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Sample records for membrane area increases

  1. Increase in average foveal thickness after internal limiting membrane peeling

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    Kumagai K

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Kazuyuki Kumagai,1 Mariko Furukawa,1 Tetsuyuki Suetsugu,1 Nobuchika Ogino2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Kami-iida Daiichi General Hospital, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Nishigaki Eye Clinic, Aichi, Japan Purpose: To report the findings in three cases in which the average foveal thickness was increased after a thin epiretinal membrane (ERM was removed by vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling.Methods: The foveal contour was normal preoperatively in all eyes. All cases underwent successful phacovitrectomy with ILM peeling for a thin ERM. The optical coherence tomography (OCT images were examined before and after the surgery. The changes in the average foveal (1 mm thickness and the foveal areas within 500 µm from the foveal center were measured. The postoperative changes in the inner and outer retinal areas determined from the cross-sectional OCT images were analyzed.Results: The average foveal thickness and the inner and outer foveal areas increased significantly after the surgery in each of the three cases. The percentage increase in the average foveal thickness relative to the baseline thickness was 26% in Case 1, 29% in Case 2, and 31% in Case 3. The percentage increase in the foveal inner retinal area was 71% in Case 1, 113% in Case 2, and 110% in Case 3, and the percentage increase in foveal outer retinal area was 8% in Case 1, 13% in Case 2, and 18% in Case 3.Conclusion: The increase in the average foveal thickness and the inner and outer foveal areas suggests that a centripetal movement of the inner and outer retinal layers toward the foveal center probably occurred due to the ILM peeling. Keywords: internal limiting membrane, optical coherence tomography, average foveal thickness, epiretinal membrane, vitrectomy

  2. Laser Ablation Increases PEM/Catalyst Interfacial Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitacre, Jay; Yalisove, Steve

    2009-01-01

    An investigational method of improving the performance of a fuel cell that contains a polymer-electrolyte membrane (PEM) is based on the concept of roughening the surface of the PEM, prior to deposition of a thin layer of catalyst, in order to increase the PEM/catalyst interfacial area and thereby increase the degree of utilization of the catalyst. The roughening is done by means of laser ablation under carefully controlled conditions. Next, the roughened membrane surface is coated with the thin layer of catalyst (which is typically platinum), then sandwiched between two electrode/catalyst structures to form a membrane/ele c t - rode assembly. The feasibility of the roughening technique was demonstrated in experiments in which proton-conducting membranes made of a perfluorosulfonic acid-based hydrophilic, protonconducting polymer were ablated by use of femtosecond laser pulses. It was found that when proper combinations of the pulse intensity, pulse-repetition rate, and number of repetitions was chosen, the initially flat, smooth membrane surfaces became roughened to such an extent as to be converted to networks of nodules interconnected by filaments (see Figure 1). In further experiments, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was performed on a pristine (smooth) membrane and on two laser-roughened membranes after the membranes were coated with platinum on both sides. Some preliminary EIS data were interpreted as showing that notwithstanding the potential for laser-induced damage, the bulk conductivities of the membranes were not diminished in the roughening process. Other preliminary EIS data (see Figure 2) were interpreted as signifying that the surface areas of the laser-roughened membranes were significantly greater than those of the smooth membrane. Moreover, elemental analyses showed that the sulfur-containing molecular groups necessary for proton conduction remained intact, even near the laser-roughened surfaces. These preliminary results can be taken

  3. Solvent accessible surface area (ASA) of simulated phospholipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuchsen, E.; Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Westh, P.

    2003-01-01

    The membrane-solvent interface has been investigated through calculations of the solvent accessible surface area (ASA) for simulated membranes of DPPC and POPE. For DPPC at 52 degreesC we found an ASA of 126 +/- 8 Angstrom(2) per lipid molecule, equivalent to twice the projected lateral area......, even the most exposed parts of the PC head-group show average ASAs of less than half of its maximal or 'fully hydrated' value. The average ASA of a simulated POPE membrane was 96 +/- 7 Angstrom(2) per lipid. The smaller value than for DPPC reflects much lower ASA of the ammonium ion, which is partially...... compensated by increased exposure of the ethylene and phosphate moieties. The ASA of the polar moieties Of (PO4, NH3 and COO) constitutes 65% of the total accessible area for POPE, making this interface more polar than that of DPPC. It is suggested that ASA information can be valuable in attempts...

  4. Trans-membrane area asymmetry controls the shape of cellular organelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beznoussenko, Galina V; Pilyugin, Sergei S; Geerts, Willie J C; Kozlov, Michael M; Burger, Koert N J; Luini, Alberto; Derganc, Jure; Mironov, Alexander A

    2015-01-01

    Membrane organelles often have complicated shapes and differ in their volume, surface area and membrane curvature. The ratio between the surface area of the cytosolic and luminal leaflets (trans-membrane area asymmetry (TAA)) determines the membrane curvature within different sites of the organelle.

  5. Domains of increased thickness in microvillar membranes of the small intestinal enterocyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunding, Andreas H; Christensen, Sune M; Danielsen, E Michael

    2010-01-01

    The apical surface of the enterocyte is sculpted into a dense array of cylindrical microvillar protrusions by supporting actin filaments. Membrane microdomains (rafts) enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipids comprise roughly 50% of the microvillar membrane and play a vital role in orchestr......The apical surface of the enterocyte is sculpted into a dense array of cylindrical microvillar protrusions by supporting actin filaments. Membrane microdomains (rafts) enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipids comprise roughly 50% of the microvillar membrane and play a vital role...... in orchestrating absorptive/digestive action of dietary nutrients at this important cellular interface. Increased membrane thickness is believed to be a morphological characteristic of rafts. Thus, we investigated whether the high contents of lipid rafts in the microvillar membrane is reflected in local variations...... was clearly monophasic. The encountered domains of increased thickness (DITs) occupied 48% of the microvillar membrane and from the data we estimated the area of a single DIT to have a lower limit of 600 nm(2). In other experiments we mapped the organization of biochemically defined lipid rafts by immunogold...

  6. Impact of membrane lung surface area and blood flow on extracorporeal CO2 removal during severe respiratory acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannidis, Christian; Strassmann, Stephan; Brodie, Daniel; Ritter, Philine; Larsson, Anders; Borchardt, Ralf; Windisch, Wolfram

    2017-12-01

    Veno-venous extracorporeal CO 2 removal (vv-ECCO 2 R) is increasingly being used in the setting of acute respiratory failure. Blood flow rates through the device range from 200 ml/min to more than 1500 ml/min, and the membrane surface areas range from 0.35 to 1.3 m 2 . The present study in an animal model with similar CO 2 production as an adult patient was aimed at determining the optimal membrane lung surface area and technical requirements for successful vv-ECCO 2 R. Four different membrane lungs, with varying lung surface areas of 0.4, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.3m 2 were used to perform vv-ECCO 2 R in seven anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, pigs with experimentally induced severe respiratory acidosis (pH 7.0-7.1) using a 20Fr double-lumen catheter with a sweep gas flow rate of 8 L/min. During each experiment, the blood flow was increased stepwise from 250 to 1000 ml/min. Amelioration of severe respiratory acidosis was only feasible when blood flow rates from 750 to 1000 ml/min were used with a membrane lung surface area of at least 0.8 m 2 . Maximal CO 2 elimination was 150.8 ml/min, with pH increasing from 7.01 to 7.30 (blood flow 1000 ml/min; membrane lung 1.3 m 2 ). The membrane lung with a surface of 0.4 m 2 allowed a maximum CO 2 elimination rate of 71.7 mL/min, which did not result in the normalization of pH, even with a blood flow rate of 1000 ml/min. Also of note, an increase of the surface area above 1.0 m 2 did not result in substantially higher CO 2 elimination rates. The pressure drop across the oxygenator was considerably lower (respiratory acidosis, irrespective of the surface area of the membrane lung being used. The converse was also true, low surface membrane lungs (0.4 m 2 ) were not capable of completely correcting severe respiratory acidosis across the range of blood flows used in this study.

  7. Biochemical and functional correlates of an increased membrane density of caveolae in hypertrophic rat urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakirova, Yulia; Swärd, Karl; Uvelius, Bengt; Ekman, Mari

    2010-12-15

    Organ hypertrophy is often found to be associated with changes in the expression of caveolins and altered density of caveolae in the membrane. A plethora of signalling intermediaries are associated with caveolae and loss of caveolae has profound effects on contractility of the urinary bladder. We hypothesized that smooth muscle hypertrophy caused by bladder outflow obstruction (BOO) might lead to an altered caveola density with consequences for contractile regulation. Rat BOO for 6 weeks caused a 2.56-fold increase in the number of smooth muscle caveolae per μm membrane. No changes in the expression of caveolin-1 or cavin-1, normalized to β-actin were seen, but membrane area per unit muscle volume dropped to 0.346. Hypertrophy was associated with altered contraction in response to carbachol. The effect on contraction of cholesterol desorption, which disrupts lipid rafts and caveolae, was however not changed. Contraction in response to bradykinin resisted mβcd in control destrusor, but was inhibited by it after 6 weeks of obstruction. It is concluded that rat detrusor hypertrophy leads to an increased number of caveolae per unit membrane area. This change is due to a reduction of membrane area per volume muscle and it does not play a role for cholinergic activation, but promotes contraction in response to bradykinin after long-term obstruction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A computer simulation approach to quantify the true area and true area compressibility modulus of biological membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacón, Enrique; Tarazona, Pedro; Bresme, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    We present a new computational approach to quantify the area per lipid and the area compressibility modulus of biological membranes. Our method relies on the analysis of the membrane fluctuations using our recently introduced coupled undulatory (CU) mode [Tarazona et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 094902 (2013)], which provides excellent estimates of the bending modulus of model membranes. Unlike the projected area, widely used in computer simulations of membranes, the CU area is thermodynamically consistent. This new area definition makes it possible to accurately estimate the area of the undulating bilayer, and the area per lipid, by excluding any contributions related to the phospholipid protrusions. We find that the area per phospholipid and the area compressibility modulus features a negligible dependence with system size, making possible their computation using truly small bilayers, involving a few hundred lipids. The area compressibility modulus obtained from the analysis of the CU area fluctuations is fully consistent with the Hooke’s law route. Unlike existing methods, our approach relies on a single simulation, and no a priori knowledge of the bending modulus is required. We illustrate our method by analyzing 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine bilayers using the coarse grained MARTINI force-field. The area per lipid and area compressibility modulus obtained with our method and the MARTINI forcefield are consistent with previous studies of these bilayers

  9. Cell surface area and membrane folding in glioblastoma cell lines differing in PTEN and p53 status.

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    Simon Memmel

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is characterized by rapid growth, invasion and resistance to chemo-/radiotherapy. The complex cell surface morphology with abundant membrane folds, microvilli, filopodia and other membrane extensions is believed to contribute to the highly invasive behavior and therapy resistance of GBM cells. The present study addresses the mechanisms leading to the excessive cell membrane area in five GBM lines differing in mutational status for PTEN and p53. In addition to scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the membrane area and folding were quantified by dielectric measurements of membrane capacitance using the single-cell electrorotation (ROT technique. The osmotic stability and volume regulation of GBM cells were analyzed by video microscopy. The expression of PTEN, p53, mTOR and several other marker proteins involved in cell growth and membrane synthesis were examined by Western blotting. The combined SEM, ROT and osmotic data provided independent lines of evidence for a large variability in membrane area and folding among tested GBM lines. Thus, DK-MG cells (wild type p53 and wild type PTEN exhibited the lowest degree of membrane folding, probed by the area-specific capacitance C m = 1.9 µF/cm(2. In contrast, cell lines carrying mutations in both p53 and PTEN (U373-MG and SNB19 showed the highest C m values of 3.7-4.0 µF/cm(2, which corroborate well with their heavily villated cell surface revealed by SEM. Since PTEN and p53 are well-known inhibitors of mTOR, the increased membrane area/folding in mutant GBM lines may be related to the enhanced protein and lipid synthesis due to a deregulation of the mTOR-dependent downstream signaling pathway. Given that membrane folds and extensions are implicated in tumor cell motility and metastasis, the dielectric approach presented here provides a rapid and simple tool for screening the biophysical cell properties in studies on targeting chemo- or radiotherapeutically the

  10. Improving electromechanical output of IPMC by high surface area Pd-Pt electrodes and tailored ionomer membrane thickness

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    Viljar Palmre

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we attempt to improve the electromechanical performance of ionic polymer–metal composites (IPMCs by developing high surface area Pd-Pt electrodes and tailoring the ionomer membrane thickness. With proper electroless plating techniques, a high dispersion of palladium particles is achieved deep in the ionomer membrane, thereby increasing notably the interfacial surface area of electrodes. The membrane thickness is increased using 0.5 and 1 mm thick ionomer films. For comparison, IPMCs with the same ionomer membranes, but conventional Pt electrodes, are also prepared and studied. The electromechanical, mechanoelectrical, electrochemical and mechanical properties of different IPMCs are characterized and discussed. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDS is used to investigate the distribution of deposited electrode metals in the cross section of Pd-Pt IPMCs. Our experiments demonstrate that IPMCs assembled with millimeter thick ionomer membranes and newly developed Pd-Pt electrodes are superior in mechanoelectrical transduction, and show significantly higher blocking force compared to conventional type of IPMCs. The blocking forces of more than 0.3 N were measured at 4V DC input, exceeding the force output of typical Nafion® 117-based Pt IPMCs more than two orders of magnitude. The newly designed Pd-Pt IPMCs can be useful in more demanding applications, e.g., in biomimetic underwater robotics, where high stress and drag forces are encountered.

  11. Increased membrane cholesterol in lymphocytes diverts T-cells toward an inflammatory response.

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    Jacqueline Surls

    Full Text Available Cell signaling for T-cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis is initiated in the cholesterol-rich microdomains of the plasma membrane known as lipid rafts. Herein, we investigated whether enrichment of membrane cholesterol in lipid rafts affects antigen-specific CD4 T-helper cell functions. Enrichment of membrane cholesterol by 40-50% following squalene administration in mice was paralleled by an increased number of resting CD4 T helper cells in periphery. We also observed sensitization of the Th1 differentiation machinery through co-localization of IL-2Rα, IL-4Rα, and IL-12Rβ2 subunits with GM1 positive lipid rafts, and increased STAT-4 and STAT-5 phosphorylation following membrane cholesterol enrichment. Antigen stimulation or CD3/CD28 polyclonal stimulation of membrane cholesterol-enriched, resting CD4 T-cells followed a path of Th1 differentiation, which was more vigorous in the presence of increased IL-12 secretion by APCs enriched in membrane cholesterol. Enrichment of membrane cholesterol in antigen-specific, autoimmune Th1 cells fostered their organ-specific reactivity, as confirmed in an autoimmune mouse model for diabetes. However, membrane cholesterol enrichment in CD4(+Foxp3(+ T-reg cells did not alter their suppressogenic function. These findings revealed a differential regulatory effect of membrane cholesterol on the function of CD4 T-cell subsets. This first suggests that membrane cholesterol could be a new therapeutic target to modulate the immune functions, and second that increased membrane cholesterol in various physiopathological conditions may bias the immune system toward an inflammatory Th1 type response.

  12. Membrane fluidity increases during apoptosis of sheep ileal Peyer's patch B cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourd'heuil, D.; Aspinall, A.; Reynolds, J.D.; Meddings, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    To investigate specific plasma membrane structural changes associated with apoptosis, whole cells and purified plasma membranes of apoptotic B cells from the ileal Peyer's patch of sheep were analyzed for their 'membrane fluidity'. The ileal Peyer's patch of sheep provided a large number of B cells required for plasma membrane isolation (>5 x 10 9 ). As the incidence of apoptosis increased with time of culture, the fluidity of purified plasma membranes, as measured with the fluorophore DPH (diphenylhexatriene), increased. To evaluate this phenomenon with intact cells, B cells at different apoptotic stages were fractionated on discontinuous Percoll gradients. Similar results were obtained using the fluorophore TMA-DPH (trimethylammoniumdiphenylhexatriene), which has been shown to localize specifically to the plasma membrane. Functionally, the increase in plasma membrane fluidity associated with apoptosis may represent either a mechanism to cycle phosphatidylserine to the outer leaflet, mediating phagocytic recognition of apoptotic cells, or a consequence of this event. (author). 20 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  13. The influence of increased membrane conductance on response properties of spinal motoneurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigonis, Ramunas; Guzulaitis, Robertas; Buisas, Rokas

    2016-01-01

    During functional spinal neural network activity motoneurons receive massive synaptic excitation and inhibition, and their membrane conductance increases considerably – they are switched to a high-conductance state. High-conductance states can substantially alter response properties of motoneurons....... In the present study we investigated how an increase in membrane conductance affects spike frequency adaptation, the gain (i.e., the slope of the frequency-current relationship) and the threshold for action potential generation. We used intracellular recordings from adult turtle motoneurons in spinal cord slices....... Membrane conductance was increased pharmacologically by extracellular application of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol. Our findings suggest that an increase in membrane conductance of about 40–50% increases the magnitude of spike frequency adaptation, but does not change the threshold for action...

  14. Fresh water production from municipal waste water with RO membrane technology and its application for agriculture and industry in arid area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, F

    2015-01-01

    One of the biggest problems of the 21st century is the global water shortage. Therefore it is difficult to increase the quantity of conventional water resources such as surface water and groundwater for agriculture and industry in arid area. Technical advancement in water treatment membrane technology including RO membrane has been remarkable especially in recent years. As the pore size of RO membrane is less than one nanometer, it is possible to produce the fresh water, which satisfies the drinking water quality standards, with utilizing RO membrane. In this report a new fresh water resource from municipal waste water is studied to apply to the plant factory which is the water saving type agriculture and industry in arid area

  15. The exhibition to ozone diminishes the adherence and increases the membrane permeability of macrophages alveolar of rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.

    2000-01-01

    Ozone gas is generated photochemically in areas with high levels of automotive or industrial emissions, and causes irritation and inflammation of the airways if inhaled. Rat alveolar macrophages were obtained by lung lavage from male Sprague Dawley rats and used as a model to assess ozone induced cell damage (0,594 ppm for up to 60 minutes). Ozone exposure caused loss of cell adherence to a polystyrene substrate and increased membrane permeability, as noted by increases in specific 51 Cr release and citoplasmic calcium levels. The results indicate that the cell membrane is a target for ozone damage. Elevations of cytoplasmic calcium could mediate other macrophage responses to ozone , including eicosanoid and nitric oxide production, with concomitant decreases in phagocytic ability and superoxide production. (Author) [es

  16. Evaluation of treated sewage reuse potential and membrane-based water reuse technology for the Bangkok Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Prasertkulsak, Sirilak; Hamjinda, Nutta Sangnarin; Kootatep, Thammarat; Itonaga, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Only 3.4% of total water use in the Bangkok Metropolitan area is reused treated sewage. This study anticipates that further treated-sewage reuse in industrial sectors, commercial buildings and public parks, in addition to present in-plant and street cleaning purposes, would increase total water reuse to about 10%. New water reuse technologies using membrane bioreactor (MBR) and microfiltration (MF) as tertiary treatment were implemented to assess their potential for their application in the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MBR was applied to the treatment of raw sewage in a central treatment plant of the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MF membrane was used for polishing the effluent of the treatment plant. The results show the quality of treated water from MBR and tertiary MF treatment could meet stringent water reuse quality standard in terms of biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids and biological parameters. Constant permeate flux of the membrane was achieved over long-term operation, during which inorganic fouling was observed. This is due to the fact that incoming sewage contains a considerable amount of inorganic constituents contributed from storm water and street inlet in the combined sewerage systems. The total cost of the MBR for sewage treatment and production of reuse water is estimated to be about USD1.10/m3.

  17. Studies on membrane for redox flow battery. 9. Crosslinking of the membrane by the electron radiation and durability of the membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, Haruhiko; Minamihira, Kazunori; Hwang, Gab-Jin; Kawahara, Takashi; Aihara, Masahiko; Negishi, Youichi; Kang, An-Soo.

    1995-01-01

    Chlorosulfonated homogeneous and asymmetric cation exchange membranes were tested as separators for the all-vanadium redox flow battery. The membrane was prepared by chlorosulfonation of the polyethylene film in vapour phase. In the case of the polyethylene film of 20 μm thickness used for the homogeneous membrane, area resistivity of 0.5 Ω · cm 2 in 2M KCl aq. solution was reached at 120 min. chlorosulfonation time. In the case of heat laminated 20 μm thick PE film on a neutral porous polyolefin film of 200 μm thickness used for the asymmetric membrane, a minimum area resistivity of 1 Ω · cm 2 in 2M KCl was achieved at 120 min. chlorosulfonation time. The performance evaluation of the membranes as separators in the all-vanadium redox flow battery was also measured. The area resistivity of the membranes in the measuring-cell using charge-discharge current density 63.7 mA/cm 2 was 1.4 Ω · cm 2 and 2.2 Ω · cm 2 for charge and discharge respectively for the homogeneous membrane, and 3.6 Ω · cm 2 and 4.3 Ω · cm 2 for charge discharge cycles respectively for the asymmetric membrane. The chlorosulfonated homogeneous cation exchange membrane was cross-linked by the electron radiation to improve durability of the membrane. The crosslinked membrane which has the high degree of cross-linking, did not shown the mechanical breakage by swelling or shrinking in the acidic vanadium solution, but its area resistivity in the all-vanadium redox flow battery was increased. (author)

  18. Microfabrication of large-area circular high-stress silicon nitride membranes for optomechanical applications

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    E. Serra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of the integration of membrane resonators with more complex MEMS structures, we developed a general fabrication procedure for circular shape SiNx membranes using Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE. Large area and high-stress SiNx membranes were fabricated and used as optomechanical resonators in a Michelson interferometer, where Q values up to 1.3 × 106 were measured at cryogenic temperatures, and in a Fabry-Pérot cavity, where an optical finesse up to 50000 has been observed.

  19. Investigation of force, contact area, and dwell time in finger-tapping tasks on membrane touch interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Yu, Ruifeng

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the touch characteristics during tapping tasks on membrane touch interface and investigate the effects of posture and gender on touch characteristics variables. One hundred participants tapped digits displayed on a membrane touch interface on sitting and standing positions using all fingers of the dominant hand. Touch characteristics measures included average force, contact area, and dwell time. Across fingers and postures, males exerted larger force and contact area than females, but similar dwell time. Across genders and postures, thumb exerted the largest force and the force of the other four fingers showed no significant difference. The contact area of the thumb was the largest, whereas that of the little finger was the smallest; the dwell time of the thumb was the longest, whereas that of the middle finger was the shortest. Relationships among finger sizes, gender, posture and touch characteristics were proposed. The findings helped direct membrane touch interface design for digital and numerical control products from hardware and software perspectives. Practitioner Summary: This study measured force, contact area, and dwell time in tapping tasks on membrane touch interface and examined effects of gender and posture on force, contact area, and dwell time. The findings will direct membrane touch interface design for digital and numerical control products from hardware and software perspectives.

  20. Effective Parameters on Increasing Filamentous Bacteria and Their Effects on Membrane Fouling in MBR

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    Hossein Hazrati

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Over 90 percent of the wastewater treatment plants in Iran use activated sludge process. Due to increase in organic loading rates, most of these plants do not have appropriate performance. For upgrading these systems and decreasing production of the excess sludge, a UASB reactor can be used as pretreatment for decreasing the organic loading prior to the activated sludge system. Also for improving the effluent quality, a membrane can be replaced for secondary sedimentation tank, i.e. changing activated sludge to membrane bioreactor. In this study, the effect of significant changes in feed composition, due to the introduction of UASB reactor; have been investigated on the population of filamentous bacteria, COD and TS removal efficiency and membrane fouling. The results showed that the population of filamentous bacteria increased rapidly from 5 to 100 Count/µL. However, this increase does not have considerable effect on membrane fouling. With increasing MLSS concentration, the number of filamentous bacteria increased from 100 to 400Count/µL. As a result, the trans membrane pressure was raised from 1.5 to 3kpa and overall membrane resistance was increased against the effluent flux. For reducing the filamentous bacteria, a dose of 20 g Cl2 /Kg MLSS was added in few intervals for two days. It was also found the number of filamentous bacteria decreased from 400 to 100 after 5 days without decreasing the other microorganisms’ population significantly. The trans membrane pressure was also retained without any further increase.

  1. Bile salt-induced increases in duodenal brush-border membrane proton permeability, fluidity, and fragility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, D.L.; Hirst, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    Rabbit duodenal brush-border membrane vesicles were treated in vitro with deoxycholate, glycodeoxycholate, or taurodeoxycholate. Intravesicular [14C]glucose space at equilibrium, 0.54 microliters/mg protein, was reduced by exposure to the three bile salts in a concentration (0.1-5.0 mM)-dependent manner, equatable with increased membrane fragility. Net proton permeability (Pnet), determined by acridine orange fluorescence quenching, was increased from 6.3 x 10(-4) cm/sec in untreated vesicles, by approximately 120, 150, and 170%, by treatment with bile salts at 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mM, respectively. The three bile salts were equipotent. The increases in membrane fragility and Pnet were not accompanied by significant increases in membrane fluidity, as assessed from steady-state and time-resolved diphenylhexatriene fluorescence anisotropy. The data demonstrate direct effects of bile salts on duodenal apical membrane fragility and proton permeability that are likely to be early events in bile salt-induced mucosal damage

  2. Whey cheese: membrane technology to increase yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Francisco; González, Pablo; Muro, Claudia

    2016-02-01

    Sweet cheese whey has been used to obtain whey cheese without the addition of milk. Pre-treated whey was concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) at different concentration ratios (2, 2.5 and 2.8) or by reverse osmosis (RO) (2-3 times). After the concentration, whey was acidified with lactic acid until a final pH of 4.6-4.8, and heated to temperatures between 85 and 90 °C. The coagulated fraction (supernatant) was collected and freely drained over 4 h. The cheese-whey yield and protein, fat, lactose and ash recoveries in the final product were calculated. The membrane pre-concentration step caused an increase in the whey-cheese yield. The final composition of products was compared with traditional cheese-whey manufacture products (without membrane concentration). Final cheese yields found were to be between 5 and 19.6%, which are higher than those achieved using the traditional 'Requesón' process.

  3. Effect of varying solid membrane area of bristled wings on clap and fling aerodynamics in the smallest flying insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Mitchell; Kasoju, Vishwa; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2017-11-01

    The smallest flying insects with body lengths under 1.5 mm, such as thrips, fairyflies, and some parasitoid wasps, show marked morphological preference for wings consisting of a thin solid membrane fringed with long bristles. In particular, thrips have been observed to use clap and fling wing kinematics at chord-based Reynolds numbers of approximately 10. More than 6,000 species of thrips have been documented, among which there is notable morphological diversity in bristled wing design. This study examines the effect of varying the ratio of solid membrane area to total wing area (including bristles) on aerodynamic forces and flow structures generated during clap and fling. Forewing image analysis on 30 species of thrips showed that membrane area ranged from 16%-71% of total wing area. Physical models of bristled wing pairs with ratios of solid membrane area to total wing area ranging from 15%-100% were tested in a dynamically scaled robotic platform mimicking clap and fling kinematics. Decreasing membrane area relative to total wing area resulted in significant decrease in maximum drag coefficient and comparatively smaller reduction in maximum lift coefficient, resulting in higher peak lift to drag ratio. Flow structures visualized using PIV will be presented.

  4. A STUDY OF BRACKISH WATER MEMBRANE WITH ULTRAFILTRATION PRETREATMENT IN INDONESIA´S COASTAL AREA

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    Elis Hastuti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution and sea water intrusion to water sources in coastal areas result lack of provision safe drinking water by the drinking water regional company or coastal community. The existing water treatment plant that operated on brackish surface water or groundwater feed requires improving process. Membrane process could be a choice to treat the quality of brackish water to the level of potable water that designed to lower cost with high stabil flux and longer lifetime. This research focus on application of pilot plant of brackish water treatment using Ultrafiltration (UF membrane-air lift system as pretreatment of Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane-low pressure. Brackish water sources contain high colloidal and suspended solids that can cause fouling load of RO membranes and impair its performance. UF pretreatment operation tested by addition of compressed air into the feed (air lift system, resulted stable flux, reduces membrane fouling and low feed pressure. A flux of RO with UF pretreatment can produce drinking water of 30--61 L/m2·hour. It was observed, the good quality of RO permeate resulted by using a pretreatment of UF--PS (Polysulfone-UF with total dissolved solid rejection about 96--98% and color rejection about 99--100% at 5 or 8 bars of operation pressure. This paper concludes that performance of membrane technology with UF--air lift system pretreatment and RO membrane-low pressure could be accepted as condition of brackish water source in Indonesia coastal areas in producing drinking water.

  5. A study of brackish water membrane with ultrafiltration pretreatment in Indonesia’s coastal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Hastuti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution and sea water intrusion to water sources in coastal areas result lack of provision safe drinking water by the drinking water regional company or coastal community. The existing water treatment plant that operated on brackish surface water or groundwater feed requires improving process. Membrane process could be a choice to treat the quality of brackish water to the level of potable water that designed to lower cost with high stabil flux and longer lifetime. This research focus on application of pilot plant of brackish water treatment using Ultrafiltration (UF membrane-air lift system as pretreatment of Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane-low pressure. Brackish water sources contain high colloidal and suspended solids that can cause fouling load of RO membranes and impair its performance. UF pretreatment operation tested by addition of compressed air into the feed (air lift system, resulted stable flux, reduces membrane fouling and low feed pressure. A flux of RO with UF pretreatment can produce drinking water of 30–61 L/m2∙hour. It was observed, the good quality of RO permeate resulted by using a pretreatment of UF–PS (Polysulfone-UF with total dissolved solid rejection about 96–98% and color rejection about 99–100% at 5 or 8 bars of operation pressure. This paper concludes that performance of membrane technology with UF–air lift system pretreatment and RO membrane-low pressure could be accepted as condition of brackish water source in Indonesia coastal areas in producing drinking water.

  6. Liquid membranes: an emerging area in separation science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: With the ever increasing energy demands, nuclear energy is poised to make a significant contribution as one of the major clean energy resources. The public acceptability of the nuclear energy programme, however, depends largely on the management of radioactive waste by mitigating its long term adverse impact on the environment. Separation of long-lived radionuclides such as actinides and fission products from high level radioactive waste is a challenging task for the chemists involved at the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Amongst the various separation techniques, liquid membrane based separation methods are becoming increasingly popular due to factors such as ligand economy, high efficiency and low power consumption. Techniques such as emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) and hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) methods are reported to be more efficient than the solvent extraction based separation methods which have limitations of emulsion/third phase or crud formation. HFSLM technique offers the advantages of active transport, possible usage of exotic carriers and easy scale-up. For the past few years, Radiochemistry Division has been actively involved in the development of HFSLM separation processes for actinide partitioning, lanthanide/actinide separation, Sr/Y separation as well as recovery of radio-cesium from nuclear waste solutions. Similarly, ELM has major advantages of fast processing and large volume reduction factors. This lecture will give an overview of the HFSLM and ELM work carried out at Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai

  7. Increased 3H-spiperone binding sites in mesolimbic area related to methamphetamine-induced behavioral hypersensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, K.; Sato, M.; Otsuki, S.

    1982-01-01

    The specific 3 H-spiperone binding to membrane homogenates of the striatum, mesolimbic area, and frontal cortex was examined in two groups of rats pretreated once daily with saline or 4 mg/kg of methamphetamine (MAP) for 14 days. At 7 days following cessation of chronic pretreatment, all rats received an injection of 4 mg/kg of MAP and were decapitated 1 hr after the injection. In the chronic saline-pretreatment group, the single administration of MAP induced significant changes in the number (Bmax) of specific 3 H-spiperone binding sites (a decrease in the striatum and an increase in the mesolimbic area and frontal cortex), but no significant changes in the affinity (KD) in any brain area. The chronic MAP pretreatment markedly augmented the changes in Bmax in the striatum and mesolimbic area. The increase in specific 3 H-spiperone binding sites in the mesolimbic area is discussed in relation to MAP-induced behavioral hypersensitivity

  8. Local area water removal analysis of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell under gas purge conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Yu-Ming; Lee, Shuo-Jen

    2012-01-01

    In this study, local area water content distribution under various gas purging conditions are experimentally analyzed for the first time. The local high frequency resistance (HFR) is measured using novel micro sensors. The results reveal that the liquid water removal rate in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is non-uniform. In the under-the-channel area, the removal of liquid water is governed by both convective and diffusive flux of the through-plane drying. Thus, almost all of the liquid water is removed within 30 s of purging with gas. However, liquid water that is stored in the under-the-rib area is not easy to remove during 1 min of gas purging. Therefore, the re-hydration of the membrane by internal diffusive flux is faster than that in the under-the-channel area. Consequently, local fuel starvation and membrane degradation can degrade the performance of a fuel cell that is started from cold.

  9. Increased phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) receptor function associated with sickle red cell membrane ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, M.; Nair, C.N.; Abraham, E.C.

    1987-01-01

    The biological receptor for tumor-promoting phorbol esters has been identified as the Ca 2+ /phospholipid dependent enzyme, protein kinase C. In the red cell, this enzyme is mainly cytosolic but becomes translocated to the membrane if the cellular Ca 2+ is allowed to rise. Since cellular Ca 2+ in sickle red cells is high, it was reasoned that this enzyme may become more membrane-bound. In fact, the authors noticed a four-fold increase in the binding of 3 H-PDBu by membrane ghosts isolated from sickle red cells compared to normal red cells (pmoles PDBu bound/mg protein; normal = 0.3 vs sickle cell = 1.4). Attempts to assay the enzyme directly as phospholipid-activated 32 P incorporation into the acid-precipitable membrane proteins also indicated a two-fold increase in the radiolabelling of sickle cell membrane ghosts. Autophosphorylation of membrane proteins and analysis of the phosphorylation profile by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography revealed phosphorylation predominantly of bands 3, 4.1 and 4.9 which are known protein kinase C substrates for the red cell enzyme. The increased membrane-associated protein kinase C in sickle red cells may have a bearing on the altered membrane properties reported in this condition

  10. Membrane processes in biotechnology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcosset, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Membrane processes are increasingly reported for various applications in both upstream and downstream technology, such as the established ultrafiltration and microfiltration, and emerging processes as membrane bioreactors, membrane chromatography, and membrane contactors for the preparation of emulsions and particles. Membrane systems exploit the inherent properties of high selectivity, high surface-area-per-unit-volume, and their potential for controlling the level of contact and/or mixing between two phases. This review presents these various membrane processes by focusing more precisely on membrane materials, module design, operating parameters and the large range of possible applications.

  11. A positive feedback-based gene circuit to increase the production of a membrane protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennis Robert B

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Membrane proteins are an important class of proteins, playing a key role in many biological processes, and are a promising target in pharmaceutical development. However, membrane proteins are often difficult to produce in large quantities for the purpose of crystallographic or biochemical analyses. Results In this paper, we demonstrate that synthetic gene circuits designed specifically to overexpress certain genes can be applied to manipulate the expression kinetics of a model membrane protein, cytochrome bd quinol oxidase in E. coli, resulting in increased expression rates. The synthetic circuit involved is an engineered, autoinducer-independent variant of the lux operon activator LuxR from V. fischeri in an autoregulatory, positive feedback configuration. Conclusions Our proof-of-concept experiments indicate a statistically significant increase in the rate of production of the bd oxidase membrane protein. Synthetic gene networks provide a feasible solution for the problem of membrane protein production.

  12. Separation of Peptides with Forward Osmosis Biomimetic Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajraktari, Niada; Madsen, Henrik T; Gruber, Mathias Felix

    2016-01-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) membranes have gained interest in several disciplines for the rejection and concentration of various molecules. One application area for FO membranes that is becoming increasingly popular is the use of the membranes to concentrate or dilute high value compound solutions...

  13. Increased Water Retention in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes at Elevated Temperatures Assisted by Capillary Condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, M.J.; Downing, K.H.; Jackson, A.; Gomez, E.D.; Minor, A.M.; Cookson, D.; Weber, A.Z.; Balsara, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    We establish a new systematic methodology for controlling the water retention of polymer electrolyte membranes. Block copolymer membranes comprising hydrophilic phases with widths ranging from 2 to 5 nm become wetter as the temperature of the surrounding air is increased at constant relative humidity. The widths of the moist hydrophilic phases were measured by cryogenic electron microscopy experiments performed on humid membranes. Simple calculations suggest that capillary condensation is important at these length scales. The correlation between moisture content and proton conductivity of the membranes is demonstrated.

  14. Increased water retention in polymer electrolyte membranes at elevated temperatures assisted by capillary condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Moon Jeong; Downing, Kenneth H; Jackson, Andrew; Gomez, Enrique D; Minor, Andrew M; Cookson, David; Weber, Adam Z; Balsara, Nitash P

    2007-11-01

    We establish a new systematic methodology for controlling the water retention of polymer electrolyte membranes. Block copolymer membranes comprising hydrophilic phases with widths ranging from 2 to 5 nm become wetter as the temperature of the surrounding air is increased at constant relative humidity. The widths of the moist hydrophilic phases were measured by cryogenic electron microscopy experiments performed on humid membranes. Simple calculations suggest that capillary condensation is important at these length scales. The correlation between moisture content and proton conductivity of the membranes is demonstrated.

  15. Strong Static Magnetic Fields Increase the Gel Signal in Partially Hydrated DPPC/DMPC Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Tang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available NIt was recently reported that static magnetic fields increase lipid order in the hydrophobic membrane core of dehydrated native plant plasma membranes [Poinapen, Soft Matter 9:6804-6813, 2013]. As plasma membranes are multicomponent, highly complex structures, in order to elucidate the origin of this effect, we prepared model membranes consisting of a lipid species with low and high melting temperature. By controlling the temperature, bilayers coexisting of small gel and fluid domains were prepared as a basic model for the plasma membrane core. We studied molecular order in mixed lipid membranes made of dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC and dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC using neutron diffraction in the presence of strong static magnetic fields up to 3.5 T. The contribution of the hydrophobic membrane core was highlighted through deuterium labeling the lipid acyl chains. There was no observable effect on lipid organization in fluid or gel domains at high hydration of the membranes. However, lipid order was found to be enhanced at a reduced relative humidity of 43%: a magnetic field of 3.5 T led to an increase of the gel signal in the diffraction patterns of 5%. While all biological materials have weak diamagnetic properties, the corresponding energy is too small to compete against thermal disorder or viscous effects in the case of lipid molecules. We tentatively propose that the interaction between the fatty acid chains’ electric moment and the external magnetic field is driving the lipid tails in the hydrophobic membrane core into a better ordered state.

  16. Strong Static Magnetic Fields Increase the Gel Signal in Partially Hydrated DPPC/DMPC Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jennifer; Alsop, Richard J; Schmalzl, Karin; Epand, Richard M; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2015-09-29

    NIt was recently reported that static magnetic fields increase lipid order in the hydrophobic membrane core of dehydrated native plant plasma membranes [Poinapen, Soft Matter 9:6804-6813, 2013]. As plasma membranes are multicomponent, highly complex structures, in order to elucidate the origin of this effect, we prepared model membranes consisting of a lipid species with low and high melting temperature. By controlling the temperature, bilayers coexisting of small gel and fluid domains were prepared as a basic model for the plasma membrane core. We studied molecular order in mixed lipid membranes made of dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) using neutron diffraction in the presence of strong static magnetic fields up to 3.5 T. The contribution of the hydrophobic membrane core was highlighted through deuterium labeling the lipid acyl chains. There was no observable effect on lipid organization in fluid or gel domains at high hydration of the membranes. However, lipid order was found to be enhanced at a reduced relative humidity of 43%: a magnetic field of 3.5 T led to an increase of the gel signal in the diffraction patterns of 5%. While all biological materials have weak diamagnetic properties, the corresponding energy is too small to compete against thermal disorder or viscous effects in the case of lipid molecules. We tentatively propose that the interaction between the fatty acid chains' electric moment and the external magnetic field is driving the lipid tails in the hydrophobic membrane core into a better ordered state.

  17. Electromechanical behavior of fiber-reinforced dielectric elastomer membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on its large deformation, light weight, and high energy density, dielectric elastomer (DE has been used as driven muscle in many areas. We design the fiber-reinforced DE membrane by adding fibers in the membrane. The deformation and driven force direction of the membrane can be tuned by changing the fiber arrangements. The actuation in the perpendicular direction of the DE membrane with long fibers first increases and then decreases by the increasing of the fiber spacing in the perpendicular direction. The horizontal actuation of the membrane decreases by decreasing the spacing of short fibers. In the membrane-inflating structure, the radially arranged fibers will break the axisymmetric behavior of the structure. The top area of the inflated balloon without fiber will buckle up when the voltage reaches a certain level. Finite element simulations based on nonlinear field theory are conducted to investigate the effects of fiber arrangement and verify the experimental results. This work can guide the design of fiber-reinforced DE.

  18. Increase of radiation damage to potassium-ion permeability in E. coli cells with decrease in membrane fluidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.

    1980-01-01

    Membrane lipids of an auxotroph of E. coli requiring unsaturated fatty acid were manipulated by supplementing the growth medium with unsaturated fatty acids of different chain lengths and/or configurations, and the radiation damage to K + -permeability of the resulting modified cells was investigated in relation with factors influencing membrane fluidity, such as temperature and procaine. Radiation had greater effects on membranes supplemented with unsaturated fatty acids of the trans configuration with a longer chain than on those of the cis configuration with a shorter chain. Radiation damage also increased with decrease in temperature. Furthermore, procaine-treated membranes showed increased resistance to radiation. All these results indicate that the damage was affected by the physical character of membrane lipids and that it was greater in membranes with decreased fluidity. (author)

  19. Membrane contactor/separator for an advanced ozone membrane reactor for treatment of recalcitrant organic pollutants in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Wai Kit; Jouët, Justine; Heng, Samuel; Yeung, King Lun; Schrotter, Jean-Christophe

    2012-01-01

    An advanced ozone membrane reactor that synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone gas, membrane contactor for pollutant adsorption and reaction, and membrane separator for clean water production is described. The membrane reactor represents an order of magnitude improvement over traditional semibatch reactor design and is capable of complete conversion of recalcitrant endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in water at less than three minutes residence time. Coating the membrane contactor with alumina and hydrotalcite (Mg/Al=3) adsorbs and traps the organics in the reaction zone resulting in 30% increase of total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Large surface area coating that diffuses surface charges from adsorbed polar organic molecules is preferred as it reduces membrane polarization that is detrimental to separation. - Graphical abstract: Advanced ozone membrane reactor synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone, membrane contactor for sorption and reaction and membrane separator for clean water production to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement in treatment performance compared to traditional ozone reactor. Highlights: ► Novel reactor using membranes for ozone distributor, reaction contactor and water separator. ► Designed to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement over traditional reactor. ► Al 2 O 3 and hydrotalcite coatings capture and trap pollutants giving additional 30% TOC removal. ► High surface area coating prevents polarization and improves membrane separation and life.

  20. Membrane tension regulates clathrin-coated pit dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Allen

    2014-03-01

    Intracellular organization depends on close communication between the extracellular environment and a network of cytoskeleton filaments. The interactions between cytoskeletal filaments and the plasma membrane lead to changes in membrane tension that in turns help regulate biological processes. Endocytosis is thought to be stimulated by low membrane tension and the removal of membrane increases membrane tension. While it is appreciated that the opposing effects of exocytosis and endocytosis have on keeping plasma membrane tension to a set point, it is not clear how membrane tension affects the dynamics of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs), the individual functional units of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, although it was recently shown that actin dynamics counteracts membrane tension during CCP formation, it is not clear what roles plasma membrane tension plays during CCP initiation. Based on the notion that plasma membrane tension is increased when the membrane area increases during cell spreading, we designed micro-patterned surfaces of different sizes to control the cell spreading sizes. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of living cells and high content image analysis were used to quantify the dynamics of CCPs. We found that there is an increased proportion of CCPs with short (<20s) lifetime for cells on larger patterns. Interestingly, cells on larger patterns have higher CCP initiation density, an effect unexpected based on the conventional view of decreasing endocytosis with increasing membrane tension. Furthermore, by analyzing the intensity profiles of CCPs that were longer-lived, we found CCP intensity decreases with increasing cell size, indicating that the CCPs are smaller with increasing membrane tension. Finally, disruption of actin dynamics significantly increased the number of short-lived CCPs, but also decreased CCP initiation rate. Together, our study reveals new mechanistic insights into how plasma membrane tension regulates

  1. Increasing selectivity of a heterogeneous ion-exchange membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivčík, J.; Neděla, D.; Hadrava, J.; Brožová, Libuše

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 12 (2015), s. 3160-3166 ISSN 1944-3994. [International Conference on Membrane and Electromembrane Processes - MELPRO 2014. Prague, 18.05.2014-21.05.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : ion-exchange membrane * selectivity * permselectivity Subject RIV: JP - Industrial Processing Impact factor: 1.272, year: 2015

  2. Aspirin Increases the Solubility of Cholesterol in Lipid Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Richard; Barrett, Matthew; Zheng, Sonbo; Dies, Hannah; Rheinstadter, Maikel

    2014-03-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is often prescribed for patients with high levels of cholesterol for the secondary prevention of myocardial events, a regimen known as the Low-Dose Aspirin Therapy. We have recently shown that Aspirin partitions in lipid bilayers. However, a direct interplay between ASA and cholesterol has not been investigated. Cholesterol is known to insert itself into the membrane in a dispersed state at moderate concentrations (under ~37.5%) and decrease fluidity of membranes. We prepared model lipid membranes containing varying amounts of both ASA and cholesterol molecules. The structure of the bilayers as a function of ASA and cholesterol concentration was determined using high-resolution X-ray diffraction. At cholesterol levels of more than 40mol%, immiscible cholesterol plaques formed. Adding ASA to the membranes was found to dissolve the cholesterol plaques, leading to a fluid lipid bilayer structure. We present first direct evidence for an interaction between ASA and cholesterol on the level of the cell membrane.

  3. Separation of Peptides with Forward Osmosis Biomimetic Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Bajraktari, Niada; Madsen, Henrik T.; Gruber, Mathias F.; Truelsen, Sigurd; Jensen, Elzbieta L.; Jensen, Henrik; H?lix-Nielsen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) membranes have gained interest in several disciplines for the rejection and concentration of various molecules. One application area for FO membranes that is becoming increasingly popular is the use of the membranes to concentrate or dilute high value compound solutions such as pharmaceuticals. It is crucial in such settings to control the transport over the membrane to avoid losses of valuable compounds, but little is known about the rejection and transport mechanisms of...

  4. Increasing the Performance of Vacuum Membrane Distillation Using Micro-Structured Hydrophobic Aluminum Hollow Fiber Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chieh Ko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a micro-structured hydrophobic alumina hollow fiber with a high permeate flux of 60 Lm−2h−1 and salt rejection over 99.9% in a vacuum membrane distillation process. The fiber is fabricated by phase inversion and sintering, and then modified with fluoroalkylsilanes to render it hydrophobic. The influence of the sintering temperature and feeding temperature in membrane distillation (MD on the characteristics of the fiber and MD performance are investigated. The vacuum membrane distillation uses 3.5 wt % NaCl aqueous solution at 70 °C at 0.03 bar. The permeate flux of 60 Lm−2h−1 is the highest, compared with reported data and is higher than that for polymeric hollow fiber membranes.

  5. Effect of Membrane Tension on the Electric Field and Dipole Potential of Lipid Bilayer Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshaviak, Dora Toledo; Muellner, Michael J.; Chachisvilis, Mirianas

    2011-01-01

    The dipole potential of lipid bilayer membrane controls the difference in permeability of the membrane to oppositely charged ions. We have combined molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and experimental studies to determine changes in electric field and electrostatic potential of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) lipid bilayer in response to applied membrane tension. MD simulations based on CHARMM36 force field showed that electrostatic potential of DOPC bilayer decreases by ~45 mV in the physiologically relevant range of membrane tension values (0 to 15 dyn/cm). The electrostatic field exhibits a peak (~0.8×109 V/m) near the water/lipid interface which shifts by 0.9 Å towards the bilayer center at 15 dyn/cm. Maximum membrane tension of 15 dyn/cm caused 6.4% increase in area per lipid, 4.7% decrease in bilayer thickness and 1.4% increase in the volume of the bilayer. Dipole-potential sensitive fluorescent probes were used to detect membrane tension induced changes in DOPC vesicles exposed to osmotic stress. Experiments confirmed that dipole potential of DOPC bilayer decreases at higher membrane tensions. These results are suggestive of a potentially new mechanosensing mechanism by which mechanically induced structural changes in the lipid bilayer membrane could modulate the function of membrane proteins by altering electrostatic interactions and energetics of protein conformational states. PMID:21722624

  6. 2,2'-Bis(monoacylglycero) PO4 (BMP), but Not 3,1'-BMP, increases membrane curvature stress to enhance α-tocopherol transfer protein binding to membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptist, Matilda; Panagabko, Candace; Nickels, Jonathan D; Katsaras, John; Atkinson, Jeffrey

    2015-03-01

    Previous work revealed that α-tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP) co-localizes with bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP) in late endosomes. BMP is a lipid unique to late endosomes and is believed to induce membrane curvature and support the multivesicular nature of this organelle. We examined the effect of BMP on α-TTP binding to membranes using dual polarization interferometry and vesicle-binding assay. α-TTP binding to membranes is increased by the curvature-inducing lipid BMP. α-TTP binds to membranes with greater affinity when they contain the 2,2'-BMP versus 3,1'-BMP isomers.

  7. Damage to the microbial cell membrane during pyrolytic sugar utilization and strategies for increasing resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tao; Rover, Marjorie R; Petersen, Elspeth M; Chi, Zhanyou; Smith, Ryan G; Brown, Robert C; Wen, Zhiyou; Jarboe, Laura R

    2017-09-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an appealing feedstock for the production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals, and thermochemical processing is a promising method for depolymerizing it into sugars. However, trace compounds in this pyrolytic sugar syrup are inhibitory to microbial biocatalysts. This study demonstrates that hydrophobic inhibitors damage the cell membrane of ethanologenic Escherichia coli KO11+lgk. Adaptive evolution was employed to identify design strategies for improving pyrolytic sugar tolerance and utilization. Characterization of the resulting evolved strain indicates that increased resistance to the membrane-damaging effects of the pyrolytic sugars can be attributed to a glutamine to leucine mutation at position 29 of carbon storage regulator CsrA. This single amino acid change is sufficient for decreasing EPS protein production and increasing membrane integrity when exposed to pyrolytic sugars.

  8. Membrane proteins involved in transport, vesicle traffic and Ca(2+) signaling increase in beetroots grown in saline soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, Bárbara; Chagolla, Alicia; E González de la Vara, Luis

    2016-07-01

    By separating plasma membrane proteins according to their hydropathy from beetroots grown in saline soils, several proteins probably involved in salt tolerance were identified by mass spectrometry. Beetroots, as a salt-tolerant crop, have developed mechanisms to cope with stresses associated with saline soils. To observe which plasma membrane (PM) proteins were more abundant in beet roots grown in saline soils, beet root plants were irrigated with water or 0.2 M NaCl. PM-enriched membrane preparations were obtained from these plants, and their proteins were separated according to their hydropathy by serial phase partitioning with Triton X-114. Some proteins whose abundance increased visibly in membranes from salt-grown beetroots were identified by mass spectrometry. Among them, there was a V-type H(+)-ATPase (probably from contaminating vacuolar membranes), which increased with salt at all stages of beetroots' development. Proteins involved in solute transport (an H(+)-transporting PPase and annexins), vesicle traffic (clathrin and synaptotagmins), signal perception and transduction (protein kinases and phospholipases, mostly involved in calcium signaling) and metabolism, appeared to increase in salt-grown beetroot PM-enriched membranes. These results suggest that PM and vacuolar proteins involved in transport, metabolism and signal transduction increase in beet roots adapted to saline soils. In addition, these results show that serial phase partitioning with Triton X-114 is a useful method to separate membrane proteins for their identification by mass spectrometry.

  9. Biomimetic carriers mimicking leukocyte plasma membrane to increase tumor vasculature permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomba, R.; Parodi, A.; Evangelopoulos, M.; Acciardo, S.; Corbo, C.; De Rosa, E.; Yazdi, I. K.; Scaria, S.; Molinaro, R.; Furman, N. E. Toledano; You, J.; Ferrari, M.; Salvatore, F.; Tasciotti, E.

    2016-10-01

    Recent advances in the field of nanomedicine have demonstrated that biomimicry can further improve targeting properties of current nanotechnologies while simultaneously enable carriers with a biological identity to better interact with the biological environment. Immune cells for example employ membrane proteins to target inflamed vasculature, locally increase vascular permeability, and extravasate across inflamed endothelium. Inspired by the physiology of immune cells, we recently developed a procedure to transfer leukocyte membranes onto nanoporous silicon particles (NPS), yielding Leukolike Vectors (LLV). LLV are composed of a surface coating containing multiple receptors that are critical in the cross-talk with the endothelium, mediating cellular accumulation in the tumor microenvironment while decreasing vascular barrier function. We previously demonstrated that lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA-1) transferred onto LLV was able to trigger the clustering of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on endothelial cells. Herein, we provide a more comprehensive analysis of the working mechanism of LLV in vitro in activating this pathway and in vivo in enhancing vascular permeability. Our results suggest the biological activity of the leukocyte membrane can be retained upon transplant onto NPS and is critical in providing the particles with complex biological functions towards tumor vasculature.

  10. Optimization Strategies for Bruch's Membrane Opening Minimum Rim Area Calculation: Sequential versus Simultaneous Minimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Philip; Adler, Werner; Schaub, Friederike; Hermann, Manuel M; Diestelhorst, Michael; Dietlein, Thomas; Cursiefen, Claus; Heindl, Ludwig M

    2017-10-24

    To compare a simultaneously optimized continuous minimum rim surface parameter between Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) and the internal limiting membrane to the standard sequential minimization used for calculating the BMO minimum rim area in spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). In this case-control, cross-sectional study, 704 eyes of 445 participants underwent SD-OCT of the optic nerve head (ONH), visual field testing, and clinical examination. Globally and clock-hour sector-wise optimized BMO-based minimum rim area was calculated independently. Outcome parameters included BMO-globally optimized minimum rim area (BMO-gMRA) and sector-wise optimized BMO-minimum rim area (BMO-MRA). BMO area was 1.89 ± 0.05 mm 2 . Mean global BMO-MRA was 0.97 ± 0.34 mm 2 , mean global BMO-gMRA was 1.01 ± 0.36 mm 2 . Both parameters correlated with r = 0.995 (P < 0.001); mean difference was 0.04 mm 2 (P < 0.001). In all sectors, parameters differed by 3.0-4.2%. In receiver operating characteristics, the calculated area under the curve (AUC) to differentiate glaucoma was 0.873 for BMO-MRA, compared to 0.866 for BMO-gMRA (P = 0.004). Among ONH sectors, the temporal inferior location showed the highest AUC. Optimization strategies to calculate BMO-based minimum rim area led to significantly different results. Imposing an additional adjacency constraint within calculation of BMO-MRA does not improve diagnostic power. Global and temporal inferior BMO-MRA performed best in differentiating glaucoma patients.

  11. Recent advances on membranes and membrane reactors for hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, F.; Fernandez Gesalaga, E.; Corengia, P.; Sint Annaland, van M.

    2013-01-01

    Membranes and membrane reactors for pure hydrogen production are widely investigated not only because of the important application areas of hydrogen, but especially because mechanically and chemically stable membranes with high perm-selectivity towards hydrogen are available and are continuously

  12. Separation of Peptides with Forward Osmosis Biomimetic Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajraktari, Niada; Madsen, Henrik T.; Gruber, Mathias F.; Truelsen, Sigurd; Jensen, Elzbieta L.; Jensen, Henrik; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) membranes have gained interest in several disciplines for the rejection and concentration of various molecules. One application area for FO membranes that is becoming increasingly popular is the use of the membranes to concentrate or dilute high value compound solutions such as pharmaceuticals. It is crucial in such settings to control the transport over the membrane to avoid losses of valuable compounds, but little is known about the rejection and transport mechanisms of larger biomolecules with often flexible conformations. In this study, transport of two chemically similar peptides with molecular weight (Mw) of 375 and 692 Da across a thin film composite Aquaporin Inside™ Membrane (AIM) FO membrane was investigated. Despite the relative large size, both peptides were able to permeate the dense active layer of the AIM membrane and the transport mechanism was determined to be diffusion-based. Interestingly, the membrane permeability increased 3.65 times for the 692 Da peptide (1.39 × 10−12 m2·s−1) compared to the 375 Da peptide (0.38 × 10−12 m2·s−1). This increase thus occurs for an 85% increase in Mw but only for a 34% increase in peptide radius of gyration (Rg) as determined from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. This suggests that Rg is a strong influencing factor for membrane permeability. Thus, an increased Rg reflects the larger peptide chains ability to sample a larger conformational space when interacting with the nanostructured active layer increasing the likelihood for permeation. PMID:27854275

  13. Molecular Origin of Model Membrane Bending Rigidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtisovski, Erol; Taulier, Nicolas; Waks, Marcel; Ober, Raymond; Urbach, Wladimir

    2007-01-01

    The behavior of the bending modulus κ of bilayers in lamellar phases was studied by Small Angle X-ray Scattering technique for various nonionic C i E j surfactants. The bilayers are either unswollen and dispersed in water or swollen by water and dispersed in dodecane. For unswollen bilayers, the values of κ decrease with both an increase in the area per surfactant molecule and in the polar head length. They increase when the aliphatic chain length increases at constant area per surfactant molecule. Whereas for water-swollen membranes, the values of κ decrease as the content of water increases converging to the value of the single monolayer bending modulus. Such a behavior results from the decoupling of the fluctuations of the two surfactant membrane monolayers. Our results emphasize the determinant contribution of the surfactant conformation to κ

  14. Silver nanoparticles interact with the cell membrane and increase endothelial permeability by promoting VE-cadherin internalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xia; Shi, Junpeng; Zou, Xiaoyan; Wang, Chengcheng; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Hongwu, E-mail: hwzhang@iue.ac.cn

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Short-term exposure to AgNPs at low doses induces increase HUVECs monolayer permeability. • AgNPs interact with the cell membrane and increase endothelial permeability by promoting VE-Cadherin internalization. • Particle effect is a major factor leading to endothelial dysfunction. - Abstract: The toxicological risks of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted widespread attention, and many studies have been published that have contributed to understanding AgNPs-induced toxicity. However, little attention has been paid to the low-dose effects of AgNPs and the related toxicological mechanism is still unclear. Here, we show that short-term exposure to AgNPs at low doses induces a substantial increase in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) monolayer permeability, whereas Ag ions at low doses do not induce an observable increase in monolayer permeability. This effect is independent of oxidative stress and apoptosis. Scanning electron microscopy confirms that AgNPs adhere to the cell membrane after 1 h exposure. Furthermore, adhesion of AgNPs to the cell membrane can trigger vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin phosphorylation at Y658 followed by VE-cadherin internalization, which lead to the increase in endothelial monolayer permeability. Our data show that surface interactions of AgNPs with the cell membrane, in other words, the particle effect, is a major factor leading to endothelial dysfunction following low-dose and short-term exposure. Our findings will contribute to understanding the health effects and the toxicological mechanisms of AgNPs.

  15. Inverse colloidal crystal membranes for hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Anh T; Wang, Xinying; Wickramasinghe, S Ranil; Yu, Bing; Yuan, Hua; Cong, Hailin; Luo, Yongli; Tang, Jianguo

    2015-08-01

    Hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography has gained interest due to its excellent performance in the purification of humanized monoclonal antibodies. The membrane material used in hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography has typically been commercially available polyvinylidene fluoride. In this contribution, newly developed inverse colloidal crystal membranes that have uniform pores, high porosity and, therefore, high surface area for protein binding are used as hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography membranes for humanized monoclonal antibody immunoglobulin G purification. The capacity of the inverse colloidal crystal membranes developed here is up to ten times greater than commercially available polyvinylidene fluoride membranes with a similar pore size. This work highlights the importance of developing uniform pore size high porosity membranes in order to maximize the capacity of hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Idiopathic epiretinal membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bu, Shao-Chong; Kuijer, Roelof; Li, Xiao-Rong; Hooymans, Johanna M M; Los, Leonoor I

    2014-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM) is a fibrocellular membrane that proliferates on the inner surface of the retina at the macular area. Membrane contraction is an important sight-threatening event and is due to fibrotic remodeling. Methods: Analysis of the current literature

  17. Fuel cell membrane humidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1999-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell assembly has an anode side and a cathode side separated by the membrane and generating electrical current by electrochemical reactions between a fuel gas and an oxidant. The anode side comprises a hydrophobic gas diffusion backing contacting one side of the membrane and having hydrophilic areas therein for providing liquid water directly to the one side of the membrane through the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing. In a preferred embodiment, the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing are formed by sewing a hydrophilic thread through the backing. Liquid water is distributed over the gas diffusion backing in distribution channels that are separate from the fuel distribution channels.

  18. Mimicking the cell membrane: bio-inspired simultaneous functions with monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Liu, Huimin; Tang, Kaini; Jin, Yali; Pan, Jiefeng; der Bruggen, Bart Van; Shen, Jiangnan; Gao, Congjie

    2016-01-01

    A new bio-inspired method was applied in this study to simultaneously improve the monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membranes (AEMs). Three-layer architecture was developed by deposition of polydopamine (PDA) and electro-deposition of N-O-sulfonic acid benzyl chitosan (NSBC). The innermost and outermost layers were PDA with different deposition time. The middle layer was prepared by NSBC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that PDA and NSBC were successfully modified on the surfaces of AEMs. The contact angle of the membranes indicated an improved hydrophilicity of the modified membranes. A series of electrodialysis experiments in which Cl−/SO42− separation was studied, demonstrating the monovalent anion selectivity of the samples. The Cl−/SO42− permselectivity of the modified membranes can reach up to 2.20, higher than that of the commercial membrane (only 0.78) during 90 minutes in electrodialysis (ED). The increase value of the resistance of the membranes was also measured to evaluate the antifouling properties. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used as the fouling material in the ED process and the membrane area resistance of modified membrane increase value of was only 0.08 Ωcm2 30 minutes later. PMID:27853255

  19. Mimicking the cell membrane: bio-inspired simultaneous functions with monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Liu, Huimin; Tang, Kaini; Jin, Yali; Pan, Jiefeng; der Bruggen, Bart Van; Shen, Jiangnan; Gao, Congjie

    2016-11-01

    A new bio-inspired method was applied in this study to simultaneously improve the monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membranes (AEMs). Three-layer architecture was developed by deposition of polydopamine (PDA) and electro-deposition of N-O-sulfonic acid benzyl chitosan (NSBC). The innermost and outermost layers were PDA with different deposition time. The middle layer was prepared by NSBC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that PDA and NSBC were successfully modified on the surfaces of AEMs. The contact angle of the membranes indicated an improved hydrophilicity of the modified membranes. A series of electrodialysis experiments in which Cl-/SO42- separation was studied, demonstrating the monovalent anion selectivity of the samples. The Cl-/SO42- permselectivity of the modified membranes can reach up to 2.20, higher than that of the commercial membrane (only 0.78) during 90 minutes in electrodialysis (ED). The increase value of the resistance of the membranes was also measured to evaluate the antifouling properties. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used as the fouling material in the ED process and the membrane area resistance of modified membrane increase value of was only 0.08 Ωcm2 30 minutes later.

  20. Gel layer formation on membranes in Membrane Bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Brink, P.F.H.

    2014-01-01

    The widespread application of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for municipal wastewater treatment is hampered by membrane fouling. Fouling increases energy demand, reduces process performance and creates the need for more frequent (chemical) membrane cleaning or replacement. Membrane fouling in MBRs is

  1. Significant social events and increasing use of life-sustaining treatment: trend analysis using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Yuan; Chen, Likwang; Huang, Tien-Shang; Ko, Wen-Je; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Ni, Yen-Hsuan; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2014-03-04

    Most studies have examined the outcomes of patients supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a life-sustaining treatment. It is unclear whether significant social events are associated with the use of life-sustaining treatment. This study aimed to compare the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan with that in the world, and to examine the influence of significant social events on the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan. Taiwan's extracorporeal membrane oxygenation uses from 2000 to 2009 were collected from National Health Insurance Research Dataset. The number of the worldwide extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cases was mainly estimated using Extracorporeal Life Support Registry Report International Summary July 2012. The trend of Taiwan's crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was compared with that of the rest of the world. Each trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was examined using joinpoint regression. The measurement was the crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use. Each of the Taiwan's crude annual incidence rates was much higher than the worldwide one in the same year. Both the trends of Taiwan's and worldwide crude annual incidence rates have significantly increased since 2000. Joinpoint regression selected the model of the Taiwan's trend with one joinpoint in 2006 as the best-fitted model, implying that the significant social events in 2006 were significantly associated with the trend change of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use following 2006. In addition, significantly social events highlighted by the media are more likely to be associated with the increase of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use than being fully covered by National Health Insurance. Significant social events, such as a well-known person's successful extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use highlighted by the mass media, are associated with the use of

  2. Preparation and Preliminary Dialysis Performance Research of Polyvinylidene Fluoride Hollow Fiber Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinglei; Lu, Xiaolong; Liu, Juanjuan; Zhao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the separation properties of Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber hemodialysis membranes were improved by optimizing membrane morphology and structure. The results showed that the PVDF membrane had better mechanical and separation properties than Fresenius Polysulfone High-Flux (F60S) membrane. The PVDF membrane tensile stress at break, tensile elongation and bursting pressure were 11.3 MPa, 395% and 0.625 MPa, respectively. Ultrafiltration (UF) flux of pure water reached 108.2 L∙h−1∙m−2 and rejection of Albumin from bovine serum was 82.3%. The PVDF dialyzers were prepared by centrifugal casting. The influences of membrane area and simulate fluid flow rate on dialysis performance were investigated. The results showed that the clearance rate of urea and Lysozyme (LZM) were improved with increasing membrane area and fluid flow rate while the rejection of albumin from bovine serum (BSA) had little influence. The high-flux PVDF dialyzer UF coefficient reached 62.6 mL/h/mmHg. The PVDF dialyzer with membrane area 0.69 m2 has the highest clearance rate to LZM and urea. The clearance rate of LZM was 66.8% and urea was 87.7%. PMID:25807890

  3. Codon optimizing for increased membrane protein production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzadeh, K.; Toddo, S.; Nørholm, Morten

    2016-01-01

    . As demonstrated with two membrane-embedded transporters in Escherichia coli, the method was more effective than optimizing the entire coding sequence. The method we present is PCR based and requires three simple steps: (1) the design of two PCR primers, one of which is degenerate; (2) the amplification...

  4. Smart coating process of proton-exchange membrane for polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leu, Hoang-Jyh; Chiu, Kuo-Feng; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Using oxygen plasma and smart coating technique for membrane modification. ► Oxygen plasma treatment can increase the reaction area of the membrane. ► AFM, SEM, FT-IR, XPS, EIS spectra can prove the surface treatment process. ► Nafion membrane modification can reduce Rct and enhance current density. - Abstract: The interfaces of electrolyte|catalyst|electrode play an important role in the performance of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Increasing the interface effective area and lowering the charge transfer resistance of the interface are significant issues to promote the cell performance. In this study, oxygen plasma treatment was used to increase the surface roughness of Nafion®117 membrane, and then a smart coating process was applied to fabricate the initial Pt/C catalyst layer, which served to reduce the charge transfer resistance of the interface. The morphology and surface characteristics of membranes have been qualified by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These results show that the plasma treatments and smart coating processes were effective in reducing the interface charge transfer resistance. At optimal condition, the interface charge transfer resistance was 0.45 Ω/cm 2 which was 1–2 order less than the untreated ones

  5. Long term testing of PSI-membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huslage, J; Brack, H P; Geiger, F; Buechi, F N; Tsukada, A; Scherer, G G [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Long term tests of PSI membranes based on radiation-grafted FEP and ETFE films were carried out and FEP-based membranes were evaluated by monitoring the in-situ membrane area resistance measured by a current pulse method. By modifying our irradiation procedure and using the double crosslinking concept we obtain reproducible membrane cell lifetimes (in term of in-situ membrane resistance) of greater than 5000 hours at 60-65{sup o}C. Preliminary tests at 80-85{sup o}C with lifetimes of greater than 2500 demonstrate the potential long term stability of PSI proton exchange membranes based on FEP over the whole operating temperature range of low-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Radiation grafted PSI membranes based on ETFE have better mechanical properties than those of the FEP membranes. Mechanical properties are particularly important in large area cells and fuel cell stacks. ETFE membranes have been tested successfully for approximately 1000 h in a 2-cell stack (100 cm{sup 2} active area each cell). (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  6. Protein-centric N-glycoproteomics analysis of membrane and plasma membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bingyun; Hood, Leroy

    2014-06-06

    The advent of proteomics technology has transformed our understanding of biological membranes. The challenges for studying membrane proteins have inspired the development of many analytical and bioanalytical tools, and the techniques of glycoproteomics have emerged as an effective means to enrich and characterize membrane and plasma-membrane proteomes. This Review summarizes the development of various glycoproteomics techniques to overcome the hurdles formed by the unique structures and behaviors of membrane proteins with a focus on N-glycoproteomics. Example contributions of N-glycoproteomics to the understanding of membrane biology are provided, and the areas that require future technical breakthroughs are discussed.

  7. Phase behavior of multicomponent membranes: Experimental and computational techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis; Kumar, P.B. Sunil

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments in biology seems to indicate that the Fluid Mosaic model of membrane proposed by Singer and Nicolson, with lipid bilayer functioning only as medium to support protein machinery, may be too simple to be realistic. Many protein functions are now known to depend on the compositio....... This review includes basic foundations on membrane model systems and experimental approaches applied in the membrane research area, stressing on recent advances in the experimental and computational techniques....... membranes. Current increase in interest in the domain formation in multicomponent membranes also stems from the experiments demonstrating liquid ordered-liquid disordered coexistence in mixtures of lipids and cholesterol and the success of several computational models in predicting their behavior...

  8. Effective protection of biological membranes against photo-oxidative damage: Polymeric antioxidant forming a protecting shield over the membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertins, Omar; Mathews, Patrick D; Gomide, Andreza B; Baptista, Mauricio S; Itri, Rosangela

    2015-10-01

    We have prepared a chitosan polymer modified with gallic acid in order to develop an efficient protection strategy biological membranes against photodamage. Lipid bilayers were challenged with photoinduced damage by photosensitization with methylene blue, which usually causes formation of hydroperoxides, increasing area per lipid, and afterwards allowing leakage of internal materials. The damage was delayed by a solution of gallic acid in a concentration dependent manner, but further suppressed by the polymer at very low concentrations. The membrane of giant unilamellar vesicles was covered with this modified macromolecule leading to a powerful shield against singlet oxygen and thus effectively protecting the lipid membrane from oxidative stress. The results have proven the discovery of a promising strategy for photo protection of biological membranes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Microbial Adhesion and Biofilm Formation on Microfiltration Membranes: A Detailed Characterization Using Model Organisms with Increasing Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vanysacker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since many years, membrane biofouling has been described as the Achilles heel of membrane fouling. In the present study, an ecological assay was performed using model systems with increasing complexity: a monospecies assay using Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli separately, a duospecies assay using both microorganisms, and a multispecies assay using activated sludge with or without spiked P. aeruginosa. The microbial adhesion and biofilm formation were evaluated in terms of bacterial cell densities, species richness, and bacterial community composition on polyvinyldifluoride, polyethylene, and polysulfone membranes. The data show that biofouling formation was strongly influenced by the kind of microorganism, the interactions between the organisms, and the changes in environmental conditions whereas the membrane effect was less important. The findings obtained in this study suggest that more knowledge in species composition and microbial interactions is needed in order to understand the complex biofouling process. This is the first report describing the microbial interactions with a membrane during the biofouling development.

  10. Microbial Adhesion and Biofilm Formation on Microfiltration Membranes: A Detailed Characterization Using Model Organisms with Increasing Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanysacker, L.; Denis, C.; Declerck, P.; Piasecka, A.; Vankelecom, I. F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Since many years, membrane biofouling has been described as the Achilles heel of membrane fouling. In the present study, an ecological assay was performed using model systems with increasing complexity: a monospecies assay using Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli separately, a duospecies assay using both microorganisms, and a multispecies assay using activated sludge with or without spiked P. aeruginosa. The microbial adhesion and biofilm formation were evaluated in terms of bacterial cell densities, species richness, and bacterial community composition on polyvinyldifluoride, polyethylene, and polysulfone membranes. The data show that biofouling formation was strongly influenced by the kind of microorganism, the interactions between the organisms, and the changes in environmental conditions whereas the membrane effect was less important. The findings obtained in this study suggest that more knowledge in species composition and microbial interactions is needed in order to understand the complex biofouling process. This is the first report describing the microbial interactions with a membrane during the biofouling development. PMID:23986906

  11. Salt Bridge Formation between the I-BAR Domain and Lipids Increases Lipid Density and Membrane Curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Kazuhiro; Hanawa-Suetsugu, Kyoko; Suetsugu, Shiro; Kitao, Akio

    2017-07-28

    The BAR domain superfamily proteins sense or induce curvature in membranes. The inverse-BAR domain (I-BAR) is a BAR domain that forms a straight "zeppelin-shaped" dimer. The mechanisms by which IRSp53 I-BAR binds to and deforms a lipid membrane are investigated here by all-atom molecular dynamics simulation (MD), binding energy analysis, and the effects of mutation experiments on filopodia on HeLa cells. I-BAR adopts a curved structure when crystallized, but adopts a flatter shape in MD. The binding of I-BAR to membrane was stabilized by ~30 salt bridges, consistent with experiments showing that point mutations of the interface residues have little effect on the binding affinity whereas multiple mutations have considerable effect. Salt bridge formation increases the local density of lipids and deforms the membrane into a concave shape. In addition, the point mutations that break key intra-molecular salt bridges within I-BAR reduce the binding affinity; this was confirmed by expressing these mutants in HeLa cells and observing their effects. The results indicate that the stiffness of I-BAR is important for membrane deformation, although I-BAR does not act as a completely rigid template.

  12. Scale-Up Design Analysis and Modelling of Cobalt Oxide Silica Membrane Module for Hydrogen Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhao Ji

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the application of a validated mathematical model for gas permeation at high temperatures focusing on demonstrated scale-up design for H2 processing. The model considered the driving force variation with spatial coordinates and the mass transfer across the molecular sieve cobalt oxide silica membrane to predict the separation performance. The model was used to study the process of H2 separation at 500 °C in single and multi-tube membrane modules. Parameters of interest included the H2 purity in the permeate stream, H2 recovery and H2 yield as a function of the membrane length, number of tubes in a membrane module, space velocity and H2 feed molar fraction. For a single tubular membrane, increasing the length of a membrane tube led to higher H2 yield and H2 recovery, owing to the increase of the membrane area. However, the H2 purity decreased as H2 fraction was depleted, thus reducing the driving force for H2 permeation. By keeping the membrane length constant in a multi-tube arrangement, the H2 yield and H2 recovery increase was attributed to the higher membrane area, but the H2 purity was again compromised. Increasing the space velocity avoided the reduction of H2 purity and still delivered higher H2 yield and H2 recovery than in a single membrane arrangement. Essentially, if the membrane surface is too large, the driving force becomes lower at the expense of H2 purity. In this case, the membrane module is over designed. Hence, maintaining a driving force is of utmost importance to deliver the functionality of process separation.

  13. Characteristics of membrane fouling in submerged membrane bioreactor under sub-critical flux operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y C; Huang, C P; Pan, Jill R; Lee, H C

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the membrane bioreactor (MBR) process has become one of the novel technologies to enhance the performance of biological treatment of wastewater. Membrane bioreactor process uses the membrane unit to replace a sediment tank, and this can greatly enhance treatment performance. However, membrane fouling in MBR restricts its widespread application because it leads to permeate flux decline, making more frequent membrane cleaning and replacement necessary, which then increases operating and maintenance costs. This study investigated the sludge characteristics in membrane fouling under sub-critical flux operation and also assessed the effect of shear stress on membrane fouling. Membrane fouling was slow under sub-critical flux operation. However, as filamentous microbes became dominant in the reactor, membrane fouling increased dramatically due to the increased viscosity and polysaccharides. A close link was found between membrane fouling and the amount of polysaccharides in soluble EPS. The predominant resistance was the cake resistance which could be minimized by increasing the shear stress. However, the resistance of colloids and solutes was not apparently reduced by increasing shear stress. Therefore, smaller particles such as macromolecules (e.g. polysaccharides) may play an important role in membrane fouling under sub-critical flux operation.

  14. Exercise increases the plasma membrane content of the Na+ -K+ pump and its mRNA in rat skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiridis, T; Wong, P P; Liu, Z; Rodgers, C D; Vranic, M; Klip, A

    1996-02-01

    Muscle fibers adapt to ionic challenges of exercise by increasing the plasma membrane Na+-K+ pump activity. Chronic exercise training has been shown to increase the total amount of Na+-K+ pumps present in skeletal muscle. However, the mechanism of adaptation of the Na+-K+ pump to an acute bout of exercise has not been determined, and it is not known whether it involves alterations in the content of plasma membrane pump subunits. Here we examine the effect of 1 h of treadmill running (20 m/min, 10% grade) on the subcellular distribution and expression of Na+-K+ pump subunits in rat skeletal muscles. Red type I and IIa (red-I/IIa) and white type IIa and IIb (white-IIa/IIb) hindlimb muscles from resting and exercised female Sprague-Dawley rats were removed for subcellular fractionation. By homogenization and gradient centrifugation, crude membranes and purified plasma membranes were isolated and subjected to gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting by using pump subunit-specific antibodies. Furthermore, mRNA was isolated from specific red type I (red-I) and white type IIb (white-IIb) muscles and subjected to Northern blotting by using subunit-specific probes. In both red-I/IIa and white-IIa/IIb muscles, exercise significantly raised the plasma membrane content of the alpha1-subunit of the pump by 64 +/- 24 and 55 +/- 22%, respectively (P < 0.05), and elevated the alpha2-polypeptide by 43 +/- 22 and 94 +/- 39%, respectively (P < 0.05). No significant effect of exercise could be detected on the amount of these subunits in an internal membrane fraction or in total membranes. In addition, exercise significantly increased the alpha1-subunit mRNA in red-I muscle (by 50 +/- 7%; P < 0.05) and the beta2-subunit mRNA in white-IIb muscles (by 64 +/- 19%; P < 0.01), but the alpha2- and beta1-mRNA levels were unaffected in this time period. We conclude that increased presence of alpha1- and alpha2-polypeptides at the plasma membrane and subsequent elevation of the alpha1- and beta2

  15. Membrane fusion inducers, chloroquine and spermidine increase lipoplex-mediated gene transfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong-Baeza, Carlos; Bustos, Israel; Serna, Manuel; Tescucano, Alonso; Alcantara-Farfan, Veronica; Ibanez, Miguel; Montanez, Cecilia; Wong, Carlos; Baeza, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Gene transfection into mammalian cells can be achieved with viral and non-viral vectors. Non-viral vectors, such as cationic lipids that form lipoplexes with DNA, are safer and more stable than viral vectors, but their transfection efficiencies are lower. Here we describe that the simultaneous treatment with a membrane fusion inducer (chlorpromazine or procainamide) plus the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine increases lipoplex-mediated gene transfection in human (HEK293 and C-33 A) and rat (PC12) cell lines (up to 9.2-fold), as well as in situ in BALB/c mice spleens and livers (up to 6-fold); and that the polyamine spermidine increases lipoplex-mediated gene transfection and expression in cell cultures. The use of these four drugs provides a novel, safe and relatively inexpensive way to considerably increase lipoplex-mediated gene transfection efficiency.

  16. Constitutively active ezrin increases membrane tension, slows migration, and impedes endothelial transmigration of lymphocytes in vivo in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Belkina, Natalya V; Park, Chung; Nambiar, Raj; Loughhead, Scott M; Patino-Lopez, Genaro; Ben-Aissa, Khadija; Hao, Jian-Jiang; Kruhlak, Michael J; Qi, Hai; von Andrian, Ulrich H; Kehrl, John H; Tyska, Matthew J; Shaw, Stephen

    2012-01-12

    ERM (ezrin, radixin moesin) proteins in lymphocytes link cortical actin to plasma membrane, which is regulated in part by ERM protein phosphorylation. To assess whether phosphorylation of ERM proteins regulates lymphocyte migration and membrane tension, we generated transgenic mice whose T-lymphocytes express low levels of ezrin phosphomimetic protein (T567E). In these mice, T-cell number in lymph nodes was reduced by 27%. Lymphocyte migration rate in vitro and in vivo in lymph nodes decreased by 18% to 47%. Lymphocyte membrane tension increased by 71%. Investigations of other possible underlying mechanisms revealed impaired chemokine-induced shape change/lamellipod extension and increased integrin-mediated adhesion. Notably, lymphocyte homing to lymph nodes was decreased by 30%. Unlike most described homing defects, there was not impaired rolling or sticking to lymph node vascular endothelium but rather decreased migration across that endothelium. Moreover, decreased numbers of transgenic T cells in efferent lymph suggested defective egress. These studies confirm the critical role of ERM dephosphorylation in regulating lymphocyte migration and transmigration. Of particular note, they identify phospho-ERM as the first described regulator of lymphocyte membrane tension, whose increase probably contributes to the multiple defects observed in the ezrin T567E transgenic mice.

  17. Dietary Tocotrienol/γ-Cyclodextrin Complex Increases Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and ATP Concentrations in the Brains of Aged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Schloesser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain aging is accompanied by a decrease in mitochondrial function. In vitro studies suggest that tocotrienols, including γ- and δ-tocotrienol (T3, may exhibit neuroprotective properties. However, little is known about the effect of dietary T3 on mitochondrial function in vivo. In this study, we monitored the effect of a dietary T3/γ-cyclodextrin complex (T3CD on mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels in the brain of 21-month-old mice. Mice were fed either a control diet or a diet enriched with T3CD providing 100 mg T3 per kg diet for 6 months. Dietary T3CD significantly increased mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels compared to those of controls. The increase in MMP and ATP due to dietary T3CD was accompanied by an increase in the protein levels of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM. Furthermore, dietary T3CD slightly increased the mRNA levels of superoxide dismutase, γ-glutamyl cysteinyl synthetase, and heme oxygenase 1 in the brain. Overall, the present data suggest that T3CD increases TFAM, mitochondrial membrane potential, and ATP synthesis in the brains of aged mice.

  18. Simulation Model of Membrane Gas Separator Using Aspen Custom Modeler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Dong-keun [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Gahui; Yun, Jinwon; Yu, Sangseok [Chungnam Nat’l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Membranes are used to separate pure gas from gas mixtures. In this study, three different types of mass transport through a membrane were developed in order to investigate the gas separation capabilities of a membrane. The three different models typically used are a lumped model, a multi-cell model, and a discretization model. Despite the multi-cell model producing similar results to a discretization model, the discretization model was selected for this investigation, due to the cell number dependence of a multi-cell model. The mass transport model was then used to investigate the effects of pressure difference, flow rate, total exposed area, and permeability. The results showed that the pressure difference increased with the stage cut, but the selectivity was a trade-off for the increasing pressure difference. Additionally, even though permeability is an important parameter, the selectivity and stage cut of the membrane converged as permeability increased.

  19. Dietary lipids differentially affect membranes from different areas of rooster sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongalhardo, D C; Leeson, S; Buhr, M M

    2009-05-01

    The present work aimed to compare the effect of dietary flax with other oil sources on rooster sperm membranes and on semen characteristics. White Leghorn roosters (16 per diet) were fed 1 of 4 treatments: control diet (CON), or a diet containing corn oil (CORN), fish oil (FISH), or flax seed (FLAX) as the lipid source. Semen from 4 birds (30 wk old) of each treatment was pooled, the sperm head (HM) and body membranes (BM) were isolated, and lipids were extracted and analyzed. Aspects of lipid composition tested were as follows: percentage of individual fatty acids (C14:0 to C24:1) in total fatty acids, percentage of fatty acid categories [saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated (PUFA), n-3 and n-6 PUFA, and n-6:n-3 ratio] within total fatty acids, and percentage of phospholipids [phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, and sphingomyelin] in total phospholipids. Sperm characteristics evaluated were as follows: volume, concentration, viability, percentage of motile cells, average path velocity, track speed, progressive velocity, lateral head displacement, straightness, and linearity. Diet did not affect membrane phospholipid ratios in either membrane but modified major fatty acids within certain phospholipids. Birds fed FISH and CORN showed, respectively, the highest and the lowest n-3 in sperm, causing reciprocal significant changes in n-6:n-3 ratio. Feeding FLAX caused intermediate effects in n-3, with values significantly lower than FISH but higher than CORN in HM (PC, PE, and phosphatidylinositol) and PC in BM (P < 0.05). In the PE phospholipids, FISH, followed by FLAX, increased n-3 in BM and decreased n-6 PUFA in HM. Sperm concentration was specifically correlated with the amount of 20:4n-6 in FLAX and 22:4n-6 in CON. In FLAX diets, straightness correlated with C18:0, n-3, and n-6:n-3 ratio. Diets containing distinct lipid sources differentially modify the lipid contents of HM and BM, with minor

  20. Metal nanoparticles/ionic liquid/cellulose: polymeric membrane for hydrogenation reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Alexandre Gelesky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhodium and platinum nanoparticles were supported in polymeric membranes with 10, 20 and 40 µm thickness. The polymeric membranes were prepared combining cellulose acetate and the ionic liquid (IL 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonylimide (BMI.(NTf2. The presence of metal nanoparticles induced an increase in the polymeric membrane surface areas. The increase of the IL content resulted in an improvement of elasticity and decrease in tenacity and toughness, whereas the stress at break was not affected. The presence of IL probably causes an increase in the separation between the cellulose molecules that result in a higher flexibility and processability of the polymeric membrane. The CA/IL/M(0 combinations exhibit an excellent synergistic effect that enhances the activity and durability of the catalyst for the hydrogenation of cyclohexene. The CA/IL/M(0 polymeric membrane displays higher catalytic activity (up to 7.353 h-1 for the 20 mm of CA/IL/Pt(0 and stability than the nanoparticles dispersed only in the IL.

  1. Chitosan/Carboxymethylcellulose/Ionic Liquid/Ag(0) Nanoparticles Form a Membrane with Antimicrobial Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadros, C.; Faria, V.W.; Scheeren, C.W.; Klein, M.P.; Hertz, P.F.

    2013-01-01

    Silver metal nanoparticles were immobilized in chitosan/carboxymethylcellulose/BMI.BF4(1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid) (CS/CMC/IL) to form polymeric membrane with 20 μm thickness. The CS/CMC/IL polymeric membrane was prepared using a simple solution blending method. Irregularly shaped Ag(0) nanoparticles with monomodal size distributions of nm Ag(0) were immobilized in the membrane. The presence of small Ag(0) nanoparticles induced an augmentation in the CS/CMC/IL film surface areas. The CS/CMC/IL membrane containing Ag(0) showed increase antimicrobial activity the Ag(0) concentration increased up to saturation at 10 mg. CS/CMC/IL membrane that contains Ag(0) nanoparticles has enhanced durability of the membrane and exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  2. Selectivity of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino S. Aricò

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonic acid-functionalized polymer electrolyte membranes alternative to Nafion® were developed. These were hydrocarbon systems, such as blend sulfonated polyetheretherketone (s-PEEK, new generation perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA systems, and composite zirconium phosphate–PFSA polymers. The membranes varied in terms of composition, equivalent weight, thickness, and filler and were investigated with regard to their methanol permeation characteristics and proton conductivity for application in direct methanol fuel cells. The behavior of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEA was investigated in fuel cell with the aim to individuate a correlation between membrane characteristics and their performance in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC. The power density of the DMFC at 60 °C increased according to a square root-like function of the membrane selectivity. This was defined as the reciprocal of the product between area specific resistance and crossover. The power density achieved at 60 °C for the most promising s-PEEK-based membrane-electrode assembly (MEA was higher than the benchmark Nafion® 115-based MEA (77 mW·cm−2 vs. 64 mW·cm−2. This result was due to a lower methanol crossover (47 mA·cm−2 equivalent current density for s-PEEK vs. 120 mA·cm−2 for Nafion® 115 at 60 °C as recorded at OCV with 2 M methanol and a suitable area specific resistance (0.15 Ohm cm2 for s-PEEK vs. 0.22 Ohm cm2 for Nafion® 115.

  3. Selectivity of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, Antonino S; Sebastian, David; Schuster, Michael; Bauer, Bernd; D'Urso, Claudia; Lufrano, Francesco; Baglio, Vincenzo

    2015-11-24

    Sulfonic acid-functionalized polymer electrolyte membranes alternative to Nafion(®) were developed. These were hydrocarbon systems, such as blend sulfonated polyetheretherketone (s-PEEK), new generation perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) systems, and composite zirconium phosphate-PFSA polymers. The membranes varied in terms of composition, equivalent weight, thickness, and filler and were investigated with regard to their methanol permeation characteristics and proton conductivity for application in direct methanol fuel cells. The behavior of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) was investigated in fuel cell with the aim to individuate a correlation between membrane characteristics and their performance in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The power density of the DMFC at 60 °C increased according to a square root-like function of the membrane selectivity. This was defined as the reciprocal of the product between area specific resistance and crossover. The power density achieved at 60 °C for the most promising s-PEEK-based membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) was higher than the benchmark Nafion(®) 115-based MEA (77 mW·cm(-2) vs. 64 mW·cm(-2)). This result was due to a lower methanol crossover (47 mA·cm(-2) equivalent current density for s-PEEK vs. 120 mA·cm(-2) for Nafion(®) 115 at 60 °C as recorded at OCV with 2 M methanol) and a suitable area specific resistance (0.15 Ohm cm² for s-PEEK vs. 0.22 Ohm cm² for Nafion(®) 115).

  4. Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability through modulation of intracellular calcium levels in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klíma, Petr; Laňková, Martina; Vandenbussche, Filip; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Petrášek, Jan

    2018-05-01

    Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability for water and small organic compounds through their stimulatory effect on plasma membrane calcium channels, with subsequent modulation of intracellular calcium levels and ion homeostasis. The action of silver ions at the plant plasma membrane is largely connected with the inhibition of ethylene signalling thanks to the ability of silver ion to replace the copper cofactor in the ethylene receptor. A link coupling the action of silver ions and cellular auxin efflux has been suggested earlier by their possible direct interaction with auxin efflux carriers or by influencing plasma membrane permeability. Using tobacco BY-2 cells, we demonstrate here that besides a dramatic increase of efflux of synthetic auxins 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), treatment with AgNO 3 resulted in enhanced efflux of the cytokinin trans-zeatin (tZ) as well as the auxin structural analogues tryptophan (Trp) and benzoic acid (BA). The application of AgNO 3 was accompanied by gradual water loss and plasmolysis. The observed effects were dependent on the availability of extracellular calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) as shown by comparison of transport assays in Ca 2+ -rich and Ca 2+ -free buffers and upon treatment with inhibitors of plasma membrane Ca 2+ -permeable channels Al 3+ and ruthenium red, both abolishing the effect of AgNO 3 . Confocal microscopy of Ca 2+ -sensitive fluorescence indicator Fluo-4FF, acetoxymethyl (AM) ester suggested that the extracellular Ca 2+ availability is necessary to trigger the response to silver ions and that the intracellular Ca 2+ pool alone is not sufficient for this effect. Altogether, our data suggest that in plant cells the effects of silver ions originate from the primal modification of the internal calcium levels, possibly by their interaction with Ca 2+ -permeable channels at the plasma membrane.

  5. Chain scission and anti fungal effect of electron beam on cellulose membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanichapichart, Pikul; Taweepreeda, Wirach; Nawae, Safitree; Choomgan, Pastraporn; Yasenchak, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Two types of bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes were produced under a modified H and S medium using sucrose as a carbon source, with (CCB) and without (SHB) coconut juice supplement. Both membranes showed similar crystallinity of 69.24 and 71.55%. After being irradiated with E-beams under oxygen limited and ambient condition, the results from water contact angle showed that only the irradiated membrane CCB was increased from 30 to 40 degrees, and irradiation under oxygen ambient condition provided the greatest value. Comparing with the control membranes, smaller water flux was the cases after electron beam irradiation which indicated a reduction of membrane pore area. However, the results from molecular weight cut off (MWCO) revealed that chain scission was greater for membrane SHB and its cut off was increased from 28,000 Da to more than 35,000 Da. FTIR analysis revealed some changes in membrane functional groups, corresponding with the above results. These changes initiated new property of cellulose membranes, an anti-fungal food wrap. - Highlights: ► Electron beam irradiation increased membrane hydrophobicity and molecular weight cut off. ► The irradiation caused chain scissoring and anti fungal property of cellulose membrane. ► FT-IR studies revealed changes in functional groups causing a decrease in membrane moisture. ► Anti fungal test of cellulose membrane showed the same shelf life as polyethylene sheet.

  6. Membrane processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The membrane processes have played important role in the industrial separation process. These technologies can be found in all industrial areas such as food, beverages, metallurgy, pulp and paper, textile, pharmaceutical, automotive, biotechnology and chemical industry, as well as in water treatment for domestic and industrial application. Although these processes are known since twentieth century, there are still many studies that focus on the testing of new membranes' materials and determining of conditions for optimal selectivity, i. e. the optimum transmembrane pressure (TMP) or permeate flux to minimize fouling. Moreover the researchers proposed some calculation methods to predict the membrane processes properties. In this article, the laboratory scale experiments of membrane separation techniques, as well their validation by calculation methods are presented. Because membrane is the "heart" of the process, experimental and computational methods for its characterization are also described.

  7. Counter-current membrane reactor for WGS process: Membrane design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piemonte, Vincenzo; Favetta, Barbara [Department of Chemical Engineering Materials and Environment, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); De Falco, Marcello [Faculty of Engineering, University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, via Alvaro del Portillo 21, 00128 Rome (Italy); Basile, Angelo [CNR-ITM, c/o University of Calabria, Via Pietro Bucci, Cubo 17/C, 87030 Rende (CS) (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    Water gas shift (WGS) is a thermodynamically limited reaction which has to operate at low temperatures, reducing kinetics rate and increasing the amount of catalyst required to reach valuable CO conversions. It has been widely demonstrated that the integration of hydrogen selective membranes is a promising way to enhance WGS reactors performance: a Pd-based MR operated successfully overcoming the thermodynamic constraints of a traditional reactor thanks to the removal of hydrogen from reaction environment. In the first part of a MR, the H{sub 2} partial pressure starts from a minimum value since the reaction has not started. As a consequence, if the carrier gas in the permeation zone is sent in counter-current, which is the most efficient configuration, in the first reactor section the H{sub 2} partial pressure in reaction zone is low while in the permeation zone is high, potentially implying back permeation. This means a bad utilization of the first part of the membrane area and thus, a worsening of the MR performance with lower H{sub 2} recovery and lower CO conversion with respect to the case in which the whole selective surface is properly used. To avoid this problem different MR configurations were evaluated by a 1-D pseudo-homogeneous model, validated with WGS industrial data reported in scientific literature. It was demonstrated that the permeated H{sub 2} flow rate per membrane surface, i.e. the membrane flux, strongly improves if selective membrane is placed only in the second part of the reactor: in fact, if the membrane is placed at L{sub m}/L{sub tot} = 0.5, the membrane flux is 0.2 kmol/(m{sup 2}h) about, if it is placed along all reactor tube (L{sub m}/L{sub tot} = 1), flux is 0.05 kmol/(m{sup 2}h). The effect of the L/D reactor ratio and of the reactor wall temperature on the CO conversion were also assessed. (author)

  8. Cellular blebs: pressure-driven, axisymmetric, membrane protrusions

    KAUST Repository

    Woolley, Thomas E.

    2013-07-16

    Blebs are cellular protrusions that are used by cells for multiple purposes including locomotion. A mechanical model for the problem of pressure-driven blebs based on force and moment balances of an axisymmetric shell model is proposed. The formation of a bleb is initiated by weakening the shell over a small region, and the deformation of the cellular membrane from the cortex is obtained during inflation. However, simply weakening the shell leads to an area increase of more than 4 %, which is physically unrealistic. Thus, the model is extended to include a reconfiguration process that allows large blebs to form with small increases in area. It is observed that both geometric and biomechanical constraints are important in this process. In particular, it is shown that although blebs are driven by a pressure difference across the cellular membrane, it is not the limiting factor in determining bleb size. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  9. Reactive Membrane Barriers for Containment of Subsurface Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William A. Arnold; Edward L. Cussler

    2007-02-26

    factor of three when groundwater was used in place of deionized water. The performance of high density polyethylene (HDPE) membranes containing Fe{sup 0} was then evaluating using carbon tetrachloride as the target contaminant. Only with a hydrophilic additive (glycerol), was the iron able to extend lag times. Lag times were increased by a factor of 15, but only 2-3% of the iron was used, likely due to formation of oxide precipitates on the iron surface, which slowed the reaction. With thicker membranes and lower carbon tetrachloride concentrations, it is expected that performance will improve. Previous models for reactive membranes were also extended. The lag time is a measurement of when the barrier is breached, but contaminants do slowly leak through prior to the lag time. Thus, two parameters, the leakage and the kill time, were developed to determine when a certain amount of pollutant has escaped (the kill time) or when a given exposure (concentration x time) occurs (the leakage). Finally, a model was developed to explain the behavior of mobile reaction products in reactive barrier membranes. Although the goal of the technology is to avoid such products, it is important to be able to predict how these products will behave. Interestingly, calculations show that for any mobile reaction products, one half of the mass will diffuse into the containment area and one half will escape, assuming that the volumes of the containment area and the surrounding environment are much larger than the barrier membrane. These parameters/models will aid in the effective design of barrier membranes.

  10. Reactive Membrane Barriers for Containment of Subsurface Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William A. Arnold; Edward L. Cussler

    2007-01-01

    groundwater was used in place of deionized water. The performance of high density polyethylene (HDPE) membranes containing Fe 0 was then evaluating using carbon tetrachloride as the target contaminant. Only with a hydrophilic additive (glycerol), was the iron able to extend lag times. Lag times were increased by a factor of 15, but only 2-3% of the iron was used, likely due to formation of oxide precipitates on the iron surface, which slowed the reaction. With thicker membranes and lower carbon tetrachloride concentrations, it is expected that performance will improve. Previous models for reactive membranes were also extended. The lag time is a measurement of when the barrier is breached, but contaminants do slowly leak through prior to the lag time. Thus, two parameters, the leakage and the kill time, were developed to determine when a certain amount of pollutant has escaped (the kill time) or when a given exposure (concentration x time) occurs (the leakage). Finally, a model was developed to explain the behavior of mobile reaction products in reactive barrier membranes. Although the goal of the technology is to avoid such products, it is important to be able to predict how these products will behave. Interestingly, calculations show that for any mobile reaction products, one half of the mass will diffuse into the containment area and one half will escape, assuming that the volumes of the containment area and the surrounding environment are much larger than the barrier membrane. These parameters/models will aid in the effective design of barrier membranes

  11. G protein-membrane interactions II: Effect of G protein-linked lipids on membrane structure and G protein-membrane interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Jesús; Ibarguren, Maitane; Álvarez, Rafael; Terés, Silvia; Lladó, Victoria; Piotto, Stefano P; Concilio, Simona; Busquets, Xavier; López, David J; Escribá, Pablo V

    2017-09-01

    G proteins often bear myristoyl, palmitoyl and isoprenyl moieties, which favor their association with the membrane and their accumulation in G Protein Coupled Receptor-rich microdomains. These lipids influence the biophysical properties of membranes and thereby modulate G protein binding to bilayers. In this context, we showed here that geranylgeraniol, but neither myristate nor palmitate, increased the inverted hexagonal (H II ) phase propensity of phosphatidylethanolamine-containing membranes. While myristate and palmitate preferentially associated with phosphatidylcholine membranes, geranylgeraniol favored nonlamellar-prone membranes. In addition, Gαi 1 monomers had a higher affinity for lamellar phases, while Gβγ and Gαβγ showed a marked preference for nonlamellar prone membranes. Moreover, geranylgeraniol enhanced the binding of G protein dimers and trimers to phosphatidylethanolamine-containing membranes, yet it decreased that of monomers. By contrast, both myristate and palmitate increased the Gαi 1 preference for lamellar membranes. Palmitoylation reinforced the binding of the monomer to PC membranes and myristoylation decreased its binding to PE-enriched bilayer. Finally, binding of dimers and trimers to lamellar-prone membranes was decreased by palmitate and myristate, but it was increased in nonlamellar-prone bilayers. These results demonstrate that co/post-translational G protein lipid modifications regulate the membrane lipid structure and that they influence the physico-chemical properties of membranes, which in part explains why G protein subunits sort to different plasma membrane domains. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Lipid Therapy: Drugs Targeting Biomembranes edited by Pablo V. Escribá. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Increased oxidative stress in human fetal membranes overlying the cervix from term non-labouring and post labour deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, M; Barker, G; Menon, R; Lappas, M

    2012-08-01

    Enzymatic breakdown of the collagen-rich extracellular matrix (ECM) that connects the amnion and chorion layers of the fetal membranes is one of the key events leading to rupture of membranes. Oxidant stress caused by increased formation of reactive oxygen species and/or reduced antioxidant capacity may predispose to membrane rupture, a major cause of preterm birth. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human labour and supracervical (SC) apposition on antioxidant enzymes and 8-isoprostane (a marker of lipid peroxidation). To determine the effect of human labour on oxidative stress status, fetal membranes from the SC site (SCS) were collected from women at term Caesarean section (no labour), and from the site of membrane rupture (SOR) after spontaneous labour onset and delivery (post labour). To determine the effect of SC apposition on oxidative stress status, amnion was collected from the SCS and a distal site (DS) in women at term Caesarean section in the absence of labour. The release of 8-isoprostane was significantly higher in amnion from the SCS compared to DS, and in fetal membranes from the SOR compared to the SCS. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were lower in amnion from the SC compared to DS. SOD gene expression and enzyme activity were lower in fetal membranes after labour. There was no difference in expression or activity in catalase, GPx and glutathione reductase (GSR) between no labour and post labour fetal membranes. In primary amnion cells, SOD supplementation significantly augmented IL-1β induced MMP-9 expression and activity. In summary, non-labouring SC fetal membranes are characterised by reduced antioxidant enzyme activity when compared to distal membranes, and, as such, may be more susceptible to oxidative damage and thus membrane rupture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cardiolipin effects on membrane structure and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsay, Joseph D; Cosentino, Katia; Subburaj, Yamunadevi; García-Sáez, Ana J

    2013-12-23

    Cardiolipin (CL) is a lipid with unique properties solely found in membranes generating electrochemical potential. It contains four acyl chains and tends to form nonlamellar structures, which are believed to play a key role in membrane structure and function. Indeed, CL alterations have been linked to disorders such as Barth syndrome and Parkinson's disease. However, the molecular effects of CL on membrane organization remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the structure and physical properties of CL-containing membranes using confocal microscopy, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. We found that the fluidity of the lipid bilayer increased and its mechanical stability decreased with CL concentration, indicating that CL decreases the packing of the membrane. Although the presence of up to 20% CL gave rise to flat, stable bilayers, the inclusion of 5% CL promoted the formation of flowerlike domains that grew with time. Surprisingly, we often observed two membrane-piercing events in atomic force spectroscopy experiments with CL-containing membranes. Similar behavior was observed with a lipid mixture mimicking the mitochondrial outer membrane composition. This suggests that CL promotes the formation of membrane areas with apposed double bilayers or nonlamellar structures, similar to those proposed for mitochondrial contact sites. All together, we show that CL induces membrane alterations that support the role of CL in facilitating bilayer structure remodeling, deformation, and permeabilization.

  14. Polyhydroxybutyrate Targets Mammalian Mitochondria and Increases Permeability of Plasmalemmal and Mitochondrial Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elustondo, Pia A.; Angelova, Plamena R.; Kawalec, Michał; Michalak, Michał; Kurcok, Piotr; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Pavlov, Evgeny V.

    2013-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is a polyester of 3-hydroxybutyric acid (HB) that is ubiquitously present in all organisms. In higher eukaryotes PHB is found in the length of 10 to 100 HB units and can be present in free form as well as in association with proteins and inorganic polyphosphate. It has been proposed that PHB can mediate ion transport across lipid bilayer membranes. We investigated the ability of PHB to interact with living cells and isolated mitochondria and the effects of these interactions on membrane ion transport. We performed experiments using a fluorescein derivative of PHB (fluo-PHB). We found that fluo-PHB preferentially accumulated inside the mitochondria of HeLa cells. Accumulation of fluo-PHB induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization. This membrane depolarization was significantly delayed by the inhibitor of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore - Cyclosporin A. Further experiments using intact cells as well as isolated mitochondria confirmed that the effects of PHB directly linked to its ability to facilitate ion transport, including calcium, across the membranes. We conclude that PHB demonstrates ionophoretic properties in biological membranes and this effect is most profound in mitochondria due to the selective accumulation of the polymer in this organelle. PMID:24086638

  15. Progesterone increases nitric oxide synthesis in human vascular endothelial cells through activation of membrane progesterone receptor-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yefei; Dong, Jing; Thomas, Peter

    2015-05-15

    Progesterone exerts beneficial effects on the human cardiovascular system by inducing rapid increases in nitric oxide (NO) production in vascular endothelial cells, but the receptors mediating these nongenomic progesterone actions remain unclear. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as a model, we show that progesterone binds to plasma membranes of HUVECs with the characteristics of membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs). The selective mPR agonist Org OD 02-0 had high binding affinity for the progesterone receptor on HUVEC membranes, whereas nuclear PR (nPR) agonists R5020 and medroxyprogesterone acetate displayed low binding affinities. Immunocytochemical and Western blot analyses confirmed that mPRs are expressed in HUVECs and are localized on their plasma membranes. NO levels increased rapidly after treatment with 20 nM progesterone, Org OD 02-0, and a progesterone-BSA conjugate but not with R5020, suggesting that this progesterone action is at the cell surface and initiated through mPRs. Progesterone and Org OD 02-0 (20 nM) also significantly increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and eNOS phosphorylation. Knockdown of mPRα expression by treatment with small-interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked the stimulatory effects of 20 nM progesterone on NO production and eNOS phosphorylation, whereas knockdown of nPR was ineffective. Treatment with PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase inhibitors blocked the stimulatory effects of progesterone, Org OD 02-0, and progesterone-BSA on NO production and eNOS phosphorylation and also prevented progesterone- and Org OD 02-0-induced increases in Akt and ERK phosphorylation. The results suggest that progesterone stimulation of NO production in HUVECs is mediated by mPRα and involves signaling through PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase pathways. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. In Situ Spectroscopic Ellipsometry in the Field of Industrial Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Ogieglo, Wojciech

    2018-01-01

    Industrial membranes are playing an ever increasing role in the ongoing and necessary transition of our society towards more sustainable growth and development. Already today membranes offer more energy efficient alternatives to the traditional often very energy intensive industrial separation processes such as (cryogenic) distillation or crystallization. For many years reverse osmosis membranes have offered a viable method for the production of potable water via desalination processes and their significance continuously increases. Recently, membrane technology has been demonstrated to play a significant role in potential methods to generate or store energy on an industrial scale. For molecular separations often the key for an efficient membrane operation often lies in the application of an (ultra-) thin organic polymer, inorganic or hybrid selective layer whose interaction with the separated mixture defines the membrane performance. Ellipsometry has started gaining increasing attention in this area due to its large potential to conduct in-situ, non-destructive and very precise analysis of the film-fluid interactions. In this chapter, we aim to review the important recent developments in the application of ellipsometry in industrial membrane-related studies. We briefly introduce the basics of membrane science and discuss the used experimental setups and optical models. Further we focus on fundamental studies of sorption, transport and penetrant-induced phenomena in thin films exposed to organic solvents or high pressure gases. The application of in-situ ellipsometry is discussed for studies of new, promising membrane materials and the use of the technique for emerging direct studies of operating membranes is highlighted.

  17. In Situ Spectroscopic Ellipsometry in the Field of Industrial Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Ogieglo, Wojciech

    2018-05-06

    Industrial membranes are playing an ever increasing role in the ongoing and necessary transition of our society towards more sustainable growth and development. Already today membranes offer more energy efficient alternatives to the traditional often very energy intensive industrial separation processes such as (cryogenic) distillation or crystallization. For many years reverse osmosis membranes have offered a viable method for the production of potable water via desalination processes and their significance continuously increases. Recently, membrane technology has been demonstrated to play a significant role in potential methods to generate or store energy on an industrial scale. For molecular separations often the key for an efficient membrane operation often lies in the application of an (ultra-) thin organic polymer, inorganic or hybrid selective layer whose interaction with the separated mixture defines the membrane performance. Ellipsometry has started gaining increasing attention in this area due to its large potential to conduct in-situ, non-destructive and very precise analysis of the film-fluid interactions. In this chapter, we aim to review the important recent developments in the application of ellipsometry in industrial membrane-related studies. We briefly introduce the basics of membrane science and discuss the used experimental setups and optical models. Further we focus on fundamental studies of sorption, transport and penetrant-induced phenomena in thin films exposed to organic solvents or high pressure gases. The application of in-situ ellipsometry is discussed for studies of new, promising membrane materials and the use of the technique for emerging direct studies of operating membranes is highlighted.

  18. Sol-gel synthesized of nanocomposite palladium-alumina ceramic membrane for H{sub 2} permeability: Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, A.L.; Mustafa, N.N.N. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2007-08-15

    Palladium-alumina membrane with mesopore and narrow pore size distribution was prepared by the sol-gel method. Effect of the finely dispersed metal on the microstructure and the characteristic properties of the palladium-alumina membrane were investigated. Observations were made on membrane weight loss, morphology, pore structure, pore size, surface area, pore surface fractal and membrane's crystal structure. Autosorb analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis were employed in the membrane characterization. Autosorb analysis found that, BET surface area decreased and pore size of the membrane increased with the increasing of calcinations temperature (500-1100{sup o}C) and with the increasing of palladium amount in the membrane. FTIR and TG/DTA analysis show that the suitable temperature for calcinations of palladium-alumina membrane is at 700{sup o}C. Palladium metals are highly dispersed at calcinations temperature of 700{sup o}C as observed by TEM analysis. The fine crystallinity of the palladium and {gamma}-alumina phase was obtained after calcined at 700{sup o}C. The SEM morphology shows a smooth and free crack layer of palladium-alumina membrane after repeating the process of dipping, drying and calcinations at temperature of 700{sup o}C. The membrane also successfully coated with a good adhesion on support. The thickness of the final membrane layer was estimated as 9{mu} m. (author)

  19. Attention Increases Spike Count Correlations between Visual Cortical Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marlene R.

    2016-01-01

    Visual attention, which improves perception of attended locations or objects, has long been known to affect many aspects of the responses of neuronal populations in visual cortex. There are two nonmutually exclusive hypotheses concerning the neuronal mechanisms that underlie these perceptual improvements. The first hypothesis, that attention improves the information encoded by a population of neurons in a particular cortical area, has considerable physiological support. The second hypothesis is that attention improves perception by selectively communicating relevant visual information. This idea has been tested primarily by measuring interactions between neurons on very short timescales, which are mathematically nearly independent of neuronal interactions on longer timescales. We tested the hypothesis that attention changes the way visual information is communicated between cortical areas on longer timescales by recording simultaneously from neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) and the middle temporal area (MT) in rhesus monkeys. We used two independent and complementary approaches. Our correlative experiment showed that attention increases the trial-to-trial response variability that is shared between the two areas. In our causal experiment, we electrically microstimulated V1 and found that attention increased the effect of stimulation on MT responses. Together, our results suggest that attention affects both the way visual stimuli are encoded within a cortical area and the extent to which visual information is communicated between areas on behaviorally relevant timescales. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Visual attention dramatically improves the perception of attended stimuli. Attention has long been thought to act by selecting relevant visual information for further processing. It has been hypothesized that this selection is accomplished by increasing communication between neurons that encode attended information in different cortical areas. We recorded simultaneously

  20. Attention Increases Spike Count Correlations between Visual Cortical Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Douglas A; Cohen, Marlene R

    2016-07-13

    Visual attention, which improves perception of attended locations or objects, has long been known to affect many aspects of the responses of neuronal populations in visual cortex. There are two nonmutually exclusive hypotheses concerning the neuronal mechanisms that underlie these perceptual improvements. The first hypothesis, that attention improves the information encoded by a population of neurons in a particular cortical area, has considerable physiological support. The second hypothesis is that attention improves perception by selectively communicating relevant visual information. This idea has been tested primarily by measuring interactions between neurons on very short timescales, which are mathematically nearly independent of neuronal interactions on longer timescales. We tested the hypothesis that attention changes the way visual information is communicated between cortical areas on longer timescales by recording simultaneously from neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) and the middle temporal area (MT) in rhesus monkeys. We used two independent and complementary approaches. Our correlative experiment showed that attention increases the trial-to-trial response variability that is shared between the two areas. In our causal experiment, we electrically microstimulated V1 and found that attention increased the effect of stimulation on MT responses. Together, our results suggest that attention affects both the way visual stimuli are encoded within a cortical area and the extent to which visual information is communicated between areas on behaviorally relevant timescales. Visual attention dramatically improves the perception of attended stimuli. Attention has long been thought to act by selecting relevant visual information for further processing. It has been hypothesized that this selection is accomplished by increasing communication between neurons that encode attended information in different cortical areas. We recorded simultaneously from neurons in primary

  1. Increased production of outer membrane vesicles by cultured freshwater bacteria in response to ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamalier, Juliana P; Silva, Thiago P; Zarantonello, Victor; Dias, Felipe F; Melo, Rossana C N

    2017-01-01

    Secretion of membrane vesicles is an important biological process of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. This process has been characterized in pathogenic bacteria, but is less clear in non-pathogenic bacteria from aquatic ecosystems. Here, we investigated, for the first time, the process of formation of outer membranes vesicles (OMVs), nanoscale vesicles extruded from the outer membrane (OM) of gram-negative bacteria, in cultures of freshwater bacteria after exposure or not to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) as an environmental stressor. Non-axenic cultures of freshwater bacteria isolated from a Brazilian aquatic ecosystem (Funil reservoir) were exposed or not to UVR (UVA+UVB) over a 3h period, during which cell density, viability and ultrastructure were analyzed. First, we showed that UVR induce bacterial death. UVR triggered significant negative effect on cell density after 3h of UVR treatment. This decrease was directly associated with cell death as revealed by a cell viability fluorescent probe that enables the distinction of live/dead bacteria. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed changes indicative of cell death after 3h of UVR exposure, with significant increase of damaged cells compared to the control group. Second, we demonstrated that gram-negative bacteria release OMVs during normal growth and after UVR exposure. OMVs were clearly identified as round, membrane-bound vesicles budding off from the bacterial OM as isolated or clustered vesicles or free in the extracellular medium. Remarkably, quantitative TEM analyses showed that bacteria respond to UVR with increased formation of OMVs. Moreover, while OMVs numbers per intact or damaged cell did not differ in the untreated group, UVR led to a higher vesiculation by bacteria in process of death. This means that degenerating bacteria release OMVs before lysis and that this secretion might be an adaptive/protective response to rapid changes in environmental conditions such as UV radiation. Copyright

  2. Techno-economical evaluation of membrane based biogas upgrading system: A comparison between polymeric membrane and carbon membrane technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamim Haider

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A shift to renewable energy sources will reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and secure future energy supplies. In this context, utilization of biogas will play a prominent role. Focus of this work is upgrading of biogas to fuel quality by membrane separation using a carbon hollow fibre (CHF membrane and compare with a commercially available polymeric membrane (polyimide through economical assessment. CHF membrane modules were prepared for pilot plant testing and performance measured using CO2, O2, N2. The CHF membrane was modified through oxidation, chemical vapour deposition (CVD and reduction process thus tailoring pores for separation and increased performance. The post oxidized and reduced carbon hollow fibres (PORCHFs significantly exceeded CHF performance showing higher CO2 permeance (0.021 m3(STP/m2 h bar and CO2/CH4 selectivity of 246 (5 bar feed vs 50 mbar permeate pressure. The highest performance recorded through experiments (CHF and PORCHF was used as simulation basis. A membrane simulation model was used and interfaced to 8.6 V Aspen HYSYS. A 300 Nm3/h mixture of CO2/CH4 containing 30–50% CO2 at feed pressures 6, 8 and 10 bar, was simulated and process designed to recover 99.5% CH4 with 97.5% purity. Net present value (NPV was calculated for base case and optimal pressure (50 bar for CHF and PORCHF. The results indicated that recycle ratio (recycle/feed ranged from 0.2 to 10, specific energy from 0.15 to 0.8 (kW/Nm3feed and specific membrane area from 45 to 4700 (m2/Nm3feed. The high recycle ratio can create problems during start-up, as it would take long to adjust volumetric flow ratio towards 10. The best membrane separation system employs a three-stage system with polyimide at 10 bar, and a two-stage membrane system with PORCHF membranes at 50 bar with recycle. Considering biomethane price of 0.78 $/Nm3 and a lifetime of 15 years, the techno-economic analysis showed that payback time for

  3. Functionalized membranes for environmental remediation and selective separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li

    Membrane process including microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) have provided numerous successful applications ranging from drinking water purification, wastewater treatment, to material recovery. The addition of functional moiety in the membranes pores allows such membranes to be used in challenging areas including tunable separations, toxic metal capture, and catalysis. In this work, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) MF membrane was functionalized with temperature responsive (poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), PNIPAAm) and pH responsive (polyacrylic acid, PAA) polymers. It's revealed that the permeation of various molecules (water, salt and dextran) through the membrane can be thermally or pH controlled. The introduction of PAA as a polyelectrolyte offers an excellent platform for the immobilization of metal nanoparticles (NPs) applied for degradation of toxic chlorinated organics with significantly increased longevity and stability. The advantage of using temperature and pH responsive polymers/hydrogels also includes the high reactivity and effectiveness in dechlorination. Further advancement on the PVDF functionalization involved the alkaline treatment to create partially defluorinated membrane (Def-PVDF) with conjugated double bounds allowing for the covalent attachment of different polymers. The PAA-Def-PVDF membrane shows pH responsive behavior on both the hydraulic permeability and solute retention. The sponge-like PVDF (SPVDF) membranes by phase inversion were developed through casting PVDF solution on polyester backing. The SPVDF membrane was demonstrated to have 4 times more surface area than commercial PVDF MF membrane, allowing for enhanced nanoparticles loading for chloro-organics degradation. The advanced functionalization method and process were also validated to be able to be scaled-up through the evaluation of full-scale functionalized membrane provided by Ultura Inc. California, USA. Nanofiltration (NF

  4. Increased Uptake of Chelated Copper Ions by Lolium perenne Attributed to Amplified Membrane and Endodermal Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthea Johnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The contributions of mechanisms by which chelators influence metal translocation to plant shoot tissues are analyzed using a combination of numerical modelling and physical experiments. The model distinguishes between apoplastic and symplastic pathways of water and solute movement. It also includes the barrier effects of the endodermis and plasma membrane. Simulations are used to assess transport pathways for free and chelated metals, identifying mechanisms involved in chelate-enhanced phytoextraction. Hypothesized transport mechanisms and parameters specific to amendment treatments are estimated, with simulated results compared to experimental data. Parameter values for each amendment treatment are estimated based on literature and experimental values, and used for model calibration and simulation of amendment influences on solute transport pathways and mechanisms. Modeling indicates that chelation alters the pathways for Cu transport. For free ions, Cu transport to leaf tissue can be described using purely apoplastic or transcellular pathways. For strong chelators (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA, transport by the purely apoplastic pathway is insufficient to represent measured Cu transport to leaf tissue. Consistent with experimental observations, increased membrane permeability is required for simulating translocation in EDTA and DTPA treatments. Increasing the membrane permeability is key to enhancing phytoextraction efficiency.

  5. Photodynamic Action of LED-Activated Curcumin against Staphylococcus aureus Involving Intracellular ROS Increase and Membrane Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the effect of photodynamic action of LED-activated curcumin on cell viability, membrane permeability, and intracellular reactive oxygen species of Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Staphylococcus aureus was incubated with the different concentrations of curcumin for 60 min and then irradiated by blue light with the wavelength of 470 nm and with light dose of 3 J/cm2. The colony forming unit assay was used to investigate photocytotoxicity of curcumin on Staphylococcus aureus, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM and flow cytometry (FCM for assaying membrane permeability, FCM analysis with DCFH-DA staining for measuring the intracellular ROS level, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM for observing morphology and structure. Results. Blue light-activated curcumin significantly killed Staphylococcus aureus in a curcumin dose-dependent manner. TEM observed remarkable structural damages in S. aureus after light-activated curcumin. More red fluorescence of PI dye was found in S. aureus treated by blue light-activated curcumin than in those of the controlled bacterial cells. Intracellular ROS increase was observed after light-activated curcumin. Conclusion. Blue light-activated curcumin markedly damaged membrane permeability, resulting in cell death of Staphylococcus aureus and highlighted that intracellular ROS increase might be an important event in photodynamic killing of Staphylococcus aureus in the presence of curcumin.

  6. Influence of polyvinyl alcohol amount on producing in situ photo-crosslinked thioamide functionalized nanofiber membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeytuncu Bihter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinyl alcohol/maleic anhydride/acryloyl thioamide monomer (PVA/MA/ATM photo-cured nanofiber membranes and pure PVA nanofiber membranes were produced by electrospinning technique. In situ UV radiation was applied during the electrospinning in order to provide polymerization during the jet flight and promote crosslinking of ATM and MA with PVA. The cross-linking was examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The morphology and thermal behavior of electrospun nanofiber were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, respectively. The surface area of nanofiber membranes was measured by Brunauer-Emmert-Teller (BET analysis. Furthermore, water durability test was examined. Water durability test demonstrated that in situ photo-cured PVA/MA/ATM nanofiber membrane had the least average mass loss. The surface areas of PVA/MA/ATM nanofiber membranes were 160-280 m2/g. The surface area and diameter of PVA/MA/ATM nanofibers decreased as the PVA content increased. The diameter of nanofibers was obtained less than 100 nm. The results showed that the water-insoluble nanofiber membranes with better chemical and thermal resistance were obtained. These nanofiber membranes may be a promising candidate for the usage of water treatment.

  7. Neurotensin-loaded PLGA/CNC composite nanofiber membranes accelerate diabetic wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhifang; Liu, Yishu; Huang, Wenhua; Mo, Yunfei; Lan, Yong; Guo, Rui; Cheng, Biao

    2018-04-13

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are a threat to human health and can lead to amputation and even death. Recently neurotensin (NT), an inflammatory modulator in wound healing, was found to be beneficial for diabetic wound healing. As we demonstrated previously, polylactide-polyglycolide (PLGA) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) (PLGA/CNC) nanofiber membranes show good cytocompatibility and facilitate fibroblast adhesion, spreading and proliferation. PLGA/CNC nanofiber membranes are novel materials that have not been used previously as NT carriers in diabetic wounds. This study aims to explore the therapeutic efficacy and possible mechanisms of NT-loaded PLGA/CNC nanofiber membranes in full-thickness skin wounds in spontaneously diabetic mice. The results showed that NT could be sustained released from NT-loaded PLGA/CNC composite nanofiber membranes for 2 weeks. NT-loaded PLGA/CNC composite nanofiber membranes induced more rapid healing than other control groups. After NT exposure, the histological scores of the epidermal and dermal regeneration and the ratios of the fibrotic area to the whole area were increased. NT-loaded PLGA/CNC composite nanofiber membranes also decreased the expressions of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6. These results suggest that NT-loaded PLGA/CNC composite nanofiber membranes for sustained delivery of NT should effectively promote tissue regeneration for the treatment of DFUs.

  8. Aquaporin based biomimetic membrane in forward osmosis: Chemical cleaning resistance and practical operation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhenyu

    2017-07-27

    Aquaporin plays a promising role in fabricating high performance biomimetic forward osmosis (FO) membranes. However, aquaporin as a protein also has a risk of denaturation caused by various chemicals, resulting in a possible decay of membrane performance. The present study tested a novel aquaporin based biomimetic membrane in simulated membrane cleaning processes. The effects of cleaning agents on water flux and salt rejection were evaluated. The membrane showed a good resistance to the chemical agents. The water flux after chemical cleaning showed significant increases, particularly after cleaning with NaOCl and Alconox. Changes in the membrane structure and increased hydrophilicity in the surrounding areas of the aquaporin may be accountable for the increase in water permeability. The membrane shows stable salt rejection up to 99% after all cleaning agents were tested. A 15-day experiment with secondary wastewater effluent as the feed solution and seawater as the draw solution showed a stable flux and high salt rejection. The average rejection of the dissolved organic carbon from wastewater after the 15-day test was 90%. The results demonstrated that the aquaporin based biomimetic FO membrane exhibits chemical resistance for most agents used in membrane cleaning procedures, maintaining a stable flux and high salt rejection.

  9. Aquaporin based biomimetic membrane in forward osmosis: Chemical cleaning resistance and practical operation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhenyu; Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Bucs, Szilard; Fortunato, Luca; Hé lix-Nielsen, Claus; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Leiknes, TorOve; Amy, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Aquaporin plays a promising role in fabricating high performance biomimetic forward osmosis (FO) membranes. However, aquaporin as a protein also has a risk of denaturation caused by various chemicals, resulting in a possible decay of membrane performance. The present study tested a novel aquaporin based biomimetic membrane in simulated membrane cleaning processes. The effects of cleaning agents on water flux and salt rejection were evaluated. The membrane showed a good resistance to the chemical agents. The water flux after chemical cleaning showed significant increases, particularly after cleaning with NaOCl and Alconox. Changes in the membrane structure and increased hydrophilicity in the surrounding areas of the aquaporin may be accountable for the increase in water permeability. The membrane shows stable salt rejection up to 99% after all cleaning agents were tested. A 15-day experiment with secondary wastewater effluent as the feed solution and seawater as the draw solution showed a stable flux and high salt rejection. The average rejection of the dissolved organic carbon from wastewater after the 15-day test was 90%. The results demonstrated that the aquaporin based biomimetic FO membrane exhibits chemical resistance for most agents used in membrane cleaning procedures, maintaining a stable flux and high salt rejection.

  10. Structure and physical properties of bio membranes and model membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibor Hianik

    2006-01-01

    Bio membranes belong to the most important structures of the cell and the cell organelles. They play not only structural role of the barrier separating the external and internal part of the membrane but contain also various functional molecules, like receptors, ionic channels, carriers and enzymes. The cell membrane also preserves non-equilibrium state in a cell which is crucial for maintaining its excitability and other signaling functions. The growing interest to the bio membranes is also due to their unique physical properties. From physical point of view the bio membranes, that are composed of lipid bilayer into which are incorporated integral proteins and on their surface are anchored peripheral proteins and polysaccharides, represent liquid s crystal of smectic type. The bio membranes are characterized by anisotropy of structural and physical properties. The complex structure of bio membranes makes the study of their physical properties rather difficult. Therefore several model systems that mimic the structure of bio membranes were developed. Among them the lipid monolayers at an air-water interphase, bilayer lipid membranes, supported bilayer lipid membranes and liposomes are most known. This work is focused on the introduction into the physical word of the bio membranes and their models. After introduction to the membrane structure and the history of its establishment, the physical properties of the bio membranes and their models are stepwise presented. The most focus is on the properties of lipid monolayers, bilayer lipid membranes, supported bilayer lipid membranes and liposomes that were most detailed studied. This lecture has tutorial character that may be useful for undergraduate and graduate students in the area of biophysics, biochemistry, molecular biology and bioengineering, however it contains also original work of the author and his co-worker and PhD students, that may be useful also for specialists working in the field of bio membranes and model

  11. Model of SNARE-mediated membrane adhesion kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Warner

    Full Text Available SNARE proteins are conserved components of the core fusion machinery driving diverse membrane adhesion and fusion processes in the cell. In many cases micron-sized membranes adhere over large areas before fusion. Reconstituted in vitro assays have helped isolate SNARE mechanisms in small membrane adhesion-fusion and are emerging as powerful tools to study large membrane systems by use of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs. Here we model SNARE-mediated adhesion kinetics in SNARE-reconstituted GUV-GUV or GUV-supported bilayer experiments. Adhesion involves many SNAREs whose complexation pulls apposing membranes into contact. The contact region is a tightly bound rapidly expanding patch whose growth velocity v(patch increases with SNARE density Gamma(snare. We find three patch expansion regimes: slow, intermediate, fast. Typical experiments belong to the fast regime where v(patch ~ (Gamma(snare(2/3 depends on SNARE diffusivities and complexation binding constant. The model predicts growth velocities ~10 - 300 microm/s. The patch may provide a close contact region where SNAREs can trigger fusion. Extending the model to a simple description of fusion, a broad distribution of fusion times is predicted. Increasing SNARE density accelerates fusion by boosting the patch growth velocity, thereby providing more complexes to participate in fusion. This quantifies the notion of SNAREs as dual adhesion-fusion agents.

  12. Angiotensin II-induced hypertension increases plasma membrane Na pump activity by enhancing Na entry in rat thick ascending limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Vicente, Agustin; Garvin, Jeffrey L

    2013-11-01

    Thick ascending limbs (TAL) reabsorb 30% of the filtered NaCl load. Na enters the cells via apical Na-K-2Cl cotransporters and Na/H exchangers and exits via basolateral Na pumps. Chronic angiotensin II (ANG II) infusion increases net TAL Na transport and Na apical entry; however, little is known about its effects on the basolateral Na pump. We hypothesized that in rat TALs Na pump activity is enhanced by ANG II-infusion, a model of ANG II-induced hypertension. Rats were infused with 200 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1) ANG II or vehicle for 7 days, and TAL suspensions were obtained. We studied plasma membrane Na pump activity by measuring changes in 1) intracellular Na (Nai) induced by ouabain; and 2) ouabain-sensitive oxygen consumption (QO2). We found that the ouabain-sensitive rise in Nai in TALs from ANG II-infused rats was 12.8 ± 0.4 arbitrary fluorescent units (AFU)·mg(-1)·min(-1) compared with only 9.9 ± 1.1 AFU·mg(-1)·min(-1) in controls (P Na pump expression, the number of Na pumps in the plasma membrane, or the affinity for Na. When furosemide (1.1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) was coinfused with ANG II, no increase in plasma membrane Na pump activity was observed. We concluded that in ANG II-induced hypertension Na pump activity is increased in the plasma membrane of TALs and that this increase is caused by the chronically enhanced Na entry occurring in this model.

  13. Surface modification of titanium membrane by chemical vapor deposition and its electrochemical self-cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.W., E-mail: lynnww@sohu.com [School of Electronic and Information Engieering, Tianjin university, Tianjin, 300072 (China); School of Electronics Information Engieering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China); Li, J.X. [Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300160 (China); Gao, C.Y. [Chinese Peoples Armed Police Forces Academy, Langfang 065000 (China); Chang, M. [School of Electronic and Information Engieering, Tianjin university, Tianjin, 300072 (China); School of Electronics Information Engieering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Membrane separation is applied widely in many fields, while concentration polarization and membrane fouling, limiting its promotion and application greatly, are the bottlenecks in membrane application. Among which, membrane fouling is irreversible, membrane must be periodically cleaned or even replaced to restore permeability. Membrane cleaning has become one of Key issues in membrane separation areas. Considering incomparable electrochemical advantages of boron-doped diamond (BDD) film electrode over conventional electrode, a new composite membrane Ti/BDD, made by depositing CVD (chemical vapor deposition) boron-doped diamond film on titanium(Ti) membrane to modify porous titanium surface, that can be cleaned electrochemically is proposed. Feasibility of its preparation and application is discussed in this paper. Results shows that based on the unique electrochemical properties of diamond, cleaning level of this composite Ti/BDD membrane is significantly increased, making membrane life and efficiency improved prominently.

  14. Surface modification of titanium membrane by chemical vapor deposition and its electrochemical self-cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.W.; Li, J.X.; Gao, C.Y.; Chang, M.

    2011-01-01

    Membrane separation is applied widely in many fields, while concentration polarization and membrane fouling, limiting its promotion and application greatly, are the bottlenecks in membrane application. Among which, membrane fouling is irreversible, membrane must be periodically cleaned or even replaced to restore permeability. Membrane cleaning has become one of Key issues in membrane separation areas. Considering incomparable electrochemical advantages of boron-doped diamond (BDD) film electrode over conventional electrode, a new composite membrane Ti/BDD, made by depositing CVD (chemical vapor deposition) boron-doped diamond film on titanium(Ti) membrane to modify porous titanium surface, that can be cleaned electrochemically is proposed. Feasibility of its preparation and application is discussed in this paper. Results shows that based on the unique electrochemical properties of diamond, cleaning level of this composite Ti/BDD membrane is significantly increased, making membrane life and efficiency improved prominently.

  15. Membrane Contact Sites: Complex Zones for Membrane Association and Lipid Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Evan Quon; Christopher T. Beh

    2016-01-01

    Lipid transport between membranes within cells involves vesicle and protein carriers, but as agents of nonvesicular lipid transfer, the role of membrane contact sites has received increasing attention. As zones for lipid metabolism and exchange, various membrane contact sites mediate direct associations between different organelles. In particular, membrane contact sites linking the plasma membrane (PM) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) represent important regulators of lipid and ion transfer...

  16. A Short Review of Membrane Fouling in Forward Osmosis Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Youngpil; Mulcahy, Dennis; Zou, Linda; Kim, In S.

    2017-01-01

    Interest in forward osmosis (FO) research has rapidly increased in the last decade due to problems of water and energy scarcity. FO processes have been used in many applications, including wastewater reclamation, desalination, energy production, fertigation, and food and pharmaceutical processing. However, the inherent disadvantages of FO, such as lower permeate water flux compared to pressure driven membrane processes, concentration polarisation (CP), reverse salt diffusion, the energy consumption of draw solution recovery and issues of membrane fouling have restricted its industrial applications. This paper focuses on the fouling phenomena of FO processes in different areas, including organic, inorganic and biological categories, for better understanding of this long-standing issue in membrane processes. Furthermore, membrane fouling monitoring and mitigation strategies are reviewed. PMID:28604649

  17. Radiolytic preparation of PFA-g-PVBSA membranes as a polymer electrolyte membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fei Geng [Department of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Nansanhuan Road 99, Changshu, Jiangsu 215-500 (China); Hwang, Mi-Lim; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Nho, Young Chang [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Junhwa, E-mail: shinj@kaeri.re.kr [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-01

    In this study, a polymer electrolyte membrane, PFA-g-PVBSA was prepared through the radiation-induced graft copolymerization of vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC) monomer onto a poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-perfluoropropylvinyl ether) (PFA) film and subsequent sulfonation processes. The IEC values and water uptakes of the prepared membranes increased when increasing the contents of the poly(vinylbenzyl sulfonic acid) (PVBSA) graft polymers in the membranes. Compared with Nafion 212, the degree of grafting (DOG) of membranes of 50% and 70% showed higher proton conductivity with significantly lower methanol permeability. The combination of these properties suggests that the prepared membranes are promising for future application in direct methanol fuel cells.

  18. The Role of Ion Exchange Membranes in Membrane Capacitive Deionisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanvand, Armineh; Wei, Kajia; Talebi, Sahar; Chen, George Q; Kentish, Sandra E

    2017-09-14

    Ion-exchange membranes (IEMs) are unique in combining the electrochemical properties of ion exchange resins and the permeability of a membrane. They are being used widely to treat industrial effluents, and in seawater and brackish water desalination. Membrane Capacitive Deionisation (MCDI) is an emerging, energy efficient technology for brackish water desalination in which these ion-exchange membranes act as selective gates allowing the transport of counter-ions toward carbon electrodes. This article provides a summary of recent developments in the preparation, characterization, and performance of ion exchange membranes in the MCDI field. In some parts of this review, the most relevant literature in the area of electrodialysis (ED) is also discussed to better elucidate the role of the ion exchange membranes. We conclude that more work is required to better define the desalination performance of the proposed novel materials and cell designs for MCDI in treating a wide range of feed waters. The extent of fouling, the development of cleaning strategies, and further techno-economic studies, will add value to this emerging technique.

  19. Membrane order in the plasma membrane and endocytic recycling compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaea, David B; Maxfield, Frederick R

    2017-01-01

    The cholesterol content of membranes plays an important role in organizing membranes for signal transduction and protein trafficking as well as in modulating the biophysical properties of membranes. While the properties of model or isolated membranes have been extensively studied, there has been little evaluation of internal membranes in living cells. Here, we use a Nile Red based probe, NR12S, and ratiometric live cell imaging, to analyze the membrane order of the plasma membrane and endocytic recycling compartment. We find that after a brief incubation to allow endocytosis, NR12S is distributed between the plasma membrane and the endocytic recycling compartment. The NR12S reports that the endocytic recycling compartment is more highly ordered than the plasma membrane. We also find that the plasma membrane and the endocytic recycling compartment are differentially affected by altering cellular cholesterol levels. The membrane order of the plasma membrane, but not the endocytic recycling compartment, is altered significantly when cellular cholesterol content is increased or decreased by 20%. These results demonstrate that changes in cellular cholesterol differentially alter membrane order within different organelles.

  20. Optimization Study of Small-Scale Solar Membrane Distillation Desalination Systems (s-SMDDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan Chang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Membrane distillation (MD, which can utilize low-grade thermal energy, has been extensively studied for desalination. By incorporating solar thermal energy, the solar membrane distillation desalination system (SMDDS is a potential technology for resolving energy and water resource problems. Small-scale SMDDS (s-SMDDS is an attractive and viable option for the production of fresh water for small communities in remote arid areas. The minimum cost design and operation of s-SMDDS are determined by a systematic method, which involves a pseudo-steady-state approach for equipment sizing and dynamic optimization using overall system mathematical models. Two s-SMDDS employing an air gap membrane distillation module with membrane areas of 11.5 m2 and 23 m2 are analyzed. The lowest water production costs are $5.92/m3 and $5.16/m3 for water production rates of 500 kg/day and 1000 kg/day, respectively. For these two optimal cases, the performance ratios are 0.85 and 0.91; the recovery ratios are 4.07% and 4.57%. The effect of membrane characteristics on the production cost is investigated. For the commercial membrane employed in this study, the increase of the membrane mass transfer coefficient up to two times is beneficial for cost reduction.

  1. Recent developments on ion-exchange membranes and electro-membrane processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarale, R K; Gohil, G S; Shahi, Vinod K

    2006-02-28

    Rapid growth of chemical and biotechnology in diversified areas fuels the demand for the need of reliable green technologies for the down stream processes, which include separation, purification and isolation of the molecules. Ion-exchange membrane technologies are non-hazardous in nature and being widely used not only for separation and purification but their application also extended towards energy conversion devices, storage batteries and sensors etc. Now there is a quite demand for the ion-exchange membrane with better selectivities, less electrical resistance, high chemical, mechanical and thermal stability as well as good durability. A lot of work has been done for the development of these types of ion-exchange membranes during the past twenty-five years. Herein we have reviewed the preparation of various types of ion-exchange membranes, their characterization and applications for different electro-membrane processes. Primary attention has been given to the chemical route used for the membrane preparation. Several general reactions used for the preparation of ion-exchange membranes were described. Methodologies used for the characterization of these membranes and their applications were also reviewed for the benefit of readers, so that they can get all information about the ion-exchange membranes at one platform. Although there are large number of reports available regarding preparations and applications of ion-exchange membranes more emphasis were predicted for the usefulness of these membranes or processes for solving certain type of industrial or social problems. More efforts are needed to bring many products or processes to pilot scale and extent their applications.

  2. Improved mitochondrial function with diet-induced increase in either docosahexaenoic acid or arachidonic acid in membrane phospholipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi J Khairallah

    Full Text Available Mitochondria can depolarize and trigger cell death through the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP. We recently showed that an increase in the long chain n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3 and depletion of the n6 PUFA arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4n6 in mitochondrial membranes is associated with a greater Ca(2+ load required to induce MPTP opening. Here we manipulated mitochondrial phospholipid composition by supplementing the diet with DHA, ARA or combined DHA+ARA in rats for 10 weeks. There were no effects on cardiac function, or respiration of isolated mitochondria. Analysis of mitochondrial phospholipids showed DHA supplementation increased DHA and displaced ARA in mitochondrial membranes, while supplementation with ARA or DHA+ARA increased ARA and depleted linoleic acid (18:2n6. Phospholipid analysis revealed a similar pattern, particularly in cardiolipin. Tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin was depleted by 80% with ARA or DHA+ARA supplementation, with linoleic acid side chains replaced by ARA. Both the DHA and ARA groups had delayed Ca(2+-induced MPTP opening, but the DHA+ARA group was similar to the control diet. In conclusion, alterations in mitochondria membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition caused by dietary DHA or ARA was associated with a greater cumulative Ca(2+ load required to induced MPTP opening. Further, high levels of tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin were not essential for normal mitochondrial function if replaced with very-long chain n3 or n6 PUFAs.

  3. Microstructural Engineering and Architectural Design of Metal-Organic Framework Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Ban, Yujie; Yang, Weishen

    2017-08-01

    In the past decade, a huge development in rational design, synthesis, and application of molecular sieve membranes, which typically included zeolites, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), and graphene oxides, has been witnessed. Owing to high flexibility in both pore apertures and functionality, MOFs in the form of membranes have offered unprecedented opportunities for energy-efficient gas separations. Reports on the fabrication of well-intergrown MOF membranes first appeared in 2009. Since then there has been tremendous growth in this area along with an exponential increase of MOF-membrane-related publications. In order to compete with other separation and purification technologies, like cryogenic distillation, pressure swing adsorption, and chemical absorption, separation performance (including permeability, selectivity, and long-term stability) of molecular sieve membranes must be further improved in an attempt to reach an economically attractive region. Therefore, microstructural engineering and architectural design of MOF membranes at mesoscopic and microscopic levels become indispensable. This review summarizes some intriguing research that may potentially contribute to large-scale applications of MOF membranes in the future. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Catalyst Degradation in High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Based on Acid Doped Polybenzimidazole Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleemann, Lars Nilausen; Buazar, F.; Li, Qingfeng

    2013-01-01

    and multi‐walled carbon nanotubes were used as supports for electrode catalysts and evaluated in accelerated durability tests under potential cycling at 150 °C. Measurements of open circuit voltage, area specific resistance and hydrogen permeation through the membrane were carried out, indicating little...... contribution of the membrane degradation to the performance losses during the potential cycling tests. As the major mechanism of the fuel cell performance degradation, the electrochemical active area of the cathodic catalysts showed a steady decrease in the cyclic voltammetric measurements, which was also......Degradation of carbon supported platinum catalysts is a major failure mode for the long term durability of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells based on phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole membranes. With Vulcan carbon black as a reference, thermally treated carbon black...

  5. Influence of membrane phospholipid composition and structural organization on spontaneous lipid transfer between membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankov, R; Markovska, T; Antonov, P; Ivanova, L; Momchilova, A

    2006-09-01

    Investigations were carried out on the influence of phospholipid composition of model membranes on the processes of spontaneous lipid transfer between membranes. Acceptor vesicles were prepared from phospholipids extracted from plasma membranes of control and ras-transformed fibroblasts. Acceptor model membranes with manipulated levels of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), sphingomyelin and phosphatidic acid were also used in the studies. Donor vesicles were prepared of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and contained two fluorescent lipid analogues, NBD-PC and N-Rh-PE, at a self-quenching concentration. Lipid transfer rate was assessed by measuring the increase of fluorescence in acceptor membranes due to transfer of fluorescent lipid analogues from quenched donor to unquenched acceptor vesicles. The results showed that spontaneous NBD-PC transfer increased upon fluidization of acceptor vesicles. In addition, elevation of PE concentration in model membranes was also accompanied by an increase of lipid transfer to all series of acceptor vesicles. The results are discussed with respect to the role of lipid composition and structural order of cellular plasma membranes in the processes of spontaneous lipid exchange between membrane bilayers.

  6. Does stimulation of NaCl secretion in in vitro perfused rectal gland tubules of Squalus acanthias increase membrane capacitance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, R; Thiele, I; Warth, R; Bleich, M

    1998-07-01

    NaCl secretion in rectal gland tubules (RGT) of Squalus acanthias requires the activation of Cl– channels in the luminal membrane. The RGT and its mechanism of activation are an early evolutionary paradigm of exocrine secretion. The respective Cl– channels probably resemble the shark equivalent of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Activation of these Cl– channels occurs via cAMP. It has been hypothesized that the activation of CFTR occurs via exocytosis or inhibited endocytosis. To examine this question directly by electrical measurements we have performed whole-cell patch-clamp analyses of in vitro perfused RGT. NaCl secretion was stimulated by a solution (Stim) containing forskolin (10 µmol/l), dibutyryl-cAMP (0.5 mmol/l) and adenosine (0.5 mmol/l). This led to the expected strong depolarization and an increase in membrane conductance (G m). The membrane capacitance (C m) was measured by a newly devised two-frequency synchronous detector method. It was increased by Stim significantly from 5.00±0.22 to 5.17±0.21 pF (n=50). The increase in C m correlated with the increase in G m with a slope of 51 fF/nS. Next the effect of furosemide (500 µmol/l) was examined in previously stimulated RGT. Furosemide was supposed to inhibit coupled Na+2Cl–K+ uptake and to reduce cell volume but not membrane trafficking of Cl– channels. Furosemide reduced G m slightly (due to the fall in cytosolic Cl– concentration) and C m to the same extent by which Stim had increased it. Both changes were statistically significant, and the slope of ΔC m/ΔG m was similar to that caused by Stim. Inhibitors of microtubules or actin (colchicine, phalloidin and cytochalasin D added at 10 µmol/l to the pipette solution and dialysed for >10 min) did not alter cell voltage, G m or C m, nor did these inhibitors abolish the stimulatory effect of cAMP. These data suggest that the small C m changes observed with Stim reflect a minor cell volume increase and an

  7. Cleaning of liquid LLW from decontamination processes using semipermeable membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulama, M.; Deneanu, N.; Pavelescu, M.

    2003-01-01

    Of the three processes, which have been used extensively for liquid radioactive waste purification, evaporation and ion exchange are costly and flocculation gives a low degree of purification. By comparison to that, reverse osmosis offers intermediate purification at reasonable cost. Present research is examining the potential of using a membrane filtration system for the removal of dissolved radionuclides, but chemical treatment showed as necessary to convert soluble radionuclides, organic traces and metals to insoluble, filterable species. Liquid wastes within a CANDU station are segregated into normal and low-activity waste streams. The normal-activity waste includes wastes from the laboratories, laundries, some service-building drains, upgrade drains, and decontamination center. The drains from the reactor building, the heavy-water area, the spent-fuel pool, and the resin storage area are also directed to this normal activity wastes from showers and building drains in areas of the service building that would not normally be contaminated. The aqueous liquid wastes from the decontamination center and the other collected wastes from the chemical drain system are currently treated by the membrane plant. Generally, the liquid waste streams are effectively volume-reduced by a combination of continuous crossflow microfiltration (MF), spiral wound reverse osmosis (SWRO) and tubular reverse osmosis membrane technologies. Backwash chemical cleaning wastes from the membrane plant are further volume-reduced by evaporation. The concentrate from the membrane plant is ultimately immobilized with bitumen. The ability of the MF/SWRO technology to remove impurities non-selectively makes it suitable for the treatment of radioactive effluents from operating nuclear plants, with proper membrane selection, feed characterization, system configuration and system chemistry control. The choice of polysulfonate material for membrane was based on the high flow rates achievable with this

  8. Pore surface fractal analysis of palladium-alumina ceramic membrane using Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, A L; Mustafa, N N N

    2006-09-15

    The alumina ceramic membrane has been modified by the addition of palladium in order to improve the H(2) permeability and selectivity. Palladium-alumina ceramic membrane was prepared via a sol-gel method and subjected to thermal treatment in the temperature range 500-1100 degrees C. Fractal analysis from nitrogen adsorption isotherm is used to study the pore surface roughness of palladium-alumina ceramic membrane with different chemical composition (nitric acid, PVA and palladium) and calcinations process in terms of surface fractal dimension, D. Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) model was used to determine the D value of palladium-alumina membrane. Following FHH model, the D value of palladium-alumina membrane increased as the calcinations temperature increased from 500 to 700 degrees C but decreased after calcined at 900 and 1100 degrees C. With increasing palladium concentration from 0.5 g Pd/100 ml H(2)O to 2 g Pd/100 ml H(2)O, D value of membrane decreased, indicating to the smoother surface. Addition of higher amount of PVA and palladium reduced the surface fractal of the membrane due to the heterogeneous distribution of pores. However, the D value increased when nitric acid concentration was increased from 1 to 15 M. The effect of calcinations temperature, PVA ratio, palladium and acid concentration on membrane surface area, pore size and pore distribution also studied.

  9. The influence of polymeric membrane gas spargers on hydrodynamics and mass transfer in bubble column bioreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tirunehe, Gossay; Norddahl, B.

    2016-01-01

    Gas sparging performances of a flat sheet and tubular polymeric membranes were investigated in 3.1 m bubble column bioreactor operated in a semi batch mode. Air–water and air–CMC (Carboxymethyl cellulose) solutions of 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 % w/w were used as interacting gas–liquid mediums. CMC....../s. The study indicated that the tubular membrane sparger produced the highest gas holdup and densely populated fine bubbles with narrow size distribution. An increase in liquid viscosity promoted a shift in bubble size distribution to large stable bubbles and smaller specific interfacial area. The tubular...... membrane sparger achieved greater interfacial area and an enhanced overall mass transfer coefficient (KLa) by a factor of 1.2–1.9 compared to the flat sheet membrane....

  10. Impedance study of membrane dehydration and compression in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Canut, Jean-Marc; Latham, Ruth; Merida, Walter; Harrington, David A. [Institute for Integrated Energy Systems, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)

    2009-07-15

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is used to measure drying and rehydration in proton exchange membrane fuel cells running under load. The hysteresis between forward and backward acquisition of polarization curves is shown to be largely due to changes in the membrane resistance. Drying tests are carried out with hydrogen and simulated reformate (hydrogen and carbon dioxide), and quasi-periodic drying and rehydration conditions are studied. The membrane hydration state is clearly linked to the high-frequency arc in the impedance spectrum, which increases in size for dry conditions indicating an increase in membrane resistance. Changes in impedance spectra as external compression is applied to the cell assembly show that EIS can separate membrane and interfacial effects, and that changes in membrane resistance dominate. Reasons for the presence of a capacitance in parallel with the membrane resistance are discussed. (author)

  11. Metal–organic frameworks based membranes for liquid separation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Xin

    2017-11-07

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) represent a fascinating class of solid crystalline materials which can be self-assembled in a straightforward manner by the coordination of metal ions or clusters with organic ligands. Owing to their intrinsic porous characteristics, unique chemical versatility and abundant functionalities, MOFs have received substantial attention for diverse industrial applications, including membrane separation. Exciting research activities ranging from fabrication strategies to separation applications of MOF-based membranes have appeared. Inspired by the marvelous achievements of MOF-based membranes in gas separations, liquid separations are also being explored for the purpose of constructing continuous MOFs membranes or MOF-based mixed matrix membranes. Although these are in an emerging stage of vigorous development, most efforts are directed towards improving the liquid separation efficiency with well-designed MOF-based membranes. Therefore, as an increasing trend in membrane separation, the field of MOF-based membranes for liquid separation is highlighted in this review. The criteria for judicious selection of MOFs in fabricating MOF-based membranes are given. Special attention is paid to rational design strategies for MOF-based membranes, along with the latest application progress in the area of liquid separations, such as pervaporation, water treatment, and organic solvent nanofiltration. Moreover, some attractive dual-function applications of MOF-based membranes in the removal of micropollutants, degradation, and antibacterial activity are also reviewed. Finally, we define the remaining challenges and future opportunities in this field. This Tutorial Review provides an overview and outlook for MOF-based membranes for liquid separations. Further development of MOF-based membranes for liquid separation must consider the demands of strict separation standards and environmental safety for industrial application.

  12. Metal-organic frameworks based membranes for liquid separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Liu, Yuxin; Wang, Jing; Gascon, Jorge; Li, Jiansheng; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2017-11-27

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) represent a fascinating class of solid crystalline materials which can be self-assembled in a straightforward manner by the coordination of metal ions or clusters with organic ligands. Owing to their intrinsic porous characteristics, unique chemical versatility and abundant functionalities, MOFs have received substantial attention for diverse industrial applications, including membrane separation. Exciting research activities ranging from fabrication strategies to separation applications of MOF-based membranes have appeared. Inspired by the marvelous achievements of MOF-based membranes in gas separations, liquid separations are also being explored for the purpose of constructing continuous MOFs membranes or MOF-based mixed matrix membranes. Although these are in an emerging stage of vigorous development, most efforts are directed towards improving the liquid separation efficiency with well-designed MOF-based membranes. Therefore, as an increasing trend in membrane separation, the field of MOF-based membranes for liquid separation is highlighted in this review. The criteria for judicious selection of MOFs in fabricating MOF-based membranes are given. Special attention is paid to rational design strategies for MOF-based membranes, along with the latest application progress in the area of liquid separations, such as pervaporation, water treatment, and organic solvent nanofiltration. Moreover, some attractive dual-function applications of MOF-based membranes in the removal of micropollutants, degradation, and antibacterial activity are also reviewed. Finally, we define the remaining challenges and future opportunities in this field. This Tutorial Review provides an overview and outlook for MOF-based membranes for liquid separations. Further development of MOF-based membranes for liquid separation must consider the demands of strict separation standards and environmental safety for industrial application.

  13. Atomic Force Microscopy as a Tool for Asymmetric Polymeric Membrane Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Wahab Mohammad; Pei, L.Y.; Indok Nurul Hasyimah Mohd Amin; Rafeqah Raslan

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has a wide range of applications and is rapidly growing in research and development. This powerful technique has been used to visualize surfaces both in liquid or gas media. It has been considered as an effective tool to investigate the surface structure for its ability to generate high-resolution 3D images at a subnanometer range without sample pretreatment. In this paper, the use of AFM to characterize the membrane roughness is presented for commercial and self-prepared membranes for specific applications. Surface roughness has been regarded as one of the most important surface properties, and has significant effect in membrane permeability and fouling behaviour. Several scan areas were used to compare surface roughness for different membrane samples. Characterization of the surfaces was achieved by measuring the average roughness (R a ) and root mean square roughness (R rms ) of the membrane. AFM image shows that the membrane surface was composed entirely of peaks and valleys. Surface roughness is substantially greater for commercial available hydrophobic membranes, in contrast to self-prepared membranes. This study also shows that foulants deposited on membrane surface would increase the membrane roughness. (author)

  14. Effect of internal pressure and gas/liquid interface area on the CO mass transfer coefficient using hollow fibre membranes as a high mass transfer gas diffusing system for microbial syngas fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Muhammad; Park, Shinyoung; Jeong, Yeseul; Lee, Eun Yeol; Lee, Jinwon; Chang, In Seop

    2014-10-01

    This study proposed a submerged hollow fibre membrane bioreactor (HFMBR) system capable of achieving high carbon monoxide (CO) mass transfer for applications in microbial synthesis gas conversion systems. Hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane fibres were used to fabricate a membrane module, which was used for pressurising CO in water phase. Pressure through the hollow fibre lumen (P) and membrane surface area per unit working volume of the liquid (A(S)/V(L)) were used as controllable parameters to determine gas-liquid volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a) values. We found a k(L)a of 135.72 h(-1) when P was 93.76 kPa and AS/VL was fixed at 27.5m(-1). A higher k(L)a of 155.16 h(-1) was achieved by increasing AS/VL to 62.5m(-1) at a lower P of 37.23 kPa. Practicality of HFMBR to support microbial growth and organic product formation was assessed by CO/CO2 fermentation using Eubacterium limosum KIST612. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of sludge flocs on membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Niessen, Wolfgang; Jørgensen, Mads Koustrup

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR) are widely used for wastewater treatment, but membrane fouling reduces membrane performance and thereby increases the cost for membranes and fouling control. Large variation in filtration properties measured as flux decline was observed for the different types of sludges....... Further, the flux could partly be reestablished after the relaxation period depending on the sludge composition. The results underline that sludge properties are important for membrane fouling and that control of floc properties, as determined by the composition of the microbial communities...... and the physico-chemical properties, is an efficient method to reduce membrane fouling in the MBR. High concentration of suspended extracellular substances (EPS) and small particles (up to 10 µm) resulted in pronounced fouling propensity. The membrane fouling resistance was reduced at high concentration...

  16. Determining a membrane's shear modulus, independent of its area-dilatation modulus, via capsule flow in a converging micro-capillary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulos, P; Kuriakose, S

    2015-04-14

    Determination of the elastic properties of the membrane of artificial capsules is essential for the better design of the various devices that are utilized in their engineering and biomedical applications. However this task is complicated owing to the combined effects of the shear and area-dilatation moduli on the capsule deformation. Based on computational investigation, we propose a new methodology to determine a membrane's shear modulus, independent of its area-dilatation modulus, by flowing strain-hardening capsules in a converging micro-capillary of comparable size under Stokes flow conditions, and comparing the experimental measurements of the capsule elongation overshooting with computational data. The capsule prestress, if any, can also be determined with the same methodology. The elongation overshooting is practically independent of the viscosity ratio for low and moderate viscosity ratios, and thus a wide range of capsule fluids can be employed. Our proposed experimental device can be readily produced via glass fabrication while owing to the continuous flow in the micro-capillary, the characterization of a large number of artificial capsules is possible.

  17. Development of highly porous flat sheet polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes for membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaery, Salim A.

    2017-05-01

    With the increase of population every year, fresh water scarcity has rapidly increased and it is reaching a risky level, particularly in Africa and the Middle East. Desalination of seawater is an essential process for fresh water generation. One of the methods for desalination is membrane distillation (MD). MD process separates an aqueous liquid feed across a porous hydrophobic membrane to produce pure water via evaporation. Polyvinlidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes reinforced with a polyester fabric were fabricated as potential candidates for MD. Non-solvent induced phase separation coupled with steam treatment was used to prepare the PVDF membranes. A portion of the prepared membrane was coated with Teflon (AF2400) to increase its hydrophobicity. In the first study, the fabricated membranes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and other techniques, and they were evaluated using direct contact MD (DCMD). The fabricated membranes showed a porous sponge-like structure with some macrovoids. The macrovoid formation and the spongy structure in the membrane cross-sections contributed significantly to a high permeate flux as they provide a large space for vapor water transport. The modified PVDF membranes with steaming and coating exhibited a permeate flux of around 40 L/h m2 (i.e. 27-30% increase to the control PVDF membrane) at temperatures of 60 °C (feed) and 20 °C (permeate). This increase in the permeate flux for the modified membranes was mainly attributed to its larger pore size on the bottom surface. In the second study, the control PVDF membrane was tested in two different module designs (i.e. semi-circular pipe and rectangular duct module designs). The semi-circular module design (turbulent regime) exhibited a higher permeate flux, 3-fold higher than that of the rectangular duct module design (laminar regime) at feed temperature of 60 °C. Furthermore, a heat energy balance was performed for each module design to determine the temperature

  18. Improving Nanofiber Membrane Characteristics and Membrane Distillation Performance of Heat-Pressed Membranes via Annealing Post-Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minwei Yao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun membranes are gaining interest for use in membrane distillation (MD due to their high porosity and interconnected pore structure; however, they are still susceptible to wetting during MD operation because of their relatively low liquid entry pressure (LEP. In this study, post-treatment had been applied to improve the LEP, as well as its permeation and salt rejection efficiency. The post-treatment included two continuous procedures: heat-pressing and annealing. In this study, annealing was applied on the membranes that had been heat-pressed. It was found that annealing improved the MD performance as the average flux reached 35 L/m2·h or LMH (>10% improvement of the ones without annealing while still maintaining 99.99% salt rejection. Further tests on LEP, contact angle, and pore size distribution explain the improvement due to annealing well. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses of the membranes showed that there was an increase in the crystallinity of the polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP membrane; also, peaks indicating the α phase of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF became noticeable after annealing, indicating some β and amorphous states of polymer were converted into the α phase. The changes were favorable for membrane distillation as the non-polar α phase of PVDF reduces the dipolar attraction force between the membrane and water molecules, and the increase in crystallinity would result in higher thermal stability. The present results indicate the positive effect of the heat-press followed by an annealing post-treatment on the membrane characteristics and MD performance.

  19. Minimizing stress in large-area surface micromachined perforated membranes with slits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaderi, M; Ayerden, N P; De Graaf, G; Wolffenbuttel, R F

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the effectiveness of both design and fabrication techniques for avoiding the rupturing or excessive bending of perforated membranes after release in surface micromachining. Special lateral designs of arrays of slits in the membrane were investigated for a maximum yield at a given level of residual stress. Process parameters were investigated and optimized for minimum residual stress in multilayer thin-film membranes. A 2 µm thick sacrificial TEOS layer and a structural membrane that is composed of silicon nitride and polysilicon layers in the stack is the basis of this study. The effect of sharp corners on the local stress in membranes was investigated, and structures are proposed that reduce these effects, maximizing the yield at a given level of residual stress. The effects of perforation and slits were studied both theoretically and using finite element analysis. While the overall effect of perforation is negligible in typical MEMS structures, an optimum design for the slits reduces the von Mises stress considerably as compared to sharp corners. The fabrication process was also investigated and optimized for the minimum residual stress of both the layers within the stack and the complete layer stack. The main emphasis of this work is on placing a stress-compensating layer on the wafer backside and simultaneously removing it during the surface micromachining, as this has been found to be the most effective method to reduce the overall stress in a stack of layers after sacrificial etching. Implementation of a stress compensating layer reduced the total residual stress from 200 MPa compressive into almost 60 MPa, tensile. Even though a particular structure was studied here, the employed methods are expected to be applicable to similar MEMS design problems. (paper)

  20. Synaptic Activity and Muscle Contraction Increases PDK1 and PKCβI Phosphorylation in the Presynaptic Membrane of the Neuromuscular Junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Hurtado

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional protein kinase C βI (cPKCβI is a conventional protein kinase C (PKC isoform directly involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release in the neuromuscular junction (NMJ. It is located exclusively at the nerve terminal and both synaptic activity and muscle contraction modulate its protein levels and phosphorylation. cPKCβI molecular maturation includes a series of phosphorylation steps, the first of which is mediated by phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1. Here, we sought to localize PDK1 in the NMJ and investigate the hypothesis that synaptic activity and muscle contraction regulate in parallel PDK1 and cPKCβI phosphorylation in the membrane fraction. To differentiate the presynaptic and postsynaptic activities, we abolished muscle contraction with μ-conotoxin GIIIB (μ-CgTx-GIIIB in some experiments before stimulation of the phrenic nerve (1 Hz, 30 min. Then, we analyzed total and membrane/cytosol fractions of skeletal muscle by Western blotting. Results showed that PDK1 is located exclusively in the nerve terminal of the NMJ. After nerve stimulation with and without coincident muscle contraction, total PDK1 and phosphorylated PDK1 (pPDK1 protein levels remained unaltered. However, synaptic activity specifically enhanced phosphorylation of PDK1 in the membrane, an important subcellular location for PDK1 function. This increase in pPDK1 coincides with a significant increase in the phosphorylation of its substrate cPKCβI also in the membrane fraction. Moreover, muscle contraction maintains PDK1 and pPDK1 but increases cPKCβI protein levels and its phosphorylation. Thus, even though PDK1 activity is maintained, pcPKCβI levels increase in concordance with total cPKCβI. Together, these results indicate that neuromuscular activity could induce the membrane targeting of pPDK1 in the nerve terminal of the NMJ to promote the phosphorylation of the cPKCβI, which is involved in ACh release.

  1. Synaptic Activity and Muscle Contraction Increases PDK1 and PKCβI Phosphorylation in the Presynaptic Membrane of the Neuromuscular Junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Erica; Cilleros, Víctor; Just, Laia; Simó, Anna; Nadal, Laura; Tomàs, Marta; Garcia, Neus; Lanuza, Maria A; Tomàs, Josep

    2017-01-01

    Conventional protein kinase C βI (cPKCβI) is a conventional protein kinase C (PKC) isoform directly involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release in the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). It is located exclusively at the nerve terminal and both synaptic activity and muscle contraction modulate its protein levels and phosphorylation. cPKCβI molecular maturation includes a series of phosphorylation steps, the first of which is mediated by phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1). Here, we sought to localize PDK1 in the NMJ and investigate the hypothesis that synaptic activity and muscle contraction regulate in parallel PDK1 and cPKCβI phosphorylation in the membrane fraction. To differentiate the presynaptic and postsynaptic activities, we abolished muscle contraction with μ-conotoxin GIIIB (μ-CgTx-GIIIB) in some experiments before stimulation of the phrenic nerve (1 Hz, 30 min). Then, we analyzed total and membrane/cytosol fractions of skeletal muscle by Western blotting. Results showed that PDK1 is located exclusively in the nerve terminal of the NMJ. After nerve stimulation with and without coincident muscle contraction, total PDK1 and phosphorylated PDK1 (pPDK1) protein levels remained unaltered. However, synaptic activity specifically enhanced phosphorylation of PDK1 in the membrane, an important subcellular location for PDK1 function. This increase in pPDK1 coincides with a significant increase in the phosphorylation of its substrate cPKCβI also in the membrane fraction. Moreover, muscle contraction maintains PDK1 and pPDK1 but increases cPKCβI protein levels and its phosphorylation. Thus, even though PDK1 activity is maintained, pcPKCβI levels increase in concordance with total cPKCβI. Together, these results indicate that neuromuscular activity could induce the membrane targeting of pPDK1 in the nerve terminal of the NMJ to promote the phosphorylation of the cPKCβI, which is involved in ACh release.

  2. Increasing the operation temperature of polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cells: From nanocomposites to hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licoccia, Silvia; Traversa, Enrico

    Among the possible systems investigated for energy production with low environmental impact, polymeric electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are very promising as electrochemical power sources for application in portable technology and electric vehicles. For practical applications, operating FCs at temperatures above 100 °C is desired, both for hydrogen and methanol fuelled cells. When hydrogen is used as fuel, an increase of the cell temperature produces enhanced CO tolerance, faster reaction kinetics, easier water management and reduced heat exchanger requirement. The use of methanol instead of hydrogen as a fuel for vehicles has several practical benefits such as easy transport and storage, but the slow oxidation kinetics of methanol needs operating direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) at intermediate temperatures. For this reason, new membranes are required. Our strategy to achieve the goal of operating at temperatures above 120 °C is to develop organic/inorganic hybrid membranes. The first approach was the use of nanocomposite class I hybrids where nanocrystalline ceramic oxides were added to Nafion. Nanocomposite membranes showed enhanced characteristics, hence allowing their operation up to 130 °C when the cell was fuelled with hydrogen and up to 145 °C in DMFCs, reaching power densities of 350 mW cm -2. The second approach was to prepare Class II hybrids via the formation of covalent bonds between totally aromatic polymers and inorganic clusters. The properties of such covalent hybrids can be modulated by modifying the ratio between organic and inorganic groups and the nature of the chemical components allowing to reach high and stable conductivity values up to 6.4 × 10 -2 S cm -1 at 120 °C.

  3. Increased Granulocyte Heparanase Activity in Neutrophils from Patients with Lupus Nephritis and Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, Maciej; Kuźniar, Jakub; Kopeć, Wacław; Żabińska, Marcelina; Marchewka, Zofia; Kościelska-Kasprzak, Katarzyna; Klinger, Marian

    2017-02-01

    Heparanase is a β-glucuronidase that cleaves sugar chains of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. It is believed that heparanase may be involved in the pathogenesis of proteinuria. The aim of this study was to assess the significance of heparanase in the pathogenesis of particular glomerulonephritis types. The evaluation of heparanase activity in serum, urine, and granulocytes and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in granulocytes of patients with lupus nephritis (n = 17), membranous nephropathy (n = 11), IgA nephropathy (n = 12), focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (n = 18), mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (n = 12) and in 19 healthy volunteers were performed. The heparanase activity in granulocytes of patients with lupus nephritis and membranous nephropathy was higher than heparanase activity in granulocytes in the control group (p = 0.02 in both cases). This is the first observation of this phenomenon. There was no difference between SOD activity in granulocytes of patients with all assessed types of glomerulonephritis and the control group. A positive correlation between heparanase activity in urine and double-strain DNA antibodies (r = 0.51; p = 0.04), and reverse correlations between heparanase in urine and hemolytic activity of the complement (r = -0.57; p = 0.03) in the lupus nephritis group, and between heparanase activity in granulocytes and serum total protein level (r = -0.69; p = 0.02) in membranous nephropathy were observed. Increase in heparanase activity without changes in superoxide dismutase activity in the granulocytes from patients with lupus nephritis and membranous nephropathy was observed. It may be used as one of the markers of these disease activities.

  4. Membrane Contact Sites: Complex Zones for Membrane Association and Lipid Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quon, Evan; Beh, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    Lipid transport between membranes within cells involves vesicle and protein carriers, but as agents of nonvesicular lipid transfer, the role of membrane contact sites has received increasing attention. As zones for lipid metabolism and exchange, various membrane contact sites mediate direct associations between different organelles. In particular, membrane contact sites linking the plasma membrane (PM) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) represent important regulators of lipid and ion transfer. In yeast, cortical ER is stapled to the PM through membrane-tethering proteins, which establish a direct connection between the membranes. In this review, we consider passive and facilitated models for lipid transfer at PM–ER contact sites. Besides the tethering proteins, we examine the roles of an additional repertoire of lipid and protein regulators that prime and propagate PM–ER membrane association. We conclude that instead of being simple mediators of membrane association, regulatory components of membrane contact sites have complex and multilayered functions. PMID:26949334

  5. Relationship between Peeled Internal Limiting Membrane Area and Anatomic Outcomes following Macular Hole Surgery: A Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Sakir Goker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To quantitatively evaluate the effects of peeled internal limiting membrane (ILM area and anatomic outcomes following macular hole surgery using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. Methods. Forty-one eyes in 37 consecutive patients with idiopathic, Gass stage 3-4 macular hole (MH were enrolled in this retrospective comparative study. All patients were divided into 2 groups according to anatomic success or failure. Basal MH diameter, peeled ILM area, and MH height were calculated using SD-OCT. Other prognostic parameters, including age, stage, preoperative BCVA, and symptom duration were also assessed. Results. Thirty-two cases were classified as anatomic success, and 9 cases were classified as anatomic failure. Peeled ILM area was significantly wider and MH basal diameter was significantly less in the anatomic success group (p=0.024 and 0.032, resp.. Other parameters did not demonstrate statistical significance. Conclusion. The findings of the present study show that the peeled ILM area can affect the anatomic outcomes of MH surgery.

  6. Influence of Membrane Equivalent Weight and Reinforcement on Ionic Species Crossover in All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf Gandomi, Yasser; Aaron, Doug S; Mench, Matthew M

    2017-06-06

    One of the major sources of lost capacity in all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) is the undesired transport (usually called crossover) of water and vanadium ions through the ion-exchange membrane. In this work, an experimental assessment of the impact of ion-exchange membrane properties on vanadium ion crossover and capacity decay of VRFBs has been performed. Two types of cationic membranes (non-reinforced and reinforced) with three equivalent weights of 800, 950 and 1100 g·mol -1 were investigated via a series of in situ performance and capacity decay tests along with ex situ vanadium crossover measurement and membrane characterization. For non-reinforced membranes, increasing the equivalent weight (EW) from 950 to 1100 g·mol -1 decreases the V(IV) permeability by ~30%, but increases the area-specific resistance (ASR) by ~16%. This increase in ASR and decrease in V(IV) permeability was accompanied by increased through-plane membrane swelling. Comparing the non-reinforced with reinforced membranes, membrane reinforcement increases ASR, but V(IV) permeability decreases. It was also shown that there exists a monotonic correlation between the discharge capacity decay over long-term cycling and V(IV) permeability values. Thus, V(IV) permeability is considered a representative diagnostic for assessing the overall performance of a particular ion-exchange membrane with respect to capacity fade in a VRFB.

  7. Poly (vinyl alcohol-alginate physically crosslinked hydrogel membranes for wound dressing applications: Characterization and bio-evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbadawy A. Kamoun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available PVA-sodium alginate (SA hydrogel membranes containing sodium ampicillin as a topical antibiotic were developed using the freeze–thawing method for wound dressing application. Aqueous solution of sodium alginate has been blended in a certain ratio with PVA, followed by the crosslinking method has been conducted by freeze–thawing method as physical crosslinking instead of the use of traditional chemical crosslinking to avoid riskiness of chemical reagents and crosslinkers. The physicochemical properties of PVA-SA membranes e.g. gel fraction and water uptake % have been performed. Increased SA content with PVA decreased gel fraction, elasticity, and elongation to break of PVA-SA membranes. However, it resulted in an increase in swelling degree, protein adsorption, and roughness of membrane surface. High SA content in PVA membranes had apparently an impact on surface morphology structure of hydrogel membranes. Pore size and pore area distribution have been observed with addition of high SA concentration. However, high SA content had an insignificant effect on the release of ampicillin. The hydrolytic degradation of PVA-SA membranes has prominently increased with increasing SA content. Furthermore, hemolysis (% and in vitro inhibition (% for both Gram positive and negative bacteria have been sharply affected by addition of SA into PVA, indicating the improved blood hemocompatibility. Thus, PVA-SA hydrogel membrane based wound dressing system containing ampicillin could be a good polymeric membrane candidate in wound care.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of Nafion/TiO2 nanocomposite membrane for proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Young; Cho, Sung Yong

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the syntheses and characterizations of Nafion/TiO2 membranes for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) were investigated. Porous TiO2 powders were synthesized using the sol-gel method; with Nafion/TiO2 nanocomposite membranes prepared using the casting method. An X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that the synthesized TiO2 had an anatase structure. The specific surface areas of the TiO2 and Nafion/TiO2 nanocomposite membrane were found to be 115.97 and 33.91 m2/g using a nitrogen adsorption analyzer. The energy dispersive spectra analysis indicated that the TiO2 particles were uniformly distributed in the nanocomposite membrane. The membrane electrode assembly prepared from the Nafion/TiO2 nanocomposite membrane gave the best PEMFC performance compared to the Nafion/P-25 and Nafion membranes.

  9. A study for the research trends of membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sener, T.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' A single PEM fuel cell is comprised of a membrane electrode assembly, two bipolar plates and two fields. Membrane electrode assembly is the basic component of PEM fuel cell due to its cost and function, and it consists a membrane sandwiched between two electrocatalyst layers/electrodes and two gas diffusion layers. Increasing the PEM fuel cell operation temperature from 80 o C to 150-200 o C will prevent electrocatalysts CO poisoning and increase the fuel cell performance. Therefore, membranes must have chemical and mechanical resistance and must keep enough water at high temperatures. The aim of membrane studies through fuel cell commercialization is to produce a less expensive thin membrane with high operation temperature, chemical and mechanical resistance and water adsorption capacity. Within this frame, alternative membrane materials, membrane electrode assembly manufacture and evaluation methods are being studied. In this paper, recent studies are reviewed to give a conclusion for research trends. (author)

  10. Development of composite membranes of PVA-TEOS doped KOH for alkaline membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haryadi,; Sugianto, D.; Ristopan, E.

    2015-01-01

    Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) play an important role in separating fuel and oxygen (or air) in the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells. Preparation of hybrid organic inorganic materials of Polyvinylalcohol (PVA) - Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) composite membrane doped KOH for direct alcohol alkaline fuel cell application has been investigated. The sol-gel method has been used to prepare the composite membrane of PVA-TEOS through crosslinking step and catalyzed by concentrated of hydrochloric acid. The gel solution was cast on the membrane plastic plate to obtain membrane sheets. The dry membranes were then doped by immersing in various concentrations of KOH solutions for about 4 hours. Investigations of the cross-linking process and the presence of hydroxyl group were conducted by FTIR as shown for frequency at about 1600 cm −1 and 3300 cm −1 respectively. The degree of swelling in ethanol decreased as the KOH concentration for membrane soaking process increased. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the membrane was 0.25meq/g. This composite membranes display significant ionic conductivity of 3.23 x 10 −2 S/cm in deionized water at room temperature. In addition, the morphology observation by scanning electron microscope (SEM) of the membrane indicates that soaking process of membrane in KOH increased thermal resistant

  11. Development of composite membranes of PVA-TEOS doped KOH for alkaline membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryadi, Sugianto, D.; Ristopan, E.

    2015-12-01

    Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) play an important role in separating fuel and oxygen (or air) in the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells. Preparation of hybrid organic inorganic materials of Polyvinylalcohol (PVA) - Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) composite membrane doped KOH for direct alcohol alkaline fuel cell application has been investigated. The sol-gel method has been used to prepare the composite membrane of PVA-TEOS through crosslinking step and catalyzed by concentrated of hydrochloric acid. The gel solution was cast on the membrane plastic plate to obtain membrane sheets. The dry membranes were then doped by immersing in various concentrations of KOH solutions for about 4 hours. Investigations of the cross-linking process and the presence of hydroxyl group were conducted by FTIR as shown for frequency at about 1600 cm-1 and 3300 cm-1 respectively. The degree of swelling in ethanol decreased as the KOH concentration for membrane soaking process increased. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the membrane was 0.25meq/g. This composite membranes display significant ionic conductivity of 3.23 x 10-2 S/cm in deionized water at room temperature. In addition, the morphology observation by scanning electron microscope (SEM) of the membrane indicates that soaking process of membrane in KOH increased thermal resistant.

  12. Development of composite membranes of PVA-TEOS doped KOH for alkaline membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haryadi,, E-mail: haryadi@polban.ac.id; Sugianto, D.; Ristopan, E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Politeknik Negeri Bandung Jl. Gegerkalong Hilir, Ds. Ciwaruga, Bandung West Java (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) play an important role in separating fuel and oxygen (or air) in the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells. Preparation of hybrid organic inorganic materials of Polyvinylalcohol (PVA) - Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) composite membrane doped KOH for direct alcohol alkaline fuel cell application has been investigated. The sol-gel method has been used to prepare the composite membrane of PVA-TEOS through crosslinking step and catalyzed by concentrated of hydrochloric acid. The gel solution was cast on the membrane plastic plate to obtain membrane sheets. The dry membranes were then doped by immersing in various concentrations of KOH solutions for about 4 hours. Investigations of the cross-linking process and the presence of hydroxyl group were conducted by FTIR as shown for frequency at about 1600 cm{sup −1} and 3300 cm{sup −1} respectively. The degree of swelling in ethanol decreased as the KOH concentration for membrane soaking process increased. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the membrane was 0.25meq/g. This composite membranes display significant ionic conductivity of 3.23 x 10{sup −2} S/cm in deionized water at room temperature. In addition, the morphology observation by scanning electron microscope (SEM) of the membrane indicates that soaking process of membrane in KOH increased thermal resistant.

  13. Fouling in Membrane Distillation, Osmotic Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Laqbaqbi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Various membrane separation processes are being used for seawater desalination and treatment of wastewaters in order to deal with the worldwide water shortage problem. Different types of membranes of distinct morphologies, structures and physico-chemical characteristics are employed. Among the considered membrane technologies, membrane distillation (MD, osmotic distillation (OD and osmotic membrane distillation (OMD use porous and hydrophobic membranes for production of distilled water and/or concentration of wastewaters for recovery and recycling of valuable compounds. However, the efficiency of these technologies is hampered by fouling phenomena. This refers to the accumulation of organic/inorganic deposits including biological matter on the membrane surface and/or in the membrane pores. Fouling in MD, OD and OMD differs from that observed in electric and pressure-driven membrane processes such electrodialysis (ED, membrane capacitive deionization (MCD, reverse osmosis (RO, nanofiltration (NF, ultrafiltration (UF, microfiltration (MF, etc. Other than pore blockage, fouling in MD, OD and OMD increases the risk of membrane pores wetting and reduces therefore the quantity and quality of the produced water or the concentration efficiency of the process. This review deals with the observed fouling phenomena in MD, OD and OMD. It highlights different detected fouling types (organic fouling, inorganic fouling and biofouling, fouling characterization techniques as well as various methods of fouling reduction including pretreatment, membrane modification, membrane cleaning and antiscalants application.

  14. Factors Determining the Oxygen Permeability of Biological Membranes: Oxygen Transport Across Eye Lens Fiber-Cell Plasma Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subczynski, Witold Karol; Widomska, Justyna; Mainali, Laxman

    2017-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-label oximetry allows the oxygen permeability coefficient to be evaluated across homogeneous lipid bilayer membranes and, in some cases, across coexisting membrane domains without their physical separation. The most pronounced effect on oxygen permeability is observed for cholesterol, which additionally induces the formation of membrane domains. In intact biological membranes, integral proteins induce the formation of boundary and trapped lipid domains with a low oxygen permeability. The effective oxygen permeability coefficient across the intact biological membrane is affected not only by the oxygen permeability coefficients evaluated for each lipid domain but also by the surface area occupied by these domains in the membrane. All these factors observed in fiber cell plasma membranes of clear human eye lenses are reviewed here.

  15. Comparison of gas membrane separation cascades using conventional separation cell and two-unit separation cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masayoshi; Morisue, Tetsuo; Ozaki, Osamu; Miyauchi, Terukatsu.

    1978-01-01

    The adoption of two-unit separation cells in radioactive rare gas membrane separation equipment enhances the separation factor, but increases the required membrane area and compressive power. An analytical economic evaluation was undertaken to compare the conventional separation cell with the two-unit separation cells, adopting as parameters the number of cascade stages, the membrane area and the operating power requirements. This paper describes the models used for evaluating the separation performance and the economics of cascade embodying these different concepts of separation cell taken up for study, and the results obtained for the individual concepts are mutually compared. It proved that, in respect of the number required of cascade stages, of operating power requirements and of the annual expenditure, better performance could always be expected of the two-unit separation cells as compared with the conventional separation cell, at least in the range of parameters adopted in this study. As regards the minimum membrane area, the conventional separation cell and the series-type separation cell yielded almost the same values, with the parallel-type separation cell falling somewhat behind. (auth.)

  16. Ion-conducting membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Sajjad, Syed Dawar; Gao, Yan; Liu, Zengcai; Chen, Qingmei

    2017-12-26

    An anion-conducting polymeric membrane comprises a terpolymer of styrene, vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s and vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x. R.sub.s is a positively charged cyclic amine group. R.sub.x is at least one constituent selected from the group consisting Cl, OH and a reaction product between an OH or Cl and a species other than a simple amine or a cyclic amine. The total weight of the vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x groups is greater than 0.3% of the total weight of the membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.

  17. The effect of peptides and ions interacting with an electrically neutral membrane interface on the structure and stability of lipid membranes in the liquid-crystalline phase and in the liquid-ordered phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Ryoko; Masum, Shah Md; Tanaka, Tomoki; Yamashita, Yuko; Levadny, Victor; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2005-08-01

    We investigated the effects of a de novo designed peptide, WLFLLKKK (peptide-1) and La3+, which can bind with the electrically neutral lipid membrane interface, on the stability of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) membrane in the Lα phase and that of the liquid-ordered (lo) phase membranes. The results of spacing of the multilamellar vesicle and shape changes of the giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) indicate that the peptide-1 can be partitioned into the membrane interface in the Lα phase but not into that in the lo phase. La3+ induced shape changes of GUVs of the lo phase membrane, which are the same as those of GUVs in the Lα phase. This indicates that the binding of La3+ induced an increase in the lateral compression pressure of the membrane, which decreased the surface area of the membrane in the lo phase. The difference of the membrane interface between the Lα phase and the lo phase is discussed.

  18. The effect of peptides and ions interacting with an electrically neutral membrane interface on the structure and stability of lipid membranes in the liquid-crystalline phase and in the liquid-ordered phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Ryoko; Masum, Shah Md; Tanaka, Tomoki; Yamashita, Yuko; Levadny, Victor; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a de novo designed peptide, WLFLLKKK (peptide-1) and La 3+ , which can bind with the electrically neutral lipid membrane interface, on the stability of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) membrane in the L α phase and that of the liquid-ordered (lo) phase membranes. The results of spacing of the multilamellar vesicle and shape changes of the giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) indicate that the peptide-1 can be partitioned into the membrane interface in the L α phase but not into that in the lo phase. La 3+ induced shape changes of GUVs of the lo phase membrane, which are the same as those of GUVs in the L α phase. This indicates that the binding of La 3+ induced an increase in the lateral compression pressure of the membrane, which decreased the surface area of the membrane in the lo phase. The difference of the membrane interface between the L α phase and the lo phase is discussed

  19. Comparison and analysis of membrane fouling between flocculent sludge membrane bioreactor and granular sludge membrane bioreactor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jing-Feng

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of inoculating granules on reducing membrane fouling. In order to evaluate the differences in performance between flocculent sludge and aerobic granular sludge in membrane reactors (MBRs, two reactors were run in parallel and various parameters related to membrane fouling were measured. The results indicated that specific resistance to the fouling layer was five times greater than that of mixed liquor sludge in the granular MBR. The floc sludge more easily formed a compact layer on the membrane surface, and increased membrane resistance. Specifically, the floc sludge had a higher moisture content, extracellular polymeric substances concentration, and negative surface charge. In contrast, aerobic granules could improve structural integrity and strength, which contributed to the preferable permeate performance. Therefore, inoculating aerobic granules in a MBR presents an effective method of reducing the membrane fouling associated with floc sludge the perspective of from the morphological characteristics of microbial aggregates.

  20. Fabrication of Pd Micro-Membrane Supported on Nano-Porous Anodized Aluminum Oxide for Hydrogen Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taegyu

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, nano-porous anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as a support of the Pd membrane. The AAO fabrication process consists of an electrochemical polishing, first/second anodizing, barrier layer dissolving and pores widening. The Pd membrane was deposited on the AAO support using an electroless plating with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a plating agent. The AAO had the regular pore structure with the maximum pore diameter of ~100 nm so it had a large opening area but a small free standing area. The 2 µm-thick Pd layer was obtained by the electroless plating for 3 hours. The Pd layer thickness increased with increasing the plating time. However, the thickness was limited to ~5 µm in maximum. The H2 permeation flux was 0.454 mol/m2-s when the pressure difference of 66.36 kPa0.5 was applied at the Pd membrane under 400 °C.

  1. 3D pressure field in lipid membranes and membrane-protein complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ollila, O H Samuli; Risselada, H Jelger; Louhivuori, Martti

    2009-01-01

    We calculate full 3D pressure fields for inhomogeneous nanoscale systems using molecular dynamics simulation data. The fields represent systems with increasing level of complexity, ranging from semivesicles and vesicles to membranes characterized by coexistence of two phases, including also...... a protein-membrane complex. We show that the 3D pressure field is distinctly different for curved and planar bilayers, the pressure field depends strongly on the phase of the membrane, and that an integral protein modulates the tension and elastic properties of the membrane....

  2. Biofouling of spiral wound membrane systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Biofouling of spiral wound membrane systems High quality drinking water can be produced with membrane filtration processes like reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). Because the global demand for fresh clean water is increasing, these membrane technologies will increase in importance in the

  3. Anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  4. Affinity membranes for hormone removal from aqueous solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urmenyi, A.M.; Poot, Andreas A.; Wessling, Matthias; Mulder, M.H.V.

    2005-01-01

    A novel affinity membrane was prepared by covalent binding of antibodies (against 17--estradiol) to a micro-porous poly(ethylene vinyl alcohol) (EVAL) membrane, taking benefit from the high surface area of EVAL membranes and the large number of reactive groups available for further surface

  5. Composite Membranes Based on Polyether Sulfone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Soroush

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of polymeric additives such as PVP and PEG is studied with respect to the morphology of PES porous layer as a sublayer of nanofiltration composite membranes based on PES/PA. Results show that by phase inversionprocess of quaternary systems comprised of four components of polymer/solvent/non-solvent/additive and the diffusion of intertwined polymers some changes occur in membrane morphology with changes in their concentration. With addition of PVP, tear-like pores, finger-like and channel-like morphology change to enlarged channel cavities and by adding more PVP, membrane morphology changes further and spongy regions are extended in the membrane. Presence of PEG in casting solution delayed the precipitation time. By adding PEG, the solution viscosity is increased which is followed by decreases in diffusion rates of solvent/non-solvent in coagulation bath.Therefore, membrane morphology shifts to small pores and spongier region. Another effect of increased PEG content would be deformed PA layer formation in PES sublayer which affects membrane performance. However, PVP as an additive does not change membrane salt rejection very much while it leads to higher fluxes. A membrane with 2.5 percent PVP would perform by 40 percent flux increases, while a membrane with 5% PVP shows flux reductions even below the initial value. Contrary to PVP, the PEG content of 20 percent leads to 4 folds flux increases and in a membrane with 50 percent PEG, there is a flux increase by 7 folds and drop in salt rejection occurs by 50 percent and 70 percent, respectively.

  6. Numerical Analysis for Separation of Methane by Hollow Fiber Membrane with Cocurrent Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seungmin; Seo, Yeonhee; Kang, Hanchang; Lee, Yongtaek [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeonghoon [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    A theoretical analysis was carried out to examine the concentration behavior of methane from a biogas using a polysulfone membrane. After the governing equations were derived for the cocurrent flow mode in a membrane module, the coupled nonlinear differential equations were numerically solved with the Compaq Visual Fortran 6.6 software. At the typical operating condition of mole fraction of 0.7 in a feed stream, the mole fraction of methane in the retentate increased to 0.76 while the normalized retentate flow rate to the feed flow rate decreased from 1 to 0.79. When either the mole fraction of methane in a feed increased or the pressure of the feed stream increased, the methane mole fraction in the retentate increased. On the other hand, it was found that as either the membrane area decreased or the ratio of the permeate pressure to the feed pressure increased, the methane mole fraction in the retentate decreased. In case that the stage cut increased, the methane mole fraction in the retentate increased while the recovery of methane slightly decreased.

  7. MECHANISM OF LIQUID MEMBRANES AND APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Nuran ACAR

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been considerably studied on the recycling of waste materials in the source besides of wastewater treatment in the last years. It has been important developments on the using of semiconductor membranes in the recycling of toxic materials such as heavy metals, intensifying the environment protection measures especially in the west countries. Wastewater treatment has been achieved with liquid membranes as it has been achieved with polymeric membrane systems such as ultrafiltration, microfiltration, electrodialysis. At the same time, liquid membranes are used for removal of metal ions in hydrometallurgy. Liquid membranes are also used in biotechnology, medical areas and gas separation process.

  8. Failure Modes of thin supported Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Høgsberg, J.R.; Kjeldsen, Ane Mette

    2007-01-01

    Four different failure modes relevant to tubular supported membranes (thin dense films on a thick porous support) were analyzed. The failure modes were: 1) Structural collapse due to external pressure 2) burst of locally unsupported areas, 3) formation of surface cracks in the membrane due to TEC......-mismatches, and finally 4) delamination between membrane and support due to expansion of the membrane on use. Design criteria to minimize risk of failure by the four different modes are discussed. The theoretical analysis of the two last failure modes is compared to failures observed on actual components....

  9. Light Responsive Polymer Membranes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiore Pasquale Nicoletta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, stimuli responsive materials have gained significant attention in membrane separation processes due to their ability to change specific properties in response to small external stimuli, such as light, pH, temperature, ionic strength, pressure, magnetic field, antigen, chemical composition, and so on. In this review, we briefly report recent progresses in light-driven materials and membranes. Photo-switching mechanisms, valved-membrane fabrication and light-driven properties are examined. Advances and perspectives of light responsive polymer membranes in biotechnology, chemistry and biology areas are discussed.

  10. Water and solute transport across the peritoneal membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelle, Johann; Devuyst, Olivier

    2015-09-01

    We review the molecular mechanisms of peritoneal transport and discuss how a better understanding of these mechanisms is relevant for dialysis therapy. Peritoneal dialysis involves diffusion and osmosis through the highly vascularized peritoneal membrane. Computer simulations, expression studies and functional analyses in Aqp1 knockout mice demonstrated the critical role of the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) in water removal during peritoneal dialysis. Pharmacologic regulation of AQP1, either through increased expression or gating, is associated with increased water transport in rodent models of peritoneal dialysis. Water transport is impaired during acute peritonitis, despite unchanged expression of AQP1, resulting from the increased microvascular area that dissipates the osmotic gradient across the membrane. In long-term peritoneal dialysis patients, the fibrotic interstitium also impairs water transport, resulting in ultrafiltration failure. Recent data suggest that stroke and drug intoxications might benefit from peritoneal dialysis and could represent novel applications of peritoneal transport in the future. A better understanding of the regulation of osmotic water transport across the peritoneum offers novel insights into the role of water channels in microvascular endothelia, the functional importance of structural changes in the peritoneal interstitium and the transport of water and solutes across biological membranes in general.

  11. Effect of ceramic membrane channel geometry and uniform transmembrane pressure on limiting flux and serum protein removal during skim milk microfiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael C; Hurt, Emily E; Barbano, David M

    2015-11-01

    Our objectives were to determine the effects of a ceramic microfiltration (MF) membrane's retentate flow channel geometry (round or diamond-shaped) and uniform transmembrane pressure (UTP) on limiting flux (LF) and serum protein (SP) removal during skim milk MF at a temperature of 50°C, a retentate protein concentration of 8.5%, and an average cross-flow velocity of 7 m·s(-1). Performance of membranes with round and diamond flow channels was compared in UTP mode. Performance of the membrane with round flow channels was compared with and without UTP. Using UTP with round flow channel MF membranes increased the LF by 5% when compared with not using UTP, but SP removal was not affected by the use of UTP. Using membranes with round channels instead of diamond-shaped channels in UTP mode increased the LF by 24%. This increase was associated with a 25% increase in Reynolds number and can be explained by lower shear at the vertices of the diamond-shaped channel's surface. The SP removal factor of the diamond channel system was higher than the SP removal factor of the round channel system below the LF. However, the diamond channel system passed more casein into the MF permeate than the round channel system. Because only one batch of each membrane was tested in our study, it was not possible to determine if the differences in protein rejection between channel geometries were due to the membrane design or random manufacturing variation. Despite the lower LF of the diamond channel system, the 47% increase in membrane module surface area of the diamond channel system produced a modular permeate removal rate that was at least 19% higher than the round channel system. Consequently, using diamond channel membranes instead of round channel membranes could reduce some of the costs associated with ceramic MF of skim milk if fewer membrane modules could be used to attain the required membrane area. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  12. Correlation of Structural Differences between Nafion/Polyaniline and Nafion/Polypyrrole Composite Membranes and Observed Transport Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenzer, Birgit; Kim, Soowhan; Vijayakumar, M.; Yang, Zhenguo; Liu, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Polyaniline/Nafion and polypyrrole/Nafion composite membranes, prepared by chemical polymerization, are studied by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Differences in vanadium ion diffusion through the membranes and in the membranes area specific resistance are linked to analytical observations that polyaniline and polypyrrole interact differently with Nafion. Polypyrrole, a weakly basic polymer, binds less strongly to the sulfonic acid groups of the Nafion membrane, and thus the hydrophobic polymer aggregates in the center of the Nafion channel rather than on the hydrophilic side chains of Nafion that contain sulfonic acid groups. This results in a drastically elevated membrane resistance and an only slightly decreased vanadium ion permeation compared to a Nafion membrane. Polyaniline on the other hand is a strongly basic polymer, which forms along the sidewalls of the Nafion pores and on the membrane surface, binding tightly to the sulfonic acid groups of Nafion. This leads to a more effective reduction in vanadium ion transport across the polyaniline/Nafion membranes and the increase in membrane resistance is less severe. The performance of selected polypyrrole/Nafion composite membranes is tested in a static vanadium redox cell. Increased coulombic efficiency, compared to a cell employing Nafion, further confirms the reduced vanadium ion transport through the composite membranes.

  13. RETENTION OF HUMIC ACID FROM WATER BY NANOFILTRATION MEMBRANE AND INFLUENCE OF SOLUTION CHEMISTRY ON MEMBRANE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Zazouli, S. Nasseri, A. H. Mahvi, M. Gholami, A. R. Mesdaghinia, M. Younesian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to investigate the rejection efficiency of salt and hydrophobic fraction of natural organic matter, to study the flux decline behavior with a spiral wound nanofiltration membrane, and also to survey the influence of water chemistry on membrane performance. Experiments were conducted using a cross flow pilot-scale membrane unit with a full circulation mode. Humic acid was used as hydrophobic organic matter and NaCl as background electrolyte. Results showed that flux reduction increased with increasing ionic strength and humic acid concentration, and with lower pH. The rejection efficiency of organic and salt decreased with the decrease in pH and increase in ionic strength, because of osmotic pressure increase, leading to permeate flux decline and decrease in salt rejection. In addition, the improved salt rejection was likely due to Donnan exclusion by humic material close to membrane surfaces. The average rejection efficiency of humic acid and salt ranged between 91.2%-95.25% and 63.6%-80%, respectively. Dissolved organic carbon concentration was less than 0.57mg/L in permeate for all experiments. With increasing organic concentration, the charge of the membrane surface has become more negative due to the adsorption of organic foulants on the membrane surface, and thus increased the electrostatic repulsion. However, the increasing surface charge had the potential to result in a larger molecular weight cut-off of a fouled membrane due to membrane swelling which can lead to lower rejection solutes. Therefore, results of this study indicated that membrane fouling may significantly affect the rejection of organic and ion solute.

  14. Hydrogen superpermeable membrane operation under plasma conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacal, M.; Bruneteau, A.M.; Livshits, A.I.; Alimov, V.N.; Notkin, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of ion bombardment on hydrogen plasma-driven permeation through a superpermeable niobium membrane was investigated. It was found that the increase of membrane temperature and the doping of membrane material with oxygen results in the decrease of ion bombardment effect and in permeability increase. It was demonstrated that membrane decarbonization leads to the formation of a membrane state resistant to sputtering. Possible applications of the membrane resistant to ion bombardment as plasma facing components are considered

  15. Task 9 - centrifugal membrane filtration. Semi-annual report April 1--September 30, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepan, D.J.; Moe, T.A.; Collings, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report assesses a centrifugal membrane filtration technology developed by SpinTek Membrane Systems, Inc. The technology uses supported microporous membranes rotating at high rpm, under pressure, to separate suspended and colloidal solids from liquid streams, yielding a solids-free permeate stream and a highly concentrated solids stream. The Tank Waste Focus Area was chosen for study. Membrane-screening tests were performed with the STC-X4 static test cell filtration unit, using five ceramic membranes with different pore size and composition. Based on permeate flux, a 0.25-μm TiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 membrane was selected for detailed performance evaluation using the centrifugal membrane filtration unit with a surrogate tank waste solution. The performance of the unit was evaluated with a statistical test design that determined the effect of temperature, pressure, membrane rotational speed, and solids loading on permeate flux. All four variables were found to be statistically significant, with the magnitude of the effect in the order of temperature, solids loading, rotor speed, and pressure. Temperature, rotor speed, and pressure had an increasing effect on flux with increasing value, while increases in solids loading showed a decrease in permeate flux. Significant interactions between rotor speed and solids loading and pressure and solids loading were also observed. The regression equation derived from test data had a correlation coefficient of 0.934, which represents a useful predictive capability for integrating the technology into DOE cleanup efforts. An extended test run performed on surrogate waste showed some deterioration in filtration performance, based on flux, apparently due to the buildup of solids near the inner portion of the membrane where relative membrane velocities were low. Continued testing of the system will focus on modifications to the shear pattern across the entire membrane surface to affect improved long-term performance

  16. Effects of salinity on the characteristics of biomass and membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jang, D.; Hwang, Yuhoon; Shin, H.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of high salinity on the performance and membrane fouling of membrane bioreactor (MBR) with saline wastewater. Synthetic wastewaters containing 5-20g/L salts (NaCl) were treated in identical lab-scale (7L) MBRs monitoring removals of dissolved organic carbon (DOC......; and the changes in microbial composition in turn have affected the performance of the MBRs. Membrane fouling was accelerated by the increased pore blocking resistance at higher salt concentrations. Analysis results of physicochemical and biological characteristics of biomass (EPS, floc size, zeta potential......) verified the impacts of high salinity on the increased membrane fouling....

  17. The Formation of Porous Membranes by Filtration of Aerosol Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Sune K.; Johannessen, Tue; Mosleh, Majid; Wedel, Stig; Tranto, Janne; Livbjerg, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Flame-generated aerosol particles of Al 2 O 3 were deposited by gas filtration on two types of porous and ceramic tubes of α-Al 2 O 3 with mean pore diameters of 450 and 2700 nm, respectively. The particles were aggregates with average mobility diameters in the range of 30-100 nm and primary particle diameters of 4-8 nm. The particles are characterized by differential mobility analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and by their specific surface area. The deposited membranes are characterized by gas permeability measurements, scanning electron microscopy, and by their pore size distribution from nitrogen capillary condensation. The particles form a distinct, homogeneous membrane layer with a porosity of ∼90% on top of the substrate surface and only penetrate slightly into the substrate structure. The mean pore sizes of the deposited membranes determined by nitrogen condensation agree approximately with those determined by gas permeation and the specific surface area. The mean pore diameter varies in the range of 30-70 nm. The gas permeability of the deposited membranes is related to the specific surface area but influenced by the high porosity. The mean pore size and the permeability of the membranes are almost independent of the substrate structure.The development of a membrane with uniform properties is preceded by a short initial period in which the deposited particles, with an equivalent membrane thickness of roughly 2 μm, have a significantly lower permeability than the ultimately developed uniform membrane layer. This effect is particularly significant for the aerosol particles with the lowest mean size, probably due to particles deposited in the pore mouths of the substrate.The particles and the deposited membranes are X-ray amorphous but retain their specific surface area on heating to even high temperatures. When the membranes are heated to 1473 K for 10 h, X-ray diffraction shows a mixture of θ- and α-alumina, accompanied by a partial

  18. Latest Development on Membrane Fabrication for Natural Gas Purification: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzeti Farhah Mohshim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, membrane technology has been a great attention for gas separation technology especially for natural gas sweetening. The intrinsic character of membranes makes them fit for process escalation, and this versatility could be the significant factor to induce membrane technology in most gas separation areas. Membranes were synthesized with various materials which depended on the applications. The fabrication of polymeric membrane was one of the fastest growing fields of membrane technology. However, polymeric membranes could not meet the separation performances required especially in high operating pressure due to deficiencies problem. The chemistry and structure of support materials like inorganic membranes were also one of the focus areas when inorganic membranes showed some positive results towards gas separation. However, the materials are somewhat lacking to meet the separation performance requirement. Mixed matrix membrane (MMM which is comprising polymeric and inorganic membranes presents an interesting approach for enhancing the separation performance. Nevertheless, MMM is yet to be commercialized as the material combinations are still in the research stage. This paper highlights the potential promising areas of research in gas separation by taking into account the material selections and the addition of a third component for conventional MMM.

  19. Irradiation of large area Mylar membrane and characterization of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ion irradiation of Si8+ ion beam of 100 MeV was scattered by a gold foil on a Mylar membrane of 25 m thickness in the form of film roll (width, 12.5 cm and length, 400 cm) at the Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi. The characterization of etched nuclear tracks was carried out by gas permeation measurements.

  20. The influence of polymeric membrane gas spargers on hydrodynamics and mass transfer in bubble column bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirunehe, Gossaye; Norddahl, B

    2016-04-01

    Gas sparging performances of a flat sheet and tubular polymeric membranes were investigated in 3.1 m bubble column bioreactor operated in a semi batch mode. Air-water and air-CMC (Carboxymethyl cellulose) solutions of 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 % w/w were used as interacting gas-liquid mediums. CMC solutions were employed in the study to simulate rheological properties of bioreactor broth. Gas holdup, bubble size distribution, interfacial area and gas-liquid mass transfer were studied in the homogeneous bubbly flow hydrodynamic regime with superficial gas velocity (U(G)) range of 0.0004-0.0025 m/s. The study indicated that the tubular membrane sparger produced the highest gas holdup and densely populated fine bubbles with narrow size distribution. An increase in liquid viscosity promoted a shift in bubble size distribution to large stable bubbles and smaller specific interfacial area. The tubular membrane sparger achieved greater interfacial area and an enhanced overall mass transfer coefficient (K(L)a) by a factor of 1.2-1.9 compared to the flat sheet membrane.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Particle Distribution in Capillary Membrane during Backwash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anik Keller

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The membrane filtration with inside-out dead-end driven UF-/MF- capillary membranes is an effective process for particle removal in water treatment. Its industrial application increased in the last decade exponentially. To date, the research activities in this field were aimed first of all at the analysis of filtration phenomena disregarding the influence of backwash on the operation parameters of filtration plants. However, following the main hypothesis of this paper, backwash has great potential to increase the efficiency of filtration. In this paper, a numerical approach for a detailed study of fluid dynamic processes in capillary membranes during backwash is presented. The effect of particle size and inlet flux on the backwash process are investigated. The evaluation of these data concentrates on the analysis of particle behavior in the cross sectional plane and the appearance of eventually formed particle plugs inside the membrane capillary. Simulations are conducted in dead-end filtration mode and with two configurations. The first configuration includes a particle concentration of 10% homogeneously distributed within the capillary and the second configuration demonstrates a cake layer on the membrane surface with a packing density of 0:6. Analyzing the hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles shows that the lift force plays the main role in defining the particle enrichment areas. The operation parameters contribute in enhancing the lift force and the heterogeneity to anticipate the clogging of the membrane.

  2. In-situcross-linked PVDF membranes with enhanced mechanical durability for vacuum membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Zuo, Jian; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2016-01-01

    A novel and effective one-step method has been demonstrated to fabricate cross-linked polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes with better mechanical properties and flux for seawater desalination via vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). This method involves the addition of two functional nonsolvent additives; namely, water and ethylenediamine (EDA), into the polymer casting solution. The former acts as a pore forming agent, while the latter performs as a cross-linking inducer. The incorporation of water tends to increase membrane flux via increasing porosity and pore size but sacrifices membrane mechanical properties. Conversely, the presence of EDA enhances membrane mechanical properties through in-situ cross-linking reaction. Therefore, by synergistically combining the effects of both functional additives, the resultant PVDF membranes have shown good MD performance and mechanical properties simultaneously. The parameters that affect the cross-link reaction and membrane mechanical properties such as reaction duration and EDA concentration have been systematically studied. The membranes cast from an optimal reaction condition comprising 0.8 wt % EDA and 3-hour reaction not only shows a 40% enhancement in membrane Young's Modulus compared to the one without EDA but also achieves a good VMD flux of 43.6 L/m2-h at 60°C. This study may open up a totally new approach to design next-generation high performance MD membranes. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 62: 4013–4022, 2016

  3. In-situcross-linked PVDF membranes with enhanced mechanical durability for vacuum membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Zuo, Jian

    2016-05-12

    A novel and effective one-step method has been demonstrated to fabricate cross-linked polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes with better mechanical properties and flux for seawater desalination via vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). This method involves the addition of two functional nonsolvent additives; namely, water and ethylenediamine (EDA), into the polymer casting solution. The former acts as a pore forming agent, while the latter performs as a cross-linking inducer. The incorporation of water tends to increase membrane flux via increasing porosity and pore size but sacrifices membrane mechanical properties. Conversely, the presence of EDA enhances membrane mechanical properties through in-situ cross-linking reaction. Therefore, by synergistically combining the effects of both functional additives, the resultant PVDF membranes have shown good MD performance and mechanical properties simultaneously. The parameters that affect the cross-link reaction and membrane mechanical properties such as reaction duration and EDA concentration have been systematically studied. The membranes cast from an optimal reaction condition comprising 0.8 wt % EDA and 3-hour reaction not only shows a 40% enhancement in membrane Young\\'s Modulus compared to the one without EDA but also achieves a good VMD flux of 43.6 L/m2-h at 60°C. This study may open up a totally new approach to design next-generation high performance MD membranes. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 62: 4013–4022, 2016

  4. Membrane architectures for ion-channel switch-based electrochemical biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansinena, Jose-Maria; Redondo, Antonio; Swanson, Basil I.; Yee, Chanel Kitmon; Sapuri/Butti, Annapoorna R.; Parikh, Atul N.; Yang, Calvin

    2008-10-28

    The present invention is directed to a process of forming a bilayer lipid membrane structure by depositing an organic layer having a defined surface area onto an electrically conductive substrate, removing portions of said organic layer upon said electrically conductive substrate whereby selected portions of said organic layer are removed to form defined voids within said defined surface area of said organic layer and defined islands of organic layer upon said electrically conductive substrate, and, depositing a bilayer lipid membrane over the defined voids and defined islands of organic layer upon said substrate whereby aqueous reservoirs are formed between said electrically conductive substrate and said bilayer lipid membrane, said bilayer lipid membrane characterized as spanning across the defined voids between said defined islands. A lipid membrane structure is also described together with an array of such lipid membrane structure.

  5. Recent progress in molecular simulation of nanoporous graphene membranes for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, S. Mahmood; Baniasadi, Aminreza; Moradi, Mahrokh

    2017-07-01

    If an ideal membrane for gas separation is to be obtained, the following three characteristics should be considered: the membrane should be as thin as possible, be mechanically robust, and have welldefined pore sizes. These features will maximize its solvent flux, preserve it from fracture, and guarantee its selectivity. Graphene is made up of a hexagonal honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms with sp 2 hybridization state forming a one-atom-thick sheet of graphite. Following conversion of the honeycomb lattices into nanopores with a specific geometry and size, a nanoporous graphene membrane that offers high efficiency as a separation membrane because of the ultrafast molecular permeation rate as a result of its one-atom thickness is obtained. Applications of nanoporous graphene membranes for gas separation have been receiving remarkably increasing attention because nanoporous graphene membranes show promising results in this area. This review focuses on the recent advances in nanoporous graphene membranes for applications in gas separation, with a major emphasis on theoretical works. The attractive properties of nanoporous graphene membranes introduce make them appropriate candidates for gas separation and gas molecular-sieving processes in nanoscale dimensions.

  6. HAMLET interacts with lipid membranes and perturbs their structure and integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Puchades, Maja; Halskau, Øyvind; Baumann, Anne; Lanekoff, Ingela; Chao, Yinxia; Martinez, Aurora; Svanborg, Catharina; Karlsson, Roger

    2010-02-23

    Cell membrane interactions rely on lipid bilayer constituents and molecules inserted within the membrane, including specific receptors. HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a tumoricidal complex of partially unfolded alpha-lactalbumin (HLA) and oleic acid that is internalized by tumor cells, suggesting that interactions with the phospholipid bilayer and/or specific receptors may be essential for the tumoricidal effect. This study examined whether HAMLET interacts with artificial membranes and alters membrane structure. We show by surface plasmon resonance that HAMLET binds with high affinity to surface adherent, unilamellar vesicles of lipids with varying acyl chain composition and net charge. Fluorescence imaging revealed that HAMLET accumulates in membranes of vesicles and perturbs their structure, resulting in increased membrane fluidity. Furthermore, HAMLET disrupted membrane integrity at neutral pH and physiological conditions, as shown by fluorophore leakage experiments. These effects did not occur with either native HLA or a constitutively unfolded Cys-Ala HLA mutant (rHLA(all-Ala)). HAMLET also bound to plasma membrane vesicles formed from intact tumor cells, with accumulation in certain membrane areas, but the complex was not internalized by these vesicles or by the synthetic membrane vesicles. The results illustrate the difference in membrane affinity between the fatty acid bound and fatty acid free forms of partially unfolded HLA and suggest that HAMLET engages membranes by a mechanism requiring both the protein and the fatty acid. Furthermore, HAMLET binding alters the morphology of the membrane and compromises its integrity, suggesting that membrane perturbation could be an initial step in inducing cell death.

  7. Polybenzimidazole/Mxene composite membranes for intermediate temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Mingming; Lin, Ruizhi; Deng, Yuming; Xian, Hongxi; Bian, Renji; Zhang, Xiaole; Cheng, Jigui; Xu, Chenxi; Cai, Dongyu

    2018-01-01

    This report demonstrated the first study on the use of a new 2D nanomaterial (Mxene) for enhancing membrane performance of intermediate temperature (>100 °C) polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (ITPEMFCs). In this study, a typical Ti3C2T x -MXene was synthesized and incorporated into polybenzimidazole (PBI)-based membranes by using a solution blending method. The composite membrane with 3 wt% Ti3C2T x -MXene showed the proton conductivity more than 2 times higher than that of pristine PBI membrane at the temperature range of 100 °C-170 °C, and led to substantial increase in maximum power density of fuel cells by ˜30% tested at 150 °C. The addition of Ti3C2T x -MXene also improved the mechanical properties and thermal stability of PBI membranes. At 3 wt% Ti3C2T x -MXene, the elongation at break of phosphoric acid doped PBI remained unaffected at 150 °C, and the tensile strength and Young’s modulus was increased by ˜150% and ˜160%, respectively. This study pointed out promising application of MXene in ITPEMFCs.

  8. Peculiarities of territorial governing in the area of increased risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchinskas, A.

    1998-01-01

    The area of Ignalina NPP can be evaluated from the standpoint of governing as the area of increased risk territory (zone), so the local administration should acquire a specific status. The results of expert examination show insufficient efficiency of the administration's activity, it's orientation to quantitative results. An objective fund is necessary for the supporting the local administration and population of this area. (author)

  9. Magnetically enhanced triode etching of large area silicon membranes in a molecular bromine plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, J.C.; Sen, S.; Pendharkar, S.V.; Mauger, P.; Shimkunas, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    The optimization of a process for etching 125 mm silicon membranes formed on 150 mm wafers and bonded to Pyrex rings is discussed. A magnetically enhanced triode etching system was designed to provide an intense, remote plasma surrounding the membrane while, at the same time, suppressing the discharge over the membrane itself. For the optimized molecular bromine process, the silicon etch rate is 40 nm/min and the selectivity relative to SiO 2 is 160:1. 14 refs., 6 figs

  10. The effect of peptides and ions interacting with an electrically neutral membrane interface on the structure and stability of lipid membranes in the liquid-crystalline phase and in the liquid-ordered phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Ryoko [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, 422-8529 (Japan); Masum, Shah Md [Material Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shizuoka University, 422-8529 (Japan); Tanaka, Tomoki [Material Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shizuoka University, 422-8529 (Japan); Yamashita, Yuko [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, 422-8529 (Japan); Levadny, Victor [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, 422-8529 (Japan); Scientific Council for Cybernetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilov street 34, 333117, Moscow (Russian Federation); Yamazaki, Masahito [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, 422-8529 (Japan); Material Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shizuoka University, 422-8529 (Japan)

    2005-08-10

    We investigated the effects of a de novo designed peptide, WLFLLKKK (peptide-1) and La{sup 3+}, which can bind with the electrically neutral lipid membrane interface, on the stability of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) membrane in the L{sub {alpha}} phase and that of the liquid-ordered (lo) phase membranes. The results of spacing of the multilamellar vesicle and shape changes of the giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) indicate that the peptide-1 can be partitioned into the membrane interface in the L{sub {alpha}} phase but not into that in the lo phase. La{sup 3+} induced shape changes of GUVs of the lo phase membrane, which are the same as those of GUVs in the L{sub {alpha}} phase. This indicates that the binding of La{sup 3+} induced an increase in the lateral compression pressure of the membrane, which decreased the surface area of the membrane in the lo phase. The difference of the membrane interface between the L{sub {alpha}} phase and the lo phase is discussed.

  11. Histological chorioamnionitis in preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes is associated with increased expression of galectin-3 by amniotic epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanoska, Ivana; Tadić, Jasmina; Vilotić, Aleksandra; Jovanović Krivokuća, Milica; Abu Rabi, Tamara; Vićovac, Ljiljana

    2017-09-01

    Gal-3, which can regulate immune responses upon infection and inflammation, was not studied so far in intrauterine infection leading to preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes (PPROM), although gal-1 was reported to be implicated in the process. Gal-3 mRNA and protein expression in amnion and its changes during histological chorioamnionitis were studied here. Fetal membranes were obtained from women with PPROM with (n =15) and without histological chorioamnionitis (n =15) during second and third trimester. Immunohistochemical reactivity was evaluated semiquantitatively and analyzed using t-test. Galectin profile of amniotic epithelia was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and change assessed in gal-3 in PPROM with (n =5) or without histological chorioamnionitis (n =5) by real-time PCR. Human amniotic epithelium was found to express gal-1, gal-3, gal-7 and gal-8 mRNA. Gal-3 mRNA and protein is increased in fetal membranes and in the amniotic epithelium in patients with chorionamnionitis. Histological chorioamnionitis is associated with increased gal-3 expression and strong immunoreactivity of the amnion. Gal-3 may participate in the regulation of the inflammatory responses to chorioamniotic infection and/or direct interaction with pathogens.

  12. Vaginal dysbiosis increases risk of preterm fetal membrane rupture, neonatal sepsis and is exacerbated by erythromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard G; Marchesi, Julian R; Lee, Yun S; Smith, Ann; Lehne, Benjamin; Kindinger, Lindsay M; Terzidou, Vasso; Holmes, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Bennett, Phillip R; MacIntyre, David A

    2018-01-24

    Preterm prelabour rupture of the fetal membranes (PPROM) precedes 30% of preterm births and is a risk factor for early onset neonatal sepsis. As PPROM is strongly associated with ascending vaginal infection, prophylactic antibiotics are widely used. The evolution of vaginal microbiota compositions associated with PPROM and the impact of antibiotics on bacterial compositions are unknown. We prospectively assessed vaginal microbiota prior to and following PPROM using MiSeq-based sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and examined the impact of erythromycin prophylaxis on bacterial load and community structures. In contrast to pregnancies delivering at term, vaginal dysbiosis characterised by Lactobacillus spp. depletion was present prior to the rupture of fetal membranes in approximately a third of cases (0% vs. 27%, P = 0.026) and persisted following membrane rupture (31%, P = 0.005). Vaginal dysbiosis was exacerbated by erythromycin treatment (47%, P = 0.00009) particularly in women initially colonised by Lactobacillus spp. Lactobacillus depletion and increased relative abundance of Sneathia spp. were associated with subsequent funisitis and early onset neonatal sepsis. Our data show that vaginal microbiota composition is a risk factor for subsequent PPROM and is associated with adverse short-term maternal and neonatal outcomes. This highlights vaginal microbiota as a potentially modifiable antenatal risk factor for PPROM and suggests that routine use of erythromycin for PPROM be re-examined.

  13. Localization of foot-and-mouth disease - RNA synthesis on newly formed cellular smooth membranous vacuoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polatnick, J.; Wool, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Viral RNA synthesis in foot-and-mouth disease infected bovine kidney cell cultures was associated throughout the infectious period with newly formed smooth membranous vacuoles. Membrane formation was measured by choline uptake. The site of RNA synthesis was determined by electron microscopic examination of autoradiograms of incorporated [ 3 H] uridine. Both membrane formation and RNA synthesis became signifcant at 2.5 hours postinfection, but membrane formation increased steadily to 4.5 hours while RNA synthesis peaked at 3.5 hours. Percent density distributions of developed silver grains on autoradiograms showed that almost all RNA synthesis was concentrated on the smooth vacuoles of infected cells. Histogram analysis of grain density distributions established that the site of RNA synthesis was the vacuolar membrane. The newly formed smooth membrane-bound vacuoles were not seen to coalesce into the large vacuolated areas typical of poliovirus cytopathogenicity. (Author)

  14. Localization of foot-and-mouth disease - RNA synthesis on newly formed cellular smooth membranous vacuoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polatnick, J.; Wool, S.H. (United States Department of Agriculture, Science and Education, Greenport, New York (USA). Agricultural Research, Plum Island Animal Disease Center)

    1982-01-01

    Viral RNA synthesis in foot-and-mouth disease infected bovine kidney cell cultures was associated throughout the infectious period with newly formed smooth membranous vacuoles. Membrane formation was measured by choline uptake. The site of RNA synthesis was determined by electron microscopic examination of autoradiograms of incorporated (/sup 3/H) uridine. Both membrane formation and RNA synthesis became signifcant at 2.5 hours postinfection, but membrane formation increased steadily to 4.5 hours while RNA synthesis peaked at 3.5 hours. Percent density distributions of developed silver grains on autoradiograms showed that almost all RNA synthesis was concentrated on the smooth vacuoles of infected cells. Histogram analysis of grain density distributions established that the site of RNA synthesis was the vacuolar membrane. The newly formed smooth membrane-bound vacuoles were not seen to coalesce into the large vacuolated areas typical of poliovirus cytopathogenicity.

  15. Linoleic Acid Permeabilizes Gastric Epithelial Cells by Increasing Connexin43 Levels in the Cell Membrane Via a GPR40- and Akt-Dependent Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puebla, Carlos; Cisterna, Bruno A.; Salas, Daniela P.; Delgado-López, Fernando; Lampe, Paul D.; Sáez, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Linoleic acid (LA) is known to activate G-protein coupled receptors and connexin hemichannels (Cx HCs) but possible interlinks between these two responses remain unexplored. Here, we evaluated the mechanism of action of LA on the membrane permeability mediated by Cx HCs in MKN28 cells. These cells were found to express connexins, GPR40, GPR120, and CD36 receptors. The Cx HC activity of these cells increased after 5 min of treatment with LA or GW9508, an agonist of GPR40/GPR120; or exposure to extracellular divalent cation-free solution (DCFS), known to increase the open probability of Cx HCs, yields an immediate increase in Cx HC of similar intensity and additive with LA-induced change. Treatment with a CD36 blocker or transfection with siRNA-GPR120 maintain the LA-induced Cx HC activity. However, cells transfected with siRNA-GPR40 did not show LA-induced Cx HC activity but activity was increased upon exposure to DCFS, confirming the presence of activatable Cx HCs in the cell membrane. Treatment with AKTi (Akt inhibitor) abrogated the LA-induced Cx HC activity. In HeLa cells transfected with Cx43 (HeLa-Cx43), LA induced phosphorylation of surface Cx43 at serine 373 (S373), site for Akt phosphorylation. HeLa-Cx43 but not HeLa-Cx43 cells with a S373A mutation showed a LA-induced Cx HC activity directly related to an increase in cell surface Cx43 levels. Thus, the increase in membrane permeability induced by LA is mediated by an intracellular signaling pathway activated by GPR40 that leads to an increase in membrane levels of Cx43 phosphorylated at serine 373 via Akt. PMID:26869446

  16. Sweeping Gas Membrane Desalination Using Commercial Hydrophobic Hollow Fiber Membranes; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EVANS, LINDSEY; MILLER, JAMES E.

    2002-01-01

    Water shortages affect 88 developing countries that are home to half of the world's population. In these places, 80-90% of all diseases and 30% of all deaths result from poor water quality. Furthermore, over the next 25 years, the number of people affected by severe water shortages is expected to increase fourfold. Low cost methods of purifying freshwater, and desalting seawater are required to contend with this destabilizing trend. Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for separations that are traditionally accomplished via conventional distillation or reverse osmosis. As applied to desalination, MD involves the transport of water vapor from a saline solution through the pores of a hydrophobic membrane. In sweeping gas MD, a flowing gas stream is used to flush the water vapor from the permeate side of the membrane, thereby maintaining the vapor pressure gradient necessary for mass transfer. Since liquid does not penetrate the hydrophobic membrane, dissolved ions are completely rejected by the membrane. MD has a number of potential advantages over conventional desalination including low temperature and pressure operation, reduced membrane strength requirements, compact size, and 100% rejection of non-volatiles. The present work evaluated the suitability of commercially available technology for sweeping gas membrane desalination. Evaluations were conducted with Celgard Liqui-Cel(reg s ign) Extra-Flow 2.5X8 membrane contactors with X-30 and X-40 hydrophobic hollow fiber membranes. Our results show that sweeping gas membrane desalination systems are capable of producing low total dissolved solids (TDS) water, typically 10 ppm or less, from seawater, using low grade heat. However, there are several barriers that currently prevent sweeping gas MD from being a viable desalination technology. The primary problem is that large air flows are required to achieve significant water yields, and the costs associated with transporting this air are prohibitive. To

  17. Attainability and minimum energy of single-stage membrane and membrane/distillation hybrid processes

    KAUST Repository

    Alshehri, Ali

    2014-12-01

    As an energy-efficient separation method, membrane technology has attracted more and more attentions in many challenging separation processes. The attainability and the energy consumption of a membrane process are the two basic fundamental questions that need to be answered. This report aims to use process simulations to find: (1) at what conditions a single-stage membrane process can meet the separation task that is defined by product purity and recovery ratio and (2) what are the most important parameters that determine the energy consumption. To perform a certain separation task, it was found that both membrane selectivity and pressure ratio exhibit a minimum value that is defined only by product purity and recovery ratio. The membrane/distillation hybrid system was used to study the energy consumption. A shortcut method was developed to calculate the minimum practical separation energy (MPSE) of the membrane process and the distillation process. It was found that the MPSE of the hybrid system is only determined by the membrane selectivity and the applied transmembrane pressure ratio in three stages. At the first stage when selectivity is low, the membrane process is not competitive to the distillation process. Adding a membrane unit to a distillation tower will not help in reducing energy. At the second medium selectivity stage, the membrane/distillation hybrid system can help reduce the energy consumption, and the higher the membrane selectivity, the lower is the energy. The energy conservation is further improved as pressure ratio increases. At the third stage when both selectivity and pressure ratio are high, the hybrid system will change to a single-stage membrane unit and this change will cause significant reduction in energy consumption. The energy at this stage keeps decreasing with selectivity at slow rate, but slightly increases with pressure ratio. Overall, the higher the membrane selectivity, the more the energy is saved. Therefore, the two

  18. Functionalization of a Hydrophilic Commercial Membrane Using Inorganic-Organic Polymers Coatings for Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Eykens

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Membrane distillation is a thermal separation technique using a microporous hydrophobic membrane. One of the concerns with respect to the industrialization of the technique is the development of novel membranes. In this paper, a commercially available hydrophilic polyethersulfone membrane with a suitable structure for membrane distillation was modified using available hydrophobic coatings using ORMOCER® technology to obtain a hydrophobic membrane that can be applied in membrane distillation. The surface modification was performed using a selection of different components, concentrations, and application methods. The resulting membranes can have two hydrophobic surfaces or a hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface depending on the application method. An extensive characterization procedure confirmed the suitability of the coating technique and the obtained membranes for membrane distillation. The surface contact angle of water could be increased from 27° up to 110°, and fluxes comparable to membranes commonly used for membrane distillation were achieved under similar process conditions. A 100 h test demonstrated the stability of the coating and the importance of using sufficiently stable base membranes.

  19. Influence of Erythrocyte Membrane Stability in Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Garrote-Filho, Mario; Bernardino-Neto, Morun; Penha-Silva, Nilson

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to show how an excess of cholesterol in the erythrocyte membrane contributes stochastically to the progression of atherosclerosis, leading to damage in blood rheology and O 2 transport, deposition of cholesterol (from trapped erythrocytes) in an area of intraplaque hemorrhage, and local exacerbation of oxidative stress. Cholesterol contained in the membrane of erythrocytes trapped in an intraplaque hemorrhage contributes to the growth of the necrotic nucleus. There is even a relationship between the amount of cholesterol in the erythrocyte membrane and the severity of atherosclerosis. In addition, the volume variability among erythrocytes, measured by RDW, is predictive of a worsening of this disease. Erythrocytes contribute to the development of atherosclerosis in several ways, especially when trapped in intraplate hemorrhage. These erythrocytes are oxidized and phagocytosed by macrophages. The cholesterol present in the membrane of these erythrocytes subsequently contributes to the growth of the atheroma plaque. In addition, when they rupture, erythrocytes release hemoglobin, which leads to the generation of free radicals. Finally, increased RDW may predict the worsening of atherosclerosis, due to the effects of inflammation and oxidative stress on erythropoiesis and erythrocyte volume. A better understanding of erythrocyte participation in atherosclerosis may contribute to the improvement of the prevention and treatment strategies of this disease.

  20. Membrane separation systems---A research and development needs assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.W. (Membrane Technology and Research, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Cussler, E.L. (Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science); Eykamp, W. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA)); Koros, W.J. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (USA)); Riley, R.L. (Separation Systems Technology, San Diego, CA (USA)); Strathmann, H. (Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Grenzflaech

    1990-03-01

    Membrane based separation technology, a relative newcomer on the separations scene, has demonstrated the potential of saving enormous amounts of energy in the processing industries if substituted for conventional separation systems. Over 1 quad annually, out of 2.6, can possibly be saved in liquid-to-gas separations, alone, if membrane separation systems gain wider acceptance, according to a recent DOE/OIP (DOE/NBM-80027730 (1986)) study. In recent years great strides have been made in the field and offer even greater energy savings in the future when substituted for other conventional separation techniques such as distillation, evaporation, filtration, sedimentation, and absorption. An assessment was conducted by a group of six internationally known membrane separations experts who examined the worldwide status of research in the seven major membrane areas. This encompassed four mature technology areas: reverse osmosis, micorfiltration, ultrafiltration, and electrodialysis; two developing areas: gas separation and and pervaporation; and one emerging technology: facilitated transport. Particular attention was paid to identifying the innovative processes currently emerging, and even further improvements which could gain wider acceptance for the more mature membrane technology. The topics that were pointed out as having the greatest research emphasis are pervaporation for organic-organic separations; gas separation; micorfiltration; an oxidant-resistant reverse osmosis membrane; and a fouling-resistant ultrafiltration membrane. 35 refs., 6 figs., 22 tabs.

  1. Desipramine induces disorder in cholesterol-rich membranes: implications for viral trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakkanen, Kirsi; Salonen, Emppu; Mäkelä, Anna R.; Oker-Blom, Christian; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Vuento, Matti

    2009-12-01

    In this study, the effect of desipramine (DMI) on phospholipid bilayers and parvoviral entry was elucidated. In atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, DMI was found to introduce disorder in cholesterol-rich phospholipid bilayers. This was manifested by a decrease in the deuterium order parameter SCD as well as an increase in the membrane area. Disordering of the membrane suggested DMI to destabilize cholesterol-rich membrane domains (rafts) in cellular conditions. To relate the raft disrupting ability of DMI with novel biological relevance, we studied the intracellular effect of DMI using canine parvovirus (CPV), a virus known to interact with endosomal membranes and sphingomyelin, as an intracellular probe. DMI was found to cause retention of the virus in intracellular vesicular structures leading to the inhibition of viral proliferation. This implies that DMI has a deleterious effect on the viral traffic. As recycling endosomes and the internal vesicles of multivesicular bodies are known to contain raft components, the effect of desipramine beyond the plasma membrane step could be caused by raft disruption leading to impaired endosomal function and possibly have direct influence on the penetration of the virus through an endosomal membrane.

  2. Desipramine induces disorder in cholesterol-rich membranes: implications for viral trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakkanen, Kirsi; Mäkelä, Anna R; Oker-Blom, Christian; Vuento, Matti; Salonen, Emppu; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the effect of desipramine (DMI) on phospholipid bilayers and parvoviral entry was elucidated. In atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, DMI was found to introduce disorder in cholesterol-rich phospholipid bilayers. This was manifested by a decrease in the deuterium order parameter S CD as well as an increase in the membrane area. Disordering of the membrane suggested DMI to destabilize cholesterol-rich membrane domains (rafts) in cellular conditions. To relate the raft disrupting ability of DMI with novel biological relevance, we studied the intracellular effect of DMI using canine parvovirus (CPV), a virus known to interact with endosomal membranes and sphingomyelin, as an intracellular probe. DMI was found to cause retention of the virus in intracellular vesicular structures leading to the inhibition of viral proliferation. This implies that DMI has a deleterious effect on the viral traffic. As recycling endosomes and the internal vesicles of multivesicular bodies are known to contain raft components, the effect of desipramine beyond the plasma membrane step could be caused by raft disruption leading to impaired endosomal function and possibly have direct influence on the penetration of the virus through an endosomal membrane

  3. Effects of fiber density and plasma modification of nanofibrous membranes on the adhesion and growth of HaCaT keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacakova, Marketa; Lopot, Frantisek; Hadraba, Daniel; Varga, Marian; Zaloudkova, Margit; Stranska, Denisa; Suchy, Tomas; Bacakova, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    It may be possible to regulate the cell colonization of biodegradable polymer nanofibrous membranes by plasma treatment and by the density of the fibers. To test this hypothesis, nanofibrous membranes of different fiber densities were treated by oxygen plasma with a range of plasma power and exposure times. Scanning electron microscopy and mechanical tests showed significant modification of nanofibers after plasma treatment. The intensity of the fiber modification increased with plasma power and exposure time. The exposure time seemed to have a stronger effect on modifying the fiber. The mechanical behavior of the membranes was influenced by the plasma treatment, the fiber density, and their dry or wet state. Plasma treatment increased the membrane stiffness; however, the membranes became more brittle. Wet membranes displayed significantly lower stiffness than dry membranes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed a slight increase in oxygen-containing groups on the membrane surface after plasma treatment. Plasma treatment enhanced the adhesion and growth of HaCaT keratinocytes on nanofibrous membranes. The cells adhered and grew preferentially on membranes of lower fiber densities, probably due to the larger area of void spaces between the fibers. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Exercise-induced increase in glucose transport, GLUT-4, and VAMP-2 in plasma membrane from human muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, S; Hargreaves, Mark; Richter, Erik

    1996-01-01

    contractions may induce trafficking of GLUT-4-containing vesicles via a mechanism similar to neurotransmitter release. Our results demonstrate for the first time exercise-induced translocation of GLUT-4 and VAMP-2 to the plasma membrane of human muscle and increased sarcolemmal glucose transport.......A major effect of muscle contractions is an increase in sarcolemmal glucose transport. We have used a recently developed technique to produce sarcolemmal giant vesicles from human muscle biopsy samples obtained before and after exercise. Six men exercised for 10 min at 50% maximal O2 uptake (Vo2max...

  5. Wetting Resistance of Commercial Membrane Distillation Membranes in Waste Streams Containing Surfactants and Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Eykens

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water management is becoming increasingly challenging and several technologies, including membrane distillation (MD are emerging. This technology is less affected by salinity compared to reverse osmosis and is able to treat brines up to saturation. The focus of MD research recently shifted from seawater desalination to industrial applications out of the scope of reverse osmosis. In many of these applications, surfactants or oil traces are present in the feed stream, lowering the surface tension and increasing the risk for membrane wetting. In this study, the technological boundaries of MD in the presence of surfactants are investigated using surface tension, contact angle and liquid entry pressure measurements together with lab-scale MD experiments to predict the wetting resistance of different membranes. Synthetic NaCl solutions mixed with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS were used as feed solution. The limiting surfactant concentration was found to be dependent on the surface chemistry of the membrane, and increased with increasing hydrophobicity and oleophobicity. Additionally, a hexadecane/SDS emulsion was prepared with a composition simulating produced water, a waste stream in the oil and gas sector. When hexadecane is present in the emulsion, oleophobic membranes are able to resist wetting, whereas polytetrafluoretheen (PTFE is gradually wetted by the feed liquid.

  6. Experimental study on the membrane electrode assembly of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell: effects of microporous layer, membrane thickness and gas diffusion layer hydrophobic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rui B.; Falcão, D.S.; Oliveira, V.B.; Pinto, A.M.F.R.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • EIS is employed to investigate the MEA design of a PEM fuel cell. • Effects of MPL, membrane thickness and GDL hydrophobic treatment are studied. • MPL increases cell output at low to medium currents but reduces it at high currents. • Better results are obtained when employing a thinner Nafion membrane. • GDL hydrophobic treatment improves the cell performance. - Abstract: In this study, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is employed to analyze the influence of microporous layer (MPL), membrane thickness and gas diffusion layer (GDL) hydrophobic treatment in the performance of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Results show that adding a MPL increases cell performance at low to medium current densities. Because lower ohmic losses are observed when applying a MPL, such improvement is attributed to a better hydration state of the membrane. The MPL creates a pressure barrier for water produced at the cathode, forcing it to travel to the anode side, therefore increasing the water content in the membrane. However, at high currents, this same phenomenon seems to have intensified liquid water flooding in the anode gas channels, increasing mass transfer losses and reducing the cell performance. Decreasing membrane thickness results into considerably higher performances, due to a decrease in ohmic resistance. Moreover, at low air humidity operation, a rapid recovery from dehydration is observed when a thinner membrane is employed. The GDL hydrophobic treatment significantly improves the cell performance. Untreated GDLs appear to act as water-traps that not only hamper reactants transport to the reactive sites but also impede the proper humidification of the cell. From the different designs tested, the highest maximum power density is obtained from that containing a MPL, a thinner membrane and treated GDLs.

  7. Improving Hemocompatibility of Membranes for Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenators by Grafting Nonthrombogenic Polymer Brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obstals, Fabian; Vorobii, Mariia; Riedel, Tomáš; de Los Santos Pereira, Andres; Bruns, Michael; Singh, Smriti; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar

    2018-03-01

    Nonthrombogenic modifications of membranes for extracorporeal membrane oxygenators (ECMOs) are of key interest. The absence of hemocompatibility of these membranes and the need of anticoagulation of patients result in severe and potentially life-threatening complications during ECMO treatment. To address the lack of hemocompatibility of the membrane, surface modifications are developed, which act as barriers to protein adsorption on the membrane and, in this way, prevent activation of the coagulation cascade. The modifications are based on nonionic and zwitterionic polymer brushes grafted directly from poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (TPX) membranes via single electron transfer-living radical polymerization. Notably, this work introduces the first example of well-controlled surface-initiated radical polymerization of zwitterionic brushes. The antifouling layers markedly increase the recalcification time (a proxy of initiation of coagulation) compared to bare TPX membranes. Furthermore, platelet and leukocyte adhesion is drastically decreased, rendering the ECMO membranes hemocompatible. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Improved surface property of PVDF membrane with amphiphilic zwitterionic copolymer as membrane additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jianhua, E-mail: jhli_2005@163.com [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology and College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350001 (China); Li Mizi; Miao Jing; Wang Jiabin; Shao Xisheng [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology and College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350001 (China); Zhang Qiqing, E-mail: zhangqiq@126.com [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology and College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350001 (China) and Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300192 (China)

    2012-06-15

    An attempt to improve hydrophilicity and anti-fouling properties of PVDF membranes, a novel amphiphilic zwitterionic copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride)-graft-poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PVDF-g-PSBMA) was firstly synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and used as amphiphilic copolymer additive in the preparation of PVDF membranes. The PVDF-g-PSBMA/PVDF blend membranes were prepared by immersion precipitation process. Fourier transform infrared attenuated reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS) measurements confirmed that PSBMA brushes from amphiphilic additives were preferentially segregated to membrane-coagulant interface during membrane formation. The morphology of membranes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Water contact angle measurements showed that the surface hydrophilicity of PVDF membranes was improved significantly with the increasing of amphiphilic copolymer PVDF-g-PSBMA in cast solution. Protein static adsorption experiment and dynamic fouling resistance experiment revealed that the surface enrichment of PSBMA brush endowed PVDF blend membrane great improvement of surface anti-fouling ability.

  9. Improved surface property of PVDF membrane with amphiphilic zwitterionic copolymer as membrane additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianhua; Li Mizi; Miao Jing; Wang Jiabin; Shao Xisheng; Zhang Qiqing

    2012-01-01

    An attempt to improve hydrophilicity and anti-fouling properties of PVDF membranes, a novel amphiphilic zwitterionic copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride)-graft-poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PVDF-g-PSBMA) was firstly synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and used as amphiphilic copolymer additive in the preparation of PVDF membranes. The PVDF-g-PSBMA/PVDF blend membranes were prepared by immersion precipitation process. Fourier transform infrared attenuated reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS) measurements confirmed that PSBMA brushes from amphiphilic additives were preferentially segregated to membrane-coagulant interface during membrane formation. The morphology of membranes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Water contact angle measurements showed that the surface hydrophilicity of PVDF membranes was improved significantly with the increasing of amphiphilic copolymer PVDF-g-PSBMA in cast solution. Protein static adsorption experiment and dynamic fouling resistance experiment revealed that the surface enrichment of PSBMA brush endowed PVDF blend membrane great improvement of surface anti-fouling ability.

  10. Membrane engineering in biotechnology: quo vamus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Gilbert M; Belleville, Marie-Pierre; Paolucci-Jeanjean, Delphine

    2007-06-01

    Membranes are essential to a range of applications, including the production of potable water, energy generation, tissue repair, pharmaceutical production, food packaging, and the separations needed for the manufacture of chemicals, electronics and a range of other products. Therefore, they are considered to be "dominant technologies" by governments and industry in several prominent countries--for example, USA, Japan and China. When combined with catalysts, membranes are at the basis of life, and membrane-based biomimetism is a key tool to obtain better quality products and environmentally friendly developments for our societies. Biology has a main part in this global landscape because it simultaneously provides the "model" (with natural biological membranes) and represents a considerable field of applications for new artificial membranes (biotreatments, bioconversions and artificial organs). In this article, our objective is to open up this enthralling area and to give our views about the future of membranes in biotechnology.

  11. Increasing revenues for protected areas. A wealth of financing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verweij, P.

    2004-12-01

    This paper aims at giving an overview of traditional and new financing mechanisms in support of protected areas. The web of life is breaking down: our world is facing biodiversity loss at unprecedented rates. Human impacts are causing the acceleration of species loss, at rates of several hundreds up to 1000 times the natural rate of species extinction, depending on the type of organisms. Habitat degradation and loss, introduction of invasive species, pollution, and overexploitation of resources are factors that determine the process of mass extinction. Protected areas obviously play a critical role in biodiversity conservation. Article 8 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) obliges Parties to establish a system of protected areas to-conserve biodiversity, to develop guidelines for protected areas management and to promote appropriate development adjacent to protected areas. Besides agreeing on this global mandate for protected areas, through Article 8m of the CBD Parties committed themselves to cooperate in providing financial support for protected area systems: 'Each contracting party (...) shall cooperate in providing financial and other support for in-situ conservation (...) particularly to developing countries'. Current revenues for maintaining existing protected areas and the creation of new ones are insufficient. Annually, approximately USD 7 billion is spent on the creation and maintenance of protected areas around the world (Balmford, 2003). The amount required to adequately protect biodiversity is estimated to be about five times higher. The flow of revenues from traditional and new financing mechanisms should clearly be increased to mitigate the financing deficit for protected areas. As part of the solution, innovative financing mechanisms are being developed aimed at increasing the global revenues for protected areas, thus capturing the multiple values of ecosystem goods and services provided by protected areas to mankind. This scoping paper

  12. Numerical simulation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells at high operating temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jie; Lee, Seung Jae

    A three-dimensional, single-phase, non-isothermal numerical model for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell at high operating temperature (T ≥ 393 K) was developed and implemented into a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code. The model accounts for convective and diffusive transport and allows predicting the concentration of species. The heat generated from electrochemical reactions, entropic heat and ohmic heat arising from the electrolyte ionic resistance were considered. The heat transport model was coupled with the electrochemical and mass transport models. The product water was assumed to be vaporous and treated as ideal gas. Water transportation across the membrane was ignored because of its low water electro-osmosis drag force in the polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane. The results show that the thermal effects strongly affect the fuel cell performance. The current density increases with the increasing of operating temperature. In addition, numerical prediction reveals that the width and distribution of gas channel and current collector land area are key optimization parameters for the cell performance improvement.

  13. Numerical simulation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells at high operating temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Jie; Lee, Seung Jae [Energy Lab, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Mt. 14-1 Nongseo-Dong, Giheung-Gu, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-11-22

    A three-dimensional, single-phase, non-isothermal numerical model for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell at high operating temperature (T>=393K) was developed and implemented into a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code. The model accounts for convective and diffusive transport and allows predicting the concentration of species. The heat generated from electrochemical reactions, entropic heat and ohmic heat arising from the electrolyte ionic resistance were considered. The heat transport model was coupled with the electrochemical and mass transport models. The product water was assumed to be vaporous and treated as ideal gas. Water transportation across the membrane was ignored because of its low water electro-osmosis drag force in the polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane. The results show that the thermal effects strongly affect the fuel cell performance. The current density increases with the increasing of operating temperature. In addition, numerical prediction reveals that the width and distribution of gas channel and current collector land area are key optimization parameters for the cell performance improvement. (author)

  14. A process efficiency assessment of serum protein removal from milk using ceramic graded permeability microfiltration membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay-Marchand, D; Doyen, A; Britten, M; Pouliot, Y

    2016-07-01

    Microfiltration (MF) is a well-known process that can be used in the dairy industry to separate caseins from serum proteins (SP) in skim milk using membranes with a pore diameter of 0.1μm. Graded permeability ceramic membranes have been studied widely as means of improving milk fractionation by overcoming problems encountered with other MF membranes. The ideal operating parameters for process efficiency in terms of membrane selectivity, permeate flux, casein loss, SP transmission, energy consumption, and dilution with water remain to be determined for this membrane. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of transmembrane pressure (TMP), volumetric concentration factor (VCF), and diafiltration on overall process efficiency. Skim milk was processed using a pilot-scale MF system equipped with 0.72-m(2) graded permeability membranes with a pore size of 0.1μm. In the first experiment, in full recycle mode, TMP was set at 124, 152, 179, or 207 kPa by adjusting the permeate pressure at the outlet. Whereas TMP had no significant effect on permeate and retentate composition, 152 kPa was found to be optimal for SP removal during concentration and concentration or diafiltration experiments. When VCF was increased to 3×, SP rejection coefficient increased along with energy consumption and total casein loss, whereas SP removal rate decreased. Diafiltering twice allowed an increase in total SP removal but resulted in a substantial increase in energy consumption and casein loss. It also reduced the SP removal rate by diluting permeate. The membrane surface area required for producing cheese milk by blending whole milk, cream, and MF retentate (at different VCF) was estimated for different cheese milk casein concentrations. For a given casein concentration, the same quantity of permeate and SP would be produced, but less membrane surface area would be needed at a lower retentate VCF. Microfiltration has great potential as a process of adding value to conventional

  15. Increased shedding of microvesicles from intimal smooth muscle cells in athero-prone areas of the human aorta: implications for understanding of the predisease stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Killingsworth, Murray C; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated whether a change in the content of matrix microvesicles might occur at the preatherosclerotic stage. Applying quantitative electron microscopic and immunohistochemical analyses, two areas of grossly normal segments of the thoracic aorta were compared: atherosclerosis-prone (AP) areas, situated at the dorsal aspect of the aorta along the rows of intercostal branch origins, and atherosclerosis-resistant (AR) areas, situated at the corresponding sites of the ventral aspect of the aorta. The electron microscopic analysis showed that there were 1.4 times more microvesicles in AP areas than AR areas (p = 0.019). It was found that matrix microvesicles originated as a result of blebbing and shedding of surface membranes of smooth muscle cells. A quantitative analysis of the expression of ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6), which is known to be involved in membrane trafficking and microvesicle formation, showed that ARF6 expression was 1.3 times higher in AP areas than that in AR areas (p = 0.006). There was a positive correlation between the content of matrix microparticles and the expression of ARF6 by intimal smooth muscle cells (r = 0.61; p < 0.0001). The present study supports the concept that alterations of the arterial intima occur at the predisease stage. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. A small-scale, rolled-membrane microfluidic artificial lung designed towards future large area manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A J; Marks, L H; Goudie, M J; Rojas-Pena, A; Handa, H; Potkay, J A

    2017-03-01

    Artificial lungs have been used in the clinic for multiple decades to supplement patient pulmonary function. Recently, small-scale microfluidic artificial lungs (μAL) have been demonstrated with large surface area to blood volume ratios, biomimetic blood flow paths, and pressure drops compatible with pumpless operation. Initial small-scale microfluidic devices with blood flow rates in the μ l/min to ml/min range have exhibited excellent gas transfer efficiencies; however, current manufacturing techniques may not be suitable for scaling up to human applications. Here, we present a new manufacturing technology for a microfluidic artificial lung in which the structure is assembled via a continuous "rolling" and bonding procedure from a single, patterned layer of polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS). This method is demonstrated in a small-scale four-layer device, but is expected to easily scale to larger area devices. The presented devices have a biomimetic branching blood flow network, 10  μ m tall artificial capillaries, and a 66  μ m thick gas transfer membrane. Gas transfer efficiency in blood was evaluated over a range of blood flow rates (0.1-1.25 ml/min) for two different sweep gases (pure O 2 , atmospheric air). The achieved gas transfer data closely follow predicted theoretical values for oxygenation and CO 2 removal, while pressure drop is marginally higher than predicted. This work is the first step in developing a scalable method for creating large area microfluidic artificial lungs. Although designed for microfluidic artificial lungs, the presented technique is expected to result in the first manufacturing method capable of simply and easily creating large area microfluidic devices from PDMS.

  17. Dependence of Shear and Concentration on Fouling in a Membrane Bioreactor with Rotating Membrane Discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mads Koustrup; Pedersen, Malene Thostrup; Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    2014-01-01

    Rotating ceramic membrane discs were fouled with lab-scale membrane bioreactors (MBR) sludge. Sludge filtrations were performed at varying rotation speeds and in different concentric rings of the membranes on different sludge concentrations. Data showed that the back transport expressed by limiting...... flux increased with rotation speed and distance from membrane center as an effect of shear. Further, the limiting flux decreased with increasing sludge concentration. A model was developed to link the sludge concentration and shear stress to the limiting flux. The model was able to simulate the effect...... of shear stress and sludge concentration on the limiting flux. The model was developed by calculating the shear rate at laminar flow regime at different rotation speeds and radii on the membrane. Furthermore, through the shear rate and shear stress, the non-Newtonian behavior of MBR sludge was addressed...

  18. The treatment of radioactive waste with reverse osmosis membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendro

    1997-01-01

    The study of liquid waste characteristic and performance of reverse osmosis for treatment of liquid radioactive waste had been taken. Waste simulation was used to contain of 100 ppm strontium, 100 ppm cesium, pH between 5 and 6, and dry extract of 0.11 g/l, with operating condition of feed solution pressure 100 psi, temperature 25 o C, spiral wound composite membrane modules and area of membrane was 0,3042 m 2 . Results of the experiment indicated that the decontamination factor obtained between 9.3 and 15.4 for strontium, and 7,3 and 7,9 for cesium. From the beginning until one hour of operation decontamination factor increased to 53,8% for strontium and 4,1% for cesium, and permeate flux decreased at operating time more than 12 hours. Decontamination factor of process can be increased by using the series of osmosis unit (author)

  19. Dynamic nuclear polarization methods in solids and solutions to explore membrane proteins and membrane systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Han, Songi

    2013-01-01

    Membrane proteins regulate vital cellular processes, including signaling, ion transport, and vesicular trafficking. Obtaining experimental access to their structures, conformational fluctuations, orientations, locations, and hydration in membrane environments, as well as the lipid membrane properties, is critical to understanding their functions. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of frozen solids can dramatically boost the sensitivity of current solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance tools to enhance access to membrane protein structures in native membrane environments. Overhauser DNP in the solution state can map out the local and site-specific hydration dynamics landscape of membrane proteins and lipid membranes, critically complementing the structural and dynamics information obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Here, we provide an overview of how DNP methods in solids and solutions can significantly increase our understanding of membrane protein structures, dynamics, functions, and hydration in complex biological membrane environments.

  20. Antigen sequence typing of outer membrane protein (fetA gene of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A from Delhi & adjoining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dwivedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis is a fatal disease. Meningococcal meningitis is an endemic disease in Delhi and irregular pattern of outbreaks has been reported in India. All these outbreaks were associated with serogroup A. Detailed molecular characterization of N. meningitidis is required for the management of this fatal disease. In this study, we characterized antigenic diversity of surface exposed outer membrane protein (OMP FetA antigen of N. meningitidis serogroup A isolates obtained from cases of invasive meningococcal meningitis in Delhi, India. Methods: Eight isolates of N. meningitidis were collected from cerebrospinal fluid during October 2008 to May 2011 from occasional cases of meningococcal meningitis. Seven isolates were from outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis in 2005-2006 in Delhi and its adjoining areas. These were subjected to molecular typing of fetA gene, an outer membrane protein gene. Results: All 15 N. meningitides isolates studied were serogroup A. This surface exposed porin is putatively under immune pressure. Hence as a part of molecular characterization, genotyping was carried out to find out the diversity in outer membrane protein (FetA gene among the circulating isolates of N. meningitidis. All 15 isolates proved to be of the same existing allele type of FetA variable region (VR when matched with global database. The allele found was F3-1 for all the isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: There was no diversity reported in the outer membrane protein FetA in the present study and hence this protein appeared to be a stable molecule. More studies on molecular characterization of FetA antigen are required from different serogroups circulating in different parts of the world.

  1. Advances in Membrane Distillation for Water Desalination and Purification Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gomez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane distillation is a process that utilizes differences in vapor pressure to permeate water through a macro-porous membrane and reject other non-volatile constituents present in the influent water. This review considers the fundamental heat and mass transfer processes in membrane distillation, recent advances in membrane technology, module configurations, and the applications and economics of membrane distillation, and identifies areas that may lead to technological improvements in membrane distillation as well as the application characteristics required for commercial deployment.

  2. EFFECTS OF PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE ON ULTRAFILTRATION HOLLOW FIBER MEMBRANE IN MOBILE WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSDIANAH RAMLI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Sabah, Malaysia, there are still high probability of limited clean water access in rural area and disaster site. Few villages had been affected in Pitas due to improper road access, thus building a water treatment plant there might not be feasible. Recently, Kundasang area had been affected by earthquake that caused water disruption to its people due to the damage in the underground pipes and water tanks. It has been known that membrane technology brought ease in making mobile water treatment system that can be transported to rural or disaster area. In this study, hollow fiber membrane used in a mobile water treatment system due to compact and ease setup. Hollow fiber membrane was fabricated into small module at 15 and 30 fibers to suit the mobile water treatment system for potable water production of at least 80 L/day per operation. The effects of transmembrane pressure (TMP and feed water temperature were investigated. It was found that permeate flux increases by more than 96% for both 15 and 30 fiber bundles with increasing pressure in the range of 0.25 to 3.0 bar but dropped when the pressure reached maximum. Lower temperature of 17 to 18˚C increase the water viscosity by 15% from normal temperature of water at 24˚C, making the permeate flux decreases. The fabricated modules effectively removed 96% turbidity of the surface water sample tested.

  3. Silica incorporated membrane for wastewater based filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, C. S.; Bilad, M. R.; Nordin, N. A. H. M.

    2017-10-01

    Membrane technology has long been applied for waste water treatment industries due to its numerous advantages compared to other conventional processes. However, the biggest challenge in pressure driven membrane process is membrane fouling. Fouling decreases the productivity and efficiency of the filtration, reduces the lifespan of the membrane and reduces the overall efficiency of water treatment processes. In this study, a novel membrane material is developed for water filtration. The developed membrane incorporates silica nanoparticles mainly to improve its structural properties. Membranes with different loadings of silica nanoparticles were applied in this study. The result shows an increase in clean water permeability and filterability of the membrane for treating activated sludge, microalgae solution, secondary effluent and raw sewage as feed. Adding silica into the membrane matrix does not significantly alter contact angle and membrane pore size. We believe that silica acts as an effective pore forming agent that increases the number of pores without significantly altering the pore sizes. A higher number of small pores on the surface of the membrane could reduce membrane fouling because of a low specific loading imposed to individual pores.

  4. Testing of a 7-tube palladium membrane reactor for potential use in TEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, Bryan J.; Trujillo, Stephen; Willms, R. Scott

    2010-01-01

    A Palladium Membrane Reactor (PMR) consists of a palladium/silver membrane permeator filled with catalyst (catalyst may be inside or outside the membrane tubes). The PMR is designed to recover tritium from the methane, water, and other impurities present in fusion reactor effluent. A key feature of a PMR is that the total hydrogen isotope content of a stream is significantly reduced as (1) methane-steam reforming and/or water-gas shift reactions proceed on the catalyst bed and (2) hydrogen isotopes are removed via permeation through the membrane. With a PMR design matched to processing requirements, nearly complete hydrogen isotope removals can be achieved. A 3-tube PMR study was recently completed. From the results presented in this study, it was possible to conclude that a PMR is appropriate for TEP, perforated metal tube protectors function well, platinum on aluminum (PtA) catalyst performs the best, conditioning with air is probably required to properly condition the Pd/Ag tubes, and that CO/CO 2 ratios maybe an indicator of coking. The 3-tube PMR had a permeator membrane area of 0.0247 m 2 and a catalyst volume to membrane area ratio of 4.63 cc/cm 2 (with the catalyst on the outside of the membrane tubes and the catalyst only covering the membrane tube length). A PMR for TEP will require a larger membrane area (perhaps 0.35 m 2 ). With this in mind, an intermediate sized PMR was constructed. This PMR has 7 permeator tubes and a total membrane area of 0.0851 m 2 . The catalyst volume to membrane area ratio for the 7-tube PMR was 5.18 cc/cm 2 . The total membrane area of the 7-tube PMR (0.0851 m 2 ) is 3.45 times larger than total membrane area of the 3-tube PMR (0.0247 m 2 ). The following objectives were identified for the 7-tube PMR tests: (1) Refine test measurements, especially humidity and flow; (2) Refine maintenance procedures for Pd/Ag tube conditioning; (3) Evaluate baseline PMR operating conditions; (4) Determine PMR scaling method; (5) Evaluate PMR

  5. Performance of a 1 kW Class Nafion-PTFE Composite Membrane Fuel Cell Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattabiraman Krishnamurthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite membranes have been prepared by impregnation of Nafion into the expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (EPTFE matrix. Nafion loading in the composite membranes was kept constant at 2 mg/cm2. The lower amount of electrolyte per unit area in the composite membranes offers cost advantages compared to conventional membrane of 50 μm thickness with an electrolyte loading of ~9 mg/cm2. Composite membranes (30 μm thickness were found to have higher thermal stability and mechanical strength compared to the conventional membranes (50 μm thickness. The performance of the membrane electrode assembly made with these composite membranes was comparable to that of the conventional membranes. Single cells fabricated from these MEAs were tested for their performance and durability before scaling them up for large area. The performance of a 20-cell stack of active area 330 cm2 fabricated using these membranes is reported.

  6. Microporous Silica Based Membranes for Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C. Diniz da Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This review provides a global overview of microporous silica based membranes for desalination via pervaporation with a focus on membrane synthesis and processing, transport mechanisms and current state of the art membrane performance. Most importantly, the recent development and novel concepts for improving the hydro-stability and separating performance of silica membranes for desalination are critically examined. Research into silica based membranes for desalination has focussed on three primary methods for improving the hydro-stability. These include incorporating carbon templates into the microporous silica both as surfactants and hybrid organic-inorganic structures and incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles into the silica matrix. The literature examined identified that only metal oxide silica membranes have demonstrated high salt rejections under a variety of feed concentrations, reasonable fluxes and unaltered performance over long-term operation. As this is an embryonic field of research several target areas for researchers were discussed including further improvement of the membrane materials, but also regarding the necessity of integrating waste or solar heat sources into the final process design to ensure cost competitiveness with conventional reverse osmosis processes.

  7. Development of polyamide-6/chitosan membranes for desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. EL-Gendi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with “developing novel polyamide-6/chitosan membranes for water desalting using wet phase inversion technique”, in which novel polyamide-6/chitosan membranes were prepared using an appropriate polymer concerning the national circumferences, along with the definition of different controlling parameters of the preparing processes and their effects on the characteristics of the produced membranes. Further, evaluation process of the fabricated sheets was undertaken. Preparation process was followed by assessment of the membrane structural characteristics; then the desalting performance of each prepared membrane was evaluated under different operating conditions in order to find the structure–property relationship. The results show that the membrane flux increases with the increase of operating pressure. The salt rejection and permeation flux have been enhanced this indicates that the chitosan (CS addition to the polyamide-6 (PA-6 membrane increases the membrane hydrophilic property. Hydraulic permeability coefficient is not stable and varies considerably with the operating pressure.

  8. Modeling of interactions between nanoparticles and cell membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Young-Min

    Rapid development of nanotechnology and ability to manufacture materials and devices with nanometer feature size leads to exciting innovations in many areas including the medical and electronic fields. However, the possible health and environmental impacts of manufactured nanomaterials are not fully known. Recent experimental reports suggest that some of the manufactured nanomaterials, such as fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, are highly toxic even in small concentrations. The goal of the current work is to understand the mechanisms responsible for the toxicity of nanomaterials. In the current study coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations are employed to investigate the interactions between NPs and cellular membranes at a molecular level. One of the possible toxicity mechanisms of the nanomaterials is membrane disruption. Possibility of membrane disruption exposed to the manufactured nanomaterials are examined by considering chemical reactions and non-reactive physical interactions as chemical as well as physical mechanisms. Mechanisms of transport of carbon-based nanoparticles (fullerene and its derivative) across a phospholipid bilayer are investigated. The free energy profile is obtained using constrained simulations. It is shown that the considered nanoparticles are hydrophobic and therefore they tend to reside in the interior of the lipid bilayer. In addition, the dynamics of the membrane fluctuations is significantly affected by the nanoparticles at the bilayer-water interface. The hydrophobic interaction between the particles and membrane core induces the strong coupling between the nanoparticle motion and membrane deformation. It is observed that the considered nanoparticles affect several physical properties of the membrane. The nanoparticles embedded into the membrane interior lead to the membrane softening, which becomes more significant with increase in CNT length and concentration. The lateral pressure profile and membrane energy in the membrane

  9. Deformation of Two-Dimensional Nonuniform-Membrane Red Blood Cells Simulated by a Lattice Boltzmann Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua-Bing, Li; Li, Jin; Bing, Qiu

    2008-01-01

    To study two-dimensional red blood cells deforming in a shear Bow with the membrane nonuniform on the rigidity and mass, the membrane is discretized into equilength segments. The fluid inside and outside the red blood cell is simulated by the D2Q9 lattice Boltzmann model and the hydrodynamic forces exerted on the membrane from the inner and outer of the red blood cell are calculated by a stress-integration method. Through the global deviation from the curvature of uniform-membrane, we find that when the membrane is nonuniform on the rigidity, the deviation first decreases with the time increases and implies that the terminal profile of the red blood cell is static. To a red blood cell with the mass nonuniform on the membrane, the deviation becomes more large, and the mass distribution affects the profile of the two sides of the flattened red blood cell in a shear flow. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  10. Amniotic membrane for burn trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamaluddin Zainol; Hasim Mohammad

    1999-01-01

    Amniotic membranes are derived from human placentae at birth. They have two layers mainly the amniotic and the chorionic surfaces which are separated by a thin layer of connective tissues. The two layers are separated during procurement, the placenta and the chorionic side are discarded and the amnion membranes are then further processed. Amnion membranes are normally procured from placentae which are normally free of infections, i.e; the mothers are antenatally screened for sexually transmitted diseases or AlDs related diseases. Intrapartum the mother should not be having chorioamnionitis or jaundice. Sometimes the amniotic membranes are acquired from fresh elective caeserian sections. After processing, the amniotic membranes are packed in two layers of polypropylene and radiated with cobalt 60 at a dose of about 25 kGy. The amniotic membranes are clinically used to cover burn surfaces especially effective for superficial or partial thickness burns. The thin membranes adhered well to the trauma areas and peeled off automatically by the second week. No change of dressing were necessary during these times because of the close adherence, there were less chance of external contamination or infections of these wounds. Due to their flexibility they are very useful to cover difference contours of the human body for example the face, body, elbows or knees. However our experience revealed that amniotic membranes are not useful for third degree bums because the membranes dissolves by the enzymes present in the wounds

  11. KNEE CARTILAGE AND SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE STRUCTURAL CHANGES DURING TIBIA DISTRACTION WITH PLATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Stupina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study — to analyze the changes in knee articular cartilage and synovial membrane during distraction external fixation of the tibia in combination with plating.Material and methods. Articular cartilage and synovial membrane of the knee joint were studied using histomorphometry methods in 9 mongrel dogs during distraction external fixation of the tibia combined with plating. Tibia and fibula osteotomies were performed at the border of middle and upper third, plate was fixed on tibia diaphysis. Lengthening was achieved at rate of 1 mm per day in four stages during 21–28 days. Animals were withdrawn from experiment in 30 and 90 days. After autopsy of knee joints the authors excised sections of synovial membrane from suprapatellar area, articular cartilage with underlying subchondral bone from loadable surface of femoral condyles. Thickness of articular cartilage, its area and volumetric density of chondrocytes was measured, proportion of chondrocytes within isogenic groups from the overall number of chondrocytes as well as proportion of empty lacunae. In synovial membrane the authors measured thickness of surface layer and numeric density of micro vessels. Articular cartilage of 5 intact animals was used as a control group.Results. After 30 days of plate fixation a hyperplasia of the integument layer, mild synovitis, and hypervascularization were observed in synovial membrane. Density of micro vessels increased to 363.93±33.71 (control group — 335.05±28.88. The authors also observed subperineural and endoneural edema as well as destruction of nerve fibers in subsynovial layer. Articular cartilage retained the zonal structure. Destructive changes were manifested by fibers separation in the superficial part of surface zone and by partial loss of chondrocytes. The following parameters were reduced: cartilage thickness, area and volumetric density of chondrocytes, proportion of isogenic groups; empty lacunae exceeded the values in

  12. Gas Permeation Characteristics across Nano-Porous Inorganic Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Othman, H. Mukhtar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An overview of parameters affecting gas permeation in inorganic membranes is presented. These factors include membrane physical characteristics, operational parameters and gas molecular characteristics. The membrane physical characteristics include membrane materials and surface area, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution and membrane morphology. The operational parameters include feed flow rate and concentration, stage cut, temperature and pressure. The gas molecular characteristics include gas molecular weight, diameter, critical temperature, critical pressure, Lennard-Jones parameters and diffusion volumes. The current techniques of material characterization may require complementary method in describing microscopic heterogeneity of the porous ceramic media. The method to be incorporated in the future will be to apply a stochastic model and/or fractal dimension. Keywords: Inorganic membrane, surface adsorption, Knudsen diffusion, Micro-porous membrane, permeation, gas separation.

  13. Limited and selective transfer of plasma membrane glycoproteins to membrane of secondary lysosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haylett, T.; Thilo, L.

    1986-01-01

    Radioactive galactose, covalently bound to cell surface glycoconjugates on mouse macrophage cells, P388D 1 , was used as a membrane marker to study the composition, and the kinetics of exchange, of plasma membrane-derived constituents in the membrane of secondary lysosomes. Secondary lysosomes were separated from endosomes and plasma membrane by self-forming Percoll density gradients. Horseradish peroxidase, taken up by fluid-phase pinocytosis, served as a vesicle contents marker to monitor transfer of endosomal contents into secondary lysosomes. Concurrently, the fraction of plasma membrane-derived label of secondary lysosomes increased by first order kinetics from 4 PAGE, labeled molecules of M/sub r/ 160-190 kD were depleted and of the M/sub r/ 100-120 kD were enriched in lysosome membrane compared with the relative composition of label on the cell surface. No corresponding selectivity was observed for the degradation of label, with all M/sub r/ classes being affected to the same relative extent. The results indicate that endocytosis-derived transfer of plasma membrane constitutents to secondary lysosomes is a limited and selective process, and that only ∼1% of internalized membrane is recycled via a membrane pool of secondary lysosomes

  14. Cross-flow filtration of yeast extract with multi-tubular membrane module and rotating-disk membrane module; Makukaitengata heibanmaku module to tankanjomaku module ni yoru kobo hasaieki no cross flow roka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushita, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Watanabe, a. [Toto Ltd., Kitakyushu (Japan)

    1994-09-15

    A membrane separation experiment was made with multi-tubular membrane module and rotating-disk membrane module to study the cross-flow filtration of yeast extract. The membrane was an alumina precision filtration membrane with 0.15 micron m diameter pores. A multi-tubular membrane which was 19 in number of channels and 0.113{sup 2} in effective membrane area was fitted to the multi-tubular membrane module. A rotating-disk membrane which was 0.071m{sup 2} in effective membrane area was fitted to the rotating-disk membrane module. Judging from the concentration speed and factor, the rotating-disk type is more advantageous in concentrating the suspension than the multi-tubular type. The soluble high-molecular component was more easily filtrated through the rotating-disk type, which is judged attributable to its possible operation at a high flow rate on the membrane surface without necessitating a high-flow rate circulation pump. As compared with the conventional cross-filtration type, the rotating-disk type gives a high permeate flux even at a high concentration factor. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Why Do Fast-Growing Bacteria Enter Overflow Metabolism? Testing the Membrane Real Estate Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szenk, Mariola; Dill, Ken A; de Graff, Adam M R

    2017-08-23

    Bacteria and other cells show a puzzling behavior. At high growth rates, E. coli switch from respiration (which is ATP-efficient) to using fermentation for additional ATP (which is inefficient). This overflow metabolism results in a several-fold decrease in ATP produced per glucose molecule provided as food. By integrating diverse types of experimental data into a simple biophysical model, we give evidence that this onset is the result of the membrane real estate hypothesis: Fast growth drives cells to be bigger, reducing their surface-to-volume ratios. This decreases the membrane area available for respiratory proteins despite growing demand, causing increased crowding. Only when respiratory proteins reach their crowding limit does the cell activate fermentation, since fermentation allows faster ATP production per unit membrane area. Surface limitation thus creates a Pareto trade-off between membrane efficiency and ATP yield that links metabolic choice to the size and shape of a bacterial cell. By exploring the predictions that emerge from this trade-off, we show how consideration of molecular structures, energetics, rates, and equilibria can provide important insight into cellular behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Biomimetic devices functionalized by membrane channel proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jacob

    2004-03-01

    We are developing a new family of active materials which derive their functional properties from membrane proteins. These materials have two primary components: the proteins and the membranes themselves. I will discuss our recent work directed toward development of a generic platform for a "plug-and-play" philosophy of membrane protein engineering. By creating a stable biomimetic polymer membrane a single molecular monolayer thick, we will enable the exploitation of the function of any membrane protein, from pores and pumps to sensors and energy transducers. Our initial work has centered on the creation, study, and characterization of the biomimetic membranes. We are attempting to make large areas of membrane monolayers using Langmuir-Blodgett film formation as well as through arrays of microfabricated black lipid membrane-type septa. A number of techniques allow the insertion of protein into the membranes. As a benchmark, we have been employing a model system of voltage-gated pore proteins, which have electrically controllable porosities. I will report on the progress of this work, the characterization of the membranes, protein insertion processes, and the yield and functionality of the composite.

  17. Effective tension and fluctuations in active membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubet, Bastien; Seifert, Udo; Lomholt, Michael Andersen

    2012-03-01

    We calculate the fluctuation spectrum of the shape of a lipid vesicle or cell exposed to a nonthermal source of noise. In particular, we take constraints on the membrane area and the volume of fluid that it encapsulates into account when obtaining expressions for the dependency of the membrane tension on the noise. We then investigate three possible origins of the nonthermal noise taken from the literature: A direct force, which models an external medium pushing on the membrane, a curvature force, which models a fluctuating spontaneous curvature, and a permeation force coming from an active transport of fluid through the membrane. For the direct force and curvature force cases, we compare our results to existing experiments on active membranes.

  18. The Role of Membrane Fluidization in the Gel-Assisted Formation of Giant Polymersomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne C Greene

    Full Text Available Polymersomes are being widely explored as synthetic analogs of lipid vesicles based on their enhanced stability and potential uses in a wide variety of applications in (e.g., drug delivery, cell analogs, etc.. Controlled formation of giant polymersomes for use in membrane studies and cell mimetic systems, however, is currently limited by low-yield production methodologies. Here, we describe for the first time, how the size distribution of giant poly(ethylene glycol-poly(butadiene (PEO-PBD polymersomes formed by gel-assisted rehydration may be controlled based on membrane fluidization. We first show that the average diameter and size distribution of PEO-PBD polymersomes may be readily increased by increasing the temperature of the rehydration solution. Further, we describe a correlative relationship between polymersome size and membrane fluidization through the addition of sucrose during rehydration, enabling the formation of PEO-PBD polymersomes with a range of diameters, including giant-sized vesicles (>100 μm. This correlative relationship suggests that sucrose may function as a small molecule fluidizer during rehydration, enhancing polymer diffusivity during formation and increasing polymersome size. Overall the ability to easily regulate the size of PEO-PBD polymersomes based on membrane fluidity, either through temperature or fluidizers, has broadly applicability in areas including targeted therapeutic delivery and synthetic biology.

  19. Effective tension and fluctuations in active membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Loubet, Bastien; Seifert, Udo; Lomholt, Michael Andersen

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the fluctuation spectrum of the shape of a lipid vesicle or cell exposed to a nonthermal source of noise. In particular we take into account constraints on the membrane area and the volume of fluid that it encapsulates when obtaining expressions for the dependency of the membrane tension on the noise. We then investigate three possible origins of the non-thermal noise taken from the literature: A direct force, which models an external medium pushing on the membrane. A curvature f...

  20. Effect of dope solution temperature on the membrane structure and membrane distillation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawi, N. I. M.; Bilad, M. R.; Nordin, N. A. H. M.

    2018-04-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is a non-isothermal process applicable to purify water using hydrophobic membrane. Membrane in MD is hydrophobic, permeable to water vapor but repels liquid water. MD membrane is expected to pose high flux, high fouling and scaling resistances and most importantly high wetting resistance. This study develops flat-sheet polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane by exploring both liquid-liquid and liquid-solid phase inversion technique largely to improve its wetting resistance and flux performance. We hypothesize that temperature of dope solution play roles in solid-liquid separation during membrane formation and an optimum balance between liquid-liquid and liquid-solid (crystallization) separation leads to highly performance PVDF membrane. Findings obtained from differential scanning calorimeter test show that increasing dope solution temperature reduces degree of PVDF crystallinity and suppresses formation of crystalline structure. The morphological images of the resulting membranes show that at elevated dope solution temperature (40, 60, 80 and 100°C), the spherulite-like structures are formed across the thickness of membranes ascribed from due to different type of crystals. The performance of direct-contact MD shows that the obtained flux of the optimum dope temperature (60°C) of 10.8 L/m2h is comparable to commercial PTFE-based MD membrane.

  1. Actin filaments growing against an elastic membrane: Effect of membrane tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, Raj Kumar; Chatterjee, Sakuntala

    2018-03-01

    We study the force generation by a set of parallel actin filaments growing against an elastic membrane. The elastic membrane tries to stay flat and any deformation from this flat state, either caused by thermal fluctuations or due to protrusive polymerization force exerted by the filaments, costs energy. We study two lattice models to describe the membrane dynamics. In one case, the energy cost is assumed to be proportional to the absolute magnitude of the height gradient (gradient model) and in the other case it is proportional to the square of the height gradient (Gaussian model). For the gradient model we find that the membrane velocity is a nonmonotonic function of the elastic constant μ and reaches a peak at μ =μ* . For μ membrane energy keeps increasing with time. For the Gaussian model, the system always reaches a steady state and the membrane velocity decreases monotonically with the elastic constant ν for all nonzero values of ν . Multiple filaments give rise to protrusions at different regions of the membrane and the elasticity of the membrane induces an effective attraction between the two protrusions in the Gaussian model which causes the protrusions to merge and a single wide protrusion is present in the system. In both the models, the relative time scale between the membrane and filament dynamics plays an important role in deciding whether the shape of elasticity-velocity curve is concave or convex. Our numerical simulations agree reasonably well with our analytical calculations.

  2. Measuring shape fluctuations in biological membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzel, C; Sengupta, K

    2016-01-01

    Shape fluctuations of lipid membranes have intrigued cell biologists and physicists alike. In the cellular context, their origin—thermal or active—and their physiological significance are open questions. These small incessant displacements, also called membrane undulations, have mostly been studied in model membranes and membranes of simple cells like erythrocytes. Thermal fluctuations of such membranes have been very well described both theoretically and experimentally; active fluctuations are a topic of current interest. Experimentally, membrane fluctuations are not easy to measure, the main challenge being to develop techniques which are capable of measuring very small displacements at very high speed, and preferably over a large area and long time. Scattering techniques have given access to fluctuations in membrane stacks and a variety of optical microscopy based techniques have been devised to study membrane fluctuations of unilamellar vesicles, erythrocytes and other cells. Among them are flicker spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, diffraction phase microscopy and reflection interference contrast microscopy. Each of these techniques has its advantages and limitations. Here we review the basic principles of the major experimental techniques used to measure bending or shape fluctuations of biomembranes. We report seminal results obtained with each technique and highlight how these studies furthered our understanding of physical properties of membranes and their interactions. We also discuss suggested role of membrane fluctuations in different biological processes. (topical review)

  3. CO2 clearance by membrane lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liqun; Kaesler, Andreas; Fernando, Piyumindri; Thompson, Alex J; Toomasian, John M; Bartlett, Robert H

    2018-05-01

    Commercial membrane lungs are designed to transfer a specific amount of oxygen per unit of venous blood flow. Membrane lungs are much more efficient at removing CO 2 than adding oxygen, but the range of CO 2 transfer is rarely reported. Commercial membrane lungs were studied with the goal of evaluating CO 2 removal capacity. CO 2 removal was measured in 4 commercial membrane lungs under standardized conditions. CO 2 clearance can be greater than 4 times that of oxygen at a given blood flow when the gas to blood flow ratio is elevated to 4:1 or 8:1. The CO 2 clearance was less dependent on surface area and configuration than oxygen transfer. Any ECMO system can be used for selective CO 2 removal.

  4. Application of the nanocomposite membrane as electrolyte of proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahreni

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen fuel cells proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is currently still in development and commercialization. Several barriers to the commercialization of these Nafion membrane as electrolyte is its very sensitive to humidity fluctuation. Nafion must be modified by making a composite Nafion-SiO 2 -HPA to increase electrolyte resistance against humidity fluctuations during the cell used. Research carried out by mixing Nafion solution with Tetra Ethoxy Ortho Silicate (TEOS) and conductive materials is phosphotungstic acid (PWA) by varying the ratio of Nafion, TEOS and PWA. The membrane is produced by heating a mixture of Nafion, TEOS and PWA by varying the evaporation temperature, time and annealing temperature to obtain the transparent membrane. The resulting membrane was analyzed its physical, chemical and electrochemical properties by applying the membrane as electrolyte of PEMFC at various humidity and temperature of operation. The results showed that at low temperatures (30-90 °C) and high humidity at 100 % RH, pure Nafion membrane is better than composite membrane (Nafion-SiO 2 -PWA), but at low humidity condition composite membrane is better than the pure Nafion membrane. It can be concluded that the composite membranes of (Nafion-SiO 2 -PWA) can be used as electrolyte of PEMFC operated at low humidity (40 % RH) and temperature between (30-90 °C). (author)

  5. Molecular dynamics study of lipid bilayers modeling the plasma membranes of normal murine thymocytes and leukemic GRSL cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Yoshimichi; Okazaki, Susumu; Ueoka, Ryuichi

    2013-04-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) calculations for the plasma membranes of normal murine thymocytes and thymus-derived leukemic GRSL cells in water have been performed under physiological isothermal-isobaric conditions (310.15K and 1 atm) to investigate changes in membrane properties induced by canceration. The model membranes used in our calculations for normal and leukemic thymocytes comprised 23 and 25 kinds of lipids, respectively, including phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, sphingomyelin, lysophospholipids, and cholesterol. The mole fractions of the lipids adopted here were based on previously published experimental values. Our calculations clearly showed that the membrane area was increased in leukemic cells, and that the isothermal area compressibility of the leukemic plasma membranes was double that of normal cells. The calculated membranes of leukemic cells were thus considerably bulkier and softer in the lateral direction compared with those of normal cells. The tilt angle of the cholesterol and the conformation of the phospholipid fatty acid tails both showed a lower level of order in leukemic cell membranes compared with normal cell membranes. The lateral radial distribution function of the lipids also showed a more disordered structure in leukemic cell membranes than in normal cell membranes. These observations all show that, for the present thymocytes, the lateral structure of the membrane is considerably disordered by canceration. Furthermore, the calculated lateral self-diffusion coefficient of the lipid molecules in leukemic cell membranes was almost double that in normal cell membranes. The calculated rotational and wobbling autocorrelation functions also indicated that the molecular motion of the lipids was enhanced in leukemic cell membranes. Thus, here we have demonstrated that the membranes of thymocyte leukemic cells are more disordered and more fluid than normal cell membranes. Copyright © 2013

  6. Emulsification using microporous membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran T. Vladisavljević

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Membrane emulsification is a process of injecting a pure dispersed phase or pre-emulsion through a microporous membrane into the continuous phase. As a result of the immiscibility of the two phases, droplets of the dispersed phase are formed at the outlets of membrane pores. The droplets formed in the process are removed from the membrane surface by applying cross-flow or stirring of the continuous phase or using a dynamic (rotating or vibrating membrane. The most commonly used membrane for emulsification is the Shirasu Porous Glass (SPG membrane, fabricated through spinodal decomposition in a melt consisting of Japanese volcanic ash (Shirasu, boric acid and calcium carbonate. Microsieve membranes are increasingly popular as an alternative to highly tortuous glass and ceramic membranes. Microsieves are usually fabricated from nickel by photolithography and electroplating or they can be manufactured from silicon nitride via Reactive Ion Etching (RIE. An advantage of microsieves compared to the SPG membrane is in much higher transmembrane fluxes and higher tolerance to fouling by the emulsion ingredients due to the existence of short, straight through pores. Unlike conventional emulsification devices such as high-pressure valve homogenisers and rotor-stator devices, membrane emulsification devices permit a precise control over the mean pore size over a wide range and during the process insignificant amount of energy is dissipated as heat. The drop size is primarily determined by the pore size, but it depends also on other parameters, such as membrane wettability, emulsion formulation, shear stress on the membrane surface, transmembrane pressure, etc.

  7. Radiation-induced changes in membrane hydrophobicity in liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Tohru; Nagatsuka, Shinichiro; Yukawa, Osami

    1985-01-01

    Effects of γ-radiation on the physical state of membranes were examined with liposomes of lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) from soybean and rat liver microsomes using spin labeling method. There was a slight increase in the membrane fluidity after irradiation. However, a marked decrease in the membrane hydrophobicity by irradiation was observed in the peripheral region in both types of membranes, in parallel with an increase in the lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that irradiation mainly causes a decrease in the membrane hydrophobicity through lipid peroxidation. (author)

  8. Membrane transport of anandamide through resealed human red blood cell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, I.N.; Hansen, Harald S.

    2005-01-01

    The use of resealed red blood cell membranes (ghosts) allows the study of the transport of a compound in a nonmetabolizing system with a biological membrane. Transmembrane movements of anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine, arachidonoylethanolamide) have been studied by exchange efflux experiments...... at 0°C and pH 7.3 with albumin-free and albumin-filled human red blood cell ghosts. The efflux kinetics is biexponential and is analyzed in terms of compartment models. The distribution of anandamide on the membrane inner to outer leaflet pools is determined to be 0.275 ± 0.023, and the rate constant...... of unidirectional flux from inside to outside is 0.361 ± 0.023 s. The rate constant of unidirectional flux from the membrane to BSA in the medium ([BSA]) increases with the square root of [BSA] in accordance with the theory of an unstirred layer around ghosts. Anandamide passed through the red blood cell membrane...

  9. Lipopolysaccharide Membranes and Membrane Proteins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Studied by Computer Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straatsma, TP

    2006-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous environmental Gram-negative bacterium with high metabolic versatility and an exceptional ability to adapt to a wide range of ecological environments, including soil, marches, coastal habitats, plant and animal tissues. Gram-negative microbes are characterized by the asymmetric lipopolysaccharide outer membrane, the study of which is important for a number of applications. The adhesion to mineral surfaces plays a central role in characterizing their contribution to the fate of contaminants in complex environmental systems by effecting microbial transport through soils, respiration redox chemistry, and ion mobility. Another important application stems from the fact that it is also a major opportunistic human pathogen that can result in life-threatening infections in many immunocompromised patients, such as lung infections in children with cystic fibrosis, bacteraemia in burn victims, urinary-tract infections in catheterized patients, hospital-acquired pneumonia in patients on respirators, infections in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, and keratitis and corneal ulcers in users of extended-wear soft contact lenses. The inherent resistance against antibiotics which has been linked with the specific interactions in the outer membrane of P. aeruginosa makes these infections difficult to treat. Developments in simulation methodologies as well as computer hardware have enabled the molecular simulation of biological systems of increasing size and with increasing accuracy, providing detail that is difficult or impossible to obtain experimentally. Computer simulation studies contribute to our understanding of the behavior of proteins, protein-protein and protein-DNA complexes. In recent years, a number of research groups have made significant progress in applying these methods to the study of biological membranes. However, these applications have been focused exclusively on lipid bilayer membranes and on membrane proteins in lipid

  10. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid have distinct membrane locations and lipid interactions as determined by X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherratt, Samuel C R; Mason, R Preston

    2018-01-31

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) differentially influence lipid oxidation, signal transduction, fluidity, and cholesterol domain formation, potentially due in part to distinct membrane interactions. We used small angle X-ray diffraction to evaluate the EPA and DHA effects on membrane structure. Membrane vesicles composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and cholesterol (C) (0.3C:POPC mole ratio) were prepared and treated with vehicle, EPA, or DHA (1:10 mol ratio to POPC). Electron density profiles generated from the diffraction data showed that EPA increased membrane hydrocarbon core electron density over a broad area, up to ± 20 Å from the membrane center, indicating an energetically favorable extended orientation for EPA likely stabilized by van der Waals interactions. By contrast, DHA increased electron density in the phospholipid head group region starting at ± 12 Å from the membrane center, presumably due to DHA-surface interactions, with coincident reduction in electron density in the membrane hydrocarbon core centered ± 7-9 Å from the membrane center. The membrane width (d-space) decreased by 5 Å in the presence of vehicle as the temperature increased from 10 °C to 30 °C due to increased acyl chain trans-gauche isomerizations, which was unaffected by addition of EPA or DHA. The influence of DHA on membrane structure was modulated by temperature changes while the interactions of EPA were unaffected. The contrasting EPA and DHA effects on membrane structure indicate distinct molecular locations and orientations that may contribute to observed differences in biological activity. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Areas with increased natural radioactivity. Pt. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soman, S.D.; Nambi, K.S.V.

    1990-03-01

    When studying possible health effects of environmental radioactivity to man, areas of high natural radiation background are especially valuable. The classical and most investigated areas with this respect in the world are the monazite sand regions on the beaches of the States of Kerala and Tamil Nadu in South-India. Indian scientists from the Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC) have investigated possible health effects to man by the high natural background radiation in this area since about thirty years. As a remarkable result of the epidemiological studies, no significant genetical radiation damage effects within a collective of about seventythousand investigated persons could be observed. When studying lung cancer risks as a function of natural radiation exposure in the region of relatively low doses, the central problem is, how to extrapolate from the high doses of uranium miners to zero doses. Since the relative number of lung cancer is too small and does not exceed the statistical noise level, no significant experimental approval could be made until today. Therefore, one has to rely mainly on three different hypothesis, among which one cannot make an experimental decision at the moment. Hypothesis I (linear extrapolation) is the most pessimistic one, which denies the existence of repair mechanisms. Hypethesis II (threshold behaviour) is more realistic and considers repair mechanisms. Hypothesis III (hormesis effect) assumes positive health effects at lower radiation doses because of the proved existence of repair mechanisms in the living human cell and their stimulation by irradiation. In possible agreement with hypothesis III, within the last few years several authors in different areas of the world with higher natural radiation background have observed a significant decrease of lung cancer risk with increasing natural radiation background. The authors of this report are demonstrating this behaviour for India with their sets of data. (orig./MG)

  12. Molecular Interactions at Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagalski, Vivien

    . Today, we know more than ever before about the properties of biological membranes. Advanced biophysical techniques and sophisticated membrane models allow us to answer specific questions about the structure of the components within membranes and their interactions. However, many detailed structural...... the surface-immobilization of LeuT by exchanging the detergent with natural phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids. Various surface sensitive techniques, including neutron reflectometry (NR), are employed and finally enabled us to confirm the gross structure of LeuT in a lipid environment as predicted by molecular...... dynamic simulations. In a second study, the co-localization of three toxic plant-derived diterpene resin acids (RAs) within DPPC membranes was investigated. These compounds are reported to disrupt the membrane and increase its fluidity. The RAs used in this study vary in their toxicity while...

  13. Development and testing of a transparent membrane biofouling monitor

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.; Flemming, Hans Curt; Wexler, Adam D.; Zwijnenburg, Arie; Kruithof, Joop C.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2014-01-01

    A modified version of the membrane fouling simulator (MFS) was developed for assessment of (i) hydraulic biofilm resistance, (ii) performance parameters feed-channel pressure drop and transmembrane pressure drop, and (iii) in situ spatial visual and optical observations of the biofilm in the transparent monitor, e.g. using optical coherence tomography. The flow channel height equals the feed spacer thickness enabling operation with and without feed spacer. The effective membrane surface area was enlarged from 80 to 200 cm2 by increasing the monitor width compared to the standard MFS, resulting in larger biomass amounts for analysis. By use of a microfiltration membrane (pore size 0.05 μm) in the monitor salt concentration polarization is avoided, allowing operation at low pressures enabling accurate measurement of the intrinsic hydraulic biofilm resistance. Validation tests on e.g. hydrodynamic behavior, flow field distribution, and reproducibility showed that the small-sized monitor was a representative tool for membranes used in practice under the same operating conditions, such as spiral-wound nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes. Monitor studies with and without feed spacer use at a flux of 20 L m-2 h-1 and a cross-flow velocity of 0.1 m s-1 clearly showed the suitability of the monitor to determine hydraulic biofilm resistance and for controlled biofouling studies. © 2013 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  14. High-throughput screening of ionic conductivity in polymer membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, Pedro; Basak, Pratyay; Carson Meredith, J.

    2009-01-01

    Combinatorial and high-throughput techniques have been successfully used for efficient and rapid property screening in multiple fields. The use of these techniques can be an advantageous new approach to assay ionic conductivity and accelerate the development of novel materials in research areas such as fuel cells. A high-throughput ionic conductivity (HTC) apparatus is described and applied to screening candidate polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cell applications. The device uses a miniature four-point probe for rapid, automated point-to-point AC electrochemical impedance measurements in both liquid and humid air environments. The conductivity of Nafion 112 HTC validation standards was within 1.8% of the manufacturer's specification. HTC screening of 40 novel Kynar poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/acrylic polyelectrolyte (PE) membranes focused on varying the Kynar type (5x) and PE composition (8x) using reduced sample sizes. Two factors were found to be significant in determining the proton conducting capacity: (1) Kynar PVDF series: membranes containing a particular Kynar PVDF type exhibited statistically identical mean conductivity as other membranes containing different Kynar PVDF types that belong to the same series or family. (2) Maximum effective amount of polyelectrolyte: increments in polyelectrolyte content from 55 wt% to 60 wt% showed no statistically significant effect in increasing conductivity. In fact, some membranes experienced a reduction in conductivity.

  15. Development and testing of a transparent membrane biofouling monitor

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.

    2014-01-02

    A modified version of the membrane fouling simulator (MFS) was developed for assessment of (i) hydraulic biofilm resistance, (ii) performance parameters feed-channel pressure drop and transmembrane pressure drop, and (iii) in situ spatial visual and optical observations of the biofilm in the transparent monitor, e.g. using optical coherence tomography. The flow channel height equals the feed spacer thickness enabling operation with and without feed spacer. The effective membrane surface area was enlarged from 80 to 200 cm2 by increasing the monitor width compared to the standard MFS, resulting in larger biomass amounts for analysis. By use of a microfiltration membrane (pore size 0.05 μm) in the monitor salt concentration polarization is avoided, allowing operation at low pressures enabling accurate measurement of the intrinsic hydraulic biofilm resistance. Validation tests on e.g. hydrodynamic behavior, flow field distribution, and reproducibility showed that the small-sized monitor was a representative tool for membranes used in practice under the same operating conditions, such as spiral-wound nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes. Monitor studies with and without feed spacer use at a flux of 20 L m-2 h-1 and a cross-flow velocity of 0.1 m s-1 clearly showed the suitability of the monitor to determine hydraulic biofilm resistance and for controlled biofouling studies. © 2013 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of thin film inorganic membranes for oxygen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Hyo Jeong

    2012-08-22

    Membrane-based gas separation systems are noteworthy among technological options for carbon capture and storage (CCS), which is an important strategy to reduce CO{sub 2} emitted from point sources, e.g. mainly fossil power plants. In Oxyfuel-Combustion and Pre-Combustion of CCS power plant concepts oxygen separation from air is required. To meet this requirement oxygen transport membranes (OTM) consisting of gastight mixed ionic electronic conductors (MIEC) are proposed, which are associated with significantly lower efficiency losses compared with conventional air separation technologies. For cost effective application a maximum oxygen flux has to be achieved to reduce the membrane area. This can be met by reduction of membrane thickness. Therefore, the reduction of the membrane thickness to the micrometer range or even below is aimed in the present thesis. Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-{delta}} (CGO) with fluorite crystal structure and La{sub 0.58}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCF) with perovskite crystal structure were developed as thin film membrane. CGO is expected to be more stable than other potential MIEC membranes in reducing atmospheres and to achieve sufficient oxygen permeation, e.g. in syngas production or petrol chemistry. LSCF is expected to be highly permeable with an acceptable chemical stability in Oxyfuel-combustion. Various porous ceramic substrates were prepared by vacuum-slip-casting and warm-pressing, and then characterized for porosity, gas-permeability and surface roughness. Subsequently, two approaches to fabrication of thin film membranes were investigated, which are wetchemical deposition (WCD) and physical vapor deposition (PVD). For WCD, nano-dispersions and colloidal sols were prepared for membrane top-layer and/or interlayer. When CGO nano-dispersion (NDCGO) was spin-coated as thin film membrane, the gastightness of sintered membranes was increased with decrease in spinning time and increase in concentration of

  17. Development of membrane mechanical function during terminal stages of primitive erythropoiesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Richard E; Huang, Yu-Shan; Arif, Binish J; Bauserman, Richard; Palis, James

    2013-04-01

    During murine embryogenesis, primitive erythroblasts enter the circulation as immature nucleated cells and progressively mature as a semisynchronous cohort, enucleating between E12.5 and E16.5. In this report, we examine the mechanical properties of these cells to determine how their mechanical development differs from that of definitive erythroid cells, which mature extravascularly in protected marrow microenvironments. Primitive erythroid cells acquire normal membrane deformability by E12.5 (i.e., as late stage erythroblasts) and maintain the same level of surface stiffness through E17.5. During this same period, the strength of association between the membrane bilayer and the underlying skeleton increases, as indicated by an approximate doubling of the energy required to separate bilayer from skeleton. At the same time, these cells undergo dramatic changes in surface area and volume, losing 35% of their surface area and 50% of their volume from E14.5 to E17.5. Interestingly, membrane remodeling proceeded regardless of whether the cells completed enucleation. These data suggest that in primitive erythroid cells, unlike their definitive counterparts, the critical maturational processes of membrane remodeling and enucleation are uncoupled. Copyright © 2013 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Microporous Organic Materials for Membrane-Based Gas Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaoqin; Zhu, Guangshan

    2018-01-01

    Membrane materials with excellent selectivity and high permeability are crucial to efficient membrane gas separation. Microporous organic materials have evolved as an alternative candidate for fabricating membranes due to their inherent attributes, such as permanent porosity, high surface area, and good processability. Herein, a unique pore-chemistry concept for the designed synthesis of microporous organic membranes, with an emphasis on the relationship between pore structures and membrane performances, is introduced. The latest advances in microporous organic materials for potential membrane application in gas separation of H 2 , CO 2 , O 2 , and other industrially relevant gases are summarized. Representative examples of the recent progress in highly selective and permeable membranes are highlighted with some fundamental analyses from pore characteristics, followed by a brief perspective on future research directions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Performance enhancement of membrane electrode assemblies with plasma etched polymer electrolyte membrane in PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong-Hun; Yoon, Won-Sub [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kookmin University, 861-1 Jeongneung-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-702 (Korea); Bae, Jin Woo; Cho, Yoon-Hwan; Lim, Ju Wan; Ahn, Minjeh; Jho, Jae Young; Sung, Yung-Eun [World Class University (WCU) program of Chemical Convergence for Energy and Environment (C2E2), School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University (SNU), 599 Gwanak-Ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea); Kwon, Nak-Hyun [Fuel Cell Vehicle Team 3, Advanced Technology Center, Corporate Research and Development Division, Hyundai-Kia Motors, 104 Mabuk-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-912 (Korea)

    2010-10-15

    In this work, a surface modified Nafion 212 membrane was fabricated by plasma etching in order to enhance the performance of a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Single-cell performance of MEA at 0.7 V was increased by about 19% with membrane that was etched for 10 min compared to that with untreated Nafion 212 membrane. The MEA with membrane etched for 20 min exhibited a current density of 1700 mA cm{sup -2} at 0.35 V, which was 8% higher than that of MEA with untreated membrane (1580 mA cm{sup -2}). The performances of MEAs containing etched membranes were affected by complex factors such as the thickness and surface morphology of the membrane related to etching time. The structural changes and electrochemical properties of the MEAs with etched membranes were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectrometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. (author)

  20. Control of membrane fouling during hyperhaline municipal wastewater treatment using a pilot-scale anoxic/aerobic-membrane bioreactor system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingmei Sun; Jiangxiu Rong; Lifeng Dai; Baoshan Liu; Wenting Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Membrane fouling limits the effects of long-term stable operation of membrane bioreactor (MBR).Control of membrane foulin can extend the membrane life and reduce water treatment cost effectively.A pilot scale anoxic/aerobic-membrane bioreactor (A/O MBR,40 L/hr) was used to treat the hyperhaline municipal sewage from a processing zone of Tianjin,China.Impact factors including mixed liquid sludge suspension (MLSS),sludge viscosity (μ),microorganisms,extracellular polymeric substances (EPS),aeration intensity and suction/suspended time on membrane fouling and pollution control were studied.The relationships among various factors associated with membrane fouling were analyzed.Results showed that there was a positive correlation among MLSS,sludge viscosity and trans-membrane pressure (TMP).Considering water treatment efficiency and stable operation of the membrane module,MLSS of 5 g/L was suggested for the process.There was a same trend among EPS,sludge viscosity and TMP.Numbers and species of microorganisms affected membrane fouling.Either too high or too low aeration intensity was not conducive to membrane fouling control.Aeration intensity of 1.0 m3/hr (gas/water ratio of 25:1) is suggested for the process.A long suction time caused a rapid increase in membrane resistance.However,long suspended time cannot prevent the increase of membrane resistance effectively even though a suspended time was necessary for scale off particles from the membrane surface.The suction/suspended time of 12 min/3 min was selected for the process.The interaction of various environmental factors and operation conditions must be considered synthetically.

  1. X-radiation effects on muscle cell membrane electrical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portela, A.; Vaccari, J.G.; Llobera, O.; Campi, M.; Delbue, M.A.; Perez, J.C.; Stewart, P.A.; Gosztonyi, A.E.; Brown Univ., Providence, R.I.

    1975-01-01

    Early effects of 100 Kilorads of X-rays on muscle cell membrane properties have been measured in sartorius muscles from Leptodactylus ocellatus. Threshold strength for rectangular current pulses increased 10% after irradiation, and action potential propagation velocity decreased 10%. Passive membrane parameters were calculated from potential responses to sub-threshold current pulses, assuming conventional cable theory. Specific membrane conductance increased to 18% after irradiation, membrane capacitance increased 14%, and length constant decreased 10% but membrane time constant was unchanged. Cell diameter decreased 5%, and resting membrane potential decreased 8%. Membrane parameters during an action potential were also evaluated by the phase-plane and current-voltage plot techniques. Irradiation significantly decreased the action potential amplitude, the excitation potential, and the maximum rates of rise and fall of membrane potential. Increases were observed in dynamic sodium and potassium conductances, peak sodium current, and net charge accumulation per action potential. This X-ray dose also produced signficant changes in the timing of peak events during the action potential; in general the whole action potential process is slower after irradiation

  2. Application of membrane technologies for liquid radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Membrane separation processes have made impressive progress since the first synthesis of membranes almost 40 years ago. This progress was driven by strong technological needs and commercial expectations. As a result the range of successful applications of membranes and membrane processes is continuously broadening. In addition, increasing application of membrane processes and technologies lies in the increasing variations of the nature and characteristics of commercial membranes and membrane apparatus. The objective of the report is to review the information on application of membrane technologies in the processing of liquid radioactive waste. The report covers the various types of membranes, equipment design, range of applications, operational experience and the performance characteristics of different membrane processes. The report aims to provide Member States with basic information on the applicability and limitations of membrane separation technologies for processing liquid radioactive waste streams

  3. Effect of operating parameters and membrane characteristics on air gap membrane distillation performance for the treatment of highly saline water

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jingli

    2016-04-07

    In this study, ten different commercially available PTFE, PP and PVDF membranes were tested in desalination of highly saline water by air gap membrane distillation (AGMD). Process performance was investigated under different operating parameters, such as feed temperatures, feed flow velocities and salt concentrations reaching 120 g/L, and different membrane characteristics, such as membrane material, thickness, pore size and support layer, using a locally designed and fabricatd AGMD module and spacer. Results showed that increasing feed temperature increases permeate flux regardless of the feed concentration. However, feed flow velocity does not significantly affect the flux, especially at low feed temperatures. The PP membrane showed a better performance than the PVDF and PTFE membranes. Permeate flux decreases with the increase of salt concentration of feed solution, especially at higher concentrations above 90 g/L. The existence of membrane support layer led to a slight decrease of permeate flux. Membranes with pore sizes of 0.2 and 0.45 μm gave the best performance. Smaller pore size led to lower flux and larger pore size led to pore wetting due to lower LEP values. The effect of concentration polarization and temperature polarization has also been studied and compared.

  4. A Scalable Route to Nanoporous Large-Area Atomically Thin Graphene Membranes by Roll-to-Roll Chemical Vapor Deposition and Polymer Support Casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidambi, Piran R; Mariappan, Dhanushkodi D; Dee, Nicholas T; Vyatskikh, Andrey; Zhang, Sui; Karnik, Rohit; Hart, A John

    2018-03-28

    Scalable, cost-effective synthesis and integration of graphene is imperative to realize large-area applications such as nanoporous atomically thin membranes (NATMs). Here, we report a scalable route to the production of NATMs via high-speed, continuous synthesis of large-area graphene by roll-to-roll chemical vapor deposition (CVD), combined with casting of a hierarchically porous polymer support. To begin, we designed and built a two zone roll-to-roll graphene CVD reactor, which sequentially exposes the moving foil substrate to annealing and growth atmospheres, with a sharp, isothermal transition between the zones. The configurational flexibility of the reactor design allows for a detailed evaluation of key parameters affecting graphene quality and trade-offs to be considered for high-rate roll-to-roll graphene manufacturing. With this system, we achieve synthesis of uniform high-quality monolayer graphene ( I D / I G casting and postprocessing, show size-selective molecular transport with performance comparable to that of membranes made from conventionally synthesized graphene. Therefore, this work establishes the feasibility of a scalable manufacturing process of NATMs, for applications including protein desalting and small-molecule separations.

  5. Advanced Material-Ordered Nanotubular Ceramic Membranes Covalently Capped with Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Al-Gharabli

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Advanced ceramic materials with a well-defined nano-architecture of their surfaces were formed by applying a two-step procedure. Firstly, a primary amine was docked on the ordered nanotubular ceramic surface via a silanization process. Subsequently, single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs were covalently grafted onto the surface via an amide building block. Physicochemical (e.g., hydrophobicity, and surface free energy (SFE, mechanical, and tribological properties of the developed membranes were improved significantly. The design, preparation, and extended characterization of the developed membranes are presented. Tools such as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM, single-area electron diffraction (SAED analysis, microscopy, tribology, nano-indentation, and Raman spectroscopy, among other techniques, were utilized in the characterization of the developed membranes. As an effect of hydrophobization, the contact angles (CAs changed from 38° to 110° and from 51° to 95° for the silanization of ceramic membranes 20 (CM20 and CM100, respectively. SWCNT functionalization reduced the CAs to 72° and 66° for ceramic membranes carbon nanotubes 20 (CM-CNT-20 and CM-CNT-100, respectively. The mechanical properties of the developed membranes improved significantly. From the nanotribological study, Young’s modulus increased from 3 to 39 GPa for CM-CNT-20 and from 43 to 48 GPa for pristine CM-CNT-100. Furthermore, the nanohardness increased by about 80% after the attachment of CNTs for both types of ceramics. The proposed protocol within this work for the development of functionalized ceramic membranes is both simple and efficient.

  6. Leveraging modern climatology to increase adaptive capacity across protected area networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, J.E.; Graumlich, L.J.; Rowland, E.L.; Pederson, G.T.; Breshears, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    Human-driven changes in the global environment pose an increasingly urgent challenge for the management of ecosystems that is made all the more difficult by the uncertain future of both environmental conditions and ecological responses. Land managers need strategies to increase regional adaptive capacity, but relevant and rapid assessment approaches are lacking. To address this need, we developed a method to assess regional protected area networks across biophysically important climatic gradients often linked to biodiversity and ecosystem function. We plot the land of the southwestern United States across axes of historical climate space, and identify landscapes that may serve as strategic additions to current protected area portfolios. Considering climate space is straightforward, and it can be applied using a variety of relevant climate parameters across differing levels of land protection status. The resulting maps identify lands that are climatically distinct from existing protected areas, and may be utilized in combination with other ecological and socio-economic information essential to collaborative landscape-scale decision-making. Alongside other strategies intended to protect species of special concern, natural resources, and other ecosystem services, the methods presented herein provide another important hedging strategy intended to increase the adaptive capacity of protected area networks. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Effect of perfluorosulfonic acid membrane equivalent weight on degradation under accelerated stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, Marianne P.; Pearman, Benjamin P.; Mohajeri, Nahid; Bonville, Leonard J.; Slattery, Darlene K.

    2013-01-01

    The equivalent weight of proton exchange membranes has a large effect on their properties and can impact performance and durability in hydrogen fuel cells. For example, increasing the EW increases the crystallinity of perfluorosulfonic acid membranes, while water content and glass transition temperature decrease. The length of the sulfonic acid side chain also impacts membrane properties. Perfluorosulfonic acid membranes with shorter sulfonic acid side chains, though they exhibit similar gas permeability, have been shown to have higher crystallinity, higher glass transition temperature, slightly lower water content, and lower proton conductivity than membranes with longer sulfonic acid side chains for a given EW. Although many reports have investigated cell performance for membranes as a function of low EW and side chains length, their impact on cell durability is not well understood. Because side chain attack by radicals formed during fuel cell operation is a major source of membrane degradation, it is reasonable to hypothesize that membranes with lower EW and, therefore, more sulfonic acid side chains, would have lower durability. This study evaluates membrane degradation for cells containing PFSA membranes with 750 EW, 950 EW, and 1100 EW. The 750 EW membrane contained short sulfonic acid side-chains while the 950 EW and 1100 EW membranes were Nafion ® -based with long sulfonic acid side-chains. Membranes were tested in fuel cells for 100 h under open circuit voltage, at 90 °C and 30% relative humidity. Diagnostic tests conducted on the cells included hydrogen crossover, fluoride emission, catalyst electrochemical surface area, posttest membrane scanning electron microscopy/transmission electron microscopy evaluation, and defect identification in membranes. The 950 EW cell had the highest decay metrics including fluoride emission, voltage decay, loss in ECA, and loss in cell performance. In all cases, the 1100 EW cell showed the lowest degradation. This has

  8. Enhanced performance of PVDF nanocomposite membrane by nanofiber coating: A membrane for sustainable desalination through MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efome, Johnson E; Rana, Dipak; Matsuura, Takeshi; Lan, Christopher Q

    2016-02-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is a promising separation technique capable of being used in the desalination of marine and brackish water. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) flat sheet nano-composite membranes were surface modified by coating with electro-spun PVDF nano-fibres to increase the surface hydrophobicity. For this purpose, the nano-composite membrane containing 7 wt.% superhydrophobic SiO2 nano-particles, which showed the highest flux in our previous work, was first subjected to pore size augmentation by increasing the concentration of the pore forming agent (Di-ionized water). Then, the prepared flat sheet membranes were subjected to nanofibres coating by electro-spinning. The uncoated and coated composite fabricated membranes were characterized using contact angle, liquid entry pressure of water, and scanning electron microscopy. The membranes were further tested for 6 h desalination by direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) and vacuum membrane distillation (VMD), with a 3.5 wt.% synthetic NaClaq as the feed. In DCMD the feed liquid and permeate side temperature were maintained at 27.5 °C and 15 °C, respectively. For VMD, the feed liquid temperature was 27 °C and a vacuum of 94.8 kPa was applied on the permeate side. The maximum permeate flux achieved was 3.2 kg/m(2).h for VMD and 6.5 kg/m(2).h for DCMD. The salt rejection obtained was higher than 99.98%. The coated membranes showed a more stable flux than the uncoated membranes indicating that the double layered membranes have great potential in solving the pore wetting problem in MD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Carbon nanotube embedded PVDF membranes: Effect of solvent composition on the structural morphology for membrane distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapunda, Edgar C.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.

    2017-08-01

    Rapid population increase, growth in industrial and agricultural sectors and global climate change have added significant pressure on conventional freshwater resources. Tapping freshwater from non-conventional water sources such as desalination and wastewater recycling is considered as sustainable alternative to the fundamental challenges of water scarcity. However, affordable and sustainable technologies need to be applied for the communities to benefit from the treatment of non-conventional water source. Membrane distillation is a potential desalination technology which can be used sustainably for this purpose. In this work multi-walled carbon nanotube embedded polyvinylidene fluoride membranes for application in membrane distillation desalination were prepared via non-solvent induced phase separation method. The casting solution was prepared using mixed solvents (N, N-dimethylacetamide and triethyl phosphate) at varying ratios to study the effect of solvent composition on membrane morphological structures. Membrane morphological features were studied using a number of techniques including scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, SAXSpace tensile strength analysis, membrane thickness, porosity and contact angle measurements. It was revealed that membrane hydrophobicity, thickness, tensile strength and surface roughness were increasing as the composition of N, N-dimethylacetamide in the solvent was increasing with maximum values obtained between 40 and 60% N, N-dimethylacetamide. Internal morphological structures were changing from cellular structures to short finger-like and sponge-like pores and finally to large macro void type of pores when the amount of N, N-dimethylacetamide in the solvent was changed from low to high respectively. Multi-walled carbon nanotube embedded polyvinylidene fluoride membranes of desired morphological structures and physical properties can be synthesized by regulating the composition of solvents used to prepare the

  10. Technical evaluation of hybrid membrane/DEA modeling. Topical report, January 1990-August 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changela, M.K.; McKee, R.L.; Reading, G.J.

    1991-08-01

    The report examines the potential for cost and/or performance advantages of a hybrid system, the integration of membranes and amines, over a single-stage membrane or amine system for producing pipeline quality gas on a small scale from high carbon dioxide subquality natural gas. The hybrid configuration evaluated is a membrane system in series with a conventional diethanolamine (DEA) system. Comparison of the established costs shows that each system has a region of operability. Membranes offer higher cost savings at low feed flow rates and high carbon dioxide feed contents. The hybrid system offers cost savings over moderate to high feed flow rates and for moderate to high carbon dioxide feed contents. The DEA system offers cost savings for moderate to high feed flow rates at low to moderate carbon dioxide feed contents. Membranes do not exhibit economies of scale which works to their advantage for removing carbon dioxide on a small scale. Processing costs for amine systems are more sensitive to economies of scale, and thus decrease more rapidly than for membranes at higher feed flow rates. The hybrid system offers cost savings in regions that have been perceived as exclusively amine treating applications, thus increasing the area of operability for membranes

  11. Performance study of a heat pump driven and hollow fiber membrane-based two-stage liquid desiccant air dehumidification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ning; Yin, Shao-You; Zhang, Li-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A heat pump driven, hollow fiber membrane-based two-stage liquid desiccant air dehumidification system. - Highlights: • A two-stage hollow fiber membrane based air dehumidification is proposed. • It is heat pump driven liquid desiccant system. • Performance is improved 20% upon single stage system. • The optimal first to second stage dehumidification area ratio is 1.4. - Abstract: A novel compression heat pump driven and hollow fiber membrane-based two-stage liquid desiccant air dehumidification system is presented. The liquid desiccant droplets are prevented from crossing over into the process air by the semi-permeable membranes. The isoenthalpic processes are changed to quasi-isothermal processes by the two-stage dehumidification processes. The system is set up and a model is proposed for simulation. Heat and mass capacities in the system, including the membrane modules, the condenser, the evaporator and the heat exchangers are modeled in detail. The model is also validated experimentally. Compared with a single-stage dehumidification system, the two-stage system has a lower solution concentration exiting from the dehumidifier and a lower condensing temperature. Thus, a better thermodynamic system performance is realized and the COP can be increased by about 20% under the typical hot and humid conditions in Southern China. The allocations of heat and mass transfer areas in the system are also investigated. It is found that the optimal regeneration to dehumidification area ratio is 1.33. The optimal first to second stage dehumidification area ratio is 1.4; and the optimal first to second stage regeneration area ratio is 1.286.

  12. Free and membrane-bound calcium in microgravity and microgravity effects at the membrane level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyavskaya, N. A.

    The changes of [Ca^2+]_i controlled is known to play a key regulatory role in numerous cellular processes especially associated with membranes. Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated an increase in calcium level in root cells of pea seedlings grown aboard orbital station ``Salyut 6'' /1/. These results: 1) indicate that observed Ca^2+-binding sites of membranes also consist in proteins and phospholipids; 2) suggest that such effects of space flight in membrane Ca-binding might be due to the enhancement of Ca^2+ influx through membranes. In model presented, I propose that Ca^2+-activated channels in plasma membrane in response to microgravity allow the movement of Ca^2+ into the root cells, causing a rise in cytoplasmic free Ca^2+ levels. The latter, in its turn, may induce the inhibition of a Ca^2+ efflux by Ca^2+-activated ATPases and through a Ca^2+/H^+ antiport. It is possible that increased cytosolic levels of Ca^2+ ions have stimulated hydrolysis and turnover of phosphatidylinositols, with a consequent elevation of cytosolic [Ca^2+]_i. Plant cell can response to such a Ca^2+ rise by an enhancement of membranous Ca^2+-binding activities to rescue thus a cell from an abundance of a cytotoxin. A Ca^2+-induced phase separation of membranous lipids assists to appear the structure nonstable zones with high energy level at the boundary of microdomains which are rich by some phospholipid components; there is mixing of molecules of the membranes contacted in these zones, the first stage of membranous fusion, which was found in plants exposed to microgravity. These results support the hypothesis that a target for microgravity effect is the flux mechanism of Ca^2+ to plant cell.

  13. One Step Biomass Gas Reforming-Shift Separation Membrane Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Michael J. [Gas Technology Institute; Souleimanova, Razima [Gas Technology Institute

    2012-12-28

    GTI developed a plan where efforts were concentrated in 4 major areas: membrane material development, membrane module development, membrane process development, and membrane gasifier scale-up. GTI assembled a team of researchers to work in each area. Task 1.1 Ceramic Membrane Synthesis and Testing was conducted by Arizona State University (ASU), Task 1.2 Metallic Membrane Synthesis and Testing was conducted by the U.S. National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Task 1.3 was conducted by SCHOTT, and GTI was to test all membranes that showed potential. The initial focus of the project was concentrated on membrane material development. Metallic and glass-based membranes were identified as hydrogen selective membranes under the conditions of the biomass gasification, temperatures above 700C and pressures up to 30 atmospheres. Membranes were synthesized by arc-rolling for metallic type membranes and incorporating Pd into a glass matrix for glass membranes. Testing for hydrogen permeability properties were completed and the effects of hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide were investigated for perspective membranes. The initial candidate membrane of Pd80Cu20 chosen in 2008 was selected for preliminary reactor design and cost estimates. Although the H2A analysis results indicated a $1.96 cost per gge H2 based on a 5A (micron) thick PdCu membrane, there was not long-term operation at the required flux to satisfy the go/no go decision. Since the future PSA case yielded a $2.00/gge H2, DOE decided that there was insufficient savings compared with the already proven PSA technology to further pursue the membrane reactor design. All ceramic membranes synthesized by ASU during the project showed low hydrogen flux as compared with metallic membranes. The best ceramic membrane showed hydrogen permeation flux of 0.03 SCFH/ft2 at the required process conditions while the metallic membrane, Pd80Cu20 showed a flux of 47.2 SCFH/ft2 (3 orders of magnitude difference). Results from

  14. Ion-Exchanged SAPO-34 Membranes for Krypton-Xenon Separation: Control of Permeation Properties and Fabrication of Hollow Fiber Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yeon Hye; Min, Byunghyun; Yang, Shaowei; Koh, Dong-Yeun; Bhave, Ramesh R; Nair, Sankar

    2018-02-21

    Separation of radioisotope 85 Kr from 136 Xe is of importance in used nuclear fuel reprocessing. Membrane separation based on zeolite molecular sieves such as chabazite SAPO-34 is an attractive alternative to energy-intensive cryogenic distillation. We report the synthesis of SAPO-34 membranes with considerably enhanced performance via thickness reduction based upon control of a steam-assisted vapor-solid conversion technique followed by ion exchange with alkali metal cations. The reduction of membrane thickness leads to a large increase in Kr permeance from 7.5 to 26.3 gas permeation units (GPU) with ideal Kr/Xe selectivities >20 at 298 K. Cation-exchanged membranes show large (>50%) increases in selectivity at ambient or slight subambient conditions. The adsorption, diffusion, and permeation characteristics of ion-exchanged SAPO-34 materials and membranes are investigated in detail, with potassium-exchanged SAPO-34 membranes showing particularly attractive performance. We then demonstrate the fabrication of selective SAPO-34 membranes on α-alumina hollow fibers.

  15. Common Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) increasingly select for grazed areas with increasing distance-to-nest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony D; Thellesen, Peder V; Dalby, Lars; Sunde, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The abundant and widespread Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) is currently declining across much of Europe due to landscape changes caused by agricultural intensification. The proximate mechanisms causing adverse effects to breeding Starlings are unclear, hampering our ability to implement cost-efficient agri-environmental schemes to restore populations to former levels. This study aimed to show how this central foraging farmland bird uses and selects land cover types in general and how use of foraging habitat changes in relation to distance from the nest. We attached GPS-loggers to 17 breeding Starlings at a Danish dairy cattle farm in 2015 and 2016 and analysed their use of different land cover types as a function of distance intervals from the nest and their relative availability. As expected for a central place forager, Starlings increasingly avoided potential foraging areas with greater distance-to-nest: areas ≥ 500 m were selected > 100 times less frequently than areas within 100 m. On average, Starlings selected the land cover category Grazed most frequently, followed by Short Grass, Bare Ground, Meadow and Winter Crops. Starlings compensated for elevated travel costs by showing increasing habitat selection the further they foraged from the nest. Our results highlight the importance of Grazed foraging habitats close to the nest site of breeding Starlings. The ecological capacity of intensively managed farmlands for insectivorous birds like the Starling is decreasing through conversion of the most strongly selected land cover type (Grazed) to the least selected (Winter Crops) which may be further exacerbated through spatial segregation of foraging and breeding habitats.

  16. Common Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris increasingly select for grazed areas with increasing distance-to-nest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Heldbjerg

    Full Text Available The abundant and widespread Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris is currently declining across much of Europe due to landscape changes caused by agricultural intensification. The proximate mechanisms causing adverse effects to breeding Starlings are unclear, hampering our ability to implement cost-efficient agri-environmental schemes to restore populations to former levels. This study aimed to show how this central foraging farmland bird uses and selects land cover types in general and how use of foraging habitat changes in relation to distance from the nest. We attached GPS-loggers to 17 breeding Starlings at a Danish dairy cattle farm in 2015 and 2016 and analysed their use of different land cover types as a function of distance intervals from the nest and their relative availability. As expected for a central place forager, Starlings increasingly avoided potential foraging areas with greater distance-to-nest: areas ≥ 500 m were selected > 100 times less frequently than areas within 100 m. On average, Starlings selected the land cover category Grazed most frequently, followed by Short Grass, Bare Ground, Meadow and Winter Crops. Starlings compensated for elevated travel costs by showing increasing habitat selection the further they foraged from the nest. Our results highlight the importance of Grazed foraging habitats close to the nest site of breeding Starlings. The ecological capacity of intensively managed farmlands for insectivorous birds like the Starling is decreasing through conversion of the most strongly selected land cover type (Grazed to the least selected (Winter Crops which may be further exacerbated through spatial segregation of foraging and breeding habitats.

  17. Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) Technology for Wastewater Treatment and Reclamation: Membrane Fouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorhemen, Oliver Terna; Hamza, Rania Ahmed; Tay, Joo Hwa

    2016-06-15

    The membrane bioreactor (MBR) has emerged as an efficient compact technology for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. The major drawback impeding wider application of MBRs is membrane fouling, which significantly reduces membrane performance and lifespan, resulting in a significant increase in maintenance and operating costs. Finding sustainable membrane fouling mitigation strategies in MBRs has been one of the main concerns over the last two decades. This paper provides an overview of membrane fouling and studies conducted to identify mitigating strategies for fouling in MBRs. Classes of foulants, including biofoulants, organic foulants and inorganic foulants, as well as factors influencing membrane fouling are outlined. Recent research attempts on fouling control, including addition of coagulants and adsorbents, combination of aerobic granulation with MBRs, introduction of granular materials with air scouring in the MBR tank, and quorum quenching are presented. The addition of coagulants and adsorbents shows a significant membrane fouling reduction, but further research is needed to establish optimum dosages of the various coagulants/adsorbents. Similarly, the integration of aerobic granulation with MBRs, which targets biofoulants and organic foulants, shows outstanding filtration performance and a significant reduction in fouling rate, as well as excellent nutrients removal. However, further research is needed on the enhancement of long-term granule integrity. Quorum quenching also offers a strong potential for fouling control, but pilot-scale testing is required to explore the feasibility of full-scale application.

  18. Plasma treatment of polyethersulfone membrane for benzene removal from water by air gap membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedram, Sara; Mortaheb, Hamid Reza; Arefi-Khonsari, Farzaneh

    2018-01-01

    In order to obtain a durable cost-effective membrane for membrane distillation (MD) process, flat sheet polyethersulfone (PES) membranes were modified by an atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasma generated using a dielectric barrier discharge in a mixture of argon and hexamethyldisiloxane as the organosilicon precursor. The surface properties of the plasma-modified membranes were characterized by water contact angle (CA), liquid entry pressure, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The water CA of the membrane was increased from 64° to 104° by depositing a Si(CH 3 )-rich thin layer. While the pristine PES membrane was not applicable in the MD process, the modified PES membrane could be applied for the first time in an air gap membrane distillation setup for the removal of benzene as a volatile organic compound from water. The experimental design using central composite design and response surface methodology was applied to study the effects of feed temperature, concentration, and flow rate as well as their binary interactions on the overall permeate flux and separation factor. The separation factor and permeation flux of the modified PES membrane at optimum conditions were comparable with those of commercial polytetrafluoroethylene membrane.

  19. Model of mouth-to-mouth transfer of bacterial lipoproteins through inner membrane LolC, periplasmic LolA, and outer membrane LolB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Suguru; Tokuda, Hajime

    2009-04-07

    Outer membrane-specific lipoproteins in Escherichia coli are released from the inner membrane by an ATP-binding cassette transporter, the LolCDE complex, which causes the formation of a soluble complex with a periplasmic molecular chaperone, LolA. LolA then transports lipoproteins to the outer membrane where an outer membrane receptor, LolB, incorporates lipoproteins into the outer membrane. The molecular mechanisms underlying the Lol-dependent lipoprotein sorting have been clarified in detail. However, it remained unclear how Lol factors interact with each other to conduct very efficient lipoprotein transfer in the periplasm where ATP is not available. To address this issue, a photo-reactive phenylalanine analogue, p-benzoyl-phenylalanine, was introduced at various positions of LolA and LolB, of which the overall structures are very similar and comprise an incomplete beta-barrel with a hydrophobic cavity inside. Cells expressing LolA or LolB derivatives containing the above analogue were irradiated with UV for in vivo photo-cross-linking. These analyses revealed a hot area in the same region of LolA and LolB, through which LolA and LolB interact with each other. This area is located at the entrance of the hydrophobic cavity. Moreover, this area in LolA is involved in the interaction with a membrane subunit, LolC, whereas no cross-linking occurs between LolA and the other membrane subunit, LolE, or ATP-binding subunit LolD, despite the structural similarity between LolC and LolE. The hydrophobic cavities of LolA and LolB were both found to bind lipoproteins inside. These results indicate that the transfer of lipoproteins through Lol proteins occurs in a mouth-to-mouth manner.

  20. Quantitative kinetic analysis of blood vessels in the outer membranes of chronic subdural hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kentaro; Adachi, Keiji; Cho, Kajin; Ishimaru, Sumio; Maeda, Minoru

    1998-01-01

    Dynamic biologic modeling was used to calculate the transfer rate constant for gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) and capillary permeability in the outer membrane of chronic subdural hematomas and effusions. Following intravenous Gd-DTPA injection, Gd concentrations in the subdural fluid and in timed arterial blood samples were measured by ion-coupled plasma emission spectrometry in 53 chronic subdural hematomas and 18 chronic subdural effusions. The capillary surface area in outer membrane was assessed morphometrically. Transfer rate constants for subdural hematomas and subdural effusions were 12.4±1.0 and 20.6±1.7 (x 10 -4 )min -1 , respectively. Capillary permeabilities for subdural hematomas and subdural effusions were 16±1.2 and 19±3.7 ml·min -1 (mm 2 /mm 3 ) -1 , respectively. The capillary surface areas for subdural hematomas and subdural effusions were 48±3 and 77±10 mm 2 /mm 3 , respectively. The high degree of infiltration of Gd into subdural effusions reflects the high capillary surface area in the outer membrane rather than greater permeability of individual capillaries. The value of transfer rate constant was correlated inversely with the duration of the chronic subdural fluid collection. Immature outer membrane has a high transfer rate constant which allows extravasation of plasma components into the subdural space, resulting in increasing volume of the subdural effusion. Delayed magnetic resonance imaging following Gd administration may be clinically useful for estimating the age of chronic subdural fluid accumulations. (author)

  1. Exploring the biophysical properties of phytosterols in the plasma membrane for novel cancer prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakih, Omar; Sanver, Didem; Kane, David; Thorne, James L

    2018-05-03

    Cancer is a global problem with no sign that incidences are reducing. The great costs associated with curing cancer, through developing novel treatments and applying patented therapies, is an increasing burden to developed and developing nations alike. These financial and societal problems will be alleviated by research efforts into prevention, or treatments that utilise off-patent or repurposed agents. Phytosterols are natural components of the diet found in an array of seeds, nuts and vegetables and have been added to several consumer food products for the management of cardio-vascular disease through their ability to lower LDL-cholesterol levels. In this review, we provide a connected view between the fields of structural biophysics and cellular and molecular biology to evaluate the growing evidence that phytosterols impair oncogenic pathways in a range of cancer types. The current state of understanding of how phytosterols alter the biophysical properties of plasma membrane is described, and the potential for phytosterols to be repurposed from cardio-vascular to oncology therapeutics. Through an overview of the types of biophysical and molecular biology experiments that have been performed to date, this review informs the reader of the molecular and biophysical mechanisms through which phytosterols could have anti-cancer properties via their interactions with the plasma cell membrane. We also outline emerging and under-explored areas such as computational modelling, improved biomimetic membranes and ex vivo tissue evaluation. Focus of future research in these areas should improve understanding, not just of phytosterols in cancer cell biology but also to give insights into the interaction between the plasma membrane and the genome. These fields are increasingly providing meaningful biological and clinical data but iterative experiments between molecular biology assays, biosynthetic membrane studies and computational membrane modelling improve and refine our

  2. Surface area loss and increased sphericity account for the splenic entrapment of subpopulations of Plasmodium falciparum ring-infected erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Safeukui

    Full Text Available Ex vivo perfusion of human spleens revealed innate retention of numerous cultured Plasmodium falciparum ring-infected red blood cells (ring-iRBCs. Ring-iRBC retention was confirmed by a microsphiltration device, a microbead-based technology that mimics the mechanical filtering function of the human spleen. However, the cellular alterations underpinning this retention remain unclear. Here, we use ImageStream technology to analyze infected RBCs' morphology and cell dimensions before and after fractionation with microsphiltration. Compared to fresh normal RBCs, the mean cell membrane surface area loss of trophozoite-iRBCs, ring-iRBCs and uninfected co-cultured RBCs (uRBCs was 14.2% (range: 8.3-21.9%, 9.6% (7.3-12.2% and 3.7% (0-8.4, respectively. Microsphilters retained 100%, ∼50% and 4% of trophozoite-iRBCs, ring-iRBCs and uRBCs, respectively. Retained ring-iRBCs display reduced surface area values (estimated mean, range: 17%, 15-18%, similar to the previously shown threshold of surface-deficient RBCs retention in the human spleen (surface area loss: >18%. By contrast, ring-iRBCs that successfully traversed microsphilters had minimal surface area loss and normal sphericity, suggesting that these parameters are determinants of their retention. To confirm this hypothesis, fresh normal RBCs were exposed to lysophosphatidylcholine to induce a controlled loss of surface area. This resulted in a dose-dependent retention in microsphilters, with complete retention occurring for RBCs displaying >14% surface area loss. Taken together, these data demonstrate that surface area loss and resultant increased sphericity drive ring-iRBC retention in microsphilters, and contribute to splenic entrapment of a subpopulation of ring-iRBCs. These findings trigger more interest in malaria research fields, including modeling of infection kinetics, estimation of parasite load, and analysis of risk factors for severe clinical forms. The determination of the threshold of

  3. Transport of Carbon Dioxide through a Biomimetic Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathios Matsaridis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetic membranes (BMM based on polymer filters impregnated with lipids or their analogues are widely applied in numerous areas of physics, biology, and medicine. In this paper we report the design and testing of an electrochemical system, which allows the investigation of CO2 transport through natural membranes such as alveoli barrier membrane system and also can be applied for solid-state measurements. The experimental setup comprises a specially designed two-compartment cell with BMM connected with an electrochemical workstation placed in a Faraday cage, two PH meters, and a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer. We prove, experimentally, that the CO2 transport through the natural membranes under different conditions depends on pH and displays a similar behavior as natural membranes. The influence of different drugs on the CO2 transport process through such membranes is discussed.

  4. Membrane Transfer Phenomena (MTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Larry

    1996-01-01

    Progress has been made in several areas of the definition, design, and development of the Membrane Transport Apparatus (MTA) instrument and associated sensors and systems. Progress is also reported in the development of software modules for instrument control, experimental image and data acquisition, and data analysis.

  5. Modeling of air-gap membrane distillation process: A theoretical and experimental study

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem

    2013-06-03

    A one dimensional (1-D) air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) model for flat sheet type modules has been developed. This model is based on mathematical equations that describe the heat and mass transfer mechanisms of a single-stage AGMD process. It can simulate AGMD modules in both co-current and counter-current flow regimes. The theoretical model was validated using AGMD experimental data obtained under different operating conditions and parameters. The predicted water vapor flux was compared to the flux measured at five different feed water temperatures, two different feed water salinities, three different air gap widths and two MD membranes with different average pore sizes. This comparison showed that the model flux predictions are strongly correlated with the experimental data, with model predictions being within +10% of the experimentally determined values. The model was then used to study and analyze the parameters that have significant effect on scaling-up the AGMD process such as the effect of increasing the membrane length, and feed and coolant flow rates. The model was also used to analyze the maximum thermal efficiency of the AGMD process by tracing changes in water production rate and the heat input to the process along the membrane length. This was used to understand the gain in both process production and thermal efficiency for different membrane surface areas and the resultant increases in process capital and water unit cost. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Comparative Efficacies of a 3D-Printed PCL/PLGA/β-TCP Membrane and a Titanium Membrane for Guided Bone Regeneration in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyung Shim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a 3D-printed resorbable polycaprolactone/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid/β-tricalcium phosphate (PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membrane on bone regeneration and osseointegration in areas surrounding implants and to compare results with those of a non-resorbable titanium mesh membrane. After preparation of PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membranes using extrusion-based 3D printing technology; mechanical tensile testing and in vitro cell proliferation testing were performed. Implant surgery and guided bone regeneration were performed randomly in three groups (a no membrane group, a titanium membrane group, and a PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membrane group (n = 8 per group. Histological and histometric analyses were conducted to evaluate effects on bone regeneration and osseointegration. Using the results of mechanical testing; a PCL/PLGA/β-TCP ratio of 2:6:2 was selected. The new bone areas (% in buccal defects around implants were highest in the PCL/PLGA/β-TCP group and significantly higher than in the control group (p < 0.05. Bone-to-implant contact ratios (% were also significantly higher in the PCL/PLGA/β-TCP and titanium groups than in the control group (p < 0.05. When the guided bone regeneration procedure was performed using the PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membrane; new bone formation around the implant and osseointegration were not inferior to those of the non-resorbable pre-formed titanium mesh membrane.

  7. Robust performance of a membrane bioreactor for removing antibiotic resistance genes exposed to antibiotics: Role of membrane foulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yijing; Wang, Yayi; Zhou, Shuai; Jiang, Xuxin; Ma, Xiao; Liu, Chao

    2018-03-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are an emerging concern in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), as dissemination of ARGs can pose a serious risk to human health. Few studies, however, have quantified ARGs in membrane bioreactors (MBRs), although MBRs have been widely used for both municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. To reveal the capacity of MBRs for removal of ARGs and the response of membrane fouling after antibiotic exposure, five typical ARG subtypes (sulI, sulII, tetC, tetX and ereA) and int1 were quantified affiliated by systematic membrane foulants analysis in a laboratory-scale anoxic/aerobic membrane bioreactor (A/O-MBR). Sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline hydrochloride additions increased ARG abundances by 0.5-1.4 orders of magnitude in the activated sludge, while the ARG removal performance of the membrane module remained stable (or even increased with ARG absolute abundance in several cases), with the abundance of removed ARGs ranging from 0.6 to 5.6 orders of magnitude. Specifically, the distribution of ARGs in membrane foulants accounted for 13%-25% of the total absolute abundance of all tested MBR samples. Indeed, substantial fouling occurred after the antibiotic additions, with the mean concentrations of soluble microbial product (SMP) and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) increasing by 340% and 220%, respectively, in a membrane fouling cycle; moreover, the contents of EPS and SMP in the membrane foulants were significantly correlated with the ARG absolute abundance of membrane foulants (p removal of ARGs in MBR systems, and highlight the contribution of membrane fouling to ARG removals in terms of the potential of MBR as an effective strategy to reduce ARG levels in WWTP effluent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of silica RO membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Ayumi; Kawamoto, Takashi; Matsuyama, Emi; Utsumi, Keisuke; Nomura, Mikihiro; Sugimoto, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Masato

    2012-01-01

    Silica based membranes have been developed by using a counter diffusion CVD method. Effects of alkyl groups in the silica precursors and deposition temperatures had investigated in order to control pore sizes of the silica membranes. In this study, this type of a silica membrane was applied for RO separation. Effects of silica sources, deposition temperatures and post treatments had been investigated. Tetramethoxysilane (TMOS), Ethyltrimethoxysilane (ETMOS) and Phenyltrimethoxysilane (PhTMOS) were used as silica precursors. A counter diffusion CVD method was carried out for 90 min at 270 - 600degC on γ-alumina capillary substrates (effective length: 50 mm, φ: 4 nm: NOK Co.). O 3 or O 2 was introduced into the inside of the substrate at the O 2 rate of 0.2 L min -1 . Ion beam irradiation was carried out for a post treatment using Os at 490 MeV for 1.0 x 10 10 ions cm -2 or 3.0 x 10 10 ions cm -2 . Single gas permeance was measured by using H 2 , N 2 and SF 6 . RO tests were employed at 3.0 or 5.4 MPa for 100 mg L -1 of feed NaCl solution. First, effects of the silica sources were investigated. The total fluxes increased by increasing N 2 permeance through the silica membrane deposited by ETMOS. The maximum NaCl rejection was 28.2% at 12.2 kg m -2 h -1 of the total flux through the membrane deposited at 270degC. N 2 permeance was 9.6 x 10 -9 mol m -2 s -1 Pa -1 . While, total fluxes through the membrane deposited by using PhTMOS were smaller than those through the ETMOS membranes. The phenyl groups for the PhTMOS membrane must be important for the hydrophobic properties through the membrane. Next, effects of ion beam irradiation were tested for the TMOS membranes. Water is difficult to permeate through the TMOS membranes due to the low N 2 permeance through the membrane (3.1 x 10 -11 mol m -2 s -1 Pa -1 ). N 2 permeance increased to 7.3 x 10 -9 mol m -2 s -1 Pa -1 by the irradiation. Irradiation amounts had little effects on N 2 permeance. However, NaCl rejections

  9. Tat proteins as novel thylakoid membrane anchors organize a biosynthetic pathway in chloroplasts and increase product yield 5-fold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriques de Jesus, Maria Perestrello Ramos; Nielsen, Agnieszka Janina Zygadlo; Mellor, Silas Busck

    2017-01-01

    to their complex structures. Some of the crucial enzymes catalyzing their biosynthesis are the cytochromes P450 (P450s) situated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), powered by electron transfers from NADPH. Dhurrin is a cyanogenic glucoside and its biosynthesis involves a dynamic metabolon formed by two P450s....... Nevertheless, translocation of the pathway from the ER to the chloroplast creates other difficulties, such as the loss of metabolon formation and intermediate diversion into other metabolic pathways. We show here that co-localization of these enzymes in the thylakoid membrane leads to a significant increase...... in product formation, with a concomitant decrease in off-pathway intermediates. This was achieved by exchanging the membrane anchors of the dhurrin pathway enzymes to components of the Twin-arginine translocation pathway, TatB and TatC, which have self-assembly properties. Consequently, we show 5-fold...

  10. Polysulfone - CNT composite membrane with enhanced water permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, Bhakti; Kar, Soumitra; Aswal, V. K.; Bindal, R. C.; Goyal, P. S.

    2018-04-01

    Polymeric membranes are routinely used for water purification. The performance of these conventional membranes can be improved by incorporating nanomaterials, such as metal oxide nanoparticle and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). This manuscript reports the synthesis and characterization of polysulfone (Psf) based nanocomposite membranes where multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and oleic acid coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles have been impregnated onto the polymeric host matrix. The performance of the membranes was evaluated by water permeability and solute rejection measurements. It was observed that the permeability of Psf membrane increases three times at 0.1% loading of MWCNT without compromise in selectivity. It was further observed that the increase in permeability is not affected upon addition of Fe3O4 nanoparticles into the membrane. In order to get a better insight into the membrane microstructure, small angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies were carried out. There is a good correlation between the water permeability and the pore sizes of the membranes as measured using SANS.

  11. Superdiffusive motion of membrane-targeting C2 domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnola, Grace; Nepal, Kanti; Schroder, Bryce W.; Peersen, Olve B.; Krapf, Diego

    2015-12-01

    Membrane-targeting domains play crucial roles in the recruitment of signalling molecules to the plasma membrane. For most peripheral proteins, the protein-to-membrane interaction is transient. After proteins dissociate from the membrane they have been observed to rebind following brief excursions in the bulk solution. Such membrane hops can have broad implications for the efficiency of reactions on membranes. We study the diffusion of membrane-targeting C2 domains using single-molecule tracking in supported lipid bilayers. The ensemble-averaged mean square displacement (MSD) exhibits superdiffusive behaviour. However, traditional time-averaged MSD analysis of individual trajectories remains linear and does not reveal superdiffusion. Our observations are explained in terms of bulk excursions that introduce jumps with a heavy-tail distribution. These hopping events allow proteins to explore large areas in a short time. The experimental results are shown to be consistent with analytical models of bulk-mediated diffusion and numerical simulations.

  12. Membrane contactors for CO2 capture processes - critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogalska, Adrianna; Trojanowska, Anna; Garcia-Valls, Ricard

    2017-07-01

    The use of membrane contactor in industrial processes is wide, and lately it started to be used in CO2 capture process mainly for gas purification or to reduce the emission. Use of the membrane contactor provides high contact surface area so the size of the absorber unit significantly decreases, which is an important factor for commercialization. The research has been caried out regarding the use of novel materials for the membrane production and absorbent solution improvements. The present review reveals the progress in membrane contactor systems for CO2 capture processes concerning solution for ceramic membrane wetting, comparison study of different polymers used for fabrication and methods of enzyme immobilization for biocomposite membrane. Also information about variety of absorbent solutions is described.

  13. Epoxides cross-linked hexafluoropropylidene polybenzimidazole membranes for application as high temperature proton exchange membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jingshuai; Xu, Yixin; Liu, Peipei; Gao, Liping; Che, Quantong; He, Ronghuan

    2015-01-01

    Covalently cross-linked hexafluoropropylidene polybenzimidazole (F 6 PBI) was prepared and used to fabricate high temperature proton exchange membranes with enhanced mechanical strength against thermoplastic distortion. Three different epoxides, i.e. bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (R 1 ), bisphenol A propoxylate diglycidyl ether (R 2 ) and poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (R 3 ), were chosen as the cross-linkers to investigate the influence of their structures on the properties of the cross-linked F 6 PBI membranes. All the cross-linked F 6 PBI membranes displayed excellent stability towards the radical oxidation. Comparing with the pure F 6 PBI membrane, the cross-linked F 6 PBI membranes showed high acid doping level but less swelling after doping phosphoric acid at elevated temperatures. The mechanical strength at 130 °C was improved from 0.4 MPa for F 6 PBI membrane to a range of 0.8–2.0 MPa for the cross-linked F 6 PBI membranes with an acid doping level as high as around 14, especially for that crosslinking with the epoxide (R 3 ), which has a long linear structure of alkyl ether. The proton conductivity of the cross-linked membranes was increased accordingly due to the high acid doping levels. Fuel cell tests demonstrated the technical feasibility of the acid doped cross-linked F 6 PBI membranes for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

  14. A membrane stirrer for product recovery and substrate feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femmer, T; Carstensen, F; Wessling, M

    2015-02-01

    During fermentation processes, in situ product recovery (ISPR) using submerged membranes allows a continuous operation mode with effective product removal. Continuous recovery reduces product inhibition and organisms in the reactor are not exposed to changing reaction conditions. For an effective in situ product removal, submerged membrane systems should have a sufficient large membrane area and an anti-fouling concept integrated in a compact device for the limited space in a lab-scale bioreactor. We present a new membrane stirrer with integrated filtration membranes on the impeller blades as well as an integrated gassing concept in an all-in-one device. The stirrer is fabricated by rapid prototyping and is equipped with a commercial micromesh membrane. Filtration performance is tested using a yeast cell suspension with different stirring speeds and aeration fluxes. We reduce membrane fouling by backflushing through the membrane with the product stream. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Optimizing aeration rates for minimizing membrane fouling and its effect on sludge characteristics in a moving bed membrane bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, Yousef; Torabian, Ali; Mehrdadi, Naser; Habibi-Rezaie, Mehran; Pezeshk, Hamid; Nabi-Bidhendi, Gholam-Reza

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → There is an optimum aeration rate in the MBMBR process compartments. → Optimum aeration rate maximizes nutrients removal. → Optimum aeration rate minimizes membrane fouling. → Both aeration rates in MBBR and membrane compartment can affect on membrane permeability. - Abstract: In MBR processes, sufficient aeration is necessary to maintain sustainable flux and to retard membrane fouling. Membrane permeability, sludge characteristics, nutrient removal and biomass growth at various air flow rates in the membrane and moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) compartments were studied in a pilot plant. The highest nitrogen and phosphorous removal rates were found at MBBR aeration rates of 151 and 85 L h -1 and a specific aeration demand per membrane area (SAD m ) of 1.2 and 0.4m air 3 m -2 h -1 , respectively. A linear correlation was found between the amount of attached biofilm and the nutrient removal rate. The aeration rate in the MBBR compartment and SAD m significantly influenced the sludge characteristics and membrane permeability. The optimum combination of the aeration rate in the MBBR compartment and SAD m were 151 L h -1 and 0.8-1.2m air 3 m membrane -2 h -1 , respectively.

  16. Optimizing aeration rates for minimizing membrane fouling and its effect on sludge characteristics in a moving bed membrane bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, Yousef, E-mail: yrahimi@ut.ac.ir [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, No. 25 Qods St., Enghelab Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Torabian, Ali, E-mail: atorabi@ut.ac.ir [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, No. 25 Qods St., Enghelab Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehrdadi, Naser, E-mail: mehrdadi@ut.ac.ir [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, No. 25 Qods St., Enghelab Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Habibi-Rezaie, Mehran, E-mail: mhabibi@khayam.ut.ac.ir [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, College of Science, University of Tehran, No. 25 Qods St., Enghelab Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pezeshk, Hamid, E-mail: pezeshk@khayam.ut.ac.ir [Department of Statistics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer, College of Science, University of Tehran, No. 25 Qods St., Enghelab Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nabi-Bidhendi, Gholam-Reza, E-mail: ghhendi@ut.ac.ir [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, No. 25 Qods St., Enghelab Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-28

    Research highlights: {yields} There is an optimum aeration rate in the MBMBR process compartments. {yields} Optimum aeration rate maximizes nutrients removal. {yields} Optimum aeration rate minimizes membrane fouling. {yields} Both aeration rates in MBBR and membrane compartment can affect on membrane permeability. - Abstract: In MBR processes, sufficient aeration is necessary to maintain sustainable flux and to retard membrane fouling. Membrane permeability, sludge characteristics, nutrient removal and biomass growth at various air flow rates in the membrane and moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) compartments were studied in a pilot plant. The highest nitrogen and phosphorous removal rates were found at MBBR aeration rates of 151 and 85 L h{sup -1} and a specific aeration demand per membrane area (SAD{sub m}) of 1.2 and 0.4m{sub air}{sup 3} m{sup -2} h{sup -1}, respectively. A linear correlation was found between the amount of attached biofilm and the nutrient removal rate. The aeration rate in the MBBR compartment and SAD{sub m} significantly influenced the sludge characteristics and membrane permeability. The optimum combination of the aeration rate in the MBBR compartment and SAD{sub m} were 151 L h{sup -1} and 0.8-1.2m{sub air}{sup 3}m{sub membrane}{sup -2} h{sup -1}, respectively.

  17. Changing rooster sperm membranes to facilitate cryopreservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryopreservation damages rooster sperm membranes. Part of this damage is due to membrane transitioning from the fluid to the gel state as temperature is reduced. This damage may be prevented by increasing membrane fluidity at low temperatures by incorporating cholesterol or unsaturated lipids into t...

  18. Technical assessment of a micro-cogeneration system based on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell and fluidized bed autothermal reformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Marcoberardino, Gioele; Roses, Leonardo; Manzolini, Giampaolo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Performances of an ATR membrane reactor within a PEM FC micro-CHP system of 5 kWel. • Analysis of two different options for the H_2 permeate side: sweep and vacuum pump. • Optimization of operating conditions in terms of efficiency and membrane area. • Distribution of power and thermal consumptions and losses were discussed in detail. • A sensitivity analysis highlights the relevant design parameters of the CHP system. - Abstract: This work investigates the integration of an autothermal membrane reformer within a micro-CHP system of 5 kWel based on PEM fuel cell. The system modeled is based on a prototype developed within Reforcell European project. The optimization of the micro-CHP system is performed from a thermodynamic point of view aiming at the target of 40% of net electric efficiency and 90% of total system efficiency comparing different configuration and operating conditions. In particular, two hydrogen permeate side options as vacuum or sweep steam are evaluated together with different combination of feed temperature and pressures. A good compromise between electric efficiency (40%) and membrane surface area (0.3 m"2) was obtained for the sweep gas case at reaction side conditions of 8 bar, 600 °C and S/C of 2.5. Higher electric efficiency (40.5%) could be achieved by increasing the membrane surface area. The adoption of a vacuum pump simplifies the reactor design and manufacturing, but reduces the net electric efficiency by about 2% points with a membrane surface area of 0.15 m"2. Finally, the sensitivity analysis highlighted the influence of the main parameters and the design criteria for the definition of the CHP system.

  19. Cationic nanoparticles induce nanoscale disruption in living cell plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiumei; Hessler, Jessica A; Putchakayala, Krishna; Panama, Brian K; Khan, Damian P; Hong, Seungpyo; Mullen, Douglas G; Dimaggio, Stassi C; Som, Abhigyan; Tew, Gregory N; Lopatin, Anatoli N; Baker, James R; Holl, Mark M Banaszak; Orr, Bradford G

    2009-08-13

    It has long been recognized that cationic nanoparticles induce cell membrane permeability. Recently, it has been found that cationic nanoparticles induce the formation and/or growth of nanoscale holes in supported lipid bilayers. In this paper, we show that noncytotoxic concentrations of cationic nanoparticles induce 30-2000 pA currents in 293A (human embryonic kidney) and KB (human epidermoid carcinoma) cells, consistent with a nanoscale defect such as a single hole or group of holes in the cell membrane ranging from 1 to 350 nm(2) in total area. Other forms of nanoscale defects, including the nanoparticle porating agents adsorbing onto or intercalating into the lipid bilayer, are also consistent; although the size of the defect must increase to account for any reduction in ion conduction, as compared to a water channel. An individual defect forming event takes 1-100 ms, while membrane resealing may occur over tens of seconds. Patch-clamp data provide direct evidence for the formation of nanoscale defects in living cell membranes. The cationic polymer data are compared and contrasted with patch-clamp data obtained for an amphiphilic phenylene ethynylene antimicrobial oligomer (AMO-3), a small molecule that is proposed to make well-defined 3.4 nm holes in lipid bilayers. Here, we observe data that are consistent with AMO-3 making approximately 3 nm holes in living cell membranes.

  20. Proteolytic Enzymes Clustered in Specialized Plasma-Membrane Domains Drive Endothelial Cells' Migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Salamone

    Full Text Available In vitro cultured endothelial cells forming a continuous monolayer establish stable cell-cell contacts and acquire a "resting" phenotype; on the other hand, when growing in sparse conditions these cells acquire a migratory phenotype and invade the empty area of the culture. Culturing cells in different conditions, we compared expression and clustering of proteolytic enzymes in cells having migratory versus stationary behavior. In order to observe resting and migrating cells in the same microscopic field, a continuous cell monolayer was wounded. Increased expression of proteolytic enzymes was evident in cell membranes of migrating cells especially at sprouting sites and in shed membrane vesicles. Gelatin zymography and western blotting analyses confirmed that in migrating cells, expression of membrane-bound and of vesicle-associated proteolytic enzymes are increased. The enzymes concerned include MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, seprase, DPP4 (DiPeptidyl Peptidase 4 and uPA. Shed membrane vesicles were shown to exert degradative activity on ECM components and produce substrates facilitating cell migration. Vesicles shed by migrating cells degraded ECM components at an increased rate; as a result their effect on cell migration was amplified. Inhibiting either Matrix Metallo Proteases (MMPs or Serine Integral Membrane Peptidases (SIMPs caused a decrease in the stimulatory effect of vesicles, inhibiting the spontaneous migratory activity of cells; a similar result was also obtained when a monoclonal antibody acting on DPP4 was tested. We conclude that proteolytic enzymes have a synergistic stimulatory effect on cell migration and that their clustering probably facilitates the proteolytic activation cascades needed to produce maximal degradative activity on cell substrates during the angiogenic process.

  1. Proteolytic Enzymes Clustered in Specialized Plasma-Membrane Domains Drive Endothelial Cells' Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Monica; Carfì Pavia, Francesco; Ghersi, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    In vitro cultured endothelial cells forming a continuous monolayer establish stable cell-cell contacts and acquire a "resting" phenotype; on the other hand, when growing in sparse conditions these cells acquire a migratory phenotype and invade the empty area of the culture. Culturing cells in different conditions, we compared expression and clustering of proteolytic enzymes in cells having migratory versus stationary behavior. In order to observe resting and migrating cells in the same microscopic field, a continuous cell monolayer was wounded. Increased expression of proteolytic enzymes was evident in cell membranes of migrating cells especially at sprouting sites and in shed membrane vesicles. Gelatin zymography and western blotting analyses confirmed that in migrating cells, expression of membrane-bound and of vesicle-associated proteolytic enzymes are increased. The enzymes concerned include MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, seprase, DPP4 (DiPeptidyl Peptidase 4) and uPA. Shed membrane vesicles were shown to exert degradative activity on ECM components and produce substrates facilitating cell migration. Vesicles shed by migrating cells degraded ECM components at an increased rate; as a result their effect on cell migration was amplified. Inhibiting either Matrix Metallo Proteases (MMPs) or Serine Integral Membrane Peptidases (SIMPs) caused a decrease in the stimulatory effect of vesicles, inhibiting the spontaneous migratory activity of cells; a similar result was also obtained when a monoclonal antibody acting on DPP4 was tested. We conclude that proteolytic enzymes have a synergistic stimulatory effect on cell migration and that their clustering probably facilitates the proteolytic activation cascades needed to produce maximal degradative activity on cell substrates during the angiogenic process.

  2. Proteolytic Enzymes Clustered in Specialized Plasma-Membrane Domains Drive Endothelial Cells’ Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Monica; Carfì Pavia, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In vitro cultured endothelial cells forming a continuous monolayer establish stable cell-cell contacts and acquire a “resting” phenotype; on the other hand, when growing in sparse conditions these cells acquire a migratory phenotype and invade the empty area of the culture. Culturing cells in different conditions, we compared expression and clustering of proteolytic enzymes in cells having migratory versus stationary behavior. In order to observe resting and migrating cells in the same microscopic field, a continuous cell monolayer was wounded. Increased expression of proteolytic enzymes was evident in cell membranes of migrating cells especially at sprouting sites and in shed membrane vesicles. Gelatin zymography and western blotting analyses confirmed that in migrating cells, expression of membrane-bound and of vesicle-associated proteolytic enzymes are increased. The enzymes concerned include MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, seprase, DPP4 (DiPeptidyl Peptidase 4) and uPA. Shed membrane vesicles were shown to exert degradative activity on ECM components and produce substrates facilitating cell migration. Vesicles shed by migrating cells degraded ECM components at an increased rate; as a result their effect on cell migration was amplified. Inhibiting either Matrix Metallo Proteases (MMPs) or Serine Integral Membrane Peptidases (SIMPs) caused a decrease in the stimulatory effect of vesicles, inhibiting the spontaneous migratory activity of cells; a similar result was also obtained when a monoclonal antibody acting on DPP4 was tested. We conclude that proteolytic enzymes have a synergistic stimulatory effect on cell migration and that their clustering probably facilitates the proteolytic activation cascades needed to produce maximal degradative activity on cell substrates during the angiogenic process. PMID:27152413

  3. Comparison between moving bed-membrane bioreactor (MB-MBR) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems: influence of wastewater salinity variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Trapani, Daniele; Di Bella, Gaetano; Mannina, Giorgio; Torregrossa, Michele; Viviani, Gaspare

    2014-06-01

    Two pilot plant systems were investigated for the treatment of wastewater subject to a gradual increase of salinity. In particular, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and a moving bed biofilm membrane bioreactor (MB-MBR) were analyzed. Carbon and ammonium removal, kinetic constants and membranes fouling rates have been assessed. Both plants showed very high efficiency in terms of carbon and ammonium removal and the gradual salinity increase led to a good acclimation of the biomass, as confirmed by the respirometric tests. Significant biofilm detachments from carriers were experienced, which contributed to increase the irreversible superficial cake deposition. However, this aspect prevented the pore fouling tendency in the membrane module of MB-MBR system. On the contrary, the MBR pilot, even showing a lower irreversible cake deposition, was characterized by a higher pore fouling tendency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of polyvinylchloride and cellulose acetate blend membranes for desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendi, Ayman; Abdallah, Heba; Amin, Ashraf; Amin, Shereen Kamel

    2017-10-01

    The pollution of water resources, severe climate changes, rapid population growth, increasing agricultural demands, and rapid industrialization insist the development of innovative technologies for generating potable water. Polyvinylchloride/cellulose acetate (PVC/CA) membranes were prepared using phase inversion technique for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO). The membrane performance was investigated using Red Sea water (El-Ein El-Sokhna-Egypt). The membrane performance indicated that the prepared membranes were endowed to work under high pressure; increasing in feeding operating pressure led to increase permeate flux and rejection. Increasing feed operating pressure from zero to 40 bar led to increase in the salt rejection percent. Salt rejection percent reached to 99.99% at low feed concentration 5120 ppm and 99.95% for Red Sea water (38,528 ppm). The prepared membranes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry, and mechanical properties. SEM, FTIR and mechanical results were used to distinguish the best membrane for desalination. According to characterization results, one prepared membrane was selected to run performance test in desalination testing unit. The membrane (M3) showed excellent performance and stability under different operating conditions and during the durability test for 36 days.

  5. Vitreous membranes used in the biogas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega Viera, L.; Rodriguez Munoz, S.; Fernandez Santana, E.; Martines Ramirez, Y.; Crespo Artigas, A.; Viera Gallardo, Y.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work 10 vitreous membranes with different masses of zinc oxide (ZnO(s)) and particle diameters charcoal (DPC) are used in the purification of biogas. The porosity and tortuosity of the membranes is obtained, showing the variation with respect to the composition thereof. From these structural features specific flow of H 2 S(g) is obtained which is transferred using the Fick's diffusion equation in the membranes and its value increases with increasing mass of ZnO(s). By X-ray diffraction membrane made with 3.16 g of ZnO(s) forming zinc sulfide it is shown, so we can say that the removal of H 2 S(g) occurs by a process of absorption with chemical reaction in the membranes. (Author)

  6. Membrane Bioreactor (MBR Technology for Wastewater Treatment and Reclamation: Membrane Fouling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Terna Iorhemen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The membrane bioreactor (MBR has emerged as an efficient compact technology for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. The major drawback impeding wider application of MBRs is membrane fouling, which significantly reduces membrane performance and lifespan, resulting in a significant increase in maintenance and operating costs. Finding sustainable membrane fouling mitigation strategies in MBRs has been one of the main concerns over the last two decades. This paper provides an overview of membrane fouling and studies conducted to identify mitigating strategies for fouling in MBRs. Classes of foulants, including biofoulants, organic foulants and inorganic foulants, as well as factors influencing membrane fouling are outlined. Recent research attempts on fouling control, including addition of coagulants and adsorbents, combination of aerobic granulation with MBRs, introduction of granular materials with air scouring in the MBR tank, and quorum quenching are presented. The addition of coagulants and adsorbents shows a significant membrane fouling reduction, but further research is needed to establish optimum dosages of the various coagulants/adsorbents. Similarly, the integration of aerobic granulation with MBRs, which targets biofoulants and organic foulants, shows outstanding filtration performance and a significant reduction in fouling rate, as well as excellent nutrients removal. However, further research is needed on the enhancement of long-term granule integrity. Quorum quenching also offers a strong potential for fouling control, but pilot-scale testing is required to explore the feasibility of full-scale application.

  7. Gas separation performance of tapered cascade with membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masayoshi; Morisue, Tetsuo; Ozaki, Osamu; Miyauchi, Terukatsu.

    1978-01-01

    Membrane gas separation cascades are analyzed at steady state. The method of calculating the flow rate and concentration profiles in the cascade are examined, using formulas expressing the various membrane separation cell characteristics. The method adopted is applicable to relatively high concentrations and separation factors. Considerations are further given on the steady state performance of four theoretical forms of cascade: (a) with common value of cut for all stages, (b) with symmetric separation cells, (c) with no mixing at the junction at each stage, and (d) ideal cascade. The analysis showed that, with membrane cells, the ideal cascade would have a pressure ratio varying from stage to stage. The symmetric separation cascade would provide a separation performance lower than the ideal cascade on account of the mixing at the junctions of streams possessing different concentrations, whereas the cut and separation factor of the no-mixing cascade requiring minimum membrane area exhibits zig-zag curves when plotted against stage number. Both these circumstances contribute to the lower separation performance obtained with these two forms as compared with the ideal cascade, and results in larger total membrane area; but these semi-ideal forms retain the advantage of easy practical treatment with their pressure ratio common to all stages. (auth.)

  8. Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, W. S. Winston

    2012-10-02

    Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes are provided. The membranes can include at least one hydrophilic polymer, at least one cross-linking agent, at least one base, and at least one amino compound. The methods of separating gases using membranes can include contacting a gas stream containing at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl with one side of a nonporous and at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl selectively permeable membrane such that at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl is selectively transported through the membrane.

  9. Comparison of packed bed and fluidized bed membrane reactors for methane reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, F.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this work the performance of different membrane reactor concepts, both fluidized bed and packed bed membrane reactors, have been compared for the reforming of methane for the production of ultra-pure hydrogen. Using detailed theoretical models, the required membrane area to reach a given

  10. Integrated Water Gas Shift Membrane Reactors Utilizing Novel, Non Precious Metal Mixed Matrix Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraris, John P. [Univ. of Texas-Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2013-09-30

    Nanoparticles of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks and other related hybrid materials were prepared by modifying published synthesis procedures by introducing bases, changing stoichiometric ratios, or adjusting reaction conditions. These materials were stable at temperatures >300 °C and were compatible with the polymer matrices used to prepare mixed- matrix membranes (MMMs). MMMs tested at 300 °C exhibited a >30 fold increase in permeability, compared to those measured at 35 °C, while maintaining H2/CO2 selectivity. Measurements at high pressure (up to 30 atm) and high temperature (up to 300 °C) resulted in an increase in gas flux across the membrane with retention of selectivity. No variations in permeability were observed at high pressures at either 35 or 300 °C. CO2-induced plasticization was not observed for Matrimid®, VTEC, and PBI polymers or their MMMs at 30 atm and 300 °C. Membrane surface modification by cross-linking with ethanol diamine resulted in an increase in H2/CO2 selectivity at 35 °C. Spectrometric analysis showed that the cross-linking was effective to temperatures <150 °C. At higher temperatures, the cross-linked membranes exhibit a H2/CO2 selectivity similar to the uncross-linked polymer. Performance of the polybenzimidazole (PBI) hollow fibers prepared at Santa Fe Science and Technology (SFST, Inc.) showed increased flux and selectivity at 300 °C, which is comparable to a flat PBI membrane. A water-gas shift reactor has been built and currently being optimized for testing under DOE conditions.

  11. Amine-functionalized PVA-co-PE nanofibrous membrane as affinity membrane with high adsorption capacity for bilirubin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Zhifeng; Luo, Mengying; Wang, Yuedan; Liu, Qiongzhen; Chen, Yuanli; Li, Mufang; Wang, Dong

    2017-02-01

    In this study, poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (PVA-co-PE) nanofibrous membrane was activated by sodium hydroxide and cyanuric chloride, and then the activated membranes were functionalized by 1,3-propanediamine, hexamethylenediamine and diethylenetriamine to be affinity membranes for bilirubin removal, respectively. The chemical structures and morphologies of membranes were investigated by SEM, FTIR and XPS. And the adsorption ability of different amine-functionalized nanofibrous membranes for bilirubin was characterized. Furthermore, the effects of temperature, initial concentration of bilirubin, NaCl concentration and BSA concentration on the adsorption capacity for bilirubin of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane were studied. Results indicated that the adsorption capacity for bilirubin of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane could reach 85mg/g membrane when the initial bilirubin concentration was 200mg/L while the adsorption capacity could be increased to 110mg/g membrane if the initial bilirubin concentration was more than 400mg/L. The dynamic adsorption of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane showed that the ligands of amine groups on the membrane surface could be used as far as possible by recirculating the plasma with certain flow rates. Therefore, the diethylenetriamine-functionalized PVA-co-PE nanofibrous membrane possessed high adsorption capacity for bilirubin and it can be candidate as affinity membrane for bilirubin removal. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Amino-functionalized surface modification of polyacrylonitrile hollow fiber-supported polydimethylsiloxane membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Leiqing; Cheng, Jun, E-mail: juncheng@zju.edu.cn; Li, Yannan; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • Amino group was introduced to improve surface polarity of PDMS membrane. • The water contact angle of PDMS membrane decreased after the modification. • The concentration of N atom on surface of PDMS membrane reached up to ∼6%. • The density of PDMS membrane decreased while the swelling degree increased. • CO{sub 2} permeability increased while selectivity decreased after the modification. - Abstract: This study aimed to improve surface polarity of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes and provide surface active sites which were easy to react with other chemicals. 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) containing an amino group was introduced into a PDMS membrane by crosslinking to prepare polyacrylonitrile hollow fiber-supported PDMS membranes with an amino-functionalized surface. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses proved the existence of APTES and its amino group in the PDMS membrane. The concentration of N atoms on the PDMS membrane surface reached ∼6% when the mass ratio of APTES/PDMS oligomer in the PDMS coating solution was increased to 4/3. The water contact angle decreased from ∼114° to ∼87.5°, indicating the improved surface polarization of the PDMS membrane. The density and swelling degree of the PDMS membrane decreased and increased, respectively, with increasing APTES content in PDMS. This phenomenon increased CO{sub 2} permeability and decreased CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} selectivity, CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} selectivity, and CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. When the mass ratio of APTES/PDMS oligomer was increased from 0 to 4/3, the CO{sub 2} permeation rate of the hollow fiber-supported PDMS membranes initially decreased from ∼2370 GPU to ∼860 GPU and then increased to ∼2000 GPU due to the change in coating solution viscosity.

  13. Pedicle distraction increases intervertebral and spinal canal area in a cadaver and bone model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Matthew; Papadakos, Nikolaos; Bishop, Tim; Bernard, Jason

    2018-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis is degenerative narrowing of the spinal canal and/or intervertebral foramen causing compression of the spinal cord and nerve roots. Traditional decompression techniques can often cause significant trauma and vertebral instability. This paper evaluates a method of increasing pedicle length to decompress the spinal and intervertebral foramen, which could be done minimally invasive. Three Sawbone (Sawbones Europe, Sweden) and 1 cadaveric lumbar spine underwent bilateral pedicle distraction at L4. A pedicle channel was drilled between the superior articular process and transverse process into the vertebral body. The pedicles underwent osteotomy at the midpoint. Screws were inserted bilaterally and fixated distraction of 0 mm, 2 mm, 4 mm and 6 mm. CT images were taken at each level of distraction. Foramen area was measured in the sagittal plane at L3/4. Spinal canal area was measured at L4 in the axial images. The cadaver was used to evaluate safety of osteotomy and soft tissue interactions preventing distraction. Statistical analysis was by student paired t-test and Pearson rank test. Increasing distraction led to greater Spinal canal area. From 4.27 cm 2 to 5.72 cm 2 (p = 0.002) with 6 mm distraction. A Maximal increase of 34.1%. Vertebral foramen area also increased with increasing pedicle distraction. From 2.43 cm 2 to 3.22 cm 2 (p = 0.022) with 6 mm distraction. A maximal increase of 32.3%. The cadaver spinal canal increased in area by 21.7%. The vertebral foramen increased in area by 36.2% (left) and 22.6% (right). For each increase in pedicle distraction the area of the spinal and vertebral foramen increases. Pedicle distraction could potentially be used to alleviate spinal stenosis and root impingement. A potential osteotomy plane could be at the midpoint of the pedicle with minimal risk to nerve roots and soft tissue restrictions to prevent distraction. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2018.

  14. Performance of Hollow Fiber Membrane Gas-Liquid Contactors to Absorb CO2 Using Diethanolamine (Dea as a Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrasno Kartohardjono

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study uses DEA solution to absorb CO2 from the gas flow through the hollow fiber membrane contactors. This study aims to evaluate the performance of hollow fiber membrane contactors to absorb CO2 gas using DEA solution as solvent through mass transfer and hydrodynamics studies. The use of DEA solution is to reduce the mass transfer resistance in the liquid phase, and on the other side, the large contact area of the membrane surface can cover the disadvantage of membrane contactors; additional mass transfer resistance in the membrane phase. During experiments, CO2 feed flows through the fiber lumens, while the 0.01 M DEA solution flows in the shell side of membrane contactors. Experimental results show that the mass transfer coefficients and fluxes of CO2 increase with an increase in both water and DEA solution flow rates. Increasing the amount of fibers in the contactors will decrease the mass transfer and fluxes at the same DEA solution flow rate. Mass transfer coefficients and CO2 fluxes using DEA solution can achieve 28,000 and 7.6 million times greater than using water as solvent, respectively. Hydrodynamics studies show that the liquid pressure drops in the contactors increase with increasing liquid flow rate and number of fibers in the contactors. The friction between water and the fibers in the contactor was more pronounced at lower velocities, and therefore, the value of the friction factor is also higher at lower velocities.

  15. Importance of balancing membrane and electrode water in anion exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omasta, T. J.; Wang, L.; Peng, X.; Lewis, C. A.; Varcoe, J. R.; Mustain, W. E.

    2018-01-01

    Anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) offer several potential advantages over proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), most notably to overcome the cost barrier that has slowed the growth and large scale implementation of fuel cells for transportation. However, limitations in performance have held back AEMFCs, specifically in the areas of stability, carbonation, and maximum achievable current and power densities. In order for AEMFCs to contend with PEMFCs for market viability, it is necessary to realize a competitive cell performance. This work demonstrates a new benchmark for a H2/O2 AEMFC with a peak power density of 1.4 W cm-2 at 60 °C. This was accomplished by taking a more precise look at balancing necessary membrane hydration while preventing electrode flooding, which somewhat surprisingly can occur both at the anode and the cathode. Specifically, radiation-grafted ETFE-based anion exchange membranes and anion exchange ionomer powder, functionalized with benchmark benzyltrimethylammonium groups, were utilized to examine the effects of the following parameters on AEMFC performance: feed gas flow rate, the use of hydrophobic vs. hydrophilic gas diffusion layers, and gas feed dew points.

  16. The effectiveness of styrene-maleic acid (SMA) copolymers for solubilisation of integral membrane proteins from SMA-accessible and SMA-resistant membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swainsbury, David J K; Scheidelaar, Stefan; Foster, Nicholas; van Grondelle, Rienk; Killian, J Antoinette; Jones, Michael R

    2017-10-01

    Solubilisation of biological lipid bilayer membranes for analysis of their protein complement has traditionally been carried out using detergents, but there is increasing interest in the use of amphiphilic copolymers such as styrene maleic acid (SMA) for the solubilisation, purification and characterisation of integral membrane proteins in the form of protein/lipid nanodiscs. Here we survey the effectiveness of various commercially-available formulations of the SMA copolymer in solubilising Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction centres (RCs) from photosynthetic membranes. We find that formulations of SMA with a 2:1 or 3:1 ratio of styrene to maleic acid are almost as effective as detergent in solubilising RCs, with the best solubilisation by short chain variants (membranes was uniformly low, but could be increased through a variety of treatments to increase the lipid:protein ratio. However, proteins isolated from such membranes comprised clusters of complexes in small membrane patches rather than individual proteins. We conclude that short-chain 2:1 and 3:1 formulations of SMA are the most effective in solubilising integral membrane proteins, but that solubilisation efficiencies are strongly influenced by the size of the target protein and the density of packing of proteins in the membrane. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prophylactic transabdominal amnioinfusion in oligohydramnios for preterm premature rupture of membranes: increase of amniotic fluid index during latency period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzetti, G G; Ciavattini, A; De Cristofaro, F; La Marca, N; Arduini, D

    1997-01-01

    This study was designed to: (i) evaluate the effect of amnioinfusion on the latency period in patients with oligohydramnios for preterm premature rupture of membranes, and (ii) to investigate the relationship between changes in the amniotic fluid index and fetal heart rate short-term variability by computerized Hewlett-Packard cardiotocography, longitudinally estimated before and after prophylactic amnioinfusion. All singleton pregnancies with prolonged premature rupture of membranes after 25 weeks of gestation and seen at the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Ancona (Italy), between January 1994 and June 1995 were included in the study. Transabdominal amnioinfusion with 150-350 ml warmed normal saline (25-50 ml/min) was performed at weekly intervals. Amniotic fluid volume was assessed ultrasonographically by means of the four-quadrant technique on a weekly basis before and after each amnioinfusion, as well as the short-term variability by a Hewlett-Packard computerized cardiotocographic system. 18 women were enrolled and underwent prophylactic transabdominal amnioinfusion at weekly intervals until delivery. Eighteen controls, who did not undergo prophylactic amnioinfusion, were recruited from our 1992-1993 series and included in the study. The median interval between premature rupture of membranes and delivery was 3.0 weeks (range 1-8 weeks), with an average delivery age of 33.0 weeks (range 27-36 weeks). The latency period was significantly longer in patients who underwent prophylactic amnioinfusion (mean +/- SD, 4.1 +/- 1.7 weeks) than in controls(1.7 +/- 1.0 weeks; p amnioinfusion. A direct relationship was observed between the amniotic fluid index and short-term variability (linear regression analysis r = 0.54, p = 0.04). The mean values of fetal movements recorded by computerized tomography during the 20 min of observation significantly increased after amnioinfusion in comparison with those before it (2.6 +/- 0.9 and 0.9 +/- 0

  18. Sonication-induced Ostwald ripening of ZIF-8 nanoparticles and formation of ZIF-8/polymer composite membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Thompson, Joshua A.

    2012-08-01

    The effect of typical membrane processing conditions on the structure, interfacial morphology, and gas separation performance of MOF/polymer nanocomposite membranes is investigated. In particular, the ZIF-8/Matrimid® nanocomposite membrane system is examined, and it is shown that ultrasonication - a commonly employed particle dispersion method - induces significant changes in the shape, size distribution, and structure of ZIF-8 particles suspended in an organic solvent during membrane processing. Dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy reveal that ZIF-8 nanoparticles undergo substantial Ostwald ripening when subjected to high intensity ultrasonication as often required in the formation of MOF/polymer nanocomposite membranes. Other characterization techniques reveal that the ripened particles exhibit lower pore volumes and lower surface areas compared to the as-made material. ZIF-8/Matrimid® composite membranes fabricated using two sonication methods show significant differences in microstructure. Permeation measurements show significant enhancement in permeability of CO 2 and increased CO 2/CH 4 selectivity in membranes fabricated with high-intensity sonication. In contrast, composite membranes prepared with low-intensity sonication are found to be defective. A careful evaluation of MOF membrane processing conditions, as well as knowledge of the properties of the MOF material after these membrane processing steps, are necessary to develop reliable processing-structure-property relations for MOF-containing membranes. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The major basement membrane components localize to the chondrocyte pericellular matrix--a cartilage basement membrane equivalent?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Alexander J.; Nyström, Alexander; Hultenby, Kjell

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that articular cartilage chondrocytes are surrounded by the defining basement membrane proteins laminin, collagen type IV, nidogen and perlecan, and suggest that these form the functional equivalent of a basement membrane. We found by real-time PCR that mouse...... chondrocytes express these four cardinal components of basement membranes and demonstrated by immunohistochemistry that the proteins are present in bovine and mouse cartilage tissues and are deposited in a thin pericellular structure. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed high laminin concentration...... becomes less distinct, especially in areas of obvious mechanical attrition. Interestingly, individual laminin subunits were located in different zones of the cartilage, with laminin alpha1 showing preferential localization around a select population of superficial layer chondrocytes. We propose...

  20. Application of dynamic membranes in anaerobic membranes in anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erşahin, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) physically ensure biomass retention by the application of a membrane filtration process. With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs), the combination of membrane and anaerobic processes has received much attention and become

  1. Use of a Ceramic Membrane to Improve the Performance of Two-Separate-Phase Biocatalytic Membrane Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Giuseppe; Mazzei, Rosalinda; Wu, Zhentao; Li, Kang; Giorno, Lidietta

    2016-03-14

    Biocatalytic membrane reactors (BMR) combining reaction and separation within the same unit have many advantages over conventional reactor designs. Ceramic membranes are an attractive alternative to polymeric membranes in membrane biotechnology due to their high chemical, thermal and mechanical resistance. Another important use is their potential application in a biphasic membrane system, where support solvent resistance is highly needed. In this work, the preparation of asymmetric ceramic hollow fibre membranes and their use in a two-separate-phase biocatalytic membrane reactor will be described. The asymmetric ceramic hollow fibre membranes were prepared using a combined phase inversion and sintering technique. The prepared fibres were then used as support for lipase covalent immobilization in order to develop a two-separate-phase biocatalytic membrane reactor. A functionalization method was proposed in order to increase the density of the reactive hydroxyl groups on the surface of ceramic membranes, which were then amino-activated and treated with a crosslinker. The performance and the stability of the immobilized lipase were investigated as a function of the amount of the immobilized biocatalytst. Results showed that it is possible to immobilize lipase on a ceramic membrane without altering its catalytic performance (initial residual specific activity 93%), which remains constant after 6 reaction cycles.

  2. Use of a Ceramic Membrane to Improve the Performance of Two-Separate-Phase Biocatalytic Membrane Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ranieri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biocatalytic membrane reactors (BMR combining reaction and separation within the same unit have many advantages over conventional reactor designs. Ceramic membranes are an attractive alternative to polymeric membranes in membrane biotechnology due to their high chemical, thermal and mechanical resistance. Another important use is their potential application in a biphasic membrane system, where support solvent resistance is highly needed. In this work, the preparation of asymmetric ceramic hollow fibre membranes and their use in a two-separate-phase biocatalytic membrane reactor will be described. The asymmetric ceramic hollow fibre membranes were prepared using a combined phase inversion and sintering technique. The prepared fibres were then used as support for lipase covalent immobilization in order to develop a two-separate-phase biocatalytic membrane reactor. A functionalization method was proposed in order to increase the density of the reactive hydroxyl groups on the surface of ceramic membranes, which were then amino-activated and treated with a crosslinker. The performance and the stability of the immobilized lipase were investigated as a function of the amount of the immobilized biocatalytst. Results showed that it is possible to immobilize lipase on a ceramic membrane without altering its catalytic performance (initial residual specific activity 93%, which remains constant after 6 reaction cycles.

  3. Enhanced Performance of Polyurethane Hybrid Membranes for CO2 Separation by Incorporating Graphene Oxide: The Relationship between Membrane Performance and Morphology of Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Zhao, Li; Shen, Jiang-nan; Wu, Li-guang; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2015-07-07

    Polyurethane hybrid membranes containing graphene oxide (GO) with different morphologies were prepared by in situ polymerization. The separation of CO2/N2 gas mixtures was studied using these novel membranes. The results from the morphology characterization of GO samples indicated that the oxidation process in the improved Hummers method introduced oxygenated functional groups into graphite, making graphite powder exfoliate into GO nanosheets. The surface defects on the GO sheets increased when oxidation increased due to the introduction of more oxygenated functional groups. Both the increase in oxygenated functional groups on the GO surface and the decrease in the number of GO layers leads to a better distribution of GO in the polymer matrix, increasing thermal stability and gas separation performance of membranes. The addition of excess oxidant destroyed the structure of GO sheets and forms structural defects, which depressed the separation performance of membranes. The hybrid membranes containing well-distributed GO showed higher permeability and permeability selectivity for the CO2. The formation of GO aggregates in the hybrid membranes depressed the membrane performance at a high content of GO.

  4. EM Task 9 - Centrifugal membrane filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepan, Daniel J.; Stevens, Bradley G.; Hetland, Melanie D.

    1999-01-01

    The overall project consists of several integrated research phases related to the applicability, continued development, demonstration, and commercialization of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration process. Work performed during this reporting period consisted of Phase 2 evaluation of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration technology and Phase 3, Technology Partnering. During Phase 1 testing conducted at the EERC using the SpinTek ST-IIL unit operating on a surrogate tank waste, a solids cake developed on the membrane surface. The solids cake was observed where linear membrane velocities were less than 17.5 ft/s and reduced the unobstructed membrane surface area up to 25%, reducing overall filtration performance. The primary goal of the Phase 2 research effort was to enhance filtration performance through the development and testing of alternative turbulence promoter designs. The turbulence promoters were designed to generate a shear force across the entire membrane surface sufficient to maintain a self-cleaning membrane capability and improve filtration efficiency and long-term performance. Specific Phase 2 research activities included the following: System modifications to accommodate an 11-in.-diameter, two-disk rotating membrane assembly; Development and fabrication of alternative turbulence promoter designs; Testing and evaluation of the existing and alternative turbulence promoters under selected operating conditions using a statistically designed test matrix; and Data reduction and analysis; The objective of Phase 3 research was to demonstrate the effectiveness of SpinTek's centrifugal membrane filtration as a pretreatment to remove suspended solids from a liquid waste upstream of 3M's WWL cartridge technology for the selective removal of technetium (Tc)

  5. Salt Concentration Differences Alter Membrane Resistance in Reverse Electrodialysis Stacks

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2014-01-14

    Membrane ionic resistance is usually measured by immersing the membrane in a salt solution at a single, fixed concentration. While salt concentration is known to affect membrane resistance when the same concentration is used on both sides of the membrane, little is known about membrane resistance when the membrane is placed between solutions of different concentrations, such as in a reverse electrodialysis (RED) stack. Ionic resistance measurements obtained using Selemion CMV and AMV that separated sodium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate solutions of different concentrations were greater than those measured using only the high-concentration solution. Measured RED stack resistances showed good agreement with resistances calculated using an equivalent series resistance model, where the membranes accounted for 46% of the total stack resistance. The high area resistance of the membranes separating different salt concentration solutions has implications for modeling and optimizing membranes used in RED systems.

  6. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CERAMICS MICROFILTRATION MEMBRANE FOR WATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.T. Owoeye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic membranes are especially suitable for processes with high temperatures and harsh chemical environments or for processes where sterilizability of the membrane is important. The main objective of this work is to determine the evaluation of four different ceramic membranes with different material compositions. Ceramic disc type microfiltration membranes were fabricated by the mould and press method from different percentage compositions of clay, kaolin, sawdust and wood charcoal. The fabricated membranes were sintered at a temperature of 1100°C and characterized by an X-ray diffractometer and optical scanner. Compressibility tests and physical properties of the membranes were also examined. It was observed that, as the percentage composition of kaolin increased from 0 to 80% and the percentage composition of clay decreased from 80 to 0% respectively, the compressive stress of all the sample membranes increased, with an increase in compressive strain from 1.8 to 2.4. Sample A had the highest value of compressive stress from 1.8 to 2.2 compressive strain, but sample B had the highest value of compressive stress of 150MPa at a compressive strain of 2.4. Optical micrographs of all membranes showed the presence of uniformly distributed pores and no cracks were seen around them. It was concluded that, with increasing percentage of kaolin and decreasing percentage of clay, there was a decrease in porosity and water absorption, as well as a decrease in the mechanical properties of the fabricated membranes.

  7. Biofouling behavior and performance of forward osmosis membranes with bioinspired surface modification in osmotic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Cheng, Qianxun; Tian, Qing; Yang, Bo; Chen, Qianyuan

    2016-07-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) has received considerable interest for water and energy related applications in recent years. Biofouling behavior and performance of cellulose triacetate (CTA) forward osmosis membranes with bioinspired surface modification via polydopamine (PD) coating and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafting (PD-g-PEG) in a submerged osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) were investigated in this work. The modified membranes exhibited lower flux decline than the pristine one in OMBR, confirming that the bioinspired surface modification improved the antifouling ability of the CTA FO membrane. The result showed that the decline of membrane flux related to the increase of the salinity and MLSS concentration of the mixed liquid. It was concluded that the antifouling ability of modified membranes ascribed to the change of surface morphology in addition to the improvement of membrane hydrophilicity. The bioinspired surface modifications might improve the anti-adhesion for the biopolymers and biocake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biomimetic membranes for sensor and separation applications

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses the possibilities and challenges in mimicking biological membranes and creating membrane-based sensor and separation devices. It covers recent advances in developing biomimetic membranes for technological applications with a focus on the use of integral membrane protein mediated transport. It describes the fundamentals of biosensing as well as separation and shows how the two processes work together in biological systems. The book provides an overview of the current state of the art, points to areas that need further investigation and anticipates future directions in the field. Biomimetics is a truly cross-disciplinary approach and this is exemplified by the challenges in mimicking osmotic processes as they occur in nature using aquaporin protein water channels as central building blocks. In the development of a biomimetic sensor/separation technology, both channel and carrier proteins are important and examples of how these may be reconstituted and controlled in biomimetic membranes are ...

  9. Cross-sectional area of the murine aorta linearly increases with increasing core body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, A Colleen; Manders, Adam B; Cao, Amos A; Scheven, Ulrich M; Greve, Joan M

    2017-11-06

    The cardiovascular (CV) system plays a vital role in thermoregulation. To date, the response of core vasculature to increasing core temperature has not been adequately studied in vivo. Our objective was to non-invasively quantify the arterial response in murine models due to increases in body temperature, with a focus on core vessels of the torso and investigate whether responses were dependent on sex or age. Male and female, adult and aged mice were anaesthetised and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Data were acquired from the circle of Willis (CoW), heart, infrarenal aorta and peripheral arteries at core temperatures of 35, 36, 37 and 38 °C (±0.2 °C). Vessels in the CoW did not change. Ejection fraction decreased and cardiac output (CO) increased with increasing temperature in adult female mice. Cross-sectional area of the aorta increased significantly and linearly with temperature for all groups, but at a diminished rate for aged animals (p temperature are biologically important because they may affect conductive and convective heat transfer. Leveraging non-invasive methodology to quantify sex and age dependent vascular responses due to increasing core temperature could be combined with bioheat modelling in order to improve understanding of thermoregulation.

  10. Electric field-induced reorganization of two-component supported bilayer membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, J T; Boxer, S G; McConnell, H M

    1997-12-09

    Application of electric fields tangent to the plane of a confined patch of fluid bilayer membrane can create lateral concentration gradients of the lipids. A thermodynamic model of this steady-state behavior is developed for binary systems and tested with experiments in supported lipid bilayers. The model uses Flory's approximation for the entropy of mixing and allows for effects arising when the components have different molecular areas. In the special case of equal area molecules the concentration gradient reduces to a Fermi-Dirac distribution. The theory is extended to include effects from charged molecules in the membrane. Calculations show that surface charge on the supporting substrate substantially screens electrostatic interactions within the membrane. It also is shown that concentration profiles can be affected by other intermolecular interactions such as clustering. Qualitative agreement with this prediction is provided by comparing phosphatidylserine- and cardiolipin-containing membranes.

  11. Fabrication of asymmetric alumina membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firouzghalb, H.; Falamaki, C.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of SrO addition on the thermal stabilization of transition aluminas with the aim of producing membrane layers (supported and unsupported) has been investigated. Al 2 O 3 -x wt.% SrO composite powders (x = 1, 3, 5, 8) were synthesized by co-precipitation of the hydroxides from solutions of AlCl 3 and Sr(NO 3 ) 2 salts using NH 4 OH as a precipitating agent. Optimum SrO dopant concentration regarding the transition aluminas stabilization effect was determined to be 5 wt.% based on XRD analysis. STA analysis showed a 30 deg. C shift versus higher temperatures in the transformation of final transitional alumina (θ-Al 2 O 3 ) to stable alpha phase due to addition of 5 wt.% SrO. The mechanism of transition aluminas thermal stabilization as a result of SrO addition is thoroughly discussed. Unsupported alumina membranes were prepared by drying boehmite sols at 600, 800, 1000 and 1100 deg. C. The effect of calcination temperature on surface area, pore size distribution of unsupported membranes containing 5 wt.% SrO has been investigated. The microstructure of unsupported and supported membranes revealed quite different. Smaller grains in the supported layers were attributed to the interaction between support and membrane.

  12. The status of membrane bioreactor technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Simon

    2008-02-01

    In this article, the current status of membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for wastewater treatment is reviewed. Fundamental facets of the MBR process and membrane and process configurations are outlined and the advantages and disadvantages over conventional suspended growth-based biotreatment are briefly identified. Key process design and operating parameters are defined and their significance explained. The inter-relationships between these parameters are identified and their implications discussed, with particular reference to impacts on membrane surface fouling and channel clogging. In addition, current understanding of membrane surface fouling and identification of candidate foulants is appraised. Although much interest in this technology exists and its penetration of the market will probably increase significantly, there remains a lack of understanding of key process constraints such as membrane channel clogging, and of the science of membrane cleaning.

  13. Plasma membrane cholesterol level and agonist-induced internalization of δ-opioid receptors; colocalization study with intracellular membrane markers of Rab family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brejchova, Jana; Vosahlikova, Miroslava; Roubalova, Lenka; Parenti, Marco; Mauri, Mario; Chernyavskiy, Oleksandr; Svoboda, Petr

    2016-08-01

    Decrease of cholesterol level in plasma membrane of living HEK293 cells transiently expressing FLAG-δ-OR by β-cyclodextrin (β-CDX) resulted in a slight internalization of δ-OR. Massive internalization of δ-OR induced by specific agonist DADLE was diminished in cholesterol-depleted cells. These results suggest that agonist-induced internalization of δ-OR, which has been traditionally attributed exclusively to clathrin-mediated pathway, proceeds at least partially via membrane domains. Identification of internalized pools of FLAG-δ-OR by colocalization studies with proteins of Rab family indicated the decreased presence of receptors in early endosomes (Rab5), late endosomes and lysosomes (Rab7) and fast recycling vesicles (Rab4). Slow type of recycling (Rab11) was unchanged by cholesterol depletion. As expected, agonist-induced internalization of oxytocin receptors was totally suppressed in β-CDX-treated cells. Determination of average fluorescence lifetime of TMA-DPH, the polar derivative of hydrophobic membrane probe diphenylhexatriene, in live cells by FLIM indicated a significant alteration of the overall PM structure which may be interpreted as an increased "water-accessible space" within PM area. Data obtained by studies of HEK293 cells transiently expressing FLAG-δ-OR by "antibody feeding" method were extended by analysis of the effect of cholesterol depletion on distribution of FLAG-δ-OR in sucrose density gradients prepared from HEK293 cells stably expressing FLAG-δ-OR. Major part of FLAG-δ-OR was co-localized with plasma membrane marker Na,K-ATPase and β-CDX treatment resulted in shift of PM fragments containing both FLAG-δ-OR and Na,K-ATPase to higher density. Thus, the decrease in content of the major lipid constituent of PM resulted in increased density of resulting PM fragments.

  14. Confining Domains Lead to Reaction Bursts: Reaction Kinetics in the Plasma Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalay, Ziya; Fujiwara, Takahiro K.; Kusumi, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    Confinement of molecules in specific small volumes and areas within a cell is likely to be a general strategy that is developed during evolution for regulating the interactions and functions of biomolecules. The cellular plasma membrane, which is the outermost membrane that surrounds the entire cell, was considered to be a continuous two-dimensional liquid, but it is becoming clear that it consists of numerous nano-meso-scale domains with various lifetimes, such as raft domains and cytoskeleton-induced compartments, and membrane molecules are dynamically trapped in these domains. In this article, we give a theoretical account on the effects of molecular confinement on reversible bimolecular reactions in a partitioned surface such as the plasma membrane. By performing simulations based on a lattice-based model of diffusion and reaction, we found that in the presence of membrane partitioning, bimolecular reactions that occur in each compartment proceed in bursts during which the reaction rate is sharply and briefly increased even though the asymptotic reaction rate remains the same. We characterized the time between reaction bursts and the burst amplitude as a function of the model parameters, and discussed the biological significance of the reaction bursts in the presence of strong inhibitor activity. PMID:22479350

  15. Confining domains lead to reaction bursts: reaction kinetics in the plasma membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Kalay

    Full Text Available Confinement of molecules in specific small volumes and areas within a cell is likely to be a general strategy that is developed during evolution for regulating the interactions and functions of biomolecules. The cellular plasma membrane, which is the outermost membrane that surrounds the entire cell, was considered to be a continuous two-dimensional liquid, but it is becoming clear that it consists of numerous nano-meso-scale domains with various lifetimes, such as raft domains and cytoskeleton-induced compartments, and membrane molecules are dynamically trapped in these domains. In this article, we give a theoretical account on the effects of molecular confinement on reversible bimolecular reactions in a partitioned surface such as the plasma membrane. By performing simulations based on a lattice-based model of diffusion and reaction, we found that in the presence of membrane partitioning, bimolecular reactions that occur in each compartment proceed in bursts during which the reaction rate is sharply and briefly increased even though the asymptotic reaction rate remains the same. We characterized the time between reaction bursts and the burst amplitude as a function of the model parameters, and discussed the biological significance of the reaction bursts in the presence of strong inhibitor activity.

  16. Theoretical comparison of packed bed and fluidized bed membrane reactors for methane reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, F.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this theoretical work the performance of different membrane reactor concepts, both fluidized bed and packed bed membrane reactors, has been compared for ultra-pure hydrogen production via methane reforming. Using detailed theoretical models, the required membrane area to reach a given conversion

  17. Chloroquine Increases Glucose Uptake via Enhancing GLUT4 Translocation and Fusion with the Plasma Membrane in L6 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Chloroquine can induce an increase in the cellular uptake of glucose; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Methods: In this study, translocation of GLUT4 and intracellular Ca2+ changes were simultaneously observed by confocal microscope in L6 cells stably over-expressing IRAP-mOrange. The GLUT4 fusion with the plasma membrane (PM was traced using HA-GLUT4-GFP. Glucose uptake was measured using a cell-based glucose uptake assay. GLUT4 protein was detected by Western blotting and mRNA level was detected by RT-PCR. Results: We found that chloroquine induced significant increases in glucose uptake, glucose transporter GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane (GTPM, GLUT4 fusion with the PM, and intracellular Ca2+ in L6 muscle cells. Chloroquine-induced increases of GTPM and intracellular Ca2+ were inhibited by Gallein (Gβγ inhibitor and U73122 (PLC inhibitor. However, 2-APB (IP3R blocker only blocked the increase in intracellular Ca2+ but did not inhibit GTPM increase. These results indicate that chloroquine, via the Gβγ-PLC-IP3-IP3R pathway, induces elevation of Ca2+, and this Ca2+ increase does not play a role in chloroqui-ne-evoked GTPM increase. However, GLUT4 fusion with the PM and glucose uptake were significantly inhibited with BAPTA-AM. This suggests that Ca2+ enhances GLUT4 fusion with the PM resulting in glucose uptake increase. Conclusion: Our data indicate that chloroquine via Gβγ-PLC-IP3-IP3R induces Ca2+ elevation, which in turn promotes GLUT4 fusion with the PM. Moreover, chloroquine can enhance GLUT4 trafficking to the PM. These mechanisms eventually result in glucose uptake increase in control and insulin-resistant L6 cells. These findings suggest that chloroquine might be a potential drug for improving insulin tolerance in diabetic patients.

  18. Ultrapermeable, reverse-selective nanocomposite membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, T C; Freeman, B D; Spontak, R J; He, Z; Pinnau, I; Meakin, P; Hill, A J

    2002-04-19

    Polymer nanocomposites continue to receive tremendous attention for application in areas such as microelectronics, organic batteries, optics, and catalysis. We have discovered that physical dispersion of nonporous, nanoscale, fumed silica particles in glassy amorphous poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) simultaneously and surprisingly enhances both membrane permeability and selectivity for large organic molecules over small permanent gases. These highly unusual property enhancements, in contrast to results obtained in conventional filled polymer systems, reflect fumed silica-induced disruption of polymer chain packing and an accompanying subtle increase in the size of free volume elements through which molecular transport occurs, as discerned by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. Such nanoscale hybridization represents an innovative means to tune the separation properties of glassy polymeric media through systematic manipulation of molecular packing.

  19. Membrane Assisted Enzyme Fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Linfeng

    to the variation in size of the proteins and a reasonable separation factor can be observed only when the size difference is in the order of 10 or more. This is partly caused by concentration polarization and membrane fouling which hinders an effective separation of the proteins. Application of an electric field...... across the porous membrane has been demonstrated to be an effective way to reduce concentration polarization and membrane fouling. In addition, this technique can also be used to separate the proteins based on difference in charge, which to some extent overcome the limitations of size difference...... of proteins on the basis of their charge, degree of hydrophobicity, affinity or size. Adequate purity is often not achieved unless several purification steps are combined thereby increasing cost and reducing product yield. Conventional fractionation of proteins using ultrafiltration membranes is limited...

  20. The tension of framed membranes from computer simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamkens, Daniel; Jeppesen, Claus; Ipsen, John H.

    2018-01-01

    the membranes display power-law characteristics for the equation of state, while higher tension levels includes both an extended linear (elastic) as well as a highly non-linear stretching regime. For semi-flexible membranes a transition from extended to buckled conformations takes place at negative frame......Abstract.: We have analyzed the behavior of a randomly triangulated, self-avoiding surface model of a flexible, fluid membrane subject to a circular boundary by Wang-Landau Monte Carlo computer simulation techniques. The dependence of the canonical free energy and frame tension on the frame area...... is obtained for flexible membranes. It is shown that for low bending rigidities the framed membrane is only stable above a threshold tension, suggesting a discontinuous transition from the collapsed (branched polymer) state to a finite tension extended state. In a tension range above this threshold tension...

  1. Hydrogen Selective Exfoliated Zeolite Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsapatsis, Michael [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Daoutidis, Prodromos [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Elyassi, Bahman [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Lima, Fernando [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Iyer, Aparna [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Agrawal, Kumar [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Sabnis, Sanket [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

    2015-04-06

    in terms of performance and economic aspects of the plants. Specifically, simulation and design optimization studies were performed using the developed stand-alone membrane reactor models to identify the membrane selectivity and permeance characteristics necessary to achieve desired targets of CO2 capture and H2 recovery, as well as guide the selection of the optimal reactor design that minimizes the membrane cost as a function of its surface area required. The isothermal membrane reactor model was also integrated into IGCC system models using both the MATLAB and Aspen software platforms and techno-economic analyses of the integrated plants have been carried out to evaluate the feasibility of replacing current technologies for pre-combustion capture by the proposed novel approach in terms of satisfying stream constraints and achieving the DOE target goal of 90% CO2 capture. The results of the performed analyses based on present value of annuity calculations showed break even costs for the membrane reactor within the feasible range for membrane fabrication. However, the predicted membrane performance used in these simulations exceeded the performance achieved experimentally. Therefore, further work is required to improve membrane performance.

  2. Membrane treatment of liquid wastes from radiological decontamination operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svittsov, A A; Khubetsov, S B; Volchek, K

    2011-01-01

    The paper focuses on the evaluation of membrane filtration for the treatment of liquid radioactive streams generated in area decontamination operations. In this work, semi-permeable membranes were demonstrated to be effective reducing the volume of wastewater containing cesium and cobalt by two orders of a magnitude. The efficiency of membrane separation was enhanced by employing additives that enlarged the size of target radionuclide species and improved their rejection by the membranes. This was achieved by chelation with synthetic water-soluble polymers and by adsorption on micro particles of adsorbent coupled with micelle formation. The effect of wastewater composition and that of the radionuclide-binding additives on the volume reduction was investigated. Membrane treatment is expected to help simplify further processing and decrease disposal costs.

  3. Increased activation in Broca's area after cognitive remediation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianin, Pascal; Urben, Sébastien; Magistretti, Pierre; Marquet, Pierre; Fornari, Eleonora; Jaugey, Laure

    2014-03-30

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure changes in cerebral activity in patients with schizophrenia after participation in the Cognitive Remediation Program for Schizophrenia and other related disorders (RECOS). As RECOS therapists make use of problem-solving and verbal mediation techniques, known to be beneficial in the rehabilitation of dysexecutive syndromes, we expected an increased activation of frontal areas after remediation. Executive functioning and cerebral activation during a covert verbal fluency task were measured in eight patients with schizophrenia before (T1) and after (T2) 14 weeks of RECOS therapy. The same measures were recorded in eight patients with schizophrenia who did not participate in RECOS at the same intervals of time (TAU group). Increased activation in Broca's area, as well as improvements in performance of executive/frontal tasks, was observed after cognitive training. Metacognitive techniques of verbalization are hypothesized to be the main factor underlying the brain changes observed in the present study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantitative measurement and visualization of biofilm O 2 consumption rates in membrane filtration systems

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, Emmanuelle I E C

    2012-03-01

    There is a strong need for techniques enabling direct assessment of biological activity of biofouling in membrane filtration systems. Here we present a new quantitative and non-destructive method for mapping O 2 dynamics in biofilms during biofouling studies in membrane fouling simulators (MFS). Transparent planar O 2 optodes in combination with a luminescence lifetime imaging system were used to map the two-dimensional distribution of O 2 concentrations and consumption rates inside the MFS. The O 2 distribution was indicative for biofilm development. Biofilm activity was characterized by imaging of O 2 consumption rates, where low and high activity areas could be clearly distinguished. The spatial development of O 2 consumption rates, flow channels and stagnant areas could be determined. This can be used for studies on concentration polarization, i.e. salt accumulation at the membrane surface resulting in increased salt passage and reduced water flux. The new optode-based O 2 imaging technique applied to MFS allows non-destructive and spatially resolved quantitative biological activity measurements (BAM) for on-site biofouling diagnosis and laboratory studies. The following set of complementary tools is now available to study development and control of biofouling in membrane systems: (i) MFS, (ii) sensitive pressure drop measurement, (iii) magnetic resonance imaging, (iv) numerical modelling, and (v) biological activity measurement based on O 2 imaging methodology. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Comparison of Polytetrafluoroethylene Flat-Sheet Membranes with Different Pore Sizes in Application to Submerged Membrane Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Motoori

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on phase separation of activated sludge mixed liquor by flat-sheet membranes of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE. A 20 liter working volume lab-scale MBR incorporating immersed PTFE flat-sheet membrane modules with different pore sizes (0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 μm was operated for 19 days treating a synthetic wastewater. The experiment was interrupted twice at days 5 and 13 when the modules were removed and cleaned physically and chemically in sequence. The pure water permeate flux of each membrane module was measured before and after each cleaning step to calculate membrane resistances. Results showed that fouling of membrane modules with 0.3 μm pore size was more rapid than other membrane modules with different pore sizes (0.5 and 1.0 μm. On the other hand, it was not clear whether fouling of the 0.5 μm membrane module was more severe than that of the 1.0 μm membrane module. This was partly because of the membrane condition after chemical cleaning, which seemed to determine the fouling of those modules over the next period. When irreversible resistance (Ri i.e., differences in membrane resistance before use and after chemical cleaning was high, the transmembrane pressure increased quickly during the next period irrespective of membrane pore size.

  6. Smart membranes for monitoring membrane based desalination processes

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-10-12

    Various examples are related to smart membranes for monitoring membrane based process such as, e.g., membrane distillation processes. In one example, a membrane, includes a porous surface and a plurality of sensors (e.g., temperature, flow and/or impedance sensors) mounted on the porous surface. In another example, a membrane distillation (MD) process includes the membrane. Processing circuitry can be configured to monitor outputs of the plurality of sensors. The monitored outputs can be used to determine membrane degradation, membrane fouling, or to provide an indication of membrane replacement or cleaning. The sensors can also provide temperatures or temperature differentials across the porous surface, which can be used to improve modeling or control the MD process.

  7. Zinc can increase the activity of protein kinase C and contributes to its binding to plasma membranes in T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csermely, P.; Szamel, M.; Resch, K.; Somogyi, J.

    1988-01-01

    In the primary structure of protein kinase C, the presence of a putative metal-binding site has been suggested. In the present report, the authors demonstrate that the most abundant intracellular heavy metal, zinc, can increase the activity of cytosolic protein kinase C. Zinc reversibly binds the enzyme to plasma membranes,and it may contribute to the calcium-induced binding as well. The intracellular heavy metal chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine prevents the phorbol ester- and antigen-induced translocation of protein kinase C. This effect can be totally reversed by the concomitant addition of Zn 2+ , while Fe 2+ and Mn 2+ are only partially counteractive. The results suggest that zinc can activate protein kinase C and contributes to its binding to plasma membranes in T lymphocytes induced by Ca 2+ , phorbol ester, or antigen

  8. Facile preparation of salt-tolerant anion-exchange membrane adsorber using hydrophobic membrane as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jinxin; Luo, Jianquan; Chen, Xiangrong; Wan, Yinhua

    2017-03-24

    In this study, a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hydrophobic membrane with high mechanical property was used as substrate to prepare salt-tolerant anion-exchange (STAE) membrane adsorber. Effective hydrophilization and functionalization of PVDF membrane was realized via polydopamine (PDA) deposition, thus overcoming the drawbacks of hydrophobic substrates including poor water permeability, inert property as well as severe non-specific adsorption. The following polyallylamine (PAH) coupling was carried out at pH 10.0, where unprotonated amine groups on PAH chains were more prone to couple with PDA. This membrane adsorber could remain 75% of protein binding capacity when NaCl concentration increased from 0 to 150mM, while its protein binding capacity was independent of flow rate from 10 to 100 membrane volume (MV)/min due to its high mechanical strength (tensile strength: 43.58±2.30MPa). With 200mM NaCl addition at pH 7.5, high purity (above 99%) and high recovery (almost 100%) of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) were obtained when using the STAE membrane adsorber to separate IgG/human serum albumin (HSA) mixture, being similar to that without NaCl at pH 6.0 (both under the flow rate of 10-100MV/min). Finally, the reliable reusability was confirmed by five reuse cycles of protein binding and elution operations. In comparison with commercial membrane adsorber, the new membrane adsorber exhibited a better mechanical property, higher IgG polishing efficiency and reusability, while the protein binding capacity was lower due to less NH 2 density on the membrane. The outcome of this work not only offers a facile and effective approach to prepare membrane adsorbers based on hydrophobic membranes, but also demonstrates great potential of this new designed STAE membrane adsorbers for efficient monoclonal antibody (mAb) polishing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of adsorptive membranes by confinement of activated biochar into electrospun nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Taheran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Adsorptive membranes have many applications in removal of contaminants, such as heavy metals and organic contaminants from water. Recently, increasing concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds, especially antibiotics, such as chlortetracycline in water and wastewater sources has raised concerns about their potentially adverse impacts on environment and human health. In this study, a series of polyacrylonitrile (PAN/activated biochar nanofibrous membranes (NFMs with different loadings of biochar (0–2%, w/w were fabricated using electrospinning. The morphology and structure of fabricated membranes was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that at 1.5% of biochar loading, the surface area reached the maximum value of 12.4 m2/g and beyond this loading value, agglomeration of particles inhibited fine interaction with nanofibrous matrix. Also, the adsorption tests using chlortetracycline showed that, under environmentally relevant concentrations, the fabricated adsorptive NFMs had a potential for removal of these types of emerging contaminants from water and wastewaters.

  10. Efficient protein immobilization on polyethersolfone electrospun nanofibrous membrane via covalent binding for biosensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoudifard, Matin [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soudi, Sara [Stem Cell Biology Department, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soleimani, Masoud [Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseinzadeh, Simzar [Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering Department, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esmaeili, Elaheh [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vossoughi, Manouchehr, E-mail: vosoughi@sharif.edu [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce novel strategy for antibody immobilization using high surface area electrospun nanofibrous membrane based on ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) coupling chemistry. To present the high performance of proposed biosensors, anti-staphylococcus enterotoxin B (anti-SEB) was used as a model to demonstrate the utility of our proposed system. Polymer solution of polyethersolfone was used to fabricate fine nanofibrous membrane. Moreover, industrial polyvinylidene fluoride membrane and conventional microtiter plate were also used to compare the efficiency of antibody immobilization. Scanning electron microscopy images were taken to study the morphology of the membranes. The surface activation of nanofibrous membrane was done with the help of O{sub 2} plasma. PES nanofibrous membrane with carboxyl functional groups for covalent attachment of antibodies were treated by EDC/NHS coupling agent. The quantity of antibody immobilization was measured by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) method. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was performed to confirm the covalent immobilization of antibody on membrane. Atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and invert fluorescence microscopy were used to analyze the antibody distribution pattern on solid surfaces. Results show that oxygen plasma treatment effectively increased the amount of antibody immobilization through EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. It was found that the use of nanofibrous membrane causes the improved detection signal of ELISA based biosensors in comparison to the standard assay carried out in the 96-well microtiter plate. This method has the potential to improve the ELISA-based biosensor and we believe that this technique can be used in various biosensing methods. - Highlights: • Introduction of novel strategy for antibody immobilization using high surface area electrospun

  11. Hybrid Membrane/Absorption Process for Post-combustion CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shiguang; Shou, S.; Pyrzynski, Travis; Makkuni, Ajay; Meyer, Howard

    2013-12-31

    % CO2 product purity was achieved throughout the test. Membrane contactor modules have been scaled from bench scale 2-inch diameter by 12-inch long (20 ft2 membrane surface area) modules to 4-inch diameter by 60-inch long pilot scale modules (165 ft2 membrane surface area). Pilot scale modules were tested in an integrated absorption/regeneration system for CO2 capture field tests at a coal-fired power plant (Midwest Generation’s Will County Station located in Romeoville, IL). Absorption and regeneration contactors were constructed utilizing high performance super-hydrophobic, nano-porous PEEK membranes with CO2 gas permeance of 2,000 GPU and a 1,000 GPU, respectively. Field tests using aMDEA solvent achieved greater than 90% CO2 removal in a single stage. The absorption mass transfer coefficient was 1.2 (sec)-1, exceeding the initial target of 1.0 (sec)-1. This mass transfer coefficient is over one order of magnitude greater than that of conventional gas/liquid contacting equipment. The economic evaluation based on field tests data indicates that the CO2 capture cost associated with membrane contactor technology is $54.69 (Yr 2011$)/tonne of CO2 captured when using aMDEA as a solvent. It is projected that the DOE’s 2025 cost goal of $40 (Yr 2011$)/tonne of CO2 captured can be met by decreasing membrane module cost and by utilizing advanced CO2 capture solvents. In the second stage of the field test, an advanced solvent, Hitachi’s H3-1 was utilized. The use of H3-1 solvent increased mass transfer coefficient by 17% as compared to aMDEA solvent. The high mass transfer coefficient of H3-1 solvent combined with much more favorable solvent regeneration requirements, indicate that the projected savings achievable with membrane contactor process can be further improved. H3-1 solvent will be used in the next pilot-scale development phase. The integrated absorption/regeneration process design and high performance membrane contactors developed in the current bench

  12. Recent advances on polymeric membranes for membrane reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Buonomenna, M. G.; Choi, Seung Hak

    2012-01-01

    . The successful use of membranes in membrane reactors is primary the result of two developments concerning: (i) membrane materials and (ii) membrane structures. The selection of a suited material and preparation technique depends on the application the membrane

  13. Aquaporin-2 membrane targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Emma T B; Fenton, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    The targeting of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) to the apical plasma membrane of kidney collecting duct principal cells is regulated mainly by the antidiuretic peptide hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP). This process is of crucial importance for the maintenance of body water homeostasis...... of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) to the apical plasma membrane of collecting duct (CD) principal cells (10, 20). This process is mainly regulated by the actions of AVP on the type 2 AVP receptor (V2R), although the V1a receptor may also play a minor role (26). The V2R is classified within the group of 7-transmembrane....... For example, 1) stimulation with the nonspecific AC activator forskolin increases AQP2 membrane accumulation in a mouse cortical collecting duct cell line [e.g., Norregaard et al. (16)]; 2) cAMP increases CD water permeability (15); 3) the cAMP-activated protein kinase A (PKA) can phosphorylate AQP2 on its...

  14. CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Larry W.; Way, J. Douglas; Vlasse, Marcus

    2003-01-01

    The objective of CAM is to develop, test, and analyze thin film membrane materials for separation and purification of carbon dioxide (CO2) from mixtures of gases, such as those found in the Martian atmosphere. The membranes are targeted toward In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applications that will operate in extraterrestrial environments and support future unmanned and human space missions. A primary application is the Sabatier Electrolysis process that uses Mars atmosphere CO2 as raw material for producing water, oxygen, and methane for rocket fuel and habitat support. Other applications include use as an inlet filter to collect and concentrate Mars atmospheric argon and nitrogen gases for habitat pressurization, and to remove CO2 from breathing gases in Closed Environment Life Support Systems (CELSS). CAM membrane materials include crystalline faujasite (FAU) zeolite and rubbery polymers such as silicone rubber (PDMS) that have been shown in the literature and via molecular simulation to favor adsorption and permeation of CO2 over nitrogen and argon. Pure gas permeation tests using commercial PDMS membranes have shown that both CO2 permeance and the separation factor relative to other gases increase as the temperature decreases, and low (Delta)P(Sub CO2) favors higher separation factors. The ideal CO2/N2 separation factor increases from 7.5 to 17.5 as temperature decreases from 22 C to -30 C. For gas mixtures containing CO2, N2, and Ar, plasticization decreased the separation factors from 4.5 to 6 over the same temperature range. We currently synthesize and test our own Na(+) FAU zeolite membranes using standard formulations and secondary growth methods on porous alumina. Preliminary tests with a Na(+) FAU membrane at 22 C show a He/SF6 ideal separation factor of 62, exceeding the Knudsen diffusion selectivity by an order of magnitude. This shows that the membrane is relatively free from large defects and associated non-selective (viscous flow) transport

  15. Alterations in membrane protein-profile during cold treatment of alfalfa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, S.S.; Poole, R.J.; Dhindsa, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in pattern of membrane proteins during cold acclimation of alfalfa have been examined. Cold acclimation for 2 to 3 days increases membrane protein content. Labeling of membrane proteins in vivo with [ 35 S]methionine indicates increases in the rate of incorporation as acclimation progresses. Cold acclimation induces the synthesis of about 10 new polypeptides as shown by SDS-PAGE and fluorography of membrane proteins labeled in vivo

  16. Recent advances on polymeric membranes for membrane reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Buonomenna, M. G.

    2012-06-24

    Membrane reactors are generally applied in high temperature reactions (>400 °C). In the field of fine chemical synthesis, however, much milder conditions are generally applicable and polymeric membranes were applied without their damage. The successful use of membranes in membrane reactors is primary the result of two developments concerning: (i) membrane materials and (ii) membrane structures. The selection of a suited material and preparation technique depends on the application the membrane is to be used in. In this chapter a review of up to date literature about polymers and configuration catalyst/ membranes used in some recent polymeric membrane reactors is given. The new emerging concept of polymeric microcapsules as catalytic microreactors has been proposed. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers. All rights reserved.

  17. Animal-vegetal polarity in the plasma membrane of a molluscan egg: a quantitative freeze-fracture study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speksnijder, J E; Mulder, M M; Dohmen, M R; Hage, W J; Bluemink, J G

    1985-03-01

    Using freeze-fracture electron microscopy, the numerical particle distribution in the fertilized Nassarius egg plasma membrane has been analyzed in four areas at different positions along the animal-vegetal axis of the egg. These areas can be distinguished by distinct microvilli patterns and differences in microvilli densities. In all areas, more IMPs (intramembrane particles) are present on the P face than on the corresponding E face. The ratio of the number of IMPs present on E and P face is similar in all areas (0.48-0.55) except for the most animal part of the vegetal hemisphere, where relatively more IMPs remain attached to the exterior half of the fractured membrane (E/P ratio = 0.88). The IMP density at the vegetal pole of the egg is considerably higher than in the animal hemisphere and in the animal part of the vegetal hemisphere. This difference is due to an increased number of IMPs in all size classes (4-18 nm). In the area adjacent to the vegetal pole the density of particles is also higher than in the two more animal areas, but here the difference is exclusively due to the smaller IMP size classes (4-8 nm). Statistical analysis of our data reveals that the area adjacent to the vegetal pole patch is significantly different from the other areas with respect to the distribution of the IMPs over the different IMP size classes. These results demonstrate the polar organization of the Nassarius egg plasma membrane. The possible role of this surface heterogeneity in the spatial organization of the egg cell and the later embryo is discussed.

  18. Electrospun polyurethane membranes for Tissue Engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, Laís P., E-mail: lagabriel@gmail.com [National Institute of Biofabrication, Campinas (Brazil); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Rodrigues, Ana Amélia [National Institute of Biofabrication, Campinas (Brazil); Department of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Macedo, Milton; Jardini, André L.; Maciel Filho, Rubens [National Institute of Biofabrication, Campinas (Brazil); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil)

    2017-03-01

    Tissue Engineering proposes, among other things, tissue regeneration using scaffolds integrated with biological molecules, growth factors or cells for such regeneration. In this research, polyurethane membranes were prepared using the electrospinning technique in order to obtain membranes to be applied in Tissue Engineering, such as epithelial, drug delivery or cardiac applications. The influence of fibers on the structure and morphology of the membranes was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the structure was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and the thermal stability was analyzed by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). In vitro cells attachment and proliferation was investigated by SEM, and in vitro cell viability was studied by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and Live/Dead® assays. It was found that the membranes present an homogeneous morphology, high porosity, high surface area/volume ratio, it was also observed a random fiber network. The thermal analysis showed that the membrane degradation started at 254 °C. In vitro evaluation of fibroblasts cells showed that fibroblasts spread over the membrane surface after 24, 48 and 72 h of culture. This study supports the investigation of electrospun polyurethane membranes as biocompatible scaffolds for Tissue Engineering applications and provides some guidelines for improved biomaterials with desired properties.

  19. Carbon molecular sieve gas separation membranes based on an intrinsically microporous polyimide precursor

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xiaohua

    2013-10-01

    We report the physical characteristics and gas transport properties for a series of pyrolyzed membranes derived from an intrinsically microporous polyimide containing spiro-centers (PIM-6FDA-OH) by step-wise heat treatment to 440, 530, 600, 630 and 800 C, respectively. At 440 C, the PIM-6FDA-OH was converted to a polybenzoxazole and exhibited a 3-fold increase in CO2 permeability (from 251 to 683 Barrer) with a 50% reduction in selectivity over CH4 (from 28 to 14). At 530 C, a distinct intermediate amorphous carbon structure with superior gas separation properties was formed. A 56% increase in CO2-probed surface area accompanied a 16-fold increase in CO2 permeability (4110 Barrer) over the pristine polymer. The graphitic carbon membrane, obtained by heat treatment at 600 C, exhibited excellent gas separation properties, including a remarkable CO2 permeability of 5040 Barrer with a high selectivity over CH4 of 38. Above 600 C, the strong emergence of ultramicroporosity (<7 Å) as evidenced by WAXD and CO2 adsorption studies elicits a prominent molecular sieving effect, yielding gas separation performance well above the permeability-selectivity trade-off curves of polymeric membranes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fluid migration through geo-membrane seams and through the interface between geo-membrane and geo-synthetic clay liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, M.

    2005-03-01

    both in laboratory and in field conditions to study the suitability of this test to assess the quality of the seams in situ. The results obtained suggest that it is possible to assess the quality of the geo-membrane seams from a non-destructive test conducted in situ by determining the time constant. To address the problem of fluid migration through geo-membrane defects, composite liners comprising a geo-membrane with a circular hole over a GCL over a CCL were simulated in tests at three scales. Flow rates at the interface between the geo-membrane and the GCL were measured. Correspondent interface transmissivity was estimated based on final flow rates and observation of the wetted area. A parametric study was performed to evaluate the influence of the pre-hydration of the GCL, the hydraulic head on top of the liner and the confining stress over the liner system, on the flow rate through composite liners due to defects in the geo-membrane, as well as to check the feasibility of an extrapolation of the results obtained on small-scale tests to field conditions. It was found that the transmissivity does not seem to be affected by the pre-hydration of the GCLs when low confining stresses were used. It also does not seem to be influenced by the increase in confining stress when non-pre-hydrated GCLs are used. Finally, the transmissivity does not seem to be significantly affected by the increase in hydraulic head. The results also suggest that predictions on flow rates though composite liners due to defects in the geo-membrane, which are based on transmissivity values obtained in small scale tests, are conservative. Lastly, based on the transmissivities obtained in this study, empirical equations for predicting the flow rate through composite liners consisting of a geo-membrane over a GCL over a CCL are proposed. Flow rates calculated using these equations are in better agreement with the flow rates measured experimentally than the empirical equations reported in literature

  1. Inflation and Instability of a Polymeric Membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Kristensen, Susanne Brogaard; Larsen, Johannes Ruben

    1999-01-01

    We consider an axisymmetric polymeric membrane inflated by a uniform pressure difference acting across the membrane. The polymeric material is described by an arbitrary combination of a viscoelastic and a purely viscous component to the stress. Some viscoelastic materials described by a Mooney......-Rivlin model show a monotone increasing pressure during inflation of a spherical membrane. These materials develop a homogeneous membrane thickness in agreement with the Considere-Pearson condition. Molecularly based models such as the neo-Hookean, Doi-Edwards or Tom-Pom model show a pressure maximum when...... inflated. Membranes described by these models develop a local thinning of the membrane which may lead to bursting in finite time. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  2. Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Membranes for CO2 Separation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Ju Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous silica molecular sieves are emerging candidates for a number of potential applications involving adsorption and molecular transport due to their large surface areas, high pore volumes, and tunable pore sizes. Recently, several research groups have investigated the potential of functionalized mesoporous silica molecular sieves as advanced materials in separation devices, such as membranes. In particular, mesoporous silica with a two- or three-dimensional pore structure is one of the most promising types of molecular sieve materials for gas separation membranes. However, several important challenges must first be addressed regarding the successful fabrication of mesoporous silica membranes. First, a novel, high throughput process for the fabrication of continuous and defect-free mesoporous silica membranes is required. Second, functionalization of mesopores on membranes is desirable in order to impart selective properties. Finally, the separation characteristics and performance of functionalized mesoporous silica membranes must be further investigated. Herein, the synthesis, characterization, and applications of mesoporous silica membranes and functionalized mesoporous silica membranes are reviewed with a focus on CO2 separation.

  3. Plasma membrane and salinity tolerance of barley plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Rahmani, F. H.; Al-Mashhadani, M. S.; Al-Delemee, N. H.

    1997-01-01

    Barley cultivar, California Mario ut, was grown in a nutrient solution containing increasing Nacl concentrations up to 250 mm. The effect of Nacl on growth, mineral compost ion ant integrity of the plasma membrane was studied. Growth of the shoot'and root was stimulated or little affected by 10 and 20 ml Nacl. Further increase in Nacl concentrations depressed the growth. The depression was conspicuous between 100 and 250 mm Nacl. Increasing Nacl concentration decreased potassium content in the shoots and roots and led to steep increase in sodium accumulation. The integrity of the plasma membrane was measured in term of potassium leakage from the root tips. Rapid leakage of potassium was obtained at Nacl concentrations ranging from 100 to 250 mm. At the same concentrations of Nacl, adenosine triphosphatase activity in the root tips was increased. Results indicate that the plasma membrane of root cells was damaged by the increased levels of salinity. It was concluded that the plasma membrane of root cells is the primary site of salinity toxicity. (authors). 40 refs., 5 tabs. 3 figs

  4. Declining human population but increasing residential development around protected areas in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Castro-Prieto; S. Martinuzzi; V.C. Radeloff; D.P. Helmers; M. Quiñones; W.A. Gould

    2017-01-01

    Increasing residential development around protected areas is a major threat for protected areas worldwide, and human population growth is often the most important cause. However, population is decreasing in many regions as a result of socio-economic changes, and it is unclear how residential development around protected areas is affected in these situations. We...

  5. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising plasma etched porous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; LaConti, Anthony B.

    2010-10-05

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 0.1 to 5 microns, are made by plasma etching and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  6. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising laser micromachined porous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han [Waltham, MA; LaConti, Anthony B [Lynnfield, MA; Mittelsteadt, Cortney K [Natick, MA; McCallum, Thomas J [Ashland, MA

    2011-01-11

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 5 microns, are made by laser micromachining and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  7. Hydrophilic Fe2O3 dynamic membrane mitigating fouling of support ceramic membrane in ultrafiltration of oil/water emulsion

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Dongwei; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Lu, Xinglin; Liu, Qianliang; Jiang, Jin; Ma, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Oil/water (O/W) emulsion is daily produced and difficult to be treated effectively. Ceramic membrane ultrafiltration is one of reliable processes for the treatment of O/W emulsion, yet still hindered by membrane fouling. In this study, two types of Fe2O3 dynamic membranes (i.e., pre-coated dynamic membrane and self-forming dynamic membrane) were prepared to mitigate the fouling of support ceramic membrane in O/W emulsion treatment. Pre-coated dynamic membrane (DM) significantly reduced the fouling of ceramic membrane (i.e., 10% increase of flux recovery rate), while self-forming dynamic membrane aggravated ceramic membrane fouling (i.e., 8.6% decrease of flux recovery rate) after four filtration cycles. A possible fouling mechanism was proposed to explain this phenomenon, which was then confirmed by optical images of fouled membranes and the analysis of COD rejection. In addition, the cleaning efficiency of composite membranes (i.e., Fe2O3 dynamic membrane and support ceramic membrane) was enhanced by substitution of alkalescent water backwash for deionized water backwash. The possible reason for this enhancement was also explained. Our result suggests that pre-coated Fe2O3 dynamic membrane with alkalescent water backwash can be a promising technology to reduce the fouling of ceramic membrane and enhance membrane cleaning efficiency in the treatment of oily wastewater.

  8. Hydrophilic Fe2O3 dynamic membrane mitigating fouling of support ceramic membrane in ultrafiltration of oil/water emulsion

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Dongwei

    2016-03-17

    Oil/water (O/W) emulsion is daily produced and difficult to be treated effectively. Ceramic membrane ultrafiltration is one of reliable processes for the treatment of O/W emulsion, yet still hindered by membrane fouling. In this study, two types of Fe2O3 dynamic membranes (i.e., pre-coated dynamic membrane and self-forming dynamic membrane) were prepared to mitigate the fouling of support ceramic membrane in O/W emulsion treatment. Pre-coated dynamic membrane (DM) significantly reduced the fouling of ceramic membrane (i.e., 10% increase of flux recovery rate), while self-forming dynamic membrane aggravated ceramic membrane fouling (i.e., 8.6% decrease of flux recovery rate) after four filtration cycles. A possible fouling mechanism was proposed to explain this phenomenon, which was then confirmed by optical images of fouled membranes and the analysis of COD rejection. In addition, the cleaning efficiency of composite membranes (i.e., Fe2O3 dynamic membrane and support ceramic membrane) was enhanced by substitution of alkalescent water backwash for deionized water backwash. The possible reason for this enhancement was also explained. Our result suggests that pre-coated Fe2O3 dynamic membrane with alkalescent water backwash can be a promising technology to reduce the fouling of ceramic membrane and enhance membrane cleaning efficiency in the treatment of oily wastewater.

  9. Steric Pressure among Membrane-Bound Polymers Opposes Lipid Phase Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Zachary I; Kenyon, Laura E; Carrillo, Adelita; Espinoza, Isai; Nagib, Fatema; Stachowiak, Jeanne C

    2016-04-19

    Lipid rafts are thought to be key organizers of membrane-protein complexes in cells. Many proteins that interact with rafts have bulky polymeric components such as intrinsically disordered protein domains and polysaccharide chains. Therefore, understanding the interaction between membrane domains and membrane-bound polymers provides insights into the roles rafts play in cells. Multiple studies have demonstrated that high concentrations of membrane-bound polymeric domains create significant lateral steric pressure at membrane surfaces. Furthermore, our recent work has shown that lateral steric pressure at membrane surfaces opposes the assembly of membrane domains. Building on these findings, here we report that membrane-bound polymers are potent suppressors of membrane phase separation, which can destabilize lipid domains with substantially greater efficiency than globular domains such as membrane-bound proteins. Specifically, we created giant vesicles with a ternary lipid composition, which separated into coexisting liquid ordered and disordered phases. Lipids with saturated tails and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains conjugated to their head groups were included at increasing molar concentrations. When these lipids were sparse on the membrane surface they partitioned to the liquid ordered phase. However, as they became more concentrated, the fraction of GUVs that were phase-separated decreased dramatically, ultimately yielding a population of homogeneous membrane vesicles. Experiments and physical modeling using compositions of increasing PEG molecular weight and lipid miscibility phase transition temperature demonstrate that longer polymers are the most efficient suppressors of membrane phase separation when the energetic barrier to lipid mixing is low. In contrast, as the miscibility transition temperature increases, longer polymers are more readily driven out of domains by the increased steric pressure. Therefore, the concentration of shorter polymers required

  10. Anchoring tick salivary anti-complement proteins IRAC I and IRAC II to membrane increases their immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Laurent; Schroeder, Hélène; Mast, Jan; Thirion, Muriel; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Dewals, Benjamin; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Tick salivary proteins are promising targets for the development of anti-tick vaccines. Recently, we described two paralogous anti-complement proteins, called Ixodes ricinus anti-complement (IRAC) proteins I and II, that are co-expressed in tick I. ricinus salivary glands. However, our previous attempts to immunize rabbits against IRAC via infection with recombinant Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) vectors invariably failed although both recombinants expressed high levels of functional IRAC proteins in vitro. As IRAC are soluble monovalent antigens, one of the possible explanations is that monovalent ligation of the B-cell receptor induces receptor activation but fails to promote antigen presentation, a phenomenon that is thought to induce a state of B-cell tolerance. In the present study, we tried to increase IRAC immunogenicity by expressing them as oligovalent antigens. To this end, IRAC were fused to membrane anchors and BoHV-4 vectors expressing these recombinant forms were produced. The immunization potentials of recombinant viruses expressing either secreted or transmembrane IRAC proteins were then compared. While the former did not induce a detectable immune response against IRAC, the latter led to high titres of anti-IRAC antibodies that only marginally affected tick blood feeding. All together, the data presented in this study demonstrate that the immunogenicity of a soluble antigen can be greatly improved by anchoring it in membrane.

  11. Healing improvement after rotator cuff repair using gelatin-grafted poly(L-lactide) electrospun fibrous membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Song; Xie, Xiaoxing; Pan, Guoqing; Shen, Peng; Zhao, Jinzhong; Cui, Wenguo

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears (RCTs) are a common cause of shoulder pain and disability in middle and older age. Despite improvements in the understanding of this disease process and advances in surgical treatment, rotator cuff (RC) repair failure rates remain high. Insufficient healing capacity is likely the main factor for failure of reconstruction. We fabricated implantable biodegradable gelatin-grafted poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) fibrous membranes using electrospinning technology and evaluated them using in vitro cell proliferation assays. Then, we established chronic rat RCT models and randomly assigned rats into one of three groups. In group 1 (n = 48), the detached supraspinatus tendon was repaired to its anatomic footprint (transosseous repair). In groups 2 and 3, the rats underwent transosseous repair and were implanted with either pure PLLA membranes (n = 48) or gelatin-PLLA membranes (n = 48) to augment the repairs. The animals were killed at 2, 4, and 8 wk postoperatively, which was followed by histomorphometric and biomechanical evaluation. Histologic observations revealed that gelatin-PLLA membranes have excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. At 2, 4, and 8 wk postoperatively, the gelatin-PLLA membranes significantly increased the area of glycosaminoglycan staining at the tendon-bone interface compared with the control group (P < 0.05) and significantly improved collagen organization, as measured by birefringence under polarized light at the healing enthesis compared with the control and PLLA groups (P < 0.05). Biomechanical testing revealed that the gelatin-PLLA group had a greater ultimate load to failure and stiffness than the control group at 4 and 8 wk (P < 0.05). The gelatin-PLLA membranes had the highest stress of the healing enthesis. Local application of gelatin-PLLA fibrous membranes to the healing tendon-bone interface after RC repair in a rat chronic RCT model was found to strengthen the healing enthesis, increase the area of

  12. Body weight loss, reduced urge for palatable food and increased release of GLP-1 through daily supplementation with green-plant membranes for three months in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelius, Caroline; Erlandsson, Daniel; Vitija, Egzona; Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    The frequency of obesity has risen dramatically in recent years but only few effective and safe drugs are available. We investigated if green-plant membranes, previously shown to reduce subjective hunger and promote satiety signals, could affect body weight when given long-term. 38 women (40-65 years of age, body mass index 25-33 kg/m(2)) were randomized to dietary supplementation with either green-plant membranes (5 g) or placebo, consumed once daily before breakfast for 12 weeks. All individuals were instructed to follow a three-meal paradigm without any snacking between the meals and to increase their physical activity. Body weight change was analysed every third week as was blood glucose and various lipid parameters. On days 1 and 90, following intake of a standardized breakfast, glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in plasma were measured, as well as subjective ratings of hunger, satiety and urge for different palatable foods, using visual analogue scales. Subjects receiving green-plant membranes lost significantly more body weight than did those on placebo (p weight loss with green-plant extract was 5.0 ± 2.3 kg compared to 3.5 ± 2.3 kg in the control group. Consumption of green-plant membranes also reduced total and LDL-cholesterol (p meal tests performed on day 1 and day 90 demonstrated an increased postprandial release of GLP-1 and decreased urge for sweet and chocolate on both occasions in individuals supplemented with green-plant membranes compared to control. Waist circumference, body fat and leptin decreased in both groups over the course of the study, however there were no differences between the groups. In conclusion, addition of green-plant membranes as a dietary supplement once daily induces weight loss, improves obesity-related risk-factors, and reduces the urge for palatable food. The mechanism may reside in the observed increased release of GLP-1. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  13. Field-effect detection using phospholipid membranes -Topical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiho Kataoka-Hamai and Yuji Miyahara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of field-effect devices to biosensors has become an area of intense research interest. An attractive feature of field-effect sensing is that the binding or reaction of biomolecules can be directly detected from a change in electrical signals. The integration of such field-effect devices into cell membrane mimics may lead to the development of biosensors useful in clinical and biotechnological applications. This review summarizes recent studies on the fabrication and characterization of field-effect devices incorporating model membranes. The incorporation of black lipid membranes and supported lipid monolayers and bilayers into semiconductor devices is described.

  14. Diffusive Silicon Nanopore Membranes for Hemodialysis Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Kim

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis using hollow-fiber membranes provides life-sustaining treatment for nearly 2 million patients worldwide with end stage renal disease (ESRD. However, patients on hemodialysis have worse long-term outcomes compared to kidney transplant or other chronic illnesses. Additionally, the underlying membrane technology of polymer hollow-fiber membranes has not fundamentally changed in over four decades. Therefore, we have proposed a fundamentally different approach using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS fabrication techniques to create thin-flat sheets of silicon-based membranes for implantable or portable hemodialysis applications. The silicon nanopore membranes (SNM have biomimetic slit-pore geometry and uniform pores size distribution that allow for exceptional permeability and selectivity. A quantitative diffusion model identified structural limits to diffusive solute transport and motivated a new microfabrication technique to create SNM with enhanced diffusive transport. We performed in vitro testing and extracorporeal testing in pigs on prototype membranes with an effective surface area of 2.52 cm2 and 2.02 cm2, respectively. The diffusive clearance was a two-fold improvement in with the new microfabrication technique and was consistent with our mathematical model. These results establish the feasibility of using SNM for hemodialysis applications with additional scale-up.

  15. Diffusive Silicon Nanopore Membranes for Hemodialysis Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Steven; Feinberg, Benjamin; Kant, Rishi; Chui, Benjamin; Goldman, Ken; Park, Jaehyun; Moses, Willieford; Blaha, Charles; Iqbal, Zohora; Chow, Clarence; Wright, Nathan; Fissell, William H.; Zydney, Andrew; Roy, Shuvo

    2016-01-01

    Hemodialysis using hollow-fiber membranes provides life-sustaining treatment for nearly 2 million patients worldwide with end stage renal disease (ESRD). However, patients on hemodialysis have worse long-term outcomes compared to kidney transplant or other chronic illnesses. Additionally, the underlying membrane technology of polymer hollow-fiber membranes has not fundamentally changed in over four decades. Therefore, we have proposed a fundamentally different approach using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication techniques to create thin-flat sheets of silicon-based membranes for implantable or portable hemodialysis applications. The silicon nanopore membranes (SNM) have biomimetic slit-pore geometry and uniform pores size distribution that allow for exceptional permeability and selectivity. A quantitative diffusion model identified structural limits to diffusive solute transport and motivated a new microfabrication technique to create SNM with enhanced diffusive transport. We performed in vitro testing and extracorporeal testing in pigs on prototype membranes with an effective surface area of 2.52 cm2 and 2.02 cm2, respectively. The diffusive clearance was a two-fold improvement in with the new microfabrication technique and was consistent with our mathematical model. These results establish the feasibility of using SNM for hemodialysis applications with additional scale-up. PMID:27438878

  16. Wastewater treatment with ion-exchange chitin membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulenova, A.; Fjeld, R. A.; Visacky, V.

    2001-01-01

    Chitin, poly(N-acetyl-D glucosamine) and chitosan, its deacetylated derivates have recently obtained attention as bio-sorbents, because they shown a great ability to accumulate heavy metals and other pollutants. It was found that recovery of metals is strongly affected by pH. At low acidic pH range 4-5 chitin membrane exhibits better selectivity for lead than for cadmium or zinc. Sorption preference for metals decreases in the order: Pb > Cd > Zn. For uranium, as well for strontium was observed significant increase of recovery at decrease of pH to slightly acidic, close to neutral value. It was shown that chemical behavior of chitin membrane is excellent; ion-exchange nature of chitin was not changed during chitin membrane manufacturing process. Using of chitin membrane instead of chitin flake column brings significant increasing of driving force of the separation process, limited in the case of column experimental design by diffusion coefficient, while in the case of membrane process only by mass transfer coefficient. (authors)

  17. Membrane Technologies in Wine Industry: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rayess, Youssef; Mietton-Peuchot, Martine

    2016-09-09

    Membrane processes are increasingly reported for various applications in wine industry such as microfiltration, electrodialysis, and reverse osmosis, but also emerging processes as bipolar electrodialysis and membrane contactor. Membrane-based processes are playing a critical role in the field of separation/purification, clarification, stabilization, concentration, and de-alcoholization of wine products. They begin to be an integral part of the winemaking process. This review will provide an overview of recent developments, applications, and published literature in membrane technologies applied in wine industry.

  18. Palladium based membranes and membrane reactors for hydrogen production and purification : An overview of research activities at Tecnalia and TU/e

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, E.; Helmi Siasi Farimani, A.; Medrano Jimenez, J.A.; Coenen, K.T.; Arratibel Plazaola, A.; Melendez Rey, J.; de Nooijer, N.C.A.; Viviente, J.L.; Zuniga, J.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Gallucci, F.; Pacheco Tanaka, D.A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the main achievements of several European research projects on Pd based membranes and Pd membrane reactors for hydrogen production are reported. Pd-based membranes have received an increasing interest for separation and purification of hydrogen. In addition, the integration of such

  19. Lysosomal degradation of membrane lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolter, Thomas; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2010-05-03

    The constitutive degradation of membrane components takes place in the acidic compartments of a cell, the endosomes and lysosomes. Sites of lipid degradation are intralysosomal membranes that are formed in endosomes, where the lipid composition is adjusted for degradation. Cholesterol is sorted out of the inner membranes, their content in bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate increases, and, most likely, sphingomyelin is degraded to ceramide. Together with endosomal and lysosomal lipid-binding proteins, the Niemann-Pick disease, type C2-protein, the GM2-activator, and the saposins sap-A, -B, -C, and -D, a suitable membrane lipid composition is required for degradation of complex lipids by hydrolytic enzymes. Copyright 2009 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Preparation of novel poly(vinylidene fluoride)/TiO2 photocatalysis membranes for use in direct contact membrane distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yukun; Dong, Shuying; Zhu, Liang

    2018-03-01

    Immobilization of TiO2 is a potential approach to obtain photocatalytic membranes that could eliminate concentration polarization in sewage disposal for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. A simple non-solvent-induced phase separation (NIPS) method was proposed to prepare poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane, and the double-coating technology was further used to prepare the self-cleaning membranes with different TiO2 content. The effects of TiO2 nano-particles on membrane crystal form, morphology, porosity, pore size, pore size distribution, hydrophobicity, permeation, and photocatalytic efficiency were investigated, respectively. The flux of the prepared membranes is higher than the membrane (MS) provided by Membrane Solutions, LLC, in DCMD process. The contact angle between water and membrane could be increased 22° by introducing photocatalytic layer containing TiO2. During the photocatalytic test, 65.78-96.31% degrading rate of 15 mg/L Rhodamine B (RhB) was achieved. The relative flux of the membrane T-3 can be recovered to 0.96 in photocatalysis-membrane reactor for 8 h UV radiation. The fabricated membrane has great potential in high-salty dyeing wastewater treatment due to its high hydrophobicity and photocatalytic capability. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Chorioamniotic membrane separation and preterm premature rupture of membranes complicating in utero myelomeningocele repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Shelly; Moldenhauer, Julie S; Spinner, Susan S; Rendon, Norma; Khalek, Nahla; Martinez-Poyer, Juan; Johnson, Mark P; Adzick, N Scott

    2016-05-01

    diagnosed with global chorioamniotic membrane separation and 11 (52.4%) with local chorioamniotic membrane separation. Earlier gestational age at the time of fetal surgery was a significant risk factor for the development of chorioamniotic membrane separation (P = .01) and preterm premature rupture of membranes (P membrane separation was significantly associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes (59.1% vs 21.2%, P = .008) and earlier gestational age at delivery (32.1 ± 4.2 vs 34.4 ± 3.5 weeks, P = .01). The average number of days from chorioamniotic membrane separation to preterm premature rupture of membranes was 11.0 ± 10.1 and from chorioamniotic membrane separation to delivery was 31.0 ± 22.5. The mean time interval between fetal management of myelomeningocele repair and preterm premature rupture of membranes was 47.9 days. Mean latency period from preterm premature rupture of membranes to delivery was 25 days. Gestational age at delivery was significantly lower in patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes (31.6 ± 3.4 vs 34.9 ± 3.5 weeks, P = .0001). Using logistic regression analysis, nulliparity, gestational age at fetal management of myelomeningocele repair, and membrane separation remained significant risk factors for preterm premature rupture of membranes. Chorioamniotic membrane separation after fetal management of myelomeningocele repair is a significant risk factor for subsequent development of preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm delivery. Fetal management of myelomeningocele repair premature rupture of membranes and chorioamniotic membrane separation. Therefore fetal management of myelomeningocele repair should be deferred until ≥23 weeks to mitigate these complications. Nulliparity also appears to increase the risk for preterm premature rupture of membranes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Structure-based membrane dome mechanism for Piezo mechanosensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yusong R; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2017-12-12

    Mechanosensitive ion channels convert external mechanical stimuli into electrochemical signals for critical processes including touch sensation, balance, and cardiovascular regulation. The best understood mechanosensitive channel, MscL, opens a wide pore, which accounts for mechanosensitive gating due to in-plane area expansion. Eukaryotic Piezo channels have a narrow pore and therefore must capture mechanical forces to control gating in another way. We present a cryo-EM structure of mouse Piezo1 in a closed conformation at 3.7Å-resolution. The channel is a triskelion with arms consisting of repeated arrays of 4-TM structural units surrounding a pore. Its shape deforms the membrane locally into a dome. We present a hypothesis in which the membrane deformation changes upon channel opening. Quantitatively, membrane tension will alter gating energetics in proportion to the change in projected area under the dome. This mechanism can account for highly sensitive mechanical gating in the setting of a narrow, cation-selective pore. © 2017, Guo et al.

  3. [Effects of surface roughness of bone cements on histological characteristics of induced membranes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Xiao; Xu, Hua-Zi; Zhang, Yu; Hu, Gang; Shen, Yue; Cheng, Xiao-Jie; Peng, Lei

    2012-08-01

    To explore surface roughness of bone cement and surround tissue on histological characteristic of induced membranes. Bone cements with smooth and rough surface were implanted in radius bone defect, intramuscular and subcutaneous sites of rabbits, and formed induced membranes. Membranes were obtained and stained (HE) 6 weeks later. Images of membrane tissue were obtained and analyzed with an automated image analysis system. Five histological parameters of membranes were measured with thickness,area,cell density,ECM density and microvessel density. Double factor variance analysis was used to evaluate the effect of the two factors on histological characteristics of induced membranes. Membranes can be induced by each kind of bone cement and at all the three tissue sites. In histological parameters of thickness,area and micro vessel,there were significant differences among the membranes induced at different tissue sites (P = 0.000, P = 0.000, P = 0.000); whereas, there were no significant differences in histological parameters of cell density and ECM density (P = 0.734, P = 0.638). In all five histological parameters of membranes, there were no significant differences between the membranes induced by bone cements with different surface roughness (P = 0.506, P = 0.185, P = 0.883, P = 0.093, P = 0.918). Surround tissue rather than surface roughness of bone cements can affect the histological characteristics of induced membranes. The fibrocystic number, vascularity, mechanical tension and micro motion of the surround tissue may be closely correlated with the histological characteristics of induced membranes.

  4. Traveling-Wave Membrane Photomixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, R. A.; Martin, S. C.; Nakamura, B. J.; Neto, A.; Pasqualini, D.; Siegel, P. H.; Kadow, C.; Gossard, A. C.

    2001-01-01

    Traveling-wave photomixers have superior performance when compared with lumped area photomixers in the 1 to 3 THz frequency range. Their large active area and distributed gain mechanism assure high thermal damage threshold and elimination of the capacitive frequency roll-off. However, the losses experienced by the radio frequency wave traveling along the coplanar strips waveguide (due to underlying semi-infinite GaAs substrate) were a serious drawback. In this paper we present device designs and an experimental setup that make possible the realization of photomixers on membranes which eliminate the losses.

  5. Preparation and properties of homogeneous-reinforced polyvinylidene fluoride hollow fiber membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xuliang [State Key Laboratory of Hollow Fiber Membrane Materials and Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Xiao Changfa, E-mail: xiaotjpu@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Hollow Fiber Membrane Materials and Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Hu Xiaoyu; Bai Qianqian [State Key Laboratory of Hollow Fiber Membrane Materials and Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The homogeneous-reinforced method has been adopted firstly in preparing of PVDF membranes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HR membranes have a favorable interfacial bonding between the coating layer and the matrix membrane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The better performance of the HR membranes in protein solution can indirectly improve the service life of membranes. - Abstract: Homogeneous-reinforced (HR) polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membranes include PVDF polymer solutions (coating layer) and the matrix membrane prepared through the dry-wet spinning process. The performance of HR membranes varies with the polymer concentration in the polymer solutions and is characterized in terms of pure water flux, rejection of protein, porosity, infiltration property, a mechanical strength test, and morphology observations by a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The results of this study indicate that the tensile strength of the HR PVDF membranes decreases slights compared with that of the matrix membrane, but the elongation at break increases much more and the hollow fiber membranes are endowed with better flexibility performance. The HR PVDF hollow fiber membranes have a favorable interfacial bonding between the coating layer and the matrix membrane, as shown by FESEM. The infiltration property is characterized by the contact angle experiments. Pure water flux decreases while the rejection ratio with an increase in polymer concentration increasing. The protein solution flux of the HR PVDF membranes is higher than that of the matrix membrane after 100 min of infiltration.

  6. Preparation and properties of homogeneous-reinforced polyvinylidene fluoride hollow fiber membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuliang; Xiao Changfa; Hu Xiaoyu; Bai Qianqian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The homogeneous-reinforced method has been adopted firstly in preparing of PVDF membranes. ► The HR membranes have a favorable interfacial bonding between the coating layer and the matrix membrane. ► The better performance of the HR membranes in protein solution can indirectly improve the service life of membranes. - Abstract: Homogeneous-reinforced (HR) polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membranes include PVDF polymer solutions (coating layer) and the matrix membrane prepared through the dry-wet spinning process. The performance of HR membranes varies with the polymer concentration in the polymer solutions and is characterized in terms of pure water flux, rejection of protein, porosity, infiltration property, a mechanical strength test, and morphology observations by a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The results of this study indicate that the tensile strength of the HR PVDF membranes decreases slights compared with that of the matrix membrane, but the elongation at break increases much more and the hollow fiber membranes are endowed with better flexibility performance. The HR PVDF hollow fiber membranes have a favorable interfacial bonding between the coating layer and the matrix membrane, as shown by FESEM. The infiltration property is characterized by the contact angle experiments. Pure water flux decreases while the rejection ratio with an increase in polymer concentration increasing. The protein solution flux of the HR PVDF membranes is higher than that of the matrix membrane after 100 min of infiltration.

  7. Long-range interaction between heterogeneously charged membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jho, Y S; Brewster, R; Safran, S A; Pincus, P A

    2011-04-19

    Despite their neutrality, surfaces or membranes with equal amounts of positive and negative charge can exhibit long-range electrostatic interactions if the surface charge is heterogeneous; this can happen when the surface charges form finite-size domain structures. These domains can be formed in lipid membranes where the balance of the different ranges of strong but short-ranged hydrophobic interactions and longer-ranged electrostatic repulsion result in a finite, stable domain size. If the domain size is large enough, oppositely charged domains in two opposing surfaces or membranes can be strongly correlated by the electrostatic interactions; these correlations give rise to an attractive interaction of the two membranes or surfaces over separations on the order of the domain size. We use numerical simulations to demonstrate the existence of strong attractions at separations of tens of nanometers. Large line tensions result in larger domains but also increase the charge density within the domain. This promotes correlations and, as a result, increases the intermembrane attraction. On the other hand, increasing the salt concentration increases both the domain size and degree of domain anticorrelation, but the interactions are ultimately reduced due to increased screening. The result is a decrease in the net attraction as salt concentration is increased. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  8. Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes and Ion-Jelly® Membranes with [BMIM][DCA]: Comparison of Its Performance for CO2 Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Couto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a supported ionic liquid membrane (SILM was prepared by impregnating a PVDF membrane with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([BMIM][DCA] ionic liquid. This membrane was tested for its permeability to pure gases (CO2, N2 and O2 and ideal selectivities were calculated. The SILM performance was also compared to that of Ion-Jelly® membranes, a new type of gelled membranes developed recently. It was found that the PVDF membrane presents permeabilities for pure gases similar or lower to those presented by the Ion-Jelly® membranes, but with increased ideal selectivities. This membrane presents also the highest ideal selectivity (73 for the separation of CO2 from N2 when compared with SILMs using the same PVDF support but with different ionic liquids.

  9. Metal–organic framework membranes: from synthesis to separation application

    KAUST Repository

    Qiu, Shilun

    2014-06-26

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) materials, which are constructed from metal ions or metal ion clusters and bridging organic linkers, exhibit regular crystalline lattices with relatively well-defined pore structures and interesting properties. As a new class of porous solid materials, MOFs are attractive for a variety of industrial applications including separation membranes-a rapidly developing research area. Many reports have discussed the synthesis and applications of MOFs and MOF thin films, but relatively few have addressed MOF membranes. This critical review provides an overview of the diverse MOF membranes that have been prepared, beginning with a brief introduction to the current techniques for the fabrication of MOF membranes. Gas and liquid separation applications with different MOF membranes are also included (175 references). This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  10. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Synthetic Membranes : Science, Engineering and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lonsdale, H; Pinho, M

    1986-01-01

    The chapters in this book are based upon lectures given at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Synthetic Membranes (June 26-July 8, 1983, Alcabideche, Portugal), which provided an integrated presentation of syn­ thetic membrane science and technology in three broad areas. Currently available membrane formation mechanisms are reviewed, as well as the manner in which synthesis conditions can be controlled to achieve desired membrane structures. Membrane performance in a specific separa­ tionprocess involves complex phenomena, the understanding of which re­ quires a multidisciplinary approach encompassing polymer chemistry, phys­ ical chemistry, and chemical engineering. Progress toward a global understanding of membrane phenomena is described in chapters on the principles of membrane transport. The chapters on membrane processes and applications highlight both established and emerging membrane processes, and elucidate their myriad applications. It is our hope that this book will be an enduring, comprehensi...

  11. Anhydrous proton conducting composite membranes containing Nafion and triazole modified POSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, M.; Wang, Y.G.; Zhang, F.F.; Huang, C.; Xu, X.; Zhang, R.; Fan, D.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Development of membrane electrolytes having reasonable proton conductivity and mechanical strength under anhydrous conditions is of great importance for proton exchange membrane fuel cells operated at elevated temperature. With the introduction of triazole modified polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (Tz-POSS) into Nafion membrane, the formed composite electrolytes exhibit improved mechanical properties compared to pristine Nafion membrane due to the well distribution of Tz-POSS inside the membrane. The anhydrous proton conductivity of the formed composite membranes increases initially with the increase in temperature, reaching about 0.02 Scm −1 at 140 °C. With further increase in temperature to about 150 °C, the composite membrane reaches its glass transition point above which the proton conductivity decreases dramatically. The performance of assembled single cell from composite membrane is slightly dependent on humidification conditions at 95 °C, reaching 0.45 V at 600 mAcm −2 using hydrogen and oxygen as reaction gases

  12. Microfluidic devices for investigation of biomimetic membranes for sensor and separation applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pszon-Bartosz, Kamila Justyna

    to microfluidic designs involving protein delivery to biomimetic membranes developed for sensor and separation applications. Finally, an OMP functionality modulation with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was shown and revealed the protein potential application as a sensor. Moreover, the β-CD blocker may be used to prevent...... for industrial applications. Among them are the inherent fragility of lipid membranes, the challenge of up-scaling the effective membrane area and the quantification of the protein delivery to the lipid membrane which may determined the biomimetic membrane application. This PhD thesis addresses the above...

  13. Characterising antimicrobial protein-membrane complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xun, Gloria; Dingley, Andrew; Tremouilhac, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) are host defence molecules that protect organisms from microbial infection. A number of hypotheses for AMP activity have been proposed which involve protein membrane interactions. However, there is a paucity of information describing AMP-membrane complexes in detail. The aim of this project is to characterise the interactions of amoebapore-A (APA-1) with membrane models using primarily solution-state NMR spectroscopy. APA-1 is an AMP which is regulated by a pH-dependent dimerisation event. Based on the atomic resolution solution structure of monomeric APA-1, it is proposed that this dimerisation is a prerequisite for ring-like hexameric pore formation. Due to the cytotoxicity of APA-1, we have developed a cell-free system to produce this protein. To facilitate our studies, we have adapted the cell-free system to isotope label APA-1. 13 C /15 N -enriched APA-1 sample was achieved and we have begun characterising APA-1 dimerisation and membrane interactions using NMR spectroscopy and other biochemical/biophysical methods. Neutron reflectometry is a surface-sensitive technique and therefore represents an ideal technique to probe how APA-1 interacts with membranes at the molecular level under different physiological conditions. Using Platypus, the pH-induced APA-1-membrane interactions should be detectable as an increase of the amount of protein adsorbed at the membrane surface and changes in the membrane properties. Specifically, detailed information of the structure and dimensions of the protein-membrane complex, the position and amount of the protein in the membrane, and the perturbation of the membrane phospholipids on protein incorporation can be extracted from the neutron reflectometry measurement. Such information will enable critical assessment of current proposed mechanisms of AMP activity in bacterial membranes and complement our NMR studies

  14. Zinc can increase the activity of protein kinase C and contributes to its binding to plasma membranes in T lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csermely, P.; Szamel, M.; Resch, K.; Somogyi, J.

    1988-05-15

    In the primary structure of protein kinase C, the presence of a putative metal-binding site has been suggested. In the present report, the authors demonstrate that the most abundant intracellular heavy metal, zinc, can increase the activity of cytosolic protein kinase C. Zinc reversibly binds the enzyme to plasma membranes,and it may contribute to the calcium-induced binding as well. The intracellular heavy metal chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine prevents the phorbol ester- and antigen-induced translocation of protein kinase C. This effect can be totally reversed by the concomitant addition of Zn/sup 2 +/, while Fe/sup 2 +/ and Mn/sup 2 +/ are only partially counteractive. The results suggest that zinc can activate protein kinase C and contributes to its binding to plasma membranes in T lymphocytes induced by Ca/sup 2 +/, phorbol ester, or antigen.

  15. Thermomechanical characterization of a membrane deformable mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, Kathleen A.; McHugh, Stuart L.; Fixler, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    A membrane deformable mirror has been investigated for its potential use in high-energy laser systems. Experiments were performed in which the deformable mirror was heated with a 1 kW incandescent lamp and the thermal profile, the wavefront aberrations, and the mechanical displacement of the membrane were measured. A finite element model was also developed. The wavefront characterization experiments showed that the wavefront degraded with heating. Above a temperature of 35 deg. C, the wavefront characterization experiments indicated a dramatic increase in the high-order wavefront modes before the optical beam became immeasurable in the sensors. The mechanical displacement data of the membrane mirror showed that during heating, the membrane initially deflected towards the heat source and then deflected away from the heat source. Finite element analysis (FEA) predicted a similar displacement behavior as shown by the mechanical displacement data but over a shorter time scale and a larger magnitude. The mechanical displacement data also showed that the magnitude of membrane displacement increased with the experiments that involved higher temperatures. Above a temperature of 35 deg. C, the displacement data showed that random deflections as a function of time developed and that the magnitude of these deflections increased with increased temperature. We concluded that convection, not captured in the FEA, likely played a dominant role in mirror deformation at temperatures above 35 deg. C

  16. Permeability testing of biomaterial membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreesmann, L; Hajosch, R; Nuernberger, J Vaz; Schlosshauer, B [NMI Natural and Medical Sciences Institute at University Tuebingen, Markwiesenstr. 55, D-72770 Reutlingen (Germany); Ahlers, M [GELITA AG, Gammelsbacher Str. 2, D-69412 Eberbach (Germany)], E-mail: schlosshauer@nmi.de

    2008-09-01

    The permeability characteristics of biomaterials are critical parameters for a variety of implants. To analyse the permeability of membranes made from crosslinked ultrathin gelatin membranes and the transmigration of cells across the membranes, we combined three technical approaches: (1) a two-chamber-based permeability assay, (2) cell culturing with cytochemical analysis and (3) biochemical enzyme electrophoresis (zymography). Based on the diffusion of a coloured marker molecule in conjunction with photometric quantification, permeability data for a gelatin membrane were determined in the presence or absence of gelatin degrading fibroblasts. Cytochemical evaluation after cryosectioning of the membranes was used to ascertain whether fibroblasts had infiltrated the membrane inside. Zymography was used to investigate the potential release of proteases from fibroblasts, which are known to degrade collagen derivatives such as gelatin. Our data show that the diffusion equilibrium of a low molecular weight dye across the selected gelatin membrane is approached after about 6-8 h. Fibroblasts increase the permeability due to cavity formation in the membrane inside without penetrating the membrane for an extended time period (>21 days in vitro). Zymography indicates that cavity formation is most likely due to the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases. In summary, the combination of the depicted methods promises to facilitate a more rational development of biomaterials, because it provides a rapid means of determining permeability characteristics and bridges the gap between descriptive methodology and the mechanistic understanding of permeability alterations due to biological degradation.

  17. Permeability testing of biomaterial membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesmann, L; Hajosch, R; Nuernberger, J Vaz; Schlosshauer, B; Ahlers, M

    2008-01-01

    The permeability characteristics of biomaterials are critical parameters for a variety of implants. To analyse the permeability of membranes made from crosslinked ultrathin gelatin membranes and the transmigration of cells across the membranes, we combined three technical approaches: (1) a two-chamber-based permeability assay, (2) cell culturing with cytochemical analysis and (3) biochemical enzyme electrophoresis (zymography). Based on the diffusion of a coloured marker molecule in conjunction with photometric quantification, permeability data for a gelatin membrane were determined in the presence or absence of gelatin degrading fibroblasts. Cytochemical evaluation after cryosectioning of the membranes was used to ascertain whether fibroblasts had infiltrated the membrane inside. Zymography was used to investigate the potential release of proteases from fibroblasts, which are known to degrade collagen derivatives such as gelatin. Our data show that the diffusion equilibrium of a low molecular weight dye across the selected gelatin membrane is approached after about 6-8 h. Fibroblasts increase the permeability due to cavity formation in the membrane inside without penetrating the membrane for an extended time period (>21 days in vitro). Zymography indicates that cavity formation is most likely due to the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases. In summary, the combination of the depicted methods promises to facilitate a more rational development of biomaterials, because it provides a rapid means of determining permeability characteristics and bridges the gap between descriptive methodology and the mechanistic understanding of permeability alterations due to biological degradation

  18. Asymmetric membranes for destabilization of oil droplets in produced water from alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlee, Azierah; Chiam, Chel-Ken; Sarbatly, Rosalam

    2018-05-01

    This work presents a study of destabilization of oil droplets in the produced water from alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding by using four types of laboratory-fabricated polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes. The PVDF membranes were fabricated via immersion precipitation method with ethanol (0 - 30 %, v/v) as the coagulant. The membranes with the effective area of 17.35 cm2 were tested with synthesized ASP solution as the feed in cross-flow microfiltration process. The ASP feed solution initially contained the oil droplets with radius ranged from 40 to 100 nm and the mean radius was 61 nm. Results have shown that the concentration of the ethanol in the coagulation bath affects the formation of the membrane structure and the corresponding porosity, while no significance influence on the membrane thickness. Coalescence of the oil droplets was occurred when the ASP solution permeated through the asymmetric PVDF membranes. Through the coalescence process, the oil droplets were destabilized where the radius of the oil droplets in the permeates increased to 1.5-4 µm with the corresponding mean radius ranged from 2.4 to 2.7 µm.

  19. Membrane fouling mechanism of biofilm-membrane bioreactor (BF-MBR): Pore blocking model and membrane cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Wenxiang; Tang, Bing; Ding, Jie; Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Zhien

    2018-02-01

    Biofilm membrane bioreactor (BF-MBR) is considered as an important wastewater treatment technology that incorporates advantages of both biofilm and MBR process, as well as can alleviate membrane fouling, with respect to the conventional activated sludge MBR. But, to be efficient, it necessitates the establishment of proper methods for the assessment of membrane fouling. Four Hermia membrane blocking models were adopted to quantify and evaluate the membrane fouling of BF-MBR. The experiments were conducted with various operational conditions, including membrane types, agitation speeds and transmembrane pressure (TMP). Good agreement between cake formation model and experimental data was found, confirming the validity of the Hermia models for assessing the membrane fouling of BF-MBR and that cake layer deposits on membrane. Moreover, the influences of membrane types, agitation speeds and transmembrane pressure on the Hermia pore blocking coefficient of cake layer were investigated. In addition, the permeability recovery after membrane cleaning at various operational conditions was studied. This work confirms that, unlike conventional activated sludge MBR, BF-MBR possesses a low degree of membrane fouling and a higher membrane permeability recovery after cleaning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ceramic membrane in production of recycled water; Keraamikalvo uusioveden valmistuksessa - EKT 05

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitinen, N.; Luonsi, A.; Levaenen, E.; Maentylae, T.; Vilen, J. [Haemeen ympaeristoekeskus, Tampere (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Applicability of ceramic ultrafiltration membrane modifications were studied with laboratory units to purify clear filtrate and biologically treated combined wastewater from high quality board manufacturing process for reuse. Also performance of polymeric membrane and ceramic membrane was compared. The performance of the membrane filtration cell, developed according to requirements of the fixed dimensions of ceramic membrane was compared with the performance of the cross-rotational commercial test unit (CR-filter) of polymeric membranes. The quality of ultrafiltration permeate, namely suspended solids, turbidity and colour, was better than the quality of lake water used in the mill. The permeate fluxes were in the range of 60-75 l/m{sup 2}h. The fouling layer primarily controlled the flux and the retention, leaving the effects of surface modifications as the secondary function. The flux was slightly higher with the biologically treated wastewater. Differences in membrane material and pore size had an effect on the cleaning ability of the membranes. The polymeric membrane and the membrane with smaller pore size were easier to clean. Tests with the CR-filter showed that the rotor increases shear forces, reduces the filtration resistance and thus increases the flux compared to the cell for ceramic membranes where the increase of shear forces can be done by increasing the flow velocities. (orig.)

  1. Ceramic membrane in production of recycled water; Keraamikalvo uusioveden valmistuksessa - EKT 05

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitinen, N; Luonsi, A; Levaenen, E; Maentylae, T; Vilen, J [Haemeen ympaeristoekeskus, Tampere (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    Applicability of ceramic ultrafiltration membrane modifications were studied with laboratory units to purify clear filtrate and biologically treated combined wastewater from high quality board manufacturing process for reuse. Also performance of polymeric membrane and ceramic membrane was compared. The performance of the membrane filtration cell, developed according to requirements of the fixed dimensions of ceramic membrane was compared with the performance of the cross-rotational commercial test unit (CR-filter) of polymeric membranes. The quality of ultrafiltration permeate, namely suspended solids, turbidity and colour, was better than the quality of lake water used in the mill. The permeate fluxes were in the range of 60-75 l/m{sup 2}h. The fouling layer primarily controlled the flux and the retention, leaving the effects of surface modifications as the secondary function. The flux was slightly higher with the biologically treated wastewater. Differences in membrane material and pore size had an effect on the cleaning ability of the membranes. The polymeric membrane and the membrane with smaller pore size were easier to clean. Tests with the CR-filter showed that the rotor increases shear forces, reduces the filtration resistance and thus increases the flux compared to the cell for ceramic membranes where the increase of shear forces can be done by increasing the flow velocities. (orig.)

  2. Gas phase fractionation method using porous ceramic membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Reid A.; Hill, Jr., Charles G.; Anderson, Marc A.

    1996-01-01

    Flaw-free porous ceramic membranes fabricated from metal sols and coated onto a porous support are advantageously used in gas phase fractionation methods. Mean pore diameters of less than 40 .ANG., preferably 5-20 .ANG. and most preferably about 15 .ANG., are permeable at lower pressures than existing membranes. Condensation of gases in small pores and non-Knudsen membrane transport mechanisms are employed to facilitate and increase membrane permeability and permselectivity.

  3. Effects of CO/sub 2/ and membranes on sporulation in axenic cultures of flax rust. [Melampsora lini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boasson, R.; Shaw, M.

    1985-01-01

    Uredospore production by axenically grown flax rust (Melampsora lini (Ehrenb.) Lev.) was measured as carotenoids (extinction units at 458 nm) per milligram protein. Sporulation was not affected by raising (flushing with 1-5% (v/v) CO/sub 2/ in air) or lowering (KOH well in culture flasks) the level of CO/sub 2/ in the air space above the cultures. Significant (two- to four-fold) increases in sporulation occurred beneath impermeable membranes of parafilm or Saran wrap placed on the surface of young (3 weeks from seeding) mycelial mats for 2 weeks. The stimulatory effect was confined strictly to those areas of the mycelial mats in contact with the membranes. Both Parafilm and Saran wrap were easily and cleanly peeled away from the mycelial mats. Permeable Unipore and HVHP membranes, to which the fungus adhered strongly, did not stimulate sporulation. The fungus did not adhere to Unipore or HVHP membranes treated with silicone or paraffin oil; membranes thus treated stimulated sporulation. The stimulatory effect of membranes on sporulation appears to depend on the nature of the contact between the membrane surface and the mycelium and to be unrelated to the effect of the membranes on the diffusion of gases or other volatile substances. 11 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  4. Radiation effects on bovine taste bud membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatzman, A.R.; Mossman, K.L.

    1982-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms of radiation-induced taste loss, the effects of radiation on preparations of enriched bovine taste bud membranes were studied. Taste buds containing circumvallate papilae, and surrounding control epithelial tissues devoid of taste buds, were obtained from steers and given radiation doses of 0-7000 cGy (rad). Tissue fractions were isolated into membrane-enriched and heterogeneous components using differential and sucrose gradient centrifugation of tissue homogenates. The yield of membranes, as measured by protein content in the buoyant membrane-enriched fractions, was reduced in quantity with increasing radiation dose. The relation between radiation dose and membrane quantity in membrane-enriched fractions could be fit by a simple exponential model with taste bud-derived membranes twice as radiosensitive as membranes from control epithelial tissue. Binding of sucrose, sodium, and acetate and fluoride stimulation of adenylate cyclase were nearly identical in both irradiated and nonirradiated intact membranes. Radiation had no effect on fractions of heterogeneous components. While it is not clear what changes are occurring in enriched taste cell membranes, damage to membranes may play an important role in the taste loss observed in patients following radiotherapy

  5. Boron removal in radioactive liquid waste by forward osmosis membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doo Seong Hwang; Hei Min Choi; Kune Woo Lee; Jei Kwon Moon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the treatment of boric acid contained in liquid radioactive waste using a forward osmosis membrane. The boron permeation through the membrane depends on the type of membrane, membrane orientation, pH of the feed solution, salt and boron concentration in the feed solution, and osmotic pressure of the draw solution. The boron flux begins to decline from pH 7 and increases with an increase of the osmotic driving force. The boron flux decreases slightly with the salt concentration, but is not heavily influenced by a low salt concentration. The boron flux increases linearly with the concentration of boron. No element except for boron was permeated through the FO membrane in the multi-component system. The maximum boron flux is obtained in an active layer facing a draw solution orientation of the CTA-ES membrane under conditions of less than pH 7 and high osmotic pressure. (authors)

  6. [Comparative assessment of the strength properties of the mucous membrane of the stomach in patients with peptic ulcer and the effect of quamatel on ulcer cicatrization in experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ias'kov, I M; Troshin, V P; Kirillov, S K; Korolev, A A; Martynovich, A I

    2008-01-01

    The article reviews the research work of the authors on the strength properties of the mucous membrane of the stomach in patients with peptic ulcer and in experiment with quamatel application. Experiments were performed in laboratory animals and resected stomachs of patients with duodenal or stomach ulcer and complications requiring scheduled surgical treatment. The results of the research into the maximum tension (durability) of the stomach mucous membrane, antrum, and the periulcer area are described. For both localizations of the ulcer, the mucous membrane of the antrum was found to exhibit the least durability, while the highest durability was exhibited by the mucous membrane of the periulcer area. In the case of bulbar ulcer, the durability of the mucous membrane was shown to decrease with an increase in the number of aggravations. An inverse relationship between the strength properties and the intensity of hydrochloric acid production was observed.

  7. Biogenesis of plasma membrane cholesterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Y.

    1986-01-01

    A striking feature of the molecular organization of eukaryotic cells is the singular enrichment of their plasma membranes in sterols. The authors studies are directed at elucidating the mechanisms underlying this inhomogeneous disposition. Cholesterol oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of plasma membrane cholesterol in intact cells, leaving intracellular cholesterol pools untouched. With this technique, the plasma membrane was shown to contain 95% of the unesterified cholesterol of cultured human fibroblasts. Cholesterol synthesized from [ 3 H] acetate moved to the plasma membrane with a half-time of 1 h at 37 0 C. They used equilibrium gradient centrifugation of homogenates of biosynthetically labeled, cholesterol oxidase treated cells to examine the distribution of newly synthesized sterols among intracellular pools. Surprisingly, lanosterol, a major precursor of cholesterol, and intracellular cholesterol both peaked at much lower buoyant density than did 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase. This suggests that cholesterol biosynthesis is not taken to completion in the endoplasmic reticulum. The cholesterol in the buoyant fraction eventually moved to the plasma membrane. Digitonin treatment increased the density of the newly synthesized cholesterol fractions, indicating that nascent cholesterol in transit is associated with cholesterol-rich membranes. The authors are testing the hypothesis that the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis is spatially organized in various intracellular membranes such that the sequence of biosynthetic steps both concentrates the sterol and conveys it to the plasma membrane

  8. Effect of ceramic membrane channel diameter on limiting retentate protein concentration during skim milk microfiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael C; Barbano, David M

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of retentate flow channel diameter (4 or 6mm) of nongraded permeability 100-nm pore size ceramic membranes operated in nonuniform transmembrane pressure mode on the limiting retentate protein concentration (LRPC) while microfiltering (MF) skim milk at a temperature of 50°C, a flux of 55 kg · m(-2) · h(-1), and an average cross-flow velocity of 7 m · s(-1). At the above conditions, the retentate true protein concentration was incrementally increased from 7 to 11.5%. When temperature, flux, and average cross-flow velocity were controlled, ceramic membrane retentate flow channel diameter did not affect the LRPC. This indicates that LRPC is not a function of the Reynolds number. Computational fluid dynamics data, which indicated that both membranes had similar radial velocity profiles within their retentate flow channels, supported this finding. Membranes with 6-mm flow channels can be operated at a lower pressure decrease from membrane inlet to membrane outlet (ΔP) or at a higher cross-flow velocity, depending on which is controlled, than membranes with 4-mm flow channels. This implies that 6-mm membranes could achieve a higher LRPC than 4-mm membranes at the same ΔP due to an increase in cross-flow velocity. In theory, the higher LRPC of the 6-mm membranes could facilitate 95% serum protein removal in 2 MF stages with diafiltration between stages if no serum protein were rejected by the membrane. At the same flux, retentate protein concentration, and average cross-flow velocity, 4-mm membranes require 21% more energy to remove a given amount of permeate than 6-mm membranes, despite the lower surface area of the 6-mm membranes. Equations to predict skim milk MF retentate viscosity as a function of protein concentration and temperature are provided. Retentate viscosity, retentate recirculation pump frequency required to maintain a given cross-flow velocity at a given retentate viscosity, and retentate protein

  9. Membranes from nanoporous 1D and 2D materials: A review of opportunities, developments, and challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi

    2013-12-01

    Membranes utilizing nanoporous one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) materials are emerging as attractive candidates for applications in molecular separations and related areas. Such nanotubular and nanolayered materials include carbon nanotubes, metal oxide nanotubes, layered zeolites, porous layered oxides, layered aluminophosphates, and porous graphenes. By virtue of their unique shape, size, and structure, they possess transport properties that are advantageous for membrane and thin film applications. These materials also have very different chemistry from more conventional porous 3D materials, due to the existence of a large, chemically active, external surface area. This feature also necessitates the development of innovative strategies to process these materials into membranes and thin films with high performance. This work provides the first comprehensive review of this emerging area. We first discuss approaches for the synthesis and structural characterization of nanoporous 1D and 2D materials. Thereafter, we elucidate different approaches for fabrication of membranes and thin films from these materials, either as multiphase (composite/hybrid) or single-phase membranes. The influence of surface chemistry and processing techniques on the membrane morphology is highlighted. We then discuss the applications of such membranes in areas relating to molecular transport and separation, e.g. gas and liquid-phase separations, water purification, and ion-conducting membranes. The review concludes with a discussion of the present outlook and some of the key scientific challenges to be addressed on the path to industrially applicable membranes containing nanoporous 1D and 2D materials. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Effects of transmembrane hydraulic pressure on performance of forward osmosis membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coday, Bryan D; Heil, Dean M; Xu, Pei; Cath, Tzahi Y

    2013-03-05

    Forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging membrane separation process that continues to be tested and implemented in various industrial water and wastewater treatment applications. The growing interests in the technology have prompted laboratories and manufacturers to adopt standard testing methods to ensure accurate comparison of membrane performance under laboratory-controlled conditions; however, standardized methods might not capture specific operating conditions unique to industrial applications. Experiments with cellulose triacetate (CTA) and polyamide thin-film composite (TFC) FO membranes demonstrated that hydraulic transmembrane pressure (TMP), common in industrial operation of FO membrane elements, could affect membrane performance. Experiments were conducted with three FO membranes and with increasing TMP up to a maximum of 50 psi (3.45 bar). The feed solution was a mixture of salts and the draw solution was either a NaCl solution or concentrated seawater at similar osmotic pressure. Results revealed that TMP minimally affected water flux, reverse salt flux (RSF), and solute rejection of the CTA membrane. However, water flux through TFC membranes might slightly increase with increasing TMP, and RSF substantially declines with increasing TMP. It was observed that rejection of feed constituents was influenced by TMP and RSF.

  11. Electrolytic membrane formation of fluoroalkyl polymer using a UV-radiation-based grafting technique and sulfonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shironita, Sayoko; Mizoguchi, Satoko; Umeda, Minoru, E-mail: mumeda@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka 940-2188, Niigata (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    A sulfonated fluoroalkyl graft polymer (FGP) membrane was prepared as a polymer electrolyte. First, the FGP membrane was grafted with styrene under UV irradiation. The grafted FGP was then sulfonated to functionalize it for proton conductivity. The grafting degree of the membrane increased with increasing grafting time during UV irradiation. The proton conductivity of the membrane increased with increasing grafting degree. The swelling ratio was independent of the grafting time, however, the water uptake increased with increasing grafting degree. Based on these results, it was found that the UV-initiated styrene grafting occurred along the membrane thickness direction. Moreover, the membrane was embedded within the glass fibers of the composite. This composite electrolytic membrane had 1.15 times the proton conductivity of a Nafion 117 membrane.

  12. Membrane dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications...... for the lateral organization of membranes as wells as for physical properties like bending, permeability and elasticity...

  13. An Investigation on bilayer structures of electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibrous membrane and cellulose membrane used as filtration media for apple juice clarification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawitri, Asti; Miftahul Munir, Muhammad; Edikresnha, Dhewa; Sandi, Ahzab; Fauzi, Ahmad; Rajak, Abdul; Natalia, Dessy; Khairurrijal, Khairurrijal

    2018-05-01

    Nanofibrous membrane has a potential to use in filtration technology with electrospinning as one of the techniques used in synthesizing nanofibers. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous membranes with various fibers diameters were electrospun by varying its precursor solution concentration. The average fibers diameters of the PAN nanofibrous membranes obtained from the precursor solution concentrations of 6, 9, 12, and 14 wt% were 341, 534, 1274, and 2107 nm, respectively. Filtration media for apple juice clarification were bilayer-structured membranes made of PAN nanofibrous membranes on commercial cellulose microfibrous membranes. It has been shown that the reduction of apple juice color or turbidity performed by the cellulose microfibrous membrane was well enhanced by the presence of the PAN nanofibrous membrane in the bilayer-structured membrane. In addition, the apple-juice color and turbidity reductions increased with decreasing the average fibers diameter of the PAN nanofibrous membrane. Furthermore, the PAN nanofibrous membrane also helped the cellulose microfibrous membrane in the bilayer-structured membrane enhance the reductions of total phenols, protein, and glucose of the apple juice.

  14. Transport Properties, Mechanical Behavior, Thermal and Chemical Resistance of Asymmetric Flat Sheet Membrane Prepared from PSf/PVDF Blended Membrane on Gauze Supporting Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita Kusumawati

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric polysulfone (PSf membrane is prepared using phase inversion method and blending with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF on the gauze solid support. Casting solution composition optimization has been done to get PSf/PVDF membrane with best characteristics and permeability. The result shows that blending on PSf with PVDF polymer using phase inversion method has been very helpful in creating an asymmetric porous membrane. Increased level of PVDF in casting solution has increased the formation of asymmetry structure and corresponding flux membrane. The result from thermal test using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC-Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA shows the resistance of the membrane to temperature 460 °C. Membrane resistance against acid looks from undetectable changes on infrared spectra after immersion process in H2SO4 6–98 v/v%. While membrane color changes from white to brownish and black is detected after the immersion process in sodium hydroxide (NaOH 0.15–80 w/v%.

  15. Choroidal neovascular membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt Nitul; Diamond James; Jalali Subhadra; Das Taraprasad

    1998-01-01

    Choroidal neovascular membrane in the macular area is one of the leading causes of severe visual loss. Usually a manifestation in elderly population, it is often associated with age-related macular degeneration. The current mainstay of management is early diagnosis, usually by fundus examination, aided by angiography and photocoagulation in selected cases. Various other modalities of treatment including surgery are being considered as alternate options, but with limited success. The purpose o...

  16. Annexins are instrumental for efficient plasma membrane repair in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, Stine Prehn; Boye, Theresa Louise; Nylandsted, Jesper

    2015-09-01

    Plasma membrane stress can cause damage to the plasma membrane, both when imposed by the extracellular environment and by enhanced oxidative stress. Cells cope with these injuries by rapidly activating their plasma membrane repair system, which is triggered by Ca(2+) influx at the wound site. The repair system is highly dynamic, depends on both lipid and protein components, and include cytoskeletal reorganization, membrane replacements, and membrane fusion events. Cancer cells experience enhanced membrane stress when navigating through dense extracellular matrix, which increases the frequency of membrane injuries. In addition, increased motility and oxidative stress further increase the risk of plasma membrane lesions. Cancer cells compensate by overexpressing Annexin proteins including Annexin A2 (ANXA2). Annexin family members can facilitate membrane fusion events and wound healing by binding to negatively charged phospholipids in the plasma membrane. Plasma membrane repair in cancer cells depends on ANXA2 protein, which is recruited to the wound site and forms a complex with the Ca(2+)-binding EF-hand protein S100A11. Here they regulate actin accumulation around the wound perimeter, which is required for wound closure. In this review, we will discuss the requirement for Annexins, S100 proteins and actin cytoskeleton in the plasma membrane repair response of cancer cells, which reveals a novel avenue for targeting metastatic cancers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Endoscopic optical coherence tomography for imaging the tympanic membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Anke; Walther, Julia; Cimalla, Peter; Bornitz, Matthias; Koch, Edmund

    2011-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging modality that enables micrometer-scale contactless subsurface imaging of biological tissue. Endoscopy, as another imaging method, has the potential of imaging tubular organs and cavities and therefore has opened up several application areas not accessible before. The combination of OCT and endoscopy uses the advantages of both methods and consequently allows additional imaging of structures beneath surfaces inside cavities. Currently, visual investigations on the surface of the human tympanic membrane are possible but only with expert eyes. up to now, visual imaging of the outer ear up to the tympanic membrane can be carried out by an otoscope, an operating microscope or an endoscope. In contrast to these devices, endoscopy has the advantage of imaging the whole tympanic membrane with one view. The intention of this research is the development of an endoscopic optical coherence tomography (EOCT) device for imaging the tympanic membrane depth-resolved and structures behind it. Detection of fluids in the middle ear, which function as an indicator for otitis media, could help to avoid the application of antibiotics. It is possible to detect a congeries of fluids with the otoscope but the ambition is to the early detection by OCT. The developed scanner head allows imaging in working distances in the range from zero up to 5 mm with a field of view of 2 mm. In the next step, the scanner head should be improved to increase the working distance and the field of view.

  18. Open circuit voltage durability study and model of catalyst coated membranes at different humidification levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, Sumit; Fowler, Michael W.; Simon, Leonardo C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Abouatallah, Rami; Beydokhti, Natasha [Hydrogenics Corporation, 5985 McLaughlin Road, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cell material durability is an area of extensive research today. Chemical degradation of the ionomer membrane is one important degradation mechanism leading to overall failure of fuel cells. This study examined the effects of relative humidity on the chemical degradation of the membrane during open circuit voltage testing. Five Gore trademark PRIMEA {sup registered} series 5510 catalyst coated membranes were degraded at 100%, 75%, 50%, and 20% RH. Open circuit potential and cumulative fluoride release were monitored over time. Additionally scanning electron microscopy images were taken at end of the test. The results showed that with decreasing RH fluoride release rate increased as did performance degradation. This was attributed to an increase in gas crossover with a decrease in RH. Further, it is also shown that interruptions in testing may heavily influence cumulative fluoride release measurements where frequent stoppages in testing will cause fluoride release to be underestimated. SEM analysis shows that degradation occurred in the ionomer layer close to the cathode catalyst. A chemical degradation model of the ionomer membrane was used to model the results. The model was able to predict fluoride release trends, including the effects of interruptions, showing that changes in gas crossover with RH could explain the experimental results. (author)

  19. In-vitro Degradation Behaviour of Irradiated Bacterial Cellulose Membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwis, D.; Khusniya, T.; Hardiningsih, L.; Nurlidar, F.; Winarno, H.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose membrane synthesized by Acetobacter xylinum in coconut water medium has potential application for Guided bone Regeneration. However, this membrane may not meet some application requirements due to its low biodegradation properties. In this paper, incorporation of gamma irradiation into the membrane is a developed strategy to increase its biodegradability properties. The in-vitro degradation study in synthetic body fluid (SBF) of the irradiated membrane has been analyzed during periods of 6 months by means of weight loss, mechanical properties and scanning electron microscopy observation compared to that the un-irradiated one. The result showed that weight loss of irradiated membrane with 25 kGy and 50 kGy and immersed in SBF solution for 6 months reached 18% and 25% respectively. While un-irradiated membrane did not give significant weight loss. Tensile strength of membranes decreases with increasing of irradiation dose and further decreases in tensile strength is observed when irradiated membrane was followed by immersion in SBF solution. Microscope electron image of cellulose membranes shows that un-irradiated bacterial cellulose membrane consists of dense ultrafine fibril network structures, while irradiation result in cleavage of fibrils network of cellulose. The fibrils network become loosely after irradiated membrane immersed in SBF solution due to released of small molecular weight carbohydrates formed during by irradiation from the structure (author)

  20. Nanoclay embedded mixed matrix PVDF nanocomposite membrane: Preparation, characterization and biofouling resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajabi, Hamid; Ghaemi, Negin; Madaeni, Sayed S.; Daraei, Parisa; Khadivi, Mohammad Ali; Falsafi, Monir

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanocomposite membranes were prepared by addition of OMMT to PVDF membrane. • Addition of nanoclay considerably increased the hydrophilicity of PVDF membrane. • Nanocomposite membranes had higher water flux and antifouling properties. • Fouling of membranes blended with nanoclay (<4 wt.%) reduced. - Abstract: In this paper, nanocomposite PVDF/nanoclay membranes were prepared with addition of different concentrations of organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) into the polymeric casting solution using combination of solution dispersion and phase inversion methods. Membranes were characterized by use of X-ray diffraction (XRD), water contact angle, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), and their performances were evaluated in terms of pure water flux and fouling parameters. The surface hydrophilicity of all nanocomposites markedly improved compared to nascent PVDF. In addition, XRD patterns revealed the formation of intercalated layers of mineral clays in PVDF matrix. SEM and AFM images showed that addition of OMMT resulted in nanocomposite membranes with thinner skin layer and higher porosity rather than PVDF membranes. Pure water flux of PVDF/OMMT membranes increased significantly (particularly for fabricated membranes by 4 and 6 wt.% OMMT) compared to that of PVDF membrane. Moreover, nanocomposite membranes showed the elevated antifouling properties, and flux recovery of nascent PVDF membranes increased from 51 to 72% with addition of 2 wt.% OMMT nanoparticles. These nanocomposite membranes also offered a remarkable reusability and durability against biofouling

  1. Nanoclay embedded mixed matrix PVDF nanocomposite membrane: Preparation, characterization and biofouling resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajabi, Hamid [Membrane Research Centre, Department of Chemical Engineering, Razi University, Tagh Bostan, 67149 Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Civil Engineering, Razi University, 67149 Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaemi, Negin, E-mail: negin_ghaemi@kut.ac.ir [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kermanshah University of Technology, 67178 Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Madaeni, Sayed S. [Membrane Research Centre, Department of Chemical Engineering, Razi University, Tagh Bostan, 67149 Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Daraei, Parisa [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kermanshah University of Technology, 67178 Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khadivi, Mohammad Ali [Friedrich-Alexander University, Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerland Strasse 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Falsafi, Monir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Razi University, 67149 Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Nanocomposite membranes were prepared by addition of OMMT to PVDF membrane. • Addition of nanoclay considerably increased the hydrophilicity of PVDF membrane. • Nanocomposite membranes had higher water flux and antifouling properties. • Fouling of membranes blended with nanoclay (<4 wt.%) reduced. - Abstract: In this paper, nanocomposite PVDF/nanoclay membranes were prepared with addition of different concentrations of organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) into the polymeric casting solution using combination of solution dispersion and phase inversion methods. Membranes were characterized by use of X-ray diffraction (XRD), water contact angle, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), and their performances were evaluated in terms of pure water flux and fouling parameters. The surface hydrophilicity of all nanocomposites markedly improved compared to nascent PVDF. In addition, XRD patterns revealed the formation of intercalated layers of mineral clays in PVDF matrix. SEM and AFM images showed that addition of OMMT resulted in nanocomposite membranes with thinner skin layer and higher porosity rather than PVDF membranes. Pure water flux of PVDF/OMMT membranes increased significantly (particularly for fabricated membranes by 4 and 6 wt.% OMMT) compared to that of PVDF membrane. Moreover, nanocomposite membranes showed the elevated antifouling properties, and flux recovery of nascent PVDF membranes increased from 51 to 72% with addition of 2 wt.% OMMT nanoparticles. These nanocomposite membranes also offered a remarkable reusability and durability against biofouling.

  2. Smart membranes for monitoring membrane based desalination processes

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Karam, Ayman M.

    2017-01-01

    Various examples are related to smart membranes for monitoring membrane based process such as, e.g., membrane distillation processes. In one example, a membrane, includes a porous surface and a plurality of sensors (e.g., temperature, flow and

  3. Mathematical model of a PEMFC using a PBI membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheddie, Denver; Munroe, Norman

    2006-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) operating with Nafion[reg] membranes have encountered numerous problems associated with water management and CO poisoning because of their low temperature of operation. Alternative high temperature membranes have been investigated, one such membrane being polybenzimidazole (PBI). This paper presents a one dimensional mathematical model, which predicts the polarization performance of a PEMFC using a PBI membrane. Peak power densities in the same order as Nafion[reg] are predicted. Results indicate that the greatest scope for improving PBI PEMFC performance is increasing the membrane conductivity and improving the catalyst performance as it interfaces with the PBI membrane

  4. RF plasma-driven hydrogen permeation through a biased iron membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banno, T.; Waelbroeck, F.; Winter, J.

    1984-01-01

    The steady-state RF plasma-driven hydrogen permeation through an electrically biased iron membrane has been investigated as a function of the bias potential Vsub(M) for membrane temperatures in the range of 150-400 0 C. Vsub(M) has been gradually increased positively from the floating potential of the membrane. The permeation flux decreases when Vsub(M) increases at low voltages: positive hydrogen ions are repelled. The membrane temperature does not influence this effect measurably. The permeation flux starts to increase when Vsub(M) is raised higher, i.e. when energetic electrons strike the surface. This phenomenon shows a pronounced temperature dependence - the enhancement is largest for the lowest temperatures. The effect is interpreted in terms of an electron-induced dissociation of hydrogen molecules on the membrane surface. (orig.)

  5. Membrane-lipid therapy: A historical perspective of membrane-targeted therapies - From lipid bilayer structure to the pathophysiological regulation of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribá, Pablo V

    2017-09-01

    Our current understanding of membrane lipid composition, structure and functions has led to the investigation of their role in cell signaling, both in healthy and pathological cells. As a consequence, therapies based on the regulation of membrane lipid composition and structure have been recently developed. This novel field, known as Membrane Lipid Therapy, is growing and evolving rapidly, providing treatments that are now in use or that are being studied for their application to oncological disorders, Alzheimer's disease, spinal cord injury, stroke, diabetes, obesity, and neuropathic pain. This field has arisen from relevant discoveries on the behavior of membranes in recent decades, and it paves the way to adopt new approaches in modern pharmacology and nutrition. This innovative area will promote further investigation into membranes and the development of new therapies with molecules that target the cell membrane. Due to the prominent roles of membranes in the cells' physiology and the paucity of therapeutic approaches based on the regulation of the lipids they contain, it is expected that membrane lipid therapy will provide new treatments for numerous pathologies. The first on-purpose rationally designed molecule in this field, minerval, is currently being tested in clinical trials and it is expected to enter the market around 2020. However, it seems feasible that during the next few decades other membrane regulators will also be marketed for the treatment of human pathologies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Lipid Therapy: Drugs Targeting Biomembranes edited by Pablo V. Escribá. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Biomimetic membranes and methods of making biomimetic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempe, Susan; Brinker, Jeffrey C.; Rogers, David Michael; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Yang, Shaorong

    2016-11-08

    The present disclosure is directed to biomimetic membranes and methods of manufacturing such membranes that include structural features that mimic the structures of cellular membrane channels and produce membrane designs capable of high selectivity and high permeability or adsorptivity. The membrane structure, material and chemistry can be selected to perform liquid separations, gas separation and capture, ion transport and adsorption for a variety of applications.

  7. Separation of hydrogen from dilute streams (e.g. using membranes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueschke, H.E.A. [Sulzer Chemtech GmbH Membrantechnik, Neunkirchen (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    As a conclusion it can be stated that the use of membranes in the separation and purification of hydrogen is still limited. In areas where hydrogen at not too high purity can be recovered from otherwise low value gas mixtures, like in the examples given above, the application of membranes has developed into a proven state-of-art technology. Where high purity hydrogen at high pressure is demanded, still fairly large work is ahead for membrane and process developers. (orig.)

  8. Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes using pulsed direct current nitrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Dipankar; Neogi, Sudarsan; De, Sirshendu, E-mail: sde@che.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2015-12-31

    Low temperature plasma treatment using pulsed direct current discharge of nitrogen gas was employed to enhance hydrophilicity of the polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes. The membranes were characterized in terms of morphology, structure, hydrophilicity, and membrane performance. Properties and functional groups on the surface of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes were investigated by contact angle, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Effects of plasma conditions, namely, pulsed voltage, duty cycle and treatment time on increase in membrane hydrophilicity were studied. Permeability of treated membrane was increased by 47% and it was retained up to 70 days. Surface etching due to plasma treatment was confirmed by weight loss of the treated membranes. Due to surface etching, average pore size increased and rejection of 200 kDa polyethylene glycol decreased to about 70% for the treated membrane. Oxygen and nitrogen functional groups were responsible for surface hydrophilicity. - Highlights: • Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes by pulsed direct current nitrogen plasma • Hydrophilic functional groups incorporated on the membrane surface • Significant enhancement of the permeability and wettability of the membranes • Water contact angle increased with storage time and finally stabilized.

  9. Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes using pulsed direct current nitrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Dipankar; Neogi, Sudarsan; De, Sirshendu

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature plasma treatment using pulsed direct current discharge of nitrogen gas was employed to enhance hydrophilicity of the polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes. The membranes were characterized in terms of morphology, structure, hydrophilicity, and membrane performance. Properties and functional groups on the surface of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes were investigated by contact angle, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Effects of plasma conditions, namely, pulsed voltage, duty cycle and treatment time on increase in membrane hydrophilicity were studied. Permeability of treated membrane was increased by 47% and it was retained up to 70 days. Surface etching due to plasma treatment was confirmed by weight loss of the treated membranes. Due to surface etching, average pore size increased and rejection of 200 kDa polyethylene glycol decreased to about 70% for the treated membrane. Oxygen and nitrogen functional groups were responsible for surface hydrophilicity. - Highlights: • Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes by pulsed direct current nitrogen plasma • Hydrophilic functional groups incorporated on the membrane surface • Significant enhancement of the permeability and wettability of the membranes • Water contact angle increased with storage time and finally stabilized.

  10. Comparative study between chemostat and batch reactors to quantify membrane permeability changes on bacteria exposed to silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anaya, Nelson M.; Faghihzadeh, Fatemeh [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 1 Lippitt Rd., Bliss Hall 203, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States); Ganji, Nasim; Bothun, Geoff [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 16 Greenhouse Rd., Crawford Hall, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States); Oyanedel-Craver, Vinka, E-mail: craver@uri.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 1 Lippitt Rd., Bliss Hall 203, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Continuous and batch reactors were used to assess the effect of the exposure of casein-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on Escherichia coli (E. coli). Additionally, E. coli membrane extracts, membrane permeability and Langmuir film balance assays were used to determine integrity and changes in lipid composition in response to AgNPs exposure. Results showed that batch conditions were not appropriate for the tests due to the production of exopolymeric substances (EPS) during the growth phase. After 5 h of contact between AgNPs and the used growth media containing EPS, the nanoparticles increased in size from 86 nm to 282 nm reducing the stability and thus limiting cell-nanoparticle interactions. AgNPs reduced E. coli growth by 20% at 1 mg/L, in terms of Optical Density 670 (OD670), while no effect was detected at 15 mg/L. At 50 mg/L of AgNPs was not possible to perform the test due to aggregation and sedimentation of the nanoparticles. Membrane extract assays showed that at 1 mg/L AgNPs had a greater change in area (− 4.4cm{sup 2}) on bacteria compared to 15 mg/L (− 4.0cm{sup 2}). This area increment suggested that membrane disruption caused by AgNPs had a stabilizing/rigidifying effect where the cells responded by shifting their lipid composition to more unsaturated lipids to counteract membrane rigidification. In chemostats, the constant inflow of fresh media and aeration resulted in less AgNPs aggregation, thus increased the AgNPs-bacteria interactions, in comparison to batch conditions. AgNPs at 1 mg/L, 15 mg/L, and 50 mg/L inhibited the growth (OD670 reduction) by 0%, 11% and 16.3%, respectively. Membrane extracts exposed to 1 mg/L, 15 mg/L, and 50 mg/L of AgNPs required greater changes in area by − 0.5 cm{sup 2}, 2.7 cm{sup 2} and 3.6 cm{sup 2}, respectively, indicating that the bacterial membranes were disrupted and bacteria responded by synthesizing lipids that stabilize or strengthen membranes. This study showed that the chemostat is more

  11. Polyethersulfone/Graphene Oxide Ultrafiltration Membranes from Solutions in Ionic Liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Mahalingam, Dinesh. K.; Kim, DooLi.; Nunes, Suzana. P.

    2017-01-01

    Novel high flux polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration membranes were fabricated by incorporating different amounts of graphene oxide (GO) sheets to PES as nanofillers. The membranes were prepared from solutions in 50/50 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-diethylphosphate/N,N-dimethyl formamide. It was observed that the water permeance increased from 550 to 800 L m-2h-1bar-1, with incorporation of 1 wt% GO, keeping a molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of approximately 32-34 kg mol-1. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy images of GO/PES membranes showed the formation of ultrathin selective layer unlike pristine membranes. Contact angle measurements confirmed the increase of hydrophilicity, by increasing the GO concentration. The rejection of humic acid and bovine serum albumin was demonstrated. The mechanical properties were improved, compared with the pristine membranes. The performance was just above the trade-off relationship between permeance and separation factor for PES membranes reported in the literature.

  12. Membrane bioreactors' potential for ethanol and biogas production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylitervo, Päivi; Akinbomia, Julius; Taherzadeha, Mohammad J

    2013-01-01

    Companies developing and producing membranes for different separation purposes, as well as the market for these, have markedly increased in numbers over the last decade. Membrane and separation technology might well contribute to making fuel ethanol and biogas production from lignocellulosic materials more economically viable and productive. Combining biological processes with membrane separation techniques in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) increases cell concentrations extensively in the bioreactor. Such a combination furthermore reduces product inhibition during the biological process, increases product concentration and productivity, and simplifies the separation of product and/or cells. Various MBRs have been studied over the years, where the membrane is either submerged inside the liquid to be filtered, or placed in an external loop outside the bioreactor. All configurations have advantages and drawbacks, as reviewed in this paper. The current review presents an account of the membrane separation technologies, and the research performed on MBRs, focusing on ethanol and biogas production. The advantages and potentials of the technology are elucidated.

  13. Polyethersulfone/Graphene Oxide Ultrafiltration Membranes from Solutions in Ionic Liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Mahalingam, Dinesh. K.

    2017-07-18

    Novel high flux polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration membranes were fabricated by incorporating different amounts of graphene oxide (GO) sheets to PES as nanofillers. The membranes were prepared from solutions in 50/50 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-diethylphosphate/N,N-dimethyl formamide. It was observed that the water permeance increased from 550 to 800 L m-2h-1bar-1, with incorporation of 1 wt% GO, keeping a molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of approximately 32-34 kg mol-1. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy images of GO/PES membranes showed the formation of ultrathin selective layer unlike pristine membranes. Contact angle measurements confirmed the increase of hydrophilicity, by increasing the GO concentration. The rejection of humic acid and bovine serum albumin was demonstrated. The mechanical properties were improved, compared with the pristine membranes. The performance was just above the trade-off relationship between permeance and separation factor for PES membranes reported in the literature.

  14. SiC-BASED HYDROGEN SELECTIVE MEMBRANES FOR WATER-GAS-SHIFT REACTION; F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul K.T. Liu

    2001-01-01

    This technical report summarizes our activities conducted in Yr II. In Yr I we successfully demonstrated the feasibility of preparing the hydrogen selective SiC membrane with a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. In addition, a SiC macroporous membrane was fabricated as a substrate candidate for the proposed SiC membrane. In Yr II we have focused on the development of a microporous SiC membrane as an intermediate layer between the substrate and the final membrane layer prepared from CVD. Powders and supported thin silicon carbide films (membranes) were prepared by a sol-gel technique using silica sol precursors as the source of silicon, and phenolic resin as the source of carbon. The powders and films were prepared by the carbothermal reduction reaction between the silica and the carbon source. The XRD analysis indicates that the powders and films consist of SiC, while the surface area measurement indicates that they contain micropores. SEM and AFM studies of the same films also validate this observation. The powders and membranes were also stable under different corrosive and harsh environments. The effects of these different treatments on the internal surface area, pore size distribution, and transport properties, were studied for both the powders and the membranes using the aforementioned techniques and XPS. Finally the SiC membrane materials are shown to have satisfactory hydrothermal stability for the proposed application. In Yr III, we will focus on the demonstration of the potential benefit using the SiC membrane developed from Yr I and II for the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction

  15. Performance evaluation and mass transfer study of CO2 absorption in flat sheet membrane contactor using novel porous polysulfone membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabian, Nima; Ghoreyshi, Ali Asghar; Rahimpour, Ahmad; Shakeri, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    The performance of gas-liquid membrane contactor for CO 2 capture was investigated using a novel polysulfone (PSF) flat membrane prepared via non-solvent phase inversion method. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) was used as an additive in the dope solution of PSF membranes. Morphological studies by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that PSF membrane with PVP has a finger-like structure, but the PSF membrane without PVP has a sponge-like structure. Also, characterization results through atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurement demonstrated that the porosity, surface roughness and hydrophobicity of the PSF membrane increased with addition of PVP to the dope solution. Mass transfer resistance analysis, based on CO 2 absorption flux, displayed that addition of PVP to the dope solution of PSF membrane decreased membrane mass transfer resistance, and significantly improved CO 2 absorption flux up to 2.7 and 1.8 times of absorption fluxes of PSF membrane without PVP and commercial PVDF, respectively.

  16. An Investigation of Low Biofouling Copper-charged Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asapu, Sunitha

    Water is essential for the survival of life on Earth, but pollutants in water can cause dangerous diseases and fatalities. The need for purified water has been increasing with increasing world population; however, natural sources of water such as rivers, lakes and streams, are progressively falling shorter and shorter of meeting water needs. The provision of clean, drinkable water to people is a key factor for the development of novel and alternative water purification technologies, such as membrane separations. Nanofiltration (NF) is a membrane separations technology that purifies water from lower quality sources, such as brackish water, seawater and wastewater. During the filtration of such sources, materials that are rejected by the membrane may accumulate on the surface of the membrane to foul it. Such materials include organic and inorganic matter, colloids, salts and microorganisms. The former four can often be controlled via pretreatment; however, the accumulation of microorganisms is more problematic to membranes. Biofouling is the accumulation and growth of microorganisms on the surface of membranes and on feed spacers. After attachment, microorganisms excrete extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which form a matrix around the organism's outer surface as biofilm. These biofilms are detrimental and result in irreversible membrane fouling. Copper and silver ions inactivate the bacterial cells and prevent the DNA replication in microbial cells. Previous studies using copper-charged feed spacers have shown the ability of copper to control biofouling without a significant amount of copper leaching from copper-charged polypropylene (PP) feed spacers during crossflow filtration. Also, filtration using unmodified speed facers experienced almost 70% flux decline, while filtration using copper-charged feed spacers displayed only 25% flux decline. These intriguing results led to the hypothesis that the polymer chemistry could be extrapolated to produce membranes

  17. Kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 is present in promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and its surface expression increases during metacyclogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise CS Matos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 (KMP-11, a protein present in all kinetoplastid protozoa, is considered a potential candidate for a leishmaniasis vaccine. A suitable leishmaniasis vaccine candidate molecule must be expressed in amastigotes, the infective stage for mammals. However, the expression of KMP-11 in Leishmania amastigotes has been a subject of controversy. We evaluated the expression of this molecule in logarithmic and stationary growth phase promastigotes, as well as in amastigotes, of Leishmania amazonensis by immunoblotting, flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry, using a monoclonal antibody against KMP-11. We found that KMP-11 is present in promastigotes and amastigotes. In both stages, the protein was found in association with membrane structures (at the cell surface, flagellar pocket and intracellular vesicles. More importantly, its surface expression is higher in amastigotes than in promastigotes and increases during metacyclogenesis. The increased expression of KMP-11 in metacyclic promastigotes, and especially in amastigotes, indicates a role for this molecule in the parasite relationship with the mammalian host. The presence of this molecule in amastigotes is consistent with the previously demonstrated immunoprotective capacity of vaccine prototypes based on the KMP-11-coding gene and the presence of humoral and cellular immune responses to KMP-11 in Leishmania-infected humans and animals.

  18. Effect of membrane on carbonation and carbon dioxide uptake of Chlorella sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suali Emma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies showed that as low as 5% CO2 increased microalgae growth. However, common bioreactor operation resulted in low carbonation due to poor CO2 mass transfer and this inhibited CO2 uptake of microalgae. Although bubbling increases mass transfer of CO2-O2 exchange, preserving high dissolved CO2 remains the most challenging of microalgae cultivation in bioreactor. In order to increase high dissolved CO2 and CO2-O2 exchange, this study employed two types of membrane; hollow-fibre membrane for carbonation and hydrophobic membrane for deoxygenation. It was found that membrane increased carbonation from 20 % to 75 % when operated at control CO2 concentration. The hollow-fibre membrane capable of creating as small as 2 mm bubble which effective for high carbonation. At the same time, itincreased CO2 uptake up to 85% in bioreactor. The hydrophobic membrane removed 43% O2 from the bioreactor. Both membranes increased mass transfer of CO2-O2 exchange in bioreactor which stimulated microalgae growth.

  19. Dewatering of Chlorella pyrenoidosa using diatomite dynamic membrane: filtration performance, membrane fouling and cake behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yalei; Zhao, Yangying; Chu, Huaqiang; Zhou, Xuefei; Dong, Bingzhi

    2014-01-01

    The diatomite dynamic membrane (DDM) was utilized to dewater Chlorella pyrenoidosa of 2 g dry weight/L under continuous-flow mode, whose ultimate algae concentration ranged from 43 g to 22 g dry weight/L of different culture time. The stable flux of DDM could reach 30 L/m(2) h over a 24 h operation time without backwash. Influences of extracellular organic matters (EOM) on filtration behavior and membrane fouling were studied. The DDM was divided into three sub-layers, the slime layer, the algae layer and the diatomite layer from the outside to the inside of the cake layer based on components and morphologies. It was found that EOM caused membrane fouling by accumulating in the slime and algae layers. The DDM intercepted polysaccharides, protein-like substances, humic-like substances and some low-MW organics. Proteins were indicated the major membrane foulants with increased protein/polysaccharide ratio from the slime layer to the diatomite layer as culture time increased. This method could be applied to subsequent treatment of microalgae coupling technology of wastewater treatment or microalgae harvesting for producing biofuel. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Physiological and chemical response of lichens transplanted in and around an industrial area of south Italy: relationship with the lichen diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Luca; Pisani, Tommaso; Guttová, Anna; Sardella, Giovanni; Loppi, Stefano

    2011-05-01

    The lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. has been exposed for 3 months in and around an industrial area of Mediterranean Italy for monitoring physiological (photosynthetic efficiency, membrane lipids peroxidation and cell membrane integrity) and chemical (bioaccumulation of the heavy metals Cr, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) effects and investigate the consistency with the environmental quality status depicted by the diversity of epiphytic lichens (index of lichen diversity (ILD)). The results showed that thalli transplanted close to the industrial area exhibited early stress symptoms, as revealed by the increase in electrical conductivity indicating a damage endured by lichen cell membranes. The electrical conductivity was inversely correlated with the diversity of epiphytic lichens recorded at the same sites. The ILD negatively correlated also with membrane lipid peroxidation and the rate of accumulation of Pb, V and Zn. Reciprocal correlations found among trace elements pinpointed vehicular traffic and metal processing in the industrial area as main sources. The damage endured by cell membranes was the best physiological indicator consistent with the air quality status depicted by the diversity of epiphytic lichens. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Method of producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane and associated product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Paul K. T.; Gallaher, George R.; Wu, Jeffrey C. S.

    1993-01-01

    A method of producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane including passing a selected hydrocarbon vapor through a ceramic membrane and controlling ceramic membrane exposure temperature and ceramic membrane exposure time. The method produces a carbon coated ceramic membrane of reduced pore size and modified surface properties having increased chemical, thermal and hydrothermal stability over an uncoated ceramic membrane.

  2. Enhanced graphene oxide membranes and methods for making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yongsoon; Gotthold, David W.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Liu, Wei

    2018-03-20

    A method for making a graphene oxide membrane and a resulting free-standing graphene oxide membrane that provides desired qualities of water permeability and selectivity at larger sizes, thinner cross sections, and with increased ruggedness as compared to existing membranes and processes.

  3. Membrane Proteins : The Key Players of a Cancer Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, Kim R.

    Membrane proteins are involved in the prognosis of the most common forms of cancer. Membrane proteins are the hallmark of a cancer cell. The overexpressed membrane receptors are becoming increasingly important in cancer cell therapy. Current renewing therapy approaches based on receptor

  4. Zinc can increase the activity of protein kinase C and contributes to its binding to plasma membranes in T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csermely, P; Szamel, M; Resch, K; Somogyi, J

    1988-05-15

    In the primary structure of protein kinase C, the presence of a putative metal-binding site has been suggested (Parker, P.J., Coussens, L., Totty, N., Rhee, L., Young, S., Chen, E., Stabel, S., Waterfield, M.D., and Ullrich, A. (1986) Science 233, 853-859). In the present report, we demonstrate that the most abundant intracellular heavy metal, zinc, can increase the activity of cytosolic protein kinase C. Zinc reversibly binds the enzyme to plasma membranes, and it may contribute to the calcium-induced binding as well. The intracellular heavy metal chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine prevents the phorbol ester- and antigen-induced translocation of protein kinase C. This effect can be totally reversed by the concomitant addition of Zn2+, while Fe2+ and Mn2+ are only partially counteractive. Our results suggest that zinc can activate protein kinase C and contributes to its binding to plasma membranes in T lymphocytes induced by Ca2+, phorbol ester, or antigen.

  5. Mechanical properties of 3D printed warped membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmrlj, Andrej; Xiao, Kechao; Weaver, James C.; Vlassak, Joost J.; Nelson, David R.

    2015-03-01

    We explore how a frozen background metric affects the mechanical properties of solid planar membranes. Our focus is a special class of ``warped membranes'' with a preferred random height profile characterized by random Gaussian variables h (q) in Fourier space with zero mean and variance q-m . It has been shown theoretically that in the linear response regime, this quenched random disorder increases the effective bending rigidity, while the Young's and shear moduli are reduced. Compared to flat plates of the same thickness t, the bending rigidity of warped membranes is increased by a factor hv / t while the in-plane elastic moduli are reduced by t /hv , where hv =√{ } describes the frozen height fluctuations. Interestingly, hv is system size dependent for warped membranes characterized with m > 2 . We present experimental tests of these predictions, using warped membranes prepared via high resolution 3D printing.

  6. Nanodisc-solubilized membrane protein library reflects the membrane proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Michael T; Wilcox, Kyle C; Klein, William L; Sligar, Stephen G

    2013-05-01

    The isolation and identification of unknown membrane proteins offers the prospect of discovering new pharmaceutical targets and identifying key biochemical receptors. However, interactions between membrane protein targets and soluble ligands are difficult to study in vitro due to the insolubility of membrane proteins in non-detergent systems. Nanodiscs, nanoscale discoidal lipid bilayers encircled by a membrane scaffold protein belt, have proven to be an effective platform to solubilize membrane proteins and have been used to study a wide variety of purified membrane proteins. This report details the incorporation of an unbiased population of membrane proteins from Escherichia coli membranes into Nanodiscs. This solubilized membrane protein library (SMPL) forms a soluble in vitro model of the membrane proteome. Since Nanodiscs contain isolated proteins or small complexes, the SMPL is an ideal platform for interactomics studies and pull-down assays of membrane proteins. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the protein population before and after formation of the Nanodisc library indicates that a large percentage of the proteins are incorporated into the library. Proteomic identification of several prominent bands demonstrates the successful incorporation of outer and inner membrane proteins into the Nanodisc library.

  7. Changes in macular pigment optical density after membrane peeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Mario R; Cennamo, Gilda; Grassi, Piergiacomo; Sparnelli, Federica; Allegrini, Davide; Cennamo, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    To highlight the differences in macular pigment optical density (MPOD) between eyes with vitreoretinal interface syndrome and healthy control eyes, to assess the changes in MPOD in eyes treated with macular peeling, to investigate the relationships between MPOD changes and measures of retinal sensitivity such as best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and microperimetry. In this cross-sectional comparative study, 30 eyes affected by idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM, 15eyes) or full-thickness macular hole (FTMH, 15eyes) were compared with 60 eyes from 30 healthy age-matched patients. MPOD values (mean MPOD, maximum MPOD, MPOD area, and MPOD volume) were measured in a range of 4°-7° of eccentricity around the fovea, using the one-wavelength reflectometry method (Visucam 200, Carl-Zeiss Meditec). Patients affected by iERM and FTMH were treated with vitrectomy and epiretinal membrane-inner limiting membrane (ERM-ILM) peeling, with follow-up examinations performed preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. The main outcome measures were the differences in MPOD between eyes with vitreoretinal interface syndrome and healthy eyes, changes in MPOD after ERM-ILM peeling, and relationships between MPOD and functional changes. Mean MPOD differed significantly between control eyes and those with iERM (P = .0001) or FTMH (P = .0006). The max MPOD and MPOD area increased, but not significantly. After peeling, the only significant change in MPOD was in MPOD volume (P = .01). In the ERM group, postoperative mean MPOD correlated significantly with best-corrected visual acuity (r = .739, P = .002). MPOD was reduced in patients with iERM or FTMH compared with healthy eyes. We found a significant correlation between the mean postoperative MPOD and postoperative BCVA, hypothesizing that the postoperative increase in mean MPOD could be due to a change in distribution for unfolding and expansion of the fovea after the peeling. MOPD may be considered as a prognostic factor associated