WorldWideScience

Sample records for membrane capacitance caused

  1. Membrane capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Wal, van der A.

    2010-01-01

    Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is an ion-removal process based on applying an electrical potential difference across an aqueous solution which flows in between oppositely placed porous electrodes, in front of which ion-exchange membranes are positioned. Due to the applied potential, ions

  2. The Role of Ion Exchange Membranes in Membrane Capacitive Deionisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanvand, Armineh; Wei, Kajia; Talebi, Sahar; Chen, George Q; Kentish, Sandra E

    2017-09-14

    Ion-exchange membranes (IEMs) are unique in combining the electrochemical properties of ion exchange resins and the permeability of a membrane. They are being used widely to treat industrial effluents, and in seawater and brackish water desalination. Membrane Capacitive Deionisation (MCDI) is an emerging, energy efficient technology for brackish water desalination in which these ion-exchange membranes act as selective gates allowing the transport of counter-ions toward carbon electrodes. This article provides a summary of recent developments in the preparation, characterization, and performance of ion exchange membranes in the MCDI field. In some parts of this review, the most relevant literature in the area of electrodialysis (ED) is also discussed to better elucidate the role of the ion exchange membranes. We conclude that more work is required to better define the desalination performance of the proposed novel materials and cell designs for MCDI in treating a wide range of feed waters. The extent of fouling, the development of cleaning strategies, and further techno-economic studies, will add value to this emerging technique.

  3. Effect of Plasma Membrane Semipermeability in Making the Membrane Electric Double Layer Capacitances Significant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shayandev; Sachar, Harnoor Singh; Das, Siddhartha

    2018-01-30

    Electric double layers (or EDLs) formed at the membrane-electrolyte interface (MEI) and membrane-cytosol interface (MCI) of a charged lipid bilayer plasma membrane develop finitely large capacitances. However, these EDL capacitances are often much larger than the intrinsic capacitance of the membrane, and all of these capacitances are in series. Consequently, the effect of these EDL capacitances in dictating the overall membrane-EDL effective capacitance C eff becomes negligible. In this paper, we challenge this conventional notion pertaining to the membrane-EDL capacitances. We demonstrate that, on the basis of the system parameters, the EDL capacitance for both the permeable and semipermeable membranes can be small enough to influence C eff . For the semipermeable membranes, however, this lowering of the EDL capacitance can be much larger, ensuring a reduction of C eff by more than 20-25%. Furthermore, for the semipermeable membranes, the reduction in C eff is witnessed over a much larger range of system parameters. We attribute such an occurrence to the highly nonintuitive electrostatic potential distribution associated with the recently discovered phenomena of charge-inversion-like electrostatics and the attainment of a positive zeta potential at the MCI for charged semipermeable membranes. We anticipate that our findings will impact the quantification and the identification of a large number of biophysical phenomena that are probed by measuring the plasma membrane capacitance.

  4. Energy consumption and constant current operation in membrane capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, R.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Wal, van der A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is a water desalination technology based on applying a cell voltage between two oppositely placed porous electrodes sandwiching a spacer channel that transports the water to be desalinated. In the salt removal step, ions are adsorbed at the carbon–water

  5. Water and chemical savings in cooling towers by using membrane capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpt, van B.; Wal, van der A.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is a water desalination technology based on applying a voltage difference between two oppositely placed porous carbon electrodes. In front of each electrode, an ion exchange membrane is positioned, and between them, a spacer is situated, which transports the

  6. Changes in exposed membrane proteins during in vitro capacitation of boar sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, T.

    1990-01-01

    Exposed plasma membrane proteins were labeled with 125 I before and after incubation of boar sperm under capacitating conditions. Labeled protein profiles were compared to the ability of the sperm to penetrate zona-free hamster ova. Quantitatively, the labeled sperm membrane proteins were primarily low Mr prior to capacitation. The majority of the labeled seminal plasma protein was also low Mr. After capacitation, two new proteins (64,000 Mr and 78,000 Mr) were labeled. Sperm did not exhibit these exposed membrane proteins when incubated under noncapacitating conditions. Appearance of these proteins was not correlated to the percentage of acrosome-reacted sperm. Although the 64,000 Mr protein was not consistently observed, the relative labeling of the 78,000 Mr protein was highly correlated with the ability of sperm to fuse with zona-free hamster ova. The 78,000 Mr protein may be a sperm protein involved in fusion with the egg plasma membrane

  7. Hybrid capacitive deionization with anion-exchange membranes for lithium extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Siekierka Anna; Bryjak Marek

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is considered to be a critical material for various industrial fields. We present our studies on extraction lithium from diluted aqueous solution by novel hybrid system based on a membrane capacitive deionization and batteries desalination. Hybrid CDI is comprised by a lithium selective adsorbent, activated carbon electrode and anion-exchange membranes. Here, we demonstrated implication of various type of anion-exchange membranes and influence their properties on effective capacity an...

  8. Energy consumption in membrane capacitive deionization for different water recoveries and flow rates, and comparison with reverse osmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, R.; Porada, S.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Wal, van der A.

    2013-01-01

    Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is a non-faradaic, capacitive technique for desalinating brackish water by adsorbing ions in charged porous electrodes. To compete with reverse osmosis, the specific energy consumption of MCDI needs to be reduced to less than 1 kWh per m3 of freshwater

  9. Hybrid capacitive deionization with anion-exchange membranes for lithium extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siekierka Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is considered to be a critical material for various industrial fields. We present our studies on extraction lithium from diluted aqueous solution by novel hybrid system based on a membrane capacitive deionization and batteries desalination. Hybrid CDI is comprised by a lithium selective adsorbent, activated carbon electrode and anion-exchange membranes. Here, we demonstrated implication of various type of anion-exchange membranes and influence their properties on effective capacity and energy requirements in charge/discharge steps. We described a configuration with anion-exchange membrane characterized by adsorption capacity of 35 mg/g of Li+ with 0.08Wh/g and removal efficiency of 60 % of lithium ions, using novel selective desalination technique.

  10. Hybrid capacitive deionization with anion-exchange membranes for lithium extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekierka, Anna; Bryjak, Marek

    2017-11-01

    Lithium is considered to be a critical material for various industrial fields. We present our studies on extraction lithium from diluted aqueous solution by novel hybrid system based on a membrane capacitive deionization and batteries desalination. Hybrid CDI is comprised by a lithium selective adsorbent, activated carbon electrode and anion-exchange membranes. Here, we demonstrated implication of various type of anion-exchange membranes and influence their properties on effective capacity and energy requirements in charge/discharge steps. We described a configuration with anion-exchange membrane characterized by adsorption capacity of 35 mg/g of Li+ with 0.08Wh/g and removal efficiency of 60 % of lithium ions, using novel selective desalination technique.

  11. Touch-mode capacitive pressure sensor with graphene-polymer heterostructure membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christian; Phillips, Rory; Pasternak, Iwona; Sobieski, Jan; Strupinski, Wlodek; Vijayaraghavan, Aravind

    2018-01-01

    We describe the fabrication and characterisation of a touch-mode capacitive pressure sensor (TMCPS) with a robust design that comprises a graphene-polymer heterostructure film, laminated onto the silicon dioxide surface of a silicon wafer, incorporating a SU-8 spacer grid structure. The spacer grid structure allows the flexible graphene-polymer film to be partially suspended above the substrate, such that a pressure on the membrane results in a reproducible deflection, even after exposing the membrane to pressures over 10 times the operating range. Sensors show reproducible pressure transduction in water submersion at varying depths under static and dynamic loading. The measured capacitance change in response to pressure is in good agreement with an analytical model of clamped plates in touch mode. The device shows a pressure sensitivity of 27.1 +/- 0.5 fF Pa-1 over a pressure range of 0.5 kPa-8.5 kPa. In addition, we demonstrate the operation of this device as a force-touch sensor in air.

  12. Supramolecular organization of the sperm plasma membrane during maturation and capacitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Roy; James, Peter S; Howes, Liz; Bruckbauer, Andreas; Klenerman, David

    2007-07-01

    In the present study, a variety of high resolution microscopy techniques were used to visualize the organization and motion of lipids and proteins in the sperm's plasma membrane. We have addressed questions such as the presence of diffusion barriers, confinement of molecules to specific surface domains, polarized diffusion and the role of cholesterol in regulating lipid rafts and signal transduction during capacitation. Atomic force microscopy identified a novel region (EqSS) within the equatorial segment of bovine, porcine and ovine spermatozoa that was enriched in constitutively phosphorylated proteins. The EqSS was assembled during epididymal maturation. Fluorescence imaging techniques were then used to follow molecular diffusion on the sperm head. Single lipid molecules were freely exchangeable throughout the plasma membrane and showed no evidence for confinement within domains. Large lipid aggregates, however, did not cross over the boundary between the post-acrosome and equatorial segment suggesting the presence of a molecular filter between these two domains. A small reduction in membrane cholesterol enlarges or increases lipid rafts concomitant with phosphorylation of intracellular proteins. Excessive removal of cholesterol, however, disorganizes rafts with a cessation of phosphorylation. These techniques are forcing a revision of long-held views on how lipids and proteins in sperm membranes are assembled into larger complexes that mediate recognition and fusion with the egg.

  13. Type-1 cannabinoid receptors reduce membrane fluidity of capacitated boar sperm by impairing their activation by bicarbonate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Barboni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mammalian spermatozoa acquire their full fertilizing ability (so called capacitation within the female genital tract, where they are progressively exposed to inverse gradients of inhibiting and stimulating molecules. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present research, the effect on this process of anandamide, an endocannabinoid that can either activate or inhibit cannabinoid receptors depending on its concentration, and bicarbonate, an oviductal activatory molecule, was assessed, in order to study the role exerted by the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R in the process of lipid membrane remodeling crucial to complete capacitation. To this aim, boar sperm were incubated in vitro under capacitating conditions (stimulated by bicarbonate in the presence or in the absence of methanandamide (Met-AEA, a non-hydrolysable analogue of anandamide. The CB1R involvement was studied by using the specific inhibitor (SR141716 or mimicking its activation by adding a permeable cAMP analogue (8Br-cAMP. By an immunocytochemistry approach it was shown that the Met-AEA inhibits the bicarbonate-dependent translocation of CB1R from the post-equatorial to equatorial region of sperm head. In addition it was found that Met-AEA is able to prevent the bicarbonate-induced increase in membrane disorder and the cholesterol extraction, both preliminary to capacitation, acting through a CB1R-cAMP mediated pathway, as indicated by MC540 and filipin staining, EPR spectroscopy and biochemical analysis on whole membranes (CB1R activity and on membrane enriched fraction (C/P content and anisotropy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Altogether, these data demonstrate that the endocannabinoid system strongly inhibits the process of sperm capacitation, acting as membrane stabilizing agent, thus increasing the basic knowledge on capacitation-related signaling and potentially opening new perspectives in diagnostics and therapeutics of male infertility.

  14. Negative capacitance and instability at electrified interfaces: Lessons from the study of membrane capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B.Partenskii

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Various models leading to predictions of negative capacitance, C, are briefly reviewed. Their relation to the nature of electric control is discussed. We reconfirm that the calculated double layer capacitance can be negative under σ-control - an artificial construct that requires uniform distribution of the electrode surface charge density, σ. However, only the total charge C (or the average surface charge density can be experimentally fixed in isolated cell studies (q-control. For those σ where C becomes negative under σ-control, the transition to q-control (i.e. relaxing the lateral change density distribution, fixing its mean value to σ leads to instability of the uniform distribution and a transition to a non-uniform phase. As an illustration, a “membrane capacitor” model is discussed. This exactly solvable model, allowing for both uniform and inhomogeneous relaxation of the electrical double layer, helps to demonstrate both the onset and some important features of the instability. Possibilities for further development are discussed briefly.

  15. Does stimulation of NaCl secretion in in vitro perfused rectal gland tubules of Squalus acanthias increase membrane capacitance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, R; Thiele, I; Warth, R; Bleich, M

    1998-07-01

    NaCl secretion in rectal gland tubules (RGT) of Squalus acanthias requires the activation of Cl– channels in the luminal membrane. The RGT and its mechanism of activation are an early evolutionary paradigm of exocrine secretion. The respective Cl– channels probably resemble the shark equivalent of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Activation of these Cl– channels occurs via cAMP. It has been hypothesized that the activation of CFTR occurs via exocytosis or inhibited endocytosis. To examine this question directly by electrical measurements we have performed whole-cell patch-clamp analyses of in vitro perfused RGT. NaCl secretion was stimulated by a solution (Stim) containing forskolin (10 µmol/l), dibutyryl-cAMP (0.5 mmol/l) and adenosine (0.5 mmol/l). This led to the expected strong depolarization and an increase in membrane conductance (G m). The membrane capacitance (C m) was measured by a newly devised two-frequency synchronous detector method. It was increased by Stim significantly from 5.00±0.22 to 5.17±0.21 pF (n=50). The increase in C m correlated with the increase in G m with a slope of 51 fF/nS. Next the effect of furosemide (500 µmol/l) was examined in previously stimulated RGT. Furosemide was supposed to inhibit coupled Na+2Cl–K+ uptake and to reduce cell volume but not membrane trafficking of Cl– channels. Furosemide reduced G m slightly (due to the fall in cytosolic Cl– concentration) and C m to the same extent by which Stim had increased it. Both changes were statistically significant, and the slope of ΔC m/ΔG m was similar to that caused by Stim. Inhibitors of microtubules or actin (colchicine, phalloidin and cytochalasin D added at 10 µmol/l to the pipette solution and dialysed for >10 min) did not alter cell voltage, G m or C m, nor did these inhibitors abolish the stimulatory effect of cAMP. These data suggest that the small C m changes observed with Stim reflect a minor cell volume increase and an

  16. Membrane status and in vitro capacitation of porcine sperm preserved in long-term extender at 16 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejo-Nava, J; Fierro, R; Gutierrez, C G; Betancourt, M

    2003-01-01

    Preservation of porcine semen in long-term extenders at 15-18 degrees C for more than 5 days results in decreased farrowing rates and reduced litter size after artificial insemination, despite the high progressive motility rates of sperm. To improve this preservation system it is necessary to understand sperm physiology under storage conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of storing diluted porcine semen (during 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days) on the sperm membranes status and the ability of sperm to respond to in vitro capacitation treatment. Ten semen samples from 5 adult boars were analyzed. Two aliquots were obtained from the sperm-rich fraction: one was used to assess fresh semen and the other was diluted in Reading extender and stored at 16 degrees C. Both semen samples were stained with chlortetracycline to assess the status of sperm membranes and with Hoechst 33258 to determine viability. Semen storage for 4-8 days increased the proportion of prematurely capacitated sperm. After 4 days of storage, in vitro capacitation treatment did not increase the percentage of capacitated sperm, but increased the percentage of acrosome reacted sperm. This phenomenon could explain the reduced fertilizing ability of porcine semen stored at 16 degrees C for over 4 days, in spite of the acceptable sperm viability and progressive motility.

  17. The fractal dimension of cell membrane correlates with its capacitance: A new fractal single-shell model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xujing; Becker, Frederick F.; Gascoyne, Peter R. C.

    2010-01-01

    The scale-invariant property of the cytoplasmic membrane of biological cells is examined by applying the Minkowski–Bouligand method to digitized scanning electron microscopy images of the cell surface. The membrane is found to exhibit fractal behavior, and the derived fractal dimension gives a good description of its morphological complexity. Furthermore, we found that this fractal dimension correlates well with the specific membrane dielectric capacitance derived from the electrorotation measurements. Based on these findings, we propose a new fractal single-shell model to describe the dielectrics of mammalian cells, and compare it with the conventional single-shell model (SSM). We found that while both models fit with experimental data well, the new model is able to eliminate the discrepancy between the measured dielectric property of cells and that predicted by the SSM. PMID:21198103

  18. The effect of a negative capacitance circuit on the out-of-plane dissipation and stiffness of a piezoelectric membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korde, Umesh A; Wickersham, Miles A; Carr, Stephen G

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the out-of-plane dynamics of a piezoelectric membrane with a negative capacitance circuit connected in parallel. The theoretically possible large changes in stiffness and dissipation could, at full implementation, enable the design of selectively electroded piezoelectric skins that are spatially and temporally highly adaptive. A tunable negative capacitance circuit is here connected in parallel with a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane (Date et al 2000 J. Appl. Phys. 87 863–8). The goal of this paper is to investigate the extent to which such a circuit may influence the out-of-plane stiffness and dissipation characteristics and the associated vibration response of a PVDF membrane strip. We consider strips with a non-vanishing thickness and under a constant boundary-applied tension. As our analytical and experimental results for harmonic loading show, successful application of the method on out-of-plane dynamics is possible with a correct choice of the circuit parameters, and the out-of-plane stiffness and dissipation and the associated vibration response near the first resonance can be altered noticeably by adjusting the circuit settings

  19. Plasma membrane associated membranes (PAM) from Jurkat cells contain STIM1 protein is PAM involved in the capacitative calcium entry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozieł, Katarzyna; Lebiedzinska, Magdalena; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Onopiuk, Marta; Brutkowski, Wojciech; Wierzbicka, Katarzyna; Wilczyński, Grzegorz; Pinton, Paolo; Duszyński, Jerzy; Zabłocki, Krzysztof; Wieckowski, Mariusz R

    2009-12-01

    A proper cooperation between the plasma membrane, the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria seems to be essential for numerous cellular processes involved in Ca(2+) signalling and maintenance of Ca(2+) homeostasis. A presence of microsomal and mitochondrial proteins together with those characteristic for the plasma membrane in the fraction of the plasma membrane associated membranes (PAM) indicates a formation of stabile interactions between these three structures. We isolated the plasma membrane associated membranes from Jurkat cells and found its significant enrichment in the plasma membrane markers including plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and CD3 as well as sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase as a marker of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. In addition, two proteins involved in the store-operated Ca(2+) entry, Orai1 located in the plasma membrane and an endoplasmic reticulum protein STIM1 were found in this fraction. Furthermore, we observed a rearrangement of STIM1-containing protein complexes isolated from Jurkat cells undergoing stimulation by thapsigargin. We suggest that the inter-membrane compartment composed of the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum, and isolated as a stabile plasma membrane associated membranes fraction, might be involved in the store-operated Ca(2+) entry, and their formation and rebuilding have an important regulatory role in cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis.

  20. Simultaneous Characterization of Instantaneous Young’s Modulus and Specific Membrane Capacitance of Single Cells Using a Microfluidic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a microfluidics-based approach capable of continuously characterizing instantaneous Young’s modulus (Einstantaneous and specific membrane capacitance (Cspecific membrane of suspended single cells. In this method, cells were aspirated through a constriction channel while the cellular entry process into the constriction channel was recorded using a high speed camera and the impedance profiles at two frequencies (1 kHz and 100 kHz were simultaneously measured by a lock-in amplifier. Numerical simulations were conducted to model cellular entry process into the constriction channel, focusing on two key parameters: instantaneous aspiration length (Linstantaneous and transitional aspiration length (Ltransitional, which was further translated to Einstantaneous. An equivalent distribution circuit model for a cell travelling in the constriction channel was used to determine Cspecific membrane. A non-small-cell lung cancer cell line 95C (n = 354 was used to evaluate this technique, producing Einstantaneous of 2.96 ± 0.40 kPa and Cspecific membrane of 1.59 ± 0.28 μF/cm2. As a platform for continuous and simultaneous characterization of cellular Einstantaneous and Cspecific membrane, this approach can facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of cellular biophysical properties.

  1. A capacitive membrane MEMS microwave power sensor in the X-band based on GaAs MMIC technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Shi; Liao Xiaoping

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling, fabrication, and measurement of a capacitive membrane MEMS microwave power sensor. The sensor measures microwave power coupled from coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission lines by a MEMS membrane and then converts it into a DC voltage output by using thermopiles. Since the fabrication process is fully compatible with the GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) process, this sensor could be conveniently embedded into MMIC. From the measured DC voltage output and S-parameters, the average sensitivity in the X-band is 225.43 μV/mW, while the reflection loss is below -14 dB. The MEMS microwave power sensor has good linearity with a voltage standing wave ration of less than 1.513 in the whole X-band. In addition, the measurements using amplitude modulation signals prove that the modulation index directly influences the output DC voltage.

  2. Aminopurvalanol A, a Potent, Selective, and Cell Permeable Inhibitor of Cyclins/Cdk Complexes, Causes the Reduction of in Vitro Fertilizing Ability of Boar Spermatozoa, by Negatively Affecting the Capacitation-Dependent Actin Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Bernabò

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of high-througput technologies demonstrated that in mature spermatozoa are present proteins that are thought to be not present or active in sperm cells, such as those involved in control of cell cycle. Here, by using an in silico approach based on the application of networks theory, we found that Cyclins/Cdk complexes could play a central role in signal transduction active during capacitation. Then, we tested this hypothesis in the vitro model. With this approach, spermatozoa were incubated under capacitating conditions in control conditions (CTRL or in the presence of Aminopurvalanol A a potent, selective and cell permeable inhibitor of Cyclins/Cdk complexes at different concentrations (2, 10, and 20 μM. We found that this treatment caused dose-dependent inhibition of sperm fertilizing ability. We attribute this event to the loss of acrosome integrity due to the inhibition of physiological capacitation-dependent actin polymerization, rather than to a detrimental effect on membrane lipid remodeling or on other signaling pathways such as tubulin reorganization or MAPKs activation. In our opinion, these data could revamp the knowledge on biochemistry of sperm capacitation and could suggest new perspectives in studying male infertility.

  3. Direct Cytoskeleton Forces Cause Membrane Softening in Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, Ruddi; López-Montero, Iván; Mell, Michael; Egea, Gustavo; Gov, Nir S.; Monroy, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Erythrocytes are flexible cells specialized in the systemic transport of oxygen in vertebrates. This physiological function is connected to their outstanding ability to deform in passing through narrow capillaries. In recent years, there has been an influx of experimental evidence of enhanced cell-shape fluctuations related to metabolically driven activity of the erythroid membrane skeleton. However, no direct observation of the active cytoskeleton forces has yet been reported to our knowledge. Here, we show experimental evidence of the presence of temporally correlated forces superposed over the thermal fluctuations of the erythrocyte membrane. These forces are ATP-dependent and drive enhanced flickering motions in human erythrocytes. Theoretical analyses provide support for a direct force exerted on the membrane by the cytoskeleton nodes as pulses of well-defined average duration. In addition, such metabolically regulated active forces cause global membrane softening, a mechanical attribute related to the functional erythroid deformability. PMID:26083919

  4. Highly Sensitive Temperature Sensors Based on Fiber-Optic PWM and Capacitance Variation Using Thermochromic Sensing Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rajibur Rahaman Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a temperature/thermal sensor that contains a Rhodamine-B sensing membrane. We applied two different sensing methods, namely, fiber-optic pulse width modulation (PWM and an interdigitated capacitor (IDC-based temperature sensor to measure the temperature from 5 °C to 100 °C. To the best of our knowledge, the fiber-optic PWM-based temperature sensor is reported for the first time in this study. The proposed fiber-optic PWM temperature sensor has good sensing ability; its sensitivity is ~3.733 mV/°C. The designed temperature-sensing system offers stable sensing responses over a wide dynamic range, good reproducibility properties with a relative standard deviation (RSD of ~0.021, and the capacity for a linear sensing response with a correlation coefficient of R2 ≈ 0.992 over a wide sensing range. In our study, we also developed an IDC temperature sensor that is based on the capacitance variation principle as the IDC sensing element is heated. We compared the performance of the proposed temperature-sensing systems with different fiber-optic temperature sensors (which are based on the fiber-optic wavelength shift method, the long grating fiber-optic Sagnac loop, and probe type fiber-optics in terms of sensitivity, dynamic range, and linearity. We observed that the proposed sensing systems have better sensing performance than the above-mentioned sensing system.

  5. Enhanced desalination performance of membrane capacitive deionization cells by packing the flow chamber with granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Yanhong; Yang, Xufei; Liang, Peng; Jiang, Yong; Zhang, Changyong; Huang, Xia

    2015-11-15

    A new design of membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) cell was constructed by packing the cell's flow chamber with granular activated carbon (GAC). The GAC packed-MCDI (GAC-MCDI) delivered higher (1.2-2.5 times) desalination rates than the regular MCDI at all test NaCl concentrations (∼ 100-1000 mg/L). The greatest performance enhancement by packed GAC was observed when treating saline water with an initial NaCl concentration of 100 mg/L. Several different GAC materials were tested and they all exhibited similar enhancement effects. Comparatively, packing the MCDI's flow chamber with glass beads (GB; non-conductive) and graphite granules (GG; conductive but with lower specific surface area than GAC) resulted in inferior desalination performance. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis showed that the GAC-MCDI had considerably smaller internal resistance than the regular MCDI (∼ 19.2 ± 1.2 Ω versus ∼ 1222 ± 15 Ω at 100 mg/L NaCl). The packed GAC also decreased the ionic resistance across the flow chamber (∼ 1.49 ± 0.05 Ω versus ∼ 1130 ± 12 Ω at 100 mg/L NaCl). The electric double layer (EDL) formed on the GAC surface was considered to store salt ions during electrosorption, and facilitate the ion transport in the flow chamber because of the higher ion conductivity in the EDLs than in the bulk solution, thereby enhancing the MCDI's desalination rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Topology Optimization of Stressed Capacitive RF MEMS Switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippine, Mandy A.; Sigmund, Ole; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    2013-01-01

    Geometry design can improve a capacitive radio-frequency microelectromechanical system switch's reliability by reducing the impacts of intrinsic biaxial stresses and stress gradients on the switch's membrane. Intrinsic biaxial stresses cause stress stiffening, whereas stress gradients cause out-o...

  7. Changes in the oral mucous membrane caused by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terahara, Atsuro

    1997-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the effective treatments for head and neck cancers, but radiation damages appear in the normal mucous membrane at high frequencies because the membrane is often positioned in the radiation area. Here, the appearance patterns of such damages and the therapeutic methods for them were briefly described. Generally, there were no subjective and objective symptoms immediately after the radiation, but those often appeared from the time around 2 weeks after the initiation of radiotherapy and when the total dose reached a level near 20 Gy. The major symptoms were as follows; flare and edema, oral dryness due to decreased salivation, taste alteration reduced appetite, infections due to reduced immunoreactivity etc. For these symptoms, some symptomatic treatments are carried out along with prophylactic ones to keep the oral cavity clean. As the local treatments; spraying of steroid agent, administrations of antiphlogistic/analgesic agents, mucous membrane protecting agents, etc. are often conducted to improve the lowering of QDL. (M.N.)

  8. FGFR3 mutation causes abnormal membranous ossification in achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rocco, Federico; Biosse Duplan, Martin; Heuzé, Yann; Kaci, Nabil; Komla-Ebri, Davide; Munnich, Arnold; Mugniery, Emilie; Benoist-Lasselin, Catherine; Legeai-Mallet, Laurence

    2014-06-01

    FGFR3 gain-of-function mutations lead to both chondrodysplasias and craniosynostoses. Achondroplasia (ACH), the most frequent dwarfism, is due to an FGFR3-activating mutation which results in impaired endochondral ossification. The effects of the mutation on membranous ossification are unknown. Fgfr3(Y367C/+) mice mimicking ACH and craniofacial analysis of patients with ACH and FGFR3-related craniosynostoses provide an opportunity to address this issue. Studying the calvaria and skull base, we observed abnormal cartilage and premature fusion of the synchondroses leading to modifications of foramen magnum shape and size in Fgfr3(Y367C/+) mice, ACH and FGFR3-related craniosynostoses patients. Partial premature fusion of the coronal sutures and non-ossified gaps in frontal bones were also present in Fgfr3(Y367C/+) mice and ACH patients. Our data provide strong support that not only endochondral ossification but also membranous ossification is severely affected in ACH. Demonstration of the impact of FGFR3 mutations on craniofacial development should initiate novel pharmacological and surgical therapeutic approaches.

  9. Root cause analysis of pump valve failures of three membrane pump systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, L.J.; Eijk, A.; Hooft, L. van

    2014-01-01

    This paper will present the root cause analysis and the solution of fatigue failures of the pump valves of three membrane pump systems installed on a chemical plant of Momentive in Pernis, the Netherlands. The membrane pumps were installed approximately 30 years ago. Each system has encountered

  10. A novel capacitive micro-accelerometer with grid strip capacitances and sensing gap alterable capacitances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Linxi; Chen Jindan; Huo Weihong; Li Yongjie; Sun Lingling; Yan Haixia

    2009-01-01

    The comb capacitances fabricated by deep reactive ion etching (RIE) process have high aspect ratio which is usually smaller than 30: 1 for the complicated process factors, and the combs are usually not parallel due to the well-known micro-loading effect and other process factors, which restricts the increase of the seismic mass by increasing the thickness of comb to reduce the thermal mechanical noise and the decrease of the gap of the comb capacitances for increasing the sensitive capacitance to reduce the electrical noise. Aiming at the disadvantage of the deep RIE, a novel capacitive micro-accelerometer with grid strip capacitances and sensing gap alterable capacitances is developed. One part of sensing of inertial signal of the micro-accelerometer is by the grid strip capacitances whose overlapping area is variable and which do not have the non-parallel plate's effect caused by the deep RIE process. Another part is by the sensing gap alterable capacitances whose gap between combs can be reduced by the actuators. The designed initial gap of the alterable comb capacitances is relatively large to depress the effect of the maximum aspect ratio (30 : 1) of deep RIE process. The initial gap of the capacitance of the actuator is smaller than the one of the comb capacitances. The difference between the two gaps is the initial gap of the sensitive capacitor. The designed structure depresses greatly the requirement of deep RIE process. The effects of non-parallel combs on the accelerometer are also analyzed. The characteristics of the micro-accelerometer are discussed by field emission microscopy (FEM) tool ANSYS. The tested devices based on slide-film damping effect are fabricated, and the tested quality factor is 514, which shows that grid strip capacitance design can partly improve the resolution and also prove the feasibility of the designed silicon-glass anodically bonding process.

  11. The Instrumentation of a Microfluidic Analyzer Enabling the Characterization of the Specific Membrane Capacitance, Cytoplasm Conductivity, and Instantaneous Young's Modulus of Single Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Deyong; Huang, Chengjun; Fan, Beiyuan; Long, Rong; Hsieh, Chia-Hsun; Wang, Junbo; Wu, Min-Hsien; Chen, Jian

    2017-06-19

    This paper presents the instrumentation of a microfluidic analyzer enabling the characterization of single-cell biophysical properties, which includes seven key components: a microfluidic module, a pressure module, an imaging module, an impedance module, two LabVIEW platforms for instrument operation and raw data processing, respectively, and a Python code for data translation. Under the control of the LabVIEW platform for instrument operation, the pressure module flushes single cells into the microfluidic module with raw biophysical parameters sampled by the imaging and impedance modules and processed by the LabVIEW platform for raw data processing, which were further translated into intrinsic cellular biophysical parameters using the code developed in Python. Based on this system, specific membrane capacitance, cytoplasm conductivity, and instantaneous Young's modulus of three cell types were quantified as 2.76 ± 0.57 μF/cm², 1.00 ± 0.14 S/m, and 3.79 ± 1.11 kPa for A549 cells ( n cell = 202); 1.88 ± 0.31 μF/cm², 1.05 ± 0.16 S/m, and 3.74 ± 0.75 kPa for 95D cells ( n cell = 257); 2.11 ± 0.38 μF/cm², 0.87 ± 0.11 S/m, and 5.39 ± 0.89 kPa for H460 cells ( n cell = 246). As a semi-automatic instrument with a throughput of roughly 1 cell per second, this prototype instrument can be potentially used for the characterization of cellular biophysical properties.

  12. Expanded polyglutamine embedded in the endoplasmic reticulum causes membrane distortion and coincides with Bax insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Masashi; Li, Shimo; Itoh, Masanori; Wang, Miao-xing; Hayakawa, Miki; Islam, Saiful; Tana; Nakagawa, Kiyomi [Department of Neurobiology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Chen, Huayue [Department of Anatomy, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Nakagawa, Toshiyuki, E-mail: tnakagaw@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Neurobiology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan)

    2016-05-27

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is important in various cellular functions, such as secretary and membrane protein biosynthesis, lipid synthesis, and calcium storage. ER stress, including membrane distortion, is associated with many diseases such as Huntington's disease. In particular, nuclear envelope distortion is related to neuronal cell death associated with polyglutamine. However, the mechanism by which polyglutamine causes ER membrane distortion remains unclear. We used electron microscopy, fluorescence protease protection assay, and alkaline treatment to analyze the localization of polyglutamine in cells. We characterized polyglutamine embedded in the ER membrane and noted an effect on morphology, including the dilation of ER luminal space and elongation of ER-mitochondria contact sites, in addition to the distortion of the nuclear envelope. The polyglutamine embedded in the ER membrane was observed at the same time as Bax insertion. These results demonstrated that the ER membrane may be a target of polyglutamine, which triggers cell death through Bax. -- Highlights: •We characterized polyglutamine embedded in the ER membrane. •The polyglutamine embedded in the ER membrane was observed at the same time as Bax insertion. •The ER membrane may be a target of polyglutamine, which triggers cell death.

  13. Congenital Membrane Causing Duodenal Obstruction and Malpositioning of the Descending Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Chee Koh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A congenital membrane without intestinal malrotation is a rare cause of duodenal obstruction. Here we present an 11-year-old girl who had suffered from intermittent abdominal cramping pain and vomiting for more than 5 years. The image studies, including a plain abdomen roentgenogram and sonogram, showed no definite diagnosis. The upper gastrointestinal series and small bowel series showed the contrast was static over the third portion of the duodenum and the descending colon pulled up toward the epigastric area. Laparoscopic exploration revealed a congenital membrane extending from the right-side paraduodenal peritoneum through the third portion of the duodenum to the descending colon, which had caused obstruction of the third portion of the duodenum and malpositioning of the descending colon. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report in the literature where a congenital membrane caused both duodenal obstruction and malpositioning of the descending colon.

  14. Biofouling of Water Treatment Membranes: A Review of the Underlying Causes, Monitoring Techniques and Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity A. Roddick

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Biofouling is a critical issue in membrane water and wastewater treatment as it greatly compromises the efficiency of the treatment processes. It is difficult to control, and significant economic resources have been dedicated to the development of effective biofouling monitoring and control strategies. This paper highlights the underlying causes of membrane biofouling and provides a review on recent developments of potential monitoring and control methods in water and wastewater treatment with the aim of identifying the remaining issues and challenges in this area.

  15. False capacitance of supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Ragoisha, G. A.; Aniskevich, Y. M.

    2016-01-01

    Capacitance measurements from cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic chronopotentiometry and calculation of capacitance from imaginary part of impedance are widely used in investigations of supercapacitors. The methods assume the supercapacitor is a capacitor, while real objects correspond to different equivalent electric circuits and show various contributions of non-capacitive currents to the current which is used for calculation of capacitance. Specific capacitances which are presented in F g-1...

  16. Aspheric surface measurement using capacitive probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xin; Yuan, Daocheng; Li, Shaobo

    2017-02-01

    With the application of aspheres in optical fields, high precision and high efficiency aspheric surface metrology becomes a hot research topic. We describe a novel method of non-contact measurement of aspheric surface with capacitive probe. Taking an eccentric spherical surface as the object of study, the averaging effect of capacitive probe measurement and the influence of tilting the capacitive probe on the measurement results are investigated. By comparing measurement results from simultaneous measurement of the capacitive probe and contact probe of roundness instrument, this paper indicates the feasibility of using capacitive probes to test aspheric surface and proposes the compensation method of measurement error caused by averaging effect and the tilting of the capacitive probe.

  17. Development and analysis of a capacitive touch sensor using a liquid metal droplet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Seungbum; Won, Dong-Joon; Kim, Joong Gil; Kim, Joonwon

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a small-sized capacitive touch sensor with large variations in its capacitance. This sensor uses the changes in capacitance caused by the variation of the overlap area between a liquid metal (LM) droplet and a flat electrode while keeping the gap between the droplet and the bottom electrode at a small constant value (i.e. thickness of dielectric layer). Initially, the droplet is placed inside a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chamber, and a thin silicon dioxide film separates the droplet and the electrode. Owing to the high surface tension of the LM, the droplet retains its spherical shape and the overlap area remains small, which means that the capacitance between the droplet and the electrode also remains small. When normal force is applied, the pressure on the membrane pushes the droplet downward, thus spreading the droplet to the bottom of the chamber and increasing the capacitance. To verify our concept, we performed theoretical analyses and experiments using a 2 mm  ×  2 mm  ×  2 mm 1-cell touch sensor. Finally, we obtained a capacitance variation of ∼30 pF by applying forces between 0 N and 1 N. (paper)

  18. Investigation on the conditions mitigating membrane fouling caused by TiO2 deposition in a membrane photocatalytic reactor (MPR) used for dye wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damodar, Rahul-Ashok; You, Sheng-Jie; Chiou, Guan-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The charge differences between particle and membrane accelerate the intensity of fouling and binding of TiO 2 particles. ► Severe fouling at pH 5 and low fouling at pH ≥ 7 at all flux conditions. ► The presence of a very thin TiO 2 cake layer can alter the hydrophilicity of the membrane surface. ► The resistance offered by dense TiO 2 cake layer could dominate the hydrophilic effect of TiO 2 particles. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of MPR's operating conditions such as permeate flux, solution pH, and membrane hydrophobicity on separation characteristics and membrane fouling caused by TiO 2 deposition were investigated. The extent of fouling was measured in terms of TMP and tank turbidity variation. The results showed that, at mildly acidic conditions (pH ∼ 5), the turbidity within the tank decreased and the extent of turbidity drop increased with increasing flux for all the membranes. On the other hand, at pH ≥ 7, the turbidity remained constant at all flux and for all membranes tested. The fouling variation at different pH was closely linked with the surface charge (zeta potential) and hydrophilicity of both membrane and particles. It was observed that the charge differences between the particles and membranes accelerate the intensity of fouling and binding of TiO 2 particles on the membrane surface under different pH conditions. The presence of a very thin layer of TiO 2 can alter the hydrophilicity of the membranes and can slightly decrease the TMP (filtration resistance) of the fouled membranes. Besides, the resistance offered by the dense TiO 2 cake layer would dominate this hydrophilic effect of TiO 2 particles, and it may not alter the filtration resistance of the fouled membranes.

  19. Anti-glomerular basement membrane: A rare cause of renal failure in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Agarwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM disease is a rare cause of acute renal failure and known to have bad prognosis regarding renal functions recovery and patient survival specially when diagnosed late and presents with severe renal failure that requires dialysis. We report a case of 11-year-old child with acute renal failure secondary to anti-GBM disease and associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive vasculitis. He was treated with plasmapheresis, steroids, and cyclophosphamide with recovery of his kidney functions.

  20. ALS-causing profilin-1-mutant forms a non-native helical structure in membrane environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Liangzhong; Kang, Jian; Song, Jianxing

    2017-11-01

    Despite having physiological functions completely different from superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), profilin 1 (PFN1) also carries mutations causing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with a striking similarity to that triggered by SOD1 mutants. Very recently, the C71G-PFN1 has been demonstrated to cause ALS by a gain of toxicity and the acceleration of motor neuron degeneration preceded the accumulation of its aggregates. Here by atomic-resolution NMR determination of conformations and dynamics of WT-PFN1 and C71G-PFN1 in aqueous buffers and in membrane mimetics DMPC/DHPC bicelle and DPC micelle, we deciphered that: 1) the thermodynamic destabilization by C71G transforms PFN1 into coexistence with the unfolded state, which is lacking of any stable tertiary/secondary structures as well as restricted ps-ns backbone motions, thus fundamentally indistinguishable from ALS-causing SOD1 mutants. 2) Most strikingly, while WT-PFN1 only weakly interacts with DMPC/DHPC bicelle without altering the native structure, C71G-PFN1 acquires abnormal capacity in strongly interacting with DMPC/DHPC bicelle and DPC micelle, energetically driven by transforming the highly disordered unfolded state into a non-native helical structure, similar to what has been previously observed on ALS-causing SOD1 mutants. Our results imply that one potential mechanism for C71G-PFN1 to initiate ALS might be the abnormal interaction with membranes as recently established for SOD1 mutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection: A universal tool for the determination of supported liquid membrane selectivity in electromembrane extraction of complex samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 1267, SI (2012), s. 96-101 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/10/1219 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : supported liquid membranes * selectivity measurements * capillary electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.612, year: 2012

  2. Clean energy generation using capacitive electrodes in reverse electrodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaas, David; Bajracharya, S.; Bastos Sales, B.; Saakes, Michel; Hamelers, B.; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    2013-01-01

    Capacitive reverse electrodialysis (CRED) is a newly proposed technology to generate electricity from mixing of salt water and fresh water (salinity gradient energy) by using a membrane pile as in reverse electrodialysis (RED) and capacitive electrodes. The salinity difference between salt water and

  3. Research on the Changes to the Lipid/Polymer Membrane Used in the Acidic Bitterness Sensor Caused by Preconditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhei Harada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A taste sensor that uses lipid/polymer membranes can evaluate aftertastes felt by humans using Change in membrane Potential caused by Adsorption (CPA measurements. The sensor membrane for evaluating bitterness, which is caused by acidic bitter substances such as iso-alpha acid contained in beer, needs an immersion process in monosodium glutamate (MSG solution, called “MSG preconditioning”. However, what happens to the lipid/polymer membrane during MSG preconditioning is not clear. Therefore, we carried out three experiments to investigate the changes in the lipid/polymer membrane caused by the MSG preconditioning, i.e., measurements of the taste sensor, measurements of the amount of the bitterness substance adsorbed onto the membrane and measurements of the contact angle of the membrane surface. The CPA values increased as the preconditioning process progressed, and became stable after 3 d of preconditioning. The response potentials to the reference solution showed the same tendency of the CPA value change during the preconditioning period. The contact angle of the lipid/polymer membrane surface decreased after 7 d of MSG preconditioning; in short, the surface of the lipid/polymer membrane became hydrophilic during MSG preconditioning. The amount of adsorbed iso-alpha acid was increased until 5 d preconditioning, and then it decreased. In this study, we revealed that the CPA values increased with the progress of MSG preconditioning in spite of the decrease of the amount of iso-alpha acid adsorbed onto the lipid/polymer membrane, and it was indicated that the CPA values increase because the sensor sensitivity was improved by the MSG preconditioning.

  4. Pentoxifylline Ameliorates Glomerular Basement Membrane Ultrastructural Changes Caused by Gentamicin Administration in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Stojiljković

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Gentamicin is commonly used for the treatment of severe gram negative bacterial infections but inevi-tably cause renal failure during prolonged use. The aim of our study was to emphasize protective effects of pentoxifylline on glomerular basement membrane (GBM alterations induced by gentamicin in rats. Experiments were done on 40 male Wistar rats divided in three experimental groups. GM-group was treated daily with gentamicin in dose of 100 mg/kg during 8 days. PTX-group was treated daily with pentoxifylline in dose of 45 mg/kg and the same dose of gentamicin as in GM-group during 8 days. The control group received 1 ml/day saline intraperitoneally. Morphometric parameter measured during the analysis was glomerular basement membrane thickness. In GM-group of animals glomeruli were en-larged and GMB was diffusely and unequally thickened with neutrophil cells infiltration. In proximal tu-bules epithelial cells, vacuolization of cytoplasm with coagulation-type necrosis were observed. In PTX-group of animals glomeruli were somewhat enlarged and GBM was thickened only in some segments. Coagulation-type necrosis was not found. Blood urea and serum creatinine concentration in GM-group were significantly elevated in comparison with PTX-group while potassium level was decreased. Our results suggest that PTX has protective effects on GBM and proximal tubules in GM-treated rats.

  5. Incidence and causes of iatrogenic retinal breaks in idiopathic macular hole and epiretinal membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Fumihiko; Takagi, Seiji; Tomita, Goji

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the incidence and cause of iatrogenic retinal breaks (RBs) and postoperative retinal detachment (RD) in cases of idiopathic macular hole (MH) and epiretinal membrane (ERM). We analyzed 79 eyes with MH and 41 eyes with ERM, the relationship between the incidence of RBs and RD, and the frequency of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) and lattice degeneration (LD). The incidence of RBs related to the operation was significantly higher in eyes with MH. The frequency of PVD was significantly higher in eyes with ERM. The frequency of LD did not differ between groups. In the MH group, the incidence of RBs related to the operation was high in eyes without PVD, but with LD. We observed four cases of RD in the MH group. The MH group had higher incidence of RBs related to the operation, especially in eyes without PVD or with LD.

  6. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation causes loss of intestinal epithelial barrier in the newborn piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurundkar, Ashish R; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; McIlwain, R Britt; Timpa, Joseph G; Hartman, Yolanda E; He, Dongning; Karnatak, Rajendra K; Neel, Mary L; Clancy, John P; Anantharamaiah, G M; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2010-08-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an important life-support system used in neonates and young children with intractable cardiorespiratory failure. In this study, we used our porcine neonatal model of venoarterial ECMO to investigate whether ECMO causes gut barrier dysfunction. We subjected 3-wk-old previously healthy piglets to venoarterial ECMO for up to 8 h and evaluated gut mucosal permeability, bacterial translocation, plasma levels of bacterial products, and ultrastructural changes in gut epithelium. We also measured plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels in a small cohort of human neonates receiving ECMO. In our porcine model, ECMO caused a rapid increase in gut mucosal permeability within the first 2 h of treatment, leading to a 6- to 10-fold rise in circulating bacterial products. These changes in barrier function were associated with cytoskeletal condensation in epithelial cells, which was explained by phosphorylation of a myosin II regulatory light chain. In support of these findings, we also detected elevated plasma LPS levels in human neonates receiving ECMO, indicating a similar loss of gut barrier function in these infants. On the basis of these data, we conclude that ECMO is an independent cause of gut barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation may be an important contributor to ECMO-related inflammation.

  7. Investigation on the conditions mitigating membrane fouling caused by TiO{sub 2} deposition in a membrane photocatalytic reactor (MPR) used for dye wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damodar, Rahul-Ashok [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering and R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung li 320, Taiwan, ROC (China); You, Sheng-Jie, E-mail: sjyou@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering and R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung li 320, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chiou, Guan-Wei [Department of Civil Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung li 320, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The charge differences between particle and membrane accelerate the intensity of fouling and binding of TiO{sub 2} particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Severe fouling at pH 5 and low fouling at pH {>=} 7 at all flux conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of a very thin TiO{sub 2} cake layer can alter the hydrophilicity of the membrane surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The resistance offered by dense TiO{sub 2} cake layer could dominate the hydrophilic effect of TiO{sub 2} particles. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of MPR's operating conditions such as permeate flux, solution pH, and membrane hydrophobicity on separation characteristics and membrane fouling caused by TiO{sub 2} deposition were investigated. The extent of fouling was measured in terms of TMP and tank turbidity variation. The results showed that, at mildly acidic conditions (pH {approx} 5), the turbidity within the tank decreased and the extent of turbidity drop increased with increasing flux for all the membranes. On the other hand, at pH {>=} 7, the turbidity remained constant at all flux and for all membranes tested. The fouling variation at different pH was closely linked with the surface charge (zeta potential) and hydrophilicity of both membrane and particles. It was observed that the charge differences between the particles and membranes accelerate the intensity of fouling and binding of TiO{sub 2} particles on the membrane surface under different pH conditions. The presence of a very thin layer of TiO{sub 2} can alter the hydrophilicity of the membranes and can slightly decrease the TMP (filtration resistance) of the fouled membranes. Besides, the resistance offered by the dense TiO{sub 2} cake layer would dominate this hydrophilic effect of TiO{sub 2} particles, and it may not alter the filtration resistance of the fouled membranes.

  8. Lactoferricin B causes depolarization of the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and fusion of negatively charged liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvatne, H; Haukland, H H; Olsvik, O; Vorland, L H

    2001-03-09

    Antimicrobial peptides have been extensively studied in order to elucidate their mode of action. Most of these peptides have been shown to exert a bactericidal effect on the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria. Lactoferricin is an antimicrobial peptide with a net positive charge and an amphipatic structure. In this study we examine the effect of bovine lactoferricin (lactoferricin B; Lfcin B) on bacterial membranes. We show that Lfcin B neither lyses bacteria, nor causes a major leakage from liposomes. Lfcin B depolarizes the membrane of susceptible bacteria, and induces fusion of negatively charged liposomes. Hence, Lfcin B may have additional targets responsible for the antibacterial effect.

  9. Highly sensitive micromachined capacitive pressure sensor with reduced hysteresis and low parasitic capacitance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas; Fragiacomo, Giulio; Hansen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a capacitive pressure sensor that has a large capacitance signal and a high sensitivity of 76 pF/bar in touch mode operation. Due to the large signal, problems with parasitic capacitances are avoided and hence it is possible to integrate the sensor...... bonding to create vacuum cavities. The exposed part of the sensor is perfectly flat such that it can be coated with corrosion resistant thin films. Hysteresis is an inherent problem in touch mode capacitive pressure sensors and a technique to significantly reduce it is presented....... with a discrete components electronics circuit for signal conditioning. Using an AC bridge electronics circuit a resolution of 8 mV/mbar is achieved. The large signal is obtained due to a novel membrane structure utilizing closely packed hexagonal elements. The sensor is fabricated in a process based on fusion...

  10. Calculation of secondary capacitance of compact Tesla pulse transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Binxiong; Liu Jinliang

    2013-01-01

    An analytic expression of the secondary capacitance of a compact Tesla pulse transformer is derived. Calculated result by the expression shows that two parts contribute to the secondary capacitance, namely the capacitance between inner and outer magnetic cores and the attached capacitance caused by the secondary winding. The attached capacitance equals to the capacitance of a coaxial line which is as long as the secondary coil, and whose outer and inner diameters are as large as the inner diameter of the outer magnetic and the outer diameter of the inner magnetic core respectively. A circuital model for analyzing compact Tesla transformer is built, and numeric calculation shows that the expression of the secondary capacitance is correct. Besides, a small compact Tesla transformer is developed, and related test is carried out. Test result confirms the calculated results by the expression derived. (authors)

  11. Capacitive chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R

    2014-05-27

    A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  12. Heat stress causes spatially-distinct membrane re-modelling in K562 leukemia cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Balogh

    Full Text Available Cellular membranes respond rapidly to various environmental perturbations. Previously we showed that modulations in membrane fluidity achieved by heat stress (HS resulted in pronounced membrane organization alterations which could be intimately linked to the expression and cellular distribution of heat shock proteins. Here we examine heat-induced membrane changes using several visualisation methods. With Laurdan two-photon microscopy we demonstrate that, in contrast to the enhanced formation of ordered domains in surface membranes, the molecular disorder is significantly elevated within the internal membranes of cells preexposed to mild HS. These results were compared with those obtained by anisotropy, fluorescence lifetime and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements. All probes detected membrane changes upon HS. However, the structurally different probes revealed substantially distinct alterations in membrane heterogeneity. These data call attention to the careful interpretation of results obtained with only a single label. Subtle changes in membrane microstructure in the decision-making of thermal cell killing could have potential application in cancer therapy.

  13. Dynamic regulation of mechanosensitive channels: capacitance used to monitor patch tension in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchyna, Thomas M.; Besch, Steven R.; Sachs, Frederick

    2004-03-01

    All cells, from bacteria to human, are mechanically sensitive. The most rapid of these membrane protein transducers are mechanosensitive ion channels, ionic pores in the membrane that open and close in response to membrane tension. In specific sensory organs, these channels serve the senses of touch and hearing, and inform the central nervous system about the filling of hollow organs such as the bladder. Non-specialized cells use these channels to report on changes in cell volume and local strain. To preserve dynamic sensitivity, sensory receptors adapt to steady-state stimuli. Here we show that in rat astrocytes, the most abundant cells in the brain, this apparent adaptation to the stimulus is actually an inactivation. We have been able to track the time course of local strain by measuring attofarad changes in membrane capacitance and show that it is not correlated with loss of channel activity. The reduction in current with time is caused by an increased occupancy of low conductance states, and a reduction in the probability of opening, not a relaxation of local stress. The occupancy of these substates depends on the integrity of the cell's cytoplasm. However, while disruption of the cytoskeleton leads to a loss of inactivation, it leaves activation unaffected. The activation process is voltage-insensitive, closely correlated with changes in capacitance, and seems to arise solely from stress in the bilayer. The inactivation rate decreases with depolarization, and kinetic analysis suggests that the process involves multiple cytoplasmic ligands. Surprisingly, multivalent ions such as Gd+3 and Ca+2 that bind to the lipids and affect channel gating, do not affect the strain-induced increase in membrane capacitance; contrary to expectations, membrane elasticity is unchanged.

  14. Defective membrane expression of human growth hormone (GH) receptor causes Laron-type GH insensitivity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquesnoy, P; Sobrier, M L; Amselem, S; Goossens, M

    1991-01-01

    Mutations in the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene can cause growth hormone (GH) resistance. Given the sequence homology between the extracellular domain of the GHR and a soluble GH-binding protein (GH-BP), it is remarkable that GH-BP binding activity is absent from the serum of patients with Laron-type GH insensitivity, a hereditary form of severe dwarfism. We have previously identified a mutation within the extracellular domain of this receptor, replacing phenylalanine by serine at position 96 of the mature protein, in a patient with Laron syndrome. We have now investigated the effect of this Phe----Ser substitution on hormone binding activity by expressing the total human GHR cDNA and mutant form in eukaryotic cells. The wild-type protein expressed was able to bind GH but no plasma membrane binding was detectable on cells transfected with the mutant cDNA; this was also the case of cells transfected with a Phe96----Ala mutant cDNA, suggesting that the lack of binding activity is not due to a posttranslational modification of serine. Examination of the variant proteins in subcellular fractions revealed the presence of specific GH binding activity in the lysosomal fraction, whereas immunofluorescence studies located mutant proteins in the cytosol. Our findings suggest that these mutant GHRs fail to follow the correct intracellular transport pathway and underline the potential importance of this phenylalanine residue, which is conserved among the GH, prolactin, and erythropoietin receptors that belong to the same cytokine receptor superfamily. Images PMID:1719554

  15. Nature inspired capacitive sensor with unique and unclonable characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuthedath, C. B.; Schwesinger, N.

    2018-02-01

    Background of this paper is the development of sensors showing a nature like characteristic. The sensor is able to detect excitations on inertia bases and operates capacitive. It consists of a miniaturized interdigitated electrode structure on a printed circuit board, a flexible and conductive membrane of PDMS located in a certain distance above and a certain number of steel balls fixed on top of the membrane. The steel ball distribution is random and the conductivity of the membrane is not homogeneous across the membrane. Due to this double random distribution, no sensor equals the other, although the external geometry is equal. The overall size of the sensor is 4.7mm x 4.7mm x 1.7mm. Tilt, acceleration or magnetic fields are capable of causing forces on the steel balls and therefore relative movements between the membrane and the electrode structures. Due to this movement, capacity changes of the arrangement are measurable. This paper describes besides the fabrication of conductive membranes the preparation of regarding sensors. Process technology makes cloning of the sensors impossible. Although all process steps are suited for mass production, no sensor equals the other. Measurements with these sensors prove that each sensor reacts differently to the same excitation. Calculations of the Intra-Concordance-Coefficient show the similarity of the sensors for equal excitations. On the other hand, the maximum Inter-Concordance-Coefficient reveals the differences of such sensors very clearly. Such a characteristic, i.e. equal reaction to equal excitation and an output of significantly different signals allows considering each sensor as a unique device. The sensors obviously behave like receptors in natural organisms. These unusual properties of uniqueness and impossibility to clone make the sensors very interesting for highly secure identification demands. In combination with a very simple measurement procedure, the sensors are an attractive hardware base for

  16. Membrane capacitive deionization for biomass hydrolysate desalination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyskens, Celine; Helsen, J.; Groot, W.J.; Haan, de A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass hydrolysates are rapidly gaining interest as low-cost non-food renewable feedstocks for fermentation processes. However, since high concentrations of salt such as sodium and potassium can act toxic to microorganisms, there is a need to remove these salts to maintain high biochemical

  17. Capacitance for carbon capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landskron, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Metal recycling: A sustainable, capacitance-assisted carbon capture and sequestration method (Supercapacitive Swing Adsorption) can turn scrap metal and CO 2 into metal carbonates at an attractive energy cost. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Capacitance for carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landskron, Kai [Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2018-03-26

    Metal recycling: A sustainable, capacitance-assisted carbon capture and sequestration method (Supercapacitive Swing Adsorption) can turn scrap metal and CO{sub 2} into metal carbonates at an attractive energy cost. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Local mucous membrane lesions caused by irradiation of the oropharynx can be prevented by a dental shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schratter-Sehn, A.U.; Vienna Univ.; Schmidt, W.F.O.; Kaercher, K.H.; Kielhauser, R.; Langer, H.

    1992-01-01

    In patients with metallic dental fillings radiation therapy to the oral cavity can cause mucous membrane lesions, which are more severe than expected. They appear as circumscribed erosions, opposite to metallic fillings and are caused by an increase in radiation dose through secondary radiation due to the higher density and atomic number of the filling material. This dose increase can be directly measured with 0.1 mm thin sheets of graphite-loaded TLD's (LiF, Vinten). For Co-60 gamma rays a commercial amalgam filling caused a dose increase by a factor of 1.7. The half value layer for this additional radiation was measured to be approximately 0.4 mm tissue. In order to avoid painful mucous membrane ulcerations which are even more a problem if hyperfractionated treatment schedules are used, we constructed individual dental shields for each patient. As shielding material we used a dental impression material (Optosil P + , Bayer). This method was tested in 35 patients, in all of them circumscribed mucous membrane ulcerations could be avoided. The method proved to be fast and simple and was very well tolerated by all patients. (orig.) [de

  20. Mechanism underlying the inner membrane retention of Escherichia coli lipoproteins caused by Lol avoidance signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Takashi; Matsuyama, Shin-ichi; Tokuda, Hajime

    2003-10-10

    Escherichia coli lipoproteins are localized to either the inner or outer membrane depending on the residue at position 2. The inner membrane retention signal, Asp at position 2 in combination with certain residues at position 3, functions as a Lol avoidance signal, i.e. the signal inhibits the recognition of lipoproteins by LolCDE that releases lipoproteins from the inner membrane. To understand the role of the residue at position 2, outer membrane-specific lipoproteins with Cys at position 2 were subjected to chemical modification followed by the release reaction in reconstituted proteoliposomes. Sulfhydryl-specific introduction of nonprotein molecules or a negative charge to Cys did not inhibit the LolCDE-dependent release. In contrast, oxidation of Cys to cysteic acid resulted in generation of the Lol avoidance signal, indicating that the Lol avoidance signal requires a critical length of negative charge at the second residue. Furthermore, not only modification of the carboxylic acid of Asp at position 2 but also that of the amine of phosphatidylethanolamine abolished the Lol avoidance function. Based on these results, the Lol avoidance mechanism is discussed.

  1. Epiretinal membrane: a treatable cause of visual disability in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Hannah M; Roxburgh, Richard H; Child, Nicholas; Polkinghorne, Philip J; Frampton, Chris; Danesh-Meyer, Helen V

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of ocular abnormalities have been documented to occur in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1. The objectives of this study were to investigate the macular and optic nerve morphology using optical coherence tomography in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1. A total of 30 myotonic dystrophy type 1 patients and 28 controls were recruited for participation. All participants underwent a thorough ophthalmologic examination, including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the macula and retinal nerve fibre layer. Images were reviewed by a retinal specialist ophthalmologist, masked to the diagnosis of the participants. Average macular thickness was significantly greater in the myotonic dystrophy group compared to controls [327.3 μm vs. 308.5 μm (p Visual acuity was reduced due to the presence of epiretinal membrane in six patient eyes and none of the control eyes. The presence of an epiretinal membrane was significantly correlated with increasing age in the patient group. We report an increased prevalence of epiretinal membrane in the myotonic dystrophy type 1 group. This may be a previously under-recognised form of visual impairment in this group. Epiretinal membranes can be treated surgically. We suggest that, in addition to a comprehensive clinical examination, optical coherence tomography examination is implemented as part of an ophthalmological assessment for the myotonic dystrophy type 1 patient with reduced visual acuity.

  2. Mechanical compression of a fibrous membrane surrounding bone causes bone resorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vis, H. M.; Aspenberg, P.; Tigchelaar, W.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1999-01-01

    Early micromovement and migration of a prosthesis of a hip or knee predicts late clinical loosening of the prosthesis. Such migration is likely to be associated with mechanical compression of the fibrous membrane interpositioned between bone and prosthesis during movement. Compression of the fibrous

  3. Nanodefects of membranes cause destruction of packed red blood cells during long-term storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlova, Elena; Chernysh, Aleksandr; Moroz, Victor; Sergunova, Victoria; Gudkova, Olga; Kuzovlev, Artem

    2015-01-01

    Packed red blood cells (PRBC) are used for blood transfusion. PRBC were stored for 30 days under 4 °C in hermetic blood bags with CPD anticoagulant-preservative solution. Hematocrit was 50–55%. The distortions of PRBC membranes nanostructure and cells morphology during storage were studied by atomic force microscopy. Basic measurements were performed at the day 2, 6, 9, 16, 23 and 30 of storage and additionally 2–3 days after it. Topological defects occurred on RBC membranes by day 9. They appeared as domains with grain-like structures (“grains”) sized up to 200 nm. These domains were appeared in almost all cells. Later these domains merged and formed large defects on cells. It was the formation of domains with the “grains” which was onset process leading eventually to destruction of PRBC. Possible mechanisms of transformation of PRBC and their membrane are related to the alterations of spectrin cytoskeleton. During this storage period potassium ions and lactat concentrations increased, pH decreased, intracellular concentration of reduced glutathione diminished in the preservative solution. Changes of PRBC morphology were detected within the entire period of PRBC storage. Discocytes predominated at the days 1 and 2. By day 30 PRBC transformed into irreversible echinocytes and spheroechinocytes. Study of defects of membranes nanostructure may form the basis of assessing the quality of the stored PRBC. This method may allow to work out the best recommendations for blood transfusion. - Highlights: • Domains with “grains” are formed on membranes surface on 9–16 days of PRBC storage. • The development of domains is the reason of irreversible changes of PRBC structure. • The origin of domains is the consequence of alterations of spectrin cytoskeleton. • Study of nanostructure may form basis of assessing the quality of the stored PRBC

  4. Nanodefects of membranes cause destruction of packed red blood cells during long-term storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlova, Elena, E-mail: waterlake@mail.ru [V.A. Negovsky Scientific Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow (Russian Federation); I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chernysh, Aleksandr [V.A. Negovsky Scientific Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow (Russian Federation); I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moroz, Victor; Sergunova, Victoria; Gudkova, Olga; Kuzovlev, Artem [V.A. Negovsky Scientific Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-01

    Packed red blood cells (PRBC) are used for blood transfusion. PRBC were stored for 30 days under 4 °C in hermetic blood bags with CPD anticoagulant-preservative solution. Hematocrit was 50–55%. The distortions of PRBC membranes nanostructure and cells morphology during storage were studied by atomic force microscopy. Basic measurements were performed at the day 2, 6, 9, 16, 23 and 30 of storage and additionally 2–3 days after it. Topological defects occurred on RBC membranes by day 9. They appeared as domains with grain-like structures (“grains”) sized up to 200 nm. These domains were appeared in almost all cells. Later these domains merged and formed large defects on cells. It was the formation of domains with the “grains” which was onset process leading eventually to destruction of PRBC. Possible mechanisms of transformation of PRBC and their membrane are related to the alterations of spectrin cytoskeleton. During this storage period potassium ions and lactat concentrations increased, pH decreased, intracellular concentration of reduced glutathione diminished in the preservative solution. Changes of PRBC morphology were detected within the entire period of PRBC storage. Discocytes predominated at the days 1 and 2. By day 30 PRBC transformed into irreversible echinocytes and spheroechinocytes. Study of defects of membranes nanostructure may form the basis of assessing the quality of the stored PRBC. This method may allow to work out the best recommendations for blood transfusion. - Highlights: • Domains with “grains” are formed on membranes surface on 9–16 days of PRBC storage. • The development of domains is the reason of irreversible changes of PRBC structure. • The origin of domains is the consequence of alterations of spectrin cytoskeleton. • Study of nanostructure may form basis of assessing the quality of the stored PRBC.

  5. Measurement Error Estimation for Capacitive Voltage Transformer by Insulation Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Measurement errors of a capacitive voltage transformer (CVT are relevant to its equivalent parameters for which its capacitive divider contributes the most. In daily operation, dielectric aging, moisture, dielectric breakdown, etc., it will exert mixing effects on a capacitive divider’s insulation characteristics, leading to fluctuation in equivalent parameters which result in the measurement error. This paper proposes an equivalent circuit model to represent a CVT which incorporates insulation characteristics of a capacitive divider. After software simulation and laboratory experiments, the relationship between measurement errors and insulation parameters is obtained. It indicates that variation of insulation parameters in a CVT will cause a reasonable measurement error. From field tests and calculation, equivalent capacitance mainly affects magnitude error, while dielectric loss mainly affects phase error. As capacitance changes 0.2%, magnitude error can reach −0.2%. As dielectric loss factor changes 0.2%, phase error can reach 5′. An increase of equivalent capacitance and dielectric loss factor in the high-voltage capacitor will cause a positive real power measurement error. An increase of equivalent capacitance and dielectric loss factor in the low-voltage capacitor will cause a negative real power measurement error.

  6. Capacitive behavior of highly-oxidized graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszewski, Mateusz; Mianowski, Andrzej

    2014-09-01

    Capacitive behavior of a highly-oxidized graphite is presented in this paper. The graphite oxide was synthesized using an oxidizing mixture of potassium chlorate and concentrated fuming nitric acid. As-oxidized graphite was quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed with respect to the oxygen content and the species of oxygen-containing groups. Electrochemical measurements were performed in a two-electrode symmetric cell using KOH electrolyte. It was shown that prolonged oxidation causes an increase in the oxygen content while the interlayer distance remains constant. Specific capacitance increased with oxygen content in the electrode as a result of pseudo-capacitive effects, from 0.47 to 0.54 F/g for a scan rate of 20 mV/s and 0.67 to 1.15 F/g for a scan rate of 5 mV/s. Better cyclability was observed for the electrode with a higher oxygen amount.

  7. Nanoscale capacitance imaging with attofarad resolution using ac current sensing atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumagalli, L; Ferrari, G; Sampietro, M; Casuso, I; MartInez, E; Samitier, J; Gomila, G

    2006-01-01

    Nanoscale capacitance imaging with attofarad resolution (∼1 aF) of a nano-structured oxide thin film, using ac current sensing atomic force microscopy, is reported. Capacitance images are shown to follow the topographic profile of the oxide closely, with nanometre vertical resolution. A comparison between experimental data and theoretical models shows that the capacitance variations observed in the measurements can be mainly associated with the capacitance probed by the tip apex and not with positional changes of stray capacitance contributions. Capacitance versus distance measurements further support this conclusion. The application of this technique to the characterization of samples with non-voltage-dependent capacitance, such as very thin dielectric films, self-assembled monolayers and biological membranes, can provide new insight into the dielectric properties at the nanoscale

  8. Nanoscale capacitance imaging with attofarad resolution using ac current sensing atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumagalli, L [Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 (Italy); Ferrari, G [Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 (Italy); Sampietro, M [Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 (Italy); Casuso, I [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/MartIi Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); MartInez, E [Plataforma de Nanotecnologia, Parc Cientific de Barcelona, C/ Josep Samitier 1-5, 08028-Barcelona (Spain); Samitier, J [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/MartIi Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gomila, G [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/MartIi Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-09-28

    Nanoscale capacitance imaging with attofarad resolution ({approx}1 aF) of a nano-structured oxide thin film, using ac current sensing atomic force microscopy, is reported. Capacitance images are shown to follow the topographic profile of the oxide closely, with nanometre vertical resolution. A comparison between experimental data and theoretical models shows that the capacitance variations observed in the measurements can be mainly associated with the capacitance probed by the tip apex and not with positional changes of stray capacitance contributions. Capacitance versus distance measurements further support this conclusion. The application of this technique to the characterization of samples with non-voltage-dependent capacitance, such as very thin dielectric films, self-assembled monolayers and biological membranes, can provide new insight into the dielectric properties at the nanoscale.

  9. Capacitive discharge exciplex lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosnin, E A; Erofeev, M V; Tarasenko, V F [High Current Electronics Institute, 2/3, Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-07

    Simple-geometry exciplex lamps of a novel type excited by a capacitive discharge (CD-excilamps) have been investigated. An efficient radiation has been obtained on KrBr*, KrCl*, XeBr*, XeCl* molecules and I* atom. The highest values of efficiency of various working molecules are approximately 10-18%. The lifetime of the operating gas mixture in KrCl*, XeCl*, I* and XeBr* exciplex lamps excited by a CD is above 1000 h. Owing to the above-mentioned characteristics, the exciplex lamps excited by a CD are supposed to be very promising for various applications.

  10. Capacitive discharge exciplex lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnin, E A; Erofeev, M V; Tarasenko, V F

    2005-01-01

    Simple-geometry exciplex lamps of a novel type excited by a capacitive discharge (CD-excilamps) have been investigated. An efficient radiation has been obtained on KrBr*, KrCl*, XeBr*, XeCl* molecules and I* atom. The highest values of efficiency of various working molecules are approximately 10-18%. The lifetime of the operating gas mixture in KrCl*, XeCl*, I* and XeBr* exciplex lamps excited by a CD is above 1000 h. Owing to the above-mentioned characteristics, the exciplex lamps excited by a CD are supposed to be very promising for various applications

  11. CMOS MEMS capacitive absolute pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narducci, M; Tsai, J; Yu-Chia, L; Fang, W

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and characterization of a capacitive pressure sensor using a commercial 0.18 µm CMOS (complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor) process and postprocess. The pressure sensor is capacitive and the structure is formed by an Al top electrode enclosed in a suspended SiO 2 membrane, which acts as a movable electrode against a bottom or stationary Al electrode fixed on the SiO 2 substrate. Both the movable and fixed electrodes form a variable parallel plate capacitor, whose capacitance varies with the applied pressure on the surface. In order to release the membranes the CMOS layers need to be applied postprocess and this mainly consists of four steps: (1) deposition and patterning of PECVD (plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition) oxide to protect CMOS pads and to open the pressure sensor top surface, (2) etching of the sacrificial layer to release the suspended membrane, (3) deposition of PECVD oxide to seal the etching holes and creating vacuum inside the gap, and finally (4) etching of the passivation oxide to open the pads and allow electrical connections. This sensor design and fabrication is suitable to obey the design rules of a CMOS foundry and since it only uses low-temperature processes, it allows monolithic integration with other types of CMOS compatible sensors and IC (integrated circuit) interface on a single chip. Experimental results showed that the pressure sensor has a highly linear sensitivity of 0.14 fF kPa −1 in the pressure range of 0–300 kPa. (paper)

  12. Improved capacitive melting curve measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebedash, Alexander; Tuoriniemi, Juha; Pentti, Elias; Salmela, Anssi

    2009-01-01

    Sensitivity of the capacitive method for determining the melting pressure of helium can be enhanced by loading the empty side of the capacitor with helium at a pressure nearly equal to that desired to be measured and by using a relatively thin and flexible membrane in between. This way one can achieve a nanobar resolution at the level of 30 bar, which is two orders of magnitude better than that of the best gauges with vacuum reference. This extends the applicability of melting curve thermometry to lower temperatures and would allow detecting tiny anomalies in the melting pressure, which must be associated with any phenomena contributing to the entropy of the liquid or solid phases. We demonstrated this principle in measurements of the crystallization pressure of isotopic helium mixtures at millikelvin temperatures by using partly solid pure 4 He as the reference substance providing the best possible universal reference pressure. The achieved sensitivity was good enough for melting curve thermometry on mixtures down to 100 μK. Similar system can be used on pure isotopes by virtue of a blocked capillary giving a stable reference condition with liquid slightly below the melting pressure in the reference volume. This was tested with pure 4 He at temperatures 0.08-0.3 K. To avoid spurious heating effects, one must carefully choose and arrange any dielectric materials close to the active capacitor. We observed some 100 pW loading at moderate excitation voltages.

  13. Capacitance of circular patch resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miano, G.; Verolino, L.; Naples Univ.; Panariello, G.; Vaccaro, V.G.; Naples Univ.

    1995-11-01

    In this paper the capacitance of the circular microstrip patch resonator is computed. It is shown that the electrostatic problem can be formulated as a system of dual integral equations, and the most interesting techniques of solutions of these systems are reviewed. Some useful approximated formulas for the capacitance are derived and plots of the capacitance are finally given in a wide range of dielectric constants

  14. Conductive hearing loss with an intact tympanic membrane due to non-inflammatory causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Hyuk; Lee, Min Young; Park, Ji Hye; Lee, Kyu-Yup; Lee, Sang Heun; Jang, Jeong Hun

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed audiologic and surgical findings in patients with conductive hearing loss (CHL) with an intact tympanic membrane (TM) that was of a non-inflammatory origin. We reviewed data from patients who underwent exploratory tympanotomy for CHL with intact TM from January 1995 to November 2012. Patients with diseases of non-inflammatory origin were enrolled (69 patients; 79 ears). Patients were categorized into two groups: non-trauma (50 ears) and trauma (29 ears). Demographic data, intraoperative findings, and audiologic results were obtained and analyzed. Overall, the second decade was the most common age of diagnosis in both the non-trauma and trauma groups. Operative findings showed that ossicular dislocation was more prevalent than ossicular fixation; all trauma group subjects had ossicular dislocation. Short columellization or partial ossicular replacement was the most frequently adopted surgical procedures in both groups. Overall, audiologically, air-conduction thresholds (ACs) and air-bone gaps were significantly improved over the short- and long-term period in both groups. However, the non-trauma group had significantly higher preoperative ACs than the trauma group, especially at low frequencies. This study provides clinicians with useful information regarding the clinical characteristics of CHL with intact TM of non-inflammatory origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Micromachined capacitive ultrasonic immersion transducer array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xuecheng

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (cMUTs) have emerged as an attractive alternative to conventional piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers. They offer performance advantages of wide bandwidth and sensitivity that have heretofore been attainable. In addition, micromachining technology, which has benefited from the fast-growing microelectronics industry, enables cMUT array fabrication and electronics integration. This thesis describes the design and fabrication of micromachined capacitive ultrasonic immersion transducer arrays. The basic transducer electrical equivalent circuit is derived from Mason's theory. The effects of Lamb waves and Stoneley waves on cross coupling and acoustic losses are discussed. Electrical parasitics such as series resistance and shunt capacitance are also included in the model of the transducer. Transducer fabrication technology is systematically studied. Device dimension control in both vertical and horizontal directions, process alternatives and variations in membrane formation, via etch and cavity sealing, and metalization as well as their impact on transducer performance are summarized. Both 64 and 128 element 1-D array transducers are fabricated. Transducers are characterized in terms of electrical input impedance, bandwidth, sensitivity, dynamic range, impulse response and angular response, and their performance is compared with theoretical simulation. Various schemes for cross coupling reduction is analyzed, implemented, and verified with both experiments and theory. Preliminary results of immersion imaging are presented using 64 elements 1-D array transducers for active source imaging.

  16. Entry of Porphyromonas gingivalis Outer Membrane Vesicles into Epithelial Cells Causes Cellular Functional Impairment▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Nobumichi; Takeuchi, Hiroki; Amano, Atsuo

    2009-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen, secretes outer membrane vesicles (MVs) that contain major virulence factors, including proteases termed gingipains (Arg-gingipain [Rgp] and Lys-gingipain [Kgp]). We recently showed that P. gingivalis MVs swiftly enter host epithelial cells via an endocytosis pathway and are finally sorted to lytic compartments. However, it remains unknown whether MV entry impairs cellular function. Herein, we analyzed cellular functional impairment following entry of P. gingivalis into epithelial cells, including HeLa and immortalized human gingival epithelial (IHGE) cells. After being taken up by endocytic vacuoles, MVs degraded the cellular transferrin receptor (TfR) and integrin-related signaling molecules, such as paxillin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which resulted in depletion of intracellular transferrin and inhibition of cellular migration. Few Rgp-null MVs entered the cells, and these negligibly degraded TfR, whereas paxillin and FAK degradation was significant. In contrast, Kgp-null MVs clearly entered the cells and degraded TfR, while they scarcely degraded paxillin and FAK. In addition, both wild-type and Kgp-null MVs significantly impaired cellular migration, whereas the effect of Rgp-null MVs was limited. Our findings suggest that, following entry of P. gingivalis MVs into host cells, MV-associated gingipains degrade cellular functional molecules such as TfR and paxillin/FAK, resulting in cellular impairment, indicating that P. gingivalis MVs are potent vehicles for transmission of virulence factors into host cells and are involved in the etiology of periodontitis. PMID:19737899

  17. Capacitive gauging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, H.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus for gauging physical dimensions of solid or tubular bodies (e.g. a nuclear fuel pellet) comprises a capacitive transducer having electrodes forming diametrically arranged pairs of capacitors and means for connecting the pairs, preferably sequentially, in an arm of a four arm electrical network. For circumferential scanning of a solid body along its length, the body is moved along a path of travel through head assembly including the transducer by means of plungers with the axis of the body being coincident with the axis of the transducer. As the body moves through the transducer the diametrically arranged pairs of capacitors scan the surface to result in a surface profile of the body. For scanning the bore of a pipe or tube the transducer is inserted as a probe and moved along the bore of the pipe or tube, means being provided for maintaining the probe coaxial with the pipe or tube. (author)

  18. Deletion of the basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan type XVIII collagen causes hypertriglyceridemia in mice and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Bishop

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein lipase (Lpl acts on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the peripheral circulation, liberating free fatty acids for energy metabolism or storage. This essential enzyme is synthesized in parenchymal cells of adipose tissue, heart, and skeletal muscle and migrates to the luminal side of the vascular endothelium where it acts upon circulating lipoproteins. Prior studies suggested that Lpl is immobilized by way of heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the endothelium, but genetically altering endothelial cell heparan sulfate had no effect on Lpl localization or lipolysis. The objective of this study was to determine if extracellular matrix proteoglycans affect Lpl distribution and triglyceride metabolism.We examined mutant mice defective in collagen XVIII (Col18, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan present in vascular basement membranes. Loss of Col18 reduces plasma levels of Lpl enzyme and activity, which results in mild fasting hypertriglyceridemia and diet-induced hyperchylomicronemia. Humans with Knobloch Syndrome caused by a null mutation in the vascular form of Col18 also present lower than normal plasma Lpl mass and activity and exhibit fasting hypertriglyceridemia.This is the first report demonstrating that Lpl presentation on the lumenal side of the endothelium depends on a basement membrane proteoglycan and demonstrates a previously unrecognized phenotype in patients lacking Col18.

  19. Efficiency of Capacitively Loaded Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Huang, Lina; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the characteristic of capacitance versus voltage for dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) actuator, 2kV polypropylene film capacitor as well as 3kV X7R multi layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) at the beginning. An energy efficiency for capacitively loaded converters...... is introduced as a definition of efficiency. The calculated and measured efficiency curves for charging DEAP actuator, polypropylene film capacitor and X7R MLCC are provided and compared. The attention has to be paid for the voltage dependent capacitive load, like X7R MLCC, when evaluating the charging...... polypropylene film capacitor can be the equivalent capacitive load. Because of the voltage dependent characteristic, X7R MLCC cannot be used to replace the DEAP actuator. However, this type of capacitor can be used to substitute the capacitive actuator with voltage dependent property at the development phase....

  20. Ferroelectric negative capacitance domain dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transient negative capacitance is shown to originate from reverse domain nucleation and unrestricted domain growth. However, with the onset of domain coalescence, the capacitance becomes positive again. The persistence of the negative capacitance state is therefore limited by the speed of domain wall motion. By changing the applied electric field, capacitor area or external resistance, this domain wall velocity can be varied predictably over several orders of magnitude. Additionally, detailed insights into the intrinsic material properties of the ferroelectric are obtainable through these measurements. A new method for reliable extraction of the average negative capacitance of the ferroelectric is presented. Furthermore, a simple analytical model is developed, which accurately describes the negative capacitance transient time as a function of the material properties and the experimental boundary conditions.

  1. The Capacitive Magnetic Field Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyatkov, D. O.; Yurchenko, A. V.; Balashov, V. B.; Yurchenko, V. I.

    2016-01-01

    The results of a study of sensitive element magnetic field sensor are represented in this paper. The sensor is based on the change of the capacitance with an active dielectric (ferrofluid) due to the magnitude of magnetic field. To prepare the ferrofluid magnetic particles are used, which have a followingdispersion equal to 50 brand 5BDSR. The dependence of the sensitivity of the capacitive element from the ferrofluid with different dispersion of magnetic particles is considered. The threshold of sensitivity and sensitivity of a measuring cell with ferrofluid by a magnetic field was determined. The experimental graphs of capacitance change of the magnitude of magnetic field are presented.

  2. Virtual electrical capacitance tomography sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y; Yang, W Q

    2005-01-01

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is an effective technique for elucidating the distribution of dielectric materials inside closed pipes or vessels. This paper describes a virtual electrical capacitance tomography (VECT) system, which can simulate a range of sensor and hardware configurations and material distributions. A selection of popular image reconstruction algorithms has been made available and image error and capacitance error tools enable their performance to be evaluated and compared. Series of frame-by-frame results can be stored for simulating real-time dynamic flows. The system is programmed in Matlab with DOS functions. It is convenient to use and low-cost to operate, providing an effective tool for engineering experiment

  3. Monte Carlo analysis of thermal transpiration effects in capacitance diaphragm gauges with helicoidal baffle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, M; Stefanov, S; Wüest, M

    2012-01-01

    The Capacitance Diaphragm Gauge (CDG) is one of the most widely used vacuum gauges in low and middle vacuum ranges. This device consists basically of a very thin ceramic or metal diaphragm which forms one of the electrodes of a cap acitor. The pressure is determined by measuring the variation in the capacitance due to the deflection of the diaphragm caused by the pressure difference established across the membrane. In order to minimize zero drift, some CDGs are operated keeping the sensor at a higher temperature. This difference in the temperature between the sensor and the vacuum chamber makes the behaviour of the gauge non-linear due to thermal transpiration effects. This effect becomes more significant when we move from the transitional flow to the free molecular regime. Besides, CDGs may incorporate different baffle systems to avoid the condensation on the membrane or its contamination. In this work, the thermal transpiration effect on the behaviour of a rarefied gas and on the measurements in a CDG with a helicoidal baffle system is investigated by using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC). The study covers the behaviour of the system under the whole range of rarefaction, from the continuum up to the free molecular limit and the results are compared with empirical results. Moreover, the influence of the boundary conditions on the thermal transpiration effects is investigated by using Maxwell boundary conditions.

  4. Percoll gradient-centrifuged capacitated mouse sperm have increased fertilizing ability and higher contents of sulfogalactosylglycerolipid and docosahexaenoic acid-containing phosphatidylcholine compared to washed capacitated mouse sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furimsky, Anna; Vuong, Ngoc; Xu, Hongbin; Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Xu, Min; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Bou Khalil, Maroun; Kates, Morris; Tanphaichitr, Nongnuj

    2005-03-01

    Although Percoll gradient centrifugation has been used routinely to prepare motile human sperm, its use in preparing motile mouse sperm has been limited. Here, we showed that Percoll gradient-centrifuged (PGC) capacitated mouse sperm had markedly higher fertilizing ability (sperm-zona pellucida [ZP] binding and in vitro fertilization) than washed capacitated mouse sperm. We also showed that the lipid profiles of PGC capacitated sperm and washed capacitated sperm differed significantly. The PGC sperm had much lower contents of cholesterol and phospholipids. This resulted in relative enrichment of male germ cell-specific sulfogalactosylglycerolipid (SGG), a ZP-binding ligand, in PGC capacitated sperm, and this would explain, in part, their increased ZP-binding ability compared with that of washed capacitated sperm. Analyses of phospholipid fatty acyl chains revealed that PGC capacitated sperm were enriched in phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecular species containing highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22: 6n-3) being the predominant HUFA (42% of total hydrocarbon chains of PC). In contrast, the level of PC-HUFAs comprising arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5n-6), and DHA in washed capacitated sperm was only 27%. Having the highest unsaturation degree among all HUFAs in PC, DHA would enhance membrane fluidity to the uppermost. Therefore, membranes of PGC capacitated sperm would undergo fertilization-related fusion events at higher rates than washed capacitated sperm. These results suggested that PGC mouse sperm should be used in fertilization experiments and that SGG and DHA should be considered to be important biomarkers for sperm fertilizing ability.

  5. Ferroelectric Negative Capacitance Domain Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr$_{0.2}$Ti$_{0.8}$)O$_3$ capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transien...

  6. Process to remove turbidity-causing components from a fluid by micro-filtration - passes the fluid across an asymmetric membrane with inlet pores larger than those of nominal size, and cleans the membrane by backwashing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    turbidity-causing components from beer, wine, fruit juice, milk and blood, and from bacterial and enzyme suspensions. ADVANTAGE-The process greatly reduces the lost production time associated with earlier filtration methods, and beneficial components can pass through the membrane, thereby improving...

  7. ER stress and basement membrane defects combine to cause glomerular and tubular renal disease resulting from Col4a1 mutations in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances E. Jones

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Collagen IV is a major component of basement membranes, and mutations in COL4A1, which encodes collagen IV alpha chain 1, cause a multisystemic disease encompassing cerebrovascular, eye and kidney defects. However, COL4A1 renal disease remains poorly characterized and its pathomolecular mechanisms are unknown. We show that Col4a1 mutations in mice cause hypotension and renal disease, including proteinuria and defects in Bowman's capsule and the glomerular basement membrane, indicating a role for Col4a1 in glomerular filtration. Impaired sodium reabsorption in the loop of Henle and distal nephron despite elevated aldosterone levels indicates that tubular defects contribute to the hypotension, highlighting a novel role for the basement membrane in vascular homeostasis by modulation of the tubular response to aldosterone. Col4a1 mutations also cause diabetes insipidus, whereby the tubular defects lead to polyuria associated with medullary atrophy and a subsequent reduction in the ability to upregulate aquaporin 2 and concentrate urine. Moreover, haematuria, haemorrhage and vascular basement membrane defects confirm an important vascular component. Interestingly, although structural and compositional basement membrane defects occurred in the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule, no tubular basement membrane defects were detected. By contrast, medullary atrophy was associated with chronic ER stress, providing evidence for cell-type-dependent molecular mechanisms of Col4a1 mutations. These data show that both basement membrane defects and ER stress contribute to Col4a1 renal disease, which has important implications for the development of treatment strategies for collagenopathies.

  8. Contamination of current-clamp measurement of neuron capacitance by voltage-dependent phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Measuring neuron capacitance is important for morphological description, conductance characterization, and neuron modeling. One method to estimate capacitance is to inject current pulses into a neuron and fit the resulting changes in membrane potential with multiple exponentials; if the neuron is purely passive, the amplitude and time constant of the slowest exponential give neuron capacitance (Major G, Evans JD, Jack JJ. Biophys J 65: 423–449, 1993). Golowasch et al. (Golowasch J, Thomas G, Taylor AL, Patel A, Pineda A, Khalil C, Nadim F. J Neurophysiol 102: 2161–2175, 2009) have shown that this is the best method for measuring the capacitance of nonisopotential (i.e., most) neurons. However, prior work has not tested for, or examined how much error would be introduced by, slow voltage-dependent phenomena possibly present at the membrane potentials typically used in such work. We investigated this issue in lobster (Panulirus interruptus) stomatogastric neurons by performing current clamp-based capacitance measurements at multiple membrane potentials. A slow, voltage-dependent phenomenon consistent with residual voltage-dependent conductances was present at all tested membrane potentials (−95 to −35 mV). This phenomenon was the slowest component of the neuron's voltage response, and failure to recognize and exclude it would lead to capacitance overestimates of several hundredfold. Most methods of estimating capacitance depend on the absence of voltage-dependent phenomena. Our demonstration that such phenomena make nonnegligible contributions to neuron responses even at well-hyperpolarized membrane potentials highlights the critical importance of checking for such phenomena in all work measuring neuron capacitance. We show here how to identify such phenomena and minimize their contaminating influence. PMID:23576698

  9. Capacitive Neutralization Dialysis for Direct Energy Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Zhang, Yi; Ou-Yang, Wei; Bastos Sales, Bruno; Sun, Zhuo; Liu, Fei; Zhao, Ran

    2017-08-15

    Capacitive neutralization dialysis energy (CNDE) is proposed as a novel energy-harvesting technique that is able to utilize waste acid and alkaline solutions to produce electrical energy. CNDE is a modification based on neutralization dialysis. It was found that a higher NaCl concentration led to a higher open-circuit potential when the concentrations of acid and alkaline solutions were fixed. Upon closing of the circuit, the membrane potential was used as a driving force to move counter ions into the electrical double layers at the electrode-liquid interface, thereby creating an ionic current. Correspondingly, in the external circuit, electrons flow through an external resistor from one electrode to the other, thereby generating electrical energy directly. The influence of external resistances was studied to achieve greater energy extraction, with the maximum output of 110 mW/m 2 obtained by employing an external resistance of 5 Ω together with the AC-coated electrode.

  10. Bioenergetics of mammalian sperm capacitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Zara, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    After ejaculation, the mammalian male gamete must undergo the capacitation process, which is a prerequisite for egg fertilization. The bioenergetics of sperm capacitation is poorly understood despite its fundamental role in sustaining the biochemical and molecular events occurring during gamete activation. Glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) are the two major metabolic pathways producing ATP which is the primary source of energy for spermatozoa. Since recent data suggest that spermatozoa have the ability to use different metabolic substrates, the main aim of this work is to present a broad overview of the current knowledge on the energy-producing metabolic pathways operating inside sperm mitochondria during capacitation in different mammalian species. Metabolism of glucose and of other energetic substrates, such as pyruvate, lactate, and citrate, is critically analyzed. Such knowledge, besides its obvious importance for basic science, could eventually translate into the development of novel strategies for treatment of male infertility, artificial reproduction, and sperm selection methods.

  11. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer arrays as tunable acoustic metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lani, Shane W., E-mail: shane.w.lani@gmail.com, E-mail: karim.sabra@me.gatech.edu, E-mail: levent.degertekin@me.gatech.edu; Sabra, Karim G. [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 801Ferst Drive, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States); Wasequr Rashid, M.; Hasler, Jennifer [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Van Leer Electrical Engineering Building, 777 Atlantic Drive NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0250 (United States); Levent Degertekin, F. [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 801Ferst Drive, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Van Leer Electrical Engineering Building, 777 Atlantic Drive NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0250 (United States)

    2014-02-03

    Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (CMUTs) operating in immersion support dispersive evanescent waves due to the subwavelength periodic structure of electrostatically actuated membranes in the array. Evanescent wave characteristics also depend on the membrane resonance which is modified by the externally applied bias voltage, offering a mechanism to tune the CMUT array as an acoustic metamaterial. The dispersion and tunability characteristics are examined using a computationally efficient, mutual radiation impedance based approach to model a finite-size array and realistic parameters of variation. The simulations are verified, and tunability is demonstrated by experiments on a linear CMUT array operating in 2-12 MHz range.

  12. Development of an Intelligent Capacitive Mass Sensor Based on Co-axial Cylindrical Capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir ABU AL AISH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a linear, robust and intelligent capacitive mass sensor made of a co-axial cylindrical capacitor. It is designed such that the mass under measurement is directly proportional to the capacitance of the sensor. The average value of the output voltage of a capacitance to voltage converter is proportional to the capacitance of the sensor. The output of the converter is measured and displayed, as mass, with the help of microcontroller. The results are free from the effect of stray capacitances which cause errors at low values of capacitances. Developed sensor is linear, free from errors due to temperature and highly flexible in design. The proto-type of the mass sensor can weigh up to 4 kilogram only.

  13. Voltage Dependence of Supercapacitor Capacitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szewczyk Arkadiusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Double-Layer Capacitors (EDLC, called Supercapacitors (SC, are electronic devices that are capable to store a relatively high amount of energy in a small volume comparing to other types of capacitors. They are composed of an activated carbon layer and electrolyte solution. The charge is stored on electrodes, forming the Helmholtz layer, and in electrolyte. The capacitance of supercapacitor is voltage- dependent. We propose an experimental method, based on monitoring of charging and discharging a supercapacitor, which enables to evaluate the charge in an SC structure as well as the Capacitance-Voltage (C-V dependence. The measurement setup, method and experimental results of charging/discharging commercially available supercapacitors in various voltage and current conditions are presented. The total charge stored in an SC structure is proportional to the square of voltage at SC electrodes while the charge on electrodes increases linearly with the voltage on SC electrodes. The Helmholtz capacitance increases linearly with the voltage bias while a sublinear increase of total capacitance was found. The voltage on SC increases after the discharge of electrodes due to diffusion of charges from the electrolyte to the electrodes. We have found that the recovery voltage value is linearly proportional to the initial bias voltage value.

  14. Analysis of functional damages in membrane receptor caused by radiation exposure and development of damage-preventing techniques by modification of membrane lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Fumio; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Asano, Toshihiko; Ogura, Atsuro; Suzuki, Osamu; Matsuda, Junichiro

    1998-01-01

    This study was made to assess the physiological effects of radiation exposure using ligand-binding ability of the receptor on cell membrane. The effects of exposure to low-dose radiation were investigated in macrophage lines, J774.1 and RAW264.7 and human monocyte cell line, U937 using γ-radiation apparatus. In macrophages, the production of active oxygen (O 2 - ) was dose-dependently increased by γ-ray radiation, suggesting that the production might occur through the activation of proteinkinase C. Arachidonic acid bending BSA (AA-BSA) and eicosapentadienic acid binding BSA (EP-BSA) were used to modify the fatty acids in J774.1 cell and both BSA-treated cells exhibited significantly higher colony-forming abilities after γ-ray radiation. The modification of membrane lipids by AA-BSA or EPA-BSA resulted to reduce the inhibition of cell growth and change the cell adhesion ability and the fine structure of cell surface. Furthermore, the effects of radiation on behavior were investigated in PC mouse and the circadian rhythm of locomotive activity was found to be affected by radiation at 5-10 Gy. (M.N.)

  15. Membrane Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Physics, mathematics and chemistry all play a vital role in understanding the true nature and functioning of biological membranes, key elements of living processes. Besides simple spectroscopic observations and electrical measurements of membranes we address in this book the phenomena of coexistence and independent existence of different membrane components using various theoretical approaches. This treatment will be helpful for readers who want to understand biological processes by applying both simple observations and fundamental scientific analysis. It provides a deep understanding of the causes and effects of processes inside membranes, and will thus eventually open new doors for high-level pharmaceutical approaches towards fighting membrane- and cell-related diseases.

  16. Capacitive Micro Pressure Sensor Integrated with a Ring Oscillator Circuit on Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yang Liu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates a capacitive micro pressure sensor integrated with a ring oscillator circuit on a chip. The integrated capacitive pressure sensor is fabricated using the commercial CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor process and a post-process. The ring oscillator is employed to convert the capacitance of the pressure sensor into the frequency output. The pressure sensor consists of 16 sensing cells in parallel. Each sensing cell contains a top electrode and a lower electrode, and the top electrode is a sandwich membrane. The pressure sensor needs a post-CMOS process to release the membranes after completion of the CMOS process. The post-process uses etchants to etch the sacrificial layers, and to release the membranes. The advantages of the post-process include easy execution and low cost. Experimental results reveal that the pressure sensor has a high sensitivity of 7 Hz/Pa in the pressure range of 0–300 kPa.

  17. A current driven capacitively coupled chlorine discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shuo; Gudmundsson, J T

    2014-01-01

    The effect of driving current, driving frequency and secondary electrons on capacitively coupled chlorine discharge is systematically investigated using a hybrid approach consisting of a particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo simulation and a volume-averaged global model. The driving current is varied from 20 to 80 A m −2 , the driving frequency is varied from 13.56 to 60 MHz and the secondary electron emission coefficient is varied from 0.0 to 0.4. Key plasma parameters including electron energy probability function, electron heating rate, ion energy and angular distributions are explored and their variations with control parameters are analyzed and compared with other discharges. Furthermore, we extend our study to dual-frequency (DF) capacitively coupled chlorine discharge by adding a low-frequency current source and explore the effect of the low-frequency source on the discharge. The low-frequency current density is increased from 0 to 4 A m −2 . The flux of Cl 2 + ions to the surface increases only slightly while the average energy of Cl 2 + ions to the surface increases almost linearly with increasing low-frequency current, which shows possible independent control of the flux and energy of Cl 2 + ions by varying the low-frequency current in a DF capacitively coupled chlorine discharge. However, the increase in the flux of Cl + ions with increasing low-frequency current, which is mainly due to the increased dissociation fraction of the background gas caused by extra power supplied by the low-frequency source, is undesirable. (paper)

  18. A disease-causing mutation illuminates the protein membrane topology of the kidney-expressed prohibitin homology (PHB) domain protein podocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurek, Eva-Maria; Völker, Linus A; Tax, Judit; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Rinschen, Markus M; Ungrue, Denise; Kratz, John E; Sirianant, Lalida; Kunzelmann, Karl; Chalfie, Martin; Schermer, Bernhard; Benzing, Thomas; Höhne, Martin

    2014-04-18

    Mutations in the NPHS2 gene are a major cause of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome, a severe human kidney disorder. The NPHS2 gene product podocin is a key component of the slit diaphragm cell junction at the kidney filtration barrier and part of a multiprotein-lipid supercomplex. A similar complex with the podocin ortholog MEC-2 is required for touch sensation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Although podocin and MEC-2 are membrane-associated proteins with a predicted hairpin-like structure and amino and carboxyl termini facing the cytoplasm, this membrane topology has not been convincingly confirmed. One particular mutation that causes kidney disease in humans (podocin(P118L)) has also been identified in C. elegans in genetic screens for touch insensitivity (MEC-2(P134S)). Here we show that both mutant proteins, in contrast to the wild-type variants, are N-glycosylated because of the fact that the mutant C termini project extracellularly. Podocin(P118L) and MEC-2(P134S) did not fractionate in detergent-resistant membrane domains. Moreover, mutant podocin failed to activate the ion channel TRPC6, which is part of the multiprotein-lipid supercomplex, indicative of the fact that cholesterol recruitment to the ion channels, an intrinsic function of both proteins, requires C termini facing the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane. Taken together, this study demonstrates that the carboxyl terminus of podocin/MEC-2 has to be placed at the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane to mediate cholesterol binding and contribute to ion channel activity, a prerequisite for mechanosensation and the integrity of the kidney filtration barrier.

  19. Risk assessment of Giardia from a full scale MBR sewage treatment plant caused by membrane integrity failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Zhimin; An, Wei; Xiao, Shumin; Yuan, Hongying; Zhang, Dongqing; Yang, Min

    2015-04-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR) are highly efficient at intercepting particles and microbes and have become an important technology for wastewater reclamation. However, many pathogens can accumulate in activated sludge due to the long residence time usually adopted in MBR, and thus may pose health risks when membrane integrity problems occur. This study presents data from a survey on the occurrence of water-borne Giardia pathogens in reclaimed water from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant with MBR experiencing membrane integrity failure, and assessed the associated risk for green space irrigation. Due to membrane integrity failure, the MBR effluent turbidity varied between 0.23 and 1.90 NTU over a period of eight months. Though this turbidity level still met reclaimed water quality standards (≤5 NTU), Giardia were detected at concentrations of 0.3 to 95 cysts/10 L, with a close correlation between effluent turbidity and Giardia concentration. All β-giardin gene sequences of Giardia in the WWTP influents were genotyped as Assemblages A and B, both of which are known to infect humans. An exponential dose-response model was applied to assess the risk of infection by Giardia. The risk in the MBR effluent with chlorination was 9.83×10(-3), higher than the acceptable annual risk of 1.0×10(-4). This study suggested that membrane integrity is very important for keeping a low pathogen level, and multiple barriers are needed to ensure the biological safety of MBR effluent. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Triboelectricity in capacitive biopotential measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartzek, Tobias; Lammersen, Thomas; Eilebrecht, Benjamin; Walter, Marian; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2011-05-01

    Capacitive biopotential measurements suffer from strong motion artifacts, which may result in long time periods during which a reliable measurement is not possible. This study examines contact electrification and triboelectricity as possible reasons for these artifacts and discusses local triboelectric effects on the electrode-body interface as well as global electrostatic effects as common-mode interferences. It will be shown that most probably the triboelectric effects on the electrode-body interface are the main reason for artifacts, and a reduction of artifacts can only be achieved with a proper design of the electrode-body interface. For a deeper understanding of the observed effects, a mathematical model for triboelectric effects in highly isolated capacitive biopotential measurements is presented and verified with experiments. Based on these analyses of the triboelectric effects on the electrode-body interface, different electrode designs are developed and analyzed in order to minimize artifacts due to triboelectricity on the electrode-body interface. © 2011 IEEE

  1. Duplication of accessory phallic urethra (urethra triplication) in the female, signaling mesenchymal interruptions of the cloacal membrane as a cause for sagittal urethral duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Putte, Sebastian C J

    2009-01-01

    A specimen of accessory phallic urethra duplication (triplication) in a 32.5-week gestation female was studied histologically. The specimen demonstrated an anterior "phallic urethra" ending inside a penoclitoral organ in a megalourethra-like dilatation with a narrow epispadiac meatus and "anterior urethrocutaneous fistula" and a posterior canal opening with the anal canal. With histology suggestive of a split persistent urogenital sinus, correlation to normal development strongly suggests an error in the formation of the cloacal membrane and developing superficial cloaca at 26 to 29 days' ovulation age (2 to 4 mm), causing an isolated interruption of the membrane by mesenchyme, which by participating in the growth of the early cloaca may extend as far as the vaginal orifice later. Differences in number, position, and size of such mesenchymal interruptions can explain other duplications and triplications and offer a single alternative for the many current theories of pathogenesis, none of which are compatible with new insights in normal development.

  2. Bovine lactoferricin causes apoptosis in Jurkat T-leukemia cells by sequential permeabilization of the cell membrane and targeting of mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mader, Jamie S.; Richardson, Angela; Salsman, Jayme; Top, Deniz; Antueno, Roberto de; Duncan, Roy; Hoskin, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) is a cationic antimicrobial peptide that kills Jurkat T-leukemia cells by the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. However, the process by which LfcinB triggers mitochondria-dependent apoptosis is not well understood. Here, we show that LfcinB-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T-leukemia cells was preceded by LfcinB binding to, and progressive permeabilization of the cell membrane. Colloidal gold electron microscopy revealed that LfcinB entered the cytoplasm of Jurkat T-leukemia cells prior to the onset of mitochondrial depolarization. LfcinB was not internalized by endocytosis because endocytosis inhibitors did not prevent LfcinB-induced cytotoxicity. Furthermore, intracellular delivery of LfcinB via fusogenic liposomes caused the death of Jurkat T-leukemia cells, as well as normal human fibroblasts. Collectively, these findings suggest that LfcinB caused damage to the cell membrane that allowed LfcinB to enter the cytoplasm of Jurkat T-leukemia cells and mediate cytotoxicity. In addition, confocal microscopy showed that intracellular LfcinB co-localized with mitochondria in Jurkat T-leukemia cells, while flow cytometry and colloidal gold electron microscopy showed that LfcinB rapidly associated with purified mitochondria. Furthermore, purified mitochondria treated with LfcinB rapidly lost transmembrane potential and released cytochrome c. We conclude that LfcinB-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T-leukemia cells resulted from cell membrane damage and the subsequent disruption of mitochondrial membranes by internalized LfcinB

  3. Na/K-ATPase regulates bovine sperm capacitation through raft- and non-raft-mediated signaling mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanickam, Gayathri D; Kastelic, John P; Thundathil, Jacob C

    2017-11-01

    Highly dynamic lipid microdomains (rafts) in the sperm plasma membrane contain several signaling proteins that regulate sperm capacitation. Na/K-ATPase isoforms (testis-specific isoform ATP1A4 and ubiquitous isoform ATP1A1) are abundant in bovine sperm plasma membrane. We previously reported that incubation of bovine sperm with ouabain, a specific Na/K-ATPase ligand, induced tyrosine phosphorylation of several sperm proteins during capacitation. The objective of this study was to investigate the roles of lipid rafts and non-rafts in Na/K-ATPase enzyme activity and signaling during bovine sperm capacitation. Content of ATP1A4 and, to a lesser extent, ATP1A1 was increased in raft and non-raft fractions of capacitated sperm, although non-raft enzyme activities of both isoforms were higher than the corresponding activities in rafts from capacitated sperm. Yet, ATP1A4 was the predominant isoform responsible for total Na/K-ATPase activity in both rafts and non-rafts. A comparative increase in phosphorylation of signaling molecules was observed in both raft (CAV1) and non-raft (EGFR and ERK1/2) membrane fractions during capacitation. Although SRC was phosphorylated in both membrane fractions, the non-raft fraction possessed more of this activated form. We also inferred, by immunoprecipitation, that ATP1A4 interacted with CAV1 and EGFR in the raft fraction, whereas interactions of ATP1A4 with SRC, EGFR, and ERK1/2 occurred in the non-raft fraction of ouabain-capacitated sperm; conversely, ATP1A1 interacted only with CAV1 in both fractions of uncapacitated and capacitated sperm. In conclusion, both raft and non-raft cohorts of Na/K-ATPase isoforms contributed to phosphorylation of signaling molecules during bovine sperm capacitation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Right ventricular rupture and tamponade caused by malposition of the Avalon cannula for venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirose Hitoshi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Placement of the Avalon Elite bicaval dual lumen cannula for venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO via the internal jugular vein requires precise positioning of the cannula tip in the inferior vena cava with echocardiography or fluoroscopy guidance. Correct guidewire placement is clearly the key first step in assuring proper advancement of the cannula. We report a case of unexpected wire migration into the right ventricle at the time of final cannula advancement, resulting in right ventricular rupture and tamponade. Transesophageal echocardiography is an important monitoring modality for appropriate placement of the VV-ECMO guidewire and Avalon cannula, and in particular, for early identification of potential complications.

  5. Membranous nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin-lightening creams Systemic lupus erythematosus , rheumatoid arthritis, Graves disease, and other autoimmune disorders The disorder occurs at ... diagnosis. The following tests can help determine the cause of membranous nephropathy: Antinuclear antibodies test Anti-double- ...

  6. An approach to evaluate capacitance, capacitive reactance and resistance of pivoted pads of a thrust bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashad, Har

    1992-07-01

    A theoretical approach is developed for determining the capacitance and active resistance between the interacting surfaces of pivoted pads and thrust collar, under different conditions of operation. It is shown that resistance and capacitive reactance of a thrust bearing decrease with the number of pads times the values of these parameters for an individual pad, and that capacitance increases with the number of pads times the capacitance of an individual pad. The analysis presented has a potential to diagnose the behavior of pivoted pad thrust bearings with the angle of tilt and the ratio of film thickness at the leading to trailing edge, by determining the variation of capacitance, resistance, and capacitive reactance.

  7. On the resistances of membrane, diffusion boundary layer and double layer in ion exchange membrane transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Długołȩcki, P.; Ogonowski, P.; Metz, S.J.; Saakes, M.; Nijmeijer, K.; Wessling, M.

    2010-01-01

    Membrane resistances are often measured under direct current conditions using a standard 0.5 M NaCl characterization solution, although several electro-membrane processes (e.g. reverse electrodialysis, electrodialysis, fuel cells, microbial fuel cells and membrane capacitive deionization) operate in

  8. Uncertainty quantification in capacitive RF MEMS switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pax, Benjamin J.

    Development of radio frequency micro electrical-mechanical systems (RF MEMS) has led to novel approaches to implement electrical circuitry. The introduction of capacitive MEMS switches, in particular, has shown promise in low-loss, low-power devices. However, the promise of MEMS switches has not yet been completely realized. RF-MEMS switches are known to fail after only a few months of operation, and nominally similar designs show wide variability in lifetime. Modeling switch operation using nominal or as-designed parameters cannot predict the statistical spread in the number of cycles to failure, and probabilistic methods are necessary. A Bayesian framework for calibration, validation and prediction offers an integrated approach to quantifying the uncertainty in predictions of MEMS switch performance. The objective of this thesis is to use the Bayesian framework to predict the creep-related deflection of the PRISM RF-MEMS switch over several thousand hours of operation. The PRISM switch used in this thesis is the focus of research at Purdue's PRISM center, and is a capacitive contacting RF-MEMS switch. It employs a fixed-fixed nickel membrane which is electrostatically actuated by applying voltage between the membrane and a pull-down electrode. Creep plays a central role in the reliability of this switch. The focus of this thesis is on the creep model, which is calibrated against experimental data measured for a frog-leg varactor fabricated and characterized at Purdue University. Creep plasticity is modeled using plate element theory with electrostatic forces being generated using either parallel plate approximations where appropriate, or solving for the full 3D potential field. For the latter, structure-electrostatics interaction is determined through immersed boundary method. A probabilistic framework using generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) is used to create surrogate models to mitigate the costly full physics simulations, and Bayesian calibration and forward

  9. Capacitance enhancement via electrode patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Tuan A.; Striolo, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The necessity of increasing the energy density in electric double layer capacitors to meet current demand is fueling fundamental and applied research alike. We report here molecular dynamics simulation results for aqueous electrolytes near model electrodes. Particular focus is on the effect of electrode patterning on the structure of interfacial electrolytes, and on the potential drop between the solid electrodes and the bulk electrolytes. The latter is estimated by numerically integrating the Poisson equation using the charge densities due to water and ions accumulated near the interface as input. We considered uniform and patterned electrodes, both positively and negatively charged. The uniformly charged electrodes are modeled as graphite. The patterned ones are obtained by removing carbon atoms from the top-most graphene layer, yielding nanoscopic squares and stripes patterns. For simplicity, the patterned electrodes are effectively simulated as insulators (the charge remains localized on the top-most layer of carbon atoms). Our simulations show that the patterns alter the structure of water and the accumulation of ions at the liquid-solid interfaces. Using aqueous NaCl solutions, we found that while the capacitance calculated for three positively charged electrodes did not change much, that calculated for the negatively charged electrodes significantly increased upon patterning. We find that both water structure and orientation, as well as ion accumulation affect the capacitance. As electrode patterning affects differently water structure and ion accumulation, it might be possible to observe ion-specific effects. These results could be useful for advancing our understanding of electric double layer capacitors, capacitive desalination processes, as well as of fundamental interfacial electrolytes properties

  10. Ciprofloxacin provokes SOS-dependent changes in respiration and membrane potential and causes alterations in the redox status of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Galina V; Tyulenev, Aleksey V; Muzyka, Nadezda G; Peters, Mikhail A; Oktyabrsky, Oleg N

    2017-01-01

    An in-depth understanding of the physiological response of bacteria to antibiotic-induced stress is needed for development of new approaches to combatting microbial infections. Fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin causes phase alterations in Escherichia coli respiration and membrane potential that strongly depend on its concentration. Concentrations lower than the optimal bactericidal concentration (OBC) do not inhibit respiration during the first phase. A dose higher than the OBC provokes immediate SOS-independent inhibition of respiration and growth that can contribute to a decreased SOS response and lowered susceptibility to high concentrations of ciprofloxacin. Cells retain their metabolic activity, membrane potential and accelerated K + uptake and produce low levels of superoxide and H 2 O 2 during the first phase. The time before initiation of the second phase is inversely correlated with the ciprofloxacin concentration. The second phase is SOS-dependent and characterized by respiratory inhibition, membrane depolarization, K + and glutathione leakage and cessation of glucose consumption and may be considered as cell death. atpA, gshA and kefBkefC knockouts, which perturb fluxes of protons and K + , can modify the degree and duration of respiratory inhibition and potassium retention. Loss of K + efflux channels KefB and KefC enhances the susceptibility of E. coli to ciprofloxacin. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation and Modern Detoxification Techniques in a Puerpera with Viral and Bacterial Pneumonia Caused by Flu A(H1N1 Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Kornelyuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of viral infections have become a global healthcare challenge over the last decade. The 2009—2010 flu A (H1N1 outbreak resulted in global pandemia, associated with high morbidity and mortality reaching 31%. Another flu A (H1N1 outbreak occurred in 2015—2016. There is a strong probability that it may be repeated in the future. This infection is associated with its high incidence among pregnant women. There are some published reports describing the efficacy and safety of veno%venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome that is refractory to standard therapeutic options. The article presents a clinical case of a successful use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and intermittent renal replacement therapy in a puerpera with acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by flu A (H1N1-related severe viral and bacterial pneumonia. The positive effects of the combination of veno%venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and modern detoxification techniques have been demonstrated. Revealed organizational problemswere related to selection criteria for prescription of extracorporeal gas exchange, as well as to carrying out the procedure in an institution in the deficiency of the experienced staff and corresponding equipment.

  12. Flexible PVDF ferroelectric capacitive temperature sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Naveed

    2015-08-02

    In this paper, a capacitive temperature sensor based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) capacitor is explored. The PVDF capacitor is characterized below its Curie temperature. The capacitance of the PVDF capacitor changes vs temperature with a sensitivity of 16pF/°C. The linearity measurement of the capacitance-temperature relation shows less than 0.7°C error from a best fit straight line. An LC oscillator based temperature sensor is demonstrated based on this capacitor.

  13. Ultrahigh Temperature Capacitive Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsh, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Robust, miniaturized sensing systems are needed to improve performance, increase efficiency, and track system health status and failure modes of advanced propulsion systems. Because microsensors must operate in extremely harsh environments, there are many technical challenges involved in developing reliable systems. In addition to high temperatures and pressures, sensing systems are exposed to oxidation, corrosion, thermal shock, fatigue, fouling, and abrasive wear. In these harsh conditions, sensors must be able to withstand high flow rates, vibration, jet fuel, and exhaust. In order for existing and future aeropropulsion turbine engines to improve safety and reduce cost and emissions while controlling engine instabilities, more accurate and complete sensor information is necessary. High-temperature (300 to 1,350 C) capacitive pressure sensors are of particular interest due to their high measurement bandwidth and inherent suitability for wireless readout schemes. The objective of this project is to develop a capacitive pressure sensor based on silicon carbon nitride (SiCN), a new class of high-temperature ceramic materials, which possesses excellent mechanical and electric properties at temperatures up to 1,600 C.

  14. Capacitive Feedthroughs for Medical Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Sven; Tass, Peter A; Hauptmann, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Important technological advances in the last decades paved the road to a great success story for electrically stimulating medical implants, including cochlear implants or implants for deep brain stimulation. However, there are still many challenges in reducing side effects and improving functionality and comfort for the patient. Two of the main challenges are the wish for smaller implants on one hand, and the demand for more stimulation channels on the other hand. But these two aims lead to a conflict of interests. This paper presents a novel design for an electrical feedthrough, the so called capacitive feedthrough, which allows both reducing the size, and increasing the number of included channels. Capacitive feedthroughs combine the functionality of a coupling capacitor and an electrical feedthrough within one and the same structure. The paper also discusses the progress and the challenges of the first produced demonstrators. The concept bears a high potential in improving current feedthrough technology, and could be applied on all kinds of electrical medical implants, even if its implementation might be challenging.

  15. Impact of Wire Geometry in Energy Extraction from Salinity Differences Using Capacitive Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sales, B.B.; Burheim, O.S.; Liu, F.; Schaetzle, O.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2012-01-01

    Energy extraction based on capacitive Donnan potential (CDP) is a recently suggested technique for sustainable power generation. CDP combines the use of ion-exchange membranes and porous carbon electrodes to convert the Gibbs free energy of mixing sea and river water into electric work. The

  16. Capacitive sensor for engine oil deterioration measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Harish; Bewoor, Anand

    2018-04-01

    A simple system or mechanism for engine Oil (lubricating oil) deterioration monitoring is a need. As engine oil is an important element in I C engines and it is exposed to various strains depending on the operating conditions. If it becomes contaminated with dirt and metal particles, it can become too thick or thin and loses its protective properties, leads to unwanted friction. In turn, to avoid an engine failure, the oil must be changed before it loses its protective properties, which may be harmful to engine which deteriorates vehicle performance. At the same time, changing the lubricant too early, cause inefficient use of already depleting resources, also unwanted impact on the environment and economic reasons. Hence, it will be always helpful to know the quality of the oil under use. With this objective, the research work had been undertaken to develop a simple capacitance sensor for quantification of the quality of oil under use. One of the investigated parameter to quantify oil degradation is Viscosity (as per standard testing procedure: DIN 51562-1). In this research work, an alternative method proposed which analyzing change in capacitance of oil, to quantify the quality of oil underuse and compared to a conventional standard method. The experimental results reported in this paper shows trend for the same. Engine oil of grade SAE 15W40 used for light-duty vehicle, vans and passenger cars is used for experimentation. Suggested method can form a base for further research to develop a cost-effective method for indicating the time to change in engine oil quality have been presented.

  17. A new interface weak-capacitance detection ASIC of capacitive liquid level sensor in the rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liang; Qin, Yao; Liu, Xiao-Wei

    2017-11-01

    A new capacitive liquid level sensing interface weak-capacitance detection ASIC has been designed. This ASIC realized the detection of the output capacitance of the capacitive liquid level sensor, which converts the output capacitance of the capacitive liquid level sensor to voltage. The chip is fabricated in a standard 0.5μm CMOS process. The test results show that the linearity of capacitance detection of the ASIC is 0.05%, output noise is 3.7aF/Hz (when the capacitance which will be detected is 40 pF), the stability of capacitance detection is 7.4 × 10-5pF (1σ, 1h), the output zero position temperature coefficient is 4.5 uV/∘C. The test results prove that this interface ASIC can meet the requirement of high accuracy capacitance detection. Therefore, this interface ASIC can be applied in capacitive liquid level sensing and capacitive humidity sensing field.

  18. Improving accuracy of electrochemical capacitance and solvation energetics in first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Letchworth-Weaver, Kendra; Schwarz, Kathleen A.

    2018-04-01

    Reliable first-principles calculations of electrochemical processes require accurate prediction of the interfacial capacitance, a challenge for current computationally efficient continuum solvation methodologies. We develop a model for the double layer of a metallic electrode that reproduces the features of the experimental capacitance of Ag(100) in a non-adsorbing, aqueous electrolyte, including a broad hump in the capacitance near the potential of zero charge and a dip in the capacitance under conditions of low ionic strength. Using this model, we identify the necessary characteristics of a solvation model suitable for first-principles electrochemistry of metal surfaces in non-adsorbing, aqueous electrolytes: dielectric and ionic nonlinearity, and a dielectric-only region at the interface. The dielectric nonlinearity, caused by the saturation of dipole rotational response in water, creates the capacitance hump, while ionic nonlinearity, caused by the compactness of the diffuse layer, generates the capacitance dip seen at low ionic strength. We show that none of the previously developed solvation models simultaneously meet all these criteria. We design the nonlinear electrochemical soft-sphere solvation model which both captures the capacitance features observed experimentally and serves as a general-purpose continuum solvation model.

  19. Reduction of parasitic capacitance in 10 kV SiC MOSFET power modules using 3D FEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Asger Bjørn; Christensen, Nicklas; Dalal, Dipen Narendrabhai

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of emerging wide-band gap semiconductors can only be utilized if the semiconductor is properly packaged. Capacitive coupling in the package causes electromagnetic interference during high dv/dt switching. This paper investigates the current flowing in the parasitic capacitance between...... the output node and the grounded heat sink for a custom silicon carbide power module. A circuit model of the capacitive coupling path is presented, using parasitic capacitances extracted from ANSYS Q3D. Simulated values are compared with experimental results. A new iteration of the silicon carbide power...

  20. The split delivery capacitated team orienteering problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archetti, C.; Bianchessi, N.; Speranza, M. G.; Hertz, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we study the capacitated team orienteering problem where split deliveries are allowed. A set of potential customers is given, each associated with a demand and a profit. The set of customers to be served by a fleet of capacitated vehicles has to be identified in such a way that the

  1. Capacitance densitometer for flow regime identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipp, R.L. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to a capacitance densitometer for determining the flow regime of a two-phase flow system. A two-element capacitance densitometer is used in conjunction with a conventional single-beam gamma densitometer to unambiguously identify the prevailing flow regime and the average density of a flowing fluid

  2. Design of double capacitances infrasonic receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Changhai; Han Kuixia; Wang Fei

    2003-01-01

    The article introduces the theory of infrasonic generation and reception of nuclear explosion. An idea of the design of double capacitances infrasonic receiver using CPLD technology is given in it. Compare with the single capacitance infrasonic receiver, sensitivity of the improved receiver can be improved scores of times, dynamic range can be improved largely, and the whole performance gets improvement a lots

  3. Novel RF-MEMS capacitive switching structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottenberg, X.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Fiorini, P.; De Raedt, W.; Tilmans, H.A.C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on novel RF-MEMS capacitive switching devices implementing an electrically floating metal layer covering the dielectric to ensure intimate contact with the bridge in the down state. This results in an optimal switch down capacitance and allows optimisation of the down/up

  4. The Pyramidal Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens

    This paper introduces the Pyramidal Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (PCVRP) as a restricted version of the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP). In the PCVRP each route is required to be pyramidal in a sense generalized from the Pyramidal Traveling Salesman Problem (PTSP). A pyramidal...

  5. The pyramidal capacitated vehicle routing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the pyramidal capacitated vehicle routing problem (PCVRP) as a restricted version of the capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP). In the PCVRP each route is required to be pyramidal in a sense generalized from the pyramidal traveling salesman problem (PTSP). A pyramidal...

  6. Scanning Capacitance Microscopy | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    obtained using scanning capacitance microscopy. Top Right: Image of p-type and n-type material, obtained 'fingers' of light-colored n-type material on a yellow and blue background representing p-type material material, obtained using scanning capacitance microscopy, in a sample semiconductor device; the image shows

  7. Capacitive Biosensors and Molecularly Imprinted Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertürk, Gizem; Mattiasson, Bo

    2017-02-17

    Capacitive biosensors belong to the group of affinity biosensors that operate by registering direct binding between the sensor surface and the target molecule. This type of biosensors measures the changes in dielectric properties and/or thickness of the dielectric layer at the electrolyte/electrode interface. Capacitive biosensors have so far been successfully used for detection of proteins, nucleotides, heavy metals, saccharides, small organic molecules and microbial cells. In recent years, the microcontact imprinting method has been used to create very sensitive and selective biorecognition cavities on surfaces of capacitive electrodes. This chapter summarizes the principle and different applications of capacitive biosensors with an emphasis on microcontact imprinting method with its recent capacitive biosensor applications.

  8. Opening of K+ channels by capacitive stimulation from silicon chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, M. H.; Fromherz, P.

    2005-10-01

    The development of stable neuroelectronic systems requires a stimulation of nerve cells from semiconductor devices without electrochemical effects at the electrolyte/solid interface and without damage of the cell membrane. The interaction must rely on a reversible opening of voltage-gated ion channels by capacitive coupling. In a proof-of-principle experiment, we demonstrate that Kv1.3 potassium channels expressed in HEK293 cells can be opened from an electrolyte/oxide/silicon (EOS) capacitor. A sufficient strength of electrical coupling is achieved by insulating silicon with a thin film of TiO2 to achieve a high capacitance and by removing NaCl from the electrolyte to enhance the resistance of the cell-chip contact. When a decaying voltage ramp is applied to the EOS capacitor, an outward current through the attached cell membrane is observed that is specific for Kv1.3 channels. An open probability up to fifty percent is estimated by comparison with a numerical simulation of the cell-chip contact.

  9. A capacitive ultrasonic transducer based on parametric resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surappa, Sushruta; Satir, Sarp; Levent Degertekin, F

    2017-07-24

    A capacitive ultrasonic transducer based on a parametric resonator structure is described and experimentally demonstrated. The transducer structure, which we call capacitive parametric ultrasonic transducer (CPUT), uses a parallel plate capacitor with a movable membrane as part of a degenerate parametric series RLC resonator circuit with a resonance frequency of f o . When the capacitor plate is driven with an incident harmonic ultrasonic wave at the pump frequency of 2f o with sufficient amplitude, the RLC circuit becomes unstable and ultrasonic energy can be efficiently converted to an electrical signal at f o frequency in the RLC circuit. An important characteristic of the CPUT is that unlike other electrostatic transducers, it does not require DC bias or permanent charging to be used as a receiver. We describe the operation of the CPUT using an analytical model and numerical simulations, which shows drive amplitude dependent operation regimes including parametric resonance when a certain threshold is exceeded. We verify these predictions by experiments with a micromachined membrane based capacitor structure in immersion where ultrasonic waves incident at 4.28 MHz parametrically drive a signal with significant amplitude in the 2.14 MHz RLC circuit. With its unique features, the CPUT can be particularly advantageous for applications such as wireless power transfer for biomedical implants and acoustic sensing.

  10. A capacitive ultrasonic transducer based on parametric resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surappa, Sushruta; Satir, Sarp; Levent Degertekin, F.

    2017-07-01

    A capacitive ultrasonic transducer based on a parametric resonator structure is described and experimentally demonstrated. The transducer structure, which we call capacitive parametric ultrasonic transducer (CPUT), uses a parallel plate capacitor with a movable membrane as part of a degenerate parametric series RLC resonator circuit with a resonance frequency of fo. When the capacitor plate is driven with an incident harmonic ultrasonic wave at the pump frequency of 2fo with sufficient amplitude, the RLC circuit becomes unstable and ultrasonic energy can be efficiently converted to an electrical signal at fo frequency in the RLC circuit. An important characteristic of the CPUT is that unlike other electrostatic transducers, it does not require DC bias or permanent charging to be used as a receiver. We describe the operation of the CPUT using an analytical model and numerical simulations, which shows drive amplitude dependent operation regimes including parametric resonance when a certain threshold is exceeded. We verify these predictions by experiments with a micromachined membrane based capacitor structure in immersion where ultrasonic waves incident at 4.28 MHz parametrically drive a signal with significant amplitude in the 2.14 MHz RLC circuit. With its unique features, the CPUT can be particularly advantageous for applications such as wireless power transfer for biomedical implants and acoustic sensing.

  11. A Probabilistic Mass Estimation Algorithm for a Novel 7- Channel Capacitive Sample Verification Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A document describes an algorithm created to estimate the mass placed on a sample verification sensor (SVS) designed for lunar or planetary robotic sample return missions. A novel SVS measures the capacitance between a rigid bottom plate and an elastic top membrane in seven locations. As additional sample material (soil and/or small rocks) is placed on the top membrane, the deformation of the membrane increases the capacitance. The mass estimation algorithm addresses both the calibration of each SVS channel, and also addresses how to combine the capacitances read from each of the seven channels into a single mass estimate. The probabilistic approach combines the channels according to the variance observed during the training phase, and provides not only the mass estimate, but also a value for the certainty of the estimate. SVS capacitance data is collected for known masses under a wide variety of possible loading scenarios, though in all cases, the distribution of sample within the canister is expected to be approximately uniform. A capacitance-vs-mass curve is fitted to this data, and is subsequently used to determine the mass estimate for the single channel s capacitance reading during the measurement phase. This results in seven different mass estimates, one for each SVS channel. Moreover, the variance of the calibration data is used to place a Gaussian probability distribution function (pdf) around this mass estimate. To blend these seven estimates, the seven pdfs are combined into a single Gaussian distribution function, providing the final mean and variance of the estimate. This blending technique essentially takes the final estimate as an average of the estimates of the seven channels, weighted by the inverse of the channel s variance.

  12. Use of cross-flow membrane filtration in a recirculating hydroponic system to suppress root disease in pepper caused by Pythium myriotylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, Andrew C; Hammer, William

    2009-05-01

    Zoosporic pathogens in the genera Pythium and Phytophthora cause extensive root disease epiphytotics in recirculating hydroponic vegetable-production greenhouses. Zoospore cysts of Pythium myriotylum Drechsler were used to evaluate the effectiveness of cross-flow membrane filters to control pythiaceous pathogens in recirculating hydroponic systems. Four membrane filter brands (Honeycomb, Polypure, Polymate, and Absolife) were tested alone or in combination to determine which filters would effectively remove infective propagules of P. myriotylum from solutions and reduce disease incidence and severity. Zoospore cysts of P. myriotylum generally measured 8 to 10 microm, and it was hypothesized that filters with pore-sizespepper plants from root infection. Single-filter assays with Honeycomb and Polypure brands removed 85 to 95% of zoospore cysts when pore sizes were rated at 1, 5, 10, 20, or 30 microm. Single-filter assays of Polymate and Absolife brands were more effective, exhibiting apparently 100% removal of zoospore cysts from nutrient solutions on filters rated at 1 to 10 microm. However, plant bioassays with Honeycomb and Polymate single filters failed to give long-term protection of pepper plants. Double-filter assays with 1- and 0.5-microm Polymate filters significantly increased the protection of pepper plants grown in nutrient film technique systems but, eventually, root disease and plant wilt could be observed. Insect transmissions by shore flies were not factors in disease development. Scanning electron microscopy images of zoospore cysts entrapped on Polymate filters revealed zoospore cysts that were either fully encysted, partially encysted, or of unusually small size (3 microm in diameter). It was concluded that either the atypically small or pliable pleomorphic zoospore cysts were able to penetrate filter membranes that theoretically should have captured them.

  13. EBIO, an agent causing maintained epithelial chloride secretion by co-ordinate actions at both apical and basolateral membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVinish, L J; Keogh, J; Cuthbert, A W

    2001-01-01

    The effect of 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolone (EBIO) on electrogenic chloride secretion in murine colonic and nasal epithelium was investigated by the short-circuit technique. In the colon, EBIO produces a sustained current increase in the presence of amiloride, which is sensitive to furosemide. In nasal epithelium EBIO causes only a small, transient current increase. Sustained increases in current were obtained in response to forskolin in both epithelia. To examine the mechanisms by which EBIO increases chloride secretion, the effects on intracellular mediators were measured in colonic crypts. There was no effect on [Ca(2+)]i but cAMP content was increased, more so in the presence of IBMX, indicating a direct effect on adenylate cyclase. In colonic epithelia in which the apical surface was permeabilized by nystatin, and the tissue subjected to an apical to basolateral K(+) gradient, EBIO caused a current increase that was entirely sensitive to charybdotoxin (ChTX). In similarly permeabilized colons Br-cAMP caused a current increase that was entirely sensitive to 293B. Thus EBIO increases chloride secretion in the colon by coordinated actions at both the apical and basolateral faces of the cells. These include direct and indirect actions on Ca(2+)-sensitive and cAMP-sensitive K(+) channels respectively, and indirect actions on the basolateral cotransporter and apical CFTR chloride channels via cAMP. In CF colonic epithelia EBIO did not evoke chloride secretion. It is not clear why the nasal epithelium responds poorly to EBIO whereas it gives a sustained response to the related compound chlorzoxazone.

  14. Diffuse Charge Effects in Fuel Cell Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Franco, A.A.; Bazant, M.Z.

    2009-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that electrolyte membranes in fuel cells are electrically neutral, except in unsteady situations, when the double-layer capacitance is heuristically included in equivalent circuit calculations. Indeed, the standard model for electron transfer kinetics at the membrane/electrode

  15. A new loss mechanism in graphene nanoresonators due to the synthetic electric fields caused by inherent out-of-plane membrane corrugations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firsova, N E; Firsov, Yu A

    2012-01-01

    For the first time the influence of out-of-plane deformations, which always exist in graphene, on the non-stationary processes is considered for the case of a monolayer graphene nanoresonator. A new loss mechanism for this device caused by dissipative intra-valley currents stipulated by synthetic electric fields is studied. These fields are generated by time-dependent gauge fields arising in a graphene membrane due to its intrinsic out-of-plane distortions and the influence of the external periodic electromotive force. The corresponding formula for the quality factor has a quantum mechanical origin and includes quantum mechanical parameters. This loss mechanism accounts for an essential part (about 40%) of losses in a graphene nanoresonator and it is specific just for graphene. The ways of minimization of this kind of dissipation (an increase in the quality factor of the electromechanical system) are discussed. It is explained why one can enhance the quality factor by correctly choosing a combination of strains (by strain engineering). In addition, it is shown that the quality factor can be increased by switching on a magnetic field perpendicular to the graphene membrane.

  16. Experimental study of cell reversal of a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell caused by H2 starvation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Fan; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2015-01-01

    Operation under fuel starvation has been proved to be harmful to the fuel cell by causing severe and irreversible degradation. To characterize the behaviors of the high temperature PEM fuel cell under fuel starvation conditions, the cell voltage and local current density is measured simultaneously...... under different H2 stoichiometries below 1.0 and at different current loads. The experimental results show that the cell voltage decreases promptly when the H2 stoichiometry decreases to below 1.0. Negative cell voltage can be observed which indicates cell reversal. The local current density starts...... to diverge when the cell voltage decreases. In the H2 upstream regions the current densities show an increasing trend, while those in the H2 downstream regions show a decreasing trend. Consequently, the current density distribution becomes very uneven. The current density is the highest in the upstream...

  17. A Mild Version of Danon Disease Caused by a Newly Recognized Mutation in the Lysosome-associated Membrane Protein-2 Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyaw, Htoo; Shaik, Fatima; Lin, Aung Naing; Shinnar, Meir

    2018-02-04

    We present the case of a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy caused by a novel mutation in the lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2) gene. Patients with pathogenic mutations of this gene typically suffer from Danon disease - a condition that leads to cognitive decline, severe skeletal myopathy, and severe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Our patient's presentation and clinical course, however, is different and much less severe than other patients with this disease. He did not suffer from neurologic and musculoskeletal complications. He is also possibly the longest-known survivor of this disease without a heart transplant. This disease is unfamiliar to many physicians, and our case highlights the importance of an awareness of this disorder, particularly because of its implications for both the patient and his family.

  18. Cardiac arrest caused by sibutramine obtained over the Internet: a case of a young woman without pre-existing cardiovascular disease successfully resuscitated using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunya, Naofumi; Sawamoto, Keigo; Uemura, Shuji; Kyan, Ryoko; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Nishida, Junichi; Kouzu, Hidemichi; Kokubu, Nobuaki; Miura, Tetsuji; Narimatsu, Eichi

    2017-07-01

    Sibutramine is a weight loss agent that was withdrawn from the market in the USA and European Union because it increases adverse events in patients with cardiovascular diseases. However, non-prescription weight loss pills containing sibutramine can be still easily purchased over the Internet. A 21-year-old woman without history of cardiovascular diseases developed cardiac arrest. She was a user of a weight loss pills, containing sibutramine and hypokalemia-inducing agents, imported from Thailand over the Internet. She was successfully resuscitated without any neurological deficits by using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for refractory ventricular fibrillation. This case indicates that sibutramine can cause cardiac arrest even in subjects without pre-existing cardiovascular disease when combined with agents that promote QT prolongation.

  19. Focal adhesion kinase is required for actin polymerization and remodeling of the cytoskeleton during sperm capacitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa-Espitia, Ana L.; Hernández-Rendón, Eva R.; Baltiérrez-Hoyos, Rafael; Muñoz-Gotera, Rafaela J.; Cote-Vélez, Antonieta; Jiménez, Irma; González-Márquez, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several focal adhesion proteins are known to cooperate with integrins to link the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton; as a result, many intracellular signaling pathways are activated and several focal adhesion complexes are formed. However, how these proteins function in mammalian spermatozoa remains unknown. We confirm the presence of focal adhesion proteins in guinea pig spermatozoa, and we explore their role during capacitation and the acrosome reaction, and their relationship with the actin cytoskeleton. Our results suggest the presence of a focal adhesion complex formed by β1-integrin, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin, vinculin, talin, and α-actinin in the acrosomal region. Inhibition of FAK during capacitation affected the protein tyrosine phosphorylation associated with capacitation that occurs within the first few minutes of capacitation, which caused the acrosome reaction to become increasingly Ca2+ dependent and inhibited the polymerization of actin. The integration of vinculin and talin into the complex, and the activation of FAK and paxillin during capacitation, suggests that the complex assembles at this time. We identify that vinculin and α-actinin increase their interaction with F-actin while it remodels during capacitation, and that during capacitation focal adhesion complexes are structured. FAK contributes to acrosome integrity, likely by regulating the polymerization and the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:27402964

  20. The acidic transformed nano-VO2 causes macrophage cell death by the induction of lysosomal membrane permeabilization and Ca2+ efflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohai Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of its outstanding thermochromic characteristics and metal-insulator transition (MIT property, nano-vanadium dioxide (abbreviated as nano-VO2 or nVO2 has been applied widely in electrical/optical devices and design of intelligent window. However, the biological effect of nVO2 is not well understood, especially when affected by environmental factors or living organisms. For VO2 is an amphoteric oxide, we simulated pH's influence to nVO2’s physicochemical properties by exposure nVO2 in water of different pH values. We found that nVO2 transformed to a new product after exposure in acidic water for two weeks, as revealed by physicochemical characterization such as SEM, TEM, XRD, and DLS. This transformation product formed in acidic water was referred as (acidic transformed nVO2. Both pristine/untransformed and transformed nVO2 displayed no obvious toxicity to common epithelial cells; however, the acidic transformed nVO2 rapidly induced macrophage cell death. Further investigation demonstrated that transformed nVO2 caused macrophage apoptosis by the induction of Ca2+ efflux and the following mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP process. And a more detailed time course study indicated that transformed nVO2 caused lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP at the earlier stage, indicating LMP could be chosen as an earlier and sensitive end point for nanotoxicological study. We conclude that although nVO2 displays no acute toxicity, its acidic transformation product induces macrophage apoptosis by the induction of LMP and Ca2+ efflux. This report suggests that the interplay with environmental factors or living organisms can results in physicochemical transformation of nanomaterials and the ensuing distinctive biological effects.

  1. Reducing the capacitance of piezoelectric film sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, Martín G., E-mail: mggonza@fi.uba.ar [Grupo de Láser, Óptica de Materiales y Aplicaciones Electromagnéticas (GLOMAE), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colón 850, C1063ACV Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), C1425FQB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sorichetti, Patricio A.; Santiago, Guillermo D. [Grupo de Láser, Óptica de Materiales y Aplicaciones Electromagnéticas (GLOMAE), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colón 850, C1063ACV Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-04-15

    We present a novel design for large area, wideband, polymer piezoelectric sensor with low capacitance. The large area allows better spatial resolution in applications such as photoacoustic tomography and the reduced capacitance eases the design of fast transimpedance amplifiers. The metalized piezoelectric polymer thin film is segmented into N sections, electrically connected in series. In this way, the total capacitance is reduced by a factor 1/N{sup 2}, whereas the mechanical response and the active area of the sensor are not modified. We show the construction details for a two-section sensor, together with the impedance spectroscopy and impulse response experimental results that validate the design.

  2. Reducing the capacitance of piezoelectric film sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Martín G.; Sorichetti, Patricio A.; Santiago, Guillermo D.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel design for large area, wideband, polymer piezoelectric sensor with low capacitance. The large area allows better spatial resolution in applications such as photoacoustic tomography and the reduced capacitance eases the design of fast transimpedance amplifiers. The metalized piezoelectric polymer thin film is segmented into N sections, electrically connected in series. In this way, the total capacitance is reduced by a factor 1/N"2, whereas the mechanical response and the active area of the sensor are not modified. We show the construction details for a two-section sensor, together with the impedance spectroscopy and impulse response experimental results that validate the design.

  3. A miniature electrical capacitance tomograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, T. A.; Phua, T. N.; Reichelt, L.; Pawlowski, A.; Kneer, R.

    2006-08-01

    The paper describes a miniature electrical capacitance tomography system. This is based on a custom CMOS silicon integrated circuit comprising eight channels of signal conditioning electronics to source drive signals and measure voltages. Electrodes are deposited around a hole that is fabricated, using ultrasonic drilling, through a ceramic substrate and has an average diameter of 0.75 mm. The custom chip is interfaced to a host computer via a bespoke data acquisition system based on a microcontroller, field programmable logic device and wide shift register. This provides fast capture of up to 750 frames of data prior to uploading to the host computer. Data capture rates of about 6000 frames per second have been achieved for the eight-electrode sensor. This rate could be increased but at the expense of signal to noise. Captured data are uploaded to a PC, via a RS232 interface, for off-line imaging. Initial tests are reported for the static case involving 200 µm diameter rods that are placed in the sensor and for the dynamic case using the dose from an inhaler.

  4. Resistive and Capacitive Based Sensing Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winncy Y. Du

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Resistive and capacitive (RC sensors are the most commonly used sensors. Their applications span homeland security, industry, environment, space, traffic control, home automation, aviation, and medicine. More than 30% of modern sensors are direct or indirect applications of the RC sensing principles. This paper reviews resistive and capacitive sensing technologies. The physical principles of resistive sensors are governed by several important laws and phenomena such as Ohm’s Law, Wiedemann-Franz Law; Photoconductive-, Piezoresistive-, and Thermoresistive Effects. The applications of these principles are presented through a variety of examples including accelerometers, flame detectors, pressure/flow rate sensors, RTDs, hygristors, chemiresistors, and bio-impedance sensors. The capacitive sensors are described through their three configurations: parallel (flat, cylindrical (coaxial, and spherical (concentric. Each configuration is discussed with respect to its geometric structure, function, and application in various sensor designs. Capacitance sensor arrays are also presented in the paper.

  5. Capacitive Cells for Dielectric Constant Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía; Maldonado, Rigoberto Franco

    2015-01-01

    A simple capacitive cell for dielectric constant measurement in liquids is presented. As an illustrative application, the cell is used for measuring the degradation of overheated edible oil through the evaluation of their dielectric constant.

  6. Complementary surface charge for enhanced capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Porada, S.; Omosebi, A.; Liu, K.L.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Landon, J.

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available activated carbon cloth electrodes are treated using nitric acid and ethylenediamine solutions, resulting in chemical surface charge enhanced carbon electrodes for capacitive deionization (CDI) applications. Surface charge enhanced electrodes are then configured in a CDI

  7. Design and test of a capacitance detection circuit based on a transimpedance amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Linfeng; Zhang Wendong; He Changde; Zhang Rui; Song Jinlong; Xue Chenyang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) capacitance detection circuit aimed at detecting micro-capacitance, which is caused by ultrasonic stimulation applied to the capacitive micro-machined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT). In the capacitance interface, a TIA is adopted to amplify the received signal with a center frequency of 400 kHz, and finally detect ultrasound pressure. The circuit has a strong anti-stray property and this paper also studies the calculation of compensation capacity in detail. To ensure high resolution, noise analysis is conducted. After optimization, the detected minimum ultrasound pressure is 2.1 Pa, which is two orders of magnitude higher than the former. The test results showed that the circuit was sensitive to changes in ultrasound pressure and the distance between the CMUT and stumbling block, which also successfully demonstrates the functionality of the developed TIA of the analog-front-end receiver. (paper)

  8. Fouling in Membrane Distillation, Osmotic Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Laqbaqbi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Various membrane separation processes are being used for seawater desalination and treatment of wastewaters in order to deal with the worldwide water shortage problem. Different types of membranes of distinct morphologies, structures and physico-chemical characteristics are employed. Among the considered membrane technologies, membrane distillation (MD, osmotic distillation (OD and osmotic membrane distillation (OMD use porous and hydrophobic membranes for production of distilled water and/or concentration of wastewaters for recovery and recycling of valuable compounds. However, the efficiency of these technologies is hampered by fouling phenomena. This refers to the accumulation of organic/inorganic deposits including biological matter on the membrane surface and/or in the membrane pores. Fouling in MD, OD and OMD differs from that observed in electric and pressure-driven membrane processes such electrodialysis (ED, membrane capacitive deionization (MCD, reverse osmosis (RO, nanofiltration (NF, ultrafiltration (UF, microfiltration (MF, etc. Other than pore blockage, fouling in MD, OD and OMD increases the risk of membrane pores wetting and reduces therefore the quantity and quality of the produced water or the concentration efficiency of the process. This review deals with the observed fouling phenomena in MD, OD and OMD. It highlights different detected fouling types (organic fouling, inorganic fouling and biofouling, fouling characterization techniques as well as various methods of fouling reduction including pretreatment, membrane modification, membrane cleaning and antiscalants application.

  9. Capacitance and surface of carbons in supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Lobato Ortega, Belén; Suárez Fernández, Loreto; Guardia, Laura; Álvarez Centeno, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    This research is focused in the missing link between the specific surface area of carbons surface and their electrochemical capacitance. Current protocols used for the characterization of carbons applied in supercapacitors electrodes induce inconsistencies in the values of the interfacial capacitance (in F m−2), which is hindering the optimization of supercapacitors. The constraints of both the physisorption of N2 at 77 K and the standard methods used for the isotherm analysis frequently lead...

  10. Development of electrical capacitance sensor for tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasif Mohd Zain; Jaafar Abdullah; Ismail Mustapha; Sazrol Azizee Ariff; Susan Maria Sipaun; Lojius Lombigit

    2004-01-01

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is one of the successful methods for imaging 2-phase liquid/gas mixture in oil pipelines and solids/gas mixture in fluidized bed and pneumatic conveying system for improvement of process plants. This paper presents the design development of an electrical capacitance sensor for use with an ECT system. This project is aimed at developing a demonstration ECT unit to be used in the oil pipe line. (Author)

  11. Automatic Power Factor Correction Using Capacitive Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Mr.Anant Kumar Tiwari,; Mrs. Durga Sharma

    2014-01-01

    The power factor correction of electrical loads is a problem common to all industrial companies. Earlier the power factor correction was done by adjusting the capacitive bank manually [1]. The automated power factor corrector (APFC) using capacitive load bank is helpful in providing the power factor correction. Proposed automated project involves measuring the power factor value from the load using microcontroller. The design of this auto-adjustable power factor correction is ...

  12. Narrow gap electronegative capacitive discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Narrow gap electronegative (EN) capacitive discharges are widely used in industry and have unique features not found in conventional discharges. In this paper, plasma parameters are determined over a range of decreasing gap length L from values for which an electropositive (EP) edge exists (2-region case) to smaller L-values for which the EN region connects directly to the sheath (1-region case). Parametric studies are performed at applied voltage V{sub rf}=500 V for pressures of 10, 25, 50, and 100 mTorr, and additionally at 50 mTorr for 1000 and 2000 V. Numerical results are given for a parallel plate oxygen discharge using a planar 1D3v (1 spatial dimension, 3 velocity components) particle-in-cell (PIC) code. New interesting phenomena are found for the case in which an EP edge does not exist. This 1-region case has not previously been investigated in detail, either numerically or analytically. In particular, attachment in the sheaths is important, and the central electron density n{sub e0} is depressed below the density n{sub esh} at the sheath edge. The sheath oscillations also extend into the EN core, creating an edge region lying within the sheath and not characterized by the standard diffusion in an EN plasma. An analytical model is developed using minimal inputs from the PIC results, and compared to the PIC results for a base case at V{sub rf}=500 V and 50 mTorr, showing good agreement. Selected comparisons are made at the other voltages and pressures. A self-consistent model is also developed and compared to the PIC results, giving reasonable agreement.

  13. Response to capacitating stimuli indicates extender-related differences in boar sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, S; Henning, H; Petrunkina, A M; Weitze, K F; Waberski, D

    2013-10-01

    Spermatozoa, especially those of the porcine species, are highly susceptible to in vitro chilling and ageing. Extenders are continuously developed to protect boar spermatozoa from chilling injury. New semen extenders and other modified preservation strategies require sensitive testing for essential sperm functions. The key process on the pathway of fertilization is capacitation. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the specific response to capacitating stimuli is sensitive enough to indicate different preservation capacities of extenders during hypothermic storage of boar spermatozoa. Semen was diluted in Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS) and Androstar Plus and kept for 3 h at 22°C or stored at 17°C, 10°C, and 5°C. Semen was analyzed at 24 and 96 h of storage. Motility and membrane integrity remained at high levels, except for lower values when stored in BTS at 5°C. Washed subsamples were incubated in capacitating medium (Tyrode) and control medium and were assessed for intracellular calcium concentration and integrity of plasma membranes using a flow cytometer. On the basis of the loss of low-calcium live cells in a kinetic approach, the specific response to capacitation stimuli was determined. There was a higher loss of response in semen stored hypothermically in the standard extender BTS compared to Androstar Plus. Assessment of the extent of phospholipid disorder under capacitating and control conditions by use of merocyanine staining did not reveal any significant extender-related differences. A field insemination trial with 778 sows was performed to relate in vitro results to fertility. Fertility parameters did not differ in semen stored up to 48 h at 10°C in Androstar Plus compared to controls stored at 17°C in BTS. In conclusion, assessment of specific reactivity to capacitating stimuli appears to be a sensitive tool for detection of extender-dependent alterations in functionality of chilled boar spermatozoa.

  14. Rac1 Activation Caused by Membrane Translocation of a Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor in Akt2-Mediated Insulin Signaling in Mouse Skeletal Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Takenaka

    Full Text Available Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle is mediated by the glucose transporter GLUT4, which is translocated to the plasma membrane following insulin stimulation. Several lines of evidence suggested that the protein kinase Akt2 plays a key role in this insulin action. The small GTPase Rac1 has also been implicated as a regulator of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation, acting downstream of Akt2. However, the mechanisms whereby Akt2 regulates Rac1 activity remain obscure. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor FLJ00068 has been identified as a direct regulator of Rac1 in Akt2-mediated signaling, but its characterization was performed mostly in cultured myoblasts. Here, we provide in vivo evidence that FLJ00068 indeed acts downstream of Akt2 as a Rac1 regulator by using mouse skeletal muscle. Small interfering RNA knockdown of FLJ00068 markedly diminished GLUT4 translocation to the sarcolemma following insulin administration or ectopic expression of a constitutively activated mutant of either phosphoinositide 3-kinase or Akt2. Additionally, insulin and these constitutively activated mutants caused the activation of Rac1 as shown by immunofluorescent microscopy using a polypeptide probe specific to activated Rac1 in isolated gastrocnemius muscle fibers and frozen sections of gastrocnemius muscle. This Rac1 activation was also abrogated by FLJ00068 knockdown. Furthermore, we observed translocation of FLJ00068 to the cell periphery following insulin stimulation in cultured myoblasts. Localization of FLJ00068 in the plasma membrane in insulin-stimulated, but not unstimulated, myoblasts and mouse gastrocnemius muscle was further affirmed by subcellular fractionation and subsequent immunoblotting. Collectively, these results strongly support a critical role of FLJ00068 in Akt2-mediated Rac1 activation in mouse skeletal muscle insulin signaling.

  15. Carbon flow electrodes for continuous operation of capacitive deionization and capacitive mixing energy generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Bryjak, M.; Presser, V.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Weingarth, D.

    2014-01-01

    Capacitive technologies, such as capacitive deionization and energy harvesting based on mixing energy (“capmix” and “CO2 energy”), are characterized by intermittent operation: phases of ion electrosorption from the water are followed by system regeneration. From a system application point of view,

  16. Terbutaline causes immobilization of single β2-adrenergic receptor-ligand complexes in the plasma membrane of living A549 cells as revealed by single-molecule microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieben, Anne; Kaminski, Tim; Kubitscheck, Ulrich; Häberlein, Hanns

    2011-02-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors are important targets for various drugs. After signal transduction, regulatory processes, such as receptor desensitization and internalization, change the lateral receptor mobility. In order to study the lateral diffusion of β2-adrenergic receptors (β2AR) complexed with fluorescently labeled noradrenaline (Alexa-NA) in plasma membranes of A549 cells, trajectories of single receptor-ligand complexes were monitored using single-particle tracking. We found that a fraction of 18% of all β2ARs are constitutively immobile. About 2/3 of the β2ARs moved with a diffusion constant of D2 = 0.03+/-0.001 μm2/s and about 17% were diffusing five-fold faster (D3 = 0.15+/-0.02 μm2/s). The mobile receptors moved within restricted domains and also showed a discontinuous diffusion behavior. Analysis of the trajectory lengths revealed two different binding durations with τ1 = 77+/-1 ms and τ2 = 388+/-11 ms. Agonistic stimulation of the β2AR-Alexa-NA complexes with 1 μM terbutaline caused immobilization of almost 50% of the receptors within 35 min. Simultaneously, the mean area covered by the mobile receptors decreased significantly. Thus, we demonstrated that agonistic stimulation followed by cell regulatory processes results in a change in β2AR mobility suggesting that different receptor dynamics characterize different receptor states.

  17. Levels of semenogelin in human spermatozoa decrease during capacitation: involvement of reactive oxygen species and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lamirande, E; Lamothe, G

    2010-07-01

    Semenogelin (Sg), the main protein of human semen coagulum, prevents sperm capacitation. The objective of this study was to examine the role of Sg and its mechanism of action. Sg blocked sperm capacitation triggered by various stimuli, via inhibition of superoxide anion (O(2)*-; luminescence assay) and nitric oxide (NO*; tested using diaminofluorescein) generation. Triton-soluble and -insoluble sperm fractions contained Sg and Sg peptides (immunoblotting), the level of which decreased with initiation of capacitation. This drop was prevented by superoxide dismutase and NO* synthase inhibitor and was reproduced by addition of O(2)*- and NO*. Zinc (Zn(2+)) blocked and a zinc chelator (TPEN) promoted the decline in Sg levels. There was a decreased labelling of Sg on the head in capacitating spermatozoa with the two fixation techniques tested (immunocytochemistry). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) (O(2)*- and NO*) caused, these changes, and zinc prevented them. Spermatozoa quickly internalized Sg upon incubation and Sg was then rapidly degraded in a zinc-inhibitable manner. Sg blocked capacitation mainly via inhibition of ROS generation. Spermatozoa appeared permeable to Sg and processed Sg in a zinc-inhibitable fashion. ROS themselves could promote sperm disposal of Sg which maybe one of the mechanisms that allows initiation of capacitation.

  18. Morphological reason for enhancement of electrochemical double layer capacitances of various acetylene blacks by electrochemical polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taegon; Ham, Chulho; Rhee, Choong Kyun; Yoon, Seong-Ho; Tsuji, Masaharu; Mochida, Isao

    2008-01-01

    Enhancement of electrochemical capacitance and morphological variations of various acetylene blacks caused by electrochemical polarization are presented. Acetylene blacks of different mean particle diameters were modified by air-oxidation and heat treatment to diversify the morphologies of the acetylene blacks before electrochemical polarization. The various acetylene blacks were electrochemically oxidized at 1.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) for 10 s and the polarization step was repeated until the capacitance values did not change any longer. These polarization steps enhanced the capacitances of the acetylene blacks and the specific enhancement factors range from 2 to 5.5. Such an enhancement is strongly related to morphological modification as revealed by transmission electron microscopic observations. The electrochemical polarization resulted in formation of tiny graphene sheets on the wide graphitic carbon surfaces, which were most responsible for the observed capacitive enhancement. Although the pseudo-capacitance increased after polarization by forming oxygenated species on the surfaces, its contribution to the total capacitance was less than 10%. The mechanism of the formation of the tiny graphene sheets during the electrochemical oxidation is described schematically

  19. The Design of Phase-Locked-Loop Circuit for Precision Capacitance Micrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shujie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High precision non-contact micrometer is normally divided into three categories: inductance micrometer, capacitance micrometer and optical interferometer micrometer. The capacitance micrometer is widely used because it has high performance to price ratio. With the improvement of automation level, precision of capacitance micrometer is required higher and higher. Generally, capacitance micrometer consists of the capacitance sensor, capacitance/voltage conversion circuit, and modulation and demodulation circuits. However, due to the existing of resistors, capacitors and other components in the circuit, the phase shift of the carrier signal and the modulated signal might occur. In this case, the specific value of phase shift cannot be determined. Therefore, error caused by the phase shift cannot be eliminated. This will reduce the accuracy of micrometer. In this design, in order to eliminate the impact of the phase shift, the phase-locked-loop (PLL circuit is employed. Through the experiment, the function of tracking the input signal phase and frequency is achieved by the phase-locked-loop circuit. This signal processing method can also be applied to tuber electrical resistance tomography system and other precision measurement circuit.

  20. Negative capacitance in a ferroelectric capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif Islam; Chatterjee, Korok; Wang, Brian; Drapcho, Steven; You, Long; Serrao, Claudy; Bakaul, Saidur Rahman; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    2015-02-01

    The Boltzmann distribution of electrons poses a fundamental barrier to lowering energy dissipation in conventional electronics, often termed as Boltzmann Tyranny. Negative capacitance in ferroelectric materials, which stems from the stored energy of a phase transition, could provide a solution, but a direct measurement of negative capacitance has so far been elusive. Here, we report the observation of negative capacitance in a thin, epitaxial ferroelectric film. When a voltage pulse is applied, the voltage across the ferroelectric capacitor is found to be decreasing with time--in exactly the opposite direction to which voltage for a regular capacitor should change. Analysis of this 'inductance'-like behaviour from a capacitor presents an unprecedented insight into the intrinsic energy profile of the ferroelectric material and could pave the way for completely new applications.

  1. Carbon nanofiber supercapacitors with large areal capacitances

    KAUST Repository

    McDonough, James R.

    2009-01-01

    We develop supercapacitor (SC) devices with large per-area capacitances by utilizing three-dimensional (3D) porous substrates. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) functioning as active SC electrodes are grown on 3D nickel foam. The 3D porous substrates facilitate a mass loading of active electrodes and per-area capacitance as large as 60 mg/ cm2 and 1.2 F/ cm2, respectively. We optimize SC performance by developing an annealing-free CNF growth process that minimizes undesirable nickel carbide formation. Superior per-area capacitances described here suggest that 3D porous substrates are useful in various energy storage devices in which per-area performance is critical. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Electrochemical capacitance performance of titanium nitride nanoarray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yibing, E-mail: ybxie@seu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Suzhou Research Institute of Southeast University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Wang, Yong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Du, Hongxiu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Suzhou Research Institute of Southeast University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2013-12-01

    Highlights: • TiN nanoarray is formed by a nitridation process of TiO{sub 2} in ammonia atmosphere. • TiN nanoarray exhibits much higher EDLC capacitance than TiO{sub 2} nanoarray. • The specific capacitance of TiN nanoarray achieves a high level of 99.7 mF cm{sup −2}. • A flexible solid-state supercapacitor is constructed by TiN nanoarray and PVA gel. -- Abstract: In this study, titanium nitride (TiN) nanoarrays with a short nanotube and long nanopore structure have been prepared by an anodization process of ultra thin titanium foil in ethylene glycol (EG) solution containing ammonium fluoride, subsequent calcination process in an air atmosphere, and final nitridation process in an ammonia atmosphere. The morphology and microstructure characterization has been conducted using field emission scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical properties have been investigated through cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectrum measurements. The electrochemical capacitance performance has been investigated by galvanostatic charge–discharge measurements in the acidic, neural and alkali electrolyte solution. Well-defined TiN nanoarrays contribute a much higher capacitance performance than titania (TiO{sub 2}) in the supercapacitor application due to the extraordinarily improved electrical conductivity. Such an electrochemical capacitance can be further enhanced by increasing aspect ratio of TiN nanoarray from short nanotubes to long nanopores. A flexible supercapacitor has been constructed using two symmetrical TiN nanoarray electrodes and a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel electrolyte with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–KCl–H{sub 2}O–EG. Such a supercapacitor has a highly improved potential window and still keeps good electrochemical energy storage. TiN nanoarray with a high aspect ratio can act well as an ultra thin film electrode material of flexible supercapacitor to contribute a superior capacitance performance.

  3. Capacitance level probe, Type FSK 88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, W.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the capacitive level probe, Type FSK 88, is to supervise the level within vessels continuously and to signalize alterations immediately. Since 1987 the level probe is installed in the pool for burn up fuel elements and in the reactor containment sump of BWRs, PWRs and WWERs. The capacitive level probe of type FSK 88 was qualified for Loss of Coolant Accidents and seismic events according to international rules. The measuring principle takes credit from the fact that the dielectric with different dielectric constants in a condensator changes the capacity of the condensator. (Authors)

  4. Detecting size and shape of bodies capacitatively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, H.

    1980-01-01

    The size and shape of a body is determined by rolling it between the plates of capacitors and measuring the capacitance changes. A capacitor comprising two parallel, spaced wires inclined to the rolling direction and above and below the rolling body scans sections of the body along its longitudinal axis, another determines the body's lengths and a third comprising two non-parallel wires determines the position of the body. The capacitance changes are compared with those produced by a body of known size and shape so that the size and shape of the body can be determined. (author)

  5. Label-free detection of sex determining region Y (SRY) via capacitive biosensor

    KAUST Repository

    Sivashankar, Shilpa

    2016-10-20

    In this work, we present for the first time, the use of a simple fractal capacitive biosensor for the quantification and detection of sex-determining region Y (SRY) genes. This section of genetic code, which is found on the Y chromosome, finds importance for study as it causes fetuses to develop characteristics of male sex-like gonads when a mutation occurs. It is also an important genetic code in men, and disorders involving the SRY gene can cause infertility and sexual malfunction that lead to a variety of gene mutational disorders. We have therefore designed silicon-based, label-free fractal capacitive biosensors to quantify various proteins and genes. We take advantage of a good dielectric material, Parylene C for enhancing the performance of the sensors. We have integrated these sensors with a simple microchannel for easy handling of fluids on the detection area. The read-out value of an Agilent LCR meter used to measure capacitance of the sensor at a frequency of 1 MHz determined gene specificity and gene quantification. These data revealed that the capacitance measurement of the capacitive biosensor for the SRY gene depended on both the target and the concentration of DNA. The experimental outcomes in the present study can be used to detect DNA and its variations in crucial fields that have a great impact on our daily lives, such as clinical and veterinary diagnostics, industrial and environmental testing and forensic sciences.

  6. Capacitors and Resistance-Capacitance Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanian, Norman; Root, Augustin A.

    This programed textbook was developed under a contract with the United States Office of Education as Number 5 in a series of materials for use in an electrical engineering sequence. It is divided into three parts--(1) capacitors, (2) voltage-current relationships, and (3) simple resistance-capacitance networks. (DH)

  7. Thermodynamic cycle analysis for capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an ion removal technology based on temporarily storing ions in the polarization layers of two oppositely positioned electrodes. Here we present a thermodynamic model for the minimum work required for ion separation in the fully reversible case by describing the ionic

  8. Performance relations in Capacitive Deionization systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpt, van B.

    2010-01-01

    Capacitive Deionization (CDI) is a relatively new deionization technology based on the temporary storage of ions on an electrically charged surface. By directing a flow between two oppositely charged surfaces, negatively charged ions will adsorb onto the positively charged surface, and positively

  9. Flexible PVDF ferroelectric capacitive temperature sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Naveed; Omran, Hesham; Yao, Yingbang; Salama, Khaled N.

    2015-01-01

    sensitivity of 16pF/°C. The linearity measurement of the capacitance-temperature relation shows less than 0.7°C error from a best fit straight line. An LC oscillator based temperature sensor is demonstrated based on this capacitor.

  10. Comparison of gate capacitance extraction methodologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazmi, S.N.R.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, many new capacitance-voltage measurement approaches have been presented in literature. New approaches became necessary with the rapidly increasing gate current density in newer CMOS generations. Here we present a simulation platform using Silvaco software, to describe the full chain

  11. Inside-out electrical capacitance tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard-Rasmussen, Jimmy; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2011-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate the construction of an ‘inside-out’ sensor geometry for electrical capacitance tomography (ECT). The inside-out geometry has the electrodes placed around a tube, as usual, but measuring ‘outwards’. The flow between the electrodes and an outer tube is reconstructed...

  12. Overview of capacitive couplings in windings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djukic, N.; Encica, L.; Paulides, J.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    The use of electrical machines (EMs) with variable-frequency drives (VFDs) results in electromagnetic interference (EMI). At high frequencies (HFs) of conducted EMI, the impedance of an EM insulation system fed from a VFD is small due to the parasitic capacitive couplings. Thus, the conducted EMI

  13. Capacitive system detects and locates fluid leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Electronic monitoring system automatically detects and locates minute leaks in seams of large fluid storage tanks and pipelines covered with thermal insulation. The system uses a capacitive tape-sensing element that is adhesively bonded over seams where fluid leaks are likely to occur.

  14. Nonlinear dynamics of capacitive charging and desalination by porous electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Bazant, M.Z.

    2010-01-01

    The rapid and efficient exchange of ions between porous electrodes and aqueous solutions is important in many applications, such as electrical energy storage by supercapacitors, water desalination and purification by capacitive deionization, and capacitive extraction of renewable energy from a

  15. Receive-Noise Analysis of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Ayhan; Yaralioglu, G Goksenin

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents an analysis of thermal (Johnson) noise received from the radiation medium by otherwise noiseless capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) membranes operating in their fundamental resonance mode. Determination of thermal noise received by multiple numbers of transducers or a transducer array requires the assessment of cross-coupling through the radiation medium, as well as the self-radiation impedance of the individual transducer. We show that the total thermal noise received by the cells of a CMUT has insignificant correlation, and is independent of the radiation impedance, but is only determined by the mass of each membrane and the electromechanical transformer ratio. The proof is based on the analytical derivations for a simple transducer with two cells, and extended to transducers with numerous cells using circuit simulators. We used a first-order model, which incorporates the fundamental resonance of the CMUT. Noise power is calculated by integrating over the entire spectrum; hence, the presented figures are an upper bound for the noise. The presented analyses are valid for a transimpedance amplifier in the receive path. We use the analysis results to calculate the minimum detectable pressure of a CMUT. We also provide an analysis based on the experimental data to show that output noise power is limited by and comparable to the theoretical upper limit.

  16. Quantum capacitance of the armchair-edge graphene nanoribbon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 81; Issue 2. Quantum capacitance of the ... Abstract. The quantum capacitance, an important parameter in the design of nanoscale devices, is derived for armchair-edge single-layer graphene nanoribbon with semiconducting property. The quantum capacitance ...

  17. Circuit and Measurement Technique for Radiation Induced Drift in Precision Capacitance Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sudheer; Shankar, Krishnamurthy Ganapathy

    2013-04-01

    In the design of radiation tolerant precision ADCs targeted for space market, a matched capacitor array is crucial. The drift of capacitance ratios due to radiation should be small enough not to cause linearity errors. Conventional methods for measuring capacitor matching may not achieve the desired level of accuracy due to radiation induced gain errors in the measurement circuits. In this work, we present a circuit and method for measuring capacitance ratio drift to a very high accuracy (<; 1 ppm) unaffected by radiation levels up to 150 krad.

  18. Design, Development and Testing of a Semicircular Type Capacitive Angular Position Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil GAURAV

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A low cost semicircular type capacitive angular position sensor has been designed, developed and tested. It is made of two semicircular parallel plates where one plate is fixed and another plate is connected with the rotor whose angular position is to be measured. When the angular position of the rotor changes with respect to the fixed plate, the overlapping area between the two plates of the capacitor is varied causing a change in capacitance value. Capacitance variation obtained due to the change in angular position is in the nano farad range. For signal conditioning, series R-L-C resonating circuit instead of conventional bridge circuit has been used to convert the sensor capacitance variation in to voltage. Experimental result shows that the capacitance for change in angular position 0º-180º increases linearly and for 180º-360º it decreases linearly. To get a linearly increasing response of same slope for the full scale of 0º-360º, a suitable linearising circuit has been designed, developed and tested. Sensor output along with the signal conditioning shows good linearity and repeatability.

  19. Memory properties and charge effect study in Si nanocrystals by scanning capacitance microscopy and spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassani Franck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this letter, isolated Si nanocrystal has been formed by dewetting process with a thin silicon dioxide layer on top. Scanning capacitance microscopy and spectroscopy were used to study the memory properties and charge effect in the Si nanocrystal in ambient temperature. The retention time of trapped charges injected by different direct current (DC bias were evaluated and compared. By ramp process, strong hysteresis window was observed. The DC spectra curve shift direction and distance was observed differently for quantitative measurements. Holes or electrons can be separately injected into these Si-ncs and the capacitance changes caused by these trapped charges can be easily detected by scanning capacitance microscopy/spectroscopy at the nanometer scale. This study is very useful for nanocrystal charge trap memory application.

  20. Modeling of frequency-dependent negative differential capacitance in InGaAs/InP photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yidong; Chen, Jun; Xu, Jintong; Li, Xiangyang

    2018-03-01

    The negative differential capacitance (NDC) of p-i-n InGaAs/InP photodetector has been clearly observed, and the small signal model of frequency-dependent NDC is established, based on the accumulation and emission of electrons at the p-InP/i-InGaAs interface. The NDC phenomenon is contributed by the additional capacitance (CT), which is caused by the charging-discharging process in the p-InP/i-InGaAs interface. It is found that the NDC becomes more obvious with decreasing frequency, which is consistent with the conclusion of the experiment. It is proved that the probability of electron capture/escape in the p-i interface is affected by frequency. Therefore, the smaller frequency applied, the higher additional capacitance is obtained.

  1. A capacitively coupled dose-rate-dependent transient upset mechanism in a bipolar memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turfler, R.M.; Pease, R.L.; Dinger, G.; Armstrong, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a pattern sensitivity that was observed in the threshold dose rate response of a bipolar 16K PROM for radiation pulse widths of 20-100 ns. For the worst case pattern, the upset threshold was a factor of three lower than for the commonly used checkerboard pattern. The mechanism for this pattern sensitivity was found to be a capacitively coupled voltage transient on a sensitive node which caused a low-to-high transition at the output. A design fix was implemented to significantly alter the ratio of the two parasitic capacitances in a capacitive divider which reduced the amplitude of the voltage transient at the sensitive node. It was demonstrated that in the redesign, the pattern sensitivity was eliminated

  2. Resolving the paradox for protein aggregation diseases: NMR structure and dynamics of the membrane-embedded P56S-MSP causing ALS imply a common mechanism for aggregation-prone proteins to attack membranes [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3zl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haina Qin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Paradoxically, aggregation of specific proteins is characteristic of many human diseases and aging, yet aggregates have increasingly been found to be unnecessary for initiating pathogenesis. Here we determined the NMR topology and dynamics of a helical mutant in a membrane environment transformed from the 125-residue cytosolic all-β MSP domain of vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein B (VAPB by the ALS-causing P56S mutation. Despite its low hydrophobicity, the P56S major sperm protein (MSP domain becomes largely embedded in the membrane environment with high backbone rigidity. Furthermore it is composed of five helices with amphiphilicity comparable to those of the partly-soluble membrane toxin mellitin and α-synuclein causing Parkinson's disease. Consequently, the mechanism underlying this chameleon transformation becomes clear: by disrupting the specific tertiary interaction network stabilizing the native all-β MSP fold to release previously-locked amphiphilic segments, the P56S mutation acts to convert the classic MSP fold into a membrane-active protein that is fundamentally indistinguishable from mellitin and α-synuclein which are disordered in aqueous solution but spontaneously partition into membrane interfaces driven by hydrogen-bond energetics gained from forming α-helix in the membrane environments. As segments with high amphiphilicity exist in all proteins, our study successfully resolves the paradox by deciphering that the proteins with a higher tendency to aggregate have a stronger potential to partition into membranes through the same mechanism as α-synuclein to initially attack membranes to trigger pathogenesis without needing aggregates. This might represent the common first step for various kinds of aggregated proteins to trigger familiar, sporadic and aging diseases. Therefore the homeostasis of aggregated proteins in vivo is the central factor responsible for a variety of human diseases including aging

  3. Gas temperature of capacitance spark discharge in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Ryo; Nifuku, Masaharu; Fujiwara, Shuzo; Horiguchi, Sadashige; Oda, Tetsuji

    2005-01-01

    Capacitance spark discharge has been widely used for studying the ignition of flammable gas caused by electrostatic discharge. In the present study, the gas temperature of capacitance spark discharge is measured. The gas temperature is an important factor in understanding the electrostatic ignition process because it influences the reaction rate of ignition. Spark discharge is generated in air with a pulse duration shorter than 100 ns. The discharge energy is set to 0.03-1 mJ. The rotational and vibrational temperatures of the N 2 molecule are measured using the emission spectrum of the N 2 second positive system. The rotational and vibrational temperatures are estimated to be 500 and 5000 K, respectively, which are independent of the discharge energy. This result indicates that most of the electron energy is consumed in the excitation of vibrational levels of molecules rather than the heating of the gas. The gas temperature after discharge is also measured by laser-induced fluorescence of OH radicals. It is shown that the gas temperature increases after discharge and reaches approximately 1000 K at 3 μs after discharge. Then the temperature decreases at a rate in the range of 8-35 K/μs depending on the discharge energy

  4. Membrane dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications...... for the lateral organization of membranes as wells as for physical properties like bending, permeability and elasticity...

  5. Compressed magnetic flux amplifier with capacitive load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuetzer, O.M.

    1980-03-01

    A first-order analysis is presented for a compressed magnetic flux (CMF) current amplifier working into a load with a capacitive component. Since the purpose of the investigation was to gain a general understanding of the arrangement, a number of approximations and limitations were accepted. The inductance of the transducer varies with time; the inductance/resistance/capacitance (LRC) circuit therefore is parametric and solutions are different for the stable regime (high C), the oscillation regime (low C), and the transition case. Solutions and performance depend strongly on circuit boundary conditions, i.e., energization of the circuit by either an injected current or by an applied capacitor charge. The behavior of current and energy amplification for the various cases are discussed in detail. A number of experiments with small CMF devices showed that the first-order theory presented predicts transducer performance well in the linear regime

  6. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to the k-location capacitated vehicle routing problem (k-LocVRP) consists of a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k identical vehicles, each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k...... depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP. In obtaining this result, we introduce a common generalization of the k-median and minimum...... spanning tree problems (called k median forest), which might be of independent interest. We give a local-search based (3+ε)-approximation algorithm for k median forest, which leads to a (12+ε)-approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP, for any constant ε>0....

  7. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP. In obtaining this result, we introduce a common generalization of the k-median and minimum...... spanning tree problems (called k median forest), which might be of independent interest. We give a local-search based (3+ε)-approximation algorithm for k median forest, which leads to a (12+ε)-approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP, for any constant ε>0.......We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to the k-location capacitated vehicle routing problem (k-LocVRP) consists of a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k identical vehicles, each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k...

  8. Development of a contactless capacitive immunosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Perruche, Brice Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, a label-free, contactless and capacitive immunosensor is developed using impedance spectroscopy, in the aim to perform low-cost immunoassays. Chapter 1 puts this work in perspective with some existing techniques, while a presentation of impedance theory used in this work is carried out in chapter 2. In Chapter 3, numerical simulations using a commercial finite element method software is carried out. The response of coplanar and fa...

  9. Adding Resistances and Capacitances in Introductory Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimiou, C. J.; Llewellyn, R. A.

    2005-09-01

    All introductory physics textbooks, with or without calculus, cover the addition of both resistances and capacitances in series and in parallel as discrete summations. However, none includes problems that involve continuous versions of resistors in parallel or capacitors in series. This paper introduces a method for solving the continuous problems that is logical, straightforward, and within the mathematical preparation of students at the introductory level.

  10. Multi-Channel Capacitive Sensor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingnan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, multi-channel capacitive sensor arrays based on microstrip band-stop filters are studied. The sensor arrays can be used to detect the proximity of objects at different positions and directions. Each capacitive sensing structure in the array is connected to an inductive element to form resonance at different frequencies. The resonances are designed to be isolated in the frequency spectrum, such that the change in one channel does not affect resonances at other channels. The inductive element associated with each capacitive sensor can be surface-mounted inductors, integrated microstrip inductors or metamaterial-inspired structures. We show that by using metamaterial split-ring structures coupled to a microstrip line, the quality factor of each resonance can be greatly improved compared to conventional surface-mounted or microstrip meander inductors. With such a microstrip-coupled split-ring design, more sensing elements can be integrated in the same frequency spectrum, and the sensitivity can be greatly improved.

  11. Capacitive Structures for Gas and Biological Sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Sapsanis, Christos

    2015-04-01

    The semiconductor industry was benefited by the advances in technology in the last decades. This fact has an impact on the sensors field, where the simple transducer was evolved into smart miniaturized multi-functional microsystems. However, commercially available gas and biological sensors are mostly bulky, expensive, and power-hungry, which act as obstacles to mass use. The aim of this work is gas and biological sensing using capacitive structures. Capacitive sensors were selected due to its design simplicity, low fabrication cost, and no DC power consumption. In the first part, the dominant structure among interdigitated electrodes (IDEs), fractal curves (Peano and Hilbert) and Archimedean spiral was investigated from capacitance density perspective. The investigation consists of geometrical formula calculations, COMSOL Multiphysics simulations and cleanroom fabrication of the capacitors on a silicon substrate. Moreover, low-cost fabrication on flexible plastic PET substrate was conducted outside cleanroom with rapid prototyping using a maskless laser etching. The second part contains the humidity, Volatile Organic compounds (VOCs) and Ammonia sensing of polymers, Polyimide and Nafion, and metal-organic framework (MOF), Cu(bdc)2.xH2O using IDEs and tested in an automated gas setup for experiment control and data extraction. The last part includes the biological sensing of C - reactive protein (CRP) quantification, which is considered as a biomarker of being prone to cardiac diseases and Bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein quantification, which is used as a reference for quantifying unknown proteins.

  12. Modeling and Design of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers Based-on Database Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, M W; Gwo, T J; Deng, T M; Chang, H C

    2006-01-01

    A Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers simulation database, based on electromechanical coupling theory, has been fully developed for versatile capacitive microtransducer design and analysis. Both arithmetic and graphic configurations are used to find optimal parameters based on serial coupling simulations. The key modeling parameters identified can improve microtransducer's character and reliability effectively. This method could be used to reduce design time and fabrication cost, eliminating trial-and-error procedures. Various microtransducers, with optimized characteristics, can be developed economically using the developed database. A simulation to design an ultrasonic microtransducer is completed as an executed example. The dependent relationship between membrane geometry, vibration displacement and output response is demonstrated. The electromechanical coupling effects, mechanical impedance and frequency response are also taken into consideration for optimal microstructures. The microdevice parameters with the best output signal response are predicted, and microfabrication processing constraints and realities are also taken into consideration

  13. Modelling and design of a capacitive touch sensor for urinary tract infection detection at the point-of-care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Cátia; Dong, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Due to great use of touchscreens in mobile telephones and other electronic devices, there has been great evolution in this technology. Its wide applicability makes the touch sensor technology suitable for detection of specific components in urine, responsible for urinary tract infection (UTI). Integration of a touch sensor in a disposable probe tip to be used in UTI detection represents a powerful tool to develop new point-of-care testing (POCT) devices. The simplified structure of an electrodes array touch screen was simulated using the software COMSOL Multiphysics to prove that capacitive based touch screens can be used for detection of UTI. Besides we assumed presence of E.coli, one of the major causes of UTI urine. Results show that global capacitance increases if an E.coli sphere is present near the active electrodes, remaining approximately constant when further apart electrodes are excited. The output simulated voltage varies according to the capacitance value, decreasing when the capacitance is increased.

  14. A porous ceramic membrane tailored high-temperature supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; He, Benlin; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Tang, Qunwei

    2018-03-01

    The supercapacitor that can operate at high-temperature are promising for markedly increase in capacitance because of accelerated charge movement. However, the state-of-the-art polymer-based membranes will decompose at high temperature. Inspired by solid oxide fuel cells, we present here the experimental realization of high-temperature supercapacitors (HTSCs) tailored with porous ceramic separator fabricated by yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and nickel oxide (NiO). Using activated carbon electrode and supporting electrolyte from potassium hydroxide (KOH) aqueous solution, a category of symmetrical HTSCs are built in comparison with a conventional polymer membrane based device. The dependence of capacitance performance on temperature is carefully studied, yielding a maximized specific capacitance of 272 F g-1 at 90 °C for the optimized HTSC tailored by NiO/YSZ membrane. Moreover, the resultant HTSC has relatively high durability when suffer repeated measurement over 1000 cycles at 90 °C, while the polymer membrane based supercapacitor shows significant reduction in capacitance at 60 °C. The high capacitance along with durability demonstrates NiO/YSZ membrane tailored HTSCs are promising in future advanced energy storage devices.

  15. Blue Energy and Desalination with Nanoporous Carbon Electrodes: Capacitance from Molecular Simulations to Continuous Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Simoncelli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Capacitive mixing (CapMix and capacitive deionization (CDI are currently developed as alternatives to membrane-based processes to harvest blue energy—from salinity gradients between river and sea water—and to desalinate water—using charge-discharge cycles of capacitors. Nanoporous electrodes increase the contact area with the electrolyte and hence, in principle, also the performance of the process. However, models to design and optimize devices should be used with caution when the size of the pores becomes comparable to that of ions and water molecules. Here, we address this issue by simulating realistic capacitors based on aqueous electrolytes and nanoporous carbide-derived carbon (CDC electrodes, accounting for both their complex structure and their polarization by the electrolyte under applied voltage. We compute the capacitance for two salt concentrations and validate our simulations by comparison with cyclic voltammetry experiments. We discuss the predictions of Debye-Hückel and Poisson-Boltzmann theories, as well as modified Donnan models, and we show that the latter can be parametrized using the molecular simulation results at high concentration. This then allows us to extrapolate the capacitance and salt adsorption capacity at lower concentrations, which cannot be simulated, finding a reasonable agreement with the experimental capacitance. We analyze the solvation of ions and their confinement within the electrodes—microscopic properties that are much more difficult to obtain experimentally than the electrochemical response but very important to understand the mechanisms at play. We finally discuss the implications of our findings for CapMix and CDI, both from the modeling point of view and from the use of CDCs in these contexts.

  16. Blue Energy and Desalination with Nanoporous Carbon Electrodes: Capacitance from Molecular Simulations to Continuous Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoncelli, Michele; Ganfoud, Nidhal; Sene, Assane; Haefele, Matthieu; Daffos, Barbara; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Salanne, Mathieu; Simon, Patrice; Rotenberg, Benjamin

    2018-04-01

    Capacitive mixing (CapMix) and capacitive deionization (CDI) are currently developed as alternatives to membrane-based processes to harvest blue energy—from salinity gradients between river and sea water—and to desalinate water—using charge-discharge cycles of capacitors. Nanoporous electrodes increase the contact area with the electrolyte and hence, in principle, also the performance of the process. However, models to design and optimize devices should be used with caution when the size of the pores becomes comparable to that of ions and water molecules. Here, we address this issue by simulating realistic capacitors based on aqueous electrolytes and nanoporous carbide-derived carbon (CDC) electrodes, accounting for both their complex structure and their polarization by the electrolyte under applied voltage. We compute the capacitance for two salt concentrations and validate our simulations by comparison with cyclic voltammetry experiments. We discuss the predictions of Debye-Hückel and Poisson-Boltzmann theories, as well as modified Donnan models, and we show that the latter can be parametrized using the molecular simulation results at high concentration. This then allows us to extrapolate the capacitance and salt adsorption capacity at lower concentrations, which cannot be simulated, finding a reasonable agreement with the experimental capacitance. We analyze the solvation of ions and their confinement within the electrodes—microscopic properties that are much more difficult to obtain experimentally than the electrochemical response but very important to understand the mechanisms at play. We finally discuss the implications of our findings for CapMix and CDI, both from the modeling point of view and from the use of CDCs in these contexts.

  17. Filtration characteristics in membrane bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evenblij, H.

    2006-01-01

    Causes of and remedies for membrane fouling in Membrane Bioreactors for wastewater treatment are only poorly understood and described in scientific literature. A Filtration Characterisation Installation and a measurement protocol were developed with the aim of a) unequivocally determination and

  18. Effect of calcium, bicarbonate, and albumin on capacitation-related events in equine sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-García, B; González-Fernández, L; Loux, S C; Rocha, A M; Guimarães, T; Peña, F J; Varner, D D; Hinrichs, K

    2015-01-01

    Repeatable methods for IVF have not been established in the horse, reflecting the failure of standard capacitating media to induce changes required for fertilization capacity in equine sperm. One important step in capacitation is membrane cholesterol efflux, which in other species is triggered by cholesterol oxidation and is typically enhanced using albumin as a sterol acceptor. We incubated equine sperm in the presence of calcium, BSA, and bicarbonate, alone or in combination. Bicarbonate induced an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was abolished by the addition of calcium or BSA. Bicarbonate induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PY), even in the presence of calcium or BSA. Incubation at high pH enhanced PY but did not increase ROS production. Notably, no combination of these factors was associated with significant cholesterol efflux, as assessed by fluorescent quantitative cholesterol assay and confirmed by filipin staining. By contrast, sperm treated with methyl-β-cyclodextrin showed a significant reduction in cholesterol levels, but no significant increase in PY or ROS. Presence of BSA increased sperm binding to bovine zonae pellucidae in all three stallions. These results show that presence of serum albumin is not associated with a reduction in membrane cholesterol levels in equine sperm, highlighting the failure of equine sperm to exhibit core capacitation-related changes in a standard capacitating medium. These data indicate an atypical relationship among cholesterol efflux, ROS production, and PY in equine sperm. Our findings may help to elucidate factors affecting failure of equine IVF under standard conditions. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  19. PERBEDAAN SKIN CAPACITANCE DAN TRANSEPIDERMAL WATER LOSS PADA KULIT NON-LESI PASIEN PITIRIASIS VERSIKOLOR DENGAN NON-PITIRIASIS VERSIKOLOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Wydya Yenny

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPada pitiriasis versikolor sering timbul kekambuhan, diduga salah satu penyebabnya adalah kelembaban kulit yang tinggi. Kelembaban kulit dipengaruhi oleh skin capacitance dan transepidermal water loss.Mengetahui skin capacitance dan transepidermal water loss kulit pasien pitiriasis versikolor dan perbedaannya dengan non-pitiriasis versikolor.Penelitian ini merupakan studi potong lintang perbandingan antar kelompok, yang dilakukan pada bulan September sampai dengan Nopember 2004 di Rumah Sakit Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo. Subyek penelitian pasien pitiriasis versikolor dan kontrol non-pitiriasis versikolor yang dipasangkan dalam hal umur dan jenis kelamin dan dilakukan pemeriksaan skin capacitance dan transepidermal water loss pada kulit yang tampak normal di punggung menggunakan alat Tewameter/Corneometer 350.Dalam kurun waktu tersebut telah diperiksa sebanyak 32 pasien pitiriasis versikolor dan 32 kontrol non-pitiriasis versikolor. Skin capacitance pasien pitiriasis versikolor secara statistik tidak berbeda dengan kontrol non-pitiriasis versikolor (p = 0,730. Transepidermal water loss pasien pitiriasis versikolor secara bermakna lebih rendah dari pada kelompok kontrol non-pitiriasis versikolor (p = 0,000.Tidak ada perbedaan skin capacitance kulit pasien pitiriasis versikolor dengan non-pitiriasis versikolor. Transepidermal water loss kulit pasien pitiriasis versikolor lebih rendah daripada non-pitiriasis versikolor.Kata kunci: pitiriasis versikolor, skin capacitance, transepidermal water lossAbstractThe recurrence of pityriasis versicolor is high, it could be caused by high skin hydration. Skin hydration was influenced by skin capacitance and transepidermal water loss.ARTIKEL PENELITIAN168The purpose of this study was to compare the differences of the skin capacitance and transepidermal water loss between the pityriasis versicolor skin and healthy non-pityriasis versicolor skin.The design of this study was comparative cross-sectional study

  20. Microporous silica membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermal stability is a crucial factor for the application of microporous silica-based membranes in industrial processes. Indeed, it is well established that steam exposure may cause densification and defect formation in microporous silica membranes, which are detrimental to both membrane...... permeability and selectivity. Numerous previous studies show that microporous transition metal doped-silica membranes are hydrothermally more stable than pure silica membranes, but less permeable. Here we present a quantitative study on the impact of type and concentration of transition metal ions...... on the microporous structure, stability and permeability of amorphous silica-based membranes, providing information on how to design chemical compositions and synthetic paths for the fabrication of silica-based membranes with a well accessible and highly stabile microporous structure....

  1. Improved capacitance sensor with variable operating frequency for scanning capacitance microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Joonhyung; Kim, Joonhui; Jeong, Jong-Hwa; Lee, Euy-Kyu; Seok Kim, Yong; Kang, Chi Jung; Park, Sang-il

    2005-01-01

    Scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) has been gaining attention for its capability to measure local electrical properties in doping profile, oxide thickness, trapped charges and charge dynamics. In many cases, stray capacitance produced by different samples and measurement conditions affects the resonance frequency of a capacitance sensor. The applications of conventional SCM are critically limited by the fixed operating frequency and lack of tunability in its SCM sensor. In order to widen SCM application to various samples, we have developed a novel SCM sensor with variable operating frequency. By performing variable frequency sweep over the band of 160 MHz, the SCM sensor is tuned to select the best and optimized resonance frequency and quality factor for each sample measurement. The fundamental advantage of the new variable frequency SCM sensor was demonstrated in the SCM imaging of silicon oxide nano-crystals. Typical sensitivity of the variable frequency SCM sensor was found to be 10 -19 F/V

  2. Capacitive Sensing of Glucose in Electrolytes Using Graphene Quantum Capacitance Varactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Ma, Rui; Zhen, Xue V; Kudva, Yogish C; Bühlmann, Philippe; Koester, Steven J

    2017-11-08

    A novel graphene-based variable capacitor (varactor) that senses glucose based on the quantum capacitance effect was successfully developed. The sensor utilizes a metal-oxide-graphene varactor device structure that is inherently compatible with passive wireless sensing, a key advantage for in vivo glucose sensing. The graphene varactors were functionalized with pyrene-1-boronic acid (PBA) by self-assembly driven by π-π interactions. Successful surface functionalization was confirmed by both Raman spectroscopy and capacitance-voltage characterization of the devices. Through glucose binding to the PBA, the glucose concentration in the buffer solutions modulates the level of electrostatic doping of the graphene surface to different degrees, which leads to capacitance changes and Dirac voltage shifts. These responses to the glucose concentration were shown to be reproducible and reversible over multiple measurement cycles, suggesting promise for eventual use in wireless glucose monitoring.

  3. Preincubation of macrophages alveolar of rate with vitamin C or E attenuate the damage to the plasmatic membrane caused by exhibition to ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.

    2001-01-01

    The damaging effects of a 60 minute ozone exposure (0.594 ppm) on the cell membrane of rat alveolar macrophages was assessed by measuring specific release of 51 Cr label from the cells. Preincubation of the macrophages in the presence of vitamin C (sodium ascorbate) or vitamine E (DL α tocoferol) prior the ozone exposure significantly diminished 51 Cr release. The protective effect of vitamin E was dose dependent. A proposal accounting for the protective effect of vitamins E and C on the cell membrane is presented, and our findings are discussed in relation to recent reports showing that antioxidant supplementation contributes to preserve pulmonary function in ozone-exposed normal and asthmatic volunteers. (Author) [es

  4. Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography with High-Contrast Dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography (ECVT) system has been designed to complement the tools created to sense the presence of water in nonconductive spacecraft materials, by helping to not only find the approximate location of moisture but also its quantity and depth. The ECVT system has been created for use with a new image reconstruction algorithm capable of imaging high-contrast dielectric distributions. Rather than relying solely on mutual capacitance readings as is done in traditional electrical capacitance tomography applications, this method reconstructs high-resolution images using only the self-capacitance measurements. The image reconstruction method assumes that the material under inspection consists of a binary dielectric distribution, with either a high relative dielectric value representing the water or a low dielectric value for the background material. By constraining the unknown dielectric material to one of two values, the inverse math problem that must be solved to generate the image is no longer ill-determined. The image resolution becomes limited only by the accuracy and resolution of the measurement circuitry. Images were reconstructed using this method with both synthetic and real data acquired using an aluminum structure inserted at different positions within the sensing region. The cuboid geometry of the system has two parallel planes of 16 conductors arranged in a 4 4 pattern. The electrode geometry consists of parallel planes of copper conductors, connected through custom-built switch electronics, to a commercially available capacitance to digital converter. The figure shows two 4 4 arrays of electrodes milled from square sections of copper-clad circuit-board material and mounted on two pieces of glass-filled plastic backing, which were cut to approximately square shapes, 10 cm on a side. Each electrode is placed on 2.0-cm centers. The parallel arrays were mounted with the electrode arrays approximately 3 cm apart. The open ends

  5. Study the Z-Plane Strip Capacitance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, H.; Swain, S.

    2005-01-01

    The BaBaR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is currently undergoing an upgrade to improve its muon and neutral hadron detection system. The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) that had been used till now have deteriorated in performance over the past few years and are being replaced by Limited Streamer Tube (LSTs). Each layer of the system consists of a set of up to 10 streamer tube modules which provide one coordinate (φ coordinate) and a single ''Z-plane'' which provides the Z coordinate of the hit. The large area Z-planes (up to 12m 2 ) are 1mm thick and contain 96 copper strips that detect the induced charge from avalanches created in the streamer tube wires. All the Z-planes needed for the upgrade have already been constructed, but only a third of the planes were installed last summer. After installing the 24 Z-planes last year, it was learned that 0.7% of the strips were dead when put inside the detector. This was mainly due to the delicate solder joint between the read-out cable and the strip, and since it is difficult to access or replace the Z-planes inside the detector, it is very important to perform various tests to make sure that the Z-planes will be efficient and effective in the long term. We measure the capacitance between the copper strips and the ground plane, and compare it to the theoretical value that we expect. Instead of measuring the capacitance channel by channel, which would be a very tedious job, we developed a more effective method of measuring the capacitance. Since all the Z-planes were built at SLAC, we also built a smaller 46 cm by 30 cm Z-plane with 12 strips just to see how they were constructed and to gain a better understanding about the solder joints

  6. Understanding the Capacitance of PEDOT:PSS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volkov, Anton V.; Wijeratne, Kosala; Mitraka, Evangelia

    2017-01-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) is the most studied and explored mixed ion-electron conducting polymer system. PEDOT:PSS is commonly included as an electroactive conductor in various organic devices, e.g., supercapacitors, displays, transistors, and energy......-converters. In spite of its long-term use as a material for storage and transport of charges, the fundamentals of its bulk capacitance remain poorly understood. Generally, charge storage in supercapacitors is due to formation of electrical double layers or redox reactions, and it is widely accepted that PEDOT...

  7. Spectral response analysis of PVDF capacitive sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Ramírez, B.; García-Segundo, C.; García-Valenzuela, A.

    2013-06-01

    We investigate the spectral response to ultrasound waves in water of low-noise capacitive sensors based on PVDF polymer piezoelectric films. First, we analyze theoretically the mechanical-to-electrical transduction as a function of the frequency of ultrasonic signals and derive an analytic expression of the sensor's transfer function. Then we present experimental results of the frequency response of a home-made PDVF in water to test signals from 1 to 20 MHz induced by a commercial hydrophone powered by a signal generator and compare with our theoretical model.

  8. Capacitive tool standoff sensor for dismantlement tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.J.; Weber, T.M.; Liu, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    A capacitive sensing technology has been applied to develop a Standoff Sensor System for control of robotically deployed tools utilized in Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) activities. The system combines four individual sensor elements to provide non-contact, multiple degree-of-freedom control of tools at distances up to five inches from a surface. The Standoff Sensor has been successfully integrated to a metal cutting router and a pyrometer, and utilized for real-time control of each of these tools. Experiments demonstrate that the system can locate stationary surfaces with a repeatability of 0.034 millimeters

  9. Development of a Novel Transparent Flexible Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Chen Pang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the world’s first transparent flexible capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT that was fabricated through a roll-lamination technique. This polymer-based CMUT has advantages of transparency, flexibility, and non-contacting detection which provide unique functions in display panel applications. Comprising an indium tin oxide-polyethylene terephthalate (ITO-PET substrate, SU-8 sidewall and vibrating membranes, and silver nanowire transparent electrode, the transducer has visible-light transmittance exceeding 80% and can operate on curved surfaces with a 40 mm radius of curvature. Unlike the traditional silicon-based high temperature process, the CMUT can be fabricated on a flexible substrate at a temperature below 100 °C to reduce residual stress introduced at high temperature. The CMUT on the curved surfaces can detect a flat target and finger at distances up to 50 mm and 40 mm, respectively. The transparent flexible CMUT provides a better human-machine interface than existing touch panels because it can be integrated with a display panel for non-contacting control in a health conscious environment and the flexible feature is critical for curved display and wearable electronics.

  10. Mutual capacitance of liquid conductors in deformable tactile sensing arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Fontecchio, Adam K. [Electrical and Computer Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering Departments, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Visell, Yon [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Media Arts and Technology, California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Advances in highly deformable electronics are needed in order to enable emerging categories of soft computing devices ranging from wearable electronics, to medical devices, and soft robotic components. The combination of highly elastic substrates with intrinsically stretchable conductors holds the promise of enabling electronic sensors that can conform to curved objects, reconfigurable displays, or soft biological tissues, including the skin. Here, we contribute sensing principles for tactile (mechanical image) sensors based on very low modulus polymer substrates with embedded liquid metal microfluidic arrays. The sensors are fabricated using a single-step casting method that utilizes fine nylon filaments to produce arrays of cylindrical channels on two layers. The liquid metal (gallium indium alloy) conductors that fill these channels readily adopt the shape of the embedding membrane, yielding levels of deformability greater than 400%, due to the use of soft polymer substrates. We modeled the sensor performance using electrostatic theory and continuum mechanics, yielding excellent agreement with experiments. Using a matrix-addressed capacitance measurement technique, we are able to resolve strain distributions with millimeter resolution over areas of several square centimeters.

  11. Study on effective MOSFET channel length extracted from gate capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Katsuhiro; Terada, Kazuo; Fujisaka, Hisato

    2018-01-01

    The effective channel length (L GCM) of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is extracted from the gate capacitances of actual-size MOSFETs, which are measured by charge-injection-induced-error-free charge-based capacitance measurement (CIEF CBCM). To accurately evaluate the capacitances between the gate and the channel of test MOSFETs, the parasitic capacitances are removed by using test MOSFETs having various channel sizes and a source/drain reference device. A strong linear relationship between the gate-channel capacitance and the design channel length is obtained, from which L GCM is extracted. It is found that L GCM is slightly less than the effective channel length (L CRM) extracted from the measured MOSFET drain current. The reason for this is discussed, and it is found that the capacitance between the gate electrode and the source and drain regions affects this extraction.

  12. Facile preparation of polypyrrole/graphene oxide nanocomposites with large areal capacitance using electrochemical codeposition for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haihan; Han, Gaoyi; Xiao, Yaoming; Chang, Yunzhen; Zhai, Hua-Jin

    2014-10-01

    A simple and low-cost electrochemical codeposition method has been introduced to fabricate polypyrrole/graphene oxide (PPy/GO) nanocomposites and the areal capacitance of conducting polymer/GO composites is reported for the first time. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are implemented to determine the PPy/GO nanocomposites are successfully prepared and the interaction between PPy and GO. The as-prepared PPy/GO nanocomposites show the curly sheet-like morphology, superior capacitive behaviors and cyclic stability. Furthermore, the varying deposition time is implemented to investigate the impact of the loading amount on electrochemical behavior of the composites, and a high areal capacitance of 152 mF cm-2 is achieved at 10 mV s-1 CV scan. However, the thicker films caused by the long deposition time would result in larger diffusion resistance of electrolyte ions, consequently exhibit the relatively lower capacitance value at the high current density. The GCD tests indicate moderate deposition time is more suitable for the fast charge/discharge. Considering the very simple and effective synthetic process, the PPy/GO nanocomposites with relatively high areal capacitance are competitive candidate for supercapacitor application, and its capacitive performances can be easily tuned by varying the deposition time.

  13. Fabrication of a capacitive relative humidity sensor using aluminum thin films deposited on etched printed circuit board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jacqueline Ann L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A capacitive humidity-sensing device was created by thermal evaporation of 99.999% aluminum. The substrate used for the coating was etched double-sided printed circuit board. The etched printed circuit board serves as the dielectric of the capacitor while the aluminum thin films deposited on either side serve as the plates of the capacitor. The capacitance was measured before and after exposure to humidity. The device was then calibrated by comparing the readings of capacitance with that of the relative humidity sensor of the Vernier LabQuest2. It was found that there is a linear relationship between the capacitance and relative humidity given by the equation C=1.418RH+29.139 where C is the capacitance and RH is the relative humidity. The surface of the aluminum films is porous and it is through these pores that water is adsorbed and capillary condensation occurs, thereby causing the capacitance to change upon exposure to humidity.

  14. Dispersion capacitive de l'interface H2SO4/Pt Capacitive dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences Exactes. Université des .... d'un comportement idéal de la capacité. Au vu .... Figure 2 : Photographie de la cellule Pt/0,5 MH2SO4 (fabriquée par Verre-Lab Constantine) plongée dans un bain.

  15. Impedance study of membrane dehydration and compression in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Canut, Jean-Marc; Latham, Ruth; Merida, Walter; Harrington, David A. [Institute for Integrated Energy Systems, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)

    2009-07-15

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is used to measure drying and rehydration in proton exchange membrane fuel cells running under load. The hysteresis between forward and backward acquisition of polarization curves is shown to be largely due to changes in the membrane resistance. Drying tests are carried out with hydrogen and simulated reformate (hydrogen and carbon dioxide), and quasi-periodic drying and rehydration conditions are studied. The membrane hydration state is clearly linked to the high-frequency arc in the impedance spectrum, which increases in size for dry conditions indicating an increase in membrane resistance. Changes in impedance spectra as external compression is applied to the cell assembly show that EIS can separate membrane and interfacial effects, and that changes in membrane resistance dominate. Reasons for the presence of a capacitance in parallel with the membrane resistance are discussed. (author)

  16. Accurate sizing of supercapacitors storage system considering its capacitance variation.

    OpenAIRE

    Trieste , Sony; Bourguet , Salvy; Olivier , Jean-Christophe; Loron , Luc; Le Claire , Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This paper highlights the energy errors made for the design of supercapacitors used as a main energy source. First of all, the paper presents the two definitions of capacitance of a capacitance-voltage dependent material. The number of supercapacitors is important for the application purchasing cost. That is why the paper introduces an analytical model and an electrical model along with an identification method for the capacitance variation. This variation is presented...

  17. Carrier Statistics and Quantum Capacitance Models of Graphene Nanoscroll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khaledian

    2014-01-01

    schematic perfect scroll-like Archimedes spiral. The DOS model was derived at first, while it was later applied to compute the carrier concentration and quantum capacitance model. Furthermore, the carrier concentration and quantum capacitance were modeled for both degenerate and nondegenerate regimes, along with examining the effect of structural parameters and chirality number on the density of state and carrier concentration. Latterly, the temperature effect on the quantum capacitance was studied too.

  18. Programmable differential capacitance-to-voltage converter for MEMS accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo, G.; Sánchez-Azqueta, C.; Gimeno, C.; Aldea, C.; Celma, S.

    2017-05-01

    Capacitive MEMS sensors exhibit an excellent noise performance, high sensitivity and low power consumption. They offer a huge range of applications, being the accelerometer one of its main uses. In this work, we present the design of a capacitance-to-voltage converter in CMOS technology to measure the acceleration from the capacitance variations. It is based on a low-power, fully-differential transimpedance amplifier with low input impedance and a very low input noise.

  19. A Shotgun Proteomic Approach Reveals That Fe Deficiency Causes Marked Changes in the Protein Profiles of Plasma Membrane and Detergent-Resistant Microdomain Preparations from Beta vulgaris Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Carbonell, Elain; Takahashi, Daisuke; Lüthje, Sabine; González-Reyes, José Antonio; Mongrand, Sébastien; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Abadía, Anunciación; Uemura, Matsuo; Abadía, Javier; López-Millán, Ana Flor

    2016-08-05

    In the present study we have used label-free shotgun proteomic analysis to examine the effects of Fe deficiency on the protein profiles of highly pure sugar beet root plasma membrane (PM) preparations and detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs), the latter as an approach to study microdomains. Altogether, 545 proteins were detected, with 52 and 68 of them changing significantly with Fe deficiency in PM and DRM, respectively. Functional categorization of these proteins showed that signaling and general and vesicle-related transport accounted for approximately 50% of the differences in both PM and DRM, indicating that from a qualitative point of view changes induced by Fe deficiency are similar in both preparations. Results indicate that Fe deficiency has an impact in phosphorylation processes at the PM level and highlight the involvement of signaling proteins, especially those from the 14-3-3 family. Lipid profiling revealed Fe-deficiency-induced decreases in phosphatidic acid derivatives, which may impair vesicle formation, in agreement with the decreases measured in proteins related to intracellular trafficking and secretion. The modifications induced by Fe deficiency in the relative enrichment of proteins in DRMs revealed the existence of a group of cytoplasmic proteins that appears to be more attached to the PM in conditions of Fe deficiency.

  20. Optimization of the coplanar interdigital capacitive sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunzhi; Zhan, Zheng; Bowler, Nicola

    2017-02-01

    Interdigital capacitive sensors are applied in nondestructive testing and material property characterization of low-conductivity materials. The sensor performance is typically described based on the penetration depth of the electric field into the sample material, the sensor signal strength and its sensitivity. These factors all depend on the geometry and material properties of the sensor and sample. In this paper, a detailed analysis is provided, through finite element simulations, of the ways in which the sensor's geometrical parameters affect its performance. The geometrical parameters include the number of digits forming the interdigital electrodes and the ratio of digit width to their separation. In addition, the influence of the presence or absence of a metal backplane on the sample is analyzed. Further, the effects of sensor substrate thickness and material on signal strength are studied. The results of the analysis show that it is necessary to take into account a trade-off between the desired sensitivity and penetration depth when designing the sensor. Parametric equations are presented to assist the sensor designer or nondestructive evaluation specialist in optimizing the design of a capacitive sensor.

  1. Design of electrical capacitance tomography sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wuqiang

    2010-01-01

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) has been developed since the late 1980s for visualization and measurement of a permittivity distribution in a cross section using a multi-electrode capacitance sensor. While the hardware and image reconstruction algorithms for ECT have been published extensively and the topics have been reviewed, few papers have been published to discuss ECT sensors and the design issues, which are crucial for a specific application. This paper will briefly discuss the principles of ECT sensors, but mostly will address key issues for ECT sensor design, with reference to some existing ECT sensors as a good understanding of the key issues would help optimization of the design of ECT sensors. The key issues to be discussed include the number and length of electrodes, the use of external and internal electrodes, implications of wall thickness, earthed screens (including the outer screen, axial end screens and radial screens), driven guard electrodes, dealing with high temperature and high pressure, twin planes for velocity measurement by cross correlation and limitations in sensor diameter. While conventional ECT sensors are circular with the electrodes in a single plane or in twin planes, some non-conventional ECT sensors, such as square, conical and 3D sensors, will also be discussed. As a practical guidance, the procedure to fabricate an ECT sensor will be given. In the end are summary and discussion on future challenges, including re-engineering of ECT sensors. (topical review)

  2. In-Line Capacitance Sensor for Real-Time Water Absorption Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark A.; Perusich, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    A capacitance/dielectric sensor was designed, constructed, and used to measure in real time the in-situ water concentration in a desiccant water bed. Measurements were carried out with two experimental setups: (1) passing nitrogen through a humidity generator and allowing the gas stream to become saturated at a measured temperature and pressure, and (2) injecting water via a syringe pump into a nitrogen stream. Both water vapor generating devices were attached to a downstream vertically-mounted water capture bed filled with 19.5 g of Moisture Gone desiccant. The sensor consisted of two electrodes: (1) a 1/8" dia stainless steel rod placed in the middle of the bed and (2) the outer shell of the stainless steel bed concentric with the rod. All phases of the water capture process (background, heating, absorption, desorption, and cooling) were monitored with capacitance. The measured capacitance was found to vary linearly with the water content in the bed at frequencies above 100 kHz indicating dipolar motion dominated the signal; below this frequency, ionic motion caused nonlinearities in the water concentration/capacitance relationship. The desiccant exhibited a dielectric relaxation whose activation energy was lowered upon addition of water indicating either a less hindered rotational motion or crystal reorientation.

  3. Assembly and misassembly of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator: folding defects caused by deletion of F508 occur before and after the calnexin-dependent association of membrane spanning domain (MSD) 1 and MSD2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Meredith F N; Grove, Diane E; Chen, Liling; Cyr, Douglas M

    2008-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a polytopic membrane protein that functions as a Cl(-) channel and consists of two membrane spanning domains (MSDs), two cytosolic nucleotide binding domains (NBDs), and a cytosolic regulatory domain. Cytosolic 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70), and endoplasmic reticulum-localized calnexin are chaperones that facilitate CFTR biogenesis. Hsp70 functions in both the cotranslational folding and posttranslational degradation of CFTR. Yet, the mechanism for calnexin action in folding and quality control of CFTR is not clear. Investigation of this question revealed that calnexin is not essential for CFTR or CFTRDeltaF508 degradation. We identified a dependence on calnexin for proper assembly of CFTR's membrane spanning domains. Interestingly, efficient folding of NBD2 was also found to be dependent upon calnexin binding to CFTR. Furthermore, we identified folding defects caused by deletion of F508 that occurred before and after the calnexin-dependent association of MSD1 and MSD2. Early folding defects are evident upon translation of the NBD1 and R-domain and are sensed by the RMA-1 ubiquitin ligase complex.

  4. Chorioamnionitis caused by Serratia marcescens in a healthy pregnant woman with preterm premature rupture of membranes: A rare case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erenberg, Miriam; Yagel, Yael; Press, Fernanda; Weintraub, Adi Y

    2017-04-01

    The incidence of chorioamnionitis varies widely. The highest incidence is reported in preterm deliveries. Among preterm deliveries, chorioamnionitis usually occurs after preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). To date, only five cases of chorioamnionitis due to Serratia marcescens were reported. Here we present a case of a pregnant woman with chorioamnionitis due to Serratia marcescens who delivered a premature neonate at 28 weeks and four days of gestation. We also conducted a review of the literature in order to identify and characterize the clinical presentation and outcomes of this rare infection. A 36 year old female (gravida 9, para 6) was admitted with cervical effacement of 16mm and intact membranes at gestational age of 25 weeks and five days. One week following her admission PPROM was noticed. Treatment with the standard antibiotic regimen for PPROM was initiated. Thirteen days after the diagnosis of PPROM (28 weeks and four days) she developed chills, abdominal pain, sub febrile fever, tachycardia, leukocytosis and fetal tachycardia, and a clinical diagnosis of chorioamnionitis was made. An urgent CS was performed. In the first post-operative day the patient developed surgical sight infection. Cultures obtained from the purulent discharge of the wound, as well as cultures from the placenta and uterine cavity that were obtained during surgery grew Serratia marcescens. The patient was treated with Meropenem for six days, with a good clinical response. We present a rare case of nosocomialy acquired Serratia marcescens chorioamnionitis in a patient with PPROM. This case emphasizes the need for good infection control measures. Our favorable outcome together with the scares reports in the literature, add insight into this type of rare infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Solar Cell Capacitance Determination Based on an RLC Resonant Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Adrian Cotfas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The capacitance is one of the key dynamic parameters of solar cells, which can provide essential information regarding the quality and health state of the cell. However, the measurement of this parameter is not a trivial task, as it typically requires high accuracy instruments using, e.g., electrical impedance spectroscopy (IS. This paper introduces a simple and effective method to determine the electric capacitance of the solar cells. An RLC (Resistor Inductance Capacitor circuit is formed by using an inductor as a load for the solar cell. The capacitance of the solar cell is found by measuring the frequency of the damped oscillation that occurs at the moment of connecting the inductor to the solar cell. The study is performed through simulation based on National Instruments (NI Multisim application as SPICE simulation software and through experimental capacitance measurements of a monocrystalline silicon commercial solar cell and a photovoltaic panel using the proposed method. The results were validated using impedance spectroscopy. The differences between the capacitance values obtained by the two methods are of 1% for the solar cells and of 9.6% for the PV panel. The irradiance level effect upon the solar cell capacitance was studied obtaining an increase in the capacitance in function of the irradiance. By connecting different inductors to the solar cell, the frequency effect upon the solar cell capacitance was studied noticing a very small decrease in the capacitance with the frequency. Additionally, the temperature effect over the solar cell capacitance was studied achieving an increase in capacitance with temperature.

  6. Selective virtual capacitive impedance loop for harmonics voltage compensation in islanded microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Alexander; Apap, Maurice; Spiteri-Staines, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Parallel inverters having LCL output filters cause voltage distortions at the point of common coupling (PCC) in islanded microgrids when non-linear loads are present. A capacitive virtual impedance loop could be used to provide selective harmonic compensation in islanded microgrids, instead of in...... resistance for selective harmonic compensation in islanded microgrids. Simulation results were given to show the suitability of the proposed algorithms in reducing the voltage harmonics at the PCC.......Parallel inverters having LCL output filters cause voltage distortions at the point of common coupling (PCC) in islanded microgrids when non-linear loads are present. A capacitive virtual impedance loop could be used to provide selective harmonic compensation in islanded microgrids, instead...... of introducing additional active or passive filters into the system that could compromise the stability of the microgrid. However, the performance of these compensation loops becomes degraded when a virtual resistance is introduced with the aim to improve the overall stability of the parallel inverters...

  7. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  8. Extracellular cAMP activates molecular signalling pathways associated with sperm capacitation in bovines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carlos Agustín I; Osycka-Salut, Claudia E; Castellano, Luciana; Cesari, Andreína; Di Siervi, Nicolás; Mutto, Adrián; Johannisson, Anders; Morrell, Jane M; Davio, Carlos; Perez-Martinez, Silvina

    2017-08-01

    Is extracellular cAMP involved in the regulation of signalling pathways in bovine sperm capacitation? Extracellular cAMP induces sperm capacitation through the activation of different signalling pathways that involve phospholipase C (PLC), PKC/ERK1-2 signalling and an increase in sperm Ca2+ levels, as well as soluble AC and cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signalling. In order to fertilize the oocyte, ejaculated spermatozoa must undergo a series of changes in the female reproductive tract, known as capacitation. This correlates with a number of membrane and metabolic modifications that include an increased influx of bicarbonate and Ca2+, activation of a soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) to produce cAMP, PKA activation, protein tyrosine phosphorylation and the development of hyperactivated motility. We previously reported that cAMP efflux by Multidrug Resistance Protein 4 (MRP4) occurs during sperm capacitation and the pharmacological blockade of this inhibits the process. Moreover, the supplementation of incubation media with cAMP abolishes the inhibition and leads to sperm capacitation, suggesting that extracellular cAMP regulates crucial signalling cascades involved in this process. Bovine sperm were selected by the wool glass column method, and washed by centrifugation in BSA-Free Tyrode's Albumin Lactate Pyruvate (sp-TALP). Pellets were resuspended then diluted for each treatment. For in vitro capacitation, 10 to 15 × 106 SPZ/ml were incubated in 0.3% BSA sp-TALP at 38.5°C for 45 min under different experimental conditions. To evaluate the role of extracellular cAMP on different events associated with sperm capacitation, 10 nM cAMP was added to the incubation medium as well as different inhibitors of enzymes associated with signalling transduction pathways: U73122 (PLC inhibitor, 10 μM), Gö6983 (PKC inhibitor, 10 μM), PD98059 (ERK-1/2 inhibitor, 30 μM), H89 and KT (PKA inhibitors, 50 μM and 100 nM, respectively), KH7 (sAC inhibitor, 10 μM), BAPTA

  9. Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina

    2014-09-01

    In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.

  10. A capacitive bioelectrode for recording electrophysiological signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Garcia, E.; Mujica Ascencio, S.; Rosa Vazquez, J. M.de la; Stolik Isakina, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a gel-free sensor with on-board electrode design, which capacitive couples to the skin to detect the electrical activity in the body. The integrated sensor is manufactured on a standard printed circuit board within 2.2 cm diameter enclosure that can operate through fabric or other insulation. The electrode includes amplification (60db gain) and passive band pass filtering (0.5 to 100 Hz). Active shielding surrounding the sensor plate is used to reduce noise pickup. The input referred noise, measured over the electrode bandwidth is 4 μV rms at 0.2 mm sensor distance, and 16 μV rms at 1.2 mm distance trough two cotton cloths. The bioelectrodes were coupled to the scalp trough hair for EEG signals (with 80 db gain), and coupled to the chest through clothing for ECG signals. The recorded signals show well performance of the designed bielectrode. (Author)

  11. Vertically aligned BCN nanotubes with high capacitance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyyamperumal, Eswaramoorthi; Wang, Shuangyin; Dai, Liming

    2012-06-26

    Using a chemical vapor deposition method, we have synthesized vertically aligned BCN nanotubes (VA-BCNs) on a Ni-Fe-coated SiO(2)/Si substrate from a melamine diborate precursor. The effects of pyrolysis conditions on the morphology and thermal property of grown nanotubes, as well as the nanostructure and composition of an individual BCN nanotube, were systematically studied. It was found that nitrogen atoms are bonded to carbons in both graphitic and pyridinic forms and that the resultant VA-BCNs grown at 1000 °C show the highest specific capacitance (321.0 F/g) with an excellent rate capability and high durability with respect to nonaligned BCN (167.3 F/g) and undoped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (117.3 F/g) due to synergetic effects arising from the combined co-doping of B and N in CNTs and the well-aligned nanotube structure.

  12. Developments of capacitance stabilised etalon technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, R. A.; Foster, M.; Thwaite, C.; Thompson, C. K.; Rees, D.; Bakalski, I. V.; Pereira do Carmo, J.

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes a high-resolution optical filter (HRF) suitable for narrow bandwidth filtering in LIDAR applications. The filter is composed of a broadband interference filter and a narrowband Fabry-Perot etalon based on the capacitance stabilised concept. The key requirements for the HRF were a bandwidth of less than 40 pm, a tuneable range of over 6 nm and a transmission greater than 50%. These requirements combined with the need for very high out-of-band rejection (greater than 50 dB in the range 300 nm to 1200 nm) drive the design of the filter towards a combination of high transmission broadband filter and high performance tuneable, narrowband filter.

  13. The capacitated team orienteering problem with incomplete service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archetti, Claudia; Bianchessi, Nicola; Speranza, M. Grazia

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the capacitated version of the Team Orienteering Problem (TOP), that is the Capacitated TOP (CTOP) and the impact of relaxing the assumption that a customer, if served, must be completely served. We prove that the profit collected by the CTOP with Incomplete Service (CTOP-IS)

  14. Electric field theory and the fallacy of void capacitance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1991-01-01

    The concept of the capacitance of a gaseous void is discussed as applied to electrical insulation science. The most pertinent aspect of the capacitance definition is that of reference to a single-valued potential difference between surfaces. This implies that these surfaces must be surfaces...

  15. Nanoscale capacitance: A quantum tight-binding model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Feng; Wu, Jian; Li, Yang; Lu, Jun-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Landauer-Buttiker formalism with the assumption of semi-infinite electrodes as reservoirs has been the standard approach in modeling steady electron transport through nanoscale devices. However, modeling dynamic electron transport properties, especially nanoscale capacitance, is a challenging problem because of dynamic contributions from electrodes, which is neglectable in modeling macroscopic capacitance and mesoscopic conductance. We implement a self-consistent quantum tight-binding model to calculate capacitance of a nano-gap system consisting of an electrode capacitance C‧ and an effective capacitance Cd of the middle device. From the calculations on a nano-gap made of carbon nanotube with a buckyball therein, we show that when the electrode length increases, the electrode capacitance C‧ moves up while the effective capacitance Cd converges to a value which is much smaller than the electrode capacitance C‧. Our results reveal the importance of electrodes in modeling nanoscale ac circuits, and indicate that the concepts of semi-infinite electrodes and reservoirs well-accepted in the steady electron transport theory may be not applicable in modeling dynamic transport properties.

  16. A Review of High Voltage Drive Amplifiers for Capacitive Actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lina; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the high voltage amplifiers, which are used to drive capacitive actuators. The amplifiers for both piezoelectric and DEAP (dielectric electroactive polymer) actuator are discussed. The suitable topologies for driving capacitive actuators are illustrated in detail...

  17. Large Capacitance Measurement by Multiple Uses of MBL Charge Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Sook; Chae, Min; Kim, Jung Bog

    2010-01-01

    A recent article by Morse described interesting electrostatics experiments using an MBL charge sensor. In this application, the charge sensor has a large capacitance compared to the charged test object, so nearly all charges can be transferred to the sensor capacitor from the capacitor to be measured. However, the typical capacitance of commercial…

  18. Capacitive-discharge-pumped copper bromide vapour laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanov, V B; Fedorov, V F; Troitskii, V O; Gubarev, F A; Evtushenko, Gennadii S

    2007-01-01

    A copper bromide vapour laser pumped by a high-frequency capacitive discharge is developed. It is shown that, by using of a capacitive discharge, it is possible to built a sealed off metal halide vapour laser of a simple design allowing the addition of active impurities into the working medium. (letters)

  19. Capacitance of a highly ordered array of nanocapacitors: Model and microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, A.; Celedón, C.; Ulloa, P.; Kepaptsoglou, D.; Häberle, P.

    2011-11-01

    This manuscript describes briefly the process used to build an ordered porous array in an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, filled with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The MWCNTs were grown directly inside the membrane through chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The role of the CNTs is to provide narrow metal electrodes contact with a dielectric surface barrier, hence, forming a capacitor. This procedure allows the construction of an array of 1010 parallel nano-spherical capacitors/cm2. A central part of this contribution is the use of physical parameters obtained from processing transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, to predict the specific capacitance of the AAOs arrays. Electrical parameters were obtained by solving Laplace's equation through finite element methods (FEMs).

  20. Biasing of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliano, Giosue; Matrone, Giulia; Savoia, Alessandro Stuart

    2017-02-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) represent an effective alternative to piezoelectric transducers for medical ultrasound imaging applications. They are microelectromechanical devices fabricated using silicon micromachining techniques, developed in the last two decades in many laboratories. The interest for this novel transducer technology relies on its full compatibility with standard integrated circuit technology that makes it possible to integrate on the same chip the transducers and the electronics, thus enabling the realization of extremely low-cost and high-performance devices, including both 1-D or 2-D arrays. Being capacitive transducers, CMUTs require a high bias voltage to be properly operated in pulse-echo imaging applications. The typical bias supply residual ripple of high-quality high-voltage (HV) generators is in the millivolt range, which is comparable with the amplitude of the received echo signals, and it is particularly difficult to minimize. The aim of this paper is to analyze the classical CMUT biasing circuits, highlighting the features of each one, and to propose two novel HV generator architectures optimized for CMUT biasing applications. The first circuit proposed is an ultralow-residual ripple (generator that uses an extremely stable sinusoidal power oscillator topology. The second circuit employs a commercially available integrated step-up converter characterized by a particularly efficient switching topology. The circuit is used to bias the CMUT by charging a buffer capacitor synchronously with the pulsing sequence, thus reducing the impact of the switching noise on the received echo signals. The small area of the circuit (about 1.5 cm 2 ) makes it possible to generate the bias voltage inside the probe, very close to the CMUT, making the proposed solution attractive for portable applications. Measurements and experiments are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new approaches presented.

  1. Electrostatic capacitance and Faraday cage behavior of carbon nanotube forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ya' akobovitz, A. [Mechanosynthesis Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Bedewy, M. [Mechanosynthesis Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Hart, A. J. [Mechanosynthesis Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Laboratory for Manufacturing and Productivity, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-02-02

    Understanding of the electrostatic properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) forests is essential to enable their integration in microelectronic and micromechanical devices. In this study, we sought to understand how the hierarchical geometry and morphology of CNT forests determines their capacitance. First, we find that at small gaps, solid micropillars have greater capacitance, yet at larger gaps the capacitance of the CNT forests is greater. The surface area of the CNT forest accessible to the electrostatic field was extracted by analysis of the measured capacitance, and, by relating the capacitance to the average density of CNTs in the forest, we find that the penetration depth of the electrostatic field is on the order of several microns. Therefore, CNT forests can behave as a miniature Faraday cage. The unique electrostatic properties of CNT forests could therefore enable their use as long-range proximity sensors and as shielding elements for miniature electronic devices.

  2. Interdigitated electrodes as impedance and capacitance biosensors: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, N. S.; Ramli, M. M.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Halin, D. S. C.; Isa, S. S. M.; Talip, L. F. A.; Danial, N. S.; Murad, S. A. Z.

    2017-09-01

    Interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) are made of two individually addressable interdigitated comb-like electrode structures. IDEs are one of the most favored transducers, widely utilized in technological applications especially in the field of biological and chemical sensors due to their inexpensive, ease of fabrication process and high sensitivity. In order to detect and analyze a biochemical molecule or analyte, the impedance and capacitance signal need to be obtained. This paper investigates the working principle and influencer of the impedance and capacitance biosensors. The impedance biosensor depends on the resistance and capacitance while the capacitance biosensor influenced by the dielectric permittivity. However, the geometry and structures of the interdigitated electrodes affect both impedance and capacitance biosensor. The details have been discussed in this paper.

  3. Electrostatic capacitance and Faraday cage behavior of carbon nanotube forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ya'akobovitz, A.; Bedewy, M.; Hart, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the electrostatic properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) forests is essential to enable their integration in microelectronic and micromechanical devices. In this study, we sought to understand how the hierarchical geometry and morphology of CNT forests determines their capacitance. First, we find that at small gaps, solid micropillars have greater capacitance, yet at larger gaps the capacitance of the CNT forests is greater. The surface area of the CNT forest accessible to the electrostatic field was extracted by analysis of the measured capacitance, and, by relating the capacitance to the average density of CNTs in the forest, we find that the penetration depth of the electrostatic field is on the order of several microns. Therefore, CNT forests can behave as a miniature Faraday cage. The unique electrostatic properties of CNT forests could therefore enable their use as long-range proximity sensors and as shielding elements for miniature electronic devices

  4. Electrostatic capacitance and Faraday cage behavior of carbon nanotube forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya'akobovitz, A.; Bedewy, M.; Hart, A. J.

    2015-02-01

    Understanding of the electrostatic properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) forests is essential to enable their integration in microelectronic and micromechanical devices. In this study, we sought to understand how the hierarchical geometry and morphology of CNT forests determines their capacitance. First, we find that at small gaps, solid micropillars have greater capacitance, yet at larger gaps the capacitance of the CNT forests is greater. The surface area of the CNT forest accessible to the electrostatic field was extracted by analysis of the measured capacitance, and, by relating the capacitance to the average density of CNTs in the forest, we find that the penetration depth of the electrostatic field is on the order of several microns. Therefore, CNT forests can behave as a miniature Faraday cage. The unique electrostatic properties of CNT forests could therefore enable their use as long-range proximity sensors and as shielding elements for miniature electronic devices.

  5. Mechanical performance of SiC based MEMS capacitive microphone for ultrasonic detection in harsh environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, S. A.; Hamzah, A. A.; Mohd-Yasin, F.; Majlis, B. Y.

    2017-08-01

    In this project, SiC based MEMS capacitive microphone was developed for detecting leaked gas in extremely harsh environment such as coal mines and petroleum processing plants via ultrasonic detection. The MEMS capacitive microphone consists of two parallel plates; top plate (movable diaphragm) and bottom (fixed) plate, which separated by an air gap. While, the vent holes were fabricated on the back plate to release trapped air and reduce damping. In order to withstand high temperature and pressure, a 1.0 μm thick SiC diaphragm was utilized as the top membrane. The developed SiC could withstand a temperature up to 1400°C. Moreover, the 3 μm air gap is invented between the top membrane and the bottom plate via wafer bonding. COMSOL Multiphysics simulation software was used for design optimization. Various diaphragms with sizes of 600 μm2, 700 μm2, 800 μm2, 900 μm2 and 1000 μm2 are loaded with external pressure. From this analysis, it was observed that SiC microphone with diaphragm width of 1000 μm2 produced optimal surface vibrations, with first-mode resonant frequency of approximately 36 kHz. The maximum deflection value at resonant frequency is less than the air gap thickness of 8 mu;m, thus eliminating the possibility of shortage between plates during operation. As summary, the designed SiC capacitive microphone has high potential and it is suitable to be applied in ultrasonic gas leaking detection in harsh environment.

  6. Butterfly wing colors : glass scales of Graphium sarpedon cause polarized iridescence and enhance blue/green pigment coloration of the wing membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Giraldo, Marco A.; Leertouwer, Hein L.

    2010-01-01

    The wings of the swordtail butterfly Graphium sarpedon nipponum contain the bile pigment sarpedobilin, which causes blue/green colored wing patches. Locally the bile pigment is combined with the strongly blue-absorbing carotenoid lutein, resulting in green wing patches and thus improving camouflage.

  7. Continuous capacitive deionization-electrodialysis reversal through electrostatic shielding for desalination and deionization of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dermentzis, Konstantinos [Technological Education Institute, T.E.I. of Kavala, School of Technological Applications, Department of Science, Laboratory of Chemical Technology and Electrochemistry, Agios Loucas, 65404 Kavala (Greece); Ouzounis, Konstantinos [Democritus University of Thrace, School of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2008-10-15

    We report a new concept for capacitive deionization with simple and cheap porous bipolar intermediate graphite electrodes which is operated continuously by constant or alternating polarity without any down time for electrode saturation, regeneration and rinsing steps and certainly without any permselective ion exchange membranes. The proposed process utilizes the advantages of the classical electrodeionization technologies combining them all to a unified continuous capacitive deionization-continuous electrodeionization-electrodialysis-electrodialysis reversal process. Separate and unchanged diluate and concentrate compartments are created in two modes, first by periodical charging/discharging the bipolar intermediate electrodes through a pulsating electric field and second by simultaneous charging/discharging them through a constant or pulsating electric field and electrostatic shielding. Because of coion permeation and the convenience of alternating the polarity without any negative impact on the deionization process, the new technique is less affected by the known membrane associated limitation, such as concentration polarization, limiting current density or scaling. The new electrochemical deionization technique is suitable for regeneration of ion exchange resins and production of high purity deionized water, removal of heavy metal ions from industrial effluents and desalination of brackish or seawater. (author)

  8. Traveling-Wave Membrane Photomixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, R. A.; Martin, S. C.; Nakamura, B. J.; Neto, A.; Pasqualini, D.; Siegel, P. H.; Kadow, C.; Gossard, A. C.

    2001-01-01

    Traveling-wave photomixers have superior performance when compared with lumped area photomixers in the 1 to 3 THz frequency range. Their large active area and distributed gain mechanism assure high thermal damage threshold and elimination of the capacitive frequency roll-off. However, the losses experienced by the radio frequency wave traveling along the coplanar strips waveguide (due to underlying semi-infinite GaAs substrate) were a serious drawback. In this paper we present device designs and an experimental setup that make possible the realization of photomixers on membranes which eliminate the losses.

  9. αA-crystallin R49Cneo mutation influences the architecture of lens fiber cell membranes and causes posterior and nuclear cataracts in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andley Usha P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background αA-crystallin (CRYAA/HSPB4, a major component of all vertebrate eye lenses, is a small heat shock protein responsible for maintaining lens transparency. The R49C mutation in the αA-crystallin protein is linked with non-syndromic, hereditary human cataracts in a four-generation Caucasian family. Methods This study describes a mouse cataract model generated by insertion of a neomycin-resistant (neor gene into an intron of the gene encoding mutant R49C αA-crystallin. Mice carrying the neor gene and wild-type Cryaa were also generated as controls. Heterozygous knock-in mice containing one wild type gene and one mutated gene for αA-crystallin (WT/R49Cneo and homozygous knock-in mice containing two mutated genes (R49Cneo/R49Cneo were compared. Results By 3 weeks, WT/R49Cneo mice exhibited large vacuoles in the cortical region 100 μm from the lens surface, and by 3 months posterior and nuclear cataracts had developed. WT/R49Cneo mice demonstrated severe posterior cataracts at 9 months of age, with considerable posterior nuclear migration evident in histological sections. R49Cneo/R49Cneo mice demonstrated nearly complete lens opacities by 5 months of age. In contrast, R49C mice in which the neor gene was deleted by breeding with CreEIIa mice developed lens abnormalities at birth, suggesting that the neor gene may suppress expression of mutant R49C αA-crystallin protein. Conclusion It is apparent that modification of membrane and cell-cell interactions occurs in the presence of the αA-crystallin mutation and rapidly leads to lens cell pathology in vivo.

  10. Distribution of coronary arterial capacitance in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lader, A S; Smith, R S; Phillips, G C; McNamee, J E; Abel, F L

    1998-03-01

    The capacitative properties of the major left coronary arteries, left main (LM), left anterior descending (LAD), and left circumflex (LCX), were studied in 19 open-chest isolated dog hearts. Capacitance was determined by using ramp perfusion and a left ventricular-to-coronary shunt diastolic decay method; both methods gave similar results, indicating a minimal systolic capacitative component. Increased pericardial pressure (PCP), 25 mmHg, was used to experimentally alter transmural wall pressure. The response to increased PCP was different in the LAD vs. LCX; increasing PCP decreased capacitance in the LCX but increased capacitance in the LAD. This may have been due to the different intramural vs. epicardial volume distribution of these vessels and a decrease in intramural tension during increased PCP. Increased PCP decreased LCX capacitance by approximately 13%, but no changes in conductance or zero flow pressure intercept occurred in any of the three vessels, i. e., evidence against the waterfall theory of vascular collapse at these levels of PCP. Coronary arterial capacitance was also linearly related to perfusion pressure.

  11. Development trends of combined inductance-capacitance electromechanical energy converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karayan Hamlet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the modern state of completely new direction of electromechanical science such as combined inductive-capacitive electromechanics is considered. The wide spectra of its possible practical applications and prospects for further development are analyzed. A new approach for mathematical description of transients in dualcon jugate dynamic systems is proposed. On the basis of the algorithm differential equations for inductive-capacitive compatible electromechanical energy converters are derived. The generalized Lagrangian theory of combined inductively-capacitive electric machines was developed as a union of generalized Lagrangian models of inductive and capacitive electro-mechanical energy converters developed on the basis of the basic principles of binary-conjugate electrophysics. The author gives equations of electrodynamics and electromechanics of combined inductive-capacitive electric machines in case there are active electrotechnical materials of dual purpose (ferroelectromagnets in the structure of their excitation system. At the same time, the necessary Lagrangian for combined inductive-capacitive forces was built using new technologies of interaction between inductive and capacitive subsystems. The joint solution of these equations completely determines the dynamic behavior and energy characteristics of the generalized model of combined machines of any design and in any modes of interaction of their functional elements

  12. Unobtrusive ECG monitoring in the NICU using a capacitive sensing array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atallah, L; Meftah, M; Schellekens, M; Serteyn, A; Vullings, R; Bergmans, J W M; Osagiator, A; Oetomo, S Bambang

    2014-01-01

    The thin skin of preterm babies is easily damaged by adhesive electrodes, tapes, chest drains and needle-marks. The scars caused could be disfiguring or disabling to 10% of preterm newborns. Capacitive sensors present an attractive option for pervasively monitoring neonatal ECG, and can be embedded in a support system or even a garment worn by the neonate. This could improve comfort and reduce pain aiding better recovery as well as avoiding the scars caused by adhesive electrodes. In this work, we investigate the use of an array of capacitive sensors unobtrusively embedded in a mattress and used in a clinical environment for 15 preterm neonates. We also describe the analysis framework including the fusion of information from all sensors to provide a more accurate ECG signal. We propose a channel selection strategy as well as a method using physiological information to obtain a reliable ECG signal. When sensor coverage is well attained, results for both instantaneous heart rate and ECG signal shape analysis are very encouraging. The study also provides several insights on important factors affecting the results. These include the effect of textile type, number of layers, interferences (e.g. people walking by), motion severity and interventions. Incorporating this knowledge in the design of a capacitive sensing system would be crucial in ensuring that these sensors provide a reliable ECG signal when embedded in a neonatal support system. (paper)

  13. Towards a Capacitive Enzyme Sensor for Direct Determination of Organophosphorus Pesticides: Fundamental Studies and Aspects of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Mulchandani

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The realisation of a miniaturised potentiometric enzyme biosensor is presented. The biosensor chip utilises the enzyme organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH for the direct determination of pesticides. The transducer structure of the sensors chip consists of a pH-sensitive capacitive electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS structure that reacts towards pH changes caused by the OPH-catalised hydrolysis of the organophosphate compounds. The biosensor is operated versus a conventional Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Measurements were performed in the capacitance/voltage (C/V and the constant capacitance (ConCap mode for the two different pesticides paraoxon and parathion. For the development of this new type of biosensor, different immobilisation strategies, influence of buffer composition and concentration, transducer material, detection limit, long-term stability and selectivity have been studied.

  14. Modeling, numerical simulation, and nonlinear dynamic behavior analysis of PV microgrid-connected inverter with capacitance catastrophe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sichen; Liao, Zhixian; Luo, Xiaoshu; Wei, Duqu; Jiang, Pinqun; Jiang, Qinghong

    2018-02-01

    The value of the output capacitance (C) should be carefully considered when designing a photovoltaic (PV) inverter since it can cause distortion in the working state of the circuit, and the circuit produces nonlinear dynamic behavior. According to Kirchhoff’s laws and the characteristics of an ideal operational amplifier for a strict piecewise linear state equation, a circuit simulation model is constructed to study the system parameters (time, C) for the current passing through an inductor with an inductance of L and the voltage across the capacitor with a capacitance of C. The developed simulation model uses Runge-Kutta methods to solve the state equations. This study focuses on predicting the fault of the circuit from the two aspects of the harmonic distortion and simulation results. Moreover, the presented model is also used to research the working state of the system in the case of a load capacitance catastrophe. The nonlinear dynamic behaviors in the inverter are simulated and verified.

  15. Effect of antenna capacitance on the plasma characteristics of an internal linear inductively coupled plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jong Hyeuk; Kim, Kyong Nam; Park, Jung Kyun; Yeom, Geun Young

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the antenna capacitance of an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source, which was varied using an internal linear antenna, on the electrical and plasma characteristics of the ICP source. The inductive coupling at a given rf current increased with decreasing antenna capacitance. This was caused by a decrease in the inner copper diameter of the antenna made from coaxial copper/quartz tubing, which resulted in a higher plasma density and lower plasma potential. By decreasing the diameter of the copper tube from 25 to 10 mm, the plasma density of a plasma source size of 2750x2350 mm 2 was increased from approximately 8x10 10 /cm 3 to 1.5x10 11 /cm 3 at 15 mTorr Ar and 9 kW of rf power

  16. Positive and negative variations in capacitive images for given defects under varying experimental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Yin, Xiaokang; Li, Zhen; Li, Wei; Chen, Guoming

    2018-04-01

    Capacitive imaging (CI) technique is a novel electromagnetic NDE technique. The Quasi-static electromagnetic field from the carefully designed electrode pair will vary when the electrical properties of the sample change, leading to the possibility of imaging. It is observed that for a given specimen, the targeted features appear as different variations in capacitive images under different experimental conditions. In some cases, even opposite variations occur, which brings confusion to indication interpretation. It is thus thought interesting to embark on investigations into the cause and effects of the negative variation phenomenon. In this work, the positive and negative variations were first explained from the measurement sensitivity distribution perspective. This was then followed by a detailed analysis using finite element models in COMSOL. A parametric experimental study on a glass fiber composite plate with artificial defects was then carried out to investigate how the experimental conditions affect the variation.

  17. Some aspects of time domain reflectometry, neutron scattering, and capacitance methods for soil water content measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evett, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    Soil-water measurements encounter particular problems related to the physics of the method used. For time domain reflectometry (TDR), these relate to wave form shape changes caused by soil, soil water, and TDR probe properties. Methods of wave form interpretation that overcome these problems are discussed and specific computer algorithms are presented. Neutron scattering is well understood, but calibration methods remain critical to accuracy and precision, and are discussed with recommendations for field calibration and use. Capacitance probes tend to exhibit very small radii of influence, thus are sensitive to small-scale changes in soil properties, and are difficult or impossible to field calibrate. Field comparisons of neutron and capacitance probes are presented. (author)

  18. Study on photoelectric parameter measurement method of high capacitance solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junchao; Xiong, Limin; Meng, Haifeng; He, Yingwei; Cai, Chuan; Zhang, Bifeng; Li, Xiaohui; Wang, Changshi

    2018-01-01

    The high efficiency solar cells usually have high capacitance characteristic, so the measurement of their photoelectric performance usually requires long pulse width and long sweep time. The effects of irradiance non-uniformity, probe shielding and spectral mismatch on the IV curve measurement are analyzed experimentally. A compensation method for irradiance loss caused by probe shielding is proposed, and the accurate measurement of the irradiance intensity in the IV curve measurement process of solar cell is realized. Based on the characteristics that the open circuit voltage of solar cell is sensitive to the junction temperature, an accurate measurement method of the temperature of solar cell under continuous irradiation condition is proposed. Finally, a measurement method with the characteristic of high accuracy and wide application range for high capacitance solar cell is presented.

  19. High Voltage Bi-directional Flyback Converter for Capacitive Actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    in the converter, including the most dominating parameters of the high voltage transformer viz., self-capacitance and leakage inductance. The specific capacitive load for this converter is a dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) actuator, which can be used as an effective replacement for conventional actuators...... in a number of applications. In this paper, the discharging energy efficiency definition is introduced. The proposed converter has been experimentally tested with the film capacitive load and the DEAP actuator, and the experimental results are shown together with the efficiency measurements....

  20. Human body capacitance: static or dynamic concept? [ESD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Niels M

    1998-01-01

    A standing human body insulated from ground by footwear and/or floor covering is in principle an insulated conductor and has, as such, a capacitance, i.e. the ability to store a charge and possibly discharge the stored energy in a spark discharge. In the human body, the human body capacitance (HBC...... when a substantial part of the flux extends itself through badly defined stray fields. Since the concept of human body capacitance is normally used in a static (electric) context, it is suggested that the HBC be determined by a static method. No theoretical explanation of the observed differences...

  1. Capacitive density measurement for supercritical hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Th; Haberstroh, Ch; Szoucsek, K.; Schott, S.; Kunze, K.

    2017-12-01

    A new approach for automotive hydrogen storage systems is the so-called cryo-compressed hydrogen storage (CcH2). It has a potential for increased energy densities and thus bigger hydrogen amounts onboard, which is the main attractiveness for car manufacturers such as BMW. This system has further advantages in terms of safety, refueling and cooling potential. The current filling level measurement by means of pressure and temperature measurement and subsequent density calculation faces challenges especially in terms of precision. A promising alternative is the capacitive gauge. This measuring principle can determine the filling level of the CcH2 tank with significantly smaller tolerances. The measuring principle is based on different dielectric constants of gaseous and liquid hydrogen. These differences are successfully leveraged in liquid hydrogen storage systems (LH2). The present theoretical analysis shows that the dielectric values of CcH2 in the relevant operating range are comparable to LH2, thus achieving similarly good accuracy. The present work discusses embodiments and implementations for such a sensor in the CcH2 tank.

  2. Design Considerations in Capacitively Coupled Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sang-Heon; Ventzek, Peter; Ranjan, Alok

    2015-11-01

    Microelectronics industry has driven transistor feature size scaling from 10-6 m to 10-9 m during the past 50 years, which is often referred to as Moore's law. It cannot be overstated that today's information technology would not have been so successful without plasma material processing. One of the major plasma sources for the microelectronics fabrication is capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs). The CCP reactor has been intensively studied and developed for the deposition and etching of different films on the silicon wafer. As the feature size gets to around 10 nm, the requirement for the process uniformity is less than 1-2 nm across the wafer (300 mm). In order to achieve the desired uniformity, the hardware design should be as precise as possible before the fine tuning of process condition is applied to make it even better. In doing this procedure, the computer simulation can save a significant amount of resources such as time and money which are critical in the semiconductor business. In this presentation, we compare plasma properties using a 2-dimensional plasma hydrodynamics model for different kinds of design factors that can affect the plasma uniformity. The parameters studied in this presentation include chamber accessing port, pumping port, focus ring around wafer substrate, and the geometry of electrodes of CCP.

  3. Hydrogen atom kinetics in capacitively coupled plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunomura, Shota; Katayama, Hirotaka; Yoshida, Isao

    2017-05-01

    Hydrogen (H) atom kinetics has been investigated in capacitively coupled very high frequency (VHF) discharges at powers of 16-780 mW cm-2 and H2 gas pressures of 0.1-2 Torr. The H atom density has been measured using vacuum ultra violet absorption spectroscopy (VUVAS) with a micro-discharge hollow cathode lamp as a VUV light source. The measurements have been performed in two different electrode configurations of discharges: conventional parallel-plate diode and triode with an intermediate mesh electrode. We find that in the triode configuration, the H atom density is strongly reduced across the mesh electrode. The H atom density varies from ˜1012 cm-3 to ˜1010 cm-3 by crossing the mesh with 0.2 mm in thickness and 36% in aperture ratio. The fluid model simulations for VHF discharge plasmas have been performed to study the H atom generation, diffusion and recombination kinetics. The simulations suggest that H atoms are generated in the bulk plasma, by the electron impact dissociation (e + H2 \\to e + 2H) and the ion-molecule reaction (H2 + + H2 \\to {{{H}}}3+ + H). The diffusion of H atoms is strongly limited by a mesh electrode, and thus the mesh geometry influences the spatial distribution of the H atoms. The loss of H atoms is dominated by the surface recombination.

  4. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2011-01-01

    that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP. To achieve this result, we reduce k-LocVRP to the following generalization of k median, which might be of independent interest. Given a metric (V, d), bound k...... median forest, which leads to a (12+E)-approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP, for any constant E > 0. The algorithm for k median forest is t-swap local search, and we prove that it has locality gap 3 + 2 t ; this generalizes the corresponding result for k median [3]. Finally we consider the k median......We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to k-LocVRP is a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k vehicles each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so...

  5. Ultrasensitive interdigitated capacitance immunosensor using gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Zeinabad, Hojjat; Ghourchian, Hedayatollah; Falahati, Mojtaba; Fathipour, Morteza; Azizi, Marzieh; Boutorabi, Seyed Mehdi

    2018-06-01

    Immunosensors based on interdigitated electrodes (IDEs), have recently demonstrated significant improvements in the sensitivity of capacitance detection. Herein, a novel type of highly sensitive, compact and portable immunosensor based on a gold interdigital capacitor has been designed and developed for the rapid detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). To improve the efficiency of antibody immobilization and time-saving, a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 2-mercaptoethylamine film was coated on IDEs. Afterwards, carboxyl groups on primary antibodies were activated through 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide and were immobilized on amino-terminated SAM for better control of the oriented immobilization of antibodies on gold IDEs. In addition, gold nanoparticles conjugated with a secondary antibody were used to enhance the sensitivity. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor exhibited the sensitivity of 0.22 nF.pg ml–1, the linear range from 5 pg ml‑1 to 1 ng ml–1 and the detection limit of 1.34 pg ml‑1, at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3.

  6. Experimental validation of a method for removing the capacitive leakage artifact from electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buendia, R; Seoane, F; Gil-Pita, R

    2010-01-01

    Often when performing electrical bioimpedance (EBI) spectroscopy measurements, the obtained EBI data present a hook-like deviation, which is most noticeable at high frequencies in the impedance plane. The deviation is due to a capacitive leakage effect caused by the presence of stray capacitances. In addition to the data deviation being remarkably noticeable at high frequencies in the phase and the reactance spectra, the measured EBI is also altered in the resistance and the modulus. If this EBI data deviation is not properly removed, it interferes with subsequent data analysis processes, especially with Cole model-based analyses. In other words, to perform any accurate analysis of the EBI spectroscopy data, the hook deviation must be properly removed. Td compensation is a method used to compensate the hook deviation present in EBI data; it consists of multiplying the obtained spectrum, Z meas (ω), by a complex exponential in the form of exp(–jωTd). Although the method is well known and accepted, Td compensation cannot entirely correct the hook-like deviation; moreover, it lacks solid scientific grounds. In this work, the Td compensation method is revisited, and it is shown that it should not be used to correct the effect of a capacitive leakage; furthermore, a more developed approach for correcting the hook deviation caused by the capacitive leakage is proposed. The method includes a novel correcting expression and a process for selecting the proper values of expressions that are complex and frequency dependent. The correctness of the novel method is validated with the experimental data obtained from measurements from three different EBI applications. The obtained results confirm the sufficiency and feasibility of the correcting method

  7. Self-supported supercapacitor membranes: Polypyrrole-coated carbon nanotube networks enabled by pulsed electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yueping; Liu, Jianwei; Li, Jun [Department of Chemistry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Yu, Deok Jin; Wicksted, James P. [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Kalkan, Kaan; Topal, C. Ozge [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Flanders, Bret N. [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Wu, Judy [Department of Physics, University of Kansas, Manhattan, KS 66044 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Self-supported supercapacitor electrodes with remarkably high specific capacitance have been developed by homogeneously coating polypyrrole (PPy) on multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) membranes. Polypyrrole can be deposited around the individual MWCNTs in a uniform manner throughout the MWCNT membrane via a pulsed electrochemical deposition method. This approach optimizes the pseudocapacitance of the membrane. Electrochemical data and Raman spectra indicate that the high specific capacitance is not only due to more uniform PPy coating, but also higher redox activity that is likely associated with a more ordered PPy packing. Such composite membranes can be directly used as supercapacitor electrodes without backing metal films or binders. A remarkable specific capacitance of 427 F g{sup -1} has been achieved using 5-s electrodeposition pulses. This technique provides a viable solution for developing high-performance electrical energy storage devices. (author)

  8. A capacitive ECG array with visual patient feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilebrecht, Benjamin; Schommartz, Antje; Walter, Marian; Wartzek, Tobias; Czaplik, Michael; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    Capacitive electrocardiogram (ECG) sensing is a promising technique for less constraining vital signal measurement and close to a commercial application. Even bigger trials testing the diagnostic significance were already done with single lead systems. Anyway, most applications to be found in research are limited to one channel and thus limited in its diagnostic relevance as only diseases coming along with a change of the heart rate can be diagnosed adequately. As a consequence the need for capacitive multi-channel ECGs combining the diagnostic relevance and the advantages of capacitive ECG sensing emerges. This paper introduces a capacitive ECG measurement system which allows the recording of standardized ECG leads according to Einthoven and Goldberger by means of an electrode array with nine electrodes.

  9. Fringe Capacitance of a Parallel-Plate Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to measure the forces between charged parallel plates, and determines the relationship among the effective electrode area, the measured capacitance values, and the electrode spacing of a parallel plate capacitor. (GA)

  10. Capacitance-Power-Hysteresis Trilemma in Nanoporous Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpha A. Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous supercapacitors are an important player in the field of energy storage that fill the gap between dielectric capacitors and batteries. The key challenge in the development of supercapacitors is the perceived trade-off between capacitance and power delivery. Current efforts to boost the capacitance of nanoporous supercapacitors focus on reducing the pore size so that they can only accommodate a single layer of ions. However, this tight packing compromises the charging dynamics and hence power density. We show via an analytical theory and Monte Carlo simulations that charging is sensitively dependent on the affinity of ions to the pores, and that high capacitances can be obtained for ionophobic pores of widths significantly larger than the ion diameter. Our theory also predicts that charging can be hysteretic with a significant energy loss per cycle for intermediate ionophilicities. We use these observations to explore the parameter regimes in which a capacitance-power-hysteresis trilemma may be avoided.

  11. Integration of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers to Microfluidic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Viržonis, Darius; Kodzius, Rimantas; Vanagas, Galius

    2013-01-01

    The design and manufacturing flexibility of capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUT) makes them attractive option for integration with microfluidic devices both for sensing and fluid manipulation. CMUT concept is introduced here

  12. Investigation of capacitance characteristics in metal/high-k ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MS received 4 May 2016; accepted 10 January 2017; published online 21 August 2017. Abstract. Capacitance vs. ... with high-k materials is the prime technological challenge. [2]. ... reliability of MOS devices are strongly dependent on the for-.

  13. Integration of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers to Microfluidic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Viržonis, Darius

    2013-10-22

    The design and manufacturing flexibility of capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUT) makes them attractive option for integration with microfluidic devices both for sensing and fluid manipulation. CMUT concept is introduced here by presentin

  14. Low Power/Low Voltage Interface Circuitry for Capacitive Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furst, Claus Efdmann

    This thesis focuses mainly on low power/low voltage interface circuits, implemented in CMOS, for capacitive sensors. A brief discussion of demands and possibilities for analog signal processing in the future is presented. Techniques for low power design is presented. This is done by analyzing power...... power consumption. It is shown that the Sigma-Delta modulator is advantageous when embedded in a feedback loop with a mechanical sensor. Here a micro mechanical capacitive microphone. Feedback and detection circuitry for a capacitive microphone is presented. Practical implementations of low power....../low voltage interface circuitry is presented. It is demonstrated that an amplifier optimized for a capacitive microphone implemented in a standard 0.7 micron CMOS technology competes well with a traditional JFET amplifier. Furthermore a low power/low voltage 3rd order Sigma-Delta modulator is presented...

  15. Capacitance-Power-Hysteresis Trilemma in Nanoporous Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Alpha A; Vella, Dominic; Goriely, Alain; Kondrat, Svyatoslav

    2015-01-01

    Nanoporous supercapacitors are an important player in the field of energy storage that fill the gap between dielectric capacitors and batteries. The key challenge in the development of supercapacitors is the perceived trade-off between capacitance and power delivery. Current efforts to boost the capacitance of nanoporous supercapacitors focus on reducing the pore size so that they can only accommodate a single layer of ions. However, this tight packing compromises the charging dynamics and he...

  16. Conjugate Image Theory Applied on Capacitive Wireless Power Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Minnaert; Nobby Stevens

    2017-01-01

    Wireless power transfer using a magnetic field through inductive coupling is steadily entering the market in a broad range of applications. However, for certain applications, capacitive wireless power transfer using electric coupling might be preferable. In order to obtain a maximum power transfer efficiency, an optimal compensation network must be designed at the input and output ports of the capacitive wireless link. In this work, the conjugate image theory is applied to determine this opti...

  17. Current Progress of Capacitive Deionization for Removal of Pollutant Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Mahendra S.; Balomajumder, Chandrajit

    2016-08-01

    A mini review of a recently developing water purification technology capacitive deionization (CDI) applied for removal of pollutant ions is provided. The current progress of CDI for removal of different pollutant ions such as arsenic, fluoride, boron, phosphate, lithium, copper, cadmium, ferric, and nitrate ions is presented. This paper aims at motivating new research opportunities in capacitive deionization technology for removal of pollutant ions from polluted water.

  18. Capacitive Imaging For Skin Characterization and Solvent Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, P; Zhang, X; Bontozoglou, C

    2016-01-01

    Capacitive contact imaging has shown potential in measuring skin properties including hydration, micro relief analysis, as well as solvent penetration measurements . Through calibration we can also measure the absolute permittivity of the skin, and from absolute permittivity we then work out the absolute water content (or solvent content) in skin. In this paper, we present our latest study of capacitive contact imaging for skin characterization, i.e. skin hydration and skin damages etc. The r...

  19. New Type Multielectrode Capacitance Sensor for Liquid Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y R [China University of Petroleum (Huadong), Qingdao (China); Shi, A P [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China); Chen, G Q [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China); Chang, Y Y [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China); Hang, Z [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China); Liu, B M [Binzhou University, Binzhou (China)

    2006-10-15

    This paper introduces the design of a new type multielectrode capacitance sensor for liquid level. The system regards electric field sensor MC33794 as the core and applies microcontroller MC9S12DJ128 to realize intelligent liquid level monitoring system, which overcomes the disadvantages of the traditional capacitance sensor, improves on the anti-jamming ability and the measurement precision and simplifies the system structure. Finally, the paper sums up the design of the system.

  20. Capacitive Coupling in Double-Circuit Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Benesova

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an algorithm for calculation of capacitances and charges on conductors in systems with earth wires and in double-circuit overhead lines with respect to phase arrangement. A balanced voltage system is considered. A suitable transposition of individual conductors enables to reduce the electric and magnetic fields in vicinity of overhead lines and to limit the inductive and capacitive linkage. The procedure is illustrated on examples the results of which lead to particular recommendations for designers.

  1. Introducing radiality constraints in capacitated location-routing problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Mirledy Toro Ocampo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a unified mathematical formulation for the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP and for the Capacitated Location Routing Problem (CLRP, adopting radiality constraints in order to guarantee valid routes and eliminate subtours. This idea is inspired by formulations already employed in electric power distribution networks, which requires a radial topology in its operation. The results show that the proposed formulation greatly improves the convergence of the solver.

  2. Switchless charge-discharge circuit for electrical capacitance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryszyn, J; Smolik, W T; Radzik, B; Olszewski, T; Szabatin, R

    2014-01-01

    The main factor limiting the performance of electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is an extremely low value of inter-electrode capacitances. The charge-discharge circuit is a well suited circuit for a small capacitance measurement due to its immunity to noise and stray capacitance, although it has a problem associated with a charge injected by the analogue switches, which results in a dc offset. This paper presents a new diode-based circuit for capacitance measurement in which a charge transfer method is realized without switches. The circuit was built and tested in one channel configuration with 16 multiplexed electrodes. The performance of the elaborated circuit and a comparison with a classic charge-discharge circuit are presented. The elaborated circuit can be used for sensors with inter-electrode capacitances not lower than 10 fF. The presented approach allows us to obtain a similar performance to the classic charge-discharge circuit, but has a simplified design. A lack of the need to synchronize the analogue switches in the transmitter and the receiver part of this circuit could be a desirable feature in the design of measurement systems integrated with electrodes. (paper)

  3. Capacitance of carbon-based electrical double-layer capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hengxing; Zhao, Xin; Qiao, Zhenhua; Jung, Jeil; Zhu, Yanwu; Lu, Yalin; Zhang, Li Li; MacDonald, Allan H; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2014-01-01

    Experimental electrical double-layer capacitances of porous carbon electrodes fall below ideal values, thus limiting the practical energy densities of carbon-based electrical double-layer capacitors. Here we investigate the origin of this behaviour by measuring the electrical double-layer capacitance in one to five-layer graphene. We find that the capacitances are suppressed near neutrality, and are anomalously enhanced for thicknesses below a few layers. We attribute the first effect to quantum capacitance effects near the point of zero charge, and the second to correlations between electrons in the graphene sheet and ions in the electrolyte. The large capacitance values imply gravimetric energy storage densities in the single-layer graphene limit that are comparable to those of batteries. We anticipate that these results shed light on developing new theoretical models in understanding the electrical double-layer capacitance of carbon electrodes, and on opening up new strategies for improving the energy density of carbon-based capacitors.

  4. Mode transition of power dissipation and plasma parameters in an asymmetric capacitive discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo-Jin; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Bang, Jin-young; Oh, Seung-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Electrical characteristics and plasma parameters were experimentally investigated in asymmetric capacitively coupled plasma with various argon gas pressures. At a low discharge current region, the transferred power to the plasma was proportional to the current, while the transferred power increased proportionally to square of the current at a high discharge current region. The mode transition of power dissipation occurred at the lower discharge current region with the high gas pressure. At the low radio-frequency power or low discharge current, the plasma density increased linearly with the discharge current, while at the high power or high discharge current, the rate of an increase in the plasma density depended on the gas pressures. A transition of the discharge resistance was also found when the mode transition of the power dissipation occurred. These changes in the electrical characteristics and the plasma parameters were mainly caused by the power dissipation mode transition from the plasma bulk to the sheath in the capacitive discharge with the asymmetric electrode, which has extremely high self-bias voltages. - Highlights: • Mode transition of the power dissipation in an asymmetrical capacitive discharge • Evolution of the discharge power, electrode voltage, and discharge impedance • Electron temperature and plasma density on the power dissipation mode transition

  5. Demonstration of a Packaged Capacitive Pressure Sensor System Suitable for Jet Turbofan Engine Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Jordan, Jennifer L.; Meredith, Roger D.; Harsh, Kevin; Pilant, Evan; Usrey, Michael W.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.; Zorman, Christian A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the development and characterization of a packaged pressure sensor system suitable for jet engine health monitoring is demonstrated. The sensing system operates from 97 to 117 MHz over a pressure range from 0 to 350 psi and a temperature range from 25 to 500 deg. The sensing system consists of a Clapp-type oscillator that is fabricated on an alumina substrate and is comprised of a Cree SiC MESFET, MIM capacitors, a wire-wound inductor, chip resistors and a SiCN capacitive pressure sensor. The pressure sensor is located in the LC tank circuit of the oscillator so that a change in pressure causes a change in capacitance, thus changing the resonant frequency of the sensing system. The chip resistors, wire-wound inductors and MIM capacitors have all been characterized at temperature and operational frequency, and perform with less than 5% variance in electrical performance. The measured capacitive pressure sensing system agrees very well with simulated results. The packaged pressure sensing system is specifically designed to measure the pressure on a jet turbofan engine. The packaged system can be installed by way of borescope plug adaptor fitted to a borescope port exposed to the gas path of a turbofan engine.

  6. A simple capacitance sensor for void fraction measurement in gas-liquid two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luiz C.R.P.; Faccini, José L.H.; Farias, Marcos S.; Su, Jian

    2017-01-01

    In this work we present a simple and inexpensive capacitance sensor for time averaging void fraction measurement of gas-liquid two-phase flow, which was developed at Experimental Thermal hydraulics Laboratory in the Nuclear Engineering Institute, IEN/CNEN. The sensor is a non-invasive device causing no flow disturbances. It is formed by two parallel plates and four electronic circuits: a signal input circuit, an amplification circuit, a frequency generator, and a power supply circuit. The frequency generator applies a sinusoidal signal with appropriate frequency into the signal input circuit which converts the capacitance variation value (or void fraction) of the two-phase flow into a voltage signal that goes to the amplifier stage; the output signal of the amplifier stage will be an input to an analogic/digital converter, installed inside of a computer, and it will provide interpretation of the signal behavior. The capacitance sensor was calibrated by using a horizontal acrylic tube filled with a known volume of water. (author)

  7. A simple capacitance sensor for void fraction measurement in gas-liquid two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luiz C.R.P.; Faccini, José L.H.; Farias, Marcos S., E-mail: reina@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Su, Jian, E-mail: sujian@con.ufrj.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    In this work we present a simple and inexpensive capacitance sensor for time averaging void fraction measurement of gas-liquid two-phase flow, which was developed at Experimental Thermal hydraulics Laboratory in the Nuclear Engineering Institute, IEN/CNEN. The sensor is a non-invasive device causing no flow disturbances. It is formed by two parallel plates and four electronic circuits: a signal input circuit, an amplification circuit, a frequency generator, and a power supply circuit. The frequency generator applies a sinusoidal signal with appropriate frequency into the signal input circuit which converts the capacitance variation value (or void fraction) of the two-phase flow into a voltage signal that goes to the amplifier stage; the output signal of the amplifier stage will be an input to an analogic/digital converter, installed inside of a computer, and it will provide interpretation of the signal behavior. The capacitance sensor was calibrated by using a horizontal acrylic tube filled with a known volume of water. (author)

  8. Capacitive divider for output voltage measurement of intense electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Desheng; Yi Lingzhi; Yu Binxiong; Hong Zhiqiang; Liu Jinliang

    2012-01-01

    A kind of simple-mechanism, easy-disassembly self-integrating capacitive divider used for measuring diode output voltage of intense electron beam accelerator (IEBA) is developed. The structure of the capacitive divider is described, and the capacitance value of the capacitive divider is calculated by theoretical analysis and electromagnetic simulation. The dependence of measurement voltage on electrical parameters such as stray capacitance, earth capacitance of front resistance is obtained by PSpice simulation. Measured waveforms appear overshoot phenomenon when stray capacitance of front resistance is larger, and the wavefront will be affected when earth capacitance of front resistance is larger. The diode output voltage waveforms of intense electron beam accelerator, are measured by capacitive divider and calibrated by water resistance divider, which is accordance with that measured by a resistive divider, the division ratio is about 563007. The designed capacitive divider can be used to measure high-voltage pulse with 100 ns full width at half maximum. (authors)

  9. Membrane Assisted Enzyme Fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Linfeng

    to the variation in size of the proteins and a reasonable separation factor can be observed only when the size difference is in the order of 10 or more. This is partly caused by concentration polarization and membrane fouling which hinders an effective separation of the proteins. Application of an electric field...... across the porous membrane has been demonstrated to be an effective way to reduce concentration polarization and membrane fouling. In addition, this technique can also be used to separate the proteins based on difference in charge, which to some extent overcome the limitations of size difference...... of proteins on the basis of their charge, degree of hydrophobicity, affinity or size. Adequate purity is often not achieved unless several purification steps are combined thereby increasing cost and reducing product yield. Conventional fractionation of proteins using ultrafiltration membranes is limited...

  10. Fabrication of a Micromachined Capacitive Switch Using the CMOS-MEMS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yang Lin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the design and fabrication of a micromachined radio frequency (RF capacitive switch using the complementary metal oxide semiconductor-microelectromechanical system (CMOS-MEMS technology. The structure of the micromachined switch is composed of a membrane, eight springs, four inductors, and coplanar waveguide (CPW lines. In order to reduce the actuation voltage of the switch, the springs are designed as low stiffness. The finite element method (FEM software CoventorWare is used to simulate the actuation voltage and displacement of the switch. The micromachined switch needs a post-CMOS process to release the springs and membrane. A wet etching is employed to etch the sacrificial silicon dioxide layer, and to release the membrane and springs of the switch. Experiments show that the pull-in voltage of the switch is 12 V. The switch has an insertion loss of 0.8 dB at 36 GHz and an isolation of 19 dB at 36 GHz.

  11. Improving the Design of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers Aided with Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Martowicz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of analysis performed to search for feasible design improvements for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer. Carried out search has been aided with the sensitivity analysis and the application of Response Surface Method. The multiphysics approach has been taken into account in elaborated finite element model of one cell of described transducer in order to include significant physical phenomena present in modelled microdevice. The set of twelve input uncertain and design parameters consists of geometric, material and control properties. The amplitude of dynamic membrane deformation of the transducer has been chosen as studied parameter. The objective of performed study has been defined as the task of finding robust design configurations of the transducer, i.e. characterizing maximal value of deformation amplitude with its minimal variation.

  12. Electrosorption capacitance of nanostructured carbon-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chia-Hung; Liang, Chengdu; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Dai, Sheng; Tsouris, Costas

    2006-10-01

    The fundamental mechanism of electrosorption of ions developing a double layer inside nanopores was studied via a combination of experimental and theoretical studies. A novel graphitized-carbon monolithic material has proven to be a good electrical double-layer capacitor that can be applied in the separation of ions from aqueous solutions. An extended electrical double-layer model indicated that the pore size distribution plays a key role in determining the double-layer capacitance in an electrosorption process. Because of the occurrence of double-layer overlapping in narrow pores, mesopores and micropores make significantly different contributions to the double-layer capacitance. Mesopores show good electrochemical accessibility. Micropores present a slow mass transfer of ions and a considerable loss of double-layer capacitance, associated with a shallow potential distribution inside pores. The formation of the diffuse layer inside the micropores determines the magnitude of the double-layer capacitance at low electrolyte concentrations and at conditions close to the point of zero charge of the material. The effect of the double-layer overlapping on the electrosorption capacitance can be reduced by increasing the pore size, electrolyte concentration, and applied potential. The results are relevant to water deionization.

  13. Capacitance-Based Frequency Adjustment of Micro Piezoelectric Vibration Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Mao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro piezoelectric vibration generator has a wide application in the field of microelectronics. Its natural frequency is unchanged after being manufactured. However, resonance cannot occur when the natural frequencies of a piezoelectric generator and the source of vibration frequency are not consistent. Output voltage of the piezoelectric generator will sharply decline. It cannot normally supply power for electronic devices. In order to make the natural frequency of the generator approach the frequency of vibration source, the capacitance FM technology is adopted in this paper. Different capacitance FM schemes are designed by different locations of the adjustment layer. The corresponding capacitance FM models have been established. Characteristic and effect of the capacitance FM have been simulated by the FM model. Experimental results show that the natural frequency of the generator could vary from 46.5 Hz to 42.4 Hz when the bypass capacitance value increases from 0 nF to 30 nF. The natural frequency of a piezoelectric vibration generator could be continuously adjusted by this method.

  14. Nonlinear dynamics of capacitive charging and desalination by porous electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesheuvel, P. M.; Bazant, M. Z.

    2010-03-01

    The rapid and efficient exchange of ions between porous electrodes and aqueous solutions is important in many applications, such as electrical energy storage by supercapacitors, water desalination and purification by capacitive deionization, and capacitive extraction of renewable energy from a salinity difference. Here, we present a unified mean-field theory for capacitive charging and desalination by ideally polarizable porous electrodes (without Faradaic reactions or specific adsorption of ions) valid in the limit of thin double layers (compared to typical pore dimensions). We illustrate the theory for the case of a dilute, symmetric, binary electrolyte using the Gouy-Chapman-Stern (GCS) model of the double layer, for which simple formulae are available for salt adsorption and capacitive charging of the diffuse part of the double layer. We solve the full GCS mean-field theory numerically for realistic parameters in capacitive deionization, and we derive reduced models for two limiting regimes with different time scales: (i) in the “supercapacitor regime” of small voltages and/or early times, the porous electrode acts like a transmission line, governed by a linear diffusion equation for the electrostatic potential, scaled to the RC time of a single pore, and (ii) in the “desalination regime” of large voltages and long times, the porous electrode slowly absorbs counterions, governed by coupled, nonlinear diffusion equations for the pore-averaged potential and salt concentration.

  15. cLite – A Capacitive Signal Conditioning IC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krauss Gudrun

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The ZMD31210 cLite™ – a new member of the ZMDI’s Lite™ family of low-cost sensor signal conditioner (SSC integrated circuits – is described in this paper. The cLite™ is the first conditioner for capacitive sensors. Supporting sensor capacitances from 2 pF up to 260 pF, the new sensor signal conditioner covers a wide range of applications. An important aspect of conditioning a capacitance sensor input signal is the adaptation of the capacitive-to-digital converter (CDC input range to the sensor signal span and offset values in order to maximize accuracy. All typical features of the Lite™ family including the digital calibration math based on EEPROM-stored coefficients and a variety of outputs (I2C™, SPI, PDM, and programmable alarms are integrated in the cLite™ as well. Additional features including a sleep mode and low supply voltage range (down to 2.3 V support the low power concept. The paper focuses in particular on the capacitance sensor adaptation and high precision sensor conditioning.

  16. Capacitance-based frequency adjustment of micro piezoelectric vibration generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xinhua; He, Qing; Li, Hong; Chu, Dongliang

    2014-01-01

    Micro piezoelectric vibration generator has a wide application in the field of microelectronics. Its natural frequency is unchanged after being manufactured. However, resonance cannot occur when the natural frequencies of a piezoelectric generator and the source of vibration frequency are not consistent. Output voltage of the piezoelectric generator will sharply decline. It cannot normally supply power for electronic devices. In order to make the natural frequency of the generator approach the frequency of vibration source, the capacitance FM technology is adopted in this paper. Different capacitance FM schemes are designed by different locations of the adjustment layer. The corresponding capacitance FM models have been established. Characteristic and effect of the capacitance FM have been simulated by the FM model. Experimental results show that the natural frequency of the generator could vary from 46.5 Hz to 42.4 Hz when the bypass capacitance value increases from 0 nF to 30 nF. The natural frequency of a piezoelectric vibration generator could be continuously adjusted by this method.

  17. Molecular basis of sperm capacitation acrosome reaction and interaction with eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikhnejad, G.

    1985-01-01

    A phospholipase C (PLC) which can hydrolyze 14 C-phosphatidylcholine was purified from bull seminal plasma. This PLC has an optimum at pH 7.2 and its PI was about 5.0. The enzyme was inhibited by EDTA, Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ , Ni 2+ , Fe 2+ , and Zn 2+ . PLC consists of two subunits one 69,000 and the other 55,000 daltons. The purified PLC was examined for induction of capacitation and acrosome reaction of guinea pig spermatozoa. Sperm were examined for the acrosome reaction 10 min after addition of 3.4 mM Ca 2+ . Fifty percent of the sperm underwent the acrosome reaction while the control had less than 5% acrosome reacted sperm. The antiserum to the inneracrosomal membrane isolated from sperm was labeled with FITC conjugated goat anti-guinea pig IgG. The conjugated antibody was used to localize sperm antigens. The antigens located on the IAM were only fluoresced when rabbit sperm were treated with methanol and/or MgCl 2 . Therefore anti-IAM antibody did not bind to the sperm plasma membrane. In vivo capacitated rabbit sperm were incubated with anti-IAM antibody (intact IgG and F(ab') 2 fragments) for 30 min prior to addition of rabbit eggs. After 24 h the eggs were examined for cleavage. The control eggs were fertilized (90%) while the antibody completely inhibited the fertilization of ova in vitro. The eggs incubated with antibody prior to the addition of sperm were still fertilizable. Thus, anti-IAM did not have any noticeable effect on the eggs. It was also shown that antibody inhibited fertilization of zona-free rabbit eggs in vitro as well

  18. Membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The membrane paradigm is a modified frozen star approach to modeling black holes, with particles and fields assuming a complex, static, boundary-layer type structure (membrane) near the event horizon. The membrane has no effects on the present or future evolution of particles and fields above itself. The mathematical representation is a combination of a formalism containing terms for the shear and bulk viscosity, surface pressure, momentum, temperature, entropy, etc., of the horizon and the 3+1 formalism. The latter model considers a family of three-dimensional spacelike hypersurfaces in one-dimensional time. The membrane model considers a magnetic field threading the hole and undergoing torque from the hole rotation. The field is cleaned by the horizon and distributed over the horizon so that ohmic dissipation is minimized. The membrane paradigm is invalid inside the horizon, but is useful for theoretically probing the properties of slowly evolving black holes

  19. Membrane processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The membrane processes have played important role in the industrial separation process. These technologies can be found in all industrial areas such as food, beverages, metallurgy, pulp and paper, textile, pharmaceutical, automotive, biotechnology and chemical industry, as well as in water treatment for domestic and industrial application. Although these processes are known since twentieth century, there are still many studies that focus on the testing of new membranes' materials and determining of conditions for optimal selectivity, i. e. the optimum transmembrane pressure (TMP) or permeate flux to minimize fouling. Moreover the researchers proposed some calculation methods to predict the membrane processes properties. In this article, the laboratory scale experiments of membrane separation techniques, as well their validation by calculation methods are presented. Because membrane is the "heart" of the process, experimental and computational methods for its characterization are also described.

  20. Relative humidity measurements with thermocouple psychrometer and capacitance sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Naihsien.

    1991-01-01

    The relative humidity is one of the important hydrological parameters affecting waste package performance. Water potential of a system is defined as the amount of work required to reversibly and isothermally move an infinitesimal quantity of water from a pool of pure water to that system at the same elevation. The thermocouple psychrometer, which acts as a wet-dry bulb instrument based on the Peltier effect, is used to measure water potential. The thermocouple psychrometer works only for relative humidity greater than 94 percent. Other sensors must be used for drier conditions. Hence, the author also uses a Vaisala Humicap, which measures the capacitance change due to relative humidity change. The operation range of the Humicap (Model HMP 135Y) is from 0 to 100 percent relative humidity and up to 160C (320F) in temperature. A psychrometer has three thermocouple junctions. Two copper-constantan junctions serve as reference temperature junctions and the constantan-chromel junction is the sensing junction. Current is passed through the thermocouple causing cooling of the sensing junction by the Peltier effect. When the temperature of the junction is below the dew point, water will condense upon the junction from the air. The Peltier current is discontinued and the thermocouple output is recorded as the temperature of the thermocouple returns to ambient. The temperature changes rapidly toward the ambient temperature until it reaches the wet bulb depression temperature. At this point, evaporation of the water from the junction produces a cooling effect upon the junction that offsets the heat absorbed from the ambient surroundings. This continues until the water is depleted and the thermocouple temperature returns to the ambient temperature (Briscoe, 1984). The datalogger starts to take data roughly at the wet bulb depression temperature

  1. Depletion length and space charge layer capacitance in doped semiconductor nanoshpere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nersesyan, S R; Petrosyan, S G

    2012-01-01

    The depletion length in a semiconductor nanosphere depends not only on the material parameters but on the nanosphere radius as well. For this reason, the depletion length does not present a universal characteristic length for all spherical interfaces. The difference from the standard flat model caused by the surface curvature is significant for a structure with the depletion length comparable to the radius of a nanosphere. We show that the depletion layer capacitance in a nanosphere becomes quite sensitive to the light intensity when, as a result of increasing optical generation rate, the surface potential barrier height is decreased and becomes very small. (paper)

  2. Mechanism for heating of nitrogen plasmas in an electrodeless rf capacitive discharge at medium pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdichevskii, M.G.; Marusin, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    The possible contributions of several processes to the experimentally observed heating of nitrogen plasmas in an electarodeless rf capacitive discharge at pressures of p=2.7-67 kPa are discussed. These processes are electron-rotational, vibrational--translational (V--T), and nonresonance vibrational--vibrational (V--V) energy exchange and effects due to O 2 , H 2 O, and NO impurities in the gas. It is shown that as the pressure is decreased the heating mechanism changes from quasiequilibrium to nonequilibrium V--T heating caused by overpopulation of high vibrational levels in the ground state of the nitrogen molecule

  3. Application of capacitively coupled rf discharge plasma for sterilization of polymer materials used in ophthalmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullin, I.Sh.; Avetisov, S.E.; Lipatov, D.V.; Rybakova, E.G.; Bragin, V.E.; Bykanov, A.N.; Kamarentsev, E.N.

    1996-01-01

    The sterilization effect of capacitively coupled rf discharge plasma treatment of contact lenses was investigated. There were used two types of polymer: highly hydrophilic polymer with water content 76% (Navelen-76) and poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA). There was demonstrated the possibility of effective sterilization by RF discharge plasma of a set of polymer materials used in ophthalmology. The best results were obtained for hard contact lenses. There was perfect sterilization in this case. There were not perfect sterilization in some cases of soft contact lenses treatment. It may be caused by porous structure of the external layers of this material and limited thickness of the sterilization layer. (author)

  4. Clearance of short circuited ion optics electrodes by capacitive discharge. [in ion thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeschel, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The ion optics electrodes of low specific impulse (3000 sec) mercury electron bombardment ion thrusters are vulnerable to short circuits by virtue of their relatively small interelectrode spacing (0.5 mm). Metallic flakes from backsputtered deposits are the most probable cause of such 'shorts' and 'typical' flakes have been simulated here using refractory wire that has a representative, but controllable, cross section. Shorting wires can be removed by capacitive discharge without significant damage to the electrodes. This paper describes an evaluation of 'short' removal versus electrode damage for several combinations of capacitor voltage, stored energy, and short circuit conditions.

  5. TOPICAL REVIEW: Electromagnetic effects in high-frequency capacitive discharges used for plasma processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabert, P.

    2007-02-01

    In plasma processing, capacitive discharges have classically been operated in the electrostatic regime, for which the excitation wavelength λ is much greater than the electrode radius, and the plasma skin depth δ is much greater than the electrode spacing. However, contemporary reactors are larger and excited at higher frequencies which leads to strong electromagnetic effects. This paper gives a review of the work that has recently been carried out to carefully model and diagnose these effects, which cause major uniformity problems in plasma processing for microelectronics and flat panel displays industries.

  6. Electromagnetic effects in high-frequency capacitive discharges used for plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabert, P

    2007-01-01

    In plasma processing, capacitive discharges have classically been operated in the electrostatic regime, for which the excitation wavelength λ is much greater than the electrode radius, and the plasma skin depth δ is much greater than the electrode spacing. However, contemporary reactors are larger and excited at higher frequencies which leads to strong electromagnetic effects. This paper gives a review of the work that has recently been carried out to carefully model and diagnose these effects, which cause major uniformity problems in plasma processing for microelectronics and flat panel displays industries. (topical review)

  7. Fabrication of a printed capacitive air-gap touch sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Seo, Hwiwon; Lee, Sangyoon

    2018-05-01

    Unlike lithography-based processes, printed electronics does not require etching, which makes it difficult to fabricate electronic devices with an air gap. In this study, we propose a method to fabricate capacitive air-gap touch sensors via printing and coating. First, the bottom electrode was fabricated on a flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate using roll-to-roll gravure printing with silver ink. Then poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was spin coated to form a sacrificial layer. The top electrode was fabricated on the sacrificial layer by spin coating with a stretchable silver ink. The sensor samples were then put in a tetrabutylammonium (TBAF) bath to generate the air gap by removing the sacrificial layer. The capacitance of the samples was measured for verification, and the results show that the capacitance increases in proportion to the applied force from 0 to 2.5 N.

  8. CMOS capacitive biosensors for highly sensitive biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, An-Yu; Lu, Michael S-C

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic microbeads are widely used in biotechnology and biomedical research for manipulation and detection of cells and biomolecules. Most lab-on-chip systems capable of performing manipulation and detection require external instruments to perform one of the functions, leading to increased size and cost. This work aims at developing an integrated platform to perform these two functions by implementing electromagnetic microcoils and capacitive biosensors on a CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) chip. Compared to most magnetic-type sensors, our detection method requires no externally applied magnetic fields and the associated fabrication is less complicated. In our experiment, microbeads coated with streptavidin were driven to the sensors located in the center of microcoils with functionalized anti-streptavidin antibody. Detection of a single microbead was successfully demonstrated using a capacitance-to-frequency readout. The average capacitance changes for the experimental and control groups were -5.3 fF and -0.2 fF, respectively.

  9. 3D capacitive tactile sensor using DRIE micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chiehtang; Chen, Rongshun

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a three dimensional micro capacitive tactile sensor that can detect normal and shear forces which is fabricated using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) bulk silicon micromachining. The tactile sensor consists of a force transmission plate, a symmetric suspension system, and comb electrodes. The sensing character is based on the changes of capacitance between coplanar sense electrodes. High sensitivity is achieved by using the high aspect ratio interdigital electrodes with narrow comb gaps and large overlap areas. The symmetric suspension mechanism of this sensor can easily solve the coupling problem of measurement and increase the stability of the structure. In this paper, the sensor structure is designed, the capacitance variation of the proposed device is theoretically analyzed, and the finite element analysis of mechanical behavior of the structures is performed.

  10. A microcontroller-based interface circuit for lossy capacitive sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reverter, Ferran; Casas, Òscar

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces and analyses a low-cost microcontroller-based interface circuit for lossy capacitive sensors, i.e. sensors whose parasitic conductance (G x ) is not negligible. Such a circuit relies on a previous circuit also proposed by the authors, in which the sensor is directly connected to a microcontroller without using either a signal conditioner or an analogue-to-digital converter in the signal path. The novel circuit uses the same hardware, but it performs an additional measurement and executes a new calibration technique. As a result, the sensitivity of the circuit to G x decreases significantly (a factor higher than ten), but not completely due to the input capacitances of the port pins of the microcontroller. Experimental results show a relative error in the capacitance measurement below 1% for G x x ) shows the effectiveness of the circuit

  11. Assessment of an ultrasonic sensor and a capacitance probe for measurement of two-phase mixture level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hyun; Lee, Dong Won; No, Hee Cheon

    2004-01-01

    We performed a comparison of two-phase mixture levels measured by an ultrasonic sensor and a two-wire type capacitance probe with visual data under the same experimental conditions. A series of experiments are performed with various combinations of airflow and initial water level using a test vessel with a height of 2m and an inner diameter of 0.3m. The ultrasonic sensor measured the two-phase mixture level with a maximum error of 1.77% with respect to the visual data. The capacitance probe severely under-predicted the level data in the high void fraction region. The cause of the error was identified as the change of the dielectric constant as the void fraction changes when the probe is applied to the measurement of the two-phase mixture levels. A correction method for the capacitance probe is proposed by correcting the change of the dielectric constant of the two-phase mixture. The correction method for the capacitance probe produces a r.m.s. error of 5.4%. The present experimental data are compared with the existing pool void fraction correlations based on drift-flux model. The Kataoka-Ishii correlation has the best agreement with the present experimental data with an r.m.s error of 2.5%

  12. Assessment of an ultrasonic sensor and a capacitance probe for measurement of two-phase mixture level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hyun; Lee, Dong Won; No, Hee Cheon

    2004-01-01

    We perform a comparison of two-phase mixture levels measured by an ultrasonic sensor and a two-wire type capacitance probe with visual data under the same experimental conditions. A series of experiments are performed with various combinations of airflow and initial water level using a test vessel with a height of 2m and an inner diameter of 0.3 m under atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The ultrasonic sensor measures the two-phase mixture level with a maximum error of 1.77% with respect to the visual data. The capacitance probe severely under-predicts the level data in the high void fraction region. The cause of the error is identified as the change of the dielectric constant as the void fraction changes when the probe is applied to the measurement of the two-phase mixture levels. A correction method for the capacitance probe is proposed by correcting the change of dielectric constant of the two-phase mixture. The correction method for the capacitance probe produces a r.m.s. error of 5.4%. (author)

  13. Trade-off between quantum capacitance and thermodynamic stability of defected graphene: an implication for supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anurag; SanthiBhushan, Boddepalli

    2018-03-01

    Defects are inevitable most of the times either at the synthesis, handling or processing stage of graphene, causes significant deviation of properties. The present work discusses the influence of vacancy defects on the quantum capacitance as well as thermodynamic stability of graphene, and the nitrogen doping pattern needs to be followed to attain a trade-off between these two. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to analyze various vacancy defects and different possible nitrogen doping patterns at the vacancy site of graphene, with an implication for supercapacitor electrodes. The results signify that vacancy defect improves the quantum capacitance of graphene at the cost of thermodynamic stability, while the nitrogen functionalization at the vacancy improves thermodynamic stability and quantum capacitance both. It has been observed that functionalizing all the dangling carbons at the defect site with nitrogen is the key to attain high thermodynamic stability as well as quantum capacitance. Furthermore, the results signify the suitability of these functionalized graphenes for anode electrode of high energy density asymmetric supercapacitors.

  14. Equivalent distributed capacitance model of oxide traps on frequency dispersion of C-V curve for MOS capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Han-Han; Xu, Jing-Ping; Liu, Lu; Lai, Pui-To; Tang, Wing-Man

    2016-11-01

    An equivalent distributed capacitance model is established by considering only the gate oxide-trap capacitance to explain the frequency dispersion in the C-V curve of MOS capacitors measured for a frequency range from 1 kHz to 1 MHz. The proposed model is based on the Fermi-Dirac statistics and the charging/discharging effects of the oxide traps induced by a small ac signal. The validity of the proposed model is confirmed by the good agreement between the simulated results and experimental data. Simulations indicate that the capacitance dispersion of an MOS capacitor under accumulation and near flatband is mainly caused by traps adjacent to the oxide/semiconductor interface, with negligible effects from the traps far from the interface, and the relevant distance from the interface at which the traps can still contribute to the gate capacitance is also discussed. In addition, by excluding the negligible effect of oxide-trap conductance, the model avoids the use of imaginary numbers and complex calculations, and thus is simple and intuitive. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61176100 and 61274112), the University Development Fund of the University of Hong Kong, China (Grant No. 00600009), and the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China (Grant No. 1-ZVB1).

  15. Equivalent distributed capacitance model of oxide traps on frequency dispersion of C – V curve for MOS capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Han-Han; Xu Jing-Ping; Liu Lu; Lai Pui-To; Tang Wing-Man

    2016-01-01

    An equivalent distributed capacitance model is established by considering only the gate oxide-trap capacitance to explain the frequency dispersion in the C – V curve of MOS capacitors measured for a frequency range from 1 kHz to 1 MHz. The proposed model is based on the Fermi–Dirac statistics and the charging/discharging effects of the oxide traps induced by a small ac signal. The validity of the proposed model is confirmed by the good agreement between the simulated results and experimental data. Simulations indicate that the capacitance dispersion of an MOS capacitor under accumulation and near flatband is mainly caused by traps adjacent to the oxide/semiconductor interface, with negligible effects from the traps far from the interface, and the relevant distance from the interface at which the traps can still contribute to the gate capacitance is also discussed. In addition, by excluding the negligible effect of oxide-trap conductance, the model avoids the use of imaginary numbers and complex calculations, and thus is simple and intuitive. (paper)

  16. Pretreatment and Membrane Hydrophilic Modification to Reduce Membrane Fouling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Chu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of low pressure membranes (microfiltration/ultrafiltration has undergone accelerated development for drinking water production. However, the major obstacle encountered in its popularization is membrane fouling caused by natural organic matter (NOM. This paper firstly summarizes the two factors causing the organic membrane fouling, including molecular weight (MW and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of NOM, and then presents a brief introduction of the methods which can prevent membrane fouling such as pretreatment of the feed water (e.g., coagulation, adsorption, and pre-oxidation and membrane hydrophilic modification (e.g., plasma modification, irradiation grafting modification, surface coating modification, blend modification, etc.. Perspectives of further research are also discussed.

  17. Intrinsic Low Hysteresis Touch Mode Capacitive Pressure Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fragiacomo, Giulio; Pedersen, Thomas; Hansen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Hysteresis has always been one of the main concerns when fabricating touch mode capacitive pressure sensors (TMCPS). This phenomenon can be fought at two different levels: during fabrication or after fabrication with the aid of a dedicated signal conditioning circuit. We will describe...... a microfabrication step that can be introduced in order to reduce drastically the hysteresis of this type of sensors without compromising their sensitivity. Medium-high range (0 to 10 bar absolute pressure) TMCPS with a capacitive signal span of over 100pF and less than 1 % hysteresis in the entire pressure range...

  18. [Impact of sperm capacitation on various populations of human spermatozoa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva Díaz, C; Suárez Juárez, M; Díaz, M A; Ayala Ruiz, A

    1989-02-01

    With the purpose of evaluating the impact of spermatic capacitation on different spermatozooa populations, 49 samples of semen, before and after in vitro spermatic capacitation with Ham F-10 medium, were studied; motility of cells was evaluated according to WHO criteria. There was diminution of percentage of immobile cells, 27.8 to 20.0, as well as increase in population of cells with more mobility, 28.6% to 39.1%. Both difference were statistically significant (p = less than 0.05 and p = less than 0.005, respectively). These data suggest that spermatic capacitacion activates "in cascade" all groups of gametes.

  19. Stray capacitances in the watt balance operation: electrostatic forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Mana, G.

    2014-01-01

    In a watt balance, stray capacitances exist between the coil and the magnet. Since the electric current flowing in the coil creates a difference in electric potentials between the coil and magnet, their electrostatic interactions must be taken into account. This paper reports the results of a fin......In a watt balance, stray capacitances exist between the coil and the magnet. Since the electric current flowing in the coil creates a difference in electric potentials between the coil and magnet, their electrostatic interactions must be taken into account. This paper reports the results...

  20. A Multifunction Low-Power Preamplifier for MEMS Capacitive Microphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jawed, Syed Arsalan; Nielsen, Jannik Hammel; Gottardi, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    A multi-function two-stage chopper-stabilized preamplifier (PAMP) for MEMS capacitive microphones (MCM) is presented. The PAMP integrates digitally controllable gain, high-pass filtering and offset control, adding flexibility to the front-end readout of MCMs. The first stage of the PAMP consists...... of a source-follower (SF) while the second-stage is a capacitive gain stage. The second-stage employs chopper-stabilization (CHS), while SF buffer shields the MCM sensor from the switching spurs. The PAMP uses M poly bias resistors for the second-stage, exploiting Miller effect to achieve flat audio...

  1. A multichannel portable ECG system with capacitive sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehler, M; Schilling, M; Ling, V; Melhorn, K

    2008-01-01

    Capacitive sensors can be employed for measuring the electrocardiogram of a human heart without electric contact with the skin. This configuration avoids contact problems experienced by conventional electrocardiography. In our studies, we integrated these capacitive electrocardiogram electrodes in a 15-sensor array and combined this array with a tablet personal computer. By placing the system on the patient's body, we can measure a 15-channel electrocardiogram even through clothes and without any preparation. The goal of this development is to provide a new diagnostic tool that offers the user a reproducible, easy access to a fast and spatially resolved diagnostic 'heart view'

  2. Development of Image Reconstruction Algorithms in electrical Capacitance Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Marron, J. L.; Alberdi Primicia, J.; Barcala Riveira, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    The Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) has not obtained a good development in order to be used at industrial level. That is due first to difficulties in the measurement of very little capacitances (in the range of femto farads) and second to the problem of reconstruction on- line of the images. This problem is due also to the small numbers of electrodes (maximum 16), that made the usual algorithms of reconstruction has many errors. In this work it is described a new purely geometrical method that could be used for this purpose. (Author) 4 refs

  3. Primordial membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    2017-01-01

    Cellular membranes, which are self-assembled bilayer structures mainly composed of lipids, proteins and conjugated polysaccharides, are the defining feature of cell physiology. It is likely that the complexity of contemporary cells was preceded by simpler chemical systems or protocells during...... the various evolutionary stages that led from inanimate to living matter. It is also likely that primitive membranes played a similar role in protocell 'physiology'. The composition of such ancestral membranes has been proposed as mixtures of single hydrocarbon chain amphiphiles, which are simpler versions...

  4. Fetal membrane healing after spontaneous and iatrogenic membrane rupture: A review of current evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Devlieger, R.; Millar, L. K.; Bryant-Greenwood, G.; Lewi, L.; Deprest, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    In view of the important protective role of the fetal membranes, wound sealing, tissue regeneration, or wound healing could be life saving in cases of preterm premature rupture of the membranes. Although many investigators are studying the causes of preterm premature rupture of membranes, the emphasis has not been on the wound healing capacity of the fetal membranes. In this review, the relevant literature on the pathophysiologic condition that leads to preterm premature rupture of membranes ...

  5. Cell-free system for synthesizing membrane proteins cell free method for synthesizing membrane proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Philip D; Hanson, Deborah K

    2013-06-04

    The invention provides an in vitro method for producing proteins, membrane proteins, membrane-associated proteins, and soluble proteins that interact with membrane-associated proteins for assembly into an oligomeric complex or that require association with a membrane for proper folding. The method comprises, supplying intracytoplasmic membranes from organisms; modifying protein composition of intracytoplasmic membranes from organism by modifying DNA to delete genes encoding functions of the organism not associated with the formation of the intracytoplasmic membranes; generating appropriate DNA or RNA templates that encode the target protein; and mixing the intracytoplasmic membranes with the template and a transcription/translation-competent cellular extract to cause simultaneous production of the membrane proteins and encapsulation of the membrane proteins within the intracytoplasmic membranes.

  6. Finite-element simulations of coupling capacitances in capacitively coupled pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)755510

    2017-01-01

    Capacitively coupled hybrid silicon pixel-detector assemblies are under study for the vertex detector at the proposed future CLIC linear electron-positron collider. The assemblies consist of active CCPDv3 sensors, with 25 μm pixel pitch implemented in a 180 nm High- Voltage CMOS process, which are glued to the CLICpix readout ASIC, with the same pixel pitch and processed in a commercial 65 nm CMOS technology. The signal created in the silicon bulk of the active sensors passes a two-stage amplifier, in each pixel, and gets transferred as a voltage pulse to metal pads facing the readout chip (ROC). The coupling of the signal to the metal pads on the ROC side proceeds through the capacitors formed between the two chips by a thin layer of epoxy glue. The coupling strength and the amount of unwanted cross coupling to neighbouring pixels depends critically on the uniformity of the glue layer, its thickness and on the alignment precision during the flip-chip assembly process. Finite-element calculations of the coup...

  7. Density of interface states, excess capacitance and series resistance in the metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altindal, Semsettin; Tataroglu, Adem; Dokme, Ilbilge [Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Physics Department, Gazi University, 06500, Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-01-31

    Dark and illuminated current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Al/SiO{sub x}/p-Si metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) solar cells were measured at room temperature. In addition to capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-voltage (G-V), characteristics are studied at a wide frequency range of 1kHz-10MHz. The dark I-V characteristics showed non-ideal behavior with an ideal factor of 3.2. The density of interface states distribution profiles as a function of (E{sub ss}-E{sub v}) deduced from the I-V measurements at room temperature for the MIS solar cells on the order of 10{sup 13}cm{sup -2}eV{sup -1}. These interface states were responsible for the non-ideal behavior of I-V, C-V and G-V characteristics. Frequency dispersion in capacitance for MIS solar cells can be interpreted only in terms of interface states. The interface states can follow the a.c. signal and yield an excess capacitance, which depends on the relaxation time of interface states and the frequency of the a.c. signal. It was observed that the excess capacitance C{sub o} caused by an interface state decreases with an increase of frequency. The capacitances characteristics of MIS solar cells are affected not only in interface states but also series resistance. Analysis of this data indicated that the high interface states and series resistance leads to lower values of open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, and fill factor. Experimental results show that the location of interface states and series resistance have a significant effect on I-V, C-V and G-V characteristics.

  8. Comparison of neutron scattering and DFM capacitance instruments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil water evaporation is an important parameter that needs to be accurately measured for the design of water-efficient agricultural systems. With this study, the abilities of the DFM capacitance probes and a neutron water meter (NWM) to measure evaporation from the soil surface were compared. Measured evaporation was ...

  9. CAPACITANCE OF SUPERCAPACITORS WITH ELECTRODES BASED ON CARBON NANOCOMPOSITE MATERIAL

    OpenAIRE

    S.L Revo; B.I Rachiy; S Hamamda; T.G Avramenko; K.O Ivanenko

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the results of our research of the structure and practically important characteristics of a nanocomposite material on the basis of nanoporous carbon and thermally exfoliated graphite. This work shows that the use of the abovementioned composition in electrodes for supercapacitors allows to attain the level of their specific electrical capacitance at (155...160) F/g.

  10. Novel rf power sensor based on capacitive MEMS technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, L.J.; Visser, Eelke; Sesé, J.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Flokstra, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    We present the theory, design, fabrication of and first measurements on a novel power for radio frequency (rf) signals, based on capacitive measurements. The novelty of this sensor is thtat it measures the force that is created between the rf signal and a grounded membrande suspended above the line

  11. Lightweight linear alternators with and without capacitive tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedra, Janis M.

    1993-06-01

    Permanent magnet excited linear alternators rated tens of kW and coupled to free-piston Stirling engines are presently viewed as promising candidates for long term generation of electric power in both space and terrestrial applications. Series capacitive cancellation of the internal inductive reactance of such alternators was considered a viable way to both increase power extraction and to suppress unstable modes of the thermodynamic oscillation. Idealized toroidal and cylindrical alternator geometries are used for a comparative study of the issues of specific mass and capacitive tuning, subject to stability criteria. The analysis shows that the stator mass of an alternator designed to be capacitively tuned is always greater than the minimum achievable stator mass of an alternator designed with no capacitors, assuming equal utilization of materials ratings and the same frequency and power to a resistive load. This conclusion is not substantially altered when the usually lesser masses of the magnets and of any capacitors are added. Within the reported stability requirements and under circumstances of normal materials ratings, this study finds no clear advantage to capacitive tuning. Comparative plots of the various constituent masses are presented versus the internal power factor taken as a design degree of freedom. The explicit formulas developed for stator core, coil, capacitor, and magnet masses and for the degree of magnet utilization provide useful estimates of scaling effects.

  12. An integrated energy-efficient capacitive sensor digital interface circuit

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham

    2014-06-19

    In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient 13-bit capacitive sensor interface circuit. The proposed design fully relies on successive approximation algorithm, which eliminates the need for oversampling and digital decimation filtering, and thus low-power consumption is achieved. The proposed architecture employs a charge amplifier stage to acheive parasitic insensitive operation and fine absolute resolution. Moreover, the output code is not affected by offset voltages or charge injection. The successive approximation algorithm is implemented in the capacitance-domain using a coarse-fine programmable capacitor array, which allows digitizing wide capacitance range in compact area. Analysis for the maximum achievable resolution due to mismatch is provided. The proposed design is insensitive to any reference voltage or current which translates to low temperature sensitivity. The operation of a prototype fabricated in a standard CMOS technology is experimentally verified using both on-chip and off-chip capacitive sensors. Compared to similar prior work, the fabricated prototype achieves and excellent energy efficiency of 34 pJ/step.

  13. Calibration of capacitance probe sensors using Electric Circuit Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelleners, T.J.; Soppe, R.W.O.; Robinson, D.A.; Schaap, M.G.; Ayars, J.E.; Skaggs, T.H.

    2004-01-01

    Capacitance probe sensors are an attractive electromagnetic technique for estimating soil water content. There is concern, however, about the influence of soil salinity and soil temperature on the sensors. We present an electric circuit model that relates the sensor frequency to the permittivity of

  14. Simulation and optimization of a dc SQUID with finite capacitance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Waal, V.J.; Schrijner, P.; Llurba, R.

    1984-02-01

    This paper deals with the calculations of the noise an the optimization of the energy resolution of a dc SQUID with finite junction capacitance. Up to now noise calculations of dc SQUIDs were performed using a model without parasitic capacitances across the Josephson junctions. As the capacitances limit the performance of the SQUID, for a good optimization one must take them into account. The model consists of two coupled nonlinear second-order differential equations. The equations are very suitable for simulation with an analog circuit. We implemented the model on a hybrid computer. The noise spectrum from the model is calculated with a fast Fourier transform. A calculation of the energy resolution for one set of parameters takes about 6 min of computer time. Detailed results of the optimization are given for products of inductance and temperature of LT = 1.2 and 5 nHK. Within a range of ..beta.. and ..beta../sub c/ between 1 and 2, which is optimum, the energy resolution is nearly independent of these variables. In this region the energy resolution is near the value calculated without parasitic capacitances. Results of the optimized energy resolution are given as a function of LT between 1.2 and 10 nHK.

  15. Simulation and optimization of a dc SQUID with finite capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, V. J.; Schrijner, P.; Llurba, R.

    1984-02-01

    This paper deals with the calculations of the noise and the optimization of the energy resolution of a dc SQUID with finite junction capacitance. Up to now noise calculations of dc SQUIDs were performed using a model without parasitic capacitances across the Josephson junctions. As the capacitances limit the performance of the SQUID, for a good optimization one must take them into account. The model consists of two coupled nonlinear second-order differential equations. The equations are very suitable for simulation with an analog circuit. We implemented the model on a hybrid computer. The noise spectrum from the model is calculated with a fast Fourier transform. A calculation of the energy resolution for one set of parameters takes about 6 min of computer time. Detailed results of the optimization are given for products of inductance and temperature of LT=1.2 and 5 nH K. Within a range of β and β c between 1 and 2, which is optimum, the energy resolution is nearly independent of these variables. In this region the energy resolution is near the value calculated without parasitic capacitances. Results of the optimized energy resolution are given as a function of LT between 1.2 and 10 mH K.

  16. Conjugate Image Theory Applied on Capacitive Wireless Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Minnaert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless power transfer using a magnetic field through inductive coupling is steadily entering the market in a broad range of applications. However, for certain applications, capacitive wireless power transfer using electric coupling might be preferable. In order to obtain a maximum power transfer efficiency, an optimal compensation network must be designed at the input and output ports of the capacitive wireless link. In this work, the conjugate image theory is applied to determine this optimal network as a function of the characteristics of the capacitive wireless link, as well for the series as for the parallel topology. The results are compared with the inductive power transfer system. Introduction of a new concept, the coupling function, enables the description of the compensation network of both an inductive and a capacitive system in two elegant equations, valid for the series and the parallel topology. This approach allows better understanding of the fundamentals of the wireless power transfer link, necessary for the design of an efficient system.

  17. Capacitive technology for energy extraction from chemical potential differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastos Sales, B.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis introduces the principle of Capacitive energy extraction based on Donnan Potential (CDP) to exploit salinity gradients. It also shows the fundamental characterization and improvements of CDP. An alternative application of this technology aimed at thermal gradients was tested.

  18. Resistance identification and rational process design in Capacitive Deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dykstra, Jouke; Zhao, R.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Wal, van der A.

    2016-01-01

    Capacitive Deionization (CDI) is an electrochemical method for water desalination employing porous carbon electrodes. To enhance the performance of CDI, identification of electronic and ionic resistances in the CDI cell is important. In this work, we outline a method to identify these resistances.

  19. Carbon nanotube yarns as strong flexible conductive capacitive electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Wagterveld, R.M.; Gebben, B.; Otto, M.J.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn, consisting of 23 µm diameter CNT filaments, can be used as capacitive electrodes that are long, flexible, conductive and strong, for applications in energy and electrochemical water treatment. We measure the charge storage capacity as function of salt concentration, and

  20. Microfluidic desalination : capacitive deionization on chip for microfluidic sample preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Susan Helena

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the work described in this thesis is to implement the desalination technique capacitive deionization (CDI) on a microfluidic chip to improve the reproducibility in the analysis of biological samples for drug development. Secondly, microfluidic CDI allows for the in situ study of ion

  1. Probing 2D black phosphorus by quantum capacitance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuiri, Manabendra; Kumar, Chandan; Chakraborty, Biswanath; Gupta, Satyendra N; Naik, Mit H; Jain, Manish; Sood, A K; Das, Anindya

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials and their heterostructures have emerged as a new class of materials, not only for fundamental physics but also for electronic and optoelectronic applications. Black phosphorus (BP) is a relatively new addition to this class of materials. Its strong in-plane anisotropy makes BP a unique material for making conceptually new types of electronic devices. However, the global density of states (DOS) of BP in device geometry has not been measured experimentally. Here, we report the quantum capacitance measurements together with the conductance measurements on an hBN-protected few-layer BP (∼six layers) in a dual-gated field effect transistor (FET) geometry. The measured DOS from our quantum capacitance is compared with density functional theory (DFT). Our results reveal that the transport gap for quantum capacitance is smaller than that in conductance measurements due to the presence of localized states near the band edge. The presence of localized states is confirmed by the variable range hopping seen in our temperature dependence conductivity. A large asymmetry is observed between the electron and hole side. This asymmetric nature is attributed to the anisotropic band dispersion of BP. Our measurements establish the uniqueness of quantum capacitance in probing the localized states near the band edge, hitherto not seen in conductance measurements. (paper)

  2. Lumped thermal capacitance analysis of transient heat conduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lumped thermal capacitance analysis has been undertaken to investigate the transient temperature variations, associated induced thermal stress distributions, and the structural integrity of Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHAR R-1) vessel after 15 years of operation. The beltline configuration of the cylindrical vessel of the ...

  3. A Micro Dynamically Tuned Gyroscope with Adjustable Static Capacitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun Kong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel micro dynamically tuned gyroscope (MDTG with adjustable static capacitance. First, the principle of MDTG is theoretically analyzed. Next, some simulations under the optimized structure parameters are given as a reference for the mask design of the rotor wafer and electrode plates. As two key components, the process flows of the rotor wafer and electrode plates are described in detail. All the scanning electron microscopy (SEM photos show that the fabrication process is effective and optimized. Then, an assembly model is designed for the static capacitance adjustable MDTG, whose static capacitance can be changed by rotating the lower electrode plate support and substituting gasket rings of different thicknesses. Thus, the scale factor is easily changeable. Afterwards, the digitalized closed-loop measurement circuit is simulated. The discrete correction and decoupling modules are designed to make the closed-loop stable and cross-coupling effect small. The dual axis closed-loop system bandwidths can reach more than 60 Hz and the dual axis scale factors are completely symmetrical. All the simulation results demonstrate the proposed fabrication of the MDTG can meet the application requirements. Finally, the paper presents the test results of static and dynamic capacitance values which are consistent with the simulation values.

  4. Multilevel inverter based class D audio amplifier for capacitive transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    The reduced semiconductor voltage stress makes the multilevel inverters especially interesting, when driving capacitive transducers for audio applications. A ± 300 V flying capacitor class D audio amplifier driving a 100 nF load in the midrange region of 0.1-3.5 kHz with Total Harmonic Distortion...

  5. Production of pulsed electric fields using capacitively coupled electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, B. R. F.; Schwab, F. A. S.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that pulsed electric fields can be produced over extended volumes by taking advantage of the internal capacitances in a stacked array of electrodes. The design, construction, and performance of practical arrays are discussed. The prototype arrays involved fields of 100-1000 V/cm extending over several centimeters. Scaling to larger physical dimensions is straightforward.

  6. A capacitive device approach to gravitational wave detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mours, B.; Yvert, M.

    1988-05-01

    The possible use of a capacitive device to detect gravitational waves is discussed. Special emphasis is put on the detection of permanent periodic sources. The intrinsic properties of such a method, its sensitivity, directionality and its wide frequency band, makes it a very appealing one

  7. Investigation of capacitance characteristics in metal/high-k

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. C − V characteristic; high-k dielectric; interface state density; MIS structure; nanotechnology; TCAD simulation. Abstract. Capacitance vs. voltage ( C − V ) curves at AC high frequency of a metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS) capacitorare investigated in this paper. Bi-dimensional simulations with Silvaco TCAD ...

  8. Three dimensional simulated modelling of diffusion capacitance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three dimensional (3-D) simulated modelling was developed to analyse the excess minority carrier density in the base of a polycrystalline bifacial silicon solar cell. The concept of junction recombination velocity was ado-pted to quantify carrier flow through the junction, and to examine the solar cell diffusion capacitance for ...

  9. Concentration Fluctuations and Capacitive Response in Dense Ionic Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uralcan, Betul; Aksay, Ilhan A; Debenedetti, Pablo G; Limmer, David T

    2016-07-07

    We use molecular dynamics simulations in a constant potential ensemble to study the effects of solution composition on the electrochemical response of a double layer capacitor. We find that the capacitance first increases with ion concentration following its expected ideal solution behavior but decreases upon approaching a pure ionic liquid in agreement with recent experimental observations. The nonmonotonic behavior of the capacitance as a function of ion concentration results from the competition between the independent motion of solvated ions in the dilute regime and solvation fluctuations in the concentrated regime. Mirroring the capacitance, we find that the characteristic decay length of charge density correlations away from the electrode is also nonmonotonic. The correlation length first decreases with ion concentration as a result of better electrostatic screening but increases with ion concentration as a result of enhanced steric interactions. When charge fluctuations induced by correlated ion-solvent fluctuations are large relative to those induced by the pure ionic liquid, such capacitive behavior is expected to be generic.

  10. Water Desalination Using Capacitive Deionization with Microporous Carbon Electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Weinstein, L.; Dash, R.; Wal, van der A.F.; Bryjak, M.; Gogotsi, Y.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a water desalination technology in which salt ions are removed from brackish water by flowing through a spacer channel with porous electrodes on each side. Upon applying a voltage difference between the two electrodes, cations move to and are accumulated in

  11. The influence of fluorides on mouse sperm capacitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořáková-Hortová, K.; Šandera, M.; Jursová, M.; Vašínová, J.; Pěknicová, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 108, 1-2 (2008), s. 157-170 ISSN 0378-4320 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Mouse spermatozoa * Capacitation * Fluorides Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 1.890, year: 2008

  12. The influence of fluorides on mouse sperm capacitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořáková-Hortová, K.; Šandera, M.; Jursová, M.; Vašinová, J.; Pěknicová, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 108, 1-2 (2008), s. 157-170 ISSN 0378-4320 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : mouse spermatozoa * capacitation * fluorides Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.890, year: 2008

  13. Rapid Prototyping of Tangibles with a Capacitive Mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Esbensen, Morten; Kogutowska, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    lays the capacitive surface and communication capa- bilities of a Microsoft TouchMouse, both of which are ap- propriated to fulfill the mentined requirements. Unlike ex- isting approaches for rapid prototyping of tangibles like the Arduino boards, using the Toki toolkit does not require de- velopers...

  14. RF-MEMS capacitive switches with high reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Charles L.; Auciello, Orlando H.; Carlisle, John A.; Sampath, Suresh; Sumant, Anirudha V.; Carpick, Robert W.; Hwang, James; Mancini, Derrick C.; Gudeman, Chris

    2013-09-03

    A reliable long life RF-MEMS capacitive switch is provided with a dielectric layer comprising a "fast discharge diamond dielectric layer" and enabling rapid switch recovery, dielectric layer charging and discharging that is efficient and effective to enable RF-MEMS switch operation to greater than or equal to 100 billion cycles.

  15. Capacitive sensing of droplets for microfluidic devices based on thermocapillary actuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.-Z.; Darhuber, A.A.; Troian, S.M.; Wagner, S.

    2004-01-01

    The design and performance of a miniaturized coplanar capacitive sensor is presented whose electrode arrays can also function as resistive microheaters for thermocapillary actuation of liquid films and droplets. Optimal compromise between large capacitive signal and high spatial resolution is

  16. A Capacitance-Based Methodology for the Estimation of Piezoelectric Coefficients of Poled Piezoelectric Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2010-01-01

    A methodology is proposed to estimate the piezoelectric coefficients of bulk piezoelectric materials using simple capacitance measurements. The extracted values of d33 and d31 from the capacitance measurements were 506 pC/N and 247 p

  17. Phosphoric acid distribution in the membrane electrode assembly of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kyungjung; Park, Jung Ock; Yoo, Duck Young; Yi, Jung S.

    2009-01-01

    The ionomer content in electrode is one of the most important parameters for the high performance of fuel cells. The high temperature PEMFC based on phosphoric acid (PA)-doped polymer membrane with unhumidified reactant gases has a difficulty in controlling the liquid state PA ionomer content in electrode. To evaluate the PA content in electrode, the three techniques of cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and acid-base titration (ABT) are carried out in situ or ex situ. The properties of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) such as electrochemical surface area (ESA), ohmic resistance, charge transfer resistance, double layer capacitance and the amount of PA in MEA components (anode, cathode and membrane) are extracted by each technique. Ex situ CV with the usage of dry gases has a limitation in assessing the reliable ESA of unhumidified PEMFC. While in situ EIS presents some informative values of resistance and capacitance for understanding the PA distribution in MEA, its sensitivity to the PA content in MEA components needs to be higher for detecting a subtle change in PA distribution. Ex situ ABT supplies a clear PA distribution in MEA at room temperature but does not seem to reflect the operating state well at high temperatures. However, it can be used as a detection tool for the loss of the initial acid content in membrane during a long-term MEA durability study.

  18. Phosphoric acid distribution in the membrane electrode assembly of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kyungjung [Fuel Cell Group, Energy Lab, SAIT, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., San 14-1, Nongseo-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 446-712 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kfromberk@gmail.com; Park, Jung Ock; Yoo, Duck Young; Yi, Jung S. [Fuel Cell Group, Energy Lab, SAIT, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., San 14-1, Nongseo-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 446-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-11-01

    The ionomer content in electrode is one of the most important parameters for the high performance of fuel cells. The high temperature PEMFC based on phosphoric acid (PA)-doped polymer membrane with unhumidified reactant gases has a difficulty in controlling the liquid state PA ionomer content in electrode. To evaluate the PA content in electrode, the three techniques of cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and acid-base titration (ABT) are carried out in situ or ex situ. The properties of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) such as electrochemical surface area (ESA), ohmic resistance, charge transfer resistance, double layer capacitance and the amount of PA in MEA components (anode, cathode and membrane) are extracted by each technique. Ex situ CV with the usage of dry gases has a limitation in assessing the reliable ESA of unhumidified PEMFC. While in situ EIS presents some informative values of resistance and capacitance for understanding the PA distribution in MEA, its sensitivity to the PA content in MEA components needs to be higher for detecting a subtle change in PA distribution. Ex situ ABT supplies a clear PA distribution in MEA at room temperature but does not seem to reflect the operating state well at high temperatures. However, it can be used as a detection tool for the loss of the initial acid content in membrane during a long-term MEA durability study.

  19. Molecular Transport Studies Through Unsupported Lipid Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, William; Parekh, Sapun; Bonn, Mischa

    2014-03-01

    Dendrimers, spherical polymeric nanoparticles made from branched monomers around a central core, show great promise as drug delivery vehicles. Dendrimer size, core contents, and surface functionality can be synthetically tuned, providing unprecedented versatility. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers have been shown to enter cells; however, questions remain about their biophysical interactions with the cell membrane, specifically about the presence and size of transient pores. We monitor dendrimer-lipid bilayer interactions using unsupported black lipid membranes (BLMs) as model cell membranes. Custom bilayer slides contain two vertically stacked aqueous chambers separated by a 25 μm Teflon sheet with a 120 μm aperture where the bilayer is formed. We vary the composition of model membranes (cholesterol content and lipid phase) to create biomimetic systems and study the interaction of PAMAM G6 and G3 dendrimers with these bilayers. Dendrimers, dextran cargo, and bilayers are monitored and quantified using time-lapse fluorescence imaging. Electrical capacitance measurements are simultaneously recorded to determine if the membrane is porous, and the pore size is deduced by monitoring transport of fluorescent dextrans of increasing molecular weight. These experiments shed light on the importance of cholesterol content and lipid phase on the interaction of dendrimer nanoparticles with membranes.

  20. Introduction to solid supported membrane based electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzone, Andre; Costa, Wagner Steuer; Braner, Markus; Călinescu, Octavian; Hatahet, Lina; Fendler, Klaus

    2013-05-11

    The electrophysiological method we present is based on a solid supported membrane (SSM) composed of an octadecanethiol layer chemisorbed on a gold coated sensor chip and a phosphatidylcholine monolayer on top. This assembly is mounted into a cuvette system containing the reference electrode, a chlorinated silver wire. After adsorption of membrane fragments or proteoliposomes containing the membrane protein of interest, a fast solution exchange is used to induce the transport activity of the membrane protein. In the single solution exchange protocol two solutions, one non-activating and one activating solution, are needed. The flow is controlled by pressurized air and a valve and tubing system within a faraday cage. The kinetics of the electrogenic transport activity is obtained via capacitive coupling between the SSM and the proteoliposomes or membrane fragments. The method, therefore, yields only transient currents. The peak current represents the stationary transport activity. The time dependent transporter currents can be reconstructed by circuit analysis. This method is especially suited for prokaryotic transporters or eukaryotic transporters from intracellular membranes, which cannot be investigated by patch clamp or voltage clamp methods.

  1. Axionic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurilia, A.; Spallucci, E.

    1992-01-01

    A metal ring removed from a soap-water solution encloses a film of soap which can be mathematically described as a minimal surface having the ring as its only boundary. This is known to everybody. In this letter we suggest a relativistic extension of the above fluidodynamic system where the soap film is replaced by a Kalb-Ramand gauge potential B μν (x) and the ring by a closed string. The interaction between the B μν field and the string current excites a new configuration of the system consisting of a relativistic membrane bounded by the string. We call such a classical solution of the equation of motion an axionic membrane. As a dynamical system, the axionic membrane admits a Hamilton-Jacobi formulation which is an extension of the HJ theory of electromagnetic strings. (orig.)

  2. 3D printed biomimetic whisker-based sensor with co-planar capacitive sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delamare, John; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a whisker sensor for tactile purposes and which is fabricated by 3D printing. Read-out consists of a capacitive measurement of a co-planar capacitance which is affected by a dielectric that is driven into the electric field of the capacitance. The current

  3. A branch-and-cut-and-price algorithm for the mixed capacitated general routing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Lukas; Wøhlk, Sanne; Lysgaard, Jens

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the Mixed Capacitated General Routing Problem which is a combination of the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem and the Capacitated Arc Routing Problem. The problem is also known as the Node, Edge, and Arc Routing Problem. We propose a Branch-and-Cut-and-Price algorithm...

  4. Capacitation dependent changes in the sperm plasma membrane influence porcine gamete interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flesch, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    Although the sperm cell was first seen through Van Leeuwenhoek’s microscope in the late seventieth century and despite much effort in the last 40 years in particular, we still do not know a great deal of the sperm cell and its interaction with the oocyte. Mammalian sperm-oocyte interaction is a

  5. Metamaterial membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan Manuel; Maldovan, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new class of metamaterial device to achieve separation of compounds by using coordinate transformations and metamaterial theory. By rationally designing the spatial anisotropy for mass diffusion, we simultaneously concentrate different compounds in different spatial locations, leading to separation of mixtures across a metamaterial membrane. The separation of mixtures into their constituent compounds is critically important in biophysics, biomedical, and chemical applications. We present a practical case where a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen diffusing through a polymeric planar matrix is separated. This work opens doors to new paradigms in membrane separations via coordinate transformations and metamaterials by introducing novel properties and unconventional mass diffusion phenomena. (paper)

  6. New membrane structures with proton conducting properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Casper Frydendal

    if higher operating temperature is enabled. One approach to obtain improved membranes in the aspects of applicable operating temperature and methanol permeability, which has attracted considerable attention, is the formation of composites by distributing inorganic fillers into Nafion or alternative polymers...... temperature and high relative humidity can cause excessive swelling of the membranes, yielding insufficient mechanical properties and breakdown of membrane function. Moreover, in the case of the Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC), their significant methanol permeability causes loss of efficiency. Higher...

  7. Rapid capacitive detection of femtomolar levels of bisphenol A using an aptamer-modified disposable microelectrode array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Haochen; Wu, Jayne; Eda, Shigetoshi; Chen, Jiangang; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    A label-free and single-step method is reported for rapid and highly sensitive detection of bisphenol A (BPA) in aqueous samples. It utilizes an aptamer acting as a probe molecule immobilized on a commercially available array of interdigitated aluminum microelectrodes. BPA was quantified by measuring the interfacial capacitance change rate caused by the specific binding between bisphenol A and the immobilized aptamer. The AC signal also induces an AC electrokinetic effect to generate microfluidic motion for enhanced binding. The capacitive aptasensor achieves a limit of detection as low as 10 fM(2.8 fg ⋅ mL −1 ) with a 20 s response time. The method is inexpensive, highly sensitive, rapid and therefore provides a promising technology for on-site detection of BPA in food and water samples. (author)

  8. Capacitance-voltage investigation of silicon photodiodes damaged by MeV energy light ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinka, G.; Simon, A.; Novak, M.; Kiss, A.Z.

    2006-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Nuclear radiation creates not only deep centers, but in addition influences shallow dopant concentration in semiconductors, as well. At a given temperature the maximum frequency a center can respond to depends on its energy level, therefore the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of radiation damaged semiconductor diodes should ideally be measured as function of frequency in order to obtain the physical and energy depth distribution of ionized centers [1,2]. In our experiments C-V plots of MeV energy ion irradiated photodiodes were taken at fixed 1 kHz frequency, which is low enough to be sensitive at room temperature to some of the deep levels expected. During, for example, an irradiation with 5.5 MeV α particles the capacitance of a p + nn + diode increased significantly at low voltages, but showed rather small changes at higher ones. The former turned out to be merely related to a decrease of the built in voltage, corresponding to a lifetime to relaxation type transition of the semiconductor [3]. Rescaling C-V data for this change, the remaining, actual capacitance changes could be interpreted as related to nuclear recoil caused damage located around the end of particle tracks. C-V technique has also been used for follow up investigation of spontaneous self annealing at room temperature of irradiated samples. This is shown here by plotting capacitance data normalized to their virgin values as function of depletion depth for irradiation with 430 keV protons, whose range is about 5 μm. The sensitivity of the method is illustrated for low fluence of 6.5 MeV oxygen, whose range is 5 μm, too, and where the normalization is now made to data taken one week after the irradiation. Acknowledgement This work was supported by the Hungarian Research and Technology Innovation Fund and the Croatian Ministry of Science, Education and Sports within the framework of the Hungarian-Croatian Intergovernmental Science and Technology Co

  9. Composite plasma polymerized sulfonated polystyrene membrane for PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, Bhabesh Kumar; Khan, Aziz; Chutia, Joyanti, E-mail: jchutiaiasst@gmail.com

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) is used as the sulfonating agent. • The proton conductivity of the membrane is found to be 0.141 S cm{sup −1}. • Power density of fuel cell with styrene/MMS membrane is 0.5 W cm{sup −2}. • The membrane exhibits thermal stability up to 140 °C. - Abstract: This work presents the introduction of an organic compound methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) for the first time in fabrication of polystyrene based proton exchange membrane (PEM) by plasma polymerization process. The membrane is fabricated by co-polymerizing styrene and MMS in capacitively coupled continuous RF plasma. The chemical composition of the plasma polymerized polymer membrane is investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy which reveals the formation of composite structure of styrene and MMS. The surface morphology studied using AFM and SEM depicts the effect of higher partial pressure of MMS on surface topography of the membrane. The proton transport property of the membrane studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows the achievement of maximum proton conductivity of 0.141 S cm{sup −1} which is comparable to Nafion 117 membrane. Fuel cell performance test of the synthesized membrane shows a maximum power density of 500 mW cm{sup −2} and current density of 0.62 A cm{sup −2} at 0.6 V.

  10. Choroidal neovascular membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt Nitul; Diamond James; Jalali Subhadra; Das Taraprasad

    1998-01-01

    Choroidal neovascular membrane in the macular area is one of the leading causes of severe visual loss. Usually a manifestation in elderly population, it is often associated with age-related macular degeneration. The current mainstay of management is early diagnosis, usually by fundus examination, aided by angiography and photocoagulation in selected cases. Various other modalities of treatment including surgery are being considered as alternate options, but with limited success. The purpose o...

  11. Enhanced charge efficiency and reduced energy use in capacitive deionization by increasing the discharge voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T; Dykstra, J E; Porada, S; van der Wal, A; Yoon, J; Biesheuvel, P M

    2015-05-15

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an electrochemical method for water desalination using porous carbon electrodes. A key parameter in CDI is the charge efficiency, Λ, which is the ratio of salt adsorption over charge in a CDI-cycle. Values for Λ in CDI are typically around 0.5-0.8, significantly less than the theoretical maximum of unity, due to the fact that not only counterions are adsorbed into the pores of the carbon electrodes, but at the same time coions are released. To enhance Λ, ion-exchange membranes (IEMs) can be implemented. With membranes, Λ can be close to unity because the membranes only allow passage for the counterions. Enhancing the value of Λ is advantageous as this implies a lower electrical current and (at a fixed charging voltage) a reduced energy use. We demonstrate how, without the need to include IEMs, the charge efficiency can be increased to values close to the theoretical maximum of unity, by increasing the cell voltage during discharge, with only a small loss of salt adsorption capacity per cycle. In separate constant-current CDI experiments, where after some time the effluent salt concentration reaches a stable value, this value is reached earlier with increased discharge voltage. We compare the experimental results with predictions of porous electrode theory which includes an equilibrium Donnan electrical double layer model for salt adsorption in carbon micropores. Our results highlight the potential of modified operational schemes in CDI to increase charge efficiency and reduce energy use of water desalination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chelating polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Villalobos Vazquez de la Parra, Luis Francisco; Hilke, Roland

    2015-01-01

    microporous chelating polymeric membrane. Embodiments include, but are not limited to, microporous chelating polymeric membranes, device comprising the membranes, and methods of using and making the same.

  13. A Capacitive Touch Screen Sensor for Detection of Urinary Tract Infections in Portable Biomedical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honrado, Carlos; Dong, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) is the second highest among all infections; thus, there is a high demand for bacteriuria detection. Escherichia coli are the main cause of UTIs, with microscopy methods and urine culture being the detection standard of these bacteria. However, the urine sampling and analysis required for these methods can be both time-consuming and complex. This work proposes a capacitive touch screen sensor (CTSS) concept as feasible alternative for a portable UTI detection device. Finite element method (FEM) simulations were conducted with a CTSS model. An exponential response of the model to increasing amounts of E. coli and liquid samples was observed. A measurable capacitance change due to E. coli presence and a tangible difference in the response given to urine and water samples were also detected. Preliminary experimental studies were also conducted on a commercial CTSS using liquid solutions with increasing amounts of dissolved ions. The CTSS was capable of distinguishing different volumes of liquids, also giving an exponential response. Furthermore, the CTSS gave higher responses to solutions with a superior amount of ions. Urine samples gave the top response among tested liquids. Thus, the CTSS showed the capability to differentiate solutions by their ionic content. PMID:25196109

  14. Low temperature co-fired ceramic packaging of CMOS capacitive sensor chip towards cell viability monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halonen, Niina; Kilpijärvi, Joni; Sobocinski, Maciej; Datta-Chaudhuri, Timir; Hassinen, Antti; Prakash, Someshekar B; Möller, Peter; Abshire, Pamela; Kellokumpu, Sakari; Lloyd Spetz, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Cell viability monitoring is an important part of biosafety evaluation for the detection of toxic effects on cells caused by nanomaterials, preferably by label-free, noninvasive, fast, and cost effective methods. These requirements can be met by monitoring cell viability with a capacitance-sensing integrated circuit (IC) microchip. The capacitance provides a measurement of the surface attachment of adherent cells as an indication of their health status. However, the moist, warm, and corrosive biological environment requires reliable packaging of the sensor chip. In this work, a second generation of low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology was combined with flip-chip bonding to provide a durable package compatible with cell culture. The LTCC-packaged sensor chip was integrated with a printed circuit board, data acquisition device, and measurement-controlling software. The packaged sensor chip functioned well in the presence of cell medium and cells, with output voltages depending on the medium above the capacitors. Moreover, the manufacturing of microfluidic channels in the LTCC package was demonstrated.

  15. Low temperature co-fired ceramic packaging of CMOS capacitive sensor chip towards cell viability monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niina Halonen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell viability monitoring is an important part of biosafety evaluation for the detection of toxic effects on cells caused by nanomaterials, preferably by label-free, noninvasive, fast, and cost effective methods. These requirements can be met by monitoring cell viability with a capacitance-sensing integrated circuit (IC microchip. The capacitance provides a measurement of the surface attachment of adherent cells as an indication of their health status. However, the moist, warm, and corrosive biological environment requires reliable packaging of the sensor chip. In this work, a second generation of low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC technology was combined with flip-chip bonding to provide a durable package compatible with cell culture. The LTCC-packaged sensor chip was integrated with a printed circuit board, data acquisition device, and measurement-controlling software. The packaged sensor chip functioned well in the presence of cell medium and cells, with output voltages depending on the medium above the capacitors. Moreover, the manufacturing of microfluidic channels in the LTCC package was demonstrated.

  16. Inverter-based successive approximation capacitance-to-digital converter

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham

    2017-03-23

    An energy-efficient capacitance-to-digital converter (CDC) is provided that utilizes a capacitance-domain successive approximation (SAR) technique. Unlike SAR analog- to-digital converters (ADCs), analysis shows that for SAR CDCs, the comparator offset voltage will result in signal-dependent and parasitic-dependent conversion errors, which necessitates an op-amp-based implementation. The inverter-based SAR CDC contemplated herein provides robust, energy-efficient, and fast operation. The inverter- based SAR CDC may include a hybrid coarse-fine programmable capacitor array. The design of example embodiments is insensitive to analog references, and thus achieves very low temperature sensitivity without the need for calibration. Moreover, this design achieves improved energy efficiency.

  17. Surfactant free nickel sulphide nanoparticles for high capacitance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandhini, S.; Muralidharan, G.

    2018-04-01

    The surfactant free nickel sulphide nanoparticles were synthesized via facile hydrothermal method towards supercapacitor applications. The formation of crystalline spherical nanoparticles was confirmed through structural and morphological studies. Electrochemical behaviour of the electrode was analyzed using cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge studies (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The CV studies imply that specific capacitance of the electrode arises from a combination of surface adsorption and Faradic reaction. The NiS electrode delivered a specific capacitance of about 529 F g-1 at a current density of 2 A g-1 (GCD measurements). A profitable charge transfer resistance of 0.5 Ω was obtained from EIS. The 100 % of capacity retention even after 2000 repeated charge-discharge cycles could be observed in 2 M KOH electrolyte at a much larger rate of 30 A g-1. The experimental results suggest that nickel sulphide is a potential candidate for supercapacitor applications.

  18. Two models of the capacitated vehicle routing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Borčinova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP is to find a set of minimum total cost routes for a fleet of capacitated vehicles based at a single depot, to serve a set of customers. There exist various integer linear programming models of the CVRP. One of the main differences lies in the way to eliminate sub-tours, i.e. cycles that do not go through the depot. In this paper, we describe a well-known flow formulation of CVRP, where sub-tour elimination constraints have a cardinality exponentially growing with the number of customers. Then we present a mixed linear programming formulation with polynomial cardinality of sub-tour elimination constraints. Both of the models were implemented and compared on several benchmarks.

  19. Interface Layering Phenomena in Capacitance Detection of DNA with Biochips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Carrara

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Reliable DNA detection is of great importance for the development of the Lab-on-chip technology. The effort of the most recent projects on this field is to integrate all necessary operations, such as sample preparation (mixing, PCR amplification together with the sensor user for DNA detection. Among the different ways to sense the DNA hybridization, fluorescence based detection has been favored by the market. However, fluorescence based approaches require that the DNA targets are labeled by means of chromophores. As an alternative label-free DNA detection method, capacitance detection was recently proposed by different authors. While this effect has been successfully demonstrated by several groups, the model used for data analysis is far too simple to describe the real behavior of a DNA sensor. The aim of the present paper is to propose a different electrochemical model to describe DNA capacitance detection.

  20. A flexible capacitive tactile sensing array with floating electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, M-Y; Huang, X-H; Ma, C-W; Yang, Y-J

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we present the development of a capacitive tactile sensing array realized by using MEMS fabrication techniques and flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) technologies. The sensing array, which consists of two micromachined polydimethlysiloxane (PDMS) structures and a FPCB, will be used as the artificial skin for robot applications. Each capacitive sensing element comprises two sensing electrodes and a common floating electrode. The sensing electrodes and the metal interconnect for signal scanning are implemented on the FPCB, while the floating electrode is patterned on one of the PDMS structures. This special design can effectively reduce the complexity of the device structure and thus makes the device highly manufacturable. The characteristics of the devices with different dimensions are measured and discussed. The corresponding scanning circuits are also designed and implemented. The tactile images induced by the PMMA stamps of different shapes are also successfully captured by a fabricated 8 × 8 array

  1. High resolution capacitance detection circuit for rotor micro-gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yuan Ren

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional methods for rotor position detection of micro-gyroscopes include common exciting electrodes (single frequency and common sensing electrodes (frequency multiplex, but they have encountered some problems. So we present a high resolution and low noise pick-off circuit for micro-gyroscopes which utilizes the time multiplex method. The detecting circuit adopts a continuous-time current sensing circuit for capacitance measurement, and its noise analysis of the charge amplifier is introduced. The equivalent output noise power spectral density of phase-sensitive demodulation is 120 nV/Hz1/2. Tests revealed that the whole circuitry has a relative capacitance resolution of 1 × 10−8.

  2. Passive inference of collision frequency in magnetized capacitive argon discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binwal, S.; Joshi, J. K.; Karkari, S. K.; Kaw, P. K.; Nair, L.

    2018-03-01

    A non-invasive method of determining the collision frequency νm by measuring the net plasma impendence in a magnetized, capacitive-coupled, radio-frequency (rf) discharge circuit is developed. The collision frequency has been analytically expressed in terms of bulk plasma reactance, wherein standard sheath models have been used to estimate the reactance offered due to the capacitive rf sheaths at the discharge plates. The experimental observations suggest that in the un-magnetized case, νm remains constant over a range of rf current but steadily increases as the background pressure reduces. In the magnetized case, the collision frequency has been observed to decay with the increase in rf current while it remains unaffected by the background pressure. A qualitative discussion has been presented to explain these characteristics.

  3. Mesoporous nanocrystalline film architecture for capacitive storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Bruce S.; Tolbert, Sarah H.; Wang, John; Brezesinski, Torsten; Gruner, George

    2017-05-16

    A mesoporous, nanocrystalline, metal oxide construct particularly suited for capacitive energy storage that has an architecture with short diffusion path lengths and large surface areas and a method for production are provided. Energy density is substantially increased without compromising the capacitive charge storage kinetics and electrode demonstrates long term cycling stability. Charge storage devices with electrodes using the construct can use three different charge storage mechanisms immersed in an electrolyte: (1) cations can be stored in a thin double layer at the electrode/electrolyte interface (non-faradaic mechanism); (2) cations can interact with the bulk of an electroactive material which then undergoes a redox reaction or phase change, as in conventional batteries (faradaic mechanism); or (3) cations can electrochemically adsorb onto the surface of a material through charge transfer processes (faradaic mechanism).

  4. Investigation and Modeling of Capacitive Human Body Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Qi; Guo, Yong-Xin; Wu, Wen

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a systematic investigation of the capacitive human body communication (HBC). The measurement of HBC channels is performed using a novel battery-powered system to eliminate the effects of baluns, cables and instruments. To verify the measured results, a numerical model incorporating the entire HBC system is established. Besides, it is demonstrated that both the impedance and path gain bandwidths of HBC channels is affected by the electrode configuration. Based on the analysis of the simulated electric field distribution, an equivalent circuit model is proposed and the circuit parameters are extracted using the finite element method. The transmission capability along the human body is also studied. The simulated results using the numerical and circuit models coincide very well with the measurement, which demonstrates that the proposed circuit model can effectively interpret the operation mechanism of the capacitive HBC.

  5. Modified allocation capacitated planning model in blood supply chain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, A.; Vanany, I.; Arvitrida, N. I.

    2018-04-01

    Blood supply chain management (BSCM) is a complex process management that involves many cooperating stakeholders. BSCM involves four echelon processes, which are blood collection or procurement, production, inventory, and distribution. This research develops an optimization model of blood distribution planning. The efficiency of decentralization and centralization policies in a blood distribution chain are compared, by optimizing the amount of blood delivered from a blood center to a blood bank. This model is developed based on allocation problem of capacitated planning model. At the first stage, the capacity and the cost of transportation are considered to create an initial capacitated planning model. Then, the inventory holding and shortage costs are added to the model. These additional parameters of inventory costs lead the model to be more realistic and accurate.

  6. Torque magnetometry by use of capacitance type transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braught, M.C.; Pechan, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Interfacial anisotropy in magnetic multilayered samples comprised of nanometer thick magnetic layers alternating with non-magnetic layers is investigated by torque magnetometry in the temperature regime of 4 to 300K. The design, construction and use of a capacitance type transducer wherein the sample is mounted directly on with the plate of the capacitor, will be described. As a result the sample and transducer spatially coexist at the sample temperature in an applied external field, eliminating mechanical coupling from the cryogenic region to a remote room temperature transducer. The capacitor measuring the torque of the sample is paired with a reference capacitor. The difference between torque influenced capacitance and the reference is then determined by a differential transimpedance amplifier. Since both capacitors are physically identical variables such as temperature, vibration, orientation and external devices are minimized. Torques up to 300 dyne-cm can be measured with a sensitivity of 0.010 dyne-cm

  7. Vibration damping with negative capacitance shunts: theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marneffe, B; Preumont, A

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes in detail the enhancement of piezoelectric stack transducers by means of the well known 'negative' capacitive shunting. The stability is thoroughly studied: starting from the electrical admittance curve of the transducer, a method is introduced that quantifies the stability margins of the shunted structure. Two different implementations (series vs parallel) are investigated, and the lack of robustness of the parallel one is demonstrated. Next, this technique is experimentally applied on a truss structure. Its performances are compared with those of passive shunt circuits and with those of an active control law, the so-called Integral Force Feedback or IFF. As expected, the damping introduced by the negative capacitance shunt is larger than the damping obtained with the passive shunts; it remains, however, one order of magnitude smaller than that obtained with the IFF

  8. Origin of Negative Capacitance in Bipolar Organic Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Quan; Crǎciun, N. Irina; Wetzelaer, Gert-Jan A. H.; Blom, Paul W. M.

    2018-03-01

    Negative differential capacitance (NC) occurring at low frequencies in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is a poorly understood phenomenon. We study the origin of the NC effect by systematically varying the number of electron traps in OLEDs based on the polymeric semiconductor poly(p -phenylene vinylene). Increasing the electron trap density enhances the NC effect. The magnitude and observed decrease of the relaxation time is consistent with the (inverse) rate of trap-assisted recombination. The absence of NC in a nearly trap-free light-emitting diode unambiguously shows that trap-assisted recombination is the responsible mechanism for the negative contribution to the capacitance in bipolar organic diodes. Our results reveal that the NC effect can be exploited to quantitatively determine the number of traps in organic semiconductors in a nondestructive fashion.

  9. Spin-orbit controlled capacitance of a polar heterostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Kevin; Kopp, Thilo [Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, EP VI, Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Loder, Florian [Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, EP VI and TP III, Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Oxide heterostructures with polar films display special electronic properties, such as the electronic reconstruction at their internal interfaces with the formation of two-dimensional metallic states. Moreover, the electrical field from the polar layers is inversion-symmetry breaking and may generate a strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) in the interfacial electronic system. We investigate the capacitance of a heterostructure in which a strong RSOC at a metallic interface is controlled by the electric field of a surface electrode. Such a structure is for example given by a LaAlO{sub 3} film on a SrTiO{sub 3} substrate which is gated by a top electrode. We find that due to a strong RSOC the capacitance can be larger than the classical geometric value.

  10. On the hydrophilicity of electrodes for capacitive energy extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, Cheng; East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai; Kong, Xian; Tsinghua University, Beijing; Liu, Honglai; Wu, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    The so-called Capmix technique for energy extraction is based on the cyclic expansion of electrical double layers to harvest dissipative energy arising from the salinity difference between freshwater and seawater. Its optimal performance requires a careful selection of the electrical potentials for the charging and discharging processes, which must be matched with the pore characteristics of the electrode materials. While a number of recent studies have examined the effects of the electrode pore size and geometry on the capacitive energy extraction processes, there is little knowledge on how the surface properties of the electrodes affect the thermodynamic efficiency. In this paper, we investigate the Capmix processes using the classical density functional theory for a realistic model of electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions allow us to identify optimal operation parameters for capacitive energy extraction with porous electrodes of different surface hydrophobicity. Finally, in agreement with recent experiments, we find that the thermodynamic efficiency can be much improved by using most hydrophilic electrodes.

  11. Degradation of Polypropylene Membranes Applied in Membrane Distillation Crystallizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Gryta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The studies on the resistance to degradation of capillary polypropylene membranes assembled in a membrane crystallizer were performed. The supersaturation state of salt was achieved by evaporation of water from the NaCl saturated solutions using membrane distillation process. A high feed temperature (363 K was used in order to enhance the degradation effects and to shorten the test times. Salt crystallization was carried out by the application of batch or fluidized bed crystallizer. A significant membrane scaling was observed regardless of the method of realized crystallization. The SEM-EDS, DSC, and FTIR methods were used for investigations of polypropylene degradation. The salt crystallization onto the membrane surface accelerated polypropylene degradation. Due to a polymer degradation, the presence of carbonyl groups on the membranes’ surface was identified. Besides the changes in the chemical structure a significant mechanical damage of the membranes, mainly caused by the internal scaling, was also found. As a result, the membranes were severely damaged after 150 h of process operation. A high level of salt rejection was maintained despite damage to the external membrane surface.

  12. Experimental diagnostics and modeling of inductive phenomena at low frequencies in impedance spectra of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivac, Ivan; Šimić, Boris; Barbir, Frano

    2017-10-01

    Representation of fuel cell processes by equivalent circuit models, involving resistance and capacitance elements representing activation losses on both anode and cathode in series with resistance representing ohmic losses, cannot capture and explain the inductive loop that may show up at low frequencies in Nyquist diagram representation of the electrochemical impedance spectra. In an attempt to explain the cause of the low-frequency inductive loop and correlate it with the processes within the fuel cell electrodes, a novel equivalent circuit model of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been proposed and experimentally verified here in detail. The model takes into account both the anode and the cathode, and has an additional resonant loop on each side, comprising of a resistance, capacitance and inductance in parallel representing the processes within the catalyst layer. Using these additional circuit elements, more accurate and better fits to experimental impedance data in the wide frequency range at different current densities, cell temperatures, humidity of gases, air flow stoichiometries and backpressures were obtained.

  13. Modeling of Perpendicularly Driven Dual-Frequency Capacitively Coupled Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongyu; Sun Peng; Zhao Shuangyun; Li Yang; Jiang Wei

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed perpendicularly configured dual-frequency (DF) capacitively coupled plasmas (CCP). In this configuration, two pairs of electrodes are arranged oppositely, and the discharging is perpendicularly driven by two radio frequency (RF) sources. Particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo (PIC/MC) simulation showed that the configuration had some advantages as this configuration eliminated some dual frequency coupling effects. Some variation and potential application of the discharging configuration is discussed briefly. (paper)

  14. Effect of estrogens on boar sperm capacitation in vitro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Děd, Lukáš; Dostálová, Pavla; Dorosh, Andriy; Dvořáková-Hortová, K.; Pěknicová, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2010), --- ISSN 1477-7827 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06011; GA ČR(CZ) GD523/08/H064; GA ČR(CZ) GA523/09/1793 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : capacitation * acrosome reaction * monoclonal antibody * estrogen * flow cytometry Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.695, year: 2010

  15. Low Humidity Characteristics of Polymer-Based Capacitive Humidity Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Majewski Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Polymer-based capacitive humidity sensors emerged around 40 years ago; nevertheless, they currently constitute large part of sensors’ market within a range of medium (climatic and industrial) humidity 20−80%RH due to their linearity, stability and cost-effectiveness. However, for low humidity values (0−20%RH) that type of sensor exhibits increasingly nonlinear characteristics with decreasing of humidity values. This paper presents the results of some experimental trials of CMOS polymer-based ...

  16. Capacitive short circuit detection in transformer core laminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Carl A.; Duchesne, Stephane; Roger, Daniel; Vincent, Jean-Noel

    2008-01-01

    A capacitive measurement procedure is proposed that serves to detect burr-induced short circuits in transformer core laminations. The tests are conducted on stacks of transformer steel sheets as used for transformer core production and yield a short-circuit probability indicative of the additional eddy current losses to be expected. Applied during the assembly of transformer cores, the measurements can help to decide whether the burr treatment process is working efficiently or has to be readjusted

  17. Discontinuity of capacitance at the onset of surface superconductivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morawetz, K.; Lipavský, Pavel; Mareš, Jiří J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2009), 023032/1-023032/8 ISSN 1367-2630 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010404; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0040; GA AV ČR IAA100100712 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : capacitance * surface supraconductivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.312, year: 2009

  18. Sensitivity limits of capacitive transducer for gravitational wave resonant antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassan, M; Pizzella, G [Rome Tor Vergata Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica

    1996-12-01

    It is analyzed the performance of a resonant gravitational wave antenna equipped with a resonant, d.c. biased capacitive transducer, an untuned superconducting matching circuit and a d.c. Squid. It is derived simple relations for the detector energy sensitivity that serve as guidelines for device development and it is shown that, with reasonable improvements in Squid technology, an effective temperature for burst detection of 2miK can be achieved.

  19. Capacitive Sensors for Feedback Control of Microfluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. Z.; Darhuber, A. A.; Troian, S. M.; Wagner, S.

    2003-11-01

    Automation of microfluidic devices based on thermocapillary flow [1] requires feedback control and detection techniques for monitoring the location, and ideally also composition and volume of liquid droplets. For this purpose we have developed a co-planar capacitance technique with a sensitivity of 0.07 pF at a frequency of 370 kHz. The variation in capacitance due to the presence of a droplet is monitored by the output frequency of an RC relaxation oscillator consisting of two inverters, one resistor and one capacitor. We discuss the performance of this coplanar sensor as a function of the electrode dimensions and geometry. These geometric variables determine the electric field penetration depth within the liquid, which in our studies ranged from 30 to 450 microns. Numerical solutions for the capacitance corresponding to the exact fabricated geometry agree very well with experimental data. An approximate analytic solution, which ignores fringe field effects, provides a simple but excellent guide for design development. [1] A. A. Darhuber et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 657 (2003).

  20. Some applications of capacitance technology in nuclear reactor components inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, H.

    1985-01-01

    The paper considers application of a capacitance measuring system that has overcome many of the original contraints, such as sensitivity to cable length, induced electric field and high acoustic noise, and illustrates the ease of use with examples of proven capability in severe environments of high temperature or high radiation. The Capacitance Displacement Transducer (CDT) measuring principle was originally developed as a working technique during the early years of full-scale, on-load refuelling trials performed in the Windscale Civil Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (CAGR) test rig where it was necessary to measure the vibrational behaviour of fuel components in simulated reactor conditions. At that time, 1968-1969, no instrumentation existed that would measure displacement in the range 0 to 100 mms to an accuracy of 25x10 -3 mms, without physical contact, at temperatures of 600 0 C in high velocity gas, in high acoustic noise fields of 150 db's over cable lengths approaching 100 metres. The principles incorporated in the CDT overcome all these problems. The advantages inherent in this system have been extended to metrology applications in more recent years by the further development of the electronics to enable linear displacement measurement to be obtained between two capacitance plates whose separation varies, either by plate movement or by surface irregularity. This principle has been used to good effect in novel applications associated with the inspection of nominally inaccessible internal tube surfaces

  1. Plasma Treated Active Carbon for Capacitive Deionization of Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The plasma treatment on commercial active carbon (AC was carried out in a capacitively coupled plasma system using Ar + 10% O2 at pressure of 4.0 Torr. The RF plasma power ranged from 50 W to 100 W and the processing time was 10 min. The carbon film electrode was fabricated by electrophoretic deposition. Micro-Raman spectroscopy revealed the highly increased disorder of sp2 C lattice for the AC treated at 75 W. An electrosorption capacity of 6.15 mg/g was recorded for the carbon treated at 75 W in a 0.1 mM NaCl solution when 1.5 V was applied for 5 hours, while the capacity of the untreated AC was 1.01 mg/g. The plasma treatment led to 5.09 times increase in the absorption capacity. The jump of electrosorption capacity by plasma treatment was consistent with the Raman spectra and electrochemical double layer capacitance. This work demonstrated that plasma treatment was a potentially efficient approach to activating biochar to serve as electrode material for capacitive deionization (CDI.

  2. Capacitive properties of polypyrrole/activated carbon composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porjazoska-Kujundziski Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical synthesis of polypyrrole (PPy and polypyrrole / activated carbon (PPy / AC - composite films, with a thickness between 0.5 and 15 μm were performed in a three electrode cell containing 0.1 mol dm-3 Py, 0.5 mol dm-3 NaClO4 dissolved in ACN, and dispersed particles of AC (30 g dm-3. Electrochemical characterization of PPy and PPy / AC composites was performed using cyclic voltammetry (CV and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS techniques. The linear dependences of the capacitance (qC, redox capacitance (qred, and limiting capacitance (CL of PPy and PPy / AC - composite films on their thickness (L, obtained by electrochemical and impedance analysis, indicate a nearly homogeneous distribution of the incorporated AC particles in the composite films (correlation coefficient between 0.991 and 0.998. The significant enhancement of qC, qred, and CL, was observed for composite films (for ∼40 ± 5% in respect to that of the “pure” PPy. The decreased values of a volume resistivity in the reduced state of the composite film, ρ = 1.3 ⋅ 106 Ω cm (for L = 7.5 μm, for two orders of magnitude, compared to that of PPy - film with the same thickness, ρ ∼ 108 Ω cm, was also noticed.

  3. DNA Nucleotides Detection via capacitance properties of Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadempar, Nahid; Berahman, Masoud; Yazdanpanah, Arash

    2016-05-01

    In the present paper a new method is suggested to detect the DNA nucleotides on a first-principles calculation of the electronic features of DNA bases which chemisorbed to a graphene sheet placed between two gold electrodes in a contact-channel-contact system. The capacitance properties of graphene in the channel are surveyed using non-equilibrium Green's function coupled with the Density Functional Theory. Thus, the capacitance properties of graphene are theoretically investigated in a biological environment, and, using a novel method, the effect of the chemisorbed DNA nucleotides on electrical charges on the surface of graphene is deciphered. Several parameters in this method are also extracted including Electrostatic energy, Induced density, induced electrostatic potential, Electron difference potential and Electron difference density. The qualitative and quantitative differences among these parameters can be used to identify DNA nucleotides. Some of the advantages of this approach include its ease and high accuracy. What distinguishes the current research is that it is the first experiment to investigate the capacitance properties of gaphene changes in the biological environment and the effect of chemisorbed DNA nucleotides on the surface of graphene on the charge.

  4. Rough Electrode Creates Excess Capacitance in Thin-Film Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Solmaz; Cherry, Megan; Duijnstee, Elisabeth A; Le Corre, Vincent M; Qiu, Li; Hummelen, Jan C; Palasantzas, George; Koster, L Jan Anton

    2017-08-16

    The parallel-plate capacitor equation is widely used in contemporary material research for nanoscale applications and nanoelectronics. To apply this equation, flat and smooth electrodes are assumed for a capacitor. This essential assumption is often violated for thin-film capacitors because the formation of nanoscale roughness at the electrode interface is very probable for thin films grown via common deposition methods. In this work, we experimentally and theoretically show that the electrical capacitance of thin-film capacitors with realistic interface roughness is significantly larger than the value predicted by the parallel-plate capacitor equation. The degree of the deviation depends on the strength of the roughness, which is described by three roughness parameters for a self-affine fractal surface. By applying an extended parallel-plate capacitor equation that includes the roughness parameters of the electrode, we are able to calculate the excess capacitance of the electrode with weak roughness. Moreover, we introduce the roughness parameter limits for which the simple parallel-plate capacitor equation is sufficiently accurate for capacitors with one rough electrode. Our results imply that the interface roughness beyond the proposed limits cannot be dismissed unless the independence of the capacitance from the interface roughness is experimentally demonstrated. The practical protocols suggested in our work for the reliable use of the parallel-plate capacitor equation can be applied as general guidelines in various fields of interest.

  5. CMOS based capacitance to digital converter circuit for MEMS sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotake, D. R.; Darji, A. D.

    2018-02-01

    Most of the MEMS cantilever based system required costly instruments for characterization, processing and also has large experimental setups which led to non-portable device. So there is a need of low cost, highly sensitive, high speed and portable digital system. The proposed Capacitance to Digital Converter (CDC) interfacing circuit converts capacitance to digital domain which can be easily processed. Recent demand microcantilever deflection is part per trillion ranges which change the capacitance in 1-10 femto farad (fF) range. The entire CDC circuit is designed using CMOS 250nm technology. Design of CDC circuit consists of a D-latch and two oscillators, namely Sensor controlled oscillator (SCO) and digitally controlled oscillator (DCO). The D-latch is designed using transmission gate based MUX for power optimization. A CDC design of 7-stage, 9-stage and 11-stage tested for 1-18 fF and simulated using mentor graphics Eldo tool with parasitic. Since the proposed design does not use resistance component, the total power dissipation is reduced to 2.3621 mW for CDC designed using 9-stage SCO and DCO.

  6. A reciprocity-based formula for the capacitance with quadrupolar electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sungbo [Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    A new capacitance formula for the practical design and characterization of quadrupolar electrode arrays with capacitive structures was derived based on the reciprocal theorem. The reciprocity-based capacitance formula agreed with the empirical equations established to estimate the capacitance of a single strip line or disk electrode compensating for the fringing field effect that occurs at the electrode edge. The reciprocity-based formula was applied to compute the capacitance measurable by using a quadrupolar square electrode array with a symmetric dipole-dipole configuration and was compared with the analytical equation established based on the image method assuming that the electrodes were points. The results showed that the capacitance of the quadrupolar electrodes was determined by the size of the quadrupolar electrodes relative to the separation distance between the electrodes and that the reciprocity-based capacitance formula was in agreement with the established analytical equation if the separated distance between the electrodes relative to the electrode size was large enough.

  7. A reciprocity-based formula for the capacitance with quadrupolar electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sungbo

    2011-01-01

    A new capacitance formula for the practical design and characterization of quadrupolar electrode arrays with capacitive structures was derived based on the reciprocal theorem. The reciprocity-based capacitance formula agreed with the empirical equations established to estimate the capacitance of a single strip line or disk electrode compensating for the fringing field effect that occurs at the electrode edge. The reciprocity-based formula was applied to compute the capacitance measurable by using a quadrupolar square electrode array with a symmetric dipole-dipole configuration and was compared with the analytical equation established based on the image method assuming that the electrodes were points. The results showed that the capacitance of the quadrupolar electrodes was determined by the size of the quadrupolar electrodes relative to the separation distance between the electrodes and that the reciprocity-based capacitance formula was in agreement with the established analytical equation if the separated distance between the electrodes relative to the electrode size was large enough.

  8. Transparent Flexible Active Faraday Cage Enables In Vivo Capacitance Measurement in Assembled Microsensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mahdi; Rajamani, Rajesh; Sezen, Serdar

    2017-10-01

    Capacitive micro-sensors such as accelerometers, gyroscopes and pressure sensors are increasingly used in the modern electronic world. However, the in vivo use of capacitive sensing for measurement of pressure or other variables inside a human body suffers from significant errors due to stray capacitance. This paper proposes a solution consisting of a transparent thin flexible Faraday cage that surrounds the sensor. By supplying the active sensing voltage simultaneously to the deformable electrode of the capacitive sensor and to the Faraday cage, the stray capacitance during in vivo measurements can be largely eliminated. Due to the transparency of the Faraday cage, the top and bottom portions of a capacitive sensor can be accurately aligned and assembled together. Experimental results presented in the paper show that stray capacitance is reduced by a factor of 10 by the Faraday cage, when the sensor is subjected to a full immersion in water.

  9. The impact of auxins used in assisted phytoextraction of metals from the contaminated environment on the alterations caused by lead(II) ions in the organization of model lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna; Sroka, Aleksandra; Jabłońska, Klaudia

    2016-07-01

    Auxins are successfully used to improve phytoextraction efficiency of metal ions from the contaminated environment, however, the mechanism of their activity in this field is not explained. Auxins are known to exert various biochemical alterations in the plant membranes and cells, but their activity involves also direct interactions with lipids leading to changes in membrane organization. Following the suggestion that the auxins-induced modifications in membrane properties alleviate toxic effect of metal ions in this paper we have undertaken the comparative studies on the effect of metal ions and metal ions/auxins mixtures on model membrane systems. The experiments were done on lipid monolayers differing in their composition spread on water subphase and on Pb(2+), Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and Pb(2+)/IAA and Pb(2+)/NAA water solutions. The analysis of the collected data suggests that metal ions and auxins can change fluidity of the lipid systems and weaken the interactions between monolayer components. This manifested in the increase of the mean area per molecule and the excess area per molecule values for the films on Pb(2+), auxins as well as Pb(2+)/auxin solutions as compared to the values on pure water subphase. However, the presence of auxin in the mixture with lead(II) ions makes the alterations induced by sole metal ions weaker. This effect was more pronounced for the membranes of a higher packing. Thus it was proposed that auxins may enhance phytoextraction of metal ions by weakening their destabilizing effect on membrane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dielectric response of biconcave erythrocyte membranes to D- and L-Glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livshits, L; Caduff, A; Talary, M S; Feldman, Y

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the influence of D- and L-glucose on the dielectric properties of native shaped (biconcave) human erythrocytes using time domain dielectric spectroscopy. The dielectric spectra of biconcave cells were analysed using a modified form of the model originally reported for spheroid particle suspensions (Asami and Yonezawa 1995 Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1245 317-24) The observed increase in the specific membrane capacitance of the biconcave erythrocytes was correlated with an increase in the concentration of D-glucose. In contrast, no associated correlation was found to changes in the membrane capacitance with increasing concentrations of L-glucose. A similar analysis of the dielectric response of osmotically swollen erythrocytes to changes in D-glucose concentration revealed a significantly different calculated specific cell membrane capacitance at elevated (>12 mM) D-glucose concentrations. The paper outlines and discusses the possible biochemical mechanisms that could be responsible for the measured dielectric properties of the erythrocyte membrane capacitances

  11. Hydrophobic thickness of fluid planar monooleylglycerol membran maximally thinned by inversed micellisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, P. J.; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1999-01-01

    be measured by a capacitance technique assuming the relative permittivity of the hydrophobic part of the bilayer. Introduction of an AC microvolt technique allowed manufacture of stable thick membranes by quenching the electroconstriction observed when DC electrical potentials in the millivolt range are used...

  12. Can root electrical capacitance be used to predict root mass in soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, R C; Bengough, A G; Jones, H G; White, P J

    2013-07-01

    Electrical capacitance, measured between an electrode inserted at the base of a plant and an electrode in the rooting substrate, is often linearly correlated with root mass. Electrical capacitance has often been used as an assay for root mass, and is conventionally interpreted using an electrical model in which roots behave as cylindrical capacitors wired in parallel. Recent experiments in hydroponics show that this interpretation is incorrect and a new model has been proposed. Here, the new model is tested in solid substrates. The capacitances of compost and soil were determined as a function of water content, and the capacitances of cereal plants growing in sand or potting compost in the glasshouse, or in the field, were measured under contrasting irrigation regimes. Capacitances of compost and soil increased with increasing water content. At water contents approaching field capacity, compost and soil had capacitances at least an order of magnitude greater than those of plant tissues. For plants growing in solid substrates, wetting the substrate locally around the stem base was both necessary and sufficient to record maximum capacitance, which was correlated with stem cross-sectional area: capacitance of excised stem tissue equalled that of the plant in wet soil. Capacitance measured between two electrodes could be modelled as an electrical circuit in which component capacitors (plant tissue or rooting substrate) are wired in series. The results were consistent with the new physical interpretation of plant capacitance. Substrate capacitance and plant capacitance combine according to standard physical laws. For plants growing in wet substrate, the capacitance measured is largely determined by the tissue between the surface of the substrate and the electrode attached to the plant. Whilst the measured capacitance can, in some circumstances, be correlated with root mass, it is not a direct assay of root mass.

  13. Capacitance-voltage characterization of fully silicided gated MOS capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baomin; Ru Guoping; Jiang Yulong; Qu Xinping; Li Bingzong; Liu Ran

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement on fully silicided (FUSI) gated metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors and the applicability of MOS capacitor models. When the oxide leakage current of an MOS capacitor is large, two-element parallel or series model cannot be used to obtain its real C-V characteristic. A three-element model simultaneously consisting of parallel conductance and series resistance or a four-element model with further consideration of a series inductance should be used. We employed the three-element and the four-element models with the help of two-frequency technique to measure the Ni FUSI gated MOS capacitors. The results indicate that the capacitance of the MOS capacitors extracted by the three-element model still shows some frequency dispersion, while that extracted by the four-element model is close to the real capacitance, showing little frequency dispersion. The obtained capacitance can be used to calculate the dielectric thickness with quantum effect correction by NCSU C-V program. We also investigated the influence of MOS capacitor's area on the measurement accuracy. The results indicate that the decrease of capacitor area can reduce the dissipation factor and improve the measurement accuracy. As a result, the frequency dispersion of the measured capacitance is significantly reduced, and real C-V characteristic can be obtained directly by the series model. In addition, this paper investigates the quasi-static C-V measurement and the photonic high-frequency C-V measurement on Ni FUSI metal gated MOS capacitor with a thin leaky oxide. The results indicate that the large tunneling current through the gate oxide significantly perturbs the accurate measurement of the displacement current, which is essential for the quasi-static C-V measurement. On the other hand, the photonic high-frequency C-V measurement can bypass the leakage problem, and get reliable low-frequency C-V characteristic, which can be used to

  14. A comparative study on electrochemical co-deposition and capacitance of composite films of conducting polymers and carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Chuang; Jin Jun; Chen, George Z.

    2007-01-01

    Composite films of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with polyaniline (PANI), polypyrrole (PPY) or poly[3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene] (PEDOT) were prepared via electrochemical co-deposition from solutions containing acid treated CNTs and the corresponding monomer. In the cases of PPY and PEDOT, CNTs served as the charge carriers during electro-deposition, and also acted as both the backbone of a three-dimensional micro- and nano-porous structure and the effective charge-balancing dopant within the polymer. All the composites showed improved mechanical integrity, higher electronic and ionic conductivity (even when the polymer was reduced), and exhibited larger electrode specific capacitance than the polymer alone. Under similar conditions, the capacitance was enhanced significantly in as-prepared PPY-CNT and PEDOT-CNT films. However, the fresh PANI-CNT film was electrochemically similar to PANI, but PPY-CNT and PEDOT-CNT differed noticeably from the respective polymers alone. In continuous potential cycling tests, unlike the pure polymer and other composite films, PANI-CNT performed much better in retaining the capacitance of the as-prepared film, and the possible cause is analysed

  15. Pick-and-place process for sensitivity improvement of the capacitive type CMOS MEMS 2-axis tilt sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-I.; Tsai, Ming-Han; Liu, Yu-Chia; Sun, Chih-Ming; Fang, Weileun

    2013-09-01

    This study exploits the foundry available complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process and the packaging house available pick-and-place technology to implement a capacitive type micromachined 2-axis tilt sensor. The suspended micro mechanical structures such as the spring, stage and sensing electrodes are fabricated using the CMOS microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) processes. A bulk block is assembled onto the suspended stage by pick-and-place technology to increase the proof-mass of the tilt sensor. The low temperature UV-glue dispensing and curing processes are employed to bond the block onto the stage. Thus, the sensitivity of the CMOS MEMS capacitive type 2-axis tilt sensor is significantly improved. In application, this study successfully demonstrates the bonding of a bulk solder ball of 100 µm in diameter with a 2-axis tilt sensor fabricated using the standard TSMC 0.35 µm 2P4M CMOS process. Measurements show the sensitivities of the 2-axis tilt sensor are increased for 2.06-fold (x-axis) and 1.78-fold (y-axis) after adding the solder ball. Note that the sensitivity can be further improved by reducing the parasitic capacitance and the mismatch of sensing electrodes caused by the solder ball.

  16. Ice detection in heat pumps and coolers. [By thermal resistance and capacitance detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buick, T R; McMullan, J T; Morgan, R; Murray, R B

    1978-01-01

    Some methods are discussed for detecting the formation of ice on the evaporators of air-source heat pumps and air coolers by electronic means. The sensing of thermal resistance caused by ice build-up can be done by measuring temperature differences between the evaporator and the air, and analyses are presented of the effect of using both linear and non-linear temperature sensors for this purpose. The direct detection of the presence of ice can be done by measuring the capacitance of a suitably-placed pair of plates, and the performance of such a system is analyzed. Preliminary reports are presented of the use of both of these methods of ice detection in the defrosting of an experimental heat pump.

  17. Effect of Slice Error of Glass on Zero Offset of Capacitive Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, R.; Yu, H. J.; Zhou, W.; Peng, B.; Guo, J.

    2018-03-01

    Packaging process had been studied on capacitance accelerometer. The silicon-glass bonding process had been adopted on sensor chip and glass, and sensor chip and glass was adhered on ceramic substrate, the three-layer structure was curved due to the thermal mismatch, the slice error of glass lead to asymmetrical curve of sensor chip. Thus, the sensitive mass of accelerometer deviated along the sensitive direction, which was caused in zero offset drift. It was meaningful to confirm the influence of slice error of glass, the simulation results showed that the zero output drift was 12.3×10-3 m/s2 when the deviation was 40μm.

  18. The role of capacitance in a wind-electric water pumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Shitao [West Texas A& M Univ., Canyon, TX (United States); Clark, R.N. [Conservation and Production Research Lab., Bushland, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The development of controllers for wind-electric water pumping systems to enable the use of variable voltage, variable frequency electricity to operate standard AC submersible pump motors has provided a more efficient and flexible water pumping system to replace mechanical windmills. A fixed capacitance added in parallel with the induction motor improves the power factor and starting ability of the pump motor at the lower cut-in frequency. The wind-electric water pumping system developed by USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Bushland, TX, operated well at moderate wind speeds (5-12 m/s), but tended to lose synchronization in winds above 12 m/s, especially if they were gusty. Furling generally did not occur until synchronization had been lost and the winds had to subside before synchronization could be reestablished. The frequency needed to reestablish synchronization was much lower (60-65 Hz) than the frequency where synchronization was lost (70-80 Hz). As a result, the load (motor and pump) stayed off an excessive amount of time thus causing less water to be pumped and producing a low system efficiency. The controller described in this paper dynamically connects additional capacitance of the proper amount at the appropriate time to keep the system synchronized (running at 55 to 60 Hz) and pumping water even when the wind speed exceeds 15 m/s. The system efficiency was improved by reducing the system off-line time and an additional benefit was reducing the noise caused by the high speed blade rotation when the load was off line in high winds.

  19. Membrane Disordering is not Sufficient for Membrane Permeabilization by Islet Amyloidogenic Polypeptide: Studies of IAPP(20-29) Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jeffrey R.; Heyl, Deborah L.; Samisetti, Shyamprasad; Kotler, Samuel A.; Osborne, Joshua M.; Pesaru, Ranadheer R.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2013-01-01

    A key factor in the development of type II diabetes is the loss of insulin-producing beta-cells. Human islet amyloid polypeptide protein (human-IAPP) is believed to play a crucial role in this process by forming small aggregates that exhibit toxicity by disrupting the cell membrane. The actual mechanism of membrane disruption is complex and appears to involve an early component before fiber formation and later component associated with fiber formation on the membrane. By comparing the peptide-lipid interactions derived from solid-state NMR experiments of two IAPP fragments that bind the membrane and cause membrane disordering to IAPP derived peptides known to cause significant early membrane permeabilization, we show here that membrane disordering is not likely to be sufficient by itself to cause the early membrane permeabilization observed by IAPP, and may play a lesser role in IAPP membrane disruption than expected. PMID:23493863

  20. The Semen pH Affects Sperm Motility and Capacitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Chen, Li; Li, Jie; Li, Hongjun; Hong, Zhiwei; Xie, Min; Chen, Shengrong; Yao, Bing

    2015-01-01

    As the chemical environment of semen can have a profound effect on sperm quality, we examined the effect of pH on the motility, viability and capacitation of human sperm. The sperm in this study was collected from healthy males to avoid interference from other factors. The spermatozoa cultured in sperm nutrition solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were analyzed for sperm total motility, progressive motility (PR), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) rate, and sperm penetration. Our results showed that these parameters were similar in pH 7.2 and 8.2 sperm nutrition solutions, but decreased in pH 5.2 and 6.2 solutions. The HOS rate exhibited positive correlation with the sperm total motility and PR. In addition, the sperm Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at different pHs was measured, and the enzyme activity was significantly lower in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media, comparing with that in pH 8.2 and pH 7.2 solutions. Using flow cytometry (FCM) and laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM) analysis, the intracellular Ca2(+ )concentrations of sperm cultured in sperm capacitation solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were determined. Compared with that at pH 7.2, the mean fluorescence intensity of sperm in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media decreased significantly, while that of pH 8.2 group showed no difference. Our results suggested that the declined Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at acidic pHs result in decreased sperm movement and capacitation, which could be one of the mechanisms of male infertility.

  1. FAS grafted superhydrophobic ceramic membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Jun [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, 333001 Jingdezhen (China); Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, CAS, 1295 DingXi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Yu Yun, E-mail: yunyush@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, CAS, 1295 DingXi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhou Jianer [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, 333001 Jingdezhen (China); Song Lixin; Hu Xingfang [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, CAS, 1295 DingXi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Larbot, Andre [Institut Europeen des Membranes, UMR 5635-CNRS, ENSCM, UMII, 1919 Route de Mende 34293, Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2009-08-30

    The hydrophobic properties of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membrane have been obtained by grafting fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) on the surface of the membrane. The following grafting parameters were studied: the eroding time of the original membrane, the grafting time, the concentration of FAS solution and the multiplicity of grafting. Hydrophobicity of the membranes was characterized by contact angle (CA) measurement. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to investigate the weight loss process (25-800 deg. C) of the fluoroalkylsilane grafted on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders under different grafting conditions. The morphologies of the membranes modified under different parameters were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and the surface roughness (Ra) was measured using white light interferometers. A needle-like structure was observed on the membrane surface after modification, which causes the change of Ra. On the results above, we speculated a model to describe the reaction between FAS and {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membrane surface as well as the formed surface morphology.

  2. FAS grafted superhydrophobic ceramic membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Yu, Yun; Zhou, Jianer; Song, Lixin; Hu, Xingfang; Larbot, Andre

    2009-08-01

    The hydrophobic properties of γ-Al 2O 3 membrane have been obtained by grafting fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) on the surface of the membrane. The following grafting parameters were studied: the eroding time of the original membrane, the grafting time, the concentration of FAS solution and the multiplicity of grafting. Hydrophobicity of the membranes was characterized by contact angle (CA) measurement. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to investigate the weight loss process (25-800 °C) of the fluoroalkylsilane grafted on Al 2O 3 powders under different grafting conditions. The morphologies of the membranes modified under different parameters were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and the surface roughness (Ra) was measured using white light interferometers. A needle-like structure was observed on the membrane surface after modification, which causes the change of Ra. On the results above, we speculated a model to describe the reaction between FAS and γ-Al 2O 3 membrane surface as well as the formed surface morphology.

  3. Correlated Coulomb drag in capacitively coupled quantum-dot structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2016-01-01

    We study theoretically Coulomb drag in capacitively coupled quantum dots (CQDs) -- a biasdriven dot coupled to an unbiased dot where transport is due to Coulomb mediated energy transfer drag. To this end, we introduce a master-equation approach which accounts for higher-order tunneling (cotunneling......) processes as well as energy-dependent lead couplings, and identify a mesoscopic Coulomb drag mechanism driven by nonlocal multi-electron cotunneling processes. Our theory establishes the conditions for a nonzero drag as well as the direction of the drag current in terms of microscopic system parameters...... on Coulomb drag in CQD systems....

  4. Paradox in a non-linear capacitated transportation problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahiya Kalpana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a paradox in fixed charge capacitated transportation problem where the objective function is the sum of two linear fractional functions consisting of variables costs and fixed charges respectively. A paradox arises when the transportation problem admits of an objective function value which is lower than the optimal objective function value, by transporting larger quantities of goods over the same route. A sufficient condition for the existence of a paradox is established. Paradoxical range of flow is obtained for any given flow in which the corresponding objective function value is less than the optimum value of the given transportation problem. Numerical illustration is included in support of theory.

  5. Pulse power applications of silicon diodes in EML capacitive pulsers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethlefsen, Rolf; McNab, Ian; Dobbie, Clyde; Bernhardt, Tom; Puterbaugh, Robert; Levine, Frank; Coradeschi, Tom; Rinaldi, Vito

    1993-01-01

    Crowbar diodes are used for increasing the energy transfer from capacitive pulse forming networks. They also prevent voltage reversal on the energy storage capacitors. 52 mm diameter diodes with a 5 kV reverse blocking voltage, rated 40 kA were successfully used for the 32 MJ SSG rail gun. An uprated diode with increased current capability and a 15 kV reverse blocking voltage has been developed. Transient thermal analysis has predicted the current ratings for different pulse length. Analysis verification is obtained from destructive testing.

  6. Electrical capacitance of fibrous carbon composites in supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babel, Krzysztof [Institute of Chemical Wood Technology, Agricultural Academy in Poznan, ul. Wojska Polskiego 38/42, 60-637 Poznan (Poland); Jurewicz, Krzysztof [Institute of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry, Poznan University of Technology, ul. Piotrowo 3, 60-965 Poznan (Poland)

    2002-06-20

    The aim of this work was the application of active carbon composites as electrode material for supercapacitors. We have produced and investigated composites from viscose cellulose fibers impregnated with novolak and resolic resins. Composition and porous structure of the composites were described and electrochemical properties determined by galvanostatic and potentiodynamic methods. Dependence of electrical capacitance on treatment procedure and some of the structural parameters was confirmed. The use of novolak resin for activation with carbon dioxide was more advantageous. Positive electrode revealed better performance in acidic conditions (185 F/g) while negative electrode in alkaline conditions (160 F/g)

  7. Green Synthesis of Boron Carbonitride with High Capacitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongping Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Boron carbonitrides (BCN have attracted great interest in superhard or energy storage materials. In this work, thin BCN sheets were synthesized at 250 °C by a facile and green solvothermal method. The structure and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Based on the results of electrochemical experiments, the thin BCN sheet exhibited excellent capacitance performance (343.1 F/g at a current density of 0.5 A/g and cycling stability (90%, which showed high potential applications in supercapacitors.

  8. Floating electrode microelectromechanical system capacitive switches: A different actuation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, G.; Giacomozzi, F.; Papandreou, E.; Margesin, B.

    2011-08-01

    The paper investigates the actuation mechanism in floating electrode microelectromechanical system capacitive switches. It is demonstrated that in the pull-in state, the device operation turns from voltage to current controlled actuation. The current arises from Poole-Frenkel mechanism in the dielectric film and Fowler-Nordheim in the bridge-floating electrode air gap. The pull-out voltage seems to arise from the abrupt decrease of Fowler-Nordheim electric field intensity. This mechanism seems to be responsible for the very small difference with respect to the pull-in voltage.

  9. Effect of estrogens on boar sperm capacitation in vitro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Děd, Lukáš; Dostálová, Pavla; Dorosh, Andriy; Dvořáková-Hortová, K.; Pěknicová, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 33, Supplement 1 (2010), s. 93-93 ISSN 0105-6263. [6th European Congress of And rology. 29.09.2010-01.10.2010, Athens] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06011; GA ČR(CZ) GA523/08/H064; GA ČR(CZ) GA523/09/1793 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : spermatozoa * capacitation * monoclonal antibody * estrone * 17beta-estradiol * estriol * 17alpha-ethynylestradiol Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  10. Capacitive acoustic wave detector and method of using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A capacitor having two substantially parallel conductive faces is acoustically coupled to a conductive sample end such that the sample face is one end of the capacitor. A non-contacting dielectric may serve as a spacer between the two conductive plates. The formed capacitor is connected to an LC oscillator circuit such as a Hartley oscillator circuit producing an output frequency which is a function of the capacitor spacing. This capacitance oscillates as the sample end coating is oscillated by an acoustic wave generated in the sample by a transmitting transducer. The electrical output can serve as an absolute indicator of acoustic wave displacement.

  11. Using MEMS Capacitive Switches in Tunable RF Amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Danson John; Plett Calvin; Tait Niall

    2006-01-01

    A MEMS capacitive switch suitable for use in tunable RF amplifiers is described. A MEMS switch is designed, fabricated, and characterized with physical and RF measurements for inclusion in simulations. Using the MEMS switch models, a dual-band low-noise amplifier (LNA) operating at GHz and GHz, and a tunable power amplifier (PA) at GHz are simulated in m CMOS. MEMS switches allow the LNA to operate with 11 dB of isolation between the two bands while maintaining dB of gain and sub- dB no...

  12. Capacitive effects in IGBTs limiting their reliability under short circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Rahimo, Munaf

    2017-01-01

    The short-circuit oscillation mechanism in IGBTs is investigated in this paper by the aid of semiconductor device simulation tools. A 3.3-kV IGBT cell has been used for the simulations demonstrating that a single IGBT cell is able to oscillate together with the external circuit parasitic elements....... The work presented here through both circuit and device analysis, confirms that the oscillations can be understood with focus on the device capacitive effects coming from the interaction between carrier concentration and the electric field. The paper also shows the 2-D effects during one oscillation cycle...

  13. FPGA Based Low Power ROM Design Using Capacitance Scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansal, Meenakshi; Bansal, Neha; Saini, Rishita

    2015-01-01

    An ideal capacitor will not dissipate any power, but a real capacitor wil l have some power dissipation. In this work, we are going to design capacitance scaling based low power ROM design. In order to test the compatibility of this ROM design with latest i7 Processor, we are operating this ROM w...... in I/O Power, saving of 0.2% occur in Leakage Power, there will be a saving of 11.54% occur in Total Power. This design is implemented on Virtex-5 FPGA using Xilinx ISE and Verilog....

  14. Contrast distortion induced by modulation voltage in scanning capacitance microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M. N.; Hu, C. W.; Chou, T. H.; Lee, Y. J.

    2012-08-01

    With a dark-mode scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM), we directly observed the influence of SCM modulation voltage (MV) on image contrasts. For electrical junctions, an extensive modulated area induced by MV may lead to noticeable changes in the SCM signal phase and intensity, resulting in a narrowed junction image and a broadened carrier concentration profile. This contrast distortion in SCM images may occur even if the peak-to-peak MV is down to 0.3 V. In addition, MV may shift the measured electrical junction depth. The balance of SCM signals components explain these MV-induced contrast distortions.

  15. Surface-treated carbon electrodes with modified potential of zero charge for capacitive deionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingting; Wang, Gang; Zhan, Fei; Dong, Qiang; Ren, Qidi; Wang, Jianren; Qiu, Jieshan

    2016-04-15

    The potential of zero charge (Epzc) of electrodes can greatly influence the salt removal capacity, charge efficiency and cyclic stability of capacitive deionization (CDI). Thus optimizing the Epzc of CDI electrodes is of great importance. A simple strategy to negatively shift the Epzc of CDI electrodes by modifying commercial activated carbon with quaternized poly (4-vinylpyridine) (AC-QPVP) is reported in this work. The Epzc of the prepared AC-QPVP composite electrode is as negative as -0.745 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Benefiting from the optimized Epzc of electrodes, the asymmetric CDI cell which consists of the AC-QPVP electrode and a nitric acid treated activated carbon (AC-HNO3) electrode exhibits excellent CDI performance. For inverted CDI, the working potential window of the asymmetric CDI cell can reach 1.4 V, and its salt removal capacity can be as high as 9.6 mg/g. For extended voltage CDI, the salt removal capacity of the asymmetric CDI cell at 1.2/-1.2 V is 20.6 mg/g, which is comparable to that of membrane CDI using pristine activated carbon as the electrodes (19.5 mg/g). The present work provides a simple method to prepare highly positively charged CDI electrodes and may pave the way for the development of high-performance CDI cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fabrication and Characterization of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers with Low-Temperature Wafer Direct Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fabrication method of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs by wafer direct bonding, which utilizes both the wet chemical and O2plasma activation processes to decrease the bonding temperature to 400 °C. Two key surface properties, the contact angle and surface roughness, are studied in relation to the activation processes, respectively. By optimizing the surface activation parameters, a surface roughness of 0.274 nm and a contact angle of 0° are achieved. The infrared images and static deflection of devices are assessed to prove the good bonding effect. CMUTs having silicon membranes with a radius of 60 μm and a thickness of 2 μm are fabricated. Device properties have been characterized by electrical and acoustic measurements to verify their functionality and thus to validate this low-temperature process. A resonant frequency of 2.06 MHz is obtained by the frequency response measurements. The electrical insertion loss and acoustic signal have been evaluated. This study demonstrates that the CMUT devices can be fabricated by low-temperature wafer direct bonding, which makes it possible to integrate them directly on top of integrated circuit (IC substrates.

  17. Involvement of complexin 2 in docking, locking and unlocking of different SNARE complexes during sperm capacitation and induced acrosomal exocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Shiue J Tsai

    Full Text Available Acrosomal exocytosis (AE is an intracellular multipoint fusion reaction of the sperm plasma membrane (PM with the outer acrosomal membrane (OAM. This unique exocytotic event enables the penetration of the sperm through the zona pellucida of the oocyte. We previously observed a stable docking of OAM to the PM brought about by the formation of the trans-SNARE complex (syntaxin 1B, SNAP 23 and VAMP 3. By using electron microscopy, immunochemistry and immunofluorescence techniques in combination with functional studies and proteomic approaches, we here demonstrate that calcium ionophore-induced AE results in the formation of unilamellar hybrid membrane vesicles containing a mixture of components originating from the two fused membranes. These mixed vesicles (MV do not contain the earlier reported trimeric SNARE complex but instead possess a novel trimeric SNARE complex that contained syntaxin 3, SNAP 23 and VAMP 2, with an additional SNARE interacting protein, complexin 2. Our data indicate that the earlier reported raft and capacitation-dependent docking phenomenon between the PM and OAM allows a specific rearrangement of molecules between the two docked membranes and is involved in (1 recruiting SNAREs and complexin 2 in the newly formed lipid-ordered microdomains, (2 the assembly of a fusion-driving SNARE complex which executes Ca(2+-dependent AE, (3 the disassembly of the earlier reported docking SNARE complex, (4 the recruitment of secondary zona binding proteins at the zona interacting sperm surface. The possibility to study separate and dynamic interactions between SNARE proteins, complexin and Ca(2+ which are all involved in AE make sperm an ideal model for studying exocytosis.

  18. Absolute Position Sensing Based on a Robust Differential Capacitive Sensor with a Grounded Shield Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple differential capacitive sensor is provided in this paper to measure the absolute positions of length measuring systems. By utilizing a shield window inside the differential capacitor, the measurement range and linearity range of the sensor can reach several millimeters. What is more interesting is that this differential capacitive sensor is only sensitive to one translational degree of freedom (DOF movement, and immune to the vibration along the other two translational DOFs. In the experiment, we used a novel circuit based on an AC capacitance bridge to directly measure the differential capacitance value. The experimental result shows that this differential capacitive sensor has a sensitivity of 2 × 10−4 pF/μm with 0.08 μm resolution. The measurement range of this differential capacitive sensor is 6 mm, and the linearity error are less than 0.01% over the whole absolute position measurement range.

  19. Contribution of Dielectric Screening to the Total Capacitance of Few-Layer Graphene Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Cheng; Jiang, De-en

    2016-03-03

    We apply joint density functional theory (JDFT), which treats the electrode/electrolyte interface self-consistently, to an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) based on few-layer graphene electrodes. The JDFT approach allows us to quantify a third contribution to the total capacitance beyond quantum capacitance (CQ) and EDL capacitance (CEDL). This contribution arises from the dielectric screening of the electric field by the surface of the few-layer graphene electrode, and we therefore term it the dielectric capacitance (CDielec). We find that CDielec becomes significant in affecting the total capacitance when the number of graphene layers in the electrode is more than three. Our investigation sheds new light on the significance of the electrode dielectric screening on the capacitance of few-layer graphene electrodes.

  20. A robust parasitic-insensitive successive approximation capacitance-to-digital converter

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present a capacitive sensor digital interface circuit using true capacitance-domain successive approximation that is independent of supply voltage. Robust operation is achieved by using a charge amplifier stage and multiple comparison technique. The interface circuit is insensitive to parasitic capacitances, offset voltages, and charge injection, and is not prone to noise coupling. The proposed design achieves very low temperature sensitivity of 25ppm/oC. A coarse-fine programmable capacitance array allows digitizing a wide capacitance range of 16pF with 12.5-bit quantization limited resolution in a compact area of 0.07mm2. The fabricated prototype is experimentally verified using on-chip sensor and off-chip MEMS capacitive pressure sensor. © 2014 IEEE.

  1. A robust parasitic-insensitive successive approximation capacitance-to-digital converter

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham; Arsalan, Muhammad; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a capacitive sensor digital interface circuit using true capacitance-domain successive approximation that is independent of supply voltage. Robust operation is achieved by using a charge amplifier stage and multiple comparison technique. The interface circuit is insensitive to parasitic capacitances, offset voltages, and charge injection, and is not prone to noise coupling. The proposed design achieves very low temperature sensitivity of 25ppm/oC. A coarse-fine programmable capacitance array allows digitizing a wide capacitance range of 16pF with 12.5-bit quantization limited resolution in a compact area of 0.07mm2. The fabricated prototype is experimentally verified using on-chip sensor and off-chip MEMS capacitive pressure sensor. © 2014 IEEE.

  2. X-radiation effects on muscle cell membrane electrical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portela, A.; Vaccari, J.G.; Llobera, O.; Campi, M.; Delbue, M.A.; Perez, J.C.; Stewart, P.A.; Gosztonyi, A.E.; Brown Univ., Providence, R.I.

    1975-01-01

    Early effects of 100 Kilorads of X-rays on muscle cell membrane properties have been measured in sartorius muscles from Leptodactylus ocellatus. Threshold strength for rectangular current pulses increased 10% after irradiation, and action potential propagation velocity decreased 10%. Passive membrane parameters were calculated from potential responses to sub-threshold current pulses, assuming conventional cable theory. Specific membrane conductance increased to 18% after irradiation, membrane capacitance increased 14%, and length constant decreased 10% but membrane time constant was unchanged. Cell diameter decreased 5%, and resting membrane potential decreased 8%. Membrane parameters during an action potential were also evaluated by the phase-plane and current-voltage plot techniques. Irradiation significantly decreased the action potential amplitude, the excitation potential, and the maximum rates of rise and fall of membrane potential. Increases were observed in dynamic sodium and potassium conductances, peak sodium current, and net charge accumulation per action potential. This X-ray dose also produced signficant changes in the timing of peak events during the action potential; in general the whole action potential process is slower after irradiation

  3. Capacitive sensing of droplets for microfluidic devices based on thermocapillary actuation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jian Z.; Darhuber, Anton A.; Troian, Sandra M.; Wagner, Sigurd

    2004-01-01

    The design and performance of a miniaturized coplanar capacitive sensor is presented whose electrode arrays can also function as resistive microheaters for thermocapillary actuation of liquid films and droplets. Optimal compromise between large capacitive signal and high spatial resolution is obtained for electrode widths comparable to the liquid film thickness measured, in agreement with supporting numerical simulations which include mutual capacitance effects. An interdigitated, variable wi...

  4. Membrane Compartmentalization Reducing the Mobility of Lipids and Proteins within a Model Plasma Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koldsø, Heidi; Reddy, Tyler; Fowler, Philip W; Duncan, Anna L; Sansom, Mark S P

    2016-09-01

    The cytoskeleton underlying cell membranes may influence the dynamic organization of proteins and lipids within the bilayer by immobilizing certain transmembrane (TM) proteins and forming corrals within the membrane. Here, we present coarse-grained resolution simulations of a biologically realistic membrane model of asymmetrically organized lipids and TM proteins. We determine the effects of a model of cytoskeletal immobilization of selected membrane proteins using long time scale coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. By introducing compartments with varying degrees of restraints within the membrane models, we are able to reveal how compartmentalization caused by cytoskeletal immobilization leads to reduced and anomalous diffusional mobility of both proteins and lipids. This in turn results in a reduced rate of protein dimerization within the membrane and of hopping of membrane proteins between compartments. These simulations provide a molecular realization of hierarchical models often invoked to explain single-molecule imaging studies of membrane proteins.

  5. Profiling of barrier capacitance and spreading resistance using a transient linearly increasing voltage technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaubas, E; Ceponis, T; Kusakovskij, J

    2011-08-01

    A technique for the combined measurement of barrier capacitance and spreading resistance profiles using a linearly increasing voltage pulse is presented. The technique is based on the measurement and analysis of current transients, due to the barrier and diffusion capacitance, and the spreading resistance, between a needle probe and sample. To control the impact of deep traps in the barrier capacitance, a steady state bias illumination with infrared light was employed. Measurements of the spreading resistance and barrier capacitance profiles using a stepwise positioned probe on cross sectioned silicon pin diodes and pnp structures are presented.

  6. Density Functional Theory Calculations of the Quantum Capacitance of Graphene Oxide as a Supercapacitor Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ce; Wang, Jinyan; Meng, Zhaoliang; Hu, Fangyuan; Jian, Xigao

    2018-03-31

    Graphene oxide has become an attractive electrode-material candidate for supercapacitors thanks to its higher specific capacitance compared to graphene. The quantum capacitance makes relative contributions to the specific capacitance, which is considered as the major limitation of graphene electrodes, while the quantum capacitance of graphene oxide is rarely concerned. This study explores the quantum capacitance of graphene oxide, which bears epoxy and hydroxyl groups on its basal plane, by employing density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results demonstrate that the total density of states near the Fermi level is significantly enhanced by introducing oxygen-containing groups, which is beneficial for the improvement of the quantum capacitance. Moreover, the quantum capacitances of the graphene oxide with different concentrations of these two oxygen-containing groups are compared, revealing that more epoxy and hydroxyl groups result in a higher quantum capacitance. Notably, the hydroxyl concentration has a considerable effect on the capacitive behavior. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Carrier accumulation and depletion in point-contact capacitance-voltage measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naitou, Yuichi

    2017-11-01

    Scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) is a variation of atomic force microscopy in which a conductive probe tip detects the bias modulated capacitance for the purpose of measuring the nanoscale semiconductor carrier concentration. SCM can be regarded as a point-contact capacitance-voltage system, and its capacitance-voltage properties are different from those of a conventional parallel-plate capacitor. In this study, the charge accumulation and depletion behavior of a semiconductor sample were closely investigated by SCM. By analyzing the tip-sample approach curve, the effective probe tip area and charge depletion depth could be quantitatively determined.

  8. Maximizing the value of gate capacitance in field-effect devices using an organic interface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, H. L.

    2015-12-01

    Past research has confirmed the existence of negative capacitance in organics such as tris (8-Hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum (Alq3). This work explored using such an organic interface layer to enhance the channel voltage in the field-effect transistor (FET) thereby lowering the sub-threshold swing. In particular, if the values of the positive and negative gate capacitances are approximately equal, the composite negative capacitance will increase by orders of magnitude. One concern is the upper frequency limit (∼100 Hz) over which negative capacitance has been observed. Nonetheless, this frequency limit can be raised to kHz when the organic layer is subjected to a DC bias.

  9. A Possible Minimum Toy Model with Negative Differential Capacitance for Self-sustained Current Oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Gang; Sun Zhouzhou; Wang Xiangrong

    2007-01-01

    We generalize a simple model for superlattices to include the effect of differential capacitance. It is shown that the model always has a stable steady-state solution (SSS) if all differential capacitances are positive. On the other hand, when negative differential capacitance is included, the model can have no stable SSS and be in a self-sustained current oscillation behavior. Therefore, we find a possible minimum toy model with both negative differential resistance and negative differential capacitance which can include the phenomena of both self-sustained current oscillation and I-V oscillation of stable SSSs.

  10. Surface functional groups in capacitive deionization with porous carbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmatifar, Ali; Oyarzun, Diego I.; Palko, James W.; Hawks, Steven A.; Stadermann, Michael; Santiago, Juan G.; Stanford Microfluidics Lab Team; Lawrence Livermore National Lab Team

    2017-11-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a promising technology for removal of toxic ions and salt from water. In CDI, an applied potential of about 1 V to pairs of porous electrodes (e.g. activated carbon) induces ion electromigration and electrostatic adsorption at electrode surfaces. Immobile surface functional groups play a critical role in the type and capacity of ion adsorption, and this can dramatically change desalination performance. We here use models and experiments to study weak electrolyte surface groups which protonate and/or depropotante based on their acid/base dissociation constants and local pore pH. Net chemical surface charge and differential capacitance can thus vary during CDI operation. In this work, we present a CDI model based on weak electrolyte acid/base equilibria theory. Our model incorporates preferential cation (anion) adsorption for activated carbon with acidic (basic) surface groups. We validated our model with experiments on custom built CDI cells with a variety of functionalizations. To this end, we varied electrolyte pH and measured adsorption of individual anionic and cationic ions using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC) techniques. Our model shows good agreement with experiments and provides a framework useful in the design of CDI control schemes.

  11. Exceptionally High Electric Double Layer Capacitances of Oligomeric Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Michio; Shimizu, Sunao; Sotoike, Rina; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Itoh, Yoshimitsu; Aida, Takuzo

    2017-11-15

    Electric double layer (EDL) capacitors are promising as next-generation energy accumulators if their capacitances and operation voltages are both high. However, only few electrolytes can simultaneously fulfill these two requisites. Here we report that an oligomeric ionic liquid such as IL4 TFSI with four imidazolium ion units in its structure provides a wide electrochemical window of ∼5.0 V, similar to monomeric ionic liquids. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance measurements using Au working electrodes demonstrated that IL4 TFSI exhibits an exceptionally high EDL capacitance of ∼66 μF/cm 2 , which is ∼6 times as high as those of monomeric ionic liquids so far reported. We also found that an EDL-based field effect transistor (FET) using IL4 TFSI as a gate dielectric material and SrTiO 3 as a channel material displays a very sharp transfer curve with an enhanced carrier accumulation capability of ∼64 μF/cm 2 , as determined by Hall-effect measurements.

  12. Fundamental investigations of capacitive radio frequency plasmas: simulations and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donkó, Z; Derzsi, A; Hartmann, P; Korolov, I; Schulze, J; Czarnetzki, U; Schüngel, E

    2012-01-01

    Capacitive radio frequency (RF) discharge plasmas have been serving hi-tech industry (e.g. chip and solar cell manufacturing, realization of biocompatible surfaces) for several years. Nonetheless, their complex modes of operation are not fully understood and represent topics of high interest. The understanding of these phenomena is aided by modern diagnostic techniques and computer simulations. From the industrial point of view the control of ion properties is of particular interest; possibilities of independent control of the ion flux and the ion energy have been utilized via excitation of the discharges with multiple frequencies. ‘Classical’ dual-frequency (DF) discharges (where two significantly different driving frequencies are used), as well as discharges driven by a base frequency and its higher harmonic(s) have been analyzed thoroughly. It has been recognized that the second solution results in an electrically induced asymmetry (electrical asymmetry effect), which provides the basis for the control of the mean ion energy. This paper reviews recent advances on studies of the different electron heating mechanisms, on the possibilities of the separate control of ion energy and ion flux in DF discharges, on the effects of secondary electrons, as well as on the non-linear behavior (self-generated resonant current oscillations) of capacitive RF plasmas. The work is based on a synergistic approach of theoretical modeling, experiments and kinetic simulations based on the particle-in-cell approach. (paper)

  13. Instrumentasi Elektrokardiografi dengan Capacitive Contact Electrode pada Kursi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Regina Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Elektrokardiograf secara konvensional menggunakan elektroda Ag-AgCl sebagai conductive contact dan kabel sebagai penghubung antara elektroda dengan elektrokardiograf. Metode yang digunakan bersifat direct sehingga elektroda melekat langsung pada kulit. Konfigurasi ini mengakibatkan ruang gerak pengguna menjadi terbatas dan dalam jangka panjang dapat menyebabkan iritasi pada kulit. Oleh karena itu, pada tugas akhir ini akan difokuskan pada perancangan Instrumentasi Elektrokardiografi secara indirect menggunakan capacitive electrode. Elektroda dibuat dengan menggunakan komponen IC dengan input impedansi tinggi sehingga sinyal jantung dapat direkam walau terhalang oleh pakaian sekalipun. Elektroda dibuat sejumlah 2 buah dan diletakkan pada sandaran kursi, sedangkan untuk ground digunakan PCB berukuran 30cmx30cm sebagai alas duduk. Ketiga sinyal ini kemudian dilewatkan pada rangkaian penguat instrumentasi, filter dan baseline restoration untuk menguatkan dan menghilangkan komponen sinyal yang tidak diperlukan. Dari pengujian yang telah dilakukan, sinyal QRS complex dapat terdeteksi dengan jelas. Kualitas sinyal yang dihasilkan sangat bergantung dari pakaian yang digunakan. Oleh karena itu capacitive electrode memiliki peluang yang besar untuk dijadikan sebagai elektroda alternatif yang bisa digunakan dalam jangka panjang.

  14. Measurement strategy for rectangular electrical capacitance tomography sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Jiamin; Ge, Ruihuan; Qiu, Guizhi; Wang, Haigang

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the influence of the measurement strategy for the rectangular electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) sensor, a Finite Element Method (FEM) is utilized to create the model for simulation. The simulation was carried out using COMSOL Multiphysics(trade mark, serif) and Matlab(trade mark, serif). The length-width ratio of the rectangular sensing area is 5. Twelve electrodes are evenly arranged surrounding the pipe. The covering ratio of the electrodes is 90%. The capacitances between different electrode pairs are calculated for a bar distribution. The air of the relative permittivity 1.0 and the material of the permittivity 3.0 are used for the calibration. The relative permittivity of the second phase is 3.0. The noise free and noise data are used for the image reconstruction using the Linear Back Projection (LBP). The measurement strategies with 1-, 2- and 4- electrode excitation are compared using the correlation coefficient. Preliminary results show that the measurement strategy with 2-electrode excitation outperforms other measurement strategies with 1- or 4-electrode excitation

  15. Capacitated arc routing problem and its extensions in waste collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadzli, Mohammad; Najwa, Nurul; Luis, Martino

    2015-01-01

    Capacitated arc routing problem (CARP) is the youngest generation of graph theory that focuses on solving the edge/arc routing for optimality. Since many years, operational research devoted to CARP counterpart, known as vehicle routing problem (VRP), which does not fit to several real cases such like waste collection problem and road maintenance. In this paper, we highlighted several extensions of capacitated arc routing problem (CARP) that represents the real-life problem of vehicle operation in waste collection. By purpose, CARP is designed to find a set of routes for vehicles that satisfies all pre-setting constraints in such that all vehicles must start and end at a depot, service a set of demands on edges (or arcs) exactly once without exceeding the capacity, thus the total fleet cost is minimized. We also addressed the differentiation between CARP and VRP in waste collection. Several issues have been discussed including stochastic demands and time window problems in order to show the complexity and importance of CARP in the related industry. A mathematical model of CARP and its new version is presented by considering several factors such like delivery cost, lateness penalty and delivery time

  16. Effect of displacement on resistance and capacitance of polyaniline film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, Khasan Sanginovich; Saeed, Muhammad Tariq; Khalid, Fazal Ahmad; Moiz, Syed Abdul

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the properties of displacement sensors based on polyaniline (PANI) films. About 1 wt% of PANI micropowder is mixed and stirred in a solution of 90 wt% water and 10 wt% alcohol at room temperature. The films of PANI are deposited from solution by drop-casting on Ag electrodes, which are preliminary deposited on glass substrates. The thicknesses of the PANI films are in the range of 20 μm–80 μm. A displacement sensor with polyaniline film as an active material is designed and fabricated. The investigations showed that, on average, the AC resistance of the sensor decreases by 2 times and the capacitance accordingly increases by 1.6 times as the displacement changes in the range of 0 mm–0.5 mm. The polyaniline is the only active material of the displacement sensor. The resistance and capacitance of the PANI changes under the pressure of spring and elastic rubber, and this pressure is created by the downward movement of the micrometer. (general)

  17. Capacitated arc routing problem and its extensions in waste collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadzli, Mohammad; Najwa, Nurul [Institut Matematik Kejuruteraan, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kampus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Luis, Martino [Othman Yeop Abdullah Graduate School of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Capacitated arc routing problem (CARP) is the youngest generation of graph theory that focuses on solving the edge/arc routing for optimality. Since many years, operational research devoted to CARP counterpart, known as vehicle routing problem (VRP), which does not fit to several real cases such like waste collection problem and road maintenance. In this paper, we highlighted several extensions of capacitated arc routing problem (CARP) that represents the real-life problem of vehicle operation in waste collection. By purpose, CARP is designed to find a set of routes for vehicles that satisfies all pre-setting constraints in such that all vehicles must start and end at a depot, service a set of demands on edges (or arcs) exactly once without exceeding the capacity, thus the total fleet cost is minimized. We also addressed the differentiation between CARP and VRP in waste collection. Several issues have been discussed including stochastic demands and time window problems in order to show the complexity and importance of CARP in the related industry. A mathematical model of CARP and its new version is presented by considering several factors such like delivery cost, lateness penalty and delivery time.

  18. A novel capacitance sensor for fireside corrosion measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Heng; Li, Zuoping

    2009-11-01

    Fireside corrosion in coal-fired power plants is a leading mechanism for boiler tube failures. Online monitoring of fireside corrosion can provide timely data to plant operators for mitigation implementation. This paper presents a novel sensor concept for measuring metal loss based on electrical capacitance. Laboratory-scale experiments demonstrated the feasibility of design, fabrication, and operation of the sensor. The fabrication of the prototype sensor involved sputtering deposition of a thin metal coating with varying thickness on a ceramic substrate. Corrosion metal loss resulted in a proportional decrease in electrical capacitance of the sensor. Laboratory experiments using a muffle furnace with an oxidation environment demonstrated that low carbon steel coatings on ceramic substrate survived cyclic temperatures over 500 °C. Measured corrosion rates of sputtered coating in air had an Arrhenius exponential dependence on temperature, with metal thickness loss ranging from 2.0 nm/h at 200 °C to 2.0 μm/h at 400 °C. Uncertainty analysis indicated that the overall measurement uncertainty was within 4%. The experimental system showed high signal-to-noise ratio, and the sensor could measure submicrometer metal thickness changes. The laboratory experiments demonstrated that the sensor concept and measurement system are capable of short term, online monitoring of metal loss, indicating the potential for the sensor to be used for fireside corrosion monitoring and other metal loss measurement.

  19. Inverse modeling applied to Scanning Capacitance Microscopy for improved spatial resolution and accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurray, J. S.; Williams, C. C.

    1998-01-01

    Scanning Capacitance Microscopy (SCM) is capable of providing two-dimensional information about dopant and carrier concentrations in semiconducting devices. This information can be used to calibrate models used in the simulation of these devices prior to manufacturing and to develop and optimize the manufacturing processes. To provide information for future generations of devices, ultra-high spatial accuracy (<10 nm) will be required. One method, which potentially provides a means to obtain these goals, is inverse modeling of SCM data. Current semiconducting devices have large dopant gradients. As a consequence, the capacitance probe signal represents an average over the local dopant gradient. Conversion of the SCM signal to dopant density has previously been accomplished with a physical model which assumes that no dopant gradient exists in the sampling area of the tip. The conversion of data using this model produces results for abrupt profiles which do not have adequate resolution and accuracy. A new inverse model and iterative method has been developed to obtain higher resolution and accuracy from the same SCM data. This model has been used to simulate the capacitance signal obtained from one and two-dimensional ideal abrupt profiles. This simulated data has been input to a new iterative conversion algorithm, which has recovered the original profiles in both one and two dimensions. In addition, it is found that the shape of the tip can significantly impact resolution. Currently SCM tips are found to degrade very rapidly. Initially the apex of the tip is approximately hemispherical, but quickly becomes flat. This flat region often has a radius of about the original hemispherical radius. This change in geometry causes the silicon directly under the disk to be sampled with approximately equal weight. In contrast, a hemispherical geometry samples most strongly the silicon centered under the SCM tip and falls off quickly with distance from the tip's apex. Simulation

  20. Choroidal neovascular membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Nitul

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Choroidal neovascular membrane in the macular area is one of the leading causes of severe visual loss. Usually a manifestation in elderly population, it is often associated with age-related macular degeneration. The current mainstay of management is early diagnosis, usually by fundus examination, aided by angiography and photocoagulation in selected cases. Various other modalities of treatment including surgery are being considered as alternate options, but with limited success. The purpose of this review is to briefly outline the current concepts and the management strategy from a clinician′s viewpoint.

  1. Choroidal neovascular membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, N S; Diamond, J G; Jalali, S; Das, T

    1998-06-01

    Choroidal neovascular membrane in the macular area is one of the leading causes of severe visual loss. Usually a manifestation in elderly population, it is often associated with age-related macular degeneration. The current mainstay of management is early diagnosis, usually by fundus examination, aided by angiography and photocoagulation in selected cases. Various other modalities of treatment including surgery are being considered as alternate options, but with limited success. The purpose of this review is to briefly outline the current concepts and the management strategy from a clinician's viewpoint.

  2. Robotic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between digital and analogue is often constructed as one of opposition. The perception that the world is permeated with underlying patterns of data, describing events and matter alike, suggests that information can be understood apart from the substance to which it is associated......, and that its encoded logic can be constructed and reconfigured as an isolated entity. This disembodiment of information from materiality implies that an event like a thunderstorm, or a material like a body, can be described equally by data, in other words it can be read or written. The following prototypes......, Vivisection and Strange Metabolisms, were developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen as a means of engaging intangible digital data with tactile physical material. As robotic membranes, they are a dual examination...

  3. High flux and antifouling properties of negatively charged membrane for dyeing wastewater treatment by membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    An, Alicia Kyoungjin

    2016-07-25

    This study investigated the applicability of membrane distillation (MD) to treat dyeing wastewater discharged by the textile industry. Four different dyes containing methylene blue (MB), crystal violet (CV), acid red 18 (AR), and acid yellow 36 (AY) were tested. Two types of hydrophobic membranes made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were used. The membranes were characterized by testing against each dye (foulant-foulant) and the membrane–dye (membrane-foulant) interfacial interactions and their mechanisms were identified. The MD membranes possessed negative charges, which facilitated the treatment of acid and azo dyes of the same charge and showed higher fluxes. In addition, PTFE membrane reduced the wettability with higher hydrophobicity of the membrane surface. The PTFE membrane evidenced especially its resistant to dye absorption, as its strong negative charge and chemical structure caused a flake-like (loose) dye–dye structure to form on the membrane surface rather than in the membrane pores. This also enabled the recovery of flux and membrane properties by water flushing (WF), thereby direct-contact MD with PTFE membrane treating 100 mg/L of dye mixtures showed stable flux and superior color removal during five days operation. Thus, MD shows a potential for stable long-term operation in conjunction with a simple membrane cleaning process, and its suitability in dyeing wastewater treatment.

  4. Regulation of capacitative and non-capacitative Ca2+ entry in A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COLIN W TAYLOR

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A capacitative Ca2+ entry (CCE pathway, activated by depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores, is thought to mediate much of the Ca2+ entry evoked by receptors that stimulate phospholipase C (PLC. However, in A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells, vasopressin, which stimulates PLC, empties intracellular Ca2+ stores but simultaneously inhibits their ability to activate CCE. The diacylglycerol produced with the IP3 that empties the stores is metabolized to arachidonic and this leads to activation of nitric oxide (NO synthase, production of NO and cyclic GMP, and consequent activation of protein kinase G. The latter inhibits CCE. In parallel, NO directly activates a non-capacitative Ca2+ entry (NCCE pathway, which is entirely responsible for the Ca2+ entry that occurs in the presence of vasopressin. This reciprocal regulation of two Ca2+ entry pathways ensures that there is sequential activation of first NCCE in the presence of vasopressin, and then a transient activation of CCE when vasopressin is removed. We suggest that the two routes for Ca2+ entry may selectively direct Ca2+ to processes that mediate activation and then recovery of the cell.

  5. Design of capacitance measurement module for determining critical cold temperature of tea leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzong Lu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Critical cold temperature is one of the most crucial control factors for crop frost protection. Tea leaf's capacitance has a significant response to cold injury and appears as a peak response to a typical low temperature which is the critical temperature. However, the testing system is complex and inconvenient. In view of these, a tea leaf's critical temperature detector based on capacitance measurement module was designed and developed to measure accurately and conveniently the capacitance. Software was also designed to measure parameters, record data, query data as well as data deletion module. The detector utilized the MSP430F149 MCU as the control core and ILI9320TFT as the display module, and its software was compiled by IAR5.3. Capacitance measurement module was the crucial part in the overall design which was based on the principle of oscillator. Based on hardware debugging and stability analysis of capacitance measurement module, it was found that the output voltage of the capacitance measurement circuit is stable with 0.36% average deviation. The relationship between capacitance and 1/Uc2 was found to be linear distribution with the determination coefficient above 0.99. The result indicated that the output voltage of capacitance measurement module well corresponded to the change in value of the capacitance. The measurement error of the circuit was also within the required range of 0 to 100 pF which meets the requirement of tea leaf's capacitance. Keywords: Tea leaves, Critical cold temperature, Capacitance peak response, Frost protection, Detector

  6. Novel graphene-like electrodes for capacitive deionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibo; Zou, Linda; Pan, Likun; Sun, Zhuo

    2010-11-15

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a novel technology that has been developed for removal of charged ionic species from salty water, such as salt ions. The basic concept of CDI, as well as electrosorption, is to force charged ions toward oppositely polarized electrodes through imposing a direct electric field to form a strong electrical double layer and hold the ions. Once the electric field disappears, the ions are instantly released back to the bulk solution. CDI is an alternative low-energy consumption desalination technology. Graphene-like nanoflakes (GNFs) with relatively high specific surface area have been prepared and used as electrodes for capacitive deionization. The GNFs were synthesized by a modified Hummers' method using hydrazine for reduction. They were characterized by atomic force microscopy, N2 adsorption at 77 K and electrochemical workstation. It was found that the ratio of nitric acid and sulfuric acid plays a vital role in determining the specific surface area of GNFs. Its electrosorption performance was much better than commercial activated carbon (AC), suggesting a great potential in capacitive deionisation application. Further, the electrosorptive performance of GNFs electrodes with different bias potentials, flow rates and ionic strengths were measured and the electrosorption isotherm and kinetics were investigated. The results showed that GNFs prepared by this process had the specific surface area of 222.01 m²/g. The specific electrosorptive capacity of the GNFs was 23.18 µmol/g for sodium ions (Na+) when the initial concentration was at 25 mg/L, which was higher than that of previously reported data using graphene and AC under the same experimental condition. In addition, the equilibrium electrosorption capacity was determined as 73.47 µmol/g at 2.0 V by fitting data through the Langmuir isotherm, and the rate constant was found to be 1.01 min⁻¹ by fitting data through pseudo first-order adsorption. The results suggested that the

  7. Experience gained with capacitive pressure sensor noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestrin, J.; Blazquez, J.

    1996-01-01

    Due to safety requirements, pressure sensors in a nuclear power plant must be kept under surveillance. The dynamics of the capacitive type Rosemount sensors is known. Sensor response time to a pressure ramp is the usual quantity required and it can be calculated. The noise signals contain the sensor dynamics, but in this case other irrelevant information from the plant is held, which disturbs the results. So, the signals must be conditioned previously. Also, it is necessary to do a process in order to separate the pressure sensor dynamics and to get a stationary signal. This can be done by using the autocorrelation function and filtering. Deterministic steps have been made and a relationship between the sensor response time, and the static pressure has been found. (author)

  8. MEMS capacitive force sensors for cellular and flight biomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yu; Nelson, Bradley J

    2007-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are playing increasingly important roles in facilitating biological studies. They are capable of providing not only qualitative but also quantitative information on the cellular, sub-cellular and organism levels, which is instrumental to understanding the fundamental elements of biological systems. MEMS force sensors with their high bandwidth and high sensitivity combined with their small size, in particular, have found a role in this domain, because of the importance of quantifying forces and their effect on the function and morphology of many biological structures. This paper describes our research in the development of MEMS capacitive force sensors that have already demonstrated their effectiveness in the areas of cell mechanics and Drosophila flight dynamics studies. (review article)

  9. Measurement of vehicle-load using capacitance and acceleration transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S; Yang, W; Yang, Y

    2007-01-01

    Over-loading is a common problem in some developing countries. Currently, large and fixed measurement systems are used to measure the load of vehicles travelling on highways. This paper presents an on-vehicle measuring device, which is based on measurement of change in capacitance due to variation in distance between electrodes mounted on vehicles. The on-vehicle leaf springs are used as a key part of the weighing transducer. Acceleration transducers are used to measure the vehicle's forward and the vertical accelerations. A feature of this on-vehicle measuring device is that it can provide both static and dynamic load measurements. The drivers can check the load in the cab, and the highway inspectors can check the load at any time and any place through radio communication, thus identifying over-loaded vehicles

  10. Capacitance measurements and AC conductivity of Nickel Phthalocyanine films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, S.

    2005-01-01

    A C dark Current measurements of nickel phthalocyanine thin films using ohmic gold electrodes are investigated in the frequency range 30-10 Hz and within the temperature range 295-385 K. The A C conductivity as D Ac is found to vary as within the index s < 1, indicating a dominant hopping process at low temperatures. From the temperature dependence of A C conductivity, free carrier conduction with mean activation energy of 0.31 eV is observed at higher temperatures. Capacitance and loss tangent are found to be decreased with increasing frequency and increase with increasing temperature. Such characteristics are found to be in good qualitative agreement with existing equivalent circuit model assuming ohmic contacts

  11. A novel heuristic algorithm for capacitated vehicle routing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kır, Sena; Yazgan, Harun Reşit; Tüncel, Emre

    2017-09-01

    The vehicle routing problem with the capacity constraints was considered in this paper. It is quite difficult to achieve an optimal solution with traditional optimization methods by reason of the high computational complexity for large-scale problems. Consequently, new heuristic or metaheuristic approaches have been developed to solve this problem. In this paper, we constructed a new heuristic algorithm based on the tabu search and adaptive large neighborhood search (ALNS) with several specifically designed operators and features to solve the capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP). The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm was illustrated on the benchmark problems. The algorithm provides a better performance on large-scaled instances and gained advantage in terms of CPU time. In addition, we solved a real-life CVRP using the proposed algorithm and found the encouraging results by comparison with the current situation that the company is in.

  12. Correlated Coulomb Drag in Capacitively Coupled Quantum-Dot Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2016-05-13

    We study theoretically Coulomb drag in capacitively coupled quantum dots (CQDs)-a bias-driven dot coupled to an unbiased dot where transport is due to Coulomb mediated energy transfer drag. To this end, we introduce a master-equation approach that accounts for higher-order tunneling (cotunneling) processes as well as energy-dependent lead couplings, and identify a mesoscopic Coulomb drag mechanism driven by nonlocal multielectron cotunneling processes. Our theory establishes the conditions for a nonzero drag as well as the direction of the drag current in terms of microscopic system parameters. Interestingly, the direction of the drag current is not determined by the drive current, but by an interplay between the energy-dependent lead couplings. Studying the drag mechanism in a graphene-based CQD heterostructure, we show that the predictions of our theory are consistent with recent experiments on Coulomb drag in CQD systems.

  13. Improvement of system capacitance via weavable superelastic biscrolled yarn supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Changsoon; Kim, Kang Min; Kim, Keon Jung; Lepró, Xavier; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-12-01

    Yarn-based supercapacitors having improved performance are needed for existing and emerging wearable applications. Here, we report weavable carbon nanotube yarn supercapacitors having high performance because of high loadings of rapidly accessible charge storage particles (above 90 wt% MnO2). The yarn electrodes are made by a biscrolling process that traps host MnO2 nanoparticles within the galleries of helically scrolled carbon nanotube sheets, which provide strength and electrical conductivity. Despite the high loading of brittle metal oxide particles, the biscrolled solid-state yarn supercapacitors are flexible and can be made elastically stretchable (up to 30% strain) by over-twisting to produce yarn coiling. The maximum areal capacitance of the yarn electrodes were up to 100 times higher than for previously reported fibres or yarn supercapacitors. Similarly, the energy density of complete, solid-state supercapacitors made from biscrolled yarn electrodes with gel electrolyte coating were significantly higher than for previously reported fibre or yarn supercapacitors.

  14. Capacitance-Assisted Sustainable Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Mineralisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Katie J; Dowsett, Mark R; Chatzipanagis, Konstantinos; Scullion, Zhan Wei; Kröger, Roland; Lee, James D; Aguiar, Pedro M; North, Michael; Parkin, Alison

    2018-01-10

    An electrochemical cell comprising a novel dual-component graphite and Earth-crust abundant metal anode, a hydrogen producing cathode and an aqueous sodium chloride electrolyte was constructed and used for carbon dioxide mineralisation. Under an atmosphere of 5 % carbon dioxide in nitrogen, the cell exhibited both capacitive and oxidative electrochemistry at the anode. The graphite acted as a supercapacitive reagent concentrator, pumping carbon dioxide into aqueous solution as hydrogen carbonate. Simultaneous oxidation of the anodic metal generated cations, which reacted with the hydrogen carbonate to give mineralised carbon dioxide. Whilst conventional electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction requires hydrogen, this cell generates hydrogen at the cathode. Carbon capture can be achieved in a highly sustainable manner using scrap metal within the anode, seawater as the electrolyte, an industrially relevant gas stream and a solar panel as an effective zero-carbon energy source. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  15. Capacitive immunosensor for C-reactive protein quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Sapsanis, Christos

    2015-08-02

    We report an agglutination-based immunosensor for the quantification of C-reactive protein (CRP). The developed immunoassay sensor requires approximately 15 minutes of assay time per sample and provides a sensitivity of 0.5 mg/L. We have measured the capacitance of interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) and quantified the concentration of added analyte. The proposed method is a label free detection method and hence provides rapid measurement preferable in diagnostics. We have so far been able to quantify the concentration to as low as 0.5 mg/L and as high as 10 mg/L. By quantifying CRP in serum, we can assess whether patients are prone to cardiac diseases and monitor the risk associated with such diseases. The sensor is a simple low cost structure and it can be a promising device for rapid and sensitive detection of disease markers at the point-of-care stage.

  16. Review of Recent Inkjet-Printed Capacitive Tactile Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Salim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Inkjet printing is an advanced printing technology that has been used to develop conducting layers, interconnects and other features on a variety of substrates. It is an additive manufacturing process that offers cost-effective, lightweight designs and simplifies the fabrication process with little effort. There is hardly sufficient research on tactile sensors and inkjet printing. Advancements in materials science and inkjet printing greatly facilitate the realization of sophisticated tactile sensors. Starting from the concept of capacitive sensing, a brief comparison of printing techniques, the essential requirements of inkjet-printing and the attractive features of state-of-the art inkjet-printed tactile sensors developed on diverse substrates (paper, polymer, glass and textile are presented in this comprehensive review. Recent trends in inkjet-printed wearable/flexible and foldable tactile sensors are evaluated, paving the way for future research.

  17. Using MEMS Capacitive Switches in Tunable RF Amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danson John

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A MEMS capacitive switch suitable for use in tunable RF amplifiers is described. A MEMS switch is designed, fabricated, and characterized with physical and RF measurements for inclusion in simulations. Using the MEMS switch models, a dual-band low-noise amplifier (LNA operating at GHz and GHz, and a tunable power amplifier (PA at GHz are simulated in m CMOS. MEMS switches allow the LNA to operate with 11 dB of isolation between the two bands while maintaining dB of gain and sub- dB noise figure. MEMS switches are used to implement a variable matching network that allows the PA to realize up to 37% PAE improvement at low input powers.

  18. Capacitance-voltage characteristics of quantum well structures

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, C R; Choe, B D

    1999-01-01

    The characteristics of the apparent carrier distribution (ACD) of quantum well (QW) structures are investigated using the self-consistent simulation and the capacitance-voltage (C-V) profiling techniques. The simulation results on the differential carrier distribution show that the change of position expectation value of two-dimensional electrons determines the full width at half maximum of 100 K ACD peaks when conduction band offset is DELTA E sub c = 160 meV and the QW width t sub w is greater than 120 A. The contribution of Debye averaging effects to the ACD peaks becomes important as t sub w and DELTA E sub c values decrease and the temperature is increased. The influence of Debye averaging effects on ACD peaks appears differently according to the location of each well in multiple QWs. These results indicate that the extraction of QW parameters from the C-V profile should be done with caution.

  19. Capacitively coupled hybrid pixel assemblies for the CLIC vertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)734627; Benoit, Mathieu; Dannheim, Dominik; Dette, Karola; Hynds, Daniel; Kulis, Szymon; Peric, Ivan; Petric, Marko; Redford, Sophie; Sicking, Eva; Valerio, Pierpaolo

    2016-01-01

    The vertex detector at the proposed CLIC multi-TeV linear e+e- collider must have minimal material content and high spatial resolution, combined with accurate time-stamping to cope with the expected high rate of beam-induced backgrounds. One of the options being considered is the use of active sensors implemented in a commercial high-voltage CMOS process, capacitively coupled to hybrid pixel ASICs. A prototype of such an assembly, using two custom designed chips (CCPDv3 as active sensor glued to a CLICpix readout chip), has been characterised both in the lab and in beam tests at the CERN SPS using 120 GeV/c positively charged hadrons. Results of these characterisation studies are presented both for single and dual amplification stages in the active sensor. Pixel cross-coupling results are also presented, showing the sensitivity to placement precision and planarity of the glue layer.

  20. Image Reconstruction Algorithm For Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arko

    2001-01-01

    ). Most image reconstruction algorithms for electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) use sensitivity maps as weighting factors. The computation is fast, involving a simple multiply-and- accumulate (MAC) operation, but the resulting image suffers from blurring due to the soft-field effect of the sensor. This paper presents a low cost iterative method employing proportional thresholding, which improves image quality dramatically. The strategy for implementation, computational cost, and achievable speed is examined when using a personal computer (PC) and Digital Signal Processor (DSP). For PC implementation, Watcom C++ 10.6 and Visual C++ 5.0 compilers were used. The experimental results are compared to the images reconstructed by commercially available software. The new algorithm improves the image quality significantly at a cost of a few iterations. This technique can be readily exploited for online applications

  1. Optimization Shape of Variable Capacitance Micromotor Using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ketabi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for optimum shape design of variable capacitance micromotor (VCM using Differential Evolution (DE, a stochastic search algorithm, is presented. In this optimization exercise, the objective function aims to maximize torque value and minimize the torque ripple, where the geometric parameters are considered to be the variables. The optimization process is carried out using a combination of DE algorithm and FEM analysis. Fitness value is calculated by FEM analysis using COMSOL3.4, and the DE algorithm is realized by MATLAB7.4. The proposed method is applied to a VCM with 8 poles at the stator and 6 poles at the rotor. The results show that the optimized micromotor using DE algorithm had higher torque value and lower torque ripple, indicating the validity of this methodology for VCM design.

  2. Presenilin-mediated modulation of capacitative calcium entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, A S; Cheng, I; Chung, S; Grenfell, T Z; Lee, H; Pack-Chung, E; Handler, M; Shen, J; Xia, W; Tesco, G; Saunders, A J; Ding, K; Frosch, M P; Tanzi, R E; Kim, T W

    2000-09-01

    We studied a novel function of the presenilins (PS1 and PS2) in governing capacitative calcium entry (CCE), a refilling mechanism for depleted intracellular calcium stores. Abrogation of functional PS1, by either knocking out PS1 or expressing inactive PS1, markedly potentiated CCE, suggesting a role for PS1 in the modulation of CCE. In contrast, familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD)-linked mutant PS1 or PS2 significantly attenuated CCE and store depletion-activated currents. While inhibition of CCE selectively increased the amyloidogenic amyloid beta peptide (Abeta42), increased accumulation of the peptide had no effect on CCE. Thus, reduced CCE is most likely an early cellular event leading to increased Abeta42 generation associated with FAD mutant presenilins. Our data indicate that the CCE pathway is a novel therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers for medical imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T; Oralkan, Ömer

    2011-01-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) have been subject to extensive research for the last two decades. Although they were initially developed for air-coupled applications, today their main application space is medical imaging and therapy. This paper first presents a brief description of CMUTs, their basic structure and operating principles. Our progression of developing several generations of fabrication processes is discussed with an emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages of each process. Monolithic and hybrid approaches for integrating CMUTs with supporting integrated circuits are surveyed. Several prototype transducer arrays with integrated front-end electronic circuits we developed and their use for 2D and 3D, anatomical and functional imaging, and ablative therapies are described. The presented results prove the CMUT as a micro-electro-mechanical systems technology for many medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications

  4. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers for medical imaging and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T; Oralkan, Omer

    2011-05-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) have been subject to extensive research for the last two decades. Although they were initially developed for air-coupled applications, today their main application space is medical imaging and therapy. This paper first presents a brief description of CMUTs, their basic structure, and operating principles. Our progression of developing several generations of fabrication processes is discussed with an emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages of each process. Monolithic and hybrid approaches for integrating CMUTs with supporting integrated circuits are surveyed. Several prototype transducer arrays with integrated frontend electronic circuits we developed and their use for 2-D and 3-D, anatomical and functional imaging, and ablative therapies are described. The presented results prove the CMUT as a MEMS technology for many medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  5. Electron heating in low pressure capacitive discharges revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The electrons in capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs) absorb energy via ohmic heating due to electron-neutral collisions and stochastic heating due to momentum transfer from high voltage moving sheaths. We use Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations to explore these heating mechanisms and to compare the PIC results with available theories on ohmic and stochastic heating. The PIC results for ohmic heating show good agreement with the ohmic heating calculation of Lafleur et al. [Phys. Plasmas 20, 124503 (2013)]. The PIC results for stochastic heating in low pressure CCPs with collisionless sheaths show good agreement with the stochastic heating model of Kaganovich et al. [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 696 (2006)], which revises the hard wall asymptotic model of Lieberman [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 638 (1988)] by taking current continuity and bulk oscillation into account.

  6. Electron heating in low pressure capacitive discharges revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    The electrons in capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs) absorb energy via ohmic heating due to electron-neutral collisions and stochastic heating due to momentum transfer from high voltage moving sheaths. We use Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations to explore these heating mechanisms and to compare the PIC results with available theories on ohmic and stochastic heating. The PIC results for ohmic heating show good agreement with the ohmic heating calculation of Lafleur et al. [Phys. Plasmas 20, 124503 (2013)]. The PIC results for stochastic heating in low pressure CCPs with collisionless sheaths show good agreement with the stochastic heating model of Kaganovich et al. [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 696 (2006)], which revises the hard wall asymptotic model of Lieberman [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 638 (1988)] by taking current continuity and bulk oscillation into account

  7. Electron heating in low pressure capacitive discharges revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The electrons in capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs) absorb energy via ohmic heating due to electron-neutral collisions and stochastic heating due to momentum transfer from high voltage moving sheaths. We use Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations to explore these heating mechanisms and to compare the PIC results with available theories on ohmic and stochastic heating. The PIC results for ohmic heating show good agreement with the ohmic heating calculation of Lafleur et al. [Phys. Plasmas 20, 124503 (2013)]. The PIC results for stochastic heating in low pressure CCPs with collisionless sheaths show good agreement with the stochastic heating model of Kaganovich et al. [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 696 (2006)], which revises the hard wall asymptotic model of Lieberman [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 638 (1988)] by taking current continuity and bulk oscillation into account.

  8. Regularization iteration imaging algorithm for electrical capacitance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Guowei; Liu, Shi; Chen, Hongyan; Wang, Xueyao

    2018-03-01

    The image reconstruction method plays a crucial role in real-world applications of the electrical capacitance tomography technique. In this study, a new cost function that simultaneously considers the sparsity and low-rank properties of the imaging targets is proposed to improve the quality of the reconstruction images, in which the image reconstruction task is converted into an optimization problem. Within the framework of the split Bregman algorithm, an iterative scheme that splits a complicated optimization problem into several simpler sub-tasks is developed to solve the proposed cost function efficiently, in which the fast-iterative shrinkage thresholding algorithm is introduced to accelerate the convergence. Numerical experiment results verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in improving the reconstruction precision and robustness.

  9. Characterization of active CMOS sensors for capacitively coupled pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirono, Toko; Gonella, Laura; Janssen, Jens; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn (Germany); Peric, Ivan [Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Active CMOS pixel sensor is one of the most attractive candidates for detectors of upcoming particle physics experiments. In contrast to conventional sensors of hybrid detectors, signal processing circuit can be integrated in the active CMOS sensor. The characterization and optimization of the pixel circuit are indispensable to obtain a good performance from the sensors. The prototype chips of the active CMOS sensor were fabricated in the AMS 180nm and L-Foundry 150 nm CMOS processes, respectively a high voltage and high resistivity technology. Both chips have a charge sensitive amplifier and a comparator in each pixel. The chips are designed to be glued to the FEI4 pixel readout chip. The signals from 3 pixels of the prototype chips are capacitively coupled to the FEI4 input pads. We have performed lab tests and test beams to characterize the prototypes. In this presentation, the measurement results of the active CMOS prototype sensors are shown.

  10. Pharmaceutical Pill Counting and Inspection Using a Capacitive Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesan LETCHUMANAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A capacitive sensor for high-speed counting and inspection of pharmaceutical products is proposed and evaluated. The sensor is based on a patented Electrostatic Field Sensor (EFS device, previously developed by Sparc Systems Limited. However, the sensor head proposed in this work has a significantly different geometry and has been designed with a rectangular inspection aperture of 160mm × 21mm, which best meets applications where a larger count throughput is required with a single sensor. Finite element modelling has been used to simulate the electrostatic fields generated within the sensor, and as a design tool for optimising the sensor head configuration. The actual and simulated performance of the sensor is compared and analysed in terms of the sensor performance at discriminating between damaged products or detection of miscount errors.

  11. Calorimeter with capacitance transducer for measurement of SHF radiation power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Onishchenko, I.N.; Uskov, V.V.

    2005-01-01

    A calorimeter of simple design for measuring total energy of microwave radiation is described. It operates in the energy range of 0.5 J to 6 kJ; water is used as the absorbing material. A capacitive probe is applied to measure changes in the water volume. The energy absorption factor of electromagnetic radiation in the range of 3-60 GHz is at least 0.9. The calorimeter is insensitive to radiation field nonuniformity over the absorber volume. The calorimeter is intended for measuring the radiation energy of beam plasma generators and generators with dielectric structure. Its design makes it possible to simultaneously measure the radiation energy and monitor the beam current [ru

  12. Analysis of new actuation methods for capacitive shunt micro switchs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Sassi S

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the use of new actuation methods in capacitive shunt micro switches. We formulate the coupled electromechanical problem by taking into account the fringing effects and nonlinearities due to mid-plane stretching. Static analysis is undertaken using the Differential Quadrature Method (DQM to obtain the pull in voltage which is verified by means of the Finite Element Method (FEM. Based on Galerkin approximation, a single degree of freedom dynamic model is developed and limit-cycle solutions are calculated using the Finite Difference Method (FDM. In addition to the harmonic waveform signal, we apply novel actuation waveform signals to simulate the frequency-response. We show that, biased signals, using a square wave signal reduces significantly the pull-in voltage compared to the triangular and harmonic signal . Finally, these results are validated experimentally.

  13. A capacitive level shifter for high voltage (2.5kV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2012-01-01

    with focus on low power consumption as well as low capacitive load between the floating half-bridge node and ground (output capacitance). The operation of the level-shifter is tested and verified by measurements on a prototype half-bridge gate driver. Results conclude stabile operation at 2.44kV, 50k...

  14. Capacitance-voltage characteristics of GaAs ion-implanted structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Privalov E. N.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A noniterative numerical method is proposed to calculate the barrier capacitance of GaAs ion-implanted structures as a function of the Schottky barrier bias. The features of the low- and high-frequency capacitance-voltage characteristics of these structures which are due to the presence of deep traps are elucidated.

  15. Faster Time Response by the Use of Wire Electrodes in Capacitive Salinity Gradient Energy Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burheim, O.S.; Liu, F.; Sales, B.B.; Schaetzle, O.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2012-01-01

    Capacitive energy extraction based on Donnan potential (CDP) and capacitive energy extraction based on double layer expansion (CDLE) are novel electroctrochemical processes to convert the potential free energy of mixing sea and river water into electric work. This is done by the use of

  16. Ultrahigh capacitance density for multiple ALD-grown MIM capacitor stacks in 3-D silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klootwijk, J.H.; Jinesh, K.B.; Dekkers, W.; Verhoeven, J.F.C.; Heuvel, van den F.C.; Kim, H.-D.; Blin, D.; Verheijen, M.A.; Weemaes, R.G.R.; Kaiser, M.; Ruigrok, J.J.M.; Roozeboom, F.

    2008-01-01

    "Trench" capacitors containing multiple metal-insulator-metal (MIM) layer stacks are realized by atomic-layer deposition (ALD), yielding an ultrahigh capacitance density of 440 nF/mm2 at a breakdown voltage VBD > 6 V. This capacitance density on silicon is at least 10 times higher than the values

  17. Bases génétiques et biochimiques de la capacité germinative des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    recherche et discute de la relation entre capacité germinative des graines et sécurité alimentaire. Mots clé: Semence, capacité germinative, facteurs biochimiques, gènes, systèmes semenciers, sécurité alimentaire. Abstract. Genetic and biochemical bases of seed germination capacity: implications for seed systems and.

  18. Whole-tree water transport scales with sapwood capacitance in tropical forest canopy trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.C. Meinzer; S.A. James; G. Goldstein; D. Woodruff

    2003-01-01

    The present study examines the manner in which several whole-tree water transport properties scale with species specific variation in sapwood water storage capacity. The hypothesis that constraints on relationships between sapwood capacitance and other water relations characteristics lead to predictable scaling relationships between intrinsic capacitance and whole-tree...

  19. A Generic Topology Derivation Method for Single-phase Converters with Active Capacitive DC-links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haoran; Wang, Huai; Zhu, Guorong

    2016-01-01

    capacitive DCDC- link solutions, but important aspects of the topology assess-ment, such as the total energy storage, overall capacitive energy buffer ratio, cost, and reliability are still not available. This paper proposes a generic topology derivation method of single-phase power converters...

  20. Conductive MOF electrodes for stable supercapacitors with high areal capacitance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheberla, Dennis; Bachman, John C; Elias, Joseph S; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Shao-Horn, Yang; Dincă, Mircea

    2017-02-01

    Owing to their high power density and superior cyclability relative to batteries, electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) have emerged as an important electrical energy storage technology that will play a critical role in the large-scale deployment of intermittent renewable energy sources, smart power grids, and electrical vehicles. Because the capacitance and charge-discharge rates of EDLCs scale with surface area and electrical conductivity, respectively, porous carbons such as activated carbon, carbon nanotubes and crosslinked or holey graphenes are used exclusively as the active electrode materials in EDLCs. One class of materials whose surface area far exceeds that of activated carbons, potentially allowing them to challenge the dominance of carbon electrodes in EDLCs, is metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The high porosity of MOFs, however, is conventionally coupled to very poor electrical conductivity, which has thus far prevented the use of these materials as active electrodes in EDLCs. Here, we show that Ni 3 (2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene) 2 (Ni 3 (HITP) 2 ), a MOF with high electrical conductivity, can serve as the sole electrode material in an EDLC. This is the first example of a supercapacitor made entirely from neat MOFs as active materials, without conductive additives or other binders. The MOF-based device shows an areal capacitance that exceeds those of most carbon-based materials and capacity retention greater than 90% over 10,000 cycles, in line with commercial devices. Given the established structural and compositional tunability of MOFs, these results herald the advent of a new generation of supercapacitors whose active electrode materials can be tuned rationally, at the molecular level.