschke, Oliver; Helix-Nielsen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We have established a vesicle fusion efficacy assay based on the major non-specific porin of Fusobacterium nucleatum (FomA). → Maximal fusion obtained was almost 150,000 porin insertions during 20 min. → Incorporation can be either first order or exponential kinetics which has implications for establishing protein delivery to biomimetic membranes. -- Abstract: Reconstitution of functionally active membrane protein into artificially made lipid bilayers is a challenge that must be overcome to create a membrane-based biomimetic sensor and separation device. In this study we address the efficacy of proteoliposome fusion with planar membrane arrays. We establish a protein incorporation efficacy assay using the major non-specific porin of Fusobacterium nucleatum (FomA) as reporter. We use electrical conductance measurements and fluorescence microscopy to characterize proteoliposome fusion with an array of planar membranes. We show that protein reconstitution in biomimetic membrane arrays may be quantified using the developed FomA assay. Specifically, we show that FomA vesicles are inherently fusigenic. Optimal FomA incorporation is obtained with a proteoliposome lipid-to-protein molar ratio (LPR) = 50 more than 10 5 FomA proteins could be incorporated in a bilayer array with a total membrane area of 2 mm 2 within 20 min. This novel assay for quantifying protein delivery into lipid bilayers may be a useful tool in developing biomimetic membrane applications.

  5. Microfabricated hydrogen sensitive membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naddaf, A.; Kraetz, L. [Lehrstuhl fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik, Technische Universitaet Kaiserslautern (Germany); Detemple, P.; Schmitt, S.; Hessel, V. [Institut fuer Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH, Mainz (Germany); Faqir, N. [University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Bart, H.J.

    2009-01-15

    Thin, defect-free palladium, palladium/copper and palladium/silver hydrogen absorbing membranes were microfabricated. A dual sputtering technique was used to deposit the palladium alloy membranes of only 1 {mu}m thickness on a nonporous silicon substrate. Advanced silicon etching (ASE) was applied on the backside to create a mechanically stable support structure for the thin films. Performance evaluation was carried out for different gases in a temperature range of 20 C to 298 C at a constant differential pressure of 110 kPa at the two sides of the membrane. The composite membranes show an excellent permeation rate of hydrogen, which appears to be 0.05 Pa m{sup 3} s{sup -1} and 0.01.10{sup -3} Pa m{sup 3} s{sup -1} at 20 C for the microfabricated 23 % silver and the 53 % copper composite membranes, respectively. The selectivity to hydrogen over a gas mixture containing, in addition to hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen was measured. The mass spectrometer did not detect any CO{sub 2} or CO, showing that the membrane is completely hydrogen selective. The microfabricated membranes exhibit both high mechanical strength (they easily withstand pressures up to 4 bar) and high thermal stability (up to 650 C). (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-27

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

  7. Fluorescent Lipids: Functional Parts of Fusogenic Liposomes and Tools for Cell Membrane Labeling and Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kleusch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a rapid and highly efficient method for controlled incorporation of fluorescent lipids into living mammalian cells is introduced. Here, the fluorescent molecules have two consecutive functions: First, they trigger rapid membrane fusion between cellular plasma membranes and the lipid bilayers of their carrier particles, so called fusogenic liposomes, and second, after insertion into cellular membranes these molecules enable fluorescence imaging of cell membranes and membrane traffic processes. We tested the fluorescent derivatives of the following essential membrane lipids for membrane fusion: Ceramide, sphingomyelin, phosphocholine, phosphatidylinositol-bisphosphate, ganglioside, cholesterol, and cholesteryl ester. Our results show that all probed lipids could more efficiently be incorporated into the plasma membrane of living cells than by using other methods. Moreover, labeling occurred in a gentle manner under classical cell culture conditions reducing cellular stress responses. Staining procedures were monitored by fluorescence microscopy and it was observed that sphingolipids and cholesterol containing free hydroxyl groups exhibit a decreased distribution velocity as well as a longer persistence in the plasma membrane compared to lipids without hydroxyl groups like phospholipids or other artificial lipid analogs. After membrane staining, the fluorescent molecules were sorted into membranes of cell organelles according to their chemical properties and biological functions without any influence of the delivery system.

  8. Insulin stimulation of phospholipid methylation in isolated rat adipocyte plasma membranes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, K L; Kiechle, F L; Jarett, L

    1984-01-01

    Partially purified plasma membranes prepared from rat adipocytes contain N-methyltransferase(s) that utilize(s) S-adenosyl-L-methionine to synthesize phosphatidylcholine from phosphatidylethanolamine. The incorporation of [3H]methyl from S-adenosyl-L-[methyl-3H]methionine into plasma membrane phospholipids was linear with incubation time and plasma membrane protein concentration and was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by both S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and 3-deazadenosine. The addition of...

  9. MODIFICATION OF ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE PROTEINS WITH POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 1500

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Zemlianskykh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to study the effect of polyethylene glycol PEG-1500 on the Ca2+-ATPase activity and changes in CD44 surface marker expression in human erythrocyte membranes. Determination of the Ca2+-ATPase activity was carried out in sealed erythrocyte ghosts by the level of accumulation of inorganic phosphorus. Changes in the expression of CD44 and amount of CD44+-erythrocytes were evaluated by flow cytometry. The inhibition of Ca2+-ATPase activity and a reduction in the level of CD44 expression and also the decrease in the amount CD44+-cells were found, reflecting a fairly complex restructuring in the membrane-cytoskeleton complex of erythrocytes under the influence of PEG-1500. Effect of PEG-1500 on the surface CD44 marker could be mediated by modification of proteins of membrane-cytoskeleton complex, as indicated by accelerated loss of CD44 in erythrocyte membranes after application of protein cross-linking reagent diamide. Reduced activity of Ca2+-ATPase activity may contribute to the increase in intracellular Ca2+ level and thus leads to a modification of interactions of integral proteins with cytoskeletal components that eventually could result in membrane vesiculation and decreasing in expression of the CD44 marker, which is dynamically linked to the cytoskeleton.

  10. Dimethoate and atrazine retention from aqueous solution by nanofiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, A L; Tan, L S; Shukor, S R Abd

    2008-02-28

    In order to produce sufficient food supply for the ever-increasing human population, pesticides usage is indispensable in the agriculture sector to control crop losses. However, the effect of pesticides on the environment is very complex as undesirable transfers occur continually among different environmental sections. This eventually leads to contamination of drinking water source especially for rivers located near active agriculture practices. This paper studied the application of nanofiltration membrane in the removal of dimethoate and atrazine in aqueous solution. Dimethoate was selected as the subject of study since it is being listed as one of the pesticides in guidelines for drinking water by World Health Organization. Nevertheless, data on effectiveness of dimethoate rejection using membranes has not been found so far. Meanwhile, atrazine is classified as one of the most commonly used pesticides in Malaysia. Separation was done using a small batch-type membrane separation cell with integrated magnetic stirrer while concentration of dimethoate and atrazine in aqueous solution was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Four nanofiltration membranes NF90, NF200, NF270 and DK were tested for their respective performance to separate dimethoate and atrazine. Of all four membranes, NF90 showed the best performance in retention of dimethoate and atrazine in water.

  11. Rotating bubble membrane radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Brent J.; Coomes, Edmund P.

    1988-12-06

    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  12. Dynamic optimization of dead-end membrane filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, B.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.; Marquardt, Wolfgang; Pantelides, Costas

    2006-01-01

    An operating strategy aimed at minimizing the energy consumption during the filtration phase of dead-end membrane filtration has been formulated. A method allowing fast calculation of trajectories is used to allow incorporation in a hierarchical optimization scheme. The optimal trajectory can be

  13. Very short functionalized carbon nanotubes for membrane applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonseca, A.; Reijerkerk, Sander; Potreck, Jens; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.; Mekhalif, Z.; Delhalle, J.

    2010-01-01

    The cutting and functionalization of carbon nanotubes is described, applying a single-step ball-mill based process. Very short carbon nanotubes bearing primary amine functions were produced, characterized and incorporated in polymeric membranes. The gas separation performance of the composite

  14. Gas separation properties of new polyoxadiazole and polytriazole membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensema, E.R.; Hensema, E.R.; Borges-Sena, M.E.R.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Smolders, C.A.; Smolders, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    The gas separation properties of new aromatic poly-1,2,4-triazole and poly-1,3,4-oxadiazole membranes have been systematically investigated. Various functional groups were incorporated as pendent groups onto the polymer backbone of poly-1,2,4-triazoles. A wide permeability/selectivity spectrum was

  15. Effect of sclerin on amino acid incorporation into mitochondria isolated from rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Masanori; Satomura, Yukio

    1975-01-01

    Though sclerin (SCL) stimulated amino acid incorporation into the protein fraction of post mitochondrial supernatant of rat liver homogenate, it had no effect on the incorporation into the isolated mitochondria at pH 7.2, despite of its stimulating effect on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. SCL stimulated amino acid incorporation into the mitochondria at pH 6.1, and to some extent maintained the activity on that in mitochondria during aging in hypotonic Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.2). Since SCL prevented leakage of amino acids from the mitochondria into these buffers, it was suggested that SCL may protect a structure of mitochondrial membrane which appeared to have a significance on transport of amino acids. In liver slices, SCL stimulated amino acid incorporation only into the extra-mitochondrial fraction for the first 3 min, but gradually turned to simulate incorporation into mitochondria within 30 min. (auth.)

  16. Effect of sclerin on amino acid incorporation into mitochondria isolated from rat liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, M; Satomura, Y [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1975-08-01

    Though sclerin (SCL) stimulated amino acid incorporation into the protein fraction of post mitochondrial supernatant of rat liver homogenate, it had no effect on the incorporation into the isolated mitochondria at pH 7.2, despite of its stimulating effect on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. SCL stimulated amino acid incorporation into the mitochondria at pH 6.1, and to some extent maintained the activity on that in mitochondria during aging in hypotonic Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.2). Since SCL prevented leakage of amino acids from the mitochondria into these buffers, it was suggested that SCL may protect a structure of mitochondrial membrane which appeared to have a significance on transport of amino acids. In liver slices, SCL stimulated amino acid incorporation only into the extra-mitochondrial fraction for the first 3 min, but gradually turned to simulate incorporation into mitochondria within 30 min.

  17. Interactions of Model Cell Membranes with Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, S. M.; Camesano, T. A.; Nagarajan, R.

    2011-12-01

    or pores in the cell membrane. The dissipation changes were small, which indicates that even with the membrane destabilization that occurs, the overall structure of the bilayer is not greatly perturbed. For the 80 nm nanoparticles, we initially saw the same pattern as the smaller nanoparticles with a mass loss from the membrane, but eventually we saw a large decrease in frequency, representing an increase in mass. This addition of mass may be attributed to adsorption of the gold nanoparticles onto the bilayer. The 80 nm particles also created a change in the energy dissipation, which suggests that the formation of the bilayer was altered with the adsorbed particles. This study suggests that nanoparticle size controls the mechanism by which nanoparticles interact with model cell membranes. We are extending this work to other types of gold nanoparticles. We are interested in examining the role of nanoparticle hydrophobicity and type of chemical functionalization on the interactions of the nanoparticle with a model membrane. We are also conducting studies on environmental bacteria, to correlate the mechanisms of nanoparticle cytoxicity with killing data on bacterial cells.

  18. Lactose hydrolysis in an enzymatic membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertens, B; Huyghebaert, A

    1987-10-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose in whey permeate with subsequent recuperation of Saccharomyces lactis lactase by means of ultrafiltration was investigated. In whey permeate, S. lactis lactase shows maximal activity at pH 6.5; the optimal temperature was found to be 45/sup 0/C and is limited by strong thermal inactivation beyond this temperature. High activity combined with acceptable thermal inactivation (< 10% after 5 h incubation) was established at 30/sup 0/C. S. lactis lactase also displays considerable activity at low temperature (5/sup 0/C). Enzyme stability is reduced drastically by demineralisation: addition of low concentrations of manganese ions (10/sup -3/ M) considerably enhances stability. Using a DDS Lab-Unit 35 fitted with GR61PP polysulphon membranes (cut-off: 20.000), pilot scale experiments were carried out (pH 6.5; 30/sup 0/C) in which whey permeate was hydrolyzed to a degree of hydrolysis of 82% minimum. Enzyme recuperation amounted to 96.5% per batch, all enzyme activity loss being due to thermal inactivation. Microbiological examination of the enzymatic membrane reactor showed that growth of mcicroorganisms can largely be suppressed by working at lower temperature (5/sup 0/C). Eventually, 50 ppm H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ or sterile filtration will adequately solve microbiological problems without affecting enzyme activity.

  19. Polysulfone - CNT composite membrane with enhanced water permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, Bhakti; Kar, Soumitra; Aswal, V. K.; Bindal, R. C.; Goyal, P. S.

    2018-04-01

    Polymeric membranes are routinely used for water purification. The performance of these conventional membranes can be improved by incorporating nanomaterials, such as metal oxide nanoparticle and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). This manuscript reports the synthesis and characterization of polysulfone (Psf) based nanocomposite membranes where multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and oleic acid coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles have been impregnated onto the polymeric host matrix. The performance of the membranes was evaluated by water permeability and solute rejection measurements. It was observed that the permeability of Psf membrane increases three times at 0.1% loading of MWCNT without compromise in selectivity. It was further observed that the increase in permeability is not affected upon addition of Fe3O4 nanoparticles into the membrane. In order to get a better insight into the membrane microstructure, small angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies were carried out. There is a good correlation between the water permeability and the pore sizes of the membranes as measured using SANS.

  20. Membrane Assisted Enzyme Fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Linfeng

    to the variation in size of the proteins and a reasonable separation factor can be observed only when the size difference is in the order of 10 or more. This is partly caused by concentration polarization and membrane fouling which hinders an effective separation of the proteins. Application of an electric field...... across the porous membrane has been demonstrated to be an effective way to reduce concentration polarization and membrane fouling. In addition, this technique can also be used to separate the proteins based on difference in charge, which to some extent overcome the limitations of size difference...... of proteins on the basis of their charge, degree of hydrophobicity, affinity or size. Adequate purity is often not achieved unless several purification steps are combined thereby increasing cost and reducing product yield. Conventional fractionation of proteins using ultrafiltration membranes is limited...

  1. Fuel cell membrane humidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1999-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell assembly has an anode side and a cathode side separated by the membrane and generating electrical current by electrochemical reactions between a fuel gas and an oxidant. The anode side comprises a hydrophobic gas diffusion backing contacting one side of the membrane and having hydrophilic areas therein for providing liquid water directly to the one side of the membrane through the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing. In a preferred embodiment, the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing are formed by sewing a hydrophilic thread through the backing. Liquid water is distributed over the gas diffusion backing in distribution channels that are separate from the fuel distribution channels.

  2. Wrinkles in reinforced membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Atsushi; Brau, Fabian; Roman, Benoît; Bico, José.

    2012-02-01

    We study, through model experiments, the buckling under tension of an elastic membrane reinforced with a more rigid strip or a fiber. In these systems, the compression of the rigid layer is induced through Poisson contraction as the membrane is stretched perpendicularly to the strip. Although strips always lead to out-of-plane wrinkles, we observe a transition from out-of-plane to in plane wrinkles beyond a critical strain in the case of fibers embedded into the elastic membranes. The same transition is also found when the membrane is reinforced with a wall of the same material depending on the aspect ratio of the wall. We describe through scaling laws the evolution of the morphology of the wrinkles and the different transitions as a function of material properties and stretching strain.

  3. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project that will focus on the development and application of nonporous high gas flux perfluoro membranes with high temperature rating and excellent chemical resistance.

  4. Nanocomposite Electrospun Nanofiber Membranes for Environmental Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homaeigohar, Shahin; Elbahri, Mady

    2014-02-10

    Rapid worldwide industrialization and population growth is going to lead to an extensive environmental pollution. Therefore, so many people are currently suffering from the water shortage induced by the respective pollution, as well as poor air quality and a huge fund is wasted in the world each year due to the relevant problems. Environmental remediation necessitates implementation of novel materials and technologies, which are cost and energy efficient. Nanomaterials, with their unique chemical and physical properties, are an optimum solution. Accordingly, there is a strong motivation in seeking nano-based approaches for alleviation of environmental problems in an energy efficient, thereby, inexpensive manner. Thanks to a high porosity and surface area presenting an extraordinary permeability (thereby an energy efficiency) and selectivity, respectively, nanofibrous membranes are a desirable candidate. Their functionality and applicability is even promoted when adopting a nanocomposite strategy. In this case, specific nanofillers, such as metal oxides, carbon nanotubes, precious metals, and smart biological agents, are incorporated either during electrospinning or in the post-processing. Moreover, to meet operational requirements, e.g., to enhance mechanical stability, decrease of pressure drop, etc. , nanofibrous membranes are backed by a microfibrous non-woven forming a hybrid membrane. The novel generation of nanocomposite/hybrid nanofibrous membranes can perform extraordinarily well in environmental remediation and control. This reality justifies authoring of this review paper.

  5. Nanocomposite Electrospun Nanofiber Membranes for Environmental Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Homaeigohar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid worldwide industrialization and population growth is going to lead to an extensive environmental pollution. Therefore, so many people are currently suffering from the water shortage induced by the respective pollution, as well as poor air quality and a huge fund is wasted in the world each year due to the relevant problems. Environmental remediation necessitates implementation of novel materials and technologies, which are cost and energy efficient. Nanomaterials, with their unique chemical and physical properties, are an optimum solution. Accordingly, there is a strong motivation in seeking nano-based approaches for alleviation of environmental problems in an energy efficient, thereby, inexpensive manner. Thanks to a high porosity and surface area presenting an extraordinary permeability (thereby an energy efficiency and selectivity, respectively, nanofibrous membranes are a desirable candidate. Their functionality and applicability is even promoted when adopting a nanocomposite strategy. In this case, specific nanofillers, such as metal oxides, carbon nanotubes, precious metals, and smart biological agents, are incorporated either during electrospinning or in the post-processing. Moreover, to meet operational requirements, e.g., to enhance mechanical stability, decrease of pressure drop, etc., nanofibrous membranes are backed by a microfibrous non-woven forming a hybrid membrane. The novel generation of nanocomposite/hybrid nanofibrous membranes can perform extraordinarily well in environmental remediation and control. This reality justifies authoring of this review paper.

  6. Fabricating PFPE Membranes for Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael C.; Willis, Peter A.; Greer, Frank; Rolland, Jason

    2009-01-01

    A process has been developed for fabricating perfluoropolyether (PFPE) membranes that contain microscopic holes of precise sizes at precise locations. The membranes are to be incorporated into laboratory-on-a-chip microfluidic devices to be used in performing capillary electrophoresis. The present process is a modified version of part of the process, described in the immediately preceding article, that includes a step in which a liquid PFPE layer is cured into solid (membrane) form by use of ultraviolet light. In the present process, one exploits the fact that by masking some locations to prevent exposure to ultraviolet light, one can prevent curing of the PFPE in those locations. The uncured PFPE can be washed away from those locations in the subsequent release and cleaning steps. Thus, holes are formed in the membrane in those locations. The most straightforward way to implement the modification is to use, during the ultraviolet-curing step, an ultraviolet photomask similar to the photomasks used in fabricating microelectronic devices. In lieu of such a photomask, one could use a mask made of any patternable ultraviolet-absorbing material (for example, an ink or a photoresist).

  7. Temperature responsive track membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omichi, H.; Yoshido, M.; Asano, M.; Tamada, H.

    1994-01-01

    A new track membrane was synthesized by introducing polymeric hydrogel to films. Such a monomer as amino acid group containing acryloyl or methacryloyl was either co-polymerized with diethylene glycol-bis-ally carbonate followed by on beam irradiation and chemical etching, or graft co-polymerized onto a particle track membrane of CR-39. The pore size was controlled in water by changing the water temperature. Some films other than CR-39 were also examined. (author). 11 refs, 7 figs

  8. Pilot Scale Water Gas Shift - Membrane Device for Hydrogen from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Tom [Western Research Inst. (WRI), Laramie, WY (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of the project were to build pilot scale hydrogen separation systems for use in a gasification product stream. This device would demonstrate fabrication and manufacturing techniques for producing commercially ready facilities. The design was a 2 lb/day hydrogen device which included composite hydrogen separation membranes, a water gas shift monolith catalyst, and stainless steel structural components. Synkera Technologies was to prepare hydrogen separation membranes with metallic rims, and to adjust the alloy composition in their membranes to a palladium-gold composition which is sulfur resistant. Chart was to confirm their brazing technology for bonding the metallic rims of the composite membranes to their structural components and design and build the 2 lbs/day device incorporating membranes and catalysts. WRI prepared the catalysts and completed the testing of the membranes and devices on coal derived syngas. The reactor incorporated eighteen 2'' by 7'' composite palladium alloy membranes. These membranes were assembled with three stacks of three paired membranes. Initial vacuum testing and visual inspection indicated that some membranes were cracked, either in transportation or in testing. During replacement of the failed membranes, while pulling a vacuum on the back side of the membranes, folds were formed in the flexible composite membranes. In some instances these folds led to cracks, primarily at the interface between the alumina and the aluminum rim. The design of the 2 lb/day device was compromised by the lack of any membrane isolation. A leak in any membrane failed the entire device. A large number of tests were undertaken to bring the full 2 lb per day hydrogen capacity on line, but no single test lasted more than 48 hours. Subsequent tests to replace the mechanical seals with brazing have been promising, but the technology remains promising but not proven.

  9. Inverse colloidal crystal membranes for hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Anh T; Wang, Xinying; Wickramasinghe, S Ranil; Yu, Bing; Yuan, Hua; Cong, Hailin; Luo, Yongli; Tang, Jianguo

    2015-08-01

    Hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography has gained interest due to its excellent performance in the purification of humanized monoclonal antibodies. The membrane material used in hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography has typically been commercially available polyvinylidene fluoride. In this contribution, newly developed inverse colloidal crystal membranes that have uniform pores, high porosity and, therefore, high surface area for protein binding are used as hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography membranes for humanized monoclonal antibody immunoglobulin G purification. The capacity of the inverse colloidal crystal membranes developed here is up to ten times greater than commercially available polyvinylidene fluoride membranes with a similar pore size. This work highlights the importance of developing uniform pore size high porosity membranes in order to maximize the capacity of hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Fabrication of electrospun nanofibrous membranes for membrane distillation application

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2013-02-01

    Nanofibrous membranes of Matrimid have been successfully fabricated using an electrospinning technique under optimized conditions. Nanofibrous membranes are found to be highly hydrophobic with a high water contact angle of 130°. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and pore size distribution analysis revealed the big pore size structure of electrospun membranes to be greater than 2 μm and the pore size distribution is found to be narrow. Flat sheet Matrimid membranes were fabricated via casting followed by phase inversion. The morphology, pore size distribution, and water contact angle were measured and compared with the electrospun membranes. Both membranes fabricated by electrospinning and phase inversion techniques were tested in a direct contact membrane distillation process. Electrospun membranes showed high water vapor flux of 56 kg/m2-h, which is very high compared to the casted membrane as well as most of the fabricated and commercially available highly hydrophobic membranes. ©2013 Desalination Publications.

  11. Permeability optimization and performance evaluation of hot aerosol filters made using foam incorporated alumina suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocentini, Murilo D M; Rodrigues, Vanessa P; Romano, Roberto C O; Pileggi, Rafael G; Silva, Gracinda M C; Coury, José R

    2009-02-15

    Porous ceramic samples were prepared from aqueous foam incorporated alumina suspension for application as hot aerosol filtering membrane. The procedure for establishment of membrane features required to maintain a desired flow condition was theoretically described and experimental work was designed to prepare ceramic membranes to meet the predicted criteria. Two best membranes, thus prepared, were selected for permeability tests up to 700 degrees C and their total and fractional collection efficiencies were experimentally evaluated. Reasonably good performance was achieved at room temperature, while at 700 degrees C, increased permeability was obtained with significant reduction in collection efficiency, which was explained by a combination of thermal expansion of the structure and changes in the gas properties.

  12. Far Western: probing membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarson, Margret B; Pugacheva, Elena N; Orlinick, Jason R

    2007-08-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe far-Western technique described in this protocol is fundamentally similar to Western blotting. In Western blots, an antibody is used to detect a query protein on a membrane. In contrast, in a far-Western blot (also known as an overlay assay) the antibody is replaced by a recombinant GST fusion protein (produced and purified from bacteria), and the assay detects the interaction of this protein with target proteins on a membrane. The membranes are washed and blocked, incubated with probe protein, washed again, and subjected to autoradiography. The GST fusion (probe) proteins are often labeled with (32)P; alternatively, the membrane can be probed with unlabeled GST fusion protein, followed by detection using commercially available GST antibodies. The nonradioactive approach is substantially more expensive (due to the purchase of antibody and detection reagents) than using radioactively labeled proteins. In addition, care must be taken to control for nonspecific interactions with GST alone and a signal resulting from antibody cross-reactivity. In some instances, proteins on the membrane are not able to interact after transfer. This may be due to improper folding, particularly in the case of proteins expressed from a phage expression library. This protocol describes a way to overcome this by washing the membrane in denaturation buffer, which is then serially diluted to permit slow renaturation of the proteins.

  13. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-10-01

    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  14. Bacterial membrane proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poetsch, Ansgar; Wolters, Dirk

    2008-10-01

    About one quarter to one third of all bacterial genes encode proteins of the inner or outer bacterial membrane. These proteins perform essential physiological functions, such as the import or export of metabolites, the homeostasis of metal ions, the extrusion of toxic substances or antibiotics, and the generation or conversion of energy. The last years have witnessed completion of a plethora of whole-genome sequences of bacteria important for biotechnology or medicine, which is the foundation for proteome and other functional genome analyses. In this review, we discuss the challenges in membrane proteome analysis, starting from sample preparation and leading to MS-data analysis and quantification. The current state of available proteomics technologies as well as their advantages and disadvantages will be described with a focus on shotgun proteomics. Then, we will briefly introduce the most abundant proteins and protein families present in bacterial membranes before bacterial membrane proteomics studies of the last years will be presented. It will be shown how these works enlarged our knowledge about the physiological adaptations that take place in bacteria during fine chemical production, bioremediation, protein overexpression, and during infections. Furthermore, several examples from literature demonstrate the suitability of membrane proteomics for the identification of antigens and different pathogenic strains, as well as the elucidation of membrane protein structure and function.

  15. Discusión jurisprudencial sobre el dolo eventual y la culpa con representación en delitos de homicidio ocasionados en accidentes de tránsito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nydia Díaz Pérez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es un reporte de caso que se realizó con base en el estudio de la sentencia del Tribunal Superior del Distrito Judicial de Bogotá –Sala Penal– proferida el 28 de julio de 2009, en la que se modifica la calificación de la conducta, de homicidio culposo a título de dolo eventual en un accidente de tránsito.

  16. An aligned porous electrospun fibrous membrane with controlled drug delivery - An efficient strategy to accelerate diabetic wound healing with improved angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaozhi; Han, Yiming; Wang, Jie; Jiang, Yuqi; Yi, Zhengfang; Xu, He; Ke, Qinfei

    2018-04-01

    membranes containing dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG)-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (DS), which could significantly improve angiogenesis in the diabetic wound bed and thereby accelerate diabetic wound healing. The results revealed that the electrospun fibers with ellipse-shaped nano-pores on the surface were aligned in a single direction, while there were DS particles distributed in the fibers and the DMOG as well as Si ions could be controllably released from the nanopores on the fibers. The in vitro studies demonstrated that the hierarchical nanostructures (nanopores on the aligned fibers) and the controllable released chemical active agents (DMOG drugs and Si ions) from the DS-PL membranes could exert a synergistic effect on inducing the endothelial cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Above all, the scaffolds distinctly induced the angiogenesis, collagen deposition and re-epithelialization as well as inhibited inflammation reaction in the wound sites, which eventually stimulated the healing of diabetic wounds in vivo. The significance of the current study is that the combination of the hierarchical aligned porous nanofibrous structure with DMOG-loaded MSNs incorporated in electrospun fibers may suggest a high-efficiency strategy for chronic wound healing. Copyright © 2018 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biomimetic membranes and methods of making biomimetic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempe, Susan; Brinker, Jeffrey C.; Rogers, David Michael; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Yang, Shaorong

    2016-11-08

    The present disclosure is directed to biomimetic membranes and methods of manufacturing such membranes that include structural features that mimic the structures of cellular membrane channels and produce membrane designs capable of high selectivity and high permeability or adsorptivity. The membrane structure, material and chemistry can be selected to perform liquid separations, gas separation and capture, ion transport and adsorption for a variety of applications.

  18. Polyurethane Nanofiber Membranes for Waste Water Treatment by Membrane Distillation

    OpenAIRE

    Jiříček, T.; Komárek, M.; Lederer, T.

    2017-01-01

    Self-sustained electrospun polyurethane nanofiber membranes were manufactured and tested on a direct-contact membrane distillation unit in an effort to find the optimum membrane thickness to maximize flux rate and minimize heat losses across the membrane. Also salt retention and flux at high salinities up to 100 g kg−1 were evaluated. Even though the complex structure of nanofiber layers has extreme specific surface and porosity, membrane performance was surprisingly predictable; the highest ...

  19. Semantic transparency affects morphological priming . . . eventually.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Vera; Kornishova, Dana

    2018-05-01

    Semantic transparency has been in the focus of psycholinguistic research for decades, with the controversy about the time course of the application of morpho-semantic information during the processing of morphologically complex words not yet resolved. This study reports two masked priming studies with English - ness and Russian - ost' nominalisations, investigating how semantic transparency modulates native speakers' morphological priming effects at short and long stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). In both languages, we found increased morphological priming for nominalisations at the transparent end of the scale (e.g. paleness - pale) in comparison to items at the opaque end of the scale (e.g. business - busy) but only at longer prime durations. The present findings are in line with models that posit an initial phase of morpho-orthographic (semantically blind) decomposition.

  20. Merging By Decentralized Eventual Consistency Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed-Nacer Mehdi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Merging mechanism is an essential operation for version control systems. When each member of collaborative development works on an individual copy of the project, software merging allows to reconcile modifications made concurrently as well as managing software change through branching. The collaborative system is in charge to propose a merge result that includes user’s modifications. Theusers now have to check and adapt this result. The adaptation should be as effort-less as possible, otherwise, the users may get frustrated and will quit the collaboration. This paper aims to reduce the conflicts during the collaboration and im prove the productivity. It has three objectives: study the users’ behavior during the collaboration, evaluate the quality of textual merging results produced by specific algorithms and propose a solution to improve the r esult quality produced by the default merge tool of distributed version control systems. Through a study of eight open-source repositories totaling more than 3 million lines of code, we observe the behavior of the concurrent modifications during t he merge p rocedure. We i dentified when th e ex isting merge techniques under-perform, and we propose solutions to improve the quality of the merge. We finally compare with the traditional merge tool through a large corpus of collaborative editing.

  1. Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ktejik, Mish

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

  2. Biomimetic membranes for sensor and separation applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helix Nielsen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    preventing the passage of others, a property critical for the overall conservation of the cells internal pH and salt concentration. Both ion and water channels are highly efficient membrane pore proteins capable of transporting solutes at very high rates, up to 109 molecules per second. Carrier proteins...... and biomimetic support matrix. Also the stability of the incorporated protein must be addressed and the protein-biomimetic matrix must be encapsulated in order to protect it and make it sufficiently stable in a final application. Here I will review and discuss these challenges and how they are met in some...

  3. Engineering Hydrophobic Organosilica Nanoparticle-Doped Nanofibers for Enhanced and Fouling Resistant Membrane Distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Hammami, Mohamed Amen; Croissant, Jonas G.; Francis, Lijo; Alsaiari, Shahad K.; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2016-01-01

    Engineering and scaling-up new materials for better water desalination are imperative to find alternative fresh water sources to meet future demands. Herein, the fabrication of hydrophobic poly(ether imide) composite nanofiber membranes doped with novel ethylene-pentafluorophenylene-based periodic mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles is reported for enhanced and fouling resistant membrane distillation. Novel organosilica nanoparticles were homogeneously incorporated into electrospun nanofiber membranes depicting a proportional increase of hydrophobicity to the particle contents. Direct contact membrane distillation experiments on the organosilica-doped membrane with only 5% doping showed an increase of flux of 140% compared to commercial membranes. The high porosity of organosilica nanoparticles was further utilized to load the eugenol antimicrobial agent which produced a dramatic enhancement of the antibiofouling properties of the membrane of 70% after 24 h.

  4. Engineering Hydrophobic Organosilica Nanoparticle-Doped Nanofibers for Enhanced and Fouling Resistant Membrane Distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Hammami, Mohamed Amen

    2016-12-15

    Engineering and scaling-up new materials for better water desalination are imperative to find alternative fresh water sources to meet future demands. Herein, the fabrication of hydrophobic poly(ether imide) composite nanofiber membranes doped with novel ethylene-pentafluorophenylene-based periodic mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles is reported for enhanced and fouling resistant membrane distillation. Novel organosilica nanoparticles were homogeneously incorporated into electrospun nanofiber membranes depicting a proportional increase of hydrophobicity to the particle contents. Direct contact membrane distillation experiments on the organosilica-doped membrane with only 5% doping showed an increase of flux of 140% compared to commercial membranes. The high porosity of organosilica nanoparticles was further utilized to load the eugenol antimicrobial agent which produced a dramatic enhancement of the antibiofouling properties of the membrane of 70% after 24 h.

  5. Recent advances on mixed matrix membranes for CO2 separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Wang; Zhi Wang; Song Zhao; Jixiao Wang; Shichang Wang

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances on mixed matrix membrane for CO2 separation are reviewed in this paper. To improve CO2 separation performance of polymer membranes, mixedmatrixmembranes (MMMs) are developed. The concept of MMM is illustrated distinctly. Suitable polymer and inorganic or organic fillers for MMMs are summarized.Possible interface morphologies between polymer and filler, and the effect of interface morphologies on gas transport properties of MMMs are summarized. The methods to improve compatibility between polymer and filler are introduced. There are eightmethods including silane coupling, Grignard treatment, incorporation of additive,grafting, in situ polymerization, polydopamine coating, particle fusion approach and polymer functionalization. To achieve higher productivity for industrial application,mixed matrix composite membranes are developed. The recent development on hollow fiber and flat mixedmatrix composite membrane is reviewed in detail. Last, the future trend of MMM is forecasted.

  6. Aquaporin-Based Biomimetic Polymeric Membranes: Approaches and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habel, Joachim Erich Otto; Hansen, Michael; Kynde, Søren

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, aquaporin biomimetic membranes (ABMs) for water separation have gained considerable interest. Although the first ABMs are commercially available, there are still many challenges associated with further ABM development. Here, we discuss the interplay of the main components of ABMs...... thin film interfacial polymerization techniques. Finally, we describe some new developments in interfacial polymerization using polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane cages for increasing the physical and chemical durability of thin film composite membranes.......In recent years, aquaporin biomimetic membranes (ABMs) for water separation have gained considerable interest. Although the first ABMs are commercially available, there are still many challenges associated with further ABM development. Here, we discuss the interplay of the main components of ABMs...... for investigating AQP incorporation including freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, stopped-flow light scattering, and small-angle X-ray scattering. Third, we focus on recent efforts in embedding reconstituted AQPs in membrane designs that are based on conventional...

  7. Free-standing thermo-responsive nanoporous membranes from high molecular weight PS-PNIPAM block copolymers synthesized via RAFT polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetintas, Merve; de Grooth, Joris; Hofman, Anton H.; van der Kooij, Hanne M.; Loos, Katja; de Vos, Wiebe Matthijs; Kamperman, Marleen

    2017-01-01

    The incorporation of stimuli-responsive pores in nanoporous membranes is a promising approach to facilitate the cleaning process of the membranes. Here we present fully reversible thermo-responsive nanoporous membranes fabricated by self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation (SNIPS) of

  8. Can Stabilization and Inhibition of Aquaporins Contribute to Future Development of Biomimetic Membranes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Janet; Torres, Jaume

    2015-08-10

    In recent years, the use of biomimetic membranes that incorporate membrane proteins, i.e., biomimetic-hybrid membranes, has increased almost exponentially. Key membrane proteins in these systems have been aquaporins, which selectively permeabilize cellular membranes to water. Aquaporins may be incorporated into synthetic lipid bilayers or to more stable structures made of block copolymers or solid-state nanopores. However, translocation of aquaporins to these alien environments has adverse consequences in terms of performance and stability. Aquaporins incorporated in biomimetic membranes for use in water purification and desalination should also withstand the harsh environment that may prevail in these conditions, such as high pressure, and presence of salt or other chemicals. In this respect, modified aquaporins that can be adapted to these new environments should be developed. Another challenge is that biomimetic membranes that incorporate high densities of aquaporin should be defect-free, and this can only be efficiently ascertained with the availability of completely inactive mutants that behave otherwise like the wild type aquaporin, or with effective non-toxic water channel inhibitors that are so far inexistent. In this review, we describe approaches that can potentially be used to overcome these challenges.

  9. Can Stabilization and Inhibition of Aquaporins Contribute to Future Development of Biomimetic Membranes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet To

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of biomimetic membranes that incorporate membrane proteins, i.e., biomimetic-hybrid membranes, has increased almost exponentially. Key membrane proteins in these systems have been aquaporins, which selectively permeabilize cellular membranes to water. Aquaporins may be incorporated into synthetic lipid bilayers or to more stable structures made of block copolymers or solid-state nanopores. However, translocation of aquaporins to these alien environments has adverse consequences in terms of performance and stability. Aquaporins incorporated in biomimetic membranes for use in water purification and desalination should also withstand the harsh environment that may prevail in these conditions, such as high pressure, and presence of salt or other chemicals. In this respect, modified aquaporins that can be adapted to these new environments should be developed. Another challenge is that biomimetic membranes that incorporate high densities of aquaporin should be defect-free, and this can only be efficiently ascertained with the availability of completely inactive mutants that behave otherwise like the wild type aquaporin, or with effective non-toxic water channel inhibitors that are so far inexistent. In this review, we describe approaches that can potentially be used to overcome these challenges.

  10. Revised mechanism of d-alanine incorporation into cell wall polymers in Gram-positive bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmann, Nathalie T.; Cassona, Carolina Picarra

    2013-01-01

    Teichoic acids (TAs) are important for growth, biofilm formation, adhesion and virulence of Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. The chemical structures of the TAs vary between bacteria, though they typically consist of zwitterionic polymers that are anchored to either the peptidoglycan layer as in the case of wall teichoic acid (WTA) or the cell membrane and named lipoteichoic acid (LTA). The polymers are modified with d-alanines and a lack of this decoration leads to increased susceptibility to cationic antimicrobial peptides. Four proteins, DltA–D, are essential for the incorporation of d-alanines into cell wall polymers and it has been established that DltA transfers d-alanines in the cytoplasm of the cell onto the carrier protein DltC. However, two conflicting models have been proposed for the remainder of the mechanism. Using a cellular protein localization and membrane topology analysis, we show here that DltC does not traverse the membrane and that DltD is anchored to the outside of the cell. These data are in agreement with the originally proposed model for d-alanine incorporation through a process that has been proposed to proceed via a d-alanine undecaprenyl phosphate membrane intermediate. Furthermore, we found that WTA isolated from a Staphylococcus aureus strain lacking LTA contains only a small amount of d-alanine, indicating that LTA has a role, either direct or indirect, in the efficient d-alanine incorporation into WTA in living cells. PMID:23858088

  11. Interface for Light-Driven Electron Transfer by Photosynthetic Complexes Across Block Copolymer Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Liangju; Olson, Tien L; Lin, Su; Flores, Marco; Jiang, Yunjiang; Zheng, Wan; Williams, JoAnn C; Allen, James P; Liang, Hongjun

    2014-03-06

    Incorporation of membrane proteins into nanodevices to mediate recognition and transport in a collective and scalable fashion remains a challenging problem. We demonstrate how nanoscale photovoltaics could be designed using robust synthetic nanomembranes with incorporated photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs). Specifically, RCs from Rhodobacter sphaeroides are reconstituted spontaneously into rationally designed polybutadiene membranes to form hierarchically organized proteopolymer membrane arrays via a charge-interaction-directed reconstitution mechanism. Once incorporated, the RCs are fully active for prolonged periods based upon a variety of spectroscopic measurements, underscoring preservation of their 3D pigment configuration critical for light-driven charge transfer. This result provides a strategy to construct solar conversion devices using structurally versatile proteopolymer membranes with integrated RC functions to harvest broad regions of the solar spectrum.

  12. Recent advances on polymeric membranes for membrane reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Buonomenna, M. G.

    2012-06-24

    Membrane reactors are generally applied in high temperature reactions (>400 °C). In the field of fine chemical synthesis, however, much milder conditions are generally applicable and polymeric membranes were applied without their damage. The successful use of membranes in membrane reactors is primary the result of two developments concerning: (i) membrane materials and (ii) membrane structures. The selection of a suited material and preparation technique depends on the application the membrane is to be used in. In this chapter a review of up to date literature about polymers and configuration catalyst/ membranes used in some recent polymeric membrane reactors is given. The new emerging concept of polymeric microcapsules as catalytic microreactors has been proposed. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers. All rights reserved.

  13. Flow and fouling in membrane filters: Effects of membrane morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaei, Pejman; Cummings, Linda J.

    2015-11-01

    Membrane filters are widely-used in microfiltration applications. Many types of filter membranes are produced commercially, for different filtration applications, but broadly speaking the requirements are to achieve fine control of separation, with low power consumption. The answer to this problem might seem obvious: select the membrane with the largest pore size and void fraction consistent with the separation requirements. However, membrane fouling (an inevitable consequence of successful filtration) is a complicated process, which depends on many parameters other than membrane pore size and void fraction; and which itself greatly affects the filtration process and membrane functionality. In this work we formulate mathematical models that can (i) account for the membrane internal morphology (internal structure, pore size & shape, etc.); (ii) fouling of membranes with specific morphology; and (iii) make some predictions as to what type of membrane morphology might offer optimum filtration performance.

  14. Polyurethane Nanofiber Membranes for Waste Water Treatment by Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jiříček

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-sustained electrospun polyurethane nanofiber membranes were manufactured and tested on a direct-contact membrane distillation unit in an effort to find the optimum membrane thickness to maximize flux rate and minimize heat losses across the membrane. Also salt retention and flux at high salinities up to 100 g kg−1 were evaluated. Even though the complex structure of nanofiber layers has extreme specific surface and porosity, membrane performance was surprisingly predictable; the highest flux was achieved with the thinnest membranes and the best energy efficiency was achieved with the thickest membranes. All membranes had salt retention above 99%. Nanotechnology offers the potential to find modern solutions for desalination of waste waters, by introducing new materials with revolutionary properties, but new membranes must be developed according to the target application.

  15. Smart membranes for monitoring membrane based desalination processes

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-10-12

    Various examples are related to smart membranes for monitoring membrane based process such as, e.g., membrane distillation processes. In one example, a membrane, includes a porous surface and a plurality of sensors (e.g., temperature, flow and/or impedance sensors) mounted on the porous surface. In another example, a membrane distillation (MD) process includes the membrane. Processing circuitry can be configured to monitor outputs of the plurality of sensors. The monitored outputs can be used to determine membrane degradation, membrane fouling, or to provide an indication of membrane replacement or cleaning. The sensors can also provide temperatures or temperature differentials across the porous surface, which can be used to improve modeling or control the MD process.

  16. Physics of biological membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouritsen, Ole G.

    The biological membrane is a complex system consisting of an aqueous biomolecular planar aggregate of predominantly lipid and protein molecules. At physiological temperatures, the membrane may be considered a thin (˜50Å) slab of anisotropic fluid characterized by a high lateral mobility of the various molecular components. A substantial fraction of biological activity takes place in association with membranes. As a very lively piece of condensed matter, the biological membrane is a challenging research topic for both the experimental and theoretical physicists who are facing a number of fundamental physical problems including molecular self-organization, macromolecular structure and dynamics, inter-macromolecular interactions, structure-function relationships, transport of energy and matter, and interfacial forces. This paper will present a brief review of recent theoretical and experimental progress on such problems, with special emphasis on lipid bilayer structure and dynamics, lipid phase transitions, lipid-protein and lipid-cholesterol interactions, intermembrane forces, and the physical constraints imposed on biomembrane function and evolution. The paper advocates the dual point of view that there are a number of interesting physics problems in membranology and, at the same time, that the physical properties of biomembranes are important regulators of membrane function.

  17. Lampung natural zeolite filled cellulose acetate membrane for pervaporation of ethanol-water mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iryani, D. A.; Wulandari, N. F.; Cindradewi, AW; Ginting, S. Br; Ernawati, E.; Hasanudin, U.

    2018-03-01

    Pervaporation of ethanol–water can be cost-competitive in the production of renewable biomass ethanol. For the purpose of improving the pervaporation performance of polymeric membranes, we prepared cellulose acetate (CA) filled Lampung Natural Zeolite (LNZ) membranes by incorporating LNZ into CA for pervaporation separation of ethanol-water mixtures. The characteristics and performance of these filled membranes in the varied ratio of CA:LNZ (30:0, 30:5, 30:10, 30: 20, 20:20 and 40:10) wt% were investigated. The prepared membranes were characterized for pervaporation membrane performance such as %water content and membrane swelling degree. Further, the permeation flux and selectivity of membrane were also observed. The results of investigation show that water content of membrane tends to increase with increase of LNZ content. However, the swelling degree of membrane decrease compared than that of CA control membrane. The permeation flux and the selectivity of membranes tend to increase continuously. The CA membrane with ratio of CA:LNZ 30:20 shows the highest selectivity of 80.42 with a permeation flux of 0.986 kg/(m2 h) and ethanol concentration of 99.08 wt%.

  18. Improvement of antifouling performances for modified PVDF ultrafiltration membrane with hydrophilic cellulose nanocrystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jinling; Zhang, Guoquan; Zhang, Hanmin; Zhao, Chuanqi; Yang, Fenglin

    2018-05-01

    Hydrophilic cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) was incorporated into hydrophobic poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane via phase inversion process to improve membrane antifouling property. The effects of CNC on membrane morphology, hydrophilicity, permeability and antifouling property were investigated in-detail. Results indicated that the introduction of CNC into PVDF membrane enhanced the permeability by optimizing membrane microstructure and improving membrane hydrophilicity. A higher pure water flux of 206.9 L m-2 h-1 was achieved for CNC/PVDF membrane at 100 kPa, which was 20 times that of PVDF membrane (9.8 L m-2 h-1). In bovine serum albumin filtration measurements, the permeation flux and flux recovery ratio of CNC/PVDF membrane were increased remarkably, while the irreversible fouling-resistance of CNC/PVDF membrane decreased by 48.8%. These results indicated that the CNC/PVDF membrane possessed superior antifouling property due to the hydrophilicity of CNC that formed a hydration layer on the membrane surface to effectively reduce contaminants adsorption/deposition.

  19. Multienzyme Immobilized Polymeric Membrane Reactor for the Transformation of a Lignin Model Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupam Sarma

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an integrated, multienzyme functionalized membrane reactor for bioconversion of a lignin model compound involving enzymatic catalysis. The membrane bioreactors were fabricated through the layer-by-layer assembly approach to immobilize three different enzymes (glucose oxidase, peroxidase and laccase into pH-responsive membranes. This novel membrane reactor couples the in situ generation of hydrogen peroxide (by glucose oxidase to oxidative conversion of a lignin model compound, guaiacylglycerol-β-guaiacyl ether (GGE. Preliminary investigation of the efficacy of these functional membranes towards GGE degradation is demonstrated under convective flow mode. Over 90% of the initial feed could be degraded with the multienzyme immobilized membranes at a residence time of approximately 22 s. GGE conversion product analysis revealed the formation of oligomeric oxidation products upon reaction with peroxidase, which may be a potential hazard to membrane bioreactors. These oxidation products could further be degraded by laccase enzymes in the multienzymatic membranes, explaining the potential of multi enzyme membrane reactors. The multienzyme incorporated membrane reactors were active for more than 30 days of storage time at 4 °C. During this time span, repetitive use of the membrane reactor was demonstrated involving 5–6 h of operation time for each cycle. The membrane reactor displayed encouraging performance, losing only 12% of its initial activity after multiple cycles of operation.

  20. Exploration of permeability and antifouling performance on modified cellulose acetate ultrafiltration membrane with cellulose nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jinling; Zhang, Guoquan; Zhang, Hanmin; Yang, Fenglin

    2017-10-15

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were introduced into cellulose diacetate (CDA) matrix via immerged phase-inversion process, aiming to improve the filtration and antifouling performance of CNCs/CDA blending membrane. The effects of CNCs on membrane morphologies, hydrophilicity, permeability and antifouling property were investigated. Results showed that the incorporation of CNCs into CDA membrane could effectively enhance the permeability and antifouling property of CNCs/CDA blending membrane by optimizing membrane microstructure and improving membrane hydrophilicity. A high pure water flux of 173.8L/m 2 h was achieved for the CNCs/CDA blending membrane at 200KPa, which is 24 times that of the CDA membrane (7.2L/m 2 h). The bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption amount of the CNCs/CDA blending membrane decreased about 48% compared to that of the CDA membrane. Additionally, the CNCs/CDA blending membrane exhibited better antifouling performance with the flux recovery ratio (FRR) of 89.5% after three fouling cycles, compared to 59.7% for the CDA membrane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. SAXS investigations on lipid membranes under osmotic stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubim, R.L.; Vieira, V.; Gerbelli, B.B.; Teixeira da Silva, E.R.; Oliveira, C.L.P.; Oliveira, E.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: In this work we, experimentally, investigate the interactions between lipid bilayers. A structural characterization is performed by small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) on multilamellar systems under known osmotic pressure. Changes in the composition of membranes can modify their mechanical properties and structural parameters, like the flexibility of these membranes, which plays a key role on the determination of the tridimensional organization of bilayers. The membranes are composed of soya lecithin, where the major component is DPPC (Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine), and fatty acids are incorporated to the membrane in different concentrations, in order to turn the membrane more fluid. The membranes are inserted in a solution of PVP [poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone) - 40000] and the polymer will apply an osmotic pressure on them. The osmotic pressure is controlled by preparing PVP solutions of desired composition and, as we know the concentration of polymer in solution, we can obtain the intensity of the osmotic pressure. SAXS experiments were done in order to determine the distance between the bilayer. From the position of the Bragg peaks, the lamellar periodicity (the thickness of the membranes plus their distance of separation) was determined. Using theoretical model for the form and structure factors we fitted those experimental data and determined the thickness of the membranes. The distance between the membranes was controlled by the osmotic pressure (P) applied to the membranes and, for a given pressure, we determine the distance between the bilayers (a) on equilibrium. The experimental curve P(a) is theoretically described by the different contributions from van der Waals, hydration and fluctuation forces. From the fitting of experimental curves, relevant parameters characterizing the strength of the different interactions are obtained, such as Hamaker and rigidity constant [2, 3]. We observe that the separation between the bilayers on equilibrium is

  2. Diatomite reinforced chitosan composite membrane as potential scaffold for guided bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburaci, Sedef; Tihminlioglu, Funda

    2017-11-01

    In this study, natural silica source, diatomite, incorporated novel chitosan based composite membranes were fabricated and characterized for bone tissue engineering applications as possible bone regeneration membrane. The effect of diatomite loading on the mechanical, morphological, chemical, thermal and surface properties, wettability and in vitro cytotoxicity and cell proliferation on of composite membranes were investigated and observed by tensile test, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), protein adsorption assay, air/water contact angle analysis and WST-1 respectively. Swelling studies were also performed by water absorption capacity determination. Results showed that incorporation of diatomite to the chitosan matrix increased the surface roughness, swelling capacity and tensile modulus of membranes. An increase of about 52% in Young's modulus was achieved for 10wt% diatomite composite membranes compared with chitosan membranes. High cell viability results were obtained with indirect extraction method. Besides, in vitro cell proliferation and ALP activity results showed that diatom incorporation significantly increased the ALP activity of Saos-2 cells cultured on chitosan membranes. The novel composite membranes prepared in the present study with tunable properties can be considered as a potential candidate as a scaffold in view of its enhanced physical & chemical properties as well as biological activities for bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Liver plasma membranes: an effective method to analyze membrane proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rui; Liang, Songping

    2012-01-01

    Plasma membrane proteins are critical for the maintenance of biological systems and represent important targets for the treatment of disease. The hydrophobicity and low abundance of plasma membrane proteins make them difficult to analyze. The protocols given here are the efficient isolation/digestion procedures for liver plasma membrane proteomic analysis. Both protocol for the isolation of plasma membranes and protocol for the in-gel digestion of gel-embedded plasma membrane proteins are presented. The later method allows the use of a high detergent concentration to achieve efficient solubilization of hydrophobic plasma membrane proteins while avoiding interference with the subsequent LC-MS/MS analysis.

  4. Functional implications of plasma membrane condensation for T cell activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Rentero

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The T lymphocyte plasma membrane condenses at the site of activation but the functional significance of this receptor-mediated membrane reorganization is not yet known. Here we demonstrate that membrane condensation at the T cell activation sites can be inhibited by incorporation of the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol (7KC, which is known to prevent the formation of raft-like liquid-ordered domains in model membranes. We enriched T cells with 7KC, or cholesterol as control, to assess the importance of membrane condensation for T cell activation. Upon 7KC treatment, T cell antigen receptor (TCR triggered calcium fluxes and early tyrosine phosphorylation events appear unaltered. However, signaling complexes form less efficiently on the cell surface, fewer phosphorylated signaling proteins are retained in the plasma membrane and actin restructuring at activation sites is impaired in 7KC-enriched cells resulting in compromised downstream activation responses. Our data emphasizes lipids as an important medium for the organization at T cell activation sites and strongly indicates that membrane condensation is an important element of the T cell activation process.

  5. Membrane Protein Properties Revealed through Data-Rich Electrostatics Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoline, Frank V; Bethel, Neville; Guerriero, Christopher J; Brodsky, Jeffrey L; Grabe, Michael

    2015-08-04

    The electrostatic properties of membrane proteins often reveal many of their key biophysical characteristics, such as ion channel selectivity and the stability of charged membrane-spanning segments. The Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation is the gold standard for calculating protein electrostatics, and the software APBSmem enables the solution of the PB equation in the presence of a membrane. Here, we describe significant advances to APBSmem, including full automation of system setup, per-residue energy decomposition, incorporation of PDB2PQR, calculation of membrane-induced pKa shifts, calculation of non-polar energies, and command-line scripting for large-scale calculations. We highlight these new features with calculations carried out on a number of membrane proteins, including the recently solved structure of the ion channel TRPV1 and a large survey of 1,614 membrane proteins of known structure. This survey provides a comprehensive list of residues with large electrostatic penalties for being embedded in the membrane, potentially revealing interesting functional information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel compaction resistant and ductile nanocomposite nanofibrous microfiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homaeigohar, Seyed Shahin; Elbahri, Mady

    2012-04-15

    Despite promising filtration abilities, low mechanical properties of extraordinary porous electrospun nanofibrous membranes could be a major challenge in their industrial development. In addition, such kind of membranes are usually hydrophobic and non-wettable. To reinforce an electrospun nanofibrous membrane made of polyethersulfone (PES) mechanically and chemically (to improve wettability), zirconia nanoparticles as a novel nanofiller in membrane technology were added to the nanofibers. The compressive and tensile results obtained through nanoindentation and tensile tests, respectively, implied an optimum mechanical properties after incorporation of zirconia nanoparticles. Especially compaction resistance of the electrospun nanofibrous membranes improved significantly as long as no agglomeration of the nanoparticles occurred and the electrospun nanocomposite membranes showed a higher tensile properties without any brittleness i.e. a high ductility. Noteworthy, for the first time the compaction level was quantified through a nanoindentation test. In addition to obtaining a desired mechanical performance, the hydrophobicity declined. Combination of promising properties of optimum mechanical and surface chemical properties led to a considerably high water permeability also retention efficiency of the nanocomposite PES nanofibrous membranes. Such finding implies a longer life span and lower energy consumption for a water filtration process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Purification of natural gas using membrane - the current status and research trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq Ahmad; Mukhtar, H.; Man, Z.; Dutta, B. K.

    2006-01-01

    Separation of acid gases and lower hydrocarbon from raw natural gas has been a challenging problem in a gas processing unit. Despite the availability of chemical and cryogenic routes, search for a better alternative has been on for the last several decades. Considerable success has been achieved in the recent years by use of polymeric membrane and many units are operating using hollow fiber and spirally wound modules. The initial success notwithstanding the quest for better membrane and strategically designed modules has gained more momentum in the recent years. While research inputs to modify rubbery membranes or to develop new glassy membranes are continuing, inorganic membrane have attracted a lot of attention because of a number of reasons such as thermal and chemical stability, mechanical strength and the advantage of engineered pores. In the above perspective it appears necessary to make a review of the present status of research as well as applications in relation to both polymeric and inorganic membranes for raw natural gas processing. The present paper is an attempt in this direction. Experimental findings reported in the literature together with novel theories that will eventually help in tailoring membranes both chemically and physically have been critically analyzed and the trends in the future direction of research have been identified. A survey of application of membrane technology for acid gas separation in industries world wide has been made

  8. Aquaporin-2 membrane targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Emma T B; Fenton, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    The targeting of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) to the apical plasma membrane of kidney collecting duct principal cells is regulated mainly by the antidiuretic peptide hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP). This process is of crucial importance for the maintenance of body water homeostasis...... of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) to the apical plasma membrane of collecting duct (CD) principal cells (10, 20). This process is mainly regulated by the actions of AVP on the type 2 AVP receptor (V2R), although the V1a receptor may also play a minor role (26). The V2R is classified within the group of 7-transmembrane....... For example, 1) stimulation with the nonspecific AC activator forskolin increases AQP2 membrane accumulation in a mouse cortical collecting duct cell line [e.g., Norregaard et al. (16)]; 2) cAMP increases CD water permeability (15); 3) the cAMP-activated protein kinase A (PKA) can phosphorylate AQP2 on its...

  9. Membrane adsorber for endotoxin removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Moita de Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The surface of flat-sheet nylon membranes was modified using bisoxirane as the spacer and polyvinyl alcohol as the coating polymer. The amino acid histidine was explored as a ligand for endotoxins, aiming at its application for endotoxin removal from aqueous solutions. Characterization of the membrane adsorber, analysis of the depyrogenation procedures and the evaluation of endotoxin removal efficiency in static mode are discussed. Ligand density of the membranes was around 7 mg/g dry membrane, allowing removal of up to 65% of the endotoxins. The performance of the membrane adsorber prepared using nylon coated with polyvinyl alcohol and containing histidine as the ligand proved superior to other membrane adsorbers reported in the literature. The lack of endotoxin adsorption on nylon membranes without histidine confirmed that endotoxin removal was due to the presence of the ligand at the membrane surface. Modified membranes were highly stable, exhibiting a lifespan of approximately thirty months.

  10. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  11. Modification of Nafion Membranes by IL-Cation Exchange: Chemical Surface, Electrical and Interfacial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Romero

    2012-01-01

    A study of time evolution of the impedance curves measured in the system “IL aqueous solution/Nafion-112 membrane/IL aqueous solution” was also performed. This study allows us monitoring the electrical changes associated to the IL-cation incorporation in both the membrane and the membrane/IL solution interface, and it provides supplementary information on the characteristic of the Nafion/DTA+ hybrid material. Moreover, the results also show the significant effect of water on the electrical resistance of the Nafion-112/IL-cation-modified membrane.

  12. Composite Membrane Formation by Combination of Reaction-Induced and Nonsolvent-Induced Phase Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Aburabie, Jamaliah; Villalobos, Luis Francisco; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2017-01-01

    A novel method of preparing skinned asymmetric membranes with two distinctive layers is described: a top layer composed of chemically cross-linked polymer chains (dense layer) and a bottom layer of non-cross-linked polymer chains (porous substructure). The method consists of two simple steps that are compatible with industrial membrane fabrication facilities. Unlike conventional processes to prepare asymmetric membranes, with this approach it is possible to finely control the structure and functionalities of the final membrane. The thickness of the dense layer can be easily controlled over several orders of magnitude and targeted functional groups can be readily incorporated in it.

  13. Composite Membrane Formation by Combination of Reaction-Induced and Nonsolvent-Induced Phase Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Aburabie, Jamaliah

    2017-05-25

    A novel method of preparing skinned asymmetric membranes with two distinctive layers is described: a top layer composed of chemically cross-linked polymer chains (dense layer) and a bottom layer of non-cross-linked polymer chains (porous substructure). The method consists of two simple steps that are compatible with industrial membrane fabrication facilities. Unlike conventional processes to prepare asymmetric membranes, with this approach it is possible to finely control the structure and functionalities of the final membrane. The thickness of the dense layer can be easily controlled over several orders of magnitude and targeted functional groups can be readily incorporated in it.

  14. (CryoTransmission Electron Microscopy of Phospholipid Model Membranes Interacting with Amphiphilic and Polyphilic Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Meister

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipid membranes can incorporate amphiphilic or polyphilic molecules leading to specific functionalities and to adaptable properties of the lipid bilayer host. The insertion of guest molecules into membranes frequently induces changes in the shape of the lipid matrix that can be visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM techniques. Here, we review the use of stained and vitrified specimens in (cryoTEM to characterize the morphology of amphiphilic and polyphilic molecules upon insertion into phospholipid model membranes. Special emphasis is placed on the impact of novel synthetic amphiphilic and polyphilic bolalipids and polymers on membrane integrity and shape stability.

  15. Use of digitonin permeabilization for characterization of calcium incorporated into. beta. cells in response to glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesslen, N [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    1985-01-01

    ..beta.. cell-rich pancreatic islets were used to characterize /sup 45/Ca uptake into pools with different sensitivities to permeabilization with digitonin. The plasma and secretory granule membranes were among the membranes most sensitive to digitonin treatment whereas the mitochondria were more resistant. Most of the /sup 45/Ca incorporated in response to glucose was found in a fraction released after exposure to a high concentration of digitonin. The results suggest that glucose promotes active sequestration of calcium in mitochondria and that the uptake of /sup 45/Ca in the secretory granules in secondary to a raised cytosolic Ca/sup 2 +/ activity.

  16. Incorporating Yoga Therapy into Primary Care: The Casey Health Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alyson; Williams, Laurie; Pappas-Sandonas, Mary; Touchton-Leonard, Katharine; Fogel, David

    2015-01-01

    and CAM practitioners. Casey Health is incorporating clinical outcomes into their electronic medical record that can be used internally to assess comparable effectiveness and cost effectiveness of the different treatment modalities such as yoga therapy, providing evidence that eventually may lead to yoga therapy becoming an accepted treatment that is eligible for insurance reimbursement.

  17. Mitigating leaks in membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnik, Rohit N.; Bose, Suman; Boutilier, Michael S.H.; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G.; Jain, Tarun Kumar; O' Hern, Sean C.; Laoui, Tahar; Atieh, Muataz A.; Jang, Doojoon

    2018-02-27

    Two-dimensional material based filters, their method of manufacture, and their use are disclosed. In one embodiment, a membrane may include an active layer including a plurality of defects and a deposited material associated with the plurality of defects may reduce flow therethrough. Additionally, a majority of the active layer may be free from the material. In another embodiment, a membrane may include a porous substrate and an atomic layer deposited material disposed on a surface of the porous substrate. The atomic layer deposited material may be less hydrophilic than the porous substrate and an atomically thin active layer may be disposed on the atomic layer deposited material.

  18. Membrane accessibility of glutathione

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Almudena; Eljack, N., D.; Sani, ND

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of the ion pumping activity of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase is crucial to the survival of animal cells. Recent evidence has suggested that the activity of the enzyme could be controlled by glutathionylation of cysteine residue 45 of the β-subunit. Crystal structures so far available indicate...... that this cysteine is in a transmembrane domain of the protein. Here we have analysed via fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy as well as molecular dynamics simulations whether glutathione is able to penetrate into the interior of a lipid membrane. No evidence for any penetration of glutathione into the membrane...

  19. Fouling resistant membrane spacers

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2017-10-12

    Disclosed herein are spacers having baffle designs and perforations for efficiently and effectively separating one or more membrane layers a membrane filtration system. The spacer (504) includes a body (524) formed at least in part by baffles (520) that are interconnected, and the baffles define boundaries of openings or apertures (525) through a thickness direction of the body of the spacer. Alternatively or additionally, passages or perforations (526A, 526B) may be present in the spacer layer or baffles for fluid flow there through, with the passages and baffles having a numerous different shapes and sizes.

  20. Organic separations with membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funk, E.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of present and emerging applications of membrane technology for the separation and purification of organic materials. This technology is highly relevant for programs aimed at minimizing waste in processing and in the treatment of gaseous and liquid effluents. Application of membranes for organic separation is growing rapidly in the petrochemical industry to simplify processing and in the treatment of effluents, and it is expected that this technology will be useful in numerous other industries including the processing of nuclear waste materials

  1. Fouling in Membrane Distillation, Osmotic Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Laqbaqbi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Various membrane separation processes are being used for seawater desalination and treatment of wastewaters in order to deal with the worldwide water shortage problem. Different types of membranes of distinct morphologies, structures and physico-chemical characteristics are employed. Among the considered membrane technologies, membrane distillation (MD, osmotic distillation (OD and osmotic membrane distillation (OMD use porous and hydrophobic membranes for production of distilled water and/or concentration of wastewaters for recovery and recycling of valuable compounds. However, the efficiency of these technologies is hampered by fouling phenomena. This refers to the accumulation of organic/inorganic deposits including biological matter on the membrane surface and/or in the membrane pores. Fouling in MD, OD and OMD differs from that observed in electric and pressure-driven membrane processes such electrodialysis (ED, membrane capacitive deionization (MCD, reverse osmosis (RO, nanofiltration (NF, ultrafiltration (UF, microfiltration (MF, etc. Other than pore blockage, fouling in MD, OD and OMD increases the risk of membrane pores wetting and reduces therefore the quantity and quality of the produced water or the concentration efficiency of the process. This review deals with the observed fouling phenomena in MD, OD and OMD. It highlights different detected fouling types (organic fouling, inorganic fouling and biofouling, fouling characterization techniques as well as various methods of fouling reduction including pretreatment, membrane modification, membrane cleaning and antiscalants application.

  2. Membrane order in the plasma membrane and endocytic recycling compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaea, David B; Maxfield, Frederick R

    2017-01-01

    The cholesterol content of membranes plays an important role in organizing membranes for signal transduction and protein trafficking as well as in modulating the biophysical properties of membranes. While the properties of model or isolated membranes have been extensively studied, there has been little evaluation of internal membranes in living cells. Here, we use a Nile Red based probe, NR12S, and ratiometric live cell imaging, to analyze the membrane order of the plasma membrane and endocytic recycling compartment. We find that after a brief incubation to allow endocytosis, NR12S is distributed between the plasma membrane and the endocytic recycling compartment. The NR12S reports that the endocytic recycling compartment is more highly ordered than the plasma membrane. We also find that the plasma membrane and the endocytic recycling compartment are differentially affected by altering cellular cholesterol levels. The membrane order of the plasma membrane, but not the endocytic recycling compartment, is altered significantly when cellular cholesterol content is increased or decreased by 20%. These results demonstrate that changes in cellular cholesterol differentially alter membrane order within different organelles.

  3. El debate de la eutanasia y el suicidio asistido en perspectiva comparada: garantías de procedimiento a tener en cuenta ante su eventual despenalización en España

    OpenAIRE

    Rey Martinez, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    En este trabajo se examina la regulación jurídica de la eutanasia y del suicidio asistido por médico en diversos ordenamientos donde se permiten bajo ciertas condiciones. Concretamente, se estudian las experiencias de despenalización parcial de la eutanasia de Holanda y Bélgica y el procedimiento de suicidio asistido disponible en el Estado norteamericano de Oregón. De esta «mirada por encima de las fronteras » se extraen algunas de las garantías que una eventual y futura despenaliz...

  4. High solute rejecting membranes for reverse osmosis: Polyetheramide hydrazide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindal, R.C.; Ramachandhran, V.; Misra, B.M.; Ramani, M.P.S.

    1991-01-01

    Synthesis of benzhydrazide polymers and determination of reverse osmosis properties of their membranes were reported earlier. Their performance was not adequate for seawater desalination or for high radioactive decontamination factors (DF). The same hydrazide polymers modified by incorporation of additional monomers with ether linkages were synthesized by low temperature polycondensation of freshly prepared m-amino benzhydrazide, p-amino benzhydrazide, and 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether, with isophthaloyl chloride and terephthaloyl chloride in dimethyl acetamide solvent. A series of film-forming polymers prepared by altering the molar ratios of the reacting monomers were characterized in terms of percent moisture regain, inherent viscosity, solubility parameters, and interfacial sorption characteristics. Asymmetric membranes prepared from these polymer samples were characterized in terms of the pure water permeability constant and the solute transport parameter, and were tested for their reverse osmosis performance. An optimum mole ratio of reaching monomers has been identified for the synthesis of polymer and the resulting membrane offered the best performance for reverse osmosis (salt rejection as high as 99.4% for 3.5% sodium chloride solution). The incorporation of aromatic ether linkages in the polyamide benzhydrazide polymeric chains appears to alter the polar and nonpolar character of the bulk polymer, and also the membrane solution interface characteristics, resulting in enhanced solute separation. These membranes appear to be potential candidates for single-stage seawater desalination and also for a variety of industrial effluent treatment applications for significantly high DF radioactive effluent treatment

  5. Synthesis of cell wall xylans and glucans by golgi membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibeaut, D.M.; Carpita, N.C.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the biosynthesis of mixed-linkage β-D-glucan and glucuronoarabinoxylans which make up the hemicellulosic matrix of the primary cell walls of maize and other cereal grasses. The Golgi apparatus was enriched from plasma membrane and other organelles by flotation density gradient centrifugation. Glucan synthase I and II, which are established markers for Golgi and plasma membrane, respectively, displayed considerable overlap in conventional separations with sucrose density gradients. Flotation gradients improved separation of the membranes substantially, but the different synthases themselves also incorporated radioactivity from either 10 μM or 1 mM UDP-[ 14 C]-glucose into polymer. Relative incorporation of radioactivity into polymers from UDP-[ 14 C]-xylose by the various membrane fractions was nearly identical to relative IDPase activities, indicating that combined xylosyl transferase-xylan synthase represents a new, unequivocal marker for the Golgi apparatus. We also have developed techniques of gas-liquid chromatography and radiogas proportional counting to achieve capillary quality separation of partially methylated alditol acetates with simultaneous determination of radioactivity in the derivatives. Digestion of polymeric products by specific endo-glycanohydrolases to diagnostic oligosaccharides also reveal specific kinds of polysaccharides synthesized by the Golgi membranes. A combination of these techniques provides unequivocal determination of the linkage structure of specific polymers synthesized by the purified Golgi apparatus

  6. Fabrication of electrospun nanofibrous membranes for membrane distillation application

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo; Maab, Husnul; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Nanofibrous membranes of Matrimid have been successfully fabricated using an electrospinning technique under optimized conditions. Nanofibrous membranes are found to be highly hydrophobic with a high water contact angle of 130°. Field emission

  7. Giant plasma membrane vesicles: models for understanding membrane organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levental, Kandice R; Levental, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    The organization of eukaryotic membranes into functional domains continues to fascinate and puzzle cell biologists and biophysicists. The lipid raft hypothesis proposes that collective lipid interactions compartmentalize the membrane into coexisting liquid domains that are central to membrane physiology. This hypothesis has proven controversial because such structures cannot be directly visualized in live cells by light microscopy. The recent observations of liquid-liquid phase separation in biological membranes are an important validation of the raft hypothesis and enable application of the experimental toolbox of membrane physics to a biologically complex phase-separated membrane. This review addresses the role of giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) in refining the raft hypothesis and expands on the application of GPMVs as an experimental model to answer some of key outstanding problems in membrane biology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High-performance polyamide thin-film-nanocomposite reverse osmosis membranes containing hydrophobic zeolitic imidazolate framework-8

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Jintang; Pan, Yichang; Pacheco Oreamuno, Federico; Litwiller, Eric; Lai, Zhiping; Pinnau, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    A hydrophobic, hydrothermally stable metal-organic framework (MOF) - zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) was successfully incorporated into the selective polyamide (PA) layer of thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes for water desalination

  9. In Spaces of Marginalization: Dispossession, Incorporation, and Resistance in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Z. Kaup

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent scholarship conceptualizing primitive accumulation as an ongoing process in global capitalism has noted the difficulties faced in bringing struggles against exploitation and dispossession together. While some scholars suggest that an 'organic link" exists between these conflicts. they have yet to clearly specify the conditions and mechanisms through which such a link can form. Examining cases in Bolivia at the turn of the twenty-first century. I argue that struggles against exploitation and dispossession do not merely converge when facing a common oppressor. but also as the changing forms and geographies of exploitation and dispossession bring people together in more proximate locations. I illustrate that the changing means through which Bolivia was incorporated into the global economy enhanced levels of marginalization and subsequently resulted in patterns of migration that led to a convergence of peasant and proletarian struggles. As both segments of Bolivian society were excluded from the country's major economic sectors. they migrated to the places where they thought they could best satisfy their livelihood needs. But as people continually struggled to meet these needs, these places became spaces of marginalization, and eventually, spaces of resistance.

  10. Adaptive silicone-membrane lenses: planar vs. shaped membrane

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schneider, F

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Engineering, Georges-Koehler-Allee 102, Freiburg 79110, Germany florian.schneider@imtek.uni-freiburg.de ABSTRACT We compare the performance and optical quality of two types of adaptive fluidic silicone-membrane lenses. The membranes feature either a...-membrane lenses: planar vs. shaped membrane Florian Schneider1,2, Philipp Waibel2 and Ulrike Wallrabe2 1 CSIR, Materials Science and Manufacturing, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa 2 University of Freiburg – IMTEK, Department of Microsystems...

  11. Nanodisc-solubilized membrane protein library reflects the membrane proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Marty, Michael T.; Wilcox, Kyle C.; Klein, William L.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    The isolation and identification of unknown membrane proteins offers the prospect of discovering new pharmaceutical targets and identifying key biochemical receptors. However, interactions between membrane protein targets and soluble ligands are difficult to study in vitro due to the insolubility of membrane proteins in non-detergent systems. Nanodiscs, nanoscale discoidal lipid bilayers encircled by a membrane scaffold protein belt, have proven to be an effective platform to solubilize membr...

  12. Droplet networks with incorporated protein diodes show collective properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglia, Giovanni; Heron, Andrew J.; Hwang, William L.; Holden, Matthew A.; Mikhailova, Ellina; Li, Qiuhong; Cheley, Stephen; Bayley, Hagan

    2009-07-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that submicrolitre aqueous droplets submerged in an apolar liquid containing lipid can be tightly connected by means of lipid bilayers to form networks. Droplet interface bilayers have been used for rapid screening of membrane proteins and to form asymmetric bilayers with which to examine the fundamental properties of channels and pores. Networks, meanwhile, have been used to form microscale batteries and to detect light. Here, we develop an engineered protein pore with diode-like properties that can be incorporated into droplet interface bilayers in droplet networks to form devices with electrical properties including those of a current limiter, a half-wave rectifier and a full-wave rectifier. The droplet approach, which uses unsophisticated components (oil, lipid, salt water and a simple pore), can therefore be used to create multidroplet networks with collective properties that cannot be produced by droplet pairs.

  13. Imaging of membranous dysmenorrhea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouanet, J.P.; Daclin, P.Y.; Turpin, F.; Karam, R.; Prayssac-Salanon, A. [Dept. of Radiology, C. M. C. Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Courtieu, C.R. [Dept. of Gynecology, C. M. C. Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Maubon, A.J. [Dept. of Radiology, C. M. C. Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Dept. of Radiology, C. H. U. Dupuytren, Limoges (France)

    2001-06-01

    Membranous dysmenorrhea is an unusual clinical entity. It is characterized by the expulsion of huge fragments of endometrium during the menses, favored by hormonal abnormality or drug intake. This report describes a case with clinical, US, and MRI findings before the expulsion. Differential diagnoses are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Imaging of membranous dysmenorrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouanet, J.P.; Daclin, P.Y.; Turpin, F.; Karam, R.; Prayssac-Salanon, A.; Courtieu, C.R.; Maubon, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    Membranous dysmenorrhea is an unusual clinical entity. It is characterized by the expulsion of huge fragments of endometrium during the menses, favored by hormonal abnormality or drug intake. This report describes a case with clinical, US, and MRI findings before the expulsion. Differential diagnoses are discussed. (orig.)

  15. HOLLOW FIBRE MEMBRANE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessling, Matthias; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Kopec, K.K.; Dutczak, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for manufacturing a hollow fibre membrane having a supporting layer and a separating layer, said process comprising: (a)extruding a spinning composition comprising a first polymer and a solvent for the first polymer through an inner annular orifice of a

  16. HOLLOW FIBRE MEMBRANE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessling, Matthias; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Kopec, K.K.; Dutczak, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for manufacturing a hollow fibre membrane having a supporting layer and a separating layer, said process comprising: (a) extruding a spinning composition comprising a first polymer and a solvent for the first polymer through an inner annular orifice of a

  17. Fusion of biological membranes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 64; Issue 6. Fusion of biological membranes. K Katsov M Müller M Schick. Invited Talks:- Topic 11. Biologically motivated problems (protein-folding models, dynamics at the scale of the cell; biological networks, evolution models, etc.) Volume 64 Issue 6 June 2005 pp ...

  18. Membranes and Fluorescence microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy-based techniques using conventional fluorimeters have been extensively applied since the late 1960s to study different aspects of membrane-related phenomena, i.e., mainly relating to lipid-lipid and lipid-protein (peptide) interactions. Even though fluorescence...

  19. Bioelectrochemistry II membrane phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, M

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the lectures of the second course devoted to bioelectro­ chemistry, held within the framework of the International School of Biophysics. In this course another very large field of bioelectrochemistry, i. e. the field of Membrane Phenomena, was considered, which itself consists of several different, but yet related subfields. Here again, it can be easily stated that it is impossible to give a complete and detailed picture of all membrane phenomena of biological interest in a short course of about one and half week. Therefore the same philosophy, as the one of the first course, was followed, to select a series of lectures at postgraduate level, giving a synthesis of several membrane phenomena chosen among the most'important ones. These lectures should show the large variety of membrane-regulated events occurring in living bodies, and serve as sound interdisciplinary basis to start a special­ ized study of biological phenomena, for which the investigation using the dual approach, physico-che...

  20. Membrane Transfer Phenomena (MTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Larry

    1996-01-01

    Progress has been made in several areas of the definition, design, and development of the Membrane Transport Apparatus (MTA) instrument and associated sensors and systems. Progress is also reported in the development of software modules for instrument control, experimental image and data acquisition, and data analysis.

  1. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is not a novel therapy in the true sense of the ... Intention-to-treat analysis showed benefit for ECMO, with a relative risk ... no doubt that VV-ECMO is an advance in medical technology, and that.

  2. Amphotericin B channels in phospholipid membrane-coated nanoporous silicon surfaces: implications for photovoltaic driving of ions across membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilma, Solomon; Liu, Nangou; Samoylov, Alexander; Lo, Ting; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Vodyanoy, Vitaly

    2007-03-15

    The antimycotic agent amphotericin B (AmB) functions by forming complexes with sterols to form ion channels that cause membrane leakage. When AmB and cholesterol mixed at 2:1 ratio were incorporated into phospholipid bilayer membranes formed on the tip of patch pipettes, ion channel current fluctuations with characteristic open and closed states were observed. These channels were also functional in phospholipid membranes formed on nanoporous silicon surfaces. Electrophysiological studies of AmB-cholesterol mixtures that were incorporated into phospholipid membranes formed on the surface of nanoporous (6.5 nm pore diameter) silicon plates revealed large conductance ion channels ( approximately 300 pS) with distinct open and closed states. Currents through the AmB-cholesterol channels on nanoporous silicon surfaces can be driven by voltage applied via conventional electrical circuits or by photovoltaic electrical potential entirely generated when the nanoporous silicon surface is illuminated with a narrow laser beam. Electrical recordings made during laser illumination of AmB-cholesterol containing membrane-coated nanoporous silicon surfaces revealed very large conductance ion channels with distinct open and closed states. Our findings indicate that nanoporous silicon surfaces can serve as mediums for ion-channel-based biosensors. The photovoltaic properties of nanoporous silicon surfaces show great promise for making such biosensors addressable via optical technologies.

  3. Development of supported biomimetic membranes for insertion of aquaporin protein water channels for novel water filtration applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Søndergaard

    ). This constitutes a new methodology to correctly and functionally reconstitute membrane proteins in controllable amounts into giant vesicles. The method for formation of giant protein vesicles subsequently led to the first functional prototype of an aquaporin-membrane water filtration device.......Aquaporins represent a class of membrane protein channels found in all living organisms that selectively transport water molecules across biological membranes. The work presented in this thesis was motivated by the conceptual idea of incorporating aquaporin water channels into biomimetic membranes...... to develop novel water separation technologies. To accomplish this, it is necessary to construct an efficient platform to handle biomimetic membranes. Moreover, general methods are required to reliable and controllable reconstitute membrane proteins into artificially made model membranes...

  4. Alternative energy efficient membrane bioreactor using reciprocating submerged membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, J; Smith, S; Roh, H K

    2014-01-01

    A novel membrane bioreactor (MBR) pilot system, using membrane reciprocation instead of air scouring, was operated at constant high flux and daily fluctuating flux to demonstrate its application under peak and diurnal flow conditions. Low and stable transmembrane pressure was achieved at 40 l/m(2)/h (LMH) by use of repetitive membrane reciprocation. The results reveal that the inertial forces acting on the membrane fibers effectively propel foulants from the membrane surface. Reciprocation of the hollow fiber membrane is beneficial for the constant removal of solids that may build up on the membrane surface and inside the membrane bundle. The membrane reciprocation in the reciprocating MBR pilot consumed less energy than coarse air scouring used in conventional MBR systems. Specific energy consumption for the membrane reciprocation was 0.072 kWh/m(3) permeate produced at 40 LMH flux, which is 75% less than for a conventional air scouring system as reported in literature without consideration of energy consumption for biological aeration (0.29 kWh/m(3)). The daily fluctuating flux test confirmed that the membrane reciprocation is effective to handle fluctuating flux up to 50 LMH. The pilot-scale reciprocating MBR system successfully demonstrated that fouling can be controlled via 0.43 Hz membrane reciprocation with 44 mm or higher amplitude.

  5. Recent advances on membranes and membrane reactors for hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, F.; Fernandez Gesalaga, E.; Corengia, P.; Sint Annaland, van M.

    2013-01-01

    Membranes and membrane reactors for pure hydrogen production are widely investigated not only because of the important application areas of hydrogen, but especially because mechanically and chemically stable membranes with high perm-selectivity towards hydrogen are available and are continuously

  6. Influence of membrane properties on fouling in submerged membrane bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Marel, P.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.; Wessling, Matthias; Temmink, Hardy; van der Meer, Walterus Gijsbertus Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Polymeric flat-sheet membranes with different properties were used in filtration experiments with activated sludge from a pilot-scale MBR to investigate the influence of membrane pore size, surface porosity, pore morphology, and hydrophobicity on membrane fouling. An improved flux-step method was

  7. Autophagosomal membranes assemble at ER-plasma membrane contact sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimbeni, Anna Chiara; Codogno, Patrice; Morel, Etienne

    2017-01-01

    The biogenesis of autophagosome, the double membrane bound organelle related to macro-autophagy, is a complex event requiring numerous key-proteins and membrane remodeling events. Our recent findings identify the extended synaptotagmins, crucial tethers of Endoplasmic Reticulum-plasma membrane contact sites, as key-regulators of this molecular sequence.

  8. Calcium incorporation in graphene oxide particles: A morphological, chemical, electrical, and thermal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Kelly L.S. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias (Brazil); Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos, 149, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Curti, Raphael V.; Araujo, Joyce R.; Landi, Sandra M.; Ferreira, Erlon H.M.; Neves, Rodrigo S.; Kuznetsov, Alexei; Sena, Lidia A. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias (Brazil); Archanjo, Braulio S., E-mail: bsarchanjo@inmetro.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias (Brazil); Achete, Carlos A. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias (Brazil); Departamento de Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Surface chemical modification and functionalization are common strategies used to provide new properties or functionalities to a material or to enhance existing ones. In this work, graphene oxide prepared using Hummers' method has been chemically modified with calcium ions by immersion in a calcium carbonate solution. Transmission electron microscopy analyses showed that graphene oxide (GO) and calcium incorporated graphene oxide have a morphology similar to an ultra-thin membrane composed of overlapping sheets. X-ray diffraction and Fourier-infrared spectroscopy show that calcium carbonate residue was completely removed by hydrochloric acid washes. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping showed spatially homogeneous calcium in Ca-incorporated graphene oxide sample after HCl washing. This Ca is mainly ionic according to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and its incorporation promoted a small reduction in the graphene oxide structure, corroborated also by four-point probe measurements. A thermal study shows a remarkable increase in the GO stability with the presence of Ca{sup 2+} ions. - Highlights: • Graphene oxide has been chemically modified with Ca ions by immersion in a CaCO{sub 3} solution. • GO–Ca has morphology similar to an ultra-thin membrane composed of overlapping sheets. • CaCO{sub 3} residue was completely removed by acid washes, leaving only ionic calcium. • EDS maps show that Ca incorporation is spatially homogeneous in GO structure. • Thermal analyses show a remarkable increase in GO stability after Ca incorporation.

  9. Calcium incorporation in graphene oxide particles: A morphological, chemical, electrical, and thermal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Kelly L.S.; Curti, Raphael V.; Araujo, Joyce R.; Landi, Sandra M.; Ferreira, Erlon H.M.; Neves, Rodrigo S.; Kuznetsov, Alexei; Sena, Lidia A.; Archanjo, Braulio S.; Achete, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Surface chemical modification and functionalization are common strategies used to provide new properties or functionalities to a material or to enhance existing ones. In this work, graphene oxide prepared using Hummers' method has been chemically modified with calcium ions by immersion in a calcium carbonate solution. Transmission electron microscopy analyses showed that graphene oxide (GO) and calcium incorporated graphene oxide have a morphology similar to an ultra-thin membrane composed of overlapping sheets. X-ray diffraction and Fourier-infrared spectroscopy show that calcium carbonate residue was completely removed by hydrochloric acid washes. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping showed spatially homogeneous calcium in Ca-incorporated graphene oxide sample after HCl washing. This Ca is mainly ionic according to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and its incorporation promoted a small reduction in the graphene oxide structure, corroborated also by four-point probe measurements. A thermal study shows a remarkable increase in the GO stability with the presence of Ca"2"+ ions. - Highlights: • Graphene oxide has been chemically modified with Ca ions by immersion in a CaCO_3 solution. • GO–Ca has morphology similar to an ultra-thin membrane composed of overlapping sheets. • CaCO_3 residue was completely removed by acid washes, leaving only ionic calcium. • EDS maps show that Ca incorporation is spatially homogeneous in GO structure. • Thermal analyses show a remarkable increase in GO stability after Ca incorporation.

  10. Erythropoietin Receptor Signaling Is Membrane Raft Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Kathy L.; Fuhler, Gwenny M.; Johnson, Joseph O.; Clark, Justine A.; Caceres, Gisela C.; Sokol, Lubomir; List, Alan F.

    2012-01-01

    Upon erythropoietin (Epo) engagement, Epo-receptor (R) homodimerizes to activate JAK2 and Lyn, which phosphorylate STAT5. Although recent investigations have identified key negative regulators of Epo-R signaling, little is known about the role of membrane localization in controlling receptor signal fidelity. Here we show a critical role for membrane raft (MR) microdomains in creation of discrete signaling platforms essential for Epo-R signaling. Treatment of UT7 cells with Epo induced MR assembly and coalescence. Confocal microscopy showed that raft aggregates significantly increased after Epo stimulation (mean, 4.3±1.4(SE) vs. 25.6±3.2 aggregates/cell; p≤0.001), accompanied by a >3-fold increase in cluster size (p≤0.001). Raft fraction immunoblotting showed Epo-R translocation to MR after Epo stimulation and was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy in Epo stimulated UT7 cells and primary erythroid bursts. Receptor recruitment into MR was accompanied by incorporation of JAK2, Lyn, and STAT5 and their activated forms. Raft disruption by cholesterol depletion extinguished Epo induced Jak2, STAT5, Akt and MAPK phosphorylation in UT7 cells and erythroid progenitors. Furthermore, inhibition of the Rho GTPases Rac1 or RhoA blocked receptor recruitment into raft fractions, indicating a role for these GTPases in receptor trafficking. These data establish a critical role for MR in recruitment and assembly of Epo-R and signal intermediates into discrete membrane signaling units. PMID:22509308

  11. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2001-01-01

    Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals. This project has the following 6 main tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques

  12. Membrane distillation for milk concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moejes, S.N.; Romero Guzman, Maria; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Barrera, K.H.; Feenstra, L.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane distillation is an emerging technology to concentrate liquid products while producing high quality water as permeate. Application for desalination has been studied extensively the past years, but membrane distillation has also potential to produce concentrated food products like

  13. Filtration characteristics in membrane bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evenblij, H.

    2006-01-01

    Causes of and remedies for membrane fouling in Membrane Bioreactors for wastewater treatment are only poorly understood and described in scientific literature. A Filtration Characterisation Installation and a measurement protocol were developed with the aim of a) unequivocally determination and

  14. From shell to membrane theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destuynder, P.

    1981-02-01

    A new formulation of the membrane theory is presented in this paper. The assumptions which allow the Budiansky-Sanders' model or the membrane theory to be deduced from the three-dimensional case are pointed out [fr

  15. A novel low cost polyvinyl alcohol-Nafion-borosilicate membrane separator for microbial fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, B.R. [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Noori, Md.T. [Department of Agriculture and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Ghangrekar, M.M., E-mail: ghangrekar@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India)

    2016-10-01

    Composite membranes were developed from PVA-borosilicate (MP) and PVA-Nafion-borosilicate (MPN) for application in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The membranes were characterized in terms of water uptake, PBS uptake, oxygen diffusion and proton conductivity. Proton conductivity for MPN (0.07 Scm{sup −1}) was found to be higher as compared to that of MP (0.03 Scm{sup −1}). Oxygen diffusion coefficient for MPN was 1.47 fold lower than that for MP. As a result, MFC with PVA-Nafion-borosilicate membrane exhibited maximum power density of 6.8 Wm{sup −3}, which was 151% higher than the power produced by MFC having PVA-borosilicate membrane and it was comparable with MFC using Nafion 117 (7.1 Wm{sup −3}) membrane separator. This study demonstrates that borosilicate glass membrane incorporated with PVA-Nafion matrix can be a suitable alternative to costly polymeric membrane to increase power output of MFC. Using such membranes MFC can be fabricated at around 11 fold reduced cost as compared to Nafion 117. - Highlights: • Novel membranes using PVA and borosilicate composite were fabricated. • Proton diffusion for MPN was comparable with Nafion117. • MFC-PN produced power density comparable to MFC with Nafion 117 membrane. • MPN was fabricated at almost 11 times reduced cost than Nafion 117 membranes.

  16. Development of PVDF Membrane Nanocomposites via Various Functionalization Approaches for Environmental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Davenport

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Membranes are finding wide applications in various fields spanning biological, water, and energy areas. Synthesis of membranes to provide tunable flux, metal sorption, and catalysis has been done through pore functionalization of microfiltration (MF type membranes with responsive behavior. This methodology provides an opportunity to improve synthetic membrane performance via polymer fabrication and surface modification. By optimizing the polymer coagulation conditions in phase inversion fabrication, spongy polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF membranes with high porosity and large internal pore volume were created in lab and full scale. This robust membrane shows a promising mechanical strength as well as high capacity for loading of adsorptive and catalytic materials. By applying surface modification techniques, synthetic membranes with different functionality (carboxyl, amine, and nanoparticle-based were obtained. These functionalities provide an opportunity to fine-tune the membrane surface properties such as charge and reactivity. The incorporation of stimuli-responsive acrylic polymers (polyacrylic acid or sodium polyacrylate in membrane pores also results in tunable pore size and ion-exchange capacity. This provides the added benefits of adjustable membrane permeability and metal capture efficiency. The equilibrium and dynamic binding capacity of these functionalized spongy membranes were studied via calcium ion-exchange. Iron/palladium catalytic nanoparticles were immobilized in the polymer matrix in order to perform the challenging degradation of the environmental pollutant trichloroethylene (TCE.

  17. Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes using pulsed direct current nitrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Dipankar; Neogi, Sudarsan; De, Sirshendu, E-mail: sde@che.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2015-12-31

    Low temperature plasma treatment using pulsed direct current discharge of nitrogen gas was employed to enhance hydrophilicity of the polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes. The membranes were characterized in terms of morphology, structure, hydrophilicity, and membrane performance. Properties and functional groups on the surface of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes were investigated by contact angle, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Effects of plasma conditions, namely, pulsed voltage, duty cycle and treatment time on increase in membrane hydrophilicity were studied. Permeability of treated membrane was increased by 47% and it was retained up to 70 days. Surface etching due to plasma treatment was confirmed by weight loss of the treated membranes. Due to surface etching, average pore size increased and rejection of 200 kDa polyethylene glycol decreased to about 70% for the treated membrane. Oxygen and nitrogen functional groups were responsible for surface hydrophilicity. - Highlights: • Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes by pulsed direct current nitrogen plasma • Hydrophilic functional groups incorporated on the membrane surface • Significant enhancement of the permeability and wettability of the membranes • Water contact angle increased with storage time and finally stabilized.

  18. Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes using pulsed direct current nitrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Dipankar; Neogi, Sudarsan; De, Sirshendu

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature plasma treatment using pulsed direct current discharge of nitrogen gas was employed to enhance hydrophilicity of the polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes. The membranes were characterized in terms of morphology, structure, hydrophilicity, and membrane performance. Properties and functional groups on the surface of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes were investigated by contact angle, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Effects of plasma conditions, namely, pulsed voltage, duty cycle and treatment time on increase in membrane hydrophilicity were studied. Permeability of treated membrane was increased by 47% and it was retained up to 70 days. Surface etching due to plasma treatment was confirmed by weight loss of the treated membranes. Due to surface etching, average pore size increased and rejection of 200 kDa polyethylene glycol decreased to about 70% for the treated membrane. Oxygen and nitrogen functional groups were responsible for surface hydrophilicity. - Highlights: • Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes by pulsed direct current nitrogen plasma • Hydrophilic functional groups incorporated on the membrane surface • Significant enhancement of the permeability and wettability of the membranes • Water contact angle increased with storage time and finally stabilized.

  19. Fundamentals of membrane bioreactors materials, systems and membrane fouling

    CERN Document Server

    Ladewig, Bradley

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a critical, carefully researched, up-to-date summary of membranes for membrane bioreactors. It presents a comprehensive and self-contained outline of the fundamentals of membrane bioreactors, especially their relevance as an advanced water treatment technology. This outline helps to bring the technology to the readers’ attention, and positions the critical topic of membrane fouling as one of the key impediments to its more widescale adoption. The target readership includes researchers and industrial practitioners with an interest in membrane bioreactors.

  20. Cheap Thin Film Oxygen Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention provides a membrane, comprising a porous support layer a gas tight electronically and ionically conducting membrane layer and a catalyst layer, characterized in that the electronically and ionically conducting membrane layer is formed from a material having a crystallite...... structure with a crystal size of about 1 to 100 nm, and a method for producing same....

  1. Mesoporous and microporous titania membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sekulic, J.

    2004-01-01

    The research described in this thesis deals with the synthesis and properties of ceramic oxide membrane materials. Since most of the currently available inorganic membranes with required separation properties have limited reliability and long-term stability, membranes made of new oxide materials

  2. Membranes suited for immobilizing biomolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to flow-through membranes suitable for the immobilization of biomols., methods for the prepn. of such membranes and the use of such membranes for the immobilization of biomols. and subsequent detection of immobilized biomols. The invention concerns a flow-through

  3. Constructing a proton titration curve from ion-step measurements, applied to a membrane with adsorbed protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Bosch, Coen; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet

    1997-01-01

    A new measuring method is described for obtaining a proton titration curve. The curve is obtained from a microporous composite membrane, consisting of polystyrene beads in an agarose matrix, with lysozyme molecules adsorbed to the bead surface. The membrane is incorporated into a sensor system by

  4. Localization of foot-and-mouth disease - RNA synthesis on newly formed cellular smooth membranous vacuoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polatnick, J.; Wool, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Viral RNA synthesis in foot-and-mouth disease infected bovine kidney cell cultures was associated throughout the infectious period with newly formed smooth membranous vacuoles. Membrane formation was measured by choline uptake. The site of RNA synthesis was determined by electron microscopic examination of autoradiograms of incorporated [ 3 H] uridine. Both membrane formation and RNA synthesis became signifcant at 2.5 hours postinfection, but membrane formation increased steadily to 4.5 hours while RNA synthesis peaked at 3.5 hours. Percent density distributions of developed silver grains on autoradiograms showed that almost all RNA synthesis was concentrated on the smooth vacuoles of infected cells. Histogram analysis of grain density distributions established that the site of RNA synthesis was the vacuolar membrane. The newly formed smooth membrane-bound vacuoles were not seen to coalesce into the large vacuolated areas typical of poliovirus cytopathogenicity. (Author)

  5. Localization of foot-and-mouth disease - RNA synthesis on newly formed cellular smooth membranous vacuoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polatnick, J.; Wool, S.H. (United States Department of Agriculture, Science and Education, Greenport, New York (USA). Agricultural Research, Plum Island Animal Disease Center)

    1982-01-01

    Viral RNA synthesis in foot-and-mouth disease infected bovine kidney cell cultures was associated throughout the infectious period with newly formed smooth membranous vacuoles. Membrane formation was measured by choline uptake. The site of RNA synthesis was determined by electron microscopic examination of autoradiograms of incorporated (/sup 3/H) uridine. Both membrane formation and RNA synthesis became signifcant at 2.5 hours postinfection, but membrane formation increased steadily to 4.5 hours while RNA synthesis peaked at 3.5 hours. Percent density distributions of developed silver grains on autoradiograms showed that almost all RNA synthesis was concentrated on the smooth vacuoles of infected cells. Histogram analysis of grain density distributions established that the site of RNA synthesis was the vacuolar membrane. The newly formed smooth membrane-bound vacuoles were not seen to coalesce into the large vacuolated areas typical of poliovirus cytopathogenicity.

  6. Performance evaluation of carbon nanotube enhanced membranes for SWRO pretreatment application

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jieun

    2016-04-25

    Multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) membrane was tested for SWRO pretreatment. The MWCNT membrane itself showed a superior permeate flux (321.3 LMH/bar), which was 4-times as polyethersulfone ultrafiltration (PES-UF) membrane. Reduction of dissolved organic matter improved to 66% with fewer amounts of powder activated carbon (PAC) (0.5 g/L) in MWCNT membrane filtration maintaining a high permeate flux of 600 LMH/bar. It was due to the increased porosity (84.5%) and hydrophilicity (52.9°) by incorporating MWCNT/polyaniline into PES membrane. Ionic strength affected organic removal in seawater filtration by altering electrostatic interaction between organic matter and surface charge of the positively charged MWCNT membrane.

  7. CO2-Switchable Membranes Prepared by Immobilization of CO2-Breathing Microgels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Wang, Zhenwu; Lei, Lei; Tang, Jun; Wang, Jianli; Zhu, Shiping

    2017-12-20

    Herein, we report the development of a novel CO 2 -responsive membrane system through immobilization of CO 2 -responsive microgels into commercially available microfiltration membranes using a method of dynamic adsorption. The microgels, prepared from soap-free emulsion polymerization of CO 2 -responsive monomer 2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DEA), can be reversibly expanded and shrunken upon CO 2 /N 2 alternation. When incorporated into the membranes, this switching behavior was preserved and further led to transformation between microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes, as indicated from the dramatic changes on water flux and BSA rejection results. This CO 2 -regulated performance switching of membranes was caused by the changes of water transportation channel, as revealed from the dynamic water contact angle tests and SEM observation. This work represents a simple yet versatile strategy for making CO 2 -responsive membranes.

  8. Impact of monoolein on aquaporin1-based supported lipid bilayer membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhining; Wang, Xida; Ding, Wande; Wang, Miaoqi; Gao, Congjie; Qi, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) based biomimetic membranes have attracted considerable attention for their potential water purification applications. In this paper, AQP1 incorporated biomimetic membranes were prepared and characterized. The morphology and structure of the biomimetic membranes were characterized by in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM), infrared absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and contact angle measurements. The nanofiltration performance of the AQP1 incorporated membranes was investigated at 4 bar by using 2 g l −1 NaCl as feed solution. Lipid mobility plays an important role in the performance of the AQP1 incorporated supported lipid bilayer (SLB) membranes. We demonstrated that the lipid mobility is successfully tuned by the addition of monoolein (MO). Through in situ AFM and fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching (FRAP) measurements, the membrane morphology and the molecular mobility were studied. The lipid mobility increased in the sequence DPPC < DPPC/MO (R MO = 5/5) < DOPC/MO (R MO = 5/5) < DOPC, which is consistent with the flux increment and salt rejection. This study may provide some useful insights for improving the water purification performance of biomimetic membranes. (paper)

  9. Impact of sludge flocs on membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Niessen, Wolfgang; Jørgensen, Mads Koustrup

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR) are widely used for wastewater treatment, but membrane fouling reduces membrane performance and thereby increases the cost for membranes and fouling control. Large variation in filtration properties measured as flux decline was observed for the different types of sludges....... Further, the flux could partly be reestablished after the relaxation period depending on the sludge composition. The results underline that sludge properties are important for membrane fouling and that control of floc properties, as determined by the composition of the microbial communities...... and the physico-chemical properties, is an efficient method to reduce membrane fouling in the MBR. High concentration of suspended extracellular substances (EPS) and small particles (up to 10 µm) resulted in pronounced fouling propensity. The membrane fouling resistance was reduced at high concentration...

  10. Injectible candidate sealants for fetal membrane repair: Bonding and toxicity in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilic, Grozdana; Brubaker, Carrie; Messersmith, Phillip B.; Mallik, Ajit S.; Quinn, Thomas M.; Haller, Claudia; Done, Elisa; Gucciardo, Leonardo; Zeisberger, Steffen M.; Zimmermann, Roland; Deprest, Jan; Zisch, Andreas H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study was undertaken to test injectible surgical sealants that are biocompatible with fetal membranes, eventually for closure of iatrogenic membrane defects. Study Design Dermabond, Histoacryl, Tissucol fibrin glue, and three types of in situ forming poly(ethylene glycol)-based polymer hydrogels were tested for acute toxicity upon direct contact with fetal membranes for 24h. For determination of elution toxicity, extracts of sealants were incubated on amnion cell cultures for 72h. Bonding and toxicity was assessed through morphological and/or biochemical analysis. Results Extracts of all adhesives were non-toxic for cultured cells. However, only Tissucol and one type of poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogel, mussel-mimetic tissue adhesive, showed efficient, non-disruptive, non-toxic bonding to fetal membranes. Mussel-mimetic tissue adhesive applied over membrane defects created with a 3.5 mm trocar accomplished leak-proof closure that withstood membrane stretch in an in vitro model. Conclusion A synthetic hydrogel-type tissue adhesive emerged as potential sealing modality for iatrogenic membrane defects that merits further evaluation in vivo. PMID:20096254

  11. Pulse radiolysis studies of model membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijman, M.G.J.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis the influence of the structure of membranes on the processes in cell membranes were examined. Different models of the membranes were evaluated. Pulse radiolysis was used as the technique to examine the membranes. (R.B.)

  12. α-Tocopherol incorporation in mitochondria and microsomes upon supranutritional vitamin E supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is a major lipid-soluble chain-breaking antioxidant in humans and mammals and plays an important role in normal development and physiology. The localization of α-tocopherol within the highly unsaturated phospholipid bilayer of cell membranes provides a means of controlling...... cellular compartments is important in order to maintain oxidative stability of the membrane-bound lipids and prevent damage from the reactive oxygen species. Many studies regarding mitochondrial disease and dysfunction have been performed in relation to deficiency of vitamin E and other antioxidants...... with antioxidants on their incorporation into mitochondria and other cellular membranes. The purpose of this review is therefore to briefly summarize experimental data performed with dietary vitamin E treatments in relation to the deposition of α-tocopherol in mitochondria and microsomes....

  13. Physicochemical characterization of artificial nanoerythrosomes derived from erythrocyte ghost membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deák, Róbert; Mihály, Judith; Szigyártó, Imola Cs; Wacha, András; Lelkes, Gábor; Bóta, Attila

    2015-11-01

    Colloidal stabile nanoerythrosomes with 200 nm average diameter were formed from hemoglobin-free erythrocyte ghost membrane via sonication and membrane extrusion. The incorporation of extra lipid (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, DPPC), added to the sonicated ghosts, caused significant changes in the thermotropic character of the original membranes. As a result of the increased DPPC ratio the chain melting of the hydrated DPPC system and the characteristic small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of the lipid bilayers appeared. Significant morphological changes were followed by transmission electron microscopy combined with freeze fracture method (FF-TEM). After the ultrasonic treatment the large entities of erythrocyte ghosts transformed into nearly spherical nanoerythrosomes with diameters between 100 and 300 nm and at the same time a great number of 10-30 nm large membrane proteins or protein clusters were dispersed in the aqueous medium. The infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) pointed out, that the sonication did not cause changes in the secondary structures of the membrane proteins under our preparation conditions. About fivefold of extra lipid--compared to the lipid content of the original membrane--caused homogeneous dispersion of nanoerythrosomes however the shape of the vesicles was not uniform. After the addition of about tenfold of DPPC, monoform and monodisperse nanoerythrosomes became typical. The outer surfaces of these roughly spherical objects were frequently polygonal, consisting of a net of pentagons and hexagons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Formation of oriented membrane multilayers of Na/K-ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachence, J.M.; Knott, R.; Edelman, I.S.; Schoenborn, B.P.; Wallace, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    The isolated membrane-bound enzyme retains its ouabain-sensitive ATP hydrolysis activity, and produces ATP-dependent Na + and K + fluxes when incorporated into phospholipid vesicles. The ultimate goal of this work is to determine its low resolution structure using both X-ray and neutron diffraction. A number of methods were used to impart lamellar stacking order to highly purified pig Na/K-ATPase membranes. Upon partial dehydration, x-ray diffraction from Na/K-ATPase membrane multilayers at 98% relative humidity yielded discrete reflections of 118 A periodicity, diffracting to 1/14.8 A -1 , additionally, continuous diffraction to 1/10 A -1 was obtained. Subjecting the membrane multilayers to high magnetic fields improved the quality of the lamellar diffraction dramatically. Neutron diffraction studies of the partially dehydrated Na/K-ATPase membrane multilayers detected a mosaic spread of 2 0 when the samples were subjected to a magnetic field of 5 Tesla perpendicular to the membrane surface; the reflections were narrower than the camera line width; hence, the lattice disorder has also decreased significantly, although only four orders were measured

  15. Membrane microparticles and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z-H; Ji, C-L; Li, H; Qiu, G-X; Gao, C-J; Weng, X-S

    2013-09-01

    Membrane microparticles (MPs) are plasma membrane-derived vesicles shed by various types of activated or apoptotic cells including platelets, monocytes, endothelial cells, red blood cells, and granulocytes. MPs are being increasingly recognized as important regulators of cell-to-cell interactions. Recent evidences suggest they may play important functions not only in homeostasis but also in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases such as vascular diseases, cancer, infectious diseases and diabetes mellitus. Accordingly, inhibiting the production of MPs may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for these diseases. Here we review recent advances on the mechanism underlying the generation of MPs and the role of MPs in vascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, inflammation, and pathogen infection.

  16. Physics of smectic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieranski, P.; Beliard, L.; Tournellec, J.-Ph.; Leoncini, X.; Furtlehner, C.; Dumoulin, H.; Riou, E.; Jouvin, B.; Fénerol, J.-P.; Palaric, Ph.; Heuving, J.; Cartier, B.; Kraus, I.

    1993-03-01

    Due to their layered structure, smectic liquid crystals can form membranes, similar to soap bubbles, that can be spanned on frames. Such smectic membranes have been used extensively as samples in many structural X-ray studies of smectic liquid crystals. In this context they have been considered as very convenient and highly perfect samples but little attention has been paid to the reasons for their existence and to the process of their formation. Our aim here is to address a first list of questions, which are the most urgent to answer. We will also describe experiments and models that have been conceived especially in order to understand the physics of these fascinating systems.

  17. Radiation effects on cell membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeteles, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    The recent developments in the field of membrane biology of eukaryotic cells result in revival of relevant radiobiological studies. The spatial relations and chemical nature of membrane components provide rather sensitive targets. Experimental data are presented concerning the effects of relatively low doses of X-irradiation and low concentration of tritiated water (HTO) on various receptor functions - concanavalin A, cationized ferritin, poliovirus - of plasma membranes of animal and human cells which point to early and temporary disturbances of the composite structures and functions of membranes. References are given to the multifold roles of radiationinduced membrane phenomena on the development and regeneration of radiation injuries. (orig.)

  18. Radiation effects on cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeteles, G.J.

    1982-11-01

    The recent developments in the field of membrane biology of eukaryotic cells result in revival of relevant radiobiological studies. The spatial relations and chemical nature of membrane components provide rather sensitive targets. Experimental data are presented concerning the effects of relatively low doses of X-irradiation and low concentration of tritiated water (HTO) on various receptor functions - concanavalin A, cationized ferritin, poliovirus - of plasma membranes of animal and human cells which point to early and temporary disturbances of the composite structures and functions of membranes. References are given to the multifold roles of radiationinduced membrane phenomena on the development and regeneration of radiation injuries.

  19. Choroidal neovascular membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt Nitul; Diamond James; Jalali Subhadra; Das Taraprasad

    1998-01-01

    Choroidal neovascular membrane in the macular area is one of the leading causes of severe visual loss. Usually a manifestation in elderly population, it is often associated with age-related macular degeneration. The current mainstay of management is early diagnosis, usually by fundus examination, aided by angiography and photocoagulation in selected cases. Various other modalities of treatment including surgery are being considered as alternate options, but with limited success. The purpose o...

  20. Generalized chiral membrane dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, R.; Rojas, E.

    2003-01-01

    We develop the dynamics of the chiral superconducting membranes (with null current) in an alternative geometrical approach. Besides of this, we show the equivalence of the resulting description with the one known Dirac-Nambu-Goto (DNG) case. Integrability for chiral string model is obtained using a proposed light-cone gauge. In a similar way, domain walls are integrated by means of a simple Ansatz. (Author)

  1. Membrane Stability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-09-30

    The Electrosynthesis Co. Inc. (ESC) was contracted by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company to investigate the long term performance and durability of cell components (anode, membrane, cathode) in an electrochemical caustic recovery process using a simulated SRC liquid waste as anolyte solution. This report details the results of two long-term studies conducted using an ICI FM01 flow cell. This cell is designed and has previously been demonstrated to scale up directly into the commercial scale ICI FM21 cell.

  2. Membrane technology applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golomb, A

    1990-10-01

    Due to a continuing emphasis on increasing the efficiency of utilizing the Province's electrical energy system, a Membrane Testing and Development Facility (MTDF) has been established at Ontario Hydro Research Division. The MTDF comprises bench-scale and pilot-scale reverse osmosis (RO) and ultrafiltration (UF) systems. RO and UF are membrane separation technologies which with microfiltration (MF) have found numerous industrial applications in wastewater treatment and/or byproduct recovery. Since no phase change is involved in RO and UF, they are more energy efficient separation processes than, say, evaporation or distillation. Initial tests have been carried out to demonstrate the capability of the newly-established MTDF. Bench- and pilot-scale RO treatment, at 4.1 MPa applied pressure, of a simulated nickel plating waste rinse stream was demonstrated. RO membrane rejection efficiencies for nickel were 99+% (in the bench scale test) and 99.9+% (on the pilot scale). Volume reduction factors of about 25 were attained, at purified water flux rates in the range 1 to 1.5 m{sup 3}/m{sup 2} per day. Good correlation was noted between bench-scale and pilot-scale RO test results. Pilot-scale UF of a simulated industrial cutting oil/water waste emulsion at 0.40 MPa gave 99+% oil rejection (pilot scale) at a flux rate of 0.7 m{sup 3}/m{sup 2} per day. A volume reduction of about 5.2 was attained. Overviews of opportunities for membrane separation technology applied to the metal cutting and surface finishing industries, and the food and beverage industry are given. Capabilities (and some present needs) of the MTDF are outlined, with recommendations. 17 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Electrochemical polymer electrolyte membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Jianhua; Wilkinson, David P

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Polymer Electrolyte Membranes covers PEMs from fundamentals to applications, describing their structure, properties, characterization, synthesis, and use in electrochemical energy storage and solar energy conversion technologies. Featuring chapters authored by leading experts from academia and industry, this authoritative text: Discusses cutting-edge methodologies in PEM material selection and fabricationPoints out important challenges in developing PEMs and recommends mitigation strategies to improve PEM performanceAnalyzes the cur

  4. High Efficiency Semi-Fuel Cell Incorporating an Ion Exchange Membrane

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Medeiros, Maria G; Dow, Eric G; Bessette, Russell R; Yan, Susan G; Dischert, Dwayne W

    2004-01-01

    It is a general purpose and object of the present invention to eliminate the parasitic direct reaction of the catholyte with the metal anode in a semi-fuel cell, thereby improving the overall energy...

  5. Ammonium addition inhibits 13C-methane incorporation into methanotroph membrane lipids in a freshwater sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nold, s.c.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Pel, R.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the effect of ammonium addition on the species composition and activity of freshwater methane oxidizing bacteria, intact sediment cores were labeled with (CH4)-C-13 and incubated under ambient and elevated ammonium concentrations. After 7 days, methanotroph activity was assessed by

  6. Ammonium addition inhibits 13C-methane incorporation into methanotroph membrane lipids in a freshwater sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nold, S.C.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Pel, R.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the effect of ammonium addition on the species composition and activity of freshwater methane oxidizing bacteria, intact sediment cores were labeled with 13CH4 and incubated under ambient and elevated ammonium concentrations. After 7 days, methanotroph activity was assessed by

  7. A new potentiometric electrode incorporating functionalized β-cyclodextrins for diclofenac determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenik, Joanna

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the preparation of diclofenac-selective membrane electrodes incorporating β-cyclodextrins: (2-hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin, heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin, and heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-benzoyl)-β-cyclodextrin. Several plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membranes of different compositions were tested with the best electrode being the one incorporating heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-benzoyl)-β-cyclodextrin with the membrane plasticized with 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether. The electrode is characterized by a near-Nernstian response slope of -60.0 mV decade(-1) over the linear range of 5.0×10(-5)-1.0×10(-2) mol L(-1) and a limit of detection of 1.4×10(-5) mol L(-1). The proposed electrode can easily discriminate diclofenac ions from several inorganic and organic interferents and some common drug excipients. The electrode has a response time of 10s and can be used within a pH range of 6.2-8.5 over 10 months without any considerable deterioration. The electrical properties of the membrane electrode were studied by impedance spectroscopy. The notable advantages of the diclofenac-selective electrode include its high sensitivity, selectivity, cost-effectiveness, and comfortable application in drug and urine analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Neutrons and model membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragneto, G.

    2012-11-01

    Current research in membrane protein biophysics highlights the emerging role of lipids in shaping membrane protein function. Cells and organisms have developed sophisticated mechanisms for controlling the lipid composition and many diseases are related to the failure of these mechanisms. One of the recent advances in the field is the discovery of the existence of coexisting micro-domains within a single membrane, important for regulating some signaling pathways. Many important properties of these domains remain poorly characterized. The characterization and analysis of bio-interfaces represent a challenge. Performing measurements on these few nanometer thick, soft, visco-elastic and dynamic systems is close to the limits of the available tools and methods. Neutron scattering techniques including small angle scattering, diffraction, reflectometry as well as inelastic methods are rapidly developing for these studies and are attracting an increasing number of biologists and biophysicists at large facilities. This manuscript will review some recent progress in the field and provide perspectives for future developments. It aims at highlighting neutron reflectometry as a versatile method to tackle questions dealing with the understanding and function of biomembranes and their components. The other important scattering methods are only briefly introduced.

  9. Viral membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism

  10. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Nemser, PhD

    2010-10-01

    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  11. Quantum charged rigid membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, Ruben [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N., Unidad Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Molgado, Alberto [Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas Zac. (Mexico); Rojas, Efrain, E-mail: cordero@esfm.ipn.mx, E-mail: amolgado@fisica.uaz.edu.mx, E-mail: efrojas@uv.mx [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2011-03-21

    The early Dirac proposal to model the electron as a charged membrane is reviewed. A rigidity term, instead of the natural membrane tension, involving linearly the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the membrane is considered in the action modeling the bubble in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We set up this model as a genuine second-order derivative theory by considering a non-trivial boundary term which plays a relevant part in our formulation. The Lagrangian in question is linear in the bubble acceleration and by means of the Ostrogradski-Hamiltonian approach, we observed that the theory comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints. We thus show that our second-order approach is robust allowing for a proper quantization. We found an effective quantum potential which permits us to compute bounded states for the system. We comment on the possibility of describing brane world universes by invoking this kind of second-order correction terms.

  12. Quantum charged rigid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, Ruben; Molgado, Alberto; Rojas, Efrain

    2011-01-01

    The early Dirac proposal to model the electron as a charged membrane is reviewed. A rigidity term, instead of the natural membrane tension, involving linearly the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the membrane is considered in the action modeling the bubble in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We set up this model as a genuine second-order derivative theory by considering a non-trivial boundary term which plays a relevant part in our formulation. The Lagrangian in question is linear in the bubble acceleration and by means of the Ostrogradski-Hamiltonian approach, we observed that the theory comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints. We thus show that our second-order approach is robust allowing for a proper quantization. We found an effective quantum potential which permits us to compute bounded states for the system. We comment on the possibility of describing brane world universes by invoking this kind of second-order correction terms.

  13. Viral membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Stephen C., E-mail: harrison@crystal.harvard.edu

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  14. El debate de la eutanasia y el suicidio asistido en perspectiva comparada: garantías de procedimiento a tener en cuenta ante su eventual despenalización en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rey Martinez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se examina la regulación jurídica de la eutanasia y del suicidio asistido por médico en diversos ordenamientos donde se permiten bajo ciertas condiciones. Concretamente, se estudian las experiencias de despenalización parcial de la eutanasia de Holanda y Bélgica y el procedimiento de suicidio asistido disponible en el Estado norteamericano de Oregón. De esta «mirada por encima de las fronteras » se extraen algunas de las garantías que una eventual y futura despenalización del suicidio asistido y/o de la eutanasia en España debiera contemplar para garantizar el libre consentimiento del sujeto».

  15. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an arti......This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated...... by an artificial liquid membrane. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction is a modification of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, where the hollow fibers are replaced by flat membranes in a 96-well plate format....

  16. Solid-state membrane module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard [Salt Lake City, UT; Taylor, Dale M [Murray, UT

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  17. Flux Enhancement in Membrane Distillation Using Nanofiber Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jiříček

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane distillation (MD is an emerging separation technology, whose largest application potential lies in the desalination of highly concentrated solutions, which are out of the scope of reverse osmosis. Despite many attractive features, this technology is still awaiting large industrial application. The main reason is the lack of commercially available membranes with fluxes comparable to reverse osmosis. MD is a thermal separation process driven by a partial vapour pressure difference. Flux, distillate purity, and thermal efficiency are always in conflict, all three being strictly connected with pore size, membrane hydrophobicity, and thickness. The world has not seen the ideal membrane yet, but nanofibers may offer a solution to these contradictory requirements. Membranes of electrospun PVDF were tested under various conditions on a direct contact (DCMD unit, in order to determine the optimum conditions for maximum flux. In addition, their performance was compared to commonly available PTFE, PE, and PES membranes. It was confirmed that thinner membranes have higher fluxes and a lower distillate purity and also higher energy losses via conduction across the membrane. As both mass and heat transfer are connected, it is best to develop new membranes with a target application in mind, for the specific membrane module and operational conditions.

  18. Progress in Nano-Engineered Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membrane Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinern, Gerrard Eddy Jai; Ali, Nurshahidah; Fawcett, Derek

    2011-01-01

    The anodization of aluminum is an electro-chemical process that changes the surface chemistry of the metal, via oxidation, to produce an anodic oxide layer. During this process a self organized, highly ordered array of cylindrical shaped pores can be produced with controllable pore diameters, periodicity and density distribution. This enables anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes to be used as templates in a variety of nanotechnology applications without the need for expensive lithographical techniques. This review article is an overview of the current state of research on AAO membranes and the various applications of nanotechnology that use them in the manufacture of nano-materials and devices or incorporate them into specific applications such as biological/chemical sensors, nano-electronic devices, filter membranes and medical scaffolds for tissue engineering. PMID:28880002

  19. The Role of Lipid Membranes in Life’s Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Deamer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At some point in early evolution, life became cellular. Assuming that this step was required for the origin of life, there would necessarily be a pre-existing source of amphihilic compounds capable of assembling into membranous compartments. It is possible to make informed guesses about the properties of such compounds and the conditions most conducive to their self-assembly into boundary structures. The membranes were likely to incorporate mixtures of hydrocarbon derivatives between 10 and 20 carbons in length with carboxylate or hydroxyl head groups. Such compounds can be synthesized by chemical reactions and small amounts were almost certainly present in the prebiotic environment. Membrane assembly occurs most readily in low ionic strength solutions with minimal content of salt and divalent cations, which suggests that cellular life began in fresh water pools associated with volcanic islands rather than submarine hydrothermal vents.

  20. Polymer-SnO2 composite membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Casper Frydendal; Skou, Eivind Morten

    . This work utilizes the latter approach and makes use of particles of tin dioxide (SnO2). Polymer-SnO2 composite membranes were successfully prepared using an ion-exchange method. SnO2 was incorporated into membranes by ion-exchange in solutions of SnCl2 ∙ 2 H2O in methanol, followed by oxidation to SnO2...... in air. The content of SnO2 proved controllable by adjusting the concentration of the ion-exchange solution. The prepared nanocomposite membranes were characterized by powder XRD, 119Sn MAS NMR, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, water uptake and tensile stress-strain measurements. For Nafion 117...

  1. Aquaporin-Based Biomimetic Polymeric Membranes: Approaches and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Joachim; Hansen, Michael; Kynde, Søren; Larsen, Nanna; Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Jensen, Grethe Vestergaard; Bomholt, Julie; Ogbonna, Anayo; Almdal, Kristoffer; Schulz, Alexander; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, aquaporin biomimetic membranes (ABMs) for water separation have gained considerable interest. Although the first ABMs are commercially available, there are still many challenges associated with further ABM development. Here, we discuss the interplay of the main components of ABMs: aquaporin proteins (AQPs), block copolymers for AQP reconstitution, and polymer-based supporting structures. First, we briefly cover challenges and review recent developments in understanding the interplay between AQP and block copolymers. Second, we review some experimental characterization methods for investigating AQP incorporation including freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, stopped-flow light scattering, and small-angle X-ray scattering. Third, we focus on recent efforts in embedding reconstituted AQPs in membrane designs that are based on conventional thin film interfacial polymerization techniques. Finally, we describe some new developments in interfacial polymerization using polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane cages for increasing the physical and chemical durability of thin film composite membranes. PMID:26264033

  2. Progress in Nano-Engineered Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membrane Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinern, Gerrard Eddy Jai; Ali, Nurshahidah; Fawcett, Derek

    2011-02-25

    The anodization of aluminum is an electro-chemical process that changes the surface chemistry of the metal, via oxidation, to produce an anodic oxide layer. During this process a self organized, highly ordered array of cylindrical shaped pores can be produced with controllable pore diameters, periodicity and density distribution. This enables anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes to be used as templates in a variety of nanotechnology applications without the need for expensive lithographical techniques. This review article is an overview of the current state of research on AAO membranes and the various applications of nanotechnology that use them in the manufacture of nano-materials and devices or incorporate them into specific applications such as biological/chemical sensors, nano-electronic devices, filter membranes and medical scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  3. Progress in Nano-Engineered Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membrane Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrard Eddy Jai Poinern

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The anodization of aluminum is an electro-chemical process that changes the surface chemistry of the metal, via oxidation, to produce an anodic oxide layer. During this process a self organized, highly ordered array of cylindrical shaped pores can be produced with controllable pore diameters, periodicity and density distribution. This enables anodic aluminum oxide (AAO membranes to be used as templates in a variety of nanotechnology applications without the need for expensive lithographical techniques. This review article is an overview of the current state of research on AAO membranes and the various applications of nanotechnology that use them in the manufacture of nano-materials and devices or incorporate them into specific applications such as biological/chemical sensors, nano-electronic devices, filter membranes and medical scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  4. Towards Co-evolution of Membranes and Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chenyu; Wilson, Michael A.; Pohorille, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Conceptually, the most robust way to explain how primitive cell-like structures acquired and increased their capabilities is on the basis of Darwinian evolution. A population of protocells containing material that produced more environmentally fit progeny would increase in time at the expense of other protocells. In this scenario, protocellular boundaries were inextricably connected to the metabolism they encapsulated: to be inheritable, early metabolism must have led to an increased rate of growth and division of vesicles and, similarly, transport through vesicle boundaries must have supported the evolution of metabolism. Everything that could not be delivered from the environment had to be produced and retained inside protocells. Despite their importance to the understanding of the origin of life, only a few cases of coupling between metabolism and membrane-related processes have been identified so far. For example, reactions inside fatty-acid vesicles have been linked to their competitive growth and division, and mechanisms by which membrane permeability might have coupled to information polymers have been proposed and explained. Most recently, it has been shown that a dipeptide inside fatty-acid vesicles catalyzes the formation of another dipeptide that binds to vesicle walls and, by doing so, promotes their growth at the expense of other vesicles, thus demonstrating evolutionary advantage of small, membrane-bound peptides. It has been shown that the appearance of phospholipids imparted selective advantage to protocells bound by phospholipid-containing membranes, eventually driving fatty-acid vesicles to extinction. Phospholipid membranes, however, are nearly impermeable to charged species. Yet, the ability to transport ions across membranes was vital for regulating cellular volume, pH homeostasis, generating energy and sensing the environment. To account for this, evolutionary scenarios for the emergence of simple ion channels, protein structures surrounding

  5. Atomic force microscopy on plasma membranes from Xenopus laevis oocytes containing human aquaporin 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Francesco; Santacroce, Massimo; Cremona, Andrea; Gosvami, Nitya N; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Hoogenboom, Bart W

    2014-11-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a unique tool for imaging membrane proteins in near-native environment (embedded in a membrane and in buffer solution) at ~1 nm spatial resolution. It has been most successful on membrane proteins reconstituted in 2D crystals and on some specialized and densely packed native membranes. Here, we report on AFM imaging of purified plasma membranes from Xenopus laevis oocytes, a commonly used system for the heterologous expression of membrane proteins. Isoform M23 of human aquaporin 4 (AQP4-M23) was expressed in the X. laevis oocytes following their injection with AQP4-M23 cRNA. AQP4-M23 expression and incorporation in the plasma membrane were confirmed by the changes in oocyte volume in response to applied osmotic gradients. Oocyte plasma membranes were then purified by ultracentrifugation on a discontinuous sucrose gradient, and the presence of AQP4-M23 proteins in the purified membranes was established by Western blotting analysis. Compared with membranes without over-expressed AQP4-M23, the membranes from AQP4-M23 cRNA injected oocytes showed clusters of structures with lateral size of about 10 nm in the AFM topography images, with a tendency to a fourfold symmetry as may be expected for higher-order arrays of AQP4-M23. In addition, but only infrequently, AQP4-M23 tetramers could be resolved in 2D arrays on top of the plasma membrane, in good quantitative agreement with transmission electron microscopy analysis and the current model of AQP4. Our results show the potential and the difficulties of AFM studies on cloned membrane proteins in native eukaryotic membranes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Theoretical modeling and experimental validation of transport and separation properties of carbon nanotube electrospun membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil; Lee, Eui-Jong; Jeong, Sanghyun; Guo, Jiaxin; An, Alicia Kyoungjin; Guo, Hong; Kim, Joonha; Leiknes, TorOve; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2016-01-01

    Developing a high flux and selective membrane is required to make membrane distillation (MD) a more attractive desalination process. Amongst other characteristics membrane hydrophobicity is significantly important to get high vapor transport and low wettability. In this study, a laboratory fabricated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite electrospun (E-CNT) membrane was tested and has showed a higher permeate flux compared to poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PH) electrospun membrane (E-PH membrane) in a direct contact MD (DCMD) configuration. Only 1% and 2% of CNTs incorporation resulted in an enhanced permeate flux with lower sensitivity to feed salinity while treating a 35 and 70 g/L NaCl solutions. Experimental results and the mechanisms of E-CNT membrane were validated by a proposed new step-modeling approach. The increased vapor transport in E-CNT membranes could not be elucidated by an enhancement of mass transfer only at a given physico-chemical properties. However, the theoretical modeling approach considering the heat and mass transfers simultaneously enabled to explain successfully the enhanced flux in the DCMD process using E-CNT membranes. This indicates that both mass and heat transfers improved by CNTs are attributed to the enhanced vapor transport in the E-CNT membrane.

  7. Investigation of Electrochemical and Morphological Properties of Mixed Matrix Polysulfone-Silica Anion Exchange Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoiruddin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mixed matrix anion exchange membranes (AEMs were synthesized using dry-wet phase inversion. The casting solutions were prepared by dispersing finely ground anion-exchange resin particles in N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc solutions of polysulfone (PSf. Subsequently, nanosilica particles were introduced into the membranes. The results show that evaporation time (tev and solution composition contributed to membrane properties formation. A longer tev produces membranes with reduced void fraction inside the membranes, thus the amount of water adsorbed and membrane conductivity are reduced. Meanwhile, the permselectivity was improved by increasing tev, since a longer tev produces membranes with a narrower channel for ion migration and more effective Donnan exclusion. The incorporation of 0.5 %-wt nanosilica particles into the polymer matrix led to conductivity improvement (from 2.27 to 3.41 mS.cm-1. This may be associated with additional pathway formation by hydroxyl groups on the silica surface that entraps water and assists ion migration. However, at further silica loading (1.0 and 1.5 %-wt, these properties decreased (to 1.9 and 1.4 mS.cm-1 respectively, which attributed to inaccessibility of ion-exchange functional groups due to membrane compactness. It was found from the results that nanosilica contributes to membrane formation (increases casting solution viscosity then reduces void fraction and membrane functional group addition (provides hydroxyl groups.

  8. Antibacterial Membrane with a Bone-Like Structure for Guided Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YuYuan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An antibacterial membrane with a bone-like structure was developed for guided bone regeneration (GBR by mineralising acellular bovine pericardium (ABP and loading it with the antibiotic minocycline. The bovine pericardium (BP membrane was processed using physical and chemical methods to remove the cellular components and obtain ABP membranes. Then, the ABP membranes were biomimetically mineralised using a calcium phosphate-loaded agarose hydrogel system aided by electrophoresis. Minocycline was adsorbed to the mineralised ABP membrane, and the release profile in vitro was studied. The membranes were characterised through scanning electron microscopy, diffuse reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Results showed that the ABP membrane had an asymmetric structure with a layer of densely arranged and irregularly aligned collagen fibrils. Collagen fibrils were calcified with the formation of intrafibrillar and interfibrillar hydroxyapatites similar to the bone structure. Minocycline was incorporated into the mineralised collagen membrane and could be released in vitro. This process endowed the membrane with an antibacterial property. This novel composite membrane offers promising applications in bioactive GBR.

  9. Theoretical modeling and experimental validation of transport and separation properties of carbon nanotube electrospun membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2016-12-27

    Developing a high flux and selective membrane is required to make membrane distillation (MD) a more attractive desalination process. Amongst other characteristics membrane hydrophobicity is significantly important to get high vapor transport and low wettability. In this study, a laboratory fabricated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite electrospun (E-CNT) membrane was tested and has showed a higher permeate flux compared to poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PH) electrospun membrane (E-PH membrane) in a direct contact MD (DCMD) configuration. Only 1% and 2% of CNTs incorporation resulted in an enhanced permeate flux with lower sensitivity to feed salinity while treating a 35 and 70 g/L NaCl solutions. Experimental results and the mechanisms of E-CNT membrane were validated by a proposed new step-modeling approach. The increased vapor transport in E-CNT membranes could not be elucidated by an enhancement of mass transfer only at a given physico-chemical properties. However, the theoretical modeling approach considering the heat and mass transfers simultaneously enabled to explain successfully the enhanced flux in the DCMD process using E-CNT membranes. This indicates that both mass and heat transfers improved by CNTs are attributed to the enhanced vapor transport in the E-CNT membrane.

  10. Zirconium oxide nanotube-Nafion composite as high performance membrane for all vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Md. Abdul; Shanmugam, Sangaraju

    2017-01-01

    A high-performance composite membrane for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) consisting of ZrO2 nanotubes (ZrNT) and perfluorosulfonic acid (Nafion) was fabricated. The VRB operated with a composite (Nafion-ZrNT) membrane showed the improved ion-selectivity (ratio of proton conductivity to permeability), low self-discharge rate, high discharge capacity and high energy efficiency in comparison with a pristine commercial Nafion-117 membrane. The incorporation of zirconium oxide nanotubes in the Nafion matrix exhibits high proton conductivity (95.2 mS cm-1) and high oxidative stability (99.9%). The Nafion-ZrNT composite membrane exhibited low vanadium ion permeability (3.2 × 10-9 cm2 min-1) and superior ion selectivity (2.95 × 107 S min cm-3). The VRB constructed with a Nafion-ZrNT composite membrane has lower self-discharge rate maintaining an open-circuit voltage of 1.3 V for 330 h relative to a pristine Nafion membrane (29 h). The discharge capacity of Nafion-ZrNT membrane (987 mAh) was 3.5-times higher than Nafion-117 membrane (280 mAh) after 100 charge-discharge cycles. These superior properties resulted in higher coulombic and voltage efficiencies with Nafion-ZrNT membranes compared to VRB with Nafion-117 membrane at a 40 mA cm-2 current density.

  11. Surface patterning of polymeric separation membranes and its influence on the filtration performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruf, Sajjad

    Polymeric membrane based separation technologies are crucial for addressing the global issues such as water purification. However, continuous operations of these processes are often hindered by fouling which increases mass transport resistance of the membrane to permeation and thus the energy cost, and eventually replacement of the membrane in the system. In comparison to other anti-fouling strategies, the use of controlled surface topography to mitigate fouling has not been realized mainly due to the lack of methods to create targeted topography on the porous membrane surface. This thesis aims to develop a new methodology to create surface-patterned polymeric separation membrane to improve their anti-fouling characteristics during filtration. First, successful fabrication of sub-micron surface patterns directly on a commercial ultrafiltration (UF) membrane surface using nanoimprint lithographic (NIL) technique was demonstrated. Comprehensive filtration studies revealed that the presence of these sub-micron surface patterns mitigates not only the onset of colloidal particle deposition, but also lowers the rate of growth of cake layer after initial deposition, in comparison with un-patterned membranes. The anti-fouling effects were also observed for model protein solutions. Staged filtration experiments, with backwash cleaning, revealed that the permeate flux of the patterned membrane after protein fouling was considerably higher than that of the pristine or un-patterned membrane. In addition to the surface-patterning of UF membranes, successful fabrication of a surface-patterned thin film composite (TFC) membrane was shown for the first time. A two-step fabrication process was carried out by (1) nanoimprinting a polyethersulfone (PES) support using NIL, and (2) forming a thin dense film atop the PES support via interfacial polymerization (IP). Fouling experiments suggest that the surface patterns alter the hydrodynamics at the membrane-feed interface, which is

  12. Recovery of hydrogen from impurities using a palladium membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willms, R.S.; Okuno, K.

    1993-01-01

    One of the important steps in processing the exhaust from a fusion reactor is recovering tritium which is incorporated into molecules such as water and methane. One device which may prove to be very effective for this purpose is a palladium membrane reactor. This is a reactor which incorporates a Pd/Ag membrane in the reactor geometry. Reactions such as water gas shift, steam reforming and methane cracking can be carried out over the reactor catalyst, and the product hydrogen can be simultaneously removed from the reacting mixture. Because product is removed, greater than usual conversions can be obtained. In addition ultrapure hydrogen is produced, eliminating the need for an additional processing step. A palladium membrane reactor has been built and tested with three different catalysts. Initial results with a Ni-based catalyst show that it is very effective at promoting all three reactions listed above. Under the proper conditions, hydrogen recoveries approaching 100% have been observed. This study serves to experimentally validate the palladium membrane reactor as potentially important tool for fusion fuel processing

  13. Mechanical, thermal and swelling properties of phosphorylated nanocellulose fibrils/PVA nanocomposite membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Muhammad Bilal Khan; Jahan, Zaib; Berg, Sigrun Sofie; Gregersen, Øyvind Weiby

    2017-12-01

    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) have strong reinforcing properties when incorporated in a compatible polymer matrix. This work reports the effect of the addition of phosphorylated nanocellulose (PCNF) on the mechanical, thermal and swelling properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposite membranes. The incorporation of nanocellulose in PVA reduced the crystallinity at 0%RH. However, when the films were exposed to higher humidities the crystallinity increased. No apparent trend is observed for mechanical properties for dry membranes (0% RH). However, at 93% RH the elastic modulus increased strongly from 0.12MPa to 0.82MPa when adding 6% PCNF. At higher humidities, the moisture uptake has large influence on storage modulus, tan δ and tensile properties. Membranes containing 1% PCNF absorbed most moisture. Swelling, thermal and mechanical properties indicate a good potential for applying of PVA/phosphorylated nanocellulose composite membranes for CO 2 separation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Spin Label Studies of the Hemoglobin-Membrane Interaction During Sickle Hemoglobin Polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcon Dieguez, Jose E.; Rodi, Pablo; Lores Guevara, Manuel A.; Gennaro, Ana Maria

    2009-12-01

    An enhanced hemoglobin-membrane association has been previously documented in Sickle Cell Anemia. However, it is not known how this interaction is modified during the hemoglobin S polymerization process. In this work, we use a model of reconstituted erythrocytes from ghost membranes whose cytoskeleton proteins had been previously labeled with the 4-maleimido Tempo spin label, and that were subsequently resealed with hemoglobin S or A solutions. Using EPR spectroscopy, we studied the time dependence of the spectral W/S parameter, indicative of the conformational state of cytoskeleton proteins (mainly spectrin) under spontaneous deoxygenation, with the aim of detecting the eventual effects due to hemoglobin S polymerization. The differences observed in the temporal behaviour of W/S in erythrocytes reconstituted with both hemoglobins were considered as experimental evidence of an increment in hemoglobin S-membrane interaction, as a result of the polymerization process of hemoglobin S under spontaneous deoxygenation. (author)

  15. Modelling the transport of carbonic acid anions through anion-exchange membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonenko, V.; Lebedev, K.; Manzanares, J.A.; Pourcelly, G.

    2003-01-01

    Electrodiffusion of carbonate and bicarbonate anions through anion-exchange membranes (AEM) is described on the basis of the Nernst-Planck equations taking into account coupled hydrolysis reactions in the external diffusion boundary layers (DBLs) and internal pore solution. The model supposes local electroneutrality as well as chemical and thermodynamic equilibrium. The transport is considered in three layers being an anion exchange membrane and two adjoining diffusion layers. A mechanism of competitive transport of HCO 3 - and CO 3 2- anions through the membrane which takes into account Donnan exclusion of H + ions is proposed. It is predicted that the pH of the depleting solution decreases and that of the concentrating solution increases during electrodialysis (ED). Eventual deviations from local electroneutrality and local chemical equilibrium are discussed

  16. Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, W. S. Winston

    2012-10-02

    Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes are provided. The membranes can include at least one hydrophilic polymer, at least one cross-linking agent, at least one base, and at least one amino compound. The methods of separating gases using membranes can include contacting a gas stream containing at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl with one side of a nonporous and at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl selectively permeable membrane such that at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl is selectively transported through the membrane.

  17. Polyazole hollow fiber membranes for direct contact membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Maab, Husnul; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Francis, Lijo; Livazovic, Sara; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Amy, Gary L.; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Porous hollow fiber membranes were fabricated from fluorinated polyoxadiazole and polytriazole by a dry-wet spinning method for application in desalination of Red Sea water by direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). The data were compared with commercially available hollow fiber MD membranes prepared from poly(vinylidene fluoride). The membranes were characterized by electron microscopy, liquid entry pressure (LEP), and pore diameter measurements. Finally, the hollow fiber membranes were tested for DCMD. Salt selectivity as high as 99.95% and water fluxes as high as 35 and 41 L m -2 h-1 were demonstrated, respectively, for polyoxadiazole and polytriazole hollow fiber membranes, operating at 80 C feed temperature and 20 C permeate. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  18. Polyazole hollow fiber membranes for direct contact membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Maab, Husnul

    2013-08-07

    Porous hollow fiber membranes were fabricated from fluorinated polyoxadiazole and polytriazole by a dry-wet spinning method for application in desalination of Red Sea water by direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). The data were compared with commercially available hollow fiber MD membranes prepared from poly(vinylidene fluoride). The membranes were characterized by electron microscopy, liquid entry pressure (LEP), and pore diameter measurements. Finally, the hollow fiber membranes were tested for DCMD. Salt selectivity as high as 99.95% and water fluxes as high as 35 and 41 L m -2 h-1 were demonstrated, respectively, for polyoxadiazole and polytriazole hollow fiber membranes, operating at 80 C feed temperature and 20 C permeate. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Yoong-Kee [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Henson, Neil J.; Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT). We have elucidated that the aryl-ether moiety of membranes is one of the weakest site against attack of hydroxide ions. The results of DFT calculations for hydroxide initiated aryl-ether cleavage indicated that the aryl-ether cleavage occurred prior to degradation of cationic functional group. Such a weak nature of the aryl-ether group arises from the electron deficiency of the aryl group as well as the low bond dissociation energy. The DFT results suggests that removal of the aryl-ether group in the membrane should enhance the stability of membranes under alkaline conditions. In fact, an ether fee poly(phenylene) membrane exhibits excellent stability against the attack from hydroxide ions.

  20. Reactive Membrane Barriers for Containment of Subsurface Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William A. Arnold; Edward L. Cussler

    2007-02-26

    The overall goal of this project was to develop reactive membrane barriers--a new and flexible technique to contain and stabilize subsurface contaminants. Polymer membranes will leak once a contaminant is able to diffuse through the membrane. By incorporating a reactive material in the polymer, however, the contaminant is degraded or immobilized within the membrane. These processes increase the time for contaminants to breakthrough the barrier (i.e. the lag time) and can dramatically extend barrier lifetimes. In this work, reactive barrier membranes containing zero-valent iron (Fe{sup 0}) or crystalline silicotitanate (CST) were developed to prevent the migration of chlorinated solvents and cesium-137, respectively. These studies were complemented by the development of models quantifying the leakage/kill time of reactive membranes and describing the behavior of products produced via the reactions within the membranes. First, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes containing Fe{sup 0} and CST were prepared and tested. Although PVA is not useful in practical applications, it allows experiments to be performed rapidly and the results to be compared to theory. For copper ions (Cu{sup 2+}) and carbon tetrachloride, the barrier was effective, increasing the time to breakthrough over 300 times. Even better performance was expected, and the percentage of the iron used in the reaction with the contaminants was determined. For cesium, the CST laden membranes increased lag times more than 30 times, and performed better than theoretical predictions. A modified theory was developed for ion exchangers in reactive membranes to explain this result. With the PVA membranes, the effect of a groundwater matrix on barrier performance was tested. Using Hanford groundwater, the performance of Fe{sup 0} barriers decreased compared to solutions containing a pH buffer and high levels of chloride (both of which promote iron reactivity). For the CST bearing membrane, performance improved by a

  1. Reactive Membrane Barriers for Containment of Subsurface Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William A. Arnold; Edward L. Cussler

    2007-01-01

    The overall goal of this project was to develop reactive membrane barriers--a new and flexible technique to contain and stabilize subsurface contaminants. Polymer membranes will leak once a contaminant is able to diffuse through the membrane. By incorporating a reactive material in the polymer, however, the contaminant is degraded or immobilized within the membrane. These processes increase the time for contaminants to breakthrough the barrier (i.e. the lag time) and can dramatically extend barrier lifetimes. In this work, reactive barrier membranes containing zero-valent iron (Fe 0 ) or crystalline silicotitanate (CST) were developed to prevent the migration of chlorinated solvents and cesium-137, respectively. These studies were complemented by the development of models quantifying the leakage/kill time of reactive membranes and describing the behavior of products produced via the reactions within the membranes. First, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes containing Fe 0 and CST were prepared and tested. Although PVA is not useful in practical applications, it allows experiments to be performed rapidly and the results to be compared to theory. For copper ions (Cu 2+ ) and carbon tetrachloride, the barrier was effective, increasing the time to breakthrough over 300 times. Even better performance was expected, and the percentage of the iron used in the reaction with the contaminants was determined. For cesium, the CST laden membranes increased lag times more than 30 times, and performed better than theoretical predictions. A modified theory was developed for ion exchangers in reactive membranes to explain this result. With the PVA membranes, the effect of a groundwater matrix on barrier performance was tested. Using Hanford groundwater, the performance of Fe 0 barriers decreased compared to solutions containing a pH buffer and high levels of chloride (both of which promote iron reactivity). For the CST bearing membrane, performance improved by a factor of three when

  2. Enhanced the performance of graphene oxide/polyimide hybrid membrane for CO2 separation by surface modification of graphene oxide using polyethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-guang; Yang, Cai-hong; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Xue-yang

    2018-05-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) with different molecular weights was first used to modify graphene oxide (GO) samples. Subsequently, polyimide (PI) hybrid membranes containing modified-GO were fabricated via in situ polymerization. The separation performance of these hybrid membranes was evaluated using permeation experiments for CO2 and N2 gases. The morphology characterization showed that PEG with suitable molecular weight could be successfully grafted on the GO surface. PEG modification altered the surface properties of GO and introduced defective structures onto GO surface. This caused strong surface polarity and high free volume of membranes containing PEG-modified GO, thereby improving the separation performance of membranes. The addition of PEG-GO with low molecular weight effectively increased gas diffusion through hybrid membranes. The hybrid membranes containing PEG-GO with large molecular weight had high solubility performance for CO2 gas due to the introduction of numerous polar groups into polymeric membranes. With the loading content of modified GO, the CO2 gas permeability of hybrid membranes initially increased but eventually decreased. The optimal content of modified GO in membranes reached 3.0 wt%. When too much PEG added (exceeding 30 g), some impurities formed on GO surface and some aggregates appeared in the resulting hybrid membrane, which depressed the membrane performance.

  3. Formulation of Bioadhesive Carbomer Gel Incorporating Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    incorporated into carbomer gel and evaluated for drug release. Results: ... localized delivery system for the treatment inflammation and infection in periodontal pockets. ..... loaded with diclofenac sodium for intra- articular administration. J Drug ...

  4. Different kinetic in incorporation and depletion of n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes and leukocytes of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Thogersen, Regitze Louise; Maaetoft-Udsen, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    during a 6-wk feeding period. Over the first 3-wk period (the incorporation period) the mice were fed a special diet with a high n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio. In the following 3-wk period (the depletion period) the mice were fed a standard chow diet. A linear increase of the concentration of EPA and DHA...... in erythrocyte membranes was observed during the incorporation period, whereas a stagnation was observed after the second week for leukocytes. The level of EPA did not fall to the background level after the depletion period, and the level of DHA was kept almost constant during the depletion period...... in the erythrocyte membranes. In leukocytes the concentration of both EPA and DHA decreased during the depletion period, but did not reach the background level after the 3-wk depletion. In conclusion, the kinetics of EPA and DHA in the different cells are different. The rate of incorporation is faster than...

  5. Immobilization of tris(2 pyridyl methylamine in a PVC-Membrane Sensor and Characterization of the Membrane Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezayi Majid

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the increasing industrial use of titanium compounds, its determination is the subject of considerable efforts. The ionophore or membrane active recognition is the most important component of any polymeric membrane sensor. The sensor’s response depends on the ionophore and bonding between the ionophore and the target ion. Ionophores with molecule-sized dimensions containing cavities or semi-cavities can surround the target ion. The bond between the ionophore and target ion gives different selectivity and sensitivity toward the other ions. Therefore, ionophores with different binding strengths can be used in the sensor. Results In the present work, poly (vinyl chloride (PVC based membrane incorporating tris (2 pyridyl methylamine (tpm as an ionophore has been prepared and explored as a titanium(III selective sensor. Conclusions The strengths of the ion–ionophore (Ti(OH2+-tpm interactions and the role of ionophore on membrane were tested by various techniques such as elemental analysis, UV–vis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD. All data approved the successful incorporation of organic group via covalent bond.

  6. Zeolite-imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) membrane synthesis on a mixed-matrix substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Barankova, Eva; Neelakanda, Pradeep; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2013-01-01

    A thin, dense, compact and hydrogen selective ZIF-8 membrane was synthesized on a polymer/metal oxide mixed-matrix support by a secondary seeding method. The new concept of incorporating ZnO particles into the support and PDMS coating of the ZIF-8 layer is introduced to improve the preparation of ZIF-polymer composite membranes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Amodiaquine polymeric membrane electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malongo, T Kimbeni; Blankert, B; Kambu, O; Amighi, K; Nsangu, J; Kauffmann, J-M

    2006-04-11

    The construction and electrochemical response characteristics of two types of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane sensors for the determination of amodiaquine hydrochloride (ADQ.2HCl) are described. The sensing membrane comprised an ion-pair formed between the cationic drug and sodium tetraphenyl borate (NaTPB) or potassium tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl) borate (KTCPB) in a plasticized PVC matrix. Eight PVC membrane ion-selective electrodes were fabricated and studied. Several plasticizers were studied namely, dioctyl phthalate (DOP), 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), dioctyl phenylphosphonate (DOPP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (EHA). The sensors display a fast, stable and near-Nernstian response over a relative wide ADQ concentration range (3.2 x 10(-6) to 2.0 x 10(-2) M), with slopes comprised between 28.5 and 31.4 mV dec(-1) in a pH range comprised between pH 3.7 and 5.5. The assay of amodiaquine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage forms using one of the proposed sensors gave average recoveries of 104.3 and 99.9 with R.S.D. of 0.3 and 0.6% for tablets (Malaritab) and a reconstituted powder containing ADQ.2HCl, respectively. The sensor was also used for dissolution profile studies of two drug formulations. The sensor proved to have a good selectivity for ADQ.2HCl over some inorganic and organic compounds, however, berberine chloride interfered significantly. The results were validated by comparison with a spectrophotometric assay according to the USP pharmacopoeia.

  8. Introducing Membrane Charge and Membrane Potential to T Cell Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqing Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available While membrane models now include the heterogeneous distribution of lipids, the impact of membrane charges on regulating the association of proteins with the plasma membrane is often overlooked. Charged lipids are asymmetrically distributed between the two leaflets of the plasma membrane, resulting in the inner leaflet being negatively charged and a surface potential that attracts and binds positively charged ions, proteins, and peptide motifs. These interactions not only create a transmembrane potential but they can also facilitate the formation of charged membrane domains. Here, we reference fields outside of immunology in which consequences of membrane charge are better characterized to highlight important mechanisms. We then focus on T cell receptor (TCR signaling, reviewing the evidence that membrane charges and membrane-associated calcium regulate phosphorylation of the TCR–CD3 complex and discuss how the immunological synapse exhibits distinct patterns of membrane charge distribution. We propose that charged lipids, ions in solution, and transient protein interactions form a dynamic equilibrium during T cell activation.

  9. Papain incorporated chitin dressings for wound debridement sterilized by gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Durgeshwer; Singh, Rita

    2012-11-01

    Wound debridement is essential for the removal of necrotic or nonviable tissue from the wound surface to create an environment conducive to healing. Nonsurgical enzymatic debridement is an attractive method due to its effectiveness and ease of use. Papain is a proteolytic enzyme derived from the fruit of Carica papaya and is capable of breaking down a variety of necrotic tissue substrates. The present study was focused on the use of gamma radiation for sterilization of papain dressing with wound debriding activity. Membranes with papain were prepared using 0.5% chitin in lithium chloride/dimethylacetamide solvent and sterilized by gamma radiation. Fluid absorption capacity of chitin-papain membranes without glycerol was 14.30±6.57% in 6 h. Incorporation of glycerol resulted in significant (p<0.001) increase in the absorption capacity. Moisture vapour transmission rate of the membranes was 4285.77±455.61 g/m2/24 h at 24 h. Gamma irradiation at 25 kGy was found suitable for sterilization of the dressings. Infrared (IR) spectral scanning has shown that papain was stable on gamma irradiation at 25-35 kGy. The irradiated chitin-papain membranes were impermeable to different bacterial strains and also exhibited strong bactericidal action against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The fluid handling characteristics and the antimicrobial properties of chitin-papain membranes sterilized by gamma radiation were found suitable for use as wound dressing with debriding activity.

  10. Oxygen Transport Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay

    2008-08-30

    The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the

  11. Molecularly Imprinted Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Francesco; Biasizzo, Miriam; Caldera, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    Although the roots of molecularly imprinted polymers lie in the beginning of 1930s in the past century, they have had an exponential growth only 40–50 years later by the works of Wulff and especially by Mosbach. More recently, it was also proved that molecular imprinted membranes (i.e., polymer thin films) that show recognition properties at molecular level of the template molecule are used in their formation. Different procedures and potential application in separation processes and catalysis are reported. The influences of different parameters on the discrimination abilities are also discussed. PMID:24958291

  12. Choroidal neovascular membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Nitul

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Choroidal neovascular membrane in the macular area is one of the leading causes of severe visual loss. Usually a manifestation in elderly population, it is often associated with age-related macular degeneration. The current mainstay of management is early diagnosis, usually by fundus examination, aided by angiography and photocoagulation in selected cases. Various other modalities of treatment including surgery are being considered as alternate options, but with limited success. The purpose of this review is to briefly outline the current concepts and the management strategy from a clinician′s viewpoint.

  13. Choroidal neovascular membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, N S; Diamond, J G; Jalali, S; Das, T

    1998-06-01

    Choroidal neovascular membrane in the macular area is one of the leading causes of severe visual loss. Usually a manifestation in elderly population, it is often associated with age-related macular degeneration. The current mainstay of management is early diagnosis, usually by fundus examination, aided by angiography and photocoagulation in selected cases. Various other modalities of treatment including surgery are being considered as alternate options, but with limited success. The purpose of this review is to briefly outline the current concepts and the management strategy from a clinician's viewpoint.

  14. Membrane engineering via trans unsaturated fatty acids production improves Escherichia coli robustness and production of biorenewables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zaigao; Yoon, Jong Moon; Nielsen, David R; Shanks, Jacqueline V; Jarboe, Laura R

    2016-05-01

    Constructing microbial biocatalysts that produce biorenewables at economically viable yields and titers is often hampered by product toxicity. For production of short chain fatty acids, membrane damage is considered the primary mechanism of toxicity, particularly in regards to membrane integrity. Previous engineering efforts in Escherichia coli to increase membrane integrity, with the goal of increasing fatty acid tolerance and production, have had mixed results. Herein, a novel approach was used to reconstruct the E. coli membrane by enabling production of a novel membrane component. Specifically, trans unsaturated fatty acids (TUFA) were produced and incorporated into the membrane of E. coli MG1655 by expression of cis-trans isomerase (Cti) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. While the engineered strain was found to have no increase in membrane integrity, a significant decrease in membrane fluidity was observed, meaning that membrane polarization and rigidity were increased by TUFA incorporation. As a result, tolerance to exogenously added octanoic acid and production of octanoic acid were both increased relative to the wild-type strain. This membrane engineering strategy to improve octanoic acid tolerance was found to require fine-tuning of TUFA abundance. Besides improving tolerance and production of carboxylic acids, TUFA production also enabled increased tolerance in E. coli to other bio-products, e.g. alcohols, organic acids, aromatic compounds, a variety of adverse industrial conditions, e.g. low pH, high temperature, and also elevated styrene production, another versatile bio-chemical product. TUFA permitted enhanced growth due to alleviation of bio-product toxicity, demonstrating the general effectiveness of this membrane engineering strategy towards improving strain robustness. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane of the planarian Dugesia japonica after total-body x irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, I.

    1979-03-01

    Fresh-water planarians were studied to examine effects of x rays on regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane. During early stages of regeneration, free rhabdite-forming cells were associated with the wound epidermis and recruited it. In later stages, however, a gradual degeneration occurred in the epidermis and cells undergoing epithelization decreased in number. Eventually epidermal cells on the wound surface appeared necrotic as evidenced by pyknotic nuclei and vacuolized dense cytoplasm. The entire basement membrane could not be reconstituted in any stage after wounding though its precursor-like material was secreted in the interspace between epidermis and parenchyma. Morphological changes in extracellular products and in the cells surrounding the products suggest that epidermal cells which have covered the wound surface synthesize precursors of the basement membrane. Possible factors of a characteristic perturbation in epithelization and basement membrane formation after total-body irradiation are discussed.

  16. Regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane of the planarian Dugesia japonica after total-body x irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, I.

    1979-01-01

    Fresh-water planarians were studied to examine effects of x rays on regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane. During early stages of regeneration, free rhabdite-forming cells were associated with the wound epidermis and recruited it. In later stages, however, a gradual degeneration occurred in the epidermis and cells undergoing epithelization decreased in number. Eventually epidermal cells on the wound surface appeared necrotic as evidenced by pyknotic nuclei and vacuolized dense cytoplasm. The entire basement membrane could not be reconstituted in any stage after wounding though its precursor-like material was secreted in the interspace between epidermis and parenchyma. Morphological changes in extracellular products and in the cells surrounding the products suggest that epidermal cells which have covered the wound surface synthesize precursors of the basement membrane. Possible factors of a characteristic perturbation in epithelization and basement membrane formation after total-body irradiation are discussed

  17. Novicidin interactions with phospholipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balakrishnan, Vijay Shankar

    Antimicrobial peptides target bacterial cell membranes and are considered as potential antibiotics. Their interactions with cell membranes are studied using different approaches. This thesis comprises of the biophysical investigations on the antimicrobial peptide Novicidin, interacting with lipos......Antimicrobial peptides target bacterial cell membranes and are considered as potential antibiotics. Their interactions with cell membranes are studied using different approaches. This thesis comprises of the biophysical investigations on the antimicrobial peptide Novicidin, interacting...... with liposomes. The lipid-induced changes in the peptide due to membrane binding, and the peptide-induced changes in the membrane properties were investigated using various spectroscopic and calorimetric methods, and the structural and thermodynamic aspects of peptide-lipid interactions are discussed. This helps...

  18. Mathematical modelling of membrane separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Frank

    This thesis concerns mathematical modelling of membrane separation. The thesis consists of introductory theory on membrane separation, equations of motion, and properties of dextran, which will be the solute species throughout the thesis. Furthermore, the thesis consist of three separate mathemat......This thesis concerns mathematical modelling of membrane separation. The thesis consists of introductory theory on membrane separation, equations of motion, and properties of dextran, which will be the solute species throughout the thesis. Furthermore, the thesis consist of three separate...... mathematical models, each with a different approach to membrane separation. The first model is a statistical model investigating the interplay between solute shape and the probability of entering the membrane. More specific the transition of solute particles from being spherical to becoming more elongated...

  19. Radiation effects on cell membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeteles, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental data are presented concerning the effects of relatively low doses of x radiation and low concentration of tritiated water (HTO) on various receptor functions - concanavalin A, cationized ferritin, poliovirus of plasma membranes of animal and human cells which point to early and temporary disturbances of the composite structures and functions of membranes. References are given to the manifold influence of radiation-induced membrane phenomenon on the development and regeneration of radiation injuries. (author)

  20. Decrumpling membranes by quantum effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, M. E. S.; Kleinert, H.

    2001-02-01

    The phase diagram of an incompressible fluid membrane subject to quantum and thermal fluctuations is calculated exactly in a large number of dimensions of configuration space. At zero temperature, a crumpling transition is found at a critical bending rigidity 1/αc. For membranes of fixed lateral size, a crumpling transition occurs at nonzero temperatures in an auxiliary mean field approximation. As the lateral size L of the membrane becomes large, the flat regime shrinks with 1/ln L.

  1. Pyrolytic carbon membranes containing silica: morphological approach on gas transport behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ho Bum; Lee, Sun Yong; Lee, Young Moo

    2005-04-01

    Pyrolytic carbon membrane containing silica (C-SiO 2) is a new-class material for gas separation, and in the present work we will deal with it in view of the morphological changes arising from the difference in the molecular structure of the polymeric precursors. The silica embedded carbon membranes were fabricated by a predetermined pyrolysis step using imide-siloxane copolymers (PISs) that was synthesized from benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydrides (BTDA), 4,4'-oxydianiline (ODA), and amine-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). To induce different morphologies at the same chemical composition, the copolymers were prepared using one-step (preferentially a random segmented copolymer) sand two-step polymerization (a block segmented copolymer) methods. The polymeric precursors and their pyrolytic C-SiO 2 membranes were analyzed using thermal analysis, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, etc. It was found that the C-SiO 2 membrane derived from the random PIS copolymer showed a micro-structure containing small well-dispersed silica domains, whereas the C-SiO 2 membrane from the block PIS copolymer exhibited a micro-structure containing large silica domains in the continuous carbon matrix. Eventually, the gas transport through these C-SiO 2 membranes was significantly affected by the morphological changes of the polymeric precursors.

  2. Double liquid membrane system for the removal of actinides and lanthanides from acidic nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarizia, R.; Danesi, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    Supported liquid membranes (SLM), consisting of an organic solution of n-octyl-(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and tributyl-phosphate (TBP) in decalin are able to perform selective separation and concentration of actinide and lanthanide ions from aqueous nitrate feed solutions and synthetic nuclear wastes. In the membrane process a possible strip solution is a mixture of formic acid and hydroxylammonium formate (HAF). The effectiveness of this strip solution is reduced and eventually nullified by the simultaneous transfer through the SLM of nitric acid which accumulates in the strip solution. A possible way to overcome this drawback is to make use of a second SLM consisting of a primary amine which is able to extract only HNO 3 from the strip solution. In this work the results obtained by experimentally studying the membrane system: synthetic nuclear waste/CMPO-TBP membrane/HCOOH-HAF strip solution/primary amine membrane/NaOH solution, are reported. They show that the use of a second liquid membrane is effective in controlling the HNO 3 concentration in the strip solution, thus allowing the actinide and lanthanide ions removal from the feed solution to proceed to completion. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  3. Effects of X-irradiation on membranes of tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonck, K.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to gain more insight into the effect of ionizing radiation on biomembranes, especially the membrane phospholipids. A general outline of the experimental approach is given in the first chapter. The influence of membrane-active agents and hyperthermia on cell survival after irradiation was studied. Phospholipid turnover was followed by measuring the incorporation of radioactive precursors. The second chapter is an introduction to general radiobiology and to phospholipid metabolism. After the presentation of some physico-chemical properties of ionizing radiation, the effects on cells and cellular components are described. In chapters 3 to 6 the experimental part is described. Chapter 3 starts with the determination of the cellular survival of L5178Y lymphoma cells after X-irradiation. In chapter 4 the lipid composition of lymphosarcoma cell nuclei is presented and in chapter 5 studies on the effect of X-irradiation on the incorporation of palmitate and arachidonate into the phospholipids of lymphosarcoma cells are described. Chapter 6 describes experiments in which lymphosarcoma cells isolated from the spleens of tumor-bearing mice were used to study the effect of a low dose of X-rays (5 Gy) on the incorporation of [ 3 H]palmitate and [ 14 C]arachidonate into the lipids of the tumor cells. These fatty acids were rapidly incorporated especially into the phospholipids of the cells. Chapter 7 contains a general discussion on the experimental results. (Auth.)

  4. Two-component fluid membranes near repulsive walls: Linearized hydrodynamics of equilibrium and nonequilibrium states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankararaman, Sumithra; Menon, Gautam I; Sunil Kumar, P B

    2002-09-01

    We study the linearized hydrodynamics of a two-component fluid membrane near a repulsive wall, using a model that incorporates curvature-concentration coupling as well as hydrodynamic interactions. This model is a simplified version of a recently proposed one [J.-B. Manneville et al., Phys. Rev. E 64, 021908 (2001)] for nonequilibrium force centers embedded in fluid membranes, such as light-activated bacteriorhodopsin pumps incorporated in phospholipid egg phosphatidyl choline (EPC) bilayers. The pump-membrane system is modeled as an impermeable, two-component bilayer fluid membrane in the presence of an ambient solvent, in which one component, representing active pumps, is described in terms of force dipoles displaced with respect to the bilayer midpoint. We first discuss the case in which such pumps are rendered inactive, computing the mode structure in the bulk as well as the modification of hydrodynamic properties by the presence of a nearby wall. These results should apply, more generally, to equilibrium fluid membranes comprised of two components, in which the effects of curvature-concentration coupling are significant, above the threshold for phase separation. We then discuss the fluctuations and mode structure in the steady state of active two-component membranes near a repulsive wall. We find that proximity to the wall smoothens membrane height fluctuations in the stable regime, resulting in a logarithmic scaling of the roughness even for initially tensionless membranes. This explicitly nonequilibrium result is a consequence of the incorporation of curvature-concentration coupling in our hydrodynamic treatment. This result also indicates that earlier scaling arguments which obtained an increase in the roughness of active membranes near repulsive walls upon neglecting the role played by such couplings may need to be reevaluated.

  5. Epiretinal membrane surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamoudi, Hassan; Correll Christensen, Ulrik; La Cour, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of combined phacoemulsification-vitrectomy and sequential surgery for idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) on refractive error (RE) and macular morphology. Methods: In this prospective clinical trial, we allocated phakic eyes with ERM to (1) cataract surgery and subs......Purpose: To assess the impact of combined phacoemulsification-vitrectomy and sequential surgery for idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) on refractive error (RE) and macular morphology. Methods: In this prospective clinical trial, we allocated phakic eyes with ERM to (1) cataract surgery...... and achieved spherical equivalent); secondary outcomes were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and incidence of cystoid macular oedema (CME) defined as >10% increment of central subfield macular thickness (CSMT). Results: Sixty-two eyes were enrolled. The mean RE showed a small myopic shift of -0.36D in all...... between the groups. Four cases (17%) in the CAT group had resolved visual complaints and improved BCVA after cataract surgery resulting in no need for PPV within the follow-up period. Conclusion: Surgery for idiopathic ERM in phakic eyes with either phaco-vitrectomy or sequential surgery are equal...

  6. Current-Induced Membrane Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo; van Soestbergen, M.; Mani, A.

    2012-01-01

    . Salt depletion leads to a large electric field resulting in a local pH shift within the membrane with the effect that the membrane discharges and loses its ion selectivity. Since salt co-ions, H+ ions, and OH- ions contribute to OLC, CIMD interferes with electrodialysis (salt counterion removal...... neglects chemical effects and remains to be quantitatively tested. Here, we show that charge regulation and water self-ionization can lead to OLC by "current-induced membrane discharge'' (CIMD), even in the absence of fluid flow, in ion-exchange membranes much thicker than the local Debye screening length...

  7. Track membranes, production, properties, applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganesjan, Yu.Ts.

    1994-01-01

    The problems of producing track membranes on heavy ion beams of the Flerov Laboratory are considered. The parameters of the running accelerators and equipment for the irradiation of polymer foils are presented. The process of production of track membranes based on different polymeric materials and various applications of the membranes are described. Special attention is given to the principally new applications and devices developed at the Laboratory. This report presents the results obtained by a big group of scientists and engineers working in the field of elaboration, investigation and application of track membranes (author). 21 refs, 20 figs, 1 tab

  8. Functional microdomains in bacterial membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Daniel; Kolter, Roberto

    2010-09-01

    The membranes of eukaryotic cells harbor microdomains known as lipid rafts that contain a variety of signaling and transport proteins. Here we show that bacterial membranes contain microdomains functionally similar to those of eukaryotic cells. These membrane microdomains from diverse bacteria harbor homologs of Flotillin-1, a eukaryotic protein found exclusively in lipid rafts, along with proteins involved in signaling and transport. Inhibition of lipid raft formation through the action of zaragozic acid--a known inhibitor of squalene synthases--impaired biofilm formation and protein secretion but not cell viability. The orchestration of physiological processes in microdomains may be a more widespread feature of membranes than previously appreciated.

  9. Permeability testing of biomaterial membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreesmann, L; Hajosch, R; Nuernberger, J Vaz; Schlosshauer, B [NMI Natural and Medical Sciences Institute at University Tuebingen, Markwiesenstr. 55, D-72770 Reutlingen (Germany); Ahlers, M [GELITA AG, Gammelsbacher Str. 2, D-69412 Eberbach (Germany)], E-mail: schlosshauer@nmi.de

    2008-09-01

    The permeability characteristics of biomaterials are critical parameters for a variety of implants. To analyse the permeability of membranes made from crosslinked ultrathin gelatin membranes and the transmigration of cells across the membranes, we combined three technical approaches: (1) a two-chamber-based permeability assay, (2) cell culturing with cytochemical analysis and (3) biochemical enzyme electrophoresis (zymography). Based on the diffusion of a coloured marker molecule in conjunction with photometric quantification, permeability data for a gelatin membrane were determined in the presence or absence of gelatin degrading fibroblasts. Cytochemical evaluation after cryosectioning of the membranes was used to ascertain whether fibroblasts had infiltrated the membrane inside. Zymography was used to investigate the potential release of proteases from fibroblasts, which are known to degrade collagen derivatives such as gelatin. Our data show that the diffusion equilibrium of a low molecular weight dye across the selected gelatin membrane is approached after about 6-8 h. Fibroblasts increase the permeability due to cavity formation in the membrane inside without penetrating the membrane for an extended time period (>21 days in vitro). Zymography indicates that cavity formation is most likely due to the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases. In summary, the combination of the depicted methods promises to facilitate a more rational development of biomaterials, because it provides a rapid means of determining permeability characteristics and bridges the gap between descriptive methodology and the mechanistic understanding of permeability alterations due to biological degradation.

  10. Permeability testing of biomaterial membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesmann, L; Hajosch, R; Nuernberger, J Vaz; Schlosshauer, B; Ahlers, M

    2008-01-01

    The permeability characteristics of biomaterials are critical parameters for a variety of implants. To analyse the permeability of membranes made from crosslinked ultrathin gelatin membranes and the transmigration of cells across the membranes, we combined three technical approaches: (1) a two-chamber-based permeability assay, (2) cell culturing with cytochemical analysis and (3) biochemical enzyme electrophoresis (zymography). Based on the diffusion of a coloured marker molecule in conjunction with photometric quantification, permeability data for a gelatin membrane were determined in the presence or absence of gelatin degrading fibroblasts. Cytochemical evaluation after cryosectioning of the membranes was used to ascertain whether fibroblasts had infiltrated the membrane inside. Zymography was used to investigate the potential release of proteases from fibroblasts, which are known to degrade collagen derivatives such as gelatin. Our data show that the diffusion equilibrium of a low molecular weight dye across the selected gelatin membrane is approached after about 6-8 h. Fibroblasts increase the permeability due to cavity formation in the membrane inside without penetrating the membrane for an extended time period (>21 days in vitro). Zymography indicates that cavity formation is most likely due to the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases. In summary, the combination of the depicted methods promises to facilitate a more rational development of biomaterials, because it provides a rapid means of determining permeability characteristics and bridges the gap between descriptive methodology and the mechanistic understanding of permeability alterations due to biological degradation

  11. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  12. Composite membrane with integral rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routkevitch, Dmitri; Polyakov, Oleg G

    2015-01-27

    Composite membranes that are adapted for separation, purification, filtration, analysis, reaction and sensing. The composite membranes can include a porous support structure having elongate pore channels extending through the support structure. The composite membrane also includes an active layer comprising an active layer material, where the active layer material is completely disposed within the pore channels between the surfaces of the support structure. The active layer is intimately integrated within the support structure, thus enabling great robustness, reliability, resistance to mechanical stress and thermal cycling, and high selectivity. Methods for the fabrication of composite membranes are also provided.

  13. Mechanics of Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Thomas R.

    All cells have membranes. The plasma membrane encapsulates the cell's interior, acting as a barrier against the outside world. In cells with nuclei (eukaryotic cells), membranes also form internal compartments (organelles) which carry out specialized tasks, such as protein modification and sorting in the case of the Golgi apparatus, and ATP production in the case of mitochondria. The main components of membranes are lipids and proteins. The proteins can be channels, carriers, receptors, catalysts, signaling molecules, or structural elements, and typically contribute a substantial fraction of the total membrane dry weight. The equilibrium properties of pure lipid membranes are relatively well-understood, and will be the main focus of this article. The framework of elasticity theory and statistical mechanics that we will develop will serve as the foundation for understanding biological phenomena such as the nonequilibrium behavior of membranes laden with ion pumps, the role of membrane elasticity in ion channel gating, and the dynamics of vesicle fission and fusion. Understanding the mechanics of lipid membranes is also important for drug encapsulation and delivery.

  14. Amniotic membrane for burn trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamaluddin Zainol; Hasim Mohammad

    1999-01-01

    Amniotic membranes are derived from human placentae at birth. They have two layers mainly the amniotic and the chorionic surfaces which are separated by a thin layer of connective tissues. The two layers are separated during procurement, the placenta and the chorionic side are discarded and the amnion membranes are then further processed. Amnion membranes are normally procured from placentae which are normally free of infections, i.e; the mothers are antenatally screened for sexually transmitted diseases or AlDs related diseases. Intrapartum the mother should not be having chorioamnionitis or jaundice. Sometimes the amniotic membranes are acquired from fresh elective caeserian sections. After processing, the amniotic membranes are packed in two layers of polypropylene and radiated with cobalt 60 at a dose of about 25 kGy. The amniotic membranes are clinically used to cover burn surfaces especially effective for superficial or partial thickness burns. The thin membranes adhered well to the trauma areas and peeled off automatically by the second week. No change of dressing were necessary during these times because of the close adherence, there were less chance of external contamination or infections of these wounds. Due to their flexibility they are very useful to cover difference contours of the human body for example the face, body, elbows or knees. However our experience revealed that amniotic membranes are not useful for third degree bums because the membranes dissolves by the enzymes present in the wounds

  15. A Coarse Grained Model for a Lipid Membrane with Physiological Composition and Leaflet Asymmetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyan Sharma

    Full Text Available The resemblance of lipid membrane models to physiological membranes determines how well molecular dynamics (MD simulations imitate the dynamic behavior of cell membranes and membrane proteins. Physiological lipid membranes are composed of multiple types of phospholipids, and the leaflet compositions are generally asymmetric. Here we describe an approach for self-assembly of a Coarse-Grained (CG membrane model with physiological composition and leaflet asymmetry using the MARTINI force field. An initial set-up of two boxes with different types of lipids according to the leaflet asymmetry of mammalian cell membranes stacked with 0.5 nm overlap, reliably resulted in the self-assembly of bilayer membranes with leaflet asymmetry resembling that of physiological mammalian cell membranes. Self-assembly in the presence of a fragment of the plasma membrane protein syntaxin 1A led to spontaneous specific positioning of phosphatidylionositol(4,5bisphosphate at a positively charged stretch of syntaxin consistent with experimental data. An analogous approach choosing an initial set-up with two concentric shells filled with different lipid types results in successful assembly of a spherical vesicle with asymmetric leaflet composition. Self-assembly of the vesicle in the presence of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptobrevin 2 revealed the correct position of the synaptobrevin transmembrane domain. This is the first CG MD method to form a membrane with physiological lipid composition as well as leaflet asymmetry by self-assembly and will enable unbiased studies of the incorporation and dynamics of membrane proteins in more realistic CG membrane models.

  16. Multilayer models of photosynthetic membranes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocklehurst, J R; Flanagan, M T

    1982-01-01

    The primary aim of this project has been to build an artificial membrane in which is incorporated, in a functional state, the protein bacteriorhodopsin responsible for generating an electrical potential difference across the membrane of the photosynthetic bacterium, halobacterium halobium, and to investigate the use of this artificial system as the basis of a solar cell. the bacteriorhodopsin has been incorporated into Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers. If ths supporting filter is then illuminated, a potential difference is generated between the two compartments. The lipid in the filter appears to act as a charge carrier for protons, the charge species that forms the electrochemical gradient generated by the bacteriorhodopsin when this molecule absorbs light. The internal resistances of such solar cells were determined and found to be so high that the cells could not be seriously considered as competitors with classical semiconductor cells. Multilayerswere deposited onto filters in which ion carriers that make the filters permeable to sodium ions had been dissolved in the paraffin. The photovoltage obtained indicated that protons transferred from one side of the filter to the other by the action of the bacteriorhodopsin were bing exchanged for sodium ions. A secondary aim of the project has been to examine the possibility of depositing mixed multilayers of a dye and a long chain quinone onto a semiconductor surface. A sensitizing multilayer has been prepared and the mobility of long chain quinones within the layers is high enough to warrant further research. However, it was found that, with the dyes and quinones used, quenched complexes were formed which would not act as sensitizers.

  17. CO2-Philic polymer membrane with extremely high separation performance

    KAUST Repository

    Yave, Wilfredo

    2010-01-12

    Polymeric membranes are attractive for CO2 separation and concentration from different gas streams because of their versatility and energy efficiency; they can compete with, and they may even replace, traditional absorption processes. Here we describe a simple and powerful method for developing nanostructured and CO2-philic polymer membranes for CO2 separation. A poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene terephthalate) multiblock copolymer is used as membrane material. Smart additives such as polyethylene glycol dibutyl ether are incorporated as spacers or fillers for producing nanostructured materials. The addition of these specific additives produces CO2-philic membranes and increases the CO2 permeability (750 barrer) up to five-fold without the loss of selectivity. The membranes present outstanding performance for CO2 separation, and the measured CO2 flux is extremely high ( > 2 m3 m -2 h-1 bar-1) with selectivity over H2 and N2 of 10 and 40, respectively, making them attractive for CO 2 capture. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  18. CO2-Philic polymer membrane with extremely high separation performance

    KAUST Repository

    Yave, Wilfredo; Car, Anja; Funari, S.; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2010-01-01

    Polymeric membranes are attractive for CO2 separation and concentration from different gas streams because of their versatility and energy efficiency; they can compete with, and they may even replace, traditional absorption processes. Here we describe a simple and powerful method for developing nanostructured and CO2-philic polymer membranes for CO2 separation. A poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene terephthalate) multiblock copolymer is used as membrane material. Smart additives such as polyethylene glycol dibutyl ether are incorporated as spacers or fillers for producing nanostructured materials. The addition of these specific additives produces CO2-philic membranes and increases the CO2 permeability (750 barrer) up to five-fold without the loss of selectivity. The membranes present outstanding performance for CO2 separation, and the measured CO2 flux is extremely high ( > 2 m3 m -2 h-1 bar-1) with selectivity over H2 and N2 of 10 and 40, respectively, making them attractive for CO 2 capture. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  19. Calcium pumps of plasma membrane and cell interior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strehler, Emanuel E; Treiman, Marek

    2004-01-01

    Calcium entering the cell from the outside or from intracellular organelles eventually must be returned to the extracellular milieu or to intracellular storage organelles. The two major systems capable of pumping Ca2+ against its large concentration gradient out of the cell or into the sarco....../endoplasmatic reticulum are the plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPases (PMCAs) and the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPases (SERCAs), respectively. In mammals, multigene families code for these Ca2+ pumps and additional isoform subtypes are generated via alternative splicing. PMCA and SERCA isoforms show developmental-, tissue......- and cell type-specific patterns of expression. Different PMCA and SERCA isoforms are characterized by different regulatory and kinetic properties that likely are optimized for the distinct functional tasks fulfilled by each pump in setting resting cytosolic or intra-organellar Ca2+ levels, and in shaping...

  20. Comparison and analysis of membrane fouling between flocculent sludge membrane bioreactor and granular sludge membrane bioreactor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jing-Feng

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of inoculating granules on reducing membrane fouling. In order to evaluate the differences in performance between flocculent sludge and aerobic granular sludge in membrane reactors (MBRs, two reactors were run in parallel and various parameters related to membrane fouling were measured. The results indicated that specific resistance to the fouling layer was five times greater than that of mixed liquor sludge in the granular MBR. The floc sludge more easily formed a compact layer on the membrane surface, and increased membrane resistance. Specifically, the floc sludge had a higher moisture content, extracellular polymeric substances concentration, and negative surface charge. In contrast, aerobic granules could improve structural integrity and strength, which contributed to the preferable permeate performance. Therefore, inoculating aerobic granules in a MBR presents an effective method of reducing the membrane fouling associated with floc sludge the perspective of from the morphological characteristics of microbial aggregates.

  1. Degradation of Polypropylene Membranes Applied in Membrane Distillation Crystallizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Gryta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The studies on the resistance to degradation of capillary polypropylene membranes assembled in a membrane crystallizer were performed. The supersaturation state of salt was achieved by evaporation of water from the NaCl saturated solutions using membrane distillation process. A high feed temperature (363 K was used in order to enhance the degradation effects and to shorten the test times. Salt crystallization was carried out by the application of batch or fluidized bed crystallizer. A significant membrane scaling was observed regardless of the method of realized crystallization. The SEM-EDS, DSC, and FTIR methods were used for investigations of polypropylene degradation. The salt crystallization onto the membrane surface accelerated polypropylene degradation. Due to a polymer degradation, the presence of carbonyl groups on the membranes’ surface was identified. Besides the changes in the chemical structure a significant mechanical damage of the membranes, mainly caused by the internal scaling, was also found. As a result, the membranes were severely damaged after 150 h of process operation. A high level of salt rejection was maintained despite damage to the external membrane surface.

  2. Fabrication and optical characterization of large scale membrane containing InP/AlGaInP quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederbracht, H; Hargart, F; Schwartz, M; Koroknay, E; Kessler, C A; Jetter, M; Michler, P

    2015-01-01

    Single-photon sources with a high extraction efficiency are a prerequisite for applications in quantum communication and quantum computation schemes. One promising approach is the fabrication of a quantum dot containing membrane structure in combination with a solid immersion lens and a metal mirror. We have fabricated an 80 nm thin semiconductor membrane with incorporated InP quantum dots in an AlGaInP double hetero barrier via complete substrate removal. In addition, a gold layer was deposited on one side of the membrane acting as a mirror. The optical characterization shows in detail that the unique properties of the quantum dots are preserved in the membrane structure. (paper)

  3. Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

    2007-04-01

    Supported liquid membranes are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties as a direct guide in the development of a capture technology. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities higher than those observed in polymeric membranes which grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high carbon dioxide solubility relative to light gases such as hydrogen, are an excellent candidate for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of several ionic liquids, including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium nitrate, and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium sulfate in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of carbon dioxide from streams containing hydrogen. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame lent expertise in ionic liquid synthesis and characterization, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Initial results have been very promising with carbon dioxide permeabilities as high as 950 barrers and significant improvements in carbon dioxide/hydrogen selectivity over conventional polymers at 37C and at elevated temperatures. Results include a comparison of the performance of several ionic liquids and a number of supports as well as a discussion of innovative fabrication techniques currently under development.

  4. Pretreatment and Membrane Hydrophilic Modification to Reduce Membrane Fouling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Chu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of low pressure membranes (microfiltration/ultrafiltration has undergone accelerated development for drinking water production. However, the major obstacle encountered in its popularization is membrane fouling caused by natural organic matter (NOM. This paper firstly summarizes the two factors causing the organic membrane fouling, including molecular weight (MW and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of NOM, and then presents a brief introduction of the methods which can prevent membrane fouling such as pretreatment of the feed water (e.g., coagulation, adsorption, and pre-oxidation and membrane hydrophilic modification (e.g., plasma modification, irradiation grafting modification, surface coating modification, blend modification, etc.. Perspectives of further research are also discussed.

  5. pK(a) Values of Titrable Amino Acids at the Water/Membrane Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Vitor H; Vila-Viçosa, Diogo; Reis, Pedro B P S; Machuqueiro, Miguel

    2016-03-08

    Peptides and proteins protonation equilibrium is strongly influenced by its surrounding media. Remarkably, until now, there have been no quantitative and systematic studies reporting the pK(a) shifts in the common titrable amino acids upon lipid membrane insertion. Here, we applied our recently developed CpHMD-L method to calculate the pK(a) values of titrable amino acid residues incorporated in Ala-based pentapeptides at the water/membrane interface. We observed that membrane insertion leads to desolvation and a clear stabilization of the neutral forms, and we quantified the increases/decreases of the pK(a) values in the anionic/cationic residues along the membrane normal. This work highlights the importance of properly modeling the protonation equilibrium in peptides and proteins interacting with membranes using molecular dynamics simulations.

  6. One-step extraction of polar drugs from plasma by Parallel Artificial Liquid Membrane Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilařová, Veronika; Sultani, Mumtaz; Ask, Kristine Skoglund

    2017-01-01

    in the pores of a thin polymeric membrane, a well-known extraction principle also used in hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME). However, the new PALME technique offers a more user-friendly setup in which the supported liquid membrane is incorporated in a 96 well plate system. Thus, high......The new microextraction technique named parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction (PALME) was introduced as an alternative approach to liquid-liquid extraction of charged analytes from aqueous samples. The concept is based on extraction of analytes across a supported liquid membrane sustained...... for extraction of polar basic drugs was developed in the present work. The basic drugs hydralazine, ephedrine, metaraminol, salbutamol, and cimetidine were used as model analytes, and were extracted from alkalized human plasma into an aqueous solution via the supported liquid membrane. The extraction...

  7. Anion-exchange membranes derived from quaternized polysulfone and exfoliated layered double hydroxide for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wan; Liang, Na; Peng, Pai; Qu, Rong; Chen, Dongzhi; Zhang, Hongwei, E-mail: hanqiujiang@163.com

    2017-02-15

    Layered double hydroxides (LDH) are prepared by controlling urea assisted homogeneous precipitation conditions. Morphology and crystallinity of LDHs are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. After LDHs are incorporated into quaternized polysulfone membranes, transmission electron microscope is used to observe the exfoliated morphology of LDH sheets in the membranes. The properties of the nanocomposite membranes, including water uptake, swelling ratio, mechanical property and ionic conductivity are investigated. The nanocomposite membrane containing 5% LDH sheets shows more balanced performances, exhibiting an ionic conductivity of 2.36×10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} at 60 °C. - Graphical abstract: Anion-exchange membrane based on quaternized polysulfone and exfoliated layered double hydroxide is optically transparent and has good ionic properties.

  8. Modeling the improvement of ultrafiltration membrane mass transfer when using biofiltration pretreatment in surface water applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netcher, Andrea C; Duranceau, Steven J

    2016-03-01

    In surface water treatment, ultrafiltration (UF) membranes are widely used because of their ability to supply safe drinking water. Although UF membranes produce high-quality water, their efficiency is limited by fouling. Improving UF filtrate productivity is economically desirable and has been attempted by incorporating sustainable biofiltration processes as pretreatment to UF with varying success. The availability of models that can be applied to describe the effectiveness of biofiltration on membrane mass transfer are lacking. In this work, UF water productivity was empirically modeled as a function of biofilter feed water quality using either a quadratic or Gaussian relationship. UF membrane mass transfer variability was found to be governed by the dimensionless mass ratio between the alkalinity (ALK) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). UF membrane productivity was optimized when the biofilter feed water ALK to DOC ratio fell between 10 and 14. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation-induced damage of membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonei, Shuji

    1977-01-01

    An outline of membranous structure was stated, and radiation-induced damage of membranes were surveyed. By irradiation, permeability of membranes, especially passive transportation mechanism, was damaged, and glycoprotein in the surface layers of cells and the surface layer structures were changed. The intramembranous damage was induced by decrease of electrophoresis of nuclear mambranes and a quantitative change of cytochrome P450 of microsomal membranes of the liver, and peroxidation of membranous lipid and SH substitute damage of membranous protein were mentioned as the mechanism of membranous damage. Recovery of membranous damage depends on radiation dose and temperature, and membranous damage participates largely in proliferation death. (tsunoda, M.)

  10. Radio-chemical applications of functionalized membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Ashok K.

    2011-01-01

    Functionalized polymer membranes have many potential applications as they are task specific. We have developed many functionalized membranes like polymer inclusion membranes, pore-filled membranes and nano-membranes. Radiotracers and other methods have been used to understand the diffusional-transport properties of the Nafion-117 membrane as well as home-made membranes. These membranes have been used to develop novel analytical and separation methods for toxic metal ions and radionuclides. In this talk, an overview of our work on functionalized membrane is presented. (author)

  11. Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael

    2012-10-16

    A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

  12. Spatial orientation and electric-field-driven transport of hypericin inside of bilayer lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strejčková, Alena; Staničová, Jana; Jancura, Daniel; Miškovský, Pavol; Bánó, Gregor

    2013-02-07

    Fluorescence experiments were carried out to investigate the interaction of hypericin (Hyp), a natural hydrophobic photosensitizer, with artificial bilayer lipid membranes. The spatial orientation of Hyp monomers incorporated in diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPhPC) membranes was determined by measuring the dependence of the Hyp fluorescence intensity on the angle of incidence of p- and s-polarized excitation laser beams. Inside of the membrane, Hyp monomers are preferentially located in the layers near the membrane/water interface and are oriented with the S(1) ← S(0) transition dipole moments perpendicular to the membrane surface. Transport of Hyp anions between the two opposite sides of the lipid bilayer was induced by applying rectangular electric field pulses to the membrane. The characteristic time for Hyp transport through the membrane center was evaluated by the analysis of the Hyp fluorescence signal during the voltage pulses. In the zero-voltage limit, the transport time approached 70 ms and gradually decreased with higher voltage applied to the membrane. In addition, our measurements indicated an apparent pK(a) constant of 8 for Hyp deprotonation in the membrane.

  13. Fabrication and Characterization of Polyimide-CNTs hybrid membrane to enhance high performance CO2 separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutuk Djoko Kusworo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the CO2 separation performance of a hybrid membranes flat sheet based on polyimide incorporated with carbon nanotubes (CNTs particles. CNTs was selected and its loading were a 1 wt% in total solid. The hybrid composite membranes were fabricated in order to increase their separation performance for the gaseous mixture of CO2 and CH4. Hybrid Composite  membrane incorporated carbon nanotubes were mannufactured  by the dry-wet phase inversion technique using flat sheet membrane casting machine system,  in which the CNTs were embedded into the polyimide membrane and the resulting membranes were characterized. The results from the FESEM, DSC and FTIR analysis confirmed that chemical modification on carbon nanotubes surface had taken place. Sieve-in-a-cage’ morphology observed shows the poor adhesion between polymer and unmodified CNT. The results revealed that the good multi-wall carbon nanotubes dispersion leads to enhanced gas permeation properties. It is also concluded that addition of carbon nanotubes particles into the matrix of Polyimide polymer has significant effect on the membrane structure and properties.

  14. Endogenous glycosphingolipid acceptor specificity of sialosyltransferase systems in intact golgi membranes, synaptosomes, and synaptic plasma membranes from rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrie, R.; Saito, M.; Rosenberg, A.

    1988-01-01

    Preparations highly enriched in Golgi complex membranes, synaptosomes, and synaptic plasma membranes (SPM) by marker enzyme analysis and electron microscopic morphology were made from the brains of 28-day-old rats. These were incubated with cytidine 5'-monophosphate-N-acetyl[ 14 C]neuraminic acid (CMP-NeuAc) in a physiologic buffer, without detergents. Glycolipid sialosyltransferase activities (SATs) were measured by analyzing incorporation of radiolabeled NeuAc into endogenous membrane gangliosides. Golgi SAT was diversified in producing all the various molecular species of labeled gangliosides. Synaptosomal SAT exhibited a lower activity, but it was highly specific in its labeling pattern, with a marked preference for labeling NeuAcα2 → 8NeuAcα2 → 3Galβ1 → 4Glcβ1 → 1Cer (GD3 ganglioside). SPM prepared from the synaptosomes retained the GD3-related SAT (or SAT-2), and the total specific activity increased, which suggests that the location of the synaptosomal activity is in the SPM. These results indicate that SAT activity in Golgi membranes differs from that in synaptosomes with regard to endogenous acceptor substrate specificity and SAT activity of synaptosomes should be located in the synaptosomal plasma membrane. This SAT could function as an ectoenzyme in concert with ecto-sialidase to modulate the GD3 and other ganglioside population in situ at the SPM of the central nervous system

  15. Exploring the synergetic effects of graphene oxide (GO) and polyvinylpyrrodione (PVP) on poly(vinylylidenefluoride) (PVDF) ultrafiltration membrane performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Xiaojing; Wang, Zhenxing; Quan, Shuai; Xu, Yanchao; Jiang, Zaixing; Shao, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The synergetic effects of GO and PVP on membrane performance were investigated. • The surface hydrophilicity of membrane was enhanced by the synergistic effects. • The anti-fouling performance was obviously improved in PVDF/GO/PVP membrane. • The optimized performance can be obtained at the stipulated GO and PVP contents. - Abstract: Membrane surface and cross-sectional morphology created during membrane formation is one of the most essential factors determining membrane separation performance. However, the complicated interactions between added nanoparticles and additives influencing membrane morphology and performance during building membrane architectures had been generally neglected. In this study, asymmetric PVDF composite ultrafiltration (UF) membranes containing graphene oxides (GO) were prepared by using N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent and polyvinylpyrrodione (PVP) as the pore forming reagent. In the first time, the effects of mutual interactions between GO and PVP on membranes surface compositions, morphology and performance were investigated in detail. The variation in chemical properties of different membranes and hydrogen bonds in the membrane containing GO and PVP were confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR). Atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and contact angle (CA) were utilized to clarify the synergetic effects of GO and PVP on morphologies and surface hydrophilicity of membranes. Besides, water flux, bovine serum albumin (BSA) rejection and attenuate coefficient were also determined to investigate filtration performance of various membranes. Compared with pure PVDF membrane, the comprehensive performance of PVDF/GO/PVP membrane has been obviously improved. The surface hydrophilicity and anti-fouling performance were enhanced by the synergistic effects of incorporated GO and

  16. Exploring the synergetic effects of graphene oxide (GO) and polyvinylpyrrodione (PVP) on poly(vinylylidenefluoride) (PVDF) ultrafiltration membrane performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Xiaojing [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment (SKLUWRE), School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology 150001 (China); Research Institute of Aerospace Special Materials and Technology, Beijing 100074 (China); Wang, Zhenxing; Quan, Shuai; Xu, Yanchao; Jiang, Zaixing [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment (SKLUWRE), School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology 150001 (China); Shao, Lu, E-mail: odysseynus@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment (SKLUWRE), School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology 150001 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The synergetic effects of GO and PVP on membrane performance were investigated. • The surface hydrophilicity of membrane was enhanced by the synergistic effects. • The anti-fouling performance was obviously improved in PVDF/GO/PVP membrane. • The optimized performance can be obtained at the stipulated GO and PVP contents. - Abstract: Membrane surface and cross-sectional morphology created during membrane formation is one of the most essential factors determining membrane separation performance. However, the complicated interactions between added nanoparticles and additives influencing membrane morphology and performance during building membrane architectures had been generally neglected. In this study, asymmetric PVDF composite ultrafiltration (UF) membranes containing graphene oxides (GO) were prepared by using N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent and polyvinylpyrrodione (PVP) as the pore forming reagent. In the first time, the effects of mutual interactions between GO and PVP on membranes surface compositions, morphology and performance were investigated in detail. The variation in chemical properties of different membranes and hydrogen bonds in the membrane containing GO and PVP were confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR). Atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and contact angle (CA) were utilized to clarify the synergetic effects of GO and PVP on morphologies and surface hydrophilicity of membranes. Besides, water flux, bovine serum albumin (BSA) rejection and attenuate coefficient were also determined to investigate filtration performance of various membranes. Compared with pure PVDF membrane, the comprehensive performance of PVDF/GO/PVP membrane has been obviously improved. The surface hydrophilicity and anti-fouling performance were enhanced by the synergistic effects of incorporated GO and

  17. Genetic incorporation of recycled unnatural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wooseok; Kim, Sanggil; Jo, Kyubong; Lee, Hyun Soo

    2016-02-01

    The genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acids (UAAs) into proteins has been a useful tool for protein engineering. However, most UAAs are expensive, and the method requires a high concentration of UAAs, which has been a drawback of the technology, especially for large-scale applications. To address this problem, a method to recycle cultured UAAs was developed. The method is based on recycling a culture medium containing the UAA, in which some of essential nutrients were resupplemented after each culture cycle, and induction of protein expression was controlled with glucose. Under optimal conditions, five UAAs were recycled for up to seven rounds of expression without a decrease in expression level, cell density, or incorporation fidelity. This method can generally be applied to other UAAs; therefore, it is useful for reducing the cost of UAAs for genetic incorporation and helpful for expanding the use of the technology to industrial applications.

  18. Emergent geometry of membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badyn, Mathias Hudoba de; Karczmarek, Joanna L.; Sabella-Garnier, Philippe; Yeh, Ken Huai-Che [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia,6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver (Canada)

    2015-11-13

    In work http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.86.086001, a surface embedded in flat ℝ{sup 3} is associated to any three hermitian matrices. We study this emergent surface when the matrices are large, by constructing coherent states corresponding to points in the emergent geometry. We find the original matrices determine not only shape of the emergent surface, but also a unique Poisson structure. We prove that commutators of matrix operators correspond to Poisson brackets. Through our construction, we can realize arbitrary noncommutative membranes: for example, we examine a round sphere with a non-spherically symmetric Poisson structure. We also give a natural construction for a noncommutative torus embedded in ℝ{sup 3}. Finally, we make remarks about area and find matrix equations for minimal area surfaces.

  19. Membrane Modeling, Simulation and Optimization for Propylene/Propane Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Alshehri, Ali

    2015-06-01

    Energy efficiency is critical for sustainable industrial growth and the reduction of environmental impacts. Energy consumption by the industrial sector accounts for more than half of the total global energy usage and, therefore, greater attention is focused on enhancing this sector’s energy efficiency. It is predicted that by 2020, more than 20% of today’s energy consumption can be avoided in countries that have effectively implemented an action plan towards efficient energy utilization. Breakthroughs in material synthesis of high selective membranes have enabled the technology to be more energy efficient. Hence, high selective membranes are increasingly replacing conventional energy intensive separation processes, such as distillation and adsorption units. Moreover, the technology offers more special features (which are essential for special applications) and its small footprint makes membrane technology suitable for platform operations (e.g., nitrogen enrichment for oil and gas offshore sites). In addition, its low maintenance characteristics allow the technology to be applied to remote operations. For these reasons, amongst other, the membrane technology market is forecast to reach $16 billion by 2017. This thesis is concerned with the engineering aspects of membrane technology and covers modeling, simulation and optimization of membranes as a stand-alone process or as a unit operation within a hybrid system. Incorporating the membrane model into a process modeling software simplifies the simulation and optimization of the different membrane processes and hybrid configurations, since all other unit operations are pre-configured. Various parametric analyses demonstrated that only the membrane selectivity and transmembrane pressure ratio parameters define a membrane’s ability to accomplish a certain separation task. Moreover, it was found that both membrane selectivity and pressure ratio exhibit a minimum value that is only defined by the feed composition

  20. Activity incorporation into zinc doped PWR oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, Kari

    1998-01-01

    Activity incorporation into the oxide layers of PWR primary circuit constructional materials has been studied in Halden since 1993. The first zinc injection tests showed that zinc addition resulted in thinner oxide layers on new metal surfaces and reduced further incorporation of activity into already existing oxides. These tests were continued to find out the effects of previous zinc additions on the pickup of activity onto the surface oxides which were subsequently exposed to zinc-free coolant. The results showed that previous zinc addition will continue to reduce the rate of Co-60 build-up on out-of-core surfaces in subsequent exposure to zinc-free coolants. However, the previous Zn free test was performed for a relatively short period of time and the water chemistry programme was continued to find out the long term effects for extended periods without zinc. The activity incorporation into the stainless steel oxides started to increase as soon as zinc dosing to the coolant was stopped. The Co-60 concentration was lowest on all of the coupons which were first oxidised in Zn containing primary coolant. After the zinc injection period the thickness of the oxides increased, but activity in the oxide films did not increase at the same rate. This could indicate that zinc in the oxide blocks the adsorption sites for Co-60 incorporation. The Co-60 incorporation rate into the oxides on Inconel 600 seemed to be linear whether the oxide was pre-oxidised with or without Zn. The results indicate that zinc can either replace or prevent cobalt transport in the oxides. The results show that for zinc injection to be effective it should be carried out continuously. Furthermore the actual mechanism by which Zn inhibits the activity incorporation into the oxides is still not clear. Therefore, additional work has to follow with specified materials to verify the conclusions drawn in this work. (author)