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Sample records for membrane assisted batch

  1. Computer aided design, analysis and experimental investigation of membrane assisted batch reaction-separation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitkowski, Piotr Tomasz; Buchaly, Carsten; Kreis, Peter

    2009-01-01

    into account the performance of each constituent element and the optimisation of the design must take into consideration their interdependency. In this paper use of a membrane, to assist in the synthesis of propyl-propionate is investigated through the use of a hybrid process design framework, which consists...... of a process design/analysis stage, a process implementation stage and a process verification stage. For the hybrid process design/analysis stage, a model-based methodology has been developed and integrated with the necessary computer-aided methods/tools to identify the operational window of reaction...

  2. Optimal operation of batch membrane processes

    CERN Document Server

    Paulen, Radoslav

    2016-01-01

    This study concentrates on a general optimization of a particular class of membrane separation processes: those involving batch diafiltration. Existing practices are explained and operational improvements based on optimal control theory are suggested. The first part of the book introduces the theory of membrane processes, optimal control and dynamic optimization. Separation problems are defined and mathematical models of batch membrane processes derived. The control theory focuses on problems of dynamic optimization from a chemical-engineering point of view. Analytical and numerical methods that can be exploited to treat problems of optimal control for membrane processes are described. The second part of the text builds on this theoretical basis to establish solutions for membrane models of increasing complexity. Each chapter starts with a derivation of optimal operation and continues with case studies exemplifying various aspects of the control problems under consideration. The authors work their way from th...

  3. Combined Estimation and Optimal Control of Batch Membrane Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jelemenský

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with the model-based time-optimal operation of a batch diafiltration process in the presence of membrane fouling. Membrane fouling poses one of the major problems in the field of membrane processes. We model the fouling behavior and estimate its parameters using various methods. Least-squares, least-squares with a moving horizon, recursive least-squares methods and the extended Kalman filter are applied and discussed for the estimation of the fouling behavior on-line during the process run. Model-based optimal non-linear control coupled with parameter estimation is applied in a simulation case study to show the benefits of the proposed approach.

  4. Membrane Assisted Enzyme Fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Linfeng

    . In this thesis, separations using crossflow elecro-membrane filtration (EMF) of amino acids, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and industrial enzymes from Novozymes were performed. The main objective of this study was to investigate the technological feasibility of EMF in the application of industrial enzyme...... fractionation, such as removal of a side activity from the main enzyme activity. As a proof-of-concept, amino acids were used as model solution to test the feasibility of EMF in the application of amphoteric molecule separation. A single amino acid was used to illustrate the effect of an electric field...... on the separation performance were very small in the investigated range. The mass transport of each enzyme can be well explained by the Extended-Nernst-Planck equation. Better separation was observed at lower feed concentration, higher solution pH in the investigated range and with a polysulfone (PS) MF membrane...

  5. Total nitrogen removal in membrane sequencing batch bioreactor treating domestic wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago José Belli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the performance of a sequencing batch membrane bioreactor (SBMBR in wastewater treatment for total nitrogen removal. The reactor, which was built on a pilot scale with a volume of 30 L, was operated for 154 days and fed with synthetic wastewater. The SBMBR was operated under a sequencing batch regime with a total cycle time of 4 hours, which was broken down into 5 min. at the feeding stage, 55 min. of an anoxic phase and 180 min. of aeration and filtration. The permeation flux used was 5.55 L m-2 h-1. The membrane bioreactor presented very efficient biological wastewater treatment, with COD, ammoniacal nitrogen and total nitrogen removal efficiency of 99, 98 and 96%, respectively. The high total nitrogen removal observed indicates that the SBMBR was able to promote effective nitrification and denitrification, with a concentration below 10 mg L-1 of this parameter in the permeate.

  6. Improving lactic acid productivity from wheat straw hydrolysates by membrane integrated repeated batch fermentation under non-sterilized conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yuming; Chen, Xiangrong; Qi, Benkun

    2014-01-01

    to eliminate the sequential utilization of mixed sugar and feedback inhibition during batch fermentation, membrane integrated repeated batch fermentation (MIRB) was used to improve LA productivity. With MIRB, a high cell density was obtained and the simultaneous fermentation of glucose, xylose and arabinose...... was successfully realized. The separation of LA from broth by membrane in batch fermentation also decreased feedback inhibition. MIRB was carried out using wheat straw hydrolysates (29.72g/L glucose, 24.69g/L xylose and 5.14g/L arabinose) as carbon source, LA productivity was increased significantly from 1.01g...

  7. Concentrated microalgae cultivation in treated sewage by membrane photobioreactor operated in batch flow mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Li, Chen; Wang, Yu-jie; Jin, Wei-hong; Deng, Yi-bing

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the microalgae biomass production and nutrients removal efficiency from treated sewage by newly developed membrane photobioreactor in which Chlorella vulgaris was cultured in batch flow mode. Its performance was compared with conventional photobioreactor. The results show that the volumetric microalgae productivity was 39.93 and 10.36 mg L(-1)d(-1) in membrane photobioreactor and conventional photobioreactor, respectively. The nutrients removal rate in membrane photobioreactor was 4.13 mg N L(-1)d(-1) and 0.43 mg P L(-1)d(-1), which was obviously higher than that in conventional photobioreactor (0.59 mg N L(-1)d(-1) and 0.08 mg P L(-1)d(-1)). The better performance of membrane photobioreactor was due to the submerged membrane module in the reactor which acted as a solid-liquid separator and thereby enabled the reactor to operate with higher supply flow rate of cultivation medium. Moreover, in the outflow stage of the membrane photobioreactor, the microalgae culture liquor in the reactor could be further concentrated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of Forward Osmosis Membrane in a Sequential Batch Reactor for Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Qingyu

    2011-07-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is a novel membrane process that potentially can be used as an energy-saving alternative to conventional membrane processes. The objective of this study is to investigate the performance of a FO membrane to draw water from wastewater using seawater as draw solution. A study on a novel osmotic sequential batch reactor (OsSBR) was explored. In this system, a plate and frame FO cell including two flat-sheet FO membranes was submerged in a bioreactor treating the wastewater. We found it feasible to treat the wastewater by the OsSBR process. The DOC removal rate was 98.55%. Total nitrogen removal was 62.4% with nitrate, nitrite and ammonium removals of 58.4%, 96.2% and 88.4% respectively. Phosphate removal was almost 100%. In this OsSBR system, the 15-hour average flux for a virgin membrane with air scouring is 3.103 LMH. After operation of 3 months, the average flux of a fouled membrane is 2.390 LMH with air scouring (23% flux decline). Air scouring can help to remove the loose foulants on the active layer, thus helping to maintain the flux. Cleaning of the FO membrane fouled in the active layer was probably not effective under the conditions of immersing the membrane in the bioreactor. LC-OCD results show that the FO membrane has a very good performance in rejecting biopolymers, humics and building blocks, but a limited ability in rejecting low molecular weight neutrals.

  9. Cycle-time determination and process control of sequencing batch membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krampe, J

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a method to determine the cycle time for sequencing batch membrane bioreactors (SBMBRs) is introduced. One of the advantages of SBMBRs is the simplicity of adapting them to varying wastewater composition. The benefit of this flexibility can only be fully utilised if the cycle times are optimised for the specific inlet load conditions. This requires either proactive and ongoing operator adjustment or active predictive instrument-based control. Determination of the cycle times for conventional sequencing batch reactor (SBR) plants is usually based on experience. Due to the higher mixed liquor suspended solids concentrations in SBMBRs and the limited experience with their application, a new approach to calculate the cycle time had to be developed. Based on results from a semi-technical pilot plant, the paper presents an approach for calculating the cycle time in relation to the influent concentration according to the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 and the German HSG (Hochschulgruppe) Approach. The approach presented in this paper considers the increased solid contents in the reactor and the resultant shortened reaction times. This allows for an exact calculation of the nitrification and denitrification cycles with a tolerance of only a few minutes. Ultimately the same approach can be used for a predictive control strategy and for conventional SBR plants.

  10. Study on membrane reactors for biodiesel production by phase behaviors of canola oil methanolysis in batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Hua; Yen, Shih-Yang; Su, Li-Sheng; Chen, Junghui

    2010-09-01

    In comparison with the general stirring batch reactor, the membrane reactor has been reported to have higher molar ratios of methanol to oil but ultralow catalyst concentration in the biodiesel production. In this research, the methanolysis of canola oil is conducted in a stirring batch reactor in the presence of NaOH as a catalyst. Based on the investigation of the effects of operating conditions, including methanol to oil molar ration, catalyst concentrations and temperatures, the time course of the reaction path for the reactant composition in the ternary phase diagram of oil-FAME-MeOH offers an effective way to understand the operation of membrane reactors in the biodiesel production. The results show that increasing the residence time of the whole reactant system within the two-phase zone is good for the separation operation through the membranes. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative study between chemostat and batch reactors to quantify membrane permeability changes on bacteria exposed to silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anaya, Nelson M.; Faghihzadeh, Fatemeh [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 1 Lippitt Rd., Bliss Hall 203, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States); Ganji, Nasim; Bothun, Geoff [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 16 Greenhouse Rd., Crawford Hall, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States); Oyanedel-Craver, Vinka, E-mail: craver@uri.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 1 Lippitt Rd., Bliss Hall 203, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Continuous and batch reactors were used to assess the effect of the exposure of casein-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on Escherichia coli (E. coli). Additionally, E. coli membrane extracts, membrane permeability and Langmuir film balance assays were used to determine integrity and changes in lipid composition in response to AgNPs exposure. Results showed that batch conditions were not appropriate for the tests due to the production of exopolymeric substances (EPS) during the growth phase. After 5 h of contact between AgNPs and the used growth media containing EPS, the nanoparticles increased in size from 86 nm to 282 nm reducing the stability and thus limiting cell-nanoparticle interactions. AgNPs reduced E. coli growth by 20% at 1 mg/L, in terms of Optical Density 670 (OD670), while no effect was detected at 15 mg/L. At 50 mg/L of AgNPs was not possible to perform the test due to aggregation and sedimentation of the nanoparticles. Membrane extract assays showed that at 1 mg/L AgNPs had a greater change in area (− 4.4cm{sup 2}) on bacteria compared to 15 mg/L (− 4.0cm{sup 2}). This area increment suggested that membrane disruption caused by AgNPs had a stabilizing/rigidifying effect where the cells responded by shifting their lipid composition to more unsaturated lipids to counteract membrane rigidification. In chemostats, the constant inflow of fresh media and aeration resulted in less AgNPs aggregation, thus increased the AgNPs-bacteria interactions, in comparison to batch conditions. AgNPs at 1 mg/L, 15 mg/L, and 50 mg/L inhibited the growth (OD670 reduction) by 0%, 11% and 16.3%, respectively. Membrane extracts exposed to 1 mg/L, 15 mg/L, and 50 mg/L of AgNPs required greater changes in area by − 0.5 cm{sup 2}, 2.7 cm{sup 2} and 3.6 cm{sup 2}, respectively, indicating that the bacterial membranes were disrupted and bacteria responded by synthesizing lipids that stabilize or strengthen membranes. This study showed that the chemostat is more

  12. Flame assisted synthesis of catalytic ceramic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Johnny; Mosleh, Majid; Johannessen, Tue

    2004-01-01

    Membranes consisting of one or more metal oxides can be synthesized by flame pyrolysis. The general principle behind flame pyrolysis is the decomposition and oxidation of evaporated organo-metallic precursors in a flame, thereby forming metal oxide monomers. Because of the extreme supersaturation...... technology it is possible to make supported catalysts, composite metal oxides, catalytically active surfaces, and porous ceramic membranes. Membrane layers can be formed by using a porous substrate tube (or surface) as a nano-particle filter. The aerosol gas from the flame is led through a porous substrate......, membranes with pore sizes below 5 nm have been produced by this continuous filtration of nano-particles. In this way, top-layers with Knudsen separation have been achieved by a reduction of the pore size of three orders of magnitude within an hour. It has previously been shown that it also is possible...

  13. Batch pervaporative fermentation with coupled membrane and its influence on energy consumption in permeate recovery and distillation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, Juan A.; Palacios-Bereche, Reynaldo; Nebra, Silvia A.

    2016-01-01

    In the ethanol production process from sugarcane molasses, the distillation process is a high-energy demand stage. The distillation energy efficiency is strongly associated with the alcoholic fermentation performance in the process. The final ethanol concentration in the alcoholic wines has a direct impact on consumption of thermal energy in ethanol separation. In this paper, ethanol production with a H-SBMF (Hybrid-Simple Batch Membrane Fermenter) using PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) pervaporation membrane was modelled and simulated, in order to determine its influence on energy consumption in distillation. Steam in distillation and electrical energy needs in permeate recovery were mainly influenced by membrane adaptation. The H-SBMF achieved a higher ethanol production in the range of 10–13% compared to the conventional batch fermenter, and an increase in productivity of 150%. The distillation system consisted of two sets of columns: the ethanol recovery column and the rectification column. The permeate recovery system (i.e. vacuum and compression) was regarded in order to evaluate the electrical energy requirement, and the thermal energy demand was evaluated. A decrease in steam consumption was evidenced by the adaptation of the membrane to the fermenter. Higher energy efficiencies were achieved in distillation with larger membrane areas, achieving almost 17% steam reduction. - Highlights: • Higher and faster ethanol productions were achieved by fermenter hybridization. • Multi-stage permeate compression and inter-stage heat recovery were assumed. • Energy demand was studied based on an integrated fermentation and distillation scheme. • High-energy efficiency was attained in the distillation to produce hydrated alcohol.

  14. Effect of Membrane Type for the Treatment of Organized Industrial Zone (OIZ) Wastewater with a Membrane Bioreactor (MBR): Batch Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Oktay Özkan; İbrahim Uyanık

    2017-01-01

    Organized industrial zone (OIZ) wastewater is a mixed wastewater that is contributed by both municipal use and from different industrial sectors. Since MBR has advantages over conventional treatment plants, membrane types and fouling become the most important parameters in the treatment of this kind of wastewater. In this study, six different membrane types were used to find the most suitable membrane with the least resistivity to fouling. Three different microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltrat...

  15. Acoustically assisted diffusion through membranes and biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floros, J.D.; Liang, H.

    1994-01-01

    Part of a special section on the symposium ''Ultrasonic Applications in the Food Industry.'' The use of high-intensity ultrasound in food processing is reviewed. Acoustic radiation, or sound, can be used to monitor various operations or products or to alter a process or product; however, the direct use of sound to improve food processes is not very popular. High-intensity acoustic radiation induces various changes as it passes through a medium, largely as a result of heating, cavitation, agitation and shear stresses, compression and rarefaction, and turbulence. The diffusion of sound through a medium is influenced by factors such as the temperature, acoustic intensity, acoustic frequency, direction of the acoustic wave, pulsation of the acoustic wave, and properties of the medium. Some potential applications of acoustic energy in food processes are increased drying efficiency, acceleration of diffusion through polymeric and biological membranes, and enhanced diffusion through porous materials

  16. Membrane-Assisted Growth of DNA Origami Nanostructure Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Biological membranes fulfill many important tasks within living organisms. In addition to separating cellular volumes, membranes confine the space available to membrane-associated proteins to two dimensions (2D), which greatly increases their probability to interact with each other and assemble into multiprotein complexes. We here employed two DNA origami structures functionalized with cholesterol moieties as membrane anchors—a three-layered rectangular block and a Y-shaped DNA structure—to mimic membrane-assisted assembly into hierarchical superstructures on supported lipid bilayers and small unilamellar vesicles. As designed, the DNA constructs adhered to the lipid bilayers mediated by the cholesterol anchors and diffused freely in 2D with diffusion coefficients depending on their size and number of cholesterol modifications. Different sets of multimerization oligonucleotides added to bilayer-bound origami block structures induced the growth of either linear polymers or two-dimensional lattices on the membrane. Y-shaped DNA origami structures associated into triskelion homotrimers and further assembled into weakly ordered arrays of hexagons and pentagons, which resembled the geometry of clathrin-coated pits. Our results demonstrate the potential to realize artificial self-assembling systems that mimic the hierarchical formation of polyhedral lattices on cytoplasmic membranes. PMID:25734977

  17. Performance of a sequencing-batch membrane bioreactor (SMBR) with an automatic control strategy treating high-strength swine wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Qianwen; Jiang, Chao; Yu, Dawei; Chen, Meixue; Zhang, Junya; Wang, Yawei; Wei, Yuansong

    2018-01-15

    Due to high-strength of organic matters, nutrients and pathogen, swine wastewater is a major source of pollution to rural environment and surface water. A sequencing-batch membrane bioreactor (SMBR) system with an automatic control strategy was developed for high-strength swine wastewater treatment. Short-cut nitrification and denitrification (SND) was achieved at nitrite accumulation rate of 83.6%, with removal rates of COD, NH 4 + -N and TN at 95%, 99% and 93%, respectively, at reduced HRT of 6.0 d and TN loading rate of 0.02kgN/(kgVSS d). With effective membrane separation, the reduction of total bacteria (TB) and putative pathogen were 2.77 logs and 1%, respectively. The shift of microbial community was well responded to controlling parameters. During the SND process, ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) (Nitrosomonas, Nitrosospira) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) (Nitrospira) were enriched by 52 times and reduced by 2 times, respectively. The denitrifiers (Thauera) were well enriched and the diversity was enhanced. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Effects of COD/N ratio on soluble microbial products in effluent from sequencing batch reactors and subsequent membrane fouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Quang Viet; Nghiem, Long D; Sibag, Mark; Maqbool, Tahir; Hur, Jin

    2018-05-01

    The relative ratios of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to nitrogen (N) in wastewater are known to have profound effects on the characteristics of soluble microbial products (SMP) from activated sludge. In this study, the changes in the SMP characteristics upon different COD/N ratios and the subsequent effects on ultrafiltration (UF) membrane fouling potentials were examined in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) using excitation emission matrix-parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Three unique fluorescent components were identified from the SMP samples in the bioreactors operated at the COD/N ratios of 100/10 (N rich), 100/5 (N medium), and 100/2 (N deficient). The tryptophan-like component (C1) was the most depleted at the N medium condition. Fulvic-like (C2) and humic-like (C3) components were more abundant with N rich wastewater. Greater abundances of large size biopolymer (BP) and low molecular weight neutrals (LMWN) were found under the N deficient and N rich conditions, respectively. SMPs from various COD/N exhibited a greater degree on membrane fouling following the order of 100/2 > 100/10 > 100/5. C1 and C2 had close associations with reversible and irreversible fouling, respectively, while the reversible fouling potential of C3 depended on the COD/N ratios. No significant impact of COD/N ratio was observed on the relative contributions of SMP size fractions to either reversible or irreversible fouling potential. However, the COD/N ratios likely altered the BP foulants' composition with greater contribution of proteinaceous substances to reversible fouling under the N deficient condition than at other N richer conditions. The opposite trend was observed for irreversible fouling. Our results provided further insight into changes in different SMP constitutes and their membrane fouling in response to microbial activities under different COD/N ratios. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Blending Novatein¯ thermoplastic protein with PLA for carbon dioxide assisted batch foaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walallavita, Anuradha; Verbeek, Casparus J. R.; Lay, Mark

    2016-03-01

    The convenience of polymeric foams has led to their widespread utilisation in everyday life. However, disposal of synthetic petroleum-derived foams has had a detrimental effect on the environment which needs to be addressed. This study uses a clean and sustainable approach to investigate the foaming capability of a blend of two biodegradable polymers, polylactic acid (PLA) and Novatein® Thermoplastic Protein (NTP). PLA, derived from corn starch, can successfully be foamed using a batch technique developed by the Biopolymer Network Ltd. NTP is a patented formulation of bloodmeal and chemical additives which can be extruded and injection moulded similar to other thermoplastics. However, foaming NTP is a new area of study and its interaction with blowing agents in the batch process is entirely unknown. Subcritical and supercritical carbon dioxide have been examined individually in two uniquely designed pressure vessels to foam various compositions of NTP-PLA blends. Foamed material were characterised in terms of expansion ratio, cell size, and cellular morphology in order to study how the composition of NTP-PLA affects foaming with carbon dioxide. It was found that blends with 5 wt. % NTP foamed using subcritical CO2 expanded up to 11 times due to heterogeneous nucleation. Morphology analysis using scanning electron microscopy showed that foams blown with supercritical CO2 had a finer cell structure with consistent cell size, whereas, foams blown with subcritical CO2 ranged in cell size and showed cell wall rupture. Ultimately, this research would contribute to the production of a biodegradable foam material to be used in packaging applications, thereby adding to the application potential of NTP.

  20. Blending Novatein{sup ®} thermoplastic protein with PLA for carbon dioxide assisted batch foaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walallavita, Anuradha, E-mail: asw15@students.waikato.ac.nz; Verbeek, Casparus J. R., E-mail: jverbeek@waikato.ac.nz; Lay, Mark, E-mail: mclay@waikato.ac.nz [University of Waikato, Hamilton 3240 (New Zealand)

    2016-03-09

    The convenience of polymeric foams has led to their widespread utilisation in everyday life. However, disposal of synthetic petroleum-derived foams has had a detrimental effect on the environment which needs to be addressed. This study uses a clean and sustainable approach to investigate the foaming capability of a blend of two biodegradable polymers, polylactic acid (PLA) and Novatein® Thermoplastic Protein (NTP). PLA, derived from corn starch, can successfully be foamed using a batch technique developed by the Biopolymer Network Ltd. NTP is a patented formulation of bloodmeal and chemical additives which can be extruded and injection moulded similar to other thermoplastics. However, foaming NTP is a new area of study and its interaction with blowing agents in the batch process is entirely unknown. Subcritical and supercritical carbon dioxide have been examined individually in two uniquely designed pressure vessels to foam various compositions of NTP-PLA blends. Foamed material were characterised in terms of expansion ratio, cell size, and cellular morphology in order to study how the composition of NTP-PLA affects foaming with carbon dioxide. It was found that blends with 5 wt. % NTP foamed using subcritical CO{sub 2} expanded up to 11 times due to heterogeneous nucleation. Morphology analysis using scanning electron microscopy showed that foams blown with supercritical CO{sub 2} had a finer cell structure with consistent cell size, whereas, foams blown with subcritical CO{sub 2} ranged in cell size and showed cell wall rupture. Ultimately, this research would contribute to the production of a biodegradable foam material to be used in packaging applications, thereby adding to the application potential of NTP.

  1. A developed wedge fixtures assisted high precision TEM samples pre-thinning method: Towards the batch lamella preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ion milling, wedge cutting or polishing, and focused ion beam (FIB milling are widely-used techniques for the transmission electron microscope (TEM sample preparation. Especially, the FIB milling provides a site-specific analysis, deposition, and ablation of materials in the micrometer and nanometer scale. However, the cost of FIB tools has been always a significant concern. Since it is inevitable to use the FIB technique, the improvement of efficiency is a key point. Traditional TEM sample preparation with FIB was routinely implemented on a single sample each time. Aiming at cost efficiency, a new pre-thinning technique for batch sample preparation was developed in this paper. The present proposal combines the sample preparation techniques with multi-samples thinning, cross-section scanning electron microscopy (SEM, wedge cutting, FIB and other sample pre-thinning techniques. The new pre-thinning technique is to prepare an edge TEM sample on a grinding and polishing fixture with a slant surface. The thickness of the wedges sample can be measured to 1∼2 μm under optical microscope. Therefore, this fixture is superior to the traditional optical method of estimating the membrane thickness. Moreover, by utilizing a multi-sample holding fixture, more samples can be pre-thinned simultaneously, which significantly improved the productivity of TEM sample preparation.

  2. Batch and Continuous Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Boldo Leaves (Peumus boldus Mol.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petigny, Loïc; Périno-Issartier, Sandrine; Wajsman, Joël; Chemat, Farid

    2013-01-01

    Vegetal extracts are widely used as primary ingredients for various products from creams to perfumes in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutic and cosmetic industries. Having concentrated and active extract is essential, as the process must extract as much soluble material as possible in a minimum time, using the least possible volume of solvent. The boldo leaves extract is of great interest for the industry as it holds a great anti-oxidant activity due to high levels of flavonoids and alkaloids such as boldine. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) has been used to improve the efficiency of the plant extraction, reducing extraction time, increasing the concentration of the extract with the same amount of solvent and plant material. After a preliminary study, a response surface method has been used to optimize the extraction of soluble material from the plant. The results provided by the statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were: sonication power 23 W/cm2 for 40 min and a temperature of 36 °C. The optimized parameters of the UAE provide a better extraction compared to a conventional maceration in terms of process time (30 min instead of 120 min), higher yield, more energy saving, cleanliness, safety and product quality. PMID:23481637

  3. Batch and Continuous Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Boldo Leaves (Peumus boldus Mol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Wajsman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vegetal extracts are widely used as primary ingredients for various products from creams to perfumes in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutic and cosmetic industries. Having concentrated and active extract is essential, as the process must extract as much soluble material as possible in a minimum time, using the least possible volume of solvent. The boldo leaves extract is of great interest for the industry as it holds a great anti-oxidant activity due to high levels of flavonoids and alkaloids such as boldine. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE has been used to improve the efficiency of the plant extraction, reducing extraction time, increasing the concentration of the extract with the same amount of solvent and plant material. After a preliminary study, a response surface method has been used to optimize the extraction of soluble material from the plant. The results provided by the statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were: sonication power 23 W/cm2 for 40 min and a temperature of 36 °C. The optimized parameters of the UAE provide a better extraction compared to a conventional maceration in terms of process time (30 min instead of 120 min, higher yield, more energy saving, cleanliness, safety and product quality.

  4. Performance and microbial community dynamics of electricity-assisted sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for treatment of saline petrochemical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaxin; Shi, Shengnan; Ji, Xiangyu; Jiang, Bei; Xue, Lanlan; Li, Meidi; Tan, Liang

    2017-07-01

    High-salinity wastewater is often difficult to treat by common biological technologies due to salinity stress on the bacterial community. Electricity-assisted anaerobic technologies have significantly enhanced the treatment performance by alleviating the impact of salinity stress on the bacterial community, but electricity-assisted aerobic technologies have less been reported. Herein, a novel bio-electrochemistry system has been designed and operated in which a pair of stainless iron mesh-graphite plate electrodes were installed into a sequencing batch reactor (SBR, designated as S1) to strengthen the performance of saline petrochemical wastewater under aerobic conditions. The removal efficiency of phenol and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in S1 were 94.1 and 91.2%, respectively, on day 45, which was clearly higher than the removal efficiency of a single SBR (S2) and an electrochemical reactor (S3), indicating that a coupling effect existed between the electrochemical process and biodegradation. A certain amount of salinity (≤8000 mg/L) could enhance the treatment performance in S1 but weaken that in S2. Illumina sequencing revealed that microbial communities in S1 on days 45 and 91 were richer and more diverse than in S2, which suggests that electrical stimulation could enhance the diversity and richness of the microbial community, and reduce the negative effect of salinity on the microorganisms and enrich some salt-adapted microorganisms, thus improve the ability of S1 to respond to salinity stress. This novel bio-electrochemistry system was shown to be an alternative technology for the high saline petrochemical wastewater.

  5. Bias-assisted KOH etching of macroporous silicon membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathwig, K; Geilhufe, M; Müller, F; Gösele, U

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an improved technique to fabricate porous membranes from macroporous silicon as a starting material. A crucial step in the fabrication process is the dissolution of silicon from the backside of the porous wafer by aqueous potassium hydroxide to open up the pores. We improved this step by biasing the silicon wafer electrically against the KOH. By monitoring the current–time characteristics a good control of the process is achieved and the yield is improved. Also, the etching can be stopped instantaneously and automatically by short-circuiting Si and KOH. Moreover, the bias-assisted etching allows for the controlled fabrication of silicon dioxide tube arrays when the silicon pore walls are oxidized and inverted pores are released.

  6. COMBUSTION-ASSISTED CO2 CAPTURE USING MECC MEMBRANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, K.; Gray, J.

    2012-03-30

    Mixed Electron and Carbonate ion Conductor (MECC) membranes have been proposed as a means to separate CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas. Here a modified MECC CO{sub 2} capture process is analyzed that supplements retentate pressurization and permeate evacuation as a means to create a CO{sub 2} driving force with a process assisted by the catalytic combustion of syngas on the permeate side of the membrane. The combustion reactions consume transported oxygen, making it unavailable for the backwards transport reaction. With this change, the MECC capture system becomes exothermic, and steam for electricity production may be generated from the waste heat. Greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} in the flue gas may be captured, and a compressed CO{sub 2} product stream is produced. A fossil-fueled power plant using this process would consume 14% more fuel per unit electricity produced than a power plant with no CO{sub 2} capture system, and has the potential to meet U.S. DOE's goal that deployment of a CO{sub 2} capture system at a fossil-fueled power plant should not increase the cost of electricity from the combined facility by more than 30%.

  7. Solar assisted liquid desiccant cooling using clay based membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya S. Shanmuga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental concerns have led to the urge of the usage of non-conventional energy resources like solar, wind, thermal, geothermal etc. which provide enormous source of energy without causing any further diminution of the environment. Instead of the conventional HVAC systems that cause colossal environmental perils, usage of liquid desiccants in coming in vogue whereby reducing ecological threats. Moreover, solar assisted systems provide further impulse to such systems. This paper discusses about the various comparisons between liquid desiccants: Lithium chloride, Potassium formate and Calcium chloride and concludes that potassium formate is the best desiccant to be used among the three. Potassium formate (HCOOK is used which is cheaper and less corrosive as compared to the other aqueous salts, and has a negative crystallization temperature. Potassium formate is a new liquid desiccant and thus, not much research is available currently. The weather conditions of Manipal provide an appropriate condition for the experimentations of solar aided liquid desiccant evaporative cooling systems due to its humid climate and intense solar radiation obtained. The small scale experimentation also encounters the problem of liquid desiccant carryover by the air flow, with the help of clay based membranes which are again cheap, environmentally benign and obtained in a facile way. The projected system takes complete advantage of pure solar energy aimed at the regeneration of liquid desiccant.

  8. Right ventricular assist device with membrane oxygenator support for right ventricular failure following implantable left ventricular assist device placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidenfrost, Jeremy; Prasad, Sunil; Itoh, Akinobu; Lawrance, Christopher P; Bell, Jennifer M; Silvestry, Scott C

    2016-01-01

    Cardiogenic shock from refractory right ventricular (RV) failure during left ventricular assist device placement is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The addition of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to RV mechanical assistance may help RV recovery and lead to improved outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed all implanted continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices from April 2009 to June 2013. RV mechanical support was utilized for RV failure defined as haemodynamic instability despite vasopressors, pulmonary vascular dilators and inotropic therapy. RV assist devices were utilized with and without in-line membrane oxygenation. During the study period, 267 continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices were implanted. RV mechanical support was utilized in 27 (10%) patients; 12 (46%) had the addition of in-line extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The mean age of patients with a right ventricular assist device with membrane oxygenation was lower than that in patients with a right ventricular assist device alone (45.6 ± 15.9 vs 64.6 ± 6.5, P = 0.001). Support was weaned in 66% (10 of 15) of patients with right ventricular assist device (RVAD) alone vs 83% (10 of 12) of those with RVAD with membrane oxygenation (P = 0.42). The RVAD was removed after 10.4 ± 9.4 vs 5 ± 2.99 days for patients with a RVAD with membrane oxygenation (P = 0.1). Patients with RVAD with membrane oxygenation had a 30-day mortality rate of 8 vs 47% for those with RVAD alone (P = 0.04). The survival rate after discharge was 86, 63 and 54% at 3, 6 and 12 months for both groups combined. Patients with a RVAD with membrane oxygenation support for acute RV failure after continuous-flow left ventricular assist device implantation had a lower 30-day mortality than those with a RVAD alone. Patients who survive to discharge have a reasonable 1-year survival. Combining membrane oxygenation with RVAD support appears to offer a short-term survival benefit in patients with RV failure

  9. Membrane assisted fluidized bed reactors: Potentials and hurdles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshmukh, S.A.R.K.; Heinrich, S.; Mörl, L.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in the development of more stable membranes with increased permeance have significantly enhanced the possibilities for integrating membranes into catalytic reactors in order to achieve a major increase in reactor performance by process integration and process intensification. Several

  10. Printing-assisted surface modifications of patterned ultrafiltration membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardrip, Nathaniel C.; Dsouza, Melissa; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem; Snyder, Seth W.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and restricting microbial surface attachment will enhance wastewater treatment with membranes. We report a maskless lithographic patterning technique for the generation of patterned polymer coatings on ultrafiltration membranes. Polyethylene glycol, zwitterionic, or negatively charged hydrophilic polymer compositions in parallel- or perpendicular-striped patterns with respect to feed flow were evaluated using wastewater. Membrane fouling was dependent on the orientation and chemical composition of the coatings. Modifications reduced alpha diversity in the attached microbial community (Shannon indices decreased from 2.63 to 1.89) which nevertheless increased with filtration time. Sphingomonas species, which condition membrane surfaces and facilitate cellular adhesion, were depleted in all modified membranes. Microbial community structure was significantly different between control, different patterns, and different chemistries. Lastly, this study broadens the tools for surface modification of membranes with polymer coatings and for understanding and optimization of antifouling surfaces.

  11. Removal of VOCs from groundwater using membrane-assisted solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutter, J.C.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Nunez, L.; Redfield, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    A membrane-assisted solvent extraction (MASX) system coupled to a membrane-assisted distillation stripping (MADS) system for use in decontaminating groundwater is discussed. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are extracted in the MASX using a sunflower oil solvent. In the MADS, VOCs are stripped from the sunflower oil, and the oil is recycled to the MASX. Thermodynamic data for the sunflower oil-water-VOCs system were experimentally collected. Published membrane-mass transfer results along with these data were used to design the MASX and MADS modules

  12. Removal of VOCs from groundwater using membrane-assisted solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, J.C.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Nunez, L.; Redfield, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    A membrane-assisted solvent extraction (MASX) system coupled to a membrane-assisted distillation stripping (MADS) system for use in decontaminating groundwater is discussed. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are extracted in the MASX using a sunflower oil solvent. In the MADS, VOCs are stripped from the sunflower oil, and the oil is recycled to the MASX. Thermodynamic data for the sunflower oil-water-VOCs system were experimentally collected. Published membrane-mass transfer results along with these data were used to design the MASX and MADS modules.

  13. Removal of VOCs from groundwater using membrane-assisted solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, J.C.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Nunez, L.; Redfield, D.H.

    1992-11-01

    A membrane-assisted solvent extraction (MASX) system coupled to a membrane-assisted distillation stripping (MADS) system for use in decontaminating groundwater is discussed. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are extracted in the MASX using a sunflower oil solvent. In the MADS, VOCs are stripped from the sunflower oil, and the oil is recycled to the MASX. Thermodynamic data for the sunflower oil-water-VOCs system were experimentally collected. Published membrane-mass transfer results along with these data were used to design the MASX and MADS modules.

  14. Effect of polysulfone concentration on the performance of membrane-assisted lead acid battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fauzi Ismail

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of lead acid battery in tropical countries normally faces the problem of water decomposition. This phenomenon is due to the factor of charge-discharge reaction in the battery and heat accumulation caused by hot tropical climate and heat generated from engine compartment. The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of polysulfone concentration on the performance of membrane-assisted lead-acid battery. Gas separation membranes, prepared through wet-dry phase inversion method and using various polysulfone concentrated formulations, were applied on the battery vent holes, for the purpose of preventing electrolyte from evaporating to the atmosphere. The best membrane, which retains the most electrolyte, will be chosen to be applied on the soon-to-be-developed “membrane-assisted maintenance- free battery”. This maintenance-free battery will need no topping up of deionized water every time the electrolyte level goes low.

  15. Membrane contactor assisted extraction/reaction process employing ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yupo J [Naperville, IL; Snyder, Seth W [Lincolnwood, IL

    2012-02-07

    The present invention relates to a functionalized membrane contactor extraction/reaction system and method for extracting target species from multi-phase solutions utilizing ionic liquids. One preferred embodiment of the invented method and system relates to an extraction/reaction system wherein the ionic liquid extraction solutions act as both extraction solutions and reaction mediums, and allow simultaneous separation/reactions not possible with prior art technology.

  16. Autohydrolysis pretreatment of Arundo donax: a comparison between microwave-assisted batch and fast heating rate flow-through reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galia, Alessandro; Schiavo, Benedetto; Antonetti, Claudia; Galletti, Anna Maria Raspolli; Interrante, Leonardo; Lessi, Marco; Scialdone, Onofrio; Valenti, Maria Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Autohydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass in liquid hot water has been widely studied owing to its high efficiency and relatively low cost. In the perspective of industrial applications, continuous or semi-continuous processes are more interesting than batch systems. Moreover, microwave heating of pretreatment systems has been proposed to intensify the kinetics of the process. In this study, the autohydrolysis of Arundo donax was performed in pure liquid hot water using a microwave-heated batch reactor and a semi-continuous flow-through reaction system with fast heating rate at the same operating conditions with the aim of performing a systematic comparison between the two different experimental apparatuses. The effect of process temperature and time, biomass to water mass to volume ratio and water flow rate on the concentration and yield of hydrolysis products was investigated. The flow-through set-up allowed us to reach biomass solubilization up to 44.5 wt% on dry basis, while the batch system stopped at 34.5 wt% suggesting that the mass transfer could be the rate-determining step in the solubilization of the constituting biopolymers. For example, in the flow-through layout, using a flow rate of 3.5 mL/min at 200 °C with 20 min of processing time, quantitative recovery of hemicellulose was obtained with limited formation of degradation products. Interestingly, higher cellulose/hemicellulose extraction ratios were found using the microwave-assisted batch reactor. FTIR analyses of the solid residues recovered after the pretreatment offered independent information on the fractions of liquefied biopolymers complementary to those derived from HPLC and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Collected experimental results indicated that the flow-through system can be adopted to obtain complete solubilization of the hemicellulose fraction of Arundo donax addressing the product distribution in soluble compounds towards fermentable sugars with limited formation of sugar degradation

  17. Membrane contactor assisted water extraction system for separating hydrogen peroxide from a working solution, and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Seth W [Lincolnwood, IL; Lin, Yupo J [Naperville, IL; Hestekin', Jamie A [Fayetteville, AR; Henry, Michael P [Batavia, IL; Pujado, Peter [Kildeer, IL; Oroskar, Anil [Oak Brook, IL; Kulprathipanja, Santi [Inverness, IL; Randhava, Sarabjit [Evanston, IL

    2010-09-21

    The present invention relates to a membrane contactor assisted extraction system and method for extracting a single phase species from multi-phase working solutions. More specifically one preferred embodiment of the invention relates to a method and system for membrane contactor assisted water (MCAWE) extraction of hydrogen peroxide (H.sub.2O.sub.2) from a working solution.

  18. Fed-batch cultivation of the marine bacterium Sulfitobacter pontiacus using immobilized substrate and purification of sulfite oxidase by application of membrane adsorber technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffler, Kai; Ulber, Roland

    2008-03-01

    Sulfitobacter pontiacus, a gram-negative heterotrophic bacterium isolated from the Black Sea is well known to produce a soluble AMP-independent sulfite oxidase (sulfite: acceptor oxidoreductase) of high activity. Such an enzyme can be of great help in establishing biosensor systems for detection of sulfite in food and beverages considering the high sensitivity of biosensors and the increasing demand for such biosensor devices. For obtaining efficient amounts of the enzyme, an induction of its biosynthesis by supplementing sufficient concentrations of sodium sulfite to the fermentation broth is required. Owing to the fact that a high initial concentration of sodium sulfite decreases dramatically the enzyme expression, different fed-batch strategies can be applied to circumvent such inhibition or repression of the enzyme respectively. By the use of sulfite species immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol gels, an approach to the controlled and continuous feeding of sulfite to the cultivation media could be established to diminish inhibitory concentrations. Furthermore, the purification of the enzyme is described by using membrane adsorber technology. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Prolonged extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-assisted support provides improved survival in hypothermic patients with cardiocirculatory arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttmann, Elfriede; Weissenbacher, Annemarie; Ulmer, Hanno; Müller, Ludwig; Höfer, Daniel; Kilo, Juliane; Rabl, Walter; Schwarz, Birgit; Laufer, Günther; Antretter, Herwig; Mair, Peter

    2007-09-01

    Extracorporeal circulation is considered the gold standard in the treatment of hypothermic cardiocirculatory arrest; however, few centers use extracorporeal membrane oxygenation instead of standard extracorporeal circulation for this indication. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-assisted resuscitation improves survival in patients with hypothermic cardiac arrest. A consecutive series of 59 patients with accidental hypothermia in cardiocirculatory arrest between 1987 and 2006 were included. Thirty-four patients (57.6%) were resuscitated by standard extracorporeal circulation, and 25 patients (42.4%) were resuscitated by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Accidental hypothermia was caused by avalanche in 22 patients (37.3%), drowning in 22 patients (37.3%), exposure to cold in 8 patients (13.5%), and falling into a crevasse in 7 patients (11.9%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to compare extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with extracorporeal circulation resuscitation, with adjustment for relevant parameters. Restoration of spontaneous circulation was achieved in 32 patients (54.2%). A total of 12 patients (20.3%) survived hypothermia. In the extracorporeal circulation group, 64% of the nonsurviving patients who underwent restoration of spontaneous circulation died of severe pulmonary edema, but none died in the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation group. In multivariate analysis, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-assisted resuscitation showed a 6.6-fold higher chance for survival (relative risk: 6.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.2-49.3, P = .042). Asphyxia-related hypothermia (avalanche or drowning) was the most predictive adverse factor for survival (relative risk: 0.09, 95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.60, P = .013). Potassium and pH failed to show statistical significance in the multivariate analysis. Extracorporeal rewarming with an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation system allows prolonged

  20. Toward Robotically Assisted Membrane Peeling with 3-DOF Distal Force Sensing in Retinal Microsurgery*

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingchi; Gehlbach, Peter; Handa, James; Taylor, Russell; Iordachita, Iulian

    2014-01-01

    Retinal microsurgery requires steady and precise manipulation of delicate eye tissues in a very small space. Physiological hand tremor and lack of force sensing are among the main technical challenges, limiting surgical performance. We present a system that consists of the cooperatively controlled Steady-Hand Eye Robot and a miniaturized 3-DOF force sensing instrument to address these limitations. While the robot can effectively suppress hand tremor, enable steady and precise tissue manipulation, the force sensing instrument can provide three dimensional force measurements at the tool tip with submillinewton resolution. Auditory sensory substitution is used to give the user real time force information. Evaluation experiments are conducted using artificial and biological membrane peeling phantoms. Experimental results show that the robotic assistance and force-to-audio sensory substitution can effectively control the magnitude of the tool-to-tissue force. The direction profiles of the membrane peeling forces reflect the different delaminating strategies for different membrane phantoms. PMID:25571572

  1. Integration of ceramic membrane and compressed air-assisted solvent extraction (CASX) for metal recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chi-Wang; Chiu, Chun-Hao; Lee, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Chia-Hao; Lee, Yu-Hsun; Chen, Yi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In our previous publications, compressed air-assisted solvent extraction process (CASX) was developed and proved to be kinetically efficient process for metal removal. In the current study, CASX with a ceramic MF membrane integrated for separation of spent solvent was employed to remove and recover metal from wastewater. MF was operated either in crossflow mode or dead-end with intermittent flushing mode. Under crossflow mode, three distinct stages of flux vs. TMP (trans-membrane pressure) relationship were observed. In the first stage, flux increases with increasing TMP which is followed by the stage of stable flux with increasing TMP. After reaching a threshold TMP which is dependent of crossflow velocity, flux increases again with increasing TMP. At the last stage, solvent was pushed through membrane pores as indicated by increasing permeate COD. In dead-end with intermittent flushing mode, an intermittent flushing flow (2 min after a 10-min or a 30-min dead-end filtration) was incorporated to reduce membrane fouling by flush out MSAB accumulated on membrane surface. Effects of solvent concentration and composition were also investigated. Solvent concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1% (w/w) have no adverse effect in terms of membrane fouling. However, solvent composition, i.e. D(2)EHPA/kerosene ratio, shows impact on membrane fouling. The type of metal extractants employed in CASX has significant impact on both membrane fouling and the quality of filtrate due to the differences in their viscosity and water solubility. Separation of MSAB was the limiting process controlling metal removal efficiency, and the removal efficiency of Cd(II) and Cr(VI) followed the same trend as that for COD.

  2. Dewetting transition assisted clearance of (NFGAILS) amyloid fibrils from cell membranes by graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiajia; Yang, Zaixing; Gu, Zonglin; Li, Haotian; Garate, Jose Antonio; Zhou, Ruhong

    2014-01-01

    Clearance of partially ordered oligomers and monomers deposited on cell membrane surfaces is believed to be an effective route to alleviate many potential protein conformational diseases (PCDs). With large-scale all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, here we show that graphene nanosheets can easily and quickly win a competitive adsorption of human islet amyloid polypeptides (hIAPP 22-28 ) NFGAILS and associated fibrils against cell membrane, due to graphene's unique two-dimensional, highly hydrophobic surface with its all-sp 2 hybrid structure. A nanoscale dewetting transition was observed at the interfacial region between the fibril (originally deposited on the membrane) and the graphene nanosheet, which significantly assisted the adsorption of fibrils onto graphene from the membrane. The π–π stacking interaction between Phe23 and graphene played a crucial role, providing the driving force for the adsorption at the graphene surface. This study renders new insight towards the importance of water during the interactions between amyloid peptides, the phospholipidic membrane, and graphene, which might shed some light on future developments of graphene-based nanomedicine for preventing/curing PCDs like type II diabetes mellitus

  3. Dewetting transition assisted clearance of (NFGAILS) amyloid fibrils from cell membranes by graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiajia; Yang, Zaixing; Gu, Zonglin [Institute of Quantitative Biology and Medicine, SRMP and RAD-X, Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, and Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Li, Haotian [Bio-X Lab, Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Garate, Jose Antonio [IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Zhou, Ruhong, E-mail: ruhongz@us.ibm.com [Institute of Quantitative Biology and Medicine, SRMP and RAD-X, Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, and Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2014-12-14

    Clearance of partially ordered oligomers and monomers deposited on cell membrane surfaces is believed to be an effective route to alleviate many potential protein conformational diseases (PCDs). With large-scale all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, here we show that graphene nanosheets can easily and quickly win a competitive adsorption of human islet amyloid polypeptides (hIAPP{sub 22-28}) NFGAILS and associated fibrils against cell membrane, due to graphene's unique two-dimensional, highly hydrophobic surface with its all-sp{sup 2} hybrid structure. A nanoscale dewetting transition was observed at the interfacial region between the fibril (originally deposited on the membrane) and the graphene nanosheet, which significantly assisted the adsorption of fibrils onto graphene from the membrane. The π–π stacking interaction between Phe23 and graphene played a crucial role, providing the driving force for the adsorption at the graphene surface. This study renders new insight towards the importance of water during the interactions between amyloid peptides, the phospholipidic membrane, and graphene, which might shed some light on future developments of graphene-based nanomedicine for preventing/curing PCDs like type II diabetes mellitus.

  4. Photochemical modification of poly(ether sulfone) ultrafiltration membranes by UV-assisted graft polymerization for the prevention of biofouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieracci, John Paul

    Membranes are widely used by the biotechnology industry in the separation and recovery of proteins from biological solutions. Fouling of membrane surfaces by irreversible protein adsorption during ultrafiltration causes loss of membrane permeability and can reduce membrane selectivity and lead to significant product loss through denaturation. In this work, low fouling poly(ether sulfone) (PES) ultrafiltration membranes were produced by ultraviolet (UV) assisted graft polymerization of hydrophilic vinyl monomers using a newly developed photochemical dip modification technique. This technique was developed to make the UV modification process more easily adaptable to continuous membrane manufacturing processes. A method was also developed to measure and track the degree of polymer grafting on the membrane surface using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR/ATR). Grafting the hydrophilic monomer N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NVP) onto the membrane surface increased surface wettability and produced membranes with the high wettability of regenerated cellulose membranes. The enhanced surface wettability significantly decreased irreversible adsorptive fouling during the filtration of the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA). In order to maintain the rejection of BSA after modification, PES chain scission was tightly controlled by regulating the UV wavelength range and the light intensity used. The UV reactor system was operated with 300 nm UV lamps and a benzene filter used to remove high energy wavelengths below 275 nm that were determined to cause severe loss of BSA rejection due to pore enlargement from extensive chain scission. Dip modification caused membrane permeability to decrease due to the grafted chains blocking the membrane pores. The use of a chain transfer agent during modification followed by ethanol cleaning increased modified membrane permeability, but BSA rejection was severely decreased. The resultant membranes produced by

  5. The Role of Membrane Fluidization in the Gel-Assisted Formation of Giant Polymersomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne C Greene

    Full Text Available Polymersomes are being widely explored as synthetic analogs of lipid vesicles based on their enhanced stability and potential uses in a wide variety of applications in (e.g., drug delivery, cell analogs, etc.. Controlled formation of giant polymersomes for use in membrane studies and cell mimetic systems, however, is currently limited by low-yield production methodologies. Here, we describe for the first time, how the size distribution of giant poly(ethylene glycol-poly(butadiene (PEO-PBD polymersomes formed by gel-assisted rehydration may be controlled based on membrane fluidization. We first show that the average diameter and size distribution of PEO-PBD polymersomes may be readily increased by increasing the temperature of the rehydration solution. Further, we describe a correlative relationship between polymersome size and membrane fluidization through the addition of sucrose during rehydration, enabling the formation of PEO-PBD polymersomes with a range of diameters, including giant-sized vesicles (>100 μm. This correlative relationship suggests that sucrose may function as a small molecule fluidizer during rehydration, enhancing polymer diffusivity during formation and increasing polymersome size. Overall the ability to easily regulate the size of PEO-PBD polymersomes based on membrane fluidity, either through temperature or fluidizers, has broadly applicability in areas including targeted therapeutic delivery and synthetic biology.

  6. A kinetic study of mercury(II transport through a membrane assisted by new transport reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Görgülü Ahmet

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new organodithiophosphorus derivative, namely O-(1,3-Bispiperidino-2-propyl-4-methoxy phenyldithiophosphonate, was synthesized and then the kinetic behavior of the transport process as a function of concentration, temperature, stirring rate and solvents was investigated. Results The compound 1 was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopies. The transport of mercury(II ion by a zwitterionic dithiophosphonate 1 in the liquid membrane was studied and the kinetic behavior of the transport process as a function of concentration, temperature, stirring rate and solvents was investigated. The compound 1 is expected to serve as a model liquid membrane transport with mercury(II ions. Conclusion A kinetic study of mercury(II transport through a membrane assisted by O-(1,3-Bispiperidino-2-propyl-4-methoxy phenyldithiophosphonate was performed. It can be concluded that the compound 1 can be provided a general and straightforward route to remove toxic metals ions such as mercury(II ion from water or other solution.

  7. Liberal Right Ventricular Assist Device Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support for Right Ventricular Failure after Implantable Left Ventricular Assist Device Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Quentin; Kirsch, Matthias

    2017-11-27

    Refractory right ventricular failure (RVF) after implantation of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is a dramatic complication. The addition of right ventricular assist device (RVAD) may improve RV recovery and lead to improve outcomes. From February 2012 to September 2014, 44 patients received a HeartMate II. These patients were retrospectively compared in two groups according to early liberal implantation of an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) used as a RVAD established between a femoral vein and the pulmonary artery. Of the 44 patients, 22 required addition of a temporary RVAD (t-RVAD group). Patients are sicker in the t-RVAD group with significantly higher rate of preoperative extracorporeal life support (46% vs. 9%; p = 0.016) or any mechanical circulatory support (55% vs. 14%; p = 0.01), more preoperative hemofiltration (23% vs. 0%; p = 0.048), and more inotrope support by dobutamine (68.2% vs. 27.3%; p = .015). Likewise Michigan risk score was significantly higher in t-RVAD group (2.61 ± 2.2 vs. 1.0 ± 1.6 pts; p = 0.013) and INTERMACS clinical profile (2.1 ± 0.6 vs. 3.4 ± 1.3 pts; p = 0.0001). Despite severity of preimplant conditions in t-RVAD group, clinical outcomes did not differ in both groups with similar survival rate at 6 months (60.4 ± 12 vs. 71.4 ± 9.9 months; p = 0.585). Early and liberal use of temporary RVAD in patients with risk factors of RVF could improve the prognostic after LVAD implantation.

  8. Enhanced SDC-assisted digestion coupled with lipid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for shotgun analysis of membrane proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong; Wang, Kunbo; Liu, Zhonghua; Lin, Haiyan; Yu, Lijun

    2015-10-01

    Despite the biological importance of membrane proteins, their analysis has lagged behind that of soluble proteins and still presents a great challenge mainly because of their highly hydrophobic nature and low abundance. Sodium deoxycholate (SDC)-assisted digestion strategy has been introduced in our previous papers, which cleverly circumvents many of the challenges in shotgun membrane proteomics. However, it is associated with significant sample loss due to the slightly weaker extraction/solubilization ability of 1% SDC. In this study, an enhanced SDC-assisted digestion method (ESDC method) was developed that incorporates the almost strongest ability of SDC with a high concentration (5%) to lyse membrane and extract/solubilize hydrophobic membrane proteins, and then dilution to 1% for more efficient digestion. The comparative study using rat liver membrane-enriched sample showed that, compared with previous SDC-assisted method and the "universal" filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) method, the ESDC method not only increased the identified number of total proteins, membrane proteins, hydrophobic proteins, integral membrane proteins (IMPs) and IMPs with more than 5 transmembrane domains (TMDs) by an average of 10.8%, 13.2%, 17.8%, 17.9% and 52.9%, respectively, but also enhanced the identified number of total peptides and hydrophobic peptides by averagely 12.5% and 14.2%. These results demonstrated that the ESDC method provides a substantial improvement in the recovery and identification of membrane proteins, especially those with high hydrophobicity and multiple TMDs, and thereby displaying more potential for shotgun membrane proteomics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Improvement of a sample preparation method assisted by sodium deoxycholate for mass-spectrometry-based shotgun membrane proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong; Lin, Haiyan; Liu, Zhonghua; Wang, Kunbo; Yan, Yujun

    2014-11-01

    In current shotgun-proteomics-based biological discovery, the identification of membrane proteins is a challenge. This is especially true for integral membrane proteins due to their highly hydrophobic nature and low abundance. Thus, much effort has been directed at sample preparation strategies such as use of detergents, chaotropes, and organic solvents. We previously described a sample preparation method for shotgun membrane proteomics, the sodium deoxycholate assisted method, which cleverly circumvents many of the challenges associated with traditional sample preparation methods. However, the method is associated with significant sample loss due to the slightly weaker extraction/solubilization ability of sodium deoxycholate when it is used at relatively low concentrations such as 1%. Hence, we present an enhanced sodium deoxycholate sample preparation strategy that first uses a high concentration of sodium deoxycholate (5%) to lyse membranes and extract/solubilize hydrophobic membrane proteins, and then dilutes the detergent to 1% for a more efficient digestion. We then applied the improved method to shotgun analysis of proteins from rat liver membrane enriched fraction. Compared with other representative sample preparation strategies including our previous sodium deoxycholate assisted method, the enhanced sodium deoxycholate method exhibited superior sensitivity, coverage, and reliability for the identification of membrane proteins particularly those with high hydrophobicity and/or multiple transmembrane domains. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Development of a membrane-assisted fluidized bed reactor - 2 - Experimental demonstration and modeling for the partial oxidation of methanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshmukh, S.A.R.K.; Laverman, J.A.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    A small laboratory-scale membrane-assisted fluidized bed reactor (MAFBR) was constructed in order to experimentally demonstrate the reactor concept for the partial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde. Methanol conversion and product selectivities were measured at various overall fluidization

  11. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  12. The role of placental MHC class I expression in immune-assisted separation of the fetal membranes in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedictus, Lindert; Koets, Ad P; Rutten, Victor P M G

    2015-11-01

    The bovine fetus, like that of other species, is a semi-allograft and the regulation of materno-fetal alloimmunity is critical to prevent its immunological rejection. In cattle, a materno-fetal alloimmune response may be beneficial at parturition. It is hypothesized that upregulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I on the fetal membranes toward the end of gestation induces a maternal alloimmune response that activates innate immune effector mechanisms, aiding in the loss of the adherence between the fetal membranes and the uterus. Loss of fetal-maternal adherence is pivotal for the timely expulsion of the fetal membranes and the absence (or reduction) of the maternal immune response may lead to retained fetal membranes, a common reproductive disorder of cattle. Currently, there is no effective treatment for retained fetal membranes and a better understanding of materno-fetal alloimmune-assisted separation of the fetal membranes may lead to novel targets for the treatment of retained fetal membranes. In this review, the regulation of materno-fetal alloimmunity during pregnancy in cattle, with a focus on placental MHC class I expression, and the importance of maternal alloimmunity for the timely separation of the fetal membranes, are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Membrane-based, sedimentation-assisted plasma separator for point-of-care applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changchun; Mauk, Michael; Gross, Robert; Bushman, Frederic D; Edelstein, Paul H; Collman, Ronald G; Bau, Haim H

    2013-11-05

    Often, high-sensitivity, point-of-care (POC) clinical tests, such as HIV viral load, require large volumes of plasma. Although centrifuges are ubiquitously used in clinical laboratories to separate plasma from whole blood, centrifugation is generally inappropriate for on-site testing. Suitable alternatives are not readily available to separate the relatively large volumes of plasma from milliliters of blood that may be needed to meet stringent limit-of-detection specifications for low-abundance target molecules. We report on a simple-to-use, low-cost, pump-free, membrane-based, sedimentation-assisted plasma separator capable of separating a relatively large volume of plasma from undiluted whole blood within minutes. This plasma separator consists of an asymmetric, porous, polysulfone membrane housed in a disposable chamber. The separation process takes advantage of both gravitational sedimentation of blood cells and size exclusion-based filtration. The plasma separator demonstrated a "blood in-plasma out" capability, consistently extracting 275 ± 33.5 μL of plasma from 1.8 mL of undiluted whole blood within less than 7 min. The device was used to separate plasma laden with HIV viruses from HIV virus-spiked whole blood with recovery efficiencies of 95.5% ± 3.5%, 88.0% ± 9.5%, and 81.5% ± 12.1% for viral loads of 35,000, 3500, and 350 copies/mL, respectively. The separation process is self-terminating to prevent excessive hemolysis. The HIV-laden plasma was then injected into our custom-made microfluidic chip for nucleic acid testing and was successfully subjected to reverse-transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), demonstrating that the plasma is sufficiently pure to support high-efficiency nucleic acid amplification.

  14. Performance investigation of a solar-assisted direct contact membrane distillation system

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a solar-assisted direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) system with novel energy recovery concepts for a continuous 24-h-a-day operation. A temperature modulating scheme is introduced to the solar-thermal system that supplies feed seawater to the DCMD modules. This scheme attenuates extreme temperature fluctuations of the feed water by storing the collected energy during solar-peak hours and reutilizing it throughout the day. Thus, the energy savings is realized yet the feed seawater temperature is maintained within the desired range. Additionally, the system employs heat recovery from the permeate and brine streams to the feed seawater. The simulations for such a system with a shell-and-tube type DCMD modules are carried out to examine the spatial property variations and the sensitivity of system performance (i.e., transmembrane pressure, permeate flux and performance ratio) to the operating conditions (inlet temperature and flow rate) and the fiber dimensions (fiber length and packing density). It is found that there are trade-offs between mean permeate flux and performance ratio with respect to permeate inlet temperature and flow rate and between total distillate production and performance ratio with respect to packing density. For the solar-assisted DCMD system having evacuated-tube collectors of 3360m2 with 160m3 seawater storage tanks and 50 DCMD modules, the annual solar fraction and the collector efficiency are found to be 77% and 53%, respectively, whilst the overall permeate production capacity is 31m3/day. The overall specific thermal energy consumption of the DCMD system with heat recovery is found to be 436kWh/m3 and it is about 43% lower as compared to the system without heat recovery. It is observed that the specific thermal energy consumption decreases significantly by 55% with increased collector area from 1983m2 to 3360m2 whereas the specific electrical energy consumption increases slightly by 16%. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Solid oxide membrane-assisted controllable electrolytic fabrication of metal carbides in molten salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xingli; Zheng, Kai; Lu, Xionggang; Xu, Qian; Zhou, Zhongfu

    2016-08-15

    Silicon carbide (SiC), titanium carbide (TiC), zirconium carbide (ZrC), and tantalum carbide (TaC) have been electrochemically produced directly from their corresponding stoichiometric metal oxides/carbon (MOx/C) precursors by electrodeoxidation in molten calcium chloride (CaCl2). An assembled yttria stabilized zirconia solid oxide membrane (SOM)-based anode was employed to control the electrodeoxidation process. The SOM-assisted controllable electrochemical process was carried out in molten CaCl2 at 1000 °C with a potential of 3.5 to 4.0 V. The reaction mechanism of the electrochemical production process and the characteristics of these produced metal carbides (MCs) were systematically investigated. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy analyses clearly identify that SiC, TiC, ZrC, and TaC carbides can be facilely fabricated. SiC carbide can be controlled to form a homogeneous nanowire structure, while the morphologies of TiC, ZrC, and TaC carbides exhibit porous nodular structures with micro/nanoscale particles. The complex chemical/electrochemical reaction processes including the compounding, electrodeoxidation, dissolution-electrodeposition, and in situ carbonization processes in molten CaCl2 are also discussed. The present results preliminarily demonstrate that the molten salt-based SOM-assisted electrodeoxidation process has the potential to be used for the facile and controllable electrodeoxidation of MOx/C precursors to micro/nanostructured MCs, which can potentially be used for various applications.

  16. Increased Water Retention in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes at Elevated Temperatures Assisted by Capillary Condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, M.J.; Downing, K.H.; Jackson, A.; Gomez, E.D.; Minor, A.M.; Cookson, D.; Weber, A.Z.; Balsara, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    We establish a new systematic methodology for controlling the water retention of polymer electrolyte membranes. Block copolymer membranes comprising hydrophilic phases with widths ranging from 2 to 5 nm become wetter as the temperature of the surrounding air is increased at constant relative humidity. The widths of the moist hydrophilic phases were measured by cryogenic electron microscopy experiments performed on humid membranes. Simple calculations suggest that capillary condensation is important at these length scales. The correlation between moisture content and proton conductivity of the membranes is demonstrated.

  17. Spring batch essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  18. Membrane assisted fluidized bed reactor: experimental demonstration for partial oxidation of methanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshmukh, S.A.R.K.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis the reactor concept has been developed on the basis of an experimental study on the effect of fluidization conditions on the membrane permeation rate in a MAFBR, the extent of gas back mixing and the tube-to-bed heat transfer rates in the presence of membrane bundles with and without

  19. Measurement of shape mapping accuracy of a flaccid membrane of a heart assist pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Sulej

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research results which are a continuation of work on the use of image processing techniques to determine the membrane shape of the artificial ventricle. The studies were focused on developing a technique for measuring the accuracy of the membrane shape mapping. It is important in view of ensuring the required accuracy of determining the instantaneous stroke volume of controlled pneumatic artificial ventricular. Experiments were carried out on the models of convex, concave, and flat membranes. The purpose of the research was to obtain a numerical indicator, which will be used to evaluate the options to improve mapping techniques of the membrane shape. Keywords: accuracy measurement, membrane shape mapping, optical sensor

  20. Energy efficiency of batch and semi-batch (CCRO) reverse osmosis desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsinger, David M; Tow, Emily W; Nayar, Kishor G; Maswadeh, Laith A; Lienhard V, John H

    2016-12-01

    As reverse osmosis (RO) desalination capacity increases worldwide, the need to reduce its specific energy consumption becomes more urgent. In addition to the incremental changes attainable with improved components such as membranes and pumps, more significant reduction of energy consumption can be achieved through time-varying RO processes including semi-batch processes such as closed-circuit reverse osmosis (CCRO) and fully-batch processes that have not yet been commercialized or modelled in detail. In this study, numerical models of the energy consumption of batch RO (BRO), CCRO, and the standard continuous RO process are detailed. Two new energy-efficient configurations of batch RO are analyzed. Batch systems use significantly less energy than continuous RO over a wide range of recovery ratios and source water salinities. Relative to continuous RO, models predict that CCRO and batch RO demonstrate up to 37% and 64% energy savings, respectively, for brackish water desalination at high water recovery. For batch RO and CCRO, the primary reductions in energy use stem from atmospheric pressure brine discharge and reduced streamwise variation in driving pressure. Fully-batch systems further reduce energy consumption by not mixing streams of different concentrations, which CCRO does. These results demonstrate that time-varying processes can significantly raise RO energy efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. INTRASURGICAL MICROSCOPE-INTEGRATED SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY-ASSISTED MEMBRANE PEELING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner-Radler, Christiane I; Glittenberg, Carl; Gabriel, Max; Binder, Susanne

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate microscope-integrated intrasurgical spectral domain optical coherence tomography during macular surgery in a prospective monocenter study. Before pars plana vitrectomy and before, during, and after membrane peeling, 512 × 128 macular cube scans were performed using a Carl Zeiss Meditec Cirrus high-definition OCT system adapted to the optical pathway of a Zeiss OPMI VISU 200 surgical microscope and compared with retinal staining. The study included 51 patients with epiretinal membranes, with 8 of those having additional lamellar macular holes, 11 patients with vitreomacular traction, and 8 patients with full-thickness macular holes. Intraoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography allowed performing membrane peeling without using retinal dyes in 40% of cases (28 of 70 patients). No residual membranes were found in 94.3% of patients (66 of 70 patients) in intrasurgical spectral domain optical coherence tomography and subsequent (re)staining. In patients with vitreomacular traction, intrasurgical spectral domain optical coherence tomography scans facilitated decisions on the need for an intraocular tamponade after membrane peeling. Intraoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography was comparable with retinal dyes in confirming success after membrane peeling. However, the visualization of flat membranes was better after staining.

  2. Surface modification of thin film composite reverse osmosis membrane by glycerol assisted oxidation with sodium hypochlorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Hiren D.; Samnani, Mohit D.; Gauswami, Maulik V.

    2018-01-01

    Need for improvement in water flux of thin film composite (TFC) RO membrane has been appreciated by researchers world over and surface modification approach is found promising to achieve higher water flux and solute rejection. Thin film composite RO membrane was exposed to 2000 mg/l sodium hypochlorite solution with varying concentrations of glycerol ranging from 1 to 10%. It was found that there was a drop in concentration of sodium hypochlorite after the addition of glycerol because of a new compound resulted from the oxidation of glycerol with sodium hypochlorite. The water flux of the membrane treated with 1% glycerol with 2000 mg/l sodium hypochlorite for 1 h was about 22% more and salt rejection was 1.36% greater than that of only sodium hypochlorite treated membrane for the same concentration and time. There was an increase in salt rejection of membrane with increase in concentration of glycerol from 1% to 5%, however, increasing glycerol concentration further up to 10%, the salt rejection declined. The water flux was found declining from 1% glycerol solution to 10% glycerol solution. The membrane samples were characterized to understand the change in chemical structure and morphology of the membrane.

  3. A novel reverse osmosis membrane by ferrous sulfate assisted controlled oxidation of polyamide layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Hiren D.; Raviya, Mayur R.; Gauswami, Maulik V.

    2017-11-01

    With growing desalination capacity, it is very important to evaluate the performance of thin film composite reverse osmosis (TFC RO) membrane in terms of energy consumption for desalination. There is a trade-off between salt rejection and water-flux of TFC RO membrane. This article presents a novel approach of analyzing the effect of mixture of an oxidizing agent sodium hypochlorite and a reducing agent ferrous sulfate on virgin TFC RO membrane. Experiments were carried out by varying the concentrations of both sodium hypochlorite and ferrous sulfate. The negative charge was induced on the membrane due to the treatment of combination of sodium hypochlorite and ferrous sulfate, thereby resulting in higher rejection of negative ions due to repulsive force. Membrane treated with 1000 mg l-1 sodium hypochlorite and 2000 mg l-1 ferrous sulfate showed the best salt rejection i.e. 96.23%. The characterization was carried out to understand the charge on the membrane surface by Zeta potential, morphology of membrane surface by scanning electron microscope (SEM), surface roughness features by atomic force microscope (AFM) and chemical structural changes by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis.

  4. Outer-selective pressure-retarded osmosis hollow fiber membranes from vacuum-assisted interfacial polymerization for osmotic power generation

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Shipeng

    2013-11-19

    In this paper, we report the technical breakthroughs to synthesize outer-selective thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber membranes, which is in an urgent need for osmotic power generation with the pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) process. In the first step, a defect-free thin-film composite membrane module is achieved by vacuum-assisted interfacial polymerization. The PRO performance is further enhanced by optimizing the support in terms of pore size and mechanical strength and the TFC layer with polydopamine coating and molecular engineering of the interfacial polymerization solution. The newly developed membranes can stand over 20 bar with a peak power density of 7.63 W/m2, which is equivalent to 13.72 W/m2 of its inner-selective hollow fiber counterpart with the same module size, packing density, and fiber dimensions. The study may provide insightful guidelines for optimizing the interfacial polymerization procedures and scaling up of the outer-selective TFC hollow fiber membrane modules for PRO power generation. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  5. Outer-selective pressure-retarded osmosis hollow fiber membranes from vacuum-assisted interfacial polymerization for osmotic power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi-Peng; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2013-11-19

    In this paper, we report the technical breakthroughs to synthesize outer-selective thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber membranes, which is in an urgent need for osmotic power generation with the pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) process. In the first step, a defect-free thin-film composite membrane module is achieved by vacuum-assisted interfacial polymerization. The PRO performance is further enhanced by optimizing the support in terms of pore size and mechanical strength and the TFC layer with polydopamine coating and molecular engineering of the interfacial polymerization solution. The newly developed membranes can stand over 20 bar with a peak power density of 7.63 W/m(2), which is equivalent to 13.72 W/m(2) of its inner-selective hollow fiber counterpart with the same module size, packing density, and fiber dimensions. The study may provide insightful guidelines for optimizing the interfacial polymerization procedures and scaling up of the outer-selective TFC hollow fiber membrane modules for PRO power generation.

  6. SPS batch spacing optimisation

    CERN Document Server

    Velotti, F M; Carlier, E; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Kotzian, G

    2017-01-01

    Until 2015, the LHC filling schemes used the batch spac-ing as specified in the LHC design report. The maximumnumber of bunches injectable in the LHC directly dependson the batch spacing at injection in the SPS and hence onthe MKP rise time.As part of the LHC Injectors Upgrade project for LHCheavy ions, a reduction of the batch spacing is needed. In thisdirection, studies to approach the MKP design rise time of150ns(2-98%) have been carried out. These measurementsgave clear indications that such optimisation, and beyond,could be done also for higher injection momentum beams,where the additional slower MKP (MKP-L) is needed.After the successful results from 2015 SPS batch spacingoptimisation for the Pb-Pb run [1], the same concept wasthought to be used also for proton beams. In fact, thanksto the SPS transverse feed back, it was already observedthat lower batch spacing than the design one (225ns) couldbe achieved. For the 2016 p-Pb run, a batch spacing of200nsfor the proton beam with100nsbunch spacing wasreque...

  7. A New Insight into Morphology of Solvent Resistant Nano filtration Membranes: Image Processing Assisted Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouresmaeel-Selakjani, P.; Jahanshahi, M.; Peyravi, M.; Fauzi Ismail, A.; Nabipoor, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to investigate the morphological properties of polyimide based Solvent Resistant Nano filtration membranes by mean of image processing. Effect of phase inversion parameters like polymer concentration, volatile co-solvent, pre-evaporation time, additives in coagulation bath, polymers weight ratio in composite membranes, addition of nano particles and cross-linking agents have been reviewed. The voids of membrane were targeted to survey in the aspect of void area concentration in the scanning electron microscopy micrograph, mean of voids area, voids orientation and circle equivalent diameters of voids. This method by mean of the developed software could make the morphological studies of membranes easy. The population of different measured parameters of the voids could also measure. In conclusion for polyimide based membranes there are specific trends for change in voids properties by changing of phase inversion parameters. It was predictable, but investigated qualitatively up to now and this review can confirm the qualitative observations and also open new discussions about, for example void orientations that are not investigated in any study up to now

  8. Ultrastructure of the membrana limitans interna after dye-assisted membrane peeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Tobias; Steger, Claudia; Westermann, Martin; Nietzsche, Sandor; Koenigsdoerffer, Ekkehart; Strobel, Juergen; Dawczynski, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ultrastructure of the membrana limitans interna (internal limiting membrane, ILM) and to evaluate alterations to the retinal cell layers after membrane peeling with vital dyes. Twenty-five patients (25 eyes) who underwent macular hole surgery were included, whereby 12 indocyanine green (ICG)- and 13 brilliant blue G (BBG)-stained ILM were analyzed using light, transmission electron and scanning electron microscopy. Retinal cell fragments on the ILM were identified in both groups using immunohistochemistry. Comparing ICG- and BBG-stained membranes, larger cellular fragments were observed at a higher frequency in the BBG group. Thereby, the findings indicate that ICG permits an enhanced separation of the ILM from the underlying retina with less mechanical destruction. A possible explanation might be seen in the known photosensitivity of ICG, which induces a stiffening and shrinkage of the ILM but also generates retinal toxic metabolites. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Membranes Prepared by Self-assembly and Chelation Assisted Phase Inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Yihui

    2017-05-19

    We combine self-assembly in solution, complexation with metallic salts and phase separation induced by solvent-non-solvent exchange to prepare nanostructured membranes for separation in the nanofiltration range. The method was applied to synthesized poly(acrylic acid)-b-polysulfone-b-poly(acrylic acid) copolymers dissolved in a selective solvent mixture and immersed in aqueous Cu2+ or Ag+ solutions.

  10. Batch-to-batch model improvement for cooling crystallization

    OpenAIRE

    Forgione , Marco; Birpoutsoukis , Georgios; Bombois , Xavier; Mesbah , Ali; Daudey , Peter; Van Den Hof , Paul

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Two batch-to-batch model update strategies for model-based control of batch cooling crystallization are presented. In Iterative Learning Control, a nominal process model is adjusted by a non-parametric, additive correction term which depends on the difference between the measured output and the model prediction in the previous batch. In Iterative Identification Control, the uncertain model parameters are iteratively estimated using the measured batch data. Due to the d...

  11. Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) membrane assisted direct spray ionization mass spectrometry for agrochemicals screening in foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Igor; Rodrigues, Marcella Ferreira; Chaves, Andréa Rodrigues; Vaz, Boniek Gontijo

    2018-02-01

    Paper spray ionization (PSI) has some limitations such as low sensitivity and ionization suppression when complex samples are analyzed. The use of sample preparation devices directly coupled to MS can avoid these restrictions. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are materials widely used as adsorbent in sample preparation methods such as solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction, and they can provide specifics cavities with affinity to a target molecule. Here, we introduce a new MIP membrane spray ionization method combining MIP and PSI. MIP was synthesized directly on a cellulose membrane. Monuron and 2,4,5-T (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid) were used as template molecules in MIP synthesis for diuron and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) analyte sequesters, respectively. Apple, banana and grape methanolic extracts were used as matrices. The MIP membrane spray showed signal intensities of diuron and 2,4-D that were much higher compared to those obtained by non-imprinted polymers(NIP). Calibration curves exhibited R 2 > 0.99 for diuron and 2,4-D in all fruit extracts analyzed. LODs were found less than 0.60µgL -1 and LLOQs were found less than 2.00µgL -1 . The coefficients of variation and relative errors were less than 15% for almost all analyses. The apparent recovery test results ranged between 92,5% and 116.9%. Finally, the MIP membrane spray method was employed for the quantification of diuron and 2,4-D in real samples. Diuron contents were only found in three bananas (4.0, 6.5, and 9.9µgL -1 ). The proposed MIP membrane spray ionization method was straightforward, fast to carry out and provided satisfactory results for analyses of diuron and 2,4-D in apple, banana and grape samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Heuristics for batching and sequencing in batch processing machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuda Basnet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the “batch processing” problem, where there are multiple jobs to be processed in flow shops. These jobs can however be formed into batches and the number of jobs in a batch is limited by the capacity of the processing machines to accommodate the jobs. The processing time required by a batch in a machine is determined by the greatest processing time of the jobs included in the batch. Thus, the batch processing problem is a mix of batching and sequencing – the jobs need to be grouped into distinct batches, the batches then need to be sequenced through the flow shop. We apply certain newly developed heuristics to the problem and present computational results. The contributions of this paper are deriving a lower bound, and the heuristics developed and tested in this paper.

  13. Techno-economic assessment of membrane assisted fluidized bed reactors for pure H2 production with CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spallina, V.; Pandolfo, D.; Battistella, A.; Romano, M.C.; Van Sint Annaland, M.; Gallucci, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Membrane reactors improve the overall efficiency of H 2 production up to 20%. • Respect to conventional reforming, the H 2 yield increases from 12% to 20%. • The COH is reduced of at least 220% using membrane reactors. • FBMR capture 72% of CO 2 with a specific cost of 8 eur/tonn CO2. • MA-CLR can reach 90% of CO 2 avoided with same cost of FTR. - Abstract: This paper addresses the techno-economic assessment of two membrane-based technologies for H 2 production from natural gas, fully integrated with CO 2 capture. In the first configuration, a fluidized bed membrane reactor (FBMR) is integrated in the H 2 plant: the natural gas reacts with steam in the catalytic bed and H 2 is simultaneously separated using Pd-based membranes, and the heat of reaction is provided to the system by feeding air as reactive sweep gas in part of the membranes and by burning part of the permeated H 2 (in order to avoid CO 2 emissions for heat supply). In the second system, named membrane assisted chemical looping reforming (MA-CLR), natural gas is converted in the fuel rector by reaction with steam and an oxygen carrier (chemical looping reforming), and the produced H 2 permeates through the membranes. The oxygen carrier is re-oxidized in a separate air reactor with air, which also provides the heat required for the endothermic reactions in the fuel reactor. The plants are optimized by varying the operating conditions of the reactors such as temperature, pressures (both at feed and permeate side), steam-to-carbon ratio and the heat recovery configuration. The plant design is carried out using Aspen Simulation, while the novel reactor concepts have been designed and their performance have been studied with a dedicated phenomenological model in Matlab. Both configurations have been designed and compared with reference technologies for H 2 production based on conventional fired tubular reforming (FTR) with and without CO 2 capture. The results of the analysis show

  14. Comparison of membrane assisted solvent extraction, stir bar sorptive extraction, and solid phase microextraction in analysis of tetramine in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jager, Lowri S; Perfetti, Gracia A; Diachenko, Gregory W

    2009-04-01

    Three environmentally friendly extraction techniques, membrane assisted solvent extraction (MASE), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), and headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), were compared for the direct analysis of the highly toxic rodenticide tetramine in food. The optimized MASE method was applied to seven foods fortified with tetramine and compared to previously reported SBSE and HS-SPME results. Parameters such as the standard addition linearity (MASE (0.964-0.999), SBSE (0.966-0.999), HS-SPME (0.955-0.999)), recovery (MASE (12-86%), SBSE (36-130%), HS-SPME (50-200%)), reproducibility (MASE (3.0-30%), SBSE (4.4-9.6%), HS-SPME (1-12%)), and LOD (MASE (1.6-6.4 ng/g), SBSE (0.2-2.1 ng/g), HS-SPME (0.9-4.3 ng/g)) were compared.

  15. Prunus dulcis, Batch

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    Jun 7, 2010 ... almond (Prunus dulcis, Batch) genotypes as revealed by PCR analysis. Yavar Sharafi1*, Jafar Hajilou1, Seyed AbolGhasem Mohammadi2, Mohammad Reza Dadpour1 and Sadollah Eskandari3. 1Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, 5166614766, Iran.

  16. Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membrane-Assisted Fabrication of β-In2S3Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In this study, β-In2S3nanowires were first synthesized by sulfurizing the pure Indium (In) nanowires in an AAO membrane. As FE-SEM results, β-In2S3nanowires are highly ordered, arranged tightly corresponding to the high porosity of the AAO membrane used. The diameter of the β-In2S3nanowires is about 60 nm with the length of about 6–8 μm. Moreover, the aspect ratio of β-In2S3nanowires is up to 117. An EDS analysis revealed the β-In2S3nanowires with an atomic ratio of nearly S/In = 1.5. X-ray diffraction and corresponding selected area electron diffraction patterns demonstrated that the β-In2S3nanowire is tetragonal polycrystalline. The direct band gap energy (Eg) is 2.40 eV from the optical measurement, and it is reasonable with literature. PMID:20596400

  17. Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membrane-Assisted Fabrication of β-In2S3Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chih-Jung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, β-In2S3nanowires were first synthesized by sulfurizing the pure Indium (In nanowires in an AAO membrane. As FE-SEM results, β-In2S3nanowires are highly ordered, arranged tightly corresponding to the high porosity of the AAO membrane used. The diameter of the β-In2S3nanowires is about 60 nm with the length of about 6–8 μm. Moreover, the aspect ratio of β-In2S3nanowires is up to 117. An EDS analysis revealed the β-In2S3nanowires with an atomic ratio of nearly S/In = 1.5. X-ray diffraction and corresponding selected area electron diffraction patterns demonstrated that the β-In2S3nanowire is tetragonal polycrystalline. The direct band gap energy (Eg is 2.40 eV from the optical measurement, and it is reasonable with literature.

  18. A membrane assisted hybrid bioreactor for the post treatment of an anaerobic effluent from a fish canning factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyanedel, V; Garrido, J M; Lema, J M; Méndez, R

    2003-01-01

    An innovative membrane assisted hybrid bioreactor was used to treat a mixture of two streams produced in a fish canning factory: a highly loaded stream that had previously been treated in an anaerobic contact reactor, and a second stream with a relatively low COD and N concentration. Experiments were carried out during two experimental stages: an aerobic stage, which is focused in the study on the aerobic oxidation of ammonia and COD and a nitrification-denitrification stage in which the study was mainly focused on the removal of nitrogen. Results of the aerobic period pointed out that it was feasible to achieve ammonia and COD removals of around 99% at OLR of 6.5 kg COD/m3 x d and NLR of 1.8 kg N-NH4+/m3 x d. Specific nitrifying activities of up to 0.78 g N-NH4+/g protein x d and 0.25 g N-NH4+/g VSS x d, were recorded for the attached and suspended biomass, respectively. Around 50-60% of the nitrifying capacity of the reactor was a result of the nitrifying capacity of the biofilm. During the nitrification-denitrification stage 76% of nitrogen removal was attained at an NLR of 0.8 kg N-NH4+/m3 x d. The biofilm nitrifying activity was not affected by the operating conditions of the system, as a result of the preferential consumption of COD by suspended biomass in the reactor. Thus, the combination of a hybrid system, with both suspended and attached biomass, and an ultrafiltration membrane module might be an alternative for treating wastewaters in compact biological systems. The intrinsic characteristics of the system made it feasible to operate at high OLR without problems related with the settling properties of the sludge or the drop in the nitrogen conversion. There were no solids in the effluent as a result of the use of the membrane filtration module.

  19. Shotgun analysis of membrane proteomes by an improved SDS-assisted sample preparation method coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong; Jiang, Huajun; Yan, Yujun; Peng, Bin; Chen, Jinhua; Lin, Haiyan; Liu, Zhonghua

    2012-12-12

    Analysis of the membrane proteins, particularly the integral membrane proteins, is limited by the inherent membrane hydrophobicity. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is one of the most efficient reagents used for the extraction of membrane proteins, but its presence in samples interferes with LC-MS-based proteomic analyses because it affects RP-LC separations and electrospray ionization. In this paper, we present an improved sample preparation strategy based on SDS-assisted digestion and peptide-level SDS-removal using an optimized potassium dodecyl sulfate (KDS) precipitation method (SSDP method) for shotgun analysis of the membrane proteome. This method utilizes a high concentration of SDS (1.0%) to lyse the membranes and to solubilize the hydrophobic membrane proteins, resulting in a more complete protein digestion in the diluted SDS buffer (0.1% SDS), and a high efficiency of SDS removal and peptide recovery by the optimized KDS precipitation for protein identification. The SSDP method provides evidence that proteins can be efficiently digested, and the SDS can be decreased to 95% peptide recovery. Compared to other sample preparation methods commonly used in shotgun membrane proteomics, the newly developed method not only increased the identified number of the total proteins, membrane proteins and integral membrane proteins by an average of 33.1%, 37.2% and 40.5%, respectively, but also leading to the identification of highest number of matching peptides. All the results showed that the method yielded better recovery and reliability in the identification of the proteins especially the highly hydrophobic integral membrane proteins, and thus providing a promising tool for the shotgun analysis of membrane proteome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrogen production by steam reforming of bio-alcohols. The use of conventional and membrane-assisted catalytic reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seelam, P. K.

    2013-11-01

    were found to be promising support materials for the low temperature reforming compared to conventional catalyst supports, e.g. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The metal/metal oxide decorated CNTs presented active particles with narrow size distribution and small size ({approx}2-5 nm). The ZnO promoted Ni/CNT based catalysts showed the highest H{sub 2} selectivity of {approx}76% with very low CO selectivity <1%. Ethanol was shown to be a more suitable and viable source for H{sub 2} than glycerol. The dense Pd-Ag membrane had higher selectivity but a lower permeating flux than the composite membrane. The MR performance is also dependent on the active catalyst materials and thus, both the catalyst and membrane play an important role. Overall, the membrane-assisted reformer outperforms the conventional reformer and it is a potential technology in pure H{sub 2} production. The high purity of H{sub 2} gas with a CO-free reformate for fuel cell applications can be gained using the MR system. (orig.)

  1. ZrTiO4 nanowire growth using membrane-assisted Pechini route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. de Lucena

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The high surface-to-volume ratio of nanowires makes them natural competitors as new device components. In this regard, a current major challenge is to produce quasi-one-dimensional nanostructures composed of well established oxide-based materials. This article reports the synthesis of ZrTiO4 nanowires on a silicon (100 wafer in a single-step deposition/thermal treatment. The template-directed membrane synthesis strategy was associated with the Pechini route and spin-coating deposition technique. ZrTiO4 nanowires were obtained at 700 ˚C with diameters in the range of 80-100 nm. FEG- SEM images were obtained to investigate ZrTiO4 nanowire formation on the silicon surface and energy dispersive x-ray detection (EDS and x-ray diffraction (XRD analyses were performed to confirm the oxide composition and structure.

  2. Modelling of Batch Process Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    Here a batch cooling crystalliser is modelled and simulated as is a batch distillation system. In the batch crystalliser four operational modes of the crystalliser are considered, namely: initial cooling, nucleation, crystal growth and product removal. A model generation procedure is shown that s...

  3. Production of outer membrane vesicles (OMV in batch cultivation of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B Produção de vesículas da membrana externa (OMV em cultivo batelada de Neisseria meningitidis sorogrupo B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Santos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Meningococcal disease is an important cause of death and morbidity throughout the world. Nearly 330,000 cases and 35,000 deaths occur yearly. Neisseria meningitidis, serogroup B strain N.44/89, is prevalent in Brazil. Its outer membrane vesicles (OMV with iron regulated proteins (IRP are released to the culture medium and are used as antigen for vaccine production. In order to have knowledge about the kinetic parameters, especially the final OMV concentration values, 20-h batch cultivations were carried out in Catlin medium with iron restriction. Process conditions comprised: 7 L bioreactor, 36ºC, 0.5 atm, overlay air flowrate of 1 L/min, agitation varying from 250 rpm to 850 rpm and dissolved oxygen control set at 10% of saturation condition. Biomass was determined by optical density at 540 nm and dry weight. Glycerol, lactate, pH and dissolved oxygen were measured from samples taken during cultivation. Outer membrane vesicle (OMV concentration was determined by Lowry's method after ultracentrifugation. IRP presence was verified by SDS-PAGE. Highest biomass value, corresponding to the highest initial lactate concentration (7.84 g/L was achieved at the 9th hour process time corresponding to 1.0 g/L dry biomass and 2.3 optical density at 540 nm. Lactate consumption was directly related to cell growth (yield factor: 0.24 g dry biomass / g lactate. Glycerol concentration in the medium did not change significantly during the process. OMV concentration reached the highest value of 80 mg/L at end cultivation time. The obtained results suggest that lactate is a main limiting growth factor and the maximum amount of antigen is obtained during stationary growth and cell death phases.A doença meningocócica é uma causa importante de morte a nível mundial. Aproximadamente 330.000 casos e 35.000 mortes ocorrem anualmente. A cepa N.44/89 do sorogrupo B de Neisseria meningitidis é prevalente no Brasil. Suas vesículas de membrana externa (OMV - "outer

  4. Durable platinum/graphene catalysts assisted with polydiallyldimethylammonium for proton-exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, M.; Liang, C.; Wang, Y.J.; Huang, K.; Ye, C.X.; Liu, G.; Wang, W.J.; Jin, S.F.; Zhang, R.; Fan, D.Y.; Yang, H.J.; Wang, Y.G.

    2013-01-01

    High performance and electrochemically stable Pt/graphene catalysts assisted with polydiallyldimethylammonium (PDDA) have been synthesized for PEM fuel cells. The preparation procedure and properties of the catalysts are investigated in detail. With the introduction of PDDA molecules, Pt nanoparticles can be well-dispersed on graphene support, resulting in improved electrochemical surface area and enhanced electrocatalytic activity. The corresponding electrochemical surface areas (ECSA) of catalyst layers calculated from the hydrogen desorption peak on cyclic voltammogram curves are 78.3, 72.5 and 73.6 cm 2 g −1 for catalyst layers with Pt/graphene, Pt-PDDA/graphene, and Pt/graphene-PDDA catalysts, respectively. Both PDDA modified Pt nanoparticles and PDDA modified graphene supports also exhibit high durability toward electrochemical oxidation cycles compared with the conventional produced Pt/graphene catalyst at the same conditions. After 3000 cycles, only 23.52% of the initial ECSA remains for Pt/graphene electrocatalyst whereas 43.04% and 37.7% of the initial ECSA for the Pt/graphene-PDDA and Pt-PDDA/graphene catalysts remain, respectively

  5. Evaluation of a respiratory assist catheter that uses an impeller within a hollow fiber membrane bundle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihelc, Kevin M; Frankowski, Brian J; Lieber, Samuel C; Moore, Nathan D; Hattler, Brack G; Federspiel, William J

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory assist using an intravenous catheter may be a potential treatment for patients suffering from acute or acute-on-chronic lung failure. The objective of this study was to evaluate a novel respiratory catheter that uses an impeller within the fiber bundle to enhance gas exchange efficiency, thus requiring a smaller fiber bundle and insertional size (25 Fr) and permitting simple percutaneous insertion. Bench testing of gas exchange in deionized water was used to evaluate eight impeller designs. The three best performing impeller designs were evaluated in acute studies in four calves (122 + or - 10 kg). Gas exchange increased significantly with increasing impeller rotation rate. The degree of enhancement varied with impeller geometry. The maximum gas exchange efficiency (exchange per unit surface area) for the catheter with the best performing impeller was 529 + or - 20 ml CO(2)/min/m(2) and 513 + or - 21 ml CO(2)/min/m(2) for bench and animal studies, respectively, at a rotation rate of 20,000 rpm. Absolute CO(2) exchange was 37 and 36 ml CO(2)/min, respectively. Active mixing by rotating impellers produced 70% higher gas exchange efficiency than pulsating balloon catheters. The sensitivity of gas exchange to impeller design suggests that further improvements can be made by computational fluid dynamics-based optimization of the impeller.

  6. Microwave-assisted extraction of pyrethroid insecticides from semi permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) used to indoor air monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A. [Analytical Chemistry Department, University of Valencia, Edifici Jeroni Munoz, 50th Dr. Moliner, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Pastor, Agustin [Analytical Chemistry Department, University of Valencia, Edifici Jeroni Munoz, 50th Dr. Moliner, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: agustin.pastor@uv.es; Guardia, Miguel de la [Analytical Chemistry Department, University of Valencia, Edifici Jeroni Munoz, 50th Dr. Moliner, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2006-02-23

    A rapid and environmentally friendly methodology was developed for the extraction of pyrethroid insecticides from semi permeable membrane devices (SPMDs), in which they were preconcentrated in gas phase. The method was based on gas chromatography mass-mass spectrometry determination after a microwave-assisted extraction, in front of the widely employed dialysis method. SPMDs were extracted twice with 30 mL hexane:acetone, irradiated with 250 W power output, until 90 deg. C in 10 min, this temperature being held for another 10 min. Clean-up of the extracts was performed by acetonitrile-hexane partitioning and solid-phase extraction (SPE) with a combined cartridge of 2 g basic-alumina, deactivated with 5% water, and 500 mg C{sub 18}. Pyrethroids investigated were Allethrin, Prallethrin, Tetramethrin, Bifenthrin, Phenothrin, {lambda}-Cyhalothrin, Permethrin, Cyfluthrin, Cypermethrin, Flucythrinate, Esfenvalerate, Fluvalinate and Deltamethrin. The main pyrethroid synergist compound, Pyperonyl Butoxide, was also studied. Limit of detection values ranging from 0.3 to 0.9 ng/SPMD and repeatability data, as relative standard deviation, from 2.9 to 9.4%, were achieved. Pyrethroid recoveries, for spiked SPMDs, with 100 ng of each one of the pyrethroids evaluated, were from 61 {+-} 8 to 103 {+-} 7% for microwave-assisted extraction, versus 54 {+-} 4 to 104 {+-} 3% for dialysis reference method. Substantial reduction of solvent consumed (from 400 to 60 mL) and analysis time (from 48 to 1 h) was achieved by using the developed procedure. High concentration levels of pyrethroid compounds, from 0.14 to 7.3 {mu}g/SPMD, were found in indoor air after 2 h of a standard application.

  7. Integrated SDS removal and protein digestion by hollow fiber membrane based device for SDS-assisted proteome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Simin; Yuan, Huiming; Chen, Yuanbo; Liang, Zheng; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2015-08-15

    In this work, a novel integrated sample preparation device for SDS-assisted proteome analysis was developed, by which proteins dissolved in 4% (w/v) SDS were first diluted by 50% methanol, and then SDS was online removed by a hollow fiber membrane interface (HFMI) with 50mM ammonium bicarbonate (pH 8.0) as an exchange buffer, finally digested by an immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER). To evaluate the performance of such an integrated device, bovine serum albumin dissolved in 4% (w/v) SDS as a model sample was analyzed; it could be found that similar to that obtained by direct analysis of BSA digests without SDS (the sequence coverage of 60.3±1.0%, n=3), with HFMI as an interface for SDS removal, BSA was identified with the sequence coverage of 61.0±1.0% (n=3). However, without SDS removal by HFMI, BSA could not be digested by the IMER and none peptides could be detected. In addition, such an integrated sample preparation device was also applied for the analysis of SDS extracted proteins from rat brain, compared to those obtained by filter-aided sample preparation (FASP), not only the identified protein group and unique peptide number were increased by 12% and 39% respectively, but also the sample pretreatment time was shortened from 24h to 4h. All these results demonstrated that such an integrated sample preparation device would provide an alternative tool for SDS assisted proteome analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Microwave-assisted extraction of pyrethroid insecticides from semi permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) used to indoor air monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A.; Pastor, Agustin; Guardia, Miguel de la

    2006-01-01

    A rapid and environmentally friendly methodology was developed for the extraction of pyrethroid insecticides from semi permeable membrane devices (SPMDs), in which they were preconcentrated in gas phase. The method was based on gas chromatography mass-mass spectrometry determination after a microwave-assisted extraction, in front of the widely employed dialysis method. SPMDs were extracted twice with 30 mL hexane:acetone, irradiated with 250 W power output, until 90 deg. C in 10 min, this temperature being held for another 10 min. Clean-up of the extracts was performed by acetonitrile-hexane partitioning and solid-phase extraction (SPE) with a combined cartridge of 2 g basic-alumina, deactivated with 5% water, and 500 mg C 18 . Pyrethroids investigated were Allethrin, Prallethrin, Tetramethrin, Bifenthrin, Phenothrin, λ-Cyhalothrin, Permethrin, Cyfluthrin, Cypermethrin, Flucythrinate, Esfenvalerate, Fluvalinate and Deltamethrin. The main pyrethroid synergist compound, Pyperonyl Butoxide, was also studied. Limit of detection values ranging from 0.3 to 0.9 ng/SPMD and repeatability data, as relative standard deviation, from 2.9 to 9.4%, were achieved. Pyrethroid recoveries, for spiked SPMDs, with 100 ng of each one of the pyrethroids evaluated, were from 61 ± 8 to 103 ± 7% for microwave-assisted extraction, versus 54 ± 4 to 104 ± 3% for dialysis reference method. Substantial reduction of solvent consumed (from 400 to 60 mL) and analysis time (from 48 to 1 h) was achieved by using the developed procedure. High concentration levels of pyrethroid compounds, from 0.14 to 7.3 μg/SPMD, were found in indoor air after 2 h of a standard application

  9. Two-Dimensional Fluidization of Nanomaterials via Biomimetic Membranes towards Assisted Self Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kathleen

    -dimensional fluidity of the bilayer was translated to the quantum dots as they freely diffused. The quantum dots were visualized using wide-field fluorescent microscopy and single particle tracking techniques were employed to analyze their dynamic behavior. Next, an electric field was applied to the system to induce electroosmotic flow (EOF) which creates a bulk flow of the buffer solution. The quantum dots were again tracked and ballistic motion was observed in the particle tracks due to the electroosmosis in the system. This proved that SLBs could be used as a two-dimensional fluid platform for nanomaterials and electroosmosis can be used to manipulate the motion of the Q-dots once they are tethered to the membrane. Next, we set out to employ the same technique to carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which are known for their highly versatile mechanical and electrical properties. However, carbon nanotubes are extremely hydrophobic and tend to aggregate in aqueous solutions which negatively impacts the viability of tethering the CNTs to the bilayer, fluorescently staining and then imaging them. First, we had to solubilize the CNTs such that they were monodisperse and characterize the CNT-detergent solutions. We were able to create monodisperse solutions of CNTs such that the detergent levels were low enough that the integrity of the bilayer was intact. We were also able to fluorescently label the CNTs in order to visualize them, and tether them to a SLB using a peptide sequence. Future directions of this project would include employing EOF to mobilize the CNTs and use a more sophisticated single particle tracking software to track individual CNTs and analyze their motion.

  10. Pressurized hot water extraction followed by miniaturized membrane assisted solvent extraction for the green analysis of alkylphenols in sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro-González, N; Turnes-Carou, I; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D

    2015-02-27

    A novel and Green analytical methodology for the determination of alkylphenols (4-tert-octylphenol, 4-n-octylphenol, 4-n-nonylphenol, nonylphenol) in sediments was developed and validated. The method was based on pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) followed by miniaturized membrane assisted solvent extraction (MASE) and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry detection (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The extraction conditions were optimized by a Plackett-Burman design in order to minimize the number of assays according to Green principles. Matrix effect was studied and compensated using deuterated labeled standards as surrogate standards for the quantitation of the target compounds. The analytical features of the method were satisfactory: relative recoveries varied between 92 and 103% and repeatability and intermediate precision were MQL) ranged from 0.061 (4-n-nonylphenol) to 1.7ngg(-1) dry weight (nonylphenol). Sensitivity, selectivity, automaticity and fastness are the main advantages of the exposed methodology. Reagent consumption, analysis time and waste generation were minimized. The "greenness" of the proposed method was evaluated using an analytical Eco-Scale approach and satisfactory results were obtained. The applicability of the proposed method was demonstrated analysing sediment samples of Galicia coast (NW of Spain) and the ubiquity of alkylphenols in the environment was demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John D.

    1986-01-01

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock, comprising passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feedstock to glucose; cooling said dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, then feeding said dilute acid stream serially through a plurality of prehydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose; and cooling the dilute acid stream containing glucose after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  12. Membrane assisted solvent extraction coupled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry applied to the analysis of alkylphenols in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro-González, N; Turnes-Carou, I; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D

    2013-03-15

    This work describes the development and validation of a novel, simple, sensitive and environmental friendly analytical method for the determination of alkylphenols in different types of water samples. The methodology was based on a membrane assisted solvent extraction of only 15 mL of water sample with 500 μL of hexane in combination with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in negative mode (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Acquisition was performed in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode recording two transitions for the identification of the target compounds. Quantitation is based on the use of deuterated labelled standards as surrogate standards. The figures of merit were satisfactory in all cases: absolute recoveries were close to 50% for most investigated compounds and relative recoveries varied between 81 and 108%. Repeatability and intermediate precision were MQL) were lower than 0.04 μg L(-1) in all cases, which allow the achievement of the limits established by the Directive 2008/105/EC for surface and seawater samples and by the new proposal COM (2011) 876 final. The feasibility of the proposed method was demonstrated analyzing seawater, surface water and drinking water samples from different areas of A Coruña (Northwest of Spain). The analyses evidenced the presence of nonylphenol in seawater (MQL-0.13 μg L(-1)) and surface water samples (0.12-0.19 μg L(-1)). The highest concentration was observed in drinking water (0.25 μg L(-1)). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Inactivation of bacterial contaminants in drinking water using a novel batch-process TiO2-assisted solar photocatalytic disinfection (SPC-DIS) reactor for use in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuigan, K. G.; Duffy, E. F.; Al Touati, F.; Kehoe, S. C.; McLoughlin, O. A.; Gill, L. W.; Gernjak, W.; Oller, I.; Maldonado, M. I.; Malato, S.; Reed, R. H.

    2004-07-01

    The technical feasibility and performance of photocatalytic TiO2 coatings in batch-process solar disinfection (SODIS) reactors to improve potability of drinking water in developing countries have been studied. Borosilicate glass and PET plastic SODIS reactor fitted with flexible plastic inserts coated with TiO2 powder were shown to be 20% and 25% more effective, respectively, than standard SODIS reactors for the inactivation of E. coli K12 . Approximately 550J is required per litre of water to produce each 1-long-unit reduction in bacterial population within SPC-DIS reactors of the design described in this study. (Author) 14 refs.

  14. Preparation of polysiloxane modified perfluorosulfonic acid composite membranes assisted by supercritical carbon dioxide for direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lijun; Li, Lei; Li, Hong; Tang, Junkun; Zhang, Yongming; Yu, Wei; Zhou, Chixing

    Polysiloxane modified perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) composite membranes are prepared by using (3-mercaptopropyl) methyldimethoxysilane (MPMDMS) as a precursor of silicon alkoxide in supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc-CO 2) system. In the Sc-CO 2 system with the presence of water, Sc-CO 2 is not only used as a solvent and swelling agent, but also functioned as an acid catalyst for the condensation polymerization of MPMDMS. Characteristics of the modified composite membranes are investigated by using attenuated total reflection-infrared spectra, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The modified membrane with 13.9 wt.% poly(MPMDMS) is the best one among all the modified membranes, whose methanol permeability is extremely lower and selectivity (ratio of proton conductivity to methanol permeability) is about 5.49 times higher than that of pristine membrane and 5.88 times than that of Nafion ® 117, respectively. This modified PFSA membrane still can maintain its higher selectivity value than that of Nafion ® 117 in the temperature range of 25-65 °C. Therefore, the modified membranes prepared in Sc-CO 2 system may be the suitable candidate electrolytes for direct methanol fuel cell applications.

  15. Control and Optimization of Batch Chemical Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Rohani, Sohrab; Chhabra, Raj; Bonvin, Dominique; François, Grégory

    2017-01-01

    A batch process is characterized by the repetition of time-varying operations of finite duration. Due to the repetition, there are two independent “time” variables, namely, the run time during a batch and the batch index. Accordingly, the control and optimization objectives can be defined for a given batch or over several batches. This chapter describes the various control and optimization strategies available for the operation of batch processes. These include online and run-to-run control o...

  16. Nafion-assisted cross-linking of sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) bearing carboxylic acid groups and their composite membranes for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Haidan; Zhao, Chengji; Na, Hui [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Qianjin street 2699, Changchun 130012, Jilin (China)

    2010-06-01

    In this study, a new type of cross-linked composite membrane is prepared and considered for its potential applications in direct methanol fuel cell. Nafion and sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) bearing carboxylic acid groups (SPAEK-C) are blended and subsequently cross-linked by a Friedel-Craft reaction using the carboxylic acid groups in the SPAEK-C to achieve lower methanol permeability. The perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid groups of Nafion act as a benign solid catalyst, which assist the cross-linking of SPAEK-C. The physical and chemical characterizations of the cross-linked composite membranes are performed by varying the contents of SPAEK-C. The c-Nafion-15% membrane exhibits appropriate water uptake (10.49-25.22%), low methanol permeability (2.57 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}), and high proton conductivity (0.179 S cm{sup -1} at 80 C). DSC and FTIR analyze suggest the cross-linking reaction. These results show that the self-cross-linking of SPAEK-C in the Nafion membrane can effectively reduce methanol permeability while maintaining high proton conductivity. (author)

  17. Data-driven batch schuduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denehy, Tim [GOOGLE; Arpaci - Dusseau, Remzi [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Livny, Miron [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Arpaci - Dusseau, Andrea C [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop data-driven strategies for batch computing schedulers. Current CPU-centric batch schedulers ignore the data needs within workloads and execute them by linking them transparently and directly to their needed data. When scheduled on remote computational resources, this elegant solution of direct data access can incur an order of magnitude performance penalty for data-intensive workloads. Adding data-awareness to batch schedulers allows a careful coordination of data and CPU allocation thereby reducing the cost of remote execution. We offer here new techniques by which batch schedulers can become data-driven. Such systems can use our analytical predictive models to select one of the four data-driven scheduling policies that we have created. Through simulation, we demonstrate the accuracy of our predictive models and show how they can reduce time to completion for some workloads by as much as 80%.

  18. A novel proton exchange membrane fuel cell based power conversion system for telecom supply with genetic algorithm assisted intelligent interfacing converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Rajvir; Krishnasamy, Vijayakumar; Muthusamy, Kaleeswari; Chinnamuthan, Periasamy

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Proton exchange membrane fuel cell based telecom tower supply is proposed. • The use of diesel generator is eliminated and battery size is reduced. • Boost converter based intelligent interfacing unit is implemented. • The genetic algorithm assisted controller is proposed for effective interfacing. • The controller is robust against input and output disturbance rejection. - Abstract: This paper presents the fuel cell based simple electric energy conversion system for supplying the telecommunication towers to reduce the operation and maintenance cost of telecom companies. The telecom industry is at the boom and is penetrating deep into remote rural areas having unreliable or no grid supply. The telecom industry is getting heavily dependent on a diesel generator set and battery bank as a backup for continuously supplying a base transceiver station of telecom towers. This excessive usage of backup supply resulted in increased operational expenditure, the unreliability of power supply and had become a threat to the environment. A significant development and concern of clean energy sources, proton exchange membrane fuel cell based supply for base transceiver station is proposed with intelligent interfacing unit. The necessity of the battery bank capacity is significantly reduced as compared with the earlier solutions. Further, a simple closed loop and genetic algorithm assisted controller is proposed for intelligent interfacing unit which consists of power electronic boost converter for power conditioning. The proposed genetic algorithm assisted controller would ensure the tight voltage regulation at the DC distribution bus of the base transceiver station. Also, it will provide the robust performance of the base transceiver station under telecom load variation and proton exchange membrane fuel cell output voltage fluctuations. The complete electric energy conversion system along with telecom loads is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink platform and

  19. Membrane-assisted vapor stripping: energy efficient hybrid distillation-vapor permeation process for alcohol-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Energy efficient alternatives to distillation for alcohol recovery from dilute solution are needed to improve biofuel sustainability. A process integrating steam stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation step is proposed. The...

  20. Adaptive Batch Mode Active Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shayok; Balasubramanian, Vineeth; Panchanathan, Sethuraman

    2015-08-01

    Active learning techniques have gained popularity to reduce human effort in labeling data instances for inducing a classifier. When faced with large amounts of unlabeled data, such algorithms automatically identify the exemplar and representative instances to be selected for manual annotation. More recently, there have been attempts toward a batch mode form of active learning, where a batch of data points is simultaneously selected from an unlabeled set. Real-world applications require adaptive approaches for batch selection in active learning, depending on the complexity of the data stream in question. However, the existing work in this field has primarily focused on static or heuristic batch size selection. In this paper, we propose two novel optimization-based frameworks for adaptive batch mode active learning (BMAL), where the batch size as well as the selection criteria are combined in a single formulation. We exploit gradient-descent-based optimization strategies as well as properties of submodular functions to derive the adaptive BMAL algorithms. The solution procedures have the same computational complexity as existing state-of-the-art static BMAL techniques. Our empirical results on the widely used VidTIMIT and the mobile biometric (MOBIO) data sets portray the efficacy of the proposed frameworks and also certify the potential of these approaches in being used for real-world biometric recognition applications.

  1. A novel TiO{sub 2}-assisted solar photocatalytic batch-process disinfection reactor for the treatment of biological and chemical contaminants in domestic drinking water in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, E.F.; Al Touati, F. [Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Chemistry and Physics; Kehoe, S.C. [Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin (IE). Dept. of Surgery] (and others)

    2004-11-01

    The technical feasibility and performance of photocatalytic TiO{sub 2} coatings in batch-process solar disinfection (SODIS) reactors to improve potability of drinking water in developing countries have been studied. Borosilicate glass and PET plastic SODIS reactors fitted with flexible plastic inserts coated with TiO{sub 2} powder were shown to be 20% and 25% more effective, respectively, than standard SODIS reactors for the inactivation of E. coli K12. Isopropanol at 100 ppm concentration levels was observed to be completely photodegraded after 24 h continuous exposure to 100 mW/cm{sup 2} simulated sunlight in a similar solar photocatalytic disinfector (SPC-DIS) reactor. The technique for producing the TiO{sub 2}-coated plastic inserts is described and demonstrated to be an appropriate and affordable technology for developing countries. (Author)

  2. Hydrophilic, bactericidal nanoheater-enabled reverse osmosis membranes to improve fouling resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Jessica R; Tadepalli, Sirimuvva; Nergiz, Saide Z; Liu, Keng-Ku; You, Le; Tang, Yinjie; Singamaneni, Srikanth; Jun, Young-Shin

    2015-06-03

    Polyamide (PA) semipermeable membranes typically used for reverse osmosis water treatment processes are prone to fouling, which reduces the amount and quality of water produced. By synergistically coupling the photothermal and bactericidal properties of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets, gold nanostars (AuNS), and hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) on PA reverse osmosis membrane surfaces, we have dramatically improved fouling resistance of these membranes. Batch fouling experiments from three classes of fouling are presented: mineral scaling (CaCO3 and CaSO4), organic fouling (humic acid), and biofouling (Escherichia coli). Systematic analyses and a variety of complementary techniques were used to elucidate fouling resistance mechanisms from each layer of modification on the membrane surface. Both mineral scaling and organic fouling were significantly reduced in PA-GO-AuNS-PEG membranes compared to other membranes. The PA-GO-AuNS-PEG membrane was also effective in killing all near-surface bacteria compared to PA membranes. In the PA-GO-AuNS-PEG membrane, the GO nanosheets act as templates for in situ AuNS growth, which then facilitated localized heating upon irradiation by an 808 nm laser inactivating bacteria on the membrane surface. Furthermore, AuNS in the membrane assisted PEG in preventing mineral scaling on the membrane surface. In flow-through flux and foulant rejection tests, PA-GO-AuNS-PEG membranes performed better than PA membranes in the presence of CaSO4 and humic acid model foulants. Therefore, the newly suggested membrane surface modifications will not only reduce fouling from RO feeds, but can improve overall membrane performance. Our innovative membrane design reported in this study can significantly extend the lifetime and water treatment efficacy of reverse osmosis membranes to alleviate escalating global water shortage from rising energy demands.

  3. BatchJS: Implementing Batches in JavaScript

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Kasemier

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractNone of our popular programming languages know how to handle distribution well. Yet our programs interact more and more with each other and our data resorts in databases and web services. Batches are a new addition to languages that can finally bring native support for distribution to

  4. Analysis of Adiabatic Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erald Gjonaj

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of acetic anhydride is reacted with excess water in an adiabatic batch reactor to form an exothermic reaction. The concentration of acetic anhydride and the temperature inside the adiabatic batch reactor are calculated with an initial temperature of 20°C, an initial temperature of 30°C, and with a cooling jacket maintaining the temperature at a constant of 20°C. The graphs of the three different scenarios show that the highest temperatures will cause the reaction to occur faster.

  5. NDA BATCH 2002-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2009-12-09

    QC sample results (daily background checks, 20-gram and 100-gram SGS drum checks) were within acceptable criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on 5 drums with IDs LL85101099TRU, LL85801147TRU, LL85801109TRU, LL85300999TRU and LL85500979TRU. All replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. Note that the batch covered 5 weeks of SGS measurements from 23-Jan-2002 through 22-Feb-2002. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-02 generated using gamma spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with established control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable. An Expert Review was performed on the data packet between 28-Feb-02 and 09-Jul-02 to check for potential U-235, Np-237 and Am-241 interferences and address drum cases where specific scan segments showed Se gamma ray transmissions for the 136-keV gamma to be below 0.1 %. Two drums in the batch showed Pu-238 at a relative mass ratio more than 2% of all the Pu isotopes.

  6. NGBAuth - Next Generation Batch Authentication for long running batch jobs.

    CERN Document Server

    Juto, Zakarias

    2015-01-01

    This document describes the prototyping of a new solution for the CERN batch authentication of long running jobs. While the job submission requires valid user credentials, these have to be renewed due to long queuing and execution times. Described within is a new system which will guarantee a similar level of security as the old LSFAuth while simplifying the implementation and the overall architecture. The new system is being built on solid, streamlined and tested components (notably OpenSSL) and a priority has been to make it more generic in order to facilitate the evolution of the current system such as for the expected migration from LSF to Condor as backend batch system.

  7. Surfactant-Assisted Perovskite Nanofillers Incorporated in Quaternized Poly (Vinyl Alcohol Composite Membrane as an Effective Hydroxide-Conducting Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Rajesh Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite LaFeO3 nanofillers (0.1% are incorporated into a quaternized poly(vinyl alcohol (QPVA matrix for use as hydroxide-conducting membranes in direct alkaline methanol fuel cells (DAMFCs. The as-synthesized LaFeO3 nanofillers are amorphous and functionalized with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB surfactant. The annealed LaFeO3 nanofillers are crystalline without CTAB. The QPVA/CTAB-coated LaFeO3 composite membrane shows a defect-free structure while the QPVA/annealed LaFeO3 film has voids at the interfaces between the soft polymer and rigid nanofillers. The QPVA/CTAB-coated LaFeO3 composite has lower methanol permeability and higher ionic conductivity than the pure QPVA and QPVA/annealed LaFeO3 films. We suggest that the CTAB-coated LaFeO3 provides three functions to the polymeric composite: increasing polymer free volume, ammonium group contributor, and plasticizer to enhance the interfacial compatibility. The composite containing CTAB-coated LaFeO3 results in superior cell performance. A maximum power density of 272 mW cm−2 is achieved, which is among the highest power outputs reported for DAMFCs in the literature.

  8. PROOF on a Batch System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrenhoff, W; Ehrenfeld, W; Samson, J; Stadie, H

    2011-01-01

    The 'parallel ROOT facility' (PROOF) from the ROOT framework provides a mechanism to distribute the load of interactive and non-interactive ROOT sessions on a set of worker nodes optimising the overall execution time. While PROOF is designed to work on a dedicated PROOF cluster, the benefits of PROOF can also be used on top of another batch scheduling system with the help of temporary per user PROOF clusters. We will present a lightweight tool which starts a temporary PROOF cluster on a SGE based batch cluster or, via a plugin mechanism, e.g. on a set of bare desktops via ssh. Further, we will present the result of benchmarks which compare the data throughput for different data storage back ends available at the German National Analysis Facility (NAF) at DESY.

  9. Zeolite imidazolate frameworks 8 as sorbent and its application to sonication-assisted emulsification microextraction combined with vortex-assisted porous membrane-protected micro-solid-phase extraction for fast analysis of acidic drugs in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Dandan; Lee, Hian Kee

    2012-09-28

    A novel and fast procedure, sonication-assisted emulsification microextraction combined with vortex-assisted porous membrane protected micro-solid-phase extraction (SAEME-VA-μ-SPE), was developed for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometric determination of acidic drugs from environmental water samples. One advantage of the new procedure is that any solvent immiscible with water can be used as extractant solvent of SAEME and any solid sorbent can be used for μ-SPE in the SAEME-VA-μ-SPE process. In the present work, zeolite imidazolate framework 8 (ZIF-8) was employed as extraction sorbent for μ-SPE and 1-octanol as extractant solvent for SAEME. ZIF-8 has very good thermal, chemical and water stability, which make it a suitable material for the extraction of trace analytes from aqueous samples. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the developed method exhibited low limits of detection (0.01-0.04 ng/ml), good linearity (with r² between 0.9965 and 0.9993) from 0.5 to 50 ng/ml and satisfactory repeatability (between 4.1% and 7.6%). In essence SAEME-VA-μ-SPE is a combination of two different and efficient miniaturized techniques. It was demonstrated to be a fast, accurate, and convenient pretreatment procedure for trace analysis of environmental water samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fullerene-assisted electron-beam lithography for pattern improvement and loss reduction in InP membrane waveguide devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yuqing; Pello, Josselin; Mejia, Alonso Millan; Shen, Longfei; Smalbrugge, Barry; Geluk, Erik Jan; Smit, Meint; van der Tol, Jos

    2014-03-15

    In this Letter, we present a method to prepare a mixed electron-beam resist composed of a positive resist (ZEP520A) and C60 fullerene. The addition of C60 to the ZEP resist changes the material properties under electron beam exposure significantly. An improvement in the thermal resistance of the mixed material has been demonstrated by fabricating multimode interference couplers and coupling regions of microring resonators. The fabrication of distributed Bragg reflector structures has shown improvement in terms of pattern definition accuracy with respect to the same structures fabricated with normal ZEP resist. Straight InP membrane waveguides with different lengths have been fabricated using this mixed resist. A decrease of the propagation loss from 6.6 to 3.3  dB/cm has been demonstrated.

  11. Catalytic hydrogen/oxygen reaction assisted the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) startup at subzero temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shucheng; Yu, Hongmei; Hou, Junbo; Shao, Zhigang; Yi, Baolian; Ming, Pingwen; Hou, Zhongjun

    Fuel cells for automobile application need to operate in a wide temperature range including freezing temperature. However, the rapid startup of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) at subfreezing temperature, e.g., -20 °C, is very difficult. A cold-start procedure was developed, which made hydrogen and oxygen react to heat the fuel cell considering that the FC flow channel was the characteristic of microchannel reactor. The effect of hydrogen and oxygen reaction on fuel cell performance at ambient temperature was also investigated. The electrochemical characterizations such as I- V plot and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were performed. The heat generated rate for either the single cell or the stack was calculated. The results showed that the heat generated rate was proportional to the gas flow rate when H 2 concentration and the active area were constant. The fuel cell temperature rose rapidly and steadily by controlling gas flow rate.

  12. Posterior hyaloid detachment and internal limiting membrane peeling assisted by anthocyanins from acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea) and 10 other natural vital dyes: experimental study in cadaveric eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jane; Ferreira, Magno Antonio; Farah, Michel Eid; de Carvalho, André Maia; Alves Ferreira, Raquel Eustaquio; de Moraes Filho, Milton Nunes; Souza Lima-Filho, Acácio Alves; Lago, João Henrique G; Sartorelli, Patricia; Rodrigues, Eduardo Buchele; Ferreira, Eber; Peris, Cristiane; Maia, Maurício

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether natural dyes facilitate posterior hyaloid detachment (posterior vitreous detachment [PVD]) and retinal internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in human eyes. Open-sky vitrectomy with posterior hyaloid and ILM removal was performed in 86 human cadaveric eyes. After core vitrectomy, 11 different dyes were injected into the vitreous cavity to aid hyaloid detachment and ILM removal. The dyes were allowed to settle on the macula for 5 minutes after PVD and were removed by mechanical aspiration. Intraocular forceps were used for ILM peeling, which was confirmed by light microscopy of the peeled tissue. Acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea) extract and 10 additional dyes from plants or animal sources were tested: pomegranate (Punica granatum), logwood (Haematoxylum campechianum), chlorophyll extract from alfalfa (Medicago sativa), cochineal (Dactylopius coccus), hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), indigo (Indigofera tinctoria), paprika (Capiscum annuum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), old fustic (Maclura tinctoria), and grape (Vitis vinifera). The dyes facilitated PVD and ILM peeling. Acai fruit (E. oleracea) extract, logwood (H. campechianum), cochineal (D. coccus), and old fustic (M. tinctoria) facilitated PVD in all cases; dye-assisted PVD was compared with triamcinolone-assisted PVD performed previously in a comparative model. Acai fruit (E. oleracea) extract, cochineal (D. coccus), and chlorophyll extract from alfalfa (M. sativa) showed the best capability for ILM staining; dye-assisted ILM removal was compared with the ILM peeling guided by indocyanine green staining performed previously in a comparative model. Light microscopy confirmed the ILM removal in all cases. Anthocyanin dye of the acai fruit (E. oleracea) and the dyes from cochineal (D. coccus) and chlorophyll extract from alfalfa (M. sativa) resulted in the best capability for posterior hyaloid and ILM staining in human cadaveric eyes and may be a useful tool for

  13. Development of a membrane-assisted fluidized bed reactor - 1 - Gas phase back-mixing and bubble-to-emulsion phase mass transfer using tracer injection and ultrasound experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshmukh, S.A.R.K.; Laverman, J.A.; Cents, A.H.G.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    A small laboratory-scale membrane-assisted fluidized bed reactor (MAFBR) was constructed in order to experimentally demonstrate the benefits of this reactor concept, especially the enhanced bubble-to-emulsion phase mass transfer and the reduced overall axial gas phase back-mixing, due to the

  14. Membrane bioreactor (MBR) sludge inoculation in a hybrid process scheme concept to assist overloaded conventional activated sludge (CAS) process operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenu, A; Roels, J; Van Damme, S; Wambecq, T; Weemaes, M; Thoeye, C; De Gueldre, G; Van De Steene, B

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the effect of inoculating membrane bioreactor (MBR) sludge in a parallel-operated overloaded conventional activated sludge (CAS) system. Modelling studies that showed the beneficial effect of this inoculation were confirmed though full scale tests. Total nitrogen (TN) removal in the CAS increased and higher nitrate formation rates were achieved. During MBR sludge inoculation, the TN removal in the CAS was proven to be dependent on MBR sludge loading. Special attention was given to the effect of inoculation on sludge quality. The MBR flocs, grown without selection pressure, were clearly distinct from the more compact flocs in the CAS system and also contained more filamentous bacteria. After inoculation the MBR flocs did not evolve into good-settling compact flocs, resulting in a decreasing sludge quality. During high flow conditions the effluent CAS contained more suspended solids. Sludge volume index, however, did not increase. Laboratory tests were held to determine the threshold volume of MBR sludge to be seeded into the CAS reactor. Above 16-30%, supernatant turbidity and scum formation increased markedly.

  15. Darcy Permeability of Hollow Fiber Membrane Bundles Made from Membrana Polymethylpentene Fibers Used in Respiratory Assist Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhani, Shalv P; D'Aloiso, Brandon D; Frankowski, Brian; Federspiel, William J

    2016-01-01

    Hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) are used in blood oxygenators for cardiopulmonary bypass or in next generation artificial lungs. Flow analyses of these devices is typically done using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling HFM bundles as porous media, using a Darcy permeability coefficient estimated from the Blake-Kozeny (BK) equation to account for viscous drag from fibers. We recently published how well this approach can predict Darcy permeability for fiber bundles made from polypropylene HFMs, showing the prediction can be significantly improved using an experimentally derived correlation between the BK constant (A) and bundle porosity (ε). In this study, we assessed how well our correlation for A worked for predicting the Darcy permeability of fiber bundles made from Membrana polymethylpentene (PMP) HFMs, which are increasingly being used clinically. Swatches in the porosity range of 0.4 to 0.8 were assessed in which sheets of fiber were stacked in parallel, perpendicular, and angled configurations. Our previously published correlation predicted Darcy within ±8%. A new correlation based on current and past measured permeability was determined: A = 497ε - 103; using this correlation measured Darcy permeability was within ±6%. This correlation varied from 8% to -3.5% of our prior correlation over the tested porosity range.

  16. Darcy permeability of hollow fiber membrane bundles made from Membrana® Polymethylpentene (PMP) fibers used in respiratory assist devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhani, Shalv. P.; D’Aloiso, Brandon. D.; Frankowski, Brian.; Federspiel, William. J.

    2016-01-01

    Hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) are used in blood oxygenators for cardiopulmonary bypass or in next generation artificial lungs. Flow analyses of these devices is typically done using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling HFM bundles as porous media, using a Darcy permeability coefficient estimated from the Blake – Kozeny (BK) equation to account for viscous drag from fibers. We recently published how well this approach can predict Darcy permeability for fiber bundles made from polypropylene HFMs, showing the prediction can be significantly improved using an experimentally derived correlation between the BK constant (A) and bundle porosity (ε). In this study, we assessed how well our correlation for A worked for predicting the Darcy permeability of fiber bundles made from Membrana® polymethylpentene (PMP) HFMs, which are increasingly being used clinically. Swatches in the porosity range of 0.4 to 0.8 were assessed in which sheets of fiber were stacked in parallel, perpendicular and angled configurations. Our previously published correlation predicted Darcy within ±8%. A new correlation based on current and past measured permeability was determined: A=497ε-103; using this correlation measured Darcy permeability was within ±6%. This correlation varied from 8% to −3.5% of our prior correlation over the tested porosity range. PMID:26809086

  17. Oxygenated shunting from right to left: a feasibility study of minimized atrio-atrial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for mid-term lung assistance in an acute ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haushofer, Marcus; Abusabha, Yousef; Amerini, Andrea L A; Spillner, Jan; Nix, Christoph; Autschbach, Rüdiger; Goetzenich, Andreas; Hatam, Nima

    2013-07-01

    Right ventricular failure is often the final phase in acute and chronic respiratory failure. We combined right ventricular unloading with extracorporeal oxygenation in a new atrio-atrial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Eleven sheep (65 kg) were cannulated by a 28-Fr inflow cannula to the right atrium and a 25-Fr outflow cannula through the lateral left atrial wall. Both were connected by a serial combination of a microaxial pump (Impella Elect(®), Abiomed Europe, Aachen, Germany) and a membrane oxygenator (Novalung(®)-iLA membrane oxygenator; Novalung GmbH, Hechingen, Germany). In four animals, three subsequent states were evaluated: normal circulation, apneic hypoxia and increased right atrial after load by pulmonary banding. We focused on haemodynamic stability and gas exchange. All animals reached the end of the study protocol. In the apnoea phase, the decrease in PaO2 (21.4 ± 3.6 mmHg) immediately recovered (179.1 ± 134.8 mmHg) on-device in continuous apnoea. Right heart failure by excessive after load decreased mean arterial pressure (59 ± 29 mmHg) and increased central venous pressure and systolic right ventricular pressure; PaO2 and SvO2 decreased significantly. On assist, mean arterial pressure (103 ± 29 mmHg), central venous pressure and right ventricular pressure normalized. The SvO2 increased to 89 ± 3% and PaO2 stabilized (129 ± 21 mmHg). We demonstrated the efficacy of a miniaturized atrio-atrial ECMO. Right ventricular unloading was achieved, and gas exchange was well taken over by the Novalung. This allows an effective short- to mid-term treatment of cardiopulmonary failure, successfully combining right ventricular and respiratory bridging. The parallel bypass of the right ventricle and lung circulation permits full unloading of both systems as well as gradual weaning. Further pathologies (e.g. ischaemic right heart failure and acute lung injury) will have to be evaluated.

  18. Ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients assisted by veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support: Epidemiology and risk factors of treatment failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouglé, Adrien; Bombled, Camille; Margetis, Dimitri; Lebreton, Guillaume; Vidal, Charles; Coroir, Marine; Hajage, David; Amour, Julien

    2018-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is frequent in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. In the specific case of patients treated with Veno-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support (VA-ECMO), VAP treatment failures (VAP-TF) have been incompletely investigated. To investigate the risk factors of treatment failure (VAP-TF) in a large cohort of ICU patients treated with VA-ECMO, we conducted a retrospective study in a Surgical ICU about patients assisted with VA-ECMO between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2014. Diagnosis of VAP was confirmed by a positive quantitative culture of a respiratory sample. VAP-TF was defined as composite of death attributable to pneumonia and relapse within 28 days of the first episode. In total, 152 patients underwent ECMO support for > 48h. During the VA-ECMO support, 85 (55.9%) patients developed a VAP, for a rate of 60.6 per 1000 ECMO days. The main pathogens identified were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae. VAP-TF occurred in 37.2% of patients and was associated with an increased 28-day mortality (Hazard Ratio 3.05 [1.66; 5.63], P<0.001), and VA-ECMO assistance duration (HR 1.47 [1.05-2.05], P = 0.025). Risk factors for VAP-TF were renal replacement therapy (HR 13.05 [1.73; 98.56], P = 0.013) and documentation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (HR 2.36 [1.04; 5.35], P = 0.04). VAP in patients treated with VA-ECMO is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. RRT and infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa appear as strong risks factors of treatment failure. Further studies seem necessary to precise the best antibiotic management in these patients.

  19. Analysis of the effects of polyphenols on human spermatozoa reveals unexpected impacts on mitochondrial membrane potential, oxidative stress and DNA integrity; implications for assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, R J; Muscio, L; Whiting, S; Connaughton, H S; Fraser, B A; Nixon, B; Smith, N D; De Iuliis, G N

    2016-12-01

    The need to protect human spermatozoa from oxidative stress during assisted reproductive technology, has prompted a detailed analysis of the impacts of phenolic compounds on the functional integrity of these cells. Investigation of 16 individual compounds revealed a surprising variety of negative effects including: (i) a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) via mechanisms that were not related to opening of the permeability transition pore but associated with a reduction in thiol expression, (ii) a decline in intracellular reduced glutathione, (iii) the stimulation of pro-oxidant activity including the induction of ROS generation from mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial sources, (iv) stimulation of lipid peroxidation, (v) the generation of oxidative DNA damage, and (vi) impaired sperm motility. For most of the polyphenolic compounds examined, the loss of motility was gradual and highly correlated with the induction of lipid peroxidation (r=0.889). The exception was gossypol, which induced a rapid loss of motility due to its inherent alkylating activity; one consequence of which was a marked reduction in carboxymethyl lysine expression on the sperm tail; a post-translational modification that is known to play a key role in the regulation of sperm movement. The only polyphenols that did not appear to have adverse effects on spermatozoa were resveratrol, genistein and THP at doses below 100μM. These compounds could, therefore, have some therapeutic potential in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Family based dispatching with batch availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Family based dispatching rules seek to lower set-up frequencies by grouping (batching) similar types of jobs for joint processing. Hence shop flow times may be improved, as less time is spent on set-ups. Motivated by an industrial project we study the control of machines with batch availability,

  1. Nucleation and crystal growth in batch crystallizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to gain knowledge of the mechanism of formation of the crystal size distribution in batch crystallizers in order to give directives for design and operation of batch crystallizers. The crystal size distribution is important for the separation of crystals and mother

  2. Automatic endpoint determination for batch tea dryers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temple, S.J.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory batch fluid-bed dryer was developed for handling small samples of tea for experimental batch manufacture, and this dryer required a means of stopping drying when the process was complete. A control system was devised which requires only the initial weight of the sample to be entered

  3. Supervision of Fed-Batch Fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Lars; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1999-01-01

    Process faults may be detected on-line using existing measurements based upon modelling that is entirely data driven. A multivariate statistical model is developed and used for fault diagnosis of an industrial fed-batch fermentation process. Data from several (25) batches are used to develop a mo...

  4. Uneven batch data alignment with application to the control of batch end-product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jian; Marjanovic, Ognjen; Lennox, Barry

    2014-03-01

    Batch processes are commonly characterized by uneven trajectories due to the existence of batch-to-batch variations. The batch end-product quality is usually measured at the end of these uneven trajectories. It is necessary to align the time differences for both the measured trajectories and the batch end-product quality in order to implement statistical process monitoring and control schemes. Apart from synchronizing trajectories with variable lengths using an indicator variable or dynamic time warping, this paper proposes a novel approach to align uneven batch data by identifying short-window PCA&PLS models at first and then applying these identified models to extend shorter trajectories and predict future batch end-product quality. Furthermore, uneven batch data can also be aligned to be a specified batch length using moving window estimation. The proposed approach and its application to the control of batch end-product quality are demonstrated with a simulated example of fed-batch fermentation for penicillin production. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. In-Situ Catalytic Surface Modification of Micro-Structured La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF Oxygen Permeable Membrane Using Vacuum-Assisted technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Nur Hidayati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating the means to carry out in-situ surface modification of La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF oxygen permeable membrane by using vacuum assisted technique. The unique structure of the LSCF hollow fibre membrane used in this study, which consists of an outer dense oxygen separation layer and conical-shaped microchannels open at the inner surface has allowed the membrane to be used as oxygen separation membrane and as a structured substrate for where catalyst can be deposited. A catalyst solution of similar material, LSCF was prepared using sol-gel technique. Effects of calcination temperature and heating rate were investigated using XRD and TGA to ensure pure perovskites structure of LSCF was obtained. It was found that a lower calcination temperature can be used to obtain pure perovskite phase if slower heating rate is used. The SEM photograph shows that the distribution of catalyst onto the membrane microchannels using in-situ deposition technique was strongly related to the viscosity of LSCF catalytic sol. Interestingly, it was found that the amount of catalyst deposited using viscous solution was slightly higher than the less viscous sol. This might be due to the difficulty of catalyst sol to infiltrate the membrane and as a result, thicker catalyst layer was observed at the lumen rather than onto the conical-shaped microchannels. Therefore, the viscosity of catalyst solution and calcination process should be precisely controlled to ensure homogeneous catalyst layer deposition. Analysis of the elemental composition will be studied in the future using energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX to determine the elements deposited onto the membranes. Once the elemental analysis is confirmed, oxygen permeation analysis will be carried out.

  6. LSF usage for batch at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Schwickerath, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Contributed poster to the CHEP07. Original abstract: LSF 7, the latest version of Platform's batch workload management system, addresses many issues which limited the ability of LSF 6.1 to support large scale batch farms, such as the lxbatch service at CERN. In this paper we will present the status of the evaluation and deployment of LSF 7 at CERN, including issues concerning the integration of LSF 7 with the gLite grid middleware suite and, in particular, the steps taken to endure an efficient reporting of the local batch system status and usage to the Grid Information System

  7. Multi-objective optimization of glycopeptide antibiotic production in batch and fed batch processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiti, Soumen K.; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Bhushan, Mani

    2011-01-01

    as pareto optimal solutions. These solutions gives flexibility in evaluating the trade-offs and selecting the most suitable operating policy. Here, ε-constraint approach was used to generate the pareto solutions for two objectives: product concentration and product per unit cost of media, for batch and fed...... batch operations using process model for Amycolatopsis balhimycina, a glycopeptide antibiotic producer. This resulted in a set of several pareto optimal solutions with the two objectives ranging from (0.75gl−1, 3.97g$-1) to (0.44gl−1, 5.19g$-1) for batch and from (1.5gl−1, 5.46g$-1) to (1.1gl−1, 6.34g......$-1) for fed batch operations. One pareto solution each for batch and for fed batch mode was experimentally validated....

  8. An order-picking operations system for managing the batching activities in a warehouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Cathy H. Y.; Choy, K. L.; Ho, G. T. S.; Lee, C. K. M.

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, customer orders with high product variety in small quantities are often received and requested for timely delivery. However, the order-picking process is a labour-intensive and costly activity to handle those small orders separately. In such cases, small orders are often grouped into batches so that two or more orders can be served at once to increase the picking efficiency and thus reduce the travel distance. In this paper, an order-picking operations system (OPOS) is proposed to assist the formulation of an order-picking plan and batch-handling sequence. The study integrates a mathematical model and fuzzy logic technique to divide the receiving orders into batches and prioritise the batch-handling sequence for picking, respectively. Through the proposed system, the order-picking process can be managed as batches with common picking locations to minimise the travel distance, and the batch-picking sequence can be determined as well. To demonstrate the use of the system, a case study in a third-party logistics warehouse is presented, and the result shows that both the order-picking activity and labour utilisation can be better organised.

  9. Cobalt phthalocyanine as a novel molecular recognition reagent for batch and flow injection potentiometric and spectrophotometric determination of anionic surfactants

    OpenAIRE

    El-Nemma, Eman M.; Badawi, Nahla M.; Hassan, Saad S. M.

    2008-01-01

    Cobalt(II) phthalocyanine [Co(II)Pc] is used as both an ionophore and chromogen for batch and flow injection potentiometric and spectrophotometric determination of anionic surfactants (SDS), respectively. The potentiometric technique involves preparation of a polymeric membrane sensor by dispersing [Co(II)Pc] in a plasticized PVC membrane. Under batch mode of operation, the sensor displays a near-Nernstian slope of −56.5 mV decade−1, wide response linear range of 7.8 × 10−4 to 8.0 × 10−7 mol ...

  10. Effect of membrane polymeric materials on relationship between surface pore size and membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Taro; Yuasa, Kotaku; Ishigami, Toru; Rajabzadeh, Saeid; Kamio, Eiji; Ohmukai, Yoshikage; Saeki, Daisuke; Ni, Jinren; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the effect of different membrane polymeric materials on the relationship between membrane pore size and development of membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor (MBR). Membranes with different pore sizes were prepared using three different polymeric materials, cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB), polyvinyl butyral (PVB), and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), and the development of membrane fouling in each membrane was evaluated by batch filtration tests using a mixed liquor suspension obtained from a laboratory-scale MBR. The results revealed that the optimal membrane pore size to mitigate membrane fouling differed depending on membrane polymeric material. For PVDF membranes, the degree of membrane fouling decreased as membrane pore size increased. In contrast, CAB membranes with smaller pores had less fouling propensity than those with larger ones. Such difference can be attributed to the difference in major membrane foulants in each membrane; in PVDF, they were small colloids or dissolved organics in which proteins are abundant, and in CAB, microbial flocs. The results obtained in this study strongly suggested that optimum operating conditions of MBRs differ depending on the characteristics of the used membrane.

  11. The Effect of Membrane Material and Surface Pore Size on the Fouling Properties of Submerged Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungil Jeon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the relationship between membrane material and the development of membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor (MBR using membranes with different pore sizes and hydrophilicities. Batch filtration tests were performed using submerged single hollow fiber membrane ultrafiltration (UF modules with different polymeric membrane materials including cellulose acetate (CA, polyethersulfone (PES, and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF with activated sludge taken from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The three UF hollow fiber membranes were prepared by a non-solvent-induced phase separation method and had similar water permeabilities and pore sizes. The results revealed that transmembrane pressure (TMP increased more sharply for the hydrophobic PVDF membrane than for the hydrophilic CA membrane in batch filtration tests, even when membranes with similar permeabilities and pore sizes were used. PVDF hollow fiber membranes with smaller pores had greater fouling propensity than those with larger pores. In contrast, CA hollow fiber membranes showed good mitigation of membrane fouling regardless of pore size. The results obtained in this study suggest that the surface hydrophilicity and pore size of UF membranes clearly affect the fouling properties in MBR operation when using activated sludge.

  12. Enhanced mechanical properties and cytocompatibility of electrospun poly(L-lactide) composite fiber membranes assisted by polydopamine-coated halloysite nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Chuang; Zou, Ziping; Luo, Binghong; Wen, Wei; Li, Huihua; Liu, Mingxian; Zhou, Changren

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • D-HNTs was prepared by a facile approach based on the self-polymerization of DOPA. • The D-HNTs can disperse more uniformly in PLLA matrix than untreated HNTs. • The interfacial adhesion between D-HNTs and PLLA matrix was obviously improved. • D-HNTs/PLLA fiber membrane has better tensile properties compared with HNTs/PLLA. • The D-HNTs/PLLA fiber membrane is favorable to cell adhesion and proliferation. - Abstract: To improve the dispersion and interfacial interaction between halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) and poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) matrix, and hence to increase the mechanical properties and cytocompatibility of the HNTs/PLLA composite, a facile approach was developed to prepare polydopamine-coated HNTs (D-HNTs) by the self-polymerization of dopamine (DOPA), and then HNTs and D-HNTs were further introduced into PLLA matrix to fabricate HNTs/PLLA and D-HNTs/PLLA fiber membranes based on electrospinning technique. The successful immobilization of the polydopamine (PDOPA) coating on the surfaces of HNTs was confirmed, and such PDOPA coating played an important role in improving the interfacial interaction between the nanotubes and PLLA matrix. The D-HNTs were dispersed in the matrix more uniformly than untreated HNTs, and relative smooth and uniform fiber were obtained for the D-HNTs/PLLA fiber membrane. As a result, the tensile strength and modulus of the D-HNTs/PLLA fiber membrane were obviously superior to those of the HNTs/PLLA fiber membrane. Cell culture results revealed that D-HNTs/PLLA fiber membrane was more effectively to promote MC3T3-E1 cells adhesion and proliferation than neat PLLA and HNTs/PLLA fiber membrane.

  13. Enhanced mechanical properties and cytocompatibility of electrospun poly(L-lactide) composite fiber membranes assisted by polydopamine-coated halloysite nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Chuang; Zou, Ziping [Biomaterial Research Laboratory, Department of Material Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Luo, Binghong, E-mail: tluobh@jnu.edu.cn [Biomaterial Research Laboratory, Department of Material Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wen, Wei [Biomaterial Research Laboratory, Department of Material Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Li, Huihua [Biomaterial Research Laboratory, Department of Material Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Liu, Mingxian [Biomaterial Research Laboratory, Department of Material Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhou, Changren, E-mail: tcrz9@jnu.edu.cn [Biomaterial Research Laboratory, Department of Material Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • D-HNTs was prepared by a facile approach based on the self-polymerization of DOPA. • The D-HNTs can disperse more uniformly in PLLA matrix than untreated HNTs. • The interfacial adhesion between D-HNTs and PLLA matrix was obviously improved. • D-HNTs/PLLA fiber membrane has better tensile properties compared with HNTs/PLLA. • The D-HNTs/PLLA fiber membrane is favorable to cell adhesion and proliferation. - Abstract: To improve the dispersion and interfacial interaction between halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) and poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) matrix, and hence to increase the mechanical properties and cytocompatibility of the HNTs/PLLA composite, a facile approach was developed to prepare polydopamine-coated HNTs (D-HNTs) by the self-polymerization of dopamine (DOPA), and then HNTs and D-HNTs were further introduced into PLLA matrix to fabricate HNTs/PLLA and D-HNTs/PLLA fiber membranes based on electrospinning technique. The successful immobilization of the polydopamine (PDOPA) coating on the surfaces of HNTs was confirmed, and such PDOPA coating played an important role in improving the interfacial interaction between the nanotubes and PLLA matrix. The D-HNTs were dispersed in the matrix more uniformly than untreated HNTs, and relative smooth and uniform fiber were obtained for the D-HNTs/PLLA fiber membrane. As a result, the tensile strength and modulus of the D-HNTs/PLLA fiber membrane were obviously superior to those of the HNTs/PLLA fiber membrane. Cell culture results revealed that D-HNTs/PLLA fiber membrane was more effectively to promote MC3T3-E1 cells adhesion and proliferation than neat PLLA and HNTs/PLLA fiber membrane.

  14. Computer-assisted assessment of the Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 immunohistochemical assay in imaged histologic sections using a membrane isolation algorithm and quantitative analysis of positive controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ianosi-Irimie Monica

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancers that overexpress the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 are eligible for effective biologically targeted therapies, such as trastuzumab. However, accurately determining HER2 overexpression, especially in immunohistochemically equivocal cases, remains a challenge. Manual analysis of HER2 expression is dependent on the assessment of membrane staining as well as comparisons with positive controls. In spite of the strides that have been made to standardize the assessment process, intra- and inter-observer discrepancies in scoring is not uncommon. In this manuscript we describe a pathologist assisted, computer-based continuous scoring approach for increasing the precision and reproducibility of assessing imaged breast tissue specimens. Methods Computer-assisted analysis on HER2 IHC is compared with manual scoring and fluorescence in situ hybridization results on a test set of 99 digitally imaged breast cancer cases enriched with equivocally scored (2+ cases. Image features are generated based on the staining profile of the positive control tissue and pixels delineated by a newly developed Membrane Isolation Algorithm. Evaluation of results was performed using Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC analysis. Results A computer-aided diagnostic approach has been developed using a membrane isolation algorithm and quantitative use of positive immunostaining controls. By incorporating internal positive controls into feature analysis a greater Area Under the Curve (AUC in ROC analysis was achieved than feature analysis without positive controls. Evaluation of HER2 immunostaining that utilized membrane pixels, controls, and percent area stained showed significantly greater AUC than manual scoring, and significantly less false positive rate when used to evaluate immunohistochemically equivocal cases. Conclusion It has been shown that by incorporating both a membrane isolation algorithm and analysis of known

  15. Computer-assisted assessment of the Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 immunohistochemical assay in imaged histologic sections using a membrane isolation algorithm and quantitative analysis of positive controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Bonnie H; Ianosi-Irimie, Monica; Javidian, Parisa; Chen, Wenjin; Ganesan, Shridar; Foran, David J

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancers that overexpress the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are eligible for effective biologically targeted therapies, such as trastuzumab. However, accurately determining HER2 overexpression, especially in immunohistochemically equivocal cases, remains a challenge. Manual analysis of HER2 expression is dependent on the assessment of membrane staining as well as comparisons with positive controls. In spite of the strides that have been made to standardize the assessment process, intra- and inter-observer discrepancies in scoring is not uncommon. In this manuscript we describe a pathologist assisted, computer-based continuous scoring approach for increasing the precision and reproducibility of assessing imaged breast tissue specimens. Computer-assisted analysis on HER2 IHC is compared with manual scoring and fluorescence in situ hybridization results on a test set of 99 digitally imaged breast cancer cases enriched with equivocally scored (2+) cases. Image features are generated based on the staining profile of the positive control tissue and pixels delineated by a newly developed Membrane Isolation Algorithm. Evaluation of results was performed using Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis. A computer-aided diagnostic approach has been developed using a membrane isolation algorithm and quantitative use of positive immunostaining controls. By incorporating internal positive controls into feature analysis a greater Area Under the Curve (AUC) in ROC analysis was achieved than feature analysis without positive controls. Evaluation of HER2 immunostaining that utilized membrane pixels, controls, and percent area stained showed significantly greater AUC than manual scoring, and significantly less false positive rate when used to evaluate immunohistochemically equivocal cases. It has been shown that by incorporating both a membrane isolation algorithm and analysis of known positive controls a computer-assisted diagnostic algorithm was

  16. 40 CFR 63.1321 - Batch process vents provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the reference control technology requirements for Group 1 batch process vents in § 63.1322, the.... Owners or operators of all Group 2 batch process vents shall comply with the applicable reference control....1323 is not required. (2) For batch process vents and aggregate batch vent streams, the control...

  17. Ethanol effect on batch and fed-batch Arthrospira platensis growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Raquel P; Matsudo, Marcelo C; Pérez Mora, Lina S; Sato, Sunao; de Carvalho, João C Monteiro

    2014-04-01

    The ability of Arthrospira platensis to use ethanol as a carbon and energy source was investigated by batch process and fed-batch process. A. platensis was cultivated under the effect of a single addition (batch process) and a daily pulse feeding (fed-batch process) of pure ethanol, at different concentrations, to evaluate cell concentration (X) and specific growth rate (μ). A marked increase was observed in the cell concentration of A. platensis in runs with ethanol addition when compared to control cultures without ethanol addition. The fed-batch process using an ethanol concentration of 38 mg L(-1) days(-1) reached the maximum cell concentration of 2,393 ± 241 mg L(-1), about 1.5-fold that obtained in the control culture. In all experiments, the maximum specific growth rate was observed in the early exponential phase of cell growth. In the fed-batch process, μ decreased more slowly than in the batch process and control culture, resulting in the highest final cell concentration. Ethanol can be used as a feasible carbon and energy source for A. platensis growth via a fed-batch process.

  18. Model Penjadwalan Batch Multi Item dengan Dependent Processing Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukoyo Sukoyo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a development of single machine batch scheduling for multi items with dependent processing time. The batch scheduling problem is to determine simultaneously number of batch (N, which item and its size allocated for each batch, and processing sequences of resulting batches. We use total actual flow time as the objective of schedule performance. The multi item batch scheduling problem could be formulated into a biner-integer nonlinear programming model because the number of batch should be in integer value, the allocation of items to resulting batch need binary values, and also there are some non-linearity on objective function and constraint due to the dependent processing time. By applying relaxation on the decision variable of number of batch (N as parameter, a heuristic procedure could be applied to find solution of the single machine batch scheduling problem for multi items.

  19. Systematic Methodology for Reproducible Optimizing Batch Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonné, Dennis; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2006-01-01

    contribution furthermore presents how the asymptotic convergence of Iterative Learning Control is combined with the closed-loop performance of Model Predictive Control to form a robust and asymptotically stable optimal controller for ensuring reliable and reproducible operation of batch processes....... This controller may also be used for Optimizing control. The modeling and control performance is demonstrated on a fed-batch protein cultivation example. The presented methodologies lend themselves directly for application as Process Analytical Technologies (PAT).......This contribution presents a systematic methodology for rapid acquirement of discrete-time state space model representations of batch processes based on their historical operation data. These state space models are parsimoniously parameterized as a set of local, interdependent models. The present...

  20. Fuzzy batch controller for granular materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamyatin Nikolaj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on batch control of granular materials in production of building materials from fluorine anhydrite. Batching equipment is intended for smooth operation and timely feeding of supply hoppers at a required level. Level sensors and a controller of an asynchronous screw drive motor are used to control filling of the hopper with industrial anhydrite binders. The controller generates a required frequency and ensures required productivity of a feed conveyor. Mamdani-type fuzzy inference is proposed for controlling the speed of the screw that feeds mixture components. As related to production of building materials based on fluoride anhydrite, this method is used for the first time. A fuzzy controller is proven to be effective in controlling the filling level of the supply hopper. In addition, the authors determined optimal parameters of the batching process to ensure smooth operation and production of fluorine anhydrite materials of specified properties that can compete with gypsum-based products.

  1. H2-assisted CO2 thermochemical reduction on La0.9Ca0.1FeO3-δ membranes: a kinetics study

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xiao-Yu

    2017-11-04

    Kinetics data for CO2 thermochemical reduction in an isothermal membrane reactor is required to identify the rate-limiting steps. Here, we report a detailed reaction kinetics study on this process supported by an La0.9Ca0.1FeO3-δ (LCF-91) membrane. The dependence of CO2 reduction rate on various operating conditions is examined such as CO2 concentration on the feed side, fuel concentrations on the sweep side and temperatures. CO2 reduction rate is proportional to the oxygen flux across the membrane, and the measured maximum fluxes are 0.191 and 0.164 μmol cm-2 s-1 with 9.5% H2 and 11.6% CO on the sweep side at 990oC, respectively. Fuel is used to maintain the chemical potential gradient across the membrane and CO is used by construction to derive the surface reaction kinetics. This membrane also exhibits stable performances for 106 hours. A resistance-network model is developed to describe the oxygen transport process and the kinetics data are parameterized using the experimental values. The model shows a transition of the rate limiting step between the surface reactions on the feed side and the sweep side depending on the operating conditions.

  2. Control of Batch Processes Based on Hierarchical Petri Nets

    OpenAIRE

    YAJIMA, Tomoyuki; ITO, Takashi; HASHIZUME, Susumu; KURIMOTO, Hidekazu; ONOGI, Katsuaki

    2004-01-01

    A batch process is a typical concurrent system in which multiple interacting tasks are carried out in parallel on several batches at the same time. A major difficulty in designing a batch control system is the lack of modeling techniques. This paper aims at developing a method of constructing batch control system models in a hierarchical manner and operating batch processes using the constructed models. For this purpose, it first defines process and plant specifications described by partial l...

  3. Development and optimisation of a novel three-way extraction technique based on a combination of Soxhlet extraction, membrane assisted solvent extraction and a molecularly imprinted polymer using sludge polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as model compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, Somandla; Lekoto, Goitsemang; Cukrowska, Ewa; Chimuka, Luke

    2018-02-01

    A novel technique that integrates extraction and clean-up into a single step format is reported as part of the search for new sample preparation techniques in the analysis of persistent organic pollutants from complex samples. This was achieved by combining the extraction efficiency of the Soxhlet extractor, the selectivity of a size exclusion membrane and the specificity of a molecularly imprinted polymer for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from wastewater sludge followed by quantitation using gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The approach is described as the Soxhlet extraction membrane-assisted solvent extraction molecularly imprinted polymer technique. This technique was optimised for various parameters such as extraction solvent, reflux time and membrane acceptor phase. The applicability of the developed technique was optimised using a wastewater sludge certified reference material and then tested on real wastewater sludge samples. The method detection limits ranged from 0.14 to 12.86 ng/g with relative standard deviation values for the extraction of the 16 US-EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from wastewater sludge samples ranging from 0.78 to 18%. The extraction process was therefore reproducible and showed remarkable selectivity. The developed technique is a promising prospect that can be applied in the analysis of organic pollutants from complex solid samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Monitoring of batch processes using spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurden, S. P.; Westerhuis, J. A.; Smilde, A. K.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing need for new techniques for the understanding, monitoring and the control of batch processes. Spectroscopy is now becoming established as a means of obtaining real-time, high-quality chemical information at frequent time intervals and across a wide range of industrial

  5. Exploring the Transition From Batch to Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2010-01-01

    The transition from using computers in batch mode with punch cards, paper tape, piles of print, and lengthy response times to online mode by way of the video display terminal took place in most organizations in the 1970s and 1980s. The video display terminal was a significant forerunner...

  6. Membrane dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications...

  7. Monte Carlo simulation on kinetics of batch and semi-batch free radical polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Jing

    2015-10-27

    Based on Monte Carlo simulation technology, we proposed a hybrid routine which combines reaction mechanism together with coarse-grained molecular simulation to study the kinetics of free radical polymerization. By comparing with previous experimental and simulation studies, we showed the capability of our Monte Carlo scheme on representing polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes. Various kinetics information, such as instant monomer conversion, molecular weight, and polydispersity etc. are readily calculated from Monte Carlo simulation. The kinetic constants such as polymerization rate k p is determined in the simulation without of “steady-state” hypothesis. We explored the mechanism for the variation of polymerization kinetics those observed in previous studies, as well as polymerization-induced phase separation. Our Monte Carlo simulation scheme is versatile on studying polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes.

  8. Prostate cancer nodal oligometastasis accurately assessed using prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography-computed tomography and confirmed histologically following robotic-assisted lymph node dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermot B O′Kane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We herein present a case of a 76-year-old gentleman, where prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PSMA PET-CT was used to accurately detect prostate cancer (PCa, pelvic lymph node (LN metastasis in the setting of biochemical recurrence following definitive treatment for PCa. The positive PSMA PET-CT result was confirmed with histological examination of the involved pelvic LNs following pelvic LN dissection.

  9. Prostate cancer nodal oligometastasis accurately assessed using prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography-computed tomography and confirmed histologically following robotic-assisted lymph node dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, Dermot B; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Bolton, Damien M

    2016-01-01

    We herein present a case of a 76-year-old gentleman, where prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PSMA PET-CT) was used to accurately detect prostate cancer (PCa), pelvic lymph node (LN) metastasis in the setting of biochemical recurrence following definitive treatment for PCa. The positive PSMA PET-CT result was confirmed with histological examination of the involved pelvic LNs following pelvic LN dissection.

  10. Batch and fed-batch production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guo-qing; Kong, Qing; Chen, Qi-he; Ruan, Hui

    2005-01-01

    The production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB at various pH values was investigated. In order to study the effect of pH on cell growth, butyric acid biosynthesis and reducing sugar consumption, different cultivation pH values ranging from 6.0 to 7.5 were evaluated in 5-L bioreactor. In controlled pH batch fermentation, the optimum pH for cell growth and butyric acid production was 6.5 with a cell yield of 3.65 g/L and butyric acid yield of 12.25 g/L. Based on these results, this study then compared batch and fed-batch fermentation of butyric acid production at pH 6.5. Maximum value (16.74 g/L) of butyric acid concentration was obtained in fed-batch fermentation compared to 12.25 g/L in batch fermentation. It was concluded that cultivation under fed-batch fermentation mode could enhance butyric acid production significantly (P<0.01) by C. butyricum ZJUCB. PMID:16252341

  11. Repeated batch and continuous degradation of chlorpyrifos by Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, Vijayalakshmi; Subbaiah, Usha Malavalli

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken with the objective of studying repeated batch and continuous degradation of chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl phosphorothioate) using Ca-alginate immobilized cells of Pseudomonas putida isolated from an agricultural soil, and to study the genes and enzymes involved in degradation. The study was carried out to reduce the toxicity of chlorpyrifos by degrading it to less toxic metabolites. Long-term stability of pesticide degradation was studied during repeated batch degradation of chlorpyrifos, which was carried out over a period of 50 days. Immobilized cells were able to show 65% degradation of chlorpyrifos at the end of the 50th cycle with a cell leakage of 112 × 10(3) cfu mL(-1). During continuous treatment, 100% degradation was observed at 100 mL h(-1) flow rate with 2% chlorpyrifos, and with 10% concentration of chlorpyrifos 98% and 80% degradation was recorded at 20 mL h(-1) and 100 mL h(-1) flow rate respectively. The products of degradation detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis were 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol and chlorpyrifos oxon. Plasmid curing experiments with ethidium bromide indicated that genes responsible for the degradation of chlorpyrifos are present on the chromosome and not on the plasmid. The results of Polymerase chain reaction indicate that a ~890-bp product expected for mpd gene was present in Ps. putida. Enzymatic degradation studies indicated that the enzymes involved in the degradation of chlorpyrifos are membrane-bound. The study indicates that immobilized cells of Ps. putida have the potential to be used in bioremediation of water contaminated with chlorpyrifos.

  12. BATCHING PRINCIPLE OF RATING POINT ACCRUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Safontsev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes characteristics of the postindustrial educational system, including the credit competence assessment, academic loads, and module-rating discipline structure. The employers’ judgments, reflected in the survey outcomes, make it possible to single out the most significant competencies for students to master. Such findings are regarded as a foundation for developing the assignment modules, integrating the problematic, testing and projecting tasks, designed to master necessary competences; their effectiveness is estimated by using the criteria of behavioral psychology. The paper demonstrates the sequences of monitoring assessment of students’ academic achievements, and recommends the batching principle of rating point accrual, based on criterion-oriented evaluation standards, reflecting students’ competence levels. The authors identify the basic competence indicators: interest in the subject, reflections on the test results, and inner motivation for project activities. The complex of batching equations is given for developing the training cards of academic disciplines, and guaranteeing the effectiveness of education system.

  13. Degradation of Polypropylene Membranes Applied in Membrane Distillation Crystallizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Gryta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The studies on the resistance to degradation of capillary polypropylene membranes assembled in a membrane crystallizer were performed. The supersaturation state of salt was achieved by evaporation of water from the NaCl saturated solutions using membrane distillation process. A high feed temperature (363 K was used in order to enhance the degradation effects and to shorten the test times. Salt crystallization was carried out by the application of batch or fluidized bed crystallizer. A significant membrane scaling was observed regardless of the method of realized crystallization. The SEM-EDS, DSC, and FTIR methods were used for investigations of polypropylene degradation. The salt crystallization onto the membrane surface accelerated polypropylene degradation. Due to a polymer degradation, the presence of carbonyl groups on the membranes’ surface was identified. Besides the changes in the chemical structure a significant mechanical damage of the membranes, mainly caused by the internal scaling, was also found. As a result, the membranes were severely damaged after 150 h of process operation. A high level of salt rejection was maintained despite damage to the external membrane surface.

  14. BatchPrimer3: A high throughput web application for PCR and sequencing primer design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Yaqin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellite (simple sequence repeat – SSR and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers are two types of important genetic markers useful in genetic mapping and genotyping. Often, large-scale genomic research projects require high-throughput computer-assisted primer design. Numerous such web-based or standard-alone programs for PCR primer design are available but vary in quality and functionality. In particular, most programs lack batch primer design capability. Such a high-throughput software tool for designing SSR flanking primers and SNP genotyping primers is increasingly demanded. Results A new web primer design program, BatchPrimer3, is developed based on Primer3. BatchPrimer3 adopted the Primer3 core program as a major primer design engine to choose the best primer pairs. A new score-based primer picking module is incorporated into BatchPrimer3 and used to pick position-restricted primers. BatchPrimer3 v1.0 implements several types of primer designs including generic primers, SSR primers together with SSR detection, and SNP genotyping primers (including single-base extension primers, allele-specific primers, and tetra-primers for tetra-primer ARMS PCR, as well as DNA sequencing primers. DNA sequences in FASTA format can be batch read into the program. The basic information of input sequences, as a reference of parameter setting of primer design, can be obtained by pre-analysis of sequences. The input sequences can be pre-processed and masked to exclude and/or include specific regions, or set targets for different primer design purposes as in Primer3Web and primer3Plus. A tab-delimited or Excel-formatted primer output also greatly facilitates the subsequent primer-ordering process. Thousands of primers, including wheat conserved intron-flanking primers, wheat genome-specific SNP genotyping primers, and Brachypodium SSR flanking primers in several genome projects have been designed using the program and validated

  15. Batch calculations in CalcHEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukhov, A.

    2003-01-01

    CalcHEP is a clone of the CompHEP project which is developed by the author outside of the CompHEP group. CompHEP/CalcHEP are packages for automatic calculations of elementary particle decay and collision properties in the lowest order of perturbation theory. The main idea prescribed into the packages is to make available passing on from the Lagrangian to the final distributions effectively with a high level of automation. According to this, the packages were created as a menu driven user friendly programs for calculations in the interactive mode. From the other side, long-time calculations should be done in the non-interactive regime. Thus, from the beginning CompHEP has a problem of batch calculations. In CompHEP 33.23 the batch session was realized by mean of interactive menu which allows to the user to formulate the task for batch. After that the not-interactive session was launched. This way is too restricted, not flexible, and leads to doubling in programming. In this article I discuss another approach how one can force an interactive program to work in non-interactive mode. This approach was realized in CalcHEP 2.1 disposed on http://theory.sinp.msu.ru/~pukhov/calchep.html

  16. Pollution prevention applications in batch manufacturing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Derek W.; O'Shaughnessy, James

    2004-02-01

    Older, "low-tech" batch manufacturing operations are often fertile grounds for gains resulting from pollution prevention techniques. This paper presents a pollution prevention technique utilized for wastewater discharge permit compliance purposes at a batch manufacturer of detergents, deodorants, and floor-care products. This manufacturer generated industrial wastewater as a result of equipment rinses required after each product batch changeover. After investing a significant amount of capital on end of pip-line wastewater treatment technology designed to address existing discharge limits, this manufacturer chose to investigate alternate, low-cost approaches to address anticipated new permit limits. Mass balances using spreadsheets and readily available formulation and production data were conducted on over 300 products to determine how each individual product contributed to the total wastewater pollutant load. These mass balances indicated that 22 products accounted for over 55% of the wastewater pollutant. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine whether these same products could accept their individual changeover rinse water as make-up water in formulations without sacrificing product quality. This changeover reuse technique was then implement at the plant scale for selected products. Significant reductions in wastewater volume (25%) and wastewater pollutant loading (85+%) were realized as a direct result of this approach.

  17. Batch-batch stable microbial community in the traditional fermentation process of huyumei broad bean pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linjiang; Fan, Zihao; Kuai, Hui; Li, Qi

    2017-09-01

    During natural fermentation processes, a characteristic microbial community structure (MCS) is naturally formed, and it is interesting to know about its batch-batch stability. This issue was explored in a traditional semi-solid-state fermentation process of huyumei, a Chinese broad bean paste product. The results showed that this MCS mainly contained four aerobic Bacillus species (8 log CFU per g), including B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. methylotrophicus, and B. tequilensis, and the facultative anaerobe B. cereus with a low concentration (4 log CFU per g), besides a very small amount of the yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (2 log CFU per g). The dynamic change of the MCS in the brine fermentation process showed that the abundance of dominant species varied within a small range, and in the beginning of process the growth of lactic acid bacteria was inhibited and Staphylococcus spp. lost its viability. Also, the MCS and its dynamic change were proved to be highly reproducible among seven batches of fermentation. Therefore, the MCS naturally and stably forms between different batches of the traditional semi-solid-state fermentation of huyumei. Revealing microbial community structure and its batch-batch stability is helpful for understanding the mechanisms of community formation and flavour production in a traditional fermentation. This issue in a traditional semi-solid-state fermentation of huyumei broad bean paste was firstly explored. This fermentation process was revealed to be dominated by a high concentration of four aerobic species of Bacillus, a low concentration of B. cereus and a small amount of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Lactic acid bacteria and Staphylococcus spp. lost its viability at the beginning of fermentation. Such the community structure was proved to be highly reproducible among seven batches. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Batch correction of microarray data substantially improves the identification of genes differentially expressed in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfer, Peter; Guthke, Reinhard; Pohlers, Dirk; Huber, Rene; Koczan, Dirk; Kinne, Raimund W

    2012-06-08

    points following stimulation with either TNF-α or TGF-β1. Batch correction appears to be an extremely valuable tool to eliminate non-biological batch effects, and allows the identification of genes discriminating between different joint diseases. RA-SFB show an upregulated expression of extracellular matrix components, both constitutively following isolation from the synovial membrane and upon stimulation with disease-relevant cytokines or growth factors, suggesting an "imprinted" alteration of their phenotype.

  19. Batch correction of microarray data substantially improves the identification of genes differentially expressed in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupfer Peter

    2012-06-01

    > OA, both constitutively at time point 0, and at all time points following stimulation with either TNF-α or TGF-β1. Conclusion Batch correction appears to be an extremely valuable tool to eliminate non-biological batch effects, and allows the identification of genes discriminating between different joint diseases. RA-SFB show an upregulated expression of extracellular matrix components, both constitutively following isolation from the synovial membrane and upon stimulation with disease-relevant cytokines or growth factors, suggesting an “imprinted” alteration of their phenotype.

  20. 40 CFR 63.1408 - Aggregate batch vent stream provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Aggregate batch vent stream provisions... § 63.1408 Aggregate batch vent stream provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of aggregate batch vent streams at a new or existing affected source shall comply with either paragraph (a)(1...

  1. 7 CFR 58.728 - Cooking the batch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooking the batch. 58.728 Section 58.728 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.728 Cooking the batch. Each batch of cheese within the cooker, including the optional...

  2. Batch crystallization of rhodopsin for structural dynamics using an X-ray free-electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wenting; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Rheinberger, Jan; Kick, Leonhard M.; Gati, Cornelius; Nelson, Garrett; Deupi, Xavier; Standfuss, Jörg; Schertler, Gebhard; Panneels, Valérie, E-mail: valerie.panneels@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute, OFLC/103, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

    2015-06-27

    A new batch preparation method is presented for high-density micrometre-sized crystals of the G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin for use in time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography at an X-ray free-electron laser using a liquid jet. Rhodopsin is a membrane protein from the G protein-coupled receptor family. Together with its ligand retinal, it forms the visual pigment responsible for night vision. In order to perform ultrafast dynamics studies, a time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography method is required owing to the nonreversible activation of rhodopsin. In such an approach, microcrystals in suspension are delivered into the X-ray pulses of an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) after a precise photoactivation delay. Here, a millilitre batch production of high-density microcrystals was developed by four methodical conversion steps starting from known vapour-diffusion crystallization protocols: (i) screening the low-salt crystallization conditions preferred for serial crystallography by vapour diffusion, (ii) optimization of batch crystallization, (iii) testing the crystal size and quality using second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging and X-ray powder diffraction and (iv) production of millilitres of rhodopsin crystal suspension in batches for serial crystallography tests; these crystals diffracted at an XFEL at the Linac Coherent Light Source using a liquid-jet setup.

  3. [Comparison research on two-stage sequencing batch MBR and one-stage MBR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xin-Yan; Shen, Heng-Gen; Sun, Lei; Wang, Lin; Li, Shi-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at resolving problems in MBR operation, like low nitrogen and phosphorous removal efficiency, severe membrane fouling and etc, comparison research on two-stage sequencing batch MBR (TSBMBR) and one-stage aerobic MBR has been done in this paper. The results indicated that TSBMBR owned advantages of SBR in removing nitrogen and phosphorous, which could make up the deficiency of traditional one-stage aerobic MBR in nitrogen and phosphorous removal. During steady operation period, effluent average NH4(+) -N, TN and TP concentration is 2.83, 12.20, 0.42 mg/L, which could reach domestic scenic environment use. From membrane fouling control point of view, TSBMBR has lower SMP in supernatant, specific trans-membrane flux deduction rate, membrane fouling resistant than one-stage aerobic MBR. The sedimentation and gel layer resistant of TSBMBR was only 6.5% and 33.12% of one-stage aerobic MBR. Besides high efficiency in removing nitrogen and phosphorous, TSBMBR could effectively reduce sedimentation and gel layer pollution on membrane surface. Comparing with one-stage MBR, TSBMBR could operate with higher trans-membrane flux, lower membrane fouling rate and better pollutants removal effects.

  4. Semiautomated, Reproducible Batch Processing of Soy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoerne, Mary; Byford, Ivan W.; Chastain, Jack W.; Swango, Beverly E.

    2005-01-01

    A computer-controlled apparatus processes batches of soybeans into one or more of a variety of food products, under conditions that can be chosen by the user and reproduced from batch to batch. Examples of products include soy milk, tofu, okara (an insoluble protein and fiber byproduct of soy milk), and whey. Most processing steps take place without intervention by the user. This apparatus was developed for use in research on processing of soy. It is also a prototype of other soy-processing apparatuses for research, industrial, and home use. Prior soy-processing equipment includes household devices that automatically produce soy milk but do not automatically produce tofu. The designs of prior soy-processing equipment require users to manually transfer intermediate solid soy products and to press them manually and, hence, under conditions that are not consistent from batch to batch. Prior designs do not afford choices of processing conditions: Users cannot use previously developed soy-processing equipment to investigate the effects of variations of techniques used to produce soy milk (e.g., cold grinding, hot grinding, and pre-cook blanching) and of such process parameters as cooking times and temperatures, grinding times, soaking times and temperatures, rinsing conditions, and sizes of particles generated by grinding. In contrast, the present apparatus is amenable to such investigations. The apparatus (see figure) includes a processing tank and a jacketed holding or coagulation tank. The processing tank can be capped by either of two different heads and can contain either of two different insertable mesh baskets. The first head includes a grinding blade and heating elements. The second head includes an automated press piston. One mesh basket, designated the okara basket, has oblong holes with a size equivalent to about 40 mesh [40 openings per inch (.16 openings per centimeter)]. The second mesh basket, designated the tofu basket, has holes of 70 mesh [70 openings

  5. Efficient Gene Delivery Mediated by a Helical Polypeptide: Controlling the Membrane Activity via Multivalency and Light-Assisted Photochemical Internalization (PCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Li, Yongjuan; Liang, Qiujun; Song, Ziyuan; Li, Fangfang; He, Hua; Wang, Jinhui; Zhu, Lipeng; Lin, Zhifeng; Yin, Lichen

    2018-01-10

    The development of robust and nontoxic membrane-penetrating materials is highly demanded for nonviral gene delivery. Herein, a photosensitizer (PS)-embedded, star-shaped helical polypeptide was developed, which combines the advantages of multivalency-enhanced intracellular DNA uptake and light-strengthened endosomal escape to enable highly efficient gene delivery with low toxicity. 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis-(4-aminophenyl) porphyrin as a selected PS initiated ring-opening polymerization of N-carboxyanhydride and yielded a star-shaped helical polypeptide after side-chain functionalization with guanidine groups. The star polypeptide afforded a notably higher transfection efficiency and lower cytotoxicity than those of its linear analogue. Light irradiation caused almost complete (∼90%) endosomal release of the DNA cargo via the photochemical internalization (PCI) mechanism and further led to a 6-8-fold increment of the transfection efficiency in HeLa, B16F10, and RAW 264.7 cells, outperforming commercial reagent 25k PEI by up to 3 orders of magnitude. Because the PS and DNA cargoes were compartmentalized distantly in the core and polypeptide layers, respectively, the generated reactive oxygen species caused minimal damage to DNA molecules to preserve their transfection potency. Such multivalency- and PCI-potentiated gene delivery efficiency was also demonstrated in vivo in melanoma-bearing mice. This study thus provides a promising strategy to overcome the multiple membrane barriers against nonviral gene delivery.

  6. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  7. Biobased Membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenders, E.A.B.; Zlopasa, J.; Picken, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is in the field of a composition for forming a bio-compatible membrane applicable to building material, such as concrete, cement, etc., to a meth od of applying said composition for forming a bio-compatible membrane, a biocompatible membrane, use of said membrane for various

  8. [CO2-laser-assisted de-epithelialization of perforation margins of persistent tympanic membrane perforations. An alternative to conventional surgical procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessler, C; Haisch, A; Jovanovic, S; Sedlmaier, B

    2009-11-01

    The standard treatment of persistent eardrum perforation is conventional surgical closure using myringoplasty or a tympanoplasty type I. In this study the valence of a modified, CO(2)-laser-assisted de-epithelialization of perforation margins was investigated. A total of 44 patients with mesotympanal eardrum perforation (diameter 1-5 mm) were included in a partially retrospective and partially prospective study. The genesis of the eardrum perforations was partially traumatic or the eardrum did not heal after spontaneous perforation caused by an acute otitis media or after surgery. The procedure was performed under topical anaesthesia. Focussed, adjacent, single CO(2) laser pulses (1 watt, 0.05 s) were applied with the laser otoscope Otoscan (Lumenis, Yokneam, Israel) along the edge of the perforation until complete de-epithelialization. This was done to stimulate growth. Closure of eardrum perforation was monitored using an ear microscope and if this treatment was not successful after three attempts conventional surgical therapy was suggested. Complete eardrum closure occurred in 27 cases (61%), 17 patients (39%) had a residual perforation, of which 9 experienced a significant reduction of the perforation. There were no complications during and after the treatment. A closure rate of at least 61% (27/44) can be expected with a CO(2)-laser-assisted de-epithelialization of the perforation margins. This procedure can be performed under topical anaesthesia and is an economic, painless and facile alternative to conventional surgical treatment.

  9. CONVERSION OF PINEAPPLE JUICE WASTE INTO LACTIC ACID IN BATCH AND FED – BATCH FERMENTATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mochamad Busairi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple juice waste contains valuable components, which are mainly sucrose, glucose, and fructose. Recently, lactic acid has been considered to be an important raw material for the production of biodegradable lactide polymer. The fermentation experiments were carried out in a 3 litres fermentor (Biostat B Model under anaerobic condition with stirring speed of 50 rpm, temperature at 40oC, and pH of 6.00. Effect of feed concentration on lactic acid production, bacterial growth, substrate utilisation and productivity was studied. The results obtained from fed- batch culture fermentation showed that the maximum lactic acid productivity was 0.44 g/L.h for feed concentration of 90 g/L at 48 hours. Whereas the lactic acid productivity obtained from fed-batch culture was twice and half fold higher than that of batch culture productivity.  Buangan jus nanas mengandung komponen yang berharga terutama sukrosa, glukosa, dan fruktosa. Asam laktat adalah bahan baku yang terbaru dan penting untuk dibuat sebagai polimer laktat yang dapat terdegradasi oleh lingkungan. Percobaan dilakukan pada fermentor 3 liter (Model Biostat B di bawah kondisi anaerob dengan kecepatan pengadukan 50 rpm, temperatur 40oC, dan pH 6,00. Pengaruh konsentrasi umpan terhadap produksi asam laktat, pertumbuhan mikroba, pengggunaan substrat dan produktivitas telah dipelajari. Hasil yang didapatkan pada fermentasi dengan menggunakan sistem fed-batch menunjukkan bahwa produktivitas asam laktat maksimum adalah 0.44 g/L,jam dengan konsentrasi umpan, 90 g/L pada waktu 48 jam. Bahkan produktivitas asam laktat yang didapat pada kultur fed-batch lebih tinggi 2,5 kali dari pada proses menggunakan sistem batch

  10. Use of Laser Assisted Optical Rotational Cell Analyzer (LoRRca MaxSis in the Diagnosis of RBC Membrane Disorders, Enzyme Defects, and Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemias: A Monocentric Study on 202 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zaninoni

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hemolytic anemias are a group of heterogeneous diseases mainly due to abnormalities of red cell (RBC membrane and metabolism. The more common RBC membrane disorders, classified on the basis of blood smear morphology, are hereditary spherocytosis (HS, elliptocytosis, and hereditary stomatocytoses (HSt. Among RBC enzymopathies, the most frequent is pyruvate kinase (PK deficiency, followed by glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, pyrimidine 5′ nucleotidase P5′N, and other rare enzymes defects. Because of the rarity and heterogeneity of these diseases, diagnosis may be often challenging despite the availability of a variety of laboratory tests. The ektacytometer laser-assisted optical rotational cell analyser (LoRRca MaxSis, able to assess the RBC deformability in osmotic gradient conditions (Osmoscan analysis, is a useful diagnostic tool for RBC membrane disorders and in particular for the identification of hereditary stomatocytosis. Few data are so far available in other hemolytic anemias. We evaluated the diagnostic power of LoRRca MaxSis in a large series of 140 patients affected by RBC membrane disorders, 37 by enzymopathies, and 16 by congenital diserythropoietic anemia type II. Moreover, nine patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH were also investigated. All the hereditary spherocytoses, regardless the biochemical defect, showed altered Osmoscan curves, with a decreased Elongation Index (EI max and right shifted Omin; hereditary elliptocytosis (HE displayed a trapezoidal curve and decreased EImax. Dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis (DHSt caused by PIEZO1 mutations was characterized by left-shifted curve, whereas KCNN4 mutations were associated with a normal curve. Congenital diserythropoietic anemia type II and RBC enzymopathies had Osmoscan curve within the normal range except for glucosephosphate isomerase (GPI deficient cases who displayed an enlarged curve associated with significantly increased Ohyper, offering a

  11. Batch and Continuous Flow Preparation of Hantzsch 1,4-Dihydropyridines under Microwave Heating and Simultaneous Real-time Monitoring by Raman Spectroscopy. An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Christiaens

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dialkyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethylpyridine-3,5-dicarboxylates have been prepared in a batch mode under conventional heating as well as under continuous flow conditions in the Miniflow 200SS, Sairem’s microwave-assisted batch and continuous flow equipment. Real-time monitoring of the reactions by Raman spectroscopy enabled to compare both heating modes and to determine (optimized reaction times.

  12. Following an Optimal Batch Bioreactor Operations Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarra-Junquera, V.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Virgen-Ortíz, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    -batch reactor for biomass production is studied using a differential geometry approach. The maximization problem is solved by handling both the optimal filling policy and substrate concentration in the inlet stream. In order to follow the OBBOM, a master–slave synchronization is used. The OBBOM is considered...... as the master system which includes the optimal cultivation trajectory for the feed flow rate and the substrate concentration. The “real” bioreactor, the one with unknown dynamics and perturbations, is considered as the slave system. Finally, the controller is designed such that the real bioreactor...

  13. Brunovsky Normal Form of Monod Kinetics Models and Growth Rate Control of a Fed-batch Cultivation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov Y.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical methodology that gives assistance to design of fed-batch stabilization and control is presented. The methodology is based both on Utility theory and optimal Control theory. The Utility theory deals with the expressed subjective preferences and allows for the expert preferences to be taken in consideration in complex biotechnological systems as criteria for control and optimization. The Control theory is used for parameters stabilization of a fed-batch cultivation process. The control is written based on information of the growth rate. The simulations show good efficiency of the control laws.

  14. A batch fabricated capacitive pressure sensor with an integrated Guyton capsule for interstitial fluid pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Teimour; Fogle, Benjamin; Ziaie, Babak

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we present the design, fabrication and test of a batch fabricated capacitive pressure sensor with an integrated Guyton capsule for interstitial fluid pressure measurement. The sensor is composed of 12 µm thick single crystalline silicon membrane and a 3 µm gap, hermetically sealed through silicon-glass anodic bonding. A novel batch scale method for creating electrical feed-throughs inside the sealed capacitor chamber is developed. The Guyton capsule consists of an array of 10 µm diameter access holes etched onto a silicon back-plate separated from the silicon sensing membrane by a gap of 5 µm. The presence of the Guyton capsule (i.e. plates with access holes plus the gap separating them from the sensing membrane) allows for the ingress of interstitial fluid inside the 5 µm gap following the implantation, thus, providing an accurate measurement of interstitial fluid pressure. The fabricated sensor is 3 × 2 × 0.42 mm3 in dimensions and has a maximum sensitivity of 10 fF mmHg-1.

  15. Membranous nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... check for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis Complement levels Cryoglobulin test Treatment The goal of treatment ... not as helpful for people with membranous nephropathy. Medicines used treat membranous nephropathy include: Angiotensin-converting enzyme ( ...

  16. Effect of microstructure of TiN film on properties as bipolar plate coatings in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell prepared by inductively coupled plasma assisted magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Kai; Li, Zhuguo

    2013-01-01

    As potential application in bipolar plate of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, the microstructure, corrosion resistance and the electrical conductivity of titanium nitride (TiN) and Si doped titanium nitride (Ti 0.9 Si 0.1 N) films deposited by magnetron sputtering with different bias voltages are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), electrochemical test and four-point probe method, respectively. XRD, SEM and AFM results reveal that the texture and topography of TiN film depend on the bias voltage and incorporation of Si. When the bias voltage is − 20 V and − 30 V, the TiN and Ti 0.9 Si 0.1 N films exhibit a dense (111) plane preferred growth, denser structure and smoother surface topography. The potentiodynamic test results indicate that the TiN and Ti 0.9 Si 0.1 N films have higher chemical inertness and better corrosion resistance. The films can satisfy the requirement of current density for bipolar plate materials. Incorporation of Si element into TiN film makes the passive current density more stable. Four-point probe measurement results show that the resistivity of both TiN and Ti 0.9 Si 0.1 N films reaches minimum when the deposition bias voltage is − 20 V. - Highlights: • Dense TiN and Ti 0.9 Si 0.1 N films are deposited by magnetron sputtering. • Preferred growth orientation of TiN depends on the bias voltage and Si doping. • TiN and Ti 0.9 Si 0.1 N films have excellent corrosion resistance. • Surface conductivity of TiN and Ti 0.9 Si 0.1 N films evolves with bias voltage

  17. Oxygenated shunting from right to left: a feasibility study of minimized atrio-atrial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for mid-term lung assistance in an acute ovine model†‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haushofer, Marcus; Abusabha, Yousef; Amerini, Andrea L.A.; Spillner, Jan; Nix, Christoph; Autschbach, Rüdiger; Goetzenich, Andreas; Hatam, Nima

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Right ventricular failure is often the final phase in acute and chronic respiratory failure. We combined right ventricular unloading with extracorporeal oxygenation in a new atrio-atrial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). METHODS Eleven sheep (65 kg) were cannulated by a 28-Fr inflow cannula to the right atrium and a 25-Fr outflow cannula through the lateral left atrial wall. Both were connected by a serial combination of a microaxial pump (Impella Elect®, Abiomed Europe, Aachen, Germany) and a membrane oxygenator (Novalung®—iLA membrane oxygenator; Novalung GmbH, Hechingen, Germany). In four animals, three subsequent states were evaluated: normal circulation, apneic hypoxia and increased right atrial after load by pulmonary banding. We focused on haemodynamic stability and gas exchange. RESULTS All animals reached the end of the study protocol. In the apnoea phase, the decrease in PaO2 (21.4 ± 3.6 mmHg) immediately recovered (179.1 ± 134.8 mmHg) on-device in continuous apnoea. Right heart failure by excessive after load decreased mean arterial pressure (59 ± 29 mmHg) and increased central venous pressure and systolic right ventricular pressure; PaO2 and SvO2 decreased significantly. On assist, mean arterial pressure (103 ± 29 mmHg), central venous pressure and right ventricular pressure normalized. The SvO2 increased to 89 ± 3% and PaO2 stabilized (129 ± 21 mmHg). CONCLUSIONS We demonstrated the efficacy of a miniaturized atrio-atrial ECMO. Right ventricular unloading was achieved, and gas exchange was well taken over by the Novalung. This allows an effective short- to mid-term treatment of cardiopulmonary failure, successfully combining right ventricular and respiratory bridging. The parallel bypass of the right ventricle and lung circulation permits full unloading of both systems as well as gradual weaning. Further pathologies (e.g. ischaemic right heart failure and acute lung injury) will have to be evaluated. PMID:23543405

  18. Interactive and Batch Analysis at DESY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künne, K.

    Besides the data taking and reconstruction the analysis of the Physics Data is a major part in Physics Computing. Currently a new structure, which should last for the next years (maybe the next millenium), is introduced in the computing for Physics Analysis at DESY, which closely follows a Client-Server-Model, and which is based on the Workgroup-Server-Concept (first introduced at CERN). The talk will give an overview about this new structure, which includes File-Servers, Workgroup-Servers, and Batch-Servers. Special emphasis will be given to the handling of different classes of data inside of such a distributed system. The important point here is to avoid unnecessary network traffic. Other key topics include management of that distributed system and load balancing issues. Also presented in this talk are experiences with that system and future developments.

  19. Batch Cultivation Model for Biopolymer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Torres-Cerna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model to evaluate the kinetics of two different Pseudomonas putida strains, wild and mutant-type for the microbial production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs. Model parameters were estimated to represent adequately experimental data from the batch reactor using the differential evolution algorithm. Based on the mathematical model with the best-fit parameter values, simulations suggested that the high production of PHA by the mutant strain can be attributed not only to the higher production of PHA but also to a reduction in the consumption rate of the substrates of approximately 66 %. Remarkably, the cell growth rate value is higher for the wild type than the mutant type, suggesting that the PHA increase is not only to an increase in the production rate but also to the metabolism of the cells. This mathematical model advances comprehension of the PHA production capacity by P. putida paving the road towards environmentally friendly plastics.

  20. Maximum thermodynamic efficiency problem in batch distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Zavala-Loría

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic batch distillation study of the non-ideal mixture Ethanol-Water is presented. The objective of the study was to calculate an average thermodynamic efficiency of the process under an optimal constant reflux policy and the objective function includes a given production time in order to obtain the desired product quality (measured as the average mole fraction of the accumulated product. An expression for computing the thermodynamic efficiency is presented. The simulation of the column uses a mathematical model considering the complete dynamics of the operation and the problem of optimal control resulting in a non-linear programming problem. A dynamic optimization technique based on a SQP method was used to solve the problem. The average thermodynamic efficiency for the separation process under the conditions presented was 37.95%.

  1. Optimizing Resource Utilization in Grid Batch Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellrich, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    On Grid sites, the requirements of the computing tasks (jobs) to computing, storage, and network resources differ widely. For instance Monte Carlo production jobs are almost purely CPU-bound, whereas physics analysis jobs demand high data rates. In order to optimize the utilization of the compute node resources, jobs must be distributed intelligently over the nodes. Although the job resource requirements cannot be deduced directly, jobs are mapped to POSIX UID/GID according to the VO, VOMS group and role information contained in the VOMS proxy. The UID/GID then allows to distinguish jobs, if users are using VOMS proxies as planned by the VO management, e.g. ‘role=production’ for Monte Carlo jobs. It is possible to setup and configure batch systems (queuing system and scheduler) at Grid sites based on these considerations although scaling limits were observed with the scheduler MAUI. In tests these limitations could be overcome with a home-made scheduler.

  2. Spatial and interannual variability in Baltic sprat batch fecundity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslob, H.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Hinrichsen, H.H.

    2011-01-01

    and ambient temperature explained 70% of variability in absolute batch fecundity. Oxygen content and fish condition were not related to sprat batch fecundity. Additionally, a negative effect of stock size on sprat batch fecundity in the Bornholm Basin was revealed. The obtained data and results are important...... in the central Baltic Sea, namely the Bornholm Basin, Gdansk Deep and Southern Gotland Basin. Environmental parameters such as hydrography, fish condition and stock density were tested in order to investigate the observed variability in sprat fecundity. Absolute batch fecundity was found to be positively related...

  3. Sewage sludge irradiators: Batch and continuous flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavale, D.S.; George, J.R.; Shah, M.R.; Rawat, K.P.

    1998-01-01

    The potential threat to the environment imposed by high pathogenic organism content in municipal wastewater, especially the sludge and the world-wide growing aspirations for a cleaner, salubrious environment have made it mandatory for the sewage and sludge to undergo treatment, prior to their ultimate disposal to mother nature. Incapabilities associated with the conventional wastewater treatments to mitigate the problem of microorganisms have made it necessary to look for other alternatives, radiation treatment being the most reliable, rapid and environmentally sustainable of them. To promote the use of radiation for the sludge hygienization, Department of Atomic Energy has endeavoured to set up an indigenous, Sludge Hygienization Research Irradiator (SHRI) in the city of Baroda. Designed for 18.5 PBq of 60 Co to disinfect the digested sludge, the irradiator has additional provision for treatment of effluent and raw sewage. From engineering standpoint, all the subsystems have been functioning satisfactorily since its commissioning in 1990. Prolonged studies, spanning over a period of six years, primarily focused on inactivation of microorganism revealed that 3 kGy dose of gamma radiation is adequate to make the sludge pathogen and odour-free. A dose of 1.6 kGy in raw sewage and 0.5 kGy in effluent reduced coliform counts down to the regulatory discharge limits. These observations reflect a possible cost-effective solution to the burgeoning problem of surface water pollution across the globe. In the past, sub 37 PBq 60 Co batch irradiators have been designed and commissioned successfully for the treatment of sludge. Characterized with low dose delivery rates they are well-suited for treating low volumes of sludge in batches. Some concepts of continuous flow 60 Co irradiators having larger activities, yet simple and economic in design, are presented in the paper

  4. Membrane Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Physics, mathematics and chemistry all play a vital role in understanding the true nature and functioning of biological membranes, key elements of living processes. Besides simple spectroscopic observations and electrical measurements of membranes we address in this book the phenomena of coexistence and independent existence of different membrane components using various theoretical approaches. This treatment will be helpful for readers who want to understand biological processes by applying both simple observations and fundamental scientific analysis. It provides a deep understanding of the causes and effects of processes inside membranes, and will thus eventually open new doors for high-level pharmaceutical approaches towards fighting membrane- and cell-related diseases.

  5. Survey on batch-to-batch variation in spray paints: a collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlethaler, Cyril; Massonnet, Geneviève; Deviterne, Marie; Bradley, Maureen; Herrero, Ana; de Lezana, Itxaso Diaz; Lauper, Sandrine; Dubois, Damien; Geyer-Lippmann, Jochen; Ketterer, Sonja; Milet, Stéphane; Bertrand, Magali; Langer, Wolfgang; Plage, Bernd; Gorzawski, Gabriele; Lamothe, Véronique; Marsh, Louissa; Turunen, Raija

    2013-06-10

    This study represents the most extensive analysis of batch-to-batch variations in spray paint samples to date. The survey was performed as a collaborative project of the ENFSI (European Network of Forensic Science Institutes) Paint and Glass Working Group (EPG) and involved 11 laboratories. Several studies have already shown that paint samples of similar color but from different manufacturers can usually be differentiated using an appropriate analytical sequence. The discrimination of paints from the same manufacturer and color (batch-to-batch variations) is of great interest and these data are seldom found in the literature. This survey concerns the analysis of batches from different color groups (white, papaya (special shade of orange), red and black) with a wide range of analytical techniques and leads to the following conclusions. Colored batch samples are more likely to be differentiated since their pigment composition is more complex (pigment mixtures, added pigments) and therefore subject to variations. These variations may occur during the paint production but may also occur when checking the paint shade in quality control processes. For these samples, techniques aimed at color/pigment(s) characterization (optical microscopy, microspectrophotometry (MSP), Raman spectroscopy) provide better discrimination than techniques aimed at the organic (binder) or inorganic composition (fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) or elemental analysis (SEM - scanning electron microscopy and XRF - X-ray fluorescence)). White samples contain mainly titanium dioxide as a pigment and the main differentiation is based on the binder composition (CH stretches) detected either by FTIR or Raman. The inorganic composition (elemental analysis) also provides some discrimination. Black samples contain mainly carbon black as a pigment and are problematic with most of the spectroscopic techniques. In this case, pyrolysis-GC/MS represents the best technique to detect differences

  6. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; Thomas W. Eagar; Harold R. Larson; Raymundo Arroyave; X.-D Zhou; Y.-W. Shin; H.U. Anderson; Nigel Browning; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2003-11-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the initial studies on newer compositions and also includes newer approaches to address various materials issues such as in metal-ceramic sealing. The current quarter's research has also focused on developing a comprehensive reliability model for predicting the structural behavior of the membranes in realistic conditions. In parallel to industry provided compositions, models membranes have been evaluated in varying environment. Of importance is the behavior of flaws and generation of new flaws aiding in fracture. Fracture mechanics parameters such as crack tip stresses are generated to characterize the influence of environment. Room temperature slow crack growth studies have also been initiated in industry provided compositions. The electrical conductivity and defect chemistry of an A site deficient compound (La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}) was studied. A higher conductivity was observed for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} than that of La{sub 0.60}Sr{sub 0.40}FeO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}FeO{sub 3}. Defect chemistry analysis showed that it was primarily contributed by a higher carrier concentration in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. Moreover, the ability for oxygen vacancy generation is much higher in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} as well, which indicates a lower bonding strength between Fe-O and a possible higher catalytic activity for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. The program continued to investigate the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previous report listed initial measurements on a sample of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-x} prepared in-house by Praxair. Subsequently, a second sample of powder from a larger batch of sample were characterized and compared

  7. An innovative membrane bioreactor for methane biohydroxylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen, N; Soussan, L; Belleville, M-P; Sanchez, J; Charmette, C; Paolucci-Jeanjean, D

    2014-12-01

    In this study, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was developed for efficient, safe microbial methane hydroxylation with Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. This innovative MBR, which couples a bioreactor with two gas/liquid macroporous membrane contactors supplying the two gaseous substrates (methane and oxygen) was operated in fed-batch mode. The feasibility and the reproducibility of this new biohydroxylation process were first demonstrated. The mass transfer within this MBR was twice that observed in a batch reactor in similar conditions. The productivity reached with this MBR was 75±25mgmethanol(gdrycell)(-1)h(-1). Compared to the literature, this value is 35times higher than that obtained with the only other fed-batch membrane bioreactor reported, which was run with dense membranes, and is comparable to those obtained with bioreactors fed by bubble-spargers. However, in the latter case, an explosive gas mixture can be formed, a problem that is avoided with the MBR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bioprocess iterative batch-to-batch optimization based on hybrid parametric/nonparametric models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Ana P; Clemente, João J; Cunha, António E; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Oliveira, Rui

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for iterative batch-to-batch dynamic optimization of bioprocesses. The relationship between process performance and control inputs is established by means of hybrid grey-box models combining parametric and nonparametric structures. The bioreactor dynamics are defined by material balance equations, whereas the cell population subsystem is represented by an adjustable mixture of nonparametric and parametric models. Thus optimizations are possible without detailed mechanistic knowledge concerning the biological system. A clustering technique is used to supervise the reliability of the nonparametric subsystem during the optimization. Whenever the nonparametric outputs are unreliable, the objective function is penalized. The technique was evaluated with three simulation case studies. The overall results suggest that the convergence to the optimal process performance may be achieved after a small number of batches. The model unreliability risk constraint along with sampling scheduling are crucial to minimize the experimental effort required to attain a given process performance. In general terms, it may be concluded that the proposed method broadens the application of the hybrid parametric/nonparametric modeling technique to "newer" processes with higher potential for optimization.

  9. Batch process. Batch process used in a beer brewery; Biru kojo no bacchi purosesu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihara, K. [Kirin Engneering Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    In a beer brewing process, there is a system in which unit operation of chemical engineering is combined with the techniques of food and fermentation engineering in order to brew beer meeting the quality concept. This paper introduces the characteristics of a batch system used in the brewing of beer and the control method for the brewing of beer. The characteristics of the batch system used in a beer brewing process are the following three. In order to minimize the quality variation ascribed to the raw materials and the process, the materials are blended in various parts of the system. In the saccharification step which determines the quality of beer, two methods, i.e. a batch method and a continuous method are used, and beer brewing companies employ a saccharification system meeting the condition for attaining a desired quality of their own products. Two mashing systems are operated at different cycles shifted by half cycle from each other, not starting both at a time, so as to level the peaks of the utilities, whereby the operation of the utility-related facility is optimized. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Improved monitoring of batch processes by incorporating external information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaker, H. J.; van Sprang, E. N. M.; Gurden, S. P.; Westerhuis, J. A.; Smilde, A. K.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper an overview is given of statistical process monitoring with the emphasis on batch processes and the possible steps to take for improving this by incorporating external information. First, the general concept of statistical process monitoring of batches is explained. This concept has

  11. Using warping information for batch process monitoring and fault classification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Martínez, J.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Ferrer, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses how to use the warping information obtained after batch synchronization for process monitoring and fault classification. The warping information can be used for i) building unsupervised control charts or ii) fault classification when a rich faulty batches database is available.

  12. Modelling and Simulation of the Batch Hydrolysis of Acetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kinetic modelling of the batch synthesis of acetic acid from acetic anhydride was investigated. The kinetic data of the reaction was obtained by conducting the hydrolysis reaction in a batch reactor. A dynamic model was formulated for this process and simulation was carried out using gPROMS® an advanced process ...

  13. Adaptive scheduling of batch servers in flow shops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.

    Batch servicing is a common way of benefiting from economies of scale in manufacturing operations. Good examples of production systems that allow for batch processing are ovens found in the aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. In this paper we study the issue of dynamic scheduling

  14. Adaptive Scheduling Of Batch Servers In Flow Shops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Batch servicing is a common way of benefiting from economies of scale in manufacturing operations. Good examples of production systems that allow for batch processing are ovens found in aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. In this paper we study the issue of dynamic scheduling of

  15. Solving a chemical batch scheduling problem by local search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brucker, P.; Hurink, Johann L.

    1999-01-01

    A chemical batch scheduling problem is modelled in two different ways as a discrete optimization problem. Both models are used to solve the batch scheduling problem in a two-phase tabu search procedure. The method is tested on real-world data.

  16. 40 CFR 63.1406 - Reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... megagram of product or less for non-solvent-based resin production. (2) The owner or operator of a reactor... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reactor batch process vent provisions... § 63.1406 Reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of reactor...

  17. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Batch Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch Processes 1 Table 1 to Subpart H... Subpart H of Part 63—Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency for Equipment Other than Connectors Operating time (% of year) Equivalent continuous process monitoring frequency time in use Monthly Quarterly...

  18. Communication and control in small batch part manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, J.J.; Curtis, W.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a real-time control network as an integrated part of a shop floor control system for small batch part manufacturing. The shop floor control system is called the production control system (PCS). The PCS aims at an improved control of small batch part

  19. On the track of fish batches in three distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup, Maria; Wu, Haiping; Jørgensen, Bo M.

    2012-01-01

    the necessary information, it was possible to locate the end destinations of the fish batches. The batch sizes and the number of companies involved clearly rose when batch joining occurred. Thus, a fault in a small batch can potentially have widespread implications. The study also underlines the importance......Three fish products sampled in retail shops were traced back to their origin and fish from the same batch were tracked forward towards the retailer, thereby simulating a recall situation. The resulting distribution networks were very complex, but to the extent that companies were willing to provide...... of discovering a fault as early as possible in order to minimise the costs of a recall. The localisation of distributed products during a recall operation can be facilitated by a well-constructed traceability system....

  20. Kinetic study of batch and fed-batch enzymatic saccharification of pretreated substrate and subsequent fermentation to ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rishi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymatic hydrolysis, the rate limiting step in the process development for biofuel, is always hampered by its low sugar concentration. High solid enzymatic saccharification could solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study we have attempted to enhance the concentration of sugars in enzymatic hydrolysate of delignified Prosopis juliflora, using a fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis approach. Results The enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out at elevated solid loading up to 20% (w/v and a comparison kinetics of batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out using kinetic regimes. Under batch mode, the actual sugar concentration values at 20% initial substrate consistency were found deviated from the predicted values and the maximum sugar concentration obtained was 80.78 g/L. Fed-batch strategy was implemented to enhance the final sugar concentration to 127 g/L. The batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysates were fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ethanol production of 34.78 g/L and 52.83 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Furthermore, model simulations showed that higher insoluble solids in the feed resulted in both smaller reactor volume and shorter residence time. Conclusion Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient procedure for enhancing the sugar concentration in the hydrolysate. Restricting the process to suitable kinetic regimes could result in higher conversion rates.

  1. Batch-to-batch quality consistency evaluation of botanical drug products using multivariate statistical analysis of the chromatographic fingerprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Haoshu; Yu, Lawrence X; Qu, Haibin

    2013-06-01

    Botanical drug products have batch-to-batch quality variability due to botanical raw materials and the current manufacturing process. The rational evaluation and control of product quality consistency are essential to ensure the efficacy and safety. Chromatographic fingerprinting is an important and widely used tool to characterize the chemical composition of botanical drug products. Multivariate statistical analysis has showed its efficacy and applicability in the quality evaluation of many kinds of industrial products. In this paper, the combined use of multivariate statistical analysis and chromatographic fingerprinting is presented here to evaluate batch-to-batch quality consistency of botanical drug products. A typical botanical drug product in China, Shenmai injection, was selected as the example to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. The high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint data of historical batches were collected from a traditional Chinese medicine manufacturing factory. Characteristic peaks were weighted by their variability among production batches. A principal component analysis model was established after outliers were modified or removed. Multivariate (Hotelling T(2) and DModX) control charts were finally successfully applied to evaluate the quality consistency. The results suggest useful applications for a combination of multivariate statistical analysis with chromatographic fingerprinting in batch-to-batch quality consistency evaluation for the manufacture of botanical drug products.

  2. Batch-to-batch learning for model-based control of process systems with application to cooling crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forgione, M.

    2014-01-01

    From an engineering perspective, the term process refers to a conversion of raw materials into intermediate or final products using chemical, physical, or biological operations. Industrial processes can be performed either in continuous or in batch mode. There exist for instance continuous and batch

  3. Glucoamylase production in batch, chemostat and fed-batch cultivations by an industrial strain of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Beyer, Michael; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    The Aspergillus niger strain BO-1 was grown in batch, continuous (chemostat) and fed-batch cultivations in order to study the production of the extracellular enzyme glucoamylase under different growth conditions. In the pH range 2.5-6.0, the specific glucoamylase productivity and the specific...

  4. Membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The membrane paradigm is a modified frozen star approach to modeling black holes, with particles and fields assuming a complex, static, boundary-layer type structure (membrane) near the event horizon. The membrane has no effects on the present or future evolution of particles and fields above itself. The mathematical representation is a combination of a formalism containing terms for the shear and bulk viscosity, surface pressure, momentum, temperature, entropy, etc., of the horizon and the 3+1 formalism. The latter model considers a family of three-dimensional spacelike hypersurfaces in one-dimensional time. The membrane model considers a magnetic field threading the hole and undergoing torque from the hole rotation. The field is cleaned by the horizon and distributed over the horizon so that ohmic dissipation is minimized. The membrane paradigm is invalid inside the horizon, but is useful for theoretically probing the properties of slowly evolving black holes

  5. Membrane processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The membrane processes have played important role in the industrial separation process. These technologies can be found in all industrial areas such as food, beverages, metallurgy, pulp and paper, textile, pharmaceutical, automotive, biotechnology and chemical industry, as well as in water treatment for domestic and industrial application. Although these processes are known since twentieth century, there are still many studies that focus on the testing of new membranes' materials and determining of conditions for optimal selectivity, i. e. the optimum transmembrane pressure (TMP) or permeate flux to minimize fouling. Moreover the researchers proposed some calculation methods to predict the membrane processes properties. In this article, the laboratory scale experiments of membrane separation techniques, as well their validation by calculation methods are presented. Because membrane is the "heart" of the process, experimental and computational methods for its characterization are also described.

  6. Batch and fed-batch production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB

    OpenAIRE

    He, Guo-qing; Kong, Qing; Chen, Qi-he; Ruan, Hui

    2005-01-01

    The production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB at various pH values was investigated. In order to study the effect of pH on cell growth, butyric acid biosynthesis and reducing sugar consumption, different cultivation pH values ranging from 6.0 to 7.5 were evaluated in 5-L bioreactor. In controlled pH batch fermentation, the optimum pH for cell growth and butyric acid production was 6.5 with a cell yield of 3.65 g/L and butyric acid yield of 12.25 g/L. Based on these results, th...

  7. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation or uncontrolled donation after the circulatory determination of death following out-of-hospital refractory cardiac arrest-An ethical analysis of an unresolved clinical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Ave, Anne L; Shaw, David M; Gardiner, Dale

    2016-11-01

    The availability of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR), for use in refractory out-of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), is increasing. In parallel, some countries have developed uncontrolled donation after circulatory determination of death (uDCDD) programs using ECMO to preserve organs for transplantation purposes. When facing a refractory OHCA, how does the medical team choose between initiating ECMO as part of an E-CPR protocol or ECMO as part of a uDCDD protocol? To answer these questions we conducted a literature review on E-CPR compared to uDCDD protocols using ECMO and analyzed the raised ethical issues. Our analysis reveals that the inclusion criteria in E-CPR and uDCDD protocols are similar. There may be a non-negligible risk of including patients in a uDCDD protocol, when the patient might have been saved by the use of E-CPR. In order to avoid the fatal error of letting a saveable patient die, safeguards are necessary. We recommend: (1) the development of internationally accepted termination of resuscitation guidelines that would have to be satisfied prior to inclusion of patients in any uDCDD protocol, (2) the choice regarding modalities of ongoing resuscitation during transfer should be focused on the primary priority of attempting to save the life of patients, (3) only centers of excellence in life-saving resuscitation should initiate or maintain uDCDD programs, (4) E-CPR should be clinically considered first before the initiation of any uDCDD protocol, and (5) there should be no discrimination in the availability of access to E-CPR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Amorphous silicon batch process cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whisnant, R.A.; Sherring, C.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the development of baseline manufacturing cost data to assist PVMaT monitoring teams in assessing current and future subcontracts, which an emphasis on commercialization and production. A process for the manufacture of a single-junction, large-area, a Si module was modeled using an existing Research Triangle Institute (RTI) computer model. The model estimates a required, or breakeven, price for the module based on its production process and the financial structure of the company operating the process. Sufficient detail on cost drivers is presented so the relationship of the process features and business characteristics can be related to the estimated required price

  9. Primordial membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    2017-01-01

    Cellular membranes, which are self-assembled bilayer structures mainly composed of lipids, proteins and conjugated polysaccharides, are the defining feature of cell physiology. It is likely that the complexity of contemporary cells was preceded by simpler chemical systems or protocells during...... the various evolutionary stages that led from inanimate to living matter. It is also likely that primitive membranes played a similar role in protocell 'physiology'. The composition of such ancestral membranes has been proposed as mixtures of single hydrocarbon chain amphiphiles, which are simpler versions...

  10. Field testing of polymeric mesh and ash-based ceramic membranes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the initial findings of field testing of 2 low-cost membrane filters, viz. 30 ìm polymeric mesh and 2–6 ìm macroporous waste-ash based ceramic filter, in a submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) employing batch anoxic and aerobic conditions. The influent was raw wastewater from a residential complex ...

  11. Cation permeable membranes from blends of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) and poly (ether sulfone)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, F.G.; Punt, Ineke G.M.; van der Vegt, N.F.A.; Strathmann, H.; Wessling, Matthias

    2002-01-01

    Sulfonated poly(aryl ether ether ketone), S-PEEK, is blended with non-sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) (PES) to adjust the properties of ion permeable and ion selective membranes. In this study, membranes are prepared from blends with (i) a S-PEEK content between 10 and 100 wt.% using one S-PEEK batch

  12. 40 CFR 63.462 - Batch cold cleaning machine standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) Each owner or operator of an immersion batch cold solvent cleaning machine shall comply with the... cleaning machine complying with paragraph (a)(2) or (b) of this section shall comply with the work and...

  13. Numerical modeling of batch formation in waste incineration plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obroučka Karel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is a mathematical description of algorithm for controlled assembly of incinerated batch of waste. The basis for formation of batch is selected parameters of incinerated waste as its calorific value or content of pollutants or the combination of both. The numerical model will allow, based on selected criteria, to compile batch of wastes which continuously follows the previous batch, which is a prerequisite for optimized operation of incinerator. The model was prepared as for waste storage in containers, as well as for waste storage in continuously refilled boxes. The mathematical model was developed into the computer program and its functionality was verified either by practical measurements or by numerical simulations. The proposed model can be used in incinerators for hazardous and municipal waste.

  14. Evaluation of sequencing batch reactor performance for petrochemical wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mina Salari; Seyed Ahmad Ataei; Fereshteh Bakhtiyari

    2017-01-01

    Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology has found many applications in industrial wastewater treatment in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal time for a cycle of the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and evaluate the performance of a SBR for petrochemical wastewater treatment in that cycle time. The reactor was operated with a suspended biomass configuration under aerobic conditions. Carbon removal and operating parameters such as pH, temperature and dissolved oxyg...

  15. BACKGROUND AND PROSPECTS FOR THE OPERATION OF BATCH DISTILLATION

    OpenAIRE

    Lombira Echevarria, J.; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Unidad de Post Grado, Av . Venezuela s/n Lima -Perú; Otiniano Cáceres, M.; Universidad Naciona l Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Unidad de Post Grado, Av . Venezuela s/n Lima -Perú

    2014-01-01

    Present contribution constitutes a review that shows the results of bibliographic research carried out about the simulation, design and optimization of batch. Distillation operation. It is analyses the present state of the art of this operation, contrasting its recent achieved results with difficulties that still exist in this area. The different batch distillation columns configurations that have been developed recently, such as the inverted column , middle vessels, multiple effects , extrac...

  16. Polynomial Batch Codes for Efficient IT-PIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ryan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Private information retrieval (PIR is a way for clients to query a remote database without the database holder learning the clients’ query terms or the responses they generate. Compelling applications for PIR are abound in the cryptographic and privacy research literature, yet existing PIR techniques are notoriously inefficient. Consequently, no such PIRbased application to date has seen real-world at-scale deployment. This paper proposes new “batch coding” techniques to help address PIR’s efficiency problem. The new techniques exploit the connection between ramp secret sharing schemes and efficient information-theoretically secure PIR (IT-PIR protocols. This connection was previously observed by Henry, Huang, and Goldberg (NDSS 2013, who used ramp schemes to construct efficient “batch queries” with which clients can fetch several database records for the same cost as fetching a single record using a standard, non-batch query. The new techniques in this paper generalize and extend those of Henry et al. to construct “batch codes” with which clients can fetch several records for only a fraction the cost of fetching a single record using a standard non-batch query over an unencoded database. The batch codes are highly tuneable, providing a means to trade off (i lower server-side computation cost, (ii lower server-side storage cost, and/or (iii lower uni- or bi-directional communication cost, in exchange for a comparatively modest decrease in resilience to Byzantine database servers.

  17. Rapid bio-methanation of syngas in a reverse membrane bioreactor: membrane encased microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngsukkasem, Supansa; Chandolias, Konstantinos; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2015-02-01

    The performance of a novel reverse membrane bioreactor (RMBR) with encased microorganisms for syngas bio-methanation as well as a co-digestion process of syngas and organic substances was examined. The sachets were placed in the reactors and examined in repeated batch mode. Different temperatures and short retention time were studied. The digesting sludge encased in the PVDF membranes was able to convert syngas into methane at a retention time of 1 day and displayed a similar performance as the free cells in batch fermentation. The co-digestion of syngas and organic substances by the RMBR (the encased cells) showed a good performance without any observed negative effects. At thermophilic conditions, there was a higher conversion of pure syngas and co-digestion using the encased cells compared to at mesophilic conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Batch-to-Batch Quality Consistency Evaluation of Botanical Drug Products Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis of the Chromatographic Fingerprint

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Haoshu; Yu, Lawrence X.; Qu, Haibin

    2013-01-01

    Botanical drug products have batch-to-batch quality variability due to botanical raw materials and the current manufacturing process. The rational evaluation and control of product quality consistency are essential to ensure the efficacy and safety. Chromatographic fingerprinting is an important and widely used tool to characterize the chemical composition of botanical drug products. Multivariate statistical analysis has showed its efficacy and applicability in the quality evaluation of many ...

  19. Production of Polystyrene Open-celled Microcellular Foam in Batch Process by Super Critical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Enayati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Open-celled foams are capable to allow the passage of fluids through their structure, because of interconnections between the open cells or bubbles and therefore these structures can be used as a membrane and filter. In thiswork, we have studied the production of polystyrene open-celled microcellular foam by using CO2 as blowing agent. To achieve such structures, it is necessary to control the stages of growth in such a way that the cells would connect to each other through the pores without any coalescence. The required processing condition to achieve open-celled structures is predictable by a model theory of opened-cell. This model suggests that at least a 130 bar saturation pressure and foaming time between 9 and 58 s are required for this system. The temperature range has been selected for to be both higher than polymer glass transition temperature and facilitating the foaming process. Experimental results in the batch foaming process has verified the model quite well. The SEM and mercury porousimetry tests show the presence of pores between the cells with open-celled structure. Experimental results show that by increasing the saturation pressure and the foaming temperature, there is a drop in the time required for open-celled structure formation. A 130 bar saturation pressure, 150o C foaming temperature and 60 s foaming time, suggest the attainment of open-celled microcellular foam based on polystyrene/CO2 system in the batch process.

  20. 40 CFR 63.1326 - Batch process vents-recordkeeping provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operator of a batch process vent that has chosen to use a control device to comply with § 63.1322(a) shall... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-recordkeeping... Batch process vents—recordkeeping provisions. (a) Group determination records for batch process vents...

  1. 40 CFR 63.487 - Batch front-end process vents-reference control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 63.487 Batch front-end process vents—reference control technology. (a) Batch front-end process vents... process vent, reduce organic HAP emissions for the batch cycle by 90 weight percent using a control device... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents-reference...

  2. 40 CFR 63.491 - Batch front-end process vents-recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... combustion device to control halogenated batch front-end process vents or halogenated aggregate batch vent... periods of process or control device operation when monitors are not operating. (f) Aggregate batch vent... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents...

  3. 40 CFR 63.489 - Batch front-end process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operator of a batch front-end process vent or aggregate batch vent stream that uses a control device to... meets the conditions of § 63.490(b)(3). (i) For batch front-end process vents using a control device to... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents...

  4. 40 CFR 63.492 - Batch front-end process vents-reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recorded under § 63.491(e)(3) when the batch front-end process vent is diverted away from the control... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents-reporting... Batch front-end process vents—reporting requirements. (a) The owner or operator of a batch front-end...

  5. Towards Batched Linear Solvers on Accelerated Hardware Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haidar, Azzam [University of Tennessee (UT); Dong, Tingzing Tim [University of Tennessee (UT); Tomov, Stanimire [University of Tennessee (UT); Dongarra, Jack J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    As hardware evolves, an increasingly effective approach to develop energy efficient, high-performance solvers, is to design them to work on many small and independent problems. Indeed, many applications already need this functionality, especially for GPUs, which are known to be currently about four to five times more energy efficient than multicore CPUs for every floating-point operation. In this paper, we describe the development of the main one-sided factorizations: LU, QR, and Cholesky; that are needed for a set of small dense matrices to work in parallel. We refer to such algorithms as batched factorizations. Our approach is based on representing the algorithms as a sequence of batched BLAS routines for GPU-contained execution. Note that this is similar in functionality to the LAPACK and the hybrid MAGMA algorithms for large-matrix factorizations. But it is different from a straightforward approach, whereby each of GPU's symmetric multiprocessors factorizes a single problem at a time. We illustrate how our performance analysis together with the profiling and tracing tools guided the development of batched factorizations to achieve up to 2-fold speedup and 3-fold better energy efficiency compared to our highly optimized batched CPU implementations based on the MKL library on a two-sockets, Intel Sandy Bridge server. Compared to a batched LU factorization featured in the NVIDIA's CUBLAS library for GPUs, we achieves up to 2.5-fold speedup on the K40 GPU.

  6. Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Assistive Technology Assistive technology (AT) is any service or tool that helps ... be difficult or impossible. For older adults, such technology may be a walker to improve mobility or ...

  7. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assisted living is for adults who need help with everyday tasks. They may need help with dressing, bathing, ... don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement communities. Others are ...

  8. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it, too. Back to top What is the Cost for Assisted Living? Although assisted living costs less than nursing home ... Primarily, older persons or their families pay the cost of assisted living. Some health and long-term care insurance policies ...

  9. Accounts Assistant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CHITRA

    (Not more than three months old). Annexure 1. Indian Academy of Sciences. C V Raman Avenue, Bengaluru 560 080. Application for the Post of: Accounts Assistant / Administrative Assistant Trainee / Assistant – Official Language. Implementation Policy / Temporary Copy Editor and Proof Reader / Social Media Manager. 1.

  10. Robotic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2008-01-01

    , Vivisection and Strange Metabolisms, were developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen as a means of engaging intangible digital data with tactile physical material. As robotic membranes, they are a dual examination...

  11. Bioremediation of petroleum wastewater by hyper-phenol tolerant Bacillus cereus: Preliminary studies with laboratory-scale batch process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aditi; Ghoshal, Aloke K

    2017-09-03

    Petroleum wastewater samples from oil refinery and oil exploration site were treated by hyper phenol-tolerant Bacillus cereus (AKG1 and AKG2) in laboratory-scale batch process to assess their bioremediation efficacy. Quality of the treated wastewater samples were analyzed in terms of removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) and ammonium nitrogen content, and improvement of biological oxygen demand (BOD). Adaptation of these bacteria to the toxic environment through structural changes in their cell membranes was also highlighted. Among different combinations, the co-culture of AKG1 and AKG2 showed the best performance in degrading the wastewater samples.

  12. From Fed-batch to Continuous Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John M.

    2015-01-01

    In this this paper, we use mechanistic modelling to guide the development of acontinuous enzymatic process that is performed as a fed-batch operation. In this workwe use the enzymatic biodiesel process as a case study. A mechanistic model developedin our previous work was used to determine...... measured components (triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, free fatty acid and fatty acid methyl esters(biodiesel)) much better than using fed-batch data alone given the smaller residuals. We also observe a reduction in the correlation between the parameters.The model was then used to predict that 5...... reactors are required (with a combined residence time of 30 hours) to reach a final biodiesel concentration within 2 % of the95.6 mass % achieved in a fed-batch operation, for 24 hours....

  13. Batch variation between branchial cell cultures: An analysis of variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Grosell, M.; Kristensen, L.

    2003-01-01

    We present in detail how a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to sort out the effect of an unexpected batch-to-batch variation between cell cultures. Two separate cultures of rainbow trout branchial cells were grown on permeable filtersupports ("inserts"). They were supposed...... to be simple duplicates for testing the effect of two induced factors-apical or basolateral addition of radioactive precursors and different apical media-on the incorporation of 14C-acetate and 32Pphosphate intotissue lipids. Unfortunately, they did not altogether give the same result. By accepting this fact...... and introducing the observed difference between batches as one of the factors in an expanded three-dimensional ANOVA, we were able to overcome an otherwisecrucial lack of sufficiently reproducible duplicate values. We could thereby show that the effect of changing the apical medium was much more marked when...

  14. A High-Fidelity Batch Simulation Environment for Integrated Batch and Piloted Air Combat Simulation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; McManus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    A batch air combat simulation environment known as the Tactical Maneuvering Simulator (TMS) is presented. The TMS serves as a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics. The environment can also be used to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS is capable of simulating air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics and propulsive characteristics equivalent to those used in high-fidelity piloted simulation. Databases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. To simplify the task of developing and implementing maneuvering logics in the TMS, an outer-loop control system known as the Tactical Autopilot (TA) is implemented in the aircraft simulation model. The TA converts guidance commands issued by computerized maneuvering logics in the form of desired angle-of-attack and wind axis-bank angle into inputs to the inner-loop control augmentation system of the aircraft. This report describes the capabilities and operation of the TMS.

  15. Continuous flow technology vs. the batch-by-batch approach to produce pharmaceutical compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kevin P; Johnson, Martin D

    2018-01-01

    For the manufacture of small molecule drugs, many pharmaceutical innovator companies have recently invested in continuous processing, which can offer significant technical and economic advantages over traditional batch methodology. This Expert Review will describe the reasons for this interest as well as many considerations and challenges that exist today concerning continuous manufacturing. Areas covered: Continuous processing is defined and many reasons for its adoption are described. The current state of continuous drug substance manufacturing within the pharmaceutical industry is summarized. Current key challenges to implementation of continuous manufacturing are highlighted, and an outlook provided regarding the prospects for continuous within the industry. Expert commentary: Continuous processing at Lilly has been a journey that started with the need for increased safety and capability. Over twelve years the original small, dedicated group has grown to more than 100 Lilly employees in discovery, development, quality, manufacturing, and regulatory designing in continuous drug substance processing. Recently we have focused on linked continuous unit operations for the purpose of all-at-once pharmaceutical manufacturing, but the technical and business drivers that existed in the very beginning for stand-alone continuous unit operations in hybrid processes have persisted, which merits investment in both approaches.

  16. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah; Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits

  17. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Salleh, Madihah Md [Department of Biotechnology Industry, Faculty of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.

  18. Design of Mixed Batch Reactor and Column Studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Weimin [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Criddle, Craig S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2015-11-16

    We (the Stanford research team) were invited as external collaborators to contribute expertise in environmental engineering and field research at the ORNL IFRC, Oak Ridge, TN, for projects carried out at the Argonne National Laboratory and funded by US DOE. Specifically, we assisted in the design of batch and column reactors using ORNL IFRC materials to ensure the experiments were relevant to field conditions. During the funded research period, we characterized ORNL IFRC groundwater and sediments in batch microcosm and column experiments conducted at ANL, and we communicated with ANL team members through email and conference calls and face-to-face meetings at the annual ERSP PI meeting and national meetings. Microcosm test results demonstrated that U(VI) in sediments was reduced to U(IV) when amended with ethanol. The reduced products were not uraninite but unknown U(IV) complexes associated with Fe. Fe(III) in solid phase was only partially reduced. Due to budget reductions at ANL, Stanford contributions ended in 2011.

  19. Design of Mixed Batch Reactor and Column Studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Weimin; Criddle, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    We (the Stanford research team) were invited as external collaborators to contribute expertise in environmental engineering and field research at the ORNL IFRC, Oak Ridge, TN, for projects carried out at the Argonne National Laboratory and funded by US DOE. Specifically, we assisted in the design of batch and column reactors using ORNL IFRC materials to ensure the experiments were relevant to field conditions. During the funded research period, we characterized ORNL IFRC groundwater and sediments in batch microcosm and column experiments conducted at ANL, and we communicated with ANL team members through email and conference calls and face-to-face meetings at the annual ERSP PI meeting and national meetings. Microcosm test results demonstrated that U(VI) in sediments was reduced to U(IV) when amended with ethanol. The reduced products were not uraninite but unknown U(IV) complexes associated with Fe. Fe(III) in solid phase was only partially reduced. Due to budget reductions at ANL, Stanford contributions ended in 2011.

  20. Research and development to overcome fouling of membranes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narang, S.C.; Sharma, S.K.; Hum, G.; Ventura, S.C.; Roberts, D.L.; Gottschlich, D.; Ahner, N.

    1998-11-01

    To overcome fouling of membranes, SRI International is developing a unique piezoelectric backing for ultrafiltration membranes. This backing is capable of producing local turbulence next to the membrane to minimize concentration polarization and the rate of buildup of solutes and particulate matter on the membrane surface. We have studied piezoelectrically assisted ultrafiltration in more detail, with the objective to apply this process to industrial ultrafiltrations. We conducted several ultrafiltration experiments on flat sheet membranes with model dextran solutions and with electrocoat paint to study flux enhancement as a function of parameters such as feed flow rate, feed pressure, as well as the piezodriver-membrane system.

  1. Analysis and modelling of the energy requirements of batch processes; Analyse und Modellierung des Energiebedarfes in Batch-Prozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.S.

    2002-07-01

    This intermediate report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project aiming to model the energy consumption of multi-product, multi-purpose batch production plants. The utilities investigated were electricity, brine and steam. Both top-down and bottom-up approaches are described, whereby top-down was used for the buildings where the batch process apparatus was installed. Modelling showed that for batch-plants at the building level, the product mix can be too variable and the diversity of products and processes too great for simple modelling. Further results obtained by comparing six different production plants that could be modelled are discussed. The several models developed are described and their wider applicability is discussed. Also, the results of comparisons made between modelled and actual values are presented. Recommendations for further work are made.

  2. Design of two-column batch-to-batch recirculation to enhance performance in ion-exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Oliver; Andersson, Niklas; Nilsson, Bernt

    2018-01-05

    Preparative liquid chromatography is a separation technique widely used in the manufacturing of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. A major drawback of traditional single-column batch chromatography step is the trade-off between product purity and process performance. Recirculation of impure product can be utilized to make the trade-off more favorable. The aim of the present study was to investigate the usage of a two-column batch-to-batch recirculation process step to increase the performance compared to single-column batch chromatography at a high purity requirement. The separation of a ternary protein mixture on ion-exchange chromatography columns was used to evaluate the proposed process. The investigation used modelling and simulation of the process step, experimental validation and optimization of the simulated process. In the presented case the yield increases from 45.4% to 93.6% and the productivity increases 3.4 times compared to the performance of a batch run for a nominal case. A rapid concentration build-up product can be seen during the first cycles, before the process reaches a cyclic steady-state with reoccurring concentration profiles. The optimization of the simulation model predicts that the recirculated salt can be used as a flying start of the elution, which would enhance the process performance. The proposed process is more complex than a batch process, but may improve the separation performance, especially while operating at cyclic steady-state. The recirculation of impure fractions reduces the product losses and ensures separation of product to a high degree of purity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Liquid state bioconversion of sewage treatment plant sludge in batch fermenter and shake flask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Zahangir; Fakhru'l-Razi, A

    2004-01-01

    A study on liquid state bioconversion of sewage treatment plant (STP) sludge was assisted to evaluate the performance of batch fermenter compared to shake flask in a laboratory. Bioconversion of STP sludge was highly influenced by the mixed fungal culture of Penicillium corylophilum and Aspergillus niger after 4 days of treatment. The results showed that about 24.9 g kg(-1) dry sludge cake (DSC) was produced with enrichment of fungal biomass protein in fermenter while 20.1 g kg(-1) in shake flask after 4 days of fungal treatment. The effective biodegradation of STP sludge was recorded in both fermenter and shake flask experiment compared to control (uninnoculated sample). The results presented in this study revealed that the overall performance of fermenter in terms of sludge cake (biosolids) accumulation and biodegradation of STP sludge was higher than the shake flask.

  4. Lipid production in batch and fed-batch cultures of Rhodosporidium toruloides from 5 and 6 carbon carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebe Marilyn G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial lipids are a potential source of bio- or renewable diesel and the red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is interesting not only because it can accumulate over 50% of its dry biomass as lipid, but also because it utilises both five and six carbon carbohydrates, which are present in plant biomass hydrolysates. Methods R. toruloides was grown in batch and fed-batch cultures in 0.5 L bioreactors at pH 4 in chemically defined, nitrogen restricted (C/N 40 to 100 media containing glucose, xylose, arabinose, or all three carbohydrates as carbon source. Lipid was extracted from the biomass using chloroform-methanol, measured gravimetrically and analysed by GC. Results Lipid production was most efficient with glucose (up to 25 g lipid L−1, 48 to 75% lipid in the biomass, at up to 0.21 g lipid L−1 h−1 as the sole carbon source, but high lipid concentrations were also produced from xylose (36 to 45% lipid in biomass. Lipid production was low (15–19% lipid in biomass with arabinose as sole carbon source and was lower than expected (30% lipid in biomass when glucose, xylose and arabinose were provided simultaneously. The presence of arabinose and/or xylose in the medium increased the proportion of palmitic and linoleic acid and reduced the proportion of oleic acid in the fatty acids, compared to glucose-grown cells. High cell densities were obtained in both batch (37 g L−1, with 49% lipid in the biomass and fed-batch (35 to 47 g L−1, with 50 to 75% lipid in the biomass cultures. The highest proportion of lipid in the biomass was observed in cultures given nitrogen during the batch phase but none with the feed. However, carbohydrate consumption was incomplete when the feed did not contain nitrogen and the highest total lipid and best substrate consumption were observed in cultures which received a constant low nitrogen supply. Conclusions Lipid production in R. toruloides was lower from arabinose and mixed

  5. Lipid production in batch and fed-batch cultures of Rhodosporidium toruloides from 5 and 6 carbon carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Marilyn G; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttilä, Merja; Ruohonen, Laura

    2012-05-30

    Microbial lipids are a potential source of bio- or renewable diesel and the red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is interesting not only because it can accumulate over 50% of its dry biomass as lipid, but also because it utilises both five and six carbon carbohydrates, which are present in plant biomass hydrolysates. R. toruloides was grown in batch and fed-batch cultures in 0.5 L bioreactors at pH 4 in chemically defined, nitrogen restricted (C/N 40 to 100) media containing glucose, xylose, arabinose, or all three carbohydrates as carbon source. Lipid was extracted from the biomass using chloroform-methanol, measured gravimetrically and analysed by GC. Lipid production was most efficient with glucose (up to 25 g lipid L(-1), 48 to 75% lipid in the biomass, at up to 0.21 g lipid L(-1) h(-1)) as the sole carbon source, but high lipid concentrations were also produced from xylose (36 to 45% lipid in biomass). Lipid production was low (15-19% lipid in biomass) with arabinose as sole carbon source and was lower than expected (30% lipid in biomass) when glucose, xylose and arabinose were provided simultaneously. The presence of arabinose and/or xylose in the medium increased the proportion of palmitic and linoleic acid and reduced the proportion of oleic acid in the fatty acids, compared to glucose-grown cells. High cell densities were obtained in both batch (37 g L(-1), with 49% lipid in the biomass) and fed-batch (35 to 47 g L(-1), with 50 to 75% lipid in the biomass) cultures. The highest proportion of lipid in the biomass was observed in cultures given nitrogen during the batch phase but none with the feed. However, carbohydrate consumption was incomplete when the feed did not contain nitrogen and the highest total lipid and best substrate consumption were observed in cultures which received a constant low nitrogen supply. Lipid production in R. toruloides was lower from arabinose and mixed carbohydrates than from glucose or xylose. Although high biomass and lipid

  6. Shell of Planet Earth – Global Batch Bioreactor.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanika, Jiří; Šolcová, Olga; Kaštánek, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 11 (2017), s. 1959-1965 ISSN 0930-7516 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : critical raw materials * global batch bioreactor * planet earth Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 2.051, year: 2016

  7. Batch arrival discrete time queue with gated vacation system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A class of single server vacation queues, which have batch arrivals and single server, is considered in discrete time. Here the server goes on vacation of random length as soon as the system becomes empty. On return from vacation, if he finds any customers waiting in the queue, the server starts serving the customers one ...

  8. Medium optimization for protopectinase production by batch culture of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medium optimization for protopectinase production by batch culture of. C Fan, Z Liu, L Yao. Abstract. Optimization of medium compositions for protopectinase production by Aspergillus terreus in submerged culture was carried out. The medium components having significant effect on protopectinase production were reported ...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF AN AUTOMATED BATCH-PROCESS SOLAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the shortcomings of solar disinfection of water (SODIS) is the absence of a feedback mechanism indicating treatment completion. This work presents the development of an automated batch-process water disinfection system aimed at solving this challenge. Locally sourced materials in addition to an Arduinomicro ...

  10. Quality control for 12 batch of DTPA-Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaac, M.; Gamboa, R.; Leyva, R.; Hernandez, I.; Turino, D.

    1994-01-01

    The quality control is carry out at 12 batch of DTPA-Sn for labeling with 99 m Tc. The instrumental methods of analysis and control charts were discussed in order to find a warranty time for the product. (author). 2 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  11. Development of Production Control in Small Batch Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Németh Péter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim with this paper is to develop a new performance measurement and control system for small batch production in the automotive industry. For this reason, we present our previous research results for warehouse performance measurement and adopt its methodology to production control. The proposed method is based on artificial intelligence (neural networks.

  12. Sequencing for Batch Production in a Group Flowline Machine Shop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the paper is to develop a useful technique for sequencing batches of components through machine shops arranged under the group flowline production system. The approach is to apply a modified version of Petrov's group flowline technique for machining components which follow a unidirectional route.

  13. Comparison of neptunium sorption results using batch and column techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triay, I.R.; Furlano, A.C.; Weaver, S.C.; Chipera, S.J.; Bish, D.L.

    1996-08-01

    We used crushed-rock columns to study the sorption retardation of neptunium by zeolitic, devitrified, and vitric tuffs typical of those at the site of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. We used two sodium bicarbonate waters (groundwater from Well J-13 at the site and water prepared to simulate groundwater from Well UE-25p No. 1) under oxidizing conditions. It was found that values of the sorption distribution coefficient, Kd, obtained from these column experiments under flowing conditions, regardless of the water or the water velocity used, agreed well with those obtained earlier from batch sorption experiments under static conditions. The batch sorption distribution coefficient can be used to predict the arrival time for neptunium eluted through the columns. On the other hand, the elution curves showed dispersivity, which implies that neptunium sorption in these tuffs may be nonlinear, irreversible, or noninstantaneous. As a result, use of a batch sorption distribution coefficient to calculate neptunium transport through Yucca Mountain tuffs would yield conservative values for neptunium release from the site. We also noted that neptunium (present as the anionic neptunyl carbonate complex) never eluted prior to tritiated water, which implies that charge exclusion does not appear to exclude neptunium from the tuff pores. The column experiments corroborated the trends observed in batch sorption experiments: neptunium sorption onto devitrified and vitric tuffs is minimal and sorption onto zeolitic tuffs decreases as the amount of sodium and bicarbonate/carbonate in the water increases

  14. On energy optimisation in multipurpose batch plants using heat storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Majozi, T

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of heat integration in multipurpose batch plants to minimise energy usage has been in the literature for more than two decades. Direct heat integration may be exploited when the heat source and heat sink processes are active over a common...

  15. Batch immunoextraction method for efficient purification of aromatic cytokinins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hauserová, Eva; Swaczynová, Jana; Doležal, Karel; Lenobel, René; Popa, Igor; Hajdúch, M.; Vydra, D.; Fuksová, Květoslava; Strnad, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 1100, č. 1 (2005), s. 116-125 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS4055304 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; MSM6198959216 Keywords : antibody * 6-benzylaminopurine * batch immunoextraction Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.096, year: 2005

  16. Tier 3 batch system data locality via managed caches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Kühn, Eileen; Quast, Günter

    2015-05-01

    Modern data processing increasingly relies on data locality for performance and scalability, whereas the common HEP approaches aim for uniform resource pools with minimal locality, recently even across site boundaries. To combine advantages of both, the High- Performance Data Analysis (HPDA) Tier 3 concept opportunistically establishes data locality via coordinated caches. In accordance with HEP Tier 3 activities, the design incorporates two major assumptions: First, only a fraction of data is accessed regularly and thus the deciding factor for overall throughput. Second, data access may fallback to non-local, making permanent local data availability an inefficient resource usage strategy. Based on this, the HPDA design generically extends available storage hierarchies into the batch system. Using the batch system itself for scheduling file locality, an array of independent caches on the worker nodes is dynamically populated with high-profile data. Cache state information is exposed to the batch system both for managing caches and scheduling jobs. As a result, users directly work with a regular, adequately sized storage system. However, their automated batch processes are presented with local replications of data whenever possible.

  17. A recirculating incubation system for hatching small batches of fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the design, construction and evaluation of the capacity of a re-circulating incubation system for hatching small batches of fish eggs. ... Water flowed out of the incubation unit through a small section of glass and then plastic tubing inserted through a second hole in the rubber stopper to a PVC drain ...

  18. Spore survival during batch dry rendering of abattoir waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, P D; Fernando, T; Gill, C O

    1979-01-01

    Normal batch dry rendering practice does not ensure sterile products, because bacterial spores are protected against thermal denaturation by the high fat-low water content environment which results from drying the materials at temperatures below those required for sterilization. PMID:117753

  19. Adaptation to high throughput batch chromatography enhances multivariate screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Gregory A; Calzada, Joseph; Herzer, Sibylle; Rieble, Siegfried

    2015-09-01

    High throughput process development offers unique approaches to explore complex process design spaces with relatively low material consumption. Batch chromatography is one technique that can be used to screen chromatographic conditions in a 96-well plate. Typical batch chromatography workflows examine variations in buffer conditions or comparison of multiple resins in a given process, as opposed to the assessment of protein loading conditions in combination with other factors. A modification to the batch chromatography paradigm is described here where experimental planning, programming, and a staggered loading approach increase the multivariate space that can be explored with a liquid handling system. The iterative batch chromatography (IBC) approach is described, which treats every well in a 96-well plate as an individual experiment, wherein protein loading conditions can be varied alongside other factors such as wash and elution buffer conditions. As all of these factors are explored in the same experiment, the interactions between them are characterized and the number of follow-up confirmatory experiments is reduced. This in turn improves statistical power and throughput. Two examples of the IBC method are shown and the impact of the load conditions are assessed in combination with the other factors explored. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. An analysis of DTP- associated reactions by manufacturer, batch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Merieux J5497 or SAIMR F08609. Methods of randomisation varied slightly between the two clinic groups in order to minimise clinic disruption. DTP dose numbers and batches were recorded on clinic cards to ensure vaccination with the same ...

  1. A storage assignment model for batch preparation in process industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashayeri, J.; Selen, W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop new model formulation for reducing the workload in pre‐batching at a manufacturer of flavors and fragrances, by optimally assigning ingredients to different storage types, taking into account past usage of ingredients and several restrictions about

  2. Synthesis of zero effluent multipurpose batch processes using effective scheduling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gouws, JF

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available the scheduling of operations in the synthesis phase. The mathematically based method presented in this paper deals with the synthesis of a batch plant operating in the fashion mentioned above. The method determines the optimal size and number of processing...

  3. Comparative Batch and Column Evaluation of Thermal and Wet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    batch adsorption experiments and continous flow (fixed bed) column experiment to study the mechanism of dye removal by the commercial ... compared with those obtained for thermal regeneration method (qmax = 61.73mgg-1) and wet oxidative method (qmax .... Carbon hardness was determined using a wet attrition test ...

  4. Efficient ethanol recovery from yeast fermentation broth with integrated distillation-membrane process

    Science.gov (United States)

    A hybrid process integrating vapor stripping with vapor compression and vapor permeation membrane separation, termed Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping (MAVS), was evaluated for recovery and dehydration of ethanol from aqueous solution as an alternative to conventional distillatio...

  5. Risk-based Methodology for Validation of Pharmaceutical Batch Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    In January 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration published new process validation guidance for pharmaceutical processes. The new guidance debunks the long-held industry notion that three consecutive validation batches or runs are all that are required to demonstrate that a process is operating in a validated state. Instead, the new guidance now emphasizes that the level of monitoring and testing performed during process performance qualification (PPQ) studies must be sufficient to demonstrate statistical confidence both within and between batches. In some cases, three qualification runs may not be enough. Nearly two years after the guidance was first published, little has been written defining a statistical methodology for determining the number of samples and qualification runs required to satisfy Stage 2 requirements of the new guidance. This article proposes using a combination of risk assessment, control charting, and capability statistics to define the monitoring and testing scheme required to show that a pharmaceutical batch process is operating in a validated state. In this methodology, an assessment of process risk is performed through application of a process failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis (PFMECA). The output of PFMECA is used to select appropriate levels of statistical confidence and coverage which, in turn, are used in capability calculations to determine when significant Stage 2 (PPQ) milestones have been met. The achievement of Stage 2 milestones signals the release of batches for commercial distribution and the reduction of monitoring and testing to commercial production levels. Individuals, moving range, and range/sigma charts are used in conjunction with capability statistics to demonstrate that the commercial process is operating in a state of statistical control. The new process validation guidance published by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in January of 2011 indicates that the number of process validation batches

  6. The impact of auxins used in assisted phytoextraction of metals from the contaminated environment on the alterations caused by lead(II) ions in the organization of model lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna; Sroka, Aleksandra; Jabłońska, Klaudia

    2016-07-01

    Auxins are successfully used to improve phytoextraction efficiency of metal ions from the contaminated environment, however, the mechanism of their activity in this field is not explained. Auxins are known to exert various biochemical alterations in the plant membranes and cells, but their activity involves also direct interactions with lipids leading to changes in membrane organization. Following the suggestion that the auxins-induced modifications in membrane properties alleviate toxic effect of metal ions in this paper we have undertaken the comparative studies on the effect of metal ions and metal ions/auxins mixtures on model membrane systems. The experiments were done on lipid monolayers differing in their composition spread on water subphase and on Pb(2+), Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and Pb(2+)/IAA and Pb(2+)/NAA water solutions. The analysis of the collected data suggests that metal ions and auxins can change fluidity of the lipid systems and weaken the interactions between monolayer components. This manifested in the increase of the mean area per molecule and the excess area per molecule values for the films on Pb(2+), auxins as well as Pb(2+)/auxin solutions as compared to the values on pure water subphase. However, the presence of auxin in the mixture with lead(II) ions makes the alterations induced by sole metal ions weaker. This effect was more pronounced for the membranes of a higher packing. Thus it was proposed that auxins may enhance phytoextraction of metal ions by weakening their destabilizing effect on membrane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Multilayered Magnetic Gelatin Membrane Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Sangram K.; Goranov, Vitaly; Dash, Mamoni; Russo, Alessandro; Shelyakova, Tatiana; Graziosi, Patrizio; Lungaro, Lisa; Riminucci, Alberto; Uhlarz, Marc; Bañobre-López, Manuel; Rivas, Jose; Herrmannsdörfer, Thomas; Rajadas, Jayakumar; De Smedt, Stefaan; Braeckmans, Kevin; Kaplan, David L.; Dediu, V. Alek

    2016-01-01

    A versatile approach for the design and fabrication of multilayer magnetic scaffolds with tunable magnetic gradients is described. Multilayer magnetic gelatin membrane scaffolds with intrinsic magnetic gradients were designed to encapsulate magnetized bioagents under an externally applied magnetic field for use in magnetic-field-assisted tissue engineering. The temperature of the individual membranes increased up to 43.7 °C under an applied oscillating magnetic field for 70 s by magnetic hyperthermia, enabling the possibility of inducing a thermal gradient inside the final 3D multilayer magnetic scaffolds. On the basis of finite element method simulations, magnetic gelatin membranes with different concentrations of magnetic nanoparticles were assembled into 3D multilayered scaffolds. A magnetic-gradient-controlled distribution of magnetically labeled stem cells was demonstrated in vitro. This magnetic biomaterial–magnetic cell strategy can be expanded to a number of different magnetic biomaterials for various tissue engineering applications. PMID:26451743

  8. MASS PRODUCTION OF THE BENEFICIAL NEMATODE STEINERNEMA CARPOCAPSAE UTILIZING A FED-BATCH CULTURING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard D. Holmes; Floyd L. Inman III; Sivanadane Mandjiny; Rinu Kooliyottil; Devang Upadhyay

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the batch and fed-batch mass production of Steinernema carpocapsae. S. carpocapsae is an entomoparasitic nematode that is used as a biological control agent of soil-borne crop insect pests. The ability and efficiency of fed-batch culture process was successful through the utilization of the nematode’s bacterial symbiont Xenorhabdus nematophila. Results from the fed-batch process were compared to those obtain from the standard batch process. The fed-batch process s...

  9. Glucoamylase production in batch, chemostat and fed-batch cultivations by an industrial strain of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Beyer, Michael; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    growth rate of the fungus were independent of pH when grown in batch cultivations. The specific glucoamylase productivity increased linearly with the specific growth rate in the range 0-0.1 h(-1) and was constant in the range 0.1-0.2 h(-1) Maltose and maltodextrin were non-inducing carbon sources...

  10. Batch sequencing of oil derivates in pipeline networks; Sequenciamento de bateladas de derivados leves de petroleo numa rede dutoviaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonacin, Mario Vicente; Oliveira, Daniel Rossato de; Czaikowski, Daniel Irineu; Polli, Helton Luis; Magatao, Leandro; Stebel, Sergio Leandro; Neves Junior, Flavio [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ribas, Paulo Cesar [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents a computational tool to assist the operational scheduling of a pipeline network. In this network, transfer of products is carried out by batches, from a source to a destination. This tool implements a proposal to determine priorities of the outgoing batches as well as alternatives for sequencing them fulfilling the stated periods stipulated. This proposal uses an analysis of production and demand plans, stockage, products draining in terminals, as well as operational restrictions of the pipeline network, looking for optimizing the use of resources such as pipes, bombs and tanks. The scenario in study is composed by 14 areas (4 refineries, 2 harbours, 6 distribution centres and 2 costumers) and 29 pipes. Prioritizing the attendance to the areas of source or demand, the algorithm carries choices between routes and possible batches volumes, considering calculations of time windows, that determine the limited interval when transference operations must occur. Moreover, operations called 'lung' are also treated, which involve flow changes during the movement. (author)

  11. Construction and performance characterization of ion-selective electrodes for potentiometric determination of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride applying batch and flow injection analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Sayed I M; Issa, Yousry M; Hussein, Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    New pseudoephedrine selective electrodes have been constructed of the conventional polymer membrane type by incorporation of pseudoephedrine-phosphotungstate (PE-PT) or pseudoephedrine-silicotungstate (PE-SiT) ion-associates in a poly vinyl chloride (PVC) membrane plasticized with dibutyl phthalate (DBP). The electrodes were fully characterized in terms of the membrane composition, temperature, and pH. The electrodes exhibited mean slopes of calibration graphs of 57.09 and 56.10 mV concentration decade(-1) of PECl at 25 degrees C for (PE-PT) and (PE-SiT) electrodes, respectively. The electrodes showed fast, stable, and near-Nernstian response over the concentration ranges 6.31 x 10(-6)-1.00 x 10(-2) and 5.00 x 10(-5)-1.00x10(-2) M in the case of PE-PT applying batch and flow injection (FI) analysis, respectively, and 1.00 x 10(-5)-1.00 x 10(-2) and 5.00 x 10(-5)-1.00x10(-2) M in the case of PE-SiT for batch and FI analysis system, respectively. Detection limit was 5.01x 10(-6) M for PE-PT electrode and 6.31x10(-6) M for PE-SiT electrode. The electrodes were successfully applied for the potentiometric determination of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PECl) in pharmaceutical preparations with mean recovery 101.13 +/- 0.85% and 100.77+0.79% in case of PE-PT applying batch and flow injection systems, respectively, and 100.75+0.85% and 100.79 +/- 0.77% in case of PE-SiT for batch and flow injection systems, respectively. The electrodes exhibited good selectivity for PECl with respect to a large number of inorganic cations, sugars and amino acids.

  12. Optimal Operation of Industrial Batch Crystallizers : A Nonlinear Model-based Control Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesbah, A.

    2010-01-01

    Batch crystallization is extensively employed in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries to separate and purify high value-added chemical substances. Despite their widespread application, optimal operation of batch crystallizers is particularly challenging. The difficulties primarily

  13. Selecting local constraint for alignment of batch process data with dynamic time warping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spooner, Max Peter; Kold, David; Kulahci, Murat

    2017-01-01

    observation number for every batch. Dynamic time warping has been shown to be an effective method for meeting these objectives. This is based on a dynamic programming algorithm that aligns a batch to a reference batch, by stretching and compressing its local time dimension. The resulting ”warping function......There are two key reasons for aligning batch process data. The first is to obtain same-length batches so that standard methods of analysis may be applied, whilst the second reason is to synchronise events that take place during each batch so that the same event is associated with the same......” may be interpreted as a progress signature of the batch which may be appended to the aligned data for further analysis. For the warping function to be a realistic reflection of the progress of a batch, it is necessary to impose some constraints on the dynamic time warping algorithm, to avoid...

  14. Mathematical technique for the design of near-zero-effluent batch processess

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gouws, JF

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater minimisation in chemical processes has always been the privilege of continuous rather than batch plants. However, this situation is steadily changing, since batch plants have a tendency to generate much more toxic effluent compared...

  15. Heat integration in multipurpose batch plants using a robust scheduling framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seid, ER

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving is becoming increasingly important in batch processing facilities. Multipurpose batch plants have become more popular than ever in the processing environment due to their inherent flexibility and adaptability to market conditions, even...

  16. On Bottleneck Product Rate Variation Problem with Batching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Khadka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The product rate variation problem minimizes the variation in the rate at which different models of a common base product are produced on the assembly lines with the assumption of negligible switch-over cost and unit processing time for each copy of each model. The assumption of significant setup and arbitrary processing times forces the problem to be a two phase problem. The first phase determines the size and the number of batches and the second one sequences the batches of models. In this paper, the bottleneck case i.e. the min-max case of the problem with a generalized objective function is formulated. A Pareto optimal solution is proposed and a relation between optimal sequences for the problem with different objective functions is investigated.

  17. Integration of Grid and Local Batch Resources at DESY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Christoph; Finnern, Thomas; Gellrich, Andreas; Hartmann, Thomas; Kemp, Yves; Lewendel, Birgit

    2017-10-01

    As one of the largest resource centres DESY has to support differing work flows of users from various scientific backgrounds. Users can be for one HEP experiments in WLCG or Belle II as well as local HEP users but also physicists from other fields as photon science or accelerator development. By abandoning specific worker node setups in favour of generic flat nodes with middleware resources provided via CVMFS, we gain flexibility to subsume different use cases in a homogeneous environment. Grid jobs and the local batch system are managed in a HTCondor based setup, accepting pilot, user and containerized jobs. The unified setup allows dynamic re-assignment of resources between the different use cases. Monitoring is implemented on global batch system metrics as well as on a per job level utilizing corresponding cgroup information.

  18. APPLICATION OF MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL TO BATCH POLYMERIZATION REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Ghasem

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The absence of a stable operational state in polymerization reactors that operates in batches is factor that determine the need of a special control system. In this study, advanced control methodology is implemented for controlling the operation of a batch polymerization reactor for polystyrene production utilizingmodel predictive control. By utilizing a model of the polymerization process, the necessary operational conditions were determined for producing the polymer within the desired characteristics. The maincontrol objective is to bring the reactor temperature to its target temperature as rapidly as possible with minimal temperature overshoot. Control performance for the proposed method is encouraging. It has been observed that temperature overshoot can be minimized by the proposed method with the use of both reactor and jacket energy balance for reactor temperature control.

  19. Continuous Heterogeneous Photocatalysis in Serial Micro-Batch Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieber, Bartholomäus; Shalom, Menny; Antonietti, Markus; Seeberger, Peter H; Gilmore, Kerry

    2018-01-29

    Solid reagents, leaching catalysts, and heterogeneous photocatalysts are commonly employed in batch processes but are ill-suited for continuous-flow chemistry. Heterogeneous catalysts for thermal reactions are typically used in packed-bed reactors, which cannot be penetrated by light and thus are not suitable for photocatalytic reactions involving solids. We demonstrate that serial micro-batch reactors (SMBRs) allow for the continuous utilization of solid materials together with liquids and gases in flow. This technology was utilized to develop selective and efficient fluorination reactions using a modified graphitic carbon nitride heterogeneous catalyst instead of costly homogeneous metal polypyridyl complexes. The merger of this inexpensive, recyclable catalyst and the SMBR approach enables sustainable and scalable photocatalysis. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. JAVA Implementation of the Batched iLab Shared Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenard Payne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The MIT iLab Shared Architecture is limited currently to running on the Microsoft Windows platform. A JAVA implementation of the Batched iLab Shared Architecture has been developed that can be used on other operating systems and still interoperate with the existing Microsoft .NET web services of MIT’s iLab ServiceBroker. The Batched iLab Shared Architecture has been revised and separates the Labserver into a LabServer that handles experiment management and a LabEquipment that handles experiment execution. The JAVA implementation provides a 3-tier code development model that allows code to be reused and to develop only the code that is specific to each experiment.

  1. Recipe-Based Batch Control Using High-Level Grafchart

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsson, Charlotta

    1997-01-01

    High-Level Grafchart is a graphical programming language for control of sequential processes. Sequential control is important in all kinds of industries: discrete, continuous and batch. Sequential elements show up both on the local control level and on the supervisory control level. High-Level Grafchart combines the graphical syntax of Grafcet/SFC with high-level programming language constructs and ideas from High-Level Petri Nets. High-Level Grafchart can be used to control sequential proces...

  2. Using Simulation for Scheduling and Rescheduling of Batch Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Girish Joglekar

    2017-01-01

    The problem of scheduling multiproduct and multipurpose batch processes has been studied for more than 30 years using math programming and heuristics. In most formulations, the manufacturing recipes are represented by simplified models using state task network (STN) or resource task network (RTN), transfers of materials are assumed to be instantaneous, constraints due to shared utilities are often ignored, and scheduling horizons are kept small due to the limits on the problem size that can b...

  3. Integration of virtualized worker nodes in standard batch systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buege, Volker; Kunze, Marcel; Oberst, Oliver; Quast, Guenter; Scheurer, Armin; Hessling, Hermann; Kemp, Yves; Synge, Owen

    2010-01-01

    Current experiments in HEP only use a limited number of operating system flavours. Their software might only be validated on one single OS platform. Resource providers might have other operating systems of choice for the installation of the batch infrastructure. This is especially the case if a cluster is shared with other communities, or communities that have stricter security requirements. One solution would be to statically divide the cluster into separated sub-clusters. In such a scenario, no opportunistic distribution of the load can be achieved, resulting in a poor overall utilization efficiency. Another approach is to make the batch system aware of virtualization, and to provide each community with its favoured operating system in a virtual machine. Here, the scheduler has full flexibility, resulting in a better overall efficiency of the resources. In our contribution, we present a lightweight concept for the integration of virtual worker nodes into standard batch systems. The virtual machines are started on the worker nodes just before jobs are executed there. No meta-scheduling is introduced. We demonstrate two prototype implementations, one based on the Sun Grid Engine (SGE), the other using Maui/Torque as a batch system. Both solutions support local job as well as Grid job submission. The hypervisors currently used are Xen and KVM, a port to another system is easily envisageable. To better handle different virtual machines on the physical host, the management solution VmImageManager is developed. We will present first experience from running the two prototype implementations. In a last part, we will show the potential future use of this lightweight concept when integrated into high-level (i.e. Grid) work-flows.

  4. Adsorption of Arsenite onto Kemiron in a batch system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    doti

    This study investigated the effect of pH and coexisting ions on As(III) adsorption using batch experiment and discovered that pH strongly influenced As(III) adsorption. However, differences in background ionic strengths of 0.001 N NaNO3 and 0.1 N NaNO3 had no effect on the sorption trend. The isotherms followed ...

  5. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF BATCH ADSORPTION OF MANGANESE ONTO BONE CHAR

    OpenAIRE

    Maria, M. E.; Mansur, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study investigated the dynamics of batch adsorption of manganese onto bone char by using two distinct mathematical formulations: the diffusion model and the shrinking core model. Both models assumed spherical particles and adequately described the transient behavior of metal adsorption under changing operating conditions. Comparatively, the diffusion model described the manganese adsorption better at distinct particle sizes even when small particles were used (dp ≤ 0.147 ...

  6. Batch production of microchannel plate photo-multipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, Henry J.; Wetstein, Matthew; Elagin, Andrey

    2018-03-06

    In-situ methods for the batch fabrication of flat-panel micro-channel plate (MCP) photomultiplier tube (PMT) detectors (MCP-PMTs), without transporting either the window or the detector assembly inside a vacuum vessel are provided. The method allows for the synthesis of a reflection-mode photocathode on the entrance to the pores of a first MCP or the synthesis of a transmission-mode photocathode on the vacuum side of a photodetector entrance window.

  7. Automated handling for SAF batch furnace and chemistry analysis operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, W.W.; Sherrell, D.L.; Wiemers, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Secure Automated Fabrication Program is developing a remotely operated breeder reactor fuel pin fabrication line. The equipment will be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility being constructed at Hanford, Washington. Production is scheduled to start in mid-1986. The application of small pneumatically operated industrial robots for loading and unloading product into and out of batch furnaces and for distribution and handling of chemistry samples is described

  8. Computer-assisted time-averaged holograms of the motion of the surface of the mammalian tympanic membrane with sound stimuli of 0.4 to 25 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosowski, John J.; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Ravicz, Michael E.; Hulli, Nesim; Hernandez-Montes, Maria; Harrington, Ellery; Furlong, Cosme

    2009-01-01

    Time-averaged holograms describing the sound-induced motion of the tympanic membrane (TM) in cadaveric preparations from three mammalian species and one live ear were measured using opto-electronic holography. This technique allows rapid measurements of the magnitude of motion of the tympanic membrane surface at frequencies as high as 25 kHz. The holograms measured in response to low and middle-frequency sound stimuli are similar to previously reported time-averaged holograms. However, at higher frequencies (f > 4 kHz), our holograms reveal unique TM surface displacement patterns that consist of highly-ordered arrangements of multiple local displacement magnitude maxima, each of which is surrounded by nodal areas of low displacement magnitude. These patterns are similar to modal patterns (two-dimensional standing waves) produced by either the interaction of surface waves traveling in multiple directions or the uniform stimulation of modes of motion that are determined by the structural properties and boundary conditions of the TM. From the ratio of the displacement magnitude peaks to nodal valleys in these apparent surface waves, we estimate a Standing Wave Ratio of at least 4 that is consistent with energy reflection coefficients at the TM boundaries of at least 0.35. It is also consistent with small losses within the uniformly stimulated modal surface waves. We also estimate possible TM surface wave speeds that vary with frequency and species from 20 to 65 m/s, consistent with other estimates in the literature. The presence of standing wave or modal phenomena has previously been intuited from measurements of TM function, but is ignored in some models of tympanic membrane function. Whether these standing waves result either from the interactions of multiple surface waves that travel along the membrane, or by uniformly excited modal displacement patterns of the entire TM surface is still to be determined. PMID:19328841

  9. Sequencing batch-reactor control using Gaussian-process models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocijan, Juš; Hvala, Nadja

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a Gaussian-process (GP) model for the design of sequencing batch-reactor (SBR) control for wastewater treatment. The GP model is a probabilistic, nonparametric model with uncertainty predictions. In the case of SBR control, it is used for the on-line optimisation of the batch-phases duration. The control algorithm follows the course of the indirect process variables (pH, redox potential and dissolved oxygen concentration) and recognises the characteristic patterns in their time profile. The control algorithm uses GP-based regression to smooth the signals and GP-based classification for the pattern recognition. When tested on the signals from an SBR laboratory pilot plant, the control algorithm provided a satisfactory agreement between the proposed completion times and the actual termination times of the biodegradation processes. In a set of tested batches the final ammonia and nitrate concentrations were below 1 and 0.5 mg L(-1), respectively, while the aeration time was shortened considerably. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fault Diagnosis of Batch Reactor Using Machine Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fault diagnosis of a batch reactor gives the early detection of fault and minimizes the risk of thermal runaway. It provides superior performance and helps to improve safety and consistency. It has become more vital in this technical era. In this paper, support vector machine (SVM is used to estimate the heat release (Qr of the batch reactor both normal and faulty conditions. The signature of the residual, which is obtained from the difference between nominal and estimated faulty Qr values, characterizes the different natures of faults occurring in the batch reactor. Appropriate statistical and geometric features are extracted from the residual signature and the total numbers of features are reduced using SVM attribute selection filter and principle component analysis (PCA techniques. artificial neural network (ANN classifiers like multilayer perceptron (MLP, radial basis function (RBF, and Bayes net are used to classify the different types of faults from the reduced features. It is observed from the result of the comparative study that the proposed method for fault diagnosis with limited number of features extracted from only one estimated parameter (Qr shows that it is more efficient and fast for diagnosing the typical faults.

  11. Yields from pyrolysis of refinery residue using a batch process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prithiraj

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Batch pyrolysis was a valuable process of assessing the potential of recovering and characterising products from hazardous waste materials. This research explored the pyrolysis of hydrocarbon-rich refinery residue, from crude oil processes, in a 1200 L electrically-heated batch retort. Furthermore, the off-gases produced were easily processed in compliance with existing regulatory emission standards. The methodology offers a novel, cost-effective and environmentally compliant method of assessing recovery potential of valuable products. The pyrolysis experiments yielded significant oil (70% with high calorific value (40 MJ/kg, char (14% with carbon content over 80% and non-condensable gas (6% with significant calorific value (240 kJ/mol. The final gas stream was subjected to an oxidative clean-up process with continuous on-line monitoring demonstrating compliance with South African emission standards. The gas treatment was overall economically optimal as only a smaller portion of the original residue was subjected to emission-controlling steps. Keywords: Batch pyrolysis, Volatiles, Oil yields, Char, Emissions, Oil recovery

  12. Analyzing data flows of WLCG jobs at batch job level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Eileen; Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    With the introduction of federated data access to the workflows of WLCG, it is becoming increasingly important for data centers to understand specific data flows regarding storage element accesses, firewall configurations, as well as the scheduling of batch jobs themselves. As existing batch system monitoring and related system monitoring tools do not support measurements at batch job level, a new tool has been developed and put into operation at the GridKa Tier 1 center for monitoring continuous data streams and characteristics of WLCG jobs and pilots. Long term measurements and data collection are in progress. These measurements already have been proven to be useful analyzing misbehaviors and various issues. Therefore we aim for an automated, realtime approach for anomaly detection. As a requirement, prototypes for standard workflows have to be examined. Based on measurements of several months, different features of HEP jobs are evaluated regarding their effectiveness for data mining approaches to identify these common workflows. The paper will introduce the actual measurement approach and statistics as well as the general concept and first results classifying different HEP job workflows derived from the measurements at GridKa.

  13. Fed-batch production of tetanus toxin by Clostridium tetani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratelli, Fernando; Siquini, Tatiana Joly; de Abreu, Marcelo Estima; Higashi, Hisako Gondo; Converti, Attilio; de Carvalho, João Carlos Monteiro

    2010-01-01

    This study deals with the effects of the initial nitrogen source (NZ Case TT) level and the protocol of glucose addition during the fed-batch production of tetanus toxin by Clostridium tetani. An increase in the initial concentration of NZ Case TT (NZ(0)) accelerated cell growth, increased the consumption of the nitrogen source as well as the final yield of tetanus toxin, which achieved the highest values (50-60 L(f)/mL) for NZ(0) > or = 50 g/L. The addition of glucose at fixed times (16, 56, and 88 h) ensured a toxin yield ( approximately 60 L(f)/mL) about 33% higher than those of fed-batch runs with addition at fixed concentration ( approximately 45 L(f)/mL) and about 300% higher than those obtained in reference batch runs nowadays used at industrial scale. The results of this work promise to substantially improve the present production of tetanus toxin and may be adopted for human vaccine production after detoxification and purification.

  14. Monitoring a PVC batch process with multivariate statistical process control charts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tates, A. A.; Louwerse, D. J.; Smilde, A. K.; Koot, G. L. M.; Berndt, H.

    1999-01-01

    Multivariate statistical process control charts (MSPC charts) are developed for the industrial batch production process of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). With these MSPC charts different types of abnormal batch behavior were detected on-line. With batch contribution plots, the probable causes of these

  15. 40 CFR 63.1323 - Batch process vents-methods and procedures for group determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in § 63.1322(a)(1) or § 63.1322(b)(1) or routing the batch process vent to a control device to comply... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-methods and... Polymers and Resins § 63.1323 Batch process vents—methods and procedures for group determination. (a...

  16. Performance assessment and improvement of control charts for statistical batch process monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaker, Henk-Jan; van Sprang, Eric N. M.; Westerhuis, Johan A.; Gurden, Stephen P.; Smilde, Age K.; van der Meulen, Frank H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the concepts of statistical batch process monitoring and the associated problems. It starts with an introduction to process monitoring in general which is then extended to batch process monitoring. The performance of control charts for batch process monitoring is discussed by

  17. 21 CFR 111.260 - What must the batch record include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control System: Requirements... record must include the following: (a) The batch, lot, or control number: (1) Of the finished batch of... that quality control personnel: (1) Reviewed the batch production record, including: (i) Review of any...

  18. 40 CFR 63.486 - Batch front-end process vent provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sources with batch front-end process vents classified as Group 1 shall comply with the reference control... Group 2 batch front-end process vents shall comply with the applicable reference control technology... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vent provisions...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1322 - Batch process vents-reference control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-reference control technology. 63.1322 Section 63.1322 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Batch process vents—reference control technology. (a) Batch process vents. The owner or operator of a...

  20. 40 CFR 417.10 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory. 417.10 Section 417.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Batch Kettle Subcategory § 417.10 Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  1. OSAT: a tool for sample-to-batch allocations in genomics experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Batch effect is one type of variability that is not of primary interest but ubiquitous in sizable genomic experiments. To minimize the impact of batch effects, an ideal experiment design should ensure the even distribution of biological groups and confounding factors across batches. However, due to the practical complications, the availability of the final collection of samples in genomics study might be unbalanced and incomplete, which, without appropriate attention in sample-to-batch allocation, could lead to drastic batch effects. Therefore, it is necessary to develop effective and handy tool to assign collected samples across batches in an appropriate way in order to minimize the impact of batch effects. Results We describe OSAT (Optimal Sample Assignment Tool, a bioconductor package designed for automated sample-to-batch allocations in genomics experiments. Conclusions OSAT is developed to facilitate the allocation of collected samples to different batches in genomics study. Through optimizing the even distribution of samples in groups of biological interest into different batches, it can reduce the confounding or correlation between batches and the biological variables of interest. It can also optimize the homogeneous distribution of confounding factors across batches. It can handle challenging instances where incomplete and unbalanced sample collections are involved as well as ideally balanced designs.

  2. Degradation of chlorophenol mixtures in a fed-batch system by two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Degradation of chlorophenol mixtures in a fed-batch system by two soil bacteria. ... This work was undertaken to investigate the effect of variations of the feed rate on a fed-batch set-up used to degrade xenobiotics. ... Keywords: Chlorophenol; fed batch system; aerobic degradation; waste treatment; microbial biocatalysis ...

  3. Look-ahead strategies for controlling batch operations in industry : Overview, comparison and exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    Batching jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in most industries. Main reasons for batching are avoidance of set ups and/or facilitation of material handling. Good examples of batch wise production systems are ovens found in aircraft industry and in semi-conductor manufacturing.

  4. Look-ahead strategies for controlling batch operations in industry - overview, comparison and exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, D.J. van der; Harten, A. van; Schuur, P.C.; Joines, JA; Barton, RR; Kang, K; Fishwick, PA

    2000-01-01

    Batching jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in most industries. The main reasons for batching are avoidance of set ups and/or facilitation of material handling. Good examples of batch-wise production systems are ovens found in aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing.

  5. Look-ahead strategies for controlling batch operations in industry - An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, Durk-Jouke van der; Chick, SE; Sanchez, PJ; Ferrin, D; Morrice, DJ

    2003-01-01

    Batching jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in most industries. Main reasons for batching are avoidance of set ups and/or facilitation of material handling. Examples of batch-wise production systems are ovens found in aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. Starting

  6. 40 CFR 63.1407 - Non-reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Non-reactor batch process vent... § 63.1407 Non-reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. (1) Owners or operators of non-reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources with 0.25 tons per year (0...

  7. Optimization of a fed-batch fermentation process for production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the substrate inhibition that takes place at high levels of carbon source, fed-batch fermentation was proposed as a better alternative for BLM production. The combined effects of batch and fed-batch fermentation and various pH profiles on BLM production in a bioreactor were evaluated. The tested pH profiles included ...

  8. Look-ahead strategies for controlling batch operations in industry : basic insights in rule construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; Sullivan, W.A.; Ahmad, M.M.; Fichtner, D.; Sauer, W.; Weigert, G.; Zerna, T.

    2002-01-01

    Batching jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in most industries. Main reasons for batching are avoidance of set ups and/or facilitation of material handling. Examples of batch-wise production systems are ovens found in aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. Starting

  9. Lipase immobilized catalytically active membrane for synthesis of lauryl stearate in a pervaporation membrane reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weidong; Qing, Weihua; Ren, Zhongqi; Li, Wei; Chen, Jiangrong

    2014-11-01

    A composite catalytically active membrane immobilized with Candida rugosa lipase has been prepared by immersion phase inversion technique for enzymatic synthesis of lauryl stearate in a pervaporation membrane reactor. SEM images showed that a "sandwich-like" membrane structure with a porous lipase-PVA catalytic layer uniformly coated on a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/polyethersulfone (PES) bilayer was obtained. Optimum conditions for lipase immobilization in the catalytic layer were determined. The membrane was proved to exhibit superior thermal stability, pH stability and reusability than free lipase under similar conditions. In the case of pervaporation coupled synthesis of lauryl stearate, benefited from in-situ water removal by the membrane, a conversion enhancement of approximately 40% was achieved in comparison to the equilibrium conversion obtained in batch reactors. In addition to conversion enhancement, it was also found that excess water removal by the catalytically active membrane appears to improve activity of the lipase immobilized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ethanol production from Sorghum bicolor using both separate and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation in batch and fed batch systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehmood, Sajid; Gulfraz, M.; Rana, N. F.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to find the best combination of different experimental conditions during pre-treatment, enzymatic saccharification, detoxification of inhibitors and fermentation of Sorghum bicolor straw for ethanol production. The optimization of pre-treatment using different...... were used in order to increase the monomeric sugar during enzymatic hydrolysis and it has been observed that the addition of these surfactants contributed significantly in cellulosic conversion but no effect was shown on hemicellulosic hydrolysis. Fermentability of hydrolyzate was tested using...... Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ethanol Red (TM) and it was observed that simultaneous saccharification and fermentation ( SSF) with both batch and fed batch resulted in better ethanol yield as compared to separate hydrolysis and fermentation ( SHF). Detoxification of furan during SHF facilitated reduction...

  11. Production of lactic acid from cheese whey by batch and repeated batch cultures of Lactobacillus sp. RKY2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyang-Ok; Wee, Young-Jung; Kim, Jin-Nam; Yun, Jong-Sun; Ryu, Hwa-Won

    2006-01-01

    The fermentative production of lactic acid from cheese whey and corn steep liquor (CSL) as cheap raw materials was investigated by using Lactobacillus sp. RKY2 in order to develop a cost-effective fermentation medium. Lactic acid yields based on consumed lactose were obtained at more than 0.98 g/g from the medium containing whey lactose. Lactic acid productivities and yields obtained from whey lactose medium were slightly higher than those obtained from pure lactose medium. The lactic acid productivity gradually decreased with increase in substrate concentration owing to substrate and product inhibitions. The fermentation efficiencies were improved by the addition of more CSL to the medium. Moreover, through the cell-recycle repeated batch fermentation, lactic acid productivity was maximized to 6.34 g/L/h, which was 6.2 times higher than that of the batch fermentation.

  12. From biological membranes to biomimetic model membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eeman, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological membranes play an essential role in the cellular protection as well as in the control and the transport of nutrients. Many mechanisms such as molecular recognition, enzymatic catalysis, cellular adhesion and membrane fusion take place into the biological membranes. In 1972, Singer et al. provided a membrane model, called fluid mosaic model, in which each leaflet of the bilayer is formed by a homogeneous environment of lipids in a fluid state including globular assembling of proteins and glycoproteins. Since its conception in 1972, many developments were brought to this model in terms of composition and molecular organization. The main development of the fluid mosaic model was made by Simons et al. (1997 and Brown et al. (1997 who suggested that membrane lipids are organized into lateral microdomains (or lipid rafts with a specific composition and a molecular dynamic that are different to the composition and the dynamic of the surrounding liquid crystalline phase. The discovery of a phase separation in the plane of the membrane has induced an explosion in the research efforts related to the biology of cell membranes but also in the development of new technologies for the study of these biological systems. Due to the high complexity of biological membranes and in order to investigate the biological processes that occur on the membrane surface or within the membrane lipid bilayer, a large number of studies are performed using biomimicking model membranes. This paper aims at revisiting the fundamental properties of biological membranes in terms of membrane composition, membrane dynamic and molecular organization, as well as at describing the most common biomimicking models that are frequently used for investigating biological processes such as membrane fusion, membrane trafficking, pore formation as well as membrane interactions at a molecular level.

  13. Optimization of the Production of Polygalacturonase from Aspergillus kawachii Cloned in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Batch and Fed-Batch Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Jorge Baruque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygalacturonases (PG; EC 3.2.1.15 catalyze the hydrolysis of pectin and/or pectic acid and are useful for industrial applications such as juice clarification and pectin extraction. Growth and heterologous expression of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae which expresses an acidic PG from Aspergillus kawachii has been studied in batch and fed-batch cultures. Kinetics and stoichiometric parameters of the recombinant yeast were determined in batch cultures in a synthetic medium. In these cultures, the total biomass concentration, protein concentration, and enzyme activity achieved were 2.2 g/L, 10 mg/L, and 3 U/mL, respectively, to give a productivity of 0.06 U/(mL·h. In fed-batch cultures, various strategies for galactose feeding were used: (i after a glucose growth phase, the addition of a single pulse of galactose which gave a productivity of 0.19 U/(mL·h; (ii after a glucose growth phase, a double pulse of galactose at the same final concentration was added, resulting in a productivity of 0.21 U/(mL·h; (iii a simultaneous feeding of glucose and galactose, yielding a productivity of 1.32 U/(mL·h. Based on these results, the simultaneous feeding of glucose and galactose was by far the most suitable strategy for the production of this enzyme. Moreover, some biochemical characteristics of the recombinant enzyme such as a molecular mass of ~60 kDa, an isoelectric point of 3.7 and its ability to hydrolyze polygalacturonic acid at pH=2.5 were determined.

  14. Nitrate and Perchlorate Destruction and Potable Water Production Using Membrane Biofilm Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Polypropylene Membrane b. c. Figure 1. Schematic of hydrogen-fed MBfR (a) membrane cross section, (b) woven fibers and biofilm...MBfR effluent goal of 6 µg/L perchlorate and 0.5 mg-N/L nitrate • Tracer Testing Start-Up • Varied feed flow rates • Varied recycle ratios • Batch...parameters including flow rate, recycle flow rate, hydrogen pressure, gas sparge frequency, and the gas used for sparging were varied during optimization

  15. Influence of coal batch preparation on the quality of metallurgical соkе

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Катерина Олегівна Шмельцер

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To study the influence of coal batch properties on coke strength we have considered the quality of the coke produced at the plant in Krivoy Rog from 2008 till 2012. Such factors as the large number of coal suppliers, imprecise selection of the optimal degree of batch crushing result in the decline in coke quality, the batch density and contents of the lean class (<0,5 mm are not optimum; poor blending of the batch after crushing; increased moisture and ash content of the coking batch; and extreme fluctuation in the coal and batch characteristics. It was found that high humidity of coal batch and its large fluctuations has most profound effect on the mechanical properties of coke. Under deteriorating resource base the quality of the coking batch preparation is important, To have batch of proper quality the following key aspects must be taken into account: the batch must be crushed to an optimum degree that will result in leaning components decrease and increased contents of vitrivite in it which improves the sinterability and coking, and hence the quality of coke; the degree of mixing of the coking batch in all indices must be up to 98-99%, for uneven distribution in the coal chamber worsens the quality of coke

  16. The plant membrane surrounding powdery mildew haustoria shares properties with the endoplasmic reticulum membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwaaitaal, Mark Adrianus Cornelis J; Nielsen, Mads Eggert; Böhlenius, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Many filamentous plant pathogens place specialized feeding structures, called haustoria, inside living host cells. As haustoria grow, they are believed to manipulate plant cells to generate a specialized, still enigmatic extrahaustorial membrane (EHM) around them. Here, we focused on revealing pr....... This raises the prospect that an unconventional secretory pathway from the ER may provide this membrane's material. Understanding these processes will assist future approaches to providing resistance by preventing EHM generation....

  17. Molecular Interactions at Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagalski, Vivien

    Biological membranes are essential and complex structures in every living cell consisting of a fluid lipid bilayer sheet and membrane proteins. Its significance makes biological membranes not only interesting for medical research, but also has made it a target for toxins in the course of evolution....... Today, we know more than ever before about the properties of biological membranes. Advanced biophysical techniques and sophisticated membrane models allow us to answer specific questions about the structure of the components within membranes and their interactions. However, many detailed structural...... mechanisms of membrane compounds, including compounds associated with membranes, are still unknown due to the challenges that arise when probing the hydrophobic nature of the membrane's interior. For integral membrane proteins that span through the entire membrane, the amphiphilic environment is essential...

  18. Recommendation of ruthenium source for sludge batch flowsheet studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodham, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-13

    Included herein is a preliminary analysis of previously-generated data from sludge batches 7a, 7b, 8, and 9 sludge simulant and real-waste testing, performed to recommend a form of ruthenium for future sludge batch simulant testing under the nitric-formic flowsheet. Focus is given to reactions present in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank cycle, given that this cycle historically produces the most changes in chemical composition during Chemical Process Cell processing. Data is presented and analyzed for several runs performed under the nitric-formic flowsheet, with consideration given to effects on the production of hydrogen gas, nitrous oxide gas, consumption of formate, conversion of nitrite to nitrate, and the removal and recovery of mercury during processing. Additionally, a brief discussion is given to the effect of ruthenium source selection under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet. An analysis of data generated from scaled demonstration testing, sludge batch 9 qualification testing, and antifoam degradation testing under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet is presented. Experimental parameters of interest under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet include N2O production, glycolate destruction, conversion of glycolate to formate and oxalate, and the conversion of nitrite to nitrate. To date, the number of real-waste experiments that have been performed under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet is insufficient to provide a complete understanding of the effects of ruthenium source selection in simulant experiments with regard to fidelity to real-waste testing. Therefore, a determination of comparability between the two ruthenium sources as employed under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet is made based on available data in order to inform ruthenium source selection for future testing under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet.

  19. DYNAMICS OF CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE OF BATCH STERILIZERS WITH BACKPRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Klymenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the construction of dynamic subsystem logical and dynamic model for batch sterilizer with counter-pressure needed for the construction of programmer. To describe the dynamics of counter-pressure autoclave is used mathematical method that takes into account the sequence of the autoclave. Modeling scheme for areas of heating and shutter, and cooling area are programmed in MatLab with the the heat balance equation. There are circuit modeling temperature changes in banks in areas of heating and shutter speed and cooling section.

  20. Batched Triangular DLA for Very Small Matrices on GPUs

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali

    2017-03-13

    In several scientific applications, like tensor contractions in deep learning computation or data compression in hierarchical low rank matrix approximation, the bulk of computation typically resides in performing thousands of independent dense linear algebra operations on very small matrix sizes (usually less than 100). Batched dense linear algebra kernels are becoming ubiquitous for such scientific computations. Within a single API call, these kernels are capable of simultaneously launching a large number of similar matrix computations, removing the expensive overhead of multiple API calls while increasing the utilization of the underlying hardware.

  1. Optimum heat storage design for heat integrated multipurpose batch plants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stamp, J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available June 2011 Accepted 7 June 2011 Available online xxx Keywords: a b s t r a c t Heat integration to minimis for more than two decade which leads to suboptimal leading to improved results optimisation of heat storag exhibits MINLP structure, w a... different thermal storage systems were designed to store the heat released during an exothermic reaction phase and reuse the heat for preheating the reactants in the following batch. Savings between 50% and 70% could be achieved, however, payback time...

  2. Online and Batch Supervised Background Estimation via L1 Regression

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Aritra

    2017-11-23

    We propose a surprisingly simple model for supervised video background estimation. Our model is based on $\\\\ell_1$ regression. As existing methods for $\\\\ell_1$ regression do not scale to high-resolution videos, we propose several simple and scalable methods for solving the problem, including iteratively reweighted least squares, a homotopy method, and stochastic gradient descent. We show through extensive experiments that our model and methods match or outperform the state-of-the-art online and batch methods in virtually all quantitative and qualitative measures.

  3. Magnetically controlled permeability membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jurgen

    2013-10-31

    A bioactive material delivery system can include a thermoresponsive polymer membrane and nanowires distributed within the thermoresponsive polymer membrane. Magnetic activation of a thermoresponsive polymer membrane can take place via altering the magnetization or dimensions of nanowires dispersed or ordered within the membrane matrix.

  4. Sustainable operation of submerged Anammox membrane bioreactor with recycling biogas sparging for alleviating membrane fouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziyin; Xu, Xindi; Xu, Xiaochen; Yang, FengLin; Zhang, ShuShen

    2015-12-01

    A submerged anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (Anammox) membrane bioreactor with recycling biogas sparging for alleviating membrane fouling has been successfully operated for 100d. Based on the batch tests, a recycling biogas sparging rate at 0.2m(3)h(-1) was fixed as an ultimate value for the sustainable operation. The mixed liquor volatile suspended solid (VSS) of the inoculum for the long operation was around 3000mgL(-1). With recycling biogas sparging rate increasing stepwise from 0 to 0.2m(3)h(-1), the reactor reached an influent total nitrogen (TN) up to 1.7gL(-1), a stable TN removal efficiency of 83% and a maximum specific Anammox activity (SAA) of 0.56kg TNkg(-1) VSSd(-1). With recycling biogas sparging rate at 0.2 m(3) h(-1) (corresponding to an aeration intensity of 118m(3)m(-2)h(-1)), the membrane operation circle could prolong by around 20 times compared to that without gas sparging. Furthermore, mechanism of membrane fouling was proposed. And with recycling biogas sparging, the VSS and EPS content increasing rate in cake layer were far less than the ones without biogas sparging. The TN removal performance and sustainable membrane operation of this system showed the appealing potential of the submerged Anammox MBR with recycling biogas sparging in treating high-strength nitrogen-containing wastewaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana

    2003-08-07

    In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/ Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Existing facilities were modified for evaluation of environmental assisted slow crack growth and creep in flexural mode. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition were continued for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment. These studies in parallel to those on the LSFCO composition is expect to yield important information on questions such as the role of cation segregation and the stability of the perovskite structure on crack initiation vs. crack growth. Studies have been continued on the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} composition using neutron diffraction and TGA studies. A transition from p-type to n-type of conductor was observed at relative low pO{sub 2}, at which the majority carriers changed from the holes to electrons because of the valence state decreases in Fe due to the further loss of oxygen. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Data obtained at 850 C show that the stoichiometry in La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x} vary from {approx}2.85 to 2.6 over the pressure range studied. From the stoichiometry a lower limit of 2.6 corresponding to the reduction of all Fe{sup 4+} to Fe{sup 3+} and no reduction of Cr{sup 3+} is expected.

  6. Evaluation of sequencing batch reactor performance for petrochemical wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Salari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sequencing batch reactor (SBR technology has found many applications in industrial wastewater treatment in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal time for a cycle of the sequencing batch reactor (SBR and evaluate the performance of a SBR for petrochemical wastewater treatment in that cycle time. The reactor was operated with a suspended biomass configuration under aerobic conditions. Carbon removal and operating parameters such as pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO were monitored during the wastewater treatment. The SBR was run at different cycle times and amongst the cycle times tested, the best performance was obtained with a 7 h cycle time composed of a fill time of 15min, reaction of 6 h, settling of 30 min, and withdrawal of 15 min. The SBR with the determined cycle time was used to study the treatment of wastewater with various organic loading rates (12.88 gr COD/L.d, 18.02 gr COD/L.d and 31.39 gr COD/L.d. The SBR performance was evaluated by chemical oxygen demand (COD, total solids (TS total suspended solids (TSS removal efficiencies. During the shock loading tests, the maximum COD, TS and TSS removal efficiencies were 84%, 67% and 92%, respectively.

  7. Near infrared spectroscopy for qualitative comparison of pharmaceutical batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggo, Y; Roeseler, C; Ulmschneider, M

    2004-11-19

    Pharmaceuticals are produced according to current pharmacopoeias, which require quality parameters. Tablets of identical formulation, produced by different factories should have the same properties before and after storage. In this article, we analyzed samples having two different origins before and after storage (30 degrees C, 75% relative moisture). The aim of the study is to propose two approaches to understand the differences between origins and the storage effect by near infrared spectroscopy. In the first part, the main wavelengths are identified in transmittance and reflectance near infrared spectra in order to identify the major differences between the samples. In this paper, this approach is called fingerprinting. In the second part, principal component analysis (PCA) is computed to confirm the fingerprinting interpretation. The two interpretations show the differences between batches: physical aspect and moisture content. The manufacturing process is responsible for the physical differences between batches. During the storage, changes are due to the increase of moisture content and the decrease of the active content.

  8. Palm Olein Polyols Production by Batch and Continuous Hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darfizzi Derawi; Jumat Salimon; Darfizzi Derawi

    2013-01-01

    Di-hydroxy-PO degree (70 % of yield) was synthesised through oxirane cleavage of epoxidized palm olein (EPO degree) by using continuous and batch hydrolysis process. Both hydrolysis processes obtained an optimum oxirane cleavage yield (97.2 %) by using perchloric acid 3 % v/ wt for 90 min (continuous process) and 75 min (batch process). The presence of stretching vibration broadband peak of hydroxyl at wavenumber 3429 cm -1 shown on the Fourier transformation infra-red (FTIR) spectrum, indicate formation of polyols compound. The carbon-nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13 C-NMR) spectrum of di-hydroxy-PO o showed the presence of carbon peak bonded with hydroxyl (74.5 ppm). The proton-nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H-NMR) spectrum of di-hydroxy-PO o showed the presence of proton peak attached to the carbon of polyols (3.4 ppm) and proton of hydroxyl (4.6 ppm). Kinematic viscosity of polyols product (110.7 mg KOH/ g oil) were 1435.2 cSt (40 degree Celsius) and 55.2 cSt (100 degree Celsius) with the viscosity index of 78. (author)

  9. Batch Attribute-Based Encryption for Secure Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cloud storage is widely used by organizations due to its advantage of allowing universal access with low cost. Attribute-based encryption (ABE is a kind of public key encryption suitable for cloud storage. The secret key of each user and the ciphertext are associated with an access policy and an attribute set, respectively; in addition to holding a secret key, one can decrypt a ciphertext only if the associated attributes match the predetermined access policy, which allows one to enforce fine-grained access control on outsourced files. One issue in existing ABE schemes is that they are designed for the users of a single organization. When one wants to share the data with the users of different organizations, the owner needs to encrypt the messages to the receivers of one organization and then repeats this process for another organization. This situation is deteriorated with more and more mobile devices using cloud services, as the ABE encryption process is time consuming and may exhaust the power supplies of the mobile devices quickly. In this paper, we propose a batch attribute-based encryption (BABE approach to address this problem in a provably-secure way. With our approach, the data owner can outsource data in batches to the users of different organizations simultaneously. The data owner is allowed to decide the receiving organizations and the attributes required for decryption. Theoretical and experimental analyses show that our approach is more efficient than traditional encryption implementations in computation and communication.

  10. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan - TA-60 Asphalt Batch Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector P-Land Transportation and Warehousing as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA-60-01 Asphalt Batch Plant at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-60 Asphalt Batch Plant and associated areas. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  11. Optimalisasi Biosorpsi Bekatul Terhadap Kalsium (Ca dengan Menggunakan Metode Batch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subarman Subarman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is titled Optimization of biosorption Biomass Against Calcium (Ca by using the method of Batch. Background on this research that, the utilization of biomass as an adsorbent bran on the absorption of calcium metal (Ca and reduce the pollution caused from the bran biomass. This study aims to determine the optimum pH and time as well as processing of biomass with metal biosorption Calcium (Ca. Bran biomass taken directly to rice mills in Kecematan Pallangga Gowa. The method used in  this  study is  the activation process,  the  determination  of  the  optimum  pH,  optimum  timing, method in the determination of biosorption Batch, then the results were analyzed by using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS.The results obtained from this study is that the pH optimum at pH 9, the optimum contact time to 15 minutes, and the biosorption capacity of 14.1804 mg/L.

  12. Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis under fed-batch culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A. Furlan

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis was investigated under fed-batch cultivation, using single (xylose or mixed (xylose and glucose sugars as substrates. The presence of glucose in the medium induced the production of ethanol as secondary metabolite and improved specific rates of growth, xylitol formation and substrate consumption. Fractionated supply of the feed medium at constant sugar concentration did not promote any increase on the productivity compared to the single batch cultivation.A produção de xylitol por Candida parapsilosis foi investigada em regime de batelada alimentada, usando substratos açucarados de composição simples (xilose ou composta (xilose e glicose. A presença de glicose no meio induziu a formação de etanol como metabólito secundário. A suplementação fracionada do meio de alimentação numa concentração fixa de açúcar não resultou em aumento da produtividade em relação àquela alcançada em batelada simples.

  13. Comparison of the release of constituents from granular materials under batch and column testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Meza, Sarynna; Garrabrants, Andrew C; van der Sloot, Hans; Kosson, David S

    2008-01-01

    Column leaching testing can be considered a better basis for assessing field impact data than any other available batch test method and thus provides a fundamental basis from which to estimate constituent release under a variety of field conditions. However, column testing is time-intensive compared to the more simplified batch testing, and may not always be a viable option when making decisions for material reuse. Batch tests are used most frequently as a simple tool for compliance or quality control reasons. Therefore, it is important to compare the release that occurs under batch and column testing, and establish conservative interpretation protocols for extrapolation from batch data when column data are not available. Five different materials (concrete, construction debris, aluminum recycling residue, coal fly ash and bottom ash) were evaluated via batch and column testing, including different column flow regimes (continuously saturated and intermittent unsaturated flow). Constituent release data from batch and column tests were compared. Results showed no significant difference between the column flow regimes when constituent release data from batch and column tests were compared. In most cases batch and column testing agreed when presented in the form of cumulative release. For arsenic in carbonated materials, however, batch testing underestimates the column constituent release for most LS ratios and also on a cumulative basis. For cases when As is a constituent of concern, column testing may be required.

  14. Investigation of vinegar production using a novel shaken repeated batch culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlepütz, Tino; Büchs, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, bioprocesses are developed or optimized on small scale. Also, vinegar industry is motivated to reinvestigate the established repeated batch fermentation process. As yet, there is no small-scale culture system for optimizing fermentation conditions for repeated batch bioprocesses. Thus, the aim of this study is to propose a new shaken culture system for parallel repeated batch vinegar fermentation. A new operation mode - the flushing repeated batch - was developed. Parallel repeated batch vinegar production could be established in shaken overflow vessels in a completely automated operation with only one pump per vessel. This flushing repeated batch was first theoretically investigated and then empirically tested. The ethanol concentration was online monitored during repeated batch fermentation by semiconductor gas sensors. It was shown that the switch from one ethanol substrate quality to different ethanol substrate qualities resulted in prolonged lag phases and durations of the first batches. In the subsequent batches the length of the fermentations decreased considerably. This decrease in the respective lag phases indicates an adaptation of the acetic acid bacteria mixed culture to the specific ethanol substrate quality. Consequently, flushing repeated batch fermentations on small scale are valuable for screening fermentation conditions and, thereby, improving industrial-scale bioprocesses such as vinegar production in terms of process robustness, stability, and productivity. Copyright © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  15. Polymeric Membrane Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    José M. Sousa; Luís M. Madeira; João C. Santos; Adélio Mendes

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is the study of membrane reactors with polymeric membranes, particularly catalytic polymeric membranes. After an introduction where the main advantages and disadvantages of the use of polymeric membranes are summarised, a review of the main areas where they have been applied, integrated in chemical reactors, is presented. This excludes the field of bio-membranes processes, which is analysed in a specific chapter of this book. Particular attention is then given to model...

  16. Bagasse hydrolyzates from Agave tequilana as substrates for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes in batch and repeated batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Varela-Almanza, Karla María; Arriola-Guevara, Enrique; Martínez-Gómez, Álvaro de Jesús; Pelayo-Ortiz, Carlos; Toriz, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain fermentable sugars by enzymatic or acid hydrolyses of Agave tequilana Weber bagasse in order to produce succinic acid with Actinobacillus succinogenes. Hydrolyses were carried out with mineral acids (sulfuric and hydrochloric acids) or a commercial cellulolytic enzyme, and were optimized statistically by a response surface methodology, having as factors the concentration of acid/enzyme and time of hydrolysis. The concentration of sugars obtained at optimal conditions for each hydrolysis were 21.7, 22.4y 19.8g/L for H2SO4, HCl and the enzymatic preparation respectively. Concerning succinic acid production, the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in the highest yield (0.446g/g) and productivity (0.57g/Lh) using A. succinogenes in a batch reactor system. Repeated batch fermentation with immobilized A. succinogenes in agar and with the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in a maximum concentration of succinic acid of 33.6g/L from 87.2g/L monosaccharides after 5 cycles in 40h, obtaining a productivity of 1.32g/Lh. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Performance of sequencing batch biofilm and sequencing batch reactors in simultaneous p-nitrophenol and nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Chin-Ping; Seng, Chye-Eng; Sujari, Amat Ngilmi Ahmad; Lim, Poh-Eng

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of sequencing batch biofilm reactors (SBBRs) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) in the simultaneous removal of p-nitrophenol (PNP) and ammoniacal nitrogen. SBBRs involved the use of polyurethane sponge cubes and polyethylene rings, respectively, as carrier materials. The results demonstrate that complete removal of PNP was achievable for the SBR and SBBRs up to the PNP concentration of 350 mg/l (loading rate of 0.368 kg/m3 d). At this loading rate, the average ammoniacal nitrogen removal efficiency for the SBR and SBBR (with polyethylene rings) was reduced to 86% and 96%, respectively. However, the SBBR (with polyurethane sponge cubes) still managed to achieve an almost 100% ammoniacal nitrogen removal. Based on the results, the performance of the SBBRs was better than that of SBR in PNP and ammoniacal nitrogen removal. The results of the gas chromatography mass spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet-visible analyses indicate that complete mineralization of PNP was achieved in all of the reactors.

  18. Production of carotenoids and lipids by Rhodococcus opacus PD630 in batch and fed-batch culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanapimmetha, Anusith; Suwaleerat, Tharatron; Saisriyoot, Maythee; Chisti, Yusuf; Srinophakun, Penjit

    2017-01-01

    Production of carotenoids by Rhodococcus opacus PD630 is reported. A modified mineral salt medium formulated with glycerol as an inexpensive carbon source was used for the fermentation. Ammonium acetate was the nitrogen source. A dry cell mass concentration of nearly 5.4 g/L could be produced in shake flasks with a carotenoid concentration of 0.54 mg/L. In batch culture in a 5 L bioreactor, without pH control, the maximum dry biomass concentration was ~30 % lower than in shake flasks and the carotenoids concentration was 0.09 mg/L. Both the biomass concentration and the carotenoids concentration could be raised using a fed-batch operation with a feed mixture of ammonium acetate and acetic acid. With this strategy, the final biomass concentration was 8.2 g/L and the carotenoids concentration was 0.20 mg/L in a 10-day fermentation. A control of pH proved to be unnecessary for maximizing the production of carotenoids in this fermentation.

  19. Citric acid production from hydrolysate of pretreated straw cellulose by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b using batch and fed-batch cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Jinshun; Zhang, Tong; Deng, Yuanfang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, crude cellulase produced by Trichoderma reesei Rut-30 was used to hydrolyze pretreated straw. After the compositions of the hydrolysate of pretreated straw were optimized, the study showed that natural components of pretreated straw without addition of any other components such as (NH4)2SO4, KH2PO4, or Mg(2+) were suitable for citric acid production by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b, and the optimal ventilatory capacity was 10.0 L/min/L medium. Batch and fed-batch production of citric acid from the hydrolysate of pretreated straw by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b has been investigated. In the batch cultivation, 25.4 g/L and 26.7 g/L citric acid were yields from glucose and hydrolysate of straw cellulose, respectively, while the cultivation time was 120 hr. In the three-cycle fed-batch cultivation, citric acid (CA) production was increased to 42.4 g/L and the cultivation time was extended to 240 hr. However, iso-citric acid (ICA) yield in fed-batch cultivation (4.0 g/L) was similar to that during the batch cultivation (3.9 g/L), and only 1.6 g/L of reducing sugar was left in the medium at the end of fed-batch cultivation, suggesting that most of the added carbon was used in the cultivation.

  20. Biofouling in capillary and spiral wound membranes facilitated by marine algal bloom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villacorte, L.O.; Ekowati, Y.; Calix-Ponce, H.N.

    2017-01-01

    tends to adhere to clean membranes and even more strongly to AOM-fouled membranes. Batch growth tests illustrate that the capacity of seawater to support bacterial growth can significantly increase with AOM concentration. Biofouling experiments with spiral wound and capillary membranes illustrate...... that when nutrients availability are not limited in the feed water, a high concentration of AOM – whether in suspension or attached to the membrane – can substantially accelerates biofouling. A significantly lower biofouling rate was observed on membranes exposed to feed water spiked only with AOM or easily...... biodegradable nutrients. The abovementioned findings indicate that AOM facilitates the onset of membrane biofouling primarily as a conditioning platform and to some extent as a nutrient source for biofilm-forming bacteria....

  1. Dye-Affinity Nanofibrous Membrane for Adsorption of Lysozyme: Preparation and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Sheng-Shih Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylonitrile (PAN nanofibrous membrane was prepared by an electrospinning technique. After heat treatment and alkaline hydrolysis, the weak ion exchange membrane was grafted with chitosan molecule and then covalently immobilized with a Cibacron Blue F3GA (CB. Fibre diameter, porosity and pore size of the membrane and immobilized dye density were characterized. Furthermore, the membrane was applied to evaluate the binding performance of lysozyme under various operating parameters (pH, chitosan mass per volume ratio, dye concentration, ionic strength and temperature in batch mode. The experimental results were directly applied to purify lysozyme from chicken egg white by membrane chromatography. The results showed that the capture efficiency, recovery yield and purification factor were 90 and 87 %, and 47-fold, respectively, in a single step. The binding capacity remained consistent after five repeated cycles of adsorption-desorption operations. This work demonstrates that the dye-affinity nanofibrous membrane holds great potential for purification of lysozyme from real feedstock.

  2. Micromold methods for fabricating perforated substrates and for preparing solid polymer electrolyte composite membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney; Argun, Avni; Laicer, Castro; Willey, Jason

    2017-08-08

    In polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells and electrolyzes, attaining and maintaining high membrane conductivity and durability is crucial for performance and efficiency. The use of low equivalent weight (EW) perfluorinated ionomers is one of the few options available to improve membrane conductivity. However, excessive dimensional changes of low EW ionomers upon application of wet/dry or freeze/thaw cycles yield catastrophic losses in membrane integrity. Incorporation of ionomers within porous, dimensionally-stable perforated polymer electrolyte membrane substrates provides improved PEM performance and longevity. The present invention provides novel methods using micromolds to fabricate the perforated polymer electrolyte membrane substrates. These novel methods using micromolds create uniform and well-defined pore structures. In addition, these novel methods using micromolds described herein may be used in batch or continuous processing.

  3. Foreign assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports that providing energy assistance to developing countries remains a relatively low priority of the Agency for International Development. AID is helping some developing countries meet their energy needs, but this assistance varies substantially because of the agency's decentralized structure. Most AID energy funding has gone to a handful of countries-primarily Egypt and Pakistan. With limited funding in most other countries, AID concentrates on providing technical expertise and promoting energy policy reforms that will encourage both energy efficiency and leverage investment by the private sector and other donors. Although a 1989 congressional directive to pursue a global warming initiative has had a marginal impact on the agency's energy programming, many AID energy programs, including those directed at energy conservation, help address global warming concerns

  4. A general framework for the synthesis and operational design of batch processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papaeconomou, Eirini; Gani, Rafiqul; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2002-01-01

    , which is the sequence of batch operations performed in order to achieve a specific objective. Important features of the methodology are a set of rule-based algorithms that provide the operational model of the units. Such an algorithm is highlighted, together with the associated rules......The objective of this paper is to present a general problem formulation and a general methodology for the synthesis of batch operations and the operational design of individual batch processes, such as mixing, reaction and separation. The general methodology described supplies the batch routes......, for the operational design of batch reactors. A case study involving the feasible operation of a batch reactor with multiple desirable and undesirable reactions and operational constraints is presented. Application results including verification of the generated operational sequences (alternatives) through dynamic...

  5. A General framework for the Synthesis and Operational Design of Batch Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , which is the sequence of batch operations performed in order to achieve a specific objective. Important features of the methodology are a set of rule-based algorithms that provide the operational model of the units. Such an algorithm is highlighted, together with the associated rules......The objective of this paper is to present a general problem formulation and a general methodlogy for the synthesis of batch operations and the operational design of individual batch processes, such as mixing, reaction and separation. The general methodology described supplies the batch routes......, for the operational design of batch reactors. A case study involving the feasible operation of a batch reactor with multiple desirable and undesirable reactions and operational constraints is presented. Application results including verification of the generated operational sequences (alternatives) through dynamic...

  6. Design of batch operations: Systematic methodology for generation and analysis of sustainable alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Ana; Matos, Henrique A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    the operational, environmental, economical and safety related problems inherent in the process (batch or continuous). Alternatives that are more sustainable, compared to a reference, are generated and evaluated by addressing one or more of the identified problems. A decomposition technique as well as a set......The objective of this paper is to present a new methodology that is able to generate, screen and identify sustainable alternatives to continuous chemical processes as well as processes operating in the batch mode. The methodology generates the sustainable (design) alternatives by locating...... of batch indicators for batch operations has been developed and added to the methodology so that a wide range of processes that operate in continuous mode, in semi-continuous and/or in batch modes can be improved. The principal calculation steps of the methodology for applications to continuous and batch...

  7. Sheet Membrane Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis; Zapata, Felipe; Dillion, Paul; Castillo, Juan; Vonau, Walter; Wilkes, Robert; Vogel, Matthew; Frodge, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    A document describes a sheet membrane spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME), which allows for the use of one common water tank that can supply cooling water to the astronaut and to the evaporator. Test data showed that heat rejection performance dropped only 6 percent after being subjected to highly contaminated water. It also exhibited robustness with respect to freezing and Martian atmospheric simulation testing. Water was allowed to freeze in the water channels during testing that simulated a water loop failure and vapor backpressure valve failure. Upon closing the backpressure valve and energizing the pump, the ice eventually thawed and water began to flow with no apparent damage to the sheet membrane. The membrane evaporator also serves to de-gas the water loop from entrained gases, thereby eliminating the need for special degassing equipment such as is needed by the current spacesuit system. As water flows through the three annular water channels, water evaporates with the vapor flowing across the hydrophobic, porous sheet membrane to the vacuum side of the membrane. The rate at which water evaporates, and therefore, the rate at which the flowing water is cooled, is a function of the difference between the water saturation pressure on the water side of the membrane, and the pressure on the vacuum side of the membrane. The primary theory is that the hydrophobic sheet membrane retains water, but permits vapor pass-through when the vapor side pressure is less than the water saturation pressure. This results in evaporative cooling of the remaining water.

  8. Biological Treatment of Leachate using Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WDMC Perera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE TA Abstract   In Sri Lanka municipal solid waste is generally disposed in poorly managed open dumps which lack liner systems and leachate collection systems. Rain water percolates through the waste layers to produce leachate which drains in to ground water and finally to nearby water bodies, degrading the quality of water. Leachate thus has become a major environmental concern in municipal waste management and treatment of leachate is a major challenge for the existing and proposed landfill sites.   The study was conducted to assess the feasibility of the usage of the Sequencing Batch Reactor in the treatment of the landfill leachate up to the proposed levels in the draft report of “Proposed Sri Lankan standard for landfill leachate to be disposed to the inland waters". Leachate collected from the open dumpsite at Meethotamulla, Western Province, Sri Lanka was used for leachate characterization.   SBR was constructed with a 10-liter working volume operated in an 18 hour cycle mode and each cycle consists of 15hours of aerobic, 2h settle and 0.5 h of fill/decant stages. The Dissolved Oxygen level within the SBR was maintained at 2 mg/l through the aerobic stage. Infeed was diluted with water during the acclimatization period and a leachate to water ratio of 55:45 was maintained. The removal efficiencies for different parameters were; COD (90.5%, BOD (92.6%, TS (92.1%, Conductivity (83.9%, Alkalinity (97.4%, Hardness (82.2%, Mg (80.5%, Fe (94.2%, Zn (63.4%, Cr (31.69%, Pb (99.6%, Sulphate (98.9%, and Phosphorus (71.4% respectively. In addition Ni and Cd were removed completely during a single SBR cycle. Thus the dilution of leachate in the dumpsites using municipal wastewater, groundwater or rainwater was identified as the most cost effective dilution methods. The effluent from the Sequencing batch reactor is proposed to be further treated using a constructed wetland before releasing to surface water.

  9. FLOWSHEET FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL FROM SLUDGE BATCH 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, J.; Gillam, J.

    2008-01-01

    Samples of Tank 12 sludge slurry show a substantially larger fraction of aluminum than originally identified in sludge batch planning. The Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) plans to formulate Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) with about one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 12 and one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 4. LWO identified aluminum dissolution as a method to mitigate the effect of having about 50% more solids in High Level Waste (HLW) sludge than previously planned. Previous aluminum dissolution performed in a HLW tank in 1982 was performed at approximately 85 C for 5 days and dissolved nearly 80% of the aluminum in the sludge slurry. In 2008, LWO successfully dissolved 64% of the aluminum at approximately 60 C in 46 days with minimal tank modifications and using only slurry pumps as a heat source. This report establishes the technical basis and flowsheet for performing an aluminum removal process in Tank 51 for SB6 that incorporates the lessons learned from previous aluminum dissolution evolutions. For SB6, aluminum dissolution process temperature will be held at a minimum of 65 C for at least 24 days, but as long as practical or until as much as 80% of the aluminum is dissolved. As planned, an aluminum removal process can reduce the aluminum in SB6 from about 84,500 kg to as little as 17,900 kg with a corresponding reduction of total insoluble solids in the batch from 246,000 kg to 131,000 kg. The extent of the reduction may be limited by the time available to maintain Tank 51 at dissolution temperature. The range of dissolution in four weeks based on the known variability in dissolution kinetics can range from 44 to more than 80%. At 44% of the aluminum dissolved, the mass reduction is approximately 1/2 of the mass noted above, i.e., 33,300 kg of aluminum instead of 66,600 kg. Planning to reach 80% of the aluminum dissolved should allow a maximum of 81 days for dissolution and reduce the allowance if test data shows faster kinetics. 47,800 kg of the dissolved

  10. Nutrient Removal of Grey Water from Wet Market Using Sequencing Batch Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar Danial; Mohd Razman Salim; Salmiati

    2016-01-01

    Fresh water scarcity has become an important issue in this world today. Water reuse is known as one of the strategies to overcome this problem. Grey water is one of the sources of reused water. Several researches were carried out on water reuse, but limited attention was focused on reusing grey water from wet market, which contains high nutrient and organic matters. This study was carried out on nutrient removal from grey water using sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The grey water sample was taken from a wet market (Pasar Peladang, Skudai). About 1L of grey water was fed into the reactor with a total volume of 4L. Anoxic-aerobic phase were divided with a ratio of 30 % - 70 % of total time respectively. Mixing was maintained at 30 rpm during the start of each cycle until settling phase to achieve uniform condition. Influent and effluent were set for 30 minutes. The SBR was operated with 3 cycles/ day, temperature 30 degree Celsius, cycle time 8 hours and hydraulic retention time (HRT) 1.2 days. Aeration at 35 L/ min was induced for ammonia conversion and assisting nitrification.. The results show that the bacteria growing in alternating anoxic/ aerobic systems could remove organic substrates and nutrient. The COD, Total Nitrogen and Total Phosphorus removal efficiencies were maximum at the levels of 94 %, 88 % and 70 % respectively. Anaerobic-Aerobic-Anoxic phase was proposed to increase the removal percentage. (author)

  11. Fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanoparticle composite membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Akeem Armand

    To effectively and accurately deliver drugs within the human body, both new designs and components for implantable micropumps are being studied. Designs must ensure high biocompatibility, drug compatibility, accuracy and small power consumption. The focus of this thesis was to fabricate a prototype magnetic nanoparticle membrane for eventual incorporation into a biomedical pump and then determine the relationship between this membrane deflection and applied pneumatic or magnetic force. The magnetic nanoparticle polymer composite (MNPC) membranes in this study were composed of crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). An optimal iron oxide fabrication route was identified and particle size in each batch was approximately 24.6 nm. Once these nanoparticles were incorporated into a membrane (5 wt. %), the nanoparticle formed agglomerates with an average diameter of 2.26 +/-1.23 microm. Comparisons between the 0 and 5 wt. % loading of particles into the membranes indicated that the elastic modulus of the composite decreased with increasing particle concentration. The pressure- central deflection of the membranes could not be predicated by prior models and variation between magnetic and pneumatic pressure-deflection curves was quantified. Attempts to fabricate membranes with above 5 wt. % nanoparticles were not successful (no gelation). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results suggest that excess oleic acid on the nanoparticles prior to mixing might have prevented crosslinking.

  12. Look-ahead strategies for controlling batch operations in industry: Overview, comparison and exploration

    OpenAIRE

    van der Zee, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    Batching jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in most industries. Main reasons for batching are avoidance of set ups and/or facilitation of material handling. Good examples of batch wise production systems are ovens found in aircraft industry and in semi-conductor manufacturing. Starting from the early nineties much research efforts have been put in constructing strategies for the dynamic control of these systems in order to reduce cycle times. Typically, these so-called "lo...

  13. Queue Length and Server Content Distribution in an Infinite-Buffer Batch-Service Queue with Batch-Size-Dependent Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. C. Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze an infinite-buffer batch-size-dependent batch-service queue with Poisson arrival and arbitrarily distributed service time. Using supplementary variable technique, we derive a bivariate probability generating function from which the joint distribution of queue and server content at departure epoch of a batch is extracted and presented in terms of roots of the characteristic equation. We also obtain the joint distribution of queue and server content at arbitrary epoch. Finally, the utility of analytical results is demonstrated by the inclusion of some numerical examples which also includes the investigation of multiple zeros.

  14. Moving from batch towards continuous organic‐chemical pharmaceutical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili

    alkylation reaction was achieved using a filter reactor coupled with a side‐entry tubular reactor, using real‐time in‐line near‐infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for monitoring the reaction and ensuring the right product quality. A subsequent hydrolysis of the alkoxide product was performed in continuous mode......Pharmaceutical ingredients have traditionally been produced in batches using multipurpose stirred vessels. Reactions and separations have typically been tailored to fit these units, facing multiple limitations when transferring synthetic routes from the laboratory to industrial scale. Scaling up...... thus resulted in many cases in low reaction yields and separation efficiencies. These limitations were however compensated by a relatively fast process implementation. For the pharmaceutical industry this meant that new drug products could be exclusively marketed for a longer time period, resulting...

  15. Hadoop distributed batch processing for Gaia: a success story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riello, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The DPAC Cambridge Data Processing Centre (DPCI) is responsible for the photometric calibration of the Gaia data including the low resolution spectra. The large data volume produced by Gaia (~26 billion transits/year), the complexity of its data stream and the self-calibrating approach pose unique challenges for scalability, reliability and robustness of both the software pipelines and the operations infrastructure. DPCI has been the first in DPAC to realise the potential of Hadoop and Map/Reduce and to adopt them as the core technologies for its infrastructure. This has proven a winning choice allowing DPCI unmatched processing throughput and reliability within DPAC to the point that other DPCs have started following our footsteps. In this talk we will present the software infrastructure developed to build the distributed and scalable batch data processing system that is currently used in production at DPCI and the excellent results in terms of performance of the system.

  16. Biological Treatment of Dairy Wastewater by Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mohseni-Bandpi, H Bazari

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A bench scale aerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR was investigated to treat the wastewater from an industrial milk factory. The reactor was constructed from plexi glass material and its volume was 22.5 L. The reactor was supplied with oxygen by fine bubble air diffuser. The reactor was fed with milk factory and synthetic wastewater under different operational conditions. The COD removal efficiency was achieved more than 90%, whereas COD concentration varied from 400 to 2500 mg/l. The optimum dissolved oxygen in the reactor was 2 to 3 mg/l and MLVSS was around 3000 mg/l. Easy operation, low cost and minimal sludge bulking condition make the SBR system an interesting option for the biological medium strength industrial wastewater treatment. The study demonstrated the capability of aerobic SBR for COD removal from dairy industrial wastewater.

  17. Batch study of uranium biosorption by Elodea canadensis biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng-ji Yi; University of Science and Technology Beijing, Haidian District, Beijing; Jun Yao; Chinese University of Geosciences, Beijing; Mi-jia Zhu; Hui-lun Chen; Fei Wang; Zhi-min Yuan; Xing Liu

    2016-01-01

    The adsorption of U(VI) onto Elodea canadensis was studied via a batch equilibrium method. Kinetic investigation indicated that the U(VI) adsorption by E. canadensis reached an equilibrium in 120 min and followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The solution pH was the most important parameter controlling adsorption of U(VI) and the optimum pH for U(VI) removal is 6.0. The U(VI) biosorption can be well described by Langmuir model. IR spectrum analysis revealed that -NH 2 , -OH, C=O and C-O could bind strongly with U(VI). XPS spectrum analysis implied that ion exchange and coordination mechanism could be involved in the U(VI) biosorption process. (author)

  18. Treatment of Laboratory Wastewater by Sequence Batch reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imtiaz, N.; Butt, M.; Khan, R.A.; Saeed, M.T.; Irfan, M.

    2012-01-01

    These studies were conducted on the characterization and treatment of sewage mixed with waste -water of research and testing laboratory (PCSIR Laboratories Lahore). In this study all the parameters COD, BOD and TSS etc of influent (untreated waste-water) and effluent (treated waste-water) were characterized using the standard methods of examination for water and waste-water. All the results of the analyzed waste-water parameters were above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) set at National level. Treatment of waste-water was carried out by conventional sequencing batch reactor technique (SBR) using aeration and settling technique in the same treatment reactor at laboratory scale. The results of COD after treatment were reduced from (90-95 %), BOD (95-97 %) and TSS (96-99 %) and the reclaimed effluent quality was suitable for gardening purposes. (author)

  19. Convolutional neural networks with balanced batches for facial expressions recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini Sönmez, Elena; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2017-03-01

    This paper considers the issue of fully automatic emotion classification on 2D faces. In spite of the great effort done in recent years, traditional machine learning approaches based on hand-crafted feature extraction followed by the classification stage failed to develop a real-time automatic facial expression recognition system. The proposed architecture uses Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), which are built as a collection of interconnected processing elements to simulate the brain of human beings. The basic idea of CNNs is to learn a hierarchical representation of the input data, which results in a better classification performance. In this work we present a block-based CNN algorithm, which uses noise, as data augmentation technique, and builds batches with a balanced number of samples per class. The proposed architecture is a very simple yet powerful CNN, which can yield state-of-the-art accuracy on the very competitive benchmark algorithm of the Extended Cohn Kanade database.

  20. Batch anaerobic methanogenesis of phenolic coal conversion waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorak, P.M.; Hrudey, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    The amenability to anaerobic treatment of a phenolic wastewater from a coal conversion pilot plant was investigated in batch experiments using the Hungate serum bottle technique, using cultures containing unmodified wastewater, wastewater extracted with ether, and pre-reduced, reconstituted wastewater. Data are given on the composition of the wastewater and the concentrations of various phenolic compounds present. Wastewater concentrations of 2, 4 and 6% (vol/vol) increased methane production compared with control cultures, but higher concentrations of the wastewater were inhibitory. Further experiments indicated that the inhibitory components were ether-extractable, but were not any of the major phenolic compounds present in the original wastewater. There was also evidence to confirm that m-cresol was amenable to anaerobic degradation.

  1. Batch fabrication of disposable screen printed SERS arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lu-Lu; Li, Da-Wei; Xue, Jin-Qun; Zhai, Wen-Lei; Fossey, John S; Long, Yi-Tao

    2012-03-07

    A novel facile method of fabricating disposable and highly reproducible surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) arrays using screen printing was explored. The screen printing ink containing silver nanoparticles was prepared and printed on supporting materials by a screen printing process to fabricate SERS arrays (6 × 10 printed spots) in large batches. The fabrication conditions, SERS performance and application of these arrays were systematically investigated, and a detection limit of 1.6 × 10(-13) M for rhodamine 6G could be achieved. Moreover, the screen printed SERS arrays exhibited high reproducibility and stability, the spot-to-spot SERS signals showed that the intensity variation was less than 10% and SERS performance could be maintained over 12 weeks. Portable high-throughput analysis of biological samples was accomplished using these disposable screen printed SERS arrays.

  2. Increased CPC batch size study for Tank 42 sludge in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, W.E.

    2000-01-01

    A series of experiments have been completed at TNX for the sludge-only REDOX adjusted flowsheet using Tank 42 sludge simulant in response to the Technical Task Request HLW/DWPT/TTR-980013 to increase CPC batch sizes. By increasing the initial SRAT batch size, a melter feed batch at greater waste solids concentration can be prepared and thus increase melter output per batch by about one canister. The increased throughput would allow DWPF to dispose of more waste in a given time period thus shortening the overall campaign

  3. Increased CPC batch size study for Tank 42 sludge in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, W.E.

    2000-01-06

    A series of experiments have been completed at TNX for the sludge-only REDOX adjusted flowsheet using Tank 42 sludge simulant in response to the Technical Task Request HLW/DWPT/TTR-980013 to increase CPC batch sizes. By increasing the initial SRAT batch size, a melter feed batch at greater waste solids concentration can be prepared and thus increase melter output per batch by about one canister. The increased throughput would allow DWPF to dispose of more waste in a given time period thus shortening the overall campaign.

  4. Role of batch depletion of broiler houses on the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Rattenborg, Erik; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    Aims: The effect of batch depletion of broiler houses for campylobacter occurrence in broiler flocks was estimated in 10 flocks, each comprising a separate female and male batch. Methods and Results: The chicks were sampled first bq; cloacal swabs in the broiler houses before the start...... that batch depletion of broiler houses increased the prevalence of Campylobacter spp.-infected broilers in the flocks, that the introduction occurred a hen catching the first batch, and that campylobacter spreads through the entire flock within a week. Significance and Impact of the Study: The results from...

  5. Cobalt phthalocyanine as a novel molecular recognition reagent for batch and flow injection potentiometric and spectrophotometric determination of anionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nemma, Eman M; Badawi, Nahla M; Hassan, Saad S M

    2009-05-15

    Cobalt(II) phthalocyanine [Co(II)Pc] is used as both an ionophore and chromogen for batch and flow injection potentiometric and spectrophotometric determination of anionic surfactants (SDS), respectively. The potentiometric technique involves preparation of a polymeric membrane sensor by dispersing [Co(II)Pc] in a plasticized PVC membrane. Under batch mode of operation, the sensor displays a near-Nernstian slope of -56.5 mV decade(-1), wide response linear range of 7.8 x 10(-4) to 8.0 x 10(-7)mol L(-1), lower detection limit of 2.5 x 10(-7)mol L(-1) and exhibits high selectivity for anionic surfactants in the presence of many common ions. Under hydrodynamic mode of operation (FIA), the slope of the calibration plot, limit of detection, and working linear range are -51.1 mV decade(-1), 5.6 x 10(-7) and 1.0 x 10(-3) to 1.0 x 10(-6)mol L(-1), respectively. The spectrophotometric method is based on the use of [Co(II)Pc] solution in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as a chromogenic reagent. The maximum absorption of the reagent at 658 nm linearly decreases with the increase of anionic surfactant over the concentration range 2-30 microg mL(-1). The lower limit of detection is 1 microg mL(-1) and high concentrations of many interfering ions are tolerated. Flow injection spectrophotometric measurements are carried out by injection of the surfactant test solution in a stream of the reagent in DMSO. The sample throughput, working range and lower detection limit are 25-30 samples h(-1), 4-60 and 2 microg mL(-1), respectively. The potentiometric and spectrophotometric techniques are applied to the batch and flow injection measurements of anionic surfactants in some commercial detergent products. The results agree fairly well with data obtained using the standard methylene blue spectrophotometric method.

  6. Optimal control of batch emulsion polymerization of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damslora, Andre Johan

    1998-12-31

    The highly exothermic polymerization of vinyl chloride (VC) is carried out in large vessels where the heat removal represents a major limitation of the production rate. Many emulsion polymerization reactors are operated in such a way that a substantial part of the heat transfer capacity is left unused for a significant part of the total batch time. To increase the reaction rate so that it matches the heat removal capacity during the course of the reaction, this thesis proposes the use of a sufficiently flexible initiator system to obtain a reaction rate which is high throughout the reaction and real-time optimization to compute the addition policy for the initiator. This optimization based approach provides a basis for an interplay between design and control and between production and research. A simple model is developed for predicting the polymerization rate. The model is highly nonlinear and open-loop unstable and may serve as an interesting case for comparison of nonlinear control strategies. The model is fitted to data obtained in a laboratory scale reactor. Finally, the thesis discusses optimal control of the emulsion polymerization reactor. Reduction of the batch cycle time is of major economic importance, as long as the quality parameters are within their specifications. The control parameterization had a major influence on the performance. A differentiable spline parameterization was applied and the optimization is illustrated in a number of cases. The best performance is obtained when the reactor temperature is obtained when the optimization is combined with some form of closed-loop control of the reactor temperature. 112 refs., 48 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Integrating PROOF Analysis in Cloud and Batch Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Y; Fernández-del-Castillo, Enol; López García, Álvaro; Marco de Lucas, Jesús; Matorras Weinig, Francisco; González Caballero, Isidro; Cuesta Noriega, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    High Energy Physics (HEP) analysis are becoming more complex and demanding due to the large amount of data collected by the current experiments. The Parallel ROOT Facility (PROOF) provides researchers with an interactive tool to speed up the analysis of huge volumes of data by exploiting parallel processing on both multicore machines and computing clusters. The typical PROOF deployment scenario is a permanent set of cores configured to run the PROOF daemons. However, this approach is incapable of adapting to the dynamic nature of interactive usage. Several initiatives seek to improve the use of computing resources by integrating PROOF with a batch system, such as Proof on Demand (PoD) or PROOF Cluster. These solutions are currently in production at Universidad de Oviedo and IFCA and are positively evaluated by users. Although they are able to adapt to the computing needs of users, they must comply with the specific configuration, OS and software installed at the batch nodes. Furthermore, they share the machines with other workloads, which may cause disruptions in the interactive service for users. These limitations make PROOF a typical use-case for cloud computing. In this work we take profit from Cloud Infrastructure at IFCA in order to provide a dynamic PROOF environment where users can control the software configuration of the machines. The Proof Analysis Framework (PAF) facilitates the development of new analysis and offers a transparent access to PROOF resources. Several performance measurements are presented for the different scenarios (PoD, SGE and Cloud), showing a speed improvement closely correlated with the number of cores used.

  8. Neurovascular modeling: small-batch manufacturing of silicone vascular replicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, J Y; Wakhloo, A K; Gounis, M J

    2009-06-01

    Realistic, population based cerebrovascular replicas are required for the development of neuroendovascular devices. The objective of this work was to develop an efficient methodology for manufacturing realistic cerebrovascular replicas. Brain MR angiography data from 20 patients were acquired. The centerline of the vasculature was calculated, and geometric parameters were measured to describe quantitatively the internal carotid artery (ICA) siphon. A representative model was created on the basis of the quantitative measurements. Using this virtual model, we designed a mold with core-shell structure and converted it into a physical object by fused-deposit manufacturing. Vascular replicas were created by injection molding of different silicones. Mechanical properties, including the stiffness and luminal coefficient of friction, were measured. The average diameter, length, and curvature of the ICA siphon were 4.15 +/- 0.09 mm, 22.60 +/- 0.79 mm, and 0.34 +/- 0.02 mm(-1) (average +/- standard error of the mean), respectively. From these image datasets, we created a median virtual model, which was transformed into a physical replica by an efficient batch-manufacturing process. The coefficient of friction of the luminal surface of the replica was reduced by up to 55% by using liquid silicone rubber coatings. The modulus ranged from 0.67 to 1.15 MPa compared with 0.42 MPa from human postmortem studies, depending on the material used to make the replica. Population-representative, smooth, and true-to-scale silicone arterial replicas with uniform wall thickness were successfully built for in vitro neurointerventional device-testing by using a batch-manufacturing process.

  9. Batch mode generation of residue-based diagrams of proteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campagne, F.; Bettler, E.J.M.; Vriend, G.; Weinstein, H.C.

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY: Residue-based diagrams of proteins are graphical representations that can be used in protein information systems. These diagrams make it possible to visually integrate different types of biological information. The approach has been used successfully for membrane proteins. We developed the

  10. Assisted Vaginal Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Assisted Vaginal Delivery Home For Patients Search FAQs Assisted Vaginal Delivery ... Delivery FAQ192, February 2016 PDF Format Assisted Vaginal Delivery Labor, Delivery, and Postpartum Care What is assisted ...

  11. Biodiesel production using a membrane reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, M A; Tremblay, A Y; Liu, J

    2007-02-01

    The immiscibility of canola oil in methanol provides a mass-transfer challenge in the early stages of the transesterification of canola oil in the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME or biodiesel). To overcome or rather, exploit this situation, a two-phase membrane reactor was developed to produce FAME from canola oil and methanol. The transesterification of canola oil was performed via both acid- or base-catalysis. Runs were performed in the membrane reactor in semi-batch mode at 60, 65 and 70 degrees C and at different catalyst concentrations and feed flow rates. Increases in temperature, catalyst concentration and feedstock (methanol/oil) flow rate significantly increased the conversion of oil to biodiesel. The novel reactor enabled the separation of reaction products (FAME/glycerol in methanol) from the original canola oil feed. The two-phase membrane reactor was particularly useful in removing unreacted canola oil from the FAME product yielding high purity biodiesel and shifting the reaction equilibrium to the product side.

  12. Synthetic Biological Membrane (SBM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ultimate goal of the Synthetic Biological Membrane project is to develop a new type of membrane that will enable the wastewater treatment system required on...

  13. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  14. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  15. Premature rupture of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000512.htm Premature rupture of membranes To use the sharing features on this page, ... water that surrounds your baby in the womb. Membranes or layers of tissue hold in this fluid. ...

  16. Transmembrane Signalling: Membrane messengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockroft, Scott L.

    2017-05-01

    Life has evolved elaborate means of communicating essential chemical information across cell membranes. Inspired by biology, two new artificial mechanisms have now been developed that use synthetic messenger molecules to relay chemical signals into or across lipid membranes.

  17. Coexistence of nitrifying, anammox and denitrifying bacteria in a sequencing batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela eLangone

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Elevated nitrogen removal efficiencies from ammonium-rich wastewaters have been demonstrated by several applications, that combine nitritation and anammox processes. Denitrification will occur simultaneously when organic carbon is also present. In this study, the activity of aerobic ammonia oxidizing, anammox and denitrifying bacteria in a full scale Sequencing Batch Reactor, treating digester supernatants, was studied by means of batch-assays. AOB and anammox activities were maximum at pH of 8.0 and 7.8-8.0, rispectively. Short term effect of nitrite on anammox activity was studied, showing nitrite up to 42 mg/L did not result in inhibition. Both denitrification via nitrate and nitrite were measured. To reduce nitrite-oxidizing activity, high of NH3 – N (1.9-10 mg N-NH3/L and low nitrite (3-8 mg TNN/L are required conditions during the whole SBR cycle.Molecular analysis showed the nitritation-anammox sludge harbored a high microbial diversity, where each microorganism has a specific role. Using ammonia monooxygenase α –subunit (amoA gene as a marker, our analyses suggested different macro- and micro-environments in the reactor strongly affect the AOB community, allowing the development of different AOB species, such as N. europaea/eutropha and N. oligotropha groups, which improve the stability of nitritation process. A specific PCR primer set, used to target the 16S rRNA gene of anammox bacteria, confirmed the presence of the Ca. Brocadia fulgida type, able to grow in precence of organic matter and to tolerate high nitrite concentrations. The diversity of denitrifiers was assessed by using dissimilatory nitrite reductase (nirS gene-based analyses, who showed denitifiers were related to different betaproteobacterial genera, such as Thauera, Pseudomonas, Dechloromonas and Aromatoleum, able to assist in forming microbial aggregates. Concerning possible secondary processes, no n-damo bacteria were found while NOB from the genus of Nitrobacter

  18. Acceptance Test Data for Candidate AGR-5/6/7 TRISO Particle Batches BWXT Coater Batches 93165 93172 Defective IPyC Fraction and Pyrocarbon Anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmreich, Grant W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Skitt, Darren J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dyer, John A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schumacher, Austin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Coated particle fuel batches J52O-16-93165, 93166, 93168, 93169, 93170, and 93172 were produced by Babcock and Wilcox Technologies (BWXT) for possible selection as fuel for the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) Program’s AGR-5/6/7 irradiation test in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Some of these batches may alternately be used as demonstration coated particle fuel for other experiments. Each batch was coated in a 150-mm-diameter production-scale fluidized-bed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace. Tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coatings were deposited on 425-μm-nominal-diameter spherical kernels from BWXT lot J52R-16-69317 containing a mixture of 15.5%-enriched uranium carbide and uranium oxide (UCO). The TRISO coatings consisted of four consecutive CVD layers: a ~50% dense carbon buffer layer with 100-μm-nominal thickness, a dense inner pyrolytic carbon (IPyC) layer with 40-μm-nominal thickness, a silicon carbide (SiC) layer with 35-μm-nominal thickness, and a dense outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC) layer with 40-μmnominal thickness. The TRISO-coated particle batches were sieved to upgrade the particles by removing over-sized and under-sized material, and the upgraded batches were designated by appending the letter A to the end of the batch number (e.g., 93165A).

  19. Idiopathic epiretinal membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bu, Shao-Chong; Kuijer, Roelof; Li, Xiao-Rong; Hooymans, Johanna M M; Los, Leonoor I

    2014-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM) is a fibrocellular membrane that proliferates on the inner surface of the retina at the macular area. Membrane contraction is an important sight-threatening event and is due to fibrotic remodeling. Methods: Analysis of the current literature

  20. Model cell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther-Pomorski, Thomas; Nylander, Tommy; Cardenas Gomez, Marite

    2014-01-01

    The high complexity of biological membranes has motivated the development and application of a wide range of model membrane systems to study biochemical and biophysical aspects of membranes in situ under well defined conditions. The aim is to provide fundamental understanding of processes control...

  1. Membrane contactor applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.; Feron, P.H.M.; Jansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a membrane contactor the membrane separation is completely integrated with an extraction or absorption operation in order to exploit the benefits of both technologies fully. Membrane contactor applications that have been developed can be found in both water and gas treatment. Several recently

  2. On "spinning" membrane models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Sezgin, E.; Townsend, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    Several alternative actions for a bosonic membrane have recently been proposed. We show that a linearly realized locally world-volume-supersymmetric (spinning membrane) extension of any of these actions implies an analogous extension of the standard Dirac membrane action. We further show that a

  3. Meniscus Membranes For Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C.; Jorgensen, Betty; Pesiri, David R.

    2005-09-20

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  4. Meniscus membranes for separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C [Irvine, CA; Jorgensen, Betty [Jemez Springs, NM; Pesiri, David R [Aliso Viejo, CA

    2004-01-27

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  5. Plasma membrane ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael Broberg; Bækgaard, Lone; Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    2011-01-01

    membrane include ABC transporters, vacuolar (V-type) H+ pumps, and P-type pumps. These pumps all utilize ATP as a fuel for energizing pumping. This review focuses on the physiological roles of plasma membrane P-type pumps, as they represent the major ATP hydrolytic activity in this membrane....

  6. Processing of membranes for oxygenation using the Bellhouse-effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neußer C.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available State-of-the-art lung support systems are limited to short time application because of a lack of long term hemocompatibility and protein absorption on the membrane surfaces. In a highly interdisciplinary project at RWTH Aachen University a biohybrid lung assist system with endothelialised gas exchange flat membranes is developed to improve long term compatibility of oxygenators. To increase the gas exchange performance of flat membranes hollows are imprinted in the membrane surfaces. This approach is based on the research of B. J. Bell-house et al. [1], who discovered this effect, now known as Bellhouse-effect, around 1960. In this paper a processes to manufacture membrane assemblies for oxygenation with imprinted hollows on the flat membrane surfaces is reviewed.

  7. Limiting factors in Escherichia colifed-batch production of recombinant proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, A.M.; Prytz, I.; Tubelekas, I.

    2003-01-01

    recombinant protein production, fed-batch, specific growth rate, feed profile, induction, mRNA, transcription, translation, acetic acid formation......recombinant protein production, fed-batch, specific growth rate, feed profile, induction, mRNA, transcription, translation, acetic acid formation...

  8. Monitoring and Characterization of Crystal Nucleation and Growth during Batch Crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadam, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Batch crystallization is commonly used in pharmaceutical, agrochemical, specialty and fine chemicals industry. The advantages of batch crystallization lie in its ease of operation and the relatively simple equipment that can be used. On the other hand a major disadvantage associated with it is the

  9. Fed-batch fermentation dealing with nitrogen limitation in microbial transglutaminase production by Streptoverticillium mobaraense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Y.; Rinzema, A.; Tramper, J.; Bruin, E. de; Bol, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the later stages of a batch fermentation for microbial transglutaminase production by Streptoverticillium mobaraense the availability of a nitrogen source accessible to the microorganism becomes critical. Fed-batch fermentation is investigated with the aim of avoiding this substrate limitation.

  10. Multidimensional Dynamic Programming Algorithm for N-Level Batching with Hierarchical Clustering Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Kil Lim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the N-level batching problem with a hierarchical clustering structure. Clustering is the task of grouping a set of item types in such a way that item types in the same cluster are more similar (in some sense or another to each other than to those in other clusters. In hierarchical clustering structure, more and more different item types are clustered together as the level of the hierarchy increases. N-level batching is the process by which items with different types are grouped into several batches passed from level 1 to level N sequentially for given hierarchical clustering structure such that batches in each level should satisfy the maximum and minimum batch size requirements of the level. We consider two types of processing costs of the batches: unit processing cost and batch processing cost. We formulate the N-level batching problem with a hierarchical clustering structure as a nonlinear integer programming model with the objective of minimizing the total processing cost. To solve the problem optimally, we propose a multidimensional dynamic programming algorithm with an example.

  11. Implementation of Sliding Mode Controller with Boundary Layer for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fed-batch Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyan Tzonkov

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available An implementation of sliding mode control for yeast fed-batch cultivation is presented in this paper. Developed controller has been implemented on two real fed-batch cultivations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The controller successfully stabilizes the process and shows a very good performance at high input disturbances.

  12. Critical evaluation of approaches for on-line batch process monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sprang, E. N. M.; Ramaker, H. J.; Westerhuis, J. A.; Gurden, S. P.; Smilde, A. K.

    2002-01-01

    Since the introduction of batch process monitoring using component models in 1992, different approaches for statistical batch process monitoring have been suggested in the literature. This is the first evaluation of five proposed approaches so far. The differences and similarities between the

  13. Fed-batch fermentation dealing with nitrogen limitation in microbial transglutaminase production by Streptoverticillium mobaraense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinzema, A; Tramper, J; de Bruin, E; Bol, J

    In the later stages of a batch fermentation for microbial transglutaminase production by Streptoverticillium mobaraense the availability of a nitrogen source accessible to the microorganism becomes critical. Fed-batch fermentation is investigated with the aim of avoiding this substrate limitation.

  14. Landfill leachate treatment by batch supercritical water oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Fernando Marulanda Cardona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El tratamiento de lixiviados por medio de diferentes procesos fisicoquímicos y biológicos ha sido ampliamente estudiado. Sin embargo, ningún proceso logra las eficiencias de destruc- ción requeridas en cuanto a materia orgánica y nitrógeno, razón por la cual el tratamiento se realiza por medio de tecnologías combinadas. La oxidación en agua supercrítica o SCWO, proceso que se lleva a cabo a temperaturas y presiones superiores a las del punto crítico del agua en presencia de una fuente de oxígeno, se ha aplicado exitosamente al tratamiento de distintos tipos de aguas residuales de forma eficiente. Por lo tanto, este trabajo presenta un estudio experimental de la oxidación en agua supercrítica de lixiviados de relleno sanitario en un reactor batch, en el rango de temperatura de 400-500°C, tiempos de reacción de 15 a 30 mi- nutos y excesos de oxígeno (OE de 100 % a 300 %. Se midieron las eficiencias de destrucción de carbono orgánico total (COT y nitrógeno total (NT, y se determinó el efecto combinado de los factores estudiados por medio del Análisis de Varianza (ANOVA. Las condiciones de operación óptimas para la destrucción de COT fueron 400°C, 30 min y 100 % OE, y 500°C, 30 min y 100 % OE para el NT. A diferencia de lo reportado en estudios similares, los resultados su- gieren que es posible llevar a cabo la destrucción simultánea del COT y el NT en los lixiviados por medio de SCWO a 400°C, 100 % OE y tiempos de residencia de más de 30 min sin usar un catalizador, ya sea en un proceso batch o continuo, siempre y cuando tanto el oxidante como el agua residual se mezclen y se calienten juntos a la temperatura de reacción.

  15. Inhibition of Sulfide Mineral Oxidation by Surface Coating Agents: Batch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Ji, M. K.; Yun, H. S.; Park, Y. T.; Gee, E. D.; Lee, W. R.; Jeon, B.-H.

    2012-04-01

    Mining activities and mineral industries have impacted on rapid oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS2) which leads to Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) formation. Some of the abandoned mines discharge polluted water without proper environmental remediation treatments, largely because of financial constraints in treating AMD. Magnitude of the problem is considerable, especially in countries with a long history of mining. As metal sulfides become oxidized during mining activities, the aqueous environment becomes acid and rich in many metals, including iron, lead, mercury, arsenic and many others. The toxic heavy metals are responsible for the environmental deterioration of stream, groundwater and soils. Several strategies to remediate AMD contaminated sites have been proposed. Among the source inhibition and prevention technologies, microencapsulation (coating) has been considered as a promising technology. The encapsulation is based on inhibition of O2 diffusion by surface coating agent and is expected to control the oxidation of pyrite for a long time. Potential of several surface coating agents for preventing oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from both Young-Dong coal mine and Il-Gwang gold mine were examined by conducting batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH2PO4, MgO and KMnO4 as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H2O2 or NaClO). Batch experiments with Young-Dong coal mine samples showed least SO42- production in presence of KMnO4 (16% sulfate production compared to no surface coating agents) or cement (4%) within 8 days. In the case of Il-Gwang mine samples, least SO42- production was observed in presence of KH2PO4 (8%) or cement (2%) within 8 days. Field-scale pilot tests at Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH2PO4 decreased sulfate production from 200 to

  16. Batch and continuous extraction of bromelain enzyme by reversed micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Frattini Fileti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to optimize the conditions for bromelain extraction by reversed micelles from pineapple juice (Ananas comosus. The purification was carried out in batch extraction and a micro-column with pulsed caps for continuous extraction. The cationic micellar solution was made of BDBAC as a surfactant, isooctane as a solvent and hexanol as a co-solvent. For the batch process, a purification factor of 3 times at the best values of surfactant agent, co-solvent and salt concentrations, pH of the back and forward extractions were, 100 mM, 10% v/v, 1 M, 3.5 and 8, respectively. For the continuous operation, independent variables optimal point was determined: ratio between light phase flow rate and total flow rate equal to 0.67 and 1 second for the time interval between the pulses. This optimal point led to a productivity of 1.29 mL/min and a purification factor of 4.96.Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal otimizar as condições para extração da bromelina do suco do abacaxi (Ananas comosus por micelas reversas. A purificação foi feita usando o processo de extração em batelada e contínuo, este último em uma micro-coluna de campânulas pulsantes. A solução micelar catiônica foi preparada com o surfactante BDBAC, i-octano como solvente e hexanol como co-solvente. Na extração em batelada encontrou-se um fator de purificação de 3 vezes, e seus melhores valores de concentração do agente surfactante, co-solvente e sal, de pH da re-extração e extração, foram respectivamente iguais a: 100 mM, 10% v/v, 1 M, 3,5 e 8. Para a operação contínua, as variáveis independentes ótimas foram: 0,67 para a razão entre as taxas de fluxos da fase leve e a total e 1 s para o intervalo de tempo entre pulsos das campânulas. Este ponto ótimo leva a uma produtividade de 1,29 mL/min e a um fator de purificação igual a 4,96.

  17. Case-by-case risk assessment of broiler meat batches: An effective control strategy for Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Nauta, Maarten; Korsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, the Danish government decided to take new measures to control Salmonella and Campylobacter in Danish and imported retail meat. The legal basis for these new measures was article 14 in the EU food law, which states that food shall not be placed on the market if it is unsafe, among others......, for reasons of contamination. This provision allows each member state to make a specific risk assessment of food batches, and decide whether a batch poses an unacceptable risk to the consumer or not. Here we present the basis for the risk assessment model on Campylobacter used in this new approach...... and the results of more than 3,000 batches of broiler meat tested since 2007. The risk was assessed for batches with one or more samples positive for Campylobacter (>100 cfu/g). Reductions in the number of positive batches from 2007 to 2010 were observed for both domestic (from 17% to 7%, p=0.01) and imported...

  18. Microporous silica membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermal stability is a crucial factor for the application of microporous silica-based membranes in industrial processes. Indeed, it is well established that steam exposure may cause densification and defect formation in microporous silica membranes, which are detrimental to both membrane...... permeability and selectivity. Numerous previous studies show that microporous transition metal doped-silica membranes are hydrothermally more stable than pure silica membranes, but less permeable. Here we present a quantitative study on the impact of type and concentration of transition metal ions...... on the microporous structure, stability and permeability of amorphous silica-based membranes, providing information on how to design chemical compositions and synthetic paths for the fabrication of silica-based membranes with a well accessible and highly stabile microporous structure....

  19. Clustering on Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannes, Ludger; Pezeshkian, Weria; Ipsen, John H

    2018-01-01

    Clustering of extracellular ligands and proteins on the plasma membrane is required to perform specific cellular functions, such as signaling and endocytosis. Attractive forces that originate in perturbations of the membrane's physical properties contribute to this clustering, in addition to direct...... protein-protein interactions. However, these membrane-mediated forces have not all been equally considered, despite their importance. In this review, we describe how line tension, lipid depletion, and membrane curvature contribute to membrane-mediated clustering. Additional attractive forces that arise...... from protein-induced perturbation of a membrane's fluctuations are also described. This review aims to provide a survey of the current understanding of membrane-mediated clustering and how this supports precise biological functions....

  20. Continuous Membrane-Based Screening System for Biocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Kraume

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of membrane reactors for enzymatic and co-factor regenerating reactions offers versatile advantages such as higher conversion rates and space-time-yields and is therefore often applied in industry. However, currently available screening and kinetics characterization systems are based on batch and fed-batch operated reactors and were developed for whole cell biotransformations rather than for enzymatic catalysis. Therefore, the data obtained from such systems has only limited transferability for continuous membrane reactors. The aim of this study is to evaluate and to improve a novel screening and characterization system based on the membrane reactor concept using the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose as a model reaction. Important aspects for the applicability of the developed system such as long-term stability and reproducibility of continuous experiments were very high. The concept used for flow control and fouling suppression allowed control of the residence time with a high degree of precision (±1% accuracy in a long-term study (>100 h.

  1. Aerobic granulation in a sequencing batch airlift reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beun, J J; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Heijnen, J J

    2002-02-01

    Aerobic granular sludge was cultivated in an intensely mixed sequencing batch airlift reactor (SBAR). A COD loading of 2.5 kg Acetate-COD/(m3 d) was applied. Granules developed in the reactor within one week after inoculation with suspended activated sludge from a conventional wastewater treatment plant. Selection of the dense granules from the biomass mixture occurs because of the differences in settling velocities between granules (fast settling biomass), and filaments and flocs (slow settling biomass). At 'steady state' the granules had an average diameter of 2.5 mm, a biomass density of 60g VSS/I of granules, and a settling rate of > 10 m/h. The biomass consisted of both heterotrophic and nitrifying bacteria. The reactor was operated over a long period during which the granular sludge proved to remain stable. The performance of the intermittently fed SBAR was compared to that of the continuously fed biofilm airlift suspension reactor (BASR). The most importance difference was that the density of the granules in the SBAR was much higher than the density of the biofilms in the BASR. It is discussed that this could be due to the fact that the SBAR is intermittently fed, while the BASR is continuously fed.

  2. Batch management based monitoring system: design, implement, and visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan Bowen; Shi Jingyan

    2012-01-01

    Torque, an efficient PBS (Portable Batch System)-based open source Resource Management system, was originally developed by Ames research center of NASA, which was designed to satisfy the computing requirements of heterogeneous network. With the development of distributed computing, Torque has been widely used in high performance computing cluster. However, because of the lack of a well designed monitoring system, it is difficult to monitor, record, and control, leading to low stability, reliability and manageability. To overcome those problems, this paper designs and implements an adaptive lightweight monitoring system for torque from five aspects. 1) A lightweight circulating filtration logging system is developed to obtain the real-time running status of torque; 2) One uniform interface was provided for administrators to define monitoring commands, which can query management resources of torque; 3) Storage strategy is designed to make monitoring information persistent; 4) One uniform interface is provided for users to customized alarms, which can submit exceptions and errors to users via emails and SMS in real time; 5) HTML5 technology is applied in the customizable visualization of the jobs' status in torque in real time. (authors)

  3. Degradation of formaldehyde in anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N.S. [Laboratorio de Processos Biologicos (LPB), Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Engenharia Ambiental, Bloco 4-F, Av. Joao Dagnone, 1100 Santa Angelina, 13.563-120 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Zaiat, M. [Laboratorio de Processos Biologicos (LPB), Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Engenharia Ambiental, Bloco 4-F, Av. Joao Dagnone, 1100 Santa Angelina, 13.563-120 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: zaiat@sc.usp.br

    2009-04-30

    The present study evaluated the degradation of formaldehyde in a bench-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor, which contained biomass immobilized in polyurethane foam matrices. The reactor was operated for 212 days at 35 deg. C with 8 h sequential cycles, under different affluent formaldehyde concentrations ranging from 31.6 to 1104.4 mg/L (formaldehyde loading rates from 0.08 to 2.78 kg/m{sup 3} day). The results indicate excellent reactor stability and over 99% efficiency in formaldehyde removal, with average effluent formaldehyde concentration of 3.6 {+-} 1.7 mg/L. Formaldehyde degradation rates increased from 204.9 to 698.3 mg/L h as the initial concentration of formaldehyde was increased from around 100 to around 1100 mg/L. However, accumulation of organic matter was observed in the effluent (chemical oxygen demand (COD) values above 500 mg/L) due to the presence of non-degraded organic acids, especially acetic and propionic acids. This observation poses an important question regarding the anaerobic route of formaldehyde degradation, which might differ substantially from that reported in the literature. The anaerobic degradation pathway can be associated with the formation of long-chain oligomers from formaldehyde. Such long- or short-chain polymers are probably the precursors of organic acid formation by means of acidogenic anaerobic microorganisms.

  4. Batch crystallization of rifapentine for inhalable tuberculosis medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijanarko, Anondho; Meivita, Maria Prisca; Hermansyah, Heri; Sahlan, Muhamad; Lakerveld, Richard

    2018-02-01

    In the midst of Tuberculosis (TB) pandemic, a research about new tuberculosis drug that results in more rapid resolution of tubercular infection is important. It will play a crucial role in accelerating the reductions in tuberculosis incidence that is occurring worldwide. The effectiveness of rifapentine has been assessed and it has been proven to be the most effective antibiotics for TB. A frequent administration and dose of rifapentine resulted in more rapid resolution of tubercular infection. However, based on former research, high exposure levels for treatment shortening may be unachievable with oral administration and might instead be achieved by direct aerosol delivery of rifapentine to the pulmonary site of infection. Therefore, with the growing interest in the effectiveness of rifapentine in frequent administration and dose, this research integrates an inhalable form of crystalline rifapentine prepared using a batch process. Moreover, this research investigates the effect of seed loading, supersaturation ratio, and residence time on the characterization of crystalline rifapentine in order to form a crystalline rifapentine in an inhalable size. The research was carried out by using anti-solvent crystallization method with acetone as a solvent and distilled water as an anti-solvent. Based on the assessment of various operating variables, it can be concluded that the optimum result was obtained at the unseeded experiment with supersaturation ratio = 1.26. Unseeded experiments are preferred because the ideal size for therapeutic aerosol was achieved in unseeded experiments.

  5. Colored noise effects on batch attitude accuracy estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilanow, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    The effects of colored noise on the accuracy of batch least squares parameter estimates with applications to attitude determination cases are investigated. The standard approaches used for estimating the accuracy of a computed attitude commonly assume uncorrelated (white) measurement noise, while in actual flight experience measurement noise often contains significant time correlations and thus is colored. For example, horizon scanner measurements from low Earth orbit were observed to show correlations over many minutes in response to large scale atmospheric phenomena. A general approach to the analysis of the effects of colored noise is investigated, and interpretation of the resulting equations provides insight into the effects of any particular noise color and the worst case noise coloring for any particular parameter estimate. It is shown that for certain cases, the effects of relatively short term correlations can be accommodated by a simple correction factor. The errors in the predicted accuracy assuming white noise and the reduced accuracy due to the suboptimal nature of estimators that do not take into account the noise color characteristics are discussed. The appearance of a variety of sample noise color characteristics are demonstrated through simulation, and their effects are discussed for sample estimation cases. Based on the analysis, options for dealing with the effects of colored noise are discussed.

  6. Environmental Hazard Assessment of Jarosite Waste Using Batch Leaching Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kerolli – Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jarosite waste samples from Trepça Zinc Industry in Kosovo were subjected to two batch leaching tests as an attempt to characterize the leaching behavior and mobility of minor and major elements of jarosite waste. To achieve this, deionized water and synthetic acidic rain leaching tests were employed. A two-step acidic treatment in microwave digestion system were used to dissolve jarosite waste samples, followed by determination of Al, Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, S, Si, Sr, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. The validation of the procedure was performed by the analysis of two geochemical reference materials, S JR-3 and S Jsy-1. Two toxicity leaching tests revealed a high metal releasing of Cd, Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb, Zn, and As, and the metal release risk for these elements is still very high due the low pH and acid rain. The statistical analysis showed useful data information on the relationship between elements in jarosite samples in two different extraction conditions (deionized water and synthetic acid rain.

  7. EFFECT OF DYE CONCENTRATION ON SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Vaigan ، M. R. Alavi Moghaddam ، H. Hashemi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive dyes have been identified as problematic compounds in textile industries wastewater as they are water soluble and cannot be easily removed by conventional aerobic biological treatment systems. The treatability of a reactive dye (Brill Blue KN-R by sequencing batch reactor and the influence of the dye concentration on system performance were investigated in this study. Brill Blue KN-R is one of the main dyes that are used in textile industries in Iran. Four cylindrical Plexiglas reactors were run for 36 days (5 days for acclimatization of sludge and 31 days for normal operation at different initial dye concentrations. The dye concentrations were adjusted to be 20, 25, 30 and 40 mg/L in the reactors R1, R2, R3 and R4, respectively. In all reactors, effective volume, influent wastewater flowrate and sludge retention time were 5.5 L, 3.0 L/d and 10 d, respectively. According to the obtained data, average dye removal efficiencies of R1, R2, R3 and R4 were 57% ± 2, 50.18% ± 3, 44.97% ± 3 and 30.98% ± 3, respectively. The average COD removal efficiencies of all reactors were 97% ± 1, 97.12% ± 1, 96.93% ± 1 and 97.22% ± 1, respectively. The dye removal efficiency was decreased by increasing the dye concentration with the correlation coefficient of 0.997.

  8. Batched Tile Low-Rank GEMM on GPUs

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali

    2018-02-01

    Dense General Matrix-Matrix (GEMM) multiplication is a core operation of the Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines (BLAS) library, and therefore, often resides at the bottom of the traditional software stack for most of the scientific applications. In fact, chip manufacturers give a special attention to the GEMM kernel implementation since this is exactly where most of the high-performance software libraries extract the hardware performance. With the emergence of big data applications involving large data-sparse, hierarchically low-rank matrices, the off-diagonal tiles can be compressed to reduce the algorithmic complexity and the memory footprint. The resulting tile low-rank (TLR) data format is composed of small data structures, which retains the most significant information for each tile. However, to operate on low-rank tiles, a new GEMM operation and its corresponding API have to be designed on GPUs so that it can exploit the data sparsity structure of the matrix while leveraging the underlying TLR compression format. The main idea consists in aggregating all operations onto a single kernel launch to compensate for their low arithmetic intensities and to mitigate the data transfer overhead on GPUs. The new TLR GEMM kernel outperforms the cuBLAS dense batched GEMM by more than an order of magnitude and creates new opportunities for TLR advance algorithms.

  9. Unusal pattern of product inhibition: batch acetic acid fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar, R.; Gainer, J.L.; Kirwan, D.J.

    1987-04-20

    The limited tolerance of microorganisms to their metabolic products results in inhibited growth and product formation. The relationship between the specific growth rate, micro, and the concentration of an inhibitory product has been described by a number of mathematical models. In most cases, micro was found to be inversely proportional to the product concentration and invariably the rate of substrate utilization followed the same pattern. In this communication, the authors report a rather unusual case in which the formation rate of a product, acetic acid, increased with a decreasing growth rate of the microorganism, Acetobacter aceti. Apparently, a similar behavior was mentioned in a review report with respect to Clostridium thermocellum in a batch culture but was not published in the freely circulating literature. The fermentation of ethanol to acetic acid, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH + O/sub 2/ = CH/sub 3/COOH + H/sub 2/O is clearly one of the oldest known fermentations. Because of its association with the commercial production of vinegar it has been a subject of extensive but rather technically oriented studies. Suprisingly, the uncommon uncoupling between the inhibited microbial growth and the product formation appears to have been unnoticed. 13 references.

  10. Treatment of winery wastewater by an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz, C; Torrijos, M; Sousbie, P; Lebrato Martínez, J; Moletta, R; Delgenès, J P

    2002-01-01

    Treatment of winery wastewater was investigated using an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR). Biogas production rate was monitored and permitted the automation of the bioreactor by a simple control system. The reactor was operated at an organic loading rate (ORL) around 8.6 gCOD/L.d with soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency greater than 98%, hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2.2 d and a specific organic loading rate (SOLR) of 0.96 gCOD/gVSS.d. The kinetics of COD and VFA removal were investigated for winery wastewater and for simple compounds such as ethanol, which is a major component of winery effluent, and acetate, which is the main volatile fatty acid (VFA) produced. The comparison of the profiles obtained with the 3 substrates shows that, overall, the acidification of the organic matter and the methanisation of the VFA follow zero order reactions, in the operating conditions of our study. The effect on the gas production rate resulted in two level periods separated by a sharp break when the acidification stage was finished and only the breaking down of the VFA continued.

  11. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF BATCH ADSORPTION OF MANGANESE ONTO BONE CHAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Maria

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study investigated the dynamics of batch adsorption of manganese onto bone char by using two distinct mathematical formulations: the diffusion model and the shrinking core model. Both models assumed spherical particles and adequately described the transient behavior of metal adsorption under changing operating conditions. Comparatively, the diffusion model described the manganese adsorption better at distinct particle sizes even when small particles were used (dp ≤ 0.147 mm; the shrinking core model proved to be more reliable when larger adsorbent particles were used (dp > 0.147 mm, and it described experimental data better at changing solid-liquid ratios. Manganese adsorption was favored when: (i smaller adsorbing particles were used due to the increase in the contact area and easier access to reacting sites of the char; however, such an effect proved to be limited to dp ≤ 0.147 mm, and (ii higher solid-liquid ratios were used due to the increase in the available reacting sites. External and intraparticle mass transfer dependences on particle size and solid-liquid ratio were also investigated, and results corroborated with prior investigations found in the literature.

  12. Hydrogen generation from glycerol in batch fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, K.; Waligorska, M.; Wojtowski, M.; Laniecki, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznan (Poland)

    2009-05-15

    The influence of concentration of glycerol, inoculum and total nitrogen on hydrogen generation, in batch dark fermentation process in the presence of digested sludge (at 37 C and at initial pH = 6) was studied. Changes in substrate and products concentrations were modeled with modified Gompertz equations (correlation coefficient R{sup 2} = 0.9015). The 1,3-propandiol, butyric acid, acetic acid, lactic acid and ethanol were found as the main liquid metabolites. Maximal substrate yield for hydrogen was 0.41 mol H{sub 2}/mol glycerol and was obtained for medium containing 10 g/l of glycerol with the lowest amount of inoculum - 1.16 g volatile suspended solid (VSS)/l. Increase of glycerol concentration from 5 to 30 g/l resulted in much better hydrogen generation, namely from 0.345 to 0.715 l H{sub 2}/l. Further increase of glycerol concentration did not cause any changes. The H{sub 2}:CO{sub 2} ratio in biogas in system with the highest substrate yield was always 1. The initial concentration of glycerol does not influence the rate of hydrogen generation. The increase of initial concentration of inoculum from 1.2 to 11.6 g VSS/l results in the decrease of specific hydrogen yield. Nitrogen concentration in medium does not influence the hydrogen production. (author)

  13. Pembuatan Biodiesel Secara Batch Dengan Memanfaatkan Gelombang Mikro (Microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhesa Purnama Putra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel merupakan bioenergi atau bahan bakar nabati yang dibuat dari minyak nabati, baik minyak baru atau bekas penggorengan melalui proses transesterifikasi, esterifikasi, atau proses esterifikasi-transesterifikasi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk membuat biodiesel dari minyak goreng secara batch melalui proses transesterifikasi dengan menggunakan radiasi mikrowave serta mempelajari berapa daya dan waktu optimal yang diperlukan untuk proses pembuatan biodiesel dengan radiasi microwave dengan katalis CaO, H2SO4, dan tanpa katalis. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan tiga variabel, yaitu daya (Watt;100,200,300,400, waktu (menit; 5,10,15,20 dan jenis katalis; CaO, H2SO4, dan tanpa katalis. Pada tahap persiapan menghitung volume minyak dan metanol yang akan dicampur. Kemudian mencampurnya didalam reaktor. Lalu mendinginkan campuran hingga terbentuk dua lapisan atas dan bawah dilanjutkan dengan melakukan pemisahan lapisan atas (biodiesel dari lapisan bawah (gliserol. Adapun pada tahap analisis, biodiesel hasil reaksi transesterfikasi dianalisa untuk mendapatkan data yield metil ester, densitas, viskositas, dan flash point. Dari penelitian diketahui bahwa hasil yang didapatkan masih belum dapat memenuhi standar biodiesel yang ditetapkan. Katalis CaO dapat memberikan hasil yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan katalis H2SO4 dan tanpa katalis. Kondisi operasi untuk menghasilkan kualitas yield biodiesel terbaik yaitu pada daya 200 Watt selama 20 menit dengan menggunakan katalis CaO. Yield biodiesel terbesar didapatkan yield sebesar 60,11 %.

  14. Virtual Sensors for Biodiesel Production in a Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Y. López-Zapata

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel combustion produces around 98% of coal emissions. Therefore, liquid and gaseous biofuels have become more attractive due to their environmental benefits. The biodiesel production process requires measurements that help to control and supervise the variables involved in the process. The measurements provide valuable information about the operation conditions and give estimations about the critical variables of the process. The information from measurements is essential for monitoring the state of a process and verifying if it has an optimal performance. The objective of this study was the conception of a virtual sensor based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF and the model of a batch biodiesel reactor for estimating concentrations of triglycerides (TG, diglycerides (DG, monoglycerides (MG, methyl ester (E, alcohol (A, and glycerol (GL in real-time through measurement of the temperature and pH. Estimation of the TG, DG, MG, E, A, and Gl through this method eliminates the need for additional sensors and allows the use of different types of control. For the performance analysis of the virtual sensor, the data obtained from the EKF are compared with experimental data reported in the literature, with the mean square error of the estimate then being calculated. In addition, the results of this approach can be implemented in a real system, since it only uses measurements available in a reactor such as temperature and pH.

  15. Root cause analysis for waste area grouping 1, Batch I, Series 1 Tank T-30 project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    Four inactive liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks were scheduled for remedial actions as the Batch L Series I Tank Project during fiscal year (FY) 1995. These tanks are 3001-B, 3004-B, T-30, and 3013. The initial tank remediation project was conducted as a maintenance action. One project objective was to gain experience in remediation efforts (under maintenance actions) to assist in conducting remedial action projects for the 33 remaining inactive LLLW tanks. Batch I, Series 1 project activities resulted in the successful remediation of tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, and 3013. Tank T-30 remedial actions were halted as a result of information obtained during waste characterization activities. The conditions discovered on tank T-30 would not allow completion of tank removal and smelting as originally planned. A decision was made to conduct a root cause analysis of Tank T-30 events to identify and, where possible, correct weaknesses that, if uncorrected, could result in similar delays for completion of future inactive tank remediation projects. The objective of the analysis was to determine why a portion of expected project end results for Tank T-30 were not fully achieved. The root cause analysis evaluates project events and recommends beneficial improvements for application to future projects. This report presents the results of the Batch I, Series root cause analysis results and makes recommendations based on that analysis

  16. Application of dynamic membranes in anaerobic membranes in anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erşahin, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) physically ensure biomass retention by the application of a membrane filtration process. With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs), the combination of membrane and anaerobic processes has received much attention and become

  17. Supported ionic liquid membrane in membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Zunita, M.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.; Wenten, I. G.

    2017-01-01

    Membrane reactor is a device that integrates membrane based separation and (catalytic) chemical reaction vessel in a single device. Ionic liquids, considered to be a relatively recent magical chemical due to their unique properties, have a large variety of applications in all areas of chemical industries. Moreover, the ionic liquid can be used as membrane separation layer and/or catalytically active site. This paper will review utilization of ionic liquid in membrane reactor related applications especially Fischer-Tropsch, hydrogenation, and dehydrogenation reaction. This paper also reviews about the capability of ionic liquid in equilibrium reaction that produces CO2 product so that the reaction will move towards the product. Water gas shift reaction in ammonia production also direct Dimethyl Ether (DME) synthesis that produces CO2 product will be discussed. Based on a review of numerous articles on supported ionic liquid membrane (SILM) indicate that ionic liquids have the potential to support the process of chemical reaction and separation in a membrane reactor.

  18. Biofouling in capillary and spiral wound membranes facilitated by marine algal bloom

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, L.O.

    2017-10-11

    Algal-derived organic matter (AOM), particularly transparent exopolymer particles, has been suspected to facilitate biofilm development in membrane systems (e.g., seawater reverse osmosis). This study demonstrates the possible role of AOM on biofouling in membrane systems affected by marine algal blooms. The tendency of AOM from bloom-forming marine algae to adhere to membranes and its ability to enhance biofilm growth were measured using atomic force microscopy, flow cytometry, liquid chromatography and accelerated membrane biofouling experiments. Adhesion force measurements indicate that AOM tends to adhere to clean membranes and even more strongly to AOM-fouled membranes. Batch growth tests illustrate that the capacity of seawater to support bacterial growth can significantly increase with AOM concentration. Biofouling experiments with spiral wound and capillary membranes illustrate that when nutrients availability are not limited in the feed water, a high concentration of AOM – whether in suspension or attached to the membrane – can substantially accelerates biofouling. A significantly lower biofouling rate was observed on membranes exposed to feed water spiked only with AOM or easily biodegradable nutrients. The abovementioned findings indicate that AOM facilitates the onset of membrane biofouling primarily as a conditioning platform and to some extent as a nutrient source for biofilm-forming bacteria.

  19. Emulsification using microporous membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran T. Vladisavljević

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Membrane emulsification is a process of injecting a pure dispersed phase or pre-emulsion through a microporous membrane into the continuous phase. As a result of the immiscibility of the two phases, droplets of the dispersed phase are formed at the outlets of membrane pores. The droplets formed in the process are removed from the membrane surface by applying cross-flow or stirring of the continuous phase or using a dynamic (rotating or vibrating membrane. The most commonly used membrane for emulsification is the Shirasu Porous Glass (SPG membrane, fabricated through spinodal decomposition in a melt consisting of Japanese volcanic ash (Shirasu, boric acid and calcium carbonate. Microsieve membranes are increasingly popular as an alternative to highly tortuous glass and ceramic membranes. Microsieves are usually fabricated from nickel by photolithography and electroplating or they can be manufactured from silicon nitride via Reactive Ion Etching (RIE. An advantage of microsieves compared to the SPG membrane is in much higher transmembrane fluxes and higher tolerance to fouling by the emulsion ingredients due to the existence of short, straight through pores. Unlike conventional emulsification devices such as high-pressure valve homogenisers and rotor-stator devices, membrane emulsification devices permit a precise control over the mean pore size over a wide range and during the process insignificant amount of energy is dissipated as heat. The drop size is primarily determined by the pore size, but it depends also on other parameters, such as membrane wettability, emulsion formulation, shear stress on the membrane surface, transmembrane pressure, etc.

  20. Tailor-made PAT platform for safe syngas fermentations in batch, fed-batch and chemostat mode with Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmann, Stephanie; Follonier, Stéphanie; Egger, Daniel; Hebel, Dirk; Panke, Sven; Zinn, Manfred

    2017-11-01

    Recently, syngas has gained significant interest as renewable and sustainable feedstock, in particular for the biotechnological production of poly([R]-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). PHB is a biodegradable, biocompatible polyester produced by some bacteria growing on the principal component of syngas, CO. However, working with syngas is challenging because of the CO toxicity and the explosion danger of H 2 , another main component of syngas. In addition, the bioprocess control needs specific monitoring tools and analytical methods that differ from standard fermentations. Here, we present a syngas fermentation platform with a focus on safety installations and process analytical technology (PAT) that serves as a basis to assess the physiology of the PHB-producing bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. The platform includes (i) off-gas analysis with an online quadrupole mass spectrometer to measure CO consumption and production rates of H 2 and CO 2 , (ii) an at-line flow cytometer to determine the total cell count and the intracellular PHB content and (iii) different online sensors, notably a redox sensor that is important to confirm that the culture conditions are suitable for the CO metabolization of R. rubrum. Furthermore, we present as first applications of the platform a fed-batch and a chemostat process with R. rubrum for PHB production from syngas. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Preparation of Biodiesel from Microalgae and Palm Oil by Direct Transesterification in a Batch Microwave Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwan; Suhendrayatna; Indarti, E

    2015-01-01

    The present work was aimed to study the so-called direct transesterification of microalgae lipids to biodiesel in a batch microwave reactor. As a comparison, preparation of palm oil to biodiesel by alkaline catalyzed ethanolysis was also carried out. Palm oil biodiesel was recovered close to an equilibrium conversion (94-96% yield) under microwave heating for at least 6 min, while the conventional method required more than 45 minutes reaching the same yield. A very short reaction time suggests the benefit of microwave effect over conventional heating method in making biodiesel. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of fatty acid ethyl esters with no undesired chemical groups or compounds formed due to local heat generated by microwave effect, thus the conversion only followed transesterification route. Oil containing microalgae of Chlorella sp. isolated from the local brackish water pond was used as a potential source of biodiesel. High yield of biodiesel (above 0.6 g/g of dried algae) was also attainable for the direct transesterification of microalgae in the microwave reactor. Effect of water content of the algae biomass became insignificant at 11.9%(w/w) or less, related to the algae biomass dried for longer than 6 h. Fast transesterification of the algal oil towards equilibrium conversion was obtained at reaction time of 6 min, and at longer times the biodiesel yield remains unchanged. FAME profile indicates unsaturated fatty acids as major constituents. It was shown that microwave irradiation contributes not only to enhance the transeseterification, but also to assist effective release of fatty acid containing molecules (e.g. triacylglycerol, free fatty acids and phospholipids) from algal cells. (paper)

  2. Enzymatic synthesis of hydrophobic compounds integrated with membrane separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noworyta Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic synthesis of a highly hydrophobic product (dipeptide precursor in which the reaction is accompanied by the mass transfer of the reaction product to the organic phase and the substrates to the water phase is considered. Equations describing both continuous and batch processes are formulated. The range of variability in the operating parameters of such a bioreactor is specified, and the correlations reported in the literature to describe mass transfer in the membrane contactor are validated. The proposed process was verified experimentally, and good agreement between the determined and calculated concentrations was obtained in both phases.

  3. Evaluation of batch effect elimination using quality control replicates in LC-MS metabolite profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Illana, Ángel; Piñeiro-Ramos, Jose David; Sanjuan-Herráez, Juan Daniel; Vento, Máximo; Quintás, Guillermo; Kuligowski, Julia

    2018-08-17

    Systematic variation of the instrument's response both within- and between-batches is frequently observed in untarget LC-MS metabolomics involving the analysis of a large number of samples. The so-called batch effect decreases the statistical power and has a negative impact on repeatability and reproducibility of the results. As there is no standard way of assessing or correcting LC-MS batch effects and there is no single method providing optimal results in all situations, the selection of the optimal approach is not trivial. This work explores the effectiveness of a set of tools for batch effect assessment. Qualitative tools include the monitoring of spiked internal standards, principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Quantitative tools comprise the distribution of RSD QC values, the median Pearson correlation coefficient in QCs, the ratio of random features in QCs using the runs test, as well as multivariate tools such as the δ-statistic, Silhouette plots, Principal Variance Component Analysis and the expected technical variation in the prediction. Results show that qualitative and quantitative approaches are complementary and that by limiting the analysis to QCs the power to detect and evaluate both within and between batch effects is increased. Besides, the graphical integration of outputs from multiple quantitative tools facilitates the evaluation of batch effects and it is proposed as a straightforward way for comparing and tailoring batch effect elimination approaches. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cell engineering of Escherichia coli allows high cell density accumulation without fed-batch process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäcklund, Emma; Markland, Katrin; Larsson, Gen

    2008-01-01

    A set of mutations in the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) was used to create Escherichia coli strains with a reduced uptake rate of glucose. This allows a growth restriction, which is controlled on cellular rather than reactor level, which is typical of the fed-batch cultivation concept. Batch growth of the engineered strains resulted in cell accumulation profiles corresponding to a growth rate of 0.78, 0.38 and 0.25 h(-1), respectively. The performance of the mutants in batch cultivation was compared to fed-batch cultivation of the wild type cell using restricted glucose feed to arrive at the corresponding growth profiles. Results show that the acetate production, oxygen consumption and product formation were similar, when a recombinant product was induced from the lacUV5 promoter. Ten times more cells could be produced in batch cultivation using the mutants without the growth detrimental production of acetic acid. This allows high cell density production without the establishment of elaborate fed-batch control equipment. The technique is suggested as a versatile tool in high throughput multiparallel protein production but also for increasing the number of experiments performed during process development while keeping conditions similar to the large-scale fed-batch performance.

  5. Statistical Review of Data from DWPF's Process Samples for Batches 19 Through 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T.B.

    1999-04-06

    The measurements derived from samples taken during the processing of batches 19 through 30 at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) affords an opportunity for review and comparisons. This report has looked at some of the statistics from these data. Only the data reported by the DWPF lab (that is, the data provided by the lab as representative of the samples taken) are available for this analysis. In some cases, the sample results reported may be a subset of the sample results generated by the analytical procedures. A thorough assessment of the DWPF lab's analytical procedures would require the complete set of data. Thus, the statistics reported here, specifically, as they relate to analytical uncertainties, are limited to the reported data for these samples, A fell for the consistency of the incoming slurry is the estimation of the components of variation for the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipts. In general, for all of the vessels, the data from batches after 21 show smaller batch-to-batch variation than the data from all the batches. The relative contributions of batch-to-batch versus residual, which includes analytical, are presented in these analyses.

  6. Scaling relations for use of batch data in design of reactive tracer tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Tracer tests employing reacting solutes can be used to evaluate the rates and extents of in-situ retardation and transformation of groundwater contaminants. Preliminary estimates of retardation and transformation rates can aid in selecting appropriate input concentrations, monitoring network density and sampling schedules. Results of laboratory batch experiments provide one source of data for such estimates, as well as the basis for models that can be used to interpret tracer test results. IN some cases, batch experiments are designed to identify rate laws and rate constants for the reactions of interest. MOre frequently, however, batch experiments are conducted to determine equilibrium relations for sorption or other reversible reactions. Kinetic information provided by these equilibrium experiments generally consists only of estimated equilibration times. In this paper, analytic integrated rate laws for batch conditions are compared to results of numerical simulations of solute transport affected by homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions in order to establish scaling relations between batch equilibration times and transport times required to approach local equilibrium. For homogeneous reactions similar time scales are required for batch equilibration and to approach local equilibrium during transport. HOwever, significant differences in time scales can exist between batch and transport conditions for cases involving heterogeneous reactions. Use of the resulting scaling relations in the design of reactive tracer tests is discussed for cases of finite and continuous tracer input. (Author) (15 refs., 6 figs.)

  7. Simulation of kefiran production of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens JCM6985 in fed-batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamas Cheirsilp

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of kefiran production by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens JCM6985 has been investigated. A mathematical model taking into account the mechanism of exopolysaccharides production has been developed. Experiments were carried out in batch mode in order to obtain kinetic model parameters that were further applied to simulate fed-batch processes. A simplification of parameter fitting was also introduced for complicated model. The fed-batch mode allows more flexibility in the control of the substrate concentration as well as product concentration in the culture medium. Based on the batch mathematical model, a fed-batch model was developed and simulations were done. Simulation study in fed-batch reactor resulted that substrate concentration should be controlled at 20 g L-1 to soften the product inhibition and also to stimulate utilization of substrate and its hydrolysate. From simulation results of different feeding techniques, it was found that constant feeding at 0.01 L h-1 was most practically effective feeding profile for exopolysaccharides production in fed-batch mode.

  8. Establishing column batch repeatability according to Quality by Design (QbD) principles using modeling software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, Norbert; Kormány, Róbert; Fekete, Jenő; Molnár, Imre

    2015-04-10

    Column technology needs further improvement even today. To get information of batch-to-batch repeatability, intelligent modeling software was applied. Twelve columns from the same production process, but from different batches were compared in this work. In this paper, the retention parameters of these columns with real life sample solutes were studied. The following parameters were selected for measurements: gradient time, temperature and pH. Based on calculated results, batch-to-batch repeatability of BEH columns was evaluated. Two parallel measurements on two columns from the same batch were performed to obtain information about the quality of packing. Calculating the average of individual working points at the highest critical resolution (R(s,crit)) it was found that the robustness, calculated with a newly released robustness module, had a success rate >98% among the predicted 3(6) = 729 experiments for all 12 columns. With the help of retention modeling all substances could be separated independently from the batch and/or packing, using the same conditions, having high robustness of the experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Tc-99 Adsorption on Selected Activated Carbons - Batch Testing Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently developing a 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system as the remedial action selected under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Record of Decision for Operable Unit (OU) 200-ZP-1. This report documents the results of treatability tests Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers conducted to quantify the ability of selected activated carbon products (or carbons) to adsorb technetium-99 (Tc-99) from 200-West Area groundwater. The Tc-99 adsorption performance of seven activated carbons (J177601 Calgon Fitrasorb 400, J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, J177612 Norit GAC830, J177613 Norit GAC830, and J177617 Nucon LW1230) were evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36. Four of the best performing carbons (J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, and J177613 Norit GAC830) were selected for batch isotherm testing. The batch isotherm tests on four of the selected carbons indicated that under lower nitrate concentration conditions (382 mg/L), Kd values ranged from 6,000 to 20,000 mL/g. In comparison. Under higher nitrate (750 mg/L) conditions, there was a measureable decrease in Tc-99 adsorption with Kd values ranging from 3,000 to 7,000 mL/g. The adsorption data fit both the Langmuir and the Freundlich equations. Supplemental tests were conducted using the two carbons that demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity to resolve the issue of the best fit isotherm. These tests indicated that Langmuir isotherms provided the best fit for Tc-99 adsorption under low nitrate concentration conditions. At the design basis concentration of Tc 0.865 µg/L(14,700 pCi/L), the predicted Kd values from using Langmuir isotherm constants were 5,980 mL/g and 6,870 mL/g for for the two carbons. These Kd values did not meet the target Kd value of 9,000 mL/g. Tests

  10. SLUDGE BATCH 6/TANK 51 SIMULANT CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, David; Best, David

    2010-04-28

    Qualification simulant testing was completed to determine appropriate processing conditions and assumptions for the Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) Shielded Cells demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet using the qualification sample from Tank 51 for SB6 after SRNL washing. It was found that an acid addition window of 105-139% of the DWPF acid equation (100-133% of the Koopman minimum acid equation) gave acceptable Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) results for nitrite destruction and hydrogen generation. Hydrogen generation occurred continuously after acid addition in three of the four tests. The three runs at 117%, 133%, and 150% stoichiometry (Koopman) were all still producing around 0.1 lb hydrogen/hr at DWPF scale after 42 hours of boiling in the SRAT. The 150% acid run reached 110% of the DWPF SRAT limit of 0.65 lb H{sub 2}/hr, and the 133% acid run reached 75% of the DWPF SME limit of 0.223 lb H{sub 2}/hr. Conversely, nitrous oxide generation was subdued compared to previous sludge batches, staying below 25 lb/hr in all four tests or about a fourth as much as in comparable SB4 testing. Two other processing issues were noted. First, incomplete mercury suspension impacted mercury stripping from the SRAT slurry. This led to higher SRAT product mercury concentrations than targeted (>0.45 wt% in the total solids). Associated with this issue was a general difficulty in quantifying the mass of mercury in the SRAT vessel as a function of time, especially as acid stoichiometry increased. About ten times more mercury was found after drying the 150% acid SME product to powder than was indicated by the SME product sample results. Significantly more mercury was also found in the 133% acid SME product samples than was found during the SRAT cycle sampling. It appears that mercury is segregating from the bulk slurry in the SRAT vessel, as mercury amalgam deposits for example, and is not being resuspended by the agitators. The second processing issue

  11. Specialized hybrid batch fabrication process for MEMS RF voltage sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmer, Jan; Judaschke, Rolf; Büttgenbach, Stephanus

    2007-12-01

    RF voltage measurement based on electrostatic RMS voltage-to-force conversion is an alternative method in comparison to the classical thermal power dissipation method. It is based on a parallel-plate capacitor with one elastically hinged plate. By applying an AC voltage, a force proportional to its RMS value is generated between the plates, and consequently the movable plate swings to the equilibrium position between spring force and electrostatic force. For a theoretically adequate resolution and precision, the necessary geometrical dimensions of the sensor practically require the use of advanced micromachining techniques. In this contribution, we discuss a unique batch fabrication process to meet the challenge of having two very large plane-parallel surfaces separated by only a few microns. The basic design consists of an actuator made of silicon embedded between two glass wafers for electrical contacting and sealing. Each step of this hybrid process has been optimized to prevent residual liquids leading to stiction and breaking of the fragile parts of the micro-structures. Flat grooves in the silicon define the gap between the capacitor electrodes, and an anisotropic dry-etch step releases the actuator. A second glass wafer builds the top of the stack and is fixated using a patterned photo-resist. Bumpers on the bottom layer and ridges in the top wafer improve the robustness of the structure. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the production process, pointing out critical as well as alternative design steps towards the optimized sensor. Finally, results of working devices are shown.

  12. Neural Network Control for a Batch Distillation Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraid Fadhil Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The  present  work  deals  with  studying  the  dynamic  behavior  of  a  batch  distillation  column  and implemented  two  types  of  control  strategies  for  the  separation  different  types  of  binary  systems.  The model  was  derived  and  then  simulated  using  "MATLAB"  program.  The  experimental  data  of  dynamic behavior  were  to  tune  the  parameters  of  PID  controller  and  developed  the  training  of  neural  networks controller by using supervised  learning algorithms. The simulation results show a qualitatively acceptable behavior.  This  study  shows  also  that  the  response  of  PID  controller  was  oscillatory  behavior  with  high offset value while neural network controller gave less offset value and less  time to reach the steady state. In general, a good improvement is achieved when the  neural network controller  is used compared with PID control.

  13. Ion-conducting membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masel, Richard I.; Sajjad, Syed Dawar; Gao, Yan; Liu, Zengcai; Chen, Qingmei

    2017-12-26

    An anion-conducting polymeric membrane comprises a terpolymer of styrene, vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s and vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x. R.sub.s is a positively charged cyclic amine group. R.sub.x is at least one constituent selected from the group consisting Cl, OH and a reaction product between an OH or Cl and a species other than a simple amine or a cyclic amine. The total weight of the vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x groups is greater than 0.3% of the total weight of the membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.

  14. Gas separation with membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, G.; Michele, H.; Werner, U.

    1982-01-01

    Gas separation with membranes has already been tested in numerous fields of application, e.g. uranium enrichment of H 2 separation. In many of these processes the mass transfer units, so-called permeators, have to be connected in tandem in order to achieve high concentrations. A most economical operating method provides for each case an optimization of the cascades with regard to the membrane materials, construction and design of module. By utilization of the concentration gradient along the membrane a new process development has been accomplished - the continuously operating membrane rectification unit. Investment and operating costs can be reduced considerably for a number of separating processes by combining a membrane rectification unit with a conventional recycling cascade. However, the new procedure requires that the specifications for the module construction, flow design, and membrane properties be reconsidered. (orig.) [de

  15. Chelating polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2015-01-22

    The present application offers a solution to the current problems associated with recovery and recycling of precious metals from scrap material, discard articles, and other items comprising one or more precious metals. The solution is premised on a microporous chelating polymeric membrane. Embodiments include, but are not limited to, microporous chelating polymeric membranes, device comprising the membranes, and methods of using and making the same.

  16. Polyarylether composition and membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Joyce; Brunelle, Daniel Joseph; Harmon, Marianne Elisabeth; Moore, David Roger; Stone, Joshua James; Zhou, Hongyi; Suriano, Joseph Anthony

    2010-11-09

    A composition including a polyarylether copolymer is provided. The copolymer includes a polyarylether backbone; and a sulfonated oligomeric group bonded to the polyarylether suitable for use as a cation conducting membrane. Method of bonding a sulfonated oligomeric group to the polyarylether backbone to form a polyarylether copolymer. The membrane may be formed from the polyarylether copolymer composition. The chain length of the sulfonated oligomeric group may be controlled to affect or control the ion conductivity of the membrane.

  17. Integrating Preventive Maintenance Scheduling As Probability Machine Failure And Batch Production Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Zahedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses integrated model of batch production scheduling and machine maintenance scheduling. Batch production scheduling uses minimize total actual flow time criteria and machine maintenance scheduling uses the probability of machine failure based on Weibull distribution. The model assumed no nonconforming parts in a planning horizon. The model shows an increase in the number of the batch (length of production run up to a certain limit will minimize the total actual flow time. Meanwhile, an increase in the length of production run will implicate an increase in the number of PM. An example was given to show how the model and algorithm work.

  18. Photoresponsive nanostructured membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Madhavan, Poornima

    2016-07-26

    The perspective of adding stimuli-response to isoporous membranes stimulates the development of separation devices with pores, which would open or close under control of environment chemical composition, temperature or exposure to light. Changes in pH and temperature have been previously investigated. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the preparation of photoresponsive isoporous membranes, applying self-assembly non-solvent induced phase separation to a new light responsive block copolymer. First, we optimized the membrane formation by using poly(styrene-b-anthracene methyl methacrylate-b-methylmethacrylate) (PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA) copolymer, identifying the most suitable solvent, copolymer block length, and other parameters. The obtained final triblock copolymer membrane morphologies were characterized using atomic force and electron microscopy. The microscopic analysis reveals that the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer can form both lamellar and ordered hexagonal nanoporous structures on the membrane top layer in appropriate solvent compositions. The nanostructured membrane emits fluorescence due to the presence of the anthracene mid-block. On irradiation of light the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer membranes has an additional stimuli response. The anthracene group undergoes conformational changes by forming [4 + 4] cycloadducts and this alters the membrane\\'s water flux and solute retention. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Gas separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, William J.

    1979-01-01

    A dry, fabric supported, polymeric gas separation membrane, such as cellulose acetate, is prepared by casting a solution of the polymer onto a shrinkable fabric preferably formed of synthetic polymers such as polyester or polyamide filaments before washing, stretching or calendering (so called griege goods). The supported membrane is then subjected to gelling, annealing, and drying by solvent exchange. During the processing steps, both the fabric support and the membrane shrink a preselected, controlled amount which prevents curling, wrinkling or cracking of the membrane in flat form or when spirally wound into a gas separation element.

  20. Real-time synchronization of batch trajectories for on-line multivariate statistical process control using Dynamic Time Warping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzáles-Martínez, J.M.; Ferrer, A.; Westerhuis, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the real-time monitoring of batch processes with multiple different local time trajectories of variables measured during the process run. For Unfold Principal Component Analysis (U-PCA)—or Unfold Partial Least Squares (U-PLS)-based on-line monitoring of batch processes, batch

  1. Dynamic Membrane Formation in Anaerobic Dynamic Membrane Bioreactors: Role of Extracellular Polymeric Substances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Yu

    Full Text Available Dynamic membrane (DM formation in dynamic membrane bioreactors plays an important role in achieving efficient solid-liquid separation. In order to study the contribution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS to DM formation in anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR processes, EPS extraction from and re-addition to bulk sludge were carried out in short-term filtration tests. DM formation behaviors could be well simulated by cake filtration model, and sludge with EPS re-addition showed the highest resistance coefficient, followed by sludge after EPS extraction. The DM layers exhibited a higher resistance and a lower porosity for the sludge sample after EPS extraction and for the sludge with EPS re-addition. Particle size of sludge flocs decreased after EPS extraction, and changed little with EPS re-addition, which was confirmed by interaction energy analysis. Further investigations by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM analysis and batch tests suggested that the removal of in-situ EPS stimulated release of soluble EPS, and re-added EPS were present as soluble EPS rather than bound EPS, which thus improved the formation of DM. The present work revealed the role of EPS in anaerobic DM formation, and could facilitate the operation of AnDMBR processes.

  2. Biomolecular Transport through Hemofiltration Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Subhra; Fissell, William H.; Roy, Shuvo

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical model for filtration of large solutes through a pore in the presence of transmembrane pressures, applied/induced electric fields, and dissimilar interactions at the pore entrance and exit is developed to characterize and predict the experimental performance of a hemofiltration membrane with nanometer scale pores designed for a proposed implantable Renal Assist Device (RAD). The model reveals that the sieving characteristics of the membrane can be improved by applying an external electric field, and ensuring a smaller ratio of the pore-feed and pore-permeate equilibrium partitioning coefficients when diffusion is present. The model is then customized to study the sieving characteristics for both charged and uncharged solutes in the slit-shaped nanopores of the hemofiltration device for the RAD. The effect of streaming potential or induced fields are found to be negligible under representative operating conditions. Experimental data on the sieving coefficient of bovine serum albumin, carbonic anhydrase and thyroglobulin are reported and compared with the theoretical predictions. Both steric and electrostatic partitioning are considered and the comparison suggests that in general electrostatic effects are present in the filtration of proteins though some data, particularly those recorded in a strongly hypertonic solution (10×PBS), show better agreement with the steric partitioning theory. PMID:19184436

  3. Conjugated Polymers Via Direct Arylation Polymerization in Continuous Flow: Minimizing the Cost and Batch-to-Batch Variations for High-Throughput Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobalasingham, Nemal S.; Carlé, Jon Eggert; Krebs, Frederik C

    2017-01-01

    of high-performance materials. To demonstrate the usefulness of the method, DArP-prepared PPDTBT via continuous flow synthesis is employed for the preparation of indium tin oxide (ITO)-free and flexible roll-coated solar cells to achieve a power conversion efficiency of 3.5% for 1 cm2 devices, which...... is comparable to the performance of PPDTBT polymerized through Stille cross coupling. These efforts demonstrate the distinct advantages of the continuous flow protocol with DArP avoiding use of toxic tin chemicals, reducing the associated costs of polymer upscaling, and minimizing batch-to-batch variations...

  4. Lactose hydrolysis in an enzymatic membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertens, B.; Huyghebaert, A.

    1987-10-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose in whey permeate with subsequent recuperation of Saccharomyces lactis lactase by means of ultrafiltration was investigated. In whey permeate, S. lactis lactase shows maximal activity at pH 6.5; the optimal temperature was found to be 45/sup 0/C and is limited by strong thermal inactivation beyond this temperature. High activity combined with acceptable thermal inactivation (< 10% after 5 h incubation) was established at 30/sup 0/C. S. lactis lactase also displays considerable activity at low temperature (5/sup 0/C). Enzyme stability is reduced drastically by demineralisation: addition of low concentrations of manganese ions (10/sup -3/ M) considerably enhances stability. Using a DDS Lab-Unit 35 fitted with GR61PP polysulphon membranes (cut-off: 20.000), pilot scale experiments were carried out (pH 6.5; 30/sup 0/C) in which whey permeate was hydrolyzed to a degree of hydrolysis of 82% minimum. Enzyme recuperation amounted to 96.5% per batch, all enzyme activity loss being due to thermal inactivation. Microbiological examination of the enzymatic membrane reactor showed that growth of mcicroorganisms can largely be suppressed by working at lower temperature (5/sup 0/C). Eventually, 50 ppm H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ or sterile filtration will adequately solve microbiological problems without affecting enzyme activity.

  5. Membrane applications in the food industry: Survey and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeper, S.A.; Mohr, C.M.; Engelgau, D.E.; Charboneau, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), with the support and assistance of the US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Programs (DOE-OIP), conducted a comprehensive assessment of membrane applications in the food industry. In the course of preparing the assessment, over 70 existing, developing, and potential membrane technology applications in the food industry were identified. In addition, barriers to expanded use of membrane technology in the food industry were identified for the purpose of defining future DOE-OIP research directions. In this paper, commercial, developing, and conceptual membrane applications in the food industry are briefly summarized and barriers to expanded use of membrane technology in the food industry are identified and discussed. 2 refs., 9 tabs.

  6. SLUDGE BATCH 5 VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 418

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-09-29

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) in early FY 2009. In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 418 as a transitional frit to initiate processing of SB5. This recommendation was based on the results of assessments on the compositional projections for SB5 available at that time from both the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) and SRNL (using a model-based approach). To support qualification of the Frit 418-SB5 system, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the acceptability of the Frit 418-SB5 glasses with respect to durability and the applicability of the current durability models. Twenty one glasses were selected for the variability study based on the available SB5 projections primarily spanning a waste loading (WL) range of 25-37%. In order to account for the addition of caustic to Tank 40, which occurred in July 2008, 3 wt% Na2O was added to the original Tank 40 heel projections. The addition of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) stream to the blend composition was also included. Two of the glasses were fabricated at 25% and 28% WL in order to challenge the homogeneity constraint of the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) for SB5 coupled operations. These twenty one glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The results of this study indicate that Frit 418 is a viable option for sludge-only and coupled operations. The addition of ARP did not have any negative impacts on the acceptability and predictability of the variability study glasses. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable as compared to the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass regardless of the thermal history and were also predictable using the current PCCS model for durability. The homogeneity constraint can

  7. Tank 40 Final Sludge Batch 8 Chemical Characterization Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, Christopher J.

    2013-09-19

    A sample of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The SB8 WAPS sample was also analyzed for chemical composition, including noble metals, and fissile constituents, and these results are reported here. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) as SB8. At SRNL, the 3-L Tank 40 SB8 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene bottle and solids were allowed to settle. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 553 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent slurry sample preparations. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon(r) vessels and four with NaOH/Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Two Analytical Reference Glass - 1 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA) for As and Se, and cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AA) for Hg. Equivalent dilutions of the alkali fusion digestions and blank were submitted to AD for ICP-AES analysis. Tank 40 SB8 supernate was collected from a mixed slurry sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells and submitted to AD for ICP-AES, ion chromatography (IC), total base/free OH-/other base, total inorganic carbon/total organic

  8. Batch Cooling Crystallization of Potassium Sulphate from Water Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalšan, M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Batch cooling crystallization, at the rotation speed of 700 min–1, of an aqueous solution of a potassium sulphate has been investigated on a laboratory scale. The effect of hydrodynamics conditions on the crystallization process were investigated by using different type of impellers. Two types of impellers were investigated; the four-pitched blade impeller which generates axi-al flow and the six-blades Rusthon turbine which generates radial flow. The experiments were performed at four different linear cooling rates in the range from 8-20 °C h–1 for both types of impeller.The influence of the cooling rates on the metastable zone width, the crystallization kinetics and the granulometric properties of the obtained crystals were investigated. The experimental data show that higher cooling rate expands the metastable zone for all the types of impeller (Fig. 2 and influences the crystal size distribution (Fig. 7 and Fig. 8.At low cooling rates, supersaturation was kept at a constant value for a longer period. It resulted in improved conditions for mass transfer and the crystals grew. Bigger crystals were obtained at lower cooling rates (Fig. 7.It is stated that radial flow (Rusthon turbine is particularly inappropriate for the nucleation process, and for crystallization. Nucleation started at a lower temperature and higher supersaturation (Fig. 3. These conditions resulted in a high nucleation’s rate and large number of nucleation centres.Also, the obtained crystals settled on the wall of the reactor, baffles and stirrer. A great part of the obtained crystals was agglomerated. The nucleation order, n and coefficient of nucleation, kn were determined for different cooling rates (Fig. 5a. The nucleation order is higher at radial flow (nucleation started at higher supersaturation. The relation between the rate of concentration drop in a solution and supersaturation has beenapproximated with a power low equation (Fig. 5b. For the used impellers

  9. Effect of Ethanol Blends and Batching Operations on SCC of Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    This is the draft final report of the project on blending and batching (WP#325) of the Consolidated Program on Development of Guidelines for Safe and Reliable Pipeline Transportation of Ethanol Blends. The other two aspects of the consolidated progra...

  10. Optimization of energy and water use in multipurpose batch plants using an improved mathematical formulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seid, ER

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Presented in this contribution is a formulation that addresses optimization of both water and energy, while simultaneously optimizing the batch process schedule. The scheduling framework used in this study is based on the recent and efficient...

  11. A discrete time formulation for batch processes with storage capacity and storage time limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, O.A.; van Donk, D.P.; Wijngaard, J.

    This paper extends the conventional discrete time mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulation for scheduling multiproduct/multipurpose batch processes by introducing storage capacity and storage time limitations. For this purpose, storage vessels are explicitly modeled on which material

  12. Designing an Autonomous Integrated Downstream Sequence From a Batch Separation Process - An Industrial Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Anton; Andersson, Niklas; Sellberg, Anton; Nilsson, Bernt; Löfgren, Magnus; Wood, Susanne

    2017-12-16

    This work is a proof of concept of how a sequence of industrial batch separation steps together are used to form an integrated autonomous downstream process. The sequence in this case study consisted of an anion chromatography step, virus inactivation and finally a hydrophobic chromatography step. Moving from batch to integrated separation minimizes hold-up times, storage tanks, and required equipment. The conversion from batch to integrated mode is achieved by extracting operating points and separation data from batch chromatograms. The integrated separation process is realized on an ÄKTA Pure controlled by an open research software called Orbit, making it possible to operate complex process configurations including multiple steps. The results from this case study is the principle and method of the steps taken to automation, achieving a more continuous and efficient downstream process. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Data Driven Modeling for Monitoring and Control of Industrial Fed-Batch Cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonné, Dennis; Alvarez, María Antonieta; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2014-01-01

    A systematic methodology for development of a set of discrete-time sequence models for batch control based on historical and online operating data is presented and investigated experimentally. The modeling is based on the two independent characteristic time dimensions of batch processing, being...... convergence of iterative learning control is combined with the closed-loop performance of model predictive control to form an optimal controller aiming to ensure reliable and reproducible operation of the batch process. This learning model predictive controller may also be used for optimizing control through...... optimization of the bioreactor operations model. The modeling and preliminary control performance is demonstrated on an industrial fed-batch protein cultivation production process. The presented methods lend themselves directly for application as Process Analytical Technologies....

  14. Model-Based Control of Industrial Batch Crystallizers : Experiments on Enhanced Controllability by Seeding Actuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalbasenka, A.N.

    2009-01-01

    Crystallization is one of the oldest separation and purification techniques. Batch crystallizers are widely used in production of fine chemicals, food ingredients, specialty chemicals, and active pharmaceutical ingredients. Control of the crystalline material properties is a challenging task due to

  15. Observation and mathematical description of the acceleration phenomenon in batch respirograms associated with ammonium oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guisasola, A.; Chandran, K.; Smets, Barth F.

    2006-01-01

    Two-step nitrification models are generally calibrated using short-term respirometric batch experiments. Important discrepancies appear between model predictions and experimental observations just after the pulse addition since a fast transient in the OUR profile is experimentally observed...

  16. Design and synthesis of multipurpose batch plant using a robust scheduling platform

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seid, ER

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interest in multipurpose batch plants is evident, because of their inherent flexibility to cope with an ever changing market environment. These plants are easily reconfigured for product modifications, to cover a wide range...

  17. Sequencing Batch Reactor Biodegradation of Hydrolyzed GB as Sole Carbon Source

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harvey, Steven

    2002-01-01

    ... % in aqueous sodium hydroxide yielding primarily o-isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA). This hydrolysate was diluted and fed as sole carbon source to activated sludge in an aerobic sequencing batch reactor...

  18. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan TA-60 Asphalt Batch Plant Revision 2: January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Stormwater Pollution Prevention Team (PPT) is applicable to operations at the Technical Area (TA)- 60 Asphalt Batch Plant (ABP) located on Eniwetok Drive/Sigma Mesa, in Los Alamos County, New Mexico at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  19. Batched Triangular Dense Linear Algebra Kernels for Very Small Matrix Sizes on GPUs

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali

    2017-03-06

    Batched dense linear algebra kernels are becoming ubiquitous in scientific applications, ranging from tensor contractions in deep learning to data compression in hierarchical low-rank matrix approximation. Within a single API call, these kernels are capable of simultaneously launching up to thousands of similar matrix computations, removing the expensive overhead of multiple API calls while increasing the occupancy of the underlying hardware. A challenge is that for the existing hardware landscape (x86, GPUs, etc.), only a subset of the required batched operations is implemented by the vendors, with limited support for very small problem sizes. We describe the design and performance of a new class of batched triangular dense linear algebra kernels on very small data sizes using single and multiple GPUs. By deploying two-sided recursive formulations, stressing the register usage, maintaining data locality, reducing threads synchronization and fusing successive kernel calls, the new batched kernels outperform existing state-of-the-art implementations.

  20. Novel technique for prediction of time points for scheduling of multipurpose batch plants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seid, R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical technique for prediction of the optimal number of time points in short-term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants. The mathematical formulation is based on state sequence network (SSN) representation...

  1. Evaluation of LexisNexis Batch Solutions in the New York State Cancer Registry

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Eva; Boscoe, Francis P.

    2014-01-01

    Using Lexis Nexis Batch Solutions, the New York State Cancer Registry was able to identify substantial numbers of missing addresses, birth dates, and social security numbers, for persons diagnosed as far back as 1976.

  2. Membrane proteins PmpG and PmpH are major constituents of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Per H; Christiansen, Gunna; Roepstorff, P

    2000-01-01

    The outer membrane complex of Chlamydia is involved in the initial adherence and ingestion of Chlamydia by the host cell. In order to identify novel proteins in the outer membrane of Chlamydia trachomatis L2, proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. By....... By silver staining of the protein profile, a major protein doublet of 100-110 kDa was detected. In-gel tryptic digestion and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry identified these proteins as the putative outer membrane proteins PmpG and PmpH....

  3. Retention of Silica Nanoparticles in a Lab-Scale Membrane Bioreactor: Implications for Process Performance and Membrane Fouling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Larracas Sibag

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In conventional activated sludge (CAS involving aerobic biological processes, the retention of silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs has no detrimental effect on chemical oxygen demand (COD and ammonia nitrogen (NH3–N removal. However, for the membrane bioreactor (MBR system, which is also based on the activated sludge process in addition to the membrane separation process, it has implications not only on the process performance but also on membrane fouling. To investigate these two implications in lab-scale experiments, we continuously operated a control MBR and two experimental MBRs, in which the 28 nm SiO2 NPs and 144 nm SiO2 NPs were added separately to the influent at a final concentration of 100 mg/L. Although the retention of SiO2 NPs in the MBR, as confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS analysis, did not compromise the COD and NH3–N removal, it resulted in substantial increases in the transmembrane pressure (TMP suggesting the onset of membrane fouling. Analyses by batch-dead end filtration revealed the same fouling trend as observed during the continuous MBR experiments; membrane fouling is aggravated in the presence of SiO2 NPs. This was evident from permeate flux decline of between 30% and 74% at very low TMP (5 kPa and the further increases in the total resistance.

  4. Removal of bisphenol A by adsorption mechanism using PES-SiO2 composite membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mimi Suliza; Salim, Mohd Razman; Lau, Woei Jye; Hadibarata, Tony; Yusop, Zulkifli

    2016-08-01

    Polyethersulphone (PES) membranes blended with silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles were prepared via a dry-jet wet spinning technique for the removal of bisphenol A (BPA) by adsorption mechanism. The morphology of SiO2 nanoparticles was analysed using a transmission electron microscopy and particle size distribution was also analysed. The prepared membranes were characterized by several techniques including field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and water contact angle. The adsorption mechanism of membrane towards BPA was evaluated by batch experiments and kinetic model. The influence of natural organic matter (NOM) in feed water on membrane BPA removal was also studied by filtration experiments. Results showed that BPA adsorption capacity as high as 53 µg/g could be achieved by the PES membrane incorporated with 2 wt% SiO2 in which the adsorption mechanism was in accordance with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The intraparticles diffusion model suggested that the rate limiting factor of membrane adsorption mechanism is governed by the diffusion of BPA into the membrane pores. The presence of 10 ppm NOM has reported to negatively reduce BPA removal by 24%, as it tended to compete with BPA for membrane adsorption. This work has demonstrated that PES-SiO2 membrane has the potential to eliminate trace amount of BPA from water source containing NOM.

  5. Enantioseparation with liquid membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gössi, Angelo; Riedl, Wolfgang; Schuur, Boelo

    Chiral resolution of racemic products is a challenging and important task in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, flavor, polymer and fragrances industries. One of the options for these challenging separations is to use liquid membranes. Although liquid membranes have been known for almost four decades

  6. Porous ceramic membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Biesheuvel, Pieter Maarten

    2000-01-01

    Synthetic membranes are increasingly used for energy-efficient separation of liquid and gaseous mixtures in household applications, environmental technology and the chemical and energy industry. Besides, membranes are used in component-specific sensors in gas and liquid streams, preferably combined

  7. Polymide gas separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin; Nelson, Joyce Katz

    2004-09-14

    Soluble polyamic acid salt (PAAS) precursors comprised of tertiary and quaternary amines, ammonium cations, sulfonium cations, or phosphonium cations, are prepared and fabricated into membranes that are subsequently imidized and converted into rigid-rod polyimide articles, such as membranes with desirable gas separation properties. A method of enhancing solubility of PAAS polymers in alcohols is also disclosed.

  8. Membrane module assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschemekat, Jurgen

    1994-01-01

    A membrane module assembly adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation.

  9. Actual waste demonstration of the nitric-glycolic flowsheet for sludge batch 9 qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martino, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Reboul, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Johnson, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-03-09

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performs qualification testing to demonstrate that the sludge batch is processable. Based on the results of this actual-waste qualification and previous simulant studies, SRNL recommends implementation of the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet in DWPF. Other recommendations resulting from this demonstration are reported in section 5.0.

  10. KINETICS OF ULTRASOUND ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF WEDELOLACTONE FROM Eclipta alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W. Charpe

    Full Text Available Abstract Ultrasound assisted extraction of wedelolactone, a major coumestan present in Eclipta alba, is investigated in the present work.Various process parameters such as type of solvent, power, solvent to solid ratio and extraction temperature, which affect the extraction yield, are optimized. In the ultrasound-assisted extraction with final optimized conditions, i.e., methanol as solvent, 170 W power, 60:1 solvent to solid ratio, 50 °C temperature and 60% duty cycle, amaximum extraction yieldof 0.62 mg/g is obtained in 45 minutes. The kinetic model (Peleg's model has been used for the prediction of the yield of wedelolactone in the extract at a given time for all experimental conditions. The values of predicted yields show good agreement with the experimental data for all parameters, i.e., power, solvent to solid ratio and temperature. The extraction of wedelolactone from Eclipta alba is also carried out by conventional extraction methods, i.e., Soxhlet and batch extraction. Ultrasound-assisted extraction gives higher extraction yield in less time as compared to batch extraction (0.41 mg/g in 90 min and Soxhlet extraction(0.7 mg/g in 360 min. The ultrasound-assisted extraction of wedelolactone from Eclipta alba is an effective way of extraction with the advantages of lower time and higher extraction.

  11. Elastic membranes in confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, J B; Miksis, M J; Davis, S H

    2016-07-01

    An elastic membrane stretched between two walls takes a shape defined by its length and the volume of fluid it encloses. Many biological structures, such as cells, mitochondria and coiled DNA, have fine internal structure in which a membrane (or elastic member) is geometrically 'confined' by another object. Here, the two-dimensional shape of an elastic membrane in a 'confining' box is studied by introducing a repulsive confinement pressure that prevents the membrane from intersecting the wall. The stage is set by contrasting confined and unconfined solutions. Continuation methods are then used to compute response diagrams, from which we identify the particular membrane mechanics that generate mitochondria-like shapes. Large confinement pressures yield complex response diagrams with secondary bifurcations and multiple turning points where modal identities may change. Regions in parameter space where such behaviour occurs are then mapped. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Membrane projection lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burckel, David Bruce; Davids, Paul S; Resnick, Paul J; Draper, Bruce L

    2015-03-17

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a three dimensional manufacturing technique for application with semiconductor technologies. A membrane layer can be formed over a cavity. An opening can be formed in the membrane such that the membrane can act as a mask layer to the underlying wall surfaces and bottom surface of the cavity. A beam to facilitate an operation comprising any of implantation, etching or deposition can be directed through the opening onto the underlying surface, with the opening acting as a mask to control the area of the underlying surfaces on which any of implantation occurs, material is removed, and/or material is deposited. The membrane can be removed, a new membrane placed over the cavity and a new opening formed to facilitate another implantation, etching, or deposition operation. By changing the direction of the beam different wall/bottom surfaces can be utilized to form a plurality of structures.

  13. Membrane technology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, F.H.

    1997-01-01

    The main purpose of this dissertation is to prepare and characterize some synthetic membranes obtained by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of and A Am unitary and binary system onto nylon-6 films. The optimum conditions at which the grafting process proceeded homogeneously were determined. Some selected properties of the prepared membranes were studied. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), x-ray diffraction (XRD), mechanical properties and U.V./vis, instruments and techniques were used to characterize the prepared membranes. The use of such membranes for the decontamination of radioactive waste and some heavy metal ions as water pollutants were investigated. These grafted membranes showed good cation exchange properties and may be of practical interest in waste water treatment whether this water was radioactive or not. 4 tabs., 68 figs., 146 refs

  14. Application of different feeding strategies in fed batch culture for pullulanase production using sago starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R, Shankar; M S, Madihah; E M, Shaza; K O, Nur Aswati; A A, Suraini; K, Kamarulzaman

    2014-02-15

    The production of pullulanase by Bacillus flavothermus KWF-1 in batch and fed batch culture were compared using 2L bioreactor. In batch culture, 0.0803 U/mL of pullulanase activity with specific activity of 0.0213 U/mg was produced by controlling the agitation speed and temperature at 200 rpm and 50 °C, respectively. Fed batch production was studied by feeding the culture with different sago starch concentrations in various feeding modes for enhanced pullulanase production. Exponential feeding mode at dilution rate of 0.01/h was the preeminent strategy for enhanced pullulanase production of 0.1710 U/mL with specific activity of 0.066 U/mg. It had shown an increment of pullulanase production and specific activity by 2.1 and 3.1-fold, respectively when compared to batch culture. Increment of pullulanase activity in exponential feeding mode improved hydrolyzation of sago starch into maltotriose and panose by 4.5 and 2.5-fold respectively compared to batch system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis and modelling of the energy consumption of chemical batch plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.S.

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes two different approaches for the energy analysis and modelling of chemical batch plants. A top-down model consisting of a linear equation based on the specific energy consumption per ton of production output and the base consumption of the plant is postulated. The model is shown to be applicable to single and multi-product batches for batch plants with constant production mix and multi-purpose batch plants in which only similar chemicals are produced. For multipurpose batch plants with highly varying production processes and changing production mix, the top-down model produced inaccurate results. A bottom-up model is postulated for such plants. The results obtained are discussed that show that the electricity consumption for infrastructure equipment was significant and responsible for about 50% of total electricity consumption. The specific energy consumption for the different buildings was related to the degree of automation and the production processes. Analyses of the results of modelling are presented. More detailed analyses of the energy consumption of this apparatus group show that about 30 to 40% of steam energy is lost and thus a large potential for optimisation exists. Various potentials for making savings, ranging from elimination of reflux conditions to the development of a new heating/cooling-system for a generic batch reactor, are identified.

  16. Model Integrasi Penjadwalan Produksi Batch dan Penjadwalan Perawatan dengan Kendala Due Date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi .

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the integration model of batch production and preventive maintenance scheduling on a single machine producing an item to be delivered at a common due date. The machine is a deteriorating machine that requires preventive maintenance to ensure the availability of the machine at a desired service level. Decision variables of the model are the number of preventive maintenances, the schedule, length of production runs, as well as the number of batches, batch sizes and the production schedule of the resulting batches for each production run. The objective function of the model is to minimize the total cost consisting of inventory costs during parts processing, setup cost and cost of preventive maintenance. The results show three important points: First, the sequence of optimal batches always follows the SPT (short processing time. Second, variation of preventive maintenance unit cost does not influence the sequence of batches. Third, the first production run length from production starting time is smaller than the next production run length and this pattern continues until the due date. When in process inventory unit cost is increased, the pattern will continue until a specified cost limit, and beyond the limit the pattern will change to be the opposite pattern.

  17. Detection and identification of the atypical bovine pestiviruses in commercial foetal bovine serum batches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Xia

    Full Text Available The recently emerging atypical bovine pestiviruses have been detected in commercial foetal bovine serum (FBS of mainly South American origin so far. It is unclear how widely the viruses are presented in commercial FBS of different geographic origins. To further investigate the possible pestivirus contamination of commercially available FBS batches, 33 batches of FBS were obtained from ten suppliers and analysed in this study for the presence of both the recognised and the atypical bovine pestiviruses. All 33 batches of FBS were positive by real-time RT-PCR assays for at least one species of bovine pestiviruses. According to the certificate of analysis that the suppliers claimed for each batch of FBS, BVDV-1 was detected in all 11 countries and BVDV-2 was detected exclusively in the America Continent. The atypical pestiviruses were detected in 13 batches claimed to originate from five countries. Analysis of partial 5'UTR sequences showed a high similarity among these atypical bovine pestiviruses. This study has demonstrated, for the first time that commercial FBS batches of different geographic origins are contaminated not only with the recognised species BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, but also with the emerging atypical bovine pestiviruses.

  18. Fabrication and Water Treatment Application of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs)-Based Composite Membranes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lining; Dong, Xinfa; Chen, Mingliang; Zhu, Li; Wang, Chaoxian; Yang, Fenglin; Dong, Yingchao

    2017-03-18

    Membrane separation technology is widely explored for various applications, such as water desalination and wastewater treatment, which can alleviate the global issue of fresh water scarcity. Specifically, carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-based composite membranes are increasingly of interest due to the combined merits of CNTs and membrane separation, offering enhanced membrane properties. This article first briefly discusses fabrication and growth mechanisms, characterization and functionalization techniques of CNTs, and then reviews the fabrication methods for CNTs-based composite membranes in detail. The applications of CNTs-based composite membranes in water treatment are comprehensively reviewed, including seawater or brine desalination, oil-water separation, removal of heavy metal ions and emerging pollutants as well as membrane separation coupled with assistant techniques. Furthermore, the future direction and perspective for CNTs-based composite membranes are also briefly outlined.

  19. Fabrication and Water Treatment Application of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs-Based Composite Membranes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lining Ma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Membrane separation technology is widely explored for various applications, such as water desalination and wastewater treatment, which can alleviate the global issue of fresh water scarcity. Specifically, carbon nanotubes (CNTs-based composite membranes are increasingly of interest due to the combined merits of CNTs and membrane separation, offering enhanced membrane properties. This article first briefly discusses fabrication and growth mechanisms, characterization and functionalization techniques of CNTs, and then reviews the fabrication methods for CNTs-based composite membranes in detail. The applications of CNTs-based composite membranes in water treatment are comprehensively reviewed, including seawater or brine desalination, oil-water separation, removal of heavy metal ions and emerging pollutants as well as membrane separation coupled with assistant techniques. Furthermore, the future direction and perspective for CNTs-based composite membranes are also briefly outlined.

  20. Optimisation of the membrane-assisted passive sampler and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-07-20

    Jul 20, 2010 ... sive sampler was found to be superior in its selectivity towards the target compounds compared to solid phase extraction technique with C18 ..... 2.18, 2.39 and 2.96, respectively, the temperature dependence of the sampling rate RS can then be described by the Arrhenius- type equation: In RS = In A –. ∆Ea.

  1. Optimisation of the membrane-assisted passive sampler and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In both cases, extraction efficiency was highest for 2,4-dichlorophenol. The low extraction efficiency in the passive sampler supports the idea that it is not an exhaustive extraction technique and does not disturb the chemical equilibrium of the sample. It therefore measures the bioavailable fraction of the compound and can ...

  2. Properties, degradation and high temperature fuel cell test of different types of PBI and PBI blend membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Rudbeck, Hans Christian; Chromik, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Polybenzimidazoles (PBIs) with synthetically modified structures and their blends with a partially fluorinated sulfonated aromatic polyether have been prepared and characterized for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Significant improvement in the polymer chemical stability...... to further improve the polymer stability and assist maintaining the membrane integrity. Upon acid doping the membrane swelling was reduced for the modified PBI and their blend membranes, which, in turn, results in enhancement of the mechanical strength, proton conductivity and high temperature fuel cell...

  3. Kinetics of sugars consumption and ethanol inhibition in carob pulp fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and fed-batch cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Costa, Maria Emília; Tavares, Catarina; Raposo, Sara; Rodrigues, Brígida; Peinado, José M

    2012-05-01

    The waste materials from the carob processing industry are a potential resource for second-generation bioethanol production. These by-products are small carob kibbles with a high content of soluble sugars (45-50%). Batch and fed-batch Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentations of high density sugar from carob pods were analyzed in terms of the kinetics of sugars consumption and ethanol inhibition. In all the batch runs, 90-95% of the total sugar was consumed and transformed into ethanol with a yield close to the theoretical maximum (0.47-0.50 g/g), and a final ethanol concentration of 100-110 g/l. In fed-batch runs, fresh carob extract was added when glucose had been consumed. This addition and the subsequent decrease of ethanol concentrations by dilution increased the final ethanol production up to 130 g/l. It seems that invertase activity and yeast tolerance to ethanol are the main factors to be controlled in carob fermentations. The efficiency of highly concentrated carob fermentation makes it a very promising process for use in a second-generation ethanol biorefinery.

  4. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart U of... - Group 1 Batch Front-End Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... monitoring data are not collected. Boiler or process heater with a design heat input capacity less than 44... and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements 6 Table 6 to... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. U, Table 6 Table...

  5. Batch and fed-batch bioreactor studies for the enhanced production of glutaminase-free L-asparaginase from Pectobacterium carotovorum MTCC 1428.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Prabhu, Ashish A; Dasu, V Venkata; Pakshirajan, Kannan

    2017-01-02

    The effect of dissolved oxygen (DO) level and pH (controlled/uncontrolled) was first studied to enhance the production of novel glutaminase-free L-asparaginase by Pectobacterium carotovorum MTCC 1428 in a batch bioreactor. The optimum level of DO was found to be 20%. The production of L-asparaginase was found to be maximum when pH of the medium was maintained at 8.5 after 12 h of fermentation. Under these conditions, P. carotovorum produced 17.97 U/mL of L-asparaginase corresponding to the productivity of 1497.50 U/L/h. The production of L-asparaginase was studied in fed-batch bioreactor by feeding L-asparagine (essential substrate for production) and/or glucose (carbon source for growth) at the end of the reaction period of 12 h. The initial medium containing both L-asparagine and glucose in the batch mode and L-asparagine in the feeding stream was found to be the best combination for enhanced production of glutaminase-free L-asparaginase. Under this condition, the L-asparaginase production was increased to 38.8 U/mL, which corresponded to a productivity of 1615.8 U/L/h. The production and productivity were increased by 115.8% and 7.9%, respectively, both of which are higher than those obtained in the batch bioreactor experiments.

  6. Study on the impact of transition from 3-batch to 4-batch loading at Loviisa NPP on the long-term decay heat and activity inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, Tuukka [Fortum Power and Heat Ltd., Fortum (Finland)

    2017-09-15

    The fuel economy of Loviisa NPP was improved by implementing a transition from 3-batch to 4-batch loading scheme between 2009 and 2013. Equilibrium cycle length as well as all process parameters were retained unchanged while the increase of fuel enrichment enabled to reduce the annual reload batch size from 102 to 84 assemblies. The fuel cycle transition obviously had an effect on the long-term decay heat and activity inventory. However, due to simultaneous change in several quantities the net effect over the relevant cooling time region is not self-evident. In this study the effect is analyzed properly, i. e. applying consistent calculation models and detailed description of assembly-wise irradiation histories. The study concludes that for the cooling time, foreseen typical prior to encapsulation of assemblies, the decay heat of discharge batch increases 2 - 3%. It is also concluded that, in order to maintain 100% filling degree of final disposal canisters, the cooling time prior to encapsulation needs to be prolonged by 10 - 15 years.

  7. NORD's Patient Assistance Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ctx@rarediseases.org Fax: 1-203-517-0978 Cushing’s Disease | Accepting Applications Medical Assistance Co-Pay Assistance Premium Assistance Medication Assistance Contact: 1-855-864-4018 Email: cushings@rarediseases.org Fax: 1-203-517-0978 Cutaneuos ...

  8. The extraction of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid using a liquid surfactant membrane system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickens, N.; Davies, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid membrane extraction process is examined for the extraction of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid. Uranium is present in the acid in concentrations up to 100 ppm which in principle makes it ideal for treatment with a membrane process. The membrane system studied is based on extraction using DEHPA-TOPO reagents which are contained within the organic phase of a water in oil emulsion. Formulations of the emulsion membrane system have been studied, the limitations of acid temperature, P 2 O 5 concentration and solid dispersed impurities in the acid have been studied in laboratory batch experiments and in a continuous pilot plant unit capable of treating 5l of concentrated acid per minute. Data from the pilot plant work has been used to develop a flowsheet for a commercial unit based on this process. (author)

  9. Multiple dynamic Al-based floc layers on ultrafiltration membrane surfaces for humic acid and reservoir water fouling reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Baiwen; Li, Wenjiang; Liu, Ruiping; Liu, Gang; Sun, Jingqiu; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; van der Meer, Walter

    2018-04-05

    The integration of adsorbents with ultrafiltration (UF) membranes is a promising method for alleviating membrane fouling and reducing land use. However, adsorbents typically are only injected into the membrane tank once, resulting in a single dynamic protection layer and low removal efficiency over long-term operation. In addition, the granular adsorbents used can cause membrane surface damage. To overcome these disadvantages, we injected inexpensive and loose aluminum (Al)-based flocs directly into a membrane tank with bottom aeration in the presence of humic acid (HA) or raw water taken from the Miyun Reservoir (Beijing, China). Results showed that the flocs were well suspended in the membrane tank, and multiple dynamic floc protection layers were formed (sandwich-like) on the membrane surface with multiple batch injections. Higher frequency floc injections resulted in better floc utilization efficiency and less severe membrane fouling. With continuous injection, acid solutions demonstrated better performance in removing HA molecules, especially those with small molecular weight, and in alleviating membrane fouling compared with the use of high aeration rate or polyacrylamide injection. This was attributed to the small particle size, large specific surface area, and high zeta potential of the flocs. Additionally, excellent UF membrane performance was exhibited by reservoir water with continuous injection and acid solution. Based on the outstanding UF membrane performance, this innovative integrated filtration with loose Al-based flocs has great application potential for water treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An Empirical State Error Covariance Matrix for Batch State Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbee, Joseph H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    state estimate, regardless as to the source of the uncertainty. Also, in its most straight forward form, the technique only requires supplemental calculations to be added to existing batch algorithms. The generation of this direct, empirical form of the state error covariance matrix is independent of the dimensionality of the observations. Mixed degrees of freedom for an observation set are allowed. As is the case with any simple, empirical sample variance problems, the presented approach offers an opportunity (at least in the case of weighted least squares) to investigate confidence interval estimates for the error covariance matrix elements. The diagonal or variance terms of the error covariance matrix have a particularly simple form to associate with either a multiple degree of freedom chi-square distribution (more approximate) or with a gamma distribution (less approximate). The off diagonal or covariance terms of the matrix are less clear in their statistical behavior. However, the off diagonal covariance matrix elements still lend themselves to standard confidence interval error analysis. The distributional forms associated with the off diagonal terms are more varied and, perhaps, more approximate than those associated with the diagonal terms. Using a simple weighted least squares sample problem, results obtained through use of the proposed technique are presented. The example consists of a simple, two observer, triangulation problem with range only measurements. Variations of this problem reflect an ideal case (perfect knowledge of the range errors) and a mismodeled case (incorrect knowledge of the range errors).

  11. Ion Permeability of Artificial Membranes Evaluated by Diffusion Potential and Electrical Resistance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlyonsky, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    In the present article, a novel model of artificial membranes that provides efficient assistance in teaching the origins of diffusion potentials is proposed. These membranes are made of polycarbonate filters fixed to 12-mm plastic rings and then saturated with a mixture of creosol and "n"-decane. The electrical resistance and potential…

  12. [Application of DOSC combined with SBC in batches transfer of NIR quantitative model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yi-Fei; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Xu, Bing; Wang, An-Dong; Zhan, Xue-Yan

    2017-06-01

    Near infrared model established under a certain condition can be applied to the new samples status, environmental conditions or instrument status through the model transfer. Spectral background correction and model update are two types of data process methods of NIR quantitative model transfer, and orthogonal signal regression (OSR) is a method based on spectra background correction, in which virtual standard spectra is used to fit a linear relation between master batches spectra and slave batches spectra, and map the slave batches spectra to the master batch spectra to realize the transfer of near infrared quantitative model. However, the above data processing method requires the represent activeness of the virtual standard spectra, otherwise the big error will occur in the process of regression. Therefore, direct orthogonal signal correction-slope and bias correction (DOSC-SBC) method was proposed in this paper to solve the problem of PLS model's failure to predict accurately the content of target components in the formula of different batches, analyze the difference between the spectra background of the samples from different sources and the prediction error of PLS models. DOSC method was used to eliminate the difference of spectral background unrelated to target value, and after being combined with SBC method, the system errors between the different batches of samples were corrected to make the NIR quantitative model transferred between different batches. After DOSC-SBC method was used in the preparation process of water extraction and ethanol precipitation of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos in this paper, the prediction error of new batches of samples was decreased to 7.30% from 32.3% and to 4.34% from 237%, with significantly improved prediction accuracy, so that the target component in the new batch samples can be quickly quantified. DOSC-SBC model transfer method has realized the transfer of NIR quantitative model between different batches, and this method does

  13. Electrochemically Assisted Photocatalytic Degradation of Oxalic Acid on Particulate TiO2 Film in a Batch Mode Plate Photoreactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krýsa, J.; Jirkovský, Jaromír

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 32, - (2002), s. 591-596 ISSN 0021-891X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/99/0763 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : degradation * electrochemical * photocatalytic Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.117, year: 2002

  14. Biomineralization of azo dye bearing wastewater in periodic discontinuous batch reactor: Effect of microaerophilic conditions on treatment efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh Kumar, A; Nagendranatha Reddy, C; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-01-01

    The present study illustrates the influence of microaerophilic condition on periodic discontinuous batch reactor (PDBR) operation in treating azo dye containing wastewater. The process performance was evaluated with the function of various dye load operations (50-750 mg/l) by keeping the organic load (1.6 kg COD/m(3)-day) constant. Initially, lower dye operation (50mg dye/l) resulted in higher dye [45 mg dye/l (90%)] and COD [SDR: 1.29 kg COD/m(3)-day (92%)] removal efficiencies. Higher dye load operation (750 mg dye/l) also showed non-inhibitory performance with respect to dye [600 mg dye/l (80%)] and COD [1.25 kg COD/m(3)-day (80%)] removal efficiencies. Increment in dye load showed increment in azo reductase and dehydrogenase activities (39.6 U; 4.96 μg/ml; 750 mg/l). UV-Vis spectroscopy (200-800 nm), FTIR and (1)H NMR studies revealed the disappearance of azo bond (-NN-). First derivative cyclic voltammogram supported the involvement of various membrane bound redox shuttlers, viz., cytochrome-C, cytochrome-bc1 and flavoproteins (FAD (H)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Protein profiles of hatchery egg shell membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, N C; Liyanage, R; Makkar, S K; Lay, J O

    2016-01-01

    Eggshells which consist largely of calcareous outer shell and shell membranes, constitute a significant part of poultry hatchery waste. The shell membranes (ESM) not only contain proteins that originate from egg whites but also from the developing embryos and different contaminants of microbial and environmental origins. As feed supplements, during post hatch growth, the hatchery egg shell membranes (HESM) have shown potential for imparting resistance of chickens to endotoxin stress and exert positive health effects. Considering that these effects are mediated by the bioactive proteins and peptides present in the membrane, the objective of the study was to identify the protein profiles of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM). Hatchery egg shell membranes were extracted with acidified methanol and a guanidine hydrochloride buffer then subjected to reduction/alkylation, and trypsin digestion. The methanol extract was additionally analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The tryptic digests were analyzed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) to identify the proteins. Our results showed the presence of several proteins that are inherent and abundant in egg white such as, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, ovocleidin-116, and lysozyme, and several proteins associated with cytoskeletal, cell signaling, antimicrobial, and catalytic functions involving carbohydrate, nucleic acid, and protein metabolisms. There were some blood derived proteins most likely originating from the embryos and several other proteins identified with different aerobic, anaerobic, gram positive, gram negative, soil, and marine bacterial species some commensals and others zoonotic. The variety of bioactive proteins, particularly the cell signaling and enzymatic proteins along with the diverse microbial proteins, make the HESM suitable for nutritional and biological application to improve post hatch immunity of poultry.

  16. Comparison of Batch Assay and Random Assay Using Automatic Dispenser in Radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Seung Hwan; Jang, Su Jin; Kang, Ji Yeon; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Young; Shin, Sun Young; Min, Gyeong Sun; Lee, Hyun Joo [Seoul National University college of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was usually performed by the batch assay. To improve the efficiency of RIA without increase of the cost and time, random assay could be a choice. We investigated the possibility of the random assay using automatic dispenser by assessing the agreement between batch assay and random assay. The experiments were performed with four items; Triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (fT4), Prostate specific antigen (PSA), Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). In each item, the sera of twenty patients, the standard, and the control samples were used. The measurements were done 4 times with 3 hour time intervals by random assay and batch assay. The coefficient of variation (CV) of the standard samples and patients' data in T3, fT4, PSA, and CEA were assessed. ICC (Intraclass correlation coefficient) and coefficient of correlation were measured to assessing the agreement between two methods. The CVs (%) of T3, fT4, PSA, and CEA measured by batch assay were 3.2+-1.7%, 3.9+-2.1%, 7.1+-6.2%, 11.2+-7.2%. The CVs by random assay were 2.1+-1.7%, 4.8+-3.1%, 3.6+-4.8%, and 7.4+-6.2%. The ICC between the batch assay and random assay were 0.9968 (T3), 0.9973 (fT4), 0.9996 (PSA), and 0.9901 (CEA). The coefficient of correlation between the batch assay and random assay were 0.9924(T3), 0.9974 (fT4), 0.9994 (PSA), and 0.9989 (CEA) (p<0.05). The results of random assay showed strong agreement with the batch assay in a day. These results suggest that random assay using automatic dispenser could be used in radioimmunoassay

  17. Dose and batch-dependent hepatobiliary toxicity of 10 nm silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella De Maglie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are widely used because of their antimicrobial properties in medical devices and in a variety of consumer products. The extensive use of AgNPs raises concerns about their potential toxicity, although it is still difficult to draw definite conclusions about their toxicity based on published data. Our preliminary studies performed to compare the effect of the AgNPs size (10-40-100 nm on toxicity, demonstrated that the smallest AgNPs determine the most severe toxicological effects. In order to best investigate the impact of physicochemical characteristics of 10 nm AgNPs on toxicity, we compare three different batches of 10 nm AgNPs slightly different in size distribution (Batch A: 8.8±1.7 nm; Batch B: 9.4±1.7 nm; Batch C: 10.0±1.8 nm. Mice were intravenously treated with two doses (5 and 10 mg/kg of the 3 AgNPs. 24 hours after the treatment, mice were euthanized and underwent complete necropsy. Tissues were collected for histopathological examination and total silver content was determined in tissues by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. All batches induced severe hepatobiliary lesions, i.e. marked hepatocellular necrosis and massive hemorrhage of the gall bladder. The toxicity was dose-dependent and interestingly, the toxic effects were more severe in mice treated with batches A and B that contained smaller AgNPs. Since the total silver mass concentration was similar, the observed batch-dependent toxicity suggest that even subtle differences in size may contribute to relevant changes in the toxicological outcomes, confirming the fundamental involvement of physicochemical features with respect to toxicity.

  18. A fast approach to determine a fed batch feeding profile for recombinant Pichia pastoris strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herwig Christoph

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The microorganism Pichia pastoris is a commonly used microbial host for the expression of recombinant proteins in biotechnology and biopharmaceutical industry. To speed up process development, a fast methodology to determine strain characteristic parameters, which are needed to subsequently set up fed batch feeding profiles, is required. Results Here, we show the general applicability of a novel approach to quantify a certain minimal set of bioprocess-relevant parameters, i.e. the adaptation time of the culture to methanol, the specific substrate uptake rate during the adaptation phase and the maximum specific substrate uptake rate, based on fast and easy-to-do batch cultivations with repeated methanol pulses in a batch culture. A detailed analysis of the adaptation of different P. pastoris strains to methanol was conducted and revealed that each strain showed very different characteristics during adaptation, illustrating the need of individual screenings for an optimal parameter definition during this phase. Based on the results obtained in batch cultivations, dynamic feeding profiles based on the specific substrate uptake rate were employed for different P. pastoris strains. In these experiments the maximum specific substrate uptake rate, which had been defined in batch experiments, also represented the upper limit of methanol uptake, underlining the validity of the determined process-relevant parameters and the overall experimental strategy. Conclusion In this study, we show that a fast approach to determine a minimal set of strain characteristic parameters based on easy-to-do batch cultivations with methanol pulses is generally applicable for different P. pastoris strains and that dynamic fed batch strategies can be designed on the specific substrate uptake rate without running the risk of methanol accumulation.

  19. Catalytic Dehydrogenation of Ethane in Hydrogen Membrane Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuszka, Jan; Giddings, Terry; Clelland, Ian

    The effect of a hydrogen permselective membrane (H-membrane) reactor on catalytic dehydrogenation of ethane was assessed using a fixed bed conventional reactor and a double tubular H-membrane reactor. A 5.0wt.% Cr2O3/γ-Al2O3 catalyst prepared by incipient wetness impregnation of a γ-Al2O3 (BET surface area = 50 m2/g) support was used at 555°C and 600°C. Although about 40% of H2 produced during dehydrogenation of ethane in the membrane reactor passed through the membrane, only moderate enhancement in ethane conversion was observed. The slow processes on the catalyst surface are thought to counterbalance the positive effect of membrane assisted hydrogen removal. Also, decreased selectivity to ethylene due to enhanced carbon formation in the membrane reactor led to faster deactivation of the catalyst. A strategy for commercialization of catalytic dehydrogenation of ethane through the development of a better hydrogen membrane might require a reevaluation.

  20. PERSISTENT PUPILLARY MEMBRANE OR ACCESSORY IRIS MEMBRANE?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriş, Monica; Horge, Ioan; Avram, Elena; Belicioiu, Roxana; Olteanu, Ioana Alexandra; Kedves, Hanga

    2015-01-01

    Frequently, in literature and curent practice, accessory iris membrane (AIM) and persistant pupillary membrane (PPM) are confused. Both AIM and PPM are congenital iris anomalies in which fine or thick iris strands arrise form the collarette and obscure the pupil. AIM, which is also called iris duplication, closely resembles the normal iris tissue in color and thickness and presents a virtual second pseudopupil aperture in the centre while PPM even in its extreme forms presents as a translucent or opaque membranous structure that extends across the pupil and has no pseudopupil. Mydriatiscs, laser treatment or surgery is used to clear the visual axis and optimize visual development. Surgical intervention is reserved for large, dense AIMs and PPMs. Our patient, a 29 year old male, has come with bilateral dense AIM, bilateral compound hyperopic astigmatism, BCVA OD = 0.6, BCVA OS = 0.4, IOP OU = 17 mmHg. To improve the visual acuity of the patient we decided to do a bilateral membranectomy, restoring in this way transparency of the visual axis. After surgery, the visual acuity improved to BCVA OD= 0.8, BCVA OS=0.8.