WorldWideScience

Sample records for membrane chemical stability

  1. Membrane chemical stability and seed longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovina, Elena A; Van As, Henk; Hoekstra, Folkert A

    2010-03-01

    Here, we investigate the relationships between the chemical stability of the membrane surface and seed longevity. Dry embryos of long-lived tomato and short-lived onion seeds were labeled with 5-doxyl-stearic acid (5-DS). Temperature-induced loss of the electron spin resonance signal caused by chemical conversion of 5-DS to nonparamagnetic species was used to characterize the membrane surface chemical stability. No difference was found between temperature plots of 5-DS signal intensity in dry onion and tomato below 345 K. Above this temperature, the 5-DS signal remained unchanged in tomato embryos and irreversibly disappeared in onion seeds. The role of the physical state and chemical status of the membrane environment in the chemical stability of membrane surfaces was estimated for model systems containing 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) dried alone or in the presence of trehalose or glucose. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to follow temperature-induced structural changes in dry POPC. Spin-label technique was used to relate the chemical stability of 5-DS with the dynamic properties of the bilayer and 5-DS motion behavior. In all the models, the decrease in 5-DS signal intensity was always observed above T(m) for the membrane surface. The 5-DS signal was irreversibly lost at high temperature when dry POPC was embedded in a glucose matrix. The loss of 5-DS signal was moderate when POPC was dried alone or in the presence of trehalose. Comparison of model and in vivo data shows that the differences in longevity between onion and tomato seeds are caused by differences in the chemical status of the membrane surface rather than the degree of its immobilization.

  2. Membrane chemical stability and seed longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golovina, E.A.; Hoekstra, F.A.; As, van H.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we investigate the relationships between the chemical stability of the membrane surface and seed longevity. Dry embryos of long-lived tomato and short-lived onion seeds were labeled with 5-doxyl-stearic acid (5-DS). Temperature-induced loss of the electron spin resonance signal caused by

  3. Long term physical and chemical stability of polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Grooth, Joris; Haakmeester, Brian; Wever, Carlos; Potreck, Jens; de Vos, Wiebe Matthijs; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a detailed investigation into the long term stability of polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) modified membranes, a key factor for the application of these membranes in water purification processes. Although PEM modified membranes have been frequently investigated, their long term

  4. Nanoporous membranes with electrochemically switchable, chemically stabilized ionic selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Leo J.; Wheeler, David R.; Spoerke, Erik D.

    2015-10-01

    Nanopore size, shape, and surface charge all play important roles in regulating ionic transport through nanoporous membranes. The ability to control these parameters in situ provides a means to create ion transport systems tunable in real time. Here, we present a new strategy to address this challenge, utilizing three unique electrochemically switchable chemistries to manipulate the terminal functional group and control the resulting surface charge throughout ensembles of gold plated nanopores in ion-tracked polycarbonate membranes 3 cm2 in area. We demonstrate the diazonium mediated surface functionalization with (1) nitrophenyl chemistry, (2) quinone chemistry, and (3) previously unreported trimethyl lock chemistry. Unlike other works, these chemistries are chemically stabilized, eliminating the need for a continuously applied gate voltage to maintain a given state and retain ionic selectivity. The effect of surface functionalization and nanopore geometry on selective ion transport through these functionalized membranes is characterized in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride at pH = 5.7. The nitrophenyl surface allows for ionic selectivity to be irreversibly switched in situ from cation-selective to anion-selective upon reduction to an aminophenyl surface. The quinone-terminated surface enables reversible changes between no ionic selectivity and a slight cationic selectivity. Alternatively, the trimethyl lock allows ionic selectivity to be reversibly switched by up to a factor of 8, approaching ideal selectivity, as a carboxylic acid group is electrochemically revealed or hidden. By varying the pore shape from cylindrical to conical, it is demonstrated that a controllable directionality can be imparted to the ionic selectivity. Combining control of nanopore geometry with stable, switchable chemistries facilitates superior control of molecular transport across the membrane, enabling tunable ion transport systems.Nanopore size, shape, and surface charge all play

  5. Oxygen permeation and thermo-chemical stability of oxygen separation membrane materials for the oxyfuel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellett, Anna Judith

    2009-07-01

    analysis (TGA) and thermo mechanical analysis (TMA). An increase in thermal expansion and oxygen permeation associated with an increase in oxygen vacancy concentration, observed also in the TGA curves, occurs during heating. BSCF50 exhibits permeation fluxes well above those of LSCF58, PSCF58 and La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}}, which are quite similar to each other. After exposure, no degradation of LSCF58, La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} and PSCF58 occurs. On the other hand BSCF50 is found to be unstable in CO{sub 2}- and/or H{sub 2}O-containing atmospheres and also to exhibit a chemical demixing. The thermo-chemical stability and the oxygen permeation performances are both crucial factors in the selection of high purity oxygen separation membranes for the oxyfuel process, thus making LSCF58, PSCF58 and La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} in this study the most suitable materials for this application. Serious issues arise, however, from the fact that secondary non-ion conducting oxide phases are formed in the bulk of every material, forming obstacles for oxygen ion migration, and also that a reaction with chromia occurs, preventing their use without protection. (orig.)

  6. The critical relation between chemical stability of cations and water in anion exchange membrane fuel cells environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, Dario R.; Willdorf, Sapir; Ash, Uri; Amar, Michal; Pusara, Srdjan; Dhara, Shubhendu; Srebnik, Simcha; Diesendruck, Charles E.

    2018-01-01

    Anion exchange membrane fuel cells can potentially revolutionize energy storage and delivery; however, their commercial development is hampered by a significant technological impedance: the chemical decomposition of the anion exchange membranes during operation. The hydroxide anions, while transported from the cathode to the anode, attack the positively charged functional groups in the polymer membrane, neutralizing it and suppressing its anion-conducting capability. In recent years, several new quaternary ammonium salts have been proposed to address this challenge, but while they perform well in ex-situ chemical studies, their performance is very limited in real fuel cell studies. Here, we use experimental work, corroborated by molecular dynamics modeling to show that water concentration in the environment of the hydroxide anion, as well as temperature, significantly impact its reactivity. We compare different quaternary ammonium salts that have been previously studied and test their stabilities in the presence of relatively low hydroxide concentration in the presence of different amounts of solvating water molecules, as well as different temperatures. Remarkably, with the right amount of water and at low enough temperatures, even quaternary ammonium salts which are considered "unstable", present significantly improved lifetime.

  7. Nanoporous silica membranes with high hydrothermal stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Magnacca, Giualiana; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Despite the use of sol-gel derived nanoporous silica membranes in substitution of traditional separation processes is expected leading to vast energy savings, their intrinsic poor steam-stability hampers their application at an industrial level. Transition metal ions can be used as dopant...... to improve the stability of nanoporous silica structure. This work is a quantitative study on the impact of type and concentration of transition metal ions on the microporous structure and stability of amorphous silica-based membranes, which provides information on how to design chemical compositions...... and synthetic paths for the fabrication of silica-based membranes with a well accessible and highly stabile nanoporous structure...

  8. Stability of supported liquid membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neplenbroek, Antonius Maria

    1989-01-01

    This thesis deals with the stability of supported liquid membranes (SLMs). The use of SLMs, in which an extraction liquid containing a carrier is immobilized in the pores of a microporous support, has recently been introduced as a promising new separation technique. Some advantages ascribed to this

  9. Comparative antioxidant capacity, membrane stabilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative antioxidant capacity, membrane stabilization, polyphenol composition and cytotoxicity of the leaf and stem of Cissus multistriata. ... standard anti-inflammatory drug (Indomethacin) used. The extracts are less toxic to the cell (Arthenia salina) with their LC/EC50 higher than that of standard potassium dichromate ...

  10. Comparative antioxidant capacity, membrane stabilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... In this present study, a comparative evaluation of the antioxidant capacities, phenol and polyphenol composition, membrane stabilization, and cytotoxicity to brine shrimps (Arthemia salina) of the leaf and stem extracts of Cissus multistriata were carried out. 2,2- Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical.

  11. Testing the Chemical/Structural Stability of Proton Conducting Perovskite Ceramic Membranes by in Situ/ex Situ Autoclave Raman Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slodczyk, Aneta; Zaafrani, Oumaya; Sharp, Matthew D; Kilner, John A; Dabrowski, Bogdan; Lacroix, Olivier; Colomban, Philippe

    2013-10-25

    Ceramics, which exhibit high proton conductivity at moderate temperatures, are studied as electrolyte membranes or electrode components of fuel cells, electrolysers or CO2 converters. In severe operating conditions (high gas pressure/high temperature), the chemical activity towards potentially reactive atmospheres (water, CO2, etc.) is enhanced. This can lead to mechanical, chemical, and structural instability of the membranes and premature efficiency loss. Since the lifetime duration of a device determines its economical interest, stability/aging tests are essential. Consequently, we have developed autoclaves equipped with a sapphire window, allowing in situ Raman study in the 25-620 °C temperature region under 1-50 bar of water vapor/gas pressure, both with and without the application of an electric field. Taking examples of four widely investigated perovskites (BaZr0.9Yb0.1O3-δ, SrZr0.9Yb0.1O3-δ, BaZr0.25In0.75O3-δ, BaCe0.5Zr0.3Y0.16Zn0.04O3-δ), we demonstrate the high potential of our unique set-up to discriminate between good/stable and instable electrolytes as well as the ability to detect and monitor in situ: (i) the sample surface reaction with surrounding atmospheres and the formation of crystalline or amorphous secondary phases (carbonates, hydroxides, hydrates, etc.); and (ii) the structural modifications as a function of operating conditions. The results of these studies allow us to compare quantitatively the chemical stability versus water (corrosion rate from ~150 µm/day to less than 0.25 µm/day under 200-500 °C/15-80 bar PH2O) and to go further in comprehension of the aging mechanism of the membrane.

  12. Chemically Stable Lipids for Membrane Protein Crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishchenko, Andrii; Peng, Lingling; Zinovev, Egor; Vlasov, Alexey; Lee, Sung Chang; Kuklin, Alexander; Mishin, Alexey; Borshchevskiy, Valentin; Zhang, Qinghai; Cherezov, Vadim (MIPT); (USC); (Scripps)

    2017-05-01

    The lipidic cubic phase (LCP) has been widely recognized as a promising membrane-mimicking matrix for biophysical studies of membrane proteins and their crystallization in a lipidic environment. Application of this material to a wide variety of membrane proteins, however, is hindered due to a limited number of available host lipids, mostly monoacylglycerols (MAGs). Here, we designed, synthesized, and characterized a series of chemically stable lipids resistant to hydrolysis, with properties complementary to the widely used MAGs. In order to assess their potential to serve as host lipids for crystallization, we characterized the phase properties and lattice parameters of mesophases made of two most promising lipids at a variety of different conditions by polarized light microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. Both lipids showed remarkable chemical stability and an extended LCP region in the phase diagram covering a wide range of temperatures down to 4 °C. One of these lipids has been used for crystallization and structure determination of a prototypical membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin at 4 and 20 °C.

  13. Chemically stabilized soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct laboratory evaluations to quantify the effects of compaction and moisture conditions on the strength of chemically treated soils typical utilized in pavement construction in Mississippi.

  14. Isomeric Detergent Comparison for Membrane Protein Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Kyung Ho; Hariharan, Parameswaran; Mortensen, Jonas S.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins encapsulated by detergent micelles are widely used for structural study. Because of their amphipathic property, detergents have the ability to maintain protein solubility and stability in an aqueous medium. However, conventional detergents have serious limitations in their scope...... and utility, particularly for eukaryotic membrane proteins and membrane protein complexes. Thus, a number of new agents have been devised; some have made significant contributions to membrane protein structural studies. However, few detergent design principles are available. In this study, we prepared meta....../stability of the membrane proteins. We propose that interplay between the hydrophile–lipophile balance (HLB) and alkyl chain length is of central importance for high detergent efficacy. In addition, differences in inter-alkyl-chain distance between the isomers influence the ability of the detergents to stabilise membrane...

  15. Chemical fractionation of phosphorus in stabilized biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; Chen, Yona; Shenker, Moshe

    2008-01-01

    Three chemicals-ferrous sulfate (FeSul), calcium oxide (CaO), and aluminum sulfate (alum)-were applied at different rates to stabilize P in fresh, anaerobically digested biosolids (FBS) obtained from an activated sewage treatment plant. A modified Hedley fractionation procedure was used to assess P forms in these sludge-borne materials and in a biosolids compost (BSC) prepared from the same FBS. Each biosolids material exhibited a unique pattern of P distribution among fractions. The most available P forms, namely: (i) water-soluble P (WSP); (ii) membrane-P; and (iii) NaHCO(3)-P, were stabilized by small rates of each of the chemicals; but the P transformation into more stable forms depended on the type of chemical added. The stabilized P forms were enhanced by high rates of CaO and FeSul, but were reduced by high rates of alum. The organic P (P(o)) in the first three fractions of the FeSul- and alum-stabilized biosolids was enhanced by the chemical addition, and P(o) transformation from NaOH-P(o) into NaHCO(3)-P(o) was found in calcium-stabilized biosolids. A positive relationship was found between NaHCO(3)-P(o) and the NaHCO(3)-extracted organic C in all chemically stabilized biosolids. One-step extraction by NaHCO(3) or NaOH underestimated P extraction compared to the stepwise extraction. The reported results are consistent with solid-state P speciation reported earlier and contribute important information for optimizing biosolids stabilization to reduce P loss after incorporation in soils and for maximizing soil capacity to safely store pre-stabilized biosolids.

  16. Tubular Steel Arch Stabilized by Textile Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Svoboda

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tubular steel arch supporting textile membrane roofing is investigated experimentally and numerically. The stabilization effects of the textile membrane on in-plane and out-of-plane behavior of the arch is of primary interest. First a model of a large membrane structure tested in laboratory is described. Prestressed membranes of PVC coated polyester fabric Ferrari® Précontraint 702S were used as a currently standard and excellent material. The test arrangement, loading and resulting load/deflection values are presented. The supporting structure consisted of two steel arch tubes, outer at edge of the membrane and inner supporting interior of the membrane roofing. The stability and strength behavior of the inner tube under both symmetrical and asymmetrical loading was monitored and is shown in some details. Second the SOFiSTiK software was employed to analyze the structural behavior in 3D, using geometrically nonlinear analysis with imperfections (GNIA. The numerical analysis, FE mesh sensitivity, the membrane prestressing and common boundary conditions are validated by test results. Finally a parametrical study concerning stability of mid arch with various geometries in a membrane structure with several supporting arches is presented, with recommendations for a practical design.

  17. Stabilization of Erythrocyte Membranes by Polyamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballas, Samir K.; Mohandas, Narla; Marton, Laurence J.; Shohet, Stephen B.

    1983-04-01

    Using a laser diffraction technique, we have studied the effects of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, the three physiologic polyamines, on the deformability and mechanical stability of human erythrocyte membranes. Ghosts resealed with polyamines were subjected to high fluid shear stress in an ektacytometer. All polyamines increased the membrane shear modulus (decreased deformability) in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The order of effectiveness was spermine > spermidine > putrescine. At 10 μ M, spermine appreciably decreased membrane deformability. For the measurement of membrane mechanical stability, resealed ghosts were subjected to constant high shear stress in the ektacytometer and deformability was continuously recorded as the deformable ghosts fragmented into rigid spherical vesicles. Polyamines, especially spermine, caused a noticeable increase in the t1/2 for fragmentation. These effects could not be ascribed to proteolysis or Ca2+-induced transglutamination. That the effects of polyamines were specific and not simply due to their positive charge was demonstrated by the finding that Ca2+ and Mg2+ destabilized the erythrocyte membrane as evidenced by decreasing the t1/2 for fragmentation. Extracellular polyamines were not effective except under conditions that caused significant accumulation inside the cell. The data indicate that intracellular physiologic polyamines, especially spermine, decrease erythrocyte membrane deformability and stabilize the membrane skeleton, making it more resistant to fragmentation.

  18. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and membrane stabilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analyses of the antioxidant and membrane stabilizing activities of ethanolic extracts of leaf and root of Cyphospenna adenocaulis (Steud) were investigated with a view to further investigate the biological activities of the plant. Both the leaf and root of C. adenocaulis were extracted with 70% ethanol to yield the ...

  19. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and membrane stabilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kemi Akinwunmi

    2015-05-27

    May 27, 2015 ... Comparative analyses of the antioxidant and membrane stabilizing activities of ethanolic extracts of leaf and root of Cyphospenna adenocaulis (Steud) were investigated with a view to further investigate the biological activities of the plant. Both the leaf and root of C. adenocaulis were extracted with 70%.

  20. Studies on the chemical constituents, antioxidants and membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical constituents, antioxidant and membrane stability activities of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. (Malvaceae) flower were determined. The total anthocyanin was 165 mg / kg with about 6 % reduction due to fermentation. Tannin, ascorbic acid, and total polyphenol were 11.8 g / kg; 478 mg / kg; and 14.4 mg / g, ...

  1. Chemical and thermal stability of insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huus, Kasper; Havelund, Svend; Olsen, Helle B

    2006-01-01

    To study the correlation between the thermal and chemical stability of insulin formulations with various insulin hexamer ligands.......To study the correlation between the thermal and chemical stability of insulin formulations with various insulin hexamer ligands....

  2. Chemical Genetic Dissection of Membrane Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norambuena, Lorena; Tejos, Ricardo

    2017-04-28

    The plant endomembrane system is an extensively connected functional unit for exchanging material between compartments. Secretory and endocytic pathways allow dynamic trafficking of proteins, lipids, and other molecules, regulating a myriad of biological processes. Chemical genetics-the use of compounds to perturb biological processes in a fast, tunable, and transient manner-provides elegant tools for investigating this system. Here, we review how chemical genetics has helped to elucidate different aspects of membrane trafficking. We discuss different strategies for uncovering the modes of action of such compounds and their use in unraveling membrane trafficking regulators. We also discuss how the bioactive chemicals that are currently used as probes to interrogate endomembrane trafficking were discovered and analyze the results regarding membrane trafficking and pathway crosstalk. The integration of different expertises and the rational implementation of chemical genetic strategies will improve the identification of molecular mechanisms that drive intracellular trafficking and our understanding of how trafficking interfaces with plant physiology and development.

  3. Membrane technology: in the chemical industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nunes, S. P; Peinemann, K. V

    2001-01-01

    ... terephthalate) 15 22 23 32 37 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Surface Modification of Membranes Chemical Oxidation 39 Plasma Treatment 40 Classical Organic Reactions 41 Polymer Grafting 41 39VI Contents 6 6.1 ...

  4. Thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membrane materials. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, G.N.; Sanjurjo, A.; Wood, B.J.; Lau, K.H.

    1994-04-01

    This report describes the results of a literature review to evaluate the long-term thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membranes that are being developed to separate gaseous products produced by the gasification or combustion of coal in fixed-, fluidized-, and entrained-bed gasifiers, direct coal-fired turbines, and pressurized-fluidized-bed combustors. Several impurities, such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and trace metal compounds are generated during coal conversion, and they must be removed from the coal gas or the combustor flue gas to meet environmental standards. The use of membranes to separate these noxious gases is an attractive alternative to their removal by sorbents such as zinc titanate or calcium oxide. Inorganic membranes that have a high separation efficiency and exhibit both thermal and chemical stability would improve the economics of power generation from coal. The U.S. Department of Energy is supporting investigations to develop inorganic membranes for separating hydrogen from coal gas streams and noxious impurities from hot coal- and flue-gas streams. Membrane materials that have been investigated in the past include glass (silica), alumina, zirconia, carbon, and metals (Pd and Pt).

  5. Membrane Stabilizing Activity And Phytochemistry Of Hibiscus rosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The human erythrocyte membrane stabilizing activity of saline extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves was investigated as part of efforts at validating its use as anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory agent. The results of the membrane stabilizing activity of the extract, when compared to two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ...

  6. Hydrothermal stability of microporous silica and niobia-silica membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffa, V.; Blank, David H.A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2008-01-01

    The hydrothermal stability of microporous niobia–silica membranes was investigated and compared with silica membranes. The membranes were exposed to hydrothermal conditions at 150 and 200 °C for 70 h. The change of pore structure before and after exposure to steam was probed by single-gas permeation

  7. Chemical stabilization of graphite surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bistrika, Alexander A.; Lerner, Michael M.

    2018-04-03

    Embodiments of a device, or a component of a device, including a stabilized graphite surface, methods of stabilizing graphite surfaces, and uses for the devices or components are disclosed. The device or component includes a surface comprising graphite, and a plurality of haloaryl ions and/or haloalkyl ions bound to at least a portion of the graphite. The ions may be perhaloaryl ions and/or perhaloalkyl ions. In certain embodiments, the ions are perfluorobenzenesulfonate anions. Embodiments of the device or component including stabilized graphite surfaces may maintain a steady-state oxidation or reduction surface current density after being exposed to continuous oxidation conditions for a period of at least 1-100 hours. The device or component is prepared by exposing a graphite-containing surface to an acidic aqueous solution of the ions under oxidizing conditions. The device or component can be exposed in situ to the solution.

  8. Colour-Value Based Method for Polydopamine Coating-Stability Characterization on Polyethersulfone Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bucher

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Porous polyethersulfone membranes as used in oenology were investigated in order to evaluate temperature-dependent permeances in a temperature range from 10 to 35 °C. A temperature correction factor was determined for this type of membrane to get accurate and comparable results for further developments. Moreover, the membranes were modified with a bio-inspired polydopamine coating in order to reduce fouling. The performance of the membranes could be increased with respect to permeance and flux recovery under cross-flow conditions. In order to test the applicability and stability of the coating layer, they were treated with basic and acidic cleaning agents as used in industry for fouled membranes. The chemical stability of the coating layer was studied under basic and acidic conditions, by systematic observation of the colour change of the coated membranes over treatment time.

  9. Colour-Value Based Method for Polydopamine Coating-Stability Characterization on Polyethersulfone Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Thomas; Clodt, Juliana I; Grabowski, Andrej; Hein, Martin; Filiz, Volkan

    2017-12-16

    Porous polyethersulfone membranes as used in oenology were investigated in order to evaluate temperature-dependent permeances in a temperature range from 10 to 35 °C. A temperature correction factor was determined for this type of membrane to get accurate and comparable results for further developments. Moreover, the membranes were modified with a bio-inspired polydopamine coating in order to reduce fouling. The performance of the membranes could be increased with respect to permeance and flux recovery under cross-flow conditions. In order to test the applicability and stability of the coating layer, they were treated with basic and acidic cleaning agents as used in industry for fouled membranes. The chemical stability of the coating layer was studied under basic and acidic conditions, by systematic observation of the colour change of the coated membranes over treatment time.

  10. Chemical activity of cholesterol in membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, A; McConnell, H M

    2000-07-18

    Measurements are reported for the rate constants for the release of cholesterol (and dihydrocholesterol) to beta-cyclodextrin from mixtures with phospholipids in homogeneous monolayers at constant pressure at the air-water interface. In each mixture, it is found that the release rate shows a sharp decrease as the cholesterol concentration in the monolayer decreases through a composition corresponding to the stoichiometry of a cholesterol-phospholipid complex. The stoichiometry of the complex was established previously by the position of a sharp cusp in the thermodynamic phase diagram of each mixture and also by a minimum in average molecular area versus composition measurements. A theoretical model used earlier to account for the phase diagrams predicts the chemical potential and chemical activity of cholesterol in these mixtures. The calculated chemical activity also shows a sharp change at the complex stoichiometry in homogeneous monolayers. The similarities in change of observed release rate and calculated chemical activity are expected from reaction rate theory where the release rate is proportional to the cholesterol chemical activity. The chemical activity of cholesterol as determined by complex formation between some phospholipids and cholesterol in the plasma membrane of cells may serve a regulatory function with respect to intracellular cholesterol transport and biosynthesis.

  11. Solid-Supported Lipid Membranes: Formation, Stability and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Haw Zan

    This thesis presents a comprehensive investigation of the formation of supported lipid membranes with vesicle hemifusion, their stability under detergents and organic solvents and their applications in molecular biology. In Chapter 3, we describe how isolated patches of DOPC bilayers supported on glass surfaces are dissolved by various detergents (decyl maltoside, dodecyl maltoside, CHAPS, CTAB, SDS, TritonX-100 and Tween20) at their CMC, as investigated by fluorescence video microscopy. In general, detergents partition into distal leaflets of bilayers and lead to the expansion of the bilayers through a rolling motion of the distal over the proximal leaflets, in agreement with the first stage of the established 3-stage model of lipid vesicle solubilization by detergents. Subsequently, we study the partitioning of organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, propanol, acetone and chloroform) into isolated bilayer patches on glass in Chapter 4 with fluorescence microscopy. The area expansion of bilayers due to the partitioning of organic solvents is measured. From the titration of organic solvents, we measured the rate of area expansion as a function of the volume fraction of organic solvents, which is proposed to be a measure of strength of interactions between solvents and membranes. From the same experiments, we also measure the maximum expansion of bilayers (or the maximum binding stoichiometry between organic solvents and lipids) before structural breakdown, which depends on the depth of penetration of solvents to the membranes. In Chapter 5, we investigate the formation of sparsely-tethered bilayer lipid membranes (stBLMs) with vesicle hemifusion. In vesicle hemifusion, lipid vesicles in contact with a hydrophobic alkyl-terminated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) deposit a lipid monolayer to the SAM surface, thus completing the bilayer. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy and Neutron Reflectivity are used to probe the integrity of stBLMs in terms of their

  12. Stabilized ultrathin liquid membranes for gas separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deetz, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Although immobilized liquid membranes have the desirable properties of high selectivity and permeability, their practical application to gas phase separations is hindered because of the instability of the liquid phase and the relative thickness of current membranes. The problem of liquid instability, which is due to both liquid volatilization and flooding, can be reduced, or eliminated, by immobilizing the liquid phase in pores small enough to significantly reduce the molar free energy of the solution via the Kelvin effect. The obstacle of membrane thickness can be overcome by selectively immobilizing the liquid phase into the skin of a porous asymmetric membranes

  13. Membrane technology in chemical process industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, B.

    2002-01-01

    The technology developments in current century will mainly focus on the energy, safe and effective utilization of available natural resources and environment. Production and effective use of water resource at industrial level will directly affect the environment. Similarly the various means of energy production and its consumption will also bear a direct impact on environment. In any chemical industry a large portion of energy consumption goes to separation process which in turn affect the cost of production as well as total cost of the plant. Therefore, minimization of energy consumption, finding out new nondestructive separation technology and reutilization of all recovered process streams are the new thrust area for chemical industries. In view of this, a comparatively new separation technology, 'Membrane Science and Technology' is available to the chemical industry. The potential of this technology is immense because of its simple operation, less chemical additives requirement, less energy consumption and easy adoptability to the existing process. This technology is often considered as energy efficient, environmentally benign and clean technology

  14. Chemically stabilized subtilisins in peptide synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Colleary, Sandra; Ó Fágáin, Ciarán

    2008-01-01

    We have stabilized alcalaseTM and subtilisin Carlsberg (SC) against heat by chemical modification with ethylene glycol bis-succinimidyl succinate (EGNHS), a procedure not previously reported for subtilisins. The increases in thermal stability at 65oC were 1.8-fold and 4.7-fold respectively. Caseinolytic activity of alcalase in aqueous buffer was unchanged following modification but apparent Km of SC decreased 2.5-fold. Native and modified forms of both enzymes synthesized the tripeptide Z-...

  15. Pickering Membranes Stabilized by Saturn Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejca, Matthias M; Wüstner, Cornell; Goedel, Werner A

    2017-10-17

    We report on a novel method to synthesize particles-called by us Saturn particles-having two hydrophobic caps that oppose each other and are separated from each other by a hydrophilic belt that encircles the particle. Mixtures of these particles with water and air, without the usage of low molar mass surfactants, easily form Pickering foams and Pickering membranes that are stable for days. These Pickering membranes are composed of a thin film of water into which the particles are embedded in such a way that the belt is surrounded by the water and the caps protrude out of the water into the air at the top and bottom side of the water film. As expected for a liquid membrane, these Pickering membranes are permeable for gases, with the permeance being proportional to the solubility and diffusion coefficient of the gas considered. Experimentally obtained permeance values agree reasonably well with theoretical calculations.

  16. Honey: Chemical composition, stability and authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Priscila Missio; Gauche, Cony; Gonzaga, Luciano Valdemiro; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Fett, Roseane

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the chemical characteristics of compounds present in honey, their stability when heated or stored for long periods of time and the parameters of identity and quality. Therefore, the chemical characteristics of these compounds were examined, such as sugars, proteins, amino acids, enzymes, organic acids, vitamins, minerals, phenolic and volatile compounds present in honey. The stability of these compounds in relation to the chemical reactions that occur by heating or prolonged storage were also discussed, with increased understanding of the behavior regarding the common processing of honey that may compromise its quality. In addition, the identity and quality standards were described, such as sugars, moisture, acidity, ash and electrical conductivity, color, 5-HMF and diastase activity, along with the minimum and maximum limits established by the Codex Alimentarius. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. RADIATION STABILITY OF NAFION MEMBRANES USED FOR ISOTOPE SEPARATION BY PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE ELECTROLYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, E.

    2009-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzers have potential interest for use for hydrogen isotope separation from water. In order for PEME to be fully utilized, more information is needed on the stability of Nafion when exposed to radiation. This work examines Nafion 117 under varying exposure conditions, including dose rate, total dosage and atmospheric condition. Analytical tools, such as FT-IR, ion exchange capacity, DMA and TIC-TOC were used to characterize the exposed membranes. Analysis of the water from saturated membranes can provide important data on the stability of the membranes during radiation exposure. It was found that the dose rate of exposure plays an important role in membrane degradation. Potential mechanisms for membrane degradation include peroxide formation by free radicals

  18. RADIATION STABILITY OF NAFION MEMBRANES USED FOR ISOTOPE SEPARATION BY PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE ELECTROLYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, E

    2009-05-15

    Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzers have potential interest for use for hydrogen isotope separation from water. In order for PEME to be fully utilized, more information is needed on the stability of Nafion when exposed to radiation. This work examines Nafion 117 under varying exposure conditions, including dose rate, total dosage and atmospheric condition. Analytical tools, such as FT-IR, ion exchange capacity, DMA and TIC-TOC were used to characterize the exposed membranes. Analysis of the water from saturated membranes can provide important data on the stability of the membranes during radiation exposure. It was found that the dose rate of exposure plays an important role in membrane degradation. Potential mechanisms for membrane degradation include peroxide formation by free radicals.

  19. Self-Stabilization in Membrane Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artiom Alhazov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study a notion of self-stabilization, inspired from biology and engineering. Multiple variants of formalization of this notion are considered, and we discuss how such properties affect the computational power of multiset rewriting systems.

  20. Plasma membrane aquaporins mediates vesicle stability in broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ballesta, Maria Del Carmen; García-Gomez, Pablo; Yepes-Molina, Lucía; Guarnizo, Angel L; Teruel, José A; Carvajal, Micaela

    2018-01-01

    The use of in vitro membrane vesicles is attractive because of possible applications in therapies. Here we aimed to compare the stability and functionality of plasma membrane vesicles extracted from control and salt-treated broccoli. The impact of the amount of aquaporins was related to plasma membrane osmotic water permeability and the stability of protein secondary structure. Here, we describe for first time an increase in plant aquaporins acetylation under high salinity. Higher osmotic water permeability in NaCl vesicles has been related to higher acetylation, upregulation of aquaporins, and a more stable environment to thermal denaturation. Based on our findings, we propose that aquaporins play an important role in vesicle stability.

  1. Ceramic membrane fouling during ultrafiltration of oil/water emulsions: Roles played by stabilization surfactants of oil droplets

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Dongwei

    2015-04-07

    Oil/water (O/W) emulsion stabilized by surfactants is the part of oily wastewater that is most difficult to handle. Ceramic membrane ultrafiltration presently is an ideal process to treat O/W emulsions. However, little is known about the fouling mechanism of the ceramic membrane during O/W emulsion treatment. This paper investigated how stabilization surfactants of O/W emulsions influence the irreversible fouling of ceramic membranes during ultrafiltration. An unexpected phenomenon observed was that irreversible fouling was much less when the charge of the stabilization surfactant of O/W emulsions is opposite to the membrane. The less ceramic membrane fouling in this case was proposed to be due to a synergetic steric effect and demulsification effect which prevented the penetration of oil droplets into membrane pores and led to less pore blockage. This proposed mechanism was supported by cross section images of fouled and virgin ceramic membranes taken with scanning electron microscopy, regression results of classical fouling models, and analysis of organic components rejected by the membrane. Furthermore, this mechanism was also verified by the existence of a steric effect and demulsification effect. Our finding suggests that ceramic membrane oppositely charged to the stabilization surfactant should be applied in ultrafiltration of O/W emulsions to alleviate irreversible membrane fouling. It could be a useful rule for ceramic membrane ultrafiltration of oily wastewater. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  2. Mercury stabilization in chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, A. S.; Singh, D.; Jeong, S. Y.

    2000-01-01

    Mercury stabilization and solidification is a significant challenge for conventional stabilization technologies. This is because of the stringent regulatory limits on leaching of its stabilized products. In a conventional cement stabilization process, Hg is converted at high pH to its hydroxide, which is not a very insoluble compound; hence the preferred route for Hg sulfidation to convert it into insoluble cinnabar (HgS). Unfortunately, efficient formation of this compound is pH-dependent. At a high pH, one obtains a more soluble Hg sulfate, in a very low pH range, insufficient immobilization occurs because of the escape of hydrogen sulfide, while efficient formation of HgS occurs only in a moderately acidic region. Thus, the pH range of 4 to 8 is where stabilization with Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics (CBPC) is carried out. This paper discusses the authors experience on bench-scale stabilization of various US Department of Energy (DOE) waste streams containing Hg in the CBPC process. This process was developed to treat DOE's mixed waste streams. It is a room-temperature-setting process based on an acid-base reaction between magnesium oxide and monopotassium phosphate solution that forms a dense ceramic within hours. For Hg stabilization, addition of a small amount ( 2 S or K 2 S is sufficient in the binder composition. Here the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results on CBPC waste forms of surrogate waste streams representing secondary Hg containing wastes such as combustion residues and Delphi DETOXtrademark residues are presented. The results show that although the current limit on leaching of Hg is 0.2 mg/L, the results from the CBPC waste forms are at least one order lower than this stringent limit. Encouraged by these results on surrogate wastes, they treated actual low-level Hg-containing mixed waste from their facility at Idaho. TCLP results on this waste are presented here. The efficient stabilization in all these cases is

  3. In vitro antioxidant and membrane stabilization activities of the fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arthritis is an inflammation of one or more joints. There is considerable experimental evidence linking lysosomal enzymes with tissue damage in arthritis. This study investigated anti-arthritic properties of Tetrapleura tetraptera (TT) using membrane stabilization assay (MSA). Powdered TT fruit sample was extracted by ...

  4. Salinity induced changes in cell membrane stability, protein and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    control), 4.7, 9.4 and 14.1 dS m-1 to determine the effect of salt on vegetative growth, relative water content, cell membrane stability, protein and RNA contents in sand culture experiment. Fresh and dry weights of plants, shoots and roots decreased ...

  5. Surface Modifications of Support Partitions for Stabilizing Biomimetic Membrane Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Mark; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Jensen, Karin Bagger Stibius

    2011-01-01

    Black lipid membrane (BLM) formation across apertures in an ethylene tetra-fluoroethylene (ETFE) partition separating two aqueous compartments is an established technique for the creation of biomimetic membranes. Recently multi-aperture BLM arrays have attracted interest and in order to increase...... with a high signal-to-noise (s/n) ratio. We demonstratesd this by reconstituting gA and α-hemolysin (α-HL) into BLM arrays. The improvement in membrane array lifetime and s/n ratio demonstrates that surface plasma polymerization of the supporting partition can be used to increase the stability of biomimetic...... modified partitions were similar and significantly lower than for arrays formed using untreated ETFE partitions. For single side n-hexene modification average membrane array lifetimes were not significantly changed compared to untreated ETFE. Double-sided n-hexene modification greatly improved average...

  6. Analysis of cerium-composite polymer-electrolyte membranes during and after accelerated oxidative-stability test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongwon; Han, Myungseong; Shul, Yong-Gun; Lee, Hyejin; Bae, Byungchan

    2018-02-01

    The oxidative stability of membranes constructed from a composite of pristine sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) and cerium was investigated by conducting an accelerated oxidative-stability test at the open-circuit voltage (OCV). The membranes were analyzed in situ through OCV and impedance measurements, cyclic voltammetry, and linear-sweep voltammetry to monitor the electrochemical properties during the stability test. Although the high-frequency resistance of a composite membrane was slightly higher than that of a pristine membrane because of the exchange of protons from the sulfonic acid with cerium ions, the composite membrane maintained its potential for much longer than the pristine membrane. The effect of the cerium ions as radical scavengers was confirmed by analyzing the drain water and chemical structure after operation. These post-operation analyses confirmed that cerium ions improved the oxidative stability of the hydrocarbon-based polymer during fuel-cell operation. It is clear that the cerium-based radical scavengers prevented chemical degradation of the polymer membrane as well as the electrode in terms of hydrogen cross-over, polymer-chain scission, and the electrochemical surface area, while they rarely diffused outward from the membrane.

  7. Poly(vinylbenzylchloride) Based Anion-Exchange Blend Membranes (AEBMs): Influence of PEG Additive on Conductivity and Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerres, Jochen A; Krieg, Henning M

    2017-06-16

    In view of the many possible applications such as fuel cells and electrolysers, recent interest in novel anion exchange membranes (AEMs) has increased significantly. However, their low conductivity and chemical stability limits their current suitability. In this study, the synthesis and characterization of several three- and four-component anion exchange blend membranes (AEBMs) is described, where the compositions have been systematically varied to study the influence of the AEBM's composition on the anion conductivities as well as chemical and thermal stabilities under strongly alkaline conditions. It was shown that the epoxide-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)s that were introduced into the four-component AEBMs resulted in increased conductivity as well as a marked improvement in the stability of the AEBMs in an alkaline environment. In addition, the thermal stability of the novel AEBMs was excellent showing the suitability of these membranes for several electrochemical applications.

  8. Structuring detergents for extracting and stabilizing functional membrane proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Matar-Merheb

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Membrane proteins are privileged pharmaceutical targets for which the development of structure-based drug design is challenging. One underlying reason is the fact that detergents do not stabilize membrane domains as efficiently as natural lipids in membranes, often leading to a partial to complete loss of activity/stability during protein extraction and purification and preventing crystallization in an active conformation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Anionic calix[4]arene based detergents (C4Cn, n=1-12 were designed to structure the membrane domains through hydrophobic interactions and a network of salt bridges with the basic residues found at the cytosol-membrane interface of membrane proteins. These compounds behave as surfactants, forming micelles of 5-24 nm, with the critical micellar concentration (CMC being as expected sensitive to pH ranging from 0.05 to 1.5 mM. Both by 1H NMR titration and Surface Tension titration experiments, the interaction of these molecules with the basic amino acids was confirmed. They extract membrane proteins from different origins behaving as mild detergents, leading to partial extraction in some cases. They also retain protein functionality, as shown for BmrA (Bacillus multidrug resistance ATP protein, a membrane multidrug-transporting ATPase, which is particularly sensitive to detergent extraction. These new detergents allow BmrA to bind daunorubicin with a Kd of 12 µM, a value similar to that observed after purification using dodecyl maltoside (DDM. They preserve the ATPase activity of BmrA (which resets the protein to its initial state after drug efflux much more efficiently than SDS (sodium dodecyl sulphate, FC12 (Foscholine 12 or DDM. They also maintain in a functional state the C4Cn-extracted protein upon detergent exchange with FC12. Finally, they promote 3D-crystallization of the membrane protein. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These compounds seem promising to extract in a functional state

  9. Chemical synthesis and biophysical applications of membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Chao; Tang, Shan; Zheng, Ji-Shen

    2015-07-01

    Chemical synthesis or semi-synthesis of membrane proteins can provide unique molecular tools, such as site-specific isotope labeling or post-translationally modified membrane proteins to gain insight into their biophysical and functional characteristics. However, during preparation, purification, and ligation of transmembrane peptides, tremendous challenges are encountered owing to their hydrophobic nature. This review focuses on the recent advances in chemical synthesis strategies of membrane proteins. These strategies help to solubilize the hydrophobic transmembrane peptide sequences under standard purification and chemical ligation conditions to improve their handling properties. Biophysical and functional studies of synthetic membrane proteins are reviewed as well. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Active membrane having uniform physico-chemically functionalized ion channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E; Ruscic, Katarina J; Sears, Devin N; Smith, Luis J; Klingler, Robert J; Rathke, Jerome W

    2012-09-24

    The present invention relates to a physicochemically-active porous membrane for electrochemical cells that purports dual functions: an electronic insulator (separator) and a unidirectional ion-transporter (electrolyte). The electrochemical cell membrane is activated for the transport of ions by contiguous ion coordination sites on the interior two-dimensional surfaces of the trans-membrane unidirectional pores. One dimension of the pore surface has a macroscopic length (1 nm-1000 .mu.m) and is directed parallel to the direction of an electric field, which is produced between the cathode and the anode electrodes of an electrochemical cell. The membrane material is designed to have physicochemical interaction with ions. Control of the extent of the interactions between the ions and the interior pore walls of the membrane and other materials, chemicals, or structures contained within the pores provides adjustability of the ionic conductivity of the membrane.

  11. Can Stabilization and Inhibition of Aquaporins Contribute to Future Development of Biomimetic Membranes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Janet; Torres, Jaume

    2015-08-10

    In recent years, the use of biomimetic membranes that incorporate membrane proteins, i.e., biomimetic-hybrid membranes, has increased almost exponentially. Key membrane proteins in these systems have been aquaporins, which selectively permeabilize cellular membranes to water. Aquaporins may be incorporated into synthetic lipid bilayers or to more stable structures made of block copolymers or solid-state nanopores. However, translocation of aquaporins to these alien environments has adverse consequences in terms of performance and stability. Aquaporins incorporated in biomimetic membranes for use in water purification and desalination should also withstand the harsh environment that may prevail in these conditions, such as high pressure, and presence of salt or other chemicals. In this respect, modified aquaporins that can be adapted to these new environments should be developed. Another challenge is that biomimetic membranes that incorporate high densities of aquaporin should be defect-free, and this can only be efficiently ascertained with the availability of completely inactive mutants that behave otherwise like the wild type aquaporin, or with effective non-toxic water channel inhibitors that are so far inexistent. In this review, we describe approaches that can potentially be used to overcome these challenges.

  12. Can Stabilization and Inhibition of Aquaporins Contribute to Future Development of Biomimetic Membranes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet To

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of biomimetic membranes that incorporate membrane proteins, i.e., biomimetic-hybrid membranes, has increased almost exponentially. Key membrane proteins in these systems have been aquaporins, which selectively permeabilize cellular membranes to water. Aquaporins may be incorporated into synthetic lipid bilayers or to more stable structures made of block copolymers or solid-state nanopores. However, translocation of aquaporins to these alien environments has adverse consequences in terms of performance and stability. Aquaporins incorporated in biomimetic membranes for use in water purification and desalination should also withstand the harsh environment that may prevail in these conditions, such as high pressure, and presence of salt or other chemicals. In this respect, modified aquaporins that can be adapted to these new environments should be developed. Another challenge is that biomimetic membranes that incorporate high densities of aquaporin should be defect-free, and this can only be efficiently ascertained with the availability of completely inactive mutants that behave otherwise like the wild type aquaporin, or with effective non-toxic water channel inhibitors that are so far inexistent. In this review, we describe approaches that can potentially be used to overcome these challenges.

  13. Thermal stability of nafion membranes under mechanical stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintilii, M.; Struis, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The feasibility of adequately modified fluoro-ionomer membranes (NAFION{sup R}) is demonstrated for the selective separation of methanol synthesis products from the raw reactor gas at temperatures around 200{sup o}C. For an economically relevant application of this concept on a technical scale the Nafion membranes should be thin ({approx_equal}10 {mu}m) and thermally stable over a long period of time (1-2 years). In cooperation with industry (Methanol Casale SA, Lugano (CH)), we test the thermal stability of Nafion hollow fibers and supported Nafion thin sheet membranes at temperatures between 160 and 200{sup o}C under mechanical stress by applying a gas pressure difference over the membrane surface ({Delta}P{<=} 40 bar). Tests with the hollow fibers revealed that Nafion has visco-elastic properties. Tests with 50 {mu}m thin Nafion sheets supported by a porous metal carrier at 200{sup o}C and {Delta}P=39 bar showed no mechanical defects over a period of 92 days. (author) 5 figs., 4 refs.

  14. Chemically triggered ejection of membrane tubules controlled by intermonolayer friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, J-B; Khalifat, N; Puff, N; Angelova, M I

    2009-01-09

    We report a chemically driven membrane shape instability that triggers the ejection of a tubule growing exponentially toward a chemical source. The instability is initiated by a dilation of the exposed monolayer, which is coupled to the membrane spontaneous curvature and slowed down by intermonolayer friction. Our experiments are performed by local delivery of a basic pH solution to a giant vesicle. Quantitative fits of the data give an intermonolayer friction coefficient b approximately 2x10;{9} J s/m;{4}. The exponential growth of the tubule may be explained by a Marangoni stress yielding a pulling force proportional to its length.

  15. Membrane-Organized Chemical Photoredox Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, James K.

    2014-09-18

    This project has three interrelated goals relevant to solar water photolysis, which are to develop: (1) vesicle-organized assemblies for H2 photoproduction that utilize pyrylium and structurally related compounds as combined photosensitizers and cyclic electroneutral transmembrane electron carriers; (2) transmembrane redox systems whose reaction rates can be modulated by light; and (3) homogeneous catalysts for water oxidation. . In area (1), initial efforts to photogenerate H2 from vectorially-organized vesicles containing occluded colloidal Pt and commonly available pyrylium ions as transmembrane redox mediators were unsuccessful. New pyrylium compounds with significantly lower reduction potentials have been synthesized to address this problem, their apparent redox potentials in functioning systems have been now evaluated by using a series of occluded viologens, and H2 photoproduction has been demonstrated in continuous illumination experiments. In area (2), spirooxazine-quinone dyads have been synthesized and their capacity to function as redox mediators across bilayer membranes has been evaluated through continuous photolysis and transient spectrophotometric measurements. Photoisomerization of the spiro moiety to the ring-open mero form caused net quantum yields to decrease significantly, providing a basis for photoregulation of transmembrane redox. Research on water oxidation (area 3) has been directed at understanding mechanisms of catalysis by cis,cis-[(bpy)2Ru(OH2)]2O4+ and related polyimine complexes. Using a variety of physical techniques, we have: (i) identified the redox state of the complex ion that is catalytically active; (ii) shown using 18O isotopic labeling that there are two reaction pathways, both of which involve participation of solvent H2O; and (iii) detected and characterized by EPR and resonance Raman spectroscopies new species which may be key intermediates in the catalytic cycle.

  16. Erythrocyte membrane stabilization effect and antioxidant activity of methyl methacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, B.

    2004-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate (MMK) is a synthetic product with mild impact on human health that is not well studied on cellular basis. Here, human erythrocytes were used to investigate the effects MMK exerts on acid and heat-induced hemolysis. Biphasic effect of MMK was observed for acid-induced hemolysis; i.e., protection at low (0 - 0.05% v/v) and stimulation at higher (0.1- 0.4% v/v) concentrations. The maximal protective effect was produced at 0.03% (v/v). At this concentration MMK increased the temperatures of heat denaturation of erythrocyte membrane proteins, spectrin and integral proteins, by about 2 0 C and inhibited the heat-induced hemolysis by 20 %. This membrane stabilization effect of MMK is similar to that produced by some anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic drugs. The increased acid resistance possibly indicated anti-oxidant properties of MMK. The nonenzymatic antioxidant activity test evidenced that MMK has no superoxide dismutase-like activity but demonstrates strong catalase-like activity (about 900 kU/mmol at 0.05-0.1 mmol/l concentration). The results indicate that at low concentration MMK exerts benign effect on cellular membrane that could find therapeutic usage. (author)

  17. On Stabilization of PVPA/PVA Electrospun Nanofiber Membrane and Its Effect on Material Properties and Biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Ann Franco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel nanofiber membrane was fabricated by electrospinning composed of polyvinyl phosphonic acid (PVPA and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA. Stabilization was done due to the high dissolvability of the membrane when in contact with water. Physical treatment was done by exposure to heat at 150°C in a vacuum environment at different periods of time. Chemical crosslinking was done by immersion in methanol and methanol/ glutaraldehyde. A heat-exposed membrane was also further crosslinked chemically. All conditions were compared with regards to its effect on the material properties of the membranes and its biological response in vitro with MG-63 osteoblast-like cell line. Visual examination and dimensional analyses showed that heat treatment produced discoloration on the membrane surface and chemical crosslinking reduced membrane dimensions. Tensile strength and strain improved in crosslinked membranes compared to noncrosslinked counterpart. Swelling and degradation was also investigated and was seen to vary depending on the crosslinking condition. Biocompatibility was observed to be more favorable in heat-treated membranes.

  18. Chemical Stability of Telavancin in Elastomeric Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Patrick; Aladeen, Traci; Kirkegaard, Paul; LaChance, Dennis; Slover, Christine

    2015-12-01

    VIBATIV is a once-daily, injectable lipoglycopeptide antibiotic approved in the U.S. for the treatment of hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP) caused by susceptible isolates of Staphylococcus aureus when alternative treatments are not suitable. In addition, VIBATIV is approved in the U.S. for the treatment of adult patients with complicated skin & skin structure infections (cSSSI) caused by susceptible isolates of Gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, both methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains. To evaluate the chemical stability of telavancin (Vibativ; Theravance Biopharma US, Inc, Northbrook, Illinois), a lipoglycopeptide antibiotic with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, in 2 types of elastomeric pumps, the Intermate Infusion System (Baxter International Inc) and the Homepump Eclipse (I-Flow Corporation). Different sizes of the Baxter (Ontario, Canada) (105 mL and 275 mL) and I-Flow (Stoughton, Massachusetts) (100 mL and 250 mL) pumps were compared with glass controls. The telavancin drug product was reconstituted and diluted to concentrations of 0.6 mg/mL and 8.0 mg/mL using either 0.9% saline, 5% dextrose in water, or sterilized water for injection (0.6 mg/mL telavancin) or saline (8.0 mg/mL telavancin) followed by Ringer's Lactate solution. Pumps were filled and stored at 2°C to 8°C, protected from light. Aliquots from both pump types and for all telavancin reconstitution/dilution schemes and concentrations were taken over a period of 8 days and analyzed for appearance, pH, telavancin concentration and purity, and degradation products. The pH of all pump solutions remained consistent throughout the 8-day analysis period, within a range of 4.6 to 5.7 for the 0.6 mg/mL and 4.4 to 4.9 for the 8.0 mg/mL telavancin solutions. There was no significant change in the chromatographic purity for any of the pump solutions examined. All decreases in

  19. Partially Fluorinated Sulfonated Poly(ether amide Fuel Cell Membranes: Influence of Chemical Structure on Membrane Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulsung Bae

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of fluorinated sulfonated poly (ether amides (SPAs were synthesized for proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications. A polycondensation reaction of 4,4’-oxydianiline, 2-sulfoterephthalic acid monosodium salt, and tetrafluorophenylene dicarboxylic acids (terephthalic and isophthalic or fluoroaliphatic dicarboxylic acids produced SPAs with sulfonation degrees of 80–90%. Controlling the feed ratio of the sulfonated and unsulfonated dicarboxylic acid monomers afforded random SPAs with ion exchange capacities between 1.7 and 2.2 meq/g and good solubility in polar aprotic solvents. Their structures were characterized using NMR and FT IR spectroscopies. Tough, flexible, and transparent films were obtained with dimethylsulfoxide using a solution casting method. Most SPA membranes with 90% sulfonation degree showed high proton conductivity (>100 mS/cm at 80 °C and 100% relative humidity. Among them, two outstanding ionomers (ODA-STA-TPA-90 and ODA-STA-IPA-90 showed proton conductivity comparable to that of Nafion 117 between 40 and 80 °C. The influence of chemical structure on the membrane properties was systematically investigated by comparing the fluorinated polymers to their hydrogenated counterparts. The results suggest that the incorporation of fluorinated moieties in the polymer backbone of the membrane reduces water absorption. High molecular weight and the resulting physical entanglement of the polymers chains played a more important role in improving stability in water, however.

  20. Effect of Chemical Stabilizers in Silver Nanoparticle Suspensions on Nanotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Eun Joo; Park, Hee Jin; Park, Jun Su; Yoon, Je Yong; Yi, Jong Heop; Kim, Young Hun; Choi, Kyung Hee

    2011-01-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been commercialized as the typically stabilized form via the addition of a variety of surfactants or polymers. Herein, to examine the effects of stabilizing AgNPs in suspension, we modified the surface of bare AgNPs with four type of surfactants (NaDDBS, SDS, TW80, CTAB) and polymers (PVP, PAA, PAH, CMC). The modified AgNPs was applied to compare suspension stability and nanotoxicity test using Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a model organism. Modification of AgNPs surface using chemical stabilizer may be not related with molecular weight, but chemical structure such as ionic state and functional group of stabilizer. In this study, it is noteworthy that AgNPs modified with a cationic stabilizer (CTAB, PAH) were importantly toxic to E. coli, rather than anionic stabilizers (NaDDBS, SDS). Comparing similar anionic stabilizer, i.e., NaDDBS and SDS, the result showed that lipophilicity of chemical structure can affect on E. coli, because NaDDBS, which contains a lipophilic benzene ring, accelerated the cytotoxicity of AgNPs. Interestingly, none of the stabilizers tested, including biocompatible nonionic stabilizers (i.e., TW80 and cellulose) caused a reduction in AgNP toxicity. This showed that toxicity of AgNPs cannot be reduced using stabilizers

  1. Effect of Chemical Stabilizers in Silver Nanoparticle Suspensions on Nanotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Eun Joo; Park, Hee Jin; Park, Jun Su; Yoon, Je Yong; Yi, Jong Heop [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Hun [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyung Hee [National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been commercialized as the typically stabilized form via the addition of a variety of surfactants or polymers. Herein, to examine the effects of stabilizing AgNPs in suspension, we modified the surface of bare AgNPs with four type of surfactants (NaDDBS, SDS, TW80, CTAB) and polymers (PVP, PAA, PAH, CMC). The modified AgNPs was applied to compare suspension stability and nanotoxicity test using Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a model organism. Modification of AgNPs surface using chemical stabilizer may be not related with molecular weight, but chemical structure such as ionic state and functional group of stabilizer. In this study, it is noteworthy that AgNPs modified with a cationic stabilizer (CTAB, PAH) were importantly toxic to E. coli, rather than anionic stabilizers (NaDDBS, SDS). Comparing similar anionic stabilizer, i.e., NaDDBS and SDS, the result showed that lipophilicity of chemical structure can affect on E. coli, because NaDDBS, which contains a lipophilic benzene ring, accelerated the cytotoxicity of AgNPs. Interestingly, none of the stabilizers tested, including biocompatible nonionic stabilizers (i.e., TW80 and cellulose) caused a reduction in AgNP toxicity. This showed that toxicity of AgNPs cannot be reduced using stabilizers.

  2. Desalination by Membrane Distillation using Electrospun Polyamide Fiber Membranes with Surface Fluorination by Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei; Servi, Amelia; Liu, Andong; Gleason, Karen K; Rutledge, Gregory C

    2015-04-22

    Fibrous membranes of poly(trimethyl hexamethylene terephthalamide) (PA6(3)T) were fabricated by electrospinning and rendered hydrophobic by applying a conformal coating of poly(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl acrylate) (PPFDA) using initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD). A set of iCVD-treated electrospun PA6(3)T fiber membranes with fiber diameters ranging from 0.25 to 1.8 μm were tested for desalination using the air gap membrane distillation configuration. Permeate fluxes of 2-11 kg/m2/h were observed for temperature differentials of 20-45 °C between the feed stream and condenser plate, with rejections in excess of 99.98%. The liquid entry pressure was observed to increase dramatically, from 15 to 373 kPa with reduction in fiber diameter. Contrary to expectation, for a given feed temperature the permeate flux was observed to increase for membranes of decreasing fiber diameter. The results for permeate flux and salt rejection show that it is possible to construct membranes for membrane distillation even from intrinsically hydrophilic materials after surface modification by iCVD and that the fiber diameter is shown to play an important role on the membrane distillation performance in terms of permeate flux, salt rejection, and liquid entry pressure.

  3. Hydrothermal stability of silica, hybrid silica and Zr-doped hybrid silica membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Hove, Marcel; Luiten-Olieman, Mieke W.J.; Huiskes, Cindy; Nijmeijer, Arian; Winnubst, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid silica membranes have demonstrated to possess a remarkable hydrothermal stability in pervaporation and gas separation processes allowing them to be used in industrial applications. In several publications the hydrothermal stability of pure silica or that of hybrid silica membranes are

  4. Physical and Chemical Aspects of Stabilization of Compounds in Silk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Eleanor M.; Dennis, Patrick B.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo; Naik, Rajesh R.; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of stabilization of small molecules and proteins has received considerable interest. The biological activity of small molecules can be lost as a consequence of chemical modifications, while protein activity may be lost due to chemical or structural degradation, such as a change in macromolecular conformation or aggregation. In these cases stabilization is required to preserve therapeutic and bioactivity efficacy and safety. In addition to use in therapeutic applications, strategies to stabilize small molecules and proteins also have applications in industrial processes, diagnostics, and consumer products like food and cosmetics. Traditionally, therapeutic drug formulation efforts have focused on maintaining stability during product preparation and storage. However, with growing interest in the fields of encapsulation, tissue engineering and controlled release drug delivery systems, new stabilization challenges are being addressed; the compounds or protein of interest must be stabilized during: (1) fabrication of the protein or small molecule loaded carrier, (2) device storage, and (3) for the duration of intended release needs in vitro or in vivo. We review common mechanisms of compound degradation for small molecules and proteins during biomaterial preparation (including tissue engineering scaffolds and drug delivery systems), storage and in vivo implantation. We also review the physical and chemical aspects of polymer-based stabilization approaches, with a particular focus on the stabilizing properties of silk fibroin biomaterials. PMID:22270942

  5. Chemical stability of prints made on hemp fibre based papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Plazonić

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For paper industry and consequently graphic industry it is very important that fibres used in paper production provide high quality and printability of the paper. In pulp and paper industry fibres of cellulose pulp derived still predominantly from wood, but in the last few years the consumption of non-wood raw materials for that purpose has grown. This work presents research on the chemical stability of printed hemp fibre based papers to water, alcohol and alkali. Evaluation of chemical degradation on prints was determined through the spectrophotometric measurements. Deviations in colour of prints have shown that highest chemical stability provides prints made on industrially paper formed from mixture of hemp and post-consumer fibres with high share of inorganic components. Further, bleached hemp fibres in handmade 100 % hemp fibre based paper give prints with the lowest chemical stability.

  6. Deuterated detergents for structural and functional studies of membrane proteins: Properties, chemical synthesis and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruma-Shimizu, Kazumi; Shimizu, Hiroki; Thompson, Gary S; Kalverda, Arnout P; Patching, Simon G

    2015-01-01

    Detergents are amphiphilic compounds that have crucial roles in the extraction, purification and stabilization of integral membrane proteins and in experimental studies of their structure and function. One technique that is highly dependent on detergents for solubilization of membrane proteins is solution-state NMR spectroscopy, where detergent micelles often serve as the best membrane mimetic for achieving particle sizes that tumble fast enough to produce high-resolution and high-sensitivity spectra, although not necessarily the best mimetic for a biomembrane. For achieving the best quality NMR spectra, detergents with partial or complete deuteration can be used, which eliminate interfering proton signals coming from the detergent itself and also eliminate potential proton relaxation pathways and strong dipole-dipole interactions that contribute line broadening effects. Deuterated detergents have also been used to solubilize membrane proteins for other experimental techniques including small angle neutron scattering and single-crystal neutron diffraction and for studying membrane proteins immobilized on gold electrodes. This is a review of the properties, chemical synthesis and applications of detergents that are currently commercially available and/or that have been synthesized with partial or complete deuteration. Specifically, the detergents are sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), lauryldimethylamine-oxide (LDAO), n-octyl-β-D-glucoside (β-OG), n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside (DDM) and fos-cholines including dodecylphosphocholine (DPC). The review also considers effects of deuteration, detergent screening and guidelines for detergent selection. Although deuterated detergents are relatively expensive and not always commercially available due to challenges associated with their chemical synthesis, they will continue to play important roles in structural and functional studies of membrane proteins, especially using solution-state NMR.

  7. The effects of a protein osmolyte on the stability of the integral membrane protein glycerol facilitator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baturin, Simon; Galka, Jamie J; Piyadasa, Hadeesha; Gajjeraman, S; O'Neil, Joe D

    2014-12-01

    Osmolytes are naturally occurring molecules used by a wide variety of organisms to stabilize proteins under extreme conditions of temperature, salinity, hydrostatic pressure, denaturant concentration, and desiccation. The effects of the osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as well as the influence of detergent head group and acyl chain length on the stability of the Escherichia coli integral membrane protein glycerol facilitator (GF) tetramer to thermal and chemical denaturation by sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) are reported. TMAO promotes the association of the normally tetrameric α-helical protein into higher order oligomers in dodecyl-maltoside (DDM), but not in tetradecyl-maltoside (TDM), lyso-lauroylphosphatidyl choline (LLPC), or lyso-myristoylphosphatidyl choline (LMPC), as determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS); an octameric complex is particularly stable as indicated by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. TMAO increases the heat stability of the GF tetramer an average of 10 °C in the 4 detergents and also protects the protein from denaturation by SDS. However, it did not promote re-association to the tetramer when added to SDS-dissociated protein. TMAO also promotes the formation of rod-like detergent micelles, and DLS was found to be useful for monitoring the structure of the protein and the redistribution of detergent during thermal dissociation of the protein. The protein is more thermally stable in detergents with the phosphatidylcholine head group (LLPC and LMPC) than in the maltoside detergents. The implications of the results for osmolyte mechanism, membrane protein stability, and protein-protein interactions are discussed.

  8. Removal of trace organic chemical contaminants by a membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, T; van den Akker, B; Stuetz, R M; Coleman, H M; Le-Clech, P; Khan, S J

    2012-01-01

    Emerging wastewater treatment processes such as membrane bioreactors (MBRs) have attracted a significant amount of interest internationally due to their ability to produce high quality effluent suitable for water recycling. It is therefore important that their efficiency in removing hazardous trace organic contaminants be assessed. Accordingly, this study investigated the removal of trace organic chemical contaminants through a full-scale, package MBR in New South Wales, Australia. This study was unique in the context of MBR research because it characterised the removal of 48 trace organic chemical contaminants, which included steroidal hormones, xenoestrogens, pesticides, caffeine, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Results showed that the removal of most trace organic chemical contaminants through the MBR was high (above 90%). However, amitriptyline, carbamazepine, diazepam, diclofenac, fluoxetine, gemfibrozil, omeprazole, sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim were only partially removed through the MBR with the removal efficiencies of 24-68%. These are potential indicators for assessing MBR performance as these chemicals are usually sensitive to changes in the treatment systems. The trace organic chemical contaminants detected in the MBR permeate were 1 to 6 orders of magnitude lower than guideline values reported in the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. The outcomes of this study enhanced our understanding of the levels and removal of trace organic contaminants by MBRs.

  9. Chemical Imaging of the Cell Membrane by NanoSIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P K; Kraft, M L; Frisz, J F; Carpenter, K J; Hutcheon, I D

    2010-02-23

    The existence of lipid microdomains and their role in cell membrane organization are currently topics of great interest and controversy. The cell membrane is composed of a lipid bilayer with embedded proteins that can flow along the two-dimensional surface defined by the membrane. Microdomains, known as lipid rafts, are believed to play a central role in organizing this fluid system, enabling the cell membrane to carry out essential cellular processes, including protein recruitment and signal transduction. Lipid rafts are also implicated in cell invasion by pathogens, as in the case of the HIV. Therefore, understanding the role of lipid rafts in cell membrane organization not only has broad scientific implications, but also has practical implications for medical therapies. One of the major limitations on lipid organization research has been the inability to directly analyze lipid composition without introducing artifacts and at the relevant length-scales of tens to hundreds of nanometers. Fluorescence microscopy is widely used due to its sensitivity and specificity to the labeled species, but only the labeled components can be observed, fluorophores can alter the behavior of the lipids they label, and the length scales relevant to imaging cell membrane domains are between that probed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging (<10 nm) and the diffraction limit of light. Topographical features can be imaged on this length scale by atomic force microscopy (AFM), but the chemical composition of the observed structures cannot be determined. Immuno-labeling can be used to study the distribution of membrane proteins at high resolution, but not lipid composition. We are using imaging mass spectrometry by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in concert with other high resolution imaging methods to overcome these limitations. The experimental approach of this project is to combine molecule-specific stable isotope labeling with high-resolution SIMS using a

  10. Membrane-stabilizing copolymers confer marked protection to dystrophic skeletal muscle in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne M Houang

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a fatal disease of striated muscle deterioration. A unique therapeutic approach for DMD is the use of synthetic membrane stabilizers to protect the fragile dystrophic sarcolemma against contraction-induced mechanical stress. Block copolymer-based membrane stabilizer poloxamer 188 (P188 has been shown to protect the dystrophic myocardium. In comparison, the ability of synthetic membrane stabilizers to protect fragile DMD skeletal muscles has been less clear. Because cardiac and skeletal muscles have distinct structural and functional features, including differences in the mechanism of activation, variance in sarcolemma phospholipid composition, and differences in the magnitude and types of forces generated, we speculated that optimized membrane stabilization could be inherently different. Our objective here is to use principles of pharmacodynamics to evaluate membrane stabilization therapy for DMD skeletal muscles. Results show a dramatic differential effect of membrane stabilization by optimization of pharmacodynamic-guided route of poloxamer delivery. Data show that subcutaneous P188 delivery, but not intravascular or intraperitoneal routes, conferred significant protection to dystrophic limb skeletal muscles undergoing mechanical stress in vivo. In addition, structure-function examination of synthetic membrane stabilizers further underscores the importance of copolymer composition, molecular weight, and dosage in optimization of poloxamer pharmacodynamics in vivo.

  11. A Mechanistic Study of Chemically Modified Inorganic Membranes for Gas and Liquid Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Way, J. Douglas [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2011-01-21

    This final report will summarize the progress made during the period August 1, 1993 - October 31, 2010 with support from DOE grant number DE-FG03-93ER14363. The objectives of the research have been to investigate the transport mechanisms in micro- and mesoporous, metal oxide membranes and to examine the relationship between the microstructure of the membrane, the membrane surface chemistry, and the separation performance of the membrane. Examples of the membrane materials under investigation are the microporous silica hollow fiber membrane manufactured by PPG Industries, chemically modified mesoporous oxide membranes, and polymer membranes containing microporous oxides (mixed matrix membranes). Analytical techniques such as NMR, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and gas adsorption were used to investigate membrane microstructure and to probe the chemical interactions occurring at the gas-membrane interface.

  12. Hematopoietic protein-1 regulates the actin membrane skeleton and membrane stability in murine erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia M Chan

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic protein-1 (Hem-1 is a hematopoietic cell specific member of the WAVE (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome verprolin-homologous protein complex, which regulates filamentous actin (F-actin polymerization in many cell types including immune cells. However, the roles of Hem-1 and the WAVE complex in erythrocyte biology are not known. In this study, we utilized mice lacking Hem-1 expression due to a non-coding point mutation in the Hem1 gene to show that absence of Hem-1 results in microcytic, hypochromic anemia characterized by abnormally shaped erythrocytes with aberrant F-actin foci and decreased lifespan. We find that Hem-1 and members of the associated WAVE complex are normally expressed in wildtype erythrocyte progenitors and mature erythrocytes. Using mass spectrometry and global proteomics, Coomassie staining, and immunoblotting, we find that the absence of Hem-1 results in decreased representation of essential erythrocyte membrane skeletal proteins including α- and β- spectrin, dematin, p55, adducin, ankyrin, tropomodulin 1, band 3, and band 4.1. Hem1⁻/⁻ erythrocytes exhibit increased protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of adducin at Ser724, which targets adducin family members for dissociation from spectrin and actin, and subsequent proteolysis. Increased adducin Ser724 phosphorylation in Hem1⁻/⁻ erythrocytes correlates with decreased protein expression of the regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A, which is required for PP2A-dependent dephosphorylation of PKC targets. These results reveal a novel, critical role for Hem-1 in the homeostasis of structural proteins required for formation and stability of the actin membrane skeleton in erythrocytes.

  13. Self-assembling peptides form nanodiscs that stabilize membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Pedersen, Martin Cramer; Kirkensgaard, Jacob Judas Kain

    2014-01-01

    New methods to handle membrane bound proteins, e.g. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), are highly desirable. Recently, apoliprotein A1 (ApoA1) based lipoprotein particles have emerged as a new platform for studying membrane proteins, and it has been shown that they can self-assemble in combinat......New methods to handle membrane bound proteins, e.g. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), are highly desirable. Recently, apoliprotein A1 (ApoA1) based lipoprotein particles have emerged as a new platform for studying membrane proteins, and it has been shown that they can self...

  14. Physicochemical stability, microrheological properties and microstructure of lutein emulsions stabilized by multilayer membranes consisting of whey protein isolate, flaxseed gum and chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Duoxia; Aihemaiti, Zulipiya; Cao, Yanping; Teng, Chao; Li, Xiuting

    2016-07-01

    The impact of chitosan (CTS) on the physicochemical stability, microrheological property and microstructure of whey protein isolate (WPI)-flaxseed gum (FG) stabilized lutein emulsions at pH 3.0 was studied. A layer-by-layer electrostatic deposition method was used to prepare multilayered lutein emulsions. Droplet size, zeta-potential, instability index, microstructure and microrheological behavior of lutein emulsions were measured. The influences of interfacial layer, metal chelator and free radical scavenger on the chemical stability of lutein emulsions were also investigated. It was found that multilayer emulsions had better physical stability showing the pronounced effect of 1wt% CTS. The mean square displacement analysis demonstrated that CTS led to increases of macroscopic viscosity and elasticity index for WPI-FG stabilized lutein emulsions due to CTS embedding in the network. CTS also helped to chemically stabilize the lutein emulsions against degradation. The combination of interfacial membrane and prooxidative metal chelator or free radical scavenger was an effective method to control lutein degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A review of the shale wellbore stability mechanism based on mechanical–chemical coupling theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiangui Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wellbore instability in hard brittle shale is a critical topic related to the effective exploitation of shale gas resources. This review first introduces the physical–chemical coupling theories applied in shale wellbore stability research, including total water absorption method, equivalent pore pressure method, elasticity incremental method of total water potential and non-equilibrium thermodynamic method. Second, the influences of water activity, membrane efficiency, clay content and drilling fluid on shale wellbore instability are summarized. Results demonstrate that shale and drilling fluid interactions can be the critical factors affecting shale wellbore stability. The effects of thermodynamics and electrochemistry may also be considered in the future, especially the microscopic reaction of shale and drilling fluid interactions. An example of this reaction is the chemical reaction between shale components and drilling fluid.

  16. Stability of biogenic metal(loid) nanomaterials related to the colloidal stabilization theory of chemical nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacenza, Elena; Presentato, Alessandro; Turner, Raymond J

    2018-02-25

    In the last 15 years, the exploitation of biological systems (i.e. plants, bacteria, mycelial fungi, yeasts, and algae) to produce metal(loid) (Me)-based nanomaterials has been evaluated as eco-friendly and a cost-effective alternative to the chemical synthesis processes. Although the biological mechanisms of biogenic Me-nanomaterial (Bio-Me-nanomaterials) production are not yet completely elucidated, a key advantage of such bio-nanostructures over those chemically synthesized is related to their natural thermodynamic stability, with several studies ascribed to the presence of an organic layer surrounding these Bio-Me-nanostructures. Different macromolecules (e.g. proteins, peptides, lipids, DNA, and polysaccharides) or secondary metabolites (e.g. flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides, organic acids, and alkaloids) naturally produced by organisms have been indicated as main contributors to the stabilization of Bio-Me-nanostructures. Nevertheless, the chemical-physical mechanisms behind the ability of these molecules in providing stability to Bio-Me-nanomaterials are unknown. In this context, transposing the stabilization theory of chemically synthesized Me-nanomaterials (Ch-Me-nanomaterials) to biogenic materials can be used towards a better comprehension of macromolecules and secondary metabolites role as stabilizing agents of Bio-Me-nanomaterials. According to this theory, nanomaterials are generally featured by high thermodynamic instability in suspension, due to their high surface area and surface energy. This feature leads to the necessity to stabilize chemical nanostructures, even during or directly after their synthesis, through the development of (i) electrostatic, (ii) steric, or (iii) electrosteric interactions occurring between molecules and nanomaterials in suspension. Based on these three mechanisms, this review is focused on parallels between the stabilization of biogenic or chemical nanomaterials, suggesting which chemical-physical mechanisms may be

  17. Membranes produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique for low temperature fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennajdaoui, Aboubakr; Roualdes, Stéphanie; Brault, Pascal; Durand, Jean

    A plasma polymerization process using a continuous glow discharge has been implemented for preparing proton conducting membranes from trifluoromethane sulfonic acid and styrene. The chemical and physical structure of plasma membranes has been investigated using FTIR and SEM. The films are homogeneous with a good adhesion on commercial gas diffusion layer (E-Tek ®). Their deposition rate can be increased with increasing flow rate and input power. The thermogravimetric analysis under air of plasma polymers has showed a thermal stability up to 140 °C. Compared to the pulsed glow discharge studied in a previous paper, the continuous glow discharge has enabled to enhance the proton conductivity of membranes by a factor 3 (up to 1.7 mS cm -1). Moreover, the low methanol permeability (methanol diffusion coefficient down to 5 × 10 -13 m 2 s -1) of membranes has been confirmed by this study. In an industrial context, a reactor prototype has been developed to manufacture by plasma processes all active layers of fuel cell cores to be integrated in original compact PEMFC or DMFC.

  18. Physical-Chemical Properties, Storage Stability and Sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties, storage stability and sensory evaluation of pumpkin seed oil was carried out and compared with other vegetable oils commonly used in Tanzania in order to evaluate its potential as an edible oil with the aim of promoting its utilization in rural areas. Pumpkin seeds were collected from different ...

  19. Surface modification of titanium membrane by chemical vapor deposition and its electrochemical self-cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.W.; Li, J.X.; Gao, C.Y.; Chang, M.

    2011-01-01

    Membrane separation is applied widely in many fields, while concentration polarization and membrane fouling, limiting its promotion and application greatly, are the bottlenecks in membrane application. Among which, membrane fouling is irreversible, membrane must be periodically cleaned or even replaced to restore permeability. Membrane cleaning has become one of Key issues in membrane separation areas. Considering incomparable electrochemical advantages of boron-doped diamond (BDD) film electrode over conventional electrode, a new composite membrane Ti/BDD, made by depositing CVD (chemical vapor deposition) boron-doped diamond film on titanium(Ti) membrane to modify porous titanium surface, that can be cleaned electrochemically is proposed. Feasibility of its preparation and application is discussed in this paper. Results shows that based on the unique electrochemical properties of diamond, cleaning level of this composite Ti/BDD membrane is significantly increased, making membrane life and efficiency improved prominently.

  20. Stability of DNA-tethered lipid membranes with mobile tethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Minsub; Boxer, Steven G

    2011-05-03

    We recently introduced two approaches for tethering planar lipid bilayers as membrane patches to either a supported lipid bilayer or DNA-functionalized surface using DNA hybridization (Chung, M.; Lowe, R. D.; Chan, Y-H. M.; Ganesan, P. V.; Boxer, S. G. J. Struct. Biol.2009, 168, 190-9). When mobile DNA tethers are used, the tethered bilayer patches become unstable, while they are stable if the tethers are fixed on the surface. Because the mobile tethers between a patch and a supported lipid bilayer offer a particularly interesting architecture for studying the dynamics of membrane-membrane interactions, we have investigated the sources of instability, focusing on membrane composition. The most stable patches were made with a mixture of saturated lipids and cholesterol, suggesting an important role for membrane stiffness. Other factors such as the effect of tether length, lateral mobility, and patch membrane edge were also investigated. On the basis of these results, a model for the mechanism of patch destruction is developed.

  1. Ionic Liquid Confined in Mesoporous Polymer Membrane with Improved Stability for CO2/N2 Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Tan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs have a promising prospect of application in flue gas separation, owing to its high permeability and selectivity of CO2. However, existing SILMs have the disadvantage of poor stability due to the loss of ionic liquid from the large pores of the macroporous support. In this study, a novel SILM with high stability was developed by confining ionic liquid in a mesoporous polymer membrane. First, a mesoporous polymer membrane derived from a soluble, low-molecular-weight phenolic resin precursor was deposited on a porous Al2O3 support, and then 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([emim][BF4] was immobilized inside mesopores of phenolic resin, forming the SILM under vacuum. Effects of trans-membrane pressure difference on the SILM separation performance were investigated by measuring the permeances of CO2 and N2. The SILM exhibits a high ideal CO2/N2 selectivity of 40, and an actual selectivity of approximately 25 in a mixed gas (50% CO2 and 50% N2 at a trans-membrane pressure difference of 2.5 bar. Compared to [emim][BF4] supported by polyethersulfone membrane with a pore size of around 0.45 μm, the [emim][BF4] confined in a mesoporous polymer membrane exhibits an improved stability, and its separation performance remained stable for 40 h under a trans-membrane pressure difference of 1.5 bar in a mixed gas before the measurement was intentionally stopped.

  2. Rapid Production of a Porous Cellulose Acetate Membrane for Water Filtration Using Readily Available Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Adrian; Stark, Wendelin J.; Grass, Robert N.

    2017-01-01

    A chemistry laboratory experiment using everyday items and readily available chemicals is described to introduce advanced high school students and undergraduate college students to porous polymer membranes. In a three-step manufacturing process, a membrane is produced at room temperature. The filtration principle of the membrane is then…

  3. Photothermal stability of biologically and chemically synthesized gold nanoprisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klekotko, Magdalena; Olesiak-Banska, Joanna; Matczyszyn, Katarzyna

    2017-10-01

    We report here the influence of the irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses on the gold nanoprisms synthesized using biological and chemical methods. For the bio-mediated growth, we used plant extract as a source of reducing, structure-directing, and stabilizing agents, while for the chemical method, we applied three-step protocol, involving chemicals commonly used in the synthesis of nanostructures. Exposition of the nanostructures to the laser beam causes morphological changes, which affect their extinction spectra. These modifications were followed using absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The observed effects depend on the applied laser power and excitation wavelength. Under resonance conditions, rounding of the tips of triangular nanoparticles and transformation towards more stable, spherical form were noticed. These changes were faster under higher laser power. Such shape modifications were weaker under off-resonance conditions. Moreover, chemically synthesized gold nanoprisms were less susceptible to the morphological changes than those obtained using plant extract; however, their colloidal stability was disrupted by long-time irradiation. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Removable Backbone Modification Method for the Chemical Synthesis of Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Bin; Tang, Shan; Zheng, Ji-Shen; Tian, Chang-Lin; Liu, Lei

    2017-05-16

    Chemical synthesis can produce water-soluble globular proteins bearing specifically designed modifications. These synthetic molecules have been used to study the biological functions of proteins and to improve the pharmacological properties of protein drugs. However, the above advances notwithstanding, membrane proteins (MPs), which comprise 20-30% of all proteins in the proteomes of most eukaryotic cells, remain elusive with regard to chemical synthesis. This difficulty stems from the strong hydrophobic character of MPs, which can cause considerable handling issues during ligation, purification, and characterization steps. Considerable efforts have been made to improve the solubility of transmembrane peptides for chemical ligation. These methods can be classified into two main categories: the manipulation of external factors and chemical modification of the peptide. This Account summarizes our research advances in the development of chemical modification especially the two generations of removable backbone modification (RBM) strategy for the chemical synthesis of MPs. In the first RBM generation, we install a removable modification group at the backbone amide of Gly within the transmembrane peptides. In the second RBM generation, the RBM group can be installed into all primary amino acid residues. The second RBM strategy combines the activated intramolecular O-to-N acyl transfer reaction, in which a phenyl group remains unprotected during the coupling process, which can play a catalytic role to generate the activated phenyl ester to assist in the formation of amide. The key feature of the RBM group is its switchable stability in trifluoroacetic acid. The stability of these backbone amide N-modifications toward TFA can be modified by regulating the electronic effects of phenol groups. The free phenol group is acylated to survive the TFA deprotection step, while the acyl phenyl ester will be quantitatively hydrolyzed in a neutral aqueous solution, and the free

  5. Chemical synthesis and stabilization of magnesium substituted brushite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Donghyun [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung-Ang University, 221 Heukseok-Dong, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kumta, Prashant N., E-mail: pkumta@pitt.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Sceince, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)

    2010-08-30

    Hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}) is the most ubiquitous calcium phosphate phase used in implant coatings and more recently in gene/drug delivery applications due to its chemical stability under normal physiological conditions (37 deg. C, pH {approx} 7.5, 1 atm.). However, different calcium phosphate phases, such as brushite (CaH(PO{sub 4}){center_dot}2(H{sub 2}O)) and tricalcium phosphate (Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}) which are thermodynamically unstable under physiological conditions are also being explored for biomedical applications. One way of stabilizing these phases under physiological conditions is to introduce magnesium to substitute for calcium in the brushite lattice. The role of magnesium as a stabilizing agent for synthesizing brushite under physiological conditions at room temperature has been studied. Chemical analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction have also been conducted to validate the formation of magnesium substituted brushite under physiological conditions.

  6. The Acinar Cage: Basement Membranes Determine Molecule Exchange and Mechanical Stability of Human Breast Cell Acini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljona Gaiko-Shcherbak

    Full Text Available The biophysical properties of the basement membrane that surrounds human breast glands are poorly understood, but are thought to be decisive for normal organ function and malignancy. Here, we characterize the breast gland basement membrane with a focus on molecule permeation and mechanical stability, both crucial for organ function. We used well-established and nature-mimicking MCF10A acini as 3D cell model for human breast glands, with ether low- or highly-developed basement membrane scaffolds. Semi-quantitative dextran tracer (3 to 40 kDa experiments allowed us to investigate the basement membrane scaffold as a molecule diffusion barrier in human breast acini in vitro. We demonstrated that molecule permeation correlated positively with macromolecule size and intriguingly also with basement membrane development state, revealing a pore size of at least 9 nm. Notably, an intact collagen IV mesh proved to be essential for this permeation function. Furthermore, we performed ultra-sensitive atomic force microscopy to quantify the response of native breast acini and of decellularized basement membrane shells against mechanical indentation. We found a clear correlation between increasing acinar force resistance and basement membrane formation stage. Most important native acini with highly-developed basement membranes as well as cell-free basement membrane shells could both withstand physiologically relevant loads (≤ 20 nN without loss of structural integrity. In contrast, low-developed basement membranes were significantly softer and more fragile. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the key role of the basement membrane as conductor of acinar molecule influx and mechanical stability of human breast glands, which are fundamental for normal organ function.

  7. Cross-linked comb-shaped anion exchange membranes with high base stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, NW; Wang, LZ; Hickner, M

    2014-01-01

    A unique one-step cross-linking strategy that connects quaternary ammonium centers using Grubbs II-catalyzed olefin metathesis was developed. The cross-linked anion exchange membranes showed swelling ratios of less than 10% and hydroxide conductivities of 18 to 40 mS cm(- 1). Cross-linking improved the membranes' stability to hydroxide degradation compared to their non-cross-linked analogues.

  8. Aquaporin based biomimetic membrane in forward osmosis: Chemical cleaning resistance and practical operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zhenyu; Linares, Rodrigo Valladares; Bucs, Szilard

    2017-01-01

    Aquaporin plays a promising role in fabricating high performance biomimetic forward osmosis (FO) membranes. However, aquaporin as a protein also has a risk of denaturation caused, by various chemicals, resulting in a possible decay of membrane performance. The present study tested a novel aquaporin...... based biomimetic membrane in simulated membrane cleaning processes. The effects of cleaning agents on water flux and salt rejection were evaluated. The membrane showed a good resistance to the chemical agents. The water flux after chemical cleaning showed significant increases, particularly after...... with secondary wastewater effluent as the feed solution and seawater as the draw solution showed a stable flux and high salt rejection. The average rejection of the dissolved organic carbon from wastewater after the 15-day test was 90%. The results demonstrated that the aquaporin based biomimetic FO membrane...

  9. Stability and Degradation Mechanisms of Radiation-Grafted Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Water Electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Albert; Lochner, Tim; Schmidt, Thomas J; Gubler, L

    2016-06-22

    Radiation-grafted membranes are a promising alternative to commercial membranes for water electrolyzers, since they exhibit lower hydrogen crossover and area resistance, better mechanical properties, and are of potentially lower cost than perfluoroalkylsulfonic acid membranes, such as Nafion. Stability is an important factor in view of the expected lifetime of 40 000 h or more of an electrolyzer. In this study, combinations of styrene (St), α-methylstyrene (AMS), acrylonitrile (AN), and 1,3-diisopropenylbenzene (DiPB) are cografted into 50 μm preirradiated poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) base film, followed by sulfonation to produce radiation-grafted membranes. The stability of the membranes with different monomer combinations is compared under an accelerated stress test (AST), and the degradation mechanisms are investigated. To mimic the conditions in an electrolyzer, in which the membrane is always in contact with liquid water at elevated temperature, the membranes are immersed in water for 5 days at 90 °C, so-called thermal stress test (TST). In addition to testing in air atmosphere tests are also carried out under argon to investigate the effect of the absence of oxygen. The water is analyzed with UV-vis spectroscopy and ion chromatography. The ion exchange capacity (IEC), swelling degree, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the membranes are compared before and after the test. Furthermore, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopic analysis of the membrane cross-section is performed. Finally, the influence of the TST to the membrane area resistance and hydrogen crossover is measured. The stability increases along the sequence St/AN, St/AN/DiPB, AMS/AN, and AMS/AN/DiPB grafted membrane. The degradation at the weak-link, oxygen-induced degradation, and hydrothermal degradation are proposed in addition to the "swelling-induced detachment" reported in the literature. By mitigating the possible paths of degradation, the AMS

  10. Molecular View of Cholesterol Flip-Flop and Chemical Potential in Different Membrane Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennett, W. F. Drew; MacCallum, Justin L.; Hinner, Marlon J.; Marrink, Siewert J.; Tieleman, D. Peter

    2009-01-01

    The relative stability of cholesterol in cellular membranes and the thermodynamics of fluctuations from equilibrium have important consequences for sterol trafficking and lateral domain formation. We used molecular dynamics computer simulations to investigate the partitioning of cholesterol in a

  11. The spectrin-based membrane skeleton stabilizes mouse megakaryocyte membrane systems and is essential for proplatelet and platelet formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel-Hett, Sunita; Wang, Hongbei; Begonja, Antonija J.; Thon, Jonathan N.; Alden, Eva C.; Wandersee, Nancy J.; An, Xiuli; Mohandas, Narla; Hartwig, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Megakaryocytes generate platelets by remodeling their cytoplasm first into proplatelets and then into preplatelets, which undergo fission to generate platelets. Although the functions of microtubules and actin during platelet biogenesis have been defined, the role of the spectrin cytoskeleton is unknown. We investigated the function of the spectrin-based membrane skeleton in proplatelet and platelet production in murine megakaryocytes. Electron microscopy revealed that, like circulating platelets, proplatelets have a dense membrane skeleton, the main fibrous component of which is spectrin. Unlike other cells, megakaryocytes and their progeny express both erythroid and nonerythroid spectrins. Assembly of spectrin into tetramers is required for invaginated membrane system maturation and proplatelet extension, because expression of a spectrin tetramer–disrupting construct in megakaryocytes inhibits both processes. Incorporation of this spectrin-disrupting fragment into a novel permeabilized proplatelet system rapidly destabilizes proplatelets, causing blebbing and swelling. Spectrin tetramers also stabilize the “barbell shapes” of the penultimate stage in platelet production, because addition of the tetramer-disrupting construct converts these barbell shapes to spheres, demonstrating that membrane skeletal continuity maintains the elongated, pre-fission shape. The results of this study provide evidence for a role for spectrin in different steps of megakaryocyte development through its participation in the formation of invaginated membranes and in the maintenance of proplatelet structure. PMID:21566095

  12. Chemically stabilized epitaxial wurtzite-BN thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishal, Badri; Singh, Rajendra; Chaturvedi, Abhishek; Sharma, Ankit; Sreedhara, M. B.; Sahu, Rajib; Bhat, Usha; Ramamurty, Upadrasta; Datta, Ranjan

    2018-03-01

    We report on the chemically stabilized epitaxial w-BN thin film grown on c-plane sapphire by pulsed laser deposition under slow kinetic condition. Traces of no other allotropes such as cubic (c) or hexagonal (h) BN phases are present. Sapphire substrate plays a significant role in stabilizing the metastable w-BN from h-BN target under unusual PLD growth condition involving low temperature and pressure and is explained based on density functional theory calculation. The hardness and the elastic modulus of the w-BN film are 37 & 339 GPa, respectively measured by indentation along direction. The results are extremely promising in advancing the microelectronic and mechanical tooling industry.

  13. Enhancement of membrane stability on magnetic responsive hydrogel microcapsules for potential on-demand cell separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Huiyun; Gao, Ting; Fu, Zizhen; Liu, Xing; Xu, Jiatong; He, Yishu; Xu, Ningxia; Jiao, Ping; Fan, An; Huang, Saipeng; Xue, Weiming

    2017-02-10

    It is of high interest to obtain hydrogel membranes with optimum mechanical stability, which is a prerequisite to the successful fabrication of hydrogel microcapsules for cell separation. In this work, we developed magnetic responsive alginate/chitosan (MAC) hydrogel microcapsules by co-encapsulation of microbial cells and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) reacting under a high voltage electrostatic field. We investigated the influence of the molecular weight of chitosan, microcapsules size, and membrane crosslinking time on the swelling behavior of microcapsules as an indicator of stability of the membranes. The results demonstrated that the suitable membrane stability conditions were obtained by a crosslinking of the microspheres with a chitosan presenting a molecular weight of 70kDa for 15-30min resulting in a membrane thickness of approximately 30mm. Considering the need of maintaining the cells inside the microcapsules, fermentation at 37°C and at neutral pH was favorable. Moreover, the MAC microcapsules sizing between 300 and 380μm were suitable for immobilizing Bacillus licheniformis in a 286h multiple fed-bath operation with no leakage of the SPIONs and cells. Overall, the results of this study provided strategies for the rational design of magnetic microcapsules exhibiting suitable mechanical stable membranes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Aquaporin based biomimetic membrane in forward osmosis: Chemical cleaning resistance and practical operation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhenyu

    2017-07-27

    Aquaporin plays a promising role in fabricating high performance biomimetic forward osmosis (FO) membranes. However, aquaporin as a protein also has a risk of denaturation caused by various chemicals, resulting in a possible decay of membrane performance. The present study tested a novel aquaporin based biomimetic membrane in simulated membrane cleaning processes. The effects of cleaning agents on water flux and salt rejection were evaluated. The membrane showed a good resistance to the chemical agents. The water flux after chemical cleaning showed significant increases, particularly after cleaning with NaOCl and Alconox. Changes in the membrane structure and increased hydrophilicity in the surrounding areas of the aquaporin may be accountable for the increase in water permeability. The membrane shows stable salt rejection up to 99% after all cleaning agents were tested. A 15-day experiment with secondary wastewater effluent as the feed solution and seawater as the draw solution showed a stable flux and high salt rejection. The average rejection of the dissolved organic carbon from wastewater after the 15-day test was 90%. The results demonstrated that the aquaporin based biomimetic FO membrane exhibits chemical resistance for most agents used in membrane cleaning procedures, maintaining a stable flux and high salt rejection.

  15. The influence of different membrane components on the electrical stability of bilayer lipid membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uitert, I.; le Gac, Severine; van den Berg, Albert

    A good understanding of cell membrane properties is crucial for better controlled and reproducible experiments, particularly for cell electroporation where the mechanism of pore formation is not fully elucidated. In this article we study the influence on that process of several constituents found in

  16. Thermodynamic stabilization of precipitates through interface segregation: Chemical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadambi, Sourabh B.; Patala, Srikanth

    2017-09-01

    Precipitation hardening, which relies on a high density of intermetallic precipitates, is a commonly utilized technique for strengthening structural alloys. At high temperatures, however, the precipitates often coarsen to reduce the excess energy of the interface, resulting in a significant reduction in the strengthening achieved. In certain ternary alloys, secondary solute segregation to the interface has been observed to result in the formation of a high density of nanosized precipitates that provide enhanced strength and are resistant to coarsening. To understand the chemical effects involved, and to identify such segregating systems, we develop a thermodynamic model using the framework of the regular nanocrystalline solution model. For various global compositions, temperatures, and thermodynamic parameters, we evaluate equilibrium configurations of a Mg-Sn-Zn alloy by minimizing the Gibbs free energy function with respect to region-specific (bulk solid solution, interface, and precipitate) concentrations and sizes. The results show that Mg2Sn precipitates can be stabilized to nanoscale sizes through Zn segregation to the Mg /Mg2Sn interface, and the precipitates can be stabilized against coarsening at high temperatures through strong Mg-Zn interface interaction. Together with the inclusion of elastic strain energy effects, kinetic contributions, and the input of computationally informed interface parameters in the future, the model is expected to provide a more realistic prediction of segregation and precipitate stabilization in ternary alloys of structural importance.

  17. Influence of endothelium on the membrane-stabilizing effect of calcium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These relaxation responses were attenuated in endothelium-denuded rings as well as following exposure to methylene blue. Conclusion: The results show that relaxation responses induced by high Ca2+ due to membrane stabilization is endothelium-dependent. Keywords: Calcium, rabbit aorta, Vascular smooth muscle, ...

  18. Enhanced thermal stability of the thylakoid membranes from spruce. A comparison with selected angiosperms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karlický, Václav; Kurasová, Irena; Ptáčková, B.; Večeřová, Kristýna; Urban, Otmar; Špunda, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 130, 1-3 (2016), s. 357-371 ISSN 0166-8595 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GA13-28093S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Norway spruce * Thermal stability * Circular dichroism * Photosystem II organization * Thylakoid membrane Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.864, year: 2016

  19. [Membrane-stabilizing preparations in the treatment of patients with heart rhythm disorders of different etiologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizir, A D; Grigor'eva, Z E; Stepanova, I V; Vizir, V A

    1991-10-01

    Data are reported of a study of the efficacy of membrane-stabilizing antiarrhythmic agents--ethmosin, ethacisin, allapinin. The latter was used in the treatment of 85 patients with arrhythmias of different etiology and proved more effective as compared with ethmosin and ethacisin. In ventricular extrasystole the effect was favourable in 86%, in supraventricular--in 70% of patients.

  20. CHEMICALLY MODIFIED FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTORS - POTENTIOMETRIC AG+ SELECTIVITY OF PVC MEMBRANES BASED ON MACROCYCLIC THIOETHERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRZOZKA, Z; COBBEN, PLHM; REINHOUDT, DN; EDEMA, JJH; KELLOGG, RM

    1993-01-01

    A chemically modified field-effect transistor (CHEMFET) with satisfactory Ag+ selectivity is described. The potentiometric Ag+ selectivities of CHEMFETs with plasticized PVC membranes based on macrocyclic thioethers have been determined. All the macrocyclic thioethers tested showed silver response

  1. Aquaporin based biomimetic membrane in forward osmosis: Chemical cleaning resistance and practical operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zhenyu; Linares, Rodrigo Valladares; Bucs, Szilard

    2017-01-01

    Aquaporin plays a promising role in fabricating high performance biomimetic forward osmosis (FO) membranes. However, aquaporin as a protein also has a risk of denaturation caused, by various chemicals, resulting in a possible decay of membrane performance. The present study tested a novel aquaporin...

  2. Membranes coupled with physico chemical treatment in water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, W S; Zhang, R; Vigneswaran, S; Ngo, H H; Kandasamy, J

    2010-01-01

    In this study, short-term experiments were conducted with different configurations of membrane hybrid systems to treat biological treated sewage effluent containing refractory organic pollutants: (i) submerged hollow fiber microfiltration (SMF) alone; (ii) spiral flocculator (SF)-SMF without settling; (iii) SF-PAC-SMF without settling and (iv) SMF with magnetic ion exchange resin MIEX pretreatment. The results indicated that the pre-flocculation of SF could improve the mitigation of membrane fouling significantly even when the system was operated at a high membrane filtration rate. The transmembrane pressure (TMP) of SF-PAC-SMF only increased marginally (0.8 kPa over 8 hours). SF-SMF without the addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) also took a relatively long duration for the TMP to increase. The TMP only increased by 2.5 kPa over 8 hours. The SF-PAC-MF system resulted in a high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal of more than 96%. When used as pre-treatment to submerged membranes, the fluidized bed MIEX contactor could remove a significant amount of organic matter in wastewater. This pre-treatment helped to reduce the membrane fouling and kept the TMP low during the membrane operation.

  3. [Formation of stabile cupola-like lipid bilayer membranes with a mobile plateau Gibbs boundary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, E V; Smirnova, E Iu; Frolov, A V; Iakovenko, E V; Antonov, V F

    1993-01-01

    Stable bilayer lipid membrane with mobile Platear-Gibbs border have been formed. The predominant condition of the formation is the presence of lipid coverage on the teflon surface near the hole. The formation process includes transformation of the initial planar lipid bilayer into cupola-shaped one by bowing of the lipid bilayer due to hydrostatic pressure, movement of the PGb along the teflon surface. The bilayer area estimated by electric capacitance increases from 0.1 x 10(-8) F to 21 x 10(-8) F. Electric conductance of the lipid bilayer has not changed except for the phase transition and membrane collapse. The electric capacitance of the BLM formed from hydrogenated egg lecithin was changed by cooling between 60 degrees and 40 degrees C with the maximum at about phase transition range. The individual membrane sustains several scannings of the temperature without disruption which is an evidence of the stability of the cupola-shaped membranes.

  4. Tailoring of porosity of yttria-stabilized zirconia tubes as supports for oxygen separation membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnetun Haugen, Astri; Kothanda Ramachandran, Dhavanesan; Gurauskis, Jonas

    Pure oxygen gas supplied by ceramic oxygen transport membranes can facilitate reduced CO2 emissions through more efficient gasification processes and CO2 capture and storage. Tubular membranes have some advantages compared to planar membranes, such as better resistance to thermal gradients and more...... straightforward sealing. The active oxygen separation layer in the membrane should be as thin as possible and therefore supported on a highly porous tubular substrate. In this work tubular porous supports of yttria-stabilized zirconia have been manufactured using thermoplastic extrusion. Two types of poreformers...... exceeding 55 % and gas permeabilities close to 10-14 m2 could be produced, demonstrating that thermoplastic extrusion is suitable for fabrication of porous and permeable tubes....

  5. The Chemical Potential of Plasma Membrane Cholesterol: Implications for Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuyan, Artem G; Cohen, Fredric S

    2018-02-27

    Cholesterol is abundant in plasma membranes and exhibits a variety of interactions throughout the membrane. Chemical potential accounts for thermodynamic consequences of molecular interactions, and quantifies the effective concentration (i.e., activity) of any substance participating in a process. We have developed, to our knowledge, the first method to measure cholesterol chemical potential in plasma membranes. This was accomplished by complexing methyl-β-cyclodextrin with cholesterol in an aqueous solution and equilibrating it with an organic solvent containing dissolved cholesterol. The chemical potential of cholesterol was thereby equalized in the two phases. Because cholesterol is dilute in the organic phase, here activity and concentration were equivalent. This equivalence allowed the amount of cholesterol bound to methyl-β-cyclodextrin to be converted to cholesterol chemical potential. Our method was used to determine the chemical potential of cholesterol in erythrocytes and in plasma membranes of nucleated cells in culture. For erythrocytes, the chemical potential did not vary when the concentration was below a critical value. Above this value, the chemical potential progressively increased with concentration. We used standard cancer lines to characterize cholesterol chemical potential in plasma membranes of nucleated cells. This chemical potential was significantly greater for highly metastatic breast cancer cells than for nonmetastatic breast cancer cells. Chemical potential depended on density of the cancer cells. A method to alter and fix the cholesterol chemical potential to any value (i.e., a cholesterol chemical potential clamp) was also developed. Cholesterol content did not change when cells were clamped for 24-48 h. It was found that the level of activation of the transcription factor STAT3 increased with increasing cholesterol chemical potential. The cholesterol chemical potential may regulate signaling pathways. Copyright © 2018. Published by

  6. Examination of lignocellulosic fibers for chemical, thermal, and separations properties: Addressing thermo-chemical stability issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carter David

    Natural fiber-plastic composites incorporate thermoplastic resins with fibrous plant-based materials, sometimes referred to as biomass. Pine wood mill waste has been the traditional source of natural fibrous feedstock. In anticipation of a waste wood shortage other fibrous biomass materials are being investigated as potential supplements or replacements. Perennial grasses, agricultural wastes, and woody biomass are among the potential source materials. As these feedstocks share the basic chemical building blocks; cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, they are collectively called lignocellulosics. Initial investigation of a number of lignocellulosic materials, applied to fiber-plastic composite processing and material testing, resulted in varied results, particularly response to processing conditions. Less thermally stable lignocellulosic filler materials were physically changed in observable ways: darkened color and odor. The effect of biomass materials' chemical composition on thermal stability was investigated an experiment involving determination of the chemical composition of seven lignocellulosics: corn hull, corn stover, fescue, pine, soy hull, soy stover, and switchgrass. These materials were also evaluated for thermal stability by thermogravimetric analysis. The results of these determinations indicated that both chemical composition and pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials can have an effect on their thermal stability. A second study was performed to investigate what effect different pretreatment systems have on hybrid poplar, pine, and switchgrass. These materials were treated with hot water, ethanol, and a 2:1 benzene/ethanol mixture for extraction times of: 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours. This factorial experiment demonstrated that both extraction time and medium have an effect on the weight percent of extractives removed from all three material types. The extracted materials generated in the above study were then subjected to an evaluation of thermal

  7. Chemical Stability of Bioglass in Simulated Oral Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moazzami SM

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Bioglasses are a series of biocompatible dental materials, which are considered as light conducting inserts in resin composite restorations. Consequently, their chemical stability is more essential when they are used in conjunction with resin composite. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the chemical stability of Bioglass with dental porcelain and resin composite by determining the amount of released K+, Na+, Ca2+ ions and silicone elements from these materials as a result of exposure to tested solutions with different pH levels including: Sodium Bicarbonate [SB, (pH=9.2], Sodium Buffer Lactate [SBL, (pH=2.4], Acetic Acid [AA, (pH=2.4], and Distilled Water [DW, (pH=6.2]. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, forty 2.0 × 4.0 cylindrical rods for each tested material group (Dental porcelain, Resin composite and Bioglass were prepared. They were divided into four subgroups of 10 rods each, which immersed in one of the four testing solutions in a designated container. The containers were stored at 50°C and 100% humidity for one week. The released ions were measured by using a spectrophotometer (µg/cm2/ml. The data were statistically analyzed by nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis H test. Results: It was observed that the tested materials released ions at different levels of concentration. The significant amounts of Sodium, Calcium, and Silicon ions release were measured in Bioglass subgroups in all the tested solutions (p < 0.001. Potassium ion release from dental porcelain was the largest in all solutions except for AA in which Bioglass had the greatest potassium ion release (p < 0.001. Conclusions: A greater structural instability was observed for Biogalss group than dental porcelain and resin composite in testing solutions with different pH .levels

  8. Wellbore stability analysis in chemically active shale formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Xiang-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining wellbore stability involves significant challenges when drilling in low-permeability reactive shale formations. In the present study, a non-linear thermo-chemo-poroelastic model is provided to investigate the effect of chemical, thermal, and hydraulic gradients on pore pressure and stress distributions near the wellbores. The analysis indicates that when the solute concentration of the drilling mud is higher than that of the formation fluid, the pore pressure and the effective radial and tangential stresses decrease, and v. v. Cooling of the lower salinity formation decreases the pore pressure, radial and tangential stresses. Hole enlargement is the combined effect of shear and tensile failure when drilling in high-temperature shale formations. The shear and tensile damage indexes reveal that hole enlargement occurs in the vicinity of the wellbore at an early stage of drilling. This study also demonstrates that shale wellbore stability exhibits a time-delay effect due to changes in the pore pressure and stress. The delay time computed with consideration of the strength degradation is far less than that without strength degradation.

  9. Stability study: Transparent conducting oxides in chemically reactive plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, Krishna Nama; Paul, Shashi

    2017-12-01

    Effect of plasma treatment on transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) including indium-doped tin oxide (ITO), fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) are discussed. Stability of electrical and optical properties of TCOs, when exposed to plasma species generated from gases such as hydrogen and silane, are studied extensively. ITO and FTO thin films are unstable and reduce to their counterparts such as Indium and Tin when subjected to plasma. On the other hand, AZO is not only stable but also shows superior electrical and optical properties. The stability of AZO makes it suitable for electronic applications, such as solar cells and transistors that are fabricated under plasma environment. TCOs exposed to plasma with different fabrication parameters are used in the fabrication of silicon nanowire solar cells. The performance of solar cells, which is mired by the plasma, fabricated on ITO and FTO is discussed with respect to plasma exposure parameters while showing the advantages of using chemically stable AZO as an ideal TCO for solar cells. Additionally, in-situ diagnostic tool (optical emission spectroscopy) is used to monitor the deposition process and damage caused to TCOs.

  10. Ceramic membrane fouling during ultrafiltration of oil/water emulsions: roles played by stabilization surfactants of oil droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dongwei; Zhang, Tao; Ma, Jun

    2015-04-07

    Oil/water (O/W) emulsion stabilized by surfactants is the part of oily wastewater that is most difficult to handle. Ceramic membrane ultrafiltration presently is an ideal process to treat O/W emulsions. However, little is known about the fouling mechanism of the ceramic membrane during O/W emulsion treatment. This paper investigated how stabilization surfactants of O/W emulsions influence the irreversible fouling of ceramic membranes during ultrafiltration. An unexpected phenomenon observed was that irreversible fouling was much less when the charge of the stabilization surfactant of O/W emulsions is opposite to the membrane. The less ceramic membrane fouling in this case was proposed to be due to a synergetic steric effect and demulsification effect which prevented the penetration of oil droplets into membrane pores and led to less pore blockage. This proposed mechanism was supported by cross section images of fouled and virgin ceramic membranes taken with scanning electron microscopy, regression results of classical fouling models, and analysis of organic components rejected by the membrane. Furthermore, this mechanism was also verified by the existence of a steric effect and demulsification effect. Our finding suggests that ceramic membrane oppositely charged to the stabilization surfactant should be applied in ultrafiltration of O/W emulsions to alleviate irreversible membrane fouling. It could be a useful rule for ceramic membrane ultrafiltration of oily wastewater.

  11. Effect of crosslinking on the physico-chemical properties of radiation grafted PEM fuel cell membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Mahmoud Nasef; Hamdani Saidi

    2006-01-01

    The effect of crosslinking on the physico-chemical properties of radiation grafted proton conducting membranes (PFA-g-PSSA) was investigated. The membranes were prepared by radiation induced grafting of styrene/divinylbenzene (DVB) mixtures onto poly (tetrafluoroethylene-co-perfluorovinyl either) (PFA) films followed by sulfonation reactions. The variation of DVB content in the grafting mixture was in the range of 1-4 vol %. The equivalent weight, swelling, behavior and the proton conductivity of crosslinked membranes having equal degrees of grafting prepared found to be dependent predominantly on the level of crosslinking. The obtained membranes were found to posses a good combination of physico-chemical properties that is matching the commercial Nation 117 membranes

  12. Sedative, membrane stability, cytotoxic and antioxidant properties of methanol extract of leaves of Protium serratum Wall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rafikul Islam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the sedative, membrane stability, cytotoxic and antioxidant properties of the leaves of Protium serratum extracted using methanol. Methods: Sedative test was performed using hole cross and open field methods at 200 and 400 mg/kg. Membrane stability of red blood cell was used for anti-inflammatory test at different concentrations. Cytotoxic study was performed using brine shrimp lethality test. Total flavonoid contents, total phenol contents and reducing power were used to assess antioxidant properties of the extract. Results: Extract showed better sedative action at lower doses in both experiments. Maximum 73.33% locomotion reduction was found at 200 mg/kg at 1 20 min and that was 89.29% for diazepam in hole cross test. In membrane stability test, extract and standard drug diclofenac have 35.66% and 91.20% stability, respectively. LC50 value of the extract was 22.91 µg/mL. Total phenol and flavonoid contents were (55.53依14.63 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram of extract and (1 06.33依7.35 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of extract, respectively per gram of extract. Significant reducing power was observed as compared to ascorbic acid. Conclusions: Extract possesses good pharmacological properties. Hence, further extensive study is essential to find out possible active constituents for the treatment of anxiety, inflammation or sickle cell disease, cancer and free radical mediated abnormalities.

  13. Polypropylene Track Membranes for Mikro and Ultrafiltration of Chemically Aggressive Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Kravets, L I; Apel, P Yu

    2000-01-01

    A production process for track membranes on the basis of chemically resistant polymer polypropylene has been developed. Research in all stages of the formation of the polypropylene track membranes has been conducted: the main principles of the process of chemical etching of polypropylene irradiated with accelerated ions have been investigated, the most effective structure of the etchant for a selective etching of the heavy ion tracks has been selected, the parameters of etching have been optimized. A method for sensibilization of latent tracks in polypropylene by effect of solvents has been developed. It helps to reach a significant increase in etching selectivity. A method for destruction of an absorbed chromocontaining layer on the surface of polypropylene track membranes formed during etching has been elaborated. Experimental samples of the membranes for micro and ultrafiltration have been obtained and their properties have been studied in course of their exploitation in chemically aggressive agents. For t...

  14. Simulations of Cavity-Stabilized Flames in Supersonic Flow Using Reduced Chemical Kinetic Mechanisms (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Jiwen; Tam, Chung-Jen; Lu, Tianfeng; Law, Chung K

    2006-01-01

    The VULCAN CFD code integrated with a reduced chemical kinetic mechanism was applied to simulate cavity-stabilized ethylene-air flames and to predict flame stability limits in supersonic flows based...

  15. Physical-chemical and mechanical testing of membranes of chitosan with copper, zinc and magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, M.J.B.; Barbosa, R.C.; Ries, A.; Fidelis, T.; Fook, M.V.L.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of copper, zinc and magnesium ions on the mechanical and physical chemical properties of chitosan membranes. The membranes were prepared by solvent evaporation method and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Superficial Tension and Mechanical Stress-Strain Analysis. From the results could be conclude that the incorporation of metals into chitosan membranes, did not modify the characteristic profile of the membranes. However, the metal containing membranes presented minor flexibility and greater fragility. This is associated to the chelation of metallic ions by chitosan, resulting in a linking between chitosan chains, thus reducing the structural flexibility of the membranes. (author)

  16. Pyrochlore as nuclear waste form. Actinide uptake and chemical stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkeldei, Sarah Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated by many different technical and scientific applications. For the past decades, different waste disposal strategies have been considered. Several questions on the waste disposal strategy remain unanswered, particularly regarding the long-term radiotoxicity of minor actinides (Am, Cm, Np), plutonium and uranium. These radionuclides mainly arise from high level nuclear waste (HLW), specific waste streams or dismantled nuclear weapons. Although many countries have opted for the direct disposal of spent fuel, from a scientific and technical point of view it is imperative to pursue alternative waste management strategies. Apart from the vitrification, especially for trivalent actinides and Pu, crystalline ceramic waste forms are considered. In contrast to glasses, crystalline waste forms, which are chemically and physically highly stable, allow the retention of radionuclides on well-defined lattice positions within the crystal structure. Besides polyphase ceramics such as SYNROC, single phase ceramics are considered as tailor made host phases to embed a specific radionuclide or a specific group. Among oxidic single phase ceramics pyrochlores are known to have a high potential for this application. This work examines ZrO 2 based pyrochlores as potential nuclear waste forms, which are known to show a high aqueous stability and a high tolerance towards radiation damage. This work contributes to (1) understand the phase stability field of pyrochlore and consequences of non-stoichiometry which leads to pyrochlores with mixed cationic sites. Mixed cationic occupancies are likely to occur in actinide-bearing pyrochlores. (2) The structural uptake of radionuclides themselves was studied. (3) The chemical stability and the effect of phase transition from pyrochlore to defect fluorite were probed. This phase transition is important, as it is the result of radiation damage in ZrO 2 based pyrochlores. ZrO 2 - Nd 2 O 3 pellets with pyrochlore and defect

  17. Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes for protection from chemical warfare stimulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramaseshan, Ramakrishnan; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Liu, Yingjun; Barhate, R S; Lala, Neeta L; Ramakrishna, S

    2006-01-01

    A catalyst for the detoxification of nerve agents is synthesized from β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and o-iodosobenzoic acid (IBA). Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes from PVC polymer are fabricated with β-CD, IBA, a blend of β-CD+IBA, and the synthesized catalyst. These functionalized nanofibres are then tested for the decontamination of paraoxon, a nerve agent stimulant, and it is observed that the stimulant gets hydrolysed. The kinetics of hydrolysis is investigated using UV spectroscopy. The rates of hydrolysis for different organophosphate hydrolyzing agents are compared. The reactivity and amount of adsorption of these catalysts are of higher capacity than the conventionally used activated charcoal. A new design for protective wear is proposed based on the functionalized nanofibre membrane

  18. Stability of atropine sulfate prepared for mass chemical terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Jackie; Weber, Robert J; Frye, Reginald F; Nolin, Thomas D; Mrvos, Rita; Krenzelok, Edward

    2003-01-01

    Preparedness for chemical terrorism includes the procurement of the appropriate pharmacological antagonists. A large emphasis has been placed on having a sufficient quantity of atropine available to treat patients exposed to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as sarin. Severe exposures may necessitate the administration of large amounts of atropine and dictate the need to prepare significant quantities of extemporaneously compounded atropine solution to respond to mass numbers of casualties over the first 24-48 hours postexposure. The objective of this project was to determine the stability of a 1 mg/mL atropine solution prepared in multidose IV solutions of 0.9% sodium chloride over a 72-hr period stored at varying temperatures. Atropine sulfate solution 1 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride was prepared from sterile pharmaceutical-grade atropine sulfate powder. Multidose bags of atropine sulfate (100 mL) were stored at controlled temperatures of 4 degrees C to 8 degrees C, 20 degrees C to 25 degrees C, and 32 degrees C to 36 degrees C for 3 days and covered with an amber occlusive cover to minimize exposure to light. Six samples from each bag were drawn at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after preparation and compared with a time zero control sample. The samples were assayed using United States Pharmacopeia/National Formulary (USP/NF) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods for atropine sulfate injection. The USP standard of 95% for atropine sulfate stability was used as the primary endpoint. Atropine sulfate 1 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride was stable for at least 72hr at 4 degrees C to 8 degrees C (percent initial concentration ranging from 96.5% to 103.4%), 20 degrees C to 25 degrees C (percent initial concentration ranging from 98.7% to 100.2%), and 32 degrees C to 36 degrees C (percent initial concentration ranging from 98.3% to 102.8%). Because the IV bags were protected from light during this study, we recommend this practice after preparing the atropine

  19. Chemical stability of enalapril maleate drug substance and tablets by a stability-indicating liquid chromatographic method

    OpenAIRE

    Diego,Marta de; Godoy,Gloria; Mennickent,Sigrid; Godoy,Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    The chemical stability of enalapril drug substance and tablets was studied by a stability-indicating liquid chromatographic method. Stress testing was performed on drug substance under various conditions. Accelerated stability testing was carried out for different formulations of enalapril tablets. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a RP-18 column, using a mobile phase of methanol phosphate buffer at 1.0 mL min"1 and UV detection. Degradation of the drug substance was greater under hy...

  20. Method of waste stabilization with dewatered chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D.

    2010-06-29

    A method of stabilizing a waste in a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC). The method consists of preparing a slurry including the waste, water, an oxide binder, and a phosphate binder. The slurry is then allowed to cure to a solid, hydrated CBPC matrix. Next, bound water within the solid, hydrated CBPC matrix is removed. Typically, the bound water is removed by applying heat to the cured CBPC matrix. Preferably, the quantity of heat applied to the cured CBPC matrix is sufficient to drive off water bound within the hydrated CBPC matrix, but not to volatalize other non-water components of the matrix, such as metals and radioactive components. Typically, a temperature range of between 100.degree. C.-200.degree. C. will be sufficient. In another embodiment of the invention wherein the waste and water have been mixed prior to the preparation of the slurry, a select amount of water may be evaporated from the waste and water mixture prior to preparation of the slurry. Another aspect of the invention is a direct anyhydrous CBPC fabrication method wherein water is removed from the slurry by heating and mixing the slurry while allowing the slurry to cure. Additional aspects of the invention are ceramic matrix waste forms prepared by the methods disclosed above.

  1. Redox modulation of curcumin stability: Redox active antioxidants increase chemical stability of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimiya, Yoshiki; Wang, Weicang; Du, Zheyuan; Sukamtoh, Elvira; Zhu, Julia; Decker, Eric; Zhang, Guodong

    2016-03-01

    Substantial studies have shown that curcumin, a dietary compound from turmeric, has beneficial effects on many diseases. However, curcumin rapidly degrades at physiological pH, making it difficult to interpret whether the observed actions of curcumin are from curcumin itself or its degradation products. Therefore, it is important to better understand the mechanisms involved in curcumin degradation and the roles of degradation in its biological actions. Here, we show that a series of redox active antioxidants with diverse chemical structures, including gallic acid, ascorbate (vitamin C), tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, and Trolox (a water-soluble analog of vitamin E), dramatically increased curcumin stability in phosphate buffer at physiological pH. When treated in basal cell culture medium in MC38 colon cancer cells, curcumin rapidly degraded with a half-life of several minutes and showed a weak antiproliferative effect; co-addition of antioxidants enhanced stability and antiproliferative effect of curcumin. Finally, co-administration of antioxidant significantly increased plasma level of curcumin in animal models. Together, these studies strongly suggest that a redox-dependent mechanism plays a critical role in mediating curcumin degradation. In addition, curcumin itself, instead of its degradation products, is largely responsible for the observed biological actions of curcumin. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Study of structural stability and damaging effect on membrane for four Aβ42 dimers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Feng

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that Aβ oligomers are key pathogenic molecules in Alzheimer's disease. Among Aβ oligomers, dimer is the smallest aggregate and toxic unit. Therefore, understanding its structural and dynamic properties is quite useful to prevent the formation and toxicity of the Aβ oligomers. In this study, we performed molecular dynamic simulations on four Aβ42 dimers, 2NCb, CNNC, NCNC and NCCN, within the hydrated DPPC membrane. Four Aβ42 dimers differ in the arrangements of two Aβ42 peptides. This study aims to investigate the impact of aggregation pattern of two Aβ peptides on the structural stability of the Aβ42 dimer and its disruption to the biological membrane. The MD results demonstrate that the NCCN, CNNC and NCNC have the larger structural fluctuation at the N-terminus of Aβ42 peptide, where the β-strand structure converts into the coil structure. The loss of the N-terminal β-strand further impairs the aggregate ability of Aβ42 dimer. In addition, inserting Aβ42 dimer into the membrane can considerably decrease the average APL of DPPC membrane. Moreover this decrease effect is largely dependent on the distance to the location of Aβ42 dimer and its secondary structure forms. Based on the results, the 2NCb is considered as a stable dimeric unit for aggregating the larger Aβ42 oligomer, and has a potent ability to disrupt the membrane.

  3. Developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 is required for stabilization of Rac1-positive membrane tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Muralidharan; Lee, Unn Hwa; Yoon, Nal Ae; Yoon, Eun Hye; Lee, Byung Ju; Cho, Wha Ja; Park, Jeong Woo

    2017-11-04

    Previously we have reported that developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 (DRG2) localizes on Rab5 endosomes and plays an important role in transferrin (Tfn) recycling. We here identified DRG2 as a key regulator of membrane tubule stability. At 30 min after Tfn treatment, DRG2 localized to membrane tubules which were enriched with phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate [PI(4)P] and did not contain Rab5. DRG2 interacted with Rac1 more strongly with GTP-bound Rac1 and tubular localization of DRG2 depended on Rac1 activity. DRG2 depletion led to destabilization of membrane tubules, while ectopic expression of DRG2 rescued the stability of the membrane tubules in DRG2-depleted cells. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for regulation of membrane tubule stability mediated by DRG2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydrogen bond stabilities in membrane-reconstituted alamethicin from amide-resolved hydrogen-exchange measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, C E; Handcock, L J

    1996-01-01

    Amide-resolved hydrogen-deuterium exchange-rate constants were measured for backbone amides of alamethicin reconstituted in dioleoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles by an exchange-trapping method combined with high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In vesicles containing alamethicin at molar ratios between 1:20 and 1:100 relative to lipid, the exchange-rate constants increased with increasing volume of the D20 buffer in which the vesicles were suspended, indicating that exchange under these conditions is dominated by partitioning of the peptide into the aqueous phase. This was supported by observation of a linear relationship between the exchange-rate constants for amides in membrane-reconstituted alamethicin and those for amides in alamethicin dissolved directly into D2O buffer. Significant protection of amides from exchange with D2O buffer in membrane-reconstituted alamethicin is interpreted in terms of stabilization by helical hydrogen bonding. Under conditions in which amide exchange occurred by partitioning of the peptide into solution, only lower limits for hydrogen-bond stabilities in the membrane were determined; all the potentially hydrogen-bonded amides of alamethicin are at least 1000-fold exchange protected in the membrane-bound state. When partitioning of alamethicin into the aqueous phase was suppressed by hydration of reconstituted vesicles in a limiting volume of water [D2O:dioleoylphosphatidylcholine:alamethicin; 220:1:0.05; (M:M:M)], the exchange-protection factors exhibited helical periodicity with highly exchange-protected, and less well-protected, amides on the nonpolar and polar helix faces, respectively. The exchange data indicate that, under the conditions studied, alamethicin adopts a stable helical structure in DOPC bilayers in which all the potentially hydrogen-bonded amides are stabilized by helical hydrogen bonds. The protection factors define the orientation of the peptide helix with respect to an aqueous phase, which is

  5. Anti-inflammatory, membrane-stabilizing interactions of salmeterol with human neutrophils in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R; Feldman, C; Theron, A J; Ramafi, G; Cole, P J; Wilson, R

    1996-04-01

    1. We have investigated the effects of salmeterol (0.3-50 microM) on several pro-inflammatory activities of human neutrophils in vitro. 2. Oxidant production by FMLP- and calcium ionophore (A23187)-activated neutrophils was particularly sensitive to inhibition by low concentrations (0.3-3 microM) of salmeterol, while the responses of phorbol myristate acetate- and opsonised zymosan-stimulated cells were affected only by higher concentrations (3-50 microM) of the drug. At these concentrations salmeterol is not cytotoxic, nor does it act as a scavenger of superoxide. 3. These anti-oxidative interactions of salmeterol with neutrophils were insensitive to propranolol but could be eliminated by washing the cells, or by pretreatment with low concentrations (1-2 microM) of the pro-oxidative, membrane-destabilizing phospholipids, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), platelet activating factor (PAF) and lysoPAF (LPAF). 4. At concentrations of 6.25-50 microM salmeterol interfered with several other activities of stimulated neutrophils, including intracellular calcium fluxes, phospholipase A2 activity and synthesis of PAF. 5. In an assay of membrane-stabilizing activity, salmeterol (25 and 50 microM) neutralized the haemolytic action of LPC, PAF and LPAF. 6. Of the other commonly used beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists, fenoterol, and formoterol, but not salbutamol, caused moderate inhibition of neutrophil oxidant generation by a superoxide-scavenging mechanism. However, unlike salmeterol, these agents possessed only weak membrane stabilizing properties. 7. We conclude that salmeterol antagonizes the pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidative activity of several bioactive lipids implicated in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma, by a mechanism related to the membrane-stabilizing, rather than to the beta 2-agonist properties of this agent.

  6. Hydrogen bond stabilities in membrane-reconstituted alamethicin from amide-resolved hydrogen-exchange measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, C E; Handcock, L J

    1996-04-01

    Amide-resolved hydrogen-deuterium exchange-rate constants were measured for backbone amides of alamethicin reconstituted in dioleoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles by an exchange-trapping method combined with high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In vesicles containing alamethicin at molar ratios between 1:20 and 1:100 relative to lipid, the exchange-rate constants increased with increasing volume of the D20 buffer in which the vesicles were suspended, indicating that exchange under these conditions is dominated by partitioning of the peptide into the aqueous phase. This was supported by observation of a linear relationship between the exchange-rate constants for amides in membrane-reconstituted alamethicin and those for amides in alamethicin dissolved directly into D2O buffer. Significant protection of amides from exchange with D2O buffer in membrane-reconstituted alamethicin is interpreted in terms of stabilization by helical hydrogen bonding. Under conditions in which amide exchange occurred by partitioning of the peptide into solution, only lower limits for hydrogen-bond stabilities in the membrane were determined; all the potentially hydrogen-bonded amides of alamethicin are at least 1000-fold exchange protected in the membrane-bound state. When partitioning of alamethicin into the aqueous phase was suppressed by hydration of reconstituted vesicles in a limiting volume of water [D2O:dioleoylphosphatidylcholine:alamethicin; 220:1:0.05; (M:M:M)], the exchange-protection factors exhibited helical periodicity with highly exchange-protected, and less well-protected, amides on the nonpolar and polar helix faces, respectively. The exchange data indicate that, under the conditions studied, alamethicin adopts a stable helical structure in DOPC bilayers in which all the potentially hydrogen-bonded amides are stabilized by helical hydrogen bonds. The protection factors define the orientation of the peptide helix with respect to an aqueous phase, which is

  7. Robust Chemical Synthesis of Membrane Proteins through a General Method of Removable Backbone Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ji-Shen; He, Yao; Zuo, Chao; Cai, Xiao-Ying; Tang, Shan; Wang, Zhipeng A; Zhang, Long-Hua; Tian, Chang-Lin; Liu, Lei

    2016-03-16

    Chemical protein synthesis can provide access to proteins with post-translational modifications or site-specific labelings. Although this technology is finding increasing applications in the studies of water-soluble globular proteins, chemical synthesis of membrane proteins remains elusive. In this report, a general and robust removable backbone modification (RBM) method is developed for the chemical synthesis of membrane proteins. This method uses an activated O-to-N acyl transfer auxiliary to install in the Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis process a RBM group with switchable reactivity toward trifluoroacetic acid. The method can be applied to versatile membrane proteins because the RBM group can be placed at any primary amino acid. With RBM, the membrane proteins and their segments behave almost as if they were water-soluble peptides and can be easily handled in the process of ligation, purification, and mass characterizations. After the full-length protein is assembled, the RBM group can be readily removed by trifluoroacetic acid. The efficiency and usefulness of the new method has been demonstrated by the successful synthesis of a two-transmembrane-domain protein (HCV p7 ion channel) with site-specific isotopic labeling and a four-transmembrane-domain protein (multidrug resistance transporter EmrE). This method enables practical synthesis of small- to medium-sized membrane proteins or membrane protein domains for biochemical and biophysical studies.

  8. Fluorinated carboxylic membranes deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thery, J.; Faucheux, V.; Truffier-Boutry, D.; Martinent, A.; Laurent, J.-Y. [Laboratory of Printed Component, LITEN, CEA Grenoble, 17 rue des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Martin, S.; Le Van Jodin, L. [Laboratory of Components for the Micro-storage of Energy, LITEN, CEA Grenoble, 17 rue des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)

    2010-09-01

    Among the fuel cell technologies, the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are particularly promising because they are energy-efficient, clean, and fuel-flexible (i.e., can use hydrogen or methanol). The great majority of PEM fuel cells rely on a polymer electrolyte from the family of perfluorosulfonic acid membranes, nevertheless alternative materials are currently being developed, mainly to offer the alternative workout techniques which are required for the portable energy sources. Plasma polymerization represents a good solution, as it offers the possibility to deposit thin layer with an accurate and homogeneous thickness, even on 3D surfaces. In this paper, we present the results for the growth of proton conductive fluoro carboxylic membranes elaborated by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. These membranes present conductivity values of the same order than the one of Nafion {sup registered}. The properties of the membrane, such as the chemical composition, the ionic conductivity, the swelling behaviour and the permeability were correlated to the plasma process parameters. The membranes were integrated in fuel cells on porous substrates and we present here the results regarding the barrier effect and the power output. Barrier effect similar to those of 40 {mu}m Nafion {sup registered} layers was reached for 10 {mu}m thick carboxylic membranes. Power outputs around 3 mW cm{sup -2} were measured. We discuss the results regarding the gas barrier effect and the power outputs. (author)

  9. Chemical and microstructural analyses for heavy metals removal from water media by ceramic membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asmaa; Ahmed, Abdelkader; Gad, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the ability of low cost ceramic membrane filtration in removing three common heavy metals namely; Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Cd 2+ from water media. The work includes manufacturing ceramic membranes with dimensions of 15 by 15 cm and 2 cm thickness. The membranes were made from low cost materials of local clay mixed with different sawdust percentages of 0.5%, 2.0%, and 5.0%. The used clay was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence analysis. Aqueous solutions of heavy metals were prepared in the laboratory and filtered through the ceramic membranes. The influence of the main parameters such as pH, initial driving pressure head, and concentration of heavy metals on their removal efficiency by ceramic membranes was investigated. Water samples were collected before and after the filtration process and their heavy metal concentrations were determined by chemical analysis. Moreover, a microstructural analysis using scanning electronic microscope (SEM) was performed on ceramic membranes before and after the filtration process. The chemical analysis results showed high removal efficiency up to 99% for the concerned heavy metals. SEM images approved these results by showing adsorbed metal ions on sides of the internal pores of the ceramic membranes.

  10. Fluorinated carboxylic membranes deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thery, J.; Martin, S.; Faucheux, V.; Le Van Jodin, L.; Truffier-Boutry, D.; Martinent, A.; Laurent, J.-Y.

    Among the fuel cell technologies, the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are particularly promising because they are energy-efficient, clean, and fuel-flexible (i.e., can use hydrogen or methanol). The great majority of PEM fuel cells rely on a polymer electrolyte from the family of perfluorosulfonic acid membranes, nevertheless alternative materials are currently being developed, mainly to offer the alternative workout techniques which are required for the portable energy sources. Plasma polymerization represents a good solution, as it offers the possibility to deposit thin layer with an accurate and homogeneous thickness, even on 3D surfaces. In this paper, we present the results for the growth of proton conductive fluoro carboxylic membranes elaborated by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. These membranes present conductivity values of the same order than the one of Nafion ®. The properties of the membrane, such as the chemical composition, the ionic conductivity, the swelling behaviour and the permeability were correlated to the plasma process parameters. The membranes were integrated in fuel cells on porous substrates and we present here the results regarding the barrier effect and the power output. Barrier effect similar to those of 40 μm Nafion ® layers was reached for 10 μm thick carboxylic membranes. Power outputs around 3 mW cm -2 were measured. We discuss the results regarding the gas barrier effect and the power outputs.

  11. Chemical, computational and functional insights into the chemical stability of the Hedgehog pathway inhibitor GANT61.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcaterra, Andrea; Iovine, Valentina; Botta, Bruno; Quaglio, Deborah; D'Acquarica, Ilaria; Ciogli, Alessia; Iazzetti, Antonia; Alfonsi, Romina; Lospinoso Severini, Ludovica; Infante, Paola; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Mori, Mattia; Ghirga, Francesca

    2018-12-01

    This work aims at elucidating the mechanism and kinetics of hydrolysis of GANT61, the first and most-widely used inhibitor of the Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway that targets Glioma-associated oncogene homologue (Gli) proteins, and at confirming the chemical nature of its bioactive form. GANT61 is poorly stable under physiological conditions and rapidly hydrolyses into an aldehyde species (GANT61-A), which is devoid of the biological activity against Hh signalling, and a diamine derivative (GANT61-D), which has shown inhibition of Gli-mediated transcription. Here, we combined chemical synthesis, NMR spectroscopy, analytical studies, molecular modelling and functional cell assays to characterise the GANT61 hydrolysis pathway. Our results show that GANT61-D is the bioactive form of GANT61 in NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells and SuFu -/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts, and clarify the structural requirements for GANT61-D binding to Gli1. This study paves the way to the design of GANT61 derivatives with improved potency and chemical stability.

  12. Chemical synthesis of membrane proteins by the removable backbone modification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shan; Zuo, Chao; Huang, Dong-Liang; Cai, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Long-Hua; Tian, Chang-Lin; Zheng, Ji-Shen; Liu, Lei

    2017-12-01

    Chemical synthesis can produce membrane proteins bearing specifically designed modifications (e.g., phosphorylation, isotope labeling) that are difficult to obtain through recombinant protein expression approaches. The resulting homogeneously modified synthetic membrane proteins are valuable tools for many advanced biochemical and biophysical studies. This protocol describes the chemical synthesis of membrane proteins by condensation of transmembrane peptide segments through native chemical ligation. To avoid common problems encountered due to the poor solubility of transmembrane peptides in almost any solvent, we describe an effective procedure for the chemical synthesis of membrane proteins through the removable-backbone modification (RBM) strategy. Two key steps of this protocol are: (i) installation of solubilizing Arg4-tagged RBM groups into the transmembrane peptides at any primary amino acid through Fmoc (9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl) solid-phase peptide synthesis and (ii) native ligation of the full-length sequence, followed by removal of the RBM tags by TFA (trifluoroacetic acid) cocktails to afford the native protein. The installation of RBM groups is achieved by using 4-methoxy-5-nitrosalicyladehyde by reduction amination to incorporate an activated O-to-N acyl transfer auxiliary. The Arg4-tag-modified membrane-spanning peptide segments behave like water-soluble peptides to facilitate their purification, ligation and mass characterization.

  13. Preparation of high concentration polyaluminum chloride by chemical synthesis-membrane distillation method with self-made hollow fiber membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changwei; Yan, Yong; Hou, Deyin; Luan, Zhaokun; Jia, Zhiping

    2012-01-01

    A method of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) with a self-made hollow polyvinylidene fluoride membrane was applied to prepare high concentration polyaluminum chloride (PACl) with high A1b content based on chemical synthesis. The permeate flux and A1 species distribution were investigated. The experimental results showed that the permeate flux decreased from 14 to 6 kg/(m2 x hr) at the end of the DCMD process, which can be mainly attributed to the formation of NaCl deposits on the membrane surface. The Alb content decreased slightly, only from 86.3% to 84.4%, when the DCMD experiment finished, correspondingly the A1c content increased slightly from 7.2% to 8.5%, and the A1a content remained at 7% during the whole DCMD process. A PACl with A1b content of 84% at total aluminum concentration 2.2 mol/L was successfully prepared by the chemical synthesis-DCMD method.

  14. Microporous silica membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermal stability is a crucial factor for the application of microporous silica-based membranes in industrial processes. Indeed, it is well established that steam exposure may cause densification and defect formation in microporous silica membranes, which are detrimental to both membrane...... permeability and selectivity. Numerous previous studies show that microporous transition metal doped-silica membranes are hydrothermally more stable than pure silica membranes, but less permeable. Here we present a quantitative study on the impact of type and concentration of transition metal ions...... on the microporous structure, stability and permeability of amorphous silica-based membranes, providing information on how to design chemical compositions and synthetic paths for the fabrication of silica-based membranes with a well accessible and highly stabile microporous structure....

  15. Influence of the intermediate layer on the hydrothermal stability of sol-gel derived hybrid silica membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Hove, Marcel; Luiten-Olieman, Mieke W.J.; Huiskes, Cindy; Nijmeijer, Arian; Winnubst, Louis

    2017-01-01

    The hydrothermal stability of microporous silica hybrid sol-gel derived membranes is often only tested for either the mesoporous intermediate membrane layer or the microporous separation layer. In this work an investigation is done on the interaction between the intermediate γ-alumina layer and the

  16. Thermal and Chemical Stabilization of Silver Nanoplates for Plasmonic Sensor Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yukina; Suga, Koichi; Ishida, Takuya; Yamada, Sunao

    2016-01-01

    Thermal and chemical stabilities of silver nanoplates (AgPLs), which are triangle plate-shaped silver nanoparticles, were improved by coating with titanium oxide. The titanium oxide layer prepared by a dip-coating method was certainly advantageous for the improvement of thermal stability. Furthermore, the overlayering of titanium oxide by a spray pyrolysis method was quite useful for improving the chemical stability against I(-) exposure. Such a coating exhibited satisfactory refractive index sensitivities.

  17. Structure and Stability of the Spinach Aquaporin SoPIP2;1 in Detergent Micelles and Lipid Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plasencia, Ines; Survery, Sabeen; Ibragimova, Sania

    2011-01-01

    reconstitution of the purified protein into biomimetic systems, we have here for the first time characterized the structural stability of SoPIP2;1. Methodology/Principal Finding: We have characterized the protein structural stability after purification and after reconstitution into detergent micelles......-helical in accordance with crystallographic data. The protein has a high thermal structural stability in detergent solutions, with an irreversible thermal unfolding occurring at a melting temperature of 58 degrees C. Incorporation of the protein into lipid membranes increases the structural stability as evidenced...... by an increased melting temperature of up to 70 degrees C. Conclusion/Significance: The results of this study provide insights into SoPIP2;1 stability in various host membranes and suggest suitable choices of detergent and lipid composition for reconstitution of SoPIP2;1 into biomimetic membranes...

  18. Conditions that Stabilize Membrane Domains Also Antagonize n-Alcohol Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machta, Benjamin B.; Gray, Ellyn; Nouri, Mariam; McCarthy, Nicola L. C.; Gray, Erin M.; Miller, Ann L.; Brooks, Nicholas J.; Veatch, Sarah L.

    2016-08-01

    Diverse molecules induce general anesthesia with potency strongly correlated both with their hydrophobicity and their effects on certain ion channels. We recently observed that several n-alcohol anesthetics inhibit heterogeneity in plasma membrane derived vesicles by lowering the critical temperature ($T_c$) for phase separation. Here we exploit conditions that stabilize membrane heterogeneity to further test the correlation between the anesthetic potency of n-alcohols and effects on $T_c$. First we show that hexadecanol acts oppositely to n-alcohol anesthetics on membrane mixing and antagonizes ethanol induced anesthesia in a tadpole behavioral assay. Second, we show that two previously described `intoxication reversers' raise $T_c$ and counter ethanol's effects in vesicles, mimicking the findings of previous electrophysiological and behavioral measurements. Third, we find that hydrostatic pressure, long known to reverse anesthesia, also raises $T_c$ in vesicles with a magnitude that counters the effect of butanol at relevant concentrations and pressures. Taken together, these results demonstrate that $\\Delta T_c$ predicts anesthetic potency for n-alcohols better than hydrophobicity in a range of contexts, supporting a mechanistic role for membrane heterogeneity in general anesthesia.

  19. Hydrolytic Degradation and Mechanical Stability of Poly(ε-Caprolactone/Reduced Graphene Oxide Membranes as Scaffolds for In Vitro Neural Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Sánchez-González

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work studies the functional behavior of novel poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL membranes functionalized with reduced graphene oxide (rGO nanoplatelets under simulated in vitro culture conditions (phosphate buffer solution (PBS at 37 °C during 1 year, in order to elucidate their applicability as scaffolds for in vitro neural regeneration. The morphological, chemical, and DSC results demonstrated that high internal porosity of the membranes facilitated water permeation and procured an accelerated hydrolytic degradation throughout the bulk pathway. Therefore, similar molecular weight reduction, from 80 kDa to 33 kDa for the control PCL, and to 27 kDa for PCL/rGO membranes, at the end of the study, was observed. After 1 year of hydrolytic degradation, though monomers coming from the hydrolytic cleavage of PCL diffused towards the PBS medium, the pH was barely affected, and the rGO nanoplatelets mainly remained in the membranes which envisaged low cytotoxic effect. On the other hand, the presence of rGO nanomaterials accelerated the loss of mechanical stability of the membranes. However, it is envisioned that the gradual degradation of the PCL/rGO membranes could facilitate cells infiltration, interconnectivity, and tissue formation.

  20. Hydrolytic Degradation and Mechanical Stability of Poly(ε-Caprolactone)/Reduced Graphene Oxide Membranes as Scaffolds for In Vitro Neural Tissue Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-González, Sandra; Diban, Nazely; Urtiaga, Ane

    2018-03-05

    The present work studies the functional behavior of novel poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) membranes functionalized with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanoplatelets under simulated in vitro culture conditions (phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at 37 °C) during 1 year, in order to elucidate their applicability as scaffolds for in vitro neural regeneration. The morphological, chemical, and DSC results demonstrated that high internal porosity of the membranes facilitated water permeation and procured an accelerated hydrolytic degradation throughout the bulk pathway. Therefore, similar molecular weight reduction, from 80 kDa to 33 kDa for the control PCL, and to 27 kDa for PCL/rGO membranes, at the end of the study, was observed. After 1 year of hydrolytic degradation, though monomers coming from the hydrolytic cleavage of PCL diffused towards the PBS medium, the pH was barely affected, and the rGO nanoplatelets mainly remained in the membranes which envisaged low cytotoxic effect. On the other hand, the presence of rGO nanomaterials accelerated the loss of mechanical stability of the membranes. However, it is envisioned that the gradual degradation of the PCL/rGO membranes could facilitate cells infiltration, interconnectivity, and tissue formation.

  1. Physico-Chemical Stability Studies of Neem (Azadirachta indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    present study, neem oil had been extracted from the ripe seed of Azadirachta indica (A. juss) plant. The oil was ... stability is not a problem for neem oil in a vanishing cream base formulation. Keywords: Neem oil, Stability, Shelf life, ... The containers were covered with filter paper and the solvent was allowed to evaporate.

  2. Monatomic chemical-vapor-deposited graphene membranes bridge a half-millimeter-scale gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choong-Kwang; Hwangbo, Yun; Kim, Sang-Min; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Lee, Seung-Mo; Kim, Seong-Su; Kim, Kwang-Seop; Lee, Hak-Joo; Choi, Byung-Ik; Song, Chang-Kyu; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Hyun

    2014-03-25

    One of the main concerns in nanotechnology is the utilization of nanomaterials in macroscopic applications without losing their extreme properties. In an effort to bridge the gap between the nano- and macroscales, we propose a clever fabrication method, the inverted floating method (IFM), for preparing freestanding chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) graphene membranes. These freestanding membranes were then successfully suspended over a gap a half-millimeter in diameter. To understand the working principle of IFM, high-speed photography and white light interferometry were used to characterize and analyze the deformation behaviors of the freestanding graphene membranes in contact with a liquid during fabrication. Some nanoscale configurations in the macroscopic graphene membranes were able to be characterized by simple optical microscopy. The proposed IFM is a powerful approach to investigating the macroscopic structures of CVD graphene and enables the exploitation of freestanding CVD graphene for device applications.

  3. Chemical treatment of commercial reverse osmosis membranes for use in FO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercially available reverse osmosis (RO) membranes – SW30HR, BW30, and AG – were chemically treated for use in forward osmosis (FO). Nitric acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, ethanol, and ethanol–acid–water ternary solutions were employed for the treatment. All three membra...

  4. Stabilization of low-level mixed waste in chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.; Sarkar, A.V.

    1994-06-01

    Mixed waste streams, which contain both chemical and radioactive wastes, are one of the important categories of DOE waste streams needing stabilization for final disposal. Recent studies have shown that chemically bonded phosphate ceramics may have the potential for stabilizing these waste streams, particularly those containing volatiles and pyrophorics. Such waste streams cannot be stabilized by conventional thermal treatment methods such as vitrification. Phosphate ceramics may be fabricated at room temperature into durable, hard and dense materials. For this reason room-temperature-setting phosphate ceramic waste forms are being developed to stabilize these to ''problem waste streams.''

  5. Physical and chemical stability of the bentonite buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinsong Liu; Neretnieks, Ivars

    2007-12-01

    A literature study was made on previous work on clay erosion and on the fundamental processes that govern the stability of clay gels. Mechanical erosion has been studied earlier and models devised to estimate the tendency to erode. We have used a different approach that we deem is fundamentally more correct. Chemical erosion processes have not been found to be studied previously and we have approached the problem by applying simple but fundamental mass balances and transport processes to the problem. The physical and chemical processes that govern the repulsive and cohesive forces in clay are well understood in principle but cannot yet be applied quantitatively to predict the gel/sol behaviour of the bentonite clay. It was necessary to rely directly on laboratory measurements for information on swelling and gel/sol properties. The backfill bentonite clay acts as a Bingham fluid over a wide range of clay density. To mobilise the clay a shear stress larger than the Bingham yield stress must be applied to the gel. The Bingham yield stress has been measured to be larger than 1 Pa (N/m 2 ) although it cannot be ruled out that lower values can be found under different experimental conditions than those reported. Shear stresses exerted by the water flowing in the fractures that intersect the deposition holes with the clay backfill have been estimated for a wide range of fracture transmissivities, apertures and hydraulic gradients that could exist under repository conditions. This includes the extremely high gradients that could exist during some periods during an ice age. For fracture transmissivities ranging from 10 -9 to 10 -6 m 2 /s, fracture apertures from 0.1 to 2 mm and the hydraulic gradients from 0.01 to 1 mH 2 O/m, the largest local shear stress found in this range was about 0.1 Pa. To investigate a 'what if' situation where the shear stress exceeds the yield stress simple models were devised. They were used to assess the rate of erosion by the groundwater. In

  6. Physical and chemical stability of the bentonite buffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinsong Liu; Neretnieks, Ivars [Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal I nstitute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-12-15

    A literature study was made on previous work on clay erosion and on the fundamental processes that govern the stability of clay gels. Mechanical erosion has been studied earlier and models devised to estimate the tendency to erode. We have used a different approach that we deem is fundamentally more correct. Chemical erosion processes have not been found to be studied previously and we have approached the problem by applying simple but fundamental mass balances and transport processes to the problem. The physical and chemical processes that govern the repulsive and cohesive forces in clay are well understood in principle but cannot yet be applied quantitatively to predict the gel/sol behaviour of the bentonite clay. It was necessary to rely directly on laboratory measurements for information on swelling and gel/sol properties. The backfill bentonite clay acts as a Bingham fluid over a wide range of clay density. To mobilise the clay a shear stress larger than the Bingham yield stress must be applied to the gel. The Bingham yield stress has been measured to be larger than 1 Pa (N/m{sup 2}) although it cannot be ruled out that lower values can be found under different experimental conditions than those reported. Shear stresses exerted by the water flowing in the fractures that intersect the deposition holes with the clay backfill have been estimated for a wide range of fracture transmissivities, apertures and hydraulic gradients that could exist under repository conditions. This includes the extremely high gradients that could exist during some periods during an ice age. For fracture transmissivities ranging from 10{sup -9} to 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s, fracture apertures from 0.1 to 2 mm and the hydraulic gradients from 0.01 to 1 mH{sub 2}O/m, the largest local shear stress found in this range was about 0.1 Pa. To investigate a 'what if' situation where the shear stress exceeds the yield stress simple models were devised. They were used to assess the rate of

  7. Chemical and Physical Characterization of Stabilized Polyacrylonitrile (PAN Fiber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salleh Shahrul Nizam Md

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibers Stabilization is an exothermic process which involves heat treatment at lower temperature from 150 °C to 300 °C. It is considered as a crucial step that will determine the final structure of the carbon fibre and its mechanical properties. This work involves comparison of physical and mechanical properties of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN and stabilized Polyacrylonitrile (PAN fiber produced from batch process. The functional group of the fibre was studied using ATR-FTIR and the morphology was characterised by AFM and SEM. Mechanical properties of the fibers will be studies using single column tensile machine with ASTM D3822 testing procedure. The studies show significant change of physical and mechanical properties of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN and stabilized Polyacrylonitrile (PAN fiber. This lead to different application for every type of fibers produced before and after stabilization process.

  8. Microfluidic Device for Controllable Chemical Release via Field-Actuated Membrane Incorporating Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    We report a robust magnetic-membrane-based microfluidic platform for controllable chemical release. The magnetic membrane was prepared by mixing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and carbonyl-iron nanoparticles together to obtain a flexible thin film. With combined, simultaneous regulation of magnetic stimulus and mechanical pumping, the desired chemical release rate can easily be realized. For example, the dose release experimental data was well fitted by a mathematical sigmoidal model, exhibiting a typical dose-response relationship, which shows promise in providing significant guidance for on-demand drug delivery. To test the platform’s feasibility, our microfluidic device was employed in an experiment involving Escherichia coli culture under controlled antibiotic ciprofloxacin exposure, and the expected outcomes were successfully obtained. Our experimental results indicate that such a microfluidic device, with high accuracy and easy manipulation properties, can legitimately be characterized as active chemical release system.

  9. Microfluidic Device for Controllable Chemical Release via Field-Actuated Membrane Incorporating Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a robust magnetic-membrane-based microfluidic platform for controllable chemical release. The magnetic membrane was prepared by mixing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and carbonyl-iron nanoparticles together to obtain a flexible thin film. With combined, simultaneous regulation of magnetic stimulus and mechanical pumping, the desired chemical release rate can easily be realized. For example, the dose release experimental data was well fitted by a mathematical sigmoidal model, exhibiting a typical dose-response relationship, which shows promise in providing significant guidance for on-demand drug delivery. To test the platform’s feasibility, our microfluidic device was employed in an experiment involving Escherichia coli culture under controlled antibiotic ciprofloxacin exposure, and the expected outcomes were successfully obtained. Our experimental results indicate that such a microfluidic device, with high accuracy and easy manipulation properties, can legitimately be characterized as active chemical release system.

  10. Synthesis of mesh-shaped calcia partially stabilized zirconia using eggshell membrane template as filler composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Gempita

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted experimentally to synthesize Calcia Partially Stabilized Zirconia (Ca-PSZ by sol-gel method using eggshell membrane template as a composite filler. The eggshell membrane was used to produce a mesh shaped structure, which hopefully can improve the mechanical properties of the composite. Ca-PSZ filler was synthesized from ZrOCl2 precursor and Ca(NO32 stabilizer with a 24 hours immersion time. Ca-PSZ of synthesis then mixed with the resin matrix to test its composite hardness. The EDS characterization results suggested that the sample contained elements of zirconia, calcium, and oxygen. Whereas, the XRD characterization identified that crystal structures that formed in the sample were nano scale tetragonal. Characterization of SEM showed Ca-PSZ with mesh structured. The average composite hardness value was 15.79 VHN. The composites with Ca-PSZ-synthesized filler could be prepared and its hardness value was higher than the composite with Ca-PSZ filler in spherical particles, but the hardness was still below the composite on the market.

  11. Membrane permeation of testosterone from either solutions, particle dispersions, or particle-stabilized emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Fletcher, Paul D I; Johnson, Andrew J; Elliott, Russell P

    2012-02-07

    We derive a unified model that accounts for the variation in extent and rate of membrane permeation by a permeating species with the type of donor compartment formulation (aqueous and oil solutions, particle dispersions, and oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions stabilized by particles) initially containing the permeant. The model is also applicable to either closed-loop or open-flow configurations of the receiver compartment of the permeation cell. Predictions of the model are compared with measured extents and rates of permeation of testosterone across an 80 μm thick polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane from donor compartments initially containing testosterone dissolved in either aqueous or isopropylmyristate (IPM) solutions, aqueous or IPM dispersions of silica nanoparticles or IPM-in-water or water-in-IPM emulsions stabilized by silica nanoparticles. Using a single set of input parameters, the model successfully accounts for the wide variations in permeation behavior observed for the different donor formulation types with either closed-loop or open flow configurations of the permeation cell receiver compartment.

  12. Membrane Fouling and Chemical Cleaning in Three Full-Scale Reverse Osmosis Plants Producing Demineralized Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Beyer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane fouling and cleaning were studied in three reverse osmosis (RO plants. Feed water was secondary wastewater effluent, river water, and surface water. Membrane autopsies were used for fouling characterization. Fouling layer measurements included total organic carbon (TOC, adenosine triphosphate, polysaccharides, proteins, and heterotrophic plate counts. In all locations, membrane and spacer fouling was (bioorganic. Plant chemical cleaning efficiencies were evaluated from full-scale operational data and cleaning trials in a laboratory setup. Standard cleaning procedures were compared to two cleaning procedures specifically adapted to treat (bioorganic fouling using commercial blend cleaners (mixtures of active substances. The three RO plants were impacted by irreversible foulants causing permanently decreased performance in normalized pressure drop and water permeability even after thorough chemical cleaning. The standard plant and adapted cleaning procedures reduced the TOC by 45% on average, with a maximum of ~80%. In general, around 20% higher biomass removal could be achieved with adapted procedure I compared to adapted procedure II. TOC measurements and SEM showed that none of cleaning procedures applied could remove foulants completely from the membrane elements. This study underlines the need for novel cleaning approaches targeting resistant foulants, as none of the procedures applied resulted in highly effective membrane regeneration.

  13. Stability, Molecular Sieving, and Ion Diffusion Selectivity of a Lamellar Membrane from Two-Dimensional Molybdenum Disulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mengmeng; Kwac, Kijeong; Li, Meng; Jung, Yousung; Park, Hyung Gyu

    2017-04-12

    Two-dimensional (2D) subnanometer channels allow unique mass transport promising for molecular sieving. New 2D channels of MoS 2 nanosheets allow one to understand molecular transmission and separation, unlike the graphene oxide counterpart containing various defects and cationic metal contaminants. Membranes from layered MoS 2 platelets show extraordinary stability in an aqueous environment and compatibility with polymer filters, both beneficial to efficient manufacturing. Sharing gas-tightness and unimpeded water vapor permeation with a graphene oxide membrane, our lamellar MoS 2 membrane demonstrates a molecular sieving property for organic vapor for the first time. The MoS 2 membrane also reveals diffusion selectivity of aqueous ions, attributable to the energy penalty in bulk-to-2D dimensional transition. These newly revealed properties of the lamellar membrane full of angstrom-sized 2D channels point to membrane technology applications for energy and environment.

  14. The Effect of Covalently-Attached ATRP-Synthesized Polymers on Membrane Stability and Cytoprotection in Human Erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clafshenkel, William P; Murata, Hironobu; Andersen, Jill; Creeger, Yehuda; Koepsel, Richard R; Russell, Alan J

    2016-01-01

    Erythrocytes have been described as advantageous drug delivery vehicles. In order to ensure an adequate circulation half-life, erythrocytes may benefit from protective enhancements that maintain membrane integrity and neutralize oxidative damage of membrane proteins that otherwise facilitate their premature clearance from circulation. Surface modification of erythrocytes using rationally designed polymers, synthesized via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), may further expand the field of membrane-engineered red blood cells. This study describes the fate of ATRP-synthesized polymers that were covalently attached to human erythrocytes as well as the effect of membrane engineering on cell stability under physiological and oxidative conditions in vitro. The biocompatible, membrane-reactive polymers were homogenously retained on the periphery of modified erythrocytes for at least 24 hours. Membrane engineering stabilized the erythrocyte membrane and effectively neutralized oxidative species, even in the absence of free-radical scavenger-containing polymers. The targeted functionalization of Band 3 protein by NHS-pDMAA-Cy3 polymers stabilized its monomeric form preventing aggregation in the presence of the crosslinking reagent, bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate (BS3). A free radical scavenging polymer, NHS-pDMAA-TEMPO˙, provided additional protection of surface modified erythrocytes in an in vitro model of oxidative stress. Preserving or augmenting cytoprotective mechanisms that extend circulation half-life is an important consideration for the use of red blood cells for drug delivery in various pathologies, as they are likely to encounter areas of imbalanced oxidative stress as they circuit the vascular system.

  15. The Effect of Covalently-Attached ATRP-Synthesized Polymers on Membrane Stability and Cytoprotection in Human Erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P Clafshenkel

    Full Text Available Erythrocytes have been described as advantageous drug delivery vehicles. In order to ensure an adequate circulation half-life, erythrocytes may benefit from protective enhancements that maintain membrane integrity and neutralize oxidative damage of membrane proteins that otherwise facilitate their premature clearance from circulation. Surface modification of erythrocytes using rationally designed polymers, synthesized via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP, may further expand the field of membrane-engineered red blood cells. This study describes the fate of ATRP-synthesized polymers that were covalently attached to human erythrocytes as well as the effect of membrane engineering on cell stability under physiological and oxidative conditions in vitro. The biocompatible, membrane-reactive polymers were homogenously retained on the periphery of modified erythrocytes for at least 24 hours. Membrane engineering stabilized the erythrocyte membrane and effectively neutralized oxidative species, even in the absence of free-radical scavenger-containing polymers. The targeted functionalization of Band 3 protein by NHS-pDMAA-Cy3 polymers stabilized its monomeric form preventing aggregation in the presence of the crosslinking reagent, bis(sulfosuccinimidylsuberate (BS3. A free radical scavenging polymer, NHS-pDMAA-TEMPO˙, provided additional protection of surface modified erythrocytes in an in vitro model of oxidative stress. Preserving or augmenting cytoprotective mechanisms that extend circulation half-life is an important consideration for the use of red blood cells for drug delivery in various pathologies, as they are likely to encounter areas of imbalanced oxidative stress as they circuit the vascular system.

  16. Chemically Stable Covalent Organic Framework (COF)-Polybenzimidazole Hybrid Membranes: Enhanced Gas Separation through Pore Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Bishnu P; Chaudhari, Harshal D; Banerjee, Rahul; Kharul, Ulhas K

    2016-03-24

    Highly flexible, TpPa-1@PBI-BuI and TpBD@PBI-BuI hybrid membranes based on chemically stable covalent organic frameworks (COFs) could be obtained with the polymer. The loading obtained was substantially higher (50 %) than generally observed with MOFs. These hybrid membranes show an exciting enhancement in permeability (about sevenfold) with appreciable separation factors for CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4. Further, we found that with COF pore modulation, the gas permeability can be systematically enhanced. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Mechanical Stability of H3PO4-Doped PBI/Hydrophilic-Pretreated PTFE Membranes for High Temperature PEMFCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jaehyung; Wang, Liang; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PBI/PTFE membrane was prepared by porous PTFE with hydrophilic surface pretreatment. • The durability of the prepared PBI/PTFE membrane was compared with pure PBI, PBI with untreated PTFE, and PBI-Nafion with untreated PTFE membranes. • Accelerated durability tests and SEM showed improved durability based the PBI/PTFE membrane with pretreated PTFE. - Abstract: A novel polybenzimidazole (PBI)/poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) composite membrane doped with phosphoric acid was fabricated for high temperature operation in a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell. A hydrophilic surface pretreatment was applied to the porous PTFE matrix film to improve its interfacial adhesion to the PBI polymer, thereby avoiding the introduction of Nafion ionomer which is traditionally used as a coupling agent. The pretreated PTFE film was embedded within the composite membrane during solution-casting using 5wt% PBI/DMAc solution. The mechanical stability and durability of three types of MEAs assembled with PBI only, PBI with pretreated PTFE, and PBI-Nafion with untreated PTFE membranes were evaluated under an accelerated degradation testing protocol employing extreme temperature cycling. Degradation was characterized by recording polarization curves, hydrogen crossover, and proton resistance. Cross-sections of the membranes were examined before and after thermal cycling by scanning electron microscope. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy verified that the PBI is dispersed homogeneously in the porous PTFE matrix. Results show that the PBI composite membrane with pretreated PTFE has a lower degradation rate than the Nafion/PBI membrane with untreated PTFE. Thus, the hydrophilic pretreatment employed here greatly improved the mechanical stability of the composite membrane, which resulted in improved durability under an extreme thermal cycling regime

  18. Enhanced forward osmosis from chemically modified polybenzimidazole (PBI) nanofiltration hollow fiber membranes with a thin wall

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Kai Yu

    2009-04-01

    To develop high-flux and high-rejection forward osmosis (FO) membranes for water reuses and seawater desalination, we have fabricated polybenzimidazole (PBI) nanofiltration (NF) hollow fiber membranes with a thin wall and a desired pore size via non-solvent induced phase inversion and chemically cross-linking modification. The cross-linking by p-xylylene dichloride can finely tune the mean pore size and enhance the salt selectivity. High water permeation flux and improved salt selectivity for water reuses were achieved by using the 2-h modified PBI NF membrane which has a narrow pore size distribution. Cross-linking at a longer time produces even a lower salt permeation flux potentially suitable for desalination but at the expense of permeation flux due to tightened pore sizes. It is found that draw solution concentration and membrane orientations are main factors determining the water permeation flux. In addition, effects of membrane morphology and operation conditions on water and salt transport through membrane have been investigated. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced Performance of Thin Film Composite Forward Osmosis Membrane by Chemical Post-Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Chen, Jiangrong; Cao, Zhen; Wang, Jian; Guo, Chungang

    2018-01-01

    Forward osmosis is an attractive technique in water purification and desalination fields. Enhancement of the forward osmosis membrane performance is essential to the application of this technique. In this study, an optimized chemical post-treatment approach which was used to improve RO membrane performance was employed for enhancing water flux of thin film composite forward osmosis membrane. Home-made polysulfide-based forward osmosis membrane was prepared and nitric acid, sulfuric acid, ethanol, 2-propanol were employed as post-treatment solutions. After a short-term treatment, all the membrane samples manifested water flux enhancement compared with their untreated counterparts. Over 50% increase of water flux had been obtained by ethanol solution treatment. The swelling, changes of hydrophobicity and solvency in both active layer and substrate were verified as the major causes for the enhancement of the water flux. It is noted that the treatment time and solution concentration should be controlled to get both appropriate water flux and reverse salt flux. The results obtained in this study will be useful for further FO membrane development and application.

  20. Erythrocyte membrane-coated gold nanocages for targeted photothermal and chemical cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dao-Ming; Xie, Wei; Xiao, Yu-Sha; Suo, Meng; Zan, Ming-Hui; Liao, Qing-Quan; Hu, Xue-Jia; Chen, Li-Ben; Chen, Bei; Wu, Wen-Tao; Ji, Li-Wei; Huang, Hui-Ming; Guo, Shi-Shang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong; Liu, Quan-Yan; Liu, Wei

    2018-02-01

    Recently, red blood cell (RBC) membrane-coated nanoparticles have attracted much attention because of their excellent immune escapability; meanwhile, gold nanocages (AuNs) have been extensively used for cancer therapy due to their photothermal effect and drug delivery capability. The combination of the RBC membrane coating and AuNs may provide an effective approach for targeted cancer therapy. However, few reports have shown the utilization of combining these two technologies. Here, we design erythrocyte membrane-coated gold nanocages for targeted photothermal and chemical cancer therapy. First, anti-EpCam antibodies were used to modify the RBC membranes to target 4T1 cancer cells. Second, the antitumor drug paclitaxel (PTX) was encapsulated into AuNs. Then, the AuNs were coated with the modified RBC membranes. These new nanoparticles were termed EpCam-RPAuNs. We characterized the capability of the EpCam-RPAuNs for selective tumor targeting via exposure to near-infrared irradiation. The experimental results demonstrate that EpCam-RPAuNs can effectively generate hyperthermia and precisely deliver the antitumor drug PTX to targeted cells. We also validated the biocompatibility of the EpCam-RAuNs in vitro. By combining the molecularly modified targeting RBC membrane and AuNs, our approach provides a new way to design biomimetic nanoparticles to enhance the surface functionality of nanoparticles. We believe that EpCam-RPAuNs can be potentially applied for cancer diagnoses and therapies.

  1. Fouling of Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) Membrane: Chemical and Microbiological Characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Muhammad T.

    2013-12-01

    In spite of abundant water resources, world is suffering from the scarcity of usable water. Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) desalination technology using polymeric membranes has been recognized as a key solution to water scarcity problem. However, economic sustainability of this advanced technology is adversely impacted by the membrane fouling problem. Fouling of RO membranes is a highly studied phenomenon. However, literature is found to be lacking a detailed study on kinetic and dynamic aspects of SWRO membrane fouling. The factors that impact the fouling dynamics, i.e., pretreatment and water quality were also not adequately studied at full–scale of operation. Our experimental protocol was designed to systematically explore these fouling aspects with the objective to improve the understanding of SWRO membrane fouling mechanisms. An approach with multiple analytical techniques was developed for fouling characterization. In addition to the fouling layer characterization, feed water quality was also analysed to assess its fouling potential. Study of SWRO membrane fouling dynamics and kinetics revealed variations in relative abundance of chemical and microbial constituents of the fouling layer, over operating time. Aromatic substances, most likely humic–like substances, were observed at relatively high abundance in the initial fouling layer, followed by progressive increase in relative abundances of proteins and polysaccharides. Microbial population grown on all membranes was dominated by specific groups/species belonging to different classes of Proteobacteria phylum; however, similar to abiotic foulant, their relative abundance also changed with the biofilm age and with the position of membrane element in RO vessel. Our results demonstrated that source water quality can significantly impact the RO membrane fouling scenarios. Moreover, the major role of chlorination in the SWRO membrane fouling was highlighted. It was found that intermittent mode of chlorination

  2. Performance and Long Term Stability of Mesoporous Silica Membranes for Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elma, Muthia; Yacou, Christelle; Diniz da Costa, João C.; Wang, David K.

    2013-01-01

    This work shows the preparation of silica membranes by a two-step sol-gel method using tetraethyl orthosilicate in ethanolic solution by employing nitric acid and ammonia as co-catalysts. The sols prepared in pH 6 resulted in the lowest concentration of silanol (Si–OH) species to improve hydrostability and the optimized conditions for film coating. The membrane was tested to desalinate 0.3–15 wt % synthetic sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions at a feed temperature of 22 °C followed by long term membrane performance of up to 250 h in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution. Results show that the water flux (and salt rejection) decrease with increasing salt concentration delivering an average value of 9.5 kg m–2 h–1 (99.6%) and 1.55 kg m–2 h–1 (89.2%) from the 0.3 and 15 wt % saline feed solutions, respectively. Furthermore, the permeate salt concentration was measured to be less than 600 ppm for testing conditions up to 5 wt % saline feed solutions, achieving below the recommended standard for potable water. Long term stability shows that the membrane performance in water flux was stable for up to 150 h, and slightly reduced from thereon, possibly due to the blockage of large hydrated ions in the micropore constrictions of the silica matrix. However, the integrity of the silica matrix was not affected by the long term testing as excellent salt rejection of >99% was maintained for over 250 h. PMID:24956942

  3. EVALUATION OF CHEMICALLY BONDED PHOSPHATE CERAMICS FOR MERCURY STABILIZATION OF A MIXED SYNTHETIC WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experimental study was conducted to evaluate the stabilization and encapsulation technique developed by Argonne National Laboratory, called the Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics technology for Hg- and HgCl2-contaminated synthetic waste materials. Leachability ...

  4. SURFACE CHEMICAL EFFECTS ON COLLOID STABILITY AND TRANSPORT THROUGH NATURAL POROUS MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface chemical effects on colloidal stability and transport through porous media were investigated using laboratory column techniques. Approximately 100 nm diameter, spherical, iron oxide particles were synthesized as the mobile colloidal phase. The column packing material was ...

  5. Research results on productivity stabilization by ultrasonic camera (plant with membrane ceramic elements during vine processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Antufyev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes solutions to the problems of declining productivity of ceramic membrane elements for wine processing on the final manufacturing phase. A relative stabilization of filtration velocity, venting efficiency and wine lightening were experimentally confirmed during contacts with oscillation waves of ultrasonic transmitter on the ceramic filter. Which significantly reduced the cost of various preservatives to increase periods storage. To study the processes of wine processing by the proposed method it was made an experimental installation on the basis of pilot machine MRp-1/2 for bottling of quiet liquids and an ultrasonic device "Volna– M" UZTA-1/22-OM with a firmly, waveguide which transmits sound, fixed filter frame on the ultrasound emitter. To stabilize the performance of ultrasonic units with ceramic membrane elements without quality deterioration of wines it was empirically determined rational parameters of power of ultrasound input and pressure in the system. The given derived dependencies and graphs allow to define the time of relatively stable operating filter regime. It was revealed a significant cost reduction on filtration, as it allows escape from the contamination of the product by various preservatives, and increasing of storage duration in a sealed container during aseptic filling without a thermal sterilization. Ultrasonic emitter contact by superposition wave vibrations on the ceramic filter increases not only the efficiency of gas removal, but also improves the organoleptic characteristics, stabilizes the filters, improves their productivity. Gas removal creates unfavorable conditions for development of the yeast, which in turn increases the shelf life of semisweet wine.

  6. Stability study and lyophilization of vitamin E-loaded nanocapsules prepared by membrane contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayata, N; Abdelwahed, W; Chehna, M F; Charcosset, C; Fessi, H

    2012-12-15

    In this research, we studied the accelerated stability of vitamin E-loaded nanocapsules (NCs) prepared by the nanoprecipitation method. Vitamin E-loaded NCs were optimized firstly at the laboratory scale and then scaled up using the membrane contactor technique. The optimum conditions of the membrane contactor preparation (pilot scale) produced vitamin E-loaded NCs with an average size of 253 nm, polydispersity index 0.19 and a zeta potential -16 mV. The average size, polydispersity index and zeta potential values were 185 nm, 0.12 and -15 mV, respectively for the NCs prepared at laboratory scale. No significant changes were noticed in these values after 3 and 6 months of storage at high temperature (40±2 °C) and relative humidity (75±5%) in spite of vitamin E sensitivity to light, heat and oxygen. The entrapment efficiency of NCs prepared at pilot scale was 97% at the beginning of the stability study, and became (95%, 59%) after 3 and 6 months of storage, respectively. These values at lab-scale were (98%, 96%, and 89%) at time zero and after 3 and 6 months of storage, respectively. This confirms the ability of vitamin E encapsulation to preserve its stability, which is one major goal of our work. Lyophilization of the optimized formula at lab-scale was also performed. Four types of cryoprotectants were tested (poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), sucrose, mannitol, and glucose). Freeze-dried NCs prepared with sucrose were found acceptable. The other lyophilized NCs obtained at different conditions presented large aggregates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of Improved Membranes for ROWPU Spiral-Wound Elements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riley, R

    2001-01-01

    .... They are: poor lack of chemical stability to oxidants such as chlorine, high fouling rates due to membrane surface roughness and high bacterial attachment counts on the membrane surface leading to biofouling...

  8. Purity and stability of the membrane-limited glucocorticoid receptor agonist dexamethasone-BSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Grant L; Rainville, Jennifer R; Zhao, Qi; Tasker, Jeffrey G

    2017-09-20

    Cellular effects of glucocorticoids can be separated into classical transcriptional regulation via activation of the canonical nuclear glucocorticoid receptor and rapid actions mediated by activation of one or more putative membrane-associated glucocorticoid receptors that regulate both transcriptional and non-transcriptional signaling. Dexamethasone-bovine serum albumin (Dex-BSA) is one of several membrane-limited steroid receptor agonists. Dex-BSA and other steroid conjugates such as corticosterone-, estradiol- and testosterone-BSA have been used to study rapid steroid effects initiated by putative membrane receptors. The purity and stability of the steroid-BSA conjugate is crucial, therefore, since any steroid that is not bound to or that dissociates from the BSA conjugate could penetrate into the intracellular compartment and confound the experiment. We used fluorine NMR to determine if free Dex could be detected in a commercially available Dex-BSA dissolved in H 2 O. Non-covalently bound Dex was detected in the Dex-BSA solution, but the level of free Dex remained constant over time and with increasing temperature, indicating that the free Dex was not a result of instability of the Dex-BSA conjugate. The free Dex was lost when the Dex-BSA was denatured and subjected to dialysis, which suggested that it was trapped in the Dex-BSA three-dimensional structure and not covalently bound to the BSA. The purified, renatured Dex-BSA retained its rapid activity, which confirmed that the observed effects of Dex-BSA are not caused by non-covalently-bound Dex. Therefore, the Dex contaminant found in the Dex-BSA solution is likely to be tightly, but non-covalently, bound to BSA, and the Dex-BSA activity remains membrane-limited. Our findings indicate that Dex-BSA remains a suitable membrane-restricted glucocorticoid receptor agonist, but suggest that denaturing purification is a useful control for the study of membrane-initiated steroid-BSA actions. Copyright © 2017

  9. Peptide insertion, positioning, and stabilization in a membrane: insight from an all-atom molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babakhani, Arneh; Gorfe, Alemayehu A; Gullingsrud, Justin; Kim, Judy E; Andrew McCammon, J

    Peptide insertion, positioning, and stabilization in a model membrane are probed via an all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. One peptide (WL5) is simulated in each leaflet of a solvated dimyristoylglycero-3-phosphate (DMPC) membrane. Within the first 5 ns, the peptides spontaneously insert into the membrane and then stabilize during the remaining 70 ns of simulation time. In both leaflets, the peptides localize to the membrane interface, and this localization is attributed to the formation of peptide-lipid hydrogen bonds. We show that the single tryptophan residue in each peptide contributes significantly to these hydrogen bonds; specifically, the nitrogen heteroatom of the indole ring plays a critical role. The tilt angles of the indole rings relative to the membrane normal in the upper and lower leaflets are approximately 26 degrees and 54 degrees , respectively. The tilt angles of the entire peptide chain are 62 degrees and 74 degrees . The membrane induces conformations of the peptide that are characteristic of beta-sheets, and the peptide enhances the lipid ordering in the membrane. Finally, the diffusion rate of the peptides in the membrane plane is calculated (based on experimental peptide concentrations) to be approximately 6 A(2)/ns, thus suggesting a 500 ns time scale for intermolecular interactions.

  10. Influence of particle size and preparation methods on the physical and chemical stability of amorphous simvastatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Fang; Aaltonen, Jaakko; Tian, Fang

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the factors influencing the stability of amorphous simvastatin. Quench-cooled amorphous simvastatin in two particle size ranges, 150-180 microm (QC-big) and physical and chemical...... using DSC in order to link the physical and chemical stability with molecular mobility. Chemical stability was studied with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results obtained from the current study revealed that the solubility of amorphous forms prepared by both methods was enhanced...... molecular mobility and higher chemical degradation than CM. Therefore, the current study demonstrated that QC and CM have obvious differences in both physical and chemical properties. It was concluded that care should be taken when choosing preparation methods for making amorphous materials. Furthermore...

  11. Chemical stability of enalapril maleate drug substance and tablets by a stability-indicating liquid chromatographic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta de Diego

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical stability of enalapril drug substance and tablets was studied by a stability-indicating liquid chromatographic method. Stress testing was performed on drug substance under various conditions. Accelerated stability testing was carried out for different formulations of enalapril tablets. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a RP-18 column, using a mobile phase of methanol phosphate buffer at 1.0 mL min"1 and UV detection. Degradation of the drug substance was greater under hydrolytic conditions. After 180 days of accelerated stability testing most enalapril tablets showed more than 10% of degradation. Enalapril drug substance and tablets showed instability under stress and accelerated testing respectively, with possible implications on the therapeutic activity.

  12. Ultrathin Gas Permeable Oxide Membranes for Chemical Sensing: Nanoporous Ta2O5 Test Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Imbault

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Conductometric gas sensors made of gas permeable metal oxide ultrathin membranes can combine the functions of a selective filter, preconcentrator, and sensing element and thus can be particularly promising for the active sampling of diluted analytes. Here we report a case study of the electron transport and gas sensing properties of such a membrane made of nanoporous Ta2O5. These membranes demonstrated a noticeable chemical sensitivity toward ammonia, ethanol, and acetone at high temperatures above 400 °C. Different from traditional thin films, such gas permeable, ultrathin gas sensing elements can be made suspended enabling advanced architectures of ultrasensitive analytical systems operating at high temperatures and in harsh environments.

  13. Membrane stability of sickle erythrocytes incubated in extracts of three medicinal plants: Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Uwakwe, Augustine Amadikwa

    2011-04-01

    Many reports showed that medicinal plant extracts cause alterations on the shape and physiology of erythrocytes. The present study seeks to ascertain the osmotic stability of sickle erythrocytes incubated in aqueous extracts of Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa. The fraction of erythrocytes lysed when suspended in saline solution of varying concentrations was investigated by spectrophotometric method. The percentage hemolysis of erythrocytes in the control and test samples showed a sigmoidal relationship with increasing concentrations of saline solution. Membrane stability was ascertained as mean corpuscular fragility (MCF) index of erythrocytes incubated in 400 and 800 mg/dL aqueous concentrations of the three plant extracts. The two experimental concentrations of P. guajava and T. catappa protected the erythrocytes against osmotic stress, as evidenced by decreases in the values of MCF compared with the control sample (P catappa stabilized erythrocyte membrane, higher concentration (800 mg/dL) of A. occidentale exhibited no membrane protective effect.

  14. Removal of trace organic chemicals and performance of a novel hybrid ultrafiltration-osmotic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ryan W; Regnery, Julia; Nghiem, Long D; Cath, Tzahi Y

    2014-09-16

    A hybrid ultrafiltration-osmotic membrane bioreactor (UFO-MBR) was investigated for over 35 days for nutrient and trace organic chemical (TOrC) removal from municipal wastewater. The UFO-MBR system uses both ultrafiltration (UF) and forward osmosis (FO) membranes in parallel to simultaneously extract clean water from an activated sludge reactor for nonpotable (or environmental discharge) and potable reuse, respectively. In the FO stream, water is drawn by osmosis from activated sludge through an FO membrane into a draw solution (DS), which becomes diluted during the process. A reverse osmosis (RO) system is then used to reconcentrate the diluted DS and produce clean water suitable for direct potable reuse. The UF membrane extracts water, dissolved salts, and some nutrients from the system to prevent their accumulation in the activated sludge of the osmotic MBR. The UF permeate can be used for nonpotable reuse purposes (e.g., irrigation and toilet flushing). Results from UFO-MBR investigation illustrated that the chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus removals were greater than 99%, 82%, and 99%, respectively. Twenty TOrCs were detected in the municipal wastewater that was used as feed to the UFO-MBR system. Among these 20 TOrCs, 15 were removed by the hybrid UFO-MBR system to below the detection limit. High FO membrane rejection was observed for all ionic and nonionic hydrophilic TOrCs and lower rejection was observed for nonionic hydrophobic TOrCs. With the exceptions of bisphenol A and DEET, all TOrCs that were detected in the DS were well rejected by the RO membrane. Overall, the UFO-MBR can operate sustainably and has the potential to be utilized for direct potable reuse applications.

  15. How Do Polyethylene Glycol and Poly(sulfobetaine) Hydrogel Layers on Ultrafiltration Membranes Minimize Fouling and Stay Stable in Cleaning Chemicals?

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu

    2017-05-18

    We compare the efficiency of grafting polyethylene glycol (PEG) and poly(sulfobetaine) hydrogel layer on poly(ether imide) (PEI) hollow-fiber ultrafiltration membrane surfaces in terms of filtration performance, fouling minimization and stability in cleaning solutions. Two previously established different methods toward the two different chemistries (and both had already proven to be suited to reduce fouling significantly) are applied to the same PEI membranes. The hydrophilicity of PEI membranes is improved by the modification, as indicated by the change of contact angle value from 89° to 68° for both methods, due to the hydration layer formed in the hydrogel layers. Their pure water flux declines because of the additional permeation barrier from the hydrogel layers. However, these barriers increase protein rejection. In the exposure at a static condition, grafting PEG or poly(sulfobetaine) reduces protein adsorption to 23% or 11%, respectively. In the dynamic filtration, the hydrogel layers minimizes the flux reduction and increases the reversibility of fouling. Compared to the pristine PEI membrane that can recover its flux to 42% after hydraulic cleaning, the PEG and poly(sulfobetaine) grafted membranes can recover their flux up to 63% and 94%, respectively. Stability tests show that the poly(sulfobetaine) hydrogel layer is stable in acid, base and chlorine solutions, whereas the PEG hydrogel layer suffers alkaline hydrolysis in base and oxidation in chlorine conditions. With its chemical stability and pronounced capability of minimizing fouling, especially irreversible fouling, protective poly(sulfobetaine) hydrogel layers have great potential for various membrane-based applications.

  16. The stability of poly(2,2′-(m-phenylene)-5,5′-bibenzimidazole) membranes in aqueous potassium hydroxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Li, Qingfeng

    2015-01-01

    In the form of membranes, poly(2,2′-(m-phenylene)-5,5′-bibenzimidazole) (mPBI) is known to exhibit high ionic conductivity when doped with aqueous KOH, which makes it interesting as electrolyte in e.g. alkaline fuel cells and water electrolyzers. The conductivity peaks at KOH concentrations around...... 25wt%. This work is devoted to a comprehensive stability study of mPBI in aqueous KOH of different concentrations for up to 200 days under conditions relevant for electrochemical energy conversion technologies. The polymer membranes were kept at 88°C in aqueous KOH with concentrations ranging from 0...... to 50wt%, and the chemical and physicochemical changes were monitored. The degradation was connected to the hydrolysis of the polymer backbone and the degradation rate increased with increasing KOH concentration. In the lower concentration range mPBI proved to be stable but exhibited low ionic...

  17. Investigation of the chemical mechanisms involved in the electropulsation of membranes at the molecular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Marie; Mir, Lluis M

    2018-02-01

    The chemical consequences of electropulsation on giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), in particular the possible oxidation of unsaturated phospholipids, have been investigated by mass spectrometry, flow cytometry and absorbance methods. Pulse application induced oxidation of the GUV phospholipids and the oxidation level depended on the duration of the pulse. Light and O 2 increased the level of pulse-induced lipid peroxidation whereas the presence of antioxidants either in the membrane or in the solution completely suppressed peroxidation. Importantly, pulse application did not create additional reactive oxygen species (ROS) in GUV-free solution. Lipid peroxidation seems to result from a facilitation of the lipid peroxidation by the ROS already present in the solution before pulsing, not from a direct pulse-induced peroxidation. The pulse would facilitate the entrance of ROS in the core of the membrane, allowing the contact between ROS and lipid chains and provoking the oxidation. Our findings demonstrate that the application of electric pulses on cells could induce the oxidation of the membrane phospholipids since cell membranes contain unsaturated lipids. The chemical consequences of electropulsation will therefore have to be taken into account in future biomedical applications of electropulsation since oxidized phospholipids play a key role in many signaling pathways and diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Some Chemical Food Additives on the Shelf-Life Stability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Some Chemical Food Additives on the Shelf-Life Stability of Plantain Chips Stored at Ambient Temperature. ... Conclusion: The chemical additives conferred antimicrobial, antioxidant and preservative properties on the plantain chips and therefore prolonged the shelf life up to four weeks. Keywords: Plantain chips ...

  19. Membrane protein stability can be compromised by detergent interactions with the extramembranous soluble domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhengrong; Wang, Chi; Zhou, Qingxian; An, Jianli; Hildebrandt, Ellen; Aleksandrov, Luba A; Kappes, John C; DeLucas, Lawrence J; Riordan, John R; Urbatsch, Ina L; Hunt, John F; Brouillette, Christie G

    2014-06-01

    Detergent interaction with extramembranous soluble domains (ESDs) is not commonly considered an important determinant of integral membrane protein (IMP) behavior during purification and crystallization, even though ESDs contribute to the stability of many IMPs. Here we demonstrate that some generally nondenaturing detergents critically destabilize a model ESD, the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1) from the human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a model IMP. Notably, the detergents show equivalent trends in their influence on the stability of isolated NBD1 and full-length CFTR. We used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy to monitor changes in NBD1 stability and secondary structure, respectively, during titration with a series of detergents. Their effective harshness in these assays mirrors that widely accepted for their interaction with IMPs, i.e., anionic > zwitterionic > nonionic. It is noteworthy that including lipids or nonionic detergents is shown to mitigate detergent harshness, as will limiting contact time. We infer three thermodynamic mechanisms from the observed thermal destabilization by monomer or micelle: (i) binding to the unfolded state with no change in the native structure (all detergent classes); (ii) native state binding that alters thermodynamic properties and perhaps conformation (nonionic detergents); and (iii) detergent binding that directly leads to denaturation of the native state (anionic and zwitterionic). These results demonstrate that the accepted model for the harshness of detergents applies to their interaction with an ESD. It is concluded that destabilization of extramembranous soluble domains by specific detergents will influence the stability of some IMPs during purification. © 2014 The Protein Society.

  20. Role of the interosseous membrane and annular ligament in stabilizing the proximal radial head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ashley; Werner, Frederick W; Tucci, Emily R; Harley, Brian J

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the relative contributions of the annular ligament, proximal band, central band, and distal band of the interosseous membrane in preventing dislocation of the proximal radius. In part 1 of the study, 8 forearms were loaded transversely with the forearm intact, and the central band, proximal band, and annular ligament were sequentially sectioned to determine the percentage contribution of each structure in preventing transverse radial displacement. In part 2, 12 forearms were cyclically supinated and pronated while optical sensors measured radial and ulnar motion. Transverse radial head motion was computed as the distal band, central band, and proximal band (and annular ligament) were sequentially sectioned. In part 1, there was no significant difference in the percentage contribution of each structure in preventing radial transverse displacement. In part 2, only after sectioning of the central band did significant radial head displacement occur. Greater displacements occurred in supination than in pronation. Dislocation of the proximal radius occurred in 2 arms after sectioning of all 3 structures. Under pure transverse displacement, the central band, annular ligament, and proximal band equally contributed to stabilizing the radius. However, during forearm rotation, the central band contributed more to radial head stability than the annular ligament and proximal band. Our study contributes to our knowledge of forearm biomechanics, demonstrating the importance of the central band in providing proximal radial head stability. Forceful supination should be avoided after surgical procedures designed to stabilize the radial head. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fibrous Support Stabilizes Nitrification Performance of a Membrane-Aerated Biofilm: The Effect of Liquid Flow Perturbation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terada, Akihiko; Ito, J; Matsumoto, S

    2009-01-01

    Nitrification stability and biofilm robustness were examined by comparing a fibrous support membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (FS-MABR), where a woven fibrous support was surrounded on a silicone tube, with an MABR. The overall mass transfer coefficient of oxygen for the FS-MABR, assuming no bound......Nitrification stability and biofilm robustness were examined by comparing a fibrous support membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (FS-MABR), where a woven fibrous support was surrounded on a silicone tube, with an MABR. The overall mass transfer coefficient of oxygen for the FS-MABR, assuming...

  2. A low pressure gravity-driven membrane filtration (GDM) system for rainwater recycling: Flux stabilization and removal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, An; Wang, Jinlong; Lin, Dachao; Tang, Xiaobin; Cheng, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Hui; Bai, Langming; Li, Guibai; Liang, Heng

    2017-04-01

    Rainwater is a nature resource, which can be widely used for non-potable and potable applications in water scared countries after appropriate treatment. Gravity-driven membrane filtration (GDM) process is a promising technology for decentralized rainwater treatment due to no backwashing, flushing and chemical cleaning. In this study, we established a single lab-scale GDM system for the stored rainwater (simulative cellar rainwater) treatment with two months operation, and a stored tap water was used as a compared system to evaluate the permeability and organics removal performance. Results showed that GDM exhibited a good performance for bacteria and turbidity removals, but the removal performance of DOC was undesirable due to the low rejection of low molecular-weight fulvic. Additionally, the permeate flux reached stable with the value of 6-6.5 L/m 2 h during 60 days operation in the rainwater system, however, the tap water system stabilized only at 4 L/m 2 h. Hydraulically reversible resistance accounted for large proportions (90%) of the total resistance, which indicated that the flux could be recovered by simple physical flushing. The bio-fouling layer adhered on the membrane surface was characterized at the end of the filtration experiment. Higher bio-activity with lower EPS (polysaccharides and proteins) contents of the fouling layer were found in the rainwater system compared with the control system, which was the main reason for the higher flux. These results show that rainwater can be treated in a single GDM process with low maintenance, which makes the process suitable for decentralized water supply. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Isomeric Detergent Comparison for Membrane Protein Stability: Importance of Inter-Alkyl-Chain Distance and Alkyl Chain Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung Ho; Hariharan, Parameswaran; Mortensen, Jonas S; Du, Yang; Nielsen, Anne K; Byrne, Bernadette; Kobilka, Brian K; Loland, Claus J; Guan, Lan; Chae, Pil Seok

    2016-12-14

    Membrane proteins encapsulated by detergent micelles are widely used for structural study. Because of their amphipathic property, detergents have the ability to maintain protein solubility and stability in an aqueous medium. However, conventional detergents have serious limitations in their scope and utility, particularly for eukaryotic membrane proteins and membrane protein complexes. Thus, a number of new agents have been devised; some have made significant contributions to membrane protein structural studies. However, few detergent design principles are available. In this study, we prepared meta and ortho isomers of the previously reported para-substituted xylene-linked maltoside amphiphiles (XMAs), along with alkyl chain-length variation. The isomeric XMAs were assessed with three membrane proteins, and the meta isomer with a C 12 alkyl chain was most effective at maintaining solubility/stability of the membrane proteins. We propose that interplay between the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) and alkyl chain length is of central importance for high detergent efficacy. In addition, differences in inter-alkyl-chain distance between the isomers influence the ability of the detergents to stabilise membrane proteins. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Glycosylation stabilizes hERG channels on the plasma membrane by decreasing proteolytic susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Shawn M; Hulbert, Maggie; Guo, Jun; Li, Wentao; Yang, Tonghua; Zhang, Shetuan

    2018-01-05

    The human ether-a-go-go related gene ( hERG)-encoded channel hERG undergoes N-linked glycosylation at position 598, which is located in the unusually long S5-pore linker of the channel. In other work we have demonstrated that hERG is uniquely susceptible to proteolytic cleavage at the S5-pore linker by proteinase K (PK) and calpain (CAPN). The scorpion toxin BeKm-1, which binds to the S5-pore linker of hERG, protects hERG from such cleavage. In the present study, our data revealed that, compared with normal glycosylated hERG channels, nonglycosylated hERG channels were significantly more susceptible to cleavage by extracellular PK. Furthermore, the protective effect of BeKm-1 on hERG from PK-cleavage was lost when glycosylation of hERG was inhibited. The inactivation-deficient mutant hERG channels S620T and S631A were resistant to PK cleavage, and inhibition of glycosylation rendered both mutants susceptible to PK cleavage. Compared with normal glycosylated channels, nonglycosylated hERG channels were also more susceptible to cleavage mediated by CAPN, which was present in the medium of human embryonic kidney cells under normal culture conditions. Inhibition of CAPN resulted in an increase of nonglycosylated hERG current. In summary, our results revealed that N-linked glycosylation protects hERG against protease-mediated degradation and thus contributes to hERG channel stability on the plasma membrane.-Lamothe, S. M., Hulbert, M., Guo, J., Li, W., Yang, T., Zhang, S. Glycosylation stabilizes hERG channels on the plasma membrane by decreasing proteolytic susceptibility.

  5. Insertion of Neurotransmitters into a Lipid Bilayer Membrane and Its Implication on Membrane Stability: A Molecular Dynamics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chun; Xue, Minmin; Qiu, Hu; Guo, Wanlin

    2017-03-17

    The signaling molecules in neurons, called neurotransmitters, play an essential role in the transportation of neural signals, during which the neurotransmitters interact with not only specific receptors, but also cytomembranes, such as synaptic vesicle membranes and postsynaptic membranes. Through extensive molecular dynamics simulations, the atomic-scale insertion dynamics of typical neurotransmitters, including methionine enkephalin (ME), leucine enkephalin (LE), dopamine (DA), acetylcholine (ACh), and aspartic acid (ASP), into lipid bilayers is investigated. The results show that the first three neurotransmitters (ME, LE, and DA) are able to diffuse freely into both 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (POPE) membranes, and are guided by the aromatic residues Tyr and Phe. Only a limited number of these neurotransmitters are allowed to penetrate into the membrane, which suggests an intrinsic mechanism by which the membrane is protected from being destroyed by excessive inserted neurotransmitters. After spontaneous insertion, the neurotransmitters disturb the surrounding phospholipids in the membrane, as indicated by the altered distribution of components in lipid leaflets and the disordered lipid tails. In contrast, the last two neurotransmitters (ACh and ASP) cannot enter the membrane, but instead always diffuse freely in solution. These findings provide an understanding at the atomic level of how neurotransmitters interact with the surrounding cytomembrane, as well as their impact on membrane behavior. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Stabilized liquid membrane device (SLMD) for the passive, integrative sampling of labile metals in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, W.G.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Manahan, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    A stabilized liquid membrane device (SLMD) is described for potential use as an in situ, passive, integrative sampler for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in natural waters. The SLMD (patent pending) consists of a 2.5-cm-wide by 15-cm-long strip of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) layflat tubing containing 1 mL of an equal mixture (v/v) of oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid) and EMO-8Q (7-[4-ethyl-1-methyloctyl]-8-quinolinol). The reagent mixture continuously diffuses to the exterior surface of the LDPE membrane, and provides for sequestration of several divalent metals for up to several weeks. Depending on sampler configuration, concentration factors of several thousand can be realized for these metal ions after just a few days. In addition to in situ deployment, the SLMD may be useful for laboratory determination of labile metal species in grab samples. Methods for minimizing the effects of water flow on the sampling rate are currently under investigation.

  7. Static Magnetic Field Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Pulp Cells by Affecting Cell Membrane Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Chih Hsieh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the causes of dental pulpitis is lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced inflammatory response. Following pulp tissue inflammation, odontoblasts, dental pulp cells (DPCs, and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs will activate and repair damaged tissue to maintain homeostasis. However, when LPS infection is too serious, dental repair is impossible and disease may progress to irreversible pulpitis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether static magnetic field (SMF can attenuate inflammatory response of dental pulp cells challenged with LPS. In methodology, dental pulp cells were isolated from extracted teeth. The population of DPSCs in the cultured DPCs was identified by phenotypes and multilineage differentiation. The effects of 0.4 T SMF on DPCs were observed through MTT assay and fluorescent anisotropy assay. Our results showed that the SMF exposure had no effect on surface markers or multilineage differentiation capability. However, SMF exposure increases cell viability by 15%. In addition, SMF increased cell membrane rigidity which is directly related to higher fluorescent anisotropy. In the LPS-challenged condition, DPCs treated with SMF demonstrated a higher tolerance to LPS-induced inflammatory response when compared to untreated controls. According to these results, we suggest that 0.4 T SMF attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory response to DPCs by changing cell membrane stability.

  8. Review physical and chemical aspects of stabilization of compounds in silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Eleanor M; Dennis, Patrick B; Omenetto, Fiorenzo; Naik, Rajesh R; Kaplan, David L

    2012-06-01

    The challenge of stabilization of small molecules and proteins has received considerable interest. The biological activity of small molecules can be lost as a consequence of chemical modifications, while protein activity may be lost due to chemical or structural degradation, such as a change in macromolecular conformation or aggregation. In these cases, stabilization is required to preserve therapeutic and bioactivity efficacy and safety. In addition to use in therapeutic applications, strategies to stabilize small molecules and proteins also have applications in industrial processes, diagnostics, and consumer products like food and cosmetics. Traditionally, therapeutic drug formulation efforts have focused on maintaining stability during product preparation and storage. However, with growing interest in the fields of encapsulation, tissue engineering, and controlled release drug delivery systems, new stabilization challenges are being addressed; the compounds or protein of interest must be stabilized during: (1) fabrication of the protein or small molecule-loaded carrier, (2) device storage, and (3) for the duration of intended release needs in vitro or in vivo. We review common mechanisms of compound degradation for small molecules and proteins during biomaterial preparation (including tissue engineering scaffolds and drug delivery systems), storage, and in vivo implantation. We also review the physical and chemical aspects of polymer-based stabilization approaches, with a particular focus on the stabilizing properties of silk fibroin biomaterials. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Role of sulfonation in the stability, reactivity, and selectivity of poly(ether imide) used to develop ion exchange membranes: DFT study with application to fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Chávez, Ernesto; Peña-Castañeda, Yésica A; de la Portilla-Maldonado, L César; Guzmán-Pantoja, Javier; Martínez-Magadán, José Manuel; Oviedo-Roa, Raúl; de Landa Castillo-Alvarado, Fray; Cruz-Torres, Armando

    2014-07-01

    The design of polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cells must satisfy two equally important fundamental principles: optimization of the reactivity and the selectivity in order to improve the ion transport properties of the membrane as well as its long-term stability in the hydrated state at high temperature (above 100 °C). A study utilizing density functional theory (DFT) to elucidate the effect of the degree of sulfonation on the chemical stability, reactivity, and selectivity of poly(ether imide) (PEI), which allows the ionic transport properties of the membrane to be predicted, is reported here. Sulfonated poly(ether imide) (SPEI) structures with (-SO3H) n (n = 1-6) groups were built and optimized in order to calculate the above properties as functions of the number of sulfonyl groups. A comparative study demonstrated that the SPEI with four sulfonyl groups in its backbone is the polymer with the properties best suited for use in fuel cells.

  10. Color stability and staining of silorane after prolonged chemical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jesus, Vivian CBR; Martinelli, Nata Luiz; Poli-Frederico, Regina Célia

    methacrylate (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE; Filtek Z350XT, 3M ESPE; Master Fill, Biodinâmica) or silorane-based (Filtek P90, 3M ESPE) composite materials. Initial color was registered in a spectrophotometer. Specimens were divided in four groups and individually stored at 37°C in 0.02N citric acid, 0.02N phosphoric...... perceptible after immersion in water, citric acid, phosphoric acid or ethanol up to 21 days (¿E... of the immersion medium (pacid or citric acid did not influence the color stability or staining susceptibility of the investigated...

  11. Chemical stability of copper-canisters in deep repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahonen, L.

    1995-12-01

    The spent fuel from Finnish nuclear reactors is planned to be encapsulated in thick-walled copper-iron canisters and placed deep into the bedrock. The copper wall of the canister provides a long-time shield against corrosion, preventing the high-level nuclear fuel from contact with ground water. In the report, stability of metallic copper and its possible corrosion reactions in the conditions of deep bedrock are evaluated by means of thermo-dynamic calculations. (90 refs., 28 figs., 11 tabs.)

  12. Vibration and Stability of 3000-hp, Titanium Chemical Process Blower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Gutzwiller

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This 74-in-diameter blower had an overhung rotor design of titanium construction, operating at 50 pounds per square inch gauge in a critical chemical plant process. The shaft was supported by oil-film bearings and was directdriven by a 3000-hp electric motor through a metal disk type of coupling. The operating speed was 1780 rpm. The blower shaft and motor shaft motion was monitored by Bently Nevada proximity probes and a Model 3100 monitoring system.

  13. Desmosomes: interconnected calcium-dependent structures of remarkable stability with significant integral membrane protein turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windoffer, Reinhard; Borchert-Stuhlträger, Monika; Leube, Rudolf E

    2002-04-15

    Desmosomes are prominent cell adhesion structures that are major stabilizing elements, together with the attached cytoskeletal intermediate filament network, of the cytokeratin type in epithelial tissues. To examine desmosome dynamics in tightly coupled cells and in situations of decreased adhesion, fluorescent desmosomal cadherin desmocollin 2a (Dsc2a) chimeras were stably expressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma-derived PLC cells (clone PDc-13) and in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (clone MDc-2) for the continuous monitoring of desmosomes in living cells. The hybrid polypeptides integrated specifically and without disturbance into normal-appearing desmosomes that occurred in association with typical cytokeratin filament bundles. Tracking of labeled adhesion sites throughout the cell cycle by time-lapse fluorescence microscopy revealed that they were immobile and that they maintained their structural integrity for long periods of time. Time-space diagrams further showed that desmosomal positioning was tightly controlled, even during pronounced cell shape changes, although the desmosomal arrays extended and contracted, suggesting that they were interconnected by a flexible system with intrinsic elasticity. Double-fluorescence microscopy detecting Dsc2a chimeras together with fluorescent cytokeratin 18 chimeras revealed the association and synchronous movement of labeled desmosomes and fluorescent cytokeratin filaments. Only a minor destabilization of desmosomes was observed during mitosis, demonstrated by increased diffuse plasma membrane fluorescence and the fusion of desmosomes into larger structures. Desmosomes did not disappear completely at any time in any cell, and residual cytokeratin filaments remained in association with adhesion sites throughout cell division. On the other hand, a rapid loss of desmosomes was observed upon calcium depletion, with irreversible uptake of some desmosomal particles. Simultaneously, diffusely distributed desmosomal

  14. Partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) - what's in it for chemical engineers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelmore, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    Partial Stabilized Zirconia (PSZ) is a non-brittle ceramic material with virtually the same modulus of elasticity, Poisson's ratio, tensile strength, and co-efficient of thermal expansion as steel, coupled with low thermal conductivity, low electrical conductivity, high hardness, non-magnetic properties and high corrosion resistance. Uses are in a wide variety of applications such as automotive, computer, hot copper extrusion dies, delicate laboratory equipment, mining spigots and injection moulding gates for plastic. Applications previously thought to be impossible for ceramics such as in high thermal and/or mechanical shock situations are now possible with benefits such as longer life, reduced maintenance costs, less downtime, lower stock inventory and improved productivity. Examples given here include downhole pump check valves in the oil and gas industry, dry bearings in the mining industry and plungers for pumping tomato paste in the food processing industry. A brief comparison is made of other PSZs and Nilcra PSZ. 1 fig

  15. Further observations on sensitization of chemically stabilized stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samans, C.H.; Kinoshita, K.; Matsushima, I.

    1977-01-01

    Niobium additions to an 18Cr:8Ni type matrix reduce carbon solubility to such an extent that any ''solution treatment'' below 1150 0 C causes stabilization. Consequently, no Cr 23 C 6 precipitates at lower temperatures to sensitize the structure. Further observations on Type 321 suggest that two types of TiC precipitate from solid solution in an 18 : 8 type matrix. The size of the TiC nucleus decreases with the precipitating temperature. Above 1050 to 1100 0 C the initial TiC is probably incoherent, large enough to be stable, and resistant to ferric sulfate-sulfuric acid solution. Below 1050 to 1100 0 C the initial TiC, known as ''dot TiC'' or ''TiC on dislocations,'' is probably coherent, not large enough to be stable without further growth, and not resistant to ferric sulfate-sulfuric acid solution. During holding at temperatures below 1050 to 1100 0 C, stabilization occurs as the TiC on dislocations agglomerates to larger, incoherent particles. The time required increases as the temperature decreases down to the minimum TiC nucleation temperature near 610 0 C. Cold work makes it easier for the coherent particles to become incoherent, in effect facilitating approach to equilibrium carbon solubility at any temperature. Once chromium carbide forms, dissolved titanium eventually reacts with it, forming TiC and releasing chromium to desensitize the structure. This reaction can occur, given sufficient time for titanium diffusion, at any temperature at which chromium carbide nucleates. It is much more rapid than back diffusion of chromium from the matrix

  16. Preparing for chemical terrorism: stability of injectable atropine sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schier, Joshua G; Ravikumar, Padinjarekuttu R; Nelson, Lewis S; Heller, Michael B; Howland, Mary Ann; Hoffman, Robert S

    2004-04-01

    A massive nerve agent attack may rapidly deplete in-date supplies of atropine. The authors considered using atropine beyond its labeled shelf life. The objective was to determine the stability of premixed injectable atropine sulfate samples with different expiration dates. This was an in-vitro study using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Four atropine solutions (labeled concentration of 400 microg/mL) ranging from in date to 12 years beyond expiration (exp) and an additional sample of atropine sulfate (labeled concentration of 2,000 microg/mL) obtained from a World War II era autoinjector were assayed for atropine stability. Standards of atropine sulfate and tropine were prepared and quantified by GC/MS. Study samples were prepared by adding a buffer solution to free the base, extracting with an isopropanol/methylene chloride mixture and followed by evaporating the organic layer to dryness. Pentafluoropropionic anhydride and pentafluoropropanol were then added as derivatization reagents. Study samples were heated, the derivitization reagents were evaporated, and the remaining compound was reconstituted in ethyl acetate for injection into the GC/MS. All solutions were clear and colorless. Atropine concentrations were as follows: in date, 252 microg/mL; 2001 exp, 290 microg/mL; 1999 exp, 314 microg/mL; 1990 exp, 398 microg/mL; and WW II specimen, 1,475 microg/mL. Tropine was found in concentrations of <10 microg/mL in all study samples. Significant amounts of atropine were found in all study samples. All samples remained clear and colorless, and no substantial amount of tropine was found in any study sample. Further testing is needed to determine clinical effect.

  17. Ether modified poly(ether ether ketone) nonwoven membrane with excellent wettability and stability as a lithium ion battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Wang, Wenqiang; Han, Yu; Zhang, Lei; Li, Shuangshou; Tang, Bin; Xu, Shengming; Xu, Zhenghe

    2018-02-01

    In this study, poly(ether ether ketone) is first chloromethylated to improve the solubility and is later used for nonwoven membrane fabrication by electrospinning. Finally, the chloromethyl group was converted to the ethyl ether group and dibenzyl ether group in a hot alkaline solution. The abundant polar groups endow the membrane with excellent wettability, reducing the contact angle to 0°. The polymer matrix is crosslinked by dibenzyl ether group, endowing the membrane with excellent stability (insolubility in many solvents, and ultra-low swelling in the electrolyte at 80 °C) and good anti-shrinkage property (0% at 180 °C). The electrospinning-fabricated membrane remains stable until 4.812 V (vs. Li+/Li), meeting the requirement for use in lithium ion batteries. The interwoven structure of the nonwoven membrane effectively gives rise to the high electrolyte uptake of 215.8%. The ionic conductivity of the electrolyte-swelled electrospinning-fabricated membrane is 51% higher than that of the electrolyte-swelled Celgard membrane. As a result, the lithium ion battery with this nonwoven membrane exhibits an enhanced rate performance (up to 42.5% higher than the lithium ion battery with a PP separator) and satisfactory cycling performance.

  18. chemical studies on the extraction of certain metal ions from aqueous solution by liquid emulsion membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis four systems are addressed related to the use of liquid emulsion membranes (ELM) based on Co(III)dicarbiolide and. The system was dedicated for permeation of cadmium , cobalt Nickel and lead for use of this system for preconcentration and separation of cadmium, cobalt, nickel and lead. The work carried out in this thesis is presented in three parts, namely; introduction, experimental and results and discussion.The first chapter is the introduction which includes aim of work, basic concepts of liquid membranes; liquid emulsion membranes; different models of emulsion permeation, literature survey of extraction chemistry of cadmium, cobalt, nickel and lead. Chapter two includes the experimental part. In this part detailed outlines on the chemicals and different elements used were given. Different instruments as well as analytical techniques were outlines. The preparation of liquid emulsion membrane and the permeation techniques were presented in details. The third chapter deals with the results and discussion. This chapter is divided into four main parts, the four parts is concerned with cadmium/Co(III) dicarbolide/NTA, EDTA, DPTA and DCTA systems. In this part the permeation of Cd(II) aqueous solution by the membrane used was experimented based on liquid-liquid extraction studies of cadmium from different sodium chloride molarities (from 0.01 to 0.1 M) by 0.01 M Cobalt(III) dicarbolides. It was found that the extraction of with cadmium is higher following in the first system, the permeation of the toxic elements, Cd(II) from HCl/sodium chloride medium was carried out using liquid emulsion membrane containing Co(III)dicarbiolide in xylene as carrier, Spain 80/ Spain 85(1:3) as surfactant and NTA, EDTA, DPTA and DCTA as a stripping solutions.

  19. Chemical vapor deposition on chabazite (CHA) zeolite membranes for effective post-combustion CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjoo; Lee, Taehee; Kim, Hyungmin; Jung, Won-Jin; Han, Doug-Young; Baik, Hionsuck; Choi, Nakwon; Choi, Jungkyu

    2014-12-16

    Chabazite (CHA) zeolites with a pore size of 0.37 × 0.42 nm(2) are expected to separate CO2 (0.33 nm) from larger N2 (0.364 nm) in postcombustion flue gases by recognizing their minute size differences. Furthermore, the hydrophobic siliceous constituent in CHA membranes can allow for maintaining the CO2/N2 separation performance in the presence of H2O in contrast with the CO2 affinity-based membranes. In an attempt to increase the molecular sieving ability, the pore mouth size of all silica CHA (Si-CHA) particles was reduced via the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of a silica precursor (tetraethyl orthosilicate). Accordingly, an increase of the CVD treatment duration decreased the penetration rate of CO2 into the CVD-treated Si-CHA particles. Furthermore, the CVD process was applied to siliceous CHA membranes in order to improve their CO2/N2 separation performance. Compared to the intact CHA membranes, the CO2/N2 maximum separation factor (max SF) for CVD-treated CHA membranes was increased by ∼ 2 fold under dry conditions. More desirably, the CO2/N2 max SF was increased by ∼ 3 fold under wet conditions at ∼ 50 °C, a representative temperature of the flue gas stream. In fact, the presence of H2O in the feed disfavored the permeation of N2 more than that of CO2 through CVD-modified CHA membranes and thus, contributed to the increased CO2/N2 separation factor.

  20. An Untrodden Path: Versatile Fabrication of Self-Supporting Polymer-Stabilized Percolation Membranes (PSPMs) for Gas Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebe, Sebastian; Mundstock, Alexander; Schneider, Daniel; Caro, Jürgen

    2017-05-11

    The preparation and scalability of zeolite or metal organic framework (MOF) membranes remains a major challenge, and thus prevents the application of these materials in large-scale gas separation. Additionally, several zeolite or MOF materials are quite difficult or nearly impossible to grow as defect-free layers, and require expensive macroporous ceramic or polymer supports. Here, we present new self-supporting zeolite and MOF composite membranes, called Polymer-Stabilized Percolation Membranes (PSPMs), consisting of a pressed gas selective percolation network (in our case ZIF-8, NaX and MIL-140) and a gas-impermeable infiltrated epoxy resin for cohesion. We demonstrate the performance of these PSPMs by separating binary mixtures of H 2 /CO 2 and H 2 /CH 4 . We report the brickwork-like architecture featuring selective percolation pathways and the polymer as a stabilizer, compare the mechanical stability of said membranes with competing materials, and give an outlook on how economic these membranes may become. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A non-permselective membrane reactor for chemical processes normally requiring strict stoichiometric feed rates of reactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloot, H.J.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1990-01-01

    A novel type of membrane reactor with separated feeding of the reactants is presented for chemical processes normally requiring strict stoichiometric feed rates of premixed reactants. The reactants are fed in the reactor to the different sides of a porous membrane which is impregnated with a

  2. Fibrous Support Stabilizes Nitrification Performance of a Membrane-Aerated Biofilm: The Effect of Liquid Flow Perturbation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terada, Akihiko; Ito, J; Matsumoto, S

    2009-01-01

    Nitrification stability and biofilm robustness were examined by comparing a fibrous support membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (FS-MABR), where a woven fibrous support was surrounded on a silicone tube, with an MABR. The overall mass transfer coefficient of oxygen for the FS-MABR, assuming no bound...

  3. Proton-sensing transistor systems for detecting ion leakage from plasma membranes under chemical stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Yuki; Goda, Tatsuro; Schaffhauser, Daniel F; Okada, Jun-Ichi; Matsumoto, Akira; Miyahara, Yuji

    2017-03-01

    The membrane integrity of live cells is routinely evaluated for cytotoxicity induced by chemical or physical stimuli. Recent progress in bioengineering means that high-quality toxicity validation is required. Here, we report a pH-sensitive transistor system developed for the continuous monitoring of ion leakage from cell membranes upon challenge by toxic compounds. Temporal changes in pH were generated with high reproducibility via periodic flushing of HepG2 cells on a gate insulator of a proton-sensitive field-effect transistor with isotonic buffer solutions with/without NH 4 Cl. The pH transients at the point of NH 4 Cl addition/withdrawal originated from the free permeation of NH 3 across the semi-permeable plasma membranes, and the proton sponge effect produced by the ammonia equilibrium. Irreversible attenuation of the pH transient was observed when the cells were subjected to a membrane-toxic reagent. Experiments and simulations proved that the decrease in the pH transient was proportional to the area of the ion-permeable pores on the damaged plasma membranes. The pH signal was correlated with the degree of hemolysis produced by the model reagents. The pH assay was sensitive to the formation of molecularly sized pores that were otherwise not measurable via detection of the leakage of hemoglobin, because the hydrodynamic radius of hemoglobin was greater than 3.1nm in the hemolysis assay. The pH transient was not disturbed by inherent ion-transporter activity. The ISFET assay was applied to a wide variety of cell types. The system presented here is fast, sensitive, practical and scalable, and will be useful for validating cytotoxins and nanomaterials. The plasma membrane toxicity and hemolysis are widely and routinely evaluated in biomaterials science and biomedical engineering. Despite the recent development of a variety of methods/materials for efficient gene/drug delivery systems to the cytosol, the methodologies for safety validation remain unchanged in

  4. Alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells for cogeneration of electricity and valuable chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Z. F.; Chen, R.; An, L.; Li, Y. S.

    2017-10-01

    Alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AAEMFCs) have received ever-increasing attentions due to the enhanced electrochemical kinetics and the absence of precious metal electrocatalysts, and thus great progress has been made in recent years. The alkaline anion exchange membrane based direct alcohol fuel cells, one type of alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells utilizing liquid alcohols as fuel that can be obtained from renewable biomass feedstocks, is another attractive point due to its ability to provide electricity with cogeneration of valuable chemicals. Significant development has been made to improve the selectivity towards high added-value chemicals and power output in the past few years. This review article provides a general description of this emerging technology, including fuel-cell setup and potential reaction routes, summarizes the products, performance, and system designs, as well as introduces the application of this concept in the removal of heavy-metal ions from the industrial wastewater. In addition, the remaining challenges and perspectives are also highlighted.

  5. Study to determine the technical and economic feasibility of reclaiming chemicals used in micellar polymer and low tension surfactant flooding. Final report. [Ultrafiltration membranes and reverse osmosis membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, R.H.; Himmelblau, A.; Donnelly, R.G.

    1978-02-01

    Energy Resources Company has developed a technology for use with enhanced oil recovery to achieve emulsion breaking and surfactant recovery. By using ultrafiltration membranes, the Energy Resources Company process can dewater an oil-in-water type emulsion expected from enhanced oil recovery projects to the point where the emulsion can be inverted and treated using conventional emulsion-treating equipment. By using a tight ultrafiltration membrane or a reverse osmosis membrane, the Energy Resources Company process is capable of recovering chemicals such as surfactants used in micellar polymer flooding.

  6. The Tat System for Membrane Translocation of Folded Proteins Recruits the Membrane-stabilizing Psp Machinery in Escherichia coli*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehner, Denise; Osadnik, Hendrik; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Brüser, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Tat systems transport folded proteins across energized membranes of bacteria, archaea, and plant plastids. In Escherichia coli, TatBC complexes recognize the transported proteins, and TatA complexes are recruited to facilitate transport. We achieved an abstraction of TatA from membranes without use of detergents and observed a co-purification of PspA, a membrane-stress response protein. The N-terminal transmembrane domain of TatA was required for the interaction. Electron microscopy displayed TatA complexes in direct contact with PspA. PspB and PspC were important for the TatA-PspA contact. The activator protein PspF was not involved in the PspA-TatA interaction, demonstrating that basal levels of PspA already interact with TatA. Elevated TatA levels caused membrane stress that induced a strictly PspBC- and PspF-dependent up-regulation of PspA. TatA complexes were found to destabilize membranes under these conditions. At native TatA levels, PspA deficiency clearly affected anaerobic TMAO respiratory growth, suggesting that energetic costs for transport of large Tat substrates such as TMAO reductase can become growth limiting in the absence of PspA. The physiological role of PspA recruitment to TatA may therefore be the control of membrane stress at active translocons. PMID:22689583

  7. Importance of asparagine on the conformational stability and chemical reactivity of selected anti-inflammatory peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriano-Correa, Catalina, E-mail: csorico@comunidad.unam.mx [Química Computacional, Facultad de Estudios Superiores (FES)-Zaragoza, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Iztapalapa, C.P. 09230 México, D.F. (Mexico); Barrientos-Salcedo, Carolina [Laboratorio de Química Médica y Quimiogenómica, Facultad de Bioanálisis Campus Veracruz-Boca del Río, Universidad Veracruzana, C.P. 91700 Veracruz (Mexico); Campos-Fernández, Linda; Alvarado-Salazar, Andres [Química Computacional, Facultad de Estudios Superiores (FES)-Zaragoza, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Iztapalapa, C.P. 09230 México, D.F. (Mexico); Esquivel, Rodolfo O. [Departamento de Química, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa (UAM-Iztapalapa), C.P. 09340 México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2015-08-18

    Highlights: • Asparagine plays an important role to anti-inflammatory effect of peptides. • The electron-donor substituent groups favor the formation of the hydrogen bonds, which contribute in the structural stability of peptides. • Chemical reactivity and the physicochemical features are crucial in the biological functions of peptides. - Abstract: Inflammatory response events are initiated by a complex series of molecular reactions that generate chemical intermediaries. The structure and properties of peptides and proteins are determined by the charge distribution of their side chains, which play an essential role in its electronic structure and physicochemical properties, hence on its biological functionality. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of changing one central amino acid, such as substituting asparagine for aspartic acid, from Cys–Asn–Ser in aqueous solution, by assessing the conformational stability, physicochemical properties, chemical reactivity and their relationship with anti-inflammatory activity; employing quantum-chemical descriptors at the M06-2X/6-311+G(d,p) level. Our results suggest that asparagine plays a more critical role than aspartic acid in the structural stability, physicochemical features, and chemical reactivity of these tripeptides. Substituent groups in the side chain cause significant changes on the conformational stability and chemical reactivity, and consequently on their anti-inflammatory activity.

  8. Cell membrane thermo-stability studies through joint segregation analysis in various wheat populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, K.; Khan, N.U.; Gul, S.; Khan, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Using joint segregation analysis (JSA) technique as statistical approach, mixed inheritance analysis for cell plasma membrane as membrane thermal stability (MTS) was assayed in two parental lines (P1, P2) and their four populations (F1, BC1, BC2, F2) of four wheat crosses, viz., Hashim-08 * LU-26, Farid-06 * Shafaq, Parula * Blue Silver and TD-1 * D-97603 at Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan during crop season 2011-12. Results revealed that MTS was under control of two mixed groups of genes i.e., additive-dominant-epistatic major genes plus additive-dominant-epistasis of polygenes (model E) in Hashim-08 * LU-26 and Farid-06 * Shafaq crosses, respectively. In cross Parula * Blue Silver, it was governed by mixed genes i.e. one major-gene and additive-dominance-epistatic polygenes (model D). However, in cross TD-1 * D-97603, the MTS was under the influence of mixed epistasis of two major genes plus polygenes (model E-1). Polygene variation and polygene heritability were higher than major gene variation and heritability in crosses Hashim-08 * LU-26 and Farid-06 * Shafaq. In crosses Parula * Blue Silver and TD-1 * D-97603, the major gene variation and heritability were higher than polygene variation and heritability, indicating maximum contribution of the major genes. While in cross TD-1 * D-97603, epistatic components were also positive and due to which the polygene heritability was almost zero. Moderate to high environmental variation in the MTS for segregating generations revealed that the said trait was highly persuaded by the environment. However, the genetic behavior of the MTS suggested that early selection for MTS in the crosses Hashim-08 * LU-26 and Farid-06 * Shafaq would be efficient. Whereas, the delayed selection in crosses Parula * Blue Silver and TD-1 * D-97603 until the accumulation of maximum favorable genes will be effective. (author)

  9. Potentiometric sensing of iodide using polymeric membranes of microwave stabilized β-AgI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, Dhanya; Rao, T. Prasada

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Stable β-phase was obtained by post MW irradiation of AgI precipitate. ► Constructed ISEby dispersing stable β-AgI crystals in polyvinyl chloride. ► Designed iodide ISE exhibited wide linear range and fast response. ► Highly selective with selectivity factors less than 10 −6 . ► Successfully applied to natural waters, table salt and human urine samples. - Abstract: A polymer based heterogeneous ion selective electrode (ISE) membrane was fabricated for the potentiometric sensing of iodide. The sensing element used for the preparation of the ISE membrane was microwave stabilized β-AgI. Because microwave energy was found to be beneficial for causing hysteresis at the phase transition temperature of AgI, an attempt has been made to prepare stable and conductive β-AgI crystals by post microwave irradiation under high pressure. A conventionally precipitated AgI based ISE was also fabricated for comparative studies. The β-AgI based ISE could respond to a wide range of iodide concentrations (1 × 10 −8 to 1 M) within 60 s with a detection limit of 10 nM. The ISE gave stable response to iodide ions in a pH range of 2.0–8.0 and was highly selective in the presence of various interfering ions. The performance of the proposed iodide ISE in the analysis of natural and seawater samples was encouraging, and the determination of iodide in table salt and human urine samples was explained using the developed sensor.

  10. Chemical genetic screening identifies sulfonamides that raise organellar pH and interfere with membrane traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieland, Thomas J F; Feng, Yan; Brown, Jing Xu; Chuang, Tuan Daniel; Buckett, Peter D; Wang, Jin; Xie, Xiao-Song; McGraw, Timothy E; Kirchhausen, Tomas; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2004-07-01

    Chemical genetics seeks to identify small molecules that afford functional dissection of cell biological pathways. Previous screens for small molecule inhibitors of exocytic membrane traffic yielded the identification and characterization of several compounds that block traffic from the Golgi to the cell surface as well as transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi network [Feng et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003;100:6469-6474; Yarrow et al. Comb Chem High Throughput Screen 2003;6:279-286; Feng et al. EMBO Reports 2004: in press]. Here, we screened these inhibitors for potential effects on endocytic membrane traffic. Two structurally related sulfonamides were found to be potent and reversible inhibitors of transferrin-mediated iron uptake. These inhibitors do not block endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi transport, but do disrupt Golgi-to-cell surface traffic. The compounds are members of a novel class of sulfonamides that elevate endosomal and lysosomal pH, down-regulate cell surface receptors, and impair recycling of internalized transferrin receptors to the plasma membrane. In vitro experiments revealed that the sulfonamides directly inhibit adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis by the V-ATPase and that they also possess a potent proton ionophore activity. While maintenance of organellar pH is known to be a critical factor in both endocytosis and exocytosis, the precise role of acidification, beyond the uncoupling of ligands from their receptors, remains largely unknown. Identification of this novel class of sulfonamide inhibitors provides new chemical tools to better understand the function of organelle pH in membrane traffic and the activity of V-ATPases in particular.

  11. Use of stable emulsion to improve stability, activity, and enantioselectivity of lipase immobilized in a membrane reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorno, L; Li, N; Drioli, E

    2003-12-20

    The enantiocatalytic performance of immobilized lipase in an emulsion membrane reactor using stable emulsion prepared by membrane emulsification technology was studied. The production of optical pure (S)-naproxen from racemic naproxen methyl ester was used as a model reaction system. The O/W emulsion, containing the substrate in the organic phase, was fed to the enzyme membrane reactor from shell-to-lumen. The enzyme was immobilized in the sponge layer (shell side) of capillary polyamide membrane with 50 kDa cut-off. The aqueous phase was able to permeate through the membrane while the microemulsion was retained by the thin selective layer. Therefore, the substrate was kept in the enzyme-loaded membrane while the water-soluble product was continuously removed from the reaction site. The results show that lipase maintained stable activity during the entire operation time (more than 250 h), showing an enantiomeric excess (96 +/- 2%) comparable to the free enzyme (98 +/- 1%) and much higher compared to similar lipase-loaded membrane reactors used in two-separate phase systems (90%). The results demonstrate that immobilized enzymes can achieve high stability as well as high catalytic activity and enantioselectivity. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Excess chemical potential of small solutes across water--membrane and water--hexane interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, A.; Wilson, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    The excess chemical potentials of five small, structurally related solutes, CH4, CH3F, CH2F2, CHF3, and CF4, across the water-glycerol 1-monooleate bilayer and water-hexane interfaces were calculated at 300, 310, and 340 K using the particle insertion method. The excess chemical potentials of nonpolar molecules (CH4 and CF4) decrease monotonically or nearly monotonically from water to a nonpolar phase. In contrast, for molecules that possess permanent dipole moments (CH3F, CH2F, and CHF3), the excess chemical potentials exhibit an interfacial minimum that arises from superposition of two monotonically and oppositely changing contributions: electrostatic and nonelectrostatic. The nonelectrostatic term, dominated by the reversible work of creating a cavity that accommodates the solute, decreases, whereas the electrostatic term increases across the interface from water to the membrane interior. In water, the dependence of this term on the dipole moment is accurately described by second order perturbation theory. To achieve the same accuracy at the interface, third order terms must also be included. In the interfacial region, the molecular structure of the solvent influences both the excess chemical potential and solute orientations. The excess chemical potential across the interface increases with temperature, but this effect is rather small. Our analysis indicates that a broad range of small, moderately polar molecules should be surface active at the water-membrane and water-oil interfaces. The biological and medical significance of this result, especially in relation to the mechanism of anesthetic action, is discussed.

  13. Permeability recovery of fouled forward osmosis membranes by chemical cleaning during a long-term operation of anaerobic osmotic membrane bioreactors treating low-strength wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhua; Hu, Taozhan; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Xiufen; Ren, Yueping

    2017-10-15

    Anaerobic osmotic membrane bioreactor (AnOMBR) has gained increasing interests in wastewater treatment owing to its simultaneous recovery of biogas and water. However, the forward osmosis (FO) membrane fouling was severe during a long-term operation of AnOMBRs. Here, we aim to recover the permeability of fouled FO membranes by chemical cleaning. Specifically speaking, an optimal chemical cleaning procedure was searched for fouled thin film composite polyamide FO (TFC-FO) membranes in a novel microfiltration (MF) assisted AnOMBR (AnMF-OMBR). The results indicated that citric acid, disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA-2Na), hydrochloric acid (HCl), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) had a low cleaning efficiency of less than 15%, while hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) could effectively remove foulants from the TFC-FO membrane surface (almost 100%) through oxidizing the functional group of the organic foulants and disintegrating the colloids and microbe flocs into fine particles. Nevertheless, the damage of H 2 O 2 to the TFC-FO membrane was observed when a high cleaning concentration and a long duration were applied. In this case, the optimal cleaning conditions including cleaning concentration and time for fouled TFC-FO membranes were selected through confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and the flux recovery rate. The results suggested that the optimal cleaning procedure for fouled TFC-FO membranes was use of 0.5% H 2 O 2 at 25 °C for 6 h, and after that, the cleaned TFC-FO membrane had the same performance as a virgin one including water flux and rejection for organic matters and phosphorus during the operation of AnMF-OMBR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prediction of eye irritation from organic chemicals using membrane-interaction QSAR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, A; Hopfinger, A J; Osborne, R; Bruner, L H; Thompson, E D

    2001-02-01

    Eye irritation potency of a compound or mixture has traditionally been evaluated using the Draize rabbit-eye test (Draize et al., 1944). In order to aid predictions of eye irritation and to explore possible corresponding mechanisms of eye irritation, a methodology termed "membrane-interaction QSAR analysis" (MI-QSAR) has been developed (Kulkarni and Hopfinger 1999). A set of Draize eye-irritation data established by the European Center for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) (Bagley et al., 1992) was used as a structurally diverse training set in an MI-QSAR analysis. Significant QSAR models were constructed based primarily upon aqueous solvation-free energy of the solute and the strength of solute binding to a model phospholipid (DMPC) monolayer. The results demonstrate that inclusion of parameters to model membrane interactions of potentially irritating chemicals provides significantly better predictions of eye irritation for structurally diverse compounds than does modeling based solely on physiochemical properties of chemicals. The specific MI-QSAR models reported here are, in fact, close to the upper limit in both significance and robustness that can be expected for the variability inherent to the eye-irritation scores of the ECETOC training set. The MI-QSAR models can be used with high reliability to classify compounds of low- and high-predicted eye irritation scores. Thus, the models offer the opportunity to reduce animal testing for compounds predicted to fall into these two extreme eye-irritation score sets. The MI-QSAR paradigm may also be applicable to other toxicological endpoints, such as skin irritation, where interactions with cellular membranes are likely.

  15. Stability for a novel low-pH alkaline slurry during the copper chemical mechanical planarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guodong; Liu Yuling; Wang Chenwei; Liu Weijuan; Jiang Mengting; Yuan Haobo

    2014-01-01

    The stability of a novel low-pH alkaline slurry (marked as slurry A, pH = 8.5) for copper chemical mechanical planarization was investigated in this paper. First of all, the stability mechanism of the alkaline slurry was studied. Then many parameters have been tested for researching the stability of the slurry through comparing with a traditional alkaline slurry (marked as slurry B, pH = 9.5), such as the pH value, particle size and zeta potential. Apart from this, the stability of the copper removal rate, dishing, erosion and surface roughness were also studied. All the results show that the stability of the novel low-pH alkaline slurry is better than the traditional alkaline slurry. The working-life of the novel low-pH alkaline slurry reaches 48 h. (semiconductor technology)

  16. Lack of cations in flow cytometry buffers affect fluorescence signals by reducing membrane stability and viability of Escherichia coli strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasek, Kathrin; Bergmiller, Tobias; Guet, Călin C

    2018-02-20

    Buffers are essential for diluting bacterial cultures for flow cytometry analysis in order to study bacterial physiology and gene expression parameters based on fluorescence signals. Using a variety of constitutively expressed fluorescent proteins in Escherichia coli K-12 strain MG1655, we found strong artifactual changes in fluorescence levels after dilution into the commonly used flow cytometry buffer phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and two other buffer solutions, Tris-HCl and M9 salts. These changes appeared very rapidly after dilution, and were linked to increased membrane permeability and loss in cell viability. We observed buffer-related effects in several different E. coli strains, K-12, C and W, but not E. coli B, which can be partially explained by differences in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and outer membrane composition. Supplementing the buffers with divalent cations responsible for outer membrane stability, Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ , preserved fluorescence signals, membrane integrity and viability of E. coli. Thus, stabilizing the bacterial outer membrane is essential for precise and unbiased measurements of fluorescence parameters using flow cytometry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Membrane Protein Stability Analyses by Means of Protein Energy Profiles in Case of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Heinke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes insipidus (DI is a rare endocrine, inheritable disorder with low incidences in an estimated one per 25,000–30,000 live births. This disease is characterized by polyuria and compensatory polydypsia. The diverse underlying causes of DI can be central defects, in which no functional arginine vasopressin (AVP is released from the pituitary or can be a result of defects in the kidney (nephrogenic DI, NDI. NDI is a disorder in which patients are unable to concentrate their urine despite the presence of AVP. This antidiuretic hormone regulates the process of water reabsorption from the prourine that is formed in the kidney. It binds to its type-2 receptor (V2R in the kidney induces a cAMP-driven cascade, which leads to the insertion of aquaporin-2 water channels into the apical membrane. Mutations in the genes of V2R and aquaporin-2 often lead to NDI. We investigated a structure model of V2R in its bound and unbound state regarding protein stability using a novel protein energy profile approach. Furthermore, these techniques were applied to the wild-type and selected mutations of aquaporin-2. We show that our results correspond well to experimental water ux analysis, which confirms the applicability of our theoretical approach to equivalent problems.

  18. Impact of operation conditions, foulant adsorption, and chemical cleaning on the nanomechanical properties of ultrafiltraion hollow fiber membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Gutierrez, Leonardo

    2018-04-06

    This study analyzed the change in nanomechanical properties of ultrafiltration hollow fiber membranes harvested from pilot-scale units after twelve months of operation. Quantitative Nanomechanical Mapping technique was used to distinguish between adhesion, dissipation, deformation, and modulus while simultaneously generating a topographic image of membranes. Nanomechanical maps of virgin membranes evidenced surfaces of heterogeneous properties and were described by probability density functions. Operating conditions and feed quality exerted an impact on membranes. Clean harvested membranes showed a higher mean modulus and dissipation, and a lower deformation than virgin membranes, indicating stiffer membranes of lower elastic deformation. A significant fraction of these measurements displayed peak values deviating from the distribution; which represents regions of the membrane with properties highly differing from the probability density function. The membrane polymeric material experienced severe physicochemical changes by foulant adsorption and reaction with cleaning agents. Foulant adsorption on membranes was heterogeneous in both morphology and mechanical properties and could not be statistically described. Foulants, i.e., mainly consisting of polysaccharides and proteinaceous structures, displayed low elastic deformation and high roughness and adhesion. The presence of foulants after chemical cleaning and their high adhesion would be a direct nanoscale evidence of irreversible fouling. By the end of the operation, the Trans-Membrane Pressure experienced a 40% increase. The cleaning process was not able to fully recover the initial TMP, indicating irreversible fouling, i.e., permanent change in membrane characteristics and decrease in performance. These results suggest a link between the macroscopic properties and nanomechanical characteristics of membranes. This study advances our nanoscale understanding of the impact of fouling and operating conditions on

  19. Effects of Micro-environmental pH of Liposome on Chemical Stability of Loaded Drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiao-Ru; Wei, Xue-Qin; Zhang, Shu; Fu, Na; Lin, Yun-Feng; Cai, Xiao-Xiao; Peng, Qiang

    2017-08-23

    Liposome is a promising carrier system for delivering bioactive molecules. However, the successful delivery of pH-sensitive molecules is still limited by the intrinsic instability of payloads in physiological environment. Herein, we developed a special liposome system that possesses an acidic micro-environment in the internal aqueous chamber to improve the chemical stability of pH-sensitive payloads. Curcumin-loaded liposomes (Cur-LPs) with varied internal pH values (pH 2.5, 5.0, or 7.4) were prepared. These Cur-LPs have similar particle size of 300 nm, comparable physical stabilities and analogous in vitro release profiles. Interestingly, the chemical stability of liposomal curcumin in 50% fetal bovine serum and its anticancer efficacy in vitro are both micro-environmental pH-dependent (Cur-LP-2.5 > Cur-LP-5.0 > Cur-LP-7.4). This serum stability still has space to be further enhanced to improve the applicability of Cur-LP. In conclusion, creating an acidic micro-environment in the internal chamber of liposome is feasible and efficient to improve the chemical stability of pH-sensitive payloads.

  20. Thermodynamic stability of elementary chemical reactions proceeding at finite rates revisited using Lyapunov function analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burande, Chandrakant S.; Bhalekar, Anil A.

    2005-01-01

    The thermodynamic stability of a few representative elementary chemical reactions proceeding at finite rates has been investigated using the recently proposed thermodynamic Lyapunov function and following the steps of Lyapunov's second method (also termed as the direct method) of stability of motion. The thermodynamic Lyapunov function; L s , used herein is the excess rate of entropy production in the thermodynamic perturbation space, which thereby inherits the dictates of the second law of thermodynamics. This Lyapunov function is not the same as the excess entropy rate that one encounters in thermodynamic (irreversible) literature. The model chemical conversions studied in this presentation are A+B→v x X and A+B↔ν x X. For the sake of simplicity, the thermal effects of chemical reactions have been considered as not adding to the perturbation as our main aim was to demonstrate how one should use systematically the proposed thermodynamic Lyapunov function following the steps of Lyapunov's second method of stability of motion. The domains of thermodynamic stability under the constantly acting small disturbances, thermodynamic asymptotic stability and thermodynamic instability in these model systems get established

  1. Evaluation of the effects of enzyme-based liquid chemical stabilizers on subgrade soils

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mgangira, Martin B

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to asses the strength of enzyme treated soil material. Thus the aim of the paper is to present laboratory results on the effects of two enzyme-based liquid chemicals as soil stabilizers. Soil samples were prepared...

  2. Non Dispersive Chemical Deacidification of Crude Palm Oil in Hollow Fiber Membrane Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubiar Purwasasmita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Performance of chemical deacidification of crude palm oil (CPO using aqueous NaOH solution in a polysulfone hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane was investigated. The effects of operating temperature, NaOH concentration and flow rates on percentage of free fatty acids (FFA removal, oil loss, soap entrainment and overall mass transfer coefficient were evaluated. Overall mass transfer coefficients, soap content in oil and neutral oil loss all increased when the temperature was increased from 60 to 70°C due to an increase of the FFA distribution value. A minimum 0.25 N of NaOH or a NaOH to FFA molar ratio of about 7.62 was required to facilitate the expected extraction efficiency. The increased oil flowrate slightly enhanced the solute transport kinetics, while the aqueous phase flowrate did not significantly influence deacidification efficiency or mass transfer coefficient. About 97% of FFA removal was achieved within 4 hours. The maximum oil loss observed was 11% and the highest soap content in the oil without separation step was 3150 ppm. The values of the overall mass transfer coefficient varied from 2.97×10-7 to 7.71×10-7 m/s. These results show the potential of using the non dispersive membrane contacting process for chemical deacidification of CPO as well as other vegetable oils.

  3. Vastly enhancing the chemical stability of phosphorene by employing an electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junfeng; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2017-03-23

    Currently, a major hurdle preventing phosphorene from various electronic applications is its rapid oxidation under ambient conditions. Thus how to enhance its chemical stability by suppressing oxidation becomes an urgent task. Here, we reveal a highly effective procedure to suppress the oxidation of phosphorene by employing a suitable van der Waals (vdW) substrate and a vertical electric field. Our first-principles study shows that the phosphorene-MoSe 2 vdW heterostructure is able to reverse the stability of physisorption and chemisorption of molecular O 2 on phosphorene. With further application of a vertical electric field of -0.6 V Å -1 , the energy barrier for oxidation is able to further increase to 0.91 eV, leading to a 10 5 times enhancement in its lifetime compared with that without using the procedure at room temperature. Our work presents a viable strategy to vastly enhance the chemical stability of phosphorene in air.

  4. Efficient first-principles prediction of solid stability: Towards chemical accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yubo; Kitchaev, Daniil A.; Yang, Julia; Chen, Tina; Dacek, Stephen T.; Sarmiento-Pérez, Rafael A.; Marques, Maguel A. L.; Peng, Haowei; Ceder, Gerbrand; Perdew, John P.; Sun, Jianwei

    2018-03-01

    The question of material stability is of fundamental importance to any analysis of system properties in condensed matter physics and materials science. The ability to evaluate chemical stability, i.e., whether a stoichiometry will persist in some chemical environment, and structure selection, i.e. what crystal structure a stoichiometry will adopt, is critical to the prediction of materials synthesis, reactivity and properties. Here, we demonstrate that density functional theory, with the recently developed strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) functional, has advanced to a point where both facets of the stability problem can be reliably and efficiently predicted for main group compounds, while transition metal compounds are improved but remain a challenge. SCAN therefore offers a robust model for a significant portion of the periodic table, presenting an opportunity for the development of novel materials and the study of fine phase transformations even in largely unexplored systems with little to no experimental data.

  5. Chemical crosslinking and mass spectrometry studies of the structure and dynamics of membrane proteins and receptors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskins, William E.; Leavell, Michael D.; Lane, Pamela; Jacobsen, Richard B.; Hong, Joohee; Ayson, Marites J.; Wood, Nichole L.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Kruppa, Gary Hermann; Sale, Kenneth L.; Young, Malin M.; Novak, Petr

    2005-03-01

    Membrane proteins make up a diverse and important subset of proteins for which structural information is limited. In this study, chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry were used to explore the structure of the G-protein-coupled photoreceptor bovine rhodopsin in the dark-state conformation. All experiments were performed in rod outer segment membranes using amino acid 'handles' in the native protein sequence and thus minimizing perturbations to the native protein structure. Cysteine and lysine residues were covalently cross-linked using commercially available reagents with a range of linker arm lengths. Following chemical digestion of cross-linked protein, cross-linked peptides were identified by accurate mass measurement using liquid chromatography-fourier transform mass spectrometry and an automated data analysis pipeline. Assignments were confirmed and, if necessary, resolved, by tandem MS. The relative reactivity of lysine residues participating in cross-links was evaluated by labeling with NHS-esters. A distinct pattern of cross-link formation within the C-terminal domain, and between loop I and the C-terminal domain, emerged. Theoretical distances based on cross-linking were compared to inter-atomic distances determined from the energy-minimized X-ray crystal structure and Monte Carlo conformational search procedures. In general, the observed cross-links can be explained by re-positioning participating side-chains without significantly altering backbone structure. One exception, between C3 16 and K325, requires backbone motion to bring the reactive atoms into sufficient proximity for cross-linking. Evidence from other studies suggests that residues around K325 for a region of high backbone mobility. These findings show that cross-linking studies can provide insight into the structural dynamics of membrane proteins in their native environment.

  6. The development of orally administrable gemcitabine prodrugs with D-enantiomer amino acids: enhanced membrane permeability and enzymatic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Incecayir, Tuba; Song, Xueqin; Hilfinger, John M; Amidon, Gordon L

    2014-04-01

    Gemcitabine prodrugs with D- and L-configuration amino acids were synthesized and their chemical stability in buffers, resistance to glycosidic bond metabolism, enzymatic activation, permeability in Caco-2 cells and mouse intestinal membrane, anti-proliferation activity in cancer cell were determined and compared to that of parent drug, gemcitabine. Prodrugs containing D-configuration amino acids were enzymatically more stable than ones with L-configuration amino acids. The activation of all gemcitabine prodrugs was 1.3-17.6-fold faster in cancer cell homogenate than their hydrolysis in buffer, suggesting enzymatic action. The enzymatic activation of amino acid monoester prodrugs containing D-configuration amino acids in cell homogenates was 2.2-10.9-fold slower than one of amino acid monoester prodrugs with L-configuration amino acids. All prodrugs exhibited enhanced resistance to glycosidic bond metabolism by thymidine phosphorylase compared to parent gemcitabine. Gemcitabine prodrugs showed superior the effective permeability in mouse jejunum to gemcitabine. More importantly, the high plasma concentration of d-amino acid gemcitabine prodrugs was observed more than one of L-amino acid gemcitabine prodrugs. In general, the 5'-mono-amino acid monoester gemcitabine prodrugs exhibited higher permeability and uptake than their parent drug, gemcitabine. Cell proliferation assays in AsPC-1 pancreatic ductal cell line indicated that gemcitabine prodrugs were more potent than their parent drug, gemcitabine. The transport and enzymatic profiles of 5'-D-valyl-gemcitabine and 5'-D-phenylalanyl-gemcitabine suggest their potential for increased oral uptake and delayed enzymatic bioconversion as well as enhanced uptake and cytotoxic activity in cancer cells, would facilitate the development of oral dosage form for anti-cancer agents and, hence, improve the quality of life for the cancer patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Integrated Microfluidic Membrane Transistor Utilizing Chemical Information for On-Chip Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Philipp; Schreiter, Joerg; Haefner, Sebastian; Paschew, Georgi; Voigt, Andreas; Richter, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidics is a great enabling technology for biology, biotechnology, chemistry and general life sciences. Despite many promising predictions of its progress, microfluidics has not reached its full potential yet. To unleash this potential, we propose the use of intrinsically active hydrogels, which work as sensors and actuators at the same time, in microfluidic channel networks. These materials transfer a chemical input signal such as a substance concentration into a mechanical output. This way chemical information is processed and analyzed on the spot without the need for an external control unit. Inspired by the development electronics, our approach focuses on the development of single transistor-like components, which have the potential to be used in an integrated circuit technology. Here, we present membrane isolated chemical volume phase transition transistor (MIS-CVPT). The device is characterized in terms of the flow rate from source to drain, depending on the chemical concentration in the control channel, the source-drain pressure drop and the operating temperature. PMID:27571209

  8. Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, George W.; Upadhye, Aniruddha A.; Ford, David M.; Bhatia, Surita R.; Badger, Phillip C.

    2012-10-19

    This University of Massachusetts, Amherst project, "Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils" started on 1st February 2009 and finished on August 31st 2011. The project consisted following tasks: Task 1.0: Char Removal by Membrane Separation Technology The presence of char particles in the bio-oil causes problems in storage and end-use. Currently there is no well-established technology to remove char particles less than 10 micron in size. This study focused on the application of a liquid-phase microfiltration process to remove char particles from bio-oil down to slightly sub-micron levels. Tubular ceramic membranes of nominal pore sizes 0.5 and 0.8m were employed to carry out the microfiltration, which was conducted in the cross-flow mode at temperatures ranging from 38 to 45 C and at three different trans-membrane pressures varying from 1 to 3 bars. The results demonstrated the removal of the major quantity of char particles with a significant reduction in overall ash content of the bio-oil. The results clearly showed that the cake formation mechanism of fouling is predominant in this process. Task 2.0 Acid Removal by Membrane Separation Technology The feasibility of removing small organic acids from the aqueous fraction of fast pyrolysis bio-oils using nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was studied. Experiments were carried out with a single solute solutions of acetic acid and glucose, binary solute solutions containing both acetic acid and glucose, and a model aqueous fraction of bio-oil (AFBO). Retention factors above 90% for glucose and below 0% for acetic acid were observed at feed pressures near 40 bar for single and binary solutions, so that their separation in the model AFBO was expected to be feasible. However, all of the membranes were irreversibly damaged when experiments were conducted with the model AFBO due to the presence of guaiacol in the feed solution. Experiments

  9. Kinetic stability and membrane structure of liposomes during in vitro infant intestinal digestion: Effect of cholesterol and lactoferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weilin; Wei, Fuqiang; Ye, Aiqian; Tian, Mengmeng; Han, Jianzhong

    2017-09-01

    The effects of cholesterol and lactoferrin on the kinetic stability and membrane structural integrity of negatively charged liposomes under in vitro infant intestinal digestion conditions were elucidated using dynamic light scattering, pH-stat titration, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and pyrene steady state fluorescence probes. The liposomes had a smaller particle diameter, a wider size distribution, and a greater negative charge after digestion. The incorporation of cholesterol into the phospholipid bilayers resulted in a more ordered conformation in the aliphatic tail region and reduced micropolarity, indicating that cholesterol can improve the structural stability of liposomal membranes against intestinal environmental stress. Lactoferrin coverage facilitated the release of free fatty acids and increased the microfluidity of the bilayers, reducing the structural integrity of the liposomes. This study provides useful information on the design of liposomes and other microcapsules with improved and controlled release properties during digestion for particular groups of people. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of peptides and ions interacting with an electrically neutral membrane interface on the structure and stability of lipid membranes in the liquid-crystalline phase and in the liquid-ordered phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Ryoko; Masum, Shah Md; Tanaka, Tomoki; Yamashita, Yuko; Levadny, Victor; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2005-08-01

    We investigated the effects of a de novo designed peptide, WLFLLKKK (peptide-1) and La3+, which can bind with the electrically neutral lipid membrane interface, on the stability of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) membrane in the Lα phase and that of the liquid-ordered (lo) phase membranes. The results of spacing of the multilamellar vesicle and shape changes of the giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) indicate that the peptide-1 can be partitioned into the membrane interface in the Lα phase but not into that in the lo phase. La3+ induced shape changes of GUVs of the lo phase membrane, which are the same as those of GUVs in the Lα phase. This indicates that the binding of La3+ induced an increase in the lateral compression pressure of the membrane, which decreased the surface area of the membrane in the lo phase. The difference of the membrane interface between the Lα phase and the lo phase is discussed.

  11. Application of isotope-labelled compounds in the study of the chemical stability of pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesseler, M.; Luther, D.; Abendroth, H.C.; Koch, H.

    1980-01-01

    The user of pesticides requires specific biological modes of action from the corresponding commercial products. Impurities and degradation products may cause uncontrollable toxicological reactions. Profound knowledge of the chemical stability of the effective substance in question and its formulations under storage conditions as well as under those of analytical sample preparation and detection is required. Radioisotope labelled effective substances dimethoate and 1-butyl-amino-cyclohexane-phosphonic acid dibutyl ester are used to study storage stability of the pure effective substance and its formulations; effects of selected impurities, such as technical by-products, moisture or water content, binding or carrier materials, organic solvents, chemical stabilizers and other formulation components on storage properties; temperature dependence of storage stability; selection of suitable analytical techniques for quantitative determination of the effective substance without interference effects from any by-product; reduction of the necessary analytical expense; disclosure of sources of error in the application of usual analytical techniques; improvement of possibilities of an immediate and clearer discrimination between types and amounts of compounds in a chemical system consisting of one pesticide and its degradation or reaction products at the beginning and at the end of an experimental or reaction period. Radiochemical analytical techniques, such as radio thin-layer chromatography (also combined with liquid scintillation counting), radio gas chromatography, autoradiography and isotope dilution analysis were used. Results are discussed, especially of experiments on dimethoate and its technical by-products

  12. Improvement of enalapril maleate chemical stability by high shear melting granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Ana Paula Montandon; Cunha, Talita Amorim; Serpa, Raphael Caixeta; Taveira, Stephânia Fleury; Lima, Eliana Martins; Almeida Diniz, Danielle Guimarães; de Freitas, Luis Alexandre Pedro; Marreto, Ricardo Neves

    2014-09-18

    Abstract Enalapril maleate is a widely used drug, which is chemically unstable when mixed with excipients resulting in enalaprilat and diketopiperazine as the main degradation products. The preparation of enalapril sodium salt has been used to improve drug stability in solid dosage forms; however, product rejection is observed when the chemical reaction for obtaining the sodium salt is not completely finished before packaging. In this study, granules were prepared by melting granulation using stearic acid or glyceryl monostearate, with a view to developing more stable enalapril maleate solid dosage forms. The granules were prepared in a laboratory-scale high shear mixer and compressed in a rotary machine. Size distribution, flow properties, in vitro drug release and enalapril maleate chemical stability were evaluated and compared with data obtained from tablets prepared without hydrophobic binders. All formulations showed good physical properties and immediate drug release. The greatest improvement in the enalapril maleate stability was observed in formulations containing stearic acid. This study showed that hot melting granulation could be successfully used to prepare enalapril maleate granules which could substitute the in situ formation of enalapril sodium salt, since they provided better enalapril stability in solid dosage forms.

  13. DNA damage, acetylcholinesterase activity and lysosomal stability in native and transplanted mussels (Mytilus edulis) in areas close to coastal chemical dumping sites in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Jette; Lehtonen, Kari K.; Strand, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    Biomarkers of genotoxicity (DNA damage, measured as tail moment in the Comet assay), neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase inhibition, AChE) and general stress (lysosomal membrane stability, LMS) were studied in native and transplanted blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in coastal areas of western Denmark...... of chemical pollution complex, as seen especially in the variability in results on DNA damage, and also in regard to AChE activity. These investigations further stress the importance of understanding the effects of natural factors (salinity, temperature, water levels, rain and storm events) in correct...

  14. Electrical conductivity and chemical stability of BaCe0·8−xAxGd0 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ceramics exhibit an excellent chemical stability against boiling water. Indium is a suitable doping element to promote the sintering densification and to enhance both electrical conductivity and chemical stability of Gd-doped BaCeO3 at operating temperatures. Keywords. Perovskite; solid electrolyte; impedance spectroscopy; ...

  15. Chemical Genetic Screening Identifies Sulfonamides That Raise Organellar pH and Interfere with Endocytic and Exocytic Membrane Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Nieland, Thomas J. F.; Feng, Yan; Brown, Jing Xu; Chuang, Tuan Daniel; Buckett, Peter D.; Wang, Jin; Xie, Xiao-Song; McGraw, Timothy E.; Kirchhausen, Tomas; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    Chemical genetics seeks to identify small molecules that afford functional dissection of cell biological pathways. Previous screens for small molecule inhibitors of exocytic membrane traffic yielded the identification and characterization of several compounds that block traffic from the Golgi to the cell surface as well as transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi network. Here, we screened these inhibitors for potential effects on endocytic membrane traffic. Two structurally rela...

  16. Thermal stability of Trichoderma reesei c30 cellulase and aspergillus niger; -glucosidase after ph and chemical modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, J.; Whaley, K.S.; Zachry, G.S.; Wohlpart, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Treatment of Trichoderma reesei C30 cellulase at pH 10.0 for 1 h at room temperature increased its pH and thermal stability. Chemical modification of the free epsilon-amino groups of cellulase at pH 10.0 resulted in no further increase in stability. Such chemical modification, however, decreased the thermal stability of the cellulose-cellulase complex. On the contrary, the chemical modification of Aspergillus niger glucosidase with glutaraldehyde at pH 8.0 increased the thermal stability of this enzyme.

  17. Thermal stability of Trichoderma reesei C30 cellulase and Aspergillus niger. beta. -glucosidase after pH and chemical modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, J.; Whaley, K.S.; Zachry, G.S.; Wohlpart, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Treatment of Trichoderma reesei C30 cellulase at pH 10.0 for 1 h at room temperature increased its pH and thermal stability. Chemical modification of the free epsilon-amino groups of cellulase at pH 10.0 resulted in no further increase in stability. Such chemical modification, however, decreased the thermal stability of the cellulose-cellulase complex. On the contrary, the chemical modification of Aspergillus niger ..beta..-glucosidase with glutaraldehyde at pH 8.0 increased the thermal stability of this enzyme.

  18. Influence of formulation properties on chemical stability of captopril in aqueous preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, S; Lao, Y E; Brustugun, J; Braenden, J U

    2008-12-01

    The influence of various formulation properties on the chemical stability of captopril in aqueous media at pH 3 was investigated, in order to reformulate and increase the shelf-life of an oral mixture of the drug. At this pH, chemical stability is improved by an increase in drug concentration (1-5 mg/ml) and a decrease in temperature (5-36 degrees C), the latter demonstrated by a linear Arrhenius-plot. The activation energy is low (Ea = 10.2 kcal/mol), thus the Q10 value is only 1.8 in pure aqueous solutions. The degradation at the lowest concentration investigated in pure aqueous solution apparently follows zero order kinetics. The reaction order is changed at higher concentrations. We are presenting a hypothesis of intramolecular proton transfer from the thiol to the ionized carboxylic group as the initial step in the oxidative degradation pathways of captopril. Long-term stability of 1 mg/ml captopril in aqueous solutions at pH 3, stored at 36 degrees C for one year, shows that the sugar alcohol sorbitol accelerates degradation of the drug while Na-EDTA at a concentration as low as 0.01% is sufficient to stabilize these samples. Purging with N2-gas prior to storage is not essential for drug stability, as long as Na-EDTA is present. Only at a low level of Na-EDTA (0.01%) combined with a high level of sorbitol (35%), purging with N2-gas appears to have a small effect. The destabilizing effect of sugar alcohols is confirmed by accelerated degradation also in the presence of glycerol. The efficient stabilization in the presence of Na-EDTA at a low concentration indicates that the metal-ion-catalyzed oxidation pathway dominates the chemical degradation process at low pH, although several mechanisms seem to be involved depending on excipients present.

  19. Chemical derivation to enhance the chemical/oxidative stability of resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubler, T.L.; Shaw, W.J.; Brown, G.N.; Linehan, J.C.; Franz, J.A.; Hart, T.R.; Hogan, M.O.

    1996-09-01

    Tank wastes at Hanford and SRS contain highly alkaline supernate solutions of conc. Na, K nitrates with large amounts of 137 Cs. It is desirable to remove and concentrate the highly radioactive fraction for vitrification. One candidate ion exchange material for removing the radiocesium is R-F resin. This report summarizes studies into synthesis and characterization of 4-derivatized R-F resins prepared in pursuit of more chemically/oxidatively robust resin. 85% 4-fluororesorcinol/15% phenol formaldehyde resin appears to have good stability in alkaline solution, although there may be some nucleophilic displacement reaction during synthesis; further studies are needed

  20. The use of microbial and chemical analyses to characterize the variations in fouling profile of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Manes, Carmem Lara De O

    2013-01-01

    Biofouling of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes is one of the most common problems in desalinations plants reducing the efficiency of the water production process. The characterization of bacterial community composition from fouling layers as well as detailed analysis of surrounding chemical environment might reveal process specific bacterial groups/species that are involved in RO biofouling. In this study, advanced organics analytic methods (elemental analysis, FTIR, and ICP-OES) were combined with high-throughput 16S rRNA (pyro) sequencing to assess in parallel, the chemical properties and the active microbial community composition of SWRO membranes from a pilot desalination plant (MFT, Tarragona) in February 2011 and July 2011. Prefiltered ultrafiltration. waters fed SWRO membranes during third and fifth month of operation, respectively. SWRO samples were taken from three modules at different positions (first, fourth, and sixth) in order to investigate the spatial changes in fouling layers\\' chemical and microbiological composition. The overall assessment of chemical parameters revealed that fouling layers were mainly composed by bio and organic material (proteins and lipids). Ca and Fe were found to be the most abundant elements having an increasing concentration gradient according to the module position. Bacterial community composition of SWRO membranes is mostly represented by the Gammaproteobacteria class with interesting differences in genera/species spatial and temporal distribution. This preliminary result suggests that pretreatments and/or operational conditions might have selected different bacterial groups more adapted to colonize SWRO membranes. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  1. Membrane chemical reactor (MCR) combining photocatalysis and microfiltration for grey water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, M J; Parsons, S A; Jeffrey, P; Pidou, M; Jefferson, B

    2006-01-01

    Urban water recycling is now becoming an important issue where water resources are becoming scarce. This paper looks at reusing grey water; the preference is treatment processes based on biological systems to remove the dissolved organic content. Here, an alternative process, photocatalysis is discussed as it is an attractive technology that could be well-suited for treating the recalcitrant organic compounds found in grey water. The photocatalytic process oxidises organic reactants at a catalyst surface in the presence of ultraviolet light. Given enough exposure time, organic compounds will be oxidized into CO2 and water. The best contact is achieved in a slurry reactor but a second step to separate and recover the catalyst is need. This paper discusses a new membrane chemical reactor (MCR) combining photocatalysis and microfiltration for grey water treatment.

  2. RED WINE EXTRACT OBTAINED BY MEMBRANE-BASED SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION: PRELIMINARY CHARACTERIZATION OF CHEMICAL PROPERTIES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to obtain an extract from red wine by using membrane-based supercritical fluid extraction. This technique involves the use of porous membranes as contactors during the dense gas extraction process from liquid matrices. In this work, a Cabernet Sauvignon wine extract was obtained from supercritical fluid extraction using pressurized carbon dioxide as solvent and a hollow fiber contactor as extraction setup. The process was continuously conducted at pressures between 12 and 18 MPa and temperatures ranged from 30 to 50ºC. Meanwhile, flow rates of feed wine and supercritical CO2 varied from 0.1 to 0.5 mL min-1 and from 60 to 80 mL min-1 (NCPT, respectively. From extraction assays, the highest extraction percentage value obtained from the total amount of phenolic compounds was 14% in only one extraction step at 18MPa and 35ºC. A summarized chemical characterization of the obtained extract is reported in this work; one of the main compounds in this extract could be a low molecular weight organic acid with aromatic structure and methyl and carboxyl groups. Finally, this preliminary characterization of this extract shows a remarkable ORAC value equal to 101737 ± 5324 µmol Trolox equivalents (TE per 100 g of extract.

  3. Aquifex aeolicus membrane hydrogenase for hydrogen biooxidation: Role of lipids and physiological partners in enzyme stability and activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infossi, Pascale; Lojou, Elisabeth; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Therese [Unite de Bioenergetique et Ingenierie des Proteines, UPR 9036, Institut de Microbiologie de la Mediterranee - CNRS, 31 Chemin Joseph Aiguier, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Chauvin, Jean-Paul [Institut de Biologie du developpement de Marseille Luminy, UMR 6216, Parc Scientifique de Luminy, 163 Avenue de Luminy, BP 907, 13009 Marseille (France); Herbette, Gaetan [Spectropole FI 1739, Aix-Marseille Universite case 511, Faculte de St Jerome Avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Brugna, Myriam [Unite de Bioenergetique et Ingenierie des Proteines, UPR 9036, Institut de Microbiologie de la Mediterranee - CNRS, 31 Chemin Joseph Aiguier, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Universite de Provence, 3 Place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 03 (France)

    2010-10-15

    Hydrogenase I from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus is a good candidate for biotechnological devices thanks to its ability to oxidize hydrogen at high temperature, even in the presence of oxygen and CO. In order to enhance the enzyme stability and the catalytic efficiency, we investigated the hydrogen oxidation process with hydrogenase I embedded in a physiological-like environment. Hydrogenase I partners in the metabolic chain, namely membrane quinone and cytochrome b, were purified and fully characterized. The complex hydrogenase I-cytochrome b was inserted into liposomes. Surface Plasmon Resonance revealed that quinone took part in the stabilization of the complex. By use of molecular modelization and electrochemistry analysis, enzyme stability has been demonstrated to be stronger and enzymatic efficiency to be five times higher when hydrogenase is embedded into the liposomes. This result raises the possibility of using hydrogenases as biocatalysts in fuel cells. (author)

  4. Stability and structure of the membrane protein transporter Ffh is modulated by substrates and lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Marika Ejby; Otzen, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    the apoprotein. Escherichia coli lipid and DOPG (and to a smaller extent DOPC) increase Ffh's α-helical content, possibly related to Ffh's role in guiding membrane proteins to the membrane. Binding is largely mediated by electrostatic interactions but does not protect Ffh against trypsinolysis. We conclude...

  5. A Stability Study of Alkali Doped PBI Membranes for Alkaline Electrolyzer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Aili, David; Hansen, Martin Kalmar

    2014-01-01

    Polybenzimidazole membranes in a linear, a crosslinked and a thermally cured form were subjected to aging in 6 M aqueous KOH at 85 ºC for periods of up to 176 days. The aged membranes were characterized with respect to weight loss, mechanical properties and ionic conductivity. The area specific c...

  6. Porous polyoxadiazole membranes for harsh environment

    KAUST Repository

    Maab, Husnul

    2013-10-01

    A series of polyoxadiazoles with exceptionally high stability at temperatures as high as 370°C and in oxidative medium has been synthesized by polycondensation and manufactured into porous membranes by phase inversion. The membranes were characterized by thermal analysis (TGA), chemical stability was measured by immersion test, oxidative stability by Fenton\\'s test, pore diameter by porosimetry and the morphology by FESEM. The polymers are soluble only in sulfuric acid and are stable in organic solvents like NMP, THF and isopropanol. The membranes selectivity was confirmed by separation of polystyrene standards with different molecular weights. Most membranes were characterized as having a cut-off of 60,000. g/mol. Being stable under harsh environments, the membranes have incomparable characteristics with perspectives of application in chemical and pharmaceutical industry, catalytic reactors, in combination with oxidative processes and other applications so far envisioned only for ceramic membranes. © 2013.

  7. Surface modification of reverse osmosis desalination membranes by thin-film coatings deposited by initiated chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaydin-Ince, Gozde, E-mail: gozdeince@sabanciuniv.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Matin, Asif, E-mail: amatin@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Zafarullah, E-mail: zukhan@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Zaidi, S.M. Javaid, E-mail: zaidismj@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Gleason, Karen K., E-mail: kkgleasn@mit.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-07-31

    Thin-film polymeric reverse osmosis membranes, due to their high permeation rates and good salt rejection capabilities, are widely used for seawater desalination. However, these membranes are prone to biofouling, which affects their performance and efficiency. In this work, we report a method to modify the membrane surface without damaging the active layer or significantly affecting the performance of the membrane. Amphiphilic copolymer films of hydrophilic hydroxyethylmethacrylate and hydrophobic perfluorodecylacrylate (PFA) were synthesized and deposited on commercial RO membranes using an initiated chemical vapor deposition technique which is a polymer deposition technique that involves free-radical polymerization initiated by gas-phase radicals. Relevant surface characteristics such as hydrophilicity and roughness could be systematically controlled by varying the polymer chemistry. Increasing the hydrophobic PFA content in the films leads to an increase in the surface roughness and hydrophobicity. Furthermore, the surface morphology studies performed using the atomic force microscopy show that as the thickness of the coating increases average surface roughness increases. Using this knowledge, the coating thickness and chemistry were optimized to achieve high permeate flux and to reduce cell attachment. Results of the static bacterial adhesion tests show that the attachment of bacterial cells is significantly reduced on the coated membranes. - Highlights: • Thin films are deposited on reverse osmosis membranes. • Amphiphilic thin films are resistant to protein attachment. • The permeation performance of the membranes is not affected by the coating. • The thin film coatings delayed the biofouling.

  8. Characterization of milk proteins-lutein complexes and the impact on lutein chemical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jiang; Fan, Yuting; Yokoyama, Wallace; Zhang, Yuzhu; Zhao, Liqing

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the interaction of WPI (whey protein isolate) and SC (sodium caseinate) with hydrophobic lutein was investigated through UV-vis spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) as well as fluorescence. The effects on lutein's chemical stability were also examined. The decrease of turbidity of lutein suggested that lutein's aqueous solubility was improved after binding with milk proteins. CD analysis indicated lutein had little impact on the secondary structures of both proteins. Different preparation methods have significant impacts on the binding constant. Fluorescence results indicated that WPI and SC interact with lutein by hydrophobic contacts. Milk proteins have protective effects on lutein against oxidation and decomposition, and SC showed better capability in protecting lutein from oxidation than WPI during 16 days storage. The lutein's chemical stability was increased with increasing of proteins concentration. The results indicated that milk proteins may act as effective carriers for lipophilic nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of sodium diacetate on the fermentation profile, chemical composition and aerobic stability of alfalfa silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, XianJun; Wen, AiYou; Desta, Seare T.; Wang, Jian; Shao, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sodium diacetate (SDA) on fermentation profile, chemical composition and aerobic stability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage. Methods Fresh alfalfa was ensiled with various concentrations of SDA (0, 3, 5, 7, and 9 g/kg of fresh forage). After 60 days of the ensiling, the samples were collected to examine the fermentative quality, chemical composition and aerobic stability. Results The application of SDA significantly (pensiling. Alfalfa silages treated with SDA at 7 g/kg had highest Flieg’s point and remained stable more than 9 d during aerobic exposure under humid and hot conditions in southern China. Conclusion SDA may be used as an additive for alfalfa silages at a level of 7 g/kg. PMID:28111451

  10. On a theory of stability for nonlinear stochastic chemical reaction networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadbeck, Patrick; Kaznessis, Yiannis N.

    2015-01-01

    We present elements of a stability theory for small, stochastic, nonlinear chemical reaction networks. Steady state probability distributions are computed with zero-information (ZI) closure, a closure algorithm that solves chemical master equations of small arbitrary nonlinear reactions. Stochastic models can be linearized around the steady state with ZI-closure, and the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix can be readily computed. Eigenvalues govern the relaxation of fluctuation autocorrelation functions at steady state. Autocorrelation functions reveal the time scales of phenomena underlying the dynamics of nonlinear reaction networks. In accord with the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, these functions are found to be congruent to response functions to small perturbations. Significant differences are observed in the stability of nonlinear reacting systems between deterministic and stochastic modeling formalisms. PMID:25978877

  11. Chemical stabilization of baiji sand dunes in iraq 1. Effect of some soil stabilizers on the infiltration rate of sand

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Naif B. [نايف بكر احمد

    1995-01-01

    In this study, the effect of soil chemical stabilizers including polyvinyl alcohol 125,000 (PVA) (0.2% and 0.4%); ferquatac resin emulsion RB-50 (F.E.) (0.14, 0.18, 0.2 and 0.4 lm'2); bitumen emulsion Al-55 (B.E.) (0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 1.0 lm"2); aquapol resin 35-0019 (Aql) (0.33% and 0.66%) and aquapol resin 35-0031 (Aq2) (150, 175, 200 and 250 gm m ) on the infiltration rate of Baiji dunes sand was investigated. The results indicated that, both PVA concentrations increased the infiltration rat...

  12. Chemical stability, thermal behavior, and shelf life assessment of extruded modified double-base propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif Elbasuney

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Double base propellant suffers from lack of chemical stability; this could result in self ignition during storing. Modified double base (MDB propellant based on stoichiometric binary mixture of oxidizer-metal fuel (Ammonium perchlorate/Aluminum, and energetic nitramines (HMX offered enhanced thrust as well as combustion characteristics. This study is devoted to evaluate the impact of such energetic additives on thermal behavior, chemical stability, and shelf life. Extruded MDB formulations were manufactured by extrusion process. Artificial aging at 80 °C for 28 days was conducted. Shelf life assessment was performed using Van't Hoff's equation. Quantification of evolved NOx gases with aging time was performed using quantitative stability tests. MDB formulation based on HMX demonstrated extended service life of 16 years compared with (AP/Al-MDB which demonstrated 9 years. This finding was ascribed to the reactivity of AP with nitroglycerin with the formation of perchloric acid. Thermal behavior of aged MDB, exhibited an increase in heat released with time; this was ascribed to the auto-catalytic thermal degradation during artificial aging. The increase in released heat by 31% was found to be equivalent to evolved NOx gases of 6.2 cm3/5 g and 2.5 cm3/1 g for Bergmann-Junk test, and Vacuum stability test respectively. This manuscript shaded the light on a novel approach to quantify evolved NOx gases to heat released with aging time. MDB based on HMX offered balanced ballistic performance, chemical stability, and service life.

  13. Chemical structure and radiation stability of solid crystalline antibiotics: thiamphenicol and chloramphenicol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Lalit; Soe Nwe

    1997-01-01

    Antibiotics in solid state show significant radiation resistance and some of them are exposed to gamma or electron beam irradiation for sterilization. Even small radiation degradation in solid state antibiotics is not desirable. Two antibiotics namely thiamphenicol (TPL) and chloramphenicol (CPL) having similar chemical and solid state structure were irradiated at different graded radiation doses to study their stability. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to evaluate purity, entropy of radiation processing, heat of fusion and melting point. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab

  14. Modulating the Stability of 2-Pyridinyl Thermolabile Hydroxyl Protecting Groups via the "Chemical Switch" Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Agnieszka; Krygier, Dominika; Brzezinska, Jolanta; Chmielewski, Marcin K

    2015-12-18

    A novel and effective method is presented for modulating the stability of 2-Pyridinyl Thermolabile Protecting Groups (2-Py TPGs) in the "chemical switch" approach. The main advantage of the discussed approach is the possibility of changing the nucleophilic character of pyridine nitrogen using different switchable factors, which results in an increase or decrease in the thermal deprotection rate. One of the factors is transformation of a nitro into an amine group via reduction with a low-valent titanium in mild conditions. The usefulness of our approach is corroborated using 3'-O-acetyl nucleosides as model compounds. Their stability in various solvents and temperatures before and after reduction is also examined. Pyridine N-oxide and pH are other factors responsible for the nucleophilicity and stability of 2-Pyridinyl Thermolabile Protecting Groups in thermal deprotection. Protonation of 4-amino 2-Pyridinyl Thermolabile Protecting Groups is demonstrated by (1)H-(15)N HMBC and HSQC NMR analysis.

  15. Chemical stability of hydrocortisone in humco simple syrup and ora-sweet vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishnu D

    2010-01-01

    The chemical stability of hydrocortisone in two different commercially available vehicles for compounding oral liquid dosage forms has been studies using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic assay method that was developed in our laboratory. Hydrocortisone was more stable in Ora-Sweet vehicle than in Humco simple syrup. After 71 days of storage at 60 degrees Celsius, the percent of hydrocortisone retained in Humco simple syrup was 62.8 ( initial pH value of the dosage form was 5.2) versus 67.7 in Ora-Sweet vehicle (initial pH value of the dosage form was 4.3). Due to the hydrolysis of sugar, the physical appearances of both the dosage forms gradually changed from almost colorless to yellow. Citric acid, which was present only in the Ora-Sweet vehicle, did not adversely affect the stability of hydrocortisone.

  16. Effect of stabilization temperature during pyrolysis process of P84 co-polyimide-based tubular carbon membrane for H2/N2 and He/N2 separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazali, N.; Salleh, W. N. W.; Ismail, A. F.; Ismail, N. H.; Aziz, F.; Yusof, N.; Hasbullah, H.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the effect of stabilization temperature on the performance of tubular carbon membrane was being investigated. P84 co-polyimide-based tubular carbon membrane will be fabricated through the dip-coating technique. The tubular carbon membrane performance can be controlled by manipulating the pyrolysis conditions which was conducted at different stabilization temperatures of 250, 300, 350, 400, and 450°C under N2 environment (200 ml/min). The prepared membranes were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and pure gas permeation system. The pure gas of H2, He, and N2 were used to determine the permeation properties of the carbon membrane. The P84 co-polyimide-based tubular carbon membrane stabilized at 300°C demonstrated an excellent permeation property with H2, He, and N2 gas permeance of 1134.51±2.87, 1287.22±2.86 and 2.98±1.28GPU, respectively. The highest H2/N2 and He/N2 selectivity of 380.71±2.34 and 431.95±2.61 was obtained when the stabilization temperature of 450°C was applied. It is concluded that the stabilization temperatures have protrusive effect on the carbon membrane properties specifically their pore structure, and eventually their gas separation properties.

  17. Formulation design of oral pediatric Acetazolamide suspension: dose uniformity and physico-chemical stability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoveña, Ana; Suárez-González, Javier; Martín-Rodríguez, Cristina; Fariña, José B

    2017-03-01

    The formulation of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) as oral solution or suspension in pediatrics is a habitual practice, due to the non-existence of many commercialized medicines in pediatric doses. It is also the simplest way to prepare and administer them to this vulnerable population. The design of a formulation that assures the dose and the system stability depends on the physico-chemical properties of the API. In this study, we formulate a class IV API, Acetazolamide (AZM) as suspension for oral administration to pediatric population. The suspension must comply attributes of quality, safety and efficacy for this route of administration. We use simple compounding procedures, as well as fewer pure excipients, as recommended for children. Mass and uniformity content assays and physical and chemical stability studies were performed. To quantify the API an UPLC method was used. We verified the physico-chemical stability of the suspensions and that they passed the mass test of the European Pharmacopeia (EP), but not the dose uniformity test. This reveals that AZM must be formulated as liquid forms with a more complex system of excipients (not usually indicated in pediatrics), or otherwise solid forms capable of assuring uniformity of mass and dose for every dosage unit.

  18. Thermal and chemical stabilities of some synthesized inorganic ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, I.M.; Abou-Mesalam, M. M.; El-Shorbagy, M.M.; Shady, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Chromium and cerium titanate as inorganic ion exchange materials were synthesized by the reaction of potassium chromate or ammonium ceric nitrate with titanium tetrachloride with molar ratio equal unity. The crystal system of both chromium and cerium titanates were determined and set to be monoclinic and orthorhombic systems, respectively. The chemical composition of both chromium and cerium titanates were determined by X-ray fluorescence technique and based on the data obtained with other different techniques. We can proposed molecular formula for chromium and cerium titanates as Cr 2 Ti 1 2O27. 13H 2 O and Ce 2 ThO10. 7.46 H 2 O, respectively. Thermal stability of both ion exchangers was investigated at different heating temperatures. Also the stability of chromium and cerium titanates for chemical attack was studied in different media. The data obtained showed high thermal and chemical stabilities of chromium and cerium titanate ion exchangers compared to the same group of ion exchange materials. The ion exchange capacities of chromium and cerium titanates at different heating temperature were investigated

  19. The Effects of Lyophilization on the Physico-Chemical Stability of Sirolimus Liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Zakeri-Milani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The major limitation in the widespread use of liposome drug delivery system is its instability. Lyophilization is a promising approach to ensure the long-term stability of liposomes. The aim of this study was to prepare sirolimus-loaded liposomes, study their stability and investigate the effect of lyophilization either in the presence or in the absence of lyoprotectant on liposome properties. Methods: Two types of multi-lamellar liposomes, conventional and fusogenic, containing sirolimus were prepared by modified thin film hydration method with different ratio of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC, cholesterol and dioleoylphosphoethanolamine (DOPE, and were lyophilized with or without dextrose as lyoprotectant. Chemical stability investigation was performed at 4°C and 25°C until 6 months using a validated HPLC method. Physical stability was studied with determination of particle size (PS and encapsulation efficiency (EE % of formulations through 6 months. Results: Chemical stability test at 4°C and 25°C until 6 months showed that drug content of liposomes decreased 8.4% and 20.2% respectively. Initial mean EE % and PS were 72.8 % and 582 nm respectively. After 6 months mean EE % for suspended form, lyophilized without lyoprotectant and lyophilized with lyoprotectant were 54.8 %, 62.3% and 67.1 % at 4°C and 48.2%, 60.4 % and 66.8 % at 25°C respectively. Corresponding data for mean PS were 8229 nm, 2397 nm and 688nm at 4°C and 9362 nm, 1944 nm and 737 nm at 25°C respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that lyophilization with and without dextrose could increase shelf life of liposome and dextrose has lyoprotectant effect that stabilized liposomes in the lyophilization process.

  20. Invited: A Stability Study of Alkali Doped PBI Membranes for Alkaline Electrolyzer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Aili, David; Hansen, Martin Kalmar

    2014-01-01

    or a porous diaphragm is used instead in direct contact with both electrodes (zero gap). In proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzers proton conducting membranes like in PEM fuel cells have been very successful, but for the equivalent anion exchange membranes a similar conductivity has not yet been...... lost less that 10 mass %. Viscosity measurement on the linear PBI (the only one soluble) showed a decreasing molecular weight over time of storage. The materials were also examined by IR, NMR and TGA. Finally, electrolysis tests were made including comparison with a commercial diaphragm material...

  1. Polymer-stabilized palladium nanoparticles for catalytic membranes: ad hoc polymer fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domènech, Berta; Muñoz, Maria; Muraviev, Dmitri N.; Macanás, Jorge

    2011-06-01

    Metal nanoparticles are known as highly effective catalysts although their immobilization on solid supports is frequently required to prevent aggregation and to facilitate the catalyst application, recovery, and reuse. This paper reports the intermatrix synthesis of Pd0 nanoparticles in sulfonated polyethersulfone with Cardo group membranes and their use as nanocomposite catalytic membrane reactors. The synthesized polymer and the corresponding nanocomposite were characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The catalytic efficiency of catalytic membranes was evaluated by following the reduction of p-nitrophenol in the presence of NaBH4.

  2. Polymer-stabilized palladium nanoparticles for catalytic membranes: ad hoc polymer fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macanás Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metal nanoparticles are known as highly effective catalysts although their immobilization on solid supports is frequently required to prevent aggregation and to facilitate the catalyst application, recovery, and reuse. This paper reports the intermatrix synthesis of Pd0 nanoparticles in sulfonated polyethersulfone with Cardo group membranes and their use as nanocomposite catalytic membrane reactors. The synthesized polymer and the corresponding nanocomposite were characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The catalytic efficiency of catalytic membranes was evaluated by following the reduction of p-nitrophenol in the presence of NaBH4.

  3. Spectrins: a structural platform for stabilization and activation of membrane channels, receptors and transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machnicka, Beata; Czogalla, Aleksander; Hryniewicz-Jankowska, Anita; Bogusławska, Dżamila M; Grochowalska, Renata; Heger, Elżbieta; Sikorski, Aleksander F

    2014-02-01

    This review focuses on structure and functions of spectrin as a major component of the membrane skeleton. Recent advances on spectrin function as an interface for signal transduction mediation and a number of data concerning interaction of spectrin with membrane channels, adhesion molecules, receptors and transporters draw a picture of multifaceted protein. Here, we attempted to show the current depiction of multitask role of spectrin in cell physiology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Reciprocal influences between cell cytoskeleton and membrane channels, receptors and transporters. Guest Editor: Jean Claude Hervé. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. FBAR syndapin 1 recognizes and stabilizes highly curved tubular membranes in a concentration dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramesh, Pradeep; Baroji, Younes F.; Seyyed Reihani, Seyyed Nader

    2013-01-01

    brain lipid vesicles and show that it senses membrane curvature at low density whereas it induces and reinforces tube stiffness at higher density. FBAR strongly up-concentrates on the high curvature tubes pulled out of Giant Unilamellar lipid Vesicles (GUVs), this sorting behavior is strongly amplified...... at low protein densities. Interestingly, FBAR from syndapin 1 has a large affinity for tubular membranes with curvatures larger than its own intrinsic concave curvature. Finally, we studied the effect of FBAR on membrane relaxation kinetics with high temporal resolution and found that the protein...... increases relaxation time of the tube holding force in a density-dependent fashion....

  5. The chemical modification and characterization of polypropylene membrane with environment response by in-situ chlorinating graft copolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Liu, Jiankai; Hu, Wenjie; Feng, Ying; Zhao, Jiruo

    2017-08-01

    In this study, a novel chemical surface modification method of polyolefin membranes is applied following the in-situ chlorinating graft copolymerization (ISCGC). Polypropylene (PP)/methyl methacrylate (MMA) system was used as an example. A unique structure was formed by the modification process on the original membrane surface and the product exhibited an environmental response. Chlorine free radicals were generated using ultraviolet and heat and were used to capture the hydrogen in the polymer chains on the substrate surface. The formed macromolecular radicals could react with MMA over 2 h to achieve a high coverage ratio polymer on the PP membrane surface. The graft copolymers were characterized using FTIR, 1H-NMR, DSC, and XPS, which all proved the feasibility of chemically modifying the PP membrane surface by ISCGC. The surface morphology of the grafted PP membrane was characterized using SEM and AFM. The results showed that the grafted product presents a uniform, neat, and dense mastoid structure with an average thickness of 4.44 μm, which was expected to be similar to the brush-like surface structure. The contact angle and AFM tests indicated that the product surface is responsive to solvent and pH. The experimental results showed that the PP membrane surface structure can be reconstructed using ISCGC, a method that can be used for environment-responsive polymer materials. Moreover, the product has the characteristics of polymer interfacial brush.

  6. Processing and stabilization of Aloe Vera leaf gel by adding chemical and natural preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nazemi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Aloe vera has been used as a medicinal herb for thousands of years. Aloe vera leaves can be separated into latex and gel which have biological effects. Aloe gel is a potent source of polysaccharides. When the gel is exposed to air, it quickly decomposes and decays and loses most of its biological activity. There are various processing techniques for sterilizing and stabilizing the gel. The aim of this study was to improve stabilization of the gel by adding some chemical and natural preservatives. Methods: The gel was obtained from Aloe vera leaves and after some processing chemical and natural preservatives were added. Chemicals included citric acid, ascorbic acid, vitamin E and potassium sorbate while natural preservatives were two essential oils derived from Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Eugenia caryophyllata. All these operations were performed under sterile conditions and they were evaluated at different temperatures and times. Appearance and taste changes of gel were studied organoleptic. Microbiological tests and some physical assays such as pH, refractometry and viscosity properties as well as determination of total sugars were measured. NMR and FT-IR analyses were performed for determining the quality of samples. Results: After data analyzing, the results showed that the samples formulated with chemical additives together with essential oils were more suitable and stable compared to the control samples after 90 days and the effective ingredient acemannan, remained stable. Conclusion: The stable gel can be considered for therapeutic properties and be used for edible and medicinal purposes.

  7. Roles of specific membrane lipid domains in EGF receptor activation and cell adhesion molecule stabilization in a developing olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Nicholas J; Tolbert, Leslie P; Oland, Lynne A

    2009-09-29

    Reciprocal interactions between glial cells and olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) cause ORN axons entering the brain to sort, to fasciculate into bundles destined for specific glomeruli, and to form stable protoglomeruli in the developing olfactory system of an experimentally advantageous animal species, the moth Manduca sexta. Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) and the cell adhesion molecules (IgCAMs) neuroglian and fasciclin II are known to be important players in these processes. We report in situ and cell-culture studies that suggest a role for glycosphingolipid-rich membrane subdomains in neuron-glia interactions. Disruption of these subdomains by the use of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin results in loss of EGFR activation, depletion of fasciclin II in ORN axons, and loss of neuroglian stabilization in the membrane. At the cellular level, disruption leads to aberrant ORN axon trajectories, small antennal lobes, abnormal arrays of olfactory glomerul, and loss of normal glial cell migration. We propose that glycosphingolipid-rich membrane subdomains (possible membrane rafts or platforms) are essential for IgCAM-mediated EGFR activation and for anchoring of neuroglian to the cytoskeleton, both required for normal extension and sorting of ORN axons.

  8. Polymer-stabilized palladium nanoparticles for catalytic membranes: ad hoc polymer fabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Dom?nech, Berta; Mu?oz, Maria; Muraviev, Dmitri N; Macan?s, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles are known as highly effective catalysts although their immobilization on solid supports is frequently required to prevent aggregation and to facilitate the catalyst application, recovery, and reuse. This paper reports the intermatrix synthesis of Pd0 nanoparticles in sulfonated polyethersulfone with Cardo group membranes and their use as nanocomposite catalytic membrane reactors. The synthesized polymer and the corresponding nanocomposite were characterized by spectr...

  9. Chemical properties and oxidative stability of Arjan (Amygdalus reuteri) kernel oil as emerging edible oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Javad; Emadi, Teymour; Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin; Munekata, Paulo Eduardo Sichetti; Lorenzo, Jose Manuel; Brnčić, Mladen; Barba, Francisco J

    2018-05-01

    The oxidative stability, as well as the chemical composition of Amygdalus reuteri kernel oil (ARKO), were evaluated and compared to those of Amygdalus scoparia kernel oil (ASKO) and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) during and after holding in the oven (170 °C for 8 h). The oxidative stability analysis was carried out by measuring the changes in conjugated dienes, carbonyl and acid values as well as oil/oxidative stability index and their correlation with the antioxidant compounds (tocopherol, polyphenols, and sterol compounds). The oleic acid was determined as the predominant fatty acid of ARKO (65.5%). Calculated oxidizability value and an iodine value of ARKO, ASKO and EVOO were reported as 3.29 and 3.24, 2.00 and 100.0, 101.4 and 81.9, respectively. Due to the high wax content (4.5% and 3.3%, respectively), the saponification number of ARKO and ASKO (96.4 and 99.8, respectively) was lower than that of EVOO (169.7). ARKO had the highest oxidative stability, followed by ASKO and EVOO. Therefore, ARKO can be introduced as a new source of edible oil with high oxidative stability. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The physical and chemical stability of suspensions of sustained-release diclofenac microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, L; Boni, R L; Adeyeye, C M

    1998-01-01

    The major challenge in liquid sustained-release oral suspensions is to minimize drug diffusion into the suspending medium and to retain the original properties of the microparticles during storage. Diclofenac wax microspheres prepared by the hydrophobic congealable disperse phase method were formulated as a sustained release suspension and stored at three different temperatures (25, 37 and 45 degrees C) for 3 months, to evaluate the physical and chemical stability of the suspended microspheres. Suspensions of microspheres stored at ambient temperatures were both physically and chemically stable, but at higher temperatures, up to 45 degrees C, there was a decrease in drug release due to scaling and melting on the microsphere surface as observed by scanning electron microscopy. However, on prolonged storage, up to 90 days, especially at 45 degrees C, temperature became a dominant factor causing an increase in drug release. The suspension of diclofenac microspheres was chemically stable for 3 months, while the plain drug suspension exhibited slight degradation.

  11. Removal of Pathogens by Membrane Bioreactors: A Review of the Mechanisms, Influencing Factors and Reduction in Chemical Disinfectant Dosing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal I. Hai

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The continued depletion of fresh drinking water resources throughout the world has increased the need for a variety of water treatment and recycling strategies. Conventional wastewater treatment processes rely on extensive chemical post-disinfection to comply with the stringent microbiological safety for water reuse. When well designed and operated, membrane bioreactors (MBRs can consistently achieve efficient removals of suspended solids, protozoa and coliform bacteria. Under optimal conditions, MBR systems can also significantly remove various viruses and phages. This paper provides an in-depth overview of the mechanisms and influencing factors of pathogen removal by MBR and highlights practical issues, such as reduced chemical disinfectant dosing requirements and associated economic and environmental benefits. Special attention has been paid to the aspects, such as membrane cleaning, membrane imperfections/breach and microbial regrowth, in the distribution system on the overall pathogen removal performance of MBR.

  12. Multilayer article having stabilized zirconia outer layer and chemical barrier layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor); Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A multilayer article includes a substrate that includes at least one of a ceramic compound and a Si-containing metal alloy. An outer layer includes stabilized zirconia. Intermediate layers are located between the outer layer and the substrate and include a mullite-containing layer and a chemical barrier layer. The mullite-containing layer includes 1) mullite or 2) mullite and an alkaline earth metal aluminosilicate. The chemical barrier layer is located between the mullite-containing layer and the outer layer. The chemical barrier layer includes at least one of mullite, hafnia, hafnium silicate and rare earth silicate (e.g., at least one of RE.sub.2 SiO.sub.5 and RE.sub.2 Si.sub.2 O.sub.7 where RE is Sc or Yb). The multilayer article is characterized by the combination of the chemical barrier layer and by its lack of a layer consisting essentially of barium strontium aluminosilicate between the mullite-containing layer and the chemical barrier layer. Such a barium strontium aluminosilicate layer may undesirably lead to the formation of a low melting glass or unnecessarily increase the layer thickness with concomitant reduced durability of the multilayer article. In particular, the chemical barrier layer may include at least one of hafnia, hafnium silicate and rare earth silicate.

  13. A nylon membrane bag assay for determination of the effect of chemicals on soilborne plant pathogens in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new nylon membrane bag assay was developed that can rapidly and effectively determine the impact of chemicals added to soil on soilborne plant pathogens for which there are no selective media or for which a selective medium is expensive or difficult to prepare. This assay consists of placing patho...

  14. High stability of self-assembled peptide nanowires against thermal, chemical, and proteolytic attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jungki; Park, Chan Beum

    2010-02-01

    Understanding the self-assembly of peptides into ordered nanostructures is recently getting much attention since it can provide an alternative route for fabricating novel bio-inspired materials. In order to realize the potential of the peptide-based nanofabrication technology, however, more information is needed regarding the integrity or stability of peptide nanostructures under the process conditions encountered in their applications. In this study, we investigated the stability of self-assembled peptide nanowires (PNWs) and nanotubes (PNTs) against thermal, chemical, proteolytic attacks, and their conformational changes upon heat treatment. PNWs and PNTs were grown by the self-assembly of diphenylalanine (Phe-Phe), a peptide building block, on solid substrates at different chemical atmospheres and temperatures. The incubation of diphenylalanine under aniline vapor at 150 degrees C led to the formation of PNWs, while its incubation with water vapor at 25 degrees C produced PNTs. We analyzed the stability of peptide nanostructures using multiple tools, such as electron microscopy, thermal analysis tools, circular dichroism, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Our results show that PNWs are highly stable up to 200 degrees C and remain unchanged when incubated in aqueous solutions (from pH 1 to 14) or in various chemical solvents (from polar to non-polar). In contrast, PNTs started to disintegrate even at 100 degrees C and underwent a conformational change at an elevated temperature. When we further studied their resistance to a proteolytic environment, we discovered that PNWs kept their initial structure while PNTs fully disintegrated. We found that the high stability of PNWs originates from their predominant beta-sheet conformation and the conformational change of diphenylalanine nanostructures. Our study suggests that self-assembled PNWs are suitable for future nano-scale applications requiring harsh processing conditions. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Bcl-xL regulates mitochondrial energetics by stabilizing the inner membrane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Bei; Aon, Miguel A; Hsu, Yi-Te; Soane, Lucian; Teng, Xinchen; McCaffery, J Michael; Cheng, Wen-Chih; Qi, Bing; Li, Hongmei; Alavian, Kambiz N; Dayhoff-Brannigan, Margaret; Zou, Shifa; Pineda, Fernando J; O'Rourke, Brian; Ko, Young H; Pedersen, Peter L; Kaczmarek, Leonard K; Jonas, Elizabeth A; Hardwick, J Marie

    2011-10-17

    Mammalian Bcl-x(L) protein localizes to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it inhibits apoptosis by binding Bax and inhibiting Bax-induced outer membrane permeabilization. Contrary to expectation, we found by electron microscopy and biochemical approaches that endogenous Bcl-x(L) also localized to inner mitochondrial cristae. Two-photon microscopy of cultured neurons revealed large fluctuations in inner mitochondrial membrane potential when Bcl-x(L) was genetically deleted or pharmacologically inhibited, indicating increased total ion flux into and out of mitochondria. Computational, biochemical, and genetic evidence indicated that Bcl-x(L) reduces futile ion flux across the inner mitochondrial membrane to prevent a wasteful drain on cellular resources, thereby preventing an energetic crisis during stress. Given that F(1)F(O)-ATP synthase directly affects mitochondrial membrane potential and having identified the mitochondrial ATP synthase β subunit in a screen for Bcl-x(L)-binding partners, we tested and found that Bcl-x(L) failed to protect β subunit-deficient yeast. Thus, by bolstering mitochondrial energetic capacity, Bcl-x(L) may contribute importantly to cell survival independently of other Bcl-2 family proteins.

  16. Chemical modification of polysulfone: composite anionic exchange membrane with TiO2 nano-particles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nonjola, PT

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of quaternary polysulfone/Titanium dioxide (QPSf/TiO2) nanocomposite membranes by the recasting procedure as suitable electrolyte in alkaline fuel cells is described. The composite membranes were characterized by ionic conductivity...

  17. Tartaric stabilization of a Reserve Ruby Port Wine by cold and electrodialysis processes: Effect on chemical and sensory characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge, Nuno; Vilela, Alice; Braga, António; M. Nunes, Fernando; Cosme, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    Cold stabilization is the most common wine operation for wine tartaric stabilization. This operation consists in cooling the wine at temperatures near the wine freezing point [1, 2], to induce potassium bitartrate crystals precipitation. However, this is a slow and costly operation. Electrodialysis is a process that allows the separation of anions and cations according to their electrical charge through a selective permeability membrane, by the passage of an electric field [3-6]. Electrodialy...

  18. Evaluation of chemical stabilizers and windscreens for wind erosion control of uranium mill tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, M.R.; Hartley, J.N.

    1984-08-01

    Potential wind erosion of uranium mill tailings is a concern for the surface disposal of tailings at uranium mills. Wind-blown tailings may subsequently be redeposited on areas outside the impoundment. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating techniques for fugitive dust control at uranium mill tailings piles. Laboratory tests, including wind tunnel studies, were conducted to evaluate the relative effectiveness of 43 chemical stabilizers. Seventeen of the more promising stabilizers were applied to test plots on a uranium tailings pile at the American Nuclear Corporation-Gas Hills Project mill site in central Wyoming. The durabilities of these materials under actual site conditions were evaluated over time. In addition, field testing of commercially available windscreens was conducted. Test panels were constructed of eight different materials at the Wyoming test site to compare their durability. A second test site was established near PNL to evaluate the effectiveness of windscreens at reducing wind velocity, and thereby reduce the potential for wind erosion of mill tailings. Results of the laboratory land field tests of the chemical stabilizers and windscreens are presented, along with costs versus effectiveness of these techniques for control of wind erosion at mill tailings piles. 12 references, 4 figures, 6 tables.

  19. Study on thermal stability and chemical structure of polyamide blended with small amount of Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Tsuyoshi; Ueno, Tomonaga; Kajiya, Takafumi; Ishikawa, Tomoyuki; Takeda, Kunihiko

    2007-01-01

    The thermal stability and the chemical structure of Polyamide 66 (PA66) blended with a small amount of copper have been studied. The thermal degradation of the blend with 35 ppm or more of copper was restrained and no strong influence of the concentration of copper was observed. The molecular weight of PA66 decreased by the thermal aging process but the amount of decrease of the blend was smaller than that of the non-blend. The water uptake of the blend increased. The chemical structure, which was observed by IR and NMR, changed slightly by blending with copper after aging at higher temperatures. Multiple items influenced the thermal stability of PA66 blended with a small amount of copper instead of just one. Namely, the main chain of PA66 is cut by heat and the degree of the cut is restrained by the copper. The diffusion time of copper atoms that disperse uniformly in the PA66 matrix is short enough to cover the individual amide groups and the effect enlarges the entire configuration of the PA66 chain to enhance the thermal stability. (author)

  20. Analyte-triggered luminescence of Eu{sup 3+} ions encapsulated in Nafion membranes -preparation of hybrid materials from in membrane chemical reactions-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Sánchez, Rocío, E-mail: raguilar@ifuap.buap.mx [Depto. Química Analítica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Zelocualtecatl-Montiel, Iván [Depto. Química Analítica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Gálvez-Vázquez, María de Jesús [Depto. Química Analítica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Instituto de Física, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apartado postal J-48, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Silva-González, Rutilo [Instituto de Física, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apartado postal J-48, Puebla 72570 (Mexico)

    2017-04-15

    The possibility to perform chemical reactions inside polymer materials opens a unique opportunity to control and prepare materials for diverse solid-state applications. Based on the affinity of Eu{sup 3+} ions for oxygen functionalities, in this work we report the luminescence enhancement of Eu{sup 3+} ions inserted in Nafion membranes (Naf/Eu{sup 3+}) by in-situ complexing to oxalate. The formation of a europium-oxalate type complex enhances Eu{sup 3+} luminescence emission, which could be exploited for the construction of devices for oxalate sensing and the fabrication of highly luminescent materials. Possible analytical applications of Naf/Eu{sup 3+} membranes were evaluated by fluorescence spectroscopy through the linear response with concentration. The complex formation was followed by infrared spectroscopy and SEM-EDS analysis. - Highlights: • Luminescence enhancement by complexation of Eu{sup 3+} ions to oxalate inside Nafion. • Performance of chemical reactions inside Nafion/polymer membranes. • An easy and novel method to prepare luminescent solid devices. • Possibility to develop luminescent sensors by analyte-triggered optical response.

  1. Analyte-triggered luminescence of Eu3+ ions encapsulated in Nafion membranes -preparation of hybrid materials from in membrane chemical reactions-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Sánchez, Rocío; Zelocualtecatl-Montiel, Iván; Gálvez-Vázquez, María de Jesús; Silva-González, Rutilo

    2017-01-01

    The possibility to perform chemical reactions inside polymer materials opens a unique opportunity to control and prepare materials for diverse solid-state applications. Based on the affinity of Eu 3+ ions for oxygen functionalities, in this work we report the luminescence enhancement of Eu 3+ ions inserted in Nafion membranes (Naf/Eu 3+ ) by in-situ complexing to oxalate. The formation of a europium-oxalate type complex enhances Eu 3+ luminescence emission, which could be exploited for the construction of devices for oxalate sensing and the fabrication of highly luminescent materials. Possible analytical applications of Naf/Eu 3+ membranes were evaluated by fluorescence spectroscopy through the linear response with concentration. The complex formation was followed by infrared spectroscopy and SEM-EDS analysis. - Highlights: • Luminescence enhancement by complexation of Eu 3+ ions to oxalate inside Nafion. • Performance of chemical reactions inside Nafion/polymer membranes. • An easy and novel method to prepare luminescent solid devices. • Possibility to develop luminescent sensors by analyte-triggered optical response.

  2. Effects of chemical cleaning on RO membrane inorganic, organic and microbial foulant removal in a full-scale plant for municipal wastewater reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tong; Meng, Lu; Zhao, Qing-Bo; Shi, Ye; Hu, Hong-Ying; Lu, Yun

    2017-04-15

    Of all of the strategies for controlling reverse osmosis (RO) membrane fouling, chemical cleaning is indispensable. To study the effects of chemical cleaning on membrane foulant removal, a comparative analysis of RO membranes before and after common alkaline and acid cleaning was conducted by dissecting lead and terminal RO membranes in a full-scale municipal wastewater reclamation plant. Most foulants on the membranes were removed by chemical cleaning processes. Calcium was the major inorganic component of the foulants because of its highest concentration in the feed water. Aluminum and iron were also abundant elements on the membranes due to their high deposition ratios and low removal efficiencies. Hydrophilic neutrals (HIN) and hydrophobic neutrals (HON) were the two largest dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractions on the membranes before cleaning. HIN and hydrophilic acids (HIA) were not effectively removed. Chemical cleaning removed 94% and 90% of the total bacteria on the lead and tail membranes and considerably changed the structure of the microbial communities. Bacteria excessively producing extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), such as Pseudomonas and Zoogloea, were much more resistant to the chemical cleaning process. After cleaning, the membrane microbial community structures were more similar to those in the feed water than the structures on the membranes before cleaning. These results shed light on the effects of cleaning in a full-scale RO plant, improves our understanding of the removal of foulants and provides potential research directions for cleaning methods and RO pretreatment processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural, chemical surface and transport modifications of regenerated cellulose dense membranes due to low-dose γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, M.I.; Heredia-Guerrero, J.A.; Galan, P.; Benitez, J.J.; Benavente, J.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Low dose γ-radiation causes slight structural, chemical and morphological changes on regenerated cellulose films. → Induced structural changes increase the fragility of irradiated films. → Structural modifications reduce ion permeability of films. - Abstract: Modifications caused in commercial dense regenerated cellulose (RC) flat membranes by low-dose γ-irradiation (average photons energy of 1.23 MeV) are studied. Slight structural, chemical and morphological surface changes due to irradiation in three films with different RC content were determined by ATR-FTIR, XRD, XPS and AFM. Also, the alteration of their mechanical elasticity has been studied. Modification of membrane performance was determined from solute diffusion coefficient and effective membrane fixed charge concentration obtained from NaCl diffusion measurements. Induced structural changes defining new and effective fracture propagation directions are considered to be responsible for the increase of fragility of irradiated RC membranes. The same structural changes are proposed to explain the reduction of the membrane ion permeability through a mechanism involving either ion pathways elongation and/or blocking.

  4. Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for low-level mixed waste stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.; Cunnane, J.C.; Mayberry, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs) are being developed and fabricated for low-temperature stabilization and solidification of mixed waste streams which are amenable to conventional high-temperature stabilization processes due to presence of volatiles such as heavy metal chloride and fluorides and/or pyrophorics in the wastes. Phosphates of Mg, Mg-Na and Zr are being developed as candidate matrix materials. In this paper, we present the fabrication procedures of phosphate waste forms using surrogates compositions of three typical mixed wastes streams -- ash, cement sludges, and salts. The performance of the final waste forms such as compression strength, leachability of the contaminants, durability in aqueous environment were conducted. In addition, parameteric studies have been conducted to establish the optimal waste loading in a particular binder system. Based on the results, we present potential applications in the treatment of various mixed waste streams

  5. Performance and Long-Term Stability of Pd/PSS and Pd/Al2O3 Membranes for Hydrogen Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Simona; Iulianelli, Adolfo; Dalena, Francesco; Pinacci, Pietro; Drago, Francesca; Broglia, Maria; Huang, Yan; Basile, Angelo

    2014-03-06

    The present work is focused on the investigation of the performance and long-term stability of two composite palladium membranes under different operating conditions. One membrane (Pd/porous stainless steel (PSS)) is characterized by a ~10 µm-thick palladium layer on a porous stainless steel substrate, which is pretreated by means of surface modification and oxidation; the other membrane (Pd/Al2O3) is constituted by a ~7 µm-thick palladium layer on an asymmetric microporous Al2O3 substrate. The operating temperature and pressure ranges, used for studying the performance of these two kinds of membranes, are 350-450 °C and 200-800 kPa, respectively. The H2 permeances and the H2/N2 selectivities of both membranes were investigated and compared with literature data. At 400 °C and 200 kPa as pressure difference, Pd/PSS and Pd/Al2O3 membranes exhibited an H2/N2 ideal selectivity equal to 11700 and 6200, respectively, showing stability for 600 h. Thereafter, H2/N2 selectivity of both membranes progressively decreased and after around 2000 h, dropped dramatically to 55 and 310 for the Pd/PSS and Pd/Al2O3 membranes, respectively. As evidenced by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analyses, the pinholes appear on the whole surface of the Pd/PSS membrane and this is probably due to release of sulphur from the graphite seal rings.

  6. Electrical conductivity and chemical stability of BaCe0· 8− xAxGd0 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... K. BaCe0.7In0.1Gd0.2O3− and BaCe0.7Zr0.1Gd0.2O3− ceramics exhibit an excellent chemical stability against boiling water. Indium is a suitable doping element to promote the sintering densification and to enhance both electrical conductivity and chemical stability of Gd-doped BaCeO3 at operating temperatures.

  7. Anion-exchange membranes containing diamines: preparation and stability in alkaline solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komkova, E.N.; Komkova, E.N.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Strathmann, H.; Wessling, Matthias

    2004-01-01

    Anion-exchange membranes (AEM) are prepared from chloromethylated polysulfone and a number of diamine compounds. The properties of the new AEM including the water content, ion-exchange capacity, permselectivity and area resistance are thoroughly studied. By varying the amount of diamine into the

  8. High-performance hybrid pervaporation membranes with superior hydrothermal and acid stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castricum, H.L.; Kreiter, R.; van Veen, H.M.; Blank, D.H.A.; Vente, J.F.; ten Elshof, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid membrane has been prepared with exceptional performance in dewatering applications. The only precursor used in the sol-gel synthesis of the selective layer was organically linked 1,2-bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTESE). The microporous structure of this layer enables

  9. High-performance hybrid pervaporation membranes with superior hydrothermal and acid stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castricum, H.L.; Kreiter, Robert; van Veen, Henk M.; Blank, David H.A.; Vente, Jaap F.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2008-01-01

    A new organic–inorganic hybrid membrane has been prepared with exceptional performance in dewatering applications. The only precursor used in the sol–gel synthesis of the selective layer was organically linked 1,2-bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTESE). The microporous structure of this layer enables

  10. Chemical and enzymatic stability of amino acid prodrugs containing methoxy, ethoxy and propylene glycol linkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak; Gupta, Sheeba Varghese; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the chemical and enzymatic stabilities of prodrugs containing methoxy, ethoxy and propylene glycol linkers in order to find a suitable linker for prodrugs of carboxylic acids with amino acids. l-Valine and l-phenylalanine prodrugs of model compounds (benzoic acid and phenyl acetic acid) containing methoxy, ethoxy and propylene glycol linkers were synthesized. The hydrolysis rate profile of each compound was studied at physiologically relevant pHs (1.2, 4, 6 and 7.4). Enzymatic hydrolysis of propylene glycol containing compounds was studied using Caco-2 homogenate as well as purified enzyme valacyclovirase. It was observed that the stability of the prodrugs increases with the linker length (propyl > ethyl > methyl). The model prodrugs were stable at acidic pH as compared to basic pH. It was observed that the prodrug with the aliphatic amino acid promoiety was more stable compared to its aromatic counterpart. The comparison between benzyl and the phenyl model compounds revealed that the amino acid side chain is significant in determining the stability of the prodrug whereas the benzyl or phenyl carboxylic acid had little or no effect on the stability. The enzymatic activation studies of propylene glycol linker prodrug in the presence of valacyclovirase and cell homogenate showed faster generation of the parent drug at pH 7.4. The half-life of prodrugs at pH 7.4 was more than 12 h, whereas in the presence of cell homogenate the half-lives were less than 1 h. Hydrolysis by Caco-2 homogenate generated the parent compound in two steps, where the prodrug was first converted to the intermediate, propylene glycol benzoate, which was then converted to the parent compound (benzoic acid). Enzymatic hydrolysis of propylene glycol containing prodrugs by valacyclovirase showed hydrolysis of the amino acid ester part to generate the propylene glycol ester of model compound (propylene glycol benzoate) as the major product. The amino acid prodrugs containing methoxy

  11. Acquisition of Co metal from spent lithium-ion battery using emulsion liquid membrane technology and emulsion stability test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliusman; Wulandari, P. T.; Amiliana, R. A.; Huda, M.; Kusumadewi, F. A.

    2018-03-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are the most common type to be used as energy source in mobile phone. The amount of lithium-ion battery wastes is approximated by 200 – 500 ton/year. In one lithium-ion battery, there are 5 – 20% of cobalt metal, depend on the manufacturer. One of the way to recover a valuable metal from waste is leaching process then continued with extraction, which is the aim of this study. Spent lithium-ion batteries will be characterized with EDX and AAS, the result will show the amount of cobalt metal with form of LiCoO2 in the cathode. Hydrochloric acid concentration used is 4 M, temperature 80°C, and reaction time 1 hour. This study will discuss the emulsion stability test on emulsion liquid membrane. The purpose of emulsion stability test in this study was to determine optimum concentration of surfactant and extractant to produce a stable emulsion. Surfactant and extractant used were SPAN 80 and Cyanex 272 respectively with both concentrations varied. Membrane and feed phase ratios used in this experiment was 1 : 2. The optimum results of this study were SPAN 80 concentrations of 10% w/v and Cyanex 272 0.7 M.

  12. Chemical stability and defect formation in CaHfO3

    KAUST Repository

    Alay-E-Abbas, Syed Muhammad

    2014-04-01

    Defects in CaHfO3 are investigated by ab initio calculations based on density functional theory. Pristine and anion-deficient CaHfO 3 are found to be insulating, whereas cation-deficient CaHfO 3 is hole-doped. The formation energies of neutral and charged cation and anion vacancies are evaluated to determine the stability in different chemical environments. Moreover, the energies of the partial and full Schottky defect reactions are computed. We show that clustering of anion vacancies in the HfO layers is energetically favorable for sufficiently high defect concentrations and results in metallicity. © 2014 EPLA.

  13. Assessment of soil stabilization by chemical extraction and bioaccumulation using earthworm, Eisenia fetida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Tae; Abd Aziz, Azilah; Han, Heop Jo; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2014-05-01

    Soil stabilization does not remove heavy metals from contaminated soil, but lowers their exposures to ecosystem. Thus, it should be evaluated by measuring the fractions of heavy metals which are mobile and/or bioavailable in soils. The study compared several chemical extractions which intended to quantify the mobile or bioaccessible fractions with uptake and bioaccumulation by earthworm, Eisenia fetida. Soil samples were taken from the abandoned mine area contaminated with As, Cd, Cu, Pb and/or Zn. To stabilize heavy metals, the soils were amended with limestone and steel slag at 5% and 2% (w/w), respectively. All chemical extractions and earthworm tests were applied to both the contaminated and the stabilized soils with triplicates. The chemical extractions consisted of six single extractions which were 0.01M CaCl2 (unbufferred), EDTA or DTPA (chelating), TCLP (acidic), Mehlich 3 (mixture), and aqua regia (peudo-total). Sequential extractions were also applied to fractionate heavy metals in soils. In earthworm tests, worms were exposed to the soils for uptake of heavy metals. After 28 days of exposure to soils, worms were transferred to clean soils for elimination. During the tests, three worms were randomly collected at proper sampling events. Worms were rinsed with DI water and placed on moist filter paper for 48 h for depuration. Filter paper was renewed at 24 h to prevent coprophagy. The worms were killed with liquid nitrogen, dried in the oven, and digested with aqua regia for ICP-MS analysis. In addition to the bioaccumulation, several toxicity endpoints were observed such as burrowing time, mortality, cocoon production, and body weight changes. Toxicokinetics was applied to determine the uptake and elimination heavy metals by the earthworms. Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was estimated using total metal concentrations and body burdens. Pearson correlation and simple linear regression were applied to evaluate the relationship between metal fractions by single

  14. The chemical stability of TRISO-coated HTGR fuel. Pt. 1. Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groot, P.; Cordfunke, E.H.P.; Konings, R.J.M.

    1994-12-01

    The US fuel seemed to be more difficult to produce than the German fuel. Also the chemical stability of this fuel must be investigated. The conditions are more severe in the US concept than in the German concept. Oxidation of the graphite seems to be no problem, according to US HTGR concept. A ZrC coating seems to have a number of advantages with regard to the SiC coating: (1) Better retention, (2) no reaction with Pd, (3) no thermal dissociation. Only the oxidation resistance is worse than SiC. Also the maximum stress must be determined that the ZrC coating can have. (orig./HP)

  15. Electronic parameters and top surface chemical stability of RbPb2Br5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atuchin, V.V.; Isaenko, L.I.; Kesler, V.G.; Pokrovsky, L.D.; Tarasova, A.Yu.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Bridgman growth of RbPb 2 Br 5 crystal. ► Electronic structure measurements with XPS. ► Optical crystalline surface fabrication. - Abstract: The RbPb 2 Br 5 crystal has been grown by Bridgman method. The electronic structure of RbPb 2 Br 5 has been measured with XPS for a powder sample. High chemical stability of RbPb 2 Br 5 surface is verified by weak intensity of O 1s core level recorded by XPS and structural RHEED measurements. Chemical bonding effects have been observed by the comparative analysis of element core levels and crystal structure of RbPb 2 Br 5 and several rubidium- and lead-containing bromides using binding energy difference parameters Δ Rb = (BE Rb 3d − BE Br 3d) and Δ Pb = (BE Pb 4f 7/2 − BE Br 3d).

  16. Age-related Differences in Dystrophin: Impact on Force Transfer Proteins, Membrane Integrity, and Neuromuscular Junction Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, David C; Marcotte, George R; Marshall, Andrea G; West, Daniel W D; Baehr, Leslie M; Wallace, Marita A; Saleh, Perrie M; Bodine, Sue C; Baar, Keith

    2017-05-01

    The loss of muscle strength with age has been studied from the perspective of a decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular junction (NMJ) stability. A third potential factor is force transmission. The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in the force transfer apparatus within aging muscle and the impact on membrane integrity and NMJ stability. We measured an age-related loss of dystrophin protein that was greatest in the flexor muscles. The loss of dystrophin protein occurred despite a twofold increase in dystrophin mRNA. Importantly, this disparity could be explained by the four- to fivefold upregulation of the dystromir miR-31. To compensate for the loss of dystrophin protein, aged muscle contained increased α-sarcoglycan, syntrophin, sarcospan, laminin, β1-integrin, desmuslin, and the Z-line proteins α-actinin and desmin. In spite of the adaptive increase in other force transfer proteins, over the 48 hours following lengthening contractions, the old muscles showed more signs of impaired membrane integrity (fourfold increase in immunoglobulin G-positive fibers and 70% greater dysferlin mRNA) and NMJ instability (14- to 96-fold increases in Runx1, AchRδ, and myogenin mRNA). Overall, these data suggest that age-dependent alterations in dystrophin leave the muscle membrane and NMJ more susceptible to contraction-induced damage even before changes in muscle mass are obvious. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. An investigation on the chemical stability and a novel strategy for long-term stabilization of diphenylalanine nanostructures in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nezammahalleh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The stability of diphenylalanine (FF microwires and microtubes in phosphate buffer solution was investigated and a novel strategy was developed for their chemical stabilization. This stability investigation was carried out by optical microscopy and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. These microstructures dissolve in the solution depending upon their degree of FF saturation. The dissolution mechanisms of the structures in kinetically limited processes were found by accurately fitting the experimental dissolution data to a theoretical kinetic equation. The dissolution data were well fitted to the particular Avrami-Erofe’ev kinetic expression (R2 > 0.98. These findings suggest that the structures can be stabilized by a decrease in the hydration of the constituent molecules thorough a chemical conformational induced transition upon heat treatment. The stable microtubes were fabricated in a novel three step procedure consisting of the reduction of silver ions in unstable FF microtubes by a citrate reductant, the stabilization by chemical conformational induced transition upon heat treatment, and the consequent oxidation of the reduced silver by a persulfate oxidant. These materials were characterized by electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction techniques. The long-term stability of both structures was also confirmed by optical microscopy and HPLC.

  18. Physical–chemical properties, separation performance, and fouling resistance of mixed-matrix ultrafiltration membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Hoek, Eric M.V.

    2011-12-01

    Herein we report on the formation and characterization of mixed-matrix ultrafiltration (UF) membranes hand-cast by nonsolvent induced phase inversion. We evaluated nanometer-to-micrometer sized inorganic fillers (silver, copper, silica, zeolite, and silver-zeolite) materials with polysulfone (PSf) as the polymeric dispersing matrix. In general, mixed-matrix membranes were rougher, more hydrophilic, and more mechanically robust. Only sub-micron zeolite-PSf mixed-matrix membranes exhibited simultaneous improvements in water permeability and solute selectivity; all other mixed-matrix membranes were more permeable, but less selective due to defects associated with poor polymer-filler binding. Protein and bacterial fouling resistance of mixed-matrix membranes containing silver, zeolite, and silver-zeolite nanoparticles were compared to a low-fouling, poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) UF membrane. Zeolite and silver containing membranes exhibited better protein fouling resistance (due to higher hydrophilicity), whereas silver and silver-zeolite based membranes produce better bacterial fouling resistance due to antimicrobial properties. Overall, zeolite-PSf and silver exchanged zeolite-PSf membranes offered the best combination of improved permeability, selectivity, and fouling resistance - superior to the commercial PAN membrane. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  19. High-flux oxygen-transporting membrane Pr(0.6)Sr(0.4)Co(0.5)Fe(0.5)O(3-δ): CO2 stability and microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partovi, Kaveh; Liang, Fangyi; Ravkina, Olga; Caro, Jürgen

    2014-07-09

    High oxygen permeability and good thermochemical stability of oxygen-transporting membranes (OTMs) are two main requirements concerning the applicability of these devices in chemical processes, such as CO2 capture using the oxyfuel concept or catalytic membrane reactors. In this work, a single-phase perovskite-type membrane Pr0.6Sr0.4Co0.5Fe0.5O3-δ (PSCF) with 0.6-mm thickness was subjected to periodic thermal cycling in the temperature range between 850 and 1000 °C in a 1000-h long-term permeation test with pure CO2 as the sweep gas. The results of this long-term permeation operation revealed a stepwise increase in oxygen permeation values at 1000 °C after each thermal cycle, reaching from 1.38 cm(3) (STP) min(-1) cm(-2) in the first cycle to 1.75 cm(3) (STP) min(-1) cm(-2) in the fourth cycle. Furthermore, the membrane showed very good CO2 stability at 900 °C and above. Despite a partial decrease in oxygen permeation fluxes at 850 °C, a steady state of 0.25 cm(3) (STP) min(-1) cm(-2) was reached and maintained for more than 100 h. The newly developed PSCF membrane also exhibited a higher oxygen permeation flux with He and CO2 sweeping at all measured temperatures compared to a similar La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (LSCF) membrane.

  20. Environmental impact of industrial sludge stabilization/solidification products: chemical or ecotoxicological hazard evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcos A R; Testolin, Renan C; Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2011-09-15

    Nowadays, the classification of industrial solid wastes is not based on risk analysis, thus the aim of this study was to compare the toxicity classifications based on the chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of four industrial sludges submitted to a two-step stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes. To classify S/S products as hazardous or non-hazardous, values cited in Brazilian chemical waste regulations were adopted and compared to the results obtained with a battery of biotests (bacteria, alga and daphnids) which were carried out with soluble and leaching fractions. In some cases the hazardous potential of industrial sludge was underestimated, since the S/S products obtained from the metal-mechanics and automotive sludges were chemically classified as non-hazardous (but non-inert) when the ecotoxicity tests showed toxicity values for leaching and soluble fractions. In other cases, the environmental impact was overestimated, since the S/S products of the textile sludges were chemically classified as non-inert (but non-hazardous) while ecotoxicity tests did not reveal any effects on bacteria, daphnids and algae. From the results of the chemical and ecotoxicological analyses we concluded that: (i) current regulations related to solid waste classification based on leachability and solubility tests do not ensure reliable results with respect to environmental protection; (ii) the two-step process was very effective in terms of metal immobilization, even at higher metal-concentrations. Considering that S/S products will be subject to environmental conditions, it is of great interest to test the ecotoxicity potential of the contaminants release from these products with a view to avoiding environmental impact given the unreliability of ecotoxicological estimations originating from chemical analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Involvement of the Cdc42 pathway in CFTR post-translational turnover and in its plasma membrane stability in airway epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Ferru-Clément

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR is a chloride channel that is expressed on the apical plasma membrane (PM of epithelial cells. The most common deleterious allele encodes a trafficking-defective mutant protein undergoing endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD and presenting lower PM stability. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the Cdc42 pathway in CFTR turnover and trafficking in a human bronchiolar epithelial cell line (CFBE41o- expressing wild-type CFTR. Cdc42 is a small GTPase of the Rho family that fulfils numerous cell functions, one of which is endocytosis and recycling process via actin cytoskeleton remodelling. When we treated cells with chemical inhibitors such as ML141 against Cdc42 and wiskostatin against the downstream effector N-WASP, we observed that CFTR channel activity was inhibited, in correlation with a decrease in CFTR amount at the cell surface and an increase in dynamin-dependent CFTR endocytosis. Anchoring of CFTR to the cortical cytoskeleton was then presumably impaired by actin disorganization. When we performed siRNA-mediated depletion of Cdc42, actin polymerization was not impacted, but we observed actin-independent consequences upon CFTR. Total and PM CFTR amounts were increased, resulting in greater activation of CFTR. Pulse-chase experiments showed that while CFTR degradation was slowed, CFTR maturation through the Golgi apparatus remained unaffected. In addition, we observed increased stability of CFTR in PM and reduction of its endocytosis. This study highlights the involvement of the Cdc42 pathway at several levels of CFTR biogenesis and trafficking: (i Cdc42 is implicated in the first steps of CFTR biosynthesis and processing; (ii it contributes to the stability of CFTR in PM via its anchoring to cortical actin; (iii it promotes CFTR endocytosis and presumably its sorting toward lysosomal degradation.

  2. Membrane alterations following toxic chemical insult. Research progress report No. 3 (Final), 15 July 1984-31 January 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, A.

    1988-03-10

    A procaryotic cell system was developed that can be used to determine the toxic action of chemicals acting at the level of the eucaryotic or procaryotic cytoplasmic membrane. Cell wall-less microbes known as mycoplasmas were used. In this current study, two perfluorinated fatty acids (CB and C10) were found to inhibit the growth of the test mycoplasmas. Two apparent activities, cytotoxicity and cytolysis, were observed. At high concentrations (>10 mM), a detergent-like action was noted. At low concentrations (<10 mM), cell death was observed without detectable cell lysis. Altering the cell membrane (the presumed target of the toxic compounds) resulted in altered levels to toxicity. Similar results were obtained when human or murine B-cells were used as the target organism. The toxic action of the perfluorinated fatty acids apparently involves some interaction with the membrane of the cells being treated.

  3. Stabilization of mitochondrial membrane potential prevents doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in isolated rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montaigne, David; Marechal, Xavier; Baccouch, Riadh; Modine, Thomas; Preau, Sebastien; Zannis, Konstantinos; Marchetti, Philippe; Lancel, Steve; Neviere, Remi

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of doxorubicin on left ventricular function and cellular energy state in intact isolated hearts, and, to test whether inhibition of mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation would prevent doxorubicin-induced mitochondrial and myocardial dysfunction. Myocardial contractile performance and mitochondrial respiration were evaluated by left ventricular tension and its first derivatives and cardiac fiber respirometry, respectively. NADH levels, mitochondrial membrane potential and glucose uptake were monitored non-invasively via epicardial imaging of the left ventricular wall of Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. Heart performance was reduced in a time-dependent manner in isolated rat hearts perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 1 μM doxorubicin. Compared with controls, doxorubicin induced acute myocardial dysfunction (dF/dt max of 105 ± 8 mN/s in control hearts vs. 49 ± 7 mN/s in doxorubicin-treated hearts; *p < 0.05). In cardiac fibers prepared from perfused hearts, doxorubicin induced depression of mitochondrial respiration (respiratory control ratio of 4.0 ± 0.2 in control hearts vs. 2.2 ± 0.2 in doxorubicin-treated hearts; *p < 0.05) and cytochrome c oxidase kinetic activity (24 ± 1 μM cytochrome c/min/mg in control hearts vs. 14 ± 3 μM cytochrome c/min/mg in doxorubicin-treated hearts; *p < 0.05). Acute cardiotoxicity induced by doxorubicin was accompanied by NADH redox state, mitochondrial membrane potential, and glucose uptake reduction. Inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening by cyclosporine A largely prevented mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, cardiac energy state and dysfunction. These results suggest that in intact hearts an impairment of mitochondrial metabolism is involved in the development of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity.

  4. Molecularly Designed Stabilized Asymmetric Hollow Fiber Membranes for Aggressive Natural Gas Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gongping; Li, Nanwen; Miller, Stephen J; Kim, Danny; Yi, Shouliang; Labreche, Ying; Koros, William J

    2016-10-24

    New rigid polyimides with bulky CF 3 groups were synthesized and engineered into high-performance hollow fiber membranes. The enhanced rotational barrier provided by properly positioned CF 3 side groups prohibited fiber transition layer collapse during cross-linking, thereby greatly improving CO 2 /CH 4 separation performance compared to conventional materials for aggressive natural gas feeds. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Chemical quality and oxidative stability of extra virgin olive oils from San Juan province (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Liliana N; Mattar, Susana B; Carelli, Amalia A

    2017-10-01

    This study provides information about the chemical quality (quality indices, fatty acid profile, total polyphenols (PPs), tocopherols and pigments) and oxidative stability index (OSI) of virgin olive oils of Arbequina, Changlot Real and Coratina cultivars (San Juan province, Argentina). The influence of the cultivar and the effect of earlier harvest dates on the yields (OY), quality and OSI of the oils were also evaluated. All the oils were classified as extra virgin. The OY (L/100kg) averaged: Arbequina=13.2, Changlot Real=21.3, Coratina=18.3. The oleic acid (O) percentage, oleic to linoleic plus linolenic ratio [O/(L+Ln)], PPs and OSI were highly dependent on cultivar (Arbequinachemical and nutritional quality, higher oxidative stability and a fatty acid profile according to the IOC trade standard. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stabilization of hazardous ash waste with newberyite-rich chemically bonded magnesium phosphate ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.; Jeong, S.Y.

    1995-11-01

    A novel newberyite-rich magnesium-phosphate ceramic, intended for the stabilization of the US Department of Energy's low-level mixed-waste streams, has been developed by an acid-base reaction between magnesium oxide and a phosphoric acid solution. The reaction slurry, formed at room temperature, sets rapidly and forms a lightweight hard ceramic with low open porosity and a high compression strength of ∼ 6,200 psi. It is a composite of stable mineral phases of newberyite, luenebergite, and residual Mg oxide. Using this matrix, the authors developed superior waste forms for a surrogate ash waste stream. The final waste form is a low-permeability structural-quality ceramic, in which hazardous contaminants are chemically fixed and physically encapsulated. The compression strength of the waste form is an order of magnitude higher than the land disposal requirement, even at high waste loading. The high compression strength is attributed to stronger bonds in the waste form that result from participation of ash waste in the setting reactions. Long-term leaching studies show that the waste form is stable in an aqueous environment. The chemically bonded phosphate ceramic approach in this study may be a simple, inexpensive, and efficient method for fabricating high-performance waste forms either for stabilizing waste streams or for developing value-added construction materials from high-volume benign waste streams

  7. Modification of Nafion Membranes by IL-Cation Exchange: Chemical Surface, Electrical and Interfacial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Romero

    2012-01-01

    A study of time evolution of the impedance curves measured in the system “IL aqueous solution/Nafion-112 membrane/IL aqueous solution” was also performed. This study allows us monitoring the electrical changes associated to the IL-cation incorporation in both the membrane and the membrane/IL solution interface, and it provides supplementary information on the characteristic of the Nafion/DTA+ hybrid material. Moreover, the results also show the significant effect of water on the electrical resistance of the Nafion-112/IL-cation-modified membrane.

  8. Impact of hydration state and molecular oxygen on the chemical stability of levothyroxine sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Mazen Lee; Engen, William; Morris, Kenneth R

    2015-05-01

    Levothyroxine sodium is an important medication used primarily for treating patients with hypothyroidism. Levothyroxine sodium tablets have been recalled many times since their 1955 introduction to the US market. These recalls resulted from the failure of lots to meet their content uniformity and potency specifications. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that the chemical stability of levothyroxine sodium pentahydrate is compromised upon exposing the dehydrated substance to molecular oxygen. The impact of temperature, oxygen and humidity storage conditions on the stability of solid-state levothyroxine sodium was examined. After exposure to these storage conditions for selected periods of time, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to quantify the formation of impurities. The results showed that levothyroxine sodium samples degraded significantly over a 32-day test period when subjected to dry conditions in the presence of molecular oxygen. However, dehydrated samples remained stable when oxygen was removed from the storage chamber. Furthermore, hydrated samples were stable in the presence of oxygen and in the absence of oxygen. These results reveal conditions that will degrade levothyroxine sodium pentahydrate and elucidate measures that can be taken to stabilize the drug substance.

  9. Selective Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Cubic FeGe Nanowires That Support Stabilized Magnetic Skyrmions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, Matthew J; Li, Zi-An; Phillips, Brandon; Song, Dongsheng; Mathur, Nitish; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Jin, Song

    2017-01-11

    Magnetic skyrmions are topologically stable vortex-like spin structures that are promising for next generation information storage applications. Materials that host magnetic skyrmions, such as MnSi and FeGe with the noncentrosymmetric cubic B20 crystal structure, have been shown to stabilize skyrmions upon nanostructuring. Here, we report a chemical vapor deposition method to selectively grow nanowires (NWs) of cubic FeGe out of three possible FeGe polymorphs for the first time using finely ground particles of cubic FeGe as seeds. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirm that these micron-length NWs with ∼100 nm to 1 μm diameters have the cubic B20 crystal structure. Although Fe 13 Ge 8 NWs are also formed, the two types of NWs can be readily differentiated by their faceting. Lorentz TEM imaging of the cubic FeGe NWs reveals a skyrmion lattice phase under small applied magnetic fields (∼0.1 T) at 233 K, a skyrmion chain state at lower temperatures (95 K) and under high magnetic fields (∼0.4 T), and a larger skyrmion stability window than bulk FeGe. This synthetic approach to cubic FeGe NWs that support stabilized skyrmions opens a route toward the exploration of new skyrmion physics and devices based on similar nanostructures.

  10. Chemical composition and oxidative stability of Tunisian monovarietal virgin olive oils with regard to fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccouri, Olfa; Guerfel, Mokhtar; Baccouri, Bechir; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Bendini, Alessandra; Lercker, Giovanni; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Daoud Ben Miled, Douja

    2008-08-15

    The chemical composition of virgin olive oil may be influenced by genotype and different agronomic (i.e. fruit ripeness degree, water supply) and technological factors. This article reports the evaluation of the influence of the olive ripening stage on the quality indices, the major and the minor components and the oxidative stability of the two main monovarietal Tunisian cultivars (cvv. Chétoui and Chemlali) virgin olive oils. Moreover, the olives cv. Chétoui were tested in a rain-fed control and an irrigation regime. The oils sampled at five different ripeness stages were submitted to liquid chromatographic determination (HPLC-DAD/MSD) of their quali-quantitative phenolic and tocopherolic profiles. Moreover, the triacylglycerol and fatty acid compositions, and minor components such as squalene, pigments and their relation with the oil oxidative stability were evaluated. The tested oils showed very good correlation between the oxidative stability and the concentrations of total phenols, practically secoiridoids and α-tocopherol. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Organosilica Membrane with Ionic Liquid Properties for Separation of Toluene/H₂ Mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Yuichiro; Maeda, Yohei; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Manabu; Nishiyama, Norikazu

    2017-08-03

    In this study, we present a new concept in chemically stabilized ionic liquid membranes: an ionic liquid organosilica (ILOS) membrane, which is an organosilica membrane with ionic liquid-like properties. A silylated ionic liquid was used as a precursor for synthesis. The permselectivity, permeation mechanism, and stability of the membrane in the H₂/toluene binary system were then compared with a supported ionic liquid membrane. The membrane showed a superior separation factor of toluene/H₂ (>17,000) in a binary mixture system based on a solution-diffusion mechanism with improved durability over the supported ionic liquid membrane.

  12. Chemical Genetic Screening Identifies Sulfonamides That Raise Organellar pH and Interfere with Endocytic and Exocytic Membrane Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieland, Thomas J. F.; Feng, Yan; Brown, Jing Xu; Chuang, Tuan Daniel; Buckett, Peter D.; Wang, Jin; Xie, Xiao-Song; McGraw, Timothy E.; Kirchhausen, Tomas; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Chemical genetics seeks to identify small molecules that afford functional dissection of cell biological pathways. Previous screens for small molecule inhibitors of exocytic membrane traffic yielded the identification and characterization of several compounds that block traffic from the Golgi to the cell surface as well as transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi network. Here, we screened these inhibitors for potential effects on endocytic membrane traffic. Two structurally related sulfonamides were found to be potent and reversible inhibitors of transferrin-mediated iron uptake. These inhibitors do not block endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi transport, but do disrupt Golgi-to-cell surface traffic. The compounds are members of a novel class of sulfonamides that elevate endosomal and lysosomal pH, down-regulate cell surface receptors, and impair recycling of internalized transferrin receptors to the plasma membrane. In vitro experiments revealed that the sulfonamides directly inhibit adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis by the V-ATPase and that they also possess a potent proton ionophore activity. While maintenance of organellar pH is known to be a critical factor in both endocytosis and exocytosis, the precise role of acidification, beyond the uncoupling of ligands from their receptors, remains largely unknown. Identification of this novel class of sulfonamide inhibitors provides new chemical tools to better understand the function of organelle pH in membrane traffic and the activity of V-ATPases in particular. PMID:15180825

  13. A study of chemical modifications of a Nafion membrane by incorporation of different room temperature ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez de Yuso, M.V.; Rodriguez-Castellon, E. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga (Spain); Neves, L.A.; Coelhoso, I.M.; Crespo, J.G. [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Benavente, J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Surface and bulk chemical changes in a Nafion membrane as a result of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) incorporation were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and elemental analysis, respectively. RTILs with different physicochemical properties were selected. Two imidazolium based RTIL-cations (1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) were used to detect the effect of cation size on membrane modification, while the effect of the RTIL hydrophilic/hydrophobic character was also considered by choosing different anions. Angle resolved XPS measurements (ARXPS) were carried out varying the angle of analysis between 15 and 75 to get elemental information on the Nafion/RTIL-modified membranes interactions for a deepness of around 10 nm. Moreover, changes in the RTIL-modified membranes associated to thermal effect were also considered by analyzing the samples after their heating at 120 C for 24 h. Agreement between both chemical techniques, bulk and destructive elemental analysis and surface and non-destructive XPS, were obtained. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Evaluation of hexahydrated magnesium chloride (Bischofite performance as a chemical stabilizer of granular road surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thenoux, G.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Hexahydrated Magnesium Chloride or Bischofite is a salt. It has different properties that enable it to be useful as a chemical stabilizer of granular road surfaces: its capacity of absorbing and retaining humidity from its surrounding environment, increases water surface tension and decreases its vapor pressure. The objective of this research was to evaluate Bischofite performance as a chemical stabilizer of granular road surfaces. Research was based on laboratory tests and the evaluation of test road sections of granular road surfaces stabilized with Bischofite in arid and semi-arid zones of Chile. In general, the field trial results have been more conclusive than the laboratory tests. The use of Bischofite creates a stable granular road surface, reduces potholes, corrugations, erosion and dust emissions, and improves the riding quality.

    El Cloruro de Magnesio Hexahidratado o Bischofita es una sal. Ésta posee diversas propiedades que permiten su uso potencial como estabilizador químico de capas de rodadura granulares: capacidad de absorber y retener la humedad del ambiente circundante, incrementa la tensión superficial del agua y reduce la presión de vapor del agua. La investigación tuvo el propósito de evaluar la efectividad de la Bischofita como estabilizador químico de caminos no pavimentados, y se basa en resultados de ensayos de laboratorio y la evaluación de tramos de prueba de capas de rodadura estabilizadas con Bischofita en zonas áridas y semi-áridas de Chile. En general, los resultados de terreno han sido más significativos que los de laboratorio, observándose que la adición de Bischofita permite obtener una capa de rodadura estable, reduce la formación de baches, corrugaciones, pérdida de áridos y emisiones de polvo, y mejora la calidad de rodadura.

  15. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-10-01

    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  16. Biopores/membrane proteins in synthetic polymer membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garni, Martina; Thamboo, Sagana; Schoenenberger, Cora-Ann; Palivan, Cornelia G

    2017-04-01

    Mimicking cell membranes by simple models based on the reconstitution of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers represents a straightforward approach to understand biological function of these proteins. This biomimetic strategy has been extended to synthetic membranes that have advantages in terms of chemical and mechanical stability, thus providing more robust hybrid membranes. We present here how membrane proteins and biopores have been inserted both in the membrane of nanosized and microsized compartments, and in planar membranes under various conditions. Such bio-hybrid membranes have new properties (as for example, permeability to ions/molecules), and functionality depending on the specificity of the inserted biomolecules. Interestingly, membrane proteins can be functionally inserted in synthetic membranes provided these have appropriate properties to overcome the high hydrophobic mismatch between the size of the biomolecule and the membrane thickness. Functional insertion of membrane proteins and biopores in synthetic membranes of compartments or in planar membranes is possible by an appropriate selection of the amphiphilic copolymers, and conditions of the self-assembly process. These hybrid membranes have new properties and functionality based on the specificity of the biomolecules and the nature of the synthetic membranes. Bio-hybrid membranes represent new solutions for the development of nanoreactors, artificial organelles or active surfaces/membranes that, by further gaining in complexity and functionality, will promote translational applications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid order/lipid defects and lipid-control of protein activity edited by Dirk Schneider. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Effect of Cation Ordering on the Performance and Chemical Stability of Layered Double Perovskite Cathodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bernuy-Lopez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of A-site cation ordering on the cathode performance and chemical stability of A-site cation ordered LaBaCo2O5+δ and disordered La0.5Ba0.5CoO3−δ materials are reported. Symmetric half-cells with a proton-conducting BaZr0.9Y0.1O3−δ electrolyte were prepared by ceramic processing, and good chemical compatibility of the materials was demonstrated. Both A-site ordered LaBaCo2O5+δ and A-site disordered La0.5Ba0.5CoO3−δ yield excellent cathode performance with Area Specific Resistances as low as 7.4 and 11.5 Ω·cm2 at 400 °C and 0.16 and 0.32 Ω·cm2 at 600 °C in 3% humidified synthetic air respectively. The oxygen vacancy concentration, electrical conductivity, basicity of cations and crystal structure were evaluated to rationalize the electrochemical performance of the two materials. The combination of high-basicity elements and high electrical conductivity as well as sufficient oxygen vacancy concentration explains the excellent performance of both LaBaCo2O5+δ and La0.5Ba0.5CoO3−δ materials at high temperatures. At lower temperatures, oxygen-deficiency in both materials is greatly reduced, leading to decreased performance despite the high basicity and electrical conductivity. A-site cation ordering leads to a higher oxygen vacancy concentration, which explains the better performance of LaBaCo2O5+δ. Finally, the more pronounced oxygen deficiency of the cation ordered polymorph and the lower chemical stability at reducing conditions were confirmed by coulometric titration.

  18. Unique battery with an active membrane separator having uniform physico-chemically functionalized ion channels and a method making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Ruscic, Katarina J [Chicago, IL; Sears, Devin N [Spruce Grove, CA; Smith, Luis J [Natick, MA; Klingler, Robert J [Glenview, IL; Rathke, Jerome W [Homer Glen, IL

    2012-02-21

    The invention relates to a unique battery having an active, porous membrane and method of making the same. More specifically the invention relates to a sealed battery system having a porous, metal oxide membrane with uniform, physicochemically functionalized ion channels capable of adjustable ionic interaction. The physicochemically-active porous membrane purports dual functions: an electronic insulator (separator) and a unidirectional ion-transporter (electrolyte). The electrochemical cell membrane is activated for the transport of ions by contiguous ion coordination sites on the interior two-dimensional surfaces of the trans-membrane unidirectional pores. The membrane material is designed to have physicochemical interaction with ions. Control of the extent of the interactions between the ions and the interior pore walls of the membrane and other materials, chemicals, or structures contained within the pores provides adjustability of the ionic conductivity of the membrane.

  19. Chemically induced alterations in the characteristics of fouling-causing bio-macromolecules - Implications for the chemical cleaning of fouled membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongbo; He, Xiang; Zhou, Minghao; Meng, Fangang

    2017-01-01

    Chemical cleaning is an essential process for the permeability recovery of fouled membranes, which is highly related to the interactions between chemicals and bio-macromolecules in fouling layers. In this study, three bio-macromolecules (i.e., effluent biopolymers (i.e., 0.45 μm-100 kDa) from a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and dextran) were exposed to different chemicals (i.e., NaClO, H 2 O 2 , NaOH, and HCl) with varied concentrations to understand the changes in their properties and functional groups. The results showed that exposure to oxidants and alkali decreased the consistency index of all bio-macromolecules. With an increased oxidant dose, the molecular sizes of effluent biopolymers and dextran continuously reduced because of the oxidative cleavage of the long molecule chains. However, the molecular size of BSA sharply increased after being treated with oxidants and alkali, likely due to the cross-linkage of protein molecules. Three-dimensional fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (3D-EEM) spectra showed that the aromatic protein-like and humic substances in the effluent biopolymers were destructed readily during the treatments of oxidants and alkali. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyse further confirmed that exposures to NaClO, H 2 O 2 and NaOH led to the destruction of protein structures (i.e., amide I, II and III), the increase of carbonyl and carboxyl groups, and the decrease of fatty acids/lipids, all of which could make the bio-macromolecules more hydrophilic. Most importantly, the bio-macromolecules exposed to chemicals had better filterability, and their permeability through membranes also significantly increased, which could be explained well by the above analysis. The chemical cleaning mechanisms of fouled membranes are understood in depth in this study, and all of the results shed light on the implementation of on-line chemical enhanced

  20. Rescue of glaucoma-causing mutant myocilin thermal stability by chemical chaperones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J. Nicole; Orwig, Susan D.; Harris, Julia L.; Watkins, J. Derrick; Vollrath, Douglas; Lieberman, Raquel L.

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in myocilin cause an inherited form of open angle glaucoma, a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder associated with increased intraocular pressure. Myocilin forms part of the trabecular meshwork extracellular matrix presumed to regulate intraocular pressure. Missense mutations, clustered in the olfactomedin (OLF) domain of myocilin, render the protein prone to aggregation in the endoplasmic reticulum of trabecular meshwork cells, causing cell dysfunction and death. Cellular studies have demonstrated temperature-sensitive secretion of myocilin mutants, but difficulties in expression and purification have precluded biophysical characterization of wild-type (wt) myocilin and disease-causing mutants in vitro. We have overcome these limitations by purifying wt and select glaucoma-causing mutant (D380A, I477N, I477S, K423E) forms of the OLF domain (228–504) fused to maltose binding protein (MBP) from E. coli. Monomeric fusion proteins can be isolated in solution. To determine the relative stability of wt and mutant OLF domains, we developed a fluorescence thermal stability assay without removal of MBP, and provide the first direct evidence that mutated OLF is folded but less thermally stable than wt. We tested the ability of seven chemical chaperones to stabilize mutant myocilin. Only sarcosine and trimethylamine N-oxide were capable of shifting the melting temperature of all mutants tested to near that of wt OLF. Our work lays the foundation for the identification of tailored small molecules capable of stabilizing mutant myocilin and promoting secretion to the extracellular matrix, to better control intraocular pressure and ultimately delay the onset of myocilin glaucoma. PMID:20334347

  1. Membrane Fouling and Chemical Cleaning in Three Full-Scale Reverse Osmosis Plants Producing Demineralized Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyer, Florian; Laurinonyte, Judita; Zwijnenburg, Arie; Stams, Alfons J.M.; Plugge, Caroline M.

    2017-01-01

    Membrane fouling and cleaning were studied in three reverse osmosis (RO) plants. Feed water was secondary wastewater effluent, river water, and surface water. Membrane autopsies were used for fouling characterization. Fouling layer measurements included total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine

  2. Novel flexible chemical gas sensor based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanotube membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Seok; Park, Eunyu; Kweon, O Young; Park, Seon Joo; Jang, Jyongsik

    2010-09-15

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanotubes (PEDOT NTs) flexible membrane was successfully fabricated by vapor deposition polymerization (VDP) mediated electrospinning for ammonia gas detection. PVA nanofibers (NFs) were electrospun as a core part and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/PEDOT coaxial nanocables (NCs) were prepared by VDP method via EDOT monomer adsorption onto the electrospun PVA NFs as templates. To obtain the PEDOT NTs membrane, the PVA NFs were removed from PVA/PEDOT coaxial NCs with distilled water. PVA/PEDOT coaxial NCs and PEDOT NTs had the conductivities of 71 and 61 Scm(-1) and were applied as a transducer for ammonia gas detection in the range of 1-100 parts per million (ppm) of NH(3) gas. They exhibited the minimum detectable level of ca. 5 parts per million (ppm) and fast response time (less than 1s) towards ammonia gas. In a recovery time, the PEDOT NTs membrane sensor was ca. 30s and shorter compared to that of the membrane sensor based on the PVA/PEDOT NCs (ca. 50s). In addition, sensor performance of PEDOT NTs membrane was also undertaken as a function of membrane thickness. Thick membrane sensor (30 microm) had the enhanced sensitivity and the sensitivity on the membrane thickness was in the order of 30 microm>20 microm>10 microm at 60 ppm of NH(3) gas. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Stabilization of contaminated soil and wastewater with chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, A.S.; Jeong, S.Y.; Singh, D.

    1997-01-01

    At Argonne National Laboratory, we have developed chemically Bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) technology to stabilize the U.S. Department of Energy's problem mixed waste streams, for which no other stabilization technology is suitable. In this technology, solid waste is mixed with MgO and reacted with aqueous solutions of phosphoric acid or acid phosphates at room temperature to form a slurry that sets in ∼2 h into a hard and dense ceramic waste form. Initial studies involved stabilizing the surrogate waste streams and then testing the waste forms for leaching of contaminants. After achieving satisfactory performance of the waste forms, we next incorporated actual waste streams at bench scale and produced waste forms that were then tested with the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). This presentation deals with stabilization of soil contaminated with Cd, Cr, Pb, Ag, Ba, and Hg, and of low-level radioactive wastewater. To enhance the contaminant levels in the soil, we further spiked the soil with additional amounts of Cd, Cr, Pb, and Hg. Both the soil and the wastewater were incorporated in the same waste form by stabilizing them with the CBPC process. The waste forms had a total waste loading of ∼77 wt.% and were dense with an open porosity of 2.7 vol.% and a density of 2.17 g/cm 3 . Compression strength was 4910 psi. The TCLP results showed excellent immobilization of all the RCRA metals, and radioactive contaminant levels were below the detection limit of 0.2 pCi/mL. Long-term leaching studies using the ANS 16.1 procedure showed that the retention of contaminants is excellent and comparable to or better than most of other stabilization processes. These results demonstrate that the CBPC process is a very superior process for treatment of low level mixed wastes; we therefore conclude that the CBPC process is well suited to the treatment of low-level mixed waste streams with high waste loading

  4. Functional and chemical stability of a medicinal herb, Artemisia capillaris, following gamma sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Uhee; Jeong, Ill Yun; Bae, Mun Hyoung; Byun, Myung Woo; Jo, Sung Kee [Radiation Research Center for Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    The stability of functional and chemical properties of gamma-irradiated (10 kGy) Artemisia capillaris, a widely used herb in the traditional Oriental medicine, was investigated. Functional properties of the extracts of gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated A. capillaris were compared in antioxidant activities, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and protection of lymphocyte and plasmid DNA. Their chemical properties were assessed by HPLC analysis, comparing with chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid, which were isolated from ethylacetate fraction as major compounds with strong antioxidant activities. No significant difference in functional properties between irradiated and non-irradiated A. capillaris was found in all antioxidant assays. Also HPLC analysis of ethyl acetate fractions of irradiated and non-irradiated A. capillaris revealed the preservation of chlorogenic acid ({sub t}R=3.124 min) and caffeic acid ({sub t}R=3.672 min), and showed almost the same pattern in the general peaks. These results suggest that the chemical components and antioxidant properties of A. capillaris are not affected largely by gamma-ray irradiation. Therefore, this study may provide evidence that the irradiated herbs retain their potential functional properties.

  5. Chemical and microbiological stability of waste sludge from paper industry intended for brick production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernec, Franc; Zule, Janja; Moze, Adolf; Ivanus, Alenka

    2005-04-01

    Due to its chemical composition, waste sludge generated in the paper industry may be used as a raw material for brick production. Brick manufacture is limited to the warmer months of the year whereas sludge is produced continuously by different effluent treatment devices. Therefore, it has to be stored until further processing. For this reason, it is essential that it is not subject to significant chemical and microbiological decomposition during storage. In the experiment, sludge from a tissue paper mill was tested for its stability. It was stored for several weeks during winter and summer periods in a pile, 2 m in height, in an open but covered store. Different leachable organic and inorganic compounds indicating possible ongoing deterioration processes, as well as pH value, redox potential, temperature, humidity and dry matter content were evaluated weekly in water extracts of homogenized sludge samples. According to the test results, the material may be considered to be chemically and microbiologically stable as there was practically no emission of odorous and toxic compounds such as H2S, NH3 and butyric acid despite prolonged storage times and elevated environmental temperatures. All the microbial species identified in the sludge during storage belong to the typical microflora of the environment.

  6. Wellbore Stability in Oil and Gas Drilling with Chemical-Mechanical Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanliang Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wellbore instability in oil and gas drilling is resulted from both mechanical and chemical factors. Hydration is produced in shale formation owing to the influence of the chemical property of drilling fluid. A new experimental method to measure diffusion coefficient of shale hydration is given, and the calculation method of experimental results is introduced. The diffusion coefficient of shale hydration is measured with the downhole temperature and pressure condition, then the penetration migrate law of drilling fluid filtrate around the wellbore is calculated. Furthermore, the changing rules of shale mechanical properties affected by hydration and water absorption are studied through experiments. The relationships between shale mechanical parameters and the water content are established. The wellbore stability model chemical-mechanical coupling is obtained based on the experimental results. Under the action of drilling fluid, hydration makes the shale formation softened and produced the swelling strain after drilling. This will lead to the collapse pressure increases after drilling. The study results provide a reference for studying hydration collapse period of shale.

  7. Correlations of the glycemic variability with oxidative stress and erythrocytes membrane stability in patients with type 1 diabetes under intensive treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ricardo; Alves de Medeiros, Luciana; Moreira Cunha, Lucas; da Silva Garrote-Filho, Mario; Bernardino Neto, Morun; Tannus Jorge, Paulo; Santos Resende, Elmiro; Penha-Silva, Nilson

    2018-02-07

    This study aimed to evaluate the correlations of glycemic variability with erythrocyte membrane stability parameters and oxidative stress markers in patients with DM1 under intensive treatment. 90 patients with DM1 and under intensive treatment of the disease were evaluated in relation to anthropometric indices, records of glycemic averages and parameters of glycemic variability, biochemical dosages (glucose, uric acid, lipidogram, glycated hemoglobin, microalbuminuria, creatinine and iron) reticulocyte count, erythrocyte membrane stability parameters and oxidative stress markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS, and glutathione reductase, GR). Indicators of glycemic variability in the short and long term showed correlations with parameters of membrane stability and markers of oxidative stress (GR). In addition, the comparison of these same parameters between the subgroups consisting of quartiles of GV or glycemic control also showed significant differences. In the DM1 patients studied here, glycemic variability showed correlations with oxidative stress and erythrocyte membrane stability variables. This corroborates the hypothesis that glycemic fluctuations interfere with lipid peroxidation and cell membrane behavior, emphasizing its participation in mechanisms related to the development of chronic complications of diabetes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Stability of Dry Probiotic Bacteria in Relation to the Cellular Membrane and Genomic DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marie-Louise Rittermann W

    powders to infant formula and functional foods, e.g. cereal and chocolate bars. Part of production of the probiotic product often includes freeze-drying of the probiotic bacteria. Drying is necessary in the preparation of dry powders, and to increase shelf life of the product at ambient temperatures......Lactic acid bacteria are used in a wide range of fermented dairy and meat products. Several strains of lactic acid bacteria are associated with health benefits upon digestion, and are known as probiotic bacteria. Probiotic bacteria can be produced for dietary supplements, but are also added as dry....... Freeze-drying and storage of probiotic bacteria can, however, also have a negative effect on cell stability. It is important to understand the processes, which can lead to loss of cell stability during dry storage in order to develop more stable probiotic products. The purpose of the present PhD thesis...

  9. Application of membrane LaF3 electrode in the determination of stability constants of Uranyl Fluoride complex in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzakky; Iswani GS; Mintolo

    1996-01-01

    A membrane electrode LaF 3 has been applied in the determination of uranyl fluoride complex stability constant in solution. The determination is based on the detection of free F ion in solution as a result of hydrolysis reaction (process) of uranyl ions into the uranyl hydroxide form at low pH. The experiment results showed that there was no effect of ammonium carbonate 2 M titran, flow rate on the electrode response. The F release is optimum at pH 1. The free F ion in solution is calculated from the standard curve at pH 1, after the fluoride concentration at the same pH has been corrected. Using the plot of average number of ligand binding (n) versus minus log of free ligand (-log F) the value of β1 = 4.4, β2 = 7.48, β3=9.73, and β4 = 11.67

  10. Thermo chemical stability of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles under intense pulsed light irradiation and high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colorado, H.A., E-mail: hcoloradolopera@ucla.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Universidad de Antioquia, Mechanical Engineering, Medellin (Colombia); Dhage, S.R. [International Advanced Research Center for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), Hyderabad 500005 (India); Hahn, H.T. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > In this paper is about the thermochemical stability of CdS nanoparticles under Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) irradiation. > After few irradiation shots over the nano-particles, CdS pillars appeared without phase transformation. > No oxidation was observed during the treatment process. > CdS nanoparticles are thermally stable until around 400 deg. C and 600 deg. C for air and argon atmospheres respectively. > It has been studied and demonstrated the stability of CdS nanoparticles under intense pulsed light and under high temperature conditions. - Abstract: Thermo chemical stability of CdS nanoparticles under an Intense Pulsed Light from a xenon flash lamp and high temperature X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were investigated. The CdS nanoparticles were obtained with a chemical bath method. The CdSO{sub 4} (0.16 M) solution was added to an NH{sub 3} (7.5 M) solution under constant stirring. Afterwards, a thiourea (0.6 M) solution was added. The bath temperature and pH were maintained at 65 deg. C and 10, respectively and the mixture was stirred constantly until a solid precipitate of yellow CdS was produced. Its microstructure was investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy, and its electronic properties were determined by UV-visible and Photo luminescence Spectroscopy. The microstructure of the sintered CdS nanoparticles, obtained the high temperature XRD, was investigated with EDAX and X-ray micro Tomography. In addition, high temperature XRD and Themogravimetric Analysis tests were conducted over the samples. The CdS nanoparticles' crystallinity increased with the irradiation exposure and they were thermally stable until 600 deg. C in argon atmosphere. However new phases start to appear after annealing at 400 deg. C for 30 min in air atmosphere. The main contribution of this paper was to investigate the stability of CdS nanoparticles under intense light and high temperature conditions. It was found that the number of irradiation shots conducted with the

  11. Comment on the Long-Term Chemical and Mineralogical Stability of the Buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Randy; Apted, Mick; Stenhouse, Mike

    2005-03-01

    This report examines concepts and data that SKB may use to assess the long-term chemical and mineralogical evolution of bentonite barriers in a KBS-3 repository for spent nuclear fuel. Three interrelated topics are considered: mineral chemistry of the smectite clays; thermodynamic stability of the smectite clays; and bentonite-water interactions during the early thermal period of repository evolution. Smectites are complex solid solutions having variable compositions resulting from ionic substitutions on exchange, octahedral and tetrahedral sites in the crystalline lattice. Although little is known about the mechanisms and rates of reactions involving the latter two sites, abundant observational evidence from natural systems suggests that such reactions could occur to an appreciable extent in the buffer over the million year time frame being considered for an intact canister. We are not aware of any efforts in SKB's current modeling strategy to account for such reactions, and therefore question whether the strategy is appropriate for modeling the long-term chemical evolution of the buffer and associated potential effects on the desirable physical and rheological properties of this barrier material. The variable chemistry of smectites affects their thermodynamic stability. Models of smectite-water equilibria use either a fixed stoichiometric composition to approximate representative smectite varieties, or account for compositional variations using solid solution models and ideal mixing relations among thermodynamic components. In either case the thermodynamic properties of a specific smectite composition or of individual solid-solution components must usually be estimated. Recent reports suggest that SKB will not account explicitly for the thermodynamic properties of smectite in its models of bentonite-water interactions. Rather, the models will assume that this clay mineral has a fixed, though unspecified, composition representing an ion-exchanger phase. This phase

  12. Influences of the Structure of Lipids on Thermal Stability of Lipid Membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai Nan-Nan; Zhou Xin; Li Ming

    2015-01-01

    The binding free energy (BFE) of lipid to lipid bilayer is a critical factor to determine the thermal or mechanical stability of the bilayer. Although the molecular structure of lipids has significant impacts on BFE of the lipid, there lacks a systematic study on this issue. In this paper we use coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation to investigate this problem for several typical phospholipids. We find that both the tail length and tail unsaturation can significantly affect the BFE of lipids but in opposite way, namely, BFE decreases linearly with increasing length, but increases linearly with addition of unsaturated bonds. Inspired by the specific structure of cholesterol which is a crucial component of biomembrane, we also find that introduction of carbo-ring-like structures to the lipid tail or to the bilayer may greatly enhance the stability of the bilayer. Our simulation also shows that temperature can influence the bilayer stability and this effect can be significant when the bilayer undergoes phase transition. These results may be helpful to the design of liposome or other self-assembled lipid systems. (paper)

  13. Artificial-enzyme gel membrane-based biosurveillance sensor with high reproducibility and long-term storage stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, Shinya; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Haruyama, Tetsuya

    2009-02-01

    We propose that the most sophisticated strategy for primary biosurveillance is to exploit structural commonality through the detection of biologically relevant phosphoric substances. A novel assay, an artificial-enzyme membrane was designed and synthesized for sensor fabrication. This artificial-enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of the diphosphoric acid anhydride structure. This structure-selective, albeit not molecule-selective, catalytic hydrolysis was successfully coupled with amperometric detection. Since the catalytic reaction produces a dephosphorylation product (PO(4)(3-)), it can be reduced by an electrode potential of -250 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. Owing to the structural selectivity of the artificial-enzyme membrane, the sensor can detect biological phosphoric substances comprehensively that have the diphosphoric acid anhydride structure. The sensor successfully determined various biological phosphoric substances at concentrations in the micromolar (microM) to millimolar (mM) range, and it showed good functional stability and reproducibility in terms of sensor responses. This sensor was used to detect Escherichia coli lysed by heat treatment, and the response increased with increasing bacterial numbers. This unique technique for analyzing molecular commonality can be applied to the surveillance of biocontaminants, e.g. microorganisms, spores and viruses. Artificial-enzyme-based detection is a novel strategy for practical biosurveillance in the front line.

  14. The effect of peptides and ions interacting with an electrically neutral membrane interface on the structure and stability of lipid membranes in the liquid-crystalline phase and in the liquid-ordered phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Ryoko [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, 422-8529 (Japan); Masum, Shah Md [Material Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shizuoka University, 422-8529 (Japan); Tanaka, Tomoki [Material Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shizuoka University, 422-8529 (Japan); Yamashita, Yuko [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, 422-8529 (Japan); Levadny, Victor [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, 422-8529 (Japan); Scientific Council for Cybernetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilov street 34, 333117, Moscow (Russian Federation); Yamazaki, Masahito [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, 422-8529 (Japan); Material Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shizuoka University, 422-8529 (Japan)

    2005-08-10

    We investigated the effects of a de novo designed peptide, WLFLLKKK (peptide-1) and La{sup 3+}, which can bind with the electrically neutral lipid membrane interface, on the stability of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) membrane in the L{sub {alpha}} phase and that of the liquid-ordered (lo) phase membranes. The results of spacing of the multilamellar vesicle and shape changes of the giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) indicate that the peptide-1 can be partitioned into the membrane interface in the L{sub {alpha}} phase but not into that in the lo phase. La{sup 3+} induced shape changes of GUVs of the lo phase membrane, which are the same as those of GUVs in the L{sub {alpha}} phase. This indicates that the binding of La{sup 3+} induced an increase in the lateral compression pressure of the membrane, which decreased the surface area of the membrane in the lo phase. The difference of the membrane interface between the L{sub {alpha}} phase and the lo phase is discussed.

  15. The effect of peptides and ions interacting with an electrically neutral membrane interface on the structure and stability of lipid membranes in the liquid-crystalline phase and in the liquid-ordered phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Ryoko; Masum, Shah Md; Tanaka, Tomoki; Yamashita, Yuko; Levadny, Victor; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a de novo designed peptide, WLFLLKKK (peptide-1) and La 3+ , which can bind with the electrically neutral lipid membrane interface, on the stability of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) membrane in the L α phase and that of the liquid-ordered (lo) phase membranes. The results of spacing of the multilamellar vesicle and shape changes of the giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) indicate that the peptide-1 can be partitioned into the membrane interface in the L α phase but not into that in the lo phase. La 3+ induced shape changes of GUVs of the lo phase membrane, which are the same as those of GUVs in the L α phase. This indicates that the binding of La 3+ induced an increase in the lateral compression pressure of the membrane, which decreased the surface area of the membrane in the lo phase. The difference of the membrane interface between the L α phase and the lo phase is discussed

  16. Stability of Dry Probiotic Bacteria in Relation to the Cellular Membrane and Genomic DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marie-Louise Rittermann W

    was to investigate the processes, which occur in the probiotic cell during dry storage and could lead to loss of cell culturability. Interest was more specifically on the cytoplasmic membrane and the genomic DNA. The bacterial response to fatty acid supplementation was investigated with respect to the cytoplasmic...... DNA of B. animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and L. acidophilus La-5 was investigated. During dry storage the loss of cell culturability was found to correlate well with the degradation of DNA for both strains. Integrity of DNA was, similarly to the loss of culturability, negatively affected by the presence......Lactic acid bacteria are used in a wide range of fermented dairy and meat products. Several strains of lactic acid bacteria are associated with health benefits upon digestion, and are known as probiotic bacteria. Probiotic bacteria can be produced for dietary supplements, but are also added as dry...

  17. Method for Producing Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics and for Stabilizing Contaminants Encapsulated therein Utilizing Reducing Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dileep; Wagh, Arun S.; Jeong, Seung-Young

    1999-05-05

    Known phosphate ceramic formulations are improved and the ability to produce iron-based phosphate ceramic systems is enabled by the addition of an oxidizing or reducing step during the acid-base reactions that form the phosphate ceramic products. The additives allow control of the rate of the acid-base reactions and concomitant heat generation. In an alternate embodiment, waste containing metal anions is stabilized in phosphate ceramic products by the addition of a reducing agent to the phosphate ceramic mixture. The reduced metal ions are more stable and/or reactive with the phosphate ions, resulting in the formation of insoluble metal species within the phosphate ceramic matrix, such that the resulting chemically bonded phosphate ceramic product has greater leach resistance.

  18. YNi and its hydrides: Phase stabilities, electronic structures and chemical bonding properties from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matar, S.F., E-mail: matar@icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.fr [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 avenue du Docteur Albert Schweitzer, F-33608 Pessac (France); Nakhl, M. [Universite Libanaise, Laboratoire de Chimie-Physique des Materiaux LCPM, Fanar (Lebanon); Al Alam, A.F.; Ouaini, N. [Universite Saint-Esprit de Kaslik, Faculte des Sciences et de Genie Informatique, Jounieh (Lebanon); Chevalier, B. [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 avenue du Docteur Albert Schweitzer, F-33608 Pessac (France)

    2010-11-25

    Graphical abstract: Base centered orthorhombic YNiH{sub X} structure. For x = 3, only H1 and H2 are present. Highest hydrogen content YNiH{sub 4} is obtained when H3 are added. - Abstract: Within density functional theory, establishing the equations of states of YNi in two different controversial structures in the literature, leads to determine the orthorhombic FeB-type as the ground state one with small energy difference. For YNiH{sub 3} and YNiH{sub 4} hydrides crystallizing in the orthorhombic CrB-type structure the geometry optimization and the ab initio determination of the H atomic positions show that the stability of hydrogen decreases from the tri- to the tetra- hydride. New states brought by hydrogen within the valence band lead to its broadening and to enhanced localization of metal density of states. The chemical bonding analysis shows a preferential Ni-H bonding versus Y-H.

  19. Chemical stability of {gamma}-butyrolactone-based electrolytes for aluminium electrolytic capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ue, Makoto [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan); Takeda, Masayuki [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan); Suzuki, Yoko [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan); Mori, Shoichiro [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    {gamma}-Butyrolactone-based electrolytes have been used as the operating electrolytes for aluminum electrolytic capacitors. The chemical stability of these electrolytes at elevated temperatures has been examined by monitoring the decrease in their electrolytic conductivities. The deteriorated electrolytes were analyzed by gas and liquid chromatography and the conductivity decrease was directly correlated with the loss of acid components. In quaternary ammonium hydrogen maleate/{gamma}-butyrolactone electrolytes, the maleate anion decomposed by decarboxylation resulting in a complex polymer containing polyester and polyacrylate structures. Quaternary ammonium benzoate/{gamma}-butyrolactone electrolytes decomposed by SN2 reactions giving alkyl benzoates and trialkylamines. The deterioration of the carboxylate salt/{gamma}-butyrolactone electrolytes was accelerated by electrolysis. (orig.)

  20. Effects of sodium diacetate on the fermentation profile, chemical composition and aerobic stability of alfalfa silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XianJun Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sodium diacetate (SDA on fermentation profile, chemical composition and aerobic stability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. silage. Methods Fresh alfalfa was ensiled with various concentrations of SDA (0, 3, 5, 7, and 9 g/kg of fresh forage. After 60 days of the ensiling, the samples were collected to examine the fermentative quality, chemical composition and aerobic stability. Results The application of SDA significantly (p<0.05 decreased silage pH with the lowest value in silage with 7 g/kg of SDA. The proliferations of enterobacteria, yeasts, molds and clostridia were inhibited by SDA, resulted in lower ethanol, propionic and butyric acid concentrations and dry matter loss in SDA treated silages than control. The increasing SDA linearly decreased free amino acid N (p<0.001, ammonia N (p = 0.018 and non-protein N (p<0.001, while linearly increased water soluble carbohydrate (p<0.001 and peptide N (p<0.001. It is speculated that SDA accelerated the shift from homofermentative to heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria during the silage fermentation, indicated by lower lactic acid production in SDA-9 than SDA-7 silages after 60 days of ensiling. Alfalfa silages treated with SDA at 7 g/kg had highest Flieg’s point and remained stable more than 9 d during aerobic exposure under humid and hot conditions in southern China. Conclusion SDA may be used as an additive for alfalfa silages at a level of 7 g/kg.

  1. Proton-Conducting Sulfonated and Phosphonated Polymers and Fuel Cell Membranes by Chemical Modification of Polysulfones

    OpenAIRE

    Lafitte, Benoit

    2007-01-01

    The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is currently emerging as an efficient and environmentally friendly power source. The technology is very complex and relies ultimately on materials and components which need further development. One of the major hurdles for advancing the PEMFC technology is currently the demand for new durable low-cost polymeric membranes that will allow fuel cell operation at high temperatures without extensive humidification requirements. Thus, the design and pr...

  2. Thermal stability of multilayer graphene films synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and stained by metallic impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahng, Yung Ho; Lee, Sangchul; Park, Woojin; Jo, Gunho; Choe, Minhyeok; Lee, Jong-Hoon; Yu, Hyunung; Lee, Takhee; Lee, Kwanghee

    2012-02-24

    Thermal stability is an important property of graphene that requires thorough investigation. This study reports the thermal stability of graphene films synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on catalytic nickel substrates in a reducing atmosphere. Electron microscopies, atomic force microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, as well as electronic measurements, were used to determine that CVD-grown graphene films are stable up to 700 °C. At 800 °C, however, graphene films were etched by catalytic metal nanoparticles, and at 1000 °C many tortuous tubular structures were formed in the film and carbon nanotubes were formed at the film edges and at catalytic metal-contaminated sites. Furthermore, we applied our pristine and thermally treated graphene films as active channels in field-effect transistors and characterized their electrical properties. Our research shows that remnant catalytic metal impurities play a critical role in damaging graphene films at high temperatures in a reducing atmosphere: this damage should be considered in the quality control of large-area graphene films for high temperature applications.

  3. Stabilization of heavy oil-water emulsions using a bio/chemical emulsifier mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahbakhsh, A.; Taghizadeh, M.; Movagharnejad, K. [Chemical Engineering Department, Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yakhchali, B. [National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    In this study, the viscosity reduction of heavy oil has been investigated through the formation of oil-water emulsion using a bio/chemical emulsifier mixture. Four bioemulsifiers from indigenous Rhodococcus ergthropolis and Bacillus licheniformis strains were used to stabilize a highly-viscous oil-in-water emulsion. The Taguchi method with an L{sub 9} orthogonal array design was used to investigate the effect of various control factors on the formation of the oil/water emulsions. An emulsion with lowest viscosity was formed using ACO4 strain. The substantial stability of the oil-in-water emulsion allows the heavy oil to be transported practically over long distances or remain stationary for a considerable period of time prior to utilization. As the result of Taguchi analysis, the temperature and concentration of the emulsifier had a significant influence on viscosity reduction of the emulsion. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Toward Improved Catholyte Materials for Redox Flow Batteries: What Controls Chemical Stability of Persistent Radical Cations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Assary, Rajeev S.; Tung, Siu on [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, United States; Silcox, Benjamin [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, United States; Curtiss, Larry A.; Thompson, Levi [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, United States; Zhang, Lu

    2017-10-16

    Catholyte materials are used to store positive charge in energized fluids circulating through redox flow batteries (RFBs) for electric grid and vehicle applications. Energy-rich radical cations (RCs) are being considered for use as catholyte materials, but to be practically relevant, these RCs (that are typically unstable, reactive species) need to have long lifetimes in liquid electrolytes under the ambient conditions. Only few families of such energetic RCs possess stabilities that are suitable for their use in RFBs; currently, the derivatives of 1,4- dialkoxybenzene look the most promising. In this study, we examine factors that define the chemical and electrochemical stabilities for RCs in this family. To this end, we engineered rigid bis-annulated molecules that by design avoid the two main degradation pathways for such RCs, viz. their deprotonation and radical addition. The decay of the resulting RCs are due to the single remaining reaction: O-dealkylation. We establish the mechanism for this reaction and examine factors controlling its rate. In particular, we demonstrate that this reaction is initiated by the nucleophile attack of the counter anion on the RC partner. The reaction proceeds through the formation of the aroxyl radicals whose secondary reactions yield the corresponding quinones. The O-dealkylation accelerates considerably when the corresponding quinone has poor solubility in the electrolyte, and the rate depends strongly on the solvent polarity. Our mechanistic insights suggest new ways of improving the RC catholytes through molecular engineering and electrolyte optimization.

  5. Nucleating Effect of Carbon Nanoparticles and Their Influence on the Thermal and Chemical Stability of Polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Avalos-Belmontes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of carbon nanofibers (CNFs and carbon nanotubes (CNTs on the thermal and chemical stability of polypropylene (PP when subjected to oxidation in a strong acid medium was studied. The effect of CNFs and CNTs on the crystalline morphology and the melting and crystallization temperatures was also studied. The thermal stability increased markedly; the decomposition temperature, for example, increased from 293∘C for pure PP to 312 and 320∘C for PP with CNFs and CNTs, respectively. The crystallization temperature increased perceptibly with the addition of CNTs or CNFs, from 107∘C for pure PP to 112 and 114∘C for PP with CNFs and CNTs, respectively. The oxidative degradation with nitric acid produced a reduction in molecular weight; however, this negative effect was less pronounced in the PP compositions with carbon nanoparticles. After 8 hours in nitric acid, this reduction was from 141,000 to 68,000 (for pure PP, to 75,000 (for PP-CNFs, and 79,500 (for PP-CNTs. X-ray diffraction showed that the alpha type crystallinity remains, irrespective of the nucleating agent. Finally, the intensity ratio between the (040 (at 16.7∘ and the (110 (at 13.9∘ reflections increased, which was taken as an indication of an increasing nucleating efficiency.

  6. Isoparaffinic diluents for tri-n-butyl phosphate. Chemical, radiation-chemical stability, effect on tetravalent plutonium and thorium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, E.V.; Pyatibratov, Yu.P.; Neumoev, N.V.; Chizhov, A.A.; Kulikov, I.A.; Gol'dfarb, Yu.Ya.; Sirotkina, I.G.; Semenova, T.I.

    1989-01-01

    By means of catalytic hydroisomerization of the n-paraffinic raw material in a reactor using alumino-platinum catalysts, there was attained a 45-90% degree of conversion of n-paraffins into branched iso-paraffins with mono- and dimethyl structure. From a batch of extensively isomerized n-paraffins, by carrying out the operations of distillation of the light (benzine) fraction, dearomatization, de-n-paraffinization and fractional distillation on a rectification column, isoparaffinic (99%) concentrates were obtained with a constant molecular weight, from iso-C 10 to isoC 15 . The solubility of plutonium and thorium nitrates in 30% solutions of TBP in iso-paraffins (mixtures of iso-paraffins with the same number of C-atoms) increases with decrease in the molecular weight of the iso-paraffin; a system with a 30% TBP in a mixture of iso-decanes practically does not stratify (∼104 g Pu/liter, 22-25 degree C). Nevertheless, a twofold increase (compared with NP) of the maximally permissible (up to the formation of the third phase) concentration, is attained when iso-paraffins are introduced into NP with a similar molecular composition in a 1:1 ratio. With respect to the main requirements demanded of diluents for radiochemical extractional operations, such as density, viscosity, boiling point, flash point, and freezing point, the chemical stability and radiation resistance, content of radioruthenium and radiozirconium, rate of stratification of two-phase systems, the synthetic iso-paraffin-containing solvents are as suitable as n-paraffins

  7. Redesigned and chemically-modified hammerhead ribozymes with improved activity and serum stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Tom S

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hammerhead ribozymes are RNA-based molecules which bind and cleave other RNAs specifically. As such they have potential as laboratory reagents, diagnostics and therapeutics. Despite having been extensively studied for 15 years or so, their wide application is hampered by their instability in biological media, and by the poor translation of cleavage studies on short substrates to long RNA molecules. This work describes a systematic study aimed at addressing these two issues. Results A series of hammerhead ribozyme derivatives, varying in their hybridising arm length and size of helix II, were tested in vitro for cleavage of RNA derived from the carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II gene of Plasmodium falciparum. Against a 550-nt transcript the most efficient (t1/2 = 26 seconds was a miniribozyme with helix II reduced to a single G-C base pair and with twelve nucleotides in each hybridising arm. Miniribozymes of this general design were targeted to three further sites, and they demonstrated exceptional cleavage activity. A series of chemically modified derivatives was prepared and examined for cleavage activity and stability in human serum. One derivative showed a 103-fold increase in serum stability and a doubling in cleavage efficiency compared to the unmodified miniribozyme. A second was almost 104-fold more stable and only 7-fold less active than the unmodified parent. Conclusion Hammerhead ribozyme derivatives in which helix II is reduced to a single G-C base pair cleave long RNA substrates very efficiently in vitro. Using commonly available phosphoramidites and reagents, two patterns of nucleotide substitution in this derivative were identified which conferred both good cleavage activity against long RNA targets and good stability in human serum.

  8. Stability and performance improvement of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack by laser perforation of gas diffusion layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerteisen, Dietmar; Sadeler, Christian [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Department of Energy Technology, Heidenhofstrasse 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    The performance and stability of a hydrogen-driven polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack (6-cell PEFC stack) are investigated with regard to pore flooding within the gas diffusion layers (GDLs). Two short stacks with various GDLs (Toray TGP-H-060 untreated and laser-perforated) were characterized at different operating conditions by several characterization techniques such as constant current load, polarization curve, chronoamperometry and chronovoltammetry. The experimental results reveal that the perforation of the cathode GDLs improves the water transport in the porous media and thus the performance as well as the stability of the operating stack in medium and high current density range. A reduced pore flooding is verified when using the customized laser-perforated GDLs. The GDL perforation has a huge potential to balance the inhomogeneous in-plane saturation conditions between the inlet and outlet area of the cell and to compensate to a certain degree the effects of temperature distribution within a stack regarding the water management. (author)

  9. Stability and performance improvement of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack by laser perforation of gas diffusion layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerteisen, Dietmar; Sadeler, Christian

    The performance and stability of a hydrogen-driven polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack (6-cell PEFC stack) are investigated with regard to pore flooding within the gas diffusion layers (GDLs). Two short stacks with various GDLs (Toray TGP-H-060 untreated and laser-perforated) were characterized at different operating conditions by several characterization techniques such as constant current load, polarization curve, chronoamperometry and chronovoltammetry. The experimental results reveal that the perforation of the cathode GDLs improves the water transport in the porous media and thus the performance as well as the stability of the operating stack in medium and high current density range. A reduced pore flooding is verified when using the customized laser-perforated GDLs. The GDL perforation has a huge potential to balance the inhomogeneous in-plane saturation conditions between the inlet and outlet area of the cell and to compensate to a certain degree the effects of temperature distribution within a stack regarding the water management.

  10. Enhanced catalytic stability of lipase immobilized on oxidized and disulfide-rich eggshell membrane for esters hydrolysis and transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chenyu; Cheng, Chuanchuan; Hao, Mei; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Ziying; Shen, Cai; Cheong, Ling-Zhi

    2017-12-01

    Eggshell membrane (ESM) is an industrial waste that is available in abundance from food industry. Present study investigated the physicochemical properties of oxidized ESM and compared the efficiency of ESM and oxidized ESM as carrier for Burkholderia cepacia lipase (BCL) used in esters hydrolysis and transesterification. Following oxidation treatment, FTIR analysis and Ellman's assay showed amino acid cysteine in ESM was oxidized to form disulfide bond-containing cystine. In addition, AFM analysis showed ESM which exhibited a highly porous filamentous structure appeared to be coalesce following oxidation treatment. Oxidized ESM also showed reduced porosity (38.67%) in comparison to native ESM (51.65%). BCL were successfully immobilized on oxidized ESM through carrier activation method (enzyme loading of 5.01mg protein/g oxidized ESM). These immobilized lipase demonstrated significantly (Ptransesterification (7.83±0.05) activity for at least 10 consecutive runs. Enhanced catalytic stability of BCL immobilized on oxidized ESM might be due to stabilization of the protein structure in oxidized ESM by disulfide bonds which helped formation of a stable bonding with BCL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Solvent-extraction and Langmuir-adsorption-based transport in chemically functionalized nanopore membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Damian J; Baker, Lane A; Martin, Charles R

    2005-11-10

    We have investigated the transport properties of nanopore alumina membranes that were rendered hydrophobic by functionalization with octadecyltrimethoxysilane (ODS). The pores in these ODS-modified membranes are so hydrophobic that they are not wetted by water. Nevertheless, nonionic molecules can be transported from an aqueous feed solution on one side of the membrane, through the dry nanopores, and into an aqueous receiver solution on the other side. The transport mechanism involves Langmuir-type adsorption of the permeating molecule onto the ODS layers lining the pore walls, followed by solid-state diffusion along these ODS layers; we have measured the diffusion coefficients associated with this transport process. We have also investigated the transport properties of membranes prepared by filling the ODS-modified pores with the water-immiscible (hydrophobic) liquid mineral oil. In this case the transport mechanism involves solvent extraction of the permeating molecule into the mineral oil subphase confined with the pores, followed by solution-based diffusion through this liquid subphase. Because of this different transport mechanism, the supported-liquid membranes show substantially better transport selectivity than the ODS-modified membranes that contain no liquid subphase.

  12. Stabilizing and destabilizing effects on plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosk-Kosicka, D; Wawrzynow, A; Roszczynska, G

    1994-10-12

    We have examined the temperature-dependent effects of several organic compounds on the activity of the purified Ca(2+)-ATPase of erythrocytes. The monomeric enzyme was activated either by interaction with calmodulin or by oligomerization in the absence of calmodulin. Of the four homologous solute series studied including polyols, alkanols, aprotic solvents, and N-methyl derivatives of formamide and acetamide only polyols stabilized the enzyme over a broad range of concentration and temperature. Similarity of Ca(2+)-ATPase activity patterns at 25 and 37 degrees C and in the presence of glycerol is in agreement with indirect, stabilizing interactions. Glycerol also protected the Ca(2+)-ATPase from thermal denaturation at 45 degrees C. Within each homologous series, inhibitory effects increased with increasing solute concentration and with increasing structural similarity to detergents, indicating that direct destabilizing interactions are responsible for the observed inhibition. These were comparable to the destabilizing effect of urea. Oligomers were more resistant to all inhibitory solutes as compared to calmodulin-activated monomers suggesting that the nonpolar patches of the oligomerized enzyme are less accessible to solutes.

  13. Proton exchange membranes prepared by grafting of styrene/divinylbenzene into crosslinked PTFE membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jingye; Ichizuri, Shogo; Asano, Saneto; Mutou, Fumihiro; Ikeda, Shigetoshi; Iida, Minoru; Miura, Takaharu; Oshima, Akihiro; Tabata, Yoneho; Washio, Masakazu

    2005-01-01

    Thin PTFE membranes were prepared by coating the PTFE dispersion onto the aluminum films. Thus the thin crosslinked PTFE (RX-PTFE) membranes were obtained by means of electron beam irradiation above the melting temperature of PTFE under oxygen-free atmosphere. The RX-PTFE membranes were pre-irradiated and grafted by styrene with or without divinylbenzene (DVB) in liquid phase. The existence of DVB accelerated the initial grafting rate. The styrene grafted RX-PTFE membranes are white colored, on the other hand, the styrene/DVB grafted RX-PTFE membranes are colorless. The proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were obtained by sulfonating the grafted membranes using chlorosulfonic acid. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) values of the PEMs ranging from 1.5 to 2.8 meq/g were obtained. The PEMs made from the styrene/DVB grafted membranes showed higher chemical stability than those of the styrene grafted membranes under oxidative circumstance

  14. Chemical Stability Analysis of Hair Cleansing Conditioners under High-Heat Conditions Experienced during Hair Styling Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek A. Drechsel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical stability is a key component of ensuring that a cosmetic product is safe for consumer use. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical stability of commercially available hair cleansing conditioners subjected to high heat stresses from the styling processes of blow drying or straightening. Two hair cleansing conditioners were subjected to temperatures of 60 °C and 185 °C to simulate the use of a blow dryer or flatiron hair straightener, respectively and analyzed via Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-UV (HPLC and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR to capture a chemical profile of the samples. The resulting spectra from matched heated and unheated samples were compared to identify any changes in chemical composition. Overall, no differences in the spectra were observed between the heated and unheated samples at both temperatures evaluated. Specifically, no new peaks were observed during analysis, indicating that no degradation products were formed. In addition, all chemicals identified during GC-MS analysis were known listed ingredients of the products. In summary, no measurable changes in chemical composition were observed in the hair cleansing conditioner samples under high-heat stress conditions. The presented analytical methods can serve as an initial screening tool to evaluate the chemical stability of a cosmetic product under conditions of anticipated use.

  15. Preparing for chemical terrorism: a study of the stability of expired pralidoxime (2-PAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert S; Mercurio-Zappala, Maria; Bouchard, Nicole; Ravikumar, Padinjarekuttu; Goldfrank, Lewis

    2012-03-01

    Oximes such as pralidoxime (2-PAM) are essential antidotes for life-threatening organophosphate poisoning. Unfortunately, oximes are expensive, have limited use, and have short shelf lives. As such, maintaining large stockpiles in preparation for terrorist activity is not always possible. We have demonstrated that atropine is stable well beyond its labeled shelf life and that recently expired 2-PAM was clinically efficacious in a series of poisoned patients. Because 2-PAM is often dosed empirically, clinical improvement does not guarantee pharmacological stability. We therefore chose to analyze the chemical stability of expired 2-PAM. Samples of lyophylized 2-PAM were maintained according to the manufacturer's recommendations for 20 years beyond the published shelf life. We studied 2-PAM contained in a MARK I autoinjector that was stored properly for 3 years beyond its expiration date. An Agilent LC/MSD 1100 with diode-array detector and an Agilent Sorbax SB-C-18, 4.6 × 150-mm, 5-μm column were used with the following solvent systems: water with 0.01% trifluoroacetic acid and methanol with 0.01% trifluoroacetic acid. Fresh reagent grade 2-PAM was used as a standard. Results were repeated for consistency. Lyophylized 2-PAM was a white powder that was clear and colorless in solution. Liquid chromatography was identical to the standard and resulted in 2 isolated peaks with identical mass spectra, suggesting that they are stereoisomers. The autoinjector discharged a clear, yellowish solution. In addition to the 2 peaks identified for lyophylized 2-PAM, a small third peak was identified with a mass spectra corresponding to the reported N -methyl pyridinium carboxaldehyde degradation product. When properly stored, lyophylized 2-PAM appears to be chemically stable well beyond its expiration date. Although the relative amount of degradation product found in solubilized (autoinjector) 2-PAM was small, it is unclear whether this may be toxic and therefore is of concern

  16. Quantum chemical study on the stability of honeybee queen pheromone against atmospheric factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rongwei; Liu, Fanglin

    2016-06-01

    The managed honeybee, Apis mellifera, has been experienced a puzzling event, termed as colony collapse disorder (CCD), in which worker bees abruptly disappear from their hives. Potential factors include parasites, pesticides, malnutrition, and environmental stresses. However, so far, no definitive relationship has been established between specific causal factors and CCD events. Here we theoretically test whether atmospheric environment could disturb the chemical communication between the queen and their workers in a colony. A quantum chemistry method has been used to investigate for the stability of the component of A. mellifera queen mandibular pheromone (QMP), (E)-9-keto-2-decenoic acid (9-ODA), against atmospheric water and free radicals. The results show that 9-ODA is less likely to react with water due to the high barrier heights (~36.5 kcal · mol(-1)) and very low reaction rates. However, it can easily react with triplet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals because of low or negative energy barriers. Thus, the atmospheric free radicals may disturb the chemical communication between the queen and their daughters in a colony. Our pilot study provides new insight for the cause of CCD, which has been reported throughout the world.

  17. Chemical Compounds and Mechanisms Involved in the Formation and Stabilization of Foam in Sparkling Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Belinda; Condé, Bruna; Jégou, Sandrine; Howell, Kate; Vasserot, Yann; Marchal, Richard

    2018-02-08

    The visual properties of sparkling wine including foam and bubbles are an indicator of sparkling wine quality. Foam properties, particularly foam height (FH) and foam stability (TS), are significantly influenced by the chemical composition of the wine. This review investigates our current knowledge of specific chemical compounds and, the mechanisms by which they influence the foam properties of sparkling wines. Grape and yeast proteins, amino acids, polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, organic acids, fatty acids, ethanol and sugar are examined with respect to their contribution to foam characteristics in sparkling wines made with the traditional, transfer, and charmat and carbonation methods. Contradictory results have been identified that appear to be due to the analytical methods used to measure and quantify compounds and foam. Biopolymer complexes are discussed and absent knowledge with regards to thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs), polysaccharides, amino acids, oak-derived phenolic compounds and organic acids are identified. Future research is also likely to concentrate on visual analysis of sparkling wines by in-depth imaging analysis and specific sensory analysis techniques.

  18. Stabilization of lead-rich low-level mixed waste in chemically bonded phosphate ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, S.-Y.

    1999-01-01

    A chemically bonded magnesium potassium phosphate ceramic has been developed by an acid-base reaction at room temperature, for use in stabilizing U.S. Department of Energy low-level mixed waste streams that include hazardous metals and low-level radioactive elements. Using this ceramic, we solidified, in monolithic waste forms, low-level mixed waste streams containing various levels of PbCl 2 and PbCO 3 . These final waste forms were evaluated for their land disposal suitability. The results showed low open porosity (1.48-4.61 vol.%); hence, low permeability, and higher compression strengths (4310-6734 psi) that were one order of magnitude above that required. The level of lead in the leachate following the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure test was reduced from 50,000 to <0.1 ppm. Leachability indexes from the long-term leaching test (ANS 16.1 test) were between 11.9 and 13.6. This excellent lead retention is due to its chemical fixation as insoluble lead phosphate and to physical encapsulation by the phosphate matrix

  19. Chemical stability of a cold-active cellulase with high tolerance toward surfactants and chaotropic agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís V. Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available CelE1 is a cold-active endo-acting glucanase with high activity at a broad temperature range and under alkaline conditions. Here, we examined the effects of pH on the secondary and tertiary structures, net charge, and activity of CelE1. Although variation in pH showed a small effect in the enzyme structure, the activity was highly influenced at acidic conditions, while reached the optimum activity at pH 8. Furthermore, to estimate whether CelE1 could be used as detergent additives, CelE1 activity was evaluated in the presence of surfactants. Ionic and nonionic surfactants were not able to reduce CelE1 activity significantly. Therefore, CelE1 was found to be promising candidate for use as detergent additives. Finally, we reported a thermodynamic analysis based on the structural stability and the chemical unfolding/refolding process of CelE1. The results indicated that the chemical unfolding proceeds as a reversible two-state process. These data can be useful for biotechnological applications.

  20. Hibiscus sabdariffa anthocyanins-rich extract: Chemical stability, in vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Laércio Galvão; do Carmo, Mariana Araújo Vieira; Azevedo, Luciana; Daguer, Heitor; Molognoni, Luciano; de Almeida, Mereci Mendes; Granato, Daniel; Rosso, Neiva Deliberali

    2018-03-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx is a rich source of anthocyanins and other bioactive compounds but no study reported the effects of experimental conditions on the extraction of these chemical compounds. Therefore, the effects of time and extraction temperature on the bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx were evaluated. In addition, the effects of copigmentation and pH on the stability of anthocyanins were assessed and the cytotoxic effects (LC 50 , IC 50 , and GC 50 ) of the extracts were determined in relation to tumor cell lines - Caco-2, HepG-2, HCT8, and A549. The temperature significantly influenced the total anthocyanins and flavonoids contents. The interaction between time/temperature influenced the total phenolic content and ascorbic acid. The t 1/2 and the percentage of colour retention decreased markedly at temperatures above 80 °C. Variations in pH conserved the antioxidant activity of the anthocyanins, and the protonation-deprotonation process of the extract was reversible. The treatment of cells with purified anthocyanin extract or crude extracts at 5-800 μg mL -1 did not show significant cytotoxic effects on the cell lines, corroborating the chemical antioxidant effect of the extracts (DPPH assay). Cyanidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-sambubioside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, and cyanidin-3-sambubioside were identified in the extracts by LC-ESI-MS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Silver-mediated base pairings: towards dynamic DNA nanostructures with enhanced chemical and thermal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swasey, Steven M; Gwinn, Elisabeth G

    2016-01-01

    The thermal and chemical fragility of DNA nanomaterials assembled by Watson–Crick (WC) pairing constrain the settings in which these materials can be used and how they can be functionalized. Here we investigate use of the silver cation, Ag + , as an agent for more robust, metal-mediated self-assembly, focusing on the simplest duplex building blocks that would be required for more elaborate Ag + –DNA nanostructures. Our studies of Ag + -induced assembly of non-complementary DNA oligomers employ strands of 2–24 bases, with varied base compositions, and use electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to determine product compositions. High yields of duplex products containing narrowly distributed numbers of Ag + can be achieved by optimizing solution conditions. These Ag + -mediated duplexes are stable to at least 60 mM Mg 2+ , higher than is necessary for WC nanotechnology schemes such as tile assemblies and DNA origami, indicating that sequential stages of Ag + -mediated and WC-mediated assembly may be feasible. Circular dichroism spectroscopy suggests simple helical structures for Ag + -mediated duplexes with lengths to at least 20 base pairs, and further indicates that the structure of cytosine-rich duplexes is preserved at high urea concentrations. We therefore propose an approach towards dynamic DNA nanomaterials with enhanced thermal and chemical stability through designs that combine sturdy silver-mediated ‘frames’ with WC paired ‘pictures’. (paper)

  2. Modeling error and stability of endothelial cytoskeletal membrane parameters based on modeling transendothelial impedance as resistor and capacitor in series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodmer, James E; English, Anthony; Brady, Megan; Blackwell, Ken; Haxhinasto, Kari; Fotedar, Sunaina; Borgman, Kurt; Bai, Er-Wei; Moy, Alan B

    2005-09-01

    Transendothelial impedance across an endothelial monolayer grown on a microelectrode has previously been modeled as a repeating pattern of disks in which the electrical circuit consists of a resistor and capacitor in series. Although this numerical model breaks down barrier function into measurements of cell-cell adhesion, cell-matrix adhesion, and membrane capacitance, such solution parameters can be inaccurate without understanding model stability and error. In this study, we have evaluated modeling stability and error by using a chi(2) evaluation and Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear least-squares (LM-NLS) method of the real and/or imaginary data in which the experimental measurement is compared with the calculated measurement derived by the model. Modeling stability and error were dependent on current frequency and the type of experimental data modeled. Solution parameters of cell-matrix adhesion were most susceptible to modeling instability. Furthermore, the LM-NLS method displayed frequency-dependent instability of the solution parameters, regardless of whether the real or imaginary data were analyzed. However, the LM-NLS method identified stable and reproducible solution parameters between all types of experimental data when a defined frequency spectrum of the entire data set was selected on the basis of a criterion of minimizing error. The frequency bandwidth that produced stable solution parameters varied greatly among different data types. Thus a numerical model based on characterizing transendothelial impedance as a resistor and capacitor in series and as a repeating pattern of disks is not sufficient to characterize the entire frequency spectrum of experimental transendothelial impedance.

  3. A novel membrane distillation-thermophilic bioreactor system: biological stability and trace organic compound removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijekoon, Kaushalya C; Hai, Faisal I; Kang, Jinguo; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Cath, Tzahi Y; Nghiem, Long D

    2014-05-01

    The removal of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) by a novel membrane distillation-thermophilic bioreactor (MDBR) system was examined. Salinity build-up and the thermophilic conditions to some extent adversely impacted the performance of the bioreactor, particularly the removal of total nitrogen and recalcitrant TrOCs. While most TrOCs were well removed by the thermophilic bioreactor, compounds containing electron withdrawing functional groups in their molecular structure were recalcitrant to biological treatment and their removal efficiency by the thermophilic bioreactor was low (0-53%). However, the overall performance of the novel MDBR system with respect to the removal of total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and TrOCs was high and was not significantly affected by the conditions of the bioreactor. All TrOCs investigated here were highly removed (>95%) by the MDBR system. Biodegradation, sludge adsorption, and rejection by MD contribute to the removal of TrOCs by MDBR treatment. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Imparting chemical stability in nanoparticulate silver via a conjugated polymer casing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mincheol; Kim, Taejoon; Park, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Minjeong; Reichmanis, Elsa; Yoon, Hyeonseok

    2012-08-01

    Only limited information is available on the design and synthesis of functional materials for preventing corrosion of metal nanostructures. In the nanometer regime, even noble metals are subject to chemical attack. Here, the corrosion behavior of noble metal nanoparticles coated with a conjugated polymer nanolayer was explored for the first time. Specifically, electrochemical corrosion and sulfur tarnishing behaviors were examined for Ag-polypyrrole (PPy) core-shell nanoparticles using potentiodynamic polarization and spectrophotometric analysis, respectively. First, the Ag-PPy nanoparticles exhibited enhanced resistance to electrochemically induced corrosion compared to their exposed silver counterparts. Briefly, a neutral PPy shell provided the highest protection efficiency (75.5%), followed by sulfate ion- (61.3%) and dodecylbenzenesulfonate ion- (53.6%) doped PPy shells. However, the doping of the PPy shell with chloride ion induced an adverse effect (protection efficiency, -120%). Second, upon exposure to sulfide ions, the Ag-PPy nanoparticles preserved their morphology and colloidal stability while the bare silver analog underwent significant structural deformation. To further understand the function of the PPy shell as a protection layer for the silver core, the catalytic activity of the nanostructures was also evaluated. Using the reduction of 4-nitrophenol as a representative example of a catalytic reaction, the rate constant for that reduction using the PPy encased Ag nanoparticles was found to be 1.1 × 10(-3) s(-1), which is approximately 33% less than that determined for the parent silver. These results demonstrate that PPy can serve as both an electrical and chemical barrier for mitigating undesirable chemical degradation in corrosive environments, as well as provide a simple physical barrier to corrosive substances under appropriate conditions.

  5. Polymer confined in membrane phases: influences on stability, structure and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javierre, Isabelle

    1999-01-01

    The addition of a hydrosoluble polymer to the different structures obtained with mixtures of water/surfactant/alcohol/oil alters the thermodynamic stability of microemulsion and lamellar phases. The reverse sponge phase disappears while one can observe the occurrence of a new phase, labelled L5, at intermediate polymer concentration. In polymer-'doped' solvent lamellar phase, the polymer induces an attractive contribution to the interaction between bilayers while in polymer-'doped' bilayers lamellar phase, the polymer increases the flexibility. The L5 phase exhibits symmetric sponge properties and furthermore presents very strong symmetry fluctuations. The relaxation of these fluctuations were experimentally evidenced for the first time. This unusual dynamic behaviour was confronted to the one of other sponge phases, in a large range of concentrations. (author) [fr

  6. Proton conducting ceramic membranes for hydrogen separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, S [South Jordan, UT; Nair, Balakrishnan G [Sandy, UT; Small, Troy [Midvale, UT; Heck, Brian [Salt Lake City, UT

    2011-09-06

    A multi-phase proton conducting material comprising a proton-conducting ceramic phase and a stabilizing ceramic phase. Under the presence of a partial pressure gradient of hydrogen across the membrane or under the influence of an electrical potential, a membrane fabricated with this material selectively transports hydrogen ions through the proton conducting phase, which results in ultrahigh purity hydrogen permeation through the membrane. The stabilizing ceramic phase may be substantially structurally and chemically identical to at least one product of a reaction between the proton conducting phase and at least one expected gas under operating conditions of a membrane fabricated using the material. In a barium cerate-based proton conducting membrane, one stabilizing phase is ceria.

  7. Self-Assembling Peptide Surfactants A6K and A6D Adopt a-Helical Structures Useful for Membrane Protein Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furen Zhuang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Elucidation of membrane protein structures have been greatly hampered by difficulties in producing adequately large quantities of the functional protein and stabilizing them. A6D and A6K are promising solutions to the problem and have recently been used for the rapid production of membrane-bound G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. We propose that despite their short lengths, these peptides can adopt α-helical structures through interactions with micelles formed by the peptides themselves. These α-helices are then able to stabilize α-helical motifs which many membrane proteins contain. We also show that A6D and A6K can form β-sheets and appear as weak hydrogels at sufficiently high concentrations. Furthermore, A6D and A6K together in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS can form expected β-sheet structures via a surprising α-helical intermediate.

  8. New Polymeric Membranes for Organic Solvent Nanofiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Aburabie, Jamaliah

    2017-05-01

    The focus of this dissertation was the development, synthesis and modification of polymers for the preparation of membranes for organic solvent nanofiltration. High chemical stability in a wide range of solvents was a key requirement. Membranes prepared from synthesized polymers as well as from commercial polymers were designed and chemically modified to reach OSN requirements. A solvent stable thin-film composite (TFC) membrane is reported, which is fabricated on crosslinked polythiosemicarbazide (PTSC) as substrate. The membranes exhibited high fluxes towards solvents like THF, DMF and DMSO ranging around 20 L/m2 h at 5 bar with a MWCO of around 1000 g/mol. Ultrafiltration PTSC membranes were prepared by non-solvent induced phase separation and crosslinked with GPTMS. The crosslinking reaction was responsible for the formation of an inorganic-type-network that tuned the membrane pore size. The crosslinked membranes acquired high solvent stability in DMSO, DMF and THF with a MWCO above 1300 g/mol. Reaction Induced Phase Separation (RIPS) was introduced as a new method for the preparation of skinned asymmetric membranes. These membranes have two distinctive layers with different morphologies both from the same polymer. The top dense layer is composed of chemically crosslinked polymer chains while the bottom layer is a porous structure formed by non-crosslinked polymer chains. Such membranes were tested for vitamin B12 in solvents after either crosslinking the support or dissolving the support and fixing the freestanding membrane on alumina. Pebax® 1657 was utilized for the preparation of composite membranes by simple coating. Porous PAN membranes were coated with Pebax® 1657 which was then crosslinked using TDI. Crosslinked Pebax® membranes show high stability towards ethanol, propanol and acetone. The membranes were also stable in DMF once crosslinked PAN supports were used. Sodium alginate polymer was investigated for the preparation of thin film composite

  9. Inorganic Membranes: Preparation and Application for Water Treatment and Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayvani Fard, Ahmad; McKay, Gordon; Buekenhoudt, Anita; Al Sulaiti, Huda; Motmans, Filip; Khraisheh, Marwan; Atieh, Muataz

    2018-01-05

    Inorganic membrane science and technology is an attractive field of membrane separation technology, which has been dominated by polymer membranes. Recently, the inorganic membrane has been undergoing rapid development and innovation. Inorganic membranes have the advantage of resisting harsh chemical cleaning, high temperature and wear resistance, high chemical stability, long lifetime, and autoclavable. All of these outstanding properties made inorganic membranes good candidates to be used for water treatment and desalination applications. This paper is a state of the art review on the synthesis, development, and application of different inorganic membranes for water and wastewater treatment. The inorganic membranes reviewed in this paper include liquid membranes, dynamic membranes, various ceramic membranes, carbon based membranes, silica membranes, and zeolite membranes. A brief description of the different synthesis routes for the development of inorganic membranes for application in water industry is given and each synthesis rout is critically reviewed and compared. Thereafter, the recent studies on different application of inorganic membrane and their properties for water treatment and desalination in literature are critically summarized. It was reported that inorganic membranes despite their high synthesis cost, showed very promising results with high flux, full salt rejection, and very low or no fouling.

  10. Inorganic Membranes: Preparation and Application for Water Treatment and Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kayvani Fard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic membrane science and technology is an attractive field of membrane separation technology, which has been dominated by polymer membranes. Recently, the inorganic membrane has been undergoing rapid development and innovation. Inorganic membranes have the advantage of resisting harsh chemical cleaning, high temperature and wear resistance, high chemical stability, long lifetime, and autoclavable. All of these outstanding properties made inorganic membranes good candidates to be used for water treatment and desalination applications. This paper is a state of the art review on the synthesis, development, and application of different inorganic membranes for water and wastewater treatment. The inorganic membranes reviewed in this paper include liquid membranes, dynamic membranes, various ceramic membranes, carbon based membranes, silica membranes, and zeolite membranes. A brief description of the different synthesis routes for the development of inorganic membranes for application in water industry is given and each synthesis rout is critically reviewed and compared. Thereafter, the recent studies on different application of inorganic membrane and their properties for water treatment and desalination in literature are critically summarized. It was reported that inorganic membranes despite their high synthesis cost, showed very promising results with high flux, full salt rejection, and very low or no fouling.

  11. Inorganic Membranes: Preparation and Application for Water Treatment and Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Gordon; Buekenhoudt, Anita; Motmans, Filip; Khraisheh, Marwan; Atieh, Muataz

    2018-01-01

    Inorganic membrane science and technology is an attractive field of membrane separation technology, which has been dominated by polymer membranes. Recently, the inorganic membrane has been undergoing rapid development and innovation. Inorganic membranes have the advantage of resisting harsh chemical cleaning, high temperature and wear resistance, high chemical stability, long lifetime, and autoclavable. All of these outstanding properties made inorganic membranes good candidates to be used for water treatment and desalination applications. This paper is a state of the art review on the synthesis, development, and application of different inorganic membranes for water and wastewater treatment. The inorganic membranes reviewed in this paper include liquid membranes, dynamic membranes, various ceramic membranes, carbon based membranes, silica membranes, and zeolite membranes. A brief description of the different synthesis routes for the development of inorganic membranes for application in water industry is given and each synthesis rout is critically reviewed and compared. Thereafter, the recent studies on different application of inorganic membrane and their properties for water treatment and desalination in literature are critically summarized. It was reported that inorganic membranes despite their high synthesis cost, showed very promising results with high flux, full salt rejection, and very low or no fouling. PMID:29304024

  12. Anion Transport in a Chemically Stable, Sterically Bulky alpha-C Modified Imidazolium Functionalized Anion Exchange Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-24

    sulfone, PSf-ImOH; poly( styrene -co-butyl methacrylate), PS-co- PBMA-Im). The chemical stabilities under alkaline conditions differ greatly. PSf-ImOH...spectroscopy ( FTIR ) was recorded on a Nicolet Nexus 470 spectrometer with an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) accessory containing a diamond...first validated by NMR and was shown to match the literature spectra.33 The FTIR spectra (Figure 2) of polyphenylene oxide, The Journal of Physical

  13. Antifoaming materials studies in G.S. (Girlder sulfide) heavy water plants. Chemical and thermical stability. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfino, C.A.; Rojo, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    In Girlder sulfide (G.S.) heavy water plants hydrogen sulfide-water systems are inherentely foaming, so the adding of antifoaming materials is of great importance. These may be of high volatility, pyrolizable or chemically unstable in plant operation conditions (water and hydrogen sulfide at 2 MPa, up to 230 deg C). Five commercial surfactants were studied from the point of view of their chemical and thermical stability in order to select the most suitable. (Author) [es

  14. Amine-based solvents regeneration in gas-liquid membrane contactor based on asymmetric PVTMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkov, A.V.; Tsarkov, S.E.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Volkov, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetric flat-sheet membranes made of poly(vinyltrimethylsilane) (PVTMS) were studied for the regeneration of amine-based absorption solvents in a membrane gas-liquid contactor at 100°C. It was shown that PVTMS membrane possesses good mechanical and chemical stability in contact with 4 M

  15. Following-up changes in red blood cell deformability and membrane stability in the presence of PTFE graft implanted into the femoral artery in a canine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Csaba; Kiss, Ferenc; Klarik, Zoltan; Gergely, Eszter; Toth, Eniko; Peto, Katalin; Vanyolos, Erzsebet; Miko, Iren; Nemeth, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    It is known that a moderate mechanical stress can even improve the red blood cells' (RBC) micro-rheological characteristics, however, a more significant stress causes deterioration in the deformability. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of the presence of artificial graft on the RBC deformability and membrane stability in beagles. In the Control group only anesthesia was induced and in the postoperative (p.o.) period blood samplings were carried out. In the Grafted group under general anesthesia, the left femoral artery was isolated, from which a 3.5 cm segment was resected and a PTFE graft (O.D.: 3 mm) of equal in length was implanted into the gap. On the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th and 14th p.o. days blood was collected the cephalic veins and RBC deformability was determined ektacytometry (LoRRca MaxSis Osmoscan). Membrane stability test consisted of two deformability measurements before and after the cells were being exposed to mechanical stress (60 or 100 Pa for 300 seconds). Compared to the Control group and the baseline values the red blood cell deformability showed significant deterioration on the 3rd, 5th and mainly on the 7th postoperative day after the graft implantation. The membrane stability of erythrocyte revealed marked inter-group difference on the 3rd, 5th and 7th day: in the Grafted group the deformability decreased and during the membrane stability test smaller difference was observed between the states before and after shearing. We concluded that the presence of a PTFE graft in the femoral artery may cause changes in RBC deformability in the first p.o. week. RBC membrane stability investigation shows a lower elongation index profile for the grafted group and a narrowed alteration in the deformability curves due to mechanical stress.

  16. Properties, degradation and high temperature fuel cell test of different types of PBI and PBI blend membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Rudbeck, Hans Christian; Chromik, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Polybenzimidazoles (PBIs) with synthetically modified structures and their blends with a partially fluorinated sulfonated aromatic polyether have been prepared and characterized for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Significant improvement in the polymer chemical stability...... to further improve the polymer stability and assist maintaining the membrane integrity. Upon acid doping the membrane swelling was reduced for the modified PBI and their blend membranes, which, in turn, results in enhancement of the mechanical strength, proton conductivity and high temperature fuel cell...

  17. Study on stability of labeled yttrium-90 with lipiodol by chemical extraction for liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, P.Y.; Jiang, X.L.; Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.J.

    2005-01-01

    Liver cancer, particularly hepatocellular carcinoma, is one of the most common malignant diseases in many developed and developing countries. It is also one of the most common diseases endangering the people's lives and health heavily. Surgery is very effective in early-stage patients. Unfortunately, there is less than 10% of the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma fitting for surgical therapy. Instead of surgical therapy, other methods are considered for patients in whom surgery may not work well. Systemic administration of chemotherapeutic agents is not often considered in liver cancer patients, due to discouraging result and adverse side effects. Also, hepatocellular carcinoma is not keen on usual radioactive therapy. However, method of inner interventional radioactive nuclide is a potential way to cure liver tumors. Hepatocellular carcinoma would be cured with inner interventional radioactive nuclide, which is a hot topic in experimental research on hepatocellular carcinoma at home and abroad. The purpose of the study is to label Yttrium-90 with lipiodol by means of the chemical extraction method and research the stability of labeled Yttrium-90 ( 90 Y-P204-Lipiodol) in serum of a newly-born cattle and human's blood. We chose to label steady yttrium with lipiodol, because radioactive yttrium has great nuclear character for liver cancer, yttrium-90 can eradiate pure β radial, and it's half time is 64 hours. Average energy of it is 0.93 Mev, the highest energy is 2.27 Mev. Yttrium-90 can be labeled with lipiodol by means of the chemical extraction method, which is mature in chemical techniques, combined with method of radioactive nuclide labeled in. nuclear medicine. At first, yttrium-90 is extracted in certain condition(pH, temperature, whisk time, whisk frequency, etc ) after adding yttrium-90 solution. We use some distilled water to balance the labeled organic phase twice, and test the stability of labeled yttrium-90 in serum of a newly-born cattle and

  18. Nutritional Profile and Chemical Stability of Pasta Fortified with Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Flour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia G Monteiro

    Full Text Available Physicochemical parameters of pasta enriched with tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus flour were investigated. Five formulations were prepared with different concentrations of tilapia flour as partial substitute of wheat flour: pasta without tilapia flour (PTF0%, pasta with 6% (PTF6%, 12% (PTF12%, 17% (PTF17%, and 23% (PTF23% of tilapia flour. The formulations were assessed for proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profile on day 1 whereas, instrumental color parameters (L*, a* and b* values, pH, water activity (aw, and lipid and protein oxidation were evaluated on days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of storage at 25°C. Fortification with tilapia flour increased (p < 0.05 protein, lipid, ash, total essential amino acids, and total polyunsaturated fatty acids contents. In addition, supplementation of pasta with tilapia flour decreased (p < 0.05 lightness and water activity while redness, yellowness, pH values, and lipid oxidation were increased (p < 0.05 in a level-dependent manner. Nevertheless, all formulations were exhibited storage stability at 25°C. In general, protein oxidation was greater (p < 0.05 in the pasta containing 12%, 17%, and 23% of tilapia flour than their counterparts, and the storage promoted an increase (p < 0.05 on the carbonyl content in all formulations. Thus, pasta with 6% of tilapia flour has the potential to be a technological alternative to food industry for the nutritional enrichment of traditional pasta with negligible negative effects on the chemical stability of the final product during 21 days at 25°C.

  19. Integration of sand and membrane filtration systems for iron and pesticide removal without chemical addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalski, Krysztof; Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2013-01-01

    the content of key foulants, the techniques can be used as a pre-treatment for nanofiltration and low pressure reverse osmosis that has proved to be capable of removing pesticides. It was found that a lower fouling potential could be obtained by using the membranes, but that sand filter was better at removing...

  20. Chemical de-conjugation for investigating the stability of small molecule drugs in antibody-drug conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Su, Dian; Gruenhagen, Jason; Gu, Christine; Li, Yi; Yehl, Peter; Chetwyn, Nik P; Medley, Colin D

    2016-01-05

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) offer new therapeutic options for advanced cancer patients through precision killing with fewer side effects. The stability and efficacy of ADCs are closely related, emphasizing the urgency and importance of gaining a comprehensive understanding of ADC stability. In this work, a chemical de-conjugation approach was developed to investigate the in-situ stability of the small molecule drug while it is conjugated to the antibody. This method involves chemical-mediated release of the small molecule drug from the ADC and subsequent characterization of the released small molecule drug by HPLC. The feasibility of this technique was demonstrated utilizing a model ADC containing a disulfide linker that is sensitive to the reducing environment within cancer cells. Five reducing agents were screened for use in de-conjugation; tris(2-carboxyethyl) phosphine (TCEP) was selected for further optimization due to its high efficiency and clean impurity profile. The optimized de-conjugation assay was shown to have excellent specificity and precision. More importantly, it was shown to be stability indicating, enabling the identification and quantification of the small molecule drug and its degradation products under different formulation pHs and storage temperatures. In summary, the chemical de-conjugation strategy demonstrated here offers a powerful tool to assess the in-situ stability of small molecule drugs on ADCs and the resulting information will shed light on ADC formulation/process development and storage condition selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sequestration of maize crop straw C in different soils: role of oxyhydrates in chemical binding and stabilization as recalcitrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiangyun; Li, Lianqing; Zheng, Jufeng; Pan, Genxing; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Hussain, Qaiser; Han, Xiaojun; Yu, Xinyan

    2012-05-01

    While biophysical controls on the sequestration capacity of soils have been well addressed with physical protection, chemical binding and stabilization processes as well as microbial community changes, the role of chemical binding and stabilization has not yet well characterized for soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in rice paddies. In this study, a 6-month laboratory incubation with and without maize straw amendment (MSA) was conducted using topsoil samples from soils with different clay mineralogy and free oxy-hydrate contents collected across Southern China. The increase in SOC under MSA was found coincident with that in Fe- and Al-bound OC (Fe/Al-OC) after incubation for 30 d (R(2)=0.90, P=0.05), and with sodium dithionate-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) extractable Fe after incubation for 180 d (R(2)=0.99, Phumin (R(2)=0.87, P=0.06) observed after incubation for 180 d may indicate a chemical stabilization of sequestered SOC as humin in the long run. These results improved our understanding of SOC sequestration in China's rice paddies that involves an initial chemical binding of amended C and a final stabilization as recalcitrant C of humin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The lactoperoxidase system : the influence of iodide and the chemical and antimicrobial stability over the period of about 18 months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, EH; Van Doorne, H; De Vries, S

    The lactoperoxidase (LP) system is a natural antimicrobial system, the use of which has been suggested as a preservative in foods and pharmaceuticals. The effect of adding iodide to the LP system, the chemical stability and the change in antimicrobial effectiveness during storage was studied.

  3. A review of the chemical and physical mechanisms of the storage stability of fast pyrolysis bio-oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebold, J.P.

    1999-01-27

    Understanding the fundamental chemical and physical aging mechanisms is necessary to learn how to produce a bio-oil that is more stable during shipping and storage. This review provides a basis for this understanding and identifies possible future research paths to produce bio-oils with better storage stability.

  4. Comparative leaching of six toxic metals from raw and chemically stabilized MSWI fly ash using citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huawei; Fan, Xinxiu; Wang, Ya-Nan; Li, Weihua; Sun, Yingjie; Zhan, Meili; Wu, Guizhi

    2018-02-15

    The leaching behavior of six typical toxic metals (Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, Cu and Ni) from raw and chemically stabilized (phosphate and chelating agent) municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash were investigated using citric acid. Leaching tests indicated that phosphate stabilization can effectively decrease the leaching of Zn, Cd and Cr; whereas chelating agent stabilization shows a strong ability to lower the release of Pb, Cd and Cu, but instead increases the solubility of Zn and Cr at low pH conditions. Sequential extraction results suggested that the leaching of Pb, Zn and Cd in both the stabilized MSWI fly ash samples led to the decrease in Fe/Mn oxide fraction and the increase in exchangeable and carbonate fractions. The leaching of Cr was due to the decrease in exchangeable, carbonate and Fe/Mn oxide fractions in phosphate-stabilized and chelating agent-stabilized MSWI fly ash. The leaching of Cu in both stabilized MSWI fly ash was greatly ascribed to the decrease in Fe/Mn oxide and oxidisable fractions. Moreover, predicted curves by geochemical model indicated that both stabilized MSWI fly ash have the risk of releasing toxic metals under strong acid environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Influence of Chemically Modified Potato Maltodextrins on Stability and Rheological Properties of Model Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Pycia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the maltodextrins prepared from chemically modified starches (crosslinked, stabilized, crosslinked and stabilized on the stability and rheological properties of model oil-in-water (o/w emulsions. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that emulsion stability depended on hydrolysates dextrose equivalent (DE value. Maltodextrin with the lowest degree of depolymerization effectively stabilized the dispersed system, and the effectiveness of this action depended on the maltodextrin type and concentration. Addition of distarch phosphate-based maltodextrin stabilized emulsion at the lowest applied concentration, and the least effective was maltodextrin prepared from acetylated starch. Emulsions stabilized by maltodextrins (DE 6 prepared from distarch phosphate and acetylated distarch adipate showed the predominance of the elastic properties over the viscous ones. Only emulsion stabilized by maltodextrin prepared from distarch phosphate (E1412 revealed the properties of strong gel. Additionally, the decrease in emulsions G′ and G″ moduli values, combined with an increase in the value of DE maltodextrins, was observed.

  6. Influence of the structural features of commercial mannoproteins in white wine protein stabilization and chemical and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, T; Fernandes, C; Nunes, F M; Filipe-Ribeiro, L; Cosme, F

    2014-09-15

    The cloudy aspect formed in white wines due to protein instability is a visual defect. Sodium bentonite is the most commonly used fining agent to treat this instability, but has usually a negative impact on the wine's physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Aiming to find suitable alternatives, eleven commercial mannoproteins were chemically characterized concerning their sugar composition and protein content, and their effectiveness on wine protein stabilization. Also, their effect on the amount and nature of phenolic compounds, browning potential, chromatic and sensory characteristic was evaluated. Protein stabilization effectiveness was related to their chemical composition, namely their high mannose to glucose ratio. Additionally, some mannoproteins decreased the browning potential. Thus, mannoproteins could be an effective alternative for protein stabilization, preserving or even improving wine quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Arsenic stability and mobilization in soil at an amenity grassland overlying chemical waste (St. Helens, UK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, William [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom)], E-mail: w.hartley@ljmu.ac.uk; Dickinson, Nicholas M. [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Clemente, Rafael [Department of Soil and Water Conservation and Organic Waste Management, Centro de Edafologia y Biologia Aplicada del Segura, CSIC, Apartado 4195, 30080 Murcia (Spain); French, Christopher [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Piearce, Trevor G. [Biological Sciences Division, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Sparke, Shaun; Lepp, Nicholas W. [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    A 6.6 ha grassland, established on a former chemical waste site adjacent to a residential area, contains arsenic (As) in surface soil at concentrations 200 times higher than UK Soil Guideline Values. The site is not recognized as statutory contaminated land, partly on the assumption that mobility of the metalloid presents a negligible threat to human health, groundwater and ecological receptors. Evidence for this is evaluated, based on studies of the effect of organic (green waste compost) and inorganic (iron oxides, lime and phosphate) amendments on As fractionation, mobility, plant uptake and earthworm communities. Arsenic mobility in soil was low but significantly related to dissolved organic matter and phosphate, with immobilization associated with iron oxides. Plant uptake was low and there was little apparent impact on earthworms. The existing vegetation cover reduces re-entrainment of dust-blown particulates and pathways of As exposure via this route. Minimizing risks to receptors requires avoidance of soil exposure, and no compost or phosphate application. - Stabilization of alkali industry waste requires careful management to minimise soil arsenic mobilization and dispersal to the wider environment.

  8. Energetics and stability of azulene: From experimental thermochemistry to high-level quantum chemical calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Clara C.S.; Matos, M. Agostinha R.; Morais, Victor M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental standard molar enthalpy of formation, sublimation azulene. • Mini-bomb combustion calorimetry, sublimation Calvet microcalorimetry. • High level composite ab initio calculations. • Computational estimate of the enthalpy of formation of azulene. • Discussion of stability and aromaticity of azulene. - Abstract: The standard (p 0 = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation for crystalline azulene was derived from the standard molar enthalpy of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, measured in a mini-bomb combustion calorimeter (aneroid isoperibol calorimeter) and the standard molar enthalpy of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, measured by Calvet microcalorimetry. From these experiments, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of azulene in the gaseous phase at T = 298.15 K was calculated. In addition, very accurate quantum chemical calculations at the G3 and G4 composite levels of calculation were conducted in order to corroborate our experimental findings and further clarify and establish the definitive standard enthalpy of formation of this interesting non-benzenoid hydrocarbon

  9. Nutritional Profile and Chemical Stability of Pasta Fortified with Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Maria Lúcia G; Mársico, Eliane T; Soares, Manoel S; Magalhães, Amanda O; Canto, Anna Carolina V C S; Costa-Lima, Bruno R C; Alvares, Thiago S; Conte, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Physicochemical parameters of pasta enriched with tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) flour were investigated. Five formulations were prepared with different concentrations of tilapia flour as partial substitute of wheat flour: pasta without tilapia flour (PTF0%), pasta with 6% (PTF6%), 12% (PTF12%), 17% (PTF17%), and 23% (PTF23%) of tilapia flour. The formulations were assessed for proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profile on day 1 whereas, instrumental color parameters (L*, a* and b* values), pH, water activity (aw), and lipid and protein oxidation were evaluated on days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of storage at 25°C. Fortification with tilapia flour increased (p tilapia flour decreased (p tilapia flour than their counterparts, and the storage promoted an increase (p tilapia flour has the potential to be a technological alternative to food industry for the nutritional enrichment of traditional pasta with negligible negative effects on the chemical stability of the final product during 21 days at 25°C.

  10. MitoNEET Is a Uniquely Folded 2Fe-2S Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Protein Stabilized By Pioglitazone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paddock, M.L.; Wiley, S.E.; Axelrod, H.L.; Cohen, A.E.; Roy, M.; Abresch, E.C.; Capraro, D.; Murphy, A.N.; Nechushtai, R.; Dixon, J.E.; Jennings, P.A.; /UC, San Diego /SLAC, SSRL /Hebrew U.

    2007-10-19

    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) proteins are key players in vital processes involving energy homeostasis and metabolism from the simplest to most complex organisms. We report a 1.5 Angstrom x-ray crystal structure of the first identified outer mitochondrial membrane Fe-S protein, mitoNEET. Two protomers intertwine to form a unique dimeric structure that constitutes a new fold to not only the {approx}650 reported Fe-S protein structures but also to all known proteins. We name this motif the NEET fold. The protomers form a two-domain structure: a {beta}-cap domain and a cluster-binding domain that coordinates two acid-labile 2Fe-2S clusters. Binding of pioglitazone, an insulin-sensitizing thiazolidinedione used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, stabilizes the protein against 2Fe-2S cluster release. The biophysical properties of mitoNEET suggest that it may participate in a redox-sensitive signaling and/or in Fe-S cluster transfer.

  11. Liquid Membranes as a Tool for Chemical Speciation of Metals in Natural Waters: Organic and Inorganic Complexes of Nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergel, Cristina; Mendiguchía, Carolina; Moreno, Carlos

    2018-04-15

    The different species of nickel present in natural waters exhibit different transport behaviour through bulk liquid membranes (BLMs). This fact has been used to design and optimise a separation/pre-concentration system applicable to separate labile and non-labile nickel fractions. A hydrazone derivative-1,2-cyclohexanedione bis-benzoyl-hydrazone (1,2-CHBBH) dissolved in toluene/dimethyl formamide (2% DMF)-was used as a chemical carrier of nickel species, from an aqueous source solution (sample) to a receiving acidic solution. Both chemical and hydrodynamic conditions controlling the transport system were studied and optimised. Under optimum conditions, variations in the transport of nickel ions as a function of organic (humic acids) and inorganic (chloride ions) ligands were studied. Relationships between the permeability coefficient ( P ) or recovery efficiency (%R) and the concentrations of ligands and nickel species were analysed using Winhumic V software. A negative correlation between P and the concentration of organic nickel complexes was found, suggesting that only labile nickel species are transported through the liquid membrane, with non-labile complexes remaining in the water sample; allowing for their separation and subsequent quantification in natural waters.

  12. Chemical interaction of radioactive waste with clay engineered barriers: stability of the resulting immobilizer phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galunin, Evgeny; Vidal, Miquel; Alba, Maria D.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. High-level radioactive waste containing long-lived actinides (Pu, Np, Am) originates from the spent fuel from nuclear power plants. The deep geological disposal is the main permanent solution that is considered by the scientific community as the most promising method for the long-term management of the radioactive waste. In a deep geological repository (DGR), which is based on an engineered and natural Multi-barrier system, the construction of engineered barriers composed of clays and concrete materials around the canister seems to be the most effective approach for the radionuclide immobilization. It has been recently observed that a chemical reaction takes place over a wide pH range when putting into contact a smectite sample with the salt of a rare-earth element (REE, actinide simulator) in an aqueous solution under pressure and temperature conditions compatible with the DGR scenario. The chemical reaction leads to the formation of an insoluble, persistent rare-earth di-silicate phase, REE 2 Si 2 O 7 . Taking into account that the di-silicate phase formation could be responsible of the success of the clay barrier once the smectite has lost its swelling and cation exchange capacity, its stability (e.g., the di-silicate dissolution at different pH values) should be considered as an influencing factor for the long-term performance of the DGR. Although to know the di-silicate phase stability in the DGR is a key aspect to evaluate its role in the overall performance of the DGR, it has not yet been found detailed explanation on the effect of the REE ionic radius and the pH on the di-silicate stability. Thus, the main goal of the present study is to investigate the effect of the REE ionic radius on the leaching of different REE (Sc, Lu, Y) and thus on the dissolution of REE 2 Si 2 O 7 (REE = Sc, Lu, Y) over a wide pH range. Scandium, lutetium and yttrium di-silicates were synthesized following the sol-gel method and

  13. Radiation and chemical stability of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose radiopharmaceutical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buriova, M.

    2004-07-01

    molecules association with formate anion HCOO - and also for negative ions of deprotonised molecules. All acids appeared in the form of their lactones. FDG and GLC exhibited tendency for formation of a mixed associate charged by HCOO - anion. On the amine bond silica gel HPTLC column, FDG is poorly separated from fluoride, which even in presence of Kryptofix 2.2.2 remains on the start like on the silica gel layer. The last parathion is to be used as a standard technique for [ 18 F]F - assay. At LC-MS Kryptofix provides a very well measurable signals of associates with NH 4 + a H + ions in positive mode of ESI MS. Sensitivity of the ESI MS detector towards sugars is for three orders of magnitude higher than the refraction index detector, which is used for routine analysis, and enables estimation of molar activity of non-carrier-added 2-[ 18 F]FDG. The results of quantitative LC/MS analysis and high-efficient radiometric detector were used for specific activity of 2-[ 18 F]FDG assessment. Concentration of FDG carrier in 2-[ 18 F]FDG preparation was found to be 6 mg.dm -3 and in combination with a radiometric detector the specific activity 6.6 GBq.μmol -1 of 2-[ 18 F]FDG was found. The molar activity of carrier-free ( 18 F)FDG is 63 TBq.μmol -1 , and for good quality of bio-specific ligands at PET it is supposed to be minimally 1 kBq.fmol -1 . Radiation and chemical stability of 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro-D-glucose, and its comparison with glucose at oxidation by Fenton's reagent and autoradiolysis was found. The main oxidation products of FDG and glucose by Fenton's reagent were arabonic acid at 14-23% yield, gluconic acid 12%, both glucuronic acid and arabinose at 5%. In case of FDG among the principal products 2-fluorgluconic acid and 2-fluorgluconic acid by 2.7 % and 4% yields respectively were identified. The dose rates in real solutions of 2-[ 18 F]FDG, as well as the radiation-chemical yields of radioactive (fluorinated), but also further products of autoradiolysis of 2

  14. Evaluation of fouling formation and evolution on hollow fibre membrane: effects of ageing and chemical exposure on biofoulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qianhui; Ye, Yun; Chen, Vicki; Wen, Xianghua

    2015-01-01

    Bio-deposition and biofouling, a major challenge for membrane filtration, is still not fully understood due to its complex structure and intricate evolution with time and chemical environment. In this work, diluted sludge from an anaerobic bioreactor with low mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) concentration was filtered for 3.5 h to form initial fouling layers which were then exposed to various solution environments for 17 h. Apart from monitoring the hydraulic resistance of membrane fouling, a real time direct observation (DO) technique was applied to monitor the change of thickness in the fouling layer. The cohesion and adhesion of different fouling layer were investigated by monitoring the transmembrane pressure (TMP) and thickness change after applying relaxation (cessation of filtration) and backwash. It was found that TMPs and resistances of the aged fouling layers increased significantly after 17 h filtration. All the aged fouling layers exhibited lower compressibility as a result of more soluble microbial products (SMP) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) excretion, biofilm growth. From in situ imaging, the fouling on the membrane surface appeared to be inhomogeneous from the inner (lumen) surface outwards. During long term filtration of fouling layer with Milli-Q water, direct observation (DO) results indicated the reorganization of the fouling layer in terms of peeling, rolling over and re-depositing on the membrane surface, resulting into more compressed fouling layers with higher resistances. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) analysis of aged fouling layers also indicated that the dead/total ratio of microorganisms was not uniform and increased gradually from the bottom to the top of the fouling layers.

  15. Dense ceramic membranes based on ion conducting oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, M.L.; Larring, Y.; Bredesen, R.; Norby, T.; Grande, T.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter reviews the recent progress made in the fields of high temperature oxygen and hydrogen separation membranes. Studies of membranes for oxygen separation are mainly focusing on materials design to improve flux, and to lesser extent, related to stability issues. High oxygen fluxes satisfying industrial requirements can be obtained but, for many materials, the surface exchange rate is limiting the performance. The current status on electrolyte-type and mixed proton and electron conducting membranes is outlined, highlighting materials with improved stability in typical applications as solid oxide fuel cell technology and gas separation. In our presentation more fundamental aspects related to transport properties, chemical and mechanical stability of membrane materials are also treated. It is concluded that a significantly better understanding of the long term effects of operation in chemical gradients is needed for these types of membrane materials. (authors)

  16. 1,6-Bis(4-vinylphenyl)hexane as a crosslinking agent for the preparation of crosslinked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) membranes by EB irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sanghee; Zhang, Mei-Shan; Shin, Junhwa; Lee, Youn-Sik

    2014-04-01

    In order to mitigate problems associated with highly sulfonated aromatic hydrocarbon membranes, such as dimensional stability, mechanical strength, and methanol crossover, sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) membranes containing 1,6-bis(4-vinylphenyl)hexane (BVPH) were crosslinked by EB irradiation. Compared to the pristine SPEEK membrane, the crosslinked membranes exhibited significantly improved dimensional stability, chemical stability, and mechanical strength. The crosslinking procedure slightly reduced the proton conductivity of the membranes. The crosslinking of SPEEK with BVPH was also found to slightly reduce the proton conductivity of the membranes, but significantly reduced the methanol permeability.

  17. Physical and chemical stability of palonosetron hydrochloride with dacarbazine and with methylprednisolone sodium succinate during simulated y-site administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trissel, Lawrence A; Zhang, Yanping; Xu, Quanyun A

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical stability of mixtures of undiluted palonosetron hydrochloride 50 micrograms/mL with dacarbazine 4 mg/mL and with methylprednisolone sodium succinate 5 mg/mL in 5% dextrose injection during simulated Y-site administration. Triplicate test samples were prepared by admixing 7.5 mL of palonosetron hydrochloride with 7.5 mL of dacarbazine solution and, separately, methylprednisolone sodium succinate solution. Physical stability was assessed by using a multistep evaluation procedure that included both turbidimetric and particulate measurement as well as visual inspection. Chemical stability was assessed by using stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic analytical techniques that determined drug concentrations. Evaluations were performed immediately after mixing and 1 and 4 hours after mixing. The palonosetron hydrochloride-dacarbazine samples were clear and colorless when viewed in normal fluorescent room light and when viewed with a Tyndall beam. Measured turbidities remained unchanged; particulate contents were low and exhibited little change. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that palonosetron hydrochloride and dacarbazine remained stable throughout the 4-hour test with no drug loss. Palonosetron hydrochloride is, therefore, physically compatible and chemically stable with dacarbazine during Y-site administration. Within 4 hours, the mixtures of palonosetron hydrochloride and methylprednisolone sodium succinate developed a microprecipitate that became a white precipitate visible to the unaided eye. The precipitate was analyzed and identified as methylprednisolone. Palonosetron hydrochloride is incompatible with methylprednisolone sodium succinate.

  18. Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad H. Al-Malack

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel oil flyash (FFA produced in power and water desalination plants firing crude oils in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is being disposed in landfills, which increases the burden on the environment, therefore, FFA utilization must be encouraged. In the current research, the effect of adding FFA on the engineering properties of two indigenous soils, namely sand and marl, was investigated. FFA was added at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% to both soils with and without the addition of Portland cement. Mixtures of the stabilized soils were thoroughly evaluated using compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compressive strength (USC and durability tests. Results of these tests indicated that stabilized sand mixtures could not attain the ACI strength requirements. However, marl was found to satisfy the ACI strength requirement when only 5% of FFA was added together with 5% of cement. When the FFA was increased to 10% and 15%, the mixture’s strength was found to decrease to values below the ACI requirements. Results of the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP, which was performed on samples that passed the ACI requirements, indicated that FFA must be cautiously used in soil stabilization.

  19. Accelerated Stability Studies on Dried Extracts of Centella asiatica Through Chemical, HPLC, HPTLC, and Biological Activity Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ishtdeep; Suthar, Nancy; Kaur, Jasmeen; Bansal, Yogita; Bansal, Gulshan

    2016-10-01

    Regulatory guidelines recommend systematic stability studies on a herbal product to establish its shelf life. In the present study, commercial extracts (Types I and II) and freshly prepared extract (Type III) of Centella asiatica were subjected to accelerated stability testing for 6 months. Control and stability samples were evaluated for organoleptics, pH, moisture, total phenolic content (TPC), asiatic acid, kaempherol, and high-performance thin layer chromatography fingerprints, and for antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. Markers and TPC and both the activities of each extract decreased in stability samples with respect to control. These losses were maximum in Type I extract and minimum in Type III extract. Higher stability of Type III extract than others might be attributed to the additional phytoconstituents and/or preservatives in it. Pearson correlation analysis of the results suggested that TPC, asiatic acid, and kaempferol can be taken as chemical markers to assess chemical and therapeutic shelf lives of herbal products containing Centella asiatica. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Lutein-enriched emulsion-based delivery systems: Influence of pH and temperature on physical and chemical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidov-Pardo, Gabriel; Gumus, Cansu Ekin; McClements, David Julian

    2016-04-01

    Lutein may be utilized in foods as a natural pigment or nutraceutical ingredient to improve eye health. Nevertheless, its use is limited by its poor water-solubility and chemical instability. We evaluated the effect of storage temperature and pH on the physical and chemical stability of lutein-enriched emulsions prepared using caseinate. The emulsions (initial droplet diameter=232 nm) remained physically stable at all incubation temperatures (5-70 °C); however the chemical degradation of lutein increased with increasing temperature (activation energy=38 kJ/mol). Solution pH had a major impact on the physical stability of the emulsions, causing droplet aggregation at pH 4 and 5. Conversely, the chemical stability of lutein was largely independent of the pH, with only a slight decrease in degradation at pH 8. This work provides important information for the rational design of emulsion-based delivery systems for a lipophilic natural dye and nutraceutical. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biophysical analysis of the effect of chemical modification by 4-oxononenal on the structure, stability, and function of binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinen D Shah

    Full Text Available Binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP is a molecular chaperone important for the folding of numerous proteins, which include millions of immunoglobulins in human body. It also plays a key role in the unfolded protein response (UPR in the endoplasmic reticulum. Free radical generation is a common phenomenon that occurs in cells under healthy as well as under stress conditions such as ageing, inflammation, alcohol consumption, and smoking. These free radicals attack the cell membranes and generate highly reactive lipid peroxidation products such as 4-oxononenal (4-ONE. BiP is a key protein that is modified by 4-ONE. In this study, we probed how such chemical modification affects the biophysical properties of BiP. Upon modification, BiP shows significant tertiary structural changes with no changes in its secondary structure. The protein loses its thermodynamic stability, particularly, that of the nucleotide binding domain (NBD where ATP binds. In terms of function, the modified BiP completely loses its ATPase activity with decreased ATP binding affinity. However, modified BiP retains its immunoglobulin binding function and its chaperone activity of suppressing non-specific protein aggregation. These results indicate that 4-ONE modification can significantly affect the structure-function of key proteins such as BiP involved in cellular pathways, and provide a molecular basis for how chemical modifications can result in the failure of quality control mechanisms inside the cell.

  2. Achieving synergy between chemical oxidation and stabilization in a contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Vipul J; Hudson, Jeffrey Michael; Cassidy, Daniel P

    2016-07-01

    Eight in situ solidification/stabilization (ISS) amendments were tested to promote in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) with activated persulfate (PS) in a contaminated soil. A 3% (by weight) dose of all ISS amendments selected for this study completely activated a 1.5% dose of PS within 3 h by raising temperatures above 30 °C (heat activation) and/or increasing pH above 10.5 (alkaline activation). Heat is released by the reaction of CaO with water, and pH increases because this reaction produces Ca(OH)2. Heat activation is preferred because it generates 2 mol of oxidizing radicals per mole of PS, whereas alkaline activation releases only 1. The relative contribution of heat vs. alkaline activation increased with CaO content of the ISS amendment, which was reflected by enhanced contaminant oxidation with increasing CaO content, and was confirmed by comparing to controls promoting purely heat or alkaline (NaOH) activation. The test soil was contaminated with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), particularly naphthalene (NAP). ISS-activated PS oxidized between 47% and 84% of the BTEX & NAP, and between 13% and 33% of the higher molecular weight PAH. ISS-activated PS reduced the leachability of BTEX & NAP by 76%-91% and of the 17 PAH by 83%-96%. Combined ISCO/ISS reduced contaminant leachability far than ISCO or ISS treatments alone, demonstrating the synergy that is possible with combined remedies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. New membrane structures with proton conducting properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Casper Frydendal

    Perfluorosulfonic acid membranes (e.g. Nafion®) are the most widely applied electrolytes in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) because of their good chemical stability, mechanical properties and high proton conductivity, when well hydrated. The upper limit of operating temperature...... for these membranes is restricted by the loss of conductivity and dimensional stability as the temperature reaches the boiling point of water and the glass transition temperature of the polymer. At low relative humidity the membranes dehydrate, resulting in loss of conductivity and reduced dimensions. High...... [1, 2, 3]. Improved fuel cell performance from incorporation of hygroscopic oxides or solid proton conductors (e.g. zirconium phosphates) has been reported. The poster exhibits upcoming work in the field of composite electrolyte membranes at the University of Southern Denmark, combining radiation...

  4. Application showcases for a small scale membrane contactor for fine chemical processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelands, C.P.M.; Ngene, I.S.

    2011-01-01

    The transition from batch to continuous processing in fine-chemicals industries offers many advantages; among these are a high volumetric productivity, improved control over reaction conditions resulting in a higher yield and selectivity, a small footprint and a safer process due to a smaller

  5. Chemical Agent Performance of Sulfonated Ionomeric Membranes for Chem/Bio Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Polyisobutylene ( PIB ) Chemically Modified IB Sulfonic Acid Counter-ion (Ba, Mg, Ca, Zn, Cs)Block Copolymer Morphology Sulfonic acid...Mauritz, K., 2000: Diffusion of Alcohols Through Sulfonated PS/ PIB /PS Block Copolymers Using FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy, Polymer Materials: Engineering

  6. Transmembrane Signalling: Membrane messengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockroft, Scott L.

    2017-05-01

    Life has evolved elaborate means of communicating essential chemical information across cell membranes. Inspired by biology, two new artificial mechanisms have now been developed that use synthetic messenger molecules to relay chemical signals into or across lipid membranes.

  7. Improvement on the concentrated grape juice physico-chemical characteristics by an enzymatic treatment and Membrane Separation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PLÍNIO R.F. CAMPOS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this work, the improvement on the concentrated grape juice physico-chemical characteristics by using an enzymatic treatment followed by Membrane Separation Process (MSP has been investigated. By using Novozym 33095(r and Ultrazym AFP L(r enzymes varying three operating parameters, the best result on the grape pulp characteristics was attained for the Novozym 33095(r performed at 35oC, 15 min. and 50 mgL-1. In micro/ultra filtration processes after enzymatic pretreatment, the best performance of the MSP with high permeate flux value and suitable grape juice characteristics was attained using 0.05 mm membrane pore size, 1 bar pressure and 40 oC treatment temperature. When reverse osmosis process is operated at 40 bar and 40oC, high soluble solid and low turbidity values are attained. An enzymatic treatment along with MSP has shown an alternative and efficient grape juice processing system, being possible to extend to other foods.

  8. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL STABILITY ANALYSIS OF COSMETIC MULTI- PLE EMULSIONS LOADED WITH ASCORBYL PALMITATE AND SODIUM ASCORBYL PHOSPHATE SALTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hira; Akhtar, Naveed; Ali, Atif; Khan, Haji M Shoaib; Sohail, Muhammad; Naeem, Muhammad; Nawaz, Zarqa

    2016-09-01

    Stability of hydrophilic and lipophilic vitamin C derivatives for quenching synergistic antioxidant activities and to treat oxidative related diseases is a major issue. This study was aimed to encapsulate hydrophilic and lipophilic vitamin C derivatives (ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate) as functional ingredients in a newly formulated multiple emulsion of the W//W type to attain the synergistic antioxidant effects and the resultant system's long term physical and chemical stability. Several multiple emulsions using the same concentration of emulsifiers but different concentrations of ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate were developed. Three finally selected multiple emulsions (ME₁, ME₂ and ME₃) were evaluated for physical stability in terms of rheology, microscopy, conductivity, pH, and organoleptic characteristics under different storage conditions for 3 months. Chemical stability was determined by HPLC on Sykam GmbH HPLC system (Germany), equipped with a variable UV detector. Results showed that at accelerated storage conditions all the three multiple emulsions had shear thinning behavior of varying shear stress with no influence of location of functional ingredients in a carrier system. Conductivity values increased and pH values remained within the skin pH range for 3 months. Microscopic analysis showed an increase in globule size with the passage of time, especially at higher temperatures while decreased at low temperatures. Centrifugation test did not cause phase separation till the 45th day, but little effects after 2 months. Chemical stability analysis by HPLC at the end of 3 months showed that ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate were almost stable in all multiple emulsions with no influence of their location in a carrier system. Multiple emulsions were found a stable carrier for hydrophilic and lipophilic vitamin C derivatives to enhance their desired effects. Considering that many topical formulations

  9. Electrical conductivity and chemical stability of BaCe0· 8− xAxGd0 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -1 in air at 1073 K. BaCe0.7In0.1Gd0.2O3− and BaCe0.7Zr0.1Gd0.2O3− ceramics exhibit an excellent chemical stability against boiling water. Indium is a suitable doping element to promote the sintering densification and to enhance both ...

  10. Yeast Tok1p channel is a major contributor to membrane potential maintenance under chemical stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahumenský, J.; Jančíková, I.; Drietomská, A.; Švenkrtová, Andrea; Hlaváček, Otakar; Hendrych, T.; Plášek, J.; Sigler, Karel; Gášková, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1859, č. 10 (2017), s. 1974-1985 ISSN 0005-2736 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08225S; GA MŠk LH13049; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Chemical stress * Depolarization * Fluorescent probe diS-C-3(3) Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.498, year: 2016

  11. Chemical Stability of Cd(II and Cu(II Ionic Imprinted Amino-Silica Hybrid Material in Solution Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhani Buhani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical stability of Cd(II and Cu(II ionic imprinted amino-silica (HAS material of (i-Cd-HAS and i-Cu-HAS derived from silica modification with active compound (3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (3-APTMS has been studied in solution media.  Stability test was performed with HNO3 0.1 M (pH 1.35 to investigate material stability at low pH condition, acetat buffer at pH 5.22 for adsorption process optimum pH condition, and in the water (pH 9.34 for base condition.  Material characteristics were carried out with infrared spectrophotometer (IR and atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS.  At interaction time of 4 days in acid and neutral condition, i-Cd-HAS is more stable than i-Cu-HAS with % Si left in material 95.89 % (acid media, 43.82 % (close to neutral, and 9.39 % (base media.Keywords: chemical stability, amino-silica hybrid, ionic imprinting technique.

  12. Chemical stability and antimicrobial activity of plasma sprayed bioactive Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Yu, Jiangming; Xie, Youtao; Huang, Liping; Ye, Xiaojian; Zheng, Xuebin

    2011-12-01

    Calcium silicate ceramic coatings have received considerable attention in recent years due to their excellent bioactivity and bonding strength. However, their high dissolution rates limit their practical applications. In this study, zinc incorporated calcium silicate based ceramic Ca(2)ZnSi(2)O(7) coating was prepared on Ti-6Al-4V substrate via plasma spraying technology aiming to achieve higher chemical stability and additional antibacterial activity. Chemical stability of the coating was assessed by monitoring mass loss and ion release of the coating after immersion in the Tris-HCl buffer solution and examining pH value variation of the solution. Results showed that the chemical stability of zinc incorporated coating was improved significantly. Antimicrobial activity of the Ca(2)ZnSi(2)O(7) coating was evaluated, and it was found that the coating exhibited 93% antibacterial ratio against Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility were confirmed for the Ca(2)ZnSi(2)O(7) coating by simulated body fluid test, MC3T3-E1 cells adhesion investigation and cytotoxicity assay.

  13. Effect of stabilizers on the physico-chemical and sensory attributes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stabilized thermized yoghurt was produced by the addition of gelatin, carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) and corn starch, into yoghurt mix as stabilizers, each at 0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0% concentrations. The yoghurt samples produced after pasteurization of the mix, cooling, inoculation of starter culture and incubation for about 16 ...

  14. Crosslinked Hexafluoropropylidene Polybenzimidazole Membranes with Chloromethyl Polysulfone for Fuel Cell Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jingshuai; Li, Qingfeng; Cleemann, Lars Nilausen

    2013-01-01

    Hexafluoropropylidene polybenzimidazole (F6PBI) was synthesized with excellent chemical stability and improved solubility. When doped with phosphoric acid, however, the F6PBI membranes showed plastic deformation at elevated temperatures. Further efforts were made to covalently crosslink F6PBI...... membranes with chloromethyl polysulfone as a polymeric crosslinker. Comparing with linear F6PBI and mPBI membranes, the polymer crosslinked F6PBI membranes exhibited little organo solubility, excellent stability towards the radical oxidation, high resistance to swelling in concentrated phosphoric acid...... with the linear F6PBI and mPBI membranes....

  15. Numerical simulation of CO2 separation from gas mixtures in membrane modules: Effect of chemical absorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Reza Razavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a mathematical model is proposed for prediction of CO2 absorption from N2/CO2 mixture by potassium threonate in a hollow-fiber membrane contactor (HFMC. CFD technique using numerical method of finite element was applied to solve the governing equations of model. Effect of different factors on CO2 absorption was analyzed and for investigation of absorbent type effect, functioning of potassium threonate was compared with diethanolamine (DEA. Axial and radial diffusion can be described with the two dimensional model established in this work. The obtained simulation results were compared with the reported experimental data to ensure accuracy of the model predictions. Comparison of model results with experimental data revealed that the developed model can well predict CO2 capture by potassium threonate in HFMCs. Increment of absorbent flow rate and concentration eventuate in enhancement of CO2 absorption. On the other hand, capture of CO2 will be reduced with increment of gas flow rate. According to the model results, potassium threonate can be considered as a more efficient absorbent as compared with DEA.

  16. Treatment of tannery wastewater for reuse by physico-chemical processes and a membrane bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fettig

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of wastewater from a tannery in Greater Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam was investigated on a pilot scale. After pre-treatment by the tannery that included batch-coagulation and sedimentation, the wastewater was treated by dissolved air flotation, a membrane bioreactor (MBR and granular activated carbon (GAC for polishing the MBR effluent. The average removal efficiency for organic substances in the MBR was 81% while total nitrogen could only be removed by 36%. The performance of the GAC column could be successfully predicted using adsorption parameters determined in laboratory experiments. A larger proportion of the organics in the MBR effluent was only weakly adsorbable, therefore the usable carbon capacity was limited as confirmed by the modelling approach. The results were used to outline the size of a technical plant with a volumetric loading rate of 3 kg COD/(m3*d for the MBR and a specific carbon demand of about 1.8 kg/m3.

  17. Activation and stabilization of the hydroperoxide lyase enzymatic extract from mint leaves (Mentha spicata) using selected chemical additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akacha, Najla B; Karboune, Salwa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Kermasha, Selim

    2010-03-01

    The effects of selected lyoprotecting excipients and chemical additives on the specific activity and the thermal stability of the hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) enzymatic extract from mint leaves were investigated. The addition of KCl (5%, w/w) and dextran (2.5%, w/w) to the enzymatic extract, prior to lyophilization, increased the HPL specific activity by 2.0- and 1.2-fold, respectively, compared to the control lyophilized extract. From half-life time (t (1/2)), it can be seen that KCl has enhanced the HPL stability by 1.3- to 2.3-fold, during long-period storage at -20 degrees Celsius and 4 degrees Celsius. Among the selected additives used throughout this study, glycine appeared to be the most effective one. In addition to the activation effect conferred by glycine, it also enhanced the HPL thermal stability. In contrast, polyhydroxyl-containing additives were not effective for stabilizing the HPL enzymatic extract. On the other hand, there was no signification increase in HPL activity and its thermal stability with the presence of Triton X-100. The results also showed that in the presence of glycine (10%), the catalytic efficiency of HPL was increased by 2.45-fold than that without additive.

  18. Effects of chemical agent injections on genotoxicity of wastewater in a microfiltration-reverse osmosis membrane process for wastewater reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fang; Hu, Hong-Ying; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Tang, Xin; Sun, Ying-Xue; Shi, Xiao-Lei; Huang, Jing-Jing

    2013-09-15

    With combined microfiltration (MF)/ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) process being widely used in municipal wastewater reclamation, RO concentrate with high level genotoxicity is becoming a potential risk to water environment. In this study, wastewater genotoxicity in a MF-RO process for municipal wastewater reclamation and also the effects of chemical agent injections were evaluated by SOS/umu genotoxicity test. The genotoxicity of RO concentrate ranged 500-559 μg 4-NQO (4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide)/L and 12-22 μg 4-NQO/mg DOC, was much higher than that of RO influent. Further research suggested that Kathon biocide was a key chemical agent associated with the genotoxicity increase. Kathon biocide used in RO system was highly genotoxic in vitro and Kathon biocide retained in RO system could contribute to a higher genotoxicity of RO concentrate. Hence, treatments for biocides before discharging are necessary. Chlorination of secondary effluent could significantly decrease the genotoxicity and increasing chlorine dosage could be an efficacious method to decrease the genotoxicity of RO concentrate. According to the result of the experiment, the dosage of chlorine in dual-membrane process could be set to about 2.5 mg Cl₂/L. The effect of antiscalant (2-phosphomobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid) was also investigated; it turned out to have no effect on genotoxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Acid Rock Drainage Treatment Using Membrane Distillation: Impacts of Chemical-Free Pretreatment on Scale Formation, Pore Wetting, and Product Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Eric J; Zodrow, Katherine R

    2017-10-17

    Acid rock drainage (ARD) is a metal-rich wastewater that forms upon oxidation of sulfidic minerals. Although ARD impacts >12,000 miles of rivers in the U.S. and has an estimated cleanup cost of $32-$72 billion, the low pH and high metal concentrations in ARD make rapid, high volume treatment without chemical addition difficult. This research focuses on a novel method of ARD treatment, membrane distillation (MD). In MD, heated ARD is separated from a cooled distillate by a hydrophobic, water-excluding membrane. Because water only passes through the membrane in the vapor phase, nonvolatile sulfate and heavy metals are retained in the concentrate stream. A preliminary in silico analysis using an electrolyte thermodynamic model indicated that MD of 10 different mine wastes yields product water containing no contaminants at concentrations >0.2 ppm. MD tests of synthetic ARD used a ∼34 °C temperature difference, operated at 80% recovery, and produced an initial flux of 38.4 ± 1.1 L·m -2 ·h -1 . This flux decreased slightly after scaling by iron oxyhydroxide; however, membranes maintained >99% dissolved solids rejection. Both flux decline and membrane scale formation decreased after a chemical-free, thermal precipitation pretreatment. These results indicate that MD can purify contaminated, acidic wastewater using low-grade heat sources, such as geothermal energy, without chemical addition.

  20. Gravity-driven membrane filtration as pretreatment for seawater reverse osmosis: linking biofouling layer morphology with flux stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondi, Ebrahim; Wu, Bing; Sun, Shuyang; Marxer, Brigit; Lim, Weikang; Gu, Jun; Liu, Linbo; Burkhardt, Michael; McDougald, Diane; Pronk, Wouter; Fane, Anthony G

    2015-03-01

    In this study gravity-driven membrane (GDM) ultrafiltration is investigated for the pretreatment of seawater before reverse osmosis (RO). The impacts of temperature (21 ± 1 and 29 ± 1 °C) and hydrostatic pressure (40 and 100 mbar) on dynamic flux development and biofouling layer structure were studied. The data suggested pore constriction fouling was predominant at the early stage of filtration, during which the hydrostatic pressure and temperature had negligible effects on permeate flux. With extended filtration time, cake layer fouling played a major role, during which higher hydrostatic pressure and temperature improved permeate flux. The permeate flux stabilized in a range of 3.6 L/m(2) h (21 ± 1 °C, 40 mbar) to 7.3 L/m(2) h (29 ± 1 °C, 100 mbar) after slight fluctuations and remained constant for the duration of the experiments (almost 3 months). An increase in biofouling layer thickness and a variable biofouling layer structure were observed over time by optical coherence tomography and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The presence of eukaryotic organisms in the biofouling layer was observed by light microscopy and the microbial community structure of the biofouling layer was analyzed by sequences of 16S rRNA genes. The magnitude of permeate flux was associated with the combined effect of the biofouling layer thickness and structure. Changes in the biofouling layer structure were attributed to (1) the movement and predation behaviour of the eukaryotic organisms which increased the heterogeneous nature of the biofouling layer; (2) the bacterial debris generated by eukaryotic predation activity which reduced porosity; (3) significant shifts of the dominant bacterial species over time that may have influenced the biofouling layer structure. As expected, most of the particles and colloids in the feed seawater were removed by the GDM process, which led to a lower RO fouling potential. However, the dissolved organic carbon in the

  1. Study of the stability of suspended solids in chemical cleaning solvents used in nuclear steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.

    1982-01-01

    Zeta potential (ZP) values were calculated from electrophoresis measurements performed on Fe 3 O 4 and Cu 2 O particles and used with microscope observations to assess the degree of stability of the suspended solids in the acidic and alkaline solvents employed for cleaning nuclear steam generators. In the acidic solvent, the degree of stability proved outstandingly good with a ZP of approximately -352 mV. The EDTA and citric acid constituents of the solvent are potential-determining ions acting as anionic surface-active agents. Nitrogen bubbling and the presence of N 2 H 4 have a stabilizing effect on the suspensions, which increases as the solvent ages. On the other hand, suspensions in the alkaline solvent are unstable, with ZP values between -10 and -30 mV. Surface-active agents of the anionic carboxylate type are far more effective than the non-ionic type for improving stability. (author)

  2. Comparison of Amniotic Membrane Transplantation and Umbilical Cord Serum in Acute Ocular Chemical Burns: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Namrata; Singh, Divya; Maharana, Prafulla K; Kriplani, Alka; Velpandian, Thirumurthy; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2016-08-01

    To compare the efficacy of topical umbilical cord serum drops (UCS) and amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) in acute ocular chemical burns. Randomized controlled trial. setting: Tertiary care hospital. Forty-five eyes with acute chemical burns of grade III, IV, and V (Dua's classification) presenting within the first week of injury were randomized into 3 groups (15 each). Patients with perforation/impending corneal perforation were excluded from the study. Groups 1, 2, and 3 received UCS with medical therapy (MT), AMT with MT, and MT alone, respectively. Time to complete epithelialization. The mean time to complete epithelialization was 56.7 ± 14.9, 22.0 ± 10.2, and 22.9 ± 10.1 days in MT, AMT, and UCS groups, respectively, with a significant difference between MT and AMT (P = .001) and between MT and UCS (P = .001), but not between UCS and AMT (P = .9). Improvement in pain score was better with UCS than AMT (P value: .012, .002, and .012 on days 7, 14, and 21, respectively). Corneal clarity was better in the UCS group at 21 (P = .008) and 30 days (P = .002), but not at 3 months (P = .9). By month 3, visual outcome, symblepharon, tear film status, and lid abnormalities were comparable between the 3 groups. UCS and AMT, as an adjuvant to standard medical therapy in acute chemical injury, are equally efficacious. UCS has the advantage of faster improvement in corneal clarity, better pain control, and avoidance of surgery in an inflamed eye. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Esters on the Permeation of Chemicals with Different Polarities through Synthetic Artificial Membranes Using a High-Throughput Diffusion Cell Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Takashi; Nishioka, Keisuke; Motoki, Anzu; Yakumaru, Masafumi; Sano, Tomohiko; Todo, Hiroaki; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of 25 kinds of esters that are used in cosmetics on the permeation of four model compounds with different polarities (caffeine [CF], aminopyrine [AMP], benzoic acid [BA], and flurbiprofen [FP]). The amount of each model compound that permeated through two types of artificial membrane (silicone and Strat-M ® ) was measured and correlated with the physicochemical properties of the esters, including their solubility, viscosity, wettability, surface tension, and uptake. The amount of each model compound that permeated through the silicone membrane was not significantly correlated with the solubility of the esters but was significantly correlated with all other measured physical properties of the esters. Similar correlations were observed for the amounts of AMP, BA, and FP that passed through the Strat-M ® membrane. However, the amount of CF that permeated through the Strat-M ® membrane also correlated with the solubility of the esters. There was a highly significant correlation between the amount permeating through the silicone and Strat-M ® membranes because the model compounds had high lipophilicity. These findings demonstrated that to control the permeation of various chemicals through artificial membranes, it is important to consider the uptake of the esters and that the solubility of the esters is also an important consideration when using a more complex membrane.

  4. Selective Ion Transporting Polymerized Ionic Liquid Membrane Separator for Enhancing Cycle Stability and Durability in Secondary Zinc-Air Battery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ho Jung; Chi, Won Seok; Kwon, Ohchan; Lee, Jin Goo; Kim, Jong Hak; Shul, Yong-Gun

    2016-10-05

    Rechargeable secondary zinc-air batteries with superior cyclic stability were developed using commercial polypropylene (PP) membrane coated with polymerized ionic liquid as separators. The anionic exchange polymer was synthesized copolymerizing 1-[(4-ethenylphenyl)methyl]-3-butylimidazolium hydroxide (EBIH) and butyl methacrylate (BMA) monomers by free radical polymerization for both functionality and structural integrity. The ionic liquid induced copolymer was coated on a commercially available PP membrane (Celguard 5550). The coat allows anionic transfer through the separator and minimizes the migration of zincate ions to the cathode compartment, which reduces electrolyte conductivity and may deteriorate catalytic activity by the formation of zinc oxide on the surface of the catalyst layer. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) data revealed the copolymer-coated separator showed less zinc element in the cathode, indicating lower zinc crossover through the membrane. Ion coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analysis confirmed over 96% of zincate ion crossover was reduced. In our charge/discharge setup, the constructed cell with the ionic liquid induced copolymer casted separator exhibited drastically improved durability as the battery life increased more than 281% compared to the pure commercial PP membrane. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) during the cycle process elucidated the premature failure of cells due to the zinc crossover for the untreated cell and revealed a substantial importance must be placed in zincate control.

  5. In-line formation of chemically cross-linked P84® co-polyimide hollow fibre membranes for H2/CO2 separation

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Seung Hak

    2010-12-13

    In this study, chemically cross-linked asymmetric P84® co-polyimide hollow fibre membranes with enhanced separation performance were fabricated, using a dry-wet spinning process with an innovative in-line cross-linking step. The chemical modification was conducted by controlled immersion of the coagulated fibre in an aqueous 1,5-diamino-2-methylpentane (DAMP) cross-linker solution before the take-up. The effect of the cross-linker concentration on the thermal, mechanical, chemical and gas transport properties of the membranes was investigated. FT-IR/ATR analysis was used to identify the chemical changes in the polymer, while DSC analysis confirmed the changes in the Tg and the specific heat of the polymer upon cross-linking. Chemical cross-linking with a 10 wt.% aqueous DAMP solution strongly enhanced the H2/CO2 ideal selectivity from 5.3 to 16.1, while the H2 permeance of the membranes decreased from 7.06 × 10−3 to 1.01 × 10−3 m3(STP) m−2 h−1 bar−1 for a feed pressure of 1 bar at 25 °C. The increase of selectivity with decreasing permeance is somewhat higher than the slope in the Robeson upper bound, evidencing the positive effect of the cross-linking on the separation performance of the fibres. Simultaneously, the cross-linking leads to improved mechanical resistance of the membranes, which could be further enhanced by an additional thermal treatment. The produced membranes are therefore more suitable for use under harsh conditions and have a better overall performance than the uncross-linked ones.

  6. Chemical stabilization of metals and arsenic in contaminated soils using oxides – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komárek, Michael; Vaněk, Aleš; Ettler, Vojtěch

    2013-01-01

    Oxides and their precursors have been extensively studied, either singly or in combination with other amendments promoting sorption, for in situ stabilization of metals and As in contaminated soils. This remediation option aims at reducing the available fraction of metal(loid)s, notably in the root zone, and thus lowering the risks associated with their leaching, ecotoxicity, plant uptake and human exposure. This review summarizes literature data on mechanisms involved in the immobilization process and presents results from laboratory and field experiments, including the subsequent influence on higher plants and aided phytostabilization. Despite the partial successes in the field, recent knowledge highlights the importance of long-term and large-scale field studies evaluating the stability of the oxide-based amendments in the treated soils and their efficiency in the long-term. - In situ stabilization of metals and As in contaminated soils using oxides combined with phytostabilization is a potential alternative to conventional remediation techniques.

  7. There Is Still Room for Improvement: Presentation of a Neutral Borosilicate Glass with Improved Chemical Stability for Parenteral Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltres, Bettine; Tratzky, Stephan; Kass, Christof; Eichholz, Rainer; Naß, Peter

    2016-01-01

    For pharmaceutical parenteral packaging the glass compositions have always been either Type I borosilicate or Type III soda-lime glass. As both the compositions and certain chemical and physical properties are mandated by international standards, there has not been room for any changes. However, by applying only minor adjustments, a borosilicate glass was developed that showed improved chemical stability. The chemical composition is still in the range of currently used borosilicate glasses, which makes it a Type I glass according to all current pharmacopeia. A study was performed on glass vials comparing the new glass with the standard FIOLAX(®) and two other publicly available glasses. In an extraction study with water at 121 °C the new glass showed the highest chemical stability with the lowest amount of extractables. In an accelerated ageing study, which was done with water, phosphate, and carbonate buffer at 40 °C for 12 months, the new glass also proved to have the lowest amount of leachables. In this article the new glass and the results from the studies are presented, showing the reader how much of an effect can be attained with only minor adjustments if the scientific fundamentals are clear. The pharmaceutical market has been quite constant and risk-oriented due to the high impact on the safety of the patient. As any change necessitates a complicated change process, this has, in consequence, lead the industry to resist changing the parenteral primary packaging material for decades. The main glasses have either been Type I borosilicate or Type III soda-lime glass. On the other hand, a combination of improved inspection systems and the development of more sensitive biologically based drugs has elevated the standards for parental packaging materials. For example, the measurement of extractables and leachables from the packaging material steadily came into focus. In this article, a new glass is presented that still belongs to the group of Type I borosilicate

  8. Thermal Stability of Platinum-Cobalt Bimetallic Nanoparticles: Chemically Disordered Alloys, Ordered Intermetallics, and Core-Shell Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rao; Shao, Gui-Fang; Zhang, Yang; Wen, Yu-Hua

    2017-04-12

    Pt-Co bimetallic nanoparticles are promising candidates for Pt-based nanocatalysts and magnetic-storage materials. By using molecular dynamics simulations, we here present a detailed examination on the thermal stabilities of Pt-Co bimetallic nanoparticles with three configurations including chemically disordered alloy, ordered intermetallics, and core-shell structures. It has been revealed that ordered intermetallic nanoparticles possess better structural and thermal stability than disordered alloyed ones for both Pt 3 Co and PtCo systems, and Pt 3 Co-Pt core-shell nanoparticles exhibit the highest melting points and the best thermal stability among Pt-Co bimetallic nanoparticles, although their meltings all initiate at the surface and evolve inward with increasing temperatures. In contrast, Co-Pt core-shell nanoparticles display the worst thermal stability compared with the aforementioned nanoparticles. Furthermore, their melting initiates in the core and extends outward surface, showing a typical two-stage melting mode. The solid-solid phase transition is discovered in Co core before its melting. This work demonstrates the importance of composition distribution to tuning the properties of binary nanoparticles.

  9. Enhancement of the chemical stability in confined δ-Bi2O3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanna, Simone; Esposito, Vincenzo; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel

    2015-01-01

    Bismuth-oxide-based materials are the building blocks for modern ferroelectrics1, multiferroics2, gas sensors3, light photocatalysts4 and fuel cells5,6. Although the cubic fluorite δ-phase of bismuth oxide (δ-Bi2O3) exhibits the highest conductivity of known solid-state oxygen ion conductors5, its...... instability prevents use at low temperature7–10. Here we demonstrate the possibility of stabilizing δ-Bi2O3 using highly coherent interfaces of alternating layers of Er2O3-stabilized δ-Bi2O3 and Gd2O3-doped CeO2. Remarkably, an exceptionally high chemical stability in reducing conditions and redox cycles...... at high temperature, usually unattainable for Bi2O3-based materials, is achieved. Even more interestingly, at low oxygen partial pressure the layered material shows anomalous high conductivity, equal or superior to pure δ-Bi2O3 in air. This suggests a strategy to design and stabilize new materials...

  10. Progress in surface and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Cadenhead, D A

    1979-01-01

    Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Volume 12 covers the advances in the study of surface and membrane science. The book discusses the topographical differentiation of the cell surface; the NMR studies of model biological membrane system; and an irreversible thermodynamic approach to energy coupling in mitochondria and chloroplasts. The text also describes water at surfaces; the nature of microemulsions; and the energy principle in the stability of interfaces. Biochemists, physicists, chemical engineers, and people involved in surface and coatings research will find the book invaluable.

  11. Chemical stability of carbon-based inorganic materials for in situ x-ray investigations of ammonothermal crystal growth of nitrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Saskia; Künecke, Ulrike; Meisel, Magnus; Hertweck, Benjamin; Steigerwald, Thomas G.; Nebel, Christoph; Alt, Nicolas S. A.; Schlücker, Eberhard; Wellmann, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The chemical stability of diamond, silicon carbide, vitreous carbon, and boron carbide in supercritical ammonia containing different mineralizers was investigated. The materials were found to show good corrosion resistance in the presence of selective or all tested mineralizers. Diamond was found to be virtually inert in both ammonoacidic and ammonobasic reaction media. Silicon carbide showed good chemical stability in varying ammonothermal reaction media. The chemical stability of vitreous carbon was found to depend on its manufacturing temperature. Corrosion of boron carbide strongly depends on the mineralizer used as well as on applied mechanical stress. Based on their chemical stability and mechanical properties, the applicability of the materials in the respective ammonothermal reaction media as construction materials is evaluated. Additionally, the applicability of the materials as a window material for both high energy in situ x-ray imaging and low energy in situ x-ray diffraction is discussed.

  12. Organic-inorganic hybrid membranes in separation processes: a 10-year review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In relation to some inorganic membranes, polymeric membranes have relatively low separation performance. However, the processing flexibility and low cost of polymers still make them highly attractive for many industrial separation applications. Polymer-inorganic hybrid membranes constitute an emerging research field and have been recently developed to improve the separation properties of polymer membranes because they possess properties of both organic and inorganic membranes such as good hydrophilicity, selectivity, permeability, mechanical strength, and thermal and chemical stability. The structures and processing of polymer-inorganic nanocomposite hybrid membranes, as well as their use in the fields of ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, pervaporation, gas separation and separation mechanism are reviewed.

  13. Effects of Resin Refining on the Chemical and Physical Stability of Sardine Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Irianto, Hari Eko

    2014-01-01

    The effect of resin refining on the stability of sardine oil was studied. Fish canning waste oil and fish meal processing waste oil were used in the experiment. The oils were refined by passing through the resin packed column at fish oil and resin ration of 1 : 1.            The fish oil stability was investigated using Schaal oven method by placing the oil in an oven at 63 ± 2oC and the sample was withdrawn after 0, 2, 4, 7 and 11 days. Resin refining improved fish oil quality as indicated b...

  14. Changes in carbohydrate content and membrane stability of two ecotypes of Calamagrostis arundinacea growing at different elevations in the drawdown zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shutong Lei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Three Gorges project has caused many ecosystem problems. Ecological restoration using readily-available plants is an effective way of mitigating environmental impacts. Two perennial submergence-tolerant ecotypes of Calamagrostis arundinacea were planted in an experimental field in the drawdown zone. Responses of the two plant ecotypes to flooding stress in the drawdown zone were unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Carbohydrate content and membrane stability, two key factors for survival of plants under flooding stress, of two ecotypes (designated "dwarf" and "green" of C. arundinacea growing at different elevations of the drawdown zone were investigated. Live stems (LS and dead stems (DS of the two plant ecotypes at eight elevations (175, 170, 162, 160, 158, 155, 152 m and 149 m were sampled. Contents of soluble sugar, starch and malondialdehyde (MDA, as well as plasma membrane permeability of live stems were measured. The lowest elevations for survival of dwarf and green C. arundinacea were 160 m and 158 m, respectively. Soluble sugar content of live stems of both ecotypes decreased with elevation, with amounts from an elevation of 170 m being lower than from an elevation of 175 m. MDA content and plasma membrane permeability in live stems of green C. arundinacea did not increase with the decrease in elevation, while these measures in dwarf C. arundinacea from an elevation of 162 m were significantly higher than from an elevation of 175 m. CONCLUSIONS: Carbohydrate content, especially soluble sugar content, in both ecotypes was more sensitive to flooding stress than membrane stability. Green C. arundinacea had a higher tolerance to submergence than dwarf C. arundinacea, and thus green C. arundinacea can be planted at lower elevations than dwarf C. arundinacea.

  15. Plant wide chemical water stability modelling with PHREEQC for drinking water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Helm, A.W.C.; Kramer, O.J.I.; Hooft, J.F.M.; De Moel, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    In practice, drinking water technologists use simplified calculation methods for aquatic chemistry calculations. Recently, the database stimela.dat is developed especially for aquatic chemistry for drinking water treatment processes. The database is used in PHREEQC, the standard in geohydrology for calculating chemical equilibria in groundwater. The development of a graphical user interface for PHREEQC in Microsoft Excel has made it possible to easily incorporate complicated chemical calculat...

  16. Exploring the potential of commercial polyethylene membranes for desalination by membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Zuo, Jian

    2015-09-26

    The potential of utilizing polyethylene (PE) membranes in membrane distillation (MD) for sea water desalination has been explored in this study. The advantages of using PE membranes are (1) their intrinsic hydrophobicity with low surface energy of 28-33×10N/m, (2) good chemical stability and low thermal conductivity and (3) their commercial availability that may expedite the MD commercialization process. Several commercial PE membranes with different physicochemical properties are employed to study the capability and feasibility of PE membrane application in an MD process. The effect of membrane pore size, porosity, thickness and wetting resistance on MD performance and energy efficiency have been investigated. The PE membranes demonstrate impressive separation performance with permeation fluxes reaching 123.0L/mh for a 3.5wt% sodium chloride (NaCl) feed solution at 80°C. This superior performance surpasses most of the prior commercial and lab-made flat sheet and hollow fiber membranes. A long term MD testing of 100h is also performed to evaluate the durability of PE membranes, and a relatively stable performance is observed during the entire experiment. This long term stability signifies the suitability of PE membranes for MD applications.

  17. Chemical treatment of membranes of a polymer blend: mechanism of the reaction of hypochlorite with poly(vinyl pyrrolidone)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wienk, I.M.; Meuleman, E.E.B.; Borneman, Zandrie; van den Boomgaard, Anthonie; Smolders, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Sodium hypochlorite solutions are used to treat membranes prepared from a polymeric blend containing poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) to increase their water permeability. Sodium hypochlorite affects the membrane material in such a way that PVP is selectively removed from the membrane matrix. The

  18. Effect of different surface treatments on the stability of stainless steels for use as bipolar plates in low and high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, J.; Schmidt, K. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT), Wolfsburg (Germany); Tuebke, J.; Cremers, C. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT), Pfinztal (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The stability of different stainless steels against corrosion under simulated low and high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) operating conditions was studied. These investigations showed a moderate corrosion resistance for a couple of steels under LT-PEMFC conditions. However, for the HT-PEMFC conditions all specimens except one exhibit visible corrosion traces. With regards to their corrosion resistance after different surface treatments results show a minor improvement in corrosion resistance after the electro polishing process for most of the tested stainless steel samples. (orig.)

  19. High pressure stability analysis and chemical bonding of Ti1-xZrxN alloy: A first principle study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Mamta; Gupta, Dinesh C.

    2016-01-01

    First-principles pseudo-potential calculations have been performed to analyze the stability of Ti 1-x Zr x N alloy under high pressures. The first order phase transition from B1 to B2 phase has been observed in this alloy at high pressure. The variation of lattice parameter with the change in concentration of Zr atom in Ti 1-x Zr x N is also reported in both the phases. The calculations for density of states have been performed to understand the alloying effects on chemical bonding of Ti-Zr-N alloy.

  20. Long-term performance of DMFC based on the blend membrane of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) and poly(vinylidene fluoride)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ho-Young [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main St., Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea); Park, Jung-Ki [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea)

    2009-05-15

    A small amount of incorporation of PVdF to sPEEK membrane enhanced very significantly the interfacial stability between membrane and electrode due to the improved dimensional stability of membrane. The cell based on both the blend membrane and electrode with conventional Nafion binder could achieve a long-term stability up to 1650 h at 30 C with high cell performance of 70 mW cm{sup -2}. The high chemical and dimensional stability of the blend membrane also contributed to long-term high performance of the cell. This is more meaningful because hydrocarbon-based membrane rather than Nafion membrane is used in the cell system. It is thus suggested that sPEEK (97.5 wt%)/PVdF (2.5 wt%) blend membrane can be a candidate for successful applications to high performance DMFC with high economic advantage. (author)

  1. Development of a human corneal epithelium model utilizing a collagen vitrigel membrane and the changes of its barrier function induced by exposing eye irritant chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takezawa, Toshiaki; Nishikawa, Kazunori; Wang, Pi-Chao

    2011-09-01

    The brief TEER (trans-epithelial electrical resistance) assay after exposing chemicals to corneal epithelium in vivo is known as a suitable method for evaluating corneal irritancy and permeability quantitatively and continuously. A collagen vitrigel membrane we previously developed is a thin (about 20 μm thick) and transparent membrane composed of high density collagen fibrils equivalent to connective tissues in vivo, e.g. corneal Bowman's membrane. To develop such a TEER assay system in vitro utilizing a human corneal epithelial model, HCE-T cells (a human corneal epithelial cell line) were cultured on the collagen vitrigel membrane substratum prepared in a Millicell chamber suitable for TEER measurement. Human corneal epithelium model possessing 5-6 cell layers sufficient for TEER assay was successfully reconstructed on the substratum in the Millicell chamber by culturing the cells in monolayer for 2 days and subsequently in air-liquid interface for 7 days. The exposure of chemicals to the model induced the time-dependent relative changes of TEER in response to the characteristic of each chemical within a few minutes. These results suggest that the TEER assay using the human corneal epithelial model is very useful for an ocular irritancy evaluation as an alternative to the Draize eye irritation test. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The influence of oscillating electromagnetic fields on membrane structure and function: Synthetic liposome and natural membrane bilayer systems with direct application to the controlled delivery of chemical agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liburdy, R.P.; de Manincor, D.; Fingado, B.

    1989-09-01

    Investigations have been conducted to determine if an imposed electromagnetic field can influence membrane transport, and ion and drug permeability in both synthetic and natural cell membrane systems. Microwave fields enhance accumulation of sodium in the lymphocyte and induce protein shedding at Tc. Microwaves also trigger membrane permeability of liposome systems under specific field exposure conditions. Sensitivity varies in a defined way in bilayers displaying a membrane structural phase transition temperature, Tc; maximal release was observed at or near Tc. Significantly, liposome systems without a membrane phase transition were also found to experience permeability increases but, in contrast, this response was temperature independent. The above results indicate that field-enhanced drug release occurs in liposome vesicles that possess a Tc as well as non-Tc liposomes. Additional studies extend non-Tc liposome responses to the in vivo case in which microwaves trigger Gentamicin release from a liposome depot'' placed subcutaneously in the rat hind leg. In addition, evidence is provided that cell surface sequestered liposomes can be triggered by microwave fields to release drugs directly into target cells. 24 refs., 6 figs.

  3. The influence of oscillating electromagnetic fields on membrane structure and function: Synthetic liposome and natural membrane bilayer systems with direct application to the controlled delivery of chemical agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liburdy, R.P.; de Manincor, D.; Fingado, B.

    1989-09-01

    Investigations have been conducted to determine if an imposed electromagnetic field can influence membrane transport, and ion and drug permeability in both synthetic and natural cell membrane systems. Microwave fields enhance accumulation of sodium in the lymphocyte and induce protein shedding at Tc. Microwaves also trigger membrane permeability of liposome systems under specific field exposure conditions. Sensitivity varies in a defined way in bilayers displaying a membrane structural phase transition temperature, Tc; maximal release was observed at or near Tc. Significantly, liposome systems without a membrane phase transition were also found to experience permeability increases but, in contrast, this response was temperature independent. The above results indicate that field-enhanced drug release occurs in liposome vesicles that possess a Tc as well as non-Tc liposomes. Additional studies extend non-Tc liposome responses to the in vivo case in which microwaves trigger Gentamicin release from a liposome ''depot'' placed subcutaneously in the rat hind leg. In addition, evidence is provided that cell surface sequestered liposomes can be triggered by microwave fields to release drugs directly into target cells. 24 refs., 6 figs

  4. Stabilization of enzymatically polymerized phenolic chemicals in a model soil organic matter-free geomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Mónica; Bhandari, Alok

    2012-01-01

    A variety of remediation methods, including contaminant transformation by peroxidase-mediated oxidative polymerization, have been proposed to manage soils and groundwater contaminated with chlorinated phenols. Phenol stabilization has been successfully observed during cross polymerization between phenolic polymers and soil organic matter (SOM) for soils with SOM >3%. This study evaluates peroxidase-mediated transformation and removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) from an aqueous phase in contact with a natural geomaterial modified to contain negligible (soils with higher SOM. The SOM-free sorbent was generated by removing SOM using a NaOCl oxidation. When horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used to induce polymerization of DCP, the soil-water phase distribution relationship (PDR) of DCP polymerization products (DPP) was complete within 1 d and PDRs did not significantly change over the 28 d of study. The conversion of DCP to DPP was close to 95% efficient. Extractable solute consisted entirely of DPP with 5% or less of unreacted DCP. The aqueous extractability of DPP from SOM-free geomaterial decreased at longer contact times and at smaller residual aqueous concentrations of DPP. DCP stabilization appeared to have resulted from a combination of sorption, precipitation, and ligand exchange between oligomeric products and the exposed mineral surfaces. Modification of the mineral surface through coverage with DPP enhanced the time-dependent retention of the oligomers. DPP stabilization in SOM-free geomaterial was comparable with that reported in the literature with soil containing SOM contents >1%. Results from this study suggest that the effectiveness of HRP-mediated stabilization of phenolic compounds not only depends on the cross-coupling with SOM, but also on the modification of the surface of the sorbent that can augment affinity with oligomers and enhance stabilization. Coverage of the mineral surface by phenolic oligomers may be analogous to SOM that can potentially

  5. Chemical Characterization of Stabilized and Carbonized Polyacrylonitrile (PAN Fibers Treated with Oleic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salleh Shahrul Nizam Md

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylonitrile (PAN fiber is the best precursor for carbon fibers due to high carbon content after heat treatment. After the polymer was spun into fibers, the fibers will undergo pretreatment process with chemical solution known as post spinning treatment. Post spinning will directly affect conversion of PAN fiber to carbon fiber. Oleic acid was used as post spinning treatment chemical solution to PAN fibers. The pretreated PAN fiber will be heated at 250°C and 800°C. The fibers were studied using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS and DSC to study the chemical change during heat treatment. PAN fibers treated with oleic acid have reduced the cyclization energy and increase oxygen and carbon content leading to high performance carbon fibers.

  6. Chemical functionalization and stabilization of type I collagen with organic tanning agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Deselnicu, Viorica; Ioannidis, Ioannis; Deselnicu, Dana; Chelaru, Ciprian [Leather and Footwear Research Institute, Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-02-15

    We investigated the interactions between selected organic tanning agents and type I fibrillar collagen as a model fibrillar substrate to enable the fast direct evaluation and validation of interpretations of tanning activity. Type I fibrillar collagen (1%) as gel was used as substrate of tanning and tannic acid, resorcinol- and melamine-formaldehyde and their combination at three concentrations as crosslinking agents (tannins). To evaluate the stability of collagen during tanning, the crosslinked gels at 2.8, 4.5 and 9.0 pHs were freeze-dried as discs which were characterized by FTIR, shrinkage temperature, enzymatic degradation and optical microscopy, and the results were validated by statistical analyses. The best stability was given by combinations between resorcinol- and melamine-formaldehyde at isoelectric pH.

  7. Connecting two proteins using a fusion alpha helix stabilized by a chemical cross linker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Woo Hyeon; Lee, Haerim; Song, Dong Hyun; Eom, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Sun Chang; Lee, Hee-Seung; Lee, Hayyoung; Lee, Jie-Oh

    2016-03-01

    Building a sophisticated protein nano-assembly requires a method for linking protein components in a predictable and stable structure. Most of the cross linkers available have flexible spacers. Because of this, the linked hybrids have significant structural flexibility and the relative structure between their two components is largely unpredictable. Here we describe a method of connecting two proteins via a `fusion α helix' formed by joining two pre-existing helices into a single extended helix. Because simple ligation of two helices does not guarantee the formation of a continuous helix, we used EY-CBS, a synthetic cross linker that has been shown to react selectively with cysteines in α-helices, to stabilize the connecting helix. Formation and stabilization of the fusion helix was confirmed by determining the crystal structures of the fusion proteins with and without bound EY-CBS. Our method should be widely applicable for linking protein building blocks to generate predictable structures.

  8. Combined treatment of chemical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industrial effluents by waste stabilization ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeresh, Mangala; Veeresh, A V; Hosetti, B B

    2002-10-01

    Influent and final effluent was collected from the CMM Ltd., Bethora, Ponda, Goa and were analysed for pH, DO, BOD, enzyme activity and chlorophyll content of the waste stabilization pond for over a period of two years of which the data for one year (pre monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon periods) is given. The study revealed that the DO was maximum during the pre-monsoon months and least during the monsoon. Maximum removal of BOD and phosphate was observed during the pre-monsoon periods. Enzymatic activity was at its peak during the monsoons than during the other months. Chlorophyll content was maximum during the pre-monsoon months due to increased growth of phytoplankton as the conditions were favourable for their growth. Also depending on the concentration of different chlorophyll pigments, one can come to know the different groups of algae inhabiting the stabilization ponds.

  9. Chemical stability and surface stoichiometry of vanadium oxide phases studied by reactive molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Byoungseon; Ko, Changhyun; van Duin, Adri C. T.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2012-02-01

    Compositional stability of various vanadium oxides and oxide growth on vanadium surfaces have been studied using reactive molecular dynamics simulation methods. Vanadium dioxide (VO2), sesquioxide (V2O3), pentoxide (V2O5), and hexavanadium tridecaoxide (V6O13) are studied in bulk crystalline and thin film structures, investigating charge distribution and pair distribution functions of particle interactions. The stability is estimated to be pentoxide, hexavanadium tridecaoxide, sesquioxide, and dioxide respectively in decreasing order in thin film structures. We then analyze oxide growth kinetics on vanadium (100) and (110) surfaces. The oxidation rate, stoichiometry, charge distribution, and the effect of surface orientation on kinetic phenomena are noted. In the early stages of surface oxidation of our simulation configurations, sesquioxide is found to be the dominant component. The modeling and simulation results are compared with experiments where available.

  10. Physical and chemical characterization of active pharmaceutical ingredients in the framework of preformulation and stability studies

    OpenAIRE

    Gana , Inès

    2015-01-01

    The development of a drug for a given therapeutic target requires several steps, which can be summarized by drug screening, a preclinical phase and a number of clinical phases. These steps allow the selection of an active substance and a verification of its therapeutic efficacy and toxicological safety. The latter two criteria define the quality of the drug, which once demonstrated, must be guaranteed throughout its shelf life. Quality is assessed through stability studies that are carried ou...

  11. Soy milk as an emulsifier in mayonnaise: physico-chemical, stability and sensory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Kobra; Mazaheri Tehrani, Mostafa; Daneshvar, Kazem

    2014-11-01

    Mayonnaise is an oil in water emulsion and egg components are its emulsifier. In this research application of soy milk to stabilize mayonnaise was studied. Egg was replaced with full fat soy flour-prepared soy milk at levels of 25, 50, 75, and 100 % and microstructure, stability, color, viscosity and sensory analysis were performed and results were compared with those of control samples containing yolk and whole egg as emulsifier. Results showed that yolk-prepared control (YC) had higher stability and viscosity values and the value of these two attributes decreased as more amounts of soy milk was used. In the case of viscosity there was no statistical difference between soy milk-prepared samples and egg-prepared control (EC) up to 75 % replacement. Color factors changed, which were affected by different proportions of soy milk. Sensory evaluation showed no statistical difference in acceptability of EC and samples with substitution levels up to 50 %. So it can be concluded that egg can be substituted with soy milk in mayonnaise.

  12. Semisynthetic modifications of hemiaminal function at ornithine unit of mulundocandin, towards chemical stability and antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Bansi; Gund, Vitthal Genbhau; Gangopadhyay, Ashok Kumar; Nadkarni, S R; Dikshit, Vidula; Chatterjee, D K; Shirvaikar, R

    2003-11-17

    Mulundocandin (1), is an echinocandin class of lipopeptide. It has wide spectrum of antifungal activity against Candida and Aspergillus species. Semisynthetic modification at Ornithine-5-hydroxyl (hemiaminal function) of 1 was carried out to improve solution stability and hence in vivo activity. Synthesis of ether (C-OR), thioether (C-SR) and C-N linkage at hemiaminal function have been described. All synthetic analogues were evaluated for their stability in aqueous solution and found to be more stable than mulundocandin. Antifungal activity of Orn-5 analogues was evaluated both in vitro against Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus by agar well method and in vivo (oral and intraperitoneal) in C. albicans infected Swiss mice. Results of in vivo assays of analogues 2-9 by the oral route suggests that the introduction of either oxygen nucleophiles (-OR) or sulphur nucleophiles (-SR), at either Orn-5 or at both Orn-5 and HTyr-4 positions, results in retaining the activity of the parent compound with improved aqueous stability in most cases. Compound 9 has shown improved antifungal activity in comparison to mulundocandin by oral application in Swiss mice.

  13. A Catalytically Active Membrane Reactor for Fast, Highly Exothermic, Heterogeneous Gas Reactions. A Pilot Plant Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldsink, Jan W.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, Wim P.M. van

    1995-01-01

    Membrane reactors have been frequently studied because of their ability to combine chemical activity and separation properties into one device. Due to their thermal stability and mechanical strength, ceramic membranes are preferred over polymeric ones, but small transmembrane fluxes obstruct a

  14. A catalytically membrane reactor for fast, highly exothermic, heterogeneous gas reactions : a pilot plant study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldsink, J.W.; Veldsink, J.W.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1995-01-01

    Membrane reactors have been frequently studied because of their ability to combine chemical activity and separation properties into one device. Due to their thermal stability and mechanical strength, ceramic membranes are preferred over polymeric ones, but small transmembrane fluxes obstruct a

  15. Novel 3-oxa lipoxin A4 analogues with enhanced chemical and metabolic stability have anti-inflammatory activity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilford, William J; Bauman, John G; Skuballa, Werner; Bauer, Shawn; Wei, Guo Ping; Davey, David; Schaefer, Caralee; Mallari, Cornell; Terkelsen, Jennifer; Tseng, Jih-Lie; Shen, Jun; Subramanyam, Babu; Schottelius, Arndt J; Parkinson, John F

    2004-04-08

    Lipoxin A(4) (LXA(4)) is a structurally and functionally distinct natural product called an eicosanoid, which displays immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activity but is rapidly metabolized to inactive catabolites in vivo. A previously described analogue of LXA(4), methyl (5R,6R,7E,9E,11Z,13E,15S)-16-(4-fluorophenoxy)-5,6,15-trihydroxy-7,9,11,13-hexadecatetraenoate (2, ATLa), was shown to have a poor pharmacokinetic profile after both oral and intravenous administration, as well as sensitivity to acid and light. The chemical stability of the corresponding E,E,E-trien-11-yne analogue, 3, was improved over 2 without loss of efficacy in the mouse air pouch model of inflammation. Careful analysis of the plasma samples from the pharmacokinetic assays for both 2 and 3 identified a previously undetected metabolite, which is consistent with metabolism by beta-oxidation. The formation of the oxidative metabolites was eliminated with the corresponding 3-oxatetraene, 4, and the 3-oxatrien-11-yne, 5, analogues of 2. Evaluation of 3-oxa analogues 4 and 5 in calcium ionophore-induced acute skin inflammation model demonstrated similar topical potency and efficacy compared to 2. The 3-oxatrien-11-yne analogue, 5, is equipotent to 2 in an animal model of inflammation but has enhanced metabolic and chemical stability and a greatly improved pharmacokinetic profile.

  16. Changes in the color, chemical stability and antioxidant capacity of thermally treated anthocyanin aqueous solution over storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xiaonan; Bary, Solène; Zhou, Weibiao

    2016-02-01

    Many anthocyanin-containing foods are thermally processed to ensure their safety, and stored for some time before being consumed. However, the combination of thermal processing and subsequent storage has a significant impact on anthocyanins. This study aimed to investigate the color, chemical stability, and antioxidant capacity of thermally treated anthocyanin aqueous solutions during storage at 4, 25, 45, and 65 °C, respectively. Anthocyanin aqueous solutions were thermally treated before storage. Results showed that the degradation rate of anthocyanins in aqueous solutions was much faster than those in real food. The color of the anthocyanin aqueous solutions changed dramatically during storage. The anthocyanin aqueous solutions stored at 4 °C showed the best chemical stability. Interestingly, the antioxidant capacity of the anthocyanin aqueous solutions stored at lower temperatures remained the same; however, the antioxidant capacity of those thermally treated at 120 or 140 °C and stored at 45 or 65 °C significantly decreased. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Crack-free yttria stabilized zirconia thin films by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition: Influence of water and carrier gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlupp, M.V.F., E-mail: Meike.Schlupp@mat.ethz.ch [Nonmetallic Inorganic Materials, ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 10, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Binder, S.; Martynczuk, J.; Prestat, M. [Nonmetallic Inorganic Materials, ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 10, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Gauckler, L.J. [Nonmetallic Inorganic Materials, ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 10, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); International Institute for Carbon Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, 744 Moto-oka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Yttria stabilized zirconia thin films are deposited on silicon single crystal substrates by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition from precursor solutions of zirconium and yttrium 2,4-pentanedionate in ethanol. Continuous films are obtained using pure oxygen, pure nitrogen, or mixtures of both as carrier gas. In the simultaneous presence of water and oxygen, crack formation is observed for films deposited at intermediate substrate temperatures (450 Degree-Sign C), while those deposited at low (300 Degree-Sign C) and high (600 Degree-Sign C) temperatures remain crack-free. Crack-free films can be deposited at 450 Degree-Sign C in a water-free setting, or in the presence of water using pure nitrogen as carrier gas. The addition of water to the precursor solutions also significantly reduces film growth rates. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thin film deposition by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition (AA-CVD) Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films deposited between 300 Degree-Sign C and 600 Degree-Sign C Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Water decreases growth rates and leads to crack formation in AA-CVD of YSZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crack-free YSZ thin films deposited using oxygen and/or nitrogen as carrier gas Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YSZ thin films deposited by AA-CVD show low shrinkage on annealing at 1000 Degree-Sign C.

  18. RETRACTED: Chemical densification of plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings for high temperature wear and corrosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yaping; Fehr, Karl Thomas; Faulstich, Martin; Wolf, Gerhard

    2012-12-01

    Plasma-sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) ceramic coatings have been widely used as wear- and corrosion-resistant coatings in high temperature applications and an aggressive environment due to their high hardness, wear resistance, heat and chemical resistance, and low thermal conductivity. The highly porous structure of plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings and their poor adhesion to the substrate usually lead to the coating degradation and failure. In this study, a two-layer system consisting of atmospheric plasma-sprayed 8 wt.% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) and Ni-based alloy coatings was post-treated by means of a novel chemical sealing process at moderate temperatures of 600-800 °C. Microstructure characteristics of the YSZ coatings were studied using an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA). Results revealed that the ceramic top coat was densified by the precipitated zirconia in the open pores. Therefore, the sealed YSZ coatings exhibit reduced porosity, higher hardness and a better adhesion onto the bond coat. The mechanisms for the sealing process were also proposed.

  19. CHEMICAL STABILITY AND ADSORPTION SELECTIVITY ON Cd2+ IONIC IMPRINTED Nannochloropsis sp MATERIAL WITH SILICA MATRIX FROM TETRAETHYL ORTHOSILICATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhani Buhani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical stability, reusability, and adsorption selectivity of Cd2+ ionic imprinted Nannochloropsis sp with silica matrix (Cd(II-IIP from precursor tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS have been studied through adsorption experiment series with batch method. Nannochloropsis sp (Cd(II-IIP material was characterized with an infrared spectrophotometer (IR to identify the functional groups in this material and identification of metal ion concentration was analyzed with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. Chemical stability was determined in solution media of acid, neutral, and base. Adsorption selectivity was obtained with determination of selectivity coefficient (α of Cd2+ ion toward its ionic pair such as Ag+, Zn2+, Cu2+, and Ni2+ ions. Nannochloropsis sp Cd(II-IIP material is very stable in acid media and lack stable in base media as well as it can be reused for extraction 4 cycles with adsorption capacity value > 95% using eluent of 0.1 M Na2EDTA. Selectivity of Cd(II-IIP material upon Cd2+ ion is higher than non imprinted polymer (NIP and it increases with these orders; Cd2+/Ag+ < Cd2+/Zn2+ < Cd2+/Cu2+ < Cd2+/Ni2+ for each α at metal ionic ratio of 1:1; 0.887; 20.180; 28.053; 33.417, respectively.

  20. Stability fields of smectites and illites as a function of temperature and chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardy, Y.; Duplay, J.; Fritz, B.; Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67

    1987-04-01

    A thermodynamic ideal solid solution analogue is proposed which accounts the correlations which clearly reflect the temperatures at which the nonmineralic population are supposed to have been formed. The solid solution is considered, at a particle scale, as an ideal mixture of individual layers, weakly bent each to the next. Each layer presents the chemical composition of a given end member, so that the proportions of the different end members change from one particle to another. Considering one particle of a given chemical composition, the multipole solid solution theory allows to calculate the wheighted contributions of each end member into the ideal clay solid solution along with the chemical composition of the aqueous solutions in equilibrium with the considered particle in its independent microenvironment. This model is able to predict the nature of the chemical correlations which are expected, at a given temperature, within a given population. This model is also applied to the prediction of the temperature required for the conversion of smectite into illite during the burial diagenesis. (orig./HP)

  1. Relating polymer chemical structure to the stability of polymer: : fullerene solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doumon, Nutifafa Y.; Wang, Gongbao; Chiechi, Ryan; Koster, Lambert

    2017-01-01

    The design of novel polymers has brought more attention to bulk heterojunction polymer:fullerene solar cells in the past decade. A typical example is the synthesis, through chemical structure engineering, of the benzodithiophene-co-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene (BDT-TT) polymers leading to power conversion

  2. Validation and refinement of chemical stabilization procedures for pavement subgrade soils in Oklahoma : volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Additions of byproduct chemicals, such as fly ash or cement kiln dust, have been shown to increase the unconfined compression strength (UCS) of soils. To be considered effective, the soil must exhibit a strength increase of at least 50 psi. Many curr...

  3. Numerical modeling of a compositional flow for chemical EOR and its stability analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Druetta, P.; Yue, J.; Tesi, P.; De Persis, C.; Picchioni, F.

    A new two-dimensional surfactant flooding simulator for a three-component (water, petroleum, chemical), two-phase (aqueous, oleous) system in porous media is developed and analyzed. The compositional physical model is governed by a system of non-linear partial differential equations composed of

  4. Mechanical properties and chemical stability of pivalolactone-based poly(ether ester)s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsma, E.J.; Tijsma, E.J.; van der Does, L.; Bantjes, A.; Bantjes, A.; Vulic, I.

    1994-01-01

    The processing, mechanical and chemical properties of poly(ether ester)s, prepared from pivalolactone (PVL), 1,4-butanediol (4G) and dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), were studied. The poly(ether ester)s could easily be processed by injection moulding, owing to their favourable rheological and thermal

  5. Isoparaffin diluents for tri-n-butyl phosphate. Chemical, radiation-chemical stability, effect on solvent extraction of tetravalet plutonium and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, Eh.V.; Pyatibratov, Yu.P.; Neumoev, N.V.

    1988-01-01

    45-90% conversion degree of n-paraffin into branched isoparaffin with mono- and dimethyl structure is achieved by means of catalytic hydroisomerization of n-paraffin raw material in reactor with alumoplatinum catalyser. Isoparaffin (99%) concentrates with constant molecular mass from iso-C 10 to iso-C 15 are produced of a batch of deeply isomerized n-paraffins. Plutonium and thorum nitrate solubility in 30% TBP solutions in iso-paraffins (iso-paraffin mixtures with similar C atom number) increases with the reduction of iso-paraffin molecular mass; system with 30% TBP in isodecane mixture is practically not stratified (∼ 104 g Pu/l, 22-25 deg C). By the main requirements to diluents for radiochemical extraction operations, including density, viscosity, boiling point flashed and freezines, chemical and radiation stability, radioruthenium and radiozirconium confinement systems, synthetic isoparaffin-containing solvents are as good as n-paraffins

  6. FERMT2 links cortical actin structures, plasma membrane tension and focal adhesion function to stabilize podocyte morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda-Yamahara, M; Rogg, M; Frimmel, J; Trachte, P; Helmstaedter, M; Schroder, P; Schiffer, M; Schell, C; Huber, T B

    2018-01-11

    Simplification and retraction of podocyte protrusions, generally termed as foot process effacement, is a uniform pathological pattern observed in the majority of glomerular disease, including focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. However, it is still incompletely understood how the interaction of cortical actin structures, actomyosin contractility and focal adhesions, is being orchestrated to control foot process morphology in health and disease. By uncovering the functional role of fermitin family member 2 (FERMT2 or kindlin-2) in podocytes, we provide now evidence, how cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions modulate membrane tension and actomyosin contractility. A genetic modeling approach was applied by deleting FERMT2 in a set of in vivo systems as well as in CRISPR/Cas9 modified human podocytes. Loss of FERMT2 results in altered cortical actin composition, cell cortex destabilization associated with plasma membrane blebbing and a remodeling of focal adhesions. We further show that FERMT2 knockout podocytes have high levels of RhoA activation and concomitantly increased actomyosin contractility. Inhibition of actomyosin tension reverses the membrane blebbing phenotype. Thus, our findings establish a direct link between cell-matrix adhesions, cortical actin structures and plasma membrane tension allowing to better explain cell morphological changes in foot process effacement. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Microvillar membrane microdomains exist at physiological temperature. Role of galectin-4 as lipid raft stabilizer revealed by "superrafts"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braccia, Anita; Villani, Maristella; Immerdal, Lissi

    2003-01-01

    function and even existence in vivo. The nonionic detergent Brij 98 was used to isolate lipid rafts from microvillar membrane vesicles of intestinal brush borders at physiological temperature to compare with rafts, obtained by "conventional" extraction using Triton X-100 at low temperature. Microvillar...

  8. STABILITY OF MFI ZEOLITE-FILLED PDMS MEMBRANES DURING PERVAPORATIVE ETHANOL RECOVERY FROM AQUEOUS MIXTURES CONTAINING ACETIC ACID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaporation is potentially a cost-effective means of recovering biofuels, such as ethanol, from biomass fermentation broths for small- to medium-scale applications (~2 - 20 million liters per year). Hydrophobic zeolite-filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes have been sho...

  9. Separation of tritiated water from water using composite membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.; Nelson, D.

    1996-01-01

    Polymeric composite membranes are being developed to remove tritium from contaminated water at DOE sites. Industrial membrane systems are being developed that have proven to be energy efficient, and membrane technologies such as reverse-osmosis have been well developed for desalination and other industrial/municipal applications. Aromatic polyphosphazene membranes are being investigated because they have excellent radiological, thermal, and chemical stability. The FY 1996 effort is directed toward delineating a potential mechanism, providing a statistical approach to data acquisition, refining a mass balance, and designing a staged array module

  10. Membrane Stabilization and Detoxification of Acetaminophen-Mediated Oxidative Onslaughts in the Kidneys of Wistar Rats by Standardized Fraction of Zea mays L. (Poaceae, Stigma maydis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sabiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated membrane stabilization and detoxification potential of ethyl acetate fraction of Zea mays L., Stigma maydis in acetaminophen-induced oxidative onslaughts in the kidneys of Wistar rats. Nephrotoxic rats were orally pre- and posttreated with the fraction and vitamin C for 14 days. Kidney function, antioxidative and histological analyses were thereafter evaluated. The acetaminophen-mediated significant elevations in the serum concentrations of creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium, and tissue levels of oxidized glutathione, protein-oxidized products, lipid peroxidized products, and fragmented DNA were dose-dependently assuaged in the fraction-treated animals. The fraction also markedly improved creatinine clearance rate, glutathione, and calcium concentrations as well as activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in the nephrotoxic rats. These improvements may be attributed to the antioxidative and membrane stabilization activities of the fraction. The observed effects compared favorably with that of vitamin C and are informative of the fraction’s ability to prevent progression of renal pathological conditions and preserve kidney functions as evidently supported by the histological analysis. Although the effects were prominently exhibited in the fraction-pretreated groups, the overall data from the present findings suggest that the fraction could prevent or extenuate acetaminophen-mediated oxidative renal damage via fortification of antioxidant defense mechanisms.

  11. Membrane Stabilization and Detoxification of Acetaminophen-Mediated Oxidative Onslaughts in the Kidneys of Wistar Rats by Standardized Fraction of Zea mays L. (Poaceae), Stigma maydis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiu, S.; O'Neill, F. H.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated membrane stabilization and detoxification potential of ethyl acetate fraction of Zea mays L., Stigma maydis in acetaminophen-induced oxidative onslaughts in the kidneys of Wistar rats. Nephrotoxic rats were orally pre- and posttreated with the fraction and vitamin C for 14 days. Kidney function, antioxidative and histological analyses were thereafter evaluated. The acetaminophen-mediated significant elevations in the serum concentrations of creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium, and tissue levels of oxidized glutathione, protein-oxidized products, lipid peroxidized products, and fragmented DNA were dose-dependently assuaged in the fraction-treated animals. The fraction also markedly improved creatinine clearance rate, glutathione, and calcium concentrations as well as activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in the nephrotoxic rats. These improvements may be attributed to the antioxidative and membrane stabilization activities of the fraction. The observed effects compared favorably with that of vitamin C and are informative of the fraction's ability to prevent progression of renal pathological conditions and preserve kidney functions as evidently supported by the histological analysis. Although the effects were prominently exhibited in the fraction-pretreated groups, the overall data from the present findings suggest that the fraction could prevent or extenuate acetaminophen-mediated oxidative renal damage via fortification of antioxidant defense mechanisms. PMID:27579048

  12. Physico-chemical change and heat stability of extra virgin olive oils flavoured by selected Tunisian aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, M A; Grati-Kamoun, N; Attia, H

    2009-10-01

    Objectives of this work were studying physico-chemical change and heat stability of olive oils flavoured by selected Tunisian aromatic plants. Flavoured olive oils were prepared by maceration of fresh plant materials (rosemary, lavender, sage, menthe, basil, lemon and thyme) with olive oil at a 5% w/w level for 15 days. A sensorial evaluation was applied to select more appreciate flavoured olive oils by consumers. An oxidative procedure was applied to test the stability of selected flavoured olive oils: oils samples were kept in glass bottles and heated at 60 and 130 degrees C during 55 days and 6h, respectively. The resistance to oxidation of these selected flavoured oils was compared to a control samples by measuring PV, K232 and K270 values and change in chlorophyll, carotenes and polyphénols contents. Obtained results show that addition of aromatic plants causes a slight increase in free acidity and viscosity of aromatised olive oils. L*, b* and a* values show that addition of thyme cause a great change in olive oil colours. Heat stability results shows that from selected aromatic plants, rosemary was effectiveness against oxidation followed by thyme and lemon. However, olive oil flavoured with basil exhibit a similar behaviour versus thermal oxidation then the natural olive oil.

  13. Comparison of chemical, color stability, and phenolic composition from pericarp of nine colored corn unique varieties in a beverage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Sage; Luna-Vital, Diego; West, Leslie; Juvik, John A; Chatham, Laura; Paulsmeyer, Michael; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

    2018-03-01

    The objective was to compare the chemical stability and color of nine unique anthocyanin-rich colored corn varieties named/coded as V1, V2, V3… V9. Extracts were added to a beverage model and stored at 4 °C, 22°C, or 32°C for 12weeks. After 12 weeks of storage at 32°C, variety V6 [high condensed form (CF), high cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G)] had the longest anthocyanin half-life, based on the quantification by HPLC. V3 [high pelargonidin (Pg), high acylated form (C3-mal)] and V5 (high CF, high C3G, high C3-mal) had the most favorable hue. V5 and V6 had some of the smallest changes in color over time. These findings suggest that an abundance of condensed forms with C3G in corn extracts could contribute to the improved stability. Beverage storage parameters also influenced color parameters; low temperatures and low pH enhanced color and anthocyanin stability. The most promising corn varieties for future experiments are V3, V5, and V6 based on color retention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Folding and stability of outer membrane protein A (OmpA) from Escherichia coli in an amphipathic polymer, amphipol A8-35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocanschi, Cosmin L; Popot, Jean-Luc; Kleinschmidt, Jörg H

    2013-03-01

    Amphipols are a class of amphipathic polymers designed to maintain membrane proteins in aqueous solutions in the absence of detergents. Denatured β-barrel membrane proteins, like outer membrane proteins OmpA from Escherichia coli and FomA from Fusobacterium nucleatum, can be folded by dilution of the denaturant urea in the presence of amphipol A8-35. Here, the folding kinetics and stability of OmpA in A8-35 have been investigated. Folding is well described by two parallel first-order processes, whose half-times, ~5 and ~70 min, respectively, are independent of A8-35 concentration. The faster process contributed ~55-64 % to OmpA folding. Folding into A8-35 was faster than into dioleoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers and complete at ratios as low as ~0.17 g/g A8-35/OmpA, corresponding to ~1-2 A8-35 molecules per OmpA. Activation energies were determined from the temperature dependence of folding kinetics, monitored both by electrophoresis, which reports on the formation of stable OmpA tertiary structure, and by fluorescence spectroscopy, which reflects changes in the environment of tryptophan side chains. The two methods yielded consistent estimates, namely ~5-9 kJ/mol for the fast process and ~29-37 kJ/mol for the slow one, which is lower than is observed for OmpA folding into dioleoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers. Folding and unfolding titrations with urea demonstrated that OmpA folding into A8-35 is reversible and that amphipol-refolded OmpA is thermodynamically stable at room temperature. Comparison of activation energies for folding and unfolding in A8-35 versus detergent indicates that stabilization of A8-35-trapped OmpA against denaturation by urea is a kinetic, not a thermodynamic phenomenon.

  15. Impact of surgical management in cases of intraoperative membrane perforation during a sinus lift procedure: a follow-up on bone graft stability and implant success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Broichsitter, Benedicta E; Westhoff, Dorothea; Behrens, Eleonore; Wiltfang, Jörg; Becker, Stephan T

    2018-02-05

    Until now, sinus floor elevation represents the gold standard procedure in the atrophic maxilla in order to facilitate dental implant insertion. Although the procedure remains highly predictive, the perforation of the Schneiderian membrane might compromise the stability of the augmented bone and implant success due to chronic sinus infection. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to show that a membrane tear, if detected and surgically properly addressed, has no influence on the survival of dental implants and bone resorption in the augmented area. Thirty-one patients with 39 perforations could be included in this evaluation, and a control group of 32 patients with 40 sinus lift procedures without complications were compared regarding the radiographically determined development of bone level, peri-implant infection, and implant loss. Implant survival was 98.9% in the perforation group over an observation period of 2.7 (± 2.03) years compared to 100% in the control group after 1.8 (± 1.57) years. The residual bone level was significantly lower in the perforation group (p = 0.05) but showed no difference direct postoperatively (p = 0.7851) or in the follow-up assessment (p = 0.2338). Bone resorption remained not different between both groups (p = 0.945). A two-stage procedure was more frequent in the perforation group (p = 0.0003) as well as peri-implantitis (p = 0.0004). Within the limits of our study, the perforation of the Schneiderian membrane did not have a negative impact on long-term graft stability or the overall implant survival.

  16. Progress of Nanocomposite Membranes for Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ursino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of membrane-based technologies has been applied for water treatment applications; however, the limitations of conventional polymeric membranes have led to the addition of inorganic fillers to enhance their performance. In recent years, nanocomposite membranes have greatly attracted the attention of scientists for water treatment applications such as wastewater treatment, water purification, removal of microorganisms, chemical compounds, heavy metals, etc. The incorporation of different nanofillers, such as carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide, graphene oxide, silver and copper nanoparticles, titanium dioxide, 2D materials, and some other novel nano-scale materials into polymeric membranes have provided great advances, e.g., enhancing on hydrophilicity, suppressing the accumulation of pollutants and foulants, enhancing rejection efficiencies and improving mechanical properties and thermal stabilities. Thereby, the aim of this work is to provide up-to-date information related to those novel nanocomposite membranes and their contribution for water treatment applications.

  17. Progress of Nanocomposite Membranes for Water Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursino, Claudia; Castro-Muñoz, Roberto; Drioli, Enrico; Gzara, Lassaad; Albeirutty, Mohammad H; Figoli, Alberto

    2018-04-03

    The use of membrane-based technologies has been applied for water treatment applications; however, the limitations of conventional polymeric membranes have led to the addition of inorganic fillers to enhance their performance. In recent years, nanocomposite membranes have greatly attracted the attention of scientists for water treatment applications such as wastewater treatment, water purification, removal of microorganisms, chemical compounds, heavy metals, etc. The incorporation of different nanofillers, such as carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide, graphene oxide, silver and copper nanoparticles, titanium dioxide, 2D materials, and some other novel nano-scale materials into polymeric membranes have provided great advances, e.g., enhancing on hydrophilicity, suppressing the accumulation of pollutants and foulants, enhancing rejection efficiencies and improving mechanical properties and thermal stabilities. Thereby, the aim of this work is to provide up-to-date information related to those novel nanocomposite membranes and their contribution for water treatment applications.

  18. Layer-by-layer cell membrane assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matosevic, Sandro; Paegel, Brian M.

    2013-11-01

    Eukaryotic subcellular membrane systems, such as the nuclear envelope or endoplasmic reticulum, present a rich array of architecturally and compositionally complex supramolecular targets that are as yet inaccessible. Here we describe layer-by-layer phospholipid membrane assembly on microfluidic droplets, a route to structures with defined compositional asymmetry and lamellarity. Starting with phospholipid-stabilized water-in-oil droplets trapped in a static droplet array, lipid monolayer deposition proceeds as oil/water-phase boundaries pass over the droplets. Unilamellar vesicles assembled layer-by-layer support functional insertion both of purified and of in situ expressed membrane proteins. Synthesis and chemical probing of asymmetric unilamellar and double-bilayer vesicles demonstrate the programmability of both membrane lamellarity and lipid-leaflet composition during assembly. The immobilized vesicle arrays are a pragmatic experimental platform for biophysical studies of membranes and their associated proteins, particularly complexes that assemble and function in multilamellar contexts in vivo.

  19. Stability of an anti-stroke peptide: driving forces and kinetics in chemical degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Wang, Fengzhen; Chen, Li; Zhu, Shuning; Wu, Lin; Jiang, Sunmin; Xu, Qunwei; Zhu, Dongya

    2014-09-10

    NR2B9c (Lys-Leu-Ser-Ser-Ile-Glu-Ser-Asp-Val) is a 9-amino acid peptide that has been illustrated to be a potential anti-stroke drug. For more effective treatment, suitable drug delivery systems should be developed. However, little is known about the stability of NR2B9c which is essential to its formulation. In this study, a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applied to study the forced degradation behavior and stability of NR2B9c. HPLC studies were performed with an C8 column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile (14.5:85.5, v/v) and aqueous solution (0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and 0.05 M KH2PO4). The flow rate and the wavelength set during HPLC detection were 1.0 mL/min and 205 nm, respectively. The degradation pattern of NR2B9c aqueous solution followed pseudo first-order kinetics. The degradation rate at pH 7.5 was the slowest according to the plotting V-shaped pH-rate profile. The influence of temperature on the rate of reactions was interpreted in terms of Arrhenius equation (r(2)>0.98). Thermodynamic parameters were calculated based on Eyring equation (r(2)>0.98). The concentrations of drug, buffer species, buffer concentrations, oxidation and organic solvents have noticeable effects on the degradation of NR2B9c while ultrasound shows little impact under the experimental conditions. In a word, this study may give a detailed description of stability of NR2B9c. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Real cause of detrimental carbonation in chemically stabilized layers and possible solutions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, PB

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Raubenheimer Raubex, Republic of South Africa raubex@roadworks.co.za ABSTRACT Up till very recently detrimental “carbonation” of cement and lime stabilized layers in Southern Africa, which normally manifests itself in the form of a thin loose powdery... for at least 7 days. Furthermore, this water driven reaction may in some cases continue long past the original construction period (up 60 days), showing that the Initial Consumption of Lime (ICL) as measured in the laboratory, is often not enough...

  1. Study of stability of terrylitine chemically bound with polymer to γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudanova, T.N.; Skokova, I.F.; Dovbij, E.V.; Kalashnik, A.T.

    1987-01-01

    Using ESR method the mechanism of the increase in stability to γ-irradiation of proteolytic enzyme terrylitine immobilized on cellulose derivatives, has been studied. It is shown that in the process of γ-sterilization by the doses of 25 kGy at the dose rate 1.1 Gy/s migration of terrylitine free valency to macromolecule of polymer-carrier takes place, and in certain cases recombination of enzyme and polymer macroradicals occurs. Due to the fact proteolytic activity of immobilized terrylitine during γ-sterilization does not decrease practically

  2. Calculation of the relative chemical stabilities of proteins as a function of temperature and redox chemistry in a hot spring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Dick

    Full Text Available Uncovering the chemical and physical links between natural environments and microbial communities is becoming increasingly amenable owing to geochemical observations and metagenomic sequencing. At the hot spring known as Bison Pool in Yellowstone National Park, the cooling of the water in the outflow channel is associated with an increase in oxidation potential estimated from multiple field-based measurements. Representative groups of proteins whose sequences were derived from metagenomic data also exhibit an increase in average oxidation state of carbon in the protein molecules with distance from the hot-spring source. The energetic requirements of reactions to form selected proteins used in the model were computed using amino-acid group additivity for the standard molal thermodynamic properties of the proteins, and the relative chemical stabilities of the proteins were investigated by varying temperature, pH and oxidation state, expressed as activity of dissolved hydrogen. The relative stabilities of the proteins were found to track the locations of the sampling sites when the calculations included a function for hydrogen activity that increases with temperature and is higher, or more reducing, than values consistent with measurements of dissolved oxygen, sulfide and oxidation-reduction potential in the field. These findings imply that spatial patterns in the amino acid compositions of proteins can be linked, through energetics of overall chemical reactions representing the formation of the proteins, to the environmental conditions at this hot spring, even if microbial cells maintain considerably different internal conditions. Further applications of the thermodynamic calculations are possible for other natural microbial ecosystems.

  3. Calculation of the Relative Chemical Stabilities of Proteins as a Function of Temperature and Redox Chemistry in a Hot Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jeffrey M.; Shock, Everett L.

    2011-01-01

    Uncovering the chemical and physical links between natural environments and microbial communities is becoming increasingly amenable owing to geochemical observations and metagenomic sequencing. At the hot spring known as Bison Pool in Yellowstone National Park, the cooling of the water in the outflow channel is associated with an increase in oxidation potential estimated from multiple field-based measurements. Representative groups of proteins whose sequences were derived from metagenomic data also exhibit an increase in average oxidation state of carbon in the protein molecules with distance from the hot-spring source. The energetic requirements of reactions to form selected proteins used in the model were computed using amino-acid group additivity for the standard molal thermodynamic properties of the proteins, and the relative chemical stabilities of the proteins were investigated by varying temperature, pH and oxidation state, expressed as activity of dissolved hydrogen. The relative stabilities of the proteins were found to track the locations of the sampling sites when the calculations included a function for hydrogen activity that increases with temperature and is higher, or more reducing, than values consistent with measurements of dissolved oxygen, sulfide and oxidation-reduction potential in the field. These findings imply that spatial patterns in the amino acid compositions of proteins can be linked, through energetics of overall chemical reactions representing the formation of the proteins, to the environmental conditions at this hot spring, even if microbial cells maintain considerably different internal conditions. Further applications of the thermodynamic calculations are possible for other natural microbial ecosystems. PMID:21853048

  4. In silico selection of therapeutic antibodies for development: Viscosity, clearance, and chemical stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas K.; Patapoff, Thomas W.; Kabakoff, Bruce; Pai, Satyan; Hilario, Eric; Zhang, Boyan; Li, Charlene; Borisov, Oleg; Kelley, Robert F.; Chorny, Ilya; Zhou, Joe Z.; Dill, Ken A.; Swartz, Trevor E.

    2014-01-01

    For mAbs to be viable therapeutics, they must be formulated to have low viscosity, be chemically stable, and have normal in vivo clearance rates. We explored these properties by observing correlations of up to 60 different antibodies of the IgG1 isotype. Unexpectedly, we observe significant correlations with simple physical properties obtainable from antibody sequences and by molecular dynamics simulations of individual antibody molecules. mAbs viscosities increase strongly with hydrophobicity and charge dipole distribution and decrease with net charge. Fast clearance correlates with high hydrophobicities of certain complementarity determining regions and with high positive or high negative net charge. Chemical degradation from tryptophan oxidation correlates with the average solvent exposure time of tryptophan residues. Aspartic acid isomerization rates can be predicted from solvent exposure and flexibility as determined by molecular dynamics simulations. These studies should aid in more rapid screening and selection of mAb candidates during early discovery. PMID:25512516

  5. Starved air combustion-solidification/stabilization of primary chemical sludge from a tannery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarnalatha, S; Ramani, K; Karthi, A Geetha; Sekaran, G

    2006-09-01

    The high concentration of trivalent chromium along with organic/inorganic compounds in tannery sludge causes severe ground water contamination in the case of land disposal and chronic air pollution during incineration. In the present investigation, the sludge was subjected to flow-through column test to evaluate the concentration of leachable organics (tannin, COD and TOC) and heavy metal ions (Cr(3+), Fe(2+)) present in it. The dried sludge was incinerated at 800 degrees C in an incinerator under starved oxygen supply (starved-air combustion) to prevent the conversion of Cr(3+) to Cr(6+). The efficiency of starved air combustion was studied under different loading rates of sludge. The calcined sludge was solidified/stabilized using fly ash and Portland cement/gypsum. The solidified bricks were tested for unconfined compressive strength and heavy metal leaching. Unconfined compressive strength of the blocks was in the range of 83-156 kg/cm(2). The stabilization of chromium (III) in the cement gel matrix was confirmed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). Leachability studies on solidified bricks were carried out to determine the metal fixation and dissolved organic (as COD) concentration in the leachate.

  6. Swelling, Mechanics, and Thermal/Chemical Stability of Hydrogels Containing Phenylboronic Acid Side Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We report here studies of swelling, mechanics, and thermal stability of hydrogels consisting of 20 mol % methacrylamidophenylboronic acid (MPBA and 80 mol % acrylamide (AAm, lightly crosslinked with methylenebisacrylamide (Bis. Swelling was measured in solutions of fixed ionic strength, but with varying pH values and fructose concentrations. Mechanics was studied by compression and hold. In the absence of sugar or in the presence of fructose, the modulus was mostly maintained during the hold period, while a significant stress relaxation was seen in the presence of glucose, consistent with reversible, dynamic crosslinks provided by glucose, but not fructose. Thermal stability was determined by incubating hydrogels at pH 7.4 at room temperature, and 37, 50, and 65 °C, and monitoring swelling. In PBS (phosphate buffered saline solutions containing 9 mM fructose, swelling remained essentially complete for 50 days at room temperature, but decreased substantially with time at the higher temperatures, with accelerated reduction of swelling with increasing temperature. Controls indicated that over long time periods, both the MPBA and AAm units were experiencing conversion to different species.

  7. Starved air combustion-solidification/stabilization of primary chemical sludge from a tannery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swarnalatha, S. [Department of Environmental Technology, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai-600 020, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramani, K. [Department of Environmental Technology, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai-600 020, Tamil Nadu (India); Karthi, A. Geetha [Department of Environmental Technology, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai-600 020, Tamil Nadu (India); Sekaran, G. [Department of Environmental Technology, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai-600 020, Tamil Nadu (India)]. E-mail: ganesansekaran@hotmail.com

    2006-09-01

    The high concentration of trivalent chromium along with organic/inorganic compounds in tannery sludge causes severe ground water contamination in the case of land disposal and chronic air pollution during incineration. In the present investigation, the sludge was subjected to flow-through column test to evaluate the concentration of leachable organics (tannin, COD and TOC) and heavy metal ions (Cr{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 2+}) present in it. The dried sludge was incinerated at 800 deg. C in an incinerator under starved oxygen supply (starved-air combustion) to prevent the conversion of Cr{sup 3+} to Cr{sup 6+}. The efficiency of starved air combustion was studied under different loading rates of sludge. The calcined sludge was solidified/stabilized using fly ash and Portland cement/gypsum. The solidified bricks were tested for unconfined compressive strength and heavy metal leaching. Unconfined compressive strength of the blocks was in the range of 83-156 kg/cm{sup 2}. The stabilization of chromium (III) in the cement gel matrix was confirmed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). Leachability studies on solidified bricks were carried out to determine the metal fixation and dissolved organic (as COD) concentration in the leachate.

  8. Membrane processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The membrane processes have played important role in the industrial separation process. These technologies can be found in all industrial areas such as food, beverages, metallurgy, pulp and paper, textile, pharmaceutical, automotive, biotechnology and chemical industry, as well as in water treatment for domestic and industrial application. Although these processes are known since twentieth century, there are still many studies that focus on the testing of new membranes' materials and determining of conditions for optimal selectivity, i. e. the optimum transmembrane pressure (TMP) or permeate flux to minimize fouling. Moreover the researchers proposed some calculation methods to predict the membrane processes properties. In this article, the laboratory scale experiments of membrane separation techniques, as well their validation by calculation methods are presented. Because membrane is the "heart" of the process, experimental and computational methods for its characterization are also described.

  9. Primordial membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    2017-01-01

    Cellular membranes, which are self-assembled bilayer structures mainly composed of lipids, proteins and conjugated polysaccharides, are the defining feature of cell physiology. It is likely that the complexity of contemporary cells was preceded by simpler chemical systems or protocells during...... the various evolutionary stages that led from inanimate to living matter. It is also likely that primitive membranes played a similar role in protocell 'physiology'. The composition of such ancestral membranes has been proposed as mixtures of single hydrocarbon chain amphiphiles, which are simpler versions...

  10. A high throughput platform for understanding the influence of excipients on physical and chemical stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raijada, Dhara; Cornett, Claus; Rantanen, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    selected. Binary physical mixtures of drug and excipient were transferred to a 96-well plate followed by addition of water to simulate aqueous granulation environment. The plate was subjected for XRPD measurements followed by drying and subsequent XRPD and HPLC measurements of the dried samples. Excipients...... for chemical degradation. The proposed high-throughput platform can be used during early drug development to simulate typical processing induced stress in a small scale and to understand possible phase transformation behaviour and influence of excipients on this....

  11. Chemical modifications and stability of diamond nanoparticles resolved by infrared spectroscopy and Kelvin force microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozak, Halyna; Remeš, Zdeněk; Houdková, Jana; Stehlík, Štěpán; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2013), "1568-1"-"1568-9" ISSN 1388-0764 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0910; GA ČR GPP205/12/P331; GA MŠk LH12186 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diamond nanoparticles * chemical modification * GAR-FTIR * AFM * KFM * XPS Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.278, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11051-013-1568-7

  12. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  13. Membrane-controlled processes for the energy-efficient conversion of sludges to fuels and marketable chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-03-01

    Studies were carried out on the concentration of primary and secondary sludges by ultrafiltration, and the operation of a membrane-assisted anaerobic digester to treat these sludges. Auxiliary devices including water-spilling and membrane solvent extraction were tested for their feasibility in the ehhancement of digester operations and the recovery of valuable byproducts. It was shown that membrane-facilitated digestion can increase the rate of these processes by a factor of ten, together with a substantial decrease in the amount going to waste, and with the ultrafiltration permeate containing appreciable concentrations of valuable byproducts which could be concentrated and recovered using a combination of other membrane technologies. The utility of electrodialytic water-splitting and membrane solvent extraction was demonstrated. All of this was accomplished with a small three-liter bench-scale digester, the operation of which presented many problems because of its very small size and the difficulty in handling real sewage sludges.

  14. Enhanced Wettability and Thermal Stability of a Novel Polyethylene Terephthalate-Based Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Nanofiber Hybrid Membrane for the Separator of Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunhong; Nagaishi, Tomoki; Shi, Jian; Lee, Hoik; Wong, Pok Yin; Sui, Jianhua; Hyodo, Kenji; Kim, Ick Soo

    2017-08-09

    In this study, a novel membrane for the separator in a lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery was proposed via a mechanically pressed process with a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanofiber subject and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) microfiber support. Important physical properties, such as surface morphology, wettability, and heat stability were considered for the PET-reinforced PVDF nanofiber (PRPN) hybrid separator. Images of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the PRPN hybrid separator had a homogeneous pore size and high porosity. It can wet out in battery electrolytes completely and quickly, satisfying wettability requirements. Moreover, the electrolyte uptake was higher than that of dry-laid and wet-laid nonwovens. For heat stability, no shrink occurred even when the heating temperature reached 135 °C, demonstrating thermal and dimensional stability. Moreover, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that the PRPN hybrid separator possessed a shutdown temperature of 131 °C, which is the same as conventional separators. Also, the meltdown temperature reached 252 °C, which is higher than the shutdown temperature, and thus can protect against internal cell shorts. The proposed PRPN hybrid separator is a strong candidate material for utilization in Li-ion batteries.

  15. Chemically stabilized reduced graphene oxide/zirconia nanocomposite: synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagadevan, Suresh; Zaman Chowdhury, Zaira; Enamul Hoque, Md; Podder, Jiban

    2017-11-01

    In this research, chemical method was used to fabricate reduced graphene oxide/zirconia (rGO/ZrO2) nanocomposite. X-ray Diffraction analysis (XRD) was carried out to examine the crystalline structure of the nanocomposites. The nanocomposite prepared here has average crystallite size of 14 nm. The surface morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopic analysis (SEM) coupled with electron dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) to detect the chemical element over the surface of the nanocomposites. High-resolution Transmission electron microscopic analysis (HR-TEM) was carried out to determine the particle size and shape of the nanocomposites. The optical property of the prepared samples was determined using UV-visible absorption spectrum. The functional groups were identified using FTIR and Raman spectroscopic analysis. Efficient, cost effective and properly optimized synthesis process of rGO/ZrO2 nanocomposite can ensure the presence of infiltrating graphene network inside the ZrO2 matrix to enhance the electrical properties of the hybrid composites up to a greater scale. Thus the dielectric constant, dielectric loss and AC conductivity of the prepared sample was measured at various frequencies and temperatures. The analytical results obtained here confirmed the homogeneous dispersion of ZrO2 nanostructures over the surface of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets. Overall, the research demonstrated that the rGO/ZrO2 nano-hybrid structure fabricated here can be considered as a promising candidate for applications in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics.

  16. Cation-pi interactions stabilize the structure of the antimicrobial peptide indolicidin near membranes: molecular dynamics simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khandelia, Himanshu; Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2007-01-01

    to the sulfate groups leads to an extended peptide structure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a cation-pi interaction between peptide side chains has been shown to stabilize the structure of a small antimicrobial peptide. The simulations are in excellent agreement with available...

  17. Electrochemical stability and postmortem studies of Pt/SiC catalysts for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamatin, Serban Nicolae; Spéder, József; Dhiman, Rajnish

    2015-01-01

    potential cycle aging tests were used in order to accelerate the support corrosion, simulating start-up/shutdown and load cycling. On the basis of the results, we draw two main conclusions. First, platinized silicon carbide exhibits improved electrochemical stability over platinized active carbons. Second...

  18. A reusable device for electrochemical applications of hydrogel supported black lipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mech-Dorosz, Agnieszka; Heiskanen, Arto; Bäc