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Sample records for members localization function

  1. Cooperative functions: meeting members' needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark G. Rickenbach

    2006-01-01

    Cooperatives are effective when they meet the needs of the members. In past and current offerings by cooperatives as a whole and forestry cooperatives in particular, four functional categories cover the typical services a forest landowner might gain access to through joining (Cobia 1989). The four categories - marketing, supply, service, and social - are defined and...

  2. Career development through local chapter involvement: perspectives from chapter members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Melissa; Inniss-Richter, Zipporah; Mata, Holly; Cottrell, Randall R

    2013-07-01

    The importance of career development in professional organizations has been noted in the literature. Personal and professional benefits of membership regardless of discipline can be found across the career spectrum from student to executive. The benefits of professional membership with respect to career development in local chapter organizations have seldom been studied. Local chapter participation may offer significant career development opportunities for the practitioner, faculty member, and student. The purpose of this study was to explore the importance of local chapter involvement to the career development of health education practitioners. An 18-item questionnaire was disseminated to the membership of three local SOPHE (Society for Public Health Education) chapters that explored the level of local chapter involvement and the impact of how specific professional development activities impacted career development. The results of the survey highlighted the importance of continuing education programs, networking, and leadership experience in developing one's career that are offered by local SOPHE chapter involvement. Making a positive impact in the community and earning the respect of one's peers were most often reported as indicators of career success. These factors can directly impact local chapter participation. Career development can certainly be enhanced by active participation in the local chapter of a professional association.

  3. Chemical Functionalization of Graphene Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchi, Isabella Anna; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Bianco, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Thanks to their outstanding physicochemical properties, graphene and its derivatives are interesting nanomaterials with a high potential in several fields. Graphene, graphene oxide, and reduced graphene oxide, however, differ partially in their characteristics due to their diverse surface composition. Those differences influence the chemical reactivity of these materials. In the following chapter the reactivity and main functionalization reactions performed on graphene, graphene oxide, and reduced graphene oxide are discussed. A part is also dedicated to the main analytical techniques used for characterization of these materials. Functionalization of graphene and its derivatives is highly important to modulate their characteristics and design graphene-based conjugates with novel properties. Functionalization can be covalent by forming strong and stable bonds with the graphene surface, or non-covalent via π-π, electrostatic, hydrophobic, and/or van der Waals interactions. Both types of functionalization are currently exploited.

  4. Some functional and adaptive aspects of vessel member morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P.

    1976-01-01

    The hypothesis of functionally adaptive diversification of wood structure in the course of evolution as advanced by Carlquist is critically tested for vessel member length and type of perforation plate. The functional significance of within-tree variation in vessel member morphology is discussed

  5. Local invariance via comparison functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Carja

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider the ordinary differential equation $u'(t=f(t,u(t$, where $f:[a,b]imes Do mathbb{R}^n$ is a given function, while $D$ is an open subset in $mathbb{R}^n$. We prove that, if $Ksubset D$ is locally closed and there exists a comparison function $omega:[a,b]imesmathbb{R}_+o mathbb{R}$ such that $$ liminf_{hdownarrow 0}frac{1}{h}ig[d(xi+hf(t,xi;K-d(xi;Kig] leqomega(t,d(xi;K $$ for each $(t,xiin [a,b]imes D$, then $K$ is locally invariant with respect to $f$. We show further that, under some natural extra condition, the converse statement is also true.

  6. Electron localization functions and local measures of the covariance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electron localization measure proposed by Becke and Edgecombe is shown to be related to the covariance of the electron pair distribution. Just as with the electron localization function, the local covariance does not seem to be, in and of itself, a useful quantity for elucidating shell structure. A function of the local ...

  7. Electron localization functions and local measures of the covariance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A function of the local covariance, however, is useful for this purpose. A different function, based on the hyperbolic tangent, is proposed to elucidate the shell structure encapsulated by the local covariance; this function also seems to work better for the electron localization measure of Becke and Edgecombe. In addition, we ...

  8. Personality and community prevention teams: Dimensions of team leader and member personality predicting team functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Mark E; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Greenberg, Mark T

    2008-11-01

    The predictors and correlates of positive functioning among community prevention teams have been examined in a number of research studies; however, the role of personality has been neglected. In this study, we examined whether team member and leader personality dimensions assessed at the time of team formation predicted local prevention team functioning 2.5-3.5 years later. Participants were 159 prevention team members in 14 communities participating in the PROSPER study of prevention program dissemination. Three aspects of personality, aggregated at the team level, were examined as predictors: Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. A series of multivariate regression analyses were performed that accounted for the interdependency of five categories of team functioning. Results showed that average team member Openness was negatively, and Conscientiousness was positively linked to team functioning. The findings have implications for decisions about the level and nature of technical assistance support provided to community prevention teams.

  9. Distinct functions of Egr gene family members in cognitive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseline Poirier

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The different gene members of the Egr family of transcriptional regulators have often been considered to have related functions in brain, based on their co-expression in many cell-types and structures, the relatively high homology of the translated proteins and their ability to bind to the same consensus DNA binding sequence. Recent research, however, suggest this might not be the case. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of the functional roles of the different Egr family members in learning and memory. We briefly outline evidence from mutant mice that Egr1 is required specifically for the consolidation of long-term memory, while Egr3 is primarily essential for short-term memory. We also review our own recent findings from newly generated forebrain-specific conditional Egr2 mutant mice, which revealed that Egr2, as opposed to Egr1 and Egr3, is dispensable for several forms of learning and memory and on the contrary can act as an inhibitory constraint for certain cognitive functions. The studies reviewed here highlight the fact that Egr family members may have different, and in certain circumstances antagonistic functions in the adult brain.

  10. Stress regulated members of the plant organic cation transporter family are localized to the vacuolar membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Wolfgang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Arabidopsis six genes group into the gene family of the organic cation transporters (OCTs. In animals the members of the OCT-family are mostly characterized as polyspecific transporters involved in the homeostasis of solutes, the transport of monoamine neurotransmitters and the transport of choline and carnitine. In plants little is known about function, localisation and regulation of this gene family. Only one protein has been characterized as a carnitine transporter at the plasma membrane so far. Findings We localized the five uncharacterized members of the Arabidopsis OCT family, designated OCT2-OCT6, via GFP fusions and protoplast transformation to the tonoplast. Expression analysis with RNA Gel Blots showed a distinct, organ-specific expression pattern of the individual genes. With reporter gene fusion of four members we analyzed the tissue specific distribution of OCT2, 3, 4, and 6. In experiments with salt, drought and cold stress, we could show that AtOCT4, 5 and 6 are up-regulated during drought stress, AtOCT3 and 5 during cold stress and AtOCT 5 and 6 during salt stress treatments. Conclusion Localisation of the proteins at the tonoplast and regulation of the gene expression under stress conditions suggests a specific role for the transporters in plant adaptation to environmental stress.

  11. Communicative Interaction among Local Editorial Staff Members: Current Situation and the Ways of its Improving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya V. Korotitskaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Communication between management and employees is very important in organizations. However, communication problems might be more felt in any media organization as a whole and in the local media staff in particular. It’s obvious that news workers have everyday communicative interaction with different newsmakers. The article deals with the study and analysis of the communicative interaction between the local editorial creative staff members. Internal and external organizational understanding data are considered. It is determined that the level of organizational communication development influences the local editorial success and employees’ performance. Mutual understanding as the basic criterion of effective communication has several forms. The subject of our study is organizational understanding, that is, a special type of editorial staff relationship which is limited by the boundaries of the organization and is essential for its successful functioning and development. The analysis of empirical data allowed to identify the main problematic aspects and to work out the recommendations for vertical and horizontal communication development.

  12. Functional characterization of two new members of the caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferase-like gene family from Vanilla planifolia reveals a new class of plastid-localized O-methyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiez, Thomas; Hartman, Thomas G; Dudai, Nativ; Yan, Qing; Lawton, Michael; Havkin-Frenkel, Daphna; Belanger, Faith C

    2011-08-01

    Caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferases (OMTs) have been characterized from numerous plant species and have been demonstrated to be involved in lignin biosynthesis. Higher plant species are known to have additional caffeoyl CoA OMT-like genes, which have not been well characterized. Here, we identified two new caffeoyl CoA OMT-like genes by screening a cDNA library from specialized hair cells of pods of the orchid Vanilla planifolia. Characterization of the corresponding two enzymes, designated Vp-OMT4 and Vp-OMT5, revealed that in vitro both enzymes preferred as a substrate the flavone tricetin, yet their sequences and phylogenetic relationships to other enzymes are distinct from each other. Quantitative analysis of gene expression indicated a dramatic tissue-specific expression pattern for Vp-OMT4, which was highly expressed in the hair cells of the developing pod, the likely location of vanillin biosynthesis. Although Vp-OMT4 had a lower activity with the proposed vanillin precursor, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, than with tricetin, the tissue specificity of expression suggests it may be a candidate for an enzyme involved in vanillin biosynthesis. In contrast, the Vp-OMT5 gene was mainly expressed in leaf tissue and only marginally expressed in pod hair cells. Phylogenetic analysis suggests Vp-OMT5 evolved from a cyanobacterial enzyme and it clustered within a clade in which the sequences from eukaryotic species had predicted chloroplast transit peptides. Transient expression of a GFP-fusion in tobacco demonstrated that Vp-OMT5 was localized in the plastids. This is the first flavonoid OMT demonstrated to be targeted to the plastids.

  13. Trust region minimization of orbital localization functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyvik, Ida-Marie; Jansik, Branislav; Jørgensen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    The trust region method has been applied to the minimization of localization functions, and it is shown that both local occupied and local virtual Hartree–Fock (HF) orbitals can be obtained. Because step sizes are size extensive in the trust region method, large steps may be required when...

  14. Clinical nursing leaders', team members' and service managers' experiences of implementing evidence at a local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitson, Alison; Silverston, Heidi; Wiechula, Rick; Zeitz, Kathryn; Marcoionni, Danni; Page, Tammy

    2011-05-01

    To describe the experiences of 14 clinical nursing leaders introducing a knowledge translation (KT) project into one metropolitan acute care hospital in South Australia. The study also explored team members' and service managers' experiences. KT strategies assume that local (nursing) clinical leaders have the capacity and capability to champion innovation combining positional leadership roles (ward leader) with a project lead role. There is limited evidence to support these assumptions. Semi-structured interviews of clinical nursing leaders and managers were undertaken at month 4 and 12 of the project. Data were also collected from the interdisciplinary team members (n = 28). Clinical nursing leaders identified risks and anxieties associated with taking on an additional leadership role, whereas managers acknowledged the multiple pressures on the system and the need for local level innovation. Team members generally reported positive experiences. With support, clinical nursing leaders can effectively embrace KT project leadership roles that complement their positional leadership roles. Clinical nursing leaders' experiences differed from nursing and medical managers' experiences.   Managers need to be more attuned to the personal risks local leaders experience, providing support for leaders to experiment and innovate. Managers need to integrate local priorities with broader system wide agendas. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. The oscillation of separately locally Lipschitz functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. H. Herasymchuk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We prove that a function which dened on the product of two metric Baire spaces is the oscillation of some separately locally Lipschitz function if and only if it is an upper semicontinuous non-negative function which has a crosswise nowhere dense closure of its support.

  16. Team members' emotional displays as indicators of team functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Astrid C; Van Kleef, Gerben A; Sanchez-Burks, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Emotions are inherent to team life, yet it is unclear how observers use team members' emotional expressions to make sense of team processes. Drawing on Emotions as Social Information theory, we propose that observers use team members' emotional displays as a source of information to predict the team's trajectory. We argue and show that displays of sadness elicit more pessimistic inferences regarding team dynamics (e.g., trust, satisfaction, team effectiveness, conflict) compared to displays of happiness. Moreover, we find that this effect is strengthened when the future interaction between the team members is more ambiguous (i.e., under ethnic dissimilarity; Study 1) and when emotional displays can be clearly linked to the team members' collective experience (Study 2). These studies shed light on when and how people use others' emotional expressions to form impressions of teams.

  17. State Cooperative Councils: What are the Local Member Cooperatives Looking For?

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, Joan R.; Keenan, Michael

    1997-01-01

    State cooperative councils serve a valuable role for local cooperatives by providing services including education, legislative monitoring and lobbying, and promotion of the cooperative form of business. This paper outlines the specific challenges that state councils are experiencing in today's changing agribusiness environment. The results of a survey of members of the Colorado Cooperative Council are reported. Logit analysis is performed to identify the factors contributing to the cooperativ...

  18. In the Reform of Decentralization, the Present Situation of the Women Members' Activities in the Local Government

    OpenAIRE

    濱, 高公; 若山, 浩司; Takakimi, HAMA; Hiroshi, WAKAYAMA; 四国大学大学院経営情報学研究科; 四国大学大学院経営情報学研究科; Graduate School of Management and Information Science Shikoku Univ.; Graduate School of Management and information Science Shikoku Univ.

    2006-01-01

    The Reform of Decentralization is in progress in Japan. It is in progress to take part in the Men and Women Communal Society in this circumstances, the Women Members' Activities is conspicuously visible in the Local Government. The Women Members is still small. We want to inspect what people respect for the Women Members.

  19. The pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member tBid localizes to mitochondrial contact sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkins Guy A

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following cleavage by caspase 8, the C-terminus of Bid translocates from the cytosol to the mitochondria that is dependent upon structures formed by the mitochondrial-specific lipid cardiolipin. Once associated with mitochondria, truncated Bid (tBid causes the potent release of cytochrome c, endonuclease G, and smac. Results We investigated whether tBid localizes specifically to the contact sites of mitochondria purported to be rich in cardiolipin. A point mutation changing the glycine at position 94 to glutamic acid in the BH3 domain of tBid (tBidG94E was principally used because mitochondria treated with this mutant tBid displayed better preservation of the outer membrane than those treated with wild type tBid. Additionally, tBidG94E lowers the cytochrome c releasing activity of tBid without affecting its targeting to mitochondria. Electron microscope tomography coupled with immunogold labeling was used as a new hybrid technique to investigate the three-dimensional distributions of tBid and tBidG94E around the mitochondrial periphery. The statistics of spatial point patterns was used to analyze the association of these proteins with contact sites. Conclusions Immunoelectron tomography with statistical analysis confirmed the preferential association of tBid with mitochondrial contact sites. These findings link these sites with cardiolipin in tBid targeting and suggest a role for Bcl-2 family members in regulating the activity of contact sites in relation to apoptosis. We propose a mechanism whereby Bcl-2 proteins alter mitochondrial function by disrupting cardiolipin containing contact site membranes.

  20. Locality of correlation in density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kieron; Cancio, Antonio; Gould, Tim; Pittalis, Stefano

    2016-08-07

    The Hohenberg-Kohn density functional was long ago shown to reduce to the Thomas-Fermi (TF) approximation in the non-relativistic semiclassical (or large-Z) limit for all matter, i.e., the kinetic energy becomes local. Exchange also becomes local in this limit. Numerical data on the correlation energy of atoms support the conjecture that this is also true for correlation, but much less relevant to atoms. We illustrate how expansions around a large particle number are equivalent to local density approximations and their strong relevance to density functional approximations. Analyzing highly accurate atomic correlation energies, we show that EC → -AC ZlnZ + BCZ as Z → ∞, where Z is the atomic number, AC is known, and we estimate BC to be about 37 mhartree. The local density approximation yields AC exactly, but a very incorrect value for BC, showing that the local approximation is less relevant for the correlation alone. This limit is a benchmark for the non-empirical construction of density functional approximations. We conjecture that, beyond atoms, the leading correction to the local density approximation in the large-Z limit generally takes this form, but with BC a functional of the TF density for the system. The implications for the construction of approximate density functionals are discussed.

  1. Operator functions and localization of spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Gil’, Michael I

    2003-01-01

    "Operator Functions and Localization of Spectra" is the first book that presents a systematic exposition of bounds for the spectra of various linear nonself-adjoint operators in a Hilbert space, having discrete and continuous spectra. In particular bounds for the spectra of integral, differential and integro-differential operators, as well as finite and infinite matrices are established. The volume also presents a systematic exposition of estimates for norms of operator-valued functions and their applications.

  2. Examination of Local Functional Homogeneity in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing neuroimaging evidence suggests that autism patients exhibit abnormal brain structure and function. We used the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE sample to analyze locally focal (~8 mm functional connectivity of 223 autism patients and 285 normal controls from 15 international sites using a recently developed surface-based approach. We observed enhanced local connectivity in the middle frontal cortex, left precuneus, and right superior temporal sulcus, and reduced local connectivity in the right insular cortex. The local connectivity in the right middle frontal gyrus was positively correlated with the total score of the autism diagnostic observation schedule whereas the local connectivity within the right superior temporal sulcus was positively correlated with total subscores of both the communication and the stereotyped behaviors and restricted interests of the schedule. Finally, significant interactions between age and clinical diagnosis were detected in the left precuneus. These findings replicated previous observations that used a volume-based approach and suggested possible neuropathological impairments of local information processing in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and insular cortices. Novel site-variability analysis demonstrated high reproducibility of our findings across the 15 international sites. The age-disease interaction provides a potential target region for future studies to further elucidate the neurodevelopmental mechanisms of autism.

  3. Functional and cancer genomics of ASXL family members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, M

    2013-01-01

    Additional sex combs-like (ASXL)1, ASXL2 and ASXL3 are human homologues of the Drosophila Asx gene that are involved in the regulation or recruitment of the Polycomb-group repressor complex (PRC) and trithorax-group (trxG) activator complex. ASXL proteins consist of ASXN, ASXH, ASXM1, ASXM2 and PHD domains. ASXL1 directly interacts with BAP1, KDM1A (LSD1), NCOA1 and nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs), such as retinoic acid receptors, oestrogen receptor and androgen receptor. ASXL family members are epigenetic scaffolding proteins that assemble epigenetic regulators and transcription factors to specific genomic loci with histone modifications. ASXL1 is involved in transcriptional repression through an interaction with PRC2 and also contributes to transcriptional regulation through interactions with BAP1 and/or NHR complexes. Germ-line mutations of human ASXL1 and ASXL3 occur in Bohring-Opitz and related syndromes. Amplification and overexpression of ASXL1 occur in cervical cancer. Truncation mutations of ASXL1 occur in colorectal cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI), malignant myeloid diseases, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and liver, prostate and breast cancers; those of ASXL2 occur in prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer and breast cancer and those of ASXL3 are observed in melanoma. EPC1-ASXL2 gene fusion occurs in adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma. The prognosis of myeloid malignancies with misregulating truncation mutations of ASXL1 is poor. ASXL family members are assumed to be tumour suppressive or oncogenic in a context-dependent manner. PMID:23736028

  4. Who Do We Deploy for Psychological Operations: A Function Profile for TPT Members

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wetzer, I. M; van Bemmel, I. E

    2008-01-01

    ...) a function profile for TPT members and 2) an example of how to measure these competences. Conclusions; This function profile describes personality characteristics and competences that are relevant for TPT members. Each personality characteristic and each competence is defined, and behavioral indicators are described in which they reflect. In addition, a method that enables to measure them is described.

  5. Structure of BRS-invariant local functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, F.

    1993-01-01

    For a large class of gauge theories a nilpotent BRS-operator s is constructed and its cohomology in the space of local functionals of the off-shell fields is shown to be isomorphic to the cohomology of s=s+d on functions f(C,T) of tensor fields T and of variables C which are constructed of the ghosts and the connection forms. The result allows general statements about the structure of invariant classical actions and anomaly cadidates whose BRS-variation vanishes off-shell. The assumptions under which the result holds are thoroughly discussed. (orig.)

  6. Properties of field functionals and characterization of local functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouder, Christian; Dang, Nguyen Viet; Laurent-Gengoux, Camille; Rejzner, Kasia

    2018-02-01

    Functionals (i.e., functions of functions) are widely used in quantum field theory and solid-state physics. In this paper, functionals are given a rigorous mathematical framework and their main properties are described. The choice of the proper space of test functions (smooth functions) and of the relevant concept of differential (Bastiani differential) are discussed. The relation between the multiple derivatives of a functional and the corresponding distributions is described in detail. It is proved that, in a neighborhood of every test function, the support of a smooth functional is uniformly compactly supported and the order of the corresponding distribution is uniformly bounded. Relying on a recent work by Dabrowski, several spaces of functionals are furnished with a complete and nuclear topology. In view of physical applications, it is shown that most formal manipulations can be given a rigorous meaning. A new concept of local functionals is proposed and two characterizations of them are given: the first one uses the additivity (or Hammerstein) property, the second one is a variant of Peetre's theorem. Finally, the first step of a cohomological approach to quantum field theory is carried out by proving a global Poincaré lemma and defining multi-vector fields and graded functionals within our framework.

  7. Mathematical model for research and analyze relations and functions between enterprises, members of cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelov, Kiril; Kaynakchieva, Vesela

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the current study is to research and analyze Mathematical model for research and analyze of relations and functions between enterprises, members of cluster, and its approbation in given cluster. Subject of the study are theoretical mechanisms for the definition of mathematical models for research and analyze of relations and functions between enterprises, members of cluster. Object of the study are production enterprises, members of cluster. Results of this study show that described theoretical mathematical model is applicable for research and analyze of functions and relations between enterprises, members of cluster from different industrial sectors. This circumstance creates alternatives for election of cluster, where is experimented this model for interaction improvement between enterprises, members of cluster.

  8. Cultivating Political Powerhouses: TFA Corps Members Experiences That Shape Local Political Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Rebecca; White, Rachel; Reckhow, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, Teach for America (TFA) has invested in developing corps members as leaders. Although TFA asks corps members for a two-year commitment, TFA celebrates the achievements of alumni who have gone on to careers in politics, public policy, and advocacy. Thus, many community leaders see the arrival of TFA corps members as having a…

  9. Subcortical Local Functional Hyperconnectivity in Cannabis Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manza, Peter; Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D

    2018-03-01

    Cannabis abuse (CA) has been associated with psychopathology, including negative emotionality and higher risk of psychosis, particularly with early age of initiation. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are poorly understood. Because aberrant dopamine signaling is implicated in cannabis-associated psychopathology, we hypothesized that regular CA would be associated with altered resting-state functional connectivity in dopamine midbrain-striatal circuits. We examined resting-state brain activity of subcortical regions in 441 young adults from the Human Connectome Project, including 30 subjects with CA meeting DSM-IV criteria for dependence and 30 control subjects matched on age, sex, education, body mass index, anxiety, depression, and alcohol and tobacco usage. Across all subjects, local functional connectivity density hubs in subcortical regions were most prominent in ventral striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, dorsal midbrain, and posterior-ventral brainstem. As hypothesized, subjects with CA showed markedly increased local functional connectivity density relative to control subjects, not only in ventral striatum (where nucleus accumbens is located) and midbrain (where substantia nigra and ventral tegmental nuclei are located) but also in brainstem and lateral thalamus. These effects were observed in the absence of significant differences in subcortical volumes and were most pronounced in individuals who began cannabis use earliest in life and who reported high levels of negative emotionality. Together, these findings suggest that chronic CA is associated with changes in resting-state brain function, particularly in dopaminergic nuclei implicated in psychosis but that are also critical for habit formation and reward processing. These results shed light on neurobiological differences that may be relevant to psychopathology associated with cannabis use. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Community and team member factors that influence the early phase functioning of community prevention teams: the PROSPER project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Mark T; Feinberg, Mark E; Meyer-Chilenski, Sarah; Spoth, Richard L; Redmond, Cleve

    2007-11-01

    This research examines the early development of community teams in a specific university-community partnership project called PROSPER (Spoth et al., Prev Sci 5:31-39, 2004). PROSPER supports local community teams in rural areas and small towns to implement evidence-based programs intended to support positive youth development and reduce early substance use. The study evaluated 14 community teams and included longitudinal data from 108 team members. Specifically, it examined how community demographics and team member characteristics, perceptions, and attitudes at initial team formation were related to local team functioning 6 months later, when teams were planning for prevention program implementation. Findings indicate that community demographics (poverty), perceived community readiness, characteristics of local team members (previous collaborative experience) and attitudes toward prevention played a substantial role in predicting the quality of community team functioning 6 months later. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: The authors identify barriers to successful long-term implementation of prevention programs and add to a small, but important, longitudinal research knowledge base related to community coalitions.

  11. Union Members Are Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Unions serve their members' interests. But union members are also community members, and their interests go well beyond increasing pay and benefits. A local union president has found that his members are best served by participating in a community-wide coalition. Providing eyeglasses to needy students, promoting healthy eating, and increasing…

  12. Basic Skills and Employment and Training Programs: A Monograph for Local Elected Officials and Private Industry Council Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpf, Lori

    This monograph provides advice for local officials and Private Industry Council (PIC) members about youth employment and unemployment problems and strategies for solving them. The first part of the monograph sketches the problem of unemployment and its roots in a changing economy, youths' lack of basic skills, and the mismatch between the needs of…

  13. Achievement of Climate Planning Objectives among U.S. Member Cities of the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reams, Margaret A; Clinton, Kelsey W; Lam, Nina S N

    2012-12-01

    In an effort to address climate change, many cities have joined the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) whose members commit to work toward five specific program objectives designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This study examines the extent to which 257 member cities in the US have been successful in achieving these program milestones and identifies factors that may explain variation in the performance of member cities. Potential influences on milestone attainment include socioeconomic, political and ideological characteristics of residents, length of ICLEI membership, existence of other climate programs within the state, and local environmental pressures. Multiple regression results indicate that length of membership is the strongest predictor of milestone attainment, regardless of local socioeconomic conditions, ideological and political orientations of residents, or other climate-related initiatives within the state. This finding supports the general effectiveness of ICLEI's network organizational model and its outreach and education efforts. However, member cities facing more "climate stress", including higher levels of hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) and greater automobile use among residents are making slower progress. The findings yield insight into the conditions under which cities engaged in climate planning are more likely to succeed in reducing local greenhouse gas emissions-relevant information for planners, community stakeholders and administrators of organizations like ICLEI.

  14. Burden, coping, physical symptoms and psychological morbidity in caregivers of functionally dependent family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Ana Catarina; Pereira, Maria da Graça

    2013-01-01

    this study assessed burden, coping, physical symptoms and psychological morbidity in caregivers of functionally dependent family members. fifty family caregivers completed self-reported measures of burden, physical symptoms, psychological morbidity and coping strategies. there was a significant negative correlation between coping strategies and the different clinical variables, as well as a significant positive correlation between coping strategies and duration of care. It appears that the stronger bond between caregiver and family member leads to a poorer use of adaptive coping strategies. It also appears that the deterioration of the relationship between them and the lower perceived self-efficacy are more prominent in caregivers of family members with cognitive impairment, indicating that caregivers with family members without cognitive impairment face fewer difficulties. these results emphasize the need for interventions to include coping strategies, since they are important in reducing caregivers' burden, psychological morbidity and physical symptoms.

  15. Functions with bounded variation in locally convex space

    OpenAIRE

    Duchoň, Miloslav; Debiève, Camille

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with some properties of functions with values in locally convex vector space, namely functions having bounded variation and generalizations of some theorems for functions with values in locally convex vector spaces replacing Banach spaces, namely Theorem: If X is a sequentially complete locally convex vector space, then the function x(·): [a, b] → X having a bounded variation on the interval [a, b] defines a vector-valued measure m on borelian subsets of [a, b] ...

  16. Investigating Local Sustainable Environmental Perspectives of Kenyan Community Members and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cassie F.; Dogbey, James; Che, S. Megan; Hallo, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to conserve and preserve the environment in developing or marginalized locales frequently involve a one-way transfer of knowledge and materials from a source in a more developed location. This situation often degenerates into a short-term donor project which risks little to no long-term impacts on local or indigenous relationships with the…

  17. Local buckling of fire-exposed aluminum members: New design model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Snijder, H.H.

    2010-01-01

    Design models for local buckling of fire-exposed aluminum sections are currently lacking. Based on analyses with validated finite-element models, this paper investigates local buckling of extruded sections with stress-strain relationships representative for fire-exposed aluminum alloys. Due to the

  18. (Thiourea-mediated synthesis of functionalized six-membered rings with multiple chiral centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgos Koutoulogenis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organocatalysis, now running its second decade of life, is being considered one of the main tools a synthetic chemist has to perform asymmetric catalysis. In this review the synthesis of six-membered rings, that contain multiple chiral centers, either by a ring closing process or by a functionalization reaction on an already existing six-membered ring, utilizing bifunctional (thioureas will be summarized. Initially, the use of primary amine-thioureas as organocatalysts for the above transformation is being discussed, followed by the examples employing secondary amine-thioureas. Finally, the use of tertiary amine-thioureas and miscellaneous examples are presented.

  19. Local Fractional Adomian Decomposition and Function Decomposition Methods for Laplace Equation within Local Fractional Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Ping Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We perform a comparison between the local fractional Adomian decomposition and local fractional function decomposition methods applied to the Laplace equation. The operators are taken in the local sense. The results illustrate the significant features of the two methods which are both very effective and straightforward for solving the differential equations with local fractional derivative.

  20. A member of the CPW-WPC protein family is expressed in and localized to the surface of developing ookinetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangwanrangsan, Niwat; Tachibana, Mayumi; Jenwithisuk, Rachaneeporn; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Riengrojpitak, Suda; Torii, Motomi; Ishino, Tomoko

    2013-04-15

    Despite the development of malaria control programs, billions of people are still at risk for this infectious disease. Recently, the idea of the transmission-blocking vaccine, which works by interrupting the infection of mosquitoes by parasites, has gained attention as a promising strategy for malaria control and eradication. To date, a limited number of surface proteins have been identified in mosquito-stage parasites and investigated as potential targets for transmission-blocking vaccines. Therefore, for the development of effective transmission-blocking strategies in epidemic areas, it is necessary to identify novel zygote/ookinete surface proteins as candidate antigens. Since the expression of many zygote/ookinete proteins is regulated post-transcriptionally, proteins that are regulated by well-known translational mediators were focused. Through in silico screening, CPW-WPC family proteins were selected as potential zygote/ookinete surface proteins. All experiments were performed in the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium yoelii XNL. mRNA and protein expression profiles were examined by RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively, over the course of the life cycle of the malaria parasite. Protein function was also investigated by the generation of gene-disrupted transgenic parasites. The CPW-WPC protein family, named after the unique WxC repeat domains, is highly conserved among Plasmodium species. It is revealed that CPW-WPC mRNA transcripts are transcribed in gametocytes, while CPW-WPC proteins are expressed in zygote/ookinete-stage parasites. Localization analysis reveals that one of the CPW-WPC family members, designated as PyCPW-WPC-1, is a novel zygote/ookinete stage-specific surface protein. Targeted disruption of the pycpw-wpc-1 gene caused no obvious defects during ookinete and oocyst formation, suggesting that PyCPW-WPC-1 is not essential for mosquito-stage parasite development. It is demonstrated that PyCPW-WPC-1 can be classified as a novel, post

  1. Opposing functions of classic and novel IL-1 family members in gut health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loris R. Lopetuso

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to their well-established role(s in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI-related inflammatory disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and inflammation-associated colorectal cancer (CRC, emerging evidence confirms the critical involvement of the interleukin-1 (IL-1 cytokine family and their ligands in the maintenance of normal gut homeostasis. In fact, the paradigm that IBD occurs in two distinct phases is substantiated by the observation that classic IL-1 family members, such as IL-1, the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra, and IL-18, possess dichotomous functions depending on the phase of disease, as well as on their role in initiating vs. sustaining chronic gut inflammation. Another recently characterized IL-1 family member, IL-33, also possesses dual functions in the gut. IL-33 is upregulated in IBD and potently induces Th2 immune responses, while also amplifying Th1-mediated inflammation. Neutralization studies in acute colitis models, however, have yielded controversial results and recent reports suggest a protective role of IL-33 in epithelial regeneration and mucosal wound healing. Finally, although little is currently known regarding the potential contribution of IL-36 family members in GI inflammation/homeostasis, another IL-1 family member, IL-37, is emerging as a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine with the ability to downregulate colitis. This new body of information has important translational implications for both the prevention and treatment of patients suffering from IBD and inflammation-associated CRC.

  2. On the Local Minima of the Order of Appearance Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Luca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The order of appearance z(n of the positive integer n is the smallest positive integer k such that n divides Fk, the kth member of the Fibonacci sequence. In this paper, we improve upon some results from (Marques, 2011 concerning local minima of z(n.

  3. Factors That Contribute to Community Members' Support of Local Nature Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Matthew H. E. M.; Stern, Marc J.; Ardoin, Nicole M.; Heimlich, Joe E.

    2018-01-01

    Nature centers can serve as valuable community institutions if they are seen as providing important services to the community. Through survey research in communities surrounding 16 nature centers in the United States, we examine the attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs that drive hypothetical support for nature centers from local residents.…

  4. Local identities involving Jacobi elliptic functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dn2(x)[dn(x + a) + dn(x − a)] = Adn(x) + B[dn(x + a) + dn(x − a)],. (26) where the constants A, B are defined by. A = 2ds(a)ns(a), B = −cs2(a). (27). This identity can be easily derived using the addition formula (9). On repeatedly multiplying both sides of identity (26) by dn2(x) and simplifying, we obtain the following local identity ...

  5. Local hybrid functionals: An assessment for thermochemical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaupp, Martin; Bahmann, Hilke; Arbuznikov, Alexei V.

    2007-01-01

    Local hybrid functionals with position-dependent exact-exchange admixture are a new class of exchange-correlation functionals in density functional theory that promise to advance the available accuracy in many areas of application. Local hybrids with different local mixing functions (LMFs) governing the position dependence are validated for the heats of formation of the extended G3/99 set, and for two sets of barriers of hydrogen-transfer and heavy-atom transfer reactions (HTBH38 and NHTBH38 databases). A simple local hybrid Lh-SVWN with only Slater and exact exchange plus local correlation and a one-parameter LMF, g(r)=b(τ W (r)/τ(r)), performs best and provides overall mean absolute errors for thermochemistry and kinetics that are a significant improvement over standard state-of-the-art global hybrid functionals. In particular, this local hybrid functional does not suffer from the systematic deterioration that standard functionals exhibit for larger molecules. In contrast, local hybrids based on generalized gradient approximation exchange tend to give rise to nonintuitive LMFs, and no improved functionals have been obtained along this route. The LMF is a real-space function and thus can be analyzed in detail. We use, in particular, graphical analyses to rationalize the performance of different local hybrids for thermochemistry and reaction barriers

  6. Local identities involving Jacobi elliptic functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    explicit answers for a number of definite integrals and simpler forms for several indefinite integrals involving .... Similar manipulations using a = −r2K(m)/p yield cyclic identities for expressions like ∑ p j=1 d2 j [dj+r ..... combinations of derivatives of these four functions such that not only the periodicity, but also the singular ...

  7. Evolutionary, structural and functional interplay of the IκB family members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaherin Basith

    Full Text Available A primary level of control for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB is effected through its interactions with the inhibitor protein, inhibitor of kappa B (IκB. Several lines of evidence confirm the existence of multiple forms of IκB that appear to regulate NF-κB by distinct mechanisms. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis to understand the evolutionary history and intrinsic functional diversity of IκB family members. Phylogenetic relationships were constructed to trace the evolution of the IκB family genes. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed 10 IκB subfamily members that clustered into 5 major clades. Since the ankyrin (ANK domain appears to be more ancient than the Rel homology domain (RHD, our phylogenetic analysis suggests that some undefined ancestral set of ANK repeats acquired an RHD before any duplication and was later duplicated and then diverged into the different IκB subfamilies. Functional analysis identified several functionally divergent sites in the ANK repeat domains (ARDs and revealed that this region has undergone strong purifying selection, suggesting its functional importance in IκB genes. Structural analysis showed that the major variations in the number of ANK repeats and high conformational changes in the finger loop ARD region contribute to the differing binding partner specificities, thereby leading to distinct IκB functions. In summary, our study has provided useful information about the phylogeny and structural and functional divergence of the IκB family. Additionally, we identified a number of amino acid sites that contribute to the predicted functional divergence of these proteins.

  8. Single-Layer Laser Scanner for Detection and Localization of Unmanned Swarm Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, T.; Nowak, S.; Matthaei, J.; Bestmann, U.

    2013-08-01

    In the presented work unmanned vehicles are used for an extra-terrestrial exploration mission. In this scenario a high factor of redundancy for all systems has to be considered. Defective sensors for instance cannot be repaired and any damage has to be compensated through an intelligent use of the remaining sensors and a robust data fusion. Therefore this work proposes the utilization of a singlelayer laser scanner, which is used for Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (SLAM) for the compensation of a defective relative positioning system. An Extended Kalman-Filter (EKF) with error states is used to perform the loosely coupled integration of the estimated states and the measured relative position in discrete updates. Subsequently the improvement of the navigation solution onboard an Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) can be estimated. The outcomes of a specifically developed simulation will be shown, delivering theoretic results for the proposed method. A flight test is done finally in order to prove the capability of the laser scanner to detect and locate an UAV.

  9. Members of the Candidate Phyla Radiation are functionally differentiated by carbon and nitrogen cycling capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danczak, R.; Johnston, M.; Kenah, C.; Slattery, M.; Wrighton, K. C.; Wilkins, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Candidate Phyla Radiation (CPR) is a recently described expansion of the tree of life that represents more than 15% of all bacterial diversity and putatively contains over 70 different phyla. Despite this broad phylogenetic variation, these microorganisms often feature limited functional diversity, with members generally characterized as obligate fermenters. Additionally, much of the data describing CPR phyla has been generated from a limited number of environments, constraining our knowledge of their functional roles and biogeographical distribution. To better understand subsurface CPR microorganisms, we sampled four groundwater wells over two years across three Ohio counties. Samples were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Amplicon results indicated that CPR members comprised 2-20% of the microbial communities, with relative abundances stable through time in Athens and Greene county samples but dynamic in Licking county groundwater. Shotgun metagenomic analyses generated 71 putative CPR genomes, representing roughly 32 known phyla and potentially two new phyla, Candidatus Brownbacteria and Candidatus Hugbacteria. While these genomes largely mirrored typical CPR metabolism, some features were previously uncharacterized. For instance, a nirK-encoded nitrite reductase was found in four of our Parcubacteria genomes and multiple CPR genomes from other studies, indicating a possibly undescribed role for these microorganisms in denitrification. Additionally, glycoside hydrolase (GH) family profiles for our genomes and over 2000 other CPR genomes were analyzed to characterize their carbon processing potential. Although common trends were present throughout the radiation, differences highlighted mechanisms that may allow microorganisms across the CPR to occupy various subsurface niches. For example, members of the Microgenomates superphylum appear to potentially degrade a wider range of carbon substrates than other CPR phyla. The

  10. An introduction to the theory of local zeta functions

    CERN Document Server

    Igusa, Jun-ichi

    2007-01-01

    This book is an introductory presentation to the theory of local zeta functions. Viewed as distributions, and mostly in the archimedean case, local zeta functions are also called complex powers. The volume contains major results on analytic and algebraic properties of complex powers by Atiyah, Bernstein, I. M. Gelfand, S. I. Gelfand, and Sato. Chapters devoted to p-adic local zeta functions present Serre's structure theorem, a rationality theorem, and many examples found by the author. The presentation concludes with theorems by Denef and Meuser.

  11. An Evolutionary-Conserved Function of Mammalian Notch Family Members as Cell Adhesion Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Akihiko; Yoshino, Miya; Hikosaka, Mari; Okuyama, Kazuki; Zhou, Lan; Sakano, Seiji; Yagita, Hideo; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Notch family members were first identified as cell adhesion molecules by cell aggregation assays in Drosophila studies. However, they are generally recognized as signaling molecules, and it was unclear if their adhesion function was restricted to Drosophila. We previously demonstrated that a mouse Notch ligand, Delta-like 1 (Dll1) functioned as a cell adhesion molecule. We here investigated whether this adhesion function was conserved in the diversified mammalian Notch ligands consisted of two families, Delta-like (Dll1, Dll3 and Dll4) and Jagged (Jag1 and Jag2). The forced expression of mouse Dll1, Dll4, Jag1, and Jag2, but not Dll3, on stromal cells induced the rapid and enhanced adhesion of cultured mast cells (MCs). This was attributed to the binding of Notch1 and Notch2 on MCs to each Notch ligand on the stromal cells themselves, and not the activation of Notch signaling. Notch receptor-ligand binding strongly supported the tethering of MCs to stromal cells, the first step of cell adhesion. However, the Jag2-mediated adhesion of MCs was weaker and unlike other ligands appeared to require additional factor(s) in addition to the receptor-ligand binding. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the function of cell adhesion was conserved in mammalian as well as Drosophila Notch family members. Since Notch receptor-ligand interaction plays important roles in a broad spectrum of biological processes ranging from embryogenesis to disorders, our finding will provide a new perspective on these issues from the aspect of cell adhesion. PMID:25255288

  12. Functional analysis of the Escherichia coli genome for members of the alpha/beta hydrolase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Godzik, A; Skolnick, J; Fetrow, J S

    1998-01-01

    Database-searching methods based on sequence similarity have become the most commonly used tools for characterizing newly sequenced proteins. Due to the often underestimated functional diversity in protein families and superfamilies, however, it is difficult to make the characterization specific and accurate. In this work, we have extended a method for active-site identification from predicted protein structures. The structural conservation and variation of the active sites of the alpha/beta hydrolases with known structures were studied. The similarities were incorporated into a three-dimensional motif that specifies essential requirements for the enzymatic functions. A threading algorithm was used to align 651 Escherichia coli open reading frames (ORFs) to one of the members of the alpha/beta hydrolase fold family. These ORFs were then screened according to our three-dimensional motif and with an extra requirement that demands conservation of the key active-site residues among the proteins that bear significant sequence similarity to the ORFs. 17 ORFs from E. coli were predicted to have hydrolase activity and their putative active-site residues were identified. Most were in agreement with the experiments and results of other database-searching methods. The study further suggests that YHET_ECOLI, a hypothetical protein classified as a member of the UPF0017 family (an uncharacterized protein family), bears all the hallmarks of the alpha/beta hydrolase family. The novel feature of our method is that it uses three-dimensional structural information for function prediction. The results demonstrate the importance and necessity of such a method to fill the gap between sequence alignment and function prediction; furthermore, the method provides a way to verify the structure predictions, which enables an expansion of the applicable scope of the threading algorithms.

  13. Perceptions of the Role of Short-Term Volunteerism in International Development: Views from Volunteers, Local Hosts, and Community Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethina Loiseau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Short-term international volunteer trips traditionally involve volunteers from high-income countries travelling to low- and middle-income countries to assist in service-related development activities. Their duration typically ranges from 7 to 90 days. The city of La Romana, Dominican Republic, receives hundreds of short-term international volunteers annually. They participate in activities aimed at improving conditions faced by a marginalized ethnic-Haitian community living in bateyes. Methods. This qualitative analysis examined perceptions of short-term international volunteerism, held by three key stakeholder groups in La Romana: local hosts, international volunteers, and community members. Responses from semistructured interviews were recorded and analysed by thematic analysis. Results. Themes from the 3 groups were broadly categorized into general perceptions of short-term volunteerism and proposed best practices. These were further subdivided into perceptions of value, harms, and motivations associated with volunteer teams for the former and best practices around volunteer composition and selection, partnership, and skill sets and predeparture training for the latter. Conclusion. Notable challenges were associated with short-term volunteering, including an overemphasis on the material benefits from volunteer groups expressed by community member respondents; misalignment of the desired and actual skill sets of volunteers; duplicate and uncoordinated volunteer efforts; and the perpetuation of stereotypes suggesting that international volunteers possess superior knowledge or skills. Addressing these challenges is critical to optimizing the conduct of short-term volunteerism.

  14. How do electron localization functions describe π-electron delocalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Stephan N; Mo, Yirong; Corminboeuf, Clemence

    2011-12-14

    Scalar fields provide an intuitive picture of chemical bonding. In particular, the electron localization function (ELF) has proven to be highly valuable in interpreting a broad range of bonding patterns. The discrimination between enhanced or reduced electron (de)localization within cyclic π-conjugated systems remains, however, challenging for ELF. In order to clearly distinguish between the local properties of ten highly and weakly π-(de)localized prototype systems, we compare the ELFs of both the canonical wave functions and electron-localized states (diabatic) with those of two closely related scalar fields: the electron localizability indicator (ELI-D) and the localized orbital locator (LOL). The simplest LOL function distinguishes enhanced from weak π-(de)localization in an insightful and reliable manner. LOL offers the finest contrast between annulenes with 4n/4n + 2 π electrons and their inorganic analogues as well as between hyperconjugated cyclopentadiene derivatives. LOL(π) also gives an appealing and intuitive picture of the π-bond. In contrast, the most popular ELF fails to capture subtle contrasting local electronic properties and suffers from the arbitrariness of the σ/π dissection. The orbital separation of the most recent ELI-D is clear-cut but the interpretations sometime less straightforward in the present context.

  15. Local and Global Function Model of the Liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hesheng, E-mail: hesheng@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Feng, Mary [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Jackson, Andrew [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cao, Yue [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a local and global function model in the liver based on regional and organ function measurements to support individualized adaptive radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A local and global model for liver function was developed to include both functional volume and the effect of functional variation of subunits. Adopting the assumption of parallel architecture in the liver, the global function was composed of a sum of local function probabilities of subunits, varying between 0 and 1. The model was fit to 59 datasets of liver regional and organ function measures from 23 patients obtained before, during, and 1 month after RT. The local function probabilities of subunits were modeled by a sigmoid function in relating to MRI-derived portal venous perfusion values. The global function was fitted to a logarithm of an indocyanine green retention rate at 15 minutes (an overall liver function measure). Cross-validation was performed by leave-m-out tests. The model was further evaluated by fitting to the data divided according to whether the patients had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or not. Results: The liver function model showed that (1) a perfusion value of 68.6 mL/(100 g · min) yielded a local function probability of 0.5; (2) the probability reached 0.9 at a perfusion value of 98 mL/(100 g · min); and (3) at a probability of 0.03 [corresponding perfusion of 38 mL/(100 g · min)] or lower, the contribution to global function was lost. Cross-validations showed that the model parameters were stable. The model fitted to the data from the patients with HCC indicated that the same amount of portal venous perfusion was translated into less local function probability than in the patients with non-HCC tumors. Conclusions: The developed liver function model could provide a means to better assess individual and regional dose-responses of hepatic functions, and provide guidance for individualized treatment planning of RT.

  16. Unstable volatility functions: the break preserving local linear estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irene

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common in Finance. Markov switching models (Hamilton, 1989......) and threshold models (Lin and Terasvirta, 1994) are amongst the most popular models to describe the behaviour of data with structural breaks. The local linear (LL) estimator is not consistent at points where the volatility function has a break and it may even report negative values for finite samples...

  17. A local dynamic correlation function from inelastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQueeney, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    Information about local and dynamic atomic correlations can be obtained from inelastic neutron scattering measurements by Fourier transform of the Q-dependent intensity oscillations at a particular frequency. A local dynamic structure function, S(r,ω), is defined from the dynamic scattering function, S(Q,ω), such that the elastic and frequency-integrated limits correspond to the average and instantaneous pair-distribution functions, respectively. As an example, S(r,ω) is calculated for polycrystalline aluminum in a model where atomic motions are entirely due to harmonic phonons

  18. High-altitude mountaineering and brain function: neuropsychological testing of members of a Mount Everest expedition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, G W; Pajurkova, E M; Lee, R G

    1989-02-01

    Concern has been raised regarding the possibility that hypoxic conditions encountered during high-altitude mountaineering may have lasting harmful effects on the human brain. Members of an expedition to Mount Everest completed a series of neuropsychological tests before and after the expedition. Exposure to altitudes above 7,200 m was limited to a maximum of four consecutive nights, separated by rest periods at lower altitudes. No significant decline in performance was observed on any test. The subjects also completed a short series of tests at different altitudes during the expedition. No significant deterioration was observed at altitudes up to 7,500 m. There do not appear to be lasting harmful effects on brain function under these conditions.

  19. Locally closed sets and LC-continuous functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ganster

    1989-01-01

    topological space X is locally closed if it is the intersection of an open and a closed set. We discuss some properties of these functions and show that a function between topological spaces is continuous if and only if it is sub-LC-continuous and nearly continuous in the sense of Ptak. Several examples are provided to illustrate the behavior of these new classes of functions.

  20. Mice lacking the SLAM family member CD84 display unaltered platelet function in hemostasis and thrombosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Hofmann

    Full Text Available Platelets are anuclear cell fragments derived from bone marrow megakaryocytes that safeguard vascular integrity by forming thrombi at sites of vascular injury. Although the early events of thrombus formation--platelet adhesion and aggregation--have been intensively studied, less is known about the mechanisms and receptors that stabilize platelet-platelet interactions once a thrombus has formed. One receptor that has been implicated in this process is the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM family member CD84, which can undergo homophilic interactions and becomes phosphorylated upon platelet aggregation.The role of CD84 in platelet physiology and thrombus formation was investigated in CD84-deficient mice.We generated CD84-deficient mice and analyzed their platelets in vitro and in vivo. Cd84(-/- platelets exhibited normal activation and aggregation responses to classical platelet agonists. Furthermore, CD84 deficiency did not affect integrin-mediated clot retraction and spreading of activated platelets on fibrinogen. Notably, also the formation of stable three-dimensional thrombi on collagen-coated surfaces under flow ex vivo was unaltered in the blood of Cd84(-/- mice. In vivo, Cd84(-/- mice exhibited unaltered hemostatic function and arterial thrombus formation.These results show that CD84 is dispensable for thrombus formation and stabilization, indicating that its deficiency may be functionally compensated by other receptors or that it may be important for platelet functions different from platelet-platelet interactions.

  1. FUNCTIONING OF THE SYSTEM OF LOCAL AGRICULTURAL MARKETS: INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurij Prudnikov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is the generalization and systematisation of features of modern institutional support for functioning and development of a system of local agricultural markets. The methodology of research is formed on the basis of systematic approach to the studying socio-economic phenomena and processes that are taking place in a process of functioning and development of the system of local agricultural markets. Research results – based on the system analysis there are substantiated features of functioning and development of the system of local agricultural markets from the point of view of its institutional support. The stated is done with the purpose of determination of practicability, goal orientation, volumes, purpose and tasks of government intervention into the process of functioning and development of the system of local agricultural markets. Applying a general scheme of system analysis to the system of management of local agricultural markets and taking into account that the management system consists of two subsystems – management and controlled, in the context of this research there is made characteristics of the system in the form of answers to a specified list of questions. The essence of developed theoretical and methodological approach lies in the development of legitimate answers to four key questions peculiar and relevantly placed for each stage of research: 1 determination of elements of internal and external environments, which are included to the system of local agricultural markets; 2 characteristics of relations and connections among revealed system elements; 3 a process of functioning of the system of local agricultural markets as itself; 4 features of development of the system of local agricultural markets. Developed measures of regulatory nature aimed at overcoming identified disadvantages and development of the system of local agricultural markets are directed to the satisfaction of needs of target

  2. Asynchrony among local communities stabilises ecosystem function of metacommunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcox, Kevin R.; Tredennick, Andrew T.; Koerner, Sally E.

    2017-01-01

    Temporal stability of ecosystem functioning increases the predictability and reliability of ecosystem services, and understanding the drivers of stability across spatial scales is important for land management and policy decisions. We used species-level abundance data from 62 plant communities...... across five continents to assess mechanisms of temporal stability across spatial scales. We assessed how asynchrony (i.e. different units responding dissimilarly through time) of species and local communities stabilised metacommunity ecosystem function. Asynchrony of species increased stability of local...... communities, and asynchrony among local communities enhanced metacommunity stability by a wide range of magnitudes (1–315%); this range was positively correlated with the size of the metacommunity. Additionally, asynchronous responses among local communities were linked with species’ populations fluctuating...

  3. Local Actor Strategies for Achieving Human Security Functionings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Holm

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the experiences of community-level actors in the pursuit of greater human security in their communities. Utilizing a conceptual framework based on the capability approach, human security, and securitization theory it considers local actor perceptions of security and the strategies used to achieve their goals. It presents and discusses strategies employed by two distinct actors—a local non-governmental organization and an independent group of community dwellers—in their attempts to achieve security functionings. The results of this qualitative study suggest that while community-level actors view themselves as being empowered as agents in achieving certain human security functionings, the ability of local actors to achieve higher-level functionings is dependent on their recognition as legitimate securitizing agents by more powerful actors and potential partner groups.

  4. Local asymptotic stability for nonlinear quadratic functional integral equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapurao Dhage

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, using the characterizations of measures of noncompactness we prove a theorem on the existence and local asymptotic stability of solutions for a quadratic functional integral equation via a fixed point theorem of Darbo. The investigations are placed in the Banach space of real functions defined, continuous and bounded on an unbounded interval. An example is indicated to demonstrate the natural realizations of abstract result presented in the paper.

  5. Quality function deployment applied to local traffic accident reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, S Y

    1999-11-01

    One of the major tasks of police stations is the management of local road traffic accidents. Proper prevention policy which reflects the local accident characteristics could immensely help individual police stations in decreasing various severity levels of road traffic accidents. In order to relate accident variation to local driving environmental characteristics, we use both cluster analysis and Poisson regression. The fitted result at the level of each cluster for each type of accident severity is utilized as an input to quality function deployment. Quality function deployment (QFD) has been applied to customer satisfaction in various industrial quality improvement settings, where several types of customer requirements are related to various control factors. We show how QFD enables one to set priorities on various road accident control policies to which each police station has to pay particular attention.

  6. Positive definite functions and dual pairs of locally convex spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alpay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Using pairs of locally convex topological vector spaces in duality and topologies defined by directed families of sets bounded with respect to the duality, we prove general factorization theorems and general dilation theorems for operator-valued positive definite functions.

  7. Local self governance in health - a study of it's functioning in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Bhuputra; Zodpey, Sanjay P; Thakur, Harshad P

    2016-10-31

    Local decision making is linked to several service quality improvement parameters. Rogi Kalyan Samitis (RKS) at peripheral decision making health units (DMHU) are composite bodies that are mandated to ensure accountability and transparency in governance, improve quality of services, and facilitate local responsiveness. There is scant literature on the nature of functioning of these institutions in Odisha. This study aimed to assess the perception of RKS members about their roles, involvement and practices with respect to local decision making and management of DMHUs; it further examined perceptual and functional differences between priority and non-priority district set-ups; and identified predictors of involvement of RKS members in local governance of health units. As members of RKS, health service providers, officials in administrative/managerial role, elected representatives, and officials from other departments (including independent members) constituted our study sample. A total of 112 respondents were interviewed across 6 districts, through a multi-stage stratified random sampling; we used a semi-structured interview schedule that comprised mainly of close-ended and some open-ended questions. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to compare 3 priority (PD) and 3 non-priority districts (NPD), categorized on the basis of Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) estimates of 2011 as proxy of population health. Governance, human resource management, financial management and quality improvement functions were studied in detail. Opinion about various individual and organizational factors in local self-governance and predictors of involvement were identified. The socio-demographic profile and composition of respondents were comparable between PD and NPD. Majority of respondents were 'satisfied' with their current roles in the governance of local health institutions. About one-fourth opined that the amount of funds allocated to RKS under National Health Mission (NHM

  8. Characterization of Nuclear Localization Signals (NLSs) and Function of NLSs and Phosphorylation of Serine Residues in Subcellular and Subnuclear Localization of Transformer-2β (Tra2β)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Jing; Qi, Yao; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Li, Ya; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Xian-Hua; Xu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    The serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are one type of major actors in regulation of pre-mRNA splicing. Their functions are closely related to the intracellular spatial organization. The RS domain and phosphorylation status of SR proteins are two critical factors in determining the subcellular distribution. Mammalian Transformer-2β (Tra2β) protein, a member of SR proteins, is known to play multiple important roles in development and diseases. In the present study, we characterized the subcellular and subnuclear localization of Tra2β protein and its related mechanisms. The results demonstrated that in the brain the nuclear and cytoplasmic localization of Tra2β were correlated with its phosphorylation status. Using deletional mutation analysis, we showed that the nuclear localization of Tra2β was determined by multiple nuclear localization signals (NLSs) in the RS domains. The point-mutation analysis disclosed that phosphorylation of serine residues in the NLSs inhibited the function of NLS in directing Tra2β to the nucleus. In addition, we identified at least two nuclear speckle localization signals within the RS1 domain, but not in the RS2 domain. The nuclear speckle localization signals determined the localization of RS1 domain-contained proteins to the nuclear speckle. The function of the signals did not depend on the presence of serine residues. The results provide new insight into the mechanisms by which the subcellular and subnuclear localization of Tra2β proteins are regulated. PMID:23396973

  9. Intracellular Localization, Interactions and Functions of Capsicum Chlorosis Virus Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widana Gamage, Shirani M K; Dietzgen, Ralf G

    2017-01-01

    Tospoviruses are among the most devastating viruses of horticultural and field crops. Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) has emerged as an important pathogen of capsicum and tomato in Australia and South-east Asia. Present knowledge about CaCV protein functions in host cells is lacking. We determined intracellular localization and interactions of CaCV proteins by live plant cell imaging to gain insight into the associations of viral proteins during infection. Proteins were transiently expressed as fusions to autofluorescent proteins in leaf epidermal cells of Nicotiana benthamiana and capsicum. All viral proteins localized at least partially in the cell periphery suggestive of cytoplasmic replication and assembly of CaCV. Nucleocapsid (N) and non-structural movement (NSm) proteins localized exclusively in the cell periphery, while non-structural suppressor of silencing (NSs) protein and Gc and Gn glycoproteins accumulated in both the cell periphery and the nucleus. Nuclear localization of CaCV Gn and NSs is unique among tospoviruses. We validated nuclear localization of NSs by immunofluorescence in protoplasts. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation showed self-interactions of CaCV N, NSs and NSm, and heterotypic interactions of N with NSs and Gn. All interactions occurred in the cytoplasm, except NSs self-interaction was exclusively nuclear. Interactions of a tospoviral NSs protein with itself and with N had not been reported previously. Functionally, CaCV NSs showed strong local and systemic RNA silencing suppressor activity and appears to delay short-distance spread of silencing signal. Cell-to-cell movement activity of NSm was demonstrated by trans -complementation of a movement-defective tobamovirus replicon. CaCV NSm localized at plasmodesmata and its transient expression led to the formation of tubular structures that protruded from protoplasts. The D 155 residue in the 30K-like movement protein-specific LxD/N 50-70 G motif of NSm was critical for

  10. Rate Familiarity of the Members of local Organizations in the Northen Provinces of Iran about the Family Physician Programme and Rural Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kabir

    2015-09-01

    Results: 521 (84.7% individuals (out of 601 members of local organizations were male. The age range was 19-81 years. Mean and standard deviation of participants age was 45±9.7 years. 47.1% of persons had academic education level. Out of total score 27, mean and SD of the familiarity in village magor was 12.4±4, in health council’s members 11.6±3.7, in village council’s members 11.4±4.1, in school managers 10.6±3.3. in dispute resolation council’s members 10.5±5.1 and in native teachers was 8.8±4.9. There were significant relationships between the level of familiarity and being participated in trustees council of the health center, sex and the work type of local organization (p0.05. Conclusion: This Study Showed that the level of familiarity of members of local organizations in rural regions of Iran is not sufficient and interventional Programs must be Planned and Performed for improvement.

  11. Local extremal problems for bounded analytic functions without zeros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokhorov, D V; Romanova, S V

    2006-01-01

    In the class B(t), t>0, of all functions f(z,t)=e -t +c 1 (t)z+c 2 (t)z 2 +... that are analytic in the unit disc U and such that 0 0. We suggest an algorithm for determining those t>0 for which the canonical functions provide the local maximum of Re c n (t) in B(t). We describe the set of functionals Lf)=Σ k=0 n λ k c k for which the canonical functions provide the maximum of Re L(f) in B(t) for small and large values of t. The proofs are based on optimization methods for solutions of control systems of differential equations

  12. Local extremal problems for bounded analytic functions without zeros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, D. V.; Romanova, S. V.

    2006-08-01

    In the class B(t), t>0, of all functions f(z,t)=e^{-t}+c_1(t)z+c_2(t)z^2+\\dots that are analytic in the unit disc U and such that 00. We suggest an algorithm for determining those t>0 for which the canonical functions provide the local maximum of \\operatorname{Re}c_n(t) in B(t). We describe the set of functionals L(f)=\\sum_{k=0}^n\\lambda_kc_k for which the canonical functions provide the maximum of \\operatorname{Re}L(f) in B(t) for small and large values of t. The proofs are based on optimization methods for solutions of control systems of differential equations.

  13. Local electronic and electrical properties of functionalized graphene nano flakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chutia, Arunabhiram; Sahnoun, Riadh; Deka, Ramesh C.; Zhu, Zhigang; Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Takaba, Hiromitsu; Miyamoto, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Based on experimental findings models of amorphous graphene related carbon materials were generated using graphene nano flakes. On the optimized structures detailed local electronic properties were investigated using density functional theory. The electrical conductivities of all these models were also estimated using an in-house program based on tight-binding method. The calculated electrical conductivity values of all the models agreed well with the trend of calculated energy gap and graphitic character.

  14. Identification of a functional nuclear localization signal within the human USP22 protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Jianjun; Wang, Yaqin; Gong, Zhen; Liu, Jianyun; Li, Weidong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • USP22 was accumulated in nucleus. • We identified of a functional USP22 NLS. • The KRRK amino acid residues are indispensable in NLS. • The KRRK motif is conserved in USP22 homologues. - Abstract: Ubiquitin-specific processing enzyme 22 (USP22), a member of the deubiquitinase family, is over-expressed in most human cancers and has been implicated in tumorigenesis. Because it is an enzymatic subunit of the human SAGA transcriptional cofactor, USP22 deubiquitylates histone H2A and H2B in the nucleus, thus participating in gene regulation and cell-cycle progression. However, the mechanisms regulating its nuclear translocation have not yet been elucidated. It was here demonstrated that USP22 is imported into the nucleus through a mechanism mediated by nuclear localization signal (NLS). The bipartite NLS sequence KRELELLKHNPKRRKIT (aa152–168), was identified as the functional NLS for its nuclear localization. Furthermore, a short cluster of basic amino acid residues KRRK within this bipartite NLS plays the primary role in nuclear localization and is evolutionarily conserved in USP22 homologues. In the present study, a functional NLS and the minimal sequences required for the active targeting of USP22 to the nucleus were identified. These findings may provide a molecular basis for the mechanism underlying USP22 nuclear trafficking and function

  15. Identification of a functional nuclear localization signal within the human USP22 protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Jianjun [Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for the Systems Bio-Medicine, Jiujiang, Jiangxi Province 332000 (China); College of Basic Medical Science, Jiujiang University, Jiujiang, Jiangxi Province 332000 (China); Wang, Yaqin [Reproductive Medical Center, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430060 (China); Gong, Zhen [Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for the Systems Bio-Medicine, Jiujiang, Jiangxi Province 332000 (China); Liu, Jianyun [College of Basic Medical Science, Jiujiang University, Jiujiang, Jiangxi Province 332000 (China); Li, Weidong, E-mail: lwd626518@163.com [College of Basic Medical Science, Jiujiang University, Jiujiang, Jiangxi Province 332000 (China)

    2014-06-20

    Highlights: • USP22 was accumulated in nucleus. • We identified of a functional USP22 NLS. • The KRRK amino acid residues are indispensable in NLS. • The KRRK motif is conserved in USP22 homologues. - Abstract: Ubiquitin-specific processing enzyme 22 (USP22), a member of the deubiquitinase family, is over-expressed in most human cancers and has been implicated in tumorigenesis. Because it is an enzymatic subunit of the human SAGA transcriptional cofactor, USP22 deubiquitylates histone H2A and H2B in the nucleus, thus participating in gene regulation and cell-cycle progression. However, the mechanisms regulating its nuclear translocation have not yet been elucidated. It was here demonstrated that USP22 is imported into the nucleus through a mechanism mediated by nuclear localization signal (NLS). The bipartite NLS sequence KRELELLKHNPKRRKIT (aa152–168), was identified as the functional NLS for its nuclear localization. Furthermore, a short cluster of basic amino acid residues KRRK within this bipartite NLS plays the primary role in nuclear localization and is evolutionarily conserved in USP22 homologues. In the present study, a functional NLS and the minimal sequences required for the active targeting of USP22 to the nucleus were identified. These findings may provide a molecular basis for the mechanism underlying USP22 nuclear trafficking and function.

  16. Functional brain networks develop from a "local to distributed" organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien A Fair

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The mature human brain is organized into a collection of specialized functional networks that flexibly interact to support various cognitive functions. Studies of development often attempt to identify the organizing principles that guide the maturation of these functional networks. In this report, we combine resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI, graph analysis, community detection, and spring-embedding visualization techniques to analyze four separate networks defined in earlier studies. As we have previously reported, we find, across development, a trend toward 'segregation' (a general decrease in correlation strength between regions close in anatomical space and 'integration' (an increased correlation strength between selected regions distant in space. The generalization of these earlier trends across multiple networks suggests that this is a general developmental principle for changes in functional connectivity that would extend to large-scale graph theoretic analyses of large-scale brain networks. Communities in children are predominantly arranged by anatomical proximity, while communities in adults predominantly reflect functional relationships, as defined from adult fMRI studies. In sum, over development, the organization of multiple functional networks shifts from a local anatomical emphasis in children to a more "distributed" architecture in young adults. We argue that this "local to distributed" developmental characterization has important implications for understanding the development of neural systems underlying cognition. Further, graph metrics (e.g., clustering coefficients and average path lengths are similar in child and adult graphs, with both showing "small-world"-like properties, while community detection by modularity optimization reveals stable communities within the graphs that are clearly different between young children and young adults. These observations suggest that early school age children and adults

  17. The effectiveness of Cluster Organization Functions from a Member Company Perspective: The Case of Food Valley Organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omta, S.W.F.; Fortuin, F.T.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the effectiveness of the different cluster organization functions (services, activities and information sources) of Food Valley Organization in the Dutch agifood innovation system, as evaluated by its member companies. It is concluded that, in accordance with cluster

  18. RAD50, an SMC family member with multiple roles in DNA break repair: How does ATP affect function?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Kinoshita (Eri); E. van der Linden (Eddy); H. Sanchez (Humberto); C. Wyman (Claire)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe protein complex including Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1 (MRN) functions in DNA double-strand break repair to recognize and process DNA ends as well as signal for cell cycle arrest. Amino acid sequence similarity and overall architecture make Rad50 a member of the structural maintenance of

  19. Avoiding coral reef functional collapse requires local and global action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Emma V; Perry, Chris T; Halloran, Paul R; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Schönberg, Christine H L; Wisshak, Max; Form, Armin U; Carricart-Ganivet, Juan P; Fine, Maoz; Eakin, C Mark; Mumby, Peter J

    2013-05-20

    Coral reefs face multiple anthropogenic threats, from pollution and overfishing to the dual effects of greenhouse gas emissions: rising sea temperature and ocean acidification. While the abundance of coral has declined in recent decades, the implications for humanity are difficult to quantify because they depend on ecosystem function rather than the corals themselves. Most reef functions and ecosystem services are founded on the ability of reefs to maintain their three-dimensional structure through net carbonate accumulation. Coral growth only constitutes part of a reef's carbonate budget; bioerosion processes are influential in determining the balance between net structural growth and disintegration. Here, we combine ecological models with carbonate budgets and drive the dynamics of Caribbean reefs with the latest generation of climate models. Budget reconstructions using documented ecological perturbations drive shallow (6-10 m) Caribbean forereefs toward an increasingly fragile carbonate balance. We then projected carbonate budgets toward 2080 and contrasted the benefits of local conservation and global action on climate change. Local management of fisheries (specifically, no-take marine reserves) and the watershed can delay reef loss by at least a decade under "business-as-usual" rises in greenhouse gas emissions. However, local action must be combined with a low-carbon economy to prevent degradation of reef structures and associated ecosystem services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Local and linear chemical reactivity response functions at finite temperature in density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco-Pérez, Marco; Ayers, Paul W.; Gázquez, José L.; Vela, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We explore the local and nonlocal response functions of the grand canonical potential density functional at nonzero temperature. In analogy to the zero-temperature treatment, local (e.g., the average electron density and the local softness) and nonlocal (e.g., the softness kernel) intrinsic response functions are defined as partial derivatives of the grand canonical potential with respect to its thermodynamic variables (i.e., the chemical potential of the electron reservoir and the external potential generated by the atomic nuclei). To define the local and nonlocal response functions of the electron density (e.g., the Fukui function, the linear density response function, and the dual descriptor), we differentiate with respect to the average electron number and the external potential. The well-known mathematical relationships between the intrinsic response functions and the electron-density responses are generalized to nonzero temperature, and we prove that in the zero-temperature limit, our results recover well-known identities from the density functional theory of chemical reactivity. Specific working equations and numerical results are provided for the 3-state ensemble model

  1. Altered Neutrophil Function in Localized Juvenile Periodontitis: Intrinsic or Induced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sudha; Huang, Jian Ping; Piesco, Nicholas P; Suzuki, Jon B; Riccelli, Angelina E; Johns, Lee P

    1996-03-01

    Localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP) is an aggressive periodontal disease of familial nature. Neutrophils from a majority of patients with this disease exhibit decreased Chemotaxis with increased adherence, oxidative burst, and degranulation in response to opsonized bacteria. It is proposed that the biological basis for these altered neutrophil functions in LJP may be due either to intrinsic cell abnormalities or to the effect of factors present in the sera of LJP patients, which can modulate neutrophil functions. LJP neutrophils exhibit a lower number of receptors for chemoattractants and GP-110 molecules which are known to facilitate Chemotaxis. Furthermore, these cells exhibit lower signal transduction in response to a biological stimulus. These observations suggest that intrinsic cellular defects may be responsible for altered neutrophil functions in LJP. However, healthy neutrophils, when treated with very low concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines, also exhibit the characteristics of altered or "defective" LJP neutrophils. Additionally, healthy neutrophils, when treated with LJP serum, also exhibit many of the characteristics associated with LJP neutrophils. Attempts to identify these factors have shown that cytokines like TNF-α and/or IL1 β in LJP sera may be at least partially responsible for modulating neutrophil functions in LJP. These cytokines are primarily produced by activated macrophages, indicating a role for these cells in the etiology of LJP. The hyper-responsiveness of these cells to an immunologic challenge can result in local increases in cytokines leading to excessive bone loss and tissue damage at the site of infection, while systemic elevations in cytokines would lead to decreased neutrophil Chemotaxis, both of which are observed in LJP. Present evidence indicates that neutrophil functions are indeed altered in the majority of LJP patients. However, the biological basis for the alteration may not be due to the neutrophils themselves

  2. Correlation function of null polygonal Wilson loops with local operators

    OpenAIRE

    Alday, L. F.; Buchbinder, E. I.; Tseytlin, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the correlator of a light-like polygonal Wilson loop with n cusps with a local operator (like the dilaton or the chiral primary scalar) in planar N =4 super Yang-Mills theory. As a consequence of conformal symmetry, the main part of such correlator is a function F of 3n-11 conformal ratios. The first non-trivial case is n=4 when F depends on just one conformal ratio \\zeta. This makes the corresponding correlator one of the simplest non-trivial observables that one would like to c...

  3. Feasibility study and functional requirements for a digital non-conventional literature system at INIS and Member Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendley, T.; Dixon, R.

    1993-03-01

    The aim of any Non-Conventional Literature (NCL) system will be to improve the service INIS provides to members, reducing the operational cost of administering the NCL service by the streamlining of procedures, allowing INIS to provide NCL to members using media relevant to the needs of members and positioning INIS so that as a member's needs change these needs can be catered for. Specific functional requirements include the receipt and checking of NCL documents and bibliographic data, conversion of received NCL into digital image form accessed by an image index database referenced alongside the existing bibliographic database and output of NCL to digital interchange/distribution media in addition to microfiche and possibly paper. The quality of service to members in terms of document quality and turn around time must be at least maintained. The study was undertaken by Cimtech consultants between December 1992 and March 1993. Approximate costs and benefits of implementing a digital NCL system were identified. Some outstanding issues need to be resolved. This could include a pilot system being introduced which would allow requirements to be defined more fully and operational experience to be gained. (Author)

  4. Insulin in the brain: sources, localization and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Rasoul; Haeri, Ali; Dargahi, Leila; Mohamed, Zahurin; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan

    2013-02-01

    Historically, insulin is best known for its role in peripheral glucose homeostasis, and insulin signaling in the brain has received less attention. Insulin-independent brain glucose uptake has been the main reason for considering the brain as an insulin-insensitive organ. However, recent findings showing a high concentration of insulin in brain extracts, and expression of insulin receptors (IRs) in central nervous system tissues have gathered considerable attention over the sources, localization, and functions of insulin in the brain. This review summarizes the current status of knowledge of the peripheral and central sources of insulin in the brain, site-specific expression of IRs, and also neurophysiological functions of insulin including the regulation of food intake, weight control, reproduction, and cognition and memory formation. This review also considers the neuromodulatory and neurotrophic effects of insulin, resulting in proliferation, differentiation, and neurite outgrowth, introducing insulin as an attractive tool for neuroprotection against apoptosis, oxidative stress, beta amyloid toxicity, and brain ischemia.

  5. Local Approximation of the Correlation Energy Functional in the Density Matrix Functional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Koji

    2002-02-01

    A local approximation formula of the correlation energy functional Ec in terms of the first-order reduced density matrix (1-RDM) is presented. With the contracted Schrödinger equation the principal dependence of Ec on the natural occupation numbers ni is identified. Using the effective mass theory, Ec is expressed as a functional of the local density and the local variable, J = Σi(ni(1-ni)) \\|ϕi\\|2, where ϕi are the natural spin orbitals. This local approximation satisfies the homogeneous coordinate scaling relation, gives the exact result for a one-electron system, and is almost free from the exchange energy error. It reproduced about 90% of the correlation energies of atoms and molecules.

  6. Development of a Multilevel Prevention Program for Improved Relationship Functioning in Active Duty Military Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) July 2008 – July 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of a Multilevel Prevention Program for Improved...members have been tremendously strained by deployments and high operations’ tempo. This study involves the first steps in developing a multilevel approach

  7. Exact density functional and wave function embedding schemes based on orbital localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hégely, Bence; Nagy, Péter R.; Kállay, Mihály; Ferenczy, György G.

    2016-01-01

    Exact schemes for the embedding of density functional theory (DFT) and wave function theory (WFT) methods into lower-level DFT or WFT approaches are introduced utilizing orbital localization. First, a simple modification of the projector-based embedding scheme of Manby and co-workers [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 18A507 (2014)] is proposed. We also use localized orbitals to partition the system, but instead of augmenting the Fock operator with a somewhat arbitrary level-shift projector we solve the Huzinaga-equation, which strictly enforces the Pauli exclusion principle. Second, the embedding of WFT methods in local correlation approaches is studied. Since the latter methods split up the system into local domains, very simple embedding theories can be defined if the domains of the active subsystem and the environment are treated at a different level. The considered embedding schemes are benchmarked for reaction energies and compared to quantum mechanics (QM)/molecular mechanics (MM) and vacuum embedding. We conclude that for DFT-in-DFT embedding, the Huzinaga-equation-based scheme is more efficient than the other approaches, but QM/MM or even simple vacuum embedding is still competitive in particular cases. Concerning the embedding of wave function methods, the clear winner is the embedding of WFT into low-level local correlation approaches, and WFT-in-DFT embedding can only be more advantageous if a non-hybrid density functional is employed.

  8. Land Use and Land Cover, Existing land use derived from orthoimagery. Ground-truthing from discussion with local plan commission members., Published in 2000, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Portage County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Land Use and Land Cover dataset current as of 2000. Existing land use derived from orthoimagery. Ground-truthing from discussion with local plan commission members..

  9. Localization and Functionality of the Inflammasome in Neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakele, Martina; Joos, Melanie; Burdi, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils represent the major fraction of circulating immune cells and are rapidly recruited to sites of infection and inflammation. The inflammasome is a multiprotein complex that regulates the generation of IL-1 family proteins. The precise subcellular localization and functionality...... of the inflammasome in human neutrophils are poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that highly purified human neutrophils express key components of the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), and absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasomes, particularly apoptosis-associated speck-like protein...... and released as protein, highly purified neutrophils neither expressed nor released IL-1α at baseline or upon stimulation. Upon inflammasome activation, highly purified neutrophils released substantially lower levels of IL-1β protein compared with partially purified neutrophils. Serine proteases and caspases...

  10. Meshfree Local Radial Basis Function Collocation Method with Image Nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Seung Ki; Kim, Minjae [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    We numerically solve two-dimensional heat diffusion problems by using a simple variant of the meshfree local radial-basis function (RBF) collocation method. The main idea is to include an additional set of sample nodes outside the problem domain, similarly to the method of images in electrostatics, to perform collocation on the domain boundaries. We can thereby take into account the temperature profile as well as its gradients specified by boundary conditions at the same time, which holds true even for a node where two or more boundaries meet with different boundary conditions. We argue that the image method is computationally efficient when combined with the local RBF collocation method, whereas the addition of image nodes becomes very costly in case of the global collocation. We apply our modified method to a benchmark test of a boundary value problem, and find that this simple modification reduces the maximum error from the analytic solution significantly. The reduction is small for an initial value problem with simpler boundary conditions. We observe increased numerical instability, which has to be compensated for by a sufficient number of sample nodes and/or more careful parameter choices for time integration.

  11. Transforming growth factor β family members in regulation of vascular function: in the light of vascular conditional knockouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Lars; van Meeteren, Laurens A

    2013-05-15

    Blood vessels are composed of endothelial cells, mural cells (smooth muscle cells and pericytes) and their shared basement membrane. During embryonic development a multitude of signaling components orchestrate the formation of new vessels. The process is highly dependent on correct dosage, spacing and timing of these signaling molecules. As vessels mature some cascades remain active, albeit at very low levels, and may be reactivated upon demand. Members of the Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) protein family are strongly engaged in developmental angiogenesis but are also regulators of vascular integrity in the adult. In humans various genetic alterations within this protein family cause vascular disorders, involving disintegration of vascular integrity. Here we summarize and discuss recent data gathered from conditional and endothelial cell specific genetic loss-of-function of members of the TGF-β family in the mouse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Local self governance in health - a study of it’s functioning in Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuputra Panda

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local decision making is linked to several service quality improvement parameters. Rogi Kalyan Samitis (RKS at peripheral decision making health units (DMHU are composite bodies that are mandated to ensure accountability and transparency in governance, improve quality of services, and facilitate local responsiveness. There is scant literature on the nature of functioning of these institutions in Odisha. This study aimed to assess the perception of RKS members about their roles, involvement and practices with respect to local decision making and management of DMHUs; it further examined perceptual and functional differences between priority and non-priority district set-ups; and identified predictors of involvement of RKS members in local governance of health units. Methods As members of RKS, health service providers, officials in administrative/managerial role, elected representatives, and officials from other departments (including independent members constituted our study sample. A total of 112 respondents were interviewed across 6 districts, through a multi-stage stratified random sampling; we used a semi-structured interview schedule that comprised mainly of close-ended and some open-ended questions. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to compare 3 priority (PD and 3 non-priority districts (NPD, categorized on the basis of Infant Mortality Rate (IMR estimates of 2011 as proxy of population health. Governance, human resource management, financial management and quality improvement functions were studied in detail. Opinion about various individual and organizational factors in local self-governance and predictors of involvement were identified. Results The socio-demographic profile and composition of respondents were comparable between PD and NPD. Majority of respondents were ‘satisfied’ with their current roles in the governance of local health institutions. About one-fourth opined that the amount of funds

  13. Genetic localization of Cd63, a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, reveals two distinct loci in the mouse genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwynn, B.; Eicher, E.M.; Peters, L.L. [Jackson Lab., Bar Harbor, ME (United States)

    1996-07-15

    The membrane protein CD63, a molecular marker for early stages of melanoma progression, has been associated with platelet storage pool deficiency disorders (SPD). CD63 localizes to the membranes of platelets, lysosomes, and melanosomes, all of which are affected in a specific subgroup of SPD. The cDNA encoding CD63 detects two closely related sequences that map to different regions of the mouse genome. One locus maps to mouse Chromosome (Chr) 10 in a region that shares linkage homology with the human chromosome encoding human CD63. The second locus maps to mouse Chr 18 in a region that bears no known human CD63-related genes. No SPD has been localized to these regions of either the mouse or the human chromosomes. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Mouse RC/BTB2, a Member of the RCC1 Superfamily, Localizes to Spermatid Acrosomal Vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xuening; Nagarkatti-Gude, David R.; Hess, Rex A.; Henderson, Scott C.; Strauss, Jerome F.; Zhang, Zhibing

    2012-01-01

    Mouse RC/BTB2 is an unstudied protein of the RCC1 (Regulator of Chromosome Condensation) superfamily. Because of the significant remodeling of chromatin that occurs during spermiogenesis, we characterized the expression and localization of mouse RC/BTB2 in the testis and male germ cells. The Rc/btb2 gene yields two major transcripts: 2.3 kb Rc/btb2-s, present in most somatic tissues examined; and 2.5 kb Rc/btb2-t, which contains a unique non-translated exon in its 5′-UTR that is only detected in the testis. During the first wave of spermatogenesis, Rc/btb2-t mRNA is expressed from day 8 after birth, reaching highest levels of expression at day 30 after birth. The full-length protein contains three RCC1 domains in the N-terminus, and a BTB domain in the C-terminus. In the testis, the protein is detectable from day 12, but is progressively up-regulated to day 30 and day 42 after birth. In spermatids, some of the protein co-localizes with acrosomal markers sp56 and peanut lectin, indicating that it is an acrosomal protein. A GFP-tagged RCC1 domain is present throughout the cytoplasm of transfected CHO cells. However, both GFP-tagged, full-length RC/BTB2 and a GFP-tagged BTB domain localize to vesicles in close proximity to the nuclear membrane, suggesting that the BTB domain might play a role in mediating full-length RC/BTB2 localization. Since RCC1 domains associate with Ran, a small GTPase that regulates molecular trafficking, it is possible that RC/BTB2 plays a role in transporting proteins during acrosome formation. PMID:22768142

  15. Vigorous physical activity impairs myocardial function in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and in mutation positive family members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saberniak, Jørg; Hasselberg, Nina E; Borgquist, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Exercise increases risk of ventricular arrhythmia in subjects with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). We aimed to investigate the impact of exercise on myocardial function in ARVC subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 110 subjects (age 42 ± 17 years), 65 ARVC...... patients and 45 mutation-positive family members. Athletes were defined as subjects with ≥4 h vigorous exercise/week [≥1440 metabolic equivalents (METs × minutes/week)] during a minimum of 6 years. Athlete definition was fulfilled in 37/110 (34%) subjects. We assessed right ventricular (RV) and left...

  16. Estimating and analysing currency options implied risk-neutral density functions for the largest new EU member states

    OpenAIRE

    Castrén, Olli

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses data on currency options prices for the exchange rates of the three largest new EU member states Poland, Czech Republic and Hungary vis-à-vis the euro and the US dollar to estimate the risk-neutral density (RND) functions and the density interval bands. Analysing the RNDs, we find that only some of the implied moments on the Polish zloty exchange rate systematically move around policy events, while the implied moments on the RNDs on the Czech koruna and Hungarian forint show m...

  17. Needs, Preferences, and Functional Abilities of Veterans and Service Members with Upper-Limb Amputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    sensory feedback in patient perception of voluntary movement and assessment of the performance of sound-handed individuals and amputees with real and...Project’s Goals: To develop treatment strategies for improving executive function and memory following TBI. List of The Specific Aims: 1. Develop...acceptability of the DEKA Arm in a home environment. Data from this study will help inform future VA Prosthetics and Sensory Aids clinical guidelines for

  18. Neuropeptide Y system in the retina: From localization to function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Carvalho, Ana; Ambrósio, António Francisco; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2015-07-01

    The retina is a highly complex structure where several types of cells communicate through countless different molecules to codify visual information. Each type of cells plays unique roles in the retina, presenting a singular expression of neurotransmitters. Some neurotransmitter systems in the retina are well understood, while others need to be better explored to unravel the intricate signaling system involved. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36 amino acid peptide, is one of the most common peptide neurotransmitter in the CNS and a highly conserved peptide among species. We review the localization of NPY and NPY receptors (mainly NPY Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5) in retinal cells. Common features of the expression of NPY and NPY receptors in mammalian and non-mammalian species indicate universal roles of this system in the retina. In the present review, we highlight the putative roles of NPY receptor activation in the retina, discussing, in particular, their involvement in retinal development, neurotransmitter release modulation, neuroprotection, microglia and Muller cells function, retinal pigmented epithelium changes, retinal endothelial physiology and proliferation of retinal progenitor cells. Further studies are needed to confirm that targeting the NPY system might be a potential therapeutic strategy for retinal degenerative diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Localization and function of three monothiol glutaredoxins in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Woo-Hyun; Kim, Kyoung-Dong; Roe, Jung-Hye

    2005-01-01

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe contains two dithiol glutaredoxins (Grx1 and Grx2) and genes for three putative monothiol glutaredoxins (grx3, 4, and 5). We investigated the expression, sub-cellular localization, and functions of the three monothiol glutaredoxins. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that Grx3 is targeted to nuclear rim and endoplasmic reticulum, Grx4 primarily to the nucleus, and Grx5 to mitochondria. Null mutation of grx3 did not significantly affect growth and resistance against various oxidants, whereas grx5 mutation caused slow growth and sensitivity toward oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide, paraquat, and diamide. The grx2grx5 double mutation, deficient in all mitochondrial glutaredoxins, caused further retardation in growth and severe sensitivity toward all the oxidants tested. The grx4 mutation was not viable, suggesting a critical role of Grx4 for the physiology of S. pombe. Overproduction of Grx3 and Grx5, but not the truncated form of Grx5 without mitochondrial target sequence, severely retarded growth as Grx2 did, supporting the idea that Grx2, 3, and 5 are targeted to organellar compartments. Our results propose a distinct role for each glutaredoxin to maintain thiol redox balance, and hence the growth and stress resistance, of the fission yeast

  20. Localizing and placement of network node functions in a network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.; Meulenhoff, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    The invention enables placement and use of a network node function in a second network node instead of using the network node function in a first network node. The network node function is e.g. a server function or a router function. The second network node is typically located in or close to the

  1. Influence of the computerization of a control room on the function of a team member

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyard, E.; Lescoat, D.A.

    1991-08-01

    Reactors are at present operated from a conventional control room, where information is continuously available, by two operators under the responsibility of a shift supervisor (CDQ). A safety engineer (ISR) who does not perform any action on the process, holds a back position towards control. He is entrusted with the specific surveillance of the points important for the safety of the installation, in parallel with the work of the operators. The very nature of this task makes it more important in incident condition and determining in accident condition. In 1984, it was decided to equip the new nuclear power plants with entirely computerized control rooms. The introduction of the computerization of the control means involves an important evolution in the operators' work. The organization of control teams and the evolution of inter-operators relations are essential part of the problematics of the human factors evaluation carried out on S3C. For our part, we took a particular interest in the evolution of the ISR function, in reference with its usual task in a conventional control room

  2. New insight into structure/function relationships in plant alpha-amylase family GH13 members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seo, Eun-Seong; Andersen, Joakim Mark; Nielsen, Morten Munch

    2010-01-01

    Two carbohydrate binding surface sites (SBSs) on barley α-amylase 1 (AMY1) of glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13) displayed synergy in interactions with starch granules, thus being pivotal for hydrolysis of supramolecular substrates. Mutational analysis showed that SBS1 is more critical for the ......Two carbohydrate binding surface sites (SBSs) on barley α-amylase 1 (AMY1) of glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13) displayed synergy in interactions with starch granules, thus being pivotal for hydrolysis of supramolecular substrates. Mutational analysis showed that SBS1 is more critical...... binding domains (SBDs) mediate binding to starch granules. SBDs are currently categorised into 9 carbohydrate binding module (CBM) families. A novel CBM20 subfamily encountered in regulatory enzymes possesses characteristically low affinity for β-CD. Although α-amylase is essential for starch mobilisation...... in germinating barley seeds, efficient degradation requires the concerted action of α-amylase, β-amylase, limit dextrinase (LD) and possibly α-glucosidase. Limit dextrinase (LD) is encoded by a single gene and represents the sole debranching activity during germination. Recent expression of functional LD...

  3. Emission computerized-tomography and determination of local brain function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, D.E.; Alavi, A.; Reivich, M.; Edwards, R.Q.; Fenton, C.A.; Zimmerman, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    Methods for the three dimensional reconstruction of /sup 99m/Tc brain scans are described. The diagnostic advantages of computerized tomography in the localization of brain tumors and in measurements of local cerebral blood flow are discussed. (U.S.)

  4. Functional Neuroimaging Correlates of Burnout among Internal Medicine Residents and Faculty Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durning, Steven J; Costanzo, Michelle; Artino, Anthony R; Dyrbye, Liselotte N; Beckman, Thomas J; Schuwirth, Lambert; Holmboe, Eric; Roy, Michael J; Wittich, Christopher M; Lipner, Rebecca S; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2013-01-01

    Burnout is prevalent in residency training and practice and is linked to medical error and suboptimal patient care. However, little is known about how burnout affects clinical reasoning, which is essential to safe and effective care. The aim of this study was to examine how burnout modulates brain activity during clinical reasoning in physicians. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), brain activity was assessed in internal medicine residents (n = 10) and board-certified internists (faculty, n = 17) from the Uniformed Services University (USUHS) while they answered and reflected upon United States Medical Licensing Examination and American Board of Internal Medicine multiple-choice questions. Participants also completed a validated two-item burnout scale, which includes an item assessing emotional exhaustion and an item assessing depersonalization. Whole brain covariate analysis was used to examine blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal during answering and reflecting upon clinical problems with respect to burnout scores. Higher depersonalization scores were associated with less BOLD signal in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and middle frontal gyrus during reflecting on clinical problems and less BOLD signal in the bilateral precuneus while answering clinical problems in residents. Higher emotional exhaustion scores were associated with more right posterior cingulate cortex and middle frontal gyrus BOLD signal in residents. Examination of faculty revealed no significant influence of burnout on brain activity. Residents appear to be more susceptible to burnout effects on clinical reasoning, which may indicate that residents may need both cognitive and emotional support to improve quality of life and to optimize performance and learning. These results inform our understanding of mental stress, cognitive control as well as cognitive load theory.

  5. Parents' Perspectives of Changes Within the Family Functioning After a Pediatric Cancer Diagnosis: A Multi Family Member Interview Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Schoors, Marieke; De Mol, Jan; Morren, Hanne; Verhofstadt, Lesley L; Goubert, Liesbet; Van Parys, Hanna

    2018-01-01

    Pediatric cancer is a life-threatening disease that challenges the life of the diagnosed child, the parents, and possible siblings. Moreover, it also places considerable demands on family life. The aim of this study was to explore changes in the family functioning after a pediatric cancer diagnosis. Ten couples who had a child with leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma were interviewed individually about their experiences. Interviews were semistructured, and the data were analyzed using Multi Family Member Interview Analysis. Three themes emerged from the data: (a) Family Cohesion: Strengthened Versus Fragmented; (b) Educational Norms and Values: Overindulgence Versus Being Stricter, and (c) Normality: Loss Versus Preservation. The conflicting dynamics present in these emerging themes exemplify the complexity of this process of family adaptation. This study illustrates the need to take into account the family level, as well as the conflicting feelings parents may experience after a pediatric cancer diagnosis.

  6. Local modification and laser-welding production of functionalized microfluidic chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijo Carvalho, Rui

    2017-01-01

    The ability to locally functionalize the surface of glass and polymers allows for myriad biomedical and chemical applications. When we started this research enclosed surfaces such as microfluidic channels were not easily amenable to localized functionalization. Furthermore, pre-functionalization

  7. Functional genomic analysis supports conservation of function among cellulose synthase-like a gene family members and suggests diverse roles of mannans in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liepman, Aaron H; Nairn, C Joseph; Willats, William G T

    2007-01-01

    in insect cells, and each CslA protein catalyzed mannan and glucomannan synthase reactions in vitro. Microarray mining and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that transcripts of Arabidopsis and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) CslA genes display tissue...... they are prevalent at cell junctions and in buds. Taken together, these results demonstrate that members of the CslA gene family from diverse plant species encode glucomannan synthases and support the hypothesis that mannans function in metabolic networks devoted to other cellular processes in addition to cell wall...

  8. Calculation of local excitations in large systems by embedding wave-function theory in density-functional theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomes, A.S.P.; Jacob, C.R.; Visscher, L.

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple and efficient embedding scheme for the wave-function based calculation of the energies of local excitations in large systems. By introducing an embedding potential obtained from density-functional theory (DFT) it is possible to describe the effect of an environment on local

  9. Characterization of the split ends-like gene spenito reveals functional antagonism between SPOC family members during Drosophila eye development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemc, Jennifer; Rebay, Ilaria

    2006-05-01

    The novel family of SPOC domain proteins is composed of broadly conserved nuclear factors that fall into two subclasses, termed large and small, based on protein size. Members of the large subgroup, which includes Drosophila SPEN and human SHARP, have been characterized as transcriptional corepressors acting downstream of a variety of essential cell signaling pathways, while those of the small subclass have remained largely unstudied. Since SPEN has been implicated in Drosophila eye development, and the small SPOC protein NITO is also expressed in the developing eye, we have used this context to perform a structure-function analysis of NITO and to examine the relationship between the two SPOC family subclasses. Our results demonstrate that the phenotypes obtained from overexpressing NITO share striking similarity to those associated with loss of spen. Dosage-sensitive genetic interactions further support a model of functional antagonism between NITO and SPEN during Drosophila eye development. These results suggest that large and small SPOC family proteins may have opposing functions in certain developmental contexts.

  10. Localization of functional memory B cells at sites of antigen localization and its relationship to local aspects of immunological memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponzio, N.M.; Baine, Y.; Thorbecke, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments are described which have been designed to test whether antigen in a draining lymph node can mediate local accumulation of passively transferred antigen-specific memory B cells, using recipients whose own immune response is inhibited via γ-irradiation or by injection of cyclophosphamide. (Auth.)

  11. Local structure studies using the pair distribution function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordet Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pair distribution analysis method is a fast spreading structural analysis method allowing to go beyond classical crystallographic analysis by providing quantitative information about local as well as meso-structure. It based on powder diffraction data fourier transformed to direct space. We will present here the main characteristics of the method, and its domain of application.

  12. Aprataxin localizes to mitochondria and preserves mitochondrial function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sykora, Peter; Croteau, Deborah L; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2011-01-01

    aborted ligation reactions. We report herein that aprataxin localizes to mitochondria in human cells and we identify an N-terminal amino acid sequence that targets certain isoforms of the protein to this intracellular compartment. We also show that transcripts encoding this unique N-terminal stretch...

  13. Local thermodynamic mapping for effective liquid density-functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrlidis, Agathagelos; Brown, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    The structural-mapping approximation introduced by Lutsko and Baus (1990) in the generalized effective-liquid approximation is extended to include a local thermodynamic mapping based on a spatially dependent effective density for approximating the solid phase in terms of the uniform liquid. This latter approximation, called the local generalized effective-liquid approximation (LGELA) yields excellent predictions for the free energy of hard-sphere solids and for the conditions of coexistence of a hard-sphere fcc solid with a liquid. Moreover, the predicted free energy remains single valued for calculations with more loosely packed crystalline structures, such as the diamond lattice. The spatial dependence of the weighted density makes the LGELA useful in the study of inhomogeneous solids.

  14. FORMATION PRACTICE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTBODY FUNCTIONING IN REPUBLIC OF BURYATIYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viktorovna Petrova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The results sociological investigation, of made by the author inRepublicofBuryatiyain 2008-2010, are represented in the given article in order to study the tendency, forms and peculiarities of local government. The problems,  connected with process of  forming the local government inRussia, are typical also for the Republic. The problems are the following: the financial resources insufficiency, the federal legislation incompleteness, insufficient municipal personnel qualification, dual relation concerning the work of the city-managers.The sociological investigation has given the possibility to show if the organizational measures, concerning the municipal reforms, are appreciated in positive or negative ways, how they are interpreted by the citizen consciousness and in which way they influence  their daily social practice.

  15. Effects on functional outcome after IORT-containing multimodality treatment for locally advanced primary and locally recurrent rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannaerts, Guido H.H.; Rutten, Harm J.T.; Martijn, Hendrik; Hanssens, Patrick E.J.; Wiggers, Theo

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: In the treatment of patients with locally advanced primary or locally recurrent rectal cancer, much attention is focused on the oncologic outcome. Little is known about the functional outcome. In this study, the functional outcome after a multimodality treatment for locally advanced primary and locally recurrent rectal cancer is analyzed. Methods and Materials: Between 1994 and 1999, 55 patients with locally advanced primary and 66 patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer were treated with high-dose preoperative external beam irradiation, followed by extended surgery and intraoperative radiotherapy. To assess long-term functional outcome, all patients still alive (n = 97) were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding ongoing morbidity, as well as functional and social impairment. Seventy-six of the 79 patients (96%) returned the questionnaire. The median follow-up was 14 months (range: 4-60 months). Results: The questionnaire revealed fatigue in 44%, perineal pain in 42%, radiating pain in the leg(s) in 21%, walking difficulties in 36%, and voiding dysfunction in 42% of the patients as symptoms of ongoing morbidity. Functional impairment consisted of requiring help with basic activities in 15% and sexual inactivity in 56% of the respondents. Social handicap was demonstrated by loss of former lifestyle in 44% and loss of professional occupation in 40% of patients. Conclusions: As a result of multimodality treatment, the majority of these patients have to deal with long-term physical morbidity, the need for help with daily care, and considerable social impairment. These consequences must be weighed against the chance of cure if the patient is treated and the disability eventually caused by uncontrolled tumor progression if the patient is not treated. These potential drawbacks should be discussed with the patient preoperatively and taken into account when designing a treatment strategy

  16. Quantitative protein localization signatures reveal an association between spatial and functional divergences of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Lit-Hsin; Laksameethanasan, Danai; Tung, Yi-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Protein subcellular localization is a major determinant of protein function. However, this important protein feature is often described in terms of discrete and qualitative categories of subcellular compartments, and therefore it has limited applications in quantitative protein function analyses. Here, we present Protein Localization Analysis and Search Tools (PLAST), an automated analysis framework for constructing and comparing quantitative signatures of protein subcellular localization patterns based on microscopy images. PLAST produces human-interpretable protein localization maps that quantitatively describe the similarities in the localization patterns of proteins and major subcellular compartments, without requiring manual assignment or supervised learning of these compartments. Using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system, we show that PLAST is more accurate than existing, qualitative protein localization annotations in identifying known co-localized proteins. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PLAST can reveal protein localization-function relationships that are not obvious from these annotations. First, we identified proteins that have similar localization patterns and participate in closely-related biological processes, but do not necessarily form stable complexes with each other or localize at the same organelles. Second, we found an association between spatial and functional divergences of proteins during evolution. Surprisingly, as proteins with common ancestors evolve, they tend to develop more diverged subcellular localization patterns, but still occupy similar numbers of compartments. This suggests that divergence of protein localization might be more frequently due to the development of more specific localization patterns over ancestral compartments than the occupation of new compartments. PLAST enables systematic and quantitative analyses of protein localization-function relationships, and will be useful to elucidate protein

  17. Identification, Localization, and Functional Implications of the Microdomain-Forming Stomatin Family in the Ciliated Protozoan Paramecium tetraurelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuermer, Claudia A. O.; Plattner, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    The SPFH protein superfamily is assumed to occur universally in eukaryotes, but information from protozoa is scarce. In the Paramecium genome, we found only Stomatins, 20 paralogs grouped in 8 families, STO1 to STO8. According to cDNA analysis, all are expressed, and molecular modeling shows the typical SPFH domain structure for all subgroups. For further analysis we used family-specific sequences for fluorescence and immunogold labeling, gene silencing, and functional tests. With all family members tested, we found a patchy localization at/near the cell surface and on vesicles. The Sto1p and Sto4p families are also associated with the contractile vacuole complex. Sto4p also makes puncta on some food vacuoles and is abundant on vesicles recycling from the release site of spent food vacuoles to the site of nascent food vacuole formation. Silencing of the STO1 family reduces mechanosensitivity (ciliary reversal upon touching an obstacle), thus suggesting relevance for positioning of mechanosensitive channels in the plasmalemma. Silencing of STO4 members increases pulsation frequency of the contractile vacuole complex and reduces phagocytotic activity of Paramecium cells. In summary, Sto1p and Sto4p members seem to be involved in positioning specific superficial and intracellular microdomain-based membrane components whose functions may depend on mechanosensation (extracellular stimuli and internal osmotic pressure). PMID:23376944

  18. CGRP Receptor Family and Accessory Protein Localization: Implications for Predicted Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Oliver

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, adrenomedullin, amylin, and calcitonin are functionally related neuropeptides. Certain of these peptides mediate their action through receptors which have common components, such as the receptor activity modifying proteins (RAMPs and CGRP-receptor component protein, as well as possibly through other distinct receptors. Specifically, the molecular pharmacology of CGRP and adrenomedullin is determined by coexpression of one of three receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs with calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR. Additionally, through formation of another hetero-oligomer, RAMPs also govern the pharmacology of the calcitonin receptor, which in association with RAMP1 or RAMP3, binds amylin with high affinity. We have used multiple approaches to discern the regional and cellular expression of these various receptor components and binding sites for the above neuropeptides in multiple species and in different tissues. Techniques applied include in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and radioligand autoradiography. These data allow further understanding of both the complexity of receptor-receptor component and receptor-ligand interactions in vivo. Interestingly, these localization data suggest that RAMPs may interact with receptors additional to those already identified for the CGRP family and may be involved in binding innate neuropeptides or other neurotransmitters which are not members of the calcitonin gene-related peptide fam

  19. The PD-(D/EXK superfamily revisited: identification of new members among proteins involved in DNA metabolism and functional predictions for domains of (hitherto unknown function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujnicki Janusz M

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PD-(D/EXK nuclease superfamily, initially identified in type II restriction endonucleases and later in many enzymes involved in DNA recombination and repair, is one of the most challenging targets for protein sequence analysis and structure prediction. Typically, the sequence similarity between these proteins is so low, that most of the relationships between known members of the PD-(D/EXK superfamily were identified only after the corresponding structures were determined experimentally. Thus, it is tempting to speculate that among the uncharacterized protein families, there are potential nucleases that remain to be discovered, but their identification requires more sensitive tools than traditional PSI-BLAST searches. Results The low degree of amino acid conservation hampers the possibility of identification of new members of the PD-(D/EXK superfamily based solely on sequence comparisons to known members. Therefore, we used a recently developed method HHsearch for sensitive detection of remote similarities between protein families represented as profile Hidden Markov Models enhanced by secondary structure. We carried out a comparison of known families of PD-(D/EXK nucleases to the database comprising the COG and PFAM profiles corresponding to both functionally characterized as well as uncharacterized protein families to detect significant similarities. The initial candidates for new nucleases were subsequently verified by sequence-structure threading, comparative modeling, and identification of potential active site residues. Conclusion In this article, we report identification of the PD-(D/EXK nuclease domain in numerous proteins implicated in interactions with DNA but with unknown structure and mechanism of action (such as putative recombinase RmuC, DNA competence factor CoiA, a DNA-binding protein SfsA, a large human protein predicted to be a DNA repair enzyme, predicted archaeal transcription regulators, and the head

  20. A locally adapted functional outcome measurement score for total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Functional outcome scores are often used to measure results of Total Hip Replacement (THR). Most current scoring systems were designed for use in Europe or North America and seem not optimally suited for a general West African setting. We introduce a cross-cultural adaptation of the Lequesne index as a ...

  1. a locally adapted functional outcome measurement score for total

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preceding the yearly operating program, a preoperative grouped outpatient clinic is run. At this time patients selected for THR filled out the questionnaire, possibly a second time. Patients who had completed the questionnaire twice were asked whether their pain or functional impairment had changed since the previous.

  2. Histochemical localization and probable functions of calcium oxalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Julian O. Osuji

    The most remarkable aspect of the histochemistry of this ergastic substance in the edible aroids is the high concentration of the raphide bundles around the root apical meristems. This suggests that the crystals of calcium oxalate serve a protective function in the root of these taxa. Their occurrence in starch granules imply.

  3. Local hybrid functionals with orbital-free mixing functions and balanced elimination of self-interaction error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Piotr de; Corminboeuf, Clémence

    2015-01-01

    The recently introduced density overlap regions indicator (DORI) [P. de Silva and C. Corminboeuf, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10(9), 3745–3756 (2014)] is a density-dependent scalar field revealing regions of high density overlap between shells, atoms, and molecules. In this work, we exploit its properties to construct local hybrid exchange-correlation functionals aiming at balanced reduction of the self-interaction error. We show that DORI can successfully replace the ratio of the von Weizsäcker and exact positive-definite kinetic energy densities, which is commonly used in mixing functions of local hybrids. Additionally, we introduce several semi-empirical parameters to control the local and global admixture of exact exchange. The most promising of our local hybrids clearly outperforms the underlying semi-local functionals as well as their global hybrids

  4. Plicidentine in the Early Permian parareptile Colobomycter pholeter, and its phylogenetic and functional significance among coeval members of the clade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J MacDougall

    Full Text Available Once thought to be an exclusively anamniote characteristic, plicidentine, a pattern of infolding of dentine, is now known to be found in various amniote clades, including Parareptilia. In the absence of detailed analyses of parareptilian dentition, most parareptiles were assumed to lack plicidentine due to the absence of external indicators, such as plications on the tooth base. The clear presence of this dentinal feature in the largest premaxillary and maxillary teeth of Colobomycter pholeter, led us to the present detailed study within the dentition of this unusual parareptile, and those of coeval members of this clade. Our study reveals that there is large variability in the degree of dentine infolding within C. pholeter dentition, as well as within those of closely related parareptiles. This variability ranges from a lack of plications, to very complex anamniote-like plicidentine. Utilizing computed tomography scans in conjunction with histological sections we also demonstrate the utility of computed tomography scans in conducting non-destructive sampling in the identification of plicidentine. Given the variability of plicidentine in this sample of parareptiles, we hypothesize that one function of parareptilian plicidentine is to increase the surface area for attachment tissues, and we suggest that the use of plicidentine as a character in phylogenetic analyses of parareptiles may be misleading.

  5. Plicidentine in the Early Permian parareptile Colobomycter pholeter, and its phylogenetic and functional significance among coeval members of the clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Mark J; LeBlanc, Aaron R H; Reisz, Robert R

    2014-01-01

    Once thought to be an exclusively anamniote characteristic, plicidentine, a pattern of infolding of dentine, is now known to be found in various amniote clades, including Parareptilia. In the absence of detailed analyses of parareptilian dentition, most parareptiles were assumed to lack plicidentine due to the absence of external indicators, such as plications on the tooth base. The clear presence of this dentinal feature in the largest premaxillary and maxillary teeth of Colobomycter pholeter, led us to the present detailed study within the dentition of this unusual parareptile, and those of coeval members of this clade. Our study reveals that there is large variability in the degree of dentine infolding within C. pholeter dentition, as well as within those of closely related parareptiles. This variability ranges from a lack of plications, to very complex anamniote-like plicidentine. Utilizing computed tomography scans in conjunction with histological sections we also demonstrate the utility of computed tomography scans in conducting non-destructive sampling in the identification of plicidentine. Given the variability of plicidentine in this sample of parareptiles, we hypothesize that one function of parareptilian plicidentine is to increase the surface area for attachment tissues, and we suggest that the use of plicidentine as a character in phylogenetic analyses of parareptiles may be misleading.

  6. Molecular cloning, expression, function and immunoreactivities of members of a gene family of sphingomyelinases from Loxosceles venom glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambourgi, Denise V; de F Fernandes Pedrosa, Matheus; van den Berg, Carmen W; Gonçalves-de-Andrade, Rute M; Ferracini, Matheus; Paixão-Cavalcante, Danielle; Morgan, B Paul; Rushmere, Neil K

    2004-07-01

    Loxoscelism is the clinical condition produced by the venom of spiders belonging to the genus Loxosceles, which can be observed as two well-defined clinical variants: cutaneous loxoscelism and systemic or viscerocutaneous loxoscelism. We have recently identified, purified and characterised the toxins (sphingomyelinases) from Loxosceles intermedia venom that are responsible for all the local (dermonecrosis) and systemic effects (complement dependent haemolysis) induced by whole venom. In the present study, we have cloned and expressed the two functional sphingomyelinases isoforms, P1 and P2, and shown that the recombinant proteins display all the functional characteristics of whole L. intermedia venom, e.g., dermonecrotic and complement-dependent hemolytic activities and ability of hydrolyzing sphingomyelin. We have also compared the cross-reactivities of antisera raised against the toxins from different Loxosceles species and show here that the cross-reactivity is high when toxins are from the same species (P1 and P2 from L. intermedia) but low when the toxins are from different species (L. intermedia versus L. laeta). These data suggest that in order to obtain a suitable comprehensive neutralizing antiserum using the recombinant toxin as an immunogen, a mixture of the recombinant toxins from the different species has to be used. The use of anti-recombinant toxin antisera may have clinical benefits to those individuals displaying acute loxoscelic lesions. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Molecular and Functional Characterization of Mouse S5D-SRCRB: A New Group B Member of the Scavenger Receptor Cysteine-Rich Superfamily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miró-Julià, Cristina; Roselló, Sandra; Martínez, Vanesa G

    2011-01-01

    The scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily (SRCR-SF) members are transmembrane and/or secreted receptors exhibiting one or several repeats of a cysteine-rich protein module of ∼100 aa, named scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR). Two types of SRCR domains (A or B) have been reported, which...... differ in the number of coding exons and intradomain cysteines. Although no unifying function has been reported for SRCR-SF members, recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) was recently shown for some of them. In this article, we report the structural and functional characterization...

  8. BENEFITS OF LOCAL PRODUCTIVE ARRANGEMENTS (LPA: PERCEPTIONS OF THE MEMBERS OF THE APICULTURE NETWORK ‘REDE ABELHA CEARÁ’ - BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oderlene Vieira de Oliveira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many projects are currently being developed in Brazil by governmental and non-governmental agencies to support community-based production initiatives, especially through local productive arrangements (LPA. The apiculture network ‛Rede Abelha Ceará’ in Northeastern Brazil is an example of the dynamics of this novel form of productive organization, in which small-scale producers increase their competitiveness through LPAs. The present study poses the question: What are the perceptions of the members of ‛Rede Abelha Ceará’ regarding the dynamics of the network? To answer the question, we inquired beekeepers about the benefits obtained from their affiliation with the network. The investigation took the form of case study with findings submitted to content analysis. The results show that beekeepers recognized benefits derived from participation in the network, especially as related to cooperative purchasing, access to government credit and training in honey production processes. However, the synergy of the network was not fully exploited as half the interviewees reported not using the network logo on their products.

  9. Local-scaling density-functional method: Intraorbit and interorbit density optimizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Ludena, E.V.

    1991-01-01

    The recently proposed local-scaling density-functional theory provides us with a practical method for the direct variational determination of the electron density function ρ(r). The structure of ''orbits,'' which ensures the one-to-one correspondence between the electron density ρ(r) and the N-electron wave function Ψ({r k }), is studied in detail. For the realization of the local-scaling density-functional calculations, procedures for intraorbit and interorbit optimizations of the electron density function are proposed. These procedures are numerically illustrated for the helium atom in its ground state at the beyond-Hartree-Fock level

  10. Extracellular Lipase and Protease Production from a Model Drinking Water Bacterial Community Is Functionally Robust to Absence of Individual Members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham G Willsey

    Full Text Available Bacteria secrete enzymes into the extracellular space to hydrolyze macromolecules into constituents that can be imported for microbial nutrition. In bacterial communities, these enzymes and their resultant products can be modeled as community property. Our goal was to investigate the impact of individual community member absence on the resulting community production of exoenzymes (extracellular enzymes involved in lipid and protein hydrolysis. Our model community contained nine bacteria isolated from the potable water system of the International Space Station. Bacteria were grown in static conditions individually, all together, or in all combinations of eight species and exoproduct production was measured by colorimetric or fluorometric reagents to assess short chain and long chain lipases, choline-specific phospholipases C, and proteases. The exoenzyme production of each species grown alone varied widely, however, the enzyme activity levels of the mixed communities were functionally robust to absence of any single species, with the exception of phospholipase C production in one community. For phospholipase C, absence of Chryseobacterium gleum led to increased choline-specific phospholipase C production, correlated with increased growth of Burkholderia cepacia and Sphingomonas sanguinis. Because each individual species produced different enzyme activity levels in isolation, we calculated an expected activity value for each bacterial mixture using input levels or known final composition. This analysis suggested that robustness of each exoenzyme activity is not solely mediated by community composition, but possibly influenced by bacterial communication, which is known to regulate such pathways in many bacteria. We conclude that in this simplified model of a drinking water bacterial community, community structure imposes constraints on production and/or secretion of exoenzymes to generate a level appropriate to exploit a given nutrient environment.

  11. THE FUNCTIONING OF THE BOARDS OF NORMATIVISM: ECONOMIC AND LEGAL AT LOCAL AUTHORITY LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Public administration is an area with particularly social impact over all members of society. In the autonomous administrative authorities, local councils have important responsibilities in the organization of local community life. Within these councils several specialized committees operate and those that have the highest volume of activity are usually economic and legal committee. Their role is to filter out under a particular form, the specific procedure being the approval of local initiatives in the field of specific activity, namely economic and financial and legal. The effects of this operation need to be reflected in the adoption of decisions that meet not only the initiator's intentions, but also the point of view of local elected officials who are specialized in a particular area and reunited within the previous committees.

  12. DPP6 domains responsible for its localization and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Long, Laura K; Hatch, Michael M; Hoffman, Dax A

    2014-11-14

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-like protein 6 (DPP6) is an auxiliary subunit of the Kv4 family of voltage-gated K(+) channels known to enhance channel surface expression and potently accelerate their kinetics. DPP6 is a single transmembrane protein, which is structurally remarkable for its large extracellular domain. Included in this domain is a cysteine-rich motif, the function of which is unknown. Here we show that this cysteine-rich domain of DPP6 is required for its export from the ER and expression on the cell surface. Disulfide bridges formed at C349/C356 and C465/C468 of the cysteine-rich domain are necessary for the enhancement of Kv4.2 channel surface expression but not its interaction with Kv4.2 subunits. The short intracellular N-terminal and transmembrane domains of DPP6 associates with and accelerates the recovery from inactivation of Kv4.2, but the entire extracellular domain is necessary to enhance Kv4.2 surface expression and stabilization. Our findings show that the cysteine-rich domain of DPP6 plays an important role in protein folding of DPP6 that is required for transport of DPP6/Kv4.2 complexes out of the ER. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Collision analysis of a chaos-based hash function with both modification detection and localization capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shihong; Li, Da; Zhou, Hu

    2012-02-01

    The collision problem of a chaos-based hash function with both modification detection and localization capability is investigated [Xiao D, Shih FY, Liao XF. A chaos-based hash function with both modification detection and localization capabilities. Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simulat 2010;15(9):2254-61]. The simulation gives the same detection and localization hash values for distinct messages. The expense of the birthday attack on the hash function is far less than expected. The certain symmetries of message distribution may result in the same detection hash value for distinct messages.

  14. METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS OF FOUR LOCAL GROUP DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Teresa L.; Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States); Saha, Abhijit [NOAO, 950 Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85726-6732 (United States); Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J., E-mail: rosst@nmsu.edu, E-mail: holtz@nmsu.edu, E-mail: bjat@ku.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045-7582 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present stellar metallicities in Leo I, Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix dwarf galaxies derived from medium (F390M) and broad (F555W, F814W) band photometry using the Wide Field Camera 3 instrument on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We measured metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) in two ways, (1) matching stars to isochrones in color–color diagrams and (2) solving for the best linear combination of synthetic populations to match the observed color–color diagram. The synthetic technique reduces the effect of photometric scatter and produces MDFs 30%–50% narrower than the MDFs produced from individually matched stars. We fit the synthetic and individual MDFs to analytical chemical evolution models (CEMs) to quantify the enrichment and the effect of gas flows within the galaxies. Additionally, we measure stellar metallicity gradients in Leo I and II. For IC 1613 and Phoenix our data do not have the radial extent to confirm a metallicity gradient for either galaxy. We find the MDF of Leo I (dwarf spheroidal) to be very peaked with a steep metal-rich cutoff and an extended metal-poor tail, while Leo II (dwarf spheroidal), Phoenix (dwarf transition), and IC 1613 (dwarf irregular) have wider, less peaked MDFs than Leo I. A simple CEM is not the best fit for any of our galaxies; therefore we also fit the “Best Accretion Model” of Lynden-Bell. For Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix we find similar accretion parameters for the CEM even though they all have different effective yields, masses, star formation histories, and morphologies. We suggest that the dynamical history of a galaxy is reflected in the MDF, where broad MDFs are seen in galaxies that have chemically evolved in relative isolation and narrowly peaked MDFs are seen in galaxies that have experienced more complicated dynamical interactions concurrent with their chemical evolution.

  15. Towards improved local hybrid functionals by calibration of exchange-energy densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuznikov, Alexei V.; Kaupp, Martin

    2014-01-01

    A new approach for the calibration of (semi-)local and exact exchange-energy densities in the context of local hybrid functionals is reported. The calibration functions are derived from only the electron density and its spatial derivatives, avoiding spatial derivatives of the exact-exchange energy density or other computationally unfavorable contributions. The calibration functions fulfill the seven more important out of nine known exact constraints. It is shown that calibration improves substantially the definition of a non-dynamical correlation energy term for generalized gradient approximation (GGA)-based local hybrids. Moreover, gauge artifacts in the potential-energy curves of noble-gas dimers may be corrected by calibration. The developed calibration functions are then evaluated for a large range of energy-related properties (atomization energies, reaction barriers, ionization potentials, electron affinities, and total atomic energies) of three sets of local hybrids, using a simple one-parameter local-mixing. The functionals are based on (a) local spin-density approximation (LSDA) or (b) Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange and correlation, and on (c) Becke-88 (B88) exchange and Lee-Yang-Parr (LYP) correlation. While the uncalibrated GGA-based functionals usually provide very poor thermochemical data, calibration allows a dramatic improvement, accompanied by only a small deterioration of reaction barriers. In particular, an optimized BLYP-based local-hybrid functional has been found that is a substantial improvement over the underlying global hybrids, as well as over previously reported LSDA-based local hybrids. It is expected that the present calibration approach will pave the way towards new generations of more accurate hyper-GGA functionals based on a local mixing of exchange-energy densities

  16. Globally COnstrained Local Function Approximation via Hierarchical Modelling, a Framework for System Modelling under Partial Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Sadegh, Payman

    2000-01-01

    be obtained. This paper presents a new approach for system modelling under partial (global) information (or the so called Gray-box modelling) that seeks to perserve the benefits of the global as well as local methodologies sithin a unified framework. While the proposed technique relies on local approximations......Local function approximations concern fitting low order models to weighted data in neighbourhoods of the points where the approximations are desired. Despite their generality and convenience of use, local models typically suffer, among others, from difficulties arising in physical interpretation...... simultaneously with the (local estimates of) function values. The approach is applied to modelling of a linear time variant dynamic system under prior linear time invariant structure where local regression fails as a result of high dimensionality....

  17. The cellular localization of autotaxin impacts on its biological functions in human thyroid carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Anja; Klonisch, Thomas; Wulfaenger, Jens; Haag, Friedrich; Dralle, Henning; Langner, Jürgen; Hoang-Vu, Cuong; Kehlen, Astrid

    2008-06-01

    Autotaxin (ATX/NPP2) shows a nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase and lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) activity and is a member of a family of structurally-related mammalian ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphate/phosphodiesterases (E-NPP1-3). ATX is unique among E-NPP as it is secreted and not membrane-bound as are NPP1 and -3. The ATX gene activity is significantly higher in undifferentiated anaplastic (UTC) as compared to follicular (FTC) and papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) or goiter tissues. ATX also enhances the motility of thyroid tumor cells. We bio-engineered stable transfectants of the human thyroid carcinoma cell line FTC-238 expressing either bioactively-secreted (sATX) or membrane-anchored ATX (mATX) to identify the biological functions of ATX which critically depend on the E-NPP member being secreted and provide insight into the effects of high local ATX concentrations and cellular responses. An increased cell motility was exclusively observed with FTC-238 sATX transfectants, whereas membrane-anchored ATX appeared to impair motility. We identified IL-1beta as an upstream suppressor of ATX expression in FTC-238, ATX-mediated motility in FTC-238 and stable transfectants, with IL-1beta having the strongest motility-suppressive effect on FTC-238 sATX clones. sATX and mATX strongly increased the anchorage-independent colony formation of FTC-238 but the size and number of colonies formed in the soft agar were significantly smaller in FTC-238 mATX versus the FTC-238 sATX clones. The cancer-testis antigen BAGE was identified as a novel target gene of ATX in FTC-238. Transcript levels for BAGE were 6-fold higher in FTC-238 mATX versus sATX clones. Increased BAGE transcript levels were also detected in tissues of patients with UTC versus FTC, PTC or goiter tissues. In summary, enhanced tumor cell motility and tumorigenic capacity critically depended on sATX in thyroid carcinoma cells. Irrespective of its compartmentalization, the cancer-testis antigen BAGE was

  18. Energy decomposition analysis based on a block-localized wavefunction and multistate density functional theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Yirong; Bao, Peng; Gao, Jiali

    2011-01-01

    An interaction energy decomposition analysis method based on the block-localized wavefunction (BLW-ED) approach is described. The first main feature of the BLW-ED method is that it combines concepts of valence bond and molecular orbital theories such that the intermediate and physically intuitive electron-localized states are variationally optimized by self-consistent field calculations. Furthermore, the block-localization scheme can be used both in wave function theory and in density functio...

  19. The Approach to an Estimation of a Local Area Network Functioning Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Taraskin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article authors call attention to a choice of system of metrics, which permits to take a qualitative assessment of local area network functioning efficiency in condition of computer attacks.

  20. Multidrug Resistance-Related Protein 1 (MRP1) Function and Localization Depend on Cortical Actin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, Ina; Klappe, Karin; Ercan, Cigdem; Kok, Jan Willem

    MRP1 (ABCC1) is known to be localized in lipid rafts. Here we show in two different cell lines that localization of Mrp1/MRP1 (Abcc1/ABCC1) in lipid rafts and its function as an efflux pump are dependent on cortical actin. Latrunculin B disrupts both cortical actin and actin stress fibers. This

  1. Mappings for Special Functions on Cantor Sets and Special Integral Transforms via Local Fractional Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mappings for some special functions on Cantor sets are investigated. Meanwhile, we apply the local fractional Fourier series, Fourier transforms, and Laplace transforms to solve three local fractional differential equations, and the corresponding nondifferentiable solutions were presented.

  2. 34 CFR 489.1 - What is the Functional Literacy for State and Local Prisoners Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Prisoners Program? 489.1 Section 489.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... AND LOCAL PRISONERS PROGRAM General § 489.1 What is the Functional Literacy for State and Local Prisoners Program? (a) The Secretary makes grants to eligible entities that elect to establish a...

  3. Nonredundant and locus-specific gene repression functions of PRC1 paralog family members in human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boom, Vincent; Rozenveld-Geugien, Marjan; Bonardi, Francesco; Malanga, Donatella; van Gosliga, Djoke; Heyink, Anne Margriet; Viglietto, Giuseppe; Morrone, Giovanni; Fusetti, Fabrizia; Vellenga, Edo; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The Polycomb group (PcG) protein BMI1 is a key factor in regulating hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and leukemic stem cell self-renewal and functions in the context of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1). In humans, each of the 5 subunits of PRC1 has paralog family members of which many reside in

  4. FOURIER COEFFICIENTS OF CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO LOCALIZED HAAR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Belkina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We construct a nontrivial example of a continuous function f* on [0, 1]² which is orthogonal to tensor products of Haar functions supported on intervals of the same length. This example clarifies the possible behaviour of Fourier coefficients of continuous functions with respect to a localized Haar system. The function f* has fractal structure. We give lower bounds on its smoothness.

  5. Syntheses and Post-Polymerization Modifications of Well-Defined Styrenic Polymers Containing Three-Membered Heterocyclic Functionalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, David Charles

    compositions, architectures, and thermal stabilities of the resulting ?-hydroxy ether-functionalized homopolymers were evaluated using NMR and FTIR spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, and thermal gravimetric analysis. Aziridines and thiiranes (saturated, three-membered heterocycles containing either a single nitrogen or sulfur atom, respectively) are also susceptible to nucleophilic ring-opening reactions, and functional materials derived from aziridine- or thiirane-containing polymers could potentially have many interesting properties as a result of their high amine or thiol content, such as the ability to form pH- or redox-responsive structures. The synthesis of polymers containing aziridines that are activated towards nucleophilic ring-opening by C-aryl and/or N-sulfonyl substituents is unprecedented in the literature. Efficient methods for synthesizing styrenic monomers that contain these highly-reactive functionalities, namely 2-(4-vinylphenyl)aziridine (VPA) and its sulfonyl-activated derivative, N-mesyl-2-(4-vinylphenyl)aziridine (NMVPA), were developed utilizing 4VPO as a starting material. VPA was polymerized under LCC ATRP and RAFT conditions, but these methods were ineffective at producing well-defined polymers due to side reactions between the aziridine groups and the polymerization mediating compounds. Nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization (NMRP) produced well-defined polyVPA at low to moderate conversions of monomer, but cross-linking side reactions were evident at higher monomer conversions. Nearly all undesirable side reactions were prevented by attaching a mesyl group to the aziridine nitrogen atom, and well-defined polyNMVPA was realized under RAFT and NMRP conditions. Under ATRP conditions, reactions between the aziridine groups and catalyst still occurred, so the polymerization of NMVPA was not controlled using this technique. The synthesis of thiirane-containing styrenic polymers from either 2-(4-vinylphenyl)thiirane (VPT) or 2

  6. Trusted to the Rulers of the People Alone: A Legal Analysis of the Constitutionality of Removing Locally Elected School Board Members in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier Good, Cayanna

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explored the constitutionality of a Georgia law, under both the Georgia Constitution and the United States Constitution, which allows for the removal of elected school board members based on threatened loss of district accreditation. The problem is that elected board members are being removed from office based on district…

  7. A local control strategy for power systems in transient emergency state; Part 1: functional design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliyu, U.; El-Abiad, A.H.

    1982-11-01

    This paper is concerned with the investigation of a systematic corrective control approach for the transient emergency state problem of the power system. The proposed new control framework involves distributing the task of system transient stability margin improvement among several local facilities dedicated to the various subsystems comprising the power system. The functional design of the various local controllers to undertake local information processing and provide appropriate closed-loop stabilizing control action during severe transient disturbance is presented. An illustrative example is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed local control framework.

  8. Extra-adrenal glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids: evidence for local synthesis, regulation, and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E.; Soma, Kiran K.

    2011-01-01

    Glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids are steroid hormones classically thought to be secreted exclusively by the adrenal glands. However, recent evidence has shown that corticosteroids can also be locally synthesized in various other tissues, including primary lymphoid organs, intestine, skin, brain, and possibly heart. Evidence for local synthesis includes detection of steroidogenic enzymes and high local corticosteroid levels, even after adrenalectomy. Local synthesis creates high corticosteroid concentrations in extra-adrenal organs, sometimes much higher than circulating concentrations. Interestingly, local corticosteroid synthesis can be regulated via locally expressed mediators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis or renin-angiotensin system (RAS). In some tissues (e.g., skin), these local control pathways might form miniature analogs of the pathways that regulate adrenal corticosteroid production. Locally synthesized glucocorticoids regulate activation of immune cells, while locally synthesized mineralocorticoids regulate blood volume and pressure. The physiological importance of extra-adrenal glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids has been shown, because inhibition of local synthesis has major effects even in adrenal-intact subjects. In sum, while adrenal secretion of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids into the blood coordinates multiple organ systems, local synthesis of corticosteroids results in high spatial specificity of steroid action. Taken together, studies of these five major organ systems challenge the conventional understanding of corticosteroid biosynthesis and function. PMID:21540450

  9. The organization of local and distant functional connectivity in the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sepulcre

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Information processing in the human brain arises from both interactions between adjacent areas and from distant projections that form distributed brain systems. Here we map interactions across different spatial scales by estimating the degree of intrinsic functional connectivity for the local (14 mm interactions. The balance between local and distant functional interactions measured at rest forms a map that separates sensorimotor cortices from heteromodal association areas and further identifies regions that possess both high local and distant cortical-cortical interactions. Map estimates of network measures demonstrate that high local connectivity is most often associated with a high clustering coefficient, long path length, and low physical cost. Task performance changed the balance between local and distant functional coupling in a subset of regions, particularly, increasing local functional coupling in regions engaged by the task. The observed properties suggest that the brain has evolved a balance that optimizes information-processing efficiency across different classes of specialized areas as well as mechanisms to modulate coupling in support of dynamically changing processing demands. We discuss the implications of these observations and applications of the present method for exploring normal and atypical brain function.

  10. Water utilization of the Cretaceous Mussentuchit Member local vertebrate fauna, Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, USA: Using oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, C.A.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Cifelli, R.L.; Tremain, E.

    2012-01-01

    While the oxygen isotopic composition of pedogenic carbonate has successfully been used to address the effects of global climate change on the hydrologic cycle, detailed regional paleohydrologic studies are lacking. Since the hydrologic cycle can vary extensively on local or regional scales due to events such as such as mountain building, and since pedogenic carbonates (calcite) form in a narrow moisture regime, other proxies, such as vertebrate remains, must be used to decipher local versus regional variations in paleohydrology. In this study, the oxygen isotopic composition (?? 18O p) of phosphatic remains from a diverse set of vertebrate fossils (fish, turtles, crocodiles, dinosaurs, and micro-mammals) from the Mussentuchit Member (MM) of the Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, USA (Aptian to Cenomanian) are analyzed in order to determine differences among the available water reservoirs and water utilization of each taxon. Calculated changes in water reservoir ?? 18O w over time are then used to determine the effects of the incursion of the Western Interior Seaway (WIS) and the Sevier Mountains on paleohydrology during the MM time. Calculation of ?? 18O w from the results of isotopic analysis of phosphate oxygen suggests that turtles and crocodiles serve as another proxy for meteoric water ?? 18O that can be used as a measure of average local precipitation ?? 18O w similar to pedogenic calcite. Pedogenic calcites can be slightly biased toward higher values, however, due to their formation during evaporative conditions. Turtles and crocodiles can be used in place of pedogenic calcite in environments that are not conducive to pedogenic carbonate formation. Remains of fish with rounded tooth morphology have ?? 18O p values that predict temperatures consistent with other estimates of mean annual temperature for this latitude and time. The ?? 18O p of ganoid scales and teeth with pointed morphology, however, indicates that these skeletal materials were precipitated from

  11. Non-local ground-state functional for quantum spin chains with translational broken symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libero, Valter L.; Penteado, Poliana H.; Veiga, Rodrigo S.

    2011-01-01

    Full text. Thanks to the development and use of new materials with special doping, it becomes relevant the study of Heisenberg spin-chains with broken translational symmetry, induced for instance by finite-size effects, bond defects or by impurity spin in the chain. The exact numerical results demands huge computational efforts, due to the size of the Hilbert space involved and the lack of symmetry to exploit. Density Functional Theory (DFT) has been considered a simple alternative to obtain ground-state properties for such systems. Usually, DFT starts with a uniform system to build the correlation energy and after implement a local approximation to construct local functionals. Based on our prove of the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem for Heisenberg models, and in order to describe more realistic models, we have recently developed a non-local exchange functional for the ground-state energy of quantum-spin chains. A alternating-bond chain is used to obtain the correlation energy and a local unit-cell approximation - LUCA, is defined in the context of DFT. The alternating chain is a good starting point to construct functionals since it is intrinsically non-homogeneous, therefore instead of the usual local approximation (like LDA for electronic systems) we need to introduce an approximation based upon a unit cell concept, that renders a non-local functional in the bond exchange interaction. The agreement with exact numerical data (obtained only for small chains, although the functional can be applied for chains with arbitrary size) is significantly better than in our previous local formulation, even for chains with several ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic bond defects. These results encourage us to extend the concept of LUCA for chains with alternating-spin magnitudes. We also have constructed a non-local functional based on an alternating-spin chain, instead of a local alternating-bond, using spin-wave-theory. Because of its non-local nature, this functional is expected to

  12. Localized Template-Driven Functionalization of Nanoparticles by Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nowak, Piotr; Saggiomo, Vittorio; Salehian, Fatemeh; Colomb-Delsuc, Mathieu; Han, Yang; Otto, Sijbren

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a method for the localized functionalization of gold nanoparticles using imine-based dynamic combinatorial chemistry. By using DNA templates, amines were grafted on the aldehyde-functionalized nanoparticles only if and where the nanoparticles interacted with the template molecules.

  13. Less Known Points of Interest in the Functioning of Local Societies in the Grand Carniolian Slovenian Catholic Union (1894–1924

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Friš

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first Slovenian emigrants realized soon after their arrival to the USA that in the event of work accidents or disease they depended solely on themselves. For this reason they started to found their own benefit societies, following the example of other nationalities (e.g. the Czechs, the Finns. At first these were of a local character with a limited number of members, which did not guarantee enough financial safety. In order to decrease the possibility of a financial break down, they started to found benefit societies which united members of the same ethnical group throughout the whole country. The first Slovenian fraternal benefit society called the Carniolian Slovenian Catholic Society (“Kranjsko slovenska katoliška jednota” in Slovene, abbrev. KSKJ was founded in Joliet (Illinois in 1894. It was founded by Slovenian Catholic priests in the USA, who often encountered the misery and helplessness of victims of accidents and their families. The society functioned according to strict Catholic principles. Its ideological orientation was expressed in the name itself, and St. Joseph was chosen as its patron saint. All the local societies were also mostly named after saints. The basic aim of the fraternal benefit society was to help the members or their families in the event of death, while the additional activity was to provide health insurance. However, the organization also cultivated other important values, such as the Slovenian cultural tradition, the Slovenian language, and close contacts with “the old country”. The basis of fraternal benefit organizations was represented by local societies, which were active throughout all of the USA. The local society of the Carniolian Slovenian Catholic Society called St. Francis de Sales Society No. 29 was founded in Joliet (Illinois on February 2, 1896. It was already the fourth local society of the KSKJ in the town of Joliet. The reasons for the setting up of a new society came from the

  14. Distinct functional domains of PNMA5 mediate protein-protein interaction, nuclear localization, and apoptosis signaling in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Hoi; Pang, Siew Wai; Poh, Chit Laa; Tan, Kuan Onn

    2016-09-01

    Members of paraneoplastic Ma (PNMA) family have been identified as onconeuronal antigens, which aberrant expressions in cancer cells of patients with paraneoplastic disorder (PND) are closely linked to manifestation of auto-immunity, neuro-degeneration, and cancer. The purpose of present study was to determine the role of PNMA5 and its functional relationship to MOAP-1 (PNMA4) in human cancer cells. PNMA5 mutants were generated through deletion or site-directed mutagenesis and transiently expressed in human cancer cell lines to investigate their role in apoptosis, subcellular localization, and potential interaction with MOAP-1 through apoptosis assays, fluorescence microscopy, and co-immunoprecipitation studies, respectively. Over-expressed human PNMA5 exhibited nuclear localization pattern in both MCF-7 and HeLa cells. Deletion mapping and mutagenesis studies showed that C-terminus of PNMA5 is responsible for nuclear localization, while the amino acid residues (391KRRR) within the C-terminus of PNMA5 are required for nuclear targeting. Deletion mapping and co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that PNMA5 interacts with MOAP-1 and N-terminal domain of PNMA5 is required for interaction with MOAP-1. Furthermore, co-expression of PNMA5 and MOAP-1 in MCF-7 cells significantly enhanced chemo-sensitivity of MCF-7 to Etoposide treatment, indicating that PNMA5 and MOAP-1 interact synergistically to promote apoptotic signaling in MCF-7 cells. Our results show that PNMA5 promotes apoptosis signaling in HeLa and MCF-7 cells and interacts synergistically with MOAP-1 through its N-terminal domain to promote apoptosis and chemo-sensitivity in human cancer cells. The C-terminal domain of PNMA5 is required for nuclear localization; however, both N-and C-terminal domains of PNMA5 appear to be required for pro-apoptotic function.

  15. Genome-wide identification, subcellular localization and gene expression analysis of the members of CESA gene family in common tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zong-Chang; Kong, Yingzhen

    2017-06-20

    Cellulose-synthase proteins (CESAs) are membrane localized proteins and they form protein complexes to produce cellulose in the plasma membrane. CESA proteins play very important roles in cell wall construction during plant growth and development. In this study, a total of 21 NtCESA gene sequences were identified by using PF03552 conserved protein sequence and 10 AtCESA protein sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana to blast against the common tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) genome database with TBLASTN protocol. We analyzed the physical and chemical properties of protein sequences based on some software or on-line analysis tools. The results showed that there were no significant variances in terms of the physical and chemical properties of the 21 NtCESA proteins. First, phylogenetic tree analysis showed that 21 NtCESA genes and 10 AtCESA genes were clustered into five groups, and the gene structures were similar among the genes that are clustered into the same group. Second, in all of the 21 NtCESA proteins the conserved zinc finger domain was identified in the N-terminus, transmembrane domains were identified in the C-terminus and the DDD-QXXRW conserved domains were also identified. Third, gene expression analysis results indicated that most NtCESA genes were expressed in roots and leaves of seedling or mature tissues of tobacco, seeds and callus tissues. The genes that clustered into the same group share similar expression patterns. Importantly, NtCESA proteins that are involved in secondary cell wall cellulose synthesis have two extra transmembrane domains compared with that involved in primary cell wall cellulose biosynthesis. In addition, subcellular localization results showed that NtCESA9 and NtCESA14 were two plasma membrane anchored proteins. This study will lay a foundation for further functional characterization of these NtCESA genes.

  16. Functional characterization of AGAMOUS-subfamily members from cotton during reproductive development and in response to plant hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Stéfanie Menezes; Artico, Sinara; Lima, Cássio; Nardeli, Sarah Muniz; Berbel, Ana; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo Brilhante; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fátima; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Madueño, Francisco; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio

    2017-03-01

    Expression analysis of the AG -subfamily members from G. hirsutum during flower and fruit development. Reproductive development in cotton, including the fruit and fiber formation, is a complex process; it involves the coordinated action of gene expression regulators, and it is highly influenced by plant hormones. Several studies have reported the identification and expression of the transcription factor family MADS-box members in cotton ovules and fibers; however, their roles are still elusive during the reproductive development in cotton. In this study, we evaluated the expression profiles of five MADS-box genes (GhMADS3, GhMADS4, GhMADS5, GhMADS6 and GhMADS7) belonging to the AGAMOUS-subfamily in Gossypium hirsutum. Phylogenetic and protein sequence analyses were performed using diploid (G. arboreum, G. raimondii) and tetraploid (G. barbadense, G. hirsutum) cotton genomes, as well as the AG-subfamily members from Arabidopsis thaliana, Petunia hybrida and Antirrhinum majus. qPCR analysis showed that the AG-subfamily genes had high expression during flower and fruit development in G. hirsutum. In situ hybridization analysis also substantiates the involvement of AG-subfamily members on reproductive tissues of G. hirsutum, including ovule and ovary. The effect of plant hormones on AG-subfamily genes expression was verified in cotton fruits treated with gibberellin, auxin and brassinosteroid. All the genes were significantly regulated in response to auxin, whereas only GhMADS3, GhMADS4 and GhMADS7 genes were also regulated by brassinosteroid treatment. In addition, we have investigated the GhMADS3 and GhMADS4 overexpression effects in Arabidopsis plants. Interestingly, the transgenic plants from both cotton AG-like genes in Arabidopsis significantly altered the fruit size compared to the control plants. This alteration suggests that cotton AG-like genes might act regulating fruit formation. Our results demonstrate that members of the AG-subfamily in G. hirsutum

  17. Identification and functional characterization of a novel bipartite nuclear localization sequence in ARID1A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, Nicholas W. [Women' s Health Integrated Research Center at Inova Health System, Gynecologic Cancer Center of Excellence, Annandale 22003, VA (United States); The John P. Murtha Cancer Center, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda 20889, MD (United States); Shoji, Yutaka [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids 49503, MI (United States); Conrads, Kelly A.; Stroop, Kevin D. [Women' s Health Integrated Research Center at Inova Health System, Gynecologic Cancer Center of Excellence, Annandale 22003, VA (United States); Hamilton, Chad A. [Women' s Health Integrated Research Center at Inova Health System, Gynecologic Cancer Center of Excellence, Annandale 22003, VA (United States); The John P. Murtha Cancer Center, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda 20889, MD (United States); Gynecologic Oncology Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, 8901 Wisconsin Ave, MD, Bethesda, 20889 (United States); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda 20814, MD (United States); Darcy, Kathleen M. [Women' s Health Integrated Research Center at Inova Health System, Gynecologic Cancer Center of Excellence, Annandale 22003, VA (United States); The John P. Murtha Cancer Center, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda 20889, MD (United States); Maxwell, George L. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Inova Fairfax Hospital, Falls Church, VA 22042 (United States); Risinger, John I. [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids 49503, MI (United States); and others

    2016-01-01

    AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1A (ARID1A) is a recently identified nuclear tumor suppressor frequently altered in solid tumor malignancies. We have identified a bipartite-like nuclear localization sequence (NLS) that contributes to nuclear import of ARID1A not previously described. We functionally confirm activity using GFP constructs fused with wild-type or mutant NLS sequences. We further show that cyto-nuclear localized, bipartite NLS mutant ARID1A exhibits greater stability than nuclear-localized, wild-type ARID1A. Identification of this undescribed functional NLS within ARID1A contributes vital insights to rationalize the impact of ARID1A missense mutations observed in patient tumors. - Highlights: • We have identified a bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) in ARID1A. • Confirmation of the NLS was performed using GFP constructs. • NLS mutant ARID1A exhibits greater stability than wild-type ARID1A.

  18. Fundamental limitations of the local approximation for electron distribution function and fluid model in bounded plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasilnikov, M. B., E-mail: mihail.krasilnikov@gmail.com; Kudryavtsev, A. A. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Kapustin, K. D. [St. Petersburg University ITMO, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    It is shown that the local approximation for computing the electron distribution function depends both on the ratio between the energy relaxation length and a characteristic plasma length and on the ratio between heating and ambipolar electric fields. In particular, the local approximation is not valid at the discharge periphery even at high pressure due to the fact that the ambipolar electric field practically always is larger than the heating electric field.

  19. Comparing the Selected Transfer Functions and Local Optimization Methods for Neural Network Flood Runoff Forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Maca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper aims to analyze the influence of the selection of transfer function and training algorithms on neural network flood runoff forecast. Nine of the most significant flood events, caused by the extreme rainfall, were selected from 10 years of measurement on small headwater catchment in the Czech Republic, and flood runoff forecast was investigated using the extensive set of multilayer perceptrons with one hidden layer of neurons. The analyzed artificial neural network models with 11 different activation functions in hidden layer were trained using 7 local optimization algorithms. The results show that the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was superior compared to the remaining tested local optimization methods. When comparing the 11 nonlinear transfer functions, used in hidden layer neurons, the RootSig function was superior compared to the rest of analyzed activation functions.

  20. Mechanisms underlying local functional and phylogenetic beta diversity in two temperate forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xugao; Wiegand, Thorsten; Swenson, Nathan G; Wolf, Amy T; Howe, Robert W; Hao, Zhanqing; Lin, Fei; Ye, Ji; Yuan, Zuoqiang

    2015-04-01

    Although trait information has been widely used to explore underlying mechanisms of forest community structure, most studies have focused on local patterns of phylogenetic or functional alpha diversity. Investigations of functional beta diversity, on the other hand, have not been conducted at local scales in a spatially explicit way. In this study, we provide a powerful methodology based on recent advances in spatial point pattern analysis using fully mapped data of large and small trees in two large temperate forest plots. This approach allowed us to assess the relative importance of different ecological processes and mechanisms for explaining patterns of local phylogenetic and functional beta diversity. For both forests and size classes, we found a clear hierarchy of scales: habitat filtering accounted for patterns of phylogenetic and functional beta diversity at larger distances (150-250 m), dispersal limitation accounted for the observed decline in beta diversity at distances below 150 m, and species interactions explained small departures from functional and phylogenetic beta diversity at the immediate plant-neighborhood scale (below 20 m). Thus, both habitat filtering and dispersal limitation influenced the observed patterns in phylogenetic and functional beta diversity at local scales. This result contrasts with a previous study from the same forests, where dispersal limitation alone approximated the observed species beta diversity for distances up to 250 m. In addition, species interactions were relatively unimportant for predicting phylogenetic and functional beta diversity. Our analysis suggests that phylogenetic and functional beta diversity can provide insights into the mechanisms of local community assembly that are missed by studies focusing exclusively on species beta diversity.

  1. An electron localization function study of the strain energy in carbon compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevreau, Hilaire; Sevin, Alain

    2000-05-01

    It is shown, through an electron localization function (ELF) analysis of the strain in carbon compounds, that, globally, the valence basins V(CH) and V(CC) tend to preserve a VSEPR (valence shell electron pair repulsion) geometry. This point is clearly illustrated by the valence attractors location. The properties of V(CC) basins, associated with the CC bonds, remain as constant as possible. The main effect of the strain is to modify the maximal electron localization in each V(CC) basin. This study points out once more the difficulty in relating global strain to local bond properties.

  2. Cortical localization of cognitive function by regression of performance on event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, R W; Montgomery, L D; Guisado, R

    1992-10-01

    This paper demonstrates a new method of mapping cortical localization of cognitive function, using electroencephalographic (EEG) data. Cross-subject regression analyses are used to identify cortical sites and post-stimulus latencies where there is a high correlation between subjects' performance and their cognitive event-related potential (ERP) amplitude. The procedure was tested using a mental arithmetic task and was found to identify essentially the same cortical regions that have been associated with such tasks on the basis of research with patients suffering localized cortical lesions. Thus, it appears to offer an inexpensive, noninvasive tool for exploring the dynamics of localization in neurologically normal subjects.

  3. Cortical localization of cognitive function by regression of performance on event-related potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, R. W.; Montgomery, L. D.; Guisado, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a new method of mapping cortical localization of cognitive function, using electroencephalographic data. Cross-subject regression analyses are used to identify cortical sites and post-stimulus latencies where there is a high correlation between subjects' performance and their cognitive event-related potential amplitude. The procedure was tested using a mental arithmetic task and was found to identify essentially the same cortical regions that have been associated with such tasks on the basis of research with patients suffering localized cortical lesions. Thus, it appears to offer an inexpensive, noninvasive tool for exploring the dynamics of localization in neurologically normal subjects.

  4. Implementation of Molecular Gradients for Local Hybrid Density Functionals Using Seminumerical Integration Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klawohn, Sascha; Bahmann, Hilke; Kaupp, Martin

    2016-09-13

    We present the first implementation of the derivative of the local hybrid exchange-correlation energy with respect to the displacement of nuclei in a Gaussian-type atomic basis set. This extends a recent efficient implementation of local hybrid functionals for self-consistent Kohn-Sham and linear-response TDDFT calculations into the TURBOMOLE program package. In contrast to seminumerical schemes for global exact-exchange admixtures and to the related SCF and TDDFT implementations of local hybrid functionals, additional analytical integrals have to be evaluated at each grid point in the case of molecular gradients. The overall efficiency of the present scheme is improved through prescreening with the density matrix (P-junctions), as well as with spherical overlap estimates (S-junctions). Comparative timings for structure optimizations with local vs global hybrid functionals are discussed while gauging the accuracy for S- and P-junctions using varying thresholds. Local hybrids are furthermore assessed for structure optimization and harmonic vibrational frequency calculations (using numerical second derivatives) of a selection of test systems, comparing with experimental data and some widely used density functionals.

  5. Functional_Category Shift, with particular attention to Classifying, Qualifying and Localizing Modifiers in the NP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    ), PROPOSITIONAL ACTS (predicating, referring, modifying; Searle 1969) and PRAGMATIC ACTS (signaling the information value of a constituent in terms of Theme/Rheme or Topic/Focus distinctions; Prague School). Thus, a member of a FUNCTIONAL CATEGORY is the formal manifestation of an Interpersonal Act: it has...... were seeking to understand what jobs the various components of an actual linguistic expression are doing (cf. Sampson 1980). Compared to formal and semantic categories, functional categories (as defined here) have played a rather marginal role in linguistics. In the tentative typology of functional......); - PROPOSITIONAL ACT. Form: predicate - NP - modifier; - PRAGMATIC ACT. Form: Topic/Focus marked constituent.      The main goal of this paper is to investigate FUNCTIONAL_CATEGORY SHIFT involving formal counterparts of propositional acts of MODIFICATION (Croft 1990). At least five different SUBACTS...

  6. Regulation of development and function of different T cell subtypes by Rel/NF-κB family members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallabhapurapu, S.

    2004-09-01

    This study reveals the requirement of distinct members of the Rel/NF-κB family in both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells for the development of thymic NKT cells. Activation of NF-κB via the classical IκBα-regulated pathway is required within the NKT precursors for their efficient maturation from NK1.1 - precursors to mature NK1.1 + NKT cells. The Rel/NF-κB family member RelB, on the other hand, is required in thymic stromal cells for the generation of very early NK1.1 - precursors. NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) has also been shown to be required in thymic stromal cells for NKT cell development and this study demonstrates that NIK specifically regulates both constitutive and signal-induced DNA binding of RelB, but not RelA. Moreover, NIK-induced DNA binding of RelB depends on the processing of inhibitory p100 to p52, revealing an alternate pathway of NF-κB induction. Thus, Rel/NF-κB complexes activated by the classical IκBα-regulated pathway in NKT precursors and an alternate NIK/p100/RelB pathway in thymic stromal cells regulate different stages of NKT cell development. (orig.)

  7. Regulation of development and function of different T cell subtypes by Rel/NF-{kappa}B family members

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallabhapurapu, S.

    2004-09-01

    This study reveals the requirement of distinct members of the Rel/NF-{kappa}B family in both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells for the development of thymic NKT cells. Activation of NF-{kappa}B via the classical I{kappa}B{alpha}-regulated pathway is required within the NKT precursors for their efficient maturation from NK1.1{sup -} precursors to mature NK1.1{sup +} NKT cells. The Rel/NF-{kappa}B family member RelB, on the other hand, is required in thymic stromal cells for the generation of very early NK1.1{sup -} precursors. NF-{kappa}B-inducing kinase (NIK) has also been shown to be required in thymic stromal cells for NKT cell development and this study demonstrates that NIK specifically regulates both constitutive and signal-induced DNA binding of RelB, but not RelA. Moreover, NIK-induced DNA binding of RelB depends on the processing of inhibitory p100 to p52, revealing an alternate pathway of NF-{kappa}B induction. Thus, Rel/NF-{kappa}B complexes activated by the classical I{kappa}B{alpha}-regulated pathway in NKT precursors and an alternate NIK/p100/RelB pathway in thymic stromal cells regulate different stages of NKT cell development. (orig.)

  8. Multiscale finite element methods for high-contrast problems using local spectral basis functions

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin

    2011-02-01

    In this paper we study multiscale finite element methods (MsFEMs) using spectral multiscale basis functions that are designed for high-contrast problems. Multiscale basis functions are constructed using eigenvectors of a carefully selected local spectral problem. This local spectral problem strongly depends on the choice of initial partition of unity functions. The resulting space enriches the initial multiscale space using eigenvectors of local spectral problem. The eigenvectors corresponding to small, asymptotically vanishing, eigenvalues detect important features of the solutions that are not captured by initial multiscale basis functions. Multiscale basis functions are constructed such that they span these eigenfunctions that correspond to small, asymptotically vanishing, eigenvalues. We present a convergence study that shows that the convergence rate (in energy norm) is proportional to (H/Λ*)1/2, where Λ* is proportional to the minimum of the eigenvalues that the corresponding eigenvectors are not included in the coarse space. Thus, we would like to reach to a larger eigenvalue with a smaller coarse space. This is accomplished with a careful choice of initial multiscale basis functions and the setup of the eigenvalue problems. Numerical results are presented to back-up our theoretical results and to show higher accuracy of MsFEMs with spectral multiscale basis functions. We also present a hierarchical construction of the eigenvectors that provides CPU savings. © 2010.

  9. The Functions of Constitutional Identity Performed in the Context of Constitutionalization of the EU Order and Europeanization of the Legal Orders of EU Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belov Martin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an analysis of the functions performed by constitutional identity in constitutional discourses of both the EU and its Member States, in the context of emerging post-Westphalian and supranational constitutionalism. The analysis tries to demonstrate that constitutional identity may serve as one of the key normative ideologies, legitimation strategies and ordering schemes of EU constitutionalism. It reasserts through functional analysis the suitability of constitutional identity for organizing and explaining multiple constitutional orders in a non-hierarchical and inclusive way.

  10. A novel passive paradigm for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to localize brain functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasser, T.; Sandalcioglu, I.E.; Skwarek, V.; Gizewski, E.; Stolke, D.; Hans, V.

    2003-01-01

    The design of a shielded stimulation-device for electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves in the MRI-environment as passive fMRI-paradigm is content of this study. Especially the technical aspects and selection criteria of the stimulation-parameters are discussed. The clinical value for neurosurgical patients is outlined by supplying data from clinical studies, evaluating this novel paradigm. Thus neurosurgeons are supplied with superior information about functional anatomy, therefore being able to preserve functionally relevant brain-structures. (orig.) [de

  11. Dual effect of local anesthetics on the function of excitable rod outer segment disk membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashimo, T.; Abe, K.; Yoshiya, I.

    1986-04-01

    The effects of local anesthetics and a divalent cation, Ca2+, on the function of rhodopsin were estimated from the measurements of light-induced proton uptake. The light-induced proton uptake by rhodopsin in the rod outer segment disk membrane was enhanced at lower pH (4) but depressed at higher pHs (6 to 8) by the tertiary amine local anesthetics lidocaine, bupivacaine, tetracaine, and dibucaine. The order of local anesthetic-induced depression of the proton uptake followed that of their clinical anesthetic potencies. The depression of the proton uptake versus the concentration of the uncharged form of local anesthetic nearly describes the same curve for small and large dose of added anesthetic. Furthermore, a neutral local anesthetic, benzocaine, depressed the proton uptake at all pHs between 4 and 7. These results indicate that the depression of the proton uptake is due to the effect of only the uncharged form. It is hypothesized that the uncharged form of local anesthetics interacts hydrophobically with the rhodopsin in the disk membrane. The dual effect of local anesthetics on the proton uptake, on the other hand, suggests that the activation of the function of rhodopsin may be caused by the charged form. There was no significant change in the light-induced proton uptake by rhodopsin when 1 mM of Ca2+ was introduced into the disk membrane at varying pHs in the absence or presence of local anesthetics. This fact indicates that Ca2+ ion does not influence the diprotonating process of metarhodopsin; neither does it interfere with the local anesthetic-induced changes in the rhodopsin molecule.

  12. The Smoothness of Fractal Interpolation Functions on ℝ and on p-Series Local Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A fractal interpolation function on a p-series local field Kp is defined, and its p-type smoothness is shown by virtue of the equivalent relationship between the Hölder type space CσKp and the Lipschitz class Lipσ,Kp. The orders of the p-type derivatives and the fractal dimensions of the graphs of Weierstrass type function on local fields are given as an example. The α-fractal function on ℝ is introduced and the conclusion of its smoothness is improved in a more general case; some examples are shown to support the conclusion. Finally, a comparison between the fractal interpolation functions defined on ℝ and Kp is given.

  13. METHODS FOR LOCAL CHANGES IN THE PLASTIC DEFORMATION DIAGNOSTICS ON THE WORK FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Panteleyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the electronic work function measurements by the contact potential difference technique, and experimental demonstration of the possibility of these methods application for the stress-strain state of the surface layer of the metals and alloys. The techniques end examples of their application of localization of plastic deformation studies using the Kelvin probe are developed and present. The study topology of work function the deformed surface possible to determine the type of deformation and dynamics of

  14. Analysis of 14-3-3 Family Member Function in Xenopus Embryos by Microinjection of Antisense Morpholino Oligos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jeffrey M. C.; Muslin, Anthony J.

    The 14-3-3 intracellular phosphoserine/threonine-binding proteins are adapter molecules that regulate signal transduction, cell cycle, nutrient sensing, apoptotic, and cytoskeletal pathways. There are seven 14-3-3 family members, encoded by separate genes, in vertebrate organisms. To evaluate the role of individual 14-3-3 proteins in vertebrate embryonic development, we utilized an antisense morpholino oligo microinjection technique in Xenopus laevis embryos. By use of this method, we showed that embryos lacking specific 14-3-3 proteins displayed unique phenotypic abnormalities. Specifically, embryos lacking 14-3-3 τ exhibited gastrulation and axial patterning defects, but embryos lacking 14-3-3 γ exhibited eye defects without other abnormalities, and embryos lacking 14-3-3 ζ appeared completely normal. These and other results demonstrate the power and specificity of the morpholino antisense oligo microinjection technique.

  15. The Bcl-2 family member BIM has multiple glaucoma-relevant functions in DBA/2J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Jeffrey M.; Fernandes, Kimberly A.; Libby, Richard T.

    2012-01-01

    Axonal insult induces retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death through a BAX-dependent process. The pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member BIM is known to induce BAX activation. BIM expression increased in RGCs after axonal injury and its induction was dependent on JUN. Partial and complete Bim deficiency delayed RGC death after mechanical optic nerve injury. However, in a mouse model of glaucoma, DBA/2J mice, Bim deficiency did not prevent RGC death in eyes with severe optic nerve degeneration. In a subset of DBA/2J mice, Bim deficiency altered disease progression resulting in less severe nerve damage. Bim deficient mice exhibited altered optic nerve head morphology and significantly lessened intraocular pressure elevation. Thus, a decrease in axonal degeneration in Bim deficient DBA/2J mice may not be caused by a direct role of Bim in RGCs. These data suggest that BIM has multiple roles in glaucoma pathophysiology, potentially affecting susceptibility to glaucoma through several mechanisms. PMID:22833783

  16. Binaural sound source localization using the frequency diversity of the head-related transfer function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talagala, Dumidu S; Zhang, Wen; Abhayapala, Thushara D; Kamineni, Abhilash

    2014-03-01

    The spectral localization cues contained in the head-related transfer function are known to play a contributory role in the sound source localization abilities of humans. However, existing localization techniques are unable to fully exploit this diversity to accurately localize a sound source. The availability of just two measured signals complicates matters further, and results in front to back confusions and poor performance distinguishing between the source locations in a vertical plane. This study evaluates the performance of a source location estimator that retains the frequency domain diversity of the head-related transfer function. First, a method for extracting the directional information in the subbands of a broadband signal is described, and a composite estimator based on signal subspace decomposition is introduced. The localization performance is experimentally evaluated for single and multiple source scenarios in the horizontal and vertical planes. The proposed estimator's ability to successfully localize a sound source and resolve the ambiguities in the vertical plane is demonstrated, and the impact of the source location, knowledge of the source and the effect of reverberation is discussed.

  17. The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral stress management training on mental health, social interaction and family function in adolescents of families with one Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive member

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Keypour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated stress management training to improve mental health, social interaction and family function among adolescents of families with one Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive member. Methods: There were 34 adolescents (13-18 years old with at least one family member living with HIV from whom finally 15 attended the study and participated in 8 weekly sessions of stress management training. The tests used in this study were: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (self and parent report, General Health Questionnare-28 (GHQ-28 and Family Assessment Device (FAD, conducted before, after and three months after the intervention. The collected data were analyzed by repeated measure test using SPSS software (Version 18.0. Results: Adolescents with one HIV positive family member showed high level of emotional problem (40% and conduct problem (33.3%. There was a significant difference between before, after and 3months after intervention based on GHQ-28 mean scores and FAD mean sores (p < 0.001. There was a significant difference between mean scores of peers′ relationship based on SDQ (self report and parents report forms before and after intervention, but there was no significant difference between mean scores of pro social behavior based on SDQ (self report and parents report forms in all three stages (before, after and three months after intervention. Conclusions: Stress management training is effective in improving mental health, family function and social interaction among adolescents living with parents infected with HIV/AIDS.

  18. The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral stress management training on mental health, social interaction and family function in adolescents of families with one Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keypour, Maryam; Arman, Soroor; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluated stress management training to improve mental health, social interaction and family function among adolescents of families with one Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive member. There were 34 adolescents (13-18 years old) with at least one family member living with HIV from whom finally 15 attended the study and participated in 8 weekly sessions of stress management training. The tests used in this study were: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (self and parent report), General Health Questionnare-28 (GHQ-28) and Family Assessment Device (FAD), conducted before, after and three months after the intervention. The collected data were analyzed by repeated measure test using SPSS software (Version 18.0). Adolescents with one HIV positive family member showed high level of emotional problem (40%) and conduct problem (33.3%). There was a significant difference between before, after and 3months after intervention based on GHQ-28 mean scores and FAD mean sores (p social behavior based on SDQ (self report and parents report forms) in all three stages (before, after and three months after intervention). Stress management training is effective in improving mental health, family function and social interaction among adolescents living with parents infected with HIV/AIDS.

  19. Surface functionalization dependent subcellular localization of Superparamagnetic nanoparticle in plasma membrane and endosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimiri Govinda Raj, Deepak B; Khan, Niamat Ali

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we elaborate the application of thermal decomposition based synthesis of Fe 3 O 4 superparamagnetic nanoparticle (SPMNP) in subcellular fractionation context. Here, we performed surface functionalization of SPMNP with phospholipids and dimercaptosuccinic acid. Surprisingly, we observed surface functionalization dependent SPMNP localization in subcellular compartments such as plasma membrane, endosomes and lysosomes. By using SPMNP based subcellular localization with pulse-chase methodology, we could use SPMNP for high pure-high yield organelle (plasma membrane, endosomes and lysosome) fractionation. Further, SPMNP that are distinctly localized in subcellular compartments can be used as technology for subcellular fractionation that can complement existing tools for cell biology research. As a future perspective, isolated magnetic organelles can be extended to protein/protein complex purification for biochemical and structural biology studies.

  20. Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mpofu, A.

    2015-01-01

    Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus Mutandabota or umlondo is an indigenous food that is consumed in Southern Africa on a daily basis. The product is made by mixing raw cow’s or goat’s milk

  1. Local Ionic Environment around Polyvalent Nucleic-Acid Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera de La Cruz, Monica; Zwanikken, Jos; Mirkin, Chad

    2012-02-01

    Polyvalent oligonucleotide-functionalized gold nanoparticles (DNA-AuNPs) are remarkably stable in a cellular environment against degradation by nucleases, a property that was recently attributed to the local high concentration of mono- and divalent ions (Ref 1). In order to evaluate this hypothesis, we investigated the composition of the ion cloud around spherical nanoparticles that are functionalized by stiff, highly charged polyelectrolyte chains by means of classical density functional theory and molecular dynamics simulations. We developed a cell model that includes ligands explicitly and both applies over the entire relevant parameter space and is in excellent quantitative agreement with simulations (Ref 2). The ion distribution around the DNA-AuNPs as a function of DNA grafting densities and bulk ionic concentrations, as well as different sizes of nanoparticles and chains, is studied. For small particles with high DNA surface densities, we find strongly enhanced local salt concentrations, a pronounced localization of divalent ions near the surface of the nanoparticle, and a large radial component of the electric field between the ligands. Therefore, we conclude that enzyme activity in general may be heavily influenced by the local environment around DNA-AuNPs.

  2. Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mpofu, A.

    2015-01-01

    Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    Mutandabota or umlondo is an indigenous food that is consumed in Southern Africa on a daily basis. The product is made by

  3. Gestalt Perception and Local-Global Processing in High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Sven; Holtmann, Martin; Poustka, Fritz; Scheurich, Armin; Schmidt, Lutz

    2007-01-01

    This study examined gestalt perception in high-functioning autism (HFA) and its relation to tasks indicative of local visual processing. Data on of gestalt perception, visual illusions (VI), hierarchical letters (HL), Block Design (BD) and the Embedded Figures Test (EFT) were collected in adult males with HFA, schizophrenia, depression and…

  4. A data-driven approach to local gravity field modelling using spherical radial basis functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klees, R.; Tenzer, R.; Prutkin, I.; Wittwer, T.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a methodology for local gravity field modelling from gravity data using spherical radial basis functions. The methodology comprises two steps: in step 1, gravity data (gravity anomalies and/or gravity disturbances) are used to estimate the disturbing potential using least-squares

  5. [Progress of clinical application of functional MRI in the localization of brain language area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Lu, Junfeng; Wu, Jinsong

    2016-02-01

    For surgical operation in the functional area in the brain, it's commonly demanded to resect the lesion to the maximal extent on the basis of preserve the normal neural function, thus the precise localization of functional area is extremely important. As for the advantages of being widely available, easy to grasp and non-invasive, the functional MRI (fMRI) has come into wide use, while the application of language fMRI is still in the initial stage. It's important to choose appropriate fMRI task according to the individual condition of the subject, the commonly-adopted tasks include verb generation, picture naming, word recognition, word generation, etc. However, the effectiveness of using fMRI to localize language area is not totally satisfactory, adopting multiple task is an effective approach to improve the sensitivity of this technique. The application of resting state fMRI in the localization of language area and the further research of the role of fMRI in localizing the Chinese language area are the important future directions.

  6. Local Area Network Material Accounting System (LANMAS) Functions and Features Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robichaux, J.J.

    1998-07-01

    The Local Area Network Material Accounting System (LANMAS) application is a standardized approach to comply with the DOE Order 5633.3B, control and Accountability of Nuclear Material, material accounting requirements. This paper provides a general overview of the functions and features included in the LANMAS application

  7. Exploring local disorder in fast oxygen ion conductors by atomic pair distribution function analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunelli Michela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary structural investigation of local disorder in fully oxidized La2NiO4+δ was performed by Pair Distribution Function (PDF analyses of X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data. X-ray diffraction data were recorded in-situ on warming from room temperature up to 450 ∘C.

  8. Order- N Green's Function Technique for Local Environment Effects in Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrikosov, I. A.; Niklasson, A. M. N.; Simak, S. I.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a new approach to the calculations of ground state properties of large crystalline systems with arbitrary atomic configurations based on a Green's function technique in conjunction with a self-consistent effective medium for the underlying randomly occupied lattice. The locally...

  9. Temperature-mediated local adaptation alters the symbiotic function in arbuscular mycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong; Cai, Xiaobu; Li, Xiaolin; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Junling; Gai, Jingping

    2017-07-01

    Variation in the symbiotic function of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM fungi) has been demonstrated among distinct biotic and abiotic interactions. However, there is little knowledge on how local temperature conditions influence the functional divergence of AM symbionts in alpine ecosystems. Here, we conduct a reciprocal inoculation experiment to explore the three-way interactions among plants, AM fungal inoculum and temperature at sites of contrasting elevation. Evidence of local adaptation of plant growth was found only under low temperature conditions, with no consistent local versus foreign effect found in AM fungal performance. The origin of either the plant or the inoculum relative to the temperature was important in explaining symbiotic function. Specifically, when inoculum and temperature were sympatric but allopatric to the plant, poor adaptation by the plant to the novel environment was clearly found under both temperature conditions. Further analysis found that the symbiotic function was inversely related to fungal diversity under high temperature conditions. These results suggest that local adaptation represents a powerful factor in the establishment of novel combinations of plant, inoculum and temperature, and confirms the importance of taking into account both biotic and abiotic interactions in the prediction of the response of symbionts to global environmental change. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effect Three Functions of Carbon Sequestration International Project on Empowering Local Communities of South Khorasan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Saeedreza Ahmadizadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to study and prioritize the most important services of carbon Sequestration International Project on Empowering Local Communities in the scope of study. Three functions or services of project were studied and evaluated. Services or functions of granting the productions loans for employment and etc., the functions of Desertification and restoring the rangelands, and finally the function of facilities available to local people including solar and desalination bathroom were chosen as the studied options. The results showed that the most distance from solving Fuzzy Topsis is related to facilities with 1.63 and the option or function of Livestock production with 1.18 has the minimum solution of Fuzzy Topsis. On the other hand, the results showed that the solution of anti-Fuzzy Topsis for Livestock production with 1.52 has the most distance and criteria of facilities has the least distance with 0.95. Since the amount of Similarity index is closer to 1 for the criteria of Livestock Production. This criteria is selected as the most important and the first function of Carbon Sequestration International Project and desertification and restoring grasslands is selected as the second function and facilities is selected as the third function of project.

  11. Functional Characterization of the Murine Homologue of PLAB, a Novel TGF-B Member, in Placental and Mammary Tissues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eakin, Guy

    2002-01-01

    .... By understanding the factors, which control the molecular architecture of the placenta and other fetal membranes, we hope to shed light on mechanisms by which placental function is established...

  12. Investigation of impairment of liver function in local residents of Miaofeng Village, Wushan County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Zhongxia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo assess the impairment of liver function and investigate possible causes in local residents in Miaofeng Village, Mali Town, Wushan County, Gansu Province, China, and to provide a basis for the etiological study of idiopathic liver damage. MethodsThe residents in Miaofeng Village were screened for liver function and an epidemiological study was conducted. Serological testing was performed for those with abnormal screening results. Trace elements in drinking water and soil such as arsenic, chromium, and selenium were also tested. ResultsOf all residents, 23.8% and 10.7% showed abnormal levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, respectively. Positivity of HBsAg was detected in 11 cases, fatty liver was identified in 3 cases, and absence of selenium in soil was also confirmed. ConclusionA proportion of local residents in Miaofeng Village have impaired liver function and the absence of selenium in soil may be a contributing factor to this phenomenon.

  13. The nucleon localization function in static and time-dependent DFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetrumpf, Bastian; Zhang, Chunli

    2017-11-01

    Static and time-dependent density functional theory (DFT) calculations are often used to predict fission fragment distributions or fusion cross sections with great success. However, nuclear shell structure and clusterization effects are usually studied using the density distribution of the nucleons which is a poor indicator of these phenomena. In this work, we employ a measure called the localization function, which was first introduced in chemistry to visualize electronic bonds and recently applied to nuclear physics for light nuclei to reveal α-clustering. We show, that the localization function reveals the shell structure of the fragments in fission long before the scission point and also illustrates the shell structure of intermediate states in time-dependent DFT calculations.

  14. Does Older Adults' Cognitive Function Disrupt the Malleability of Their Attitudes toward Outgroup Members?: An fMRI Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krendl, Anne C; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    In the current study we examine how individual differences in older adults' global cognitive function impacts the extent to which their attitudes toward stigmatized individuals are malleable. Because prior research has elucidated the neural processes that are involved in evaluating stigmatized individuals who are responsible or not responsible for their condition, a cognitive neuroscience approach may be well-suited to answer this question. In the current study, 36 older and 17 young adults underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while evaluating images of homeless people who were described as being responsible or not responsible for their condition. They also indicated how much pity they felt for each of the individuals in order to determine the extent to which their attitudes were malleable (e.g., more pity for not-responsible as compared to responsible individuals). Participants' cognitive function and baseline measure of their attitudes toward stigmatized individuals (including homeless individuals) were assessed. Results revealed that although older adults' attitudes were malleable, the extent to which this was true varied due to individual differences in their global cognitive function. Specifically, the difference in the magnitude of older adults' self-reported pity for not-responsible as compared to responsible homeless individuals was predicted by their global cognitive function. Moreover, the difference in pity that older adults expressed toward not-responsible as compared to responsible homeless individuals was related to activity in the left insula and the anterior cingulate cortex (regions implicated in empathy). These results suggest that attitude malleability is affected by individual differences in global cognitive function.

  15. Energy decomposition analysis based on a block-localized wavefunction and multistate density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yirong; Bao, Peng; Gao, Jiali

    2011-04-21

    An interaction energy decomposition analysis method based on the block-localized wavefunction (BLW-ED) approach is described. The first main feature of the BLW-ED method is that it combines concepts of valence bond and molecular orbital theories such that the intermediate and physically intuitive electron-localized states are variationally optimized by self-consistent field calculations. Furthermore, the block-localization scheme can be used both in wave function theory and in density functional theory, providing a useful tool to gain insights on intermolecular interactions that would otherwise be difficult to obtain using the delocalized Kohn-Sham DFT. These features allow broad applications of the BLW method to energy decomposition (BLW-ED) analysis for intermolecular interactions. In this perspective, we outline theoretical aspects of the BLW-ED method, and illustrate its applications in hydrogen-bonding and π-cation intermolecular interactions as well as metal-carbonyl complexes. Future prospects on the development of a multistate density functional theory (MSDFT) are presented, making use of block-localized electronic states as the basis configurations.

  16. Energy decomposition analysis based on a block-localized wavefunction and multistate density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Peng

    2013-01-01

    An interaction energy decomposition analysis method based on the block-localized wavefunction (BLW-ED) approach is described. The first main feature of the BLW-ED method is that it combines concepts of valence bond and molecular orbital theories such that the intermediate and physically intuitive electron-localized states are variationally optimized by self-consistent field calculations. Furthermore, the block-localization scheme can be used both in wave function theory and in density functional theory, providing a useful tool to gain insights on intermolecular interactions that would otherwise be difficult to obtain using the delocalized Kohn–Sham DFT. These features allow broad applications of the BLW method to energy decomposition (BLW-ED) analysis for intermolecular interactions. In this perspective, we outline theoretical aspects of the BLW-ED method, and illustrate its applications in hydrogen-bonding and π–cation intermolecular interactions as well as metal–carbonyl complexes. Future prospects on the development of a multistate density functional theory (MSDFT) are presented, making use of block-localized electronic states as the basis configurations. PMID:21369567

  17. Rapid adjustment of bird community compositions to local climatic variations and its functional consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaüzère, Pierre; Jiguet, Frédéric; Devictor, Vincent

    2015-09-01

    The local spatial congruence between climate changes and community changes has rarely been studied over large areas. We proposed one of the first comprehensive frameworks tracking local changes in community composition related to climate changes. First, we investigated whether and how 12 years of changes in the local composition of bird communities were related to local climate variations. Then, we tested the consequences of this climate-induced adjustment of communities on Grinnellian (habitat-related) and Eltonian (function-related) homogenization. A standardized protocol monitoring spatial and temporal trends of birds over France from 2001 to 2012 was used. For each plot and each year, we used the spring temperature and the spring precipitations and calculated three indices reflecting the thermal niche, the habitat specialization, and the functional originality of the species within a community. We then used a moving-window approach to estimate the spatial distribution of the temporal trends in each of these indices and their congruency with local climatic variations. Temperature fluctuations and community dynamics were found to be highly variable in space, but their variations were finely congruent. More interestingly, the community adjustment to temperature variations was nonmonotonous. Instead, unexplained fluctuations in community composition were observed up to a certain threshold of climate change intensity, above which a change in community composition was observed. This shift corresponded to a significant decrease in the relative abundance of habitat specialists and functionally original species within communities, regardless of the direction of temperature change. The investigation of variations in climate and community responses appears to be a central step toward a better understanding of climate change effects on biodiversity. Our results suggest a fine-scale and short-term adjustment of community composition to temperature changes. Moreover

  18. The subcellular localization of IGFBP5 affects its cell growth and migration functions in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkiprik, Mustafa; Hu, Limei; Sahin, Aysegul; Hao, Xishan; Zhang, Wei

    2009-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) has been shown to be associated with breast cancer metastasis in clinical marker studies. However, a major difficulty in understanding how IGFBP5 functions in this capacity is the paradoxical observation that ectopic overexpression of IGFBP5 in breast cancer cell lines results in suppressed cellular proliferation. In cancer tissues, IGFBP5 resides mainly in the cytoplasm; however, in transfected cells, IGFBP5 is mainly located in the nucleus. We hypothesized that subcellular localization of IGFBP5 affects its functions in host cells. To test this hypothesis, we generated wild-type and mutant IGFBP5 expression constructs. The mutation occurs within the nuclear localization sequence (NLS) of the protein and is generated by site-directed mutagenesis using the wild-type IGFBP5 expression construct as a template. Next, we transfected each expression construct into MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells to establish stable clones overexpressing either wild-type or mutant IGFBP5. Functional analysis revealed that cells overexpressing wild-type IGFBP5 had significantly lower cell growth rate and motility than the vector-transfected cells, whereas cells overexpressing mutant IGFBP5 demonstrated a significantly higher ability to proliferate and migrate. To illustrate the subcellular localization of the proteins, we generated wild-type and mutant IGFBP5-pDsRed fluorescence fusion constructs. Fluorescence microscopy imaging revealed that mutation of the NLS in IGFBP5 switched the accumulation of IGFBP5 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of the protein. Together, these findings imply that the mutant form of IGFBP5 increases proliferation and motility of breast cancer cells and that mutation of the NLS in IGFBP5 results in localization of IGFBP5 in the cytoplasm, suggesting that subcellular localization of IGFBP5 affects its cell growth and migration functions in the breast cancer cells

  19. Locally self-consistent Green’s function approach to the electronic structure problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrikosov, I.A.; Simak, S.I.; Johansson, B.

    1997-01-01

    The locally self-consistent Green's function (LSGF) method is an order-N method for calculation of the electronic structure of systems with an arbitrary distribution of atoms of different kinds on an underlying crystal lattice. For each atom Dyson's equation is used to solve the electronic multiple...... scattering problem in a local interaction zone (LIZ) embedded in an effective medium judiciously chosen to minimize the size of the, LIZ. The excellent real-space convergence of the LSGF calculations and the reliability of its results are demonstrated for a broad spectrum of metallic alloys with different...

  20. Electron and Nucleon Localization Functions of Oganesson: Approaching the Thomas-Fermi Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerabek, Paul; Schuetrumpf, Bastian; Schwerdtfeger, Peter; Nazarewicz, Witold

    2018-02-01

    Fermion localization functions are used to discuss electronic and nucleonic shell structure effects in the superheavy element oganesson, the heaviest element discovered to date. Spin-orbit splitting in the 7 p electronic shell becomes so large (˜10 eV ) that Og is expected to show uniform-gas-like behavior in the valence region with a rather large dipole polarizability compared to the lighter rare gas elements. The nucleon localization in Og is also predicted to undergo a transition to the Thomas-Fermi gas behavior in the valence region. This effect, particularly strong for neutrons, is due to the high density of single-particle orbitals.

  1. UPF201 archaeal specific family members reveal structural similarity to RNA-binding proteins but low likelihood for RNA-binding function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamurthy N Rao

    Full Text Available We have determined X-ray crystal structures of four members of an archaeal specific family of proteins of unknown function (UPF0201; Pfam classification: DUF54 to advance our understanding of the genetic repertoire of archaea. Despite low pairwise amino acid sequence identities (10-40% and the absence of conserved sequence motifs, the three-dimensional structures of these proteins are remarkably similar to one another. Their common polypeptide chain fold, encompassing a five-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet and five alpha-helices, proved to be quite unexpectedly similar to that of the RRM-type RNA-binding domain of the ribosomal L5 protein, which is responsible for binding the 5S- rRNA. Structure-based sequence alignments enabled construction of a phylogenetic tree relating UPF0201 family members to L5 ribosomal proteins and other structurally similar RNA binding proteins, thereby expanding our understanding of the evolutionary purview of the RRM superfamily. Analyses of the surfaces of these newly determined UPF0201 structures suggest that they probably do not function as RNA binding proteins, and that this domain specific family of proteins has acquired a novel function in archaebacteria, which awaits experimental elucidation.

  2. Poly-cyclodextrin functionalized porous bioceramics for local chemotherapy and anticancer bone reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Feng; Abdelkarim, Mohamed; Laurent, Thomas; Tabary, Nicolas; Degoutin, Stephanie; Simon, Nicolas; Peters, Fabian; Blanchemain, Nicolas; Martel, Bernard; Hildebrand, Hartmut F

    2014-08-01

    The progress in bone cancer surgery and multimodal treatment concept achieve only modest improvement in the overall survival, due to failure in clearing out residual cancer cells at the surgical margin and extreme side-effects of adjuvant postoperative treatments. Our study aims to propose a new method based on cyclodextrin polymer (polyCD) functionalized hydroxyapatite (HA) for achieving a high local drug concentration with a sustained release profile and a better control of residual malignant cells via local drug delivery and promotion of the reconstruction of bone defects. PolyCD, a versatile carrier for therapeutic molecules, can be incorporated into HA (bone regeneration scaffold) through thermal treatment. The parameters of polyCD treatment on the macroporous HA (porosity 65%) were characterized via thermogravimetric analysis. Good cytocompatibility of polyCD functionalized bioceramics was demonstrated on osteoblast cells by cell vitality assay. An antibiotic (gentamicin) and an anticancer agent (cisplatin) were respectively loaded on polyCD functionalized bioceramics for drug release test. The results show that polyCD functionalization leads to significantly improved drug loading quantity (30% more concerning gentamicin and twice more for cisplatin) and drug release duration (7 days longer concerning gentamicin and 3 days longer for cisplatin). Conclusively, this study offers a safe and reliable drug delivery system for bioceramic matrices, which can load anticancer agents (or/and antibiotics) to reduce local recurrence (or/and infection). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Locally optimal control under unknown dynamics with learnt cost function: application to industrial robot positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Joris; Gibaru, Olivier; Thiery, Stéphane; Nyiri, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Recent methods of Reinforcement Learning have enabled to solve difficult, high dimensional, robotic tasks under unknown dynamics using iterative Linear Quadratic Gaussian control theory. These algorithms are based on building a local time-varying linear model of the dynamics from data gathered through interaction with the environment. In such tasks, the cost function is often expressed directly in terms of the state and control variables so that it can be locally quadratized to run the algorithm. If the cost is expressed in terms of other variables, a model is required to compute the cost function from the variables manipulated. We propose a method to learn the cost function directly from the data, in the same way as for the dynamics. This way, the cost function can be defined in terms of any measurable quantity and thus can be chosen more appropriately for the task to be carried out. With our method, any sensor information can be used to design the cost function. We demonstrate the efficiency of this method through simulating, with the V-REP software, the learning of a Cartesian positioning task on several industrial robots with different characteristics. The robots are controlled in joint space and no model is provided a priori. Our results are compared with another model free technique, consisting in writing the cost function as a state variable.

  4. Localization of focal epileptic discharges using functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stufflebeam, Steven M; Liu, Hesheng; Sepulcre, Jorge; Tanaka, Naoaki; Buckner, Randy L; Madsen, Joseph R

    2011-06-01

    In patients with medically refractory epilepsy the accurate localization of the seizure onset zone is critical for successful surgical treatment. The object of this study was to investigate whether the degree of coupling of spontaneous brain activity as measured with functional connectivity MR imaging (fcMR imaging) can accurately identify and localize epileptic discharges. The authors studied 6 patients who underwent fcMR imaging presurgical mapping and subsequently underwent invasive electroencephalography. Focal regions of statistically significant increases in connectivity were identified in 5 patients when compared with an ad hoc normative sample of 300 controls. The foci identified by fcMR imaging overlapped the epileptogenic areas identified by invasive encephalography in all 5 patients. These results suggest that fcMR imaging may provide an effective high-spatial resolution and noninvasive method of localizing epileptic discharges in patients with refractory epilepsy.

  5. Localization and function of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Jung; Kristensen, Michael; Hellsten, Ylva

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated the localization of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels in human skeletal muscle and the functional importance of these channels for human muscle K+ distribution at rest and during muscle activity. Membrane fractionation based on the giant vesicle technique...... or the sucrose-gradient technique in combination with Western blotting demonstrated that the KATP channels are mainly located in the sarcolemma. This localization was confirmed by immunohistochemical measurements. With the microdialysis technique, it was demonstrated that local application of the KATP channel...... inhibitor glibenclamide reduced (P approximately 4.5 to 4.0 mM, whereas the concentration in the control leg remained constant. Glibenclamide had no effect on the interstitial K+ accumulation during knee-extensor exercise at a power output of 60 W. In contrast...

  6. Atom localization and center-of-mass wave-function determination via multiple simultaneous quadrature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evers, Joerg; Qamar, Shahid; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2007-01-01

    We discuss localization and center-of-mass wave-function measurement of a quantum particle using multiple simultaneous dispersive interactions of the particle with different standing-wave fields. In particular, we consider objects with an internal structure consisting of a single ground state and several excited states. The transitions between ground and the corresponding excited states are coupled to the light fields in the dispersive limit, thus giving rise to a phase shift of the light field during the interaction. We show that multiple simultaneous measurements allow both an increase in the measurement or localization precision in a single direction and the performance of multidimensional measurements or localization. Further, we show that multiple measurements may relax the experimental requirements for each individual measurement

  7. Ejaculatory Function After Permanent 125I Prostate Brachytherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyghe, Eric; Delannes, Martine; Wagner, Fabien M.; Delaunay, Boris; Nohra, Joe; Thoulouzan, Matthieu; Shut-Yee, J. Yeung; Plante, Pierre; Soulie, Michel; Thonneau, Patrick; Bachaud, Jean Marc

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Ejaculatory function is an underreported aspect of male sexuality in men treated for prostate cancer. We conducted the first detailed analysis of ejaculatory function in patients treated with permanent 125 I prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer. Patients and Methods: Of 270 sexually active men with localized prostate cancer treated with permanent 125 I prostate brachytherapy, 241 (89%), with a mean age of 65 years (range, 43-80), responded to a mailed questionnaire derived from the Male Sexual Health Questionnaire regarding ejaculatory function. Five aspects of ejaculatory function were examined: frequency, volume, dry ejaculation, pleasure, and pain. Results: Of the 241 sexually active men, 81.3% had conserved ejaculatory function after prostate brachytherapy; however, the number of patients with rare/absent ejaculatory function was double the pretreatment number (p < .0001). The latter finding was correlated with age (p < .001) and the preimplant International Index of Erectile Function score (p < .001). However, 84.9% of patients with maintained ejaculatory function after implantation reported a reduced volume of ejaculate compared with 26.9% before (p < .001), with dry ejaculation accounting for 18.7% of these cases. After treatment, 30.3% of the patients experienced painful ejaculation compared with 12.9% before (p = .0001), and this was associated with a greater number of implanted needles (p = .021) and the existence of painful ejaculation before implantation (p < .0001). After implantation, 10% of patients who continued to be sexually active experienced no orgasm compared with only 1% before treatment. in addition, more patients experienced late/difficult or weak orgasms (p = .001). Conclusion: Most men treated with brachytherapy have conserved ejaculatory function after prostate brachytherapy. However, most of these men experience a reduction in volume and a deterioration in orgasm.

  8. The cerebral ventricles, the animal spirits and the dawn of brain localization of function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, T

    1998-03-01

    This paper reviews the early history of brain localization of function. It analyses the doctrines professed in ancient times by philosophers and physicians, who believed that brain functions were carried out in the cerebral ventricles by the psychic pneuma, or animal spirit, a sort of special and light substance endowed with the power to perform sensory, motor and mental activities. This theory, conceived in the Classic Age and called "ventricular-pneumatic doctrine", evolved in the 4th-5th centuries A.D. into the "three-cell theory", according to which each cerebral ventricle was the seat of a specific function, and contained a unique type of spirit with the power to perform that function. The three-cell theory represents the earliest attempt to localize different mind functions in separate brain sites and was held true by Byzantine, Arabian and Western Latin scholars well beyond the Renaissance. The paper is subdivided into an Introduction and eight sections. The first two sections report a brief history of the philosophical and medical doctrines about the pneuma as mediator of all vital functions, the ventricular-pneumatic doctrine elaborated by Galen of Pergamon, and his theory of nerve physiology based on the assumption that the pneuma, set in motion by active brain movements and flowing in the hollow nerves, could transfer sensations from the sense organs to the anterior ventricles, and motor commands from the posterior ventricle to the muscles. The third and fourth sections trace the ways in which these doctrines were transmitted to the Byzantine physicians and then to the Arabs, until they reached the Latin West. Here, throughout the Middle Ages they not only formed the background of medical and natural philosophy, but also influenced Christian theologians. The fifth section is devoted to the ventricular localization of mind faculties, called internal senses by Arabian and Western Latin scholars. Most authors recognized three basic internal senses

  9. Calculation of local excitations in large systems by embedding wave-function theory in density-functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, André Severo Pereira; Jacob, Christoph R; Visscher, Lucas

    2008-09-21

    We present a simple and efficient embedding scheme for the wave-function based calculation of the energies of local excitations in large systems. By introducing an embedding potential obtained from density-functional theory (DFT) it is possible to describe the effect of an environment on local excitations of an embedded system in wave-function theory (WFT) calculations of the excitation energies. We outline the implementation of such a WFT-in-DFT embedding procedure employing the ADF, Dalton and DIRAC codes, where the embedded subsystem is treated with coupled cluster methods. We then evaluate this procedure in the calculation of the solvatochromic shift of acetone in water and of the f-f spectrum of NpO22+ embedded in a Cs2UO2Cl4 crystal and find that our scheme does effectively incorporate the environment effect in both cases. A particularly interesting finding is that with our embedding scheme we can model the equatorial Cl- ligands in NpO2Cl42- quite accurately, compared to a fully wavefunction-based calculation, and this opens up the possibility of modeling the interaction of different ligands to actinyl species with relatively high accuracy but at a much reduced computational cost.

  10. Reformulating time-dependent density functional theory with non-orthogonal localized molecular orbitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ganglong; Fang, Weihai; Yang, Weitao

    2010-01-14

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) has broad application in the study of electronic response, excitation and transport. To extend such application to large and complex systems, we develop a reformulation of TDDFT equations in terms of non-orthogonal localized molecular orbitals (NOLMOs). NOLMO is the most localized representation of electronic degrees of freedom and has been used in ground state calculations. In atomic orbital (AO) representation, the sparsity of NOLMO is transferred to the coefficient matrix of molecular orbitals (MOs). Its novel use in TDDFT here leads to a very simple form of time propagation equations which can be solved with linear-scaling effort. We have tested the method for several long-chain saturated and conjugated molecular systems within the self-consistent charge density-functional tight-binding method (SCC-DFTB) and demonstrated its accuracy. This opens up pathways for TDDFT applications to large bio- and nano-systems.

  11. Pluronic F127 nanomicelles engineered with nuclear localized functionality for targeted drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yong-Yong; Li, Lan; Dong, Hai-Qing; Cai, Xiao-Jun; Ren, Tian-Bin

    2013-01-01

    PKKKRKV (Pro-Lys-Lys-Lys-Arg-Lys-Val, PV7), a seven amino acid peptide, has emerged as one of the primary nuclear localization signals that can be targeted into cell nucleus via the nuclear import machinery. Taking advantage of chemical diversity and biological activities of this short peptide sequence, in this study, Pluronic F127 nanomicelles engineered with nuclear localized functionality were successfully developed for intracellular drug delivery. These nanomicelles with the size ∼ 100 nm were self-assembled from F127 polymer that was flanked with two PV7 sequences at its both terminal ends. Hydrophobic anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) with inherent fluorescence was chosen as the model drug, which was found to be efficiently encapsulated into nanomicelles with the encapsulation efficiency at 72.68%. In comparison with the non-functionalized namomicelles, the microscopic observation reveals that PV7 functionalized nanomicelles display a higher cellular uptake, especially into the nucleus of HepG2 cells, due to the nuclear localization signal effects. Both cytotoxicity and apoptosis studies show that the DOX-loaded nanomicelles were more potent than drug nanomicelles without nuclear targeting functionality. It was thus concluded that PV7 functionalized nanomicelles could be a potentially alternative vehicle for nuclear targeting drug delivery. - Highlights: ► A new nuclear targeted drug delivery system based on micelles is developed. ► This micellar system features a core-shell structure with the size peaked at 100 nm. ► PV7, a short peptide sequence, is adopted as a nuclear targeting ligand. ► PV7 functionalized drug loaded micelles are more potent in killing tumor cells

  12. Subcellular localization and function study of a secreted phospholipase C from Nocardia seriolae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Liqun; Liang, Haiying; Xu, Liang; Chen, Jianlin; Bekaert, Michaël; Zhang, Honglian; Lu, Yishan

    2017-09-15

    Fish nocardiosis is a chronic systemic granulomatous disease, and Nocardia seriolae is the main pathogen that causes it. The pathogenesis and virulence factors of N. seriolae are not fully understood. A phospholipase C (PLC), which is likely to be a secreted protein targeting host cell mitochondria, was found by a bioinformatics analysis of the whole genome sequence of N. seriolae. In order to determine the subcellular localization and study the preliminary function of PLC from N. seriolae (NsPLC), in this study gene cloning, secreted protein identification, subcellular localization in host cells and apoptosis detection of NsPLC were carried out. Mass spectrometry analysis of extracellular products from N. seriolae showed that NsPLC was a secreted protein. Subcellular localization of NsPLC-GFP fusion protein in fathead minnow (FHM) cells revealed that the green fluorescence exhibited a punctate distribution near the nucleus and did not co-localize with mitochondria. In addition, an apoptosis assay suggested that apoptosis was induced in FHM cells by the overexpression of NsPLC. This study may lay the foundations for further studies on the function of NsPLC and promote the understanding of the virulence factors and pathogenic mechanism of N. seriolae. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. First-principles Green's-function method for surface calculations: A pseudopotential localized basis set approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidstrup, Søren; Stradi, Daniele; Wellendorff, Jess; Khomyakov, Petr A.; Vej-Hansen, Ulrik G.; Lee, Maeng-Eun; Ghosh, Tushar; Jónsson, Elvar; Jónsson, Hannes; Stokbro, Kurt

    2017-11-01

    We present an efficient implementation of a surface Green's-function method for atomistic modeling of surfaces within the framework of density functional theory using a pseudopotential localized basis set approach. In this method, the system is described as a truly semi-infinite solid with a surface region coupled to an electron reservoir, thereby overcoming several fundamental drawbacks of the traditional slab approach. The versatility of the method is demonstrated with several applications to surface physics and chemistry problems that are inherently difficult to address properly with the slab method, including metal work function calculations, band alignment in thin-film semiconductor heterostructures, surface states in metals and topological insulators, and surfaces in external electrical fields. Results obtained with the surface Green's-function method are compared to experimental measurements and slab calculations to demonstrate the accuracy of the approach.

  14. Determination of the Local Thermal Conductivity of Functionally Graded Materials by a Laser Flash Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    Determination of thermal conductivity of construction materials is essential to estimate their insulation capabilities. In most cases, homogenous materials are used and well developed methods exist for measurements of their thermal conductivity. The task becomes more challenging when dealing...... by scanning them point by point and determining the thermal conductivity as a function of the spatial dimensions. The method proves to be repeatable and of reasonable accuracy and can be used to determine the local thermal properties on a scale of millimeters. In this study, the method was successfully...... applied to create a map of thermal conductivity of a functionally graded material sample....

  15. Selective individual primary cell capture using locally bio-functionalized micropores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Solid-state micropores have been widely employed for 6 decades to recognize and size flowing unlabeled cells. However, the resistive-pulse technique presents limitations when the cells to be differentiated have overlapping dimension ranges such as B and T lymphocytes. An alternative approach would be to specifically capture cells by solid-state micropores. Here, the inner wall of 15-µm pores made in 10 µm-thick silicon membranes was covered with antibodies specific to cell surface proteins of B or T lymphocytes. The selective trapping of individual unlabeled cells in a bio-functionalized micropore makes them recognizable just using optical microscopy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We locally deposited oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN and ODN-conjugated antibody probes on the inner wall of the micropores by forming thin films of polypyrrole-ODN copolymers using contactless electro-functionalization. The trapping capabilities of the bio-functionalized micropores were validated using optical microscopy and the resistive-pulse technique by selectively capturing polystyrene microbeads coated with complementary ODN. B or T lymphocytes from a mouse splenocyte suspension were specifically immobilized on micropore walls functionalized with complementary ODN-conjugated antibodies targeting cell surface proteins. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results showed that locally bio-functionalized micropores can isolate target cells from a suspension during their translocation throughout the pore, including among cells of similar dimensions in complex mixtures.

  16. The Dark Side of the Mushroom Spring Microbial Mat: Life in the Shadow of Chlorophototrophs. II. Metabolic Functions of Abundant Community Members Predicted from Metagenomic Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Thiel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial mat communities in the effluent channels of Octopus and Mushroom Springs within the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park have been extensively characterized. Previous studies have focused on the chlorophototrophic organisms of the phyla Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi. However, the diversity and metabolic functions of the other portion of the community in the microoxic/anoxic region of the mat are poorly understood. We recently described the diverse but extremely uneven microbial assemblage in the undermat of Mushroom Spring based on 16S rRNA amplicon sequences, which was dominated by Roseiflexus members, filamentous anoxygenic chlorophototrophs. In this study, we analyzed the orange-colored undermat portion of the community of Mushroom Spring mats in a genome-centric approach and discuss the metabolic potentials of the major members. Metagenome binning recovered partial genomes of all abundant community members, ranging in completeness from ~28 to 96%, and allowed affiliation of function with taxonomic identity even for representatives of novel and Candidate phyla. Less complete metagenomic bins correlated with high microdiversity. The undermat portion of the community was found to be a mixture of phototrophic and chemotrophic organisms, which use bicarbonate as well as organic carbon sources derived from different cell components and fermentation products. The presence of rhodopsin genes in many taxa strengthens the hypothesis that light energy is of major importance. Evidence for the usage of all four bacterial carbon fixation pathways was found in the metagenome. Nitrogen fixation appears to be limited to Synechococcus spp. in the upper mat layer and Thermodesulfovibrio sp. in the undermat, and nitrate/nitrite metabolism was limited. A closed sulfur cycle is indicated by biological sulfate reduction combined with the presence of genes for sulfide oxidation mainly in phototrophs. Finally, a variety of undermat

  17. The Dark Side of the Mushroom Spring Microbial Mat: Life in the Shadow of Chlorophototrophs. II. Metabolic Functions of Abundant Community Members Predicted from Metagenomic Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Vera; Hügler, Michael; Ward, David M; Bryant, Donald A

    2017-01-01

    Microbial mat communities in the effluent channels of Octopus and Mushroom Springs within the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park have been extensively characterized. Previous studies have focused on the chlorophototrophic organisms of the phyla Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi . However, the diversity and metabolic functions of the other portion of the community in the microoxic/anoxic region of the mat are poorly understood. We recently described the diverse but extremely uneven microbial assemblage in the undermat of Mushroom Spring based on 16S rRNA amplicon sequences, which was dominated by Roseiflexus members, filamentous anoxygenic chlorophototrophs. In this study, we analyzed the orange-colored undermat portion of the community of Mushroom Spring mats in a genome-centric approach and discuss the metabolic potentials of the major members. Metagenome binning recovered partial genomes of all abundant community members, ranging in completeness from ~28 to 96%, and allowed affiliation of function with taxonomic identity even for representatives of novel and Candidate phyla. Less complete metagenomic bins correlated with high microdiversity. The undermat portion of the community was found to be a mixture of phototrophic and chemotrophic organisms, which use bicarbonate as well as organic carbon sources derived from different cell components and fermentation products. The presence of rhodopsin genes in many taxa strengthens the hypothesis that light energy is of major importance. Evidence for the usage of all four bacterial carbon fixation pathways was found in the metagenome. Nitrogen fixation appears to be limited to Synechococcus spp. in the upper mat layer and Thermodesulfovibrio sp. in the undermat, and nitrate/nitrite metabolism was limited. A closed sulfur cycle is indicated by biological sulfate reduction combined with the presence of genes for sulfide oxidation mainly in phototrophs. Finally, a variety of undermat microorganisms have genes for

  18. The Dark Side of the Mushroom Spring Microbial Mat: Life in the Shadow of Chlorophototrophs. II. Metabolic Functions of Abundant Community Members Predicted from Metagenomic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Vera; Hügler, Michael; Ward, David M.; Bryant, Donald A.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial mat communities in the effluent channels of Octopus and Mushroom Springs within the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park have been extensively characterized. Previous studies have focused on the chlorophototrophic organisms of the phyla Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi. However, the diversity and metabolic functions of the other portion of the community in the microoxic/anoxic region of the mat are poorly understood. We recently described the diverse but extremely uneven microbial assemblage in the undermat of Mushroom Spring based on 16S rRNA amplicon sequences, which was dominated by Roseiflexus members, filamentous anoxygenic chlorophototrophs. In this study, we analyzed the orange-colored undermat portion of the community of Mushroom Spring mats in a genome-centric approach and discuss the metabolic potentials of the major members. Metagenome binning recovered partial genomes of all abundant community members, ranging in completeness from ~28 to 96%, and allowed affiliation of function with taxonomic identity even for representatives of novel and Candidate phyla. Less complete metagenomic bins correlated with high microdiversity. The undermat portion of the community was found to be a mixture of phototrophic and chemotrophic organisms, which use bicarbonate as well as organic carbon sources derived from different cell components and fermentation products. The presence of rhodopsin genes in many taxa strengthens the hypothesis that light energy is of major importance. Evidence for the usage of all four bacterial carbon fixation pathways was found in the metagenome. Nitrogen fixation appears to be limited to Synechococcus spp. in the upper mat layer and Thermodesulfovibrio sp. in the undermat, and nitrate/nitrite metabolism was limited. A closed sulfur cycle is indicated by biological sulfate reduction combined with the presence of genes for sulfide oxidation mainly in phototrophs. Finally, a variety of undermat microorganisms have genes for

  19. The Ironbridge Gorge Heritage Site and its local and regional functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cudny Waldemar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issue of heritage and its functions. Based on the existing literature, the author presents the definition of heritage, the classification of heritage resources, and its most important impacts. The aim of the article was to show the functions that may be performed by a heritage site, locally and regionally. The example used by the author is the Ironbridge Gorge Heritage Site in the United Kingdom. Most heritage functions described by other authors are confirmed in this case study. The cultural heritage of the Ironbridge Gorge creates an opportunity to undertake various local and regional activities, having first of all an educational influence on the inhabitants, school youth and tourists. We must not ignore the economicinfluences, such as financing the activity of the Ironbridge Trust (the institution administering the site, generating income for local firms providing service to tourists, or for construction companies. This income helps to preserve and conserve the tangible heritage of the Ironbridge Gorge, as well as to generate jobs in heritage management, conservation and heritage tourism. Other effects of the Ironbridge Gorge Site include a socio-cultural impact or that related to sustainable development.

  20. Density Functional Modeling of the Local Structure of Kaolinite Subjected to Thermal Dehydroxylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Claire E.; Provis, John L.; Proffen, Thomas; Riley, Daniel P.; van Deventer, Jannie S.J. (Melbourne); (LANL)

    2010-11-19

    Understanding the atomic-level changes that occur as kaolinite is converted (thermally dehydroxylated) to metakaolin is critical to the optimization of this large-scale industrial process. Metakaolin is X-ray amorphous; therefore, conventional crystallographic techniques do not reveal the changes in local structure during its formation. Local structure-based experimental techniques are useful in understanding the atomic structure but do not provide the thermodynamic information which is necessary to ensure plausibility of refined structures. Here, kaolinite dehydroxylation is modeled using density functional theory, and a stepwise methodology, where several water molecules are removed from the structure, geometry optimization is carried out, and then the process is repeated. Hence, the structure remains in an energetically and thermodynamically feasible state while transitioning from kaolinite to metakaolin. The structures generated during the dehydroxylation process are validated by comparison with X-ray and neutron pair distribution function data. Thus, this study illustrates one possible route by which dehydroxylation of kaolinite can take place, revealing a chemically, energetically, and experimentally plausible structure of metakaolin. This methodology of density functional modeling of the stepwise changes in a material is not limited in application to kaolinite or other aluminosilicates and provides an accurate representation of the local structural changes occurring in materials used in industrially important processes.

  1. Effect of wave-function localization on the time delay in photoemission from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, C.-H.; Thumm, U.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate streaking time delays in the photoemission from a solid model surface as a function of the degree of localization of the initial-state wave functions. We consider a one-dimensional slab with lattice constant a latt of attractive Gaussian-shaped core potentials of width σ. The parameter σ/a latt thus controls the overlap between adjacent core potentials and localization of the electronic eigenfunctions on the lattice points. Small values of σ/a latt latt > or approx 0.4. By numerically solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation, we calculate photoemission spectra from which we deduce a characteristic bimodal shape of the band-averaged photoemission time delay: as the slab eigenfunctions become increasingly delocalized, the time delay quickly decreases near σ/a latt =0.3 from relatively large values below σ/a latt ∼0.2 to much smaller delays above σ/a latt ∼0.4. This change in wave-function localization facilitates the interpretation of a recently measured apparent relative time delay between the photoemission from core and conduction-band levels of a tungsten surface.

  2. Off-critical local height probabilities on a plane and critical partition functions on a cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Foda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We compute off-critical local height probabilities in regime-III restricted solid-on-solid models in a 4N-quadrant spiral geometry, with periodic boundary conditions in the angular direction, and fixed boundary conditions in the radial direction, as a function of N, the winding number of the spiral, and τ, the departure from criticality of the model, and observe that the result depends only on the product Nτ. In the limit N→1, τ→τ0, such that τ0 is finite, we recover the off-critical local height probability on a plane, τ0-away from criticality. In the limit N→∞, τ→0, such that Nτ=τ0 is finite, and following a conformal transformation, we obtain a critical partition function on a cylinder of aspect-ratio τ0. We conclude that the off-critical local height probability on a plane, τ0-away from criticality, is equal to a critical partition function on a cylinder of aspect-ratio τ0, in agreement with a result of Saleur and Bauer.

  3. Receptors of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family in man. Multiple functions of the large family members via interaction with complex ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliemann, J

    1998-01-01

    The LDL receptor family members are endocytic receptors composed of repeated protein modules, including clusters of ligand binding LDL receptor class A (LA) repeats. The large (approximately 600 kDa) members LRP and megalin bind numerous structurally unrelated and often complex ligands at different combinations of sites. LRP is expressed in a wide but restricted set of cell types including hepatocytes, macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and neurons of the CNS. Megalin is expressed in various epithelia including proximal kidney tubules, intestine, and ependymal cells. The two receptors share a multitude of ligands, and their function in vivo is therefore to a large extent determined by their expression pattern. For example, both receptors can endocytose lipoproteins, but this function appears mainly relevant for LRP. In addition, LRP helps regulating urokinase receptor expression on the cell surface via ligand-mediated internalization followed by return of the naked urokinase receptor to the cell surface. Both receptors also have specialist functions. LRP is specific for binding of alpha2-macroglobulin-proteinase complexes and provides clearance of the complexes and of peptides, e.g. cytokines, associated with the complex. Megalin has important functions in vitamin B12 homeostasis since it specifically mediates uptake of the vitamin B12-transcobalamin complex and helps building a storage pool for the vitamin in the kidneys. Moreover, megalin binds cubilin, the recently identified receptor for B12-intrinsic factor complex, thus providing a mechanism for uptake of dietary vitamin B12. Finally, megalin specifically mediates uptake of apolipoprotein J/clusterin, a binding protein for the Abeta peptide implicated in Alzheimer's disease. The binding of multiple complex ligands that belong to distinct physiological systems provides a challenge in future studies aiming at elucidating the role of LRP and megalin in disease mechanisms.

  4. Local climate and cultivation, but not ploidy, predict functional trait variation in Bouteloua gracilis (Poaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Bradley J.; Wood, Troy E.

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to improve the diversity of seed 18 resources for important restoration species has become a high priority for land managers in many parts of the world. Relationships between functional trait values and the environment from which seed sources are collected can provide important insights into patterns of local adaptation and guidelines for seed transfer. However, little is known about which functional traits exhibit genetic differentiation across populations of restoration species and thus may contribute to local adaptation. Here, we report the results of a common garden experiment aimed at assessing genetic (including ploidy level) and environmental regulation of several functional traits among populations of Bouteloua gracilis, a dominant C4 grass and the most highly utilized restoration species across much of the Colorado Plateau. We found that leaf size and specific leaf area (SLA) varied significantly among populations, and were strongly correlated with the source population environment from which seeds were collected. However, variation in ploidy level had no significant effect on functional traits. Leaves of plants grown from commercial seed releases were significantly larger and had lower SLA than those from natural populations, a result that is concordant with the overall relation between climate and these two functional traits. We suggest that the patterns of functional trait variation shown here may extend to other grass species in the western USA, and may serve as useful proxies for more extensive genecology research. Furthermore, we argue that care should be taken to develop commercial seed lines with functional trait values that match those of natural populations occupying climates similar to target restoration sites.

  5. Abnormal functional global and local brain connectivity in female patients with anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Daniel; Borchardt, Viola; Lord, Anton R.; Boehm, Ilka; Ritschel, Franziska; Zwipp, Johannes; Clas, Sabine; King, Joseph A.; Wolff-Stephan, Silvia; Roessner, Veit; Walter, Martin; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous resting-state functional connectivity studies in patients with anorexia nervosa used independent component analysis or seed-based connectivity analysis to probe specific brain networks. Instead, modelling the entire brain as a complex network allows determination of graph-theoretical metrics, which describe global and local properties of how brain networks are organized and how they interact. Methods To determine differences in network properties between female patients with acute anorexia nervosa and pairwise matched healthy controls, we used resting-state fMRI and computed well-established global and local graph metrics across a range of network densities. Results Our analyses included 35 patients and 35 controls. We found that the global functional network structure in patients with anorexia nervosa is characterized by increases in both characteristic path length (longer average routes between nodes) and assortativity (more nodes with a similar connectedness link together). Accordingly, we found locally decreased connectivity strength and increased path length in the posterior insula and thalamus. Limitations The present results may be limited to the methods applied during preprocessing and network construction. Conclusion We demonstrated anorexia nervosa–related changes in the network configuration for, to our knowledge, the first time using resting-state fMRI and graph-theoretical measures. Our findings revealed an altered global brain network architecture accompanied by local degradations indicating wide-scale disturbance in information flow across brain networks in patients with acute anorexia nervosa. Reduced local network efficiency in the thalamus and posterior insula may reflect a mechanism that helps explain the impaired integration of visuospatial and homeostatic signals in patients with this disorder, which is thought to be linked to abnormal representations of body size and hunger. PMID:26252451

  6. An accurate solution of elastodynamic problems by numerical local Green's functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, F. S.; Silva, J. E. A.; Mansur, W. J.

    2015-09-01

    Green's function based methodologies for elastodynamics in both time and frequency domains, which can be either numerical or analytical, appear in many branches of physics and engineering. Thus, the development of exact expressions for Green's functions is of great importance. Unfortunately, such expressions are known only for relatively few kinds of geometry, medium and boundary conditions. In this way, due to the difficulty in finding exact Green's functions, specially in the time domain, the present paper presents a solution of the transient elastodynamic equations by a time-stepping technique based on the Explicit Green's Approach method written in terms of the Green's and Step response functions, both being computed numerically by the finite element method. The major feature is the computation of these functions separately by the central difference time integration scheme and locally owing to the principle of causality. More precisely, Green's functions are computed only at t = Δt adopting two time substeps while Step response functions are computed directly without substeps. The proposed time-stepping method shows to be quite accurate with distinct numerical properties not presented in the standard central difference scheme as addressed in the numerical example.

  7. Disrupted modularity and local connectivity of brain functional networks in childhood-onset schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron F Alexander-Bloch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Modularity is a fundamental concept in systems neuroscience, referring to the formation of local cliques or modules of densely intra-connected nodes that are sparsely inter-connected with nodes in other modules. Topological modularity of brain functional networks can quantify theoretically anticipated abnormality of brain network community structure--so called dysmodularity--in developmental disorders such as childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS. We used graph theory to investigate topology of networks derived from resting-state fMRI data on 13 COS patients and 19 healthy volunteers. We measured functional connectivity between each pair of 100 regional nodes, focusing on wavelet correlation in the frequency interval 0.05-0.1 Hz, then applied global and local thresholding rules to construct graphs from each individual association matrix over the full range of possible connection densities. We show how local thresholding based on the minimum spanning tree facilitates group comparisons of networks by forcing the connectedness of sparse graphs. Threshold-dependent graph theoretical results are compatible with the results of a k-means unsupervised learning algorithm and a multi-resolution (spin glass approach to modularity, both of which also find community structure but do not require thresholding of the association matrix. In general modularity of brain functional networks was significantly reduced in COS, due to a relatively reduced density of intra-modular connections between neighboring regions. Other network measures of local organization such as clustering were also decreased, while complementary measures of global efficiency and robustness were increased, in the COS group. The group differences in complex network properties were mirrored by differences in simpler statistical properties of the data, such as the variability of the global time series and the internal homogeneity of the time series within anatomical regions of interest.

  8. Aberrant patterns of local and long-range functional connectivity densities in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanxin; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Guangdong; Tian, Hongjun; Li, Jie; Qu, Hongru; Cheng, Langlang; Zhu, Jingjing; Zhuo, Chuanjun

    2017-07-18

    Schizophrenia is a disorder of brain dysconnectivity, and both the connection strength and connection number are disrupted in patients with schizophrenia. The functional connectivity density (FCD) can reflect alterations in the connection number. Alterations in the global FCD (gFCD) in schizophrenia were previously demonstrated; however, alterations in two other indices of the pathological characteristics of the brain, local FCD (lFCD) and long-range FCD (lrFCD), have not been revealed. To investigate lFCD and lrFCD alterations in patients with schizophrenia, 95 patients and 93 matched healthy controls were examined using structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. lFCD and lrFCD were measured using FCD mapping, and differences were identified using a two-sample t-test in a voxel-wise manner, with age and gender considered to increase variability. Multiple comparisons were performed using a false discovery rate method with a corrected threshold of Pschizophrenia is a disorder of brain dysconnectivity, particularly affecting the local functional connectivity network, and support the hypothesis that schizophrenia is associated with a widespread cortical functional connectivity/activity deficit, with hyper- and/or hypo-connectivity/activity coexisting in some cortical or subcortical regions.

  9. Extended Kantorovich method for local stresses in composite laminates upon polynomial stress functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Wang, Ji; Du, Jianke; Guo, Yan; Ma, Tingfeng; Yi, Lijun

    2016-10-01

    The extended Kantorovich method is employed to study the local stress concentrations at the vicinity of free edges in symmetrically layered composite laminates subjected to uniaxial tensile load upon polynomial stress functions. The stress fields are initially assumed by means of the Lekhnitskii stress functions under the plane strain state. Applying the principle of complementary virtual work, the coupled ordinary differential equations are obtained in which the solutions can be obtained by solving a generalized eigenvalue problem. Then an iterative procedure is established to achieve convergent stress distributions. It should be noted that the stress function based extended Kantorovich method can satisfy both the traction-free and free edge stress boundary conditions during the iterative processes. The stress components near the free edges and in the interior regions are calculated and compared with those obtained results by finite element method (FEM). The convergent stresses have good agreements with those results obtained by three dimensional (3D) FEM. For generality, various layup configurations are considered for the numerical analysis. The results show that the proposed polynomial stress function based extended Kantorovich method is accurate and efficient in predicting the local stresses in composite laminates and computationally much more efficient than the 3D FEM.

  10. Members of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) peptide family are differentially distributed both between and within the neuroendocrine organs of Cancer crabs: implications for differential release and pleiotropic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yun-Wei A; Messinger, Daniel I; Chung, J Sook; Webster, Simon G; de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Christie, Andrew E

    2006-08-01

    The crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) family of peptides includes CHH, moult-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and mandibular organ-inhibiting hormone (MOIH). In the crab Cancer pagurus, isoforms of these peptides, as well as CHH precursor-related peptide (CPRP), have been identified in the X-organ-sinus gland (XO-SG) system. Using peptides isolated from the C. pagurus SG, antibodies to each family member and CPRP were generated. These sera were then used to map the distributions and co-localization patterns of these peptides in the neuroendocrine organs of seven Cancer species: Cancer antennarius, Cancer anthonyi, Cancer borealis, Cancer gracilis, Cancer irroratus, Cancer magister and Cancer productus. In addition to the XO-SG, the pericardial organ (PO) and two other neuroendocrine sites contained within the stomatogastric nervous system, the anterior cardiac plexus (ACP) and the anterior commissural organ (ACO), were studied. In all species, the peptides were found to be differentially distributed between the neuroendocrine sites in conserved patterns: i.e. CHH, CPRP, MIH and MOIH in the XO-SG, CHH, CPRP and MOIH in the PO, and MOIH in the ACP (no immunolabeling was found in the ACO). Moreover, in C. productus (and probably in all species), the peptides present in the XO-SG and PO were differentially distributed between the neurons within each of these neuroendocrine organs (e.g. CHH and CPRP in one set of XO somata with MIH and MOIH co-localized in a different set of cell bodies). Taken collectively, the differential distributions of CHH family members and CPRP both between and within the neuroendocrine organs of crabs of the genus Cancer suggests that each of these peptides may be released into the circulatory system in response to varied, tissue-specific cues and that the PO- and/or ACP-derived isoforms may possess functions distinct from those classically ascribed to their release from the SG.

  11. Membrane-localized ubiquitin ligase ATL15 functions in sugar-responsive growth regulation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Shoki; Terada, Saki; Sanagi, Miho; Hasegawa, Yoko; Lu, Yu; Morita, Yoshie; Chiba, Yukako; Sato, Takeo; Yamaguchi, Junji

    2017-09-09

    Ubiquitin ligases play important roles in regulating various cellular processes by modulating the protein function of specific ubiquitination targets. The Arabidopsis Tóxicos en Levadura (ATL) family is a group of plant-specific RING-type ubiquitin ligases that localize to membranes via their N-terminal transmembrane-like domains. To date, 91 ATL isoforms have been identified in the Arabidopsis genome, with several ATLs reported to be involved in regulating plant responses to environmental stresses. However, the functions of most ATLs remain unknown. This study, involving transcriptome database analysis, identifies ATL15 as a sugar responsive ATL gene in Arabidopsis. ATL15 expression was rapidly down-regulated in the presence of sugar. The ATL15 protein showed ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro and localized to plasma membrane and endomembrane compartments. Further genetic analyses demonstrated that the atl15 knockout mutants are insensitive to high glucose concentrations, whereas ATL15 overexpression depresses plant growth. In addition, endogenous glucose and starch amounts were reciprocally affected in the atl15 knockout mutants and the ATL15 overexpressors. These results suggest that ATL15 protein plays a significant role as a membrane-localized ubiquitin ligase that regulates sugar-responsive plant growth in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A spectroscopic approach toward depression diagnosis: local metabolism meets functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demenescu, Liliana Ramona; Colic, Lejla; Li, Meng; Safron, Adam; Biswal, B; Metzger, Coraline Danielle; Li, Shijia; Walter, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Abnormal anterior insula (AI) response and functional connectivity (FC) is associated with depression. In addition to clinical features, such as severity, AI FC and its metabolism further predicted therapeutic response. Abnormal FC between anterior cingulate and AI covaried with reduced glutamate level within cingulate cortex. Recently, deficient glial glutamate conversion was found in AI in major depression disorder (MDD). We therefore postulate a local glutamatergic mechanism in insula cortex of depressive patients, which is correlated with symptoms severity and itself influences AI's network connectivity in MDD. Twenty-five MDD patients and 25 healthy controls (HC) matched on age and sex underwent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans. To determine the role of local glutamate-glutamine complex (Glx) ratio on whole brain AI FC, we conducted regression analysis with Glx relative to creatine (Cr) ratio as factor of interest and age, sex, and voxel tissue composition as nuisance factors. We found that in MDD, but not in HC, AI Glx/Cr ratio correlated positively with AI FC to right supramarginal gyrus and negatively with AI FC toward left occipital cortex (p family wise error). AI Glx/Cr level was negatively correlated with HAMD score (p disintegration of insula toward low level and supramodal integration areas, in MDD. While causality cannot directly be inferred from such correlation, our finding helps to define a multilevel network of response-predicting regions based on local metabolism and connectivity strength.

  13. Improved Radio Frequency Identification Indoor Localization Method via Radial Basis Function Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor localization technique has received much attention in recent years. Many techniques have been developed to solve the problem. Among the recent proposed methods, radio frequency identification (RFID indoor localization technology has the advantages of low-cost, noncontact, non-line-of-sight, and high precision. This paper proposed two radial basis function (RBF neural network based indoor localization methods. The RBF neural networks are trained to learn the mapping relationship between received signal strength indication values and position of objects. Traditional method used the received signal strength directly as the input of neural network; we added another input channel by taking the difference of the received signal strength, thus improving the reliability and precision of positioning. Fuzzy clustering is used to determine the center of radial basis function. In order to reduce the impact of signal fading due to non-line-of-sight and multipath transmission in indoor environment, we improved the Gaussian filter to process received signal strength values. The experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the existing methods as well as improves the reliability and precision of the RFID indoor positioning system.

  14. Expression, localization and possible functions of aquaporins 3 and 8 in rat digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G X; Dong, P P; Peng, R; Li, J; Zhang, D Y; Wang, J Y; Shen, X Z; Dong, L; Sun, J Y

    2016-01-01

    Although aquaporins (AQPs) play important roles in transcellular water movement, their precise quantification and localization remains controversial. We investigated expression levels and localizations of AQP3 and AQP8 and their possible functions in the rat digestive system using real-time polymerase chain reactions, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. We investigated the expression levels and localizations of AQP3 and AQP8 in esophagus, forestomach, glandular stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, proximal and distal colon, and liver. AQP3 was expressed in the basolateral membranes of stratified epithelia (esophagus and forestomach) and simple columnar epithelia (glandular stomach, ileum, and proximal and distal colon). Expression was particularly abundant in the esophagus, and proximal and distal colon. AQP8 was found in the subapical compartment of columnar epithelial cells of the jejunum, ileum, proximal colon and liver; the most intense staining occurred in the jejunum. Our results suggest that AQP3 and AQP8 play significant roles in intestinal function and/or fluid homeostasis and may be an important subject for future investigation of disorders that involve disruption of intestinal fluid homeostasis, such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome.

  15. Control of local ion transport to create unique functional nanodevices based on ionic conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Terabe, Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, Changhao Liang and Masakazu Aono

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of nanometer-scale devices operating under a new principle that could overcome the limitations of current semiconductor devices has attracted interest in recent years. We propose that nanoionic devices that operate by controlling the local transport of ions are promising in this regard. It is possible to control the local transport of ions using the solid electrochemical properties of ionic and electronic mixed conductors. As an example of this concept, here, we report a method of controlling the transport of silver ions of the mixed-conductor silver sulfide (Ag2S crystal and basic research on nanoionic devices based on this mixed conductor. These devices show unique functions such as atom deposition, resistance switching, and quantum point contact switching. The switches operate through the formation and dissolution of an atomic bridge between the electrodes, and the behavior is realized by control of the local solid-state electrochemical reaction. Potential nanoionic devices utilizing the unique functions and characters that do not exist in conventional semiconductor devices are discussed.

  16. Communication: Near-locality of exchange and correlation density functionals for 1- and 2-electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jianwei; Yang, Zenghui; Peng, Haowei; Perdew, John P.

    2016-01-01

    The uniform electron gas and the hydrogen atom play fundamental roles in condensed matter physics and quantum chemistry. The former has an infinite number of electrons uniformly distributed over the neutralizing positively charged background, and the latter only one electron bound to the proton. The uniform electron gas was used to derive the local spin density approximation to the exchange-correlation functional that undergirds the development of the Kohn-Sham density functional theory. We show here that the ground-state exchange-correlation energies of the hydrogen atom and many other 1- and 2-electron systems are modeled surprisingly well by a different local spin density approximation (LSDA0). LSDA0 is constructed to satisfy exact constraints but agrees surprisingly well with the exact results for a uniform two-electron density in a finite, curved three-dimensional space. We also apply LSDA0 to excited or noded 1-electron densities, where it works less well. Furthermore, we show that the localization of the exact exchange hole for a 1- or 2-electron ground state can be measured by the ratio of the exact exchange energy to its optimal lower bound.

  17. Small but powerful: top predator local extinction affects ecosystem structure and function in an intermittent stream.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Rodríguez-Lozano

    Full Text Available Top predator loss is a major global problem, with a current trend in biodiversity loss towards high trophic levels that modifies most ecosystems worldwide. Most research in this area is focused on large-bodied predators, despite the high extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fish that often act as apex consumers. Consequently, it remains unknown if intermittent streams are affected by the consequences of top-predators' extirpations. The aim of our research was to determine how this global problem affects intermittent streams and, in particular, if the loss of a small-bodied top predator (1 leads to a 'mesopredator release', affects primary consumers and changes whole community structures, and (2 triggers a cascade effect modifying the ecosystem function. To address these questions, we studied the top-down effects of a small endangered fish species, Barbus meridionalis (the Mediterranean barbel, conducting an enclosure/exclosure mesocosm experiment in an intermittent stream where B. meridionalis became locally extinct following a wildfire. We found that top predator absence led to 'mesopredator release', and also to 'prey release' despite intraguild predation, which contrasts with traditional food web theory. In addition, B. meridionalis extirpation changed whole macroinvertebrate community composition and increased total macroinvertebrate density. Regarding ecosystem function, periphyton primary production decreased in apex consumer absence. In this study, the apex consumer was functionally irreplaceable; its local extinction led to the loss of an important functional role that resulted in major changes to the ecosystem's structure and function. This study evidences that intermittent streams can be affected by the consequences of apex consumers' extinctions, and that the loss of small-bodied top predators can lead to large ecosystem changes. We recommend the reintroduction of small-bodied apex consumers to systems where they have been

  18. Small but powerful: top predator local extinction affects ecosystem structure and function in an intermittent stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Pablo; Verkaik, Iraima; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2015-01-01

    Top predator loss is a major global problem, with a current trend in biodiversity loss towards high trophic levels that modifies most ecosystems worldwide. Most research in this area is focused on large-bodied predators, despite the high extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fish that often act as apex consumers. Consequently, it remains unknown if intermittent streams are affected by the consequences of top-predators' extirpations. The aim of our research was to determine how this global problem affects intermittent streams and, in particular, if the loss of a small-bodied top predator (1) leads to a 'mesopredator release', affects primary consumers and changes whole community structures, and (2) triggers a cascade effect modifying the ecosystem function. To address these questions, we studied the top-down effects of a small endangered fish species, Barbus meridionalis (the Mediterranean barbel), conducting an enclosure/exclosure mesocosm experiment in an intermittent stream where B. meridionalis became locally extinct following a wildfire. We found that top predator absence led to 'mesopredator release', and also to 'prey release' despite intraguild predation, which contrasts with traditional food web theory. In addition, B. meridionalis extirpation changed whole macroinvertebrate community composition and increased total macroinvertebrate density. Regarding ecosystem function, periphyton primary production decreased in apex consumer absence. In this study, the apex consumer was functionally irreplaceable; its local extinction led to the loss of an important functional role that resulted in major changes to the ecosystem's structure and function. This study evidences that intermittent streams can be affected by the consequences of apex consumers' extinctions, and that the loss of small-bodied top predators can lead to large ecosystem changes. We recommend the reintroduction of small-bodied apex consumers to systems where they have been extirpated, to restore

  19. Potassium channels in the central nervous system of the snail, Helix pomatia: localization and functional characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battonyai, I; Krajcs, N; Serfőző, Z; Kiss, T; Elekes, K

    2014-05-30

    The distribution and functional presence of three voltage-dependent potassium channels, Kv2.1, Kv3.4, Kv4.3, respectively, were studied in the central nervous system of the snail Helix pomatia by immunohistochemical and electrophysiological methods. Cell clusters displaying immunoreactivity for the different channels were observed in all parts of the CNS, although their localization and number partly varied. Differences were also found in their intracellular, perikaryonal and axonal localization, as well as in their presence in non-neuronal tissues nearby the CNS, such as the perineurium and the aorta wall. At ultrastructural level Kv4.3 channel immunolabeling was observed in axon profiles containing large 80-100nm granular vesicles. Blotting analyses revealed specific signals for the Kv2.1, Kv3.4 and Kv4.3 channels, confirming the presence of the channels in the Helix CNS. Voltage-clamp recordings proved that outward currents obtained from neurons displaying Kv3.4 or Kv4.3 immunoreactivity contained transient components while Kv2.1 immunoreactive cells were characterized by delayed currents. The distribution of the K(+)-channels containing neurons suggests specific roles in intercellular signaling processes in the Helix CNS, most probably related to well-defined, partly local events. The cellular localization of the K(+)-channels studied supports their involvement in both pre- and postsynaptic events at perikaryonal and axonal levels. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. THE LOCAL [C ii] 158 μ m EMISSION LINE LUMINOSITY FUNCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Yan, Lin; Capak, Peter; Faisst, Andreas; Masters, Daniel [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena CA 91125 (United States); Diaz-Santos, Tanio [Nucleo de Astronomia de la Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Armus, Lee, E-mail: shemmati@ipac.caltech.edu [Spitzer Science Center, Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We present, for the first time, the local [C ii] 158 μ m emission line luminosity function measured using a sample of more than 500 galaxies from the Revised Bright Galaxy Sample. [C ii] luminosities are measured from the Herschel PACS observations of the Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey and estimated for the rest of the sample based on the far-infrared (far-IR) luminosity and color. The sample covers 91.3% of the sky and is complete at S{sub 60μm} > 5.24 Jy. We calculate the completeness as a function of [C ii] line luminosity and distance, based on the far-IR color and flux densities. The [C ii] luminosity function is constrained in the range ∼10{sup 7–9} L{sub ⊙} from both the 1/ V{sub max} and a maximum likelihood methods. The shape of our derived [C ii] emission line luminosity function agrees well with the IR luminosity function. For the CO(1-0) and [C ii] luminosity functions to agree, we propose a varying ratio of [C ii]/CO(1-0) as a function of CO luminosity, with larger ratios for fainter CO luminosities. Limited [C ii] high-redshift observations as well as estimates based on the IR and UV luminosity functions are suggestive of an evolution in the [C ii] luminosity function similar to the evolution trend of the cosmic star formation rate density. Deep surveys using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array with full capability will be able to confirm this prediction.

  1. D-Ribulose 5-Phosphate 3-Epimerase: Functional and Structural Relationships to Members of the Ribulose-Phosphate Binding (beta/alpha)8-Barrel Superfamily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akana, J.; Federov, A.; Federov, E.; Novak, W.; Babbitt, P.; Almo, S.; Gerlt, J.

    2006-01-01

    The 'ribulose phosphate binding' superfamily defined by the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database is considered the result of divergent evolution from a common (β/α) 8 -barrel ancestor. The superfamily includes D-ribulose 5-phosphate 3-epimerase (RPE), orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC), and 3-keto-L-gulonate 6-phosphate decarboxylase (KGPDC), members of the OMPDC suprafamily, as well as enzymes involved in histidine and tryptophan biosynthesis that utilize phosphorylated metabolites as substrates. We now report studies of the functional and structural relationships of RPE to the members of the superfamily. As suggested by the results of crystallographic studies of the RPEs from rice and Plasmodium falciparum, the RPE from Streptococcus pyogenes is activated by Zn 2+ which binds with a stoichiometry of one ion per polypeptide. Although wild type RPE has a high affinity for Zn 2+ and inactive apoenzyme cannot be prepared, the affinity for Zn 2+ is decreased by alanine substitutions for the two histidine residues that coordinate the Zn 2+ ion (H34A and H67A); these mutant proteins can be prepared in an inactive, metal-free form and activated by exogenous Zn 2+ . The crystal structure of the RPE was solved at 1.8 Angstroms resolution in the presence of D-xylitol 5-phosphate, an inert analogue of the D-xylulose 5-phosphate substrate. This structure suggests that the 2,3-enediolate intermediate in the 1,1-proton transfer reaction is stabilized by bidentate coordination to the Zn 2+ that also is liganded to His 34, Asp 36, His 67, and Asp 176; the carboxylate groups of the Asp residues are positioned also to function as the acid/base catalysts. Although the conformation of the bound analogue resembles those of ligands bound in the active sites of OMPDC and KGPDC, the identities of the active site residues that coordinate the essential Zn 2+ and participate as acid/base catalysts are not conserved. We conclude that only the phosphate

  2. Physical functioning over three years in knee osteoarthritis: role of psychosocial, local mechanical, and neuromuscular factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Leena; Cahue, September; Song, Jing; Hayes, Karen; Pai, Yi-Chung; Dunlop, Dorothy

    2003-12-01

    To identify factors that predict a poor physical function outcome over 3 years in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA), in an effort to aid in the development of strategies to prevent such functional limitations and consequential disability. Community-recruited individuals with knee OA underwent baseline, 18-month, and 3-year assessments of candidate risk factors and physical function. Risk factors were age, body mass index (BMI), knee pain intensity (on a visual analog scale [VAS]), local mechanical and neuromuscular factors (varus-valgus laxity, malalignment, proprioceptive inaccuracy, quadriceps strength, hamstring strength), activity level (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, amount of aerobic exercise), and psychosocial factors (Short-Form 36 [SF-36] mental health and role-functioning emotional subscales, self-efficacy using the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale physical function subscale, and social support using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey). Outcome was assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) physical function scale and rate of chair-stand performance. Participants were grouped by quintile of baseline WOMAC score. The baseline to 3-year outcome was considered "good" when function improved by 1 or more quintiles or remained within the 2 highest function groups, and was considered "poor" when function declined by 1 or more quintiles or remained within the 3 lowest function groups. The same approach was taken for chair-stand outcome. Logistic regression was used to evaluate both the baseline level and the baseline to 18-month change in each factor as a predictor of physical function outcome over 3 years, adjusting for age, BMI, knee pain intensity, disease severity, and additional potential confounders. Factors that significantly increased the likelihood of a poor WOMAC outcome were baseline laxity (crude odds ratio [OR] 1.48/3 degrees, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.02-2.14), BMI

  3. Gene Tagging Strategies To Assess Protein Expression, Localization, and Function in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanca, Oguz; Bellen, Hugo J.; Schnorrer, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of gene function in complex organisms relies extensively on tools to detect the cellular and subcellular localization of gene products, especially proteins. Typically, immunostaining with antibodies provides these data. However, due to cost, time, and labor limitations, generating specific antibodies against all proteins of a complex organism is not feasible. Furthermore, antibodies do not enable live imaging studies of protein dynamics. Hence, tagging genes with standardized immunoepitopes or fluorescent tags that permit live imaging has become popular. Importantly, tagging genes present in large genomic clones or at their endogenous locus often reports proper expression, subcellular localization, and dynamics of the encoded protein. Moreover, these tagging approaches allow the generation of elegant protein removal strategies, standardization of visualization protocols, and permit protein interaction studies using mass spectrometry. Here, we summarize available genomic resources and techniques to tag genes and discuss relevant applications that are rarely, if at all, possible with antibodies. PMID:28978772

  4. Structure-function relationship of a plant NCS1 member--homology modeling and mutagenesis identified residues critical for substrate specificity of PLUTO, a nucleobase transporter from Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Witz

    Full Text Available Plastidic uracil salvage is essential for plant growth and development. So far, PLUTO, the plastidic nucleobase transporter from Arabidopsis thaliana is the only known uracil importer at the inner plastidic membrane which represents the permeability barrier of this organelle. We present the first homology model of PLUTO, the sole plant NCS1 member from Arabidopsis based on the crystal structure of the benzyl hydantoin transporter MHP1 from Microbacterium liquefaciens and validated by molecular dynamics simulations. Polar side chains of residues Glu-227 and backbones of Val-145, Gly-147 and Thr-425 are proposed to form the binding site for the three PLUTO substrates uracil, adenine and guanine. Mutational analysis and competition studies identified Glu-227 as an important residue for uracil and to a lesser extent for guanine transport. A differential response in substrate transport was apparent with PLUTO double mutants E227Q G147Q and E227Q T425A, both of which most strongly affected adenine transport, and in V145A G147Q, which markedly affected guanine transport. These differences could be explained by docking studies, showing that uracil and guanine exhibit a similar binding mode whereas adenine binds deep into the catalytic pocket of PLUTO. Furthermore, competition studies confirmed these results. The present study defines the molecular determinants for PLUTO substrate binding and demonstrates key differences in structure-function relations between PLUTO and other NCS1 family members.

  5. Structure-function relationship of a plant NCS1 member--homology modeling and mutagenesis identified residues critical for substrate specificity of PLUTO, a nucleobase transporter from Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witz, Sandra; Panwar, Pankaj; Schober, Markus; Deppe, Johannes; Pasha, Farhan Ahmad; Lemieux, M Joanne; Möhlmann, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Plastidic uracil salvage is essential for plant growth and development. So far, PLUTO, the plastidic nucleobase transporter from Arabidopsis thaliana is the only known uracil importer at the inner plastidic membrane which represents the permeability barrier of this organelle. We present the first homology model of PLUTO, the sole plant NCS1 member from Arabidopsis based on the crystal structure of the benzyl hydantoin transporter MHP1 from Microbacterium liquefaciens and validated by molecular dynamics simulations. Polar side chains of residues Glu-227 and backbones of Val-145, Gly-147 and Thr-425 are proposed to form the binding site for the three PLUTO substrates uracil, adenine and guanine. Mutational analysis and competition studies identified Glu-227 as an important residue for uracil and to a lesser extent for guanine transport. A differential response in substrate transport was apparent with PLUTO double mutants E227Q G147Q and E227Q T425A, both of which most strongly affected adenine transport, and in V145A G147Q, which markedly affected guanine transport. These differences could be explained by docking studies, showing that uracil and guanine exhibit a similar binding mode whereas adenine binds deep into the catalytic pocket of PLUTO. Furthermore, competition studies confirmed these results. The present study defines the molecular determinants for PLUTO substrate binding and demonstrates key differences in structure-function relations between PLUTO and other NCS1 family members.

  6. Structure-Function Relationship of a Plant NCS1 Member – Homology Modeling and Mutagenesis Identified Residues Critical for Substrate Specificity of PLUTO, a Nucleobase Transporter from Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witz, Sandra; Panwar, Pankaj; Schober, Markus; Deppe, Johannes; Pasha, Farhan Ahmad; Lemieux, M. Joanne; Möhlmann, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Plastidic uracil salvage is essential for plant growth and development. So far, PLUTO, the plastidic nucleobase transporter from Arabidopsis thaliana is the only known uracil importer at the inner plastidic membrane which represents the permeability barrier of this organelle. We present the first homology model of PLUTO, the sole plant NCS1 member from Arabidopsis based on the crystal structure of the benzyl hydantoin transporter MHP1 from Microbacterium liquefaciens and validated by molecular dynamics simulations. Polar side chains of residues Glu-227 and backbones of Val-145, Gly-147 and Thr-425 are proposed to form the binding site for the three PLUTO substrates uracil, adenine and guanine. Mutational analysis and competition studies identified Glu-227 as an important residue for uracil and to a lesser extent for guanine transport. A differential response in substrate transport was apparent with PLUTO double mutants E227Q G147Q and E227Q T425A, both of which most strongly affected adenine transport, and in V145A G147Q, which markedly affected guanine transport. These differences could be explained by docking studies, showing that uracil and guanine exhibit a similar binding mode whereas adenine binds deep into the catalytic pocket of PLUTO. Furthermore, competition studies confirmed these results. The present study defines the molecular determinants for PLUTO substrate binding and demonstrates key differences in structure-function relations between PLUTO and other NCS1 family members. PMID:24621654

  7. Structure-function relationship of a plant NCS1 member - Homology modeling and mutagenesis identified residues critical for substrate specificity of PLUTO, a nucleobase transporter from arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Witz, Sandra

    2014-03-12

    Plastidic uracil salvage is essential for plant growth and development. So far, PLUTO, the plastidic nucleobase transporter from Arabidopsis thaliana is the only known uracil importer at the inner plastidic membrane which represents the permeability barrier of this organelle. We present the first homology model of PLUTO, the sole plant NCS1 member from Arabidopsis based on the crystal structure of the benzyl hydantoin transporter MHP1 from Microbacterium liquefaciens and validated by molecular dynamics simulations. Polar side chains of residues Glu-227 and backbones of Val-145, Gly-147 and Thr-425 are proposed to form the binding site for the three PLUTO substrates uracil, adenine and guanine. Mutational analysis and competition studies identified Glu-227 as an important residue for uracil and to a lesser extent for guanine transport. A differential response in substrate transport was apparent with PLUTO double mutants E227Q G147Q and E227Q T425A, both of which most strongly affected adenine transport, and in V145A G147Q, which markedly affected guanine transport. These differences could be explained by docking studies, showing that uracil and guanine exhibit a similar binding mode whereas adenine binds deep into the catalytic pocket of PLUTO. Furthermore, competition studies confirmed these results. The present study defines the molecular determinants for PLUTO substrate binding and demonstrates key differences in structure-function relations between PLUTO and other NCS1 family members. 2014 Witz et al.

  8. A functional nuclear localization sequence in the C. elegans TRPV channel OCR-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith J Ezak

    Full Text Available The ability to modulate gene expression in response to sensory experience is critical to the normal development and function of the nervous system. Calcium is a key activator of the signal transduction cascades that mediate the process of translating a cellular stimulus into transcriptional changes. With the recent discovery that the mammalian Ca(v1.2 calcium channel can be cleaved, enter the nucleus and act as a transcription factor to control neuronal gene expression, a more direct role for the calcium channels themselves in regulating transcription has begun to be appreciated. Here we report the identification of a nuclear localization sequence (NLS in the C. elegans transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV cation channel OCR-2. TRPV channels have previously been implicated in transcriptional regulation of neuronal genes in the nematode, although the precise mechanism remains unclear. We show that the NLS in OCR-2 is functional, being able to direct nuclear accumulation of a synthetic cargo protein as well as the carboxy-terminal cytosolic tail of OCR-2 where it is endogenously found. Furthermore, we discovered that a carboxy-terminal portion of the full-length channel can localize to the nucleus of neuronal cells. These results suggest that the OCR-2 TRPV cation channel may have a direct nuclear function in neuronal cells that was not previously appreciated.

  9. Meta-analysis of rates of erectile function after treatment of localized prostate carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, John W.; Moritz, Sabine; Fung, Tak

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The results of a 1997 meta-analysis of the rates of erectile function after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and radical prostatectomy have been widely used in patient and professional education materials and as a reference against which new findings are compared. With a number of recent publications, it is now possible to update this analysis and compare brachytherapy with or without EBRT with EBRT alone, standard and nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy, and cryotherapy. Methods: A comprehensive literature review and subsequent meta-analysis of the rates of erectile dysfunction associated with the treatments of localized prostate carcinoma was conducted. A simple logistic regression analysis was used to combine the data from the 54 articles that met the selection criteria. Results: The predicted probability of maintaining erectile function after brachytherapy was 0.76, after brachytherapy plus EBRT 0.60, after EBRT 0.55, after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy 0.34, after standard radical prostatectomy 0.25, and after cryotherapy 0.13. When only studies reporting ≥2 years follow-up were considered, the only significant change was a decline in the probability for nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy. No brachytherapy studies had a follow-up of ≥2 years. When the probabilities were adjusted for age, the spread between the RT methods and surgical approaches was greater. Conclusion: The differences in the probability of maintaining erectile function after different treatments of localized prostate cancer are significant

  10. Making assessment locally relevant: measuring functioning for maternal depression in Khayelitsha, Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Emily; Davies, Thandi; Bass, Judith; Lund, Crick

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We developed a locally relevant functioning assessment instrument (FAI) for pregnant women and mothers of young babies to complement a widely validated instrument—the World Health Organization’s Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) 12-item version. The FAI is an outcome measure in a randomised controlled trial on the effectiveness of a lay counsellor administered intervention for distressed pregnant women in Khayelitsha, Cape Town. Methods Nine items most commonly reported by 40 pregnant women or mothers with young babies in qualitative interviews were selected for the instrument, with a 10th item ‘Other’. The FAI was validated with 142 pregnant women and mothers in Khayelitsha. Analysis was conducted to assess internal reliability, exploratory factor analysis and convergent validity. Results The FAI had good internal reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.77) and the explanatory factor analysis showed a clear 3-factor solution, relating to domestic, childcare and social activities. The FAI scores showed floor effects, but were positively correlated with the two measures of functioning (WHODAS 2.0 and Washington Group Short Set). The FAI scores also correlated with the measure of depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale—EPDS), reflecting increased functional limitations associated with increased depressive symptoms. Conclusion The results show that the FAI has good internal reliability, and good convergent and construct validity as a measure of functioning for this context. This paper reports on the process of developing an instrument and highlights the importance of using instruments that are locally relevant to ensure accurate measurement of functional status. PMID:25567235

  11. Foundations of complex analysis in non locally convex spaces function theory without convexity condition

    CERN Document Server

    Bayoumi, A

    2003-01-01

    All the existing books in Infinite Dimensional Complex Analysis focus on the problems of locally convex spaces. However, the theory without convexity condition is covered for the first time in this book. This shows that we are really working with a new, important and interesting field. Theory of functions and nonlinear analysis problems are widespread in the mathematical modeling of real world systems in a very broad range of applications. During the past three decades many new results from the author have helped to solve multiextreme problems arising from important situations, non-convex and

  12. G W self-screening error and its correction using a local density functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, J.; Hodgson, M. J. P.; Godby, R. W.

    2018-03-01

    The self-screening error in electronic structure theory is the part of the self-interaction error that would remain within the G W approximation if the exact dynamically screened Coulomb interaction W were used, causing each electron to artificially screen its own presence. This introduces error into the electron density and ionization potential. We propose a simple, computationally efficient correction to G W calculations in the form of a local density functional, obtained using a series of finite training systems; in tests, this eliminates the self-screening errors in the electron density and ionization potential.

  13. Harmonic averages, exact difference schemes and local Green’s functions in variable coefficient PDE problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe; Karátson, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 8 (2013), s. 1441-1457 ISSN 1895-1074 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0070 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : variable coefficients * harmonic averages * singular perturbation * local Green´s functions * exact difference schemes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.519, year: 2013 http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/594/art%253A10.2478%252Fs11533-013-0257-1.pdf?auth66=1381396697_42d4595f22831b36eb7a6425afad6c5d&ext=.pdf

  14. Decoding Pigeon Behavior Outcomes Using Functional Connections among Local Field Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Liu, Xinyu; Li, Shan; Wan, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the local field potential (LFP) carries information about an animal's behavior, but issues regarding whether there are any relationships between the LFP functional networks and behavior tasks as well as whether it is possible to employ LFP network features to decode the behavioral outcome in a single trial remain unresolved. In this study, we developed a network-based method to decode the behavioral outcomes in pigeons by using the functional connectivity strength values among LFPs recorded from the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL). In our method, the functional connectivity strengths were first computed based on the synchronization likelihood. Second, the strength values were unwrapped into row vectors and their dimensions were then reduced by principal component analysis. Finally, the behavioral outcomes in single trials were decoded using leave-one-out combined with the k -nearest neighbor method. The results showed that the LFP functional network based on the gamma-band was related to the goal-directed behavior of pigeons. Moreover, the accuracy of the network features (74 ± 8%) was significantly higher than that of the power features (61 ± 12%). The proposed method provides a powerful tool for decoding animal behavior outcomes using a neural functional network.

  15. Kinetics and functional diversity among the five members of the NADP-malic enzyme family from Zea mays, a C4 species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Clarisa E; Saigo, Mariana; Margarit, Ezequiel; Andreo, Carlos S; Drincovich, María F

    2013-05-01

    NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) is involved in different metabolic pathways in several organisms due to the relevant physiological functions of the substrates and products of its reaction. In plants, it is one of the most important proteins that were recruited to fulfil key roles in C4 photosynthesis. Recent advances in genomics allowed the characterization of the complete set of NADP-ME genes from some C3 species, as Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa; however, the characterization of the complete NADP-ME family from a C4 species has not been performed yet. In this study, while taking advantage of the complete Zea mays genome sequence recently released, the characterization of the whole NADP-ME family is presented. The maize NADP-ME family is composed of five genes, two encoding plastidic NADP-MEs (ZmC4- and ZmnonC4-NADP-ME), and three cytosolic enzymes (Zmcyt1-, Zmcyt2-, and Zmcyt3-NADP-ME). The results presented clearly show that each maize NADP-ME displays particular organ distribution, response to stress stimuli, and differential biochemical properties. Phylogenetic footprinting studies performed with the NADP-MEs from several grasses, indicate that four members of the maize NADP-ME family share conserved transcription factor binding motifs with their orthologs, indicating conserved physiological functions for these genes in monocots. Based on the results obtained in this study, and considering the biochemical plasticity shown by the NADP-ME, it is discussed the relevance of the presence of a multigene family, in which each member encodes an isoform with particular biochemical properties, in the evolution of the C4 NADP-ME, improved to fulfil the requirements for an efficient C4 mechanism.

  16. The bHLH factors Dpn and members of the E(spl complex mediate the function of Notch signalling regulating cell proliferation during wing disc development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz P. San Juan

    2012-05-01

    The Notch signalling pathway plays an essential role in the intricate control of cell proliferation and pattern formation in many organs during animal development. In addition, mutations in most members of this pathway are well characterized and frequently lead to tumour formation. The Drosophila imaginal wing discs have provided a suitable model system for the genetic and molecular analysis of the different pathway functions. During disc development, Notch signalling at the presumptive wing margin is necessary for the restricted activation of genes required for pattern formation control and disc proliferation. Interestingly, in different cellular contexts within the wing disc, Notch can either promote cell proliferation or can block the G1-S transition by negatively regulating the expression of dmyc and bantam micro RNA. The target genes of Notch signalling that are required for these functions have not been identified. Here, we show that the Hes vertebrate homolog, deadpan (dpn, and the Enhancer-of-split complex (E(splC genes act redundantly and cooperatively to mediate the Notch signalling function regulating cell proliferation during wing disc development.

  17. Method of local pointed function reduction of original shape in Fourier transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, H.; Slavyanov, S.Yu.

    2002-01-01

    The method for analytical reduction of the original shape in the one-dimensional Fourier transformation by the fourier image modulus is proposed. The basic concept of the method consists in the presentation of the model shape in the form of the local peak functions sum. The eigenfunctions, generated by the linear differential equations with the polynomial coefficients, are selected as the latter ones. This provides for the possibility of managing the Fourier transformation without numerical integration. This reduces the reverse task to the nonlinear regression with a small number of the evaluated parameters and to the numerical or asymptotic study on the model peak functions - the eigenfunctions of the differential tasks and their fourier images [ru

  18. Functional mapping of cell surface proteins with localized stimulation of single cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bingyun; Chiu, Daniel T.

    2003-11-01

    This paper describes the development of using individual micro and nano meter-sized vesicles as delivery vessels to functionally map the distribution of cell surface proteins at the level of single cells. The formation of different sizes of vesicles from tens of nanometers to a few micrometers in diameter that contain the desired molecules is addressed. An optical trap is used to manipulate the loaded vesicle to specific cell morphology of interest, and a pulsed UV laser is used to photo-release the stimuli onto the cell membrane. Carbachol activated cellular calcium flux, upon binding to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, is studied by this method, and the potential of using this method for the functional mapping of localized proteins on the cell surface membrane is discussed.

  19. Functionalization of Planet-Satellite Nanostructures Revealed by Nanoscopic Localization of Distinct Macromolecular Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossner, Christian; Roddatis, Vladimir; Lopatin, Sergei; Vana, Philipp

    2016-11-01

    The development of a straightforward method is reported to form hybrid polymer/gold planet-satellite nanostructures (PlSNs) with functional polymer. Polyacrylate type polymer with benzyl chloride in its backbone as a macromolecular tracer is synthesized to study its localization within PlSNs by analyzing the elemental distribution of chlorine. The functionalized nanohybrid structures are analyzed by scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and spectrum imaging. The results show that the RAFT (reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer) polymers' sulfur containing end groups are colocalized at the gold cores, both within nanohybrids of simple core-shell morphology and within higher order PlSNs, providing microscopic evidence for the affinity of the RAFT group toward gold surfaces. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Functionalization of Planet-Satellite Nanostructures Revealed by Nanoscopic Localization of Distinct Macromolecular Species

    KAUST Repository

    Rossner, Christian

    2016-09-26

    The development of a straightforward method is reported to form hybrid polymer/gold planet-satellite nanostructures (PlSNs) with functional polymer. Polyacrylate type polymer with benzyl chloride in its backbone as a macromolecular tracer is synthesized to study its localization within PlSNs by analyzing the elemental distribution of chlorine. The functionalized nanohybrid structures are analyzed by scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and spectrum imaging. The results show that the RAFT (reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer) polymers\\' sulfur containing end groups are colocalized at the gold cores, both within nanohybrids of simple core-shell morphology and within higher order PlSNs, providing microscopic evidence for the affinity of the RAFT group toward gold surfaces. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA., Weinheim.

  1. Violence against women in intimate relationships: explanations and suggestions for interventions as perceived by healthcare workers, local leaders, and trusted community members in a northern district of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonzon, Robert; Vung, Nguyen Dang; Ringsberg, Karin C; Krantz, Gunilla

    2007-01-01

    This study explored professionals' and trusted community inhabitants' explanations of the violence between intimate partners and their suggestions for preventive activities. It was performed in a rural district in northern Vietnam. A total of 20 men and 20 women were strategically selected for focus-group discussions and the analyses followed the procedure for qualitative thematic content analysis. It was pointed out that violence against women was not discussed openly in the community and women subjected to violence kept silent and avoided seeking help in order not to reveal what was happening in the family. The informants perceived the violence as an interplay between individual and family-related factors and sociocultural norms and practices where Confucian ideology exerted a strong influence. When it came to prevention, there was a strong belief in educating the people and in enforcing policy and law. As described by the informants, traditional attitudes to gender roles and women's power disadvantage are found to be behind most of the explanations for intimate partner violence. Collaboration between sectors at local level, between the health sector and other bodies, and with community leaders as spokesmen would help to improve openness and reduce society's tolerance of violence against women. The mass media also have an important role to play.

  2. Effects of local anesthesia with bupivacaine plus epinephrine on blepharoptosis and levator palpebrae muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghai, Gholam Hoseyn; Vazirnia, Maryam; Poormatin, Rama; Falavarjani, Khalil Ghasemi

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of local anesthesia with bupivacaine plus epinephrine on the extent of blepharoptosis and levator palpebrae muscle function. : In this prospective interventional case series, patients with blepharoptosis who were candidates for aponeurotic surgery were included. After initial preparations in the operating room, a total of 1 ml of a mixture of bupivacaine 0.5% plus epinephrine 1:100,000 were injected into the upper eyelid. The margin reflex distance 1 (MRD1) and the extent of levator muscle function were measured before and 2, 5, 10, and 15 minutes after injection. A total of 36 eyes including 21 men (58.3%) and 15 women (41.7%) with an average age of 41.81 ± 23.09 (17-83 years) were studied. There were 21 eyes with myogenic and 15 eyes with aponeurotic blepharoptosis. The mean MRD1 was 1.18 ± 1.06 mm before injection and -0.02 ± 0.85, 0.52 ± 0.98, 0.98 ± 1.05, and 1.02 ± 1.06 mm at 2, 5, 10, and 15 minutes after injections, respectively. The changes in the MRD1 measurements were statistically significant at all time points. The MRD1 values decreased during the first 2 minutes after injection in 88.8% of eyes, but returned to initial value after 15 minutes in 84.3%. The change in the levator muscle function measurements was statistically significant at 2 and 5 minutes after injections; however, the differences were clinically negligible. : The local anesthesia of the eyelid with 1 ml bupivacaine plus epinephrine causes a temporary increase of blepharoptosis within the first few minutes with minimal effect on levator muscle function measurements.

  3. Phenotype, effector function, and tissue localization of PD-1-expressing human follicular helper T cell subsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillsamer Peter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that PD-1 is expressed by follicular T cells but its function in regulation of human T helper cells has been unclear. We investigated the expression modality and function of PD-1 expressed by human T cells specialized in helping B cells. Results We found that PD-1-expressing T cells are heterogeneous in PD-1 expression. We identified three different PD-1-expressing memory T cell subsets (i.e. PD-1low (+, PD-1medium (++, and PD-1high (+++ cells. PD-1+++ T cells expressed CXCR5 and CXCR4 and were localized in the rim of germinal centers. PD-1+ or PD-1++ cells expressed CCR7 and were present mainly in the T cell area or other parts of the B cell follicles. Utilizing a novel antigen density-dependent magnetic sorting (ADD-MS method, we isolated the three T cell subsets for functional characterization. The germinal center-located PD-1+++ T cells were most efficient in helping B cells and in producing IL-21 and CXCL13. Other PD-1-expressing T cells, enriched with Th1 and Th17 cells, were less efficient than PD-1+++ T cells in these capacities. PD-1+++ T cells highly expressed Ki-67 and therefore appear active in cell activation and proliferation in vivo. IL-2 is a cytokine important for proliferation and survival of the PD-1+++ T cells. In contrast, IL-21, while a major effector cytokine produced by the PD-1-expressing T helper cells, had no function in generation, survival, or proliferation of the PD-1-expressing helper T cells at least in vitro. PD-1 triggering has a suppressive effect on the proliferation and B cell-helping function of PD-1+++ germinal center T cells. Conclusion Our results revealed the phenotype and effector function of PD-1-expressing T helper cell subsets and indicate that PD-1 restrains the B cell-helping function of germinal center-localized T cells to prevent excessive antibody response.

  4. Probing Local Ionic Dynamics in Functional Oxides: From Nanometer to Atomic Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, Sergei

    2014-03-01

    Vacancy-mediated electrochemical reactions in oxides underpin multiple applications ranging from electroresistive memories, to chemical sensors to energy conversion systems such as fuel cells. Understanding the functionality in these systems requires probing reversible (oxygen reduction/evolution reaction) and irreversible (cathode degradation and activation, formation of conductive filaments) electrochemical processes. In this talk, I summarize recent advances in probing and controlling these transformations locally on nanometer level using scanning probe microscopy. The localized tip concentrates the electric field in the nanometer scale volume of material, inducing local transition. Measured simultaneously electromechanical response (piezoresponse) or current (conductive AFM) provides the information on the bias-induced changes in material. Here, I illustrate how these methods can be extended to study local electrochemical transformations, including vacancy dynamics in oxides such as titanates, LaxSr1-xCoO3, BiFeO3, and YxZr1-xO2. The formation of electromechanical hysteresis loops and their bias-, temperature- and environment dependences provide insight into local electrochemical mechanisms. In materials such as lanthanum-strontium cobaltite, mapping both reversible vacancy motion and vacancy ordering and static deformation is possible, and can be corroborated by post mortem STEM/EELS studies. In ceria, a broad gamut of electrochemical behaviors is observed as a function of temperature and humidity. The possible strategies for elucidation ionic motion at the electroactive interfaces in oxides using high-resolution electron microscopy and combined ex-situ and in-situ STEM-SPM studies are discussed. In the second part of the talk, probing electrochemical phenomena on in-situ grown surfaces with atomic resolution is illustrated. I present an approach based on the multivariate statistical analysis of the coordination spheres of individual atoms to reveal

  5. The Subcellular Localization and Functional Analysis of Fibrillarin2, a Nucleolar Protein in Nicotiana benthamiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luping Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleolar proteins play important roles in plant cytology, growth, and development. Fibrillarin2 is a nucleolar protein of Nicotiana benthamiana (N. benthamiana. Its cDNA was amplified by RT-PCR and inserted into expression vector pEarley101 labeled with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP. The fusion protein was localized in the nucleolus and Cajal body of leaf epidermal cells of N. benthamiana. The N. benthamiana fibrillarin2 (NbFib2 protein has three functional domains (i.e., glycine and arginine rich domain, RNA-binding domain, and α-helical domain and a nuclear localization signal (NLS in C-terminal. The protein 3D structure analysis predicted that NbFib2 is an α/β protein. In addition, the virus induced gene silencing (VIGS approach was used to determine the function of NbFib2. Our results showed that symptoms including growth retardation, organ deformation, chlorosis, and necrosis appeared in NbFib2-silenced N. benthamiana.

  6. Hybrid local piezoelectric and conductive functions for high performance airborne sound absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimabady, Mojtaba; Statharas, Eleftherios Christos; Yao, Kui; Sharifzadeh Mirshekarloo, Meysam; Chen, Shuting; Tay, Francis Eng Hock

    2017-12-01

    A concept of hybrid local piezoelectric and electrical conductive functions for improving airborne sound absorption is proposed and demonstrated in composite foam made of porous polar polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) mixed with conductive single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT). According to our hybrid material function design, the local piezoelectric effect in the PVDF matrix with the polar structure and the electrical resistive loss of SWCNT enhanced sound energy conversion to electrical energy and subsequently to thermal energy, respectively, in addition to the other known sound absorption mechanisms in a porous material. It is found that the overall energy conversion and hence the sound absorption performance are maximized when the concentration of the SWCNT is around the conductivity percolation threshold. For the optimal composition of PVDF/5 wt. % SWCNT, a sound reduction coefficient of larger than 0.58 has been obtained, with a high sound absorption coefficient higher than 50% at 600 Hz, showing their great values for passive noise mitigation even at a low frequency.

  7. Abstract structure of partial function $*$-algebras over semi-direct product of locally compact groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Ghaani Farashahi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a unified approach to the abstract notions of partial convolution and involution in $L^p$-function spaces over semi-direct product of locally compact groups. Let $H$ and $K$ be locally compact groups and $tau:Hto Aut(K$ be a continuous homomorphism.  Let $G_tau=Hltimes_tau K$ be the semi-direct product of $H$ and $K$ with respect to $tau$. We define left and right $tau$-convolution on $L^1(G_tau$ and we show that, with respect to each of them, the function space $L^1(G_tau$ is a Banach algebra. We define $tau$-convolution as a linear combination of the left and right $tau$-convolution and we show that the $tau$-convolution is commutative if and only if $K$ is abelian. We prove that there is a $tau$-involution on $L^1(G_tau$ such that with respect to the $tau$-involution and $tau$-convolution, $L^1(G_tau$ is a non-associative Banach $*$-algebra. It is also shown that when $K$ is abelian, the $tau$-involution and $tau$-convolution make $L^1(G_tau$ into a Jordan Banach $*$-algebra. Finally, we also present the generalized notation of $tau$-convolution for other $L^p$-spaces with $p>1$.

  8. Functional localization and effective connectivity of cortical theta and alpha oscillatory activity during an attention task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Kitaura

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this paper is to investigate cortical electric neuronal activity as an indicator of brain function, in a mental arithmetic task that requires sustained attention, as compared to the resting state condition. The two questions of interest are the cortical localization of different oscillatory activities, and the directional effective flow of oscillatory activity between regions of interest, in the task condition compared to resting state. In particular, theta and alpha activity are of interest here, due to their important role in attention processing. Methods: We adapted mental arithmetic as an attention ask in this study. Eyes closed 61-channel EEG was recorded in 14 participants during resting and in a mental arithmetic task (“serial sevens subtraction”. Functional localization and connectivity analyses were based on cortical signals of electric neuronal activity estimated with sLORETA (standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography. Functional localization was based on the comparison of the cortical distributions of the generators of oscillatory activity between task and resting conditions. Assessment of effective connectivity was based on the iCoh (isolated effective coherence method, which provides an appropriate frequency decomposition of the directional flow of oscillatory activity between brain regions. Nine regions of interest comprising nodes from the dorsal and ventral attention networks were selected for the connectivity analysis. Results: Cortical spectral density distribution comparing task minus rest showed significant activity increase in medial prefrontal areas and decreased activity in left parietal lobe for the theta band, and decreased activity in parietal-occipital regions for the alpha1 band. At a global level, connections among right hemispheric nodes were predominantly decreased during the task condition, while connections among left hemispheric nodes were predominantly increased. At more

  9. Using radial basis functions in airborne gravimetry for local geoid improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaopeng

    2017-10-01

    Radial basis functions (RBFs) have been used extensively in satellite geodetic applications. However, to the author's knowledge, their role in processing and modeling airborne gravity data has not yet been fully advocated or extensively investigated in detail. Compared with satellite missions, the airborne data are more suitable for these kinds of localized basis functions especially considering the following facts: (1) Unlike the satellite missions that can provide global or near global data coverage, airborne gravity data are usually geographically limited. (2) It is also band limited in the frequency domain. (3) It is straightforward to formulate the RBF observation equations from an airborne gravimetric system. In this study, a set of band-limited RBF is developed to model and downward continue the airborne gravity data for local geoid improvement. First, EIGEN6c4 coefficients are used to simulate a harmonic field to test the performances of RBF on various sampling, noise, and flight height levels, in order to gain certain guidelines for processing the real data. Here, the RBF method not only successfully recovers the harmonic field but also presents filtering properties due to its particular design in the frequency domain. Next, the software was tested for the GSVS14 (Geoid Slope Validation Survey 2014) area in Iowa as well as for the area around Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands by use of the real airborne gravity data from the Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D) project. By fully utilizing the three-dimensional correlation information among the flight tracks, the RBF can also be used as a data cleaning tool for airborne gravity data adjustment and cleaning. This property is further extended to surface gravity data cleaning, where conventional approaches have various limitations. All the related numerical results clearly show the importance and contribution of the use of the RBF for high- resolution local gravity field

  10. Modelling stream-fish functional traits in reference conditions: regional and local environmental correlates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M Oliveira

    Full Text Available Identifying the environmental gradients that control the functional structure of biological assemblages in reference conditions is fundamental to help river management and predict the consequences of anthropogenic stressors. Fish metrics (density of ecological guilds, and species richness from 117 least disturbed stream reaches in several western Iberia river basins were modelled with generalized linear models in order to investigate the importance of regional- and local-scale abiotic gradients to variation in functional structure of fish assemblages. Functional patterns were primarily associated with regional features, such as catchment elevation and slope, rainfall, and drainage area. Spatial variations of fish guilds were thus associated with broad geographic gradients, showing (1 pronounced latitudinal patterns, affected mainly by climatic factors and topography, or (2 at the basin level, strong upstream-downstream patterns related to stream position in the longitudinal gradient. Maximum native species richness was observed in midsize streams in accordance with the river continuum concept. The findings of our study emphasized the need to use a multi-scale approach in order to fully assess the factors that govern the functional organization of biotic assemblages in 'natural' streams, as well as to improve biomonitoring and restoration of fluvial ecosystems.

  11. The infrared luminosity function of AKARI 90 μm galaxies in the local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilerci Eser, Ece; Goto, Tomotsugu

    2018-03-01

    Local infrared (IR) luminosity functions (LFs) are necessary benchmarks for high-redshift IR galaxy evolution studies. Any accurate IR LF evolution studies require accordingly accurate local IR LFs. We present IR galaxy LFs at redshifts of z ≤ 0.3 from AKARI space telescope, which performed an all-sky survey in six IR bands (9, 18, 65, 90, 140, and 160 μm) with 10 times better sensitivity than its precursor Infrared Astronomical Satellite. Availability of 160 μm filter is critically important in accurately measuring total IR luminosity of galaxies, covering across the peak of the dust emission. By combining data from Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 13 (DR 13), six-degree Field Galaxy Survey and the 2MASS Redshift Survey, we created a sample of 15 638 local IR galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts, factor of 7 larger compared to previously studied AKARI-SDSS sample. After carefully correcting for volume effects in both IR and optical, the obtained IR LFs agree well with previous studies, but comes with much smaller errors. Measured local IR luminosity density is ΩIR = 1.19 ± 0.05 × 108L⊙ Mpc-3. The contributions from luminous IR galaxies and ultraluminous IR galaxies to ΩIR are very small, 9.3 per cent and 0.9 per cent, respectively. There exists no future all-sky survey in far-IR wavelengths in the foreseeable future. The IR LFs obtained in this work will therefore remain an important benchmark for high-redshift studies for decades.

  12. D-Ribulose 5-Phosphate 3-Epimerase: Functional and Structural Relationships to Members of the Ribulose-Phosphate Binding (beta/alpha)8-Barrel Superfamily

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akana,J.; Federov, A.; Federov, E.; Novak, W.; Babbitt, P.; Almo, S.; Gerlt, J.

    2006-01-01

    The 'ribulose phosphate binding' superfamily defined by the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database is considered the result of divergent evolution from a common ({beta}/{alpha}){sub 8}-barrel ancestor. The superfamily includes D-ribulose 5-phosphate 3-epimerase (RPE), orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC), and 3-keto-L-gulonate 6-phosphate decarboxylase (KGPDC), members of the OMPDC suprafamily, as well as enzymes involved in histidine and tryptophan biosynthesis that utilize phosphorylated metabolites as substrates. We now report studies of the functional and structural relationships of RPE to the members of the superfamily. As suggested by the results of crystallographic studies of the RPEs from rice and Plasmodium falciparum, the RPE from Streptococcus pyogenes is activated by Zn{sup 2+} which binds with a stoichiometry of one ion per polypeptide. Although wild type RPE has a high affinity for Zn{sup 2+} and inactive apoenzyme cannot be prepared, the affinity for Zn{sup 2+} is decreased by alanine substitutions for the two histidine residues that coordinate the Zn{sup 2+} ion (H34A and H67A); these mutant proteins can be prepared in an inactive, metal-free form and activated by exogenous Zn{sup 2+}. The crystal structure of the RPE was solved at 1.8 Angstroms resolution in the presence of D-xylitol 5-phosphate, an inert analogue of the D-xylulose 5-phosphate substrate. This structure suggests that the 2,3-enediolate intermediate in the 1,1-proton transfer reaction is stabilized by bidentate coordination to the Zn{sup 2+} that also is liganded to His 34, Asp 36, His 67, and Asp 176; the carboxylate groups of the Asp residues are positioned also to function as the acid/base catalysts. Although the conformation of the bound analogue resembles those of ligands bound in the active sites of OMPDC and KGPDC, the identities of the active site residues that coordinate the essential Zn{sup 2+} and participate as acid/base catalysts

  13. Horizon wave function for single localized particles: GUP and quantum black-hole decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casadio, Roberto; Scardigli, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    A localized particle in Quantum Mechanics is described by a wave packet in position space, regardless of its energy. However, from the point of view of General Relativity, if the particle's energy density exceeds a certain threshold, it should be a black hole. To combine these two pictures, we introduce a horizon wave function determined by the particle wave function in position space, which eventually yields the probability that the particle is a black hole. The existence of a minimum mass for black holes naturally follows, albeit not in the form of a sharp value around the Planck scale, but rather like a vanishing probability that a particle much lighter than the Planck mass may be a black hole. We also show that our construction entails an effective generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), simply obtained by adding the uncertainties coming from the two wave functions associated with a particle. Finally, the decay of microscopic (quantum) black holes is also described in agreement with what the GUP predicts. (orig.)

  14. Energy decomposition analysis of intermolecular interactions using a block-localized wave function approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yirong; Gao, Jiali; Peyerimhoff, Sigrid D.

    2000-04-01

    An energy decomposition scheme based on the block-localized wave function (BLW) method is proposed. The key of this scheme is the definition and the full optimization of the diabatic state wave function, where the charge transfer among interacting molecules is deactivated. The present energy decomposition (ED), BLW-ED, method is similar to the Morokuma decomposition scheme in definition of the energy terms, but differs in implementation and the computational algorithm. In addition, in the BLW-ED approach, the basis set superposition error is fully taken into account. The application of this scheme to the water dimer and the lithium cation-water clusters reveals that there is minimal charge transfer effect in hydrogen-bonded complexes. At the HF/aug-cc-PVTZ level, the electrostatic, polarization, and charge-transfer effects contribute 65%, 24%, and 11%, respectively, to the total bonding energy (-3.84 kcal/mol) in the water dimer. On the other hand, charge transfer effects are shown to be significant in Lewis acid-base complexes such as H3NSO3 and H3NBH3. In this work, the effect of basis sets used on the energy decomposition analysis is addressed and the results manifest that the present energy decomposition scheme is stable with a modest size of basis functions.

  15. Direct localization of poles of a meromorphic function from measurements on an incomplete boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Takaaki; Ando, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes an algebraic method to reconstruct the positions of multiple poles in a meromorphic function field from measurements on an arbitrary simple arc in it. A novel issue is the exactness of the algorithm depending on whether the arc is open or closed, and whether it encloses or does not enclose the poles. We first obtain a differential equation that can equivalently determine the meromorphic function field. From it, we derive linear equations that relate the elementary symmetric polynomials of the pole positions to weighted integrals of the field along the simple arc and end-point terms of the arc when it is an open one. Eliminating the end-point terms based on an appropriate choice of weighting functions and a combination of the linear equations, we obtain a simple system of linear equations for solving the elementary symmetric polynomials. We also show that our algorithm can be applied to a 2D electric impedance tomography problem. The effects of the proximity of the poles, the number of measurements and noise on the localization accuracy are numerically examined.

  16. Localization and socialization: Experimental insights into the functional architecture of IP3 receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diambra, Luis; Marchant, Jonathan S.

    2009-09-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-evoked Ca2+ signals display great spatiotemporal malleability. This malleability depends on diversity in both the cellular organization and in situ functionality of IP3 receptors (IP3Rs) that regulate Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Recent experimental data imply that these considerations are not independent, such that—as with other ion channels—the local organization of IP3Rs impacts their functionality, and reciprocally IP3R activity impacts their organization within native ER membranes. Here, we (i) review experimental data that lead to our understanding of the "functional architecture" of IP3Rs within the ER, (ii) propose an updated terminology to span the organizational hierarchy of IP3Rs observed in intact cells, and (iii) speculate on the physiological significance of IP3R socialization in Ca2+ dynamics, and consequently the emerging need for modeling studies to move beyond gridded, planar, and static simulations of IP3R clustering even over short experimental timescales.

  17. EJERCICIO DE LAS FUNCIONES EMPRESARIALES POR PARTE DE LOS SOCIOS EN LAS COOPERATIVAS AGRARIAS / THE EXECUTION OF MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS BY THE MEMBERS OF AGRARIAN COOPERATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen GALVE GÓRRIZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar cómo es efectuada por parte de los socios la coordinación de la empresa cooperativa agraria. Dicha coordinación ha sido analizada a través del análisis de las funciones que deben desarrollar los socios como empresarios. Estas funciones son enumeradas, descritas teóricamente y analizadas a partir de una muestra de cooperativas agrarias pertenecientes a la Denominación de Origen Calificada Rioja. Entre los principales resultados obtenidos cabe destacar que, en la mayoría de los casos analizados, la función de inversor es realizada sin que exista separación con la desempeñada como proveedor; el control formal es ejercido bajo el principio democrático de un hombre un voto; existe poca delegación de las actividades de gestión en una gerencia profesionalizada y cuando esta delegación se produce, no se obtiene niveles de eficiencia significativamente superiores; la organización de actividades muestra una clara especialización en las primeras fases del ciclo productivo y una alta concentración de ventas; por último, la selección de personal es realizada exigiendo unos niveles de cualificación adecuados en cada departamento. / The aim of this work is to analyse how the coordination of the agrarian cooperative firm is brought about by the members. Said coordination has been analysed by means of a study of the functions which members have to develop in their role as managers. These functions have been numbered; theoretically described, and analysed by using a sample of agrarian cooperatives belonging to the Domination of Origin Qualified Rioja. From the principal results obtained, we can highlight the fact that, in most cases analysed, formal control is exercised under the democratic principle, “one-man-one-vote”; where little delegation of management activities exists in professional management and when this delegation occurs, the cooperative does not obtain higher efficiency levels. The

  18. Block-localized wavefunction (BLW) method at the density functional theory (DFT) level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yirong; Song, Lingchun; Lin, Yuchun

    2007-08-30

    The block-localized wavefunction (BLW) approach is an ab initio valence bond (VB) method incorporating the efficiency of molecular orbital (MO) theory. It can generate the wavefunction for a resonance structure or diabatic state self-consistently by partitioning the overall electrons and primitive orbitals into several subgroups and expanding each block-localized molecular orbital in only one subspace. Although block-localized molecular orbitals in the same subspace are constrained to be orthogonal (a feature of MO theory), orbitals between different subspaces are generally nonorthogonal (a feature of VB theory). The BLW method is particularly useful in the quantification of the electron delocalization (resonance) effect within a molecule and the charge-transfer effect between molecules. In this paper, we extend the BLW method to the density functional theory (DFT) level and implement the BLW-DFT method to the quantum mechanical software GAMESS. Test applications to the pi conjugation in the planar allyl radical and ions with the basis sets of 6-31G(d), 6-31+G(d), 6-311+G(d,p), and cc-pVTZ show that the basis set dependency is insignificant. In addition, the BLW-DFT method can also be used to elucidate the nature of intermolecular interactions. Examples of pi-cation interactions and solute-solvent interactions will be presented and discussed. By expressing each diabatic state with one BLW, the BLW method can be further used to study chemical reactions and electron-transfer processes whose potential energy surfaces are typically described by two or more diabatic states.

  19. Dissociation between neural and vascular responses to sympathetic stimulation : contribution of local adrenergic receptor function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, G.; Costa, F.; Shannon, J.; Robertson, D.; Biaggioni, I.

    2000-01-01

    Sympathetic activation produced by various stimuli, eg, mental stress or handgrip, evokes regional vascular responses that are often nonhomogeneous. This phenomenon is believed to be the consequence of the recruitment of differential central neural pathways or of a sympathetically mediated vasodilation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a similar heterogeneous response occurs with cold pressor stimulation and to test the hypothesis that local differences in adrenergic receptor function could be in part responsible for this diversity. In 8 healthy subjects, local norepinephrine spillover and blood flow were measured in arms and legs at baseline and during sympathetic stimulation induced by baroreflex mechanisms (nitroprusside infusion) or cold pressor stimulation. At baseline, legs had higher vascular resistance (27+/-5 versus 17+/-2 U, P=0.05) despite lower norepinephrine spillover (0.28+/-0.04 versus 0.4+/-0.05 mg. min(-1). dL(-1), P=0.03). Norepinephrine spillover increased similarly in both arms and legs during nitroprusside infusion and cold pressor stimulation. On the other hand, during cold stimulation, vascular resistance increased in arms but not in legs (20+/-9% versus -7+/-4%, P=0.03). Increasing doses of isoproterenol and phenylephrine were infused intra-arterially in arms and legs to estimate beta-mediated vasodilation and alpha-induced vasoconstriction, respectively. beta-Mediated vasodilation was significantly lower in legs compared with arms. Thus, we report a dissociation between norepinephrine spillover and vascular responses to cold stress in lower limbs characterized by a paradoxical decrease in local resistance despite increases in sympathetic activity. The differences observed in adrenergic receptor responses cannot explain this phenomenon.

  20. Neonatal Apex Resection Triggers Cardiomyocyte Proliferation, Neovascularization and Functional Recovery Despite Local Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio-Pinto, Vasco; Rodrigues, Sílvia C; Laundos, Tiago L; Silva, Elsa D; Vasques-Nóvoa, Francisco; Silva, Ana C; Cerqueira, Rui J; Resende, Tatiana P; Pianca, Nicola; Leite-Moreira, Adelino; D'Uva, Gabriele; Thorsteinsdóttir, Sólveig; Pinto-do-Ó, Perpétua; Nascimento, Diana S

    2018-02-26

    So far, opposing outcomes have been reported following neonatal apex resection in mice, questioning the validity of this injury model to investigate regenerative mechanisms. We performed a systematic evaluation, up to 180 days after surgery, of the pathophysiological events activated upon apex resection. In response to cardiac injury, we observed increased cardiomyocyte proliferation in remote and apex regions, neovascularization, and local fibrosis. In adulthood, resected hearts remain consistently shorter and display permanent fibrotic tissue deposition in the center of the resection plane, indicating limited apex regrowth. However, thickening of the left ventricle wall, explained by an upsurge in cardiomyocyte proliferation during the initial response to injury, compensated cardiomyocyte loss and supported normal systolic function. Thus, apex resection triggers both regenerative and reparative mechanisms, endorsing this injury model for studies aimed at promoting cardiomyocyte proliferation and/or downplaying fibrosis. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The influence of local UV irradiation of the generative nucleus on vegetative function of Paramecium putrinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fokin, S.I.

    1979-01-01

    The role of generative nucleus of Paramecium putrinum in the viability of three clones of different ages and with a normal and small micronucleus (Mi) has been investigated. The Mi was selectively inactivated with a local UV microirradiation at a dose of 3060 erg/mm 2 . Soon after the irradiation, 85% of clone C-6-1 cells (n=60) loose the generative nucleus. In clones K-177 (n=27) and L-2-1 (n=35) the fraction of amicronuclear progeny amounted to 66% and 86% respectively. The progeny of cells that have lost their Mi usually perishes. In some UV-treated cells of clone K-177 the fragmentation of macronucleus was observed; these cells were viable for a long time. It is supposed that fragments of macronucleus can functionally replace the lost or damaged Mi. It is concluded that the generative nucleus of P.putrium is significant for the vegetative life of the celle

  2. Sexual function disorders after local radiotherapy for carcinoma of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Heeringen, C.; Verbeek, E.; De Schryver, A.

    1988-01-01

    In order to contribute some insight into the extent to which local radiotherapy for carcinoma of the prostate is followed by disorders in sexual functioning, 18 patients whose age ranged from 60 to 82, were interviewed 4 to 45 months after their Radiotherapy (RT). Our results confirmed the fact that RT was followed by impotence as such in only a minority of cases (3 out of 12 or 0.25). However, when other aspects of sexuality were taken into account, a higher proportion appeared to have problems. In a substantial number of patients, psychogenic factors seemed to be (at least partly) responsible. More attention to these facts and, when necessary, psychiatric assistance, may help reduce the incidence of sexual disorders following RT to the prostate

  3. Understanding reaction mechanisms in organic chemistry from catastrophe theory applied to the electron localization function topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Victor; Andres, Juan; Berski, Slawomir; Domingo, Luis R; Silvi, Bernard

    2008-08-07

    Thom's catastrophe theory applied to the evolution of the topology of the electron localization function (ELF) gradient field constitutes a way to rationalize the reorganization of electron pairing and a powerful tool for the unambiguous determination of the molecular mechanisms of a given chemical reaction. The identification of the turning points connecting the ELF structural stability domains along the reaction pathway allows a rigorous characterization of the sequence of electron pair rearrangements taking place during a chemical transformation, such as multiple bond forming/breaking processes, ring closure processes, creation/annihilation of lone pairs, transformations of C-C multiple bonds into single ones. The reaction mechanism of some relevant organic reactions: Diels-Alder, 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and Cope rearrangement are reviewed to illustrate the potential of the present approach.

  4. Local elastic properties of nano-confined fluids: A density functional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zongli; Kang, Yanshuang

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of mechanical properties of confined fluids is essential for modeling and manipulating of nano-scaled systems. Unlike the uniform phase, the confined fluids usually display different features in structure and related properties. Due to the presence of the confining geometry, the density profile and many physical and chemical properties may be position-dependent. The aim of our research is to derive an expression for the local elastic property by using the classical elastic theory. Both the bulk and shear moduli are expressed as functional of density of particle. The theoretical result derived is applied to the Lennard-Jones fluids confined in nano-cavity. Comparison of our numerical result and the simulation result is made and qualitative agreement is observed. Further, influence of bulk density, temperature and external potential on moduli is calculated and the physical mechanism is analyzed. Relationship between contact modulus and the interfacial tension is also calculated. Their opposite trend with temperature is observed.

  5. LARF: Instrumental Variable Estimation of Causal Effects through Local Average Response Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua An

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available LARF is an R package that provides instrumental variable estimation of treatment effects when both the endogenous treatment and its instrument (i.e., the treatment inducement are binary. The method (Abadie 2003 involves two steps. First, pseudo-weights are constructed from the probability of receiving the treatment inducement. By default LARF estimates the probability by a probit regression. It also provides semiparametric power series estimation of the probability and allows users to employ other external methods to estimate the probability. Second, the pseudo-weights are used to estimate the local average response function conditional on treatment and covariates. LARF provides both least squares and maximum likelihood estimates of the conditional treatment effects.

  6. A meshless local radial basis function method for two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhiheng

    2014-12-10

    A meshless local radial basis function method is developed for two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The distributed nodes used to store the variables are obtained by the philosophy of an unstructured mesh, which results in two main advantages of the method. One is that the unstructured nodes generation in the computational domain is quite simple, without much concern about the mesh quality; the other is that the localization of the obtained collocations for the discretization of equations is performed conveniently with the supporting nodes. The algebraic system is solved by a semi-implicit pseudo-time method, in which the convective and source terms are explicitly marched by the Runge-Kutta method, and the diffusive terms are implicitly solved. The proposed method is validated by several benchmark problems, including natural convection in a square cavity, the lid-driven cavity flow, and the natural convection in a square cavity containing a circular cylinder, and very good agreement with the existing results are obtained.

  7. New correlation potential for the local-spin-density functional formalism. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, M.; Farkas, L.

    1982-01-01

    Using the new parameterization for the correlation potential which seems to be the best that is at present available within the local-spin-density (LSD) functional formalism, the Fermi contact term in light atoms (up to Ni) is calculated. Although the overall improvement of the previous LSD results is obtained, discrepancy between theory and experiment remains rather large. It seems that the local approximation for exchange and correlation fails to predict such quantities as magnetic-moment density near the nucleus. It is also shown that the self-interaction correction does not remedy this failure. Further, the effect of the nonzero nuclear radius is investigated and found to be most important in the lightest atoms (e.g. a factor of 0.664 appears in the case of Li). This fact was omitted in all previous calculations and throws doubt on the reported excellent agreement of the results of many-body perturbation theory with experiment. It was also verified that the contact approximation of the Fermi contact term is really good enough. (author)

  8. Analysis of a predicted nuclear localization signal: implications for the intracellular localization and function of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA-binding protein Scp160.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brykailo, Melissa A; McLane, Laura M; Fridovich-Keil, Judith; Corbett, Anita H

    2007-01-01

    Gene expression is controlled by RNA-binding proteins that modulate the synthesis, processing, transport and stability of various classes of RNA. Some RNA-binding proteins shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm and are thought to bind to RNA transcripts in the nucleus and remain bound during translocation to the cytoplasm. One RNA-binding protein that has been hypothesized to function in this manner is the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Scp160 protein. Although the steady-state localization of Scp160 is cytoplasmic, previous studies have identified putative nuclear localization (NLS) and nuclear export (NES) signals. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that Scp160 is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein. We exploited a variety of yeast export mutants to capture any potential nuclear accumulation of Scp160 and found no evidence that Scp160 enters the nucleus. These localization studies were complemented by a mutational analysis of the predicted NLS. Results indicate that key basic residues within the predicted NLS of Scp160 can be altered without severely affecting Scp160 function. This finding has important implications for understanding the function of Scp160, which is likely limited to the cytoplasm. Additionally, our results provide strong evidence that the presence of a predicted nuclear localization signal within the sequence of a protein should not lead to the assumption that the protein enters the nucleus in the absence of additional experimental evidence.

  9. Longitudinal assessment of local and global functional connectivity following sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Timothy B; Bellgowan, Patrick S F; Mayer, Andrew R

    2017-02-01

    Growing evidence suggests that sports-related concussions (SRC) may lead to acute changes in intrinsic functional connectivity, although most studies to date have been cross-sectional in nature with relatively modest sample sizes. We longitudinally assessed changes in local and global resting state functional connectivity using metrics that do not require a priori seed or network selection (regional homogeneity; ReHo and global brain connectivity; GBC, respectively). A large sample of collegiate athletes (N = 43) was assessed approximately one day (1.74 days post-injury, N = 34), one week (8.44 days, N = 34), and one month post-concussion (32.47 days, N = 30). Healthy contact sport-athletes served as controls (N = 51). Concussed athletes showed improvement in mood symptoms at each time point (p's concussion (p's concussion. ReHo in sensorimotor, visual, and temporal cortices increased over time post-concussion, and was greatest at one month post-injury. Conversely, ReHo in the frontal cortex decreased over time following SRC, with the greatest decrease evident at one month post-concussion. Differences in ReHo relative to healthy athletes were primarily observed at one month post-concussion rather than the more acute time points. Contrary to our hypothesis, no significant cross-sectional or longitudinal differences in GBC were observed. These results are suggestive of a delayed onset of local connectivity changes following SRC.

  10. TU-E-BRA-10: Personalized Utility Function for Radiotherapy Based on Pulmonary Ventilation of Locally Advanced Lung Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Diwanji, T; Mistry, N; Lu, W; D'Souza, W

    2012-06-01

    To develop tailor-made utility functions based on each patient's pulmonary function distribution so that personalized organ-function-based treatment plan is obtained for locally advanced lung cancer patients. Five locally advanced lung cancer patients were retrospectively evaluated in the study. Fractional regional ventilation was obtained by performing subtraction of spatially matched and corrected 4DCT images. Histogram of the fraction ventilation values was generated for each patient. The cumulative distribution function (CDF), which represented an inverse relationship with the desired dose to each voxel for function preservation, showed potential as personalized utility function. In order to spare the majority of the volume with pulmonary function, a more aggressive utility function was defined as a piece-wise linear function based on the most frequent fractional ventilation value (peak of the histogram). This utility function was used in the objective function during treatment planning. Conventional objectives and constraints were maintained during the planning process. Both conventional plan and personalized functional plan were classified as satisfactory plans by physician based on conventional dose and dose-volume metrics. However, functional plan successfully spared high ventilation volume based on each patient's unique condition. When spatial function information was included to collect function dose/dose-volume metrics, significant reduction of fV20, fV30 and mean lung dose was achieved by function-based personalized plan with p-value < 0.01. Organ-function-based radiotherapy has been presented to incorporate patient's pulmonary function in hopes of reducing the risk of complications. Current methods utilize the function information in the same fashion across patients. We took one step further to not only incorporate heterogeneous pulmonary function during treatment planning but also generate personalized utility function based on the function

  11. Bam35 tectivirus intraviral interaction map unveils new function and localization of phage ORFan proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berjón-Otero, Mónica; Lechuga, Ana; Mehla, Jitender; Uetz, Peter; Salas, Margarita; Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto

    2017-07-26

    function.Comprehensive protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis among viral proteins can eventually disclose biological mechanisms and thus provide new insights into protein function unattainable by studying proteins one by one. Here we comprehensively describe intraviral PPIs among tectivirus Bam35 proteins using multi-vector yeast two-hybrid screening that was further supported by co-immunoprecipitation assays and protein structural models. This approach allowed us to propose new functions for known proteins and hypothesize on the biological role localization within the viral particle of some viral ORFan proteins that will be helpful for understanding the biology of Gram-positive tectivirus. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Quantum Chemical Topology of the Electron Localization Function in the Field of Attosecond Electron Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Angela; Alvarez-Ibarra, Aurelio; Wu, Xiaojing; Zhao, Xiaodong; Pilmé, Julien; Lande, Aurélien de la

    2018-02-15

    We report original analyses of attosecond electron dynamics of molecules subject to collisions by high energy charged particles based on Real-Time Time-Dependent-Density-Functional-Theory simulations coupled to Topological Analyses of the Electron Localization Function (TA-TD-ELF). We investigate irradiation of water and guanine. TA-TD-ELF enables qualitative and quantitative characterizations of bond breaking and formation, of charge migration within topological basins, or of electron attachment to the colliding particle. Whereas the Lewis-VSEPR structure of gas phase water is blown out within a few attoseconds after collision, that of guanine is far more robust and reconstitutes rapidly after impact even though the molecule remains electronically excited. This difference is accounted by the presence of the electron bath surrounding the impact point which enables energy relaxation within the molecule. Our approach should stimulate future studies to unravel the early steps following irradiation of various types of systems (isolated molecules, biomolecules, nanoclusters, solids, etc.) and is also readily applicable to irradiation by photons of various energies.

  13. Nonlinear oligopolistic game with isoelastic demand function: Rationality and local monopolistic approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askar, S.S.; Alnowibet, K.

    2016-01-01

    Isoelastic demand function have been used in literature to study the dynamic features of systems constructed based on economic market structure. In this paper, we adopt the so-called Cobb–Douglas production function and study its impact on the steady state of an oligopolistic game that consists of four oligopolistic competitors or firms. Briefly, the paper handles three different scenarios. The first scenario introduces four oligopolistic firms who plays rational against each other in market. The firms use the myopic mechanism (or bounded rational) to update their production in the next time unit. The steady state of the obtained system in this scenario, which is the Nash equilibrium, is unique and its characteristics are investigated. Based on a local monopolistic approximation (LMA) strategy, one competitor prefers to play against the three rational firms and this is illustrated in the second scenario. The last scenario discusses the case when three competitors use the LMA strategy against a rational one. For all scenarios discrete dynamical systems are used to describe the game introduced in all scenarios. The stability analysis of the Nash equilibrium is investigated analytically and some numerical simulations are used to confirm the obtained analytical results.

  14. An advanced dielectric continuum approach for treating solvation effects: Time correlation functions. I. Local treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, M. V.; Parsons, D. F.; Vener, M. V.

    1998-01-01

    A local continuum solvation theory, exactly treating electrostatic matching conditions on the boundary of a cavity occupied by a solute particle, is extended to cover time-dependent solvation phenomena. The corresponding integral equation is solved with a complex-valued frequency-dependent dielectric function ɛ(ω), resulting in a complex-valued ω-dependent reaction field. The inverse Fourier transform then produces the real-valued solvation energy, presented in the form of a time correlation function (TCF). We applied this technique to describe the solvation TCF for a benzophenone anion in Debye (acetonitrile) and two-mode Debye (dimethylformamide) solvents. For the Debye solvent the TCF is described by two exponential components, for the two-mode Debye solvent, by three. The overall dynamics in each case is longer than that given by the simple continuum model. We also consider a steady-state kinetic regime and the corresponding rate constant for adiabatic electron-transfer reactions. Here the boundary effect introduced within a frequency-dependent theory generates only a small effect in comparison with calculations made within the static continuum model.

  15. Scintigraphic assessment of ectopic splenic tissue localization and function following splenectomy for trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwas, S.T.; Samra, D.; Samra, Y.; Sibber, G.R.

    1986-07-01

    Twenty-three subjects who had a splenectomy as a result of trauma underwent scintigraphic evaluation with a sensitive heat-denatured sup(99m)Tc-labeled red blood cells (DRBC). This method enabled detection of ectopic splenic tissue foci (ESTF) as small as 1x1 cm in diameter. ESTF splenosis or accessory spleen was detected in 15 cases (65%), a higher incidence than previously reported. The size of the ESTF ranged from 1x1 to 5x10 cm (0.8-40 cm/sup 2/), and 53% were less than 2x2 cma (3 cm/sup 2/). A new multiparametric scintigraphic evaluating technique is described, which estimates the quantity of ESTF and its grade of activity, relative to that of the liver. The technique is a highly efficient assessor of ESTF function. Good correlation was found between the size and activity of the ESTF and the presence of Howell-Jolly bodies (HJB), but with a low sensitivity for detecting small ESTF. Correlation was low between residual splenic tissue and concentrations of IgM, IgA and IgG immunoglobulins. The sup(99m)Tc-DRBC method described is recommended for verification of ESTF existence, localization, and function.

  16. Use of the local lymph node assay in assessment of immune function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Femke A. van den; Baken, Kirsten A.; Vermeulen, Jolanda P.; Gremmer, Eric R.; Steeg, Harry van; Loveren, Henk van

    2005-01-01

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) was originally developed as a predictive test method for the identification of chemicals with sensitizing potential. In this study we demonstrated that an adapted LLNA can also be used as an immune function assay by studying the effects of orally administered immunomodulating compounds on the T-cell-dependent immune response induced by the contact sensitizer 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). C57Bl/6 mice were treated with the immunotoxic compounds cyclosporin A (CsA), bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide (TBTO) or benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Subsequently, cell proliferation and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-4 release were determined in the auricular lymph nodes (LNs) after DNCB application on both ears. Immunosuppression induced by CsA, TBTO and B[a]P was clearly detectable in this application of the LLNA. Cytokine release measurements proved valuable to confirm the results of the cell proliferation assay and to obtain an indication of the effect on Th1/Th2 balance. We believe to have demonstrated the applicability of an adapted LLNA as an immune function assay in the mouse

  17. Scintigraphic assessment of ectopic splenic tissue localization and function following splenectomy for trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwas, S.T.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-three subjects who had a splenectomy as a result of trauma underwent scintigraphic evaluation with a sensitive heat-denatured sup(99m)Tc-labeled red blood cells (DRBC). This method enabled detection of ectopic splenic tissue foci (ESTF) as small as 1x1 cm in diameter. ESTF splenosis or accessory spleen was detected in 15 cases (65%), a higher incidence than previously reported. The size of the ESTF ranged from 1x1 to 5x10 cm (0.8-40 cm 2 ), and 53% were less than 2x2 cma (3 cm 2 ). A new multiparametric scintigraphic evaluating technique is described, which estimates the quantity of ESTF and its grade of activity, relative to that of the liver. The technique is a highly efficient assessor of ESTF function. Good correlation was found between the size and activity of the ESTF and the presence of Howell-Jolly bodies (HJB), but with a low sensitivity for detecting small ESTF. Correlation was low between residual splenic tissue and concentrations of IgM, IgA and IgG immunoglobulins. The sup(99m)Tc-DRBC method described is recommended for verification of ESTF existence, localization, and function. (orig.)

  18. Analysis of dishevelled localization and function in the early sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Jennifer D; Ettensohn, Charles A

    2007-06-01

    Dishevelled (Dsh) is a key signaling molecule in the canonical Wnt pathway. Although the mechanism by which Dsh transduces a Wnt signal remains elusive, the subcellular localization of Dsh may be critical for its function. In the early sea urchin embryo, Dsh is concentrated in punctate structures within the cytoplasm of vegetal blastomeres. In these cells, Dsh stabilizes beta-catenin and causes it to accumulate in nuclei, resulting in the activation of transcriptional gene regulatory networks that drive mesoderm and endoderm formation. Here, we present a systematic mutational analysis of Lytechinus variegatus Dsh (LvDsh) that identifies motifs required for its vegetal cortical localization (VCL). In addition to a previously identified lipid-binding motif near the N-terminus of Dsh (Weitzel, H.E., Illies, M.R., Byrum, C.A., Xu, R., Wikramanayake, A.H., Ettensohn, C.A., 2004. Differential stability of beta-catenin along the animal-vegetal axis of the sea urchin embryo mediated by dishevelled. Development 131, 2947-56), we identify a short (21 amino acid) motif between the PDZ and DEP domains that is required for VCL. Phosphorylation of threonine residues in this region regulates both the targeting and stability of LvDsh. We also identify functional nuclear import and export signals within LvDsh. We provide additional evidence that LvDsh is active locally in the vegetal region of the embryo but is inactive in animal blastomeres and show that the inability of LvDsh to function in animal cells is not a consequence of impaired nuclear import. The DIX domain of LvDsh functions as a potent dominant negative when overexpressed (Weitzel, H.E., Illies, M.R., Byrum, C.A., Xu, R., Wikramanayake, A.H., Ettensohn, C.A., 2004. Differential stability of beta-catenin along the animal-vegetal axis of the sea urchin embryo mediated by dishevelled. Development 131, 2947-56). Here, we show that the dominant negative effect of DIX is dependent on a highly conserved, lipid-binding motif

  19. Two-state model based on the block-localized wave function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yirong

    2007-06-01

    The block-localized wave function (BLW) method is a variant of ab initio valence bond method but retains the efficiency of molecular orbital methods. It can derive the wave function for a diabatic (resonance) state self-consistently and is available at the Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) levels. In this work we present a two-state model based on the BLW method. Although numerous empirical and semiempirical two-state models, such as the Marcus-Hush two-state model, have been proposed to describe a chemical reaction process, the advantage of this BLW-based two-state model is that no empirical parameter is required. Important quantities such as the electronic coupling energy, structural weights of two diabatic states, and excitation energy can be uniquely derived from the energies of two diabatic states and the adiabatic state at the same HF or DFT level. Two simple examples of formamide and thioformamide in the gas phase and aqueous solution were presented and discussed. The solvation of formamide and thioformamide was studied with the combined ab initio quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical Monte Carlo simulations, together with the BLW-DFT calculations and analyses. Due to the favorable solute-solvent electrostatic interaction, the contribution of the ionic resonance structure to the ground state of formamide and thioformamide significantly increases, and for thioformamide the ionic form is even more stable than the covalent form. Thus, thioformamide in aqueous solution is essentially ionic rather than covalent. Although our two-state model in general underestimates the electronic excitation energies, it can predict relative solvatochromic shifts well. For instance, the intense π →π* transition for formamide upon solvation undergoes a redshift of 0.3eV, compared with the experimental data (0.40-0.5eV).

  20. Functional tight junction barrier localizes in the second layer of the stratum granulosum of human epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kazue; Yokouchi, Mariko; Nagao, Keisuke; Ishii, Ken; Amagai, Masayuki; Kubo, Akiharu

    2013-08-01

    Mammalian epidermis has two diffusion barriers, the stratum corneum (SC) and tight junctions (TJs). We reported previously that a single living cell layer exists between the SC and TJ-forming keratinocytes in mice; however, the exact location of the TJ barrier in human epidermis has not been defined. To investigate the precise distribution of epidermal TJs in relation to various cell-cell junction proteins and the SC and to clarify the barrier function of TJs against macromolecules in human skin. The localization of various junctional proteins was investigated in human skin sections and in the roofs of bullae formed by ex vivo exfoliative toxin (ET) treatment in three dimensions. ET and single-chain variable fragments (scFv) against desmoglein 1 were used as large diffusion probes. Human stratum granulosum (SG) cells have a distinct distribution of TJ, adherens junction, and desmosome proteins in the uppermost three layers (SG1-SG3 from the surface inward). Ex vivo injection of ET or scFv demonstrated that only SG2-SG2 junctions function as a TJ barrier, limiting the inside-out diffusion of these proteins. The roofs of bullae formed by ex vivo ET treatment consisted of SC, SG1 cells, and TJ-forming SG2 cells, probably mimicking bulla formation in bullous impetigo. Human epidermis has three SG cell layers with distinct properties just beneath the SC, of which only SG2 cells have functional TJs. Our results suggest that human epidermal TJs between SG2 cells form a paracellular diffusion barrier against soluble proteins, including immunoglobulins and bacterial toxins. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Automatic variance reduction for Monte Carlo simulations via the local importance function transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, S.A.

    1996-02-01

    The author derives a transformed transport problem that can be solved theoretically by analog Monte Carlo with zero variance. However, the Monte Carlo simulation of this transformed problem cannot be implemented in practice, so he develops a method for approximating it. The approximation to the zero variance method consists of replacing the continuous adjoint transport solution in the transformed transport problem by a piecewise continuous approximation containing local biasing parameters obtained from a deterministic calculation. He uses the transport and collision processes of the transformed problem to bias distance-to-collision and selection of post-collision energy groups and trajectories in a traditional Monte Carlo simulation of ''real'' particles. He refers to the resulting variance reduction method as the Local Importance Function Transform (LIFI) method. He demonstrates the efficiency of the LIFT method for several 3-D, linearly anisotropic scattering, one-group, and multigroup problems. In these problems the LIFT method is shown to be more efficient than the AVATAR scheme, which is one of the best variance reduction techniques currently available in a state-of-the-art Monte Carlo code. For most of the problems considered, the LIFT method produces higher figures of merit than AVATAR, even when the LIFT method is used as a ''black box''. There are some problems that cause trouble for most variance reduction techniques, and the LIFT method is no exception. For example, the author demonstrates that problems with voids, or low density regions, can cause a reduction in the efficiency of the LIFT method. However, the LIFT method still performs better than survival biasing and AVATAR in these difficult cases

  2. The shortcomings of semi-local and hybrid functionals: what we can learn from surface science studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroppa, A; Kresse, G

    2008-01-01

    A study of the adsorption of CO on late 4d and 5d transition metal (111) surfaces (Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Os, Ir and Pt) considering atop and hollow site adsorption is presented. The applied functionals include the gradient-corrected Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) and Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP) functionals, and the corresponding hybrid Hartree-Fock density functionals HSE and B3LYP. We find that PBE-based hybrid functionals (specifically HSE) yield, with the exception of Pt, the correct site order on all considered metals, but they also considerably overestimate the adsorption energies compared to experiment. On the other hand, the semi-local BLYP functional and the corresponding hybrid functional B3LYP yield very satisfactory adsorption energies and the correct adsorption site for all surfaces. We are thus faced with a Procrustean problem: the B3LYP and BLYP functionals seem to be the overall best choice for describing adsorption on metal surfaces, but they simultaneously fail to account well for the properties of the metal, vastly overestimating the equilibrium volume and underestimating the atomization energies. Setting out from these observations, general conclusions are drawn on the relative merits and drawbacks of various semi-local and hybrid functionals. The discussion includes a revised version of the PBE functional specifically optimized for bulk properties and surface energies (PBEsol), a revised version of the PBE functional specifically optimized to predict accurate adsorption energies (rPBE), as well as the aforementioned BLYP functional. We conclude that no semi-local functional is capable of describing all aspects properly, and including non-local exchange also only improves some but worsens other properties

  3. The BEACH Domain Protein SPIRRIG Is Essential for Arabidopsis Salt Stress Tolerance and Functions as a Regulator of Transcript Stabilization and Localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Steffens

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the highly conserved class of BEACH domain containing proteins (BDCPs have been established as broad facilitators of protein-protein interactions and membrane dynamics in the context of human diseases like albinism, bleeding diathesis, impaired cellular immunity, cancer predisposition, and neurological dysfunctions. Also, the Arabidopsis thaliana BDCP SPIRRIG (SPI is important for membrane integrity, as spi mutants exhibit split vacuoles. In this work, we report a novel molecular function of the BDCP SPI in ribonucleoprotein particle formation. We show that SPI interacts with the P-body core component DECAPPING PROTEIN 1 (DCP1, associates to mRNA processing bodies (P-bodies, and regulates their assembly upon salt stress. The finding that spi mutants exhibit salt hypersensitivity suggests that the local function of SPI at P-bodies is of biological relevance. Transcriptome-wide analysis revealed qualitative differences in the salt stress-regulated transcriptional response of Col-0 and spi. We show that SPI regulates the salt stress-dependent post-transcriptional stabilization, cytoplasmic agglomeration, and localization to P-bodies of a subset of salt stress-regulated mRNAs. Finally, we show that the PH-BEACH domains of SPI and its human homolog FAN (Factor Associated with Neutral sphingomyelinase activation interact with DCP1 isoforms from plants, mammals, and yeast, suggesting the evolutionary conservation of an association of BDCPs and P-bodies.

  4. Relative roles of local disturbance, current climate and paleoclimate in determining phylogenetic and functional diversity in Chinese forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, G.; Mi, X. C.; Bøcher, P. K.; Mao, L. F.; Sandel, B.; Cao, M.; Ye, W. H.; Hao, Z. Q.; Gong, H. D.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhao, X. H.; Jin, G. Z.; Ma, K. P.; Svenning, J.-C.

    2014-03-01

    The main processes underlying the generation and maintenance of biodiversity include both local factors such as competition and abiotic filtering and regional forces such as paleoclimate, speciation and dispersal. While the effects of regional and local drivers on species diversity are increasingly studied, their relative importance for other aspects of diversity, notably phylogenetic and functional diversity is so far little studied. Here, we link data from large Chinese forest plots to data on current and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) climate as well as local disturbance regimes to study their relative roles in determining woody plant phylogenetic and functional diversity in this important hotspot for woody plant diversity. Local disturbance was the best predictor of functional diversity as represented by maximum canopy height (Hmax), probably reflecting the dominant role of competition for light in determining the forest Hmax structure. In contrast, the LGM-present anomaly in temperature was the factor with the strongest explanatory power for phylogenetic diversity, with modern climate also important. Hence, local contemporary and regional historical factors have highly contrasting importance for the geographic patterns of the functional (as represented by variation in maximum canopy height) and phylogenetic aspects of Chinese forest's woody plant diversity. Importantly, contemporary factors are of overriding importance for functional diversity, while paleoclimate has left a strong signature in the phylogenetic diversity patterns.

  5. Relative roles of local disturbance, current climate and palaeoclimate in determining phylogenetic and functional diversity in Chinese forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, G.; Mi, X. C.; Bøcher, P. K.; Mao, L. F.; Sandel, B.; Cao, M.; Ye, W. H.; Hao, Z. Q.; Gong, H. D.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhao, X. H.; Jin, G. Z.; Ma, K. P.; Svenning, J.-C.

    2013-09-01

    The main processes underlying the generation and maintenance of biodiversity include both local factors such as competition and abiotic filtering and regional forces such as palaeoclimate, speciation and dispersal. While the effects of regional and local drivers on species diversity are increasingly studied, their relative importance for other aspects of diversity, notably phylogenetic and functional diversity is so far little studied. Here, we link data from large Chinese forest plots to data on current and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) climate as well as local disturbance regimes to study their relative roles in determining woody plant phylogenetic and functional diversity in this important hotspot for woody plant diversity. Local disturbance was the best predictor of functional diversity as represented by maximum canopy height (Hmax), probably reflecting the dominant role of competition for light in determining the forest Hmax structure. In contrast, the LGM-present anomaly in temperature was the factor with the strongest explanatory power for phylogenetic diversity, with modern climate also important. Hence, local contemporary and regional historical factors have highly contrasting importance for the geographic patterns of the functional and phylogenetic aspects of Chinese forest woody plant diversity. Importantly, contemporary factors are of overriding importance for functional diversity, while palaeoclimate has left a strong signature in the phylogenetic diversity patterns.

  6. A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study of Sustained Attention to Local and Global Target Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Joux, Neil; Russell, Paul N.; Helton, William S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite a long history of vigilance research, the role of global and local feature discrimination in vigilance tasks has been relatively neglected. In this experiment participants performed a sustained attention task requiring either global or local shape stimuli discrimination. Reaction time to local feature discriminations was characterized by a…

  7. Performance and Symptom Validity Testing as a Function of Medical Board Evaluation in U.S. Military Service Members with a History of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armistead-Jehle, Patrick; Cole, Wesley R; Stegman, Robert L

    2018-02-01

    The study was designed to replicate and extend pervious findings demonstrating the high rates of invalid neuropsychological testing in military service members (SMs) with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) assessed in the context of a medical evaluation board (MEB). Two hundred thirty-one active duty SMs (61 of which were undergoing an MEB) underwent neuropsychological assessment. Performance validity (Word Memory Test) and symptom validity (MMPI-2-RF) test data were compared across those evaluated within disability (MEB) and clinical contexts. As with previous studies, there were significantly more individuals in an MEB context that failed performance (MEB = 57%, non-MEB = 31%) and symptom validity testing (MEB = 57%, non-MEB = 22%) and performance validity testing had a notable affect on cognitive test scores. Performance and symptom validity test failure rates did not vary as a function of the reason for disability evaluation when divided into behavioral versus physical health conditions. These data are consistent with past studies, and extends those studies by including symptom validity testing and investigating the effect of reason for MEB. This and previous studies demonstrate that more than 50% of SMs seen in the context of an MEB will fail performance validity tests and over-report on symptom validity measures. These results emphasize the importance of using both performance and symptom validity testing when evaluating SMs with a history of mTBI, especially if they are being seen for disability evaluations, in order to ensure the accuracy of cognitive and psychological test data. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Relationship between local molecular field theory and density functional theory for non-uniform liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, A J; Evans, R

    2013-01-07

    The local molecular field theory (LMF) developed by Weeks and co-workers has proved successful for treating the structure and thermodynamics of a variety of non-uniform liquids. By reformulating LMF in terms of one-body direct correlation functions we recast the theory in the framework of classical density functional theory (DFT). We show that the general LMF equation for the effective reference potential φ(R)(r) follows directly from the standard mean-field DFT treatment of attractive interatomic forces. Using an accurate (fundamental measures) DFT for the non-uniform hard-sphere reference fluid we determine φ(R)(r) for a hard-core Yukawa liquid adsorbed at a planar hard wall. In the approach to bulk liquid-gas coexistence we find the effective potentials exhibit rich structure that can include damped oscillations at large distances from the wall as well as the repulsive hump near the wall required to generate the low density "gas" layer characteristic of complete drying. We argue that it would be difficult to obtain the same level of detail from other (non-DFT based) implementations of LMF. LMF emphasizes the importance of making an intelligent division of the interatomic pair potential of the full system into a reference part and a remainder that can be treated in mean-field approximation. We investigate different divisions for an exactly solvable one-dimensional model where the pair potential has a hard-core plus a linear attractive tail. Results for the structure factor and the equation of state of the uniform fluid show that including a significant portion of the attraction in the reference system can be much more accurate than treating the full attractive tail in mean-field approximation. We discuss further aspects of the relationship between LMF and DFT.

  9. Maresin 1 Biosynthesis and Proresolving Anti-infective Functions with Human-Localized Aggressive Periodontitis Leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chin-Wei; Colas, Romain A; Dalli, Jesmond; Arnardottir, Hildur H; Nguyen, Daniel; Hasturk, Hatice; Chiang, Nan; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Serhan, Charles N

    2015-12-14

    Localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP) is a distinct form of early-onset periodontitis linked to periodontal infection with uncontrolled inflammation and leukocyte-mediated tissue destruction. The resolution of inflammation is an active process orchestrated by specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPMs). Since the level of the Maresin pathway marker 14-hydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid (14-HDHA) was lower in activated peripheral blood from LAP patients, we investigated the Maresin 1 (MaR1) biosynthetic pathway in these subjects and its role in regulating phagocyte functions. Macrophages from LAP patients had a lower level of expression of 12-lipoxygenase (∼30%) and reduced MaR1 (LAP versus healthy controls [HC], 87.8 ± 50 pg/10(6) cells versus 239.1 ± 32 pg/10(6) cells). Phagocytosis by LAP macrophages was reduced ∼40% compared to that of HC, and killing of periodontal pathogens, including Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, were similarly reduced. LAP neutrophils also displayed slower kinetics (∼30%) and decreased maximal phagocytosis (∼20% lower) with these pathogens than those of HC. The administration of MaR1 at 1 nM enhanced phagocytosis (31 to 65% increase), intracellular antimicrobial reactive oxygen species production (26 to 71% increase), bacterial killing of these periodontal pathogens (22 to 38% reduction of bacterial titers), and restored impairment of LAP phagocytes. Together, these results suggest that therapeutics targeting the Maresin pathway have clinical utility in treating LAP and other oral diseases associated with infection, inflammation, and altered phagocyte functions. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Luminosity function for planetary nebulae and the number of planetary nebulae in local group galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    Identifications of 19 and 34 faint planetary nebulae have been made in the central regions of the SMC and LMC, respectively, using on-line/off-line filter photography at [O III] and Hα. The previously known brighter planetary nebulae in these fields, eight in both the SMC and the LMC, were also identified. On the basis of the ratio of the numbers of faint to bright planetary nebulae in these fields and the numbers of bright planetary nebulae in the surrounding fields, the total numbers of planetary nebulae in the SMC and LMC are estimated to be 285 +- 78 and 996 +- 253, respectively. Corrections have been applied to account for omissions due to crowding confusion in previous surveys, spatial and detectability incompleteness, and obscuration by dust.Equatorial coordinates and finding charts are presented for all the identified planetary nebulae. The coordinates have uncertainties smaller than 0.''6 relative to nearby bright stars, thereby allowing acquisition of the planetary nebulae by bling offsetting.Monochromatic fluxes are derived photographically and used to determine the luminosity function for Magellanic Cloud planetary nebulae as faint as 6 mag below the brightest. The luminosity function is used to estimate the total numbers of planetary nebulae in eight Local Group galaxies in which only bright planetary nebulae have been identified. The dervied luminosity specific number of planetary nebulae per unit luminosity is nearly constant for all eight galaxies, having a value of 6.1 x 10 -7 planetary nebulae L -1 /sub sun/. The mass specific number, based on the three galaxies with well-determined masses, is 2.1 x 10 -7 planetary nebulae M -1 /sub sun/. With estimates for the luminosity and mass of our Galaxy, its total number of planetary nebulae is calculated to be 10,000 +- 4000, in support of the Cudworth distance scale

  11. Local Government: A Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for Political/Legal Education, Sewell, NJ.

    Appropriate for high school students, four units focus on the role, problems, and functions of city government. Designed to be covered in 5 to 6 weeks, the units involve students in interviewing city council members, listing community needs, inviting local officials as guest speakers, and examining problems resulting from the structure, limited…

  12. Discriminative local subspaces in gene expression data for effective gene function prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelma, Tomas; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A; Soto, Alvaro

    2012-09-01

    Massive amounts of genome-wide gene expression data have become available, motivating the development of computational approaches that leverage this information to predict gene function. Among successful approaches, supervised machine learning methods, such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs), have shown superior prediction accuracy. However, these methods lack the simple biological intuition provided by co-expression networks (CNs), limiting their practical usefulness. In this work, we present Discriminative Local Subspaces (DLS), a novel method that combines supervised machine learning and co-expression techniques with the goal of systematically predict genes involved in specific biological processes of interest. Unlike traditional CNs, DLS uses the knowledge available in Gene Ontology (GO) to generate informative training sets that guide the discovery of expression signatures: expression patterns that are discriminative for genes involved in the biological process of interest. By linking genes co-expressed with these signatures, DLS is able to construct a discriminative CN that links both, known and previously uncharacterized genes, for the selected biological process. This article focuses on the algorithm behind DLS and shows its predictive power using an Arabidopsis thaliana dataset and a representative set of 101 GO terms from the Biological Process Ontology. Our results show that DLS has a superior average accuracy than both SVMs and CNs. Thus, DLS is able to provide the prediction accuracy of supervised learning methods while maintaining the intuitive understanding of CNs. A MATLAB® implementation of DLS is available at http://virtualplant.bio.puc.cl/cgi-bin/Lab/tools.cgi.

  13. Mapping Local Climate Zones for a Worldwide Database of the Form and Function of Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Bechtel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Progress in urban climate science is severely restricted by the lack of useful information that describes aspects of the form and function of cities at a detailed spatial resolution. To overcome this shortcoming we are initiating an international effort to develop the World Urban Database and Access Portal Tools (WUDAPT to gather and disseminate this information in a consistent manner for urban areas worldwide. The first step in developing WUDAPT is a description of cities based on the Local Climate Zone (LCZ scheme, which classifies natural and urban landscapes into categories based on climate-relevant surface properties. This methodology provides a culturally-neutral framework for collecting information about the internal physical structure of cities. Moreover, studies have shown that remote sensing data can be used for supervised LCZ mapping. Mapping of LCZs is complicated because similar LCZs in different regions have dissimilar spectral properties due to differences in vegetation, building materials and other variations in cultural and physical environmental factors. The WUDAPT protocol developed here provides an easy to understand workflow; uses freely available data and software; and can be applied by someone without specialist knowledge in spatial analysis or urban climate science. The paper also provides an example use of the WUDAPT project results.

  14. Calculations with the quasirelativistic local-spin-density-functional theory for high-Z atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Y.; Whitehead, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The generalized-exchange local-spin-density-functional theory (LSD-GX) with relativistic corrections of the mass velocity and Darwin terms has been used to calculate statistical total energies for the neutral atoms, the positive ions, and the negative ions for high-Z elements. The effect of the correlation and relaxation correction on the statistical total energy is discussed. Comparing the calculated results for the ionization potentials and electron affinities for the atoms (atomic number Z from 37 to 56 and 72 to 80) with experiment, shows that for the atoms rubidium to barium both the LSD-GX and the quasirelativistic LSD-GX, with self-interaction correction, Gopinathan, Whitehead, and Bogdanovic's Fermi-hole parameters [Phys. Rev. A 14, 1 (1976)], and Vosko, Wilk, and Nusair's correlation correction [Can. J. Phys. 58, 1200 (1980)], are very good methods for calculating ionization potentials and electron affinities. For the atoms hafnium to mercury the relativistic effect has to be considered

  15. Glimpsing the imprint of local environment on the galaxy stellar mass function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Adam R.; Lemaux, Brian C.; Lubin, Lori M.; Gal, Roy R.; Wu, Po-Feng; Holden, Bradford; Kocevski, Dale D.; Mei, Simona; Pelliccia, Debora; Rumbaugh, Nicholas; Shen, Lu

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the impact of local environment on the galaxy stellar mass function (SMF) spanning a wide range of galaxy densities from the field up to dense cores of massive galaxy clusters. Data are drawn from a sample of eight fields from the Observations of Redshift Evolution in Large-Scale Environments (ORELSE) survey. Deep photometry allow us to select mass-complete samples of galaxies down to 109 M⊙. Taking advantage of >4000 secure spectroscopic redshifts from ORELSE and precise photometric redshifts, we construct three-dimensional density maps between 0.55 environmental dependence in the SMFs of star-forming and quiescent galaxies, although not quite as strongly for the quiescent subsample. To characterize the connection between the SMF of field galaxies and that of denser environments, we devise a simple semi-empirical model. The model begins with a sample of ≈106 galaxies at zstart = 5 with stellar masses distributed according to the field. Simulated galaxies then evolve down to zfinal = 0.8 following empirical prescriptions for star-formation, quenching and galaxy-galaxy merging. We run the simulation multiple times, testing a variety of scenarios with differing overall amounts of merging. Our model suggests that a large number of mergers are required to reproduce the SMF in dense environments. Additionally, a large majority of these mergers would have to occur in intermediate density environments (e.g. galaxy groups).

  16. Partitioning the regional and local drivers of phylogenetic and functional diversity along temperate elevational gradients on an East Asian peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Jung-Hwa; Lee, Chang-Bae

    2018-02-12

    Species-centric approaches to biodiversity in ecological research are limited in their ability to reflect the evolutionary history and functional diversity of community assembly. Recently, the introduction of alternative facets of biodiversity, such as phylogenetic and functional diversity, has shed light on this problem and improved our understanding of the processes underlying biodiversity patterns. Here, we investigated the phylogenetic and functional diversity patterns of α, β and γ components in woody plant assemblages along regional and local elevational gradients in South Korea. Although the patterns of phylogenetic and functional diversity varied along regional and local elevational transects, the main drivers were partitioned into two categories: regional area or climate for phylogenetic diversity, depending on whether the transect was at a regional or local scale; and habitat heterogeneity for functional diversity, which was derived in elevational bands. Moreover, environmental distance was more important than was geographic distance for phylogenetic and functional β diversity between paired elevational bands. These results support the hypothesis that niche-based deterministic processes such as environmental filtering and competitive exclusion are fundamental in structuring woody plant assemblages along temperate elevational gradients regardless of scale (regional vs. local) in our study areas.

  17. Globally-Optimized Local Pseudopotentials for (Orbital-Free) Density Functional Theory Simulations of Liquids and Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Beatriz G; Dieterich, Johannes M; Carter, Emily A

    2017-08-08

    The accuracy of local pseudopotentials (LPSs) is one of two major determinants of the fidelity of orbital-free density functional theory (OFDFT) simulations. We present a global optimization strategy for LPSs that enables OFDFT to reproduce solid and liquid properties obtained from Kohn-Sham DFT. Our optimization strategy can fit arbitrary properties from both solid and liquid phases, so the resulting globally optimized local pseudopotentials (goLPSs) can be used in solid and/or liquid-phase simulations depending on the fitting process. We show three test cases proving that we can (1) improve solid properties compared to our previous bulk-derived local pseudopotential generation scheme; (2) refine predicted liquid and solid properties by adding force matching data; and (3) generate a from-scratch, accurate goLPS from the local channel of a non-local pseudopotential. The proposed scheme therefore serves as a full and improved LPS construction protocol.

  18. Computing wave functions in multichannel collisions with non-local potentials using the R-matrix method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitati, Joey; Slimmer, Ben; Li, Weichuan; Potel, Gregory; Nunes, Filomena

    2017-09-01

    The calculable form of the R-matrix method has been previously shown to be a useful tool in approximately solving the Schrodinger equation in nuclear scattering problems. We use this technique combined with the Gauss quadrature for the Lagrange-mesh method to efficiently solve for the wave functions of projectile nuclei in low energy collisions (1-100 MeV) involving an arbitrary number of channels. We include the local Woods-Saxon potential, the non-local potential of Perey and Buck, a Coulomb potential, and a coupling potential to computationally solve for the wave function of two nuclei at short distances. Object oriented programming is used to increase modularity, and parallel programming techniques are introduced to reduce computation time. We conclude that the R-matrix method is an effective method to predict the wave functions of nuclei in scattering problems involving both multiple channels and non-local potentials. Michigan State University iCER ACRES REU.

  19. An evaluation of knowledge, attitude, and practice of institutional ethics committee members from eastern India regarding ethics committee functioning and pharmacovigilance activities conducted during clinical trials: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Subhrojyoti; Banerjee, Koyel; Sikdar, Shreya; Chatterjee, Tapan Kumar

    2014-07-01

    The vital responsibility of Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC) members is to ensure the safety of the subjects participating in clinical trials. Hence, it is essential for IEC members to be aware of the common pharmacovigilance strategies followed during clinical trials. However, the information about the knowledge, attitude, and practice of IEC members regarding the pharmacovigilance activities followed during clinical trials is scarce worldwide, especially in India. Hence, this cross-sectional study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of IEC members of 10 hospitals of Kolkata, India. A cross-sectional study using a self-administered, validated questionnaire was conducted among 10 hospitals (five government and five corporate hospitals) in Kolkata conducting active clinical research and having functional Ethics Committees (ECs) in the month of September-November, 2012. An IEC approval was taken for this study. Two reminders were given to all EC members through telephone/e-mail for completion and returning of the forms. The filled in forms were returned to their respective Member Secretaries, from whom authors' collected the forms. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 software and MS-Excel 2007. Categorical data were analyzed using Chi-square test and a P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Out of the 100 distributed questionnaires, 40 were returned of which 10 were not filled properly. Overall awareness regarding different pharmacovigilance terminologies and activities among EC members from nonmedical background (71.43%) was found to be more than that of the medical members (68.75%), though the figure was not statistically significant. Majority of the members (75%) felt that EC should decide compensation in case of a serious adverse event. The present study signifies that there is a low level of awareness in IEC members of Kolkata regarding pharmacovigilance activities conducted during clinical trials; and, hence the

  20. Functional co-localization of monocytic aminopeptidase N/CD13 with the Fc gamma receptors CD32 and CD64

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riemann, Dagmar; Tcherkes, Anatolij; Hansen, Gert H

    2005-01-01

    , but not with the myeloid marker CD33 representing a member of the sialoadhesin family. Our results imply a novel functional role of CD13 and Fc gamma receptors as members of a multimeric receptor complex. Further studies have to be done to elucidate common signaling pathways of these molecules....

  1. Voxel Scale Complex Networks of Functional Connectivity in the Rat Brain: Neurochemical State Dependence of Global and Local Topological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Schwarz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Network analysis of functional imaging data reveals emergent features of the brain as a function of its topological properties. However, the brain is not a homogeneous network, and the dependence of functional connectivity parameters on neuroanatomical substrate and parcellation scale is a key issue. Moreover, the extent to which these topological properties depend on underlying neurochemical changes remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated both global statistical properties and the local, voxel-scale distribution of connectivity parameters of the rat brain. Different neurotransmitter systems were stimulated by pharmacological challenge (d-amphetamine, fluoxetine, and nicotine to discriminate between stimulus-specific functional connectivity and more general features of the rat brain architecture. Although global connectivity parameters were similar, mapping of local connectivity parameters at high spatial resolution revealed strong neuroanatomical dependence of functional connectivity in the rat brain, with clear differentiation between the neocortex and older brain regions. Localized foci of high functional connectivity independent of drug challenge were found in the sensorimotor cortices, consistent with the high neuronal connectivity in these regions. Conversely, the topological properties and node roles in subcortical regions varied with neurochemical state and were dependent on the specific dynamics of the different functional processes elicited.

  2. Chronic effects of therapeutic irradiation for localized prostatic carcinoma on anorectal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeoh, Eric E.K.; Botten, Rochelle; Russo, Antonietta; McGowan, Roz; Fraser, Robert; Roos, Daniel; Penniment, Michael; Borg, Martin; Sun Weiming

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate prospectively the prevalence and pathophysiology of anorectal dysfunction following radiation therapy (RTH) for localized carcinoma of the prostate. Methods and Materials: The following parameters of anorectal function were evaluated in each of 35 patients (aged 55-82 years) with localized prostatic carcinoma treated with RTH either to a dose of 55 Gy/20 fractions/4 weeks (18 patients) or 64 Gy/32 fractions/6.5 weeks (17 patients), before RTH and 4-6 weeks and at a mean (± SD) of 1.4 (± 0.2) years after its completion: (1) anorectal symptoms (questionnaire), (2) anorectal pressures at rest and in response to voluntary squeeze and increases in intra-abdominal pressure (multiport anorectal manometry), (3) rectal sensation (balloon distension) and (4) anal sphincteric morphology (endoanal ultrasound). Results: All but 1 patient completed three series of measurements. RTH had no effect on anal sphincteric morphology. The increase in frequency of defecation and fecal urgency and incontinence scores previously reported in the patients 4-6 weeks after RTH were sustained 1 year later (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p < 0.05, cf. baseline, respectively). At this time, 56% (19 of 34), 50% (17 of 34) and 26% (9 of 34) of the patients had increased frequency of defecation, fecal urgency, and incontinence, respectively. Decreases in anal sphincteric pressures at rest and in response to voluntary squeeze recorded in the patients 4-6 weeks after RTH were not sustained 1 year later but the volumes of rectal distension associated with perception of the stimulus and desire to defecate were lower compared with baseline volumes (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively), reflecting heightened rectal sensitivity in the patients. There was no difference in measurements between the two radiation dose regimens. Univariate logistical regression analysis was performed on patients who had experienced increased symptom scores or decreases in recorded motor and sensory manometric

  3. Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.63) is Palau which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 2 March 2007. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 144 Member States became Members [es

  4. Charge localization and ordering in A2Mn8O16 hollandite group oxides: Impact of density functional theory approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltak, Merzuk; Fernández-Serra, Marivi; Hybertsen, Mark S.

    2017-12-01

    The phases of A2Mn8O16 hollandite group oxides emerge from the competition between ionic interactions, Jahn-Teller effects, charge ordering, and magnetic interactions. Their balanced treatment with feasible computational approaches can be challenging for commonly used approximations in density functional theory. Three examples (A = Ag, Li, and K) are studied with a sequence of different approximate exchange-correlation functionals. Starting from a generalized gradient approximation (GGA), an extension to include van der Waals interactions and a recently proposed meta-GGA are considered. Then local Coulomb interactions for the Mn 3 d electrons are more explicitly considered with the DFT + U approach. Finally, selected results from a hybrid functional approach provide a reference. Results for the binding energy of the A species in the parent oxide highlight the role of van der Waals interactions. Relatively accurate results for insertion energies can be achieved with a low-U and a high-U approach. In the low-U case, the materials are described as band metals with a high-symmetry, tetragonal crystal structure. In the high-U case, the electrons donated by A result in formation of local Mn3 + centers and corresponding Jahn-Teller distortions characterized by a local order parameter. The resulting degree of monoclinic distortion depends on charge ordering and magnetic interactions in the phase formed. The reference hybrid functional results show charge localization and ordering. Comparison to low-temperature experiments of related compounds suggests that charge localization is the physically correct result for the hollandite group oxides studied here. Finally, while competing effects in the local magnetic coupling are subtle, the fully anisotropic implementation of DFT + U gives the best overall agreement with results from the hybrid functional.

  5. The Role of the Actin Cytoskeleton and Lipid Rafts in the Localization and Function of the ABCC1 Transporter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Willem Kok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters are known to be important factors in multidrug resistance of tumor cells. Lipid rafts have been implicated in their localization in the plasma membrane, where they function as drug efflux pumps. This specific localization in rafts may support the activity of ABC/Abc transporters. This raises questions regarding the nature and composition of the lipid rafts that harbor ABC/Abc transporters and the dependence of ABC/Abc transporters—concerning their localization and activity—on lipid raft constituents. Here we review our work of the past 10 years aimed at evaluating whether ABC/Abc transporters are dependent on a particular membrane environment for their function. What is the nature of this membrane environment and which of the lipid raft constituents are important for this dependency? It turns out that cortical actin is of major importance for stabilizing the localization and function of the ABC/Abc transporter, provided it is localized in an actin-dependent subtype of lipid rafts, as is the case for human ABCC1/multidrug resistance-related protein 1 (MRP1 and rodent Abcc1/Mrp1 but not human ABCB1/P-glycoprotein (PGP. On the other hand, sphingolipids do not appear to be modulators of ABCC1/MRP1 (or Abcc1/Mrp1, even though they are coregulated during drug resistance development.

  6. Adjustment of interaural time difference in head related transfer functions based on listeners' anthropometry and its effect on sound localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yôiti; Watanabe, Kanji; Iwaya, Yukio; Gyoba, Jiro; Takane, Shouichi

    2005-04-01

    Because the transfer functions governing subjective sound localization (HRTFs) show strong individuality, sound localization systems based on synthesis of HRTFs require suitable HRTFs for individual listeners. However, it is impractical to obtain HRTFs for all listeners based on measurements. Improving sound localization by adjusting non-individualized HRTFs to a specific listener based on that listener's anthropometry might be a practical method. This study first developed a new method to estimate interaural time differences (ITDs) using HRTFs. Then correlations between ITDs and anthropometric parameters were analyzed using the canonical correlation method. Results indicated that parameters relating to head size, and shoulder and ear positions are significant. Consequently, it was attempted to express ITDs based on listener's anthropometric data. In this process, the change of ITDs as a function of azimuth angle was parameterized as a sum of sine functions. Then the parameters were analyzed using multiple regression analysis, in which the anthropometric parameters were used as explanatory variables. The predicted or individualized ITDs were installed in the nonindividualized HRTFs to evaluate sound localization performance. Results showed that individualization of ITDs improved horizontal sound localization.

  7. Human TREX2 components PCID2 and centrin 2, but not ENY2, have distinct functions in protein export and co-localize to the centrosome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Corey N.; Schmidt, Casey A.; Schramm, Nathaniel J. [Westminster College, Department of Biology, 319 South Market Street, New Wilmington, PA 16172 (United States); Gaylord, Michelle R. [Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California – San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, 0347, La Jolla, CA 92093-0347 (United States); Resendes, Karen K., E-mail: resendkk@westminster.edu [Westminster College, Department of Biology, 319 South Market Street, New Wilmington, PA 16172 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    TREX-2 is a five protein complex, conserved from yeast to humans, involved in linking mRNA transcription and export. The centrin 2 subunit of TREX-2 is also a component of the centrosome and is additionally involved in a distinctly different process of nuclear protein export. While centrin 2 is a known multifunctional protein, the roles of other human TREX-2 complex proteins other than mRNA export are not known. In this study, we found that human TREX-2 member PCID2 but not ENY2 is involved in some of the same cellular processes as those of centrin 2 apart from the classical TREX-2 function. PCID2 is present at the centrosome in a subset of HeLa cells and this localization is centrin 2 dependent. Furthermore, the presence of PCID2 at the centrosome is prevalent throughout the cell cycle as determined by co-staining with cyclins E, A and B. PCID2 but not ENY2 is also involved in protein export. Surprisingly, siRNA knockdown of PCID2 delayed the rate of nuclear protein export, a mechanism distinct from the effects of centrin 2, which when knocked down inhibits export. Finally we showed that co-depletion of centrin 2 and PCID2 leads to blocking rather than delaying nuclear protein export, indicating the dominance of the centrin 2 phenotype. Together these results represent the first discovery of specific novel functions for PCID2 other than mRNA export and suggest that components of the TREX-2 complex serve alternative shared roles in the regulation of nuclear transport and cell cycle progression. - Highlights: • TREX2 complex member PCID2 but not ENY2 localizes to the centrosome in HeLa cells. • Centrin 2 is required for the localization of PCID2 at the centrosome. • PCID2 is found at the centrosome in G1/S at a slightly higher rate than that in G2/M. • PCID2 but not ENY2 delays the rate of nuclear protein export. • Co-depletion of centrin 2 and PCID2 leads to blocking rather than delaying nuclear protein export.

  8. Early stages of functional diversification in the Rab GTPase gene family revealed by genomic and localization studies in Paramecium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Lydia J; Gout, Jean-Francois; Lynch, Michael

    2017-04-15

    New gene functions arise within existing gene families as a result of gene duplication and subsequent diversification. To gain insight into the steps that led to the functional diversification of paralogues, we tracked duplicate retention patterns, expression-level divergence, and subcellular markers of functional diversification in the Rab GTPase gene family in three Paramecium aurelia species. After whole-genome duplication, Rab GTPase duplicates are more highly retained than other genes in the genome but appear to be diverging more rapidly in expression levels, consistent with early steps in functional diversification. However, by localizing specific Rab proteins in Paramecium cells, we found that paralogues from the two most recent whole-genome duplications had virtually identical localization patterns, and that less closely related paralogues showed evidence of both conservation and diversification. The functionally conserved paralogues appear to target to compartments associated with both endocytic and phagocytic recycling functions, confirming evolutionary and functional links between the two pathways in a divergent eukaryotic lineage. Because the functionally diversifying paralogues are still closely related to and derived from a clade of functionally conserved Rab11 genes, we were able to pinpoint three specific amino acid residues that may be driving the change in the localization and thus the function in these proteins. © 2017 Bright et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  9. Functional magnetic resonance imaging: lateralization and localization of language in healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkhoff, C.

    2000-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the localization and hemispheric dominance of language in 21 right-handed and 21 left-handed healthy volunteers by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Method: For language stimulation two tasks were used: phonological word generation, where subjects were asked to generate words starting with a given input letter (s, t, k), and a language perception and comprehension task requiring subjects to listen closely to the paragraph recall section of the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT) (1). In both tasks, 3 periods of activation were alternated with 3 rest periods of equal length. Activation were measured simultaneously in 15 horizontal slices using echoplanar imaging on a 1.5 T magnetic resonance scanner. Activated pixels were counted and anatomical localization was determined by using the Talairach Atlas of the brain (2). The pixel count in defined regions of the cortex in each hemisphere was taken as indicating the degree of language activation and was correlated with three conventional neuropsychological lateralization tasks: handedness was determined by Edinburgh Handedness Questionnaire (EHI) (3), manual dexterity was assessed by a pegboard test measuring the time to place all pegs for the right and left hand separately. A well-standardized dichotic listening paradigm using paired presentations of CV syllables was employed (4) in a non-forced condition to assess the (right or left ear) advantage indicating left or right hemisphere speech dominance. Results: Activation patterns differed significantly in both paradigms. Language comprehension caused maximum responses in temporal regions of both hemispheres, especially in the superior and the middle temporal gyrus. Independent from handedness, the language perception and comprehension paradigm exhibited bilateral activation predominantly. 52.4 % of right-handed subjects showed a bilateral activation pattern, whereas 33.3 % showed fMRI changes

  10. Using density functional theory to describe slowly varying fluctuations at finite temperatures: local magnetic moments in Gd and the 'not so local' moments of Ni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Julie B; Marmodoro, Alberto; Ernst, Arthur

    2014-07-09

    We briefly describe the density functional theory (DFT)-based 'disordered local moment' (DLM) picture for magnetism at finite temperatures. It shows how relatively slowly fluctuating local moments can emerge from the interacting electrons of many materials. Such entities have rigid magnitudes and fluctuate their orientations from atomic site to atomic site on a timescale long compared to other electronic times. We illustrate this theory with calculations of the magnetocaloric effect in Gd where we find excellent agreement with experiments. Fluctuating moments do not appear to establish naturally over such small regions for some other materials. We show how the DFT-DLM theory can be extended to these materials with the use of the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker nonlocal coherent potential approximation (KKR-NLCPA) to allow for more extensive, slow magnetic fluctuations. We present the first application of this approach by revisiting the description of the magnetic fluctuations prevalent in the paramagnetic state of nickel. We find that local moments can emerge above Tc and that these form coherently over small clumps of atomic sites (4-8 sites).

  11. Relationship between Child and Parental Dental Anxiety with Child's Psychological Functioning and Behavior during the Administration of Local Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boka, Vasiliki; Arapostathis, Konstantinos; Kotsanos, Nikolaos; Karagiannis, Vassilis; van Loveren, Cor; Veerkamp, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine: 1) the relationship between children's psychological functioning, dental anxiety and cooperative behavior before and during local anesthesia, 2) the relationship of parental dental anxiety with all the above child characteristics. There was a convenient sample of 100 children (4-12 years). Child dental anxiety and psychological functioning were measured using the "Children's Fear Survey Schedule" (CFSS-DS) and the "Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire" (SDQ) respectively. Parental dental anxiety was measured using the "Modified Dental Anxiety Scale" (MDAS). All questionnaires were completed by parents. Before and during local anesthesia, the child behavior was scored by one experienced examiner, using the Venham scale. Non-parametric tests and correlations (Mann-Whitney, Spearman's rho) were used for the analysis. The mean SDQ score was 10±5.6 for boys (n=60) and 8.3±4.8 for girls (n=40) (p=0.038), but there was no correlation with children's age. The mean CFSS-DS score was 33.1±11.86 and there was no correlation with age or gender. Children with higher levels in the pro-social subscale of the SDQ had significantly less anxiety and better behavior before local anesthesia. Higher mean CFSS-DS scores were significantly associated with uncooperative behavior during local anesthesia (p=0.04). There was no correlation between parents' and their children's dental anxiety, psychological functioning and behavior. 46% of the children had previous dental experience in the last 6 months. As time since the last dental treatment increased, an improvement was found in children's behavior during local anesthesia. Child psychological functioning was related to dental anxiety and behavior during dental appointment involving local anesthesia.

  12. Local work function analysis of Pt/TiO2 photocatalyst by a Kelvin probe force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiehata, K; Sasahara, A; Onishi, H

    2007-01-01

    Nanometre-sized Pt clusters were prepared on a TiO 2 (110)-(1 x 1) surface, and the lateral distribution of work function was examined by using a Kelvin probe force microscope. Local work function on the Pt clusters was smaller than that on the surrounding TiO 2 surface. Assuming that the dipole moments which perturb the work function are produced by uneven electron distribution, the decrease of the work function indicates electron transfer from the clusters to the TiO 2 surface. After decomposition of pivalate anions on the surfaces by UV irradiation, the work function increased on some Pt clusters. It is known that holes photoexcited in TiO 2 attach to pivalate anions to cause a decomposition reaction. Hence the increase of the observed work function by UV irradiation can be ascribed to the trapping of the accompanying electrons to the Pt clusters

  13. Taking potential probability function maps to the local scale and matching them with land use maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Saryu; Sinha, Vinayak; Sinha, Baerbel

    2013-04-01

    Source-Receptor models have been developed using different methods. Residence-time weighted concentration back trajectory analysis and Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) are the two most popular techniques for identification of potential sources of a substance in a defined geographical area. Both techniques use back trajectories calculated using global models and assign values of probability/concentration to various locations in an area. These values represent the probability of threshold exceedances / the average concentration measured at the receptor in air masses with a certain residence time over a source area. Both techniques, however, have only been applied to regional and long-range transport phenomena due to inherent limitation with respect to both spatial accuracy and temporal resolution of the of back trajectory calculations. Employing the above mentioned concepts of residence time weighted concentration back-trajectory analysis and PSCF, we developed a source-receptor model capable of identifying local and regional sources of air pollutants like Particulate Matter (PM), NOx, SO2 and VOCs. We use 1 to 30 minute averages of concentration values and wind direction and speed from a single receptor site or from multiple receptor sites to trace the air mass back in time. The model code assumes all the atmospheric transport to be Lagrangian and linearly extrapolates air masses reaching the receptor location, backwards in time for a fixed number of steps. We restrict the model run to the lifetime of the chemical species under consideration. For long lived species the model run is limited to 180 trees/gridsquare); moderate concentrations for agricultural lands with low tree density (1.5-2.5 ppbv for 250 μg/m3 for traffic hotspots in Chandigarh City are observed. Based on the validation against the land use maps, the model appears to do an excellent job in source apportionment and identifying emission hotspots. Acknowledgement: We thank the IISER

  14. Local coordination of Eu(III) in organic/inorganic amine functionalized hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, L.D.; Sa Ferreira, R.A.; Goncalves, M.C.; Zea Bermudez, V. de

    2004-01-01

    The sol-gel method was used to prepare two families of organic/inorganic hybrids incorporating europium triflate, classed as di-urethanesils and aminosils. A siliceous network to which short polyether chains are covalently bonded through urethane linkages, composes the di-urethanesil host. A siliceous network containing pendant amine terminated propyl chains, forms the aminosils. The xerogels were investigated by photoluminescence, particularly the local interaction between the Eu 3+ ions and the host matrix. The Eu 3+ local coordination was modelled in terms of a local-field perturbation representing the ion's nearest ligands interaction potential. While for the aminosils the Eu 3+ ions occupy one low-symmetry local site--crystal-field strength of ca. 760.5 cm -1 and 5 D 0 lifetime of 0.6-0.7 ms--two local Eu 3+ environments with distinct point symmetry group, 5 D 0 lifetimes (ca. 0.2-0.3 and 1.4-1.8 ms, respectively) and covalent nature--crystal-field strengths of ca. 540 and 740-780 cm -1 , respectively--were identified in the di-urethanesils

  15. ZmCPK1, a calcium-independent kinase member of the Zea mays CDPK gene family, functions as a negative regulator in cold stress signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckwerth, Philipp; Ehlert, Britta; Romeis, Tina

    2015-03-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have been shown to play important roles in plant environmental stress signal transduction. We report on the identification of ZmCPK1 as a member of the maize (Zea mays) CDPK gene family involved in the regulation of the maize cold stress response. Based upon in silico analysis of the Z. mays cv. B73 genome, we identified that the maize CDPK gene family consists of 39 members. Two CDPK members were selected whose gene expression was either increased (Zmcpk1) or decreased (Zmcpk25) in response to cold exposure. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that ZmCPK1 displays calcium-independent protein kinase activity. The C-terminal calcium-binding domain of ZmCPK1 was sufficient to mediate calcium independency of a previously calcium-dependent enzyme in chimeric ZmCPK25-CPK1 proteins. Furthermore, co-transfection of maize mesophyll protoplasts with active full-length ZmCPK1 suppressed the expression of a cold-induced marker gene, Zmerf3 (ZmCOI6.21). In accordance, heterologous overexpression of ZmCPK1 in Arabidopsis thaliana yielded plants with altered acclimation-induced frost tolerance. Our results identify ZmCPK1 as a negative regulator of cold stress signalling in maize. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Understanding and Limiting School Board Member Liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Terry; Jones, Stephanie; Purvis, Mary L.; Rubin, David B.; Thrasher, Doralee; Underwood, Julie; Watkins, W. David

    This book is a primer on board-member liability issues and is intended for both board members and school attorneys. The first chapter, "The Legal System," examines federal sources of legal authority, state and local sources of legal authority, and federal and state judicial structures. Liability under state tort law is the subject of chapter 2,…

  17. A novel fragile X syndrome mutation reveals a conserved role for the carboxy-terminus in FMRP localization and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okray, Zeynep; de Esch, Celine E F; Van Esch, Hilde; Devriendt, Koen; Claeys, Annelies; Yan, Jiekun; Verbeeck, Jelle; Froyen, Guy; Willemsen, Rob; de Vrij, Femke M S; Hassan, Bassem A

    2015-04-01

    Loss of function of the FMR1 gene leads to fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of intellectual disability. The loss of FMR1 function is usually caused by epigenetic silencing of the FMR1 promoter leading to expansion and subsequent methylation of a CGG repeat in the 5' untranslated region. Very few coding sequence variations have been experimentally characterized and shown to be causal to the disease. Here, we describe a novel FMR1 mutation and reveal an unexpected nuclear export function for the C-terminus of FMRP. We screened a cohort of patients with typical FXS symptoms who tested negative for CGG repeat expansion in the FMR1 locus. In one patient, we identified a guanine insertion in FMR1 exon 15. This mutation alters the open reading frame creating a short novel C-terminal sequence, followed by a stop codon. We find that this novel peptide encodes a functional nuclear localization signal (NLS) targeting the patient FMRP to the nucleolus in human cells. We also reveal an evolutionarily conserved nuclear export function associated with the endogenous C-terminus of FMRP. In vivo analyses in Drosophila demonstrate that a patient-mimetic mutation alters the localization and function of Dfmrp in neurons, leading to neomorphic neuronal phenotypes. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  18. MN15-L: A New Local Exchange-Correlation Functional for Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory with Broad Accuracy for Atoms, Molecules, and Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haoyu S; He, Xiao; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-08

    Kohn-Sham density functional theory is widely used for applications of electronic structure theory in chemistry, materials science, and condensed-matter physics, but the accuracy depends on the quality of the exchange-correlation functional. Here, we present a new local exchange-correlation functional called MN15-L that predicts accurate results for a broad range of molecular and solid-state properties including main-group bond energies, transition metal bond energies, reaction barrier heights, noncovalent interactions, atomic excitation energies, ionization potentials, electron affinities, total atomic energies, hydrocarbon thermochemistry, and lattice constants of solids. The MN15-L functional has the same mathematical form as a previous meta-nonseparable gradient approximation exchange-correlation functional, MN12-L, but it is improved because we optimized it against a larger database, designated 2015A, and included smoothness restraints; the optimization has a much better representation of transition metals. The mean unsigned error on 422 chemical energies is 2.32 kcal/mol, which is the best among all tested functionals, with or without nonlocal exchange. The MN15-L functional also provides good results for test sets that are outside the training set. A key issue is that the functional is local (no nonlocal exchange or nonlocal correlation), which makes it relatively economical for treating large and complex systems and solids. Another key advantage is that medium-range correlation energy is built in so that one does not need to add damped dispersion by molecular mechanics in order to predict accurate noncovalent binding energies. We believe that the MN15-L functional should be useful for a wide variety of applications in chemistry, physics, materials science, and molecular biology.

  19. Prediction of human protein function from post-translational modifications and localization features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Juhl; Gupta, Ramneek; Blom, Nikolaj

    2002-01-01

    a number of functional attributes that are more directly related to the linear sequence of amino acids, and hence easier to predict, than protein structure. These attributes include features associated with post-translational modifications and protein sorting, but also much simpler aspects......We have developed an entirely sequence-based method that identifies and integrates relevant features that can be used to assign proteins of unknown function to functional classes, and enzyme categories for enzymes. We show that strategies for the elucidation of protein function may benefit from...

  20. Phosphatidic acid interacts with a MYB transcription factor and regulates its nuclear localization and function in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hongyan; Wang, Geliang; Guo, Liang; Wang, Xuemin

    2013-12-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) has emerged as a class of cellular mediators involved in various cellular and physiological processes, but little is known about its mechanism of action. Here we show that PA interacts with werewolf (WER), a R2R3 MYB transcription factor involved in root hair formation. The PA-interacting region is confined to the end of the R2 subdomain. The ablation of the PA binding motif has no effect on WER binding to DNA, but abolishes its nuclear localization and its function in regulating epidermal cell fate. Inhibition of PA production by phospholipase Dζ also suppresses WER's nuclear localization, root hair formation, and elongation. These results suggest a role for PA in promoting protein nuclear localization.

  1. Phosphatidic Acid Interacts with a MYB Transcription Factor and Regulates Its Nuclear Localization and Function in Arabidopsis[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hongyan; Wang, Geliang; Guo, Liang; Wang, Xuemin

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) has emerged as a class of cellular mediators involved in various cellular and physiological processes, but little is known about its mechanism of action. Here we show that PA interacts with WEREWOLF (WER), a R2R3 MYB transcription factor involved in root hair formation. The PA-interacting region is confined to the end of the R2 subdomain. The ablation of the PA binding motif has no effect on WER binding to DNA, but abolishes its nuclear localization and its function in regulating epidermal cell fate. Inhibition of PA production by phospholipase Dζ also suppresses WER’s nuclear localization, root hair formation, and elongation. These results suggest a role for PA in promoting protein nuclear localization. PMID:24368785

  2. Designing Microstructures/Structures for Desired Functional Material and Local Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-02

    elucidated its ramification in engineering multifunctional soft materials, and (iii) demonstrated the possibility of concurrent magnetoelectricity and... piezoelectricity in soft materials. Concerning local field in heterogeneous structures, we have shown designs of thermoelectric composites and the...temperature gradient. These designs can be used to improve sensitivity of telecommunication receivers and efficiency of heat engines

  3. Local and general above-stump biomass functions for loblolly pine and slash pine trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos A. Gonzalez-Beneke; Salvador Gezan; Tmothy J. Albaugh; H. Lee Allen; Harold E. Burkhart; Thomas R. Fox; Eric J. Jokela; Christopher Maier; Timothy A. Martin; Rafael A. Rubilar; Lisa J. Samuelson

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in estimating biomass for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii), two of the most ecologically and commercially important tree species in North America. The majority of the available individual-tree allometric models are local, relying on stem diameter outside bark at breast height (dbh)...

  4. Optimally localized Wannier functions for quasi one-dimensional nonperiodic insulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Nenciu, A.; Nenciu, Gheorghe

    It is proved that for general, not necessarily periodic quasi one dimensional systems, the band position operator corresponding to an isolated part of the energy spectrum has discrete spectrum and its eigenfunctions have the same spatial localization as the corresponding spectral projection...

  5. Optimally localized Wannier functions for quasi one-dimensional nonperiodic insulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Nenciu, A.; Nenciu, Gheorghe

    2008-01-01

    It is proved that for general, not necessarily periodic, quasi one-dimensional systems the band position operator corresponding to an isolated part of the energy spectrum has discrete spectrum and its eigenfunctions have the same spatial localization as the corresponding spectral projection...

  6. Local vascular CO2 reactivity in the infant brain assessed by functional MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P.B.; Leth, H; Lou, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    The local cerebral vascular response to hyperventilation was investigated in five distressed, intubated infants by means of a T2 sensitive gradient-echo MRI technique at 1.5 T. In one preterm infant, the MR signal change during hyperventilation was sparse. In four term infants, the mean MR signal...

  7. Ten days of repeated local forearm heating does not affect cutaneous vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Michael A; Brunt, Vienna E; Jensen, Krista Nicole; Lorenzo, Santiago; Minson, Christopher T

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether 10 days of repeated local heating could induce peripheral adaptations in the cutaneous vasculature and to investigate potential mechanisms of adaptation. We also assessed maximal forearm blood flow to determine whether repeated local heating affects maximal dilator capacity. Before and after 10 days of heat training consisting of 1-h exposures of the forearm to 42°C water or 32°C water (control) in the contralateral arm (randomized and counterbalanced), we assessed hyperemia to rapid local heating of the skin ( n = 14 recreationally active young subjects). In addition, sequential doses of acetylcholine (ACh, 1 and 10 mM) were infused in a subset of subjects ( n = 7) via microdialysis to study potential nonthermal microvascular adaptations following 10 days of repeated forearm heat training. Skin blood flow was assessed using laser-Doppler flowmetry, and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as laser-Doppler red blood cell flux divided by mean arterial pressure. Maximal cutaneous vasodilation was achieved by heating the arm in a water-spray device for 45 min and assessed using venous occlusion plethysmography. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC) was calculated as forearm blood flow divided by mean arterial pressure. Repeated forearm heating did not increase plateau percent maximal CVC (CVC max ) responses to local heating (89 ± 3 vs. 89 ± 2% CVC max , P = 0.19), 1 mM ACh (43 ± 9 vs. 53 ± 7% CVC max , P = 0.76), or 10 mM ACh (61 ± 9 vs. 85 ± 7% CVC max , P = 0.37, by 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA). There was a main effect of time at 10 mM ACh ( P = 0.03). Maximal FVC remained unchanged (0.12 ± 0.02 vs. 0.14 ± 0.02 FVC, P = 0.30). No differences were observed in the control arm. Ten days of repeated forearm heating in recreationally active young adults did not improve the microvascular responsiveness to ACh or local heating. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show for the first time that 10 days of repeated

  8. Contaminant point source localization error estimates as functions of data quantity and model quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott K; Vesselinov, Velimir V

    2016-10-01

    We develop empirically-grounded error envelopes for localization of a point contamination release event in the saturated zone of a previously uncharacterized heterogeneous aquifer into which a number of plume-intercepting wells have been drilled. We assume that flow direction in the aquifer is known exactly and velocity is known to within a factor of two of our best guess from well observations prior to source identification. Other aquifer and source parameters must be estimated by interpretation of well breakthrough data via the advection-dispersion equation. We employ high performance computing to generate numerous random realizations of aquifer parameters and well locations, simulate well breakthrough data, and then employ unsupervised machine optimization techniques to estimate the most likely spatial (or space-time) location of the source. Tabulating the accuracy of these estimates from the multiple realizations, we relate the size of 90% and 95% confidence envelopes to the data quantity (number of wells) and model quality (fidelity of ADE interpretation model to actual concentrations in a heterogeneous aquifer with channelized flow). We find that for purely spatial localization of the contaminant source, increased data quantities can make up for reduced model quality. For space-time localization, we find similar qualitative behavior, but significantly degraded spatial localization reliability and less improvement from extra data collection. Since the space-time source localization problem is much more challenging, we also tried a multiple-initial-guess optimization strategy. This greatly enhanced performance, but gains from additional data collection remained limited. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Organ function and quality of life after transoral laser microsurgery and adjuvant radiotherapy for locally advanced laryngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olthoff, Arno; Hess, Clemens F. [Dept. of Phoniatrics and Pedaudiology, Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Ewen, Andreas; Wolff, Hendrik Andreas; Hermann, Robert Michael; Vorwerk, Hilke; Hille, Andrea; Christiansen, Hans [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Roedel, Ralph; Steiner, Wolfgang [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Pradier, Olivier [Dept. of Cancerology, CHU Morvan, Brest (France)

    2009-05-15

    Background and purpose: transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) and adjuvant radiotherapy are an established therapy regimen for locally advanced laryngeal cancer at our institution. Aim of the present study was to assess value of quality of life (QoL) data with special regard to organ function under consideration of treatment efficacy in patients with locally advanced laryngeal cancer treated with larynx-preserving TLM and adjuvant radiotherapy. Patients and methods: from 1994 to 2006, 39 patients (ten UICC stage III, 29 UICC stage IVA/B) with locally advanced laryngeal carcinomas were treated with TLM and adjuvant radiotherapy. Data concerning treatment efficacy, QoL (using the VHI [Voice Handicap Index], the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H and N35 questionnaires) and organ function (respiration, deglutition, voice quality) were obtained for ten patients still alive after long-term follow-up. Correlations were determined using the Spearman rank test. Results: after a median follow-up of 80.8 months, the 5-year overall survival rate was 46.8% and the locoregional control rate 76.5%, respectively. The larynx preservation rate was 89.7% for all patients and 100% for patients still alive after follow-up. Despite some verifiable problems in respiration, speech and swallowing, patients showed a subjectively good QoL. Conclusion: TLM and adjuvant radiotherapy is a curative option for patients with locally advanced laryngeal cancer and an alternative to radical surgery. Even if functional deficits are unavoidable in the treatment of locally advanced laryngeal carcinomas, larynx preservation is associated with a subjectively good QoL. (orig.)

  10. Local and Systemic Inflammation May Mediate Diesel Engine Exhaust-Induced Lung Function Impairment in a Chinese Occupational Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Duan, Huawei; Meng, Tao; Yang, Mo; Cui, Lianhua; Bin, Ping; Dai, Yufei; Niu, Yong; Shen, Meili; Zhang, Liping; Zheng, Yuxin; Leng, Shuguang

    2018-04-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) as the major source of vehicle-emitted particle matter in ambient air impairs lung function. The objectives were to assess the contribution of local (eg, the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide [FeNO] and serum Club cell secretory protein [CC16]) and systemic (eg, serum C-reaction protein [CRP] and interleukin-6 [IL-6]) inflammation to DE-induced lung function impairment using a unique cohort of diesel engine testers (DETs, n = 137) and non-DETs (n = 127), made up of current and noncurrent smokers. Urinary metabolites, FeNO, serum markers, and spirometry were assessed. A 19% reduction in CC16 and a 94% increase in CRP were identified in DETs compared with non-DETs (all p values regulatory risk assessment. Local and systemic inflammation may be key processes that contribute to the subsequent development of obstructive lung disease in DE-exposed populations.

  11. Local visual perception bias in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders; do we have the whole picture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkmer, Marita; Black, Melissa; Tang, Julia; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Girdler, Sonya; Leung, Denise; Ordqvist, Anna; Tan, Tele; Jahan, Ishrat; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2016-01-01

    While local bias in visual processing in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been reported to result in difficulties in recognizing faces and facially expressed emotions, but superior ability in disembedding figures, associations between these abilities within a group of children with and without ASD have not been explored. Possible associations in performance on the Visual Perception Skills Figure-Ground test, a face recognition test and an emotion recognition test were investigated within 25 8-12-years-old children with high-functioning autism/Asperger syndrome, and in comparison to 33 typically developing children. Analyses indicated a weak positive correlation between accuracy in Figure-Ground recognition and emotion recognition. No other correlation estimates were significant. These findings challenge both the enhanced perceptual function hypothesis and the weak central coherence hypothesis, and accentuate the importance of further scrutinizing the existance and nature of local visual bias in ASD.

  12. Local Knowledge About The Structure, Function And Conversion Of Landscape In The Karangwangi Village, Cianjur, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfa Dwi Amelia, Fatiya; Iskandar, Johan

    2017-10-01

    Karangwangi people is one of indigenous people in West Java who has local knowledge about their nature thoroughly. They have local tradition about landscape ecosystem arrangement that based on sakral (sacred) norm. With this rule, local people will always try to preserve the sustainability of their natural environment. However, modernization, increasing population, decreasing forest, and increasing market economic penetration, causing this rule and structure of landscape in Karangwangi village has changed. Land conversion in Karangwangi was occur because of settlement and land investment by people outside the village. These behavior changes in tradition and landscape (structure, function and conversion) in Karangwangi may impact on their daily activities, and so do the changes in daily activities can change their behavior in tradition and landscape. This research was undertaken in the Village of Karangwangi, Sub-district of Cidaun, District of Cianjur, Province of West Java, Indonesia. This paper aims to identify how indigenous people in Karangwangi understand kinds of landscape and another conversion that was happen as a result of management. The method used in this paper is qualitative with ethno ecological approach. The resulted of the study show that local people in Karangwangi Village understand how chronological of landscape structure, function and conversion.

  13. A relationship between the weighted density approximation and the local-scaling transformation version of density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez, Reinaldo Pis; Karasiev, Valentin V

    2003-01-01

    A relationship between the auxiliary density, ρ(r), defined within the framework of the weighted density approximation and the kinetic energy modulating factor, A N ([ρ(r)]; r), which appears in the local-scaling transformation version of density functional theory is presented. This relationship imposes the condition of positiveness on the kinetic energy modulating factor and this, in turn, leads to an important mathematical condition on any approximate kinetic energy density functional. It is shown that two well-known approximate kinetic energy density functionals do not satisfy the above relationship at distances very close to the nucleus. By forcing a given approximate kinetic energy density functional to obey the above condition, both the kinetic and exchange energies can be obtained within a framework similar to that of the weighted density approximation. Results on some closed-shell atomic systems provide support for those ideas

  14. M dwarfs in the Local Milky Way: The Field Low-Mass Stellar Luminosity and Mass Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochanski, Jr, John J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Modern sky surveys, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Two-Micron All Sky Survey, have revolutionized how Astronomy is done. With millions of photometric and spectroscopic observations, global observational properties can be studied with unprecedented statistical significance. Low-mass stars dominate the local Milky Way, with tens of millions observed by SDSS within a few kpc. Thus, they make ideal tracers of the Galactic potential, and the thin and thick disks. In this thesis dissertation, I present my efforts to characterize the local low-mass stellar population, using a collection of observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). First, low-mass stellar template spectra were constructed from the co-addition of thousands of SDSS spectroscopic observations. These template spectra were used to quantify the observable changes introduced by chromospheric activity and metallicity. Furthermore, the average ugriz colors were measured as a function of spectral type. Next, the local kinematic structure of the Milky Way was quantified, using a special set of SDSS spectroscopic observations. Combining proper motions and radial velocities (measured using the spectral templates), along with distances, the full UVW space motions of over 7000 low-mass stars along one line of sight were computed. These stars were also separated kinematically to investigate other observational differences between the thin and thick disks. Finally, this dissertation details a project designed to measure the luminosity and mass functions of low-mass stars. Using a new technique optimized for large surveys, the field luminosity function (LF) and local stellar density profile are measured simultaneously. The sample size used to estimate the LF is nearly three orders of magnitude larger than any previous study, offering a definitive measurement of this quantity. The observed LF is transformed into a mass function (MF) and compared to previous studies.

  15. Quantum conductance of 4,4-bipyridine molecular junctions: Role of electrode work function and local d band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauba, J.M.C.; Strange, Mikkel; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2008-01-01

    conductance than the Pt-BPD junction due to the smaller work function of Au as compared to Pt. On the other hand, coupling to the local d band is stronger in the case of Pt and this broadens the LUMO resonance. We find that these effects largely outbalance each other leading to conductances of 0.01G(0) and 0......We present density-functional theory calculations for the geometry and conductance of 4,4-bipyridine (BPD) nanojunctions with Au and Pt electrodes. The fact that transport takes place via bipyridine's lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) suggests that the Au-BPD junction should have larger...

  16. Altered local spontaneous activity in frontal lobe epilepsy: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Li, Hechun; He, Zhongqiong; Jiang, Sisi; Klugah-Brown, Benjamin; Chen, Lin; Wang, Pu; Tan, Song; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the local spatiotemporal consistency of spontaneous brain activity in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). Eyes closed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected from 19 FLE patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A novel measure, named FOur-dimensional (spatiotemporal) Consistency of local neural Activities (FOCA) was used to assess the spatiotemporal consistency of local spontaneous activity (emphasizing both local temporal homogeneity and regional stability of brain activity states). Then, two-sample t test was performed to detect the FOCA differences between two groups. Partial correlations between the FOCA values and durations of epilepsy were further analyzed. Compared with controls, FLE patients demonstrated increased FOCA in distant brain regions including the frontal and parietal cortices, as well as the basal ganglia. The decreased FOCA was located in the temporal cortex, posterior default model regions, and cerebellum. In addition, the FOCA measure was linked to the duration of epilepsy in basal ganglia. Our study suggested that alterations of local spontaneous activity in frontoparietal cortex and basal ganglia was associated with the pathophysiology of FLE; and the abnormality in frontal and default model regions might account for the potential cognitive impairment in FLE. We also presumed that the FOCA measure had potential to provide important insights into understanding epilepsy such as FLE.

  17. Functional analysis of the C-terminal region of human adenovirus E1A reveals a misidentified nuclear localization signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Michael J.; King, Cason R.; Dikeakos, Jimmy D. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Western Ontario, A4-833 London Regional Cancer Centre, 800 Commissioners Road E., London, Ontario, N6A 4L6 Canada (Canada); Mymryk, Joe S., E-mail: jmymryk@uwo.ca [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Western Ontario, A4-833 London Regional Cancer Centre, 800 Commissioners Road E., London, Ontario, N6A 4L6 Canada (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Regional Cancer Centre, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-11-15

    The immortalizing function of the human adenovirus 5 E1A oncoprotein requires efficient localization to the nucleus. In 1987, a consensus monopartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) was identified at the C-terminus of E1A. Since that time, various experiments have suggested that other regions of E1A influence nuclear import. In addition, a novel bipartite NLS was recently predicted at the C-terminal region of E1A in silico. In this study, we used immunofluorescence microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation analysis with importin-α to verify that full nuclear localization of E1A requires the well characterized NLS spanning residues 285–289, as well as a second basic patch situated between residues 258 and 263 ({sup 258}RVGGRRQAVECIEDLLNEPGQPLDLSCKRPRP{sup 289}). Thus, the originally described NLS located at the C-terminus of E1A is actually a bipartite signal, which had been misidentified in the existing literature as a monopartite signal, altering our understanding of one of the oldest documented NLSs. - Highlights: • Human adenovirus E1A is localized to the nucleus. • The C-terminus of E1A contains a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS). • This signal was previously misidentified to be a monopartite NLS. • Key basic amino acid residues within this sequence are highly conserved.

  18. Communication: Hole localization in Al-doped quartz SiO{sub 2} within ab initio hybrid-functional DFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerosa, Matteo [Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Di Valentin, Cristiana; Pacchioni, Gianfranco [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano-Bicocca, via R. Cozzi 55, 20125 Milan (Italy); Bottani, Carlo Enrico, E-mail: carlo.bottani@polimi.it [Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Center for Nano Science and Technology @Polimi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Pascoli 70/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Onida, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’ Universita’ degli Studi di Milano and European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF), Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2015-09-21

    We investigate the long-standing problem of hole localization at the Al impurity in quartz SiO{sub 2}, using a relatively recent DFT hybrid-functional method in which the exchange fraction is obtained ab initio, based on an analogy with the static many-body COHSEX approximation to the electron self-energy. As the amount of the admixed exact exchange in hybrid functionals has been shown to be determinant for properly capturing the hole localization, this problem constitutes a prototypical benchmark for the accuracy of the method, allowing one to assess to what extent self-interaction effects are avoided. We obtain good results in terms of description of the charge localization and structural distortion around the Al center, improving with respect to the more popular B3LYP hybrid-functional approach. We also discuss the accuracy of computed hyperfine parameters, by comparison with previous calculations based on other self-interaction-free methods, as well as experimental values. We discuss and rationalize the limitations of our approach in computing defect-related excitation energies in low-dielectric-constant insulators.

  19. Relationship among local and functional factors in the development of denture stomatitis in denture wearers in northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lurdete Maria Rocha GAUCH

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship among functional and qualitative factors in the development of denture stomatitis (DS (according to Newton's classification in acrylic-based denture wearers residents from northern Brazil.MATERIAL AND METHOD: A total of 99 patients who wore partial or total acrylic resin-based upper dentures were included in this study. The subjects completed an epidemiological data form that includes the patient's gender, age, local factors (hygiene habits, remove denture to sleep, use of mouthwash, present condition of the denture, age of the denture and functional factors (vertical dimension at rest, vertical dimension of occlusion, occlusion, retention, and static and dynamic stability. To detect yeasts, samples were collected from the inner surface of the dentures and from the palatal mucosa in contact with it. Subsequently, the samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar, observing macro and microscopic characteristics.RESULT: In the present study, we did not find any significant relationship between the gender and disease onset. Based on the Newton classification, 36.3% of the patients presented with DS and 89.0% were colonized by yeasts; of these subjects, 50% had type I lesions, 33.3% had type II lesions, and 16.6% had type III lesions. All of the qualitative and local factors, except the use of mouthwash, were clinically relevant to the development of disease.CONCLUSION: Denture stomatitis in denture users in northern Brazil was multifactorial, involving local, functional and microbiological factors.

  20. [Functional and morphological study of the local and systemic hypothermia on dog's liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Venilton José; Taha, Murched Omar; Fagundes, Djalma José; Gomes, Paulo de Oliveira; Juliano, Yara; Bruzzadelli, Renata Marcon zanelatto; Caputto, Lucélia Rita Galdino

    2005-01-01

    To compare hepatic lesions produced by two types of hypothermia; the systemic and the local or topic. Twenty dogs distributed in two groups were studied: the first submitted to local hypothermia and the second to systemic hypothermia. In all groups, biochemical dosages for alanina allytransferase (A.L.T.), aspartate aminotrasnferase (A.S.T.) and direct bilirubin (T.D.), conventional optical microscopy and electronic transmission microscopy were performed in times T0, Test, and T60, that is, before the hypothermia (T0), after temperature stabilization at 10 degrees lower than initial temperature (Test), and after sixty minutes of hypothermia (T60). The data analysis, both of the biochemical profile and of the microscopy showed that in the group of animals with selective hypothermia, the hepatic lesions were more intense when compared to the systemic hypothermia group. The selective hypothermia causes more lesions to the liver than the systemic.

  1. Expression, localization, and function of the thioredoxin system in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Advani, Andrew; Gilbert, Richard E; Thai, Kerri

    2009-01-01

    Excessive reactive oxygen species play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, but to what extent these result from increased generation, impaired antioxidant systems, or both is incompletely understood. Here, we report the expression, localization, and activity of the antioxidant...... thioredoxin and its endogenous inhibitor thioredoxin interacting protein (TxnIP) in vivo and in vitro. In normal human and rat kidneys, expression of TxnIP mRNA and protein was most abundant in the glomeruli and distal nephron (distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts). In contrast, thioredoxin m......RNA and protein localized to the renal cortex, particularly within the proximal tubules and to a lesser extent in the distal nephron. Induction of diabetes in rats increased expression of TxnIP but not thioredoxin mRNA. Kidneys from patients with diabetic nephropathy had significantly higher levels of TxnIP than...

  2. USING SPLINE FUNCTIONS FOR THE SUBSTANTIATION OF TAX POLICIES BY LOCAL AUTHORITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otgon Cristian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to approach innovative financial instruments for the management of public resources. In the category of these innovative tools have been included polynomial spline functions used for budgetary sizing in the substantiating of fiscal and budgetary policies. In order to use polynomial spline functions there have been made a number of steps consisted in the establishment of nodes, the calculation of specific coefficients corresponding to the spline functions, development and determination of errors of approximation. Also in this paper was done extrapolation of series of property tax data using polynomial spline functions of order I. For spline impelementation were taken two series of data, one reffering to property tax as a resultative variable and the second one reffering to building tax, resulting a correlation indicator R=0,95. Moreover the calculation of spline functions are easy to solve and due to small errors of approximation have a great power of predictibility, much better than using ordinary least squares method. In order to realise the research there have been used as methods of research several steps, namely observation, series of data construction and processing the data with spline functions. The data construction is a daily series gathered from the budget account, reffering to building tax and property tax. The added value of this paper is given by the possibility of avoiding deficits by using spline functions as innovative instruments in the publlic finance, the original contribution is made by the average of splines resulted from the series of data. The research results lead to conclusion that the polynomial spline functions are recommended to form the elaboration of fiscal and budgetary policies, due to relatively small errors obtained in the extrapolation of economic processes and phenomena. Future research directions are taking in consideration to study the polynomial spline functions of second-order, third

  3. Equatorial anomaly variability as a function of the local time and the longitude

    CERN Document Server

    Pulinets, S A; Hernández-Pajáres, M

    2002-01-01

    The equatorial anomaly dynamics is very difficult to study due to necessity of its monitoring in space (latitude-longitude) and local time simultaneously. This task is impossible for the single-point measurements, and only the satellite technology may help. The present paper is devoted to the preliminary analysis of the equatorial anomaly dynamics combining two techniques - the topside sounding and GPS TEC measurements. The topside sounding gives the unique opportunity to build the global structure of the equatorial anomaly for the fixed local time (LT-maps) and to reveal the longitudinal variations, while the chains of GPS receivers along the meridian permit to study the latitudinal variations of TEC in local time. Two meridional chains of GPS receivers were selected: at 115 deg. E and 70 deg. W longitudes. Combining of two technologies makes it possible to obtain three-dimensional global dynamics of the equatorial anomaly. The paper demonstrates the power of the technique itself while the more detailed and ...

  4. Effect of lower limb preference on local muscular and vascular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahs, Christopher A; Rossow, Lindy M; Thiebaud, Robert S; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Kim, Daeyeol; Bemben, Michael G; Abe, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Unilateral physical training can enhance muscular size and function as well as vascular function in the trained limb. In non-athletes, the preferred arm for use during unilateral tasks may exhibit greater muscular strength compared to the non-preferred arm. It is unclear if lower limb preference affects lower limb vascular function or muscular endurance and power in recreationally active adults. To examine the effect of lower limb preference on quadriceps muscle size and function and on lower limb vascular function in middle-aged adults. Twenty (13 men, 7 women) recreationally-active middle-aged (55 ± 7 yrs) adults underwent measurements of quadriceps muscle thickness, strength, mean power, endurance, and arterial stiffness, calf venous compliance, and calf blood flow in the preferred and non-preferred lower limb. The preferred limb exhibited greater calf vascular conductance (31.6 ± 15.5 versus 25.8 ± 13.0 units flow/mmHg; p = 0.011) compared to the non-preferred limb. The interlimb difference in calf vascular conductance was negatively related to weekly aerobic activity (hrs/week) (r = −0.521; p = 0.019). Lower limb preference affects calf blood flow but not quadriceps muscle size or function. Studies involving unilateral lower limb testing procedures in middle-aged individuals should consider standardizing the testing to either the preferred or non-preferred limb rather than the right or left limb. (paper)

  5. Epigenetic variation predicts regional and local intraspecific functional diversity in a perennial herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Mónica; Herrera, Carlos M; Bazaga, Pilar

    2014-10-01

    The ecological significance of epigenetic variation has been generally inferred from studies on model plants under artificial conditions, but the importance of epigenetic differences between individuals as a source of intraspecific diversity in natural plant populations remains essentially unknown. This study investigates the relationship between epigenetic variation and functional plant diversity by conducting epigenetic (methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphisms, MSAP) and genetic (amplified fragment length polymorphisms, AFLP) marker-trait association analyses for 20 whole-plant, leaf and regenerative functional traits in a large sample of wild-growing plants of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus from ten sampling sites in south-eastern Spain. Plants differed widely in functional characteristics, and exhibited greater epigenetic than genetic diversity, as shown by per cent polymorphism of MSAP fragments (92%) or markers (69%) greatly exceeding that for AFLP ones (41%). After controlling for genetic structuring and possible cryptic relatedness, every functional trait considered exhibited a significant association with at least one AFLP or MSAP marker. A total of 27 MSAP (13.0% of total) and 12 AFLP (4.4%) markers were involved in significant associations, which explained on average 8.2% and 8.0% of trait variance, respectively. Individual MSAP markers were more likely to be associated with functional traits than AFLP markers. Between-site differences in multivariate functional diversity were directly related to variation in multilocus epigenetic diversity after multilocus genetic diversity was statistically accounted for. Results suggest that epigenetic variation can be an important source of intraspecific functional diversity in H. foetidus, possibly endowing this species with the capacity to exploit a broad range of ecological conditions despite its modest genetic diversity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Non-local exchange correlation functionals impact on the structural, electronic and optical properties of III-V arsenides

    KAUST Repository

    Anua, N. Najwa

    2013-08-20

    Exchange correlation (XC) energy functionals play a vital role in the efficiency of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, more soundly in the calculation of fundamental electronic energy bandgap. In the present DFT study of III-arsenides, we investigate the implications of XC-energy functional and corresponding potential on the structural, electronic and optical properties of XAs (X = B, Al, Ga, In). Firstly we report and discuss the optimized structural lattice parameters and the band gap calculations performed within different non-local XC functionals as implemented in the DFT-packages: WIEN2k, CASTEP and SIESTA. These packages are representative of the available code in ab initio studies. We employed the LDA, GGA-PBE, GGA-WC and mBJ-LDA using WIEN2k. In CASTEP, we employed the hybrid functional, sX-LDA. Furthermore LDA, GGA-PBE and meta-GGA were employed using SIESTA code. Our results point to GGA-WC as a more appropriate approximation for the calculations of structural parameters. However our electronic bandstructure calculations at the level of mBJ-LDA potential show considerable improvements over the other XC functionals, even the sX-LDA hybrid functional. We report also the optical properties within mBJ potential, which show a nice agreement with the experimental measurements in addition to other theoretical results. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. Dynamic brain architectures in local brain activity and functional network efficiency associate with efficient reading in bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Gangyi; Chen, Hsuan-Chih; Zhu, Zude; He, Yong; Wang, Suiping

    2015-10-01

    The human brain is organized as a dynamic network, in which both regional brain activity and inter-regional connectivity support high-level cognitive processes, such as reading. However, it is still largely unknown how the functional brain network organizes to enable fast and effortless reading processing in the native language (L1) but not in a non-proficient second language (L2), and whether the mechanisms underlying local activity are associated with connectivity dynamics in large-scale brain networks. In the present study, we combined activation-based and multivariate graph-theory analysis with functional magnetic resonance imaging data to address these questions. Chinese-English unbalanced bilinguals read narratives for comprehension in Chinese (L1) and in English (L2). Compared with L2, reading in L1 evoked greater brain activation and recruited a more globally efficient but less clustered network organization. Regions with both increased network efficiency and enhanced brain activation in L1 reading were mostly located in the fronto-temporal reading-related network (RN), whereas regions with decreased global network efficiency, increased clustering, and more deactivation in L2 reading were identified in the default mode network (DMN). Moreover, functional network efficiency was closely associated with local brain activation, and such associations were also modulated by reading efficiency in the two languages. Our results demonstrate that an economical and integrative brain network topology is associated with efficient reading, and further reveal a dynamic association between network efficiency and local activation for both RN and DMN. These findings underscore the importance of considering interregional connectivity when interpreting local BOLD signal changes in bilingual reading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A highly conserved Poc1 protein characterized in embryos of the hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica: localization and functional studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Fourrage

    Full Text Available Poc1 (Protein of Centriole 1 proteins are highly conserved WD40 domain-containing centriole components, well characterized in the alga Chlamydomonas, the ciliated protazoan Tetrahymena, the insect Drosophila and in vertebrate cells including Xenopus and zebrafish embryos. Functions and localizations related to the centriole and ciliary axoneme have been demonstrated for Poc1 in a range of species. The vertebrate Poc1 protein has also been reported to show an additional association with mitochondria, including enrichment in the specialized "germ plasm" region of Xenopus oocytes. We have identified and characterized a highly conserved Poc1 protein in the cnidarian Clytia hemisphaerica. Clytia Poc1 mRNA was found to be strongly expressed in eggs and early embryos, showing a punctate perinuclear localization in young oocytes. Fluorescence-tagged Poc1 proteins expressed in developing embryos showed strong localization to centrioles, including basal bodies. Anti-human Poc1 antibodies decorated mitochondria in Clytia, as reported in human cells, but failed to recognise endogenous or fluorescent-tagged Clytia Poc1. Injection of specific morpholino oligonucleotides into Clytia eggs prior to fertilization to repress Poc1 mRNA translation interfered with cell division from the blastula stage, likely corresponding to when neosynthesis normally takes over from maternally supplied protein. Cell cycle lengthening and arrest were observed, phenotypes consistent with an impaired centriolar biogenesis or function. The specificity of the defects could be demonstrated by injection of synthetic Poc1 mRNA, which restored normal development. We conclude that in Clytia embryos, Poc1 has an essentially centriolar localization and function.

  9. Alteration in the Local and Global Functional Connectivity of Resting State Networks in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghahremani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Parkinson’s disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder that mainly leads to the impairment of patients’ motor function, as well as of cognition, as it progresses. This study tried to investigate the impact of PD on the resting state functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN, as well as of the entire brain. Methods Sixty patients with PD were included and compared to 60 matched normal control (NC subjects. For the local connectivity analysis, the resting state fMRI data were analyzed by seed-based correlation analyses, and then a novel persistent homology analysis was implemented to examine the connectivity from a global perspective. Results The functional connectivity of the DMN was decreased in the PD group compared to the NC, with a stronger difference in the medial prefrontal cortex. Moreover, the results of the persistent homology analysis indicated that the PD group had a more locally connected and less globally connected network compared to the NC. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the DMN is altered in PD, and persistent homology analysis, as a useful measure of the topological characteristics of the networks from a broader perspective, was able to identify changes in the large-scale functional organization of the patients’ brain.

  10. Is the center of mass (COM) a reliable parameter for the localization of brain function in fMRI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesl, G.; Braun, B.; Wiesmann, M.; Bruhns, P.; Linn, J.; Brueckmann, H.; Rau, S.; Ilmberger, J.; Ruge, M.; Tonn, J.C.; Stephan, T.

    2008-01-01

    The center of mass (COM) in functional MRI studies is defined as the center of a cerebral activation cluster. Although the COM is a well-accepted parameter for exactly localizing brain function, the reliability of COMs has not received much attention until now. Our goal was to investigate COM reliability as a function of the thresholding technique, the threshold level, and the type of COM calculation. Therefore 15 subjects were examined repeatedly using simple hand and tongue movement paradigms. Postprocessing was performed with uncorrected, corrected, and proportional thresholding as well as different threshold levels. Geometric and T-weighted COMs of left-hemispheric primary hand and tongue motor clusters were calculated. The COM variation was evaluated within and between repeated sessions depending on the different postprocessing setups. Mean COM variations over three repeated sessions varied between 1.6 mm and 9.8 mm for the hand paradigm and between 7.0 mm and 14.4 mm for the tongue task. Stringent thresholding techniques and high threshold levels were required to assess reliable results, whereas the kind of COM calculation was of lesser relevance. Thus, COM reliability cannot be presupposed; it depends strongly on the individual postprocessing techniques. This should be considered when using COMs for localizing brain function. (orig.)

  11. A plethysmographic method for measuring function in locally irradiated mouse lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, E.L.; Vojnovic, B.; Hirst, D.G.; Davies, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    A plethysmograph has been developed to measure pulmonary function in mice after single doses of X rays to both lungs. The apparatus consists of a whole-body airtight chamber fitted with a Lavalier microphone. The microphone acts as a sensitive electrical capacitance manometer converting pressure changes in the chamber into an electrical signal which is electronically processed and recorded on a pen recorder. Two parameters of lung function were simultaneously monitored, breathing rate and amplitude. Lung function has been tested in male CBA mice aged two to six months and in animals which have received graded X-ray doses to both lungs. No diurnal rhythm or age-related increase has been observed up to six months in control mice. The two lung-function parameters exhibited a dose-dependent response in irradiated lungs tested 16 weeks after irradiation; the response was reproducible in successive experiments. Respiration rate was increased above a threshold dose of 11 Gy (1100 rad), while amplitude decreased, also with a threshold at 11 Gy. These changes were observed before hisotological evidence of fibrosis became apparent and before pulmonary insufficiency led to deaths in the higher dose groups. The measurement of lung function by plethysmography is an alternative to lethality for assessing radiation damage in the lungs of small animals. The technique is non-destructive, responding to lower doses than LD 50 , and allows quantitative assessment of sequential changes in the lungs in each mouse over long post-irradiation times. (author)

  12. Influence of spermatogenesis functional state on female sterility under single local x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'nikova, N.K.; Kudritskaya, O.Yu.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment which simulated conditions of radiation exposure in X ray studies of human beings was staged to see what was the contribution of the sex-related radiosensitivity to the biologic effect from local exposure of the pelvis region. Second-generation white mice were irradiated with doses of 7.34 to 360 R. It was found that with the dose increase, the number of sterile females also increased with a concomitant reduction in the number of live spermatozoa in the seman of males, which can be considered as evidence that these two processes are interrelated

  13. IMP2 axonal localization, RNA interactome, and function in the development of axon trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preitner, Nicolas; Quan, Jie; Li, Xinmin

    2016-01-01

    RNA-based regulatory mechanisms play important roles in the development and plasticity of neural circuits and neurological disease. Developing axons provide a model well suited to the study of RNA-based regulation, and contain specific subsets of mRNAsthat are locally translated and have roles...... to strong defects in commissural axon trajectories at the midline intermediate target. These results reveal a highly distinctive axonal enrichment of IMP2, show that it interacts with a network of axon guidance-related mRNAs, and reveal that it is required for normal axon pathfinding during vertebrate...

  14. Efficient evaluation of dielectric response functions and calculations of ground and excited state properties beyond local Density Functional approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Deyu; Li, Yan; Rocca, Dario; Viet Nguyen, H.; Gygi, Francois; Galli, Giulia

    2010-03-01

    A recently developed technique to diagonalize iteratively dielectric matrices [1], is used to carry out efficient, ab-initio calculations of dispersion interactions, and excited state properties of nanostructures. In particular, we present results for the binding energies of weakly bonded molecular crystals [2], obtained at the EXX/RPA level of theory, and for absorption spectra of semiconducting clusters, obtained by an iterative solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equations [3]. We show that the ability to obtain the eigenmodes of dielectric matrices from Density Functional perturbation theory, without computing single particle excited states, greatly improves the efficiency of both EXX/RPA and many body perturbation theory [3,4] calculations and opens the way to large scale computations. [1] H. Wilson, F. Gygi and G. Galli, Phys. Rev. B , 78, 113303, 2008; and H. Wilson, D. Lu, F. Gygi and G. Galli, Phys. Rev. B, 79, 245106, 2009. [2] D. Lu, Y. Li, D. Rocca and G. Galli, Phys. Rev. Lett, 102, 206411, 2009; and Y. Li, D. Lu, V. Nguyen and G. Galli, J. Phys. Chem. C (submitted) [3] D. Rocca, D. Lu and G. Galli, submitted. [4] D. Lu, F. Gygi and G. Galli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 147601, 2008. Work was funded by DOE/Scidac DE-FC02-06ER25794 and DOE/BES DE-FG02-06ER46262.

  15. Genetic Variations in the Human G Protein-coupled Receptor Class C, Group 6, Member A (GPRC6A) Control Cell Surface Expression and Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Stine; Have, Christian Theil; Underwood, Christina Rye

    2017-01-01

    GPRC6A is a G protein-coupled receptor activated by l-amino acids, which, based on analyses of knock-out mice, has been suggested to have physiological functions in metabolism and testicular function. The human ortholog is, however, mostly retained intracellularly in contrast to the cell surface...... of the human ortholog. Genetic analyses of the 1000 genome database and the Inter99 cohort of 6,000 Danes establish the distribution of genotypes among ethnic groups, showing that the cell surface-expressed and functional variant is much more prevalent in the African population than in European and Asian...

  16. Solution of functional equations and reduction of dimension in the local energy transfer theory of incompressible, three-dimensional turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlack, M.; McComb, W. D.; Quinn, A. P.

    2001-02-01

    It is shown that the set of integrodifferential and algebraic functional equations of the local energy transfer theory may be considerably reduced in dimension for the case of isotropic turbulence. This is achieved without restricting the solution space. The basis for this is a complete analytical solution to the functional equations Q(kt,t')=H(kt,t')Q(kt',t') and H(kt,s)H(ks,t')=H(kt,t'). The solution is proved to depend only on a single function φ(kt) solely determining Q and H. Hence the dimension of both the dependent and the independent variables is reduced by one. From the latter, the corresponding two integrodifferential equations are lowered to a single integrodifferential equation for φ(kt), extended by an integral side condition on the k dependence of φ(kt). In the limit ν-->0, a partial solution to the reduced set of equations is presented in the Appendix.

  17. Local radial basis function meshless scheme for vector radiative transfer in participating media with randomly oriented axisymmetric particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Yi, Hong-Liang; Tan, He-Ping

    2016-02-20

    A local radial basis function meshless scheme (LRBFM) is developed to solve polarized radiative transfer in participating media containing randomly oriented axisymmetric particles in which radial basis functions augmented with polynomial basis are employed to construct the trial functions, and the vector radiative-transfer equation based on the discrete-ordinates approach is discretized directly by collocation method. The LRBFM belongs to a class of truly meshless methods that do not need any mesh or any numerical integration scheme. Performances of the LRBFM are verified with analytical solutions and other numerical results reported earlier in the literature via five various test cases. The predicted angular distribution of brightness temperature and Stokes vector by the LRBFM agree very well with the benchmark. It is demonstrated that the LRBFM is accurate to solve vector radiative transfer in participating media with randomly oriented axisymmetric particles.

  18. Institution of localized high-frequency electrical stimulation targeting early myocardial infarction: Effects on left ventricle function and geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genau, Michael C; Perreault, Paige E; Romito, Eva; Doviak, Heather; Logdon, Christina B; Ruble, Stephen; Spinale, Francis G

    2018-03-12

    Although strategies have focused on myocardial salvage/regeneration in the context of an acute coronary syndrome and a myocardial infarction (MI), interventions targeting the formed MI region and altering the course of the post-MI remodeling process have not been as well studied. This study tested the hypothesis that localized high-frequency stimulation instituted within a formed MI region using low-amplitude electrical pulses would favorably change the trajectory of changes in left ventricle geometry and function. At 7 days following MI induction, pigs were randomized for localized high-frequency stimulation (n = 5, 240 bpm, 0.8 V, and 0.05 ms pulses) or unstimulated (n = 6). Left ventricle geometry and function were measured at baseline (pre-MI) and at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post-MI using echocardiography. MI size at 28 days post-MI was determined by histochemical staining and planimetry. At 7 days post-MI and before randomization to localized high-frequency stimulation, left ventricular ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume was equivalent. However, when compared with 7-day post-MI values, left ventricle end-diastolic volume increased in a time-dependent manner in the MI unstimulated group, but the relative increase in left ventricle end-diastolic volume was reduced in the MI localized high-frequency stimulation group. For example, by 28 days post-MI, left ventricle end-diastolic volume increased by 32% in the MI unstimulated group but only by 12% in the MI localized high-frequency stimulation group (P stimulation group when compared with 7-day post-MI values (P stimulation approach is feasible. Second, localized stimulation modified a key parameter of adverse post-MI remodeling (dilation) and progression to heart failure. These findings demonstrate that the MI region itself is a modifiable tissue and responsive to localized electrical stimulation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Modulation of functionally localized right insular cortex activity using real-time fMRI-based neurofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D Berman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The capacity for subjects to learn to volitionally control localized brain activity using neurofeedback is actively being investigated. We aimed to investigate the ability of healthy volunteers to quickly learn to use visual feedback during real-time functional MRI (rtfMRI to modulate brain activity within their anterior right insular cortex (RIC localized during a blink suppression task, an approach of possible interest in the use of rtfMRI to reduce urges. The RIC region of interest (RIC-ROI was functionally localized using a blink suppression task, and BOLD signal changes within RIC-ROI used to create a constantly updating display fed back to the subject in the scanner. Subjects were instructed to use emotional imagery to try and increase activity within RIC-ROI during four feedback training runs (FB1–FB4. A ‘control’ run (CNTRL before training and a ‘transfer’ run (XSFR after training were performed without feedback to assess for baseline abilities and learning effects. Fourteen participants completed all neurofeedback training runs. At the group level, increased BOLD activity was seen in the anterior RIC during all the FB runs, but a significant increase in the functionally defined RIC-ROI was only attained during FB2. In atlas-defined insular cortex ROIs, significant increases were seen bilaterally during the CNTRL, FB1, FB2, and FB4 runs. Increased activity within the insular cortices did not show lateralization. Training did, however, result in a significant increase in functional connectivity between the RIC-ROI and the medial frontal gyrus when comparing FB4 to FB1. Since neurofeedback training did not lead to an increase in BOLD signal across all feedback runs, we suggest that learning to control one’s brain activity in this fashion may require longer or repeated rtfMRI training sessions.

  20. Structures of Xishan village landslide in Li County, Sichuan, China, inferred from high-frequency receiver functions of local earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Z.; Chu, R.

    2017-12-01

    Teleseismic receiver function methods are widely used to study the deep structural information beneath the seismic station. However, teleseismic waveforms are difficult to extract the high-frequency receiver function, which are insufficient to constrain the shallow structure because of the inelastic attenuation effect of the earth. In this study, using the local earthquake waveforms collected from 3 broadband stations deployed on the Xishan village landslide in Li County in Sichuan Province, we used the high-frequency receiver function method to study the shallow structure beneath the landslide. We developed the Vp-k (Vp/Vs) staking method of receiver functions, and combined with the H-k stacking and waveform inversion methods of receiver functions to invert the landslide's thickness, S-wave velocity and average Vp/Vs ratio beneath these stations, and compared the thickness with the borehole results. Our results show small-scale lateral variety of velocity structure, a 78-143m/s lower S-wave velocity in the bottom layer and 2.4-3.1 Vp/Vs ratio in the landslide. The observed high Vp/Vs ratio and low S-wave velocity in the bottom layer of the landslide are consistent with low electrical resistivity and water-rich in the bottom layer, suggesting a weak shear strength and potential danger zone in landslide h1. Our study suggest that the local earthquake receiver function can obtain the shallow velocity structural information and supply some seismic constrains for the landslide catastrophe mitigation.

  1. Path integrals for electronic densities, reactivity indices, and localization functions in quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putz, Mihai V

    2009-11-10

    The density matrix theory, the ancestor of density functional theory, provides the immediate framework for Path Integral (PI) development, allowing the canonical density be extended for the many-electronic systems through the density functional closure relationship. Yet, the use of path integral formalism for electronic density prescription presents several advantages: assures the inner quantum mechanical description of the system by parameterized paths; averages the quantum fluctuations; behaves as the propagator for time-space evolution of quantum information; resembles Schrödinger equation; allows quantum statistical description of the system through partition function computing. In this framework, four levels of path integral formalism were presented: the Feynman quantum mechanical, the semiclassical, the Feynman-Kleinert effective classical, and the Fokker-Planck non-equilibrium ones. In each case the density matrix or/and the canonical density were rigorously defined and presented. The practical specializations for quantum free and harmonic motions, for statistical high and low temperature limits, the smearing justification for the Bohr's quantum stability postulate with the paradigmatic Hydrogen atomic excursion, along the quantum chemical calculation of semiclassical electronegativity and hardness, of chemical action and Mulliken electronegativity, as well as by the Markovian generalizations of Becke-Edgecombe electronic focalization functions - all advocate for the reliability of assuming PI formalism of quantum mechanics as a versatile one, suited for analytically and/or computationally modeling of a variety of fundamental physical and chemical reactivity concepts characterizing the (density driving) many-electronic systems.

  2. Aberrant local striatal functional connectivity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhein, D.T. von; Oldehinkel, M.; Beckmann, C.F.; Oosterlaan, J.; Heslenfeld, D.; Hartman, C.A.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Franke, B.; Cools, R.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Mennes, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Task-based and resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies report attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related alterations in brain regions implicated in cortico-striatal networks. We assessed whether ADHD is associated with changes in the brain's global

  3. Aberrant local striatal functional connectivity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Rhein, Daniel; Oldehinkel, Marianne; Beckmann, Christian F.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Franke, Barbara; Cools, Roshan; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Mennes, Maarten

    Background: Task-based and resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies report attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related alterations in brain regions implicated in cortico-striatal networks. We assessed whether ADHD is associated with changes in the brain's global

  4. Development of a locally sustainable functional food based on mutandabota, a traditional food in southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mpofu, A.; Linnemann, A.R.; Sybesma, W.; Kort, R.; Nout, M.J.R.; Smid, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    A probiotic dairy product was developed on the basis of a traditional dish called mutandabota to enable resource-poor populations in southern Africa to benefit from a functional food. Mutandabota is widely consumed in rural southern Africa, making it an ideal food matrix to carry probiotics. First,

  5. Path Integrals for Electronic Densities, Reactivity Indices, and Localization Functions in Quantum Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai V. Putz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The density matrix theory, the ancestor of density functional theory, provides the immediate framework for Path Integral (PI development, allowing the canonical density be extended for the many-electronic systems through the density functional closure relationship. Yet, the use of path integral formalism for electronic density prescription presents several advantages: assures the inner quantum mechanical description of the system by parameterized paths; averages the quantum fluctuations; behaves as the propagator for time-space evolution of quantum information; resembles Schrödinger equation; allows quantum statistical description of the system through partition function computing. In this framework, four levels of path integral formalism were presented: the Feynman quantum mechanical, the semiclassical, the Feynman-Kleinert effective classical, and the Fokker-Planck non-equilibrium ones. In each case the density matrix or/and the canonical density were rigorously defined and presented. The practical specializations for quantum free and harmonic motions, for statistical high and low temperature limits, the smearing justification for the Bohr’s quantum stability postulate with the paradigmatic Hydrogen atomic excursion, along the quantum chemical calculation of semiclassical electronegativity and hardness, of chemical action and Mulliken electronegativity, as well as by the Markovian generalizations of Becke-Edgecombe electronic focalization functions – all advocate for the reliability of assuming PI formalism of quantum mechanics as a versatile one, suited for analytically and/or computationally modeling of a variety of fundamental physical and chemical reactivity concepts characterizing the (density driving many-electronic systems.

  6. Science Inquiry into Local Animals: Structure and Function Explored through Model Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Tallakson, Denise A.; Glascock, Alex L.; Chao, Astoria

    2015-01-01

    This article describes an arts- and spatial thinking skill--integrated inquiry project applied to life science concepts from the Next Generation Science Standards for fourth grade students that focuses on two unifying or crosscutting themes: (1) structure (or "form") and function and (2) use of models. Students made observations and…

  7. The Effects of a Local Negative Feedback Function between Choice and Relative Reinforcer Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Michael; Elliffe, Douglas; Marr, M. Jackson

    2010-01-01

    Four pigeons were trained on two-key concurrent variable-interval schedules with no changeover delay. In Phase 1, relative reinforcers on the two alternatives were varied over five conditions from 0.1 to 0.9. In Phases 2 and 3, we instituted a molar feedback function between relative choice in an interreinforcer interval and the probability of…

  8. Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) MyD88 and Tollip: intracellular localization and signal transduction function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Wei; Wang, Zheng; Mo, Ze-Quan; Li, Xia; Luo, Xiao-Chun; Dan, Xue-Ming; Li, An-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and Toll-interacting protein (Tollip) are two important regulatory proteins of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways. In this paper, a Tollip sequence of grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was identified and the signal transduction functions of Tollip and MyD88 were studied. The full length of E. coioides Tollip (EcTollip) cDNA with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1734 nucleotides encoded a putative protein of 274 amino acid residues. The EcTollip protein had conservative domains with mammalian homologous proteins, and high identity (78%-95%) with other vertebrates. MyD88 and Tollip were distributed in the HeLa cytoplasm in a highly condensed form. Over-expression of MyD88 could activate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and its function was dependent on the death domain and ID domain on the N-terminal. Some important functional sites of mammalian MyD88 also affected fish MyD88 signal transduction. Tollip impaired NF-κB signals activated by MyD88, and its activity was dependent on the coupling of ubiquitin to the endoplasmic reticulum degradation (CUE) domain on the C-terminal. These results suggest that MyD88 and Tollip of fish and mammals are conservative on function during evolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Wien2wannier: From linearized augmented plane waves to maximally localized Wannier functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jan; Arita, R.; Wissgott, Ph.; Toschi, A.; Ikeda, H.; Held, K.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 181, č. 11 (2010), s. 1888-1895 ISSN 0010-4655 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Wannier function * spin-orbit couping Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.300, year: 2010

  10. NuMA localization, stability, and function in spindle orientation involve 4.1 and Cdk1 interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldin, Lindsey; Poulson, Nicholas D; Foote, Henry P; Lechler, Terry

    2013-12-01

    The epidermis is a multilayered epithelium that requires asymmetric divisions for stratification. A conserved cortical protein complex, including LGN, nuclear mitotic apparatus (NuMA), and dynein/dynactin, plays a key role in establishing proper spindle orientation during asymmetric divisions. The requirements for the cortical recruitment of these proteins, however, remain unclear. In this work, we show that NuMA is required to recruit dynactin to the cell cortex of keratinocytes. NuMA's cortical recruitment requires LGN; however, LGN interactions are not sufficient for this localization. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we find that the 4.1-binding domain of NuMA is important for stabilizing its interaction with the cell cortex. This is functionally important, as loss of 4.1/NuMA interaction results in spindle orientation defects, using two distinct assays. Furthermore, we observe an increase in cortical NuMA localization as cells enter anaphase. Inhibition of Cdk1 or mutation of a single residue in NuMA mimics this effect. NuMA's anaphase localization is independent of LGN and 4.1 interactions, revealing two distinct mechanisms responsible for NuMA cortical recruitment at different stages of mitosis. This work highlights the complexity of NuMA localization and reveals the importance of NuMA cortical stability for productive force generation during spindle orientation.

  11. Processes of Localization and Institutionalization of local Managers in Economic Functions in Danish Owned Subsidiaries in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania Around the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    This study identifies interplay between the localization processes and formal as well as informal institutions in a specific context. Particularly the changes over time in institutions and localization processes are in focus. A longitudinal study of institutional changes in local management has b...

  12. LoCo: a novel main chain scoring function for protein structure prediction based on local coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samudrala Ram

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful protein structure prediction requires accurate low-resolution scoring functions so that protein main chain conformations that are close to the native can be identified. Once that is accomplished, a more detailed and time-consuming treatment to produce all-atom models can be undertaken. The earliest low-resolution scoring used simple distance-based "contact potentials," but more recently, the relative orientations of interacting amino acids have been taken into account to improve performance. Results We developed a new knowledge-based scoring function, LoCo, that locates the interaction partners of each individual residue within a local coordinate system based only on the position of its main chain N, Cα and C atoms. LoCo was trained on a large set of experimentally determined structures and optimized using standard sets of modeled structures, or "decoys." No structure used to train or optimize the function was included among those used to test it. When tested against 29 other published main chain functions on a group of 77 commonly used decoy sets, our function outperformed all others in Cα RMSD rank of the best-scoring decoy, with statistically significant p-values Conclusions Our function demonstrates an unmatched combination of accuracy, speed, and simplicity and shows excellent promise for protein structure prediction. Broader applications may include protein-protein interactions and protein design.

  13. Identification of two functional nuclear localization signals in the capsid protein of duck circovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Qi-Wang; Zou, Jin-Feng; Wang, Xin; Sun, Ya-Ni; Gao, Ji-Ming; Xie, Zhi-Jing; Wang, Yu; Zhu, Yan-Li; Jiang, Shi-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The capsid protein (CP) of duck circovirus (DuCV) is the major immunogenic protein and has a high proportion of arginine residues concentrated at the N terminus of the protein, which inhibits efficient mRNA translation in prokaryotic expression systems. In this study, we investigated the subcellular distribution of DuCV CP expressed via recombinant baculoviruses in Sf9 cells and the DNA binding activities of the truncated recombinant DuCV CPs. The results showed that two independent bipartite nuclear localization signals (NLSs) situated at N-terminal 1–17 and 18–36 amino acid residue of the CP. Moreover, two expression level regulatory signals (ELRSs) and two DNA binding signals (DBSs) were also mapped to the N terminus of the protein and overlapped with the two NLSs. The ability of CP to bind DNA, coupled with the karyophilic nature of this protein, strongly suggests that it may be responsible for nuclear targeting of the viral genome.

  14. Role of lymphotoxin and homeostatic chemokines in the development and function of local lymphoid tissues in the respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Carragher, Damian; Randall, Troy D

    2007-01-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs are strategically placed to recruit locally activated antigen presenting cells (APCs) as well as naïve, recirculating T and B cells. The structure of secondary lymphoid organs - separated B and T zones, populations of specialized stromal cells, high endothelial venules and lymphatic vessles - has also evolved to maximize encounters between APCs and lymphocytes and to facilitate the expansion and differentiation of antigen-stimulated T and B cells. Many of the general mechanisms that govern the development and organization of secondary lymphoid organs have been identified over the last decade. However, the specific cellular and molecular interactions involved in the development and organization of each secondary lymphoid organ are slightly different and probably reflect the cell types available at that time and location. Here we review the mechanisms involved in the development, organization and function of local lymphoid tissues in the respiratory tract, including Nasal Associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT) and inducible Bronchus Associated Lymphoid Tissue (iBALT).

  15. Functional_Category Shift, with particular attention to Classifying, Qualifying and Localizing Modifiers in the NP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    for grammatical categories (or: a taxonomy of Propositional Acts). Journal of Semantics 7-3, 245-279.   Heynderickx, P. 2001. Relationele Adjectieven in het Nederlands. Antwerpen: Lessius University College.    Horn, N. Thorup, H. McGhee and J. Rijkhoff. 2014. Relationelle adjektiver på dansk. Occasional Papers...... an interpersonal function and it is characterized by a distinct set of grammatical properties: - SPEECH ACT. Form: sentence (or rather: a linguistic unit that is the result of a ‘discourse act’ in FDG); - THETICAL ACT. Form: thetical expression (‘discourse marker’, ‘Extra-Clausal Constituent’ in Dik’s FG......); - PROPOSITIONAL ACT. Form: predicate - NP - modifier; - PRAGMATIC ACT. Form: Topic/Focus marked constituent.      The main goal of this paper is to investigate FUNCTIONAL_CATEGORY SHIFT involving formal counterparts of propositional acts of MODIFICATION (Croft 1990). At least five different SUBACTS...

  16. Localization of acid hydrolases in protoplasts. Examination of the proposed lysosomal function of the mature vacuole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, H.C.; Wagner, G.J.; Siegelman, H.W.

    1977-06-01

    The development of techniques to isolate and purify relatively large quantities of intact vacuoles from mature tissues permits direct biochemical analysis of this ubiquitous mature plant cell organelle. Vacuoles and a fraction enriched in soluble cytoplasmic constituents were quantitatively prepared from Hippeastrum flower petal protoplasts. Vacuolar lysate and soluble cytoplasmic fractions were examined for acid hydrolase activities commonly associated with animal lysosomes, and pH optima were determined. Esterase, protease, carboxypeptidase, ..beta..-galactosidase, ..cap alpha..-glycosidase and ..beta..-glycosidase, not found in the vacuole lysate fraction, were components of the soluble cytoplasmic fraction. Acid phosphatase, RNase and DNase were present in both fractions. Vacuolar enzyme activities were also examined as a function of flower development from bud through senescent stages. The data obtained are not consistent with the concept that the mature plant cell vacuole functions as a generalized lysosome.

  17. Influence of preoperative (hyperthermic) radiochemotherapy on manometric anal sphincter function in locally advanced rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzmann, J.; Huenerbein, M.; Slisow, W.; Rau, B.; Gellermann, J.; Wust, P.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: preoperative radiochemotherapy (RCT) followed by curative surgery is a well-accepted therapeutic option in the treatment of advanced rectal cancer. Usually, the anal sphincter is located in the irradiation area of a preoperative RCT regime. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of preoperative RCT on anal sphincter function. Patients and methods: between 1994 and 2000, 102 patients with rectal cancer stage uT3/uT4 were analyzed. All patients underwent radiotherapy with 45 Gy (5 x 1.8 Gy) including two cycles of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/leucovorin (folinic acid) chemotherapy. 46 patients were treated additionally with up to five sessions of locoregional hyperthermia. The sphincter function was analyzed by perfusion manometry before preoperative therapy and 4 weeks after pretreatment had been finished. For statistics, the Wilcoxon signed rank test and mann-whitney U-test were used (SPSS 9.0 for Windows trademark). Results: the mean value of all 102 patients showed a significant reduction of the mean maximum resting pressure from 97 to 89 mmHg (p = 0.02). For the mean maximal squeeze pressure no significant difference could be shown (178 vs. 176 mmHg). For patients with distal (≤ 7.5 cm from anal verge) tumors the difference was highly significant (92 vs. 79 mmHg). Locoregional hyperthermia had no additional influence on sphincter function. Conclusion: preoperative RCT impairs sphincter function especially in patients with distal tumors. In addition, RCT could have a negative influence on the continence of patients who received sphincter-preserving surgery. (orig.) [de

  18. Intracellular localization of a group II chaperonin indicates a membrane-related function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan D.; Kagawa, Hiromi K.; Paavola, Chad D.; McMillan, R. Andrew; Howard, Jeanie; Jahnke, Linda; Lavin, Colleen; Embaye, Tsegereda; Henze, Christopher E.

    2003-01-01

    Chaperonins are protein complexes that are believed to function as part of a protein folding system in the cytoplasm of the cell. We observed, however, that the group II chaperonins known as rosettasomes in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae, are not cytoplasmic but membrane associated. This association was observed in cultures grown at 60 degrees C and 76 degrees C or heat-shocked at 85 degrees C by using immunofluorescence microscopy and in thick sections of rapidly frozen cells grown at 76 degrees C by using immunogold electron microscopy. We observed that increased abundance of rosettasomes after heat shock correlated with decreased membrane permeability at lethal temperature (92 degrees C). This change in permeability was not seen in cells heat-shocked in the presence of the amino acid analogue azetidine 2-carboxylic acid, indicating functional protein synthesis influences permeability. Azetidine experiments also indicated that observed heat-induced changes in lipid composition in S. shibatae could not account for changes in membrane permeability. Rosettasomes purified from cultures grown at 60 degrees C and 76 degrees C or heat-shocked at 85 degrees C bind to liposomes made from either the bipolar tetraether lipids of Sulfolobus or a variety of artificial lipid mixtures. The presence of rosettasomes did not significantly change the transition temperature of liposomes, as indicated by differential scanning calorimetry, or the proton permeability of liposomes, as indicated by pyranine fluorescence. We propose that these group II chaperonins function as a structural element in the natural membrane based on their intracellular location, the correlation between their functional abundance and membrane permeability, and their potential distribution on the membrane surface.

  19. Localization of functioning parathyroid adenomas by SPECT/CT. Report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruzzo C, Rossana; Amaral P, Horacio; Rossi F, Ricardo; Morales K, Barbara; Martinez G, M.Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography (SPECT/CT), integrates a gamma camera and a CT scan and is effective for the location of parathyroid adenomas. We report a 55 years old male and a 80 years old female with primary hyperparathyroidism. In both cases the 99m Tc-Sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphy detected a functioning nodule whose presence was confirmed with SPECT/CT

  20. A 5-Year Investigation of Children's Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Radiation Therapy for Localized Ependymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netson, Kelli L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu Shengjie; Xiong Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies have the potential to preserve cognitive outcomes in children with ependymoma; however, functional behavior remains uninvestigated. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intelligence quotient (IQ) and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years after irradiation in children diagnosed with ependymoma. Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of 123 children with intracranial ependymoma. Mean age at irradiation was 4.60 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.85-5.35). Serial neurocognitive evaluations, including an age-appropriate IQ measure and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), were completed before irradiation, 6 months after treatment, and annually for 5 years. A total of 579 neurocognitive evaluations were included in these analyses. Results: Baseline IQ and VABS were below normative means (P<.05), although within the average range. Linear mixed models revealed stable IQ and VABS across the follow-up period, except for the VABS Communication Index, which declined significantly (P=.015). Annual change in IQ (−.04 points) did not correlate with annual change in VABS (−.90 to +.44 points). Clinical factors associated with poorer baseline performance (P<.05) included preirradiation chemotherapy, cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement, number and extent of surgical resections, and younger age at treatment. No clinical factors significantly affected the rate of change in scores. Conclusions: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies provided relative sparing of functional outcomes including IQ and adaptive behaviors, even in very young children. Communication skills remained vulnerable and should be the target of preventive and rehabilitative interventions.

  1. An efficient method for calculating maxima of symmetric homogeneous functions of orthogonal matrices: Applications to localized occupied orbitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subotnik, Joseph E.; Shao, Yihan; Liang, WanZhen; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2004-06-04

    The authors present here three new algorithms (one purely iterative and two DIIS-like) to compute maxima of symmetric homogeneous functions of orthogonal matrices. These algorithms revolve around the mathematical lemma that, given an invertible matrix A, the function f(U) = Tr(AU) has exactly one local (and global) maximum for U special orthogonal (i.e. UU{sup T} = 1 and det(U) = 1). This is proved in the appendix. One application of these algorithms is the computation of localized orbitals, including, for example, Boys and Edmiston-Reudenberg (ER) orbitals. The Boys orbitals are defined as the set of orthonormal orbitals which, for a given vector space of orbitals, maximize the sum of the distances between orbital centers. The ER orbitals maximize total self-interaction energy. The algorithm presented here computes Boys orbitals roughly as fast as the traditional method (Jacobi sweeps), while, for large systems, it finds ER orbitals potentially much more quickly than traditional Jacobi sweeps. In fact, the required time for convergence of the algorithm scales quadratically in the region of a few hundred basis functions (though cubicly asymptotically), while Jacobi sweeps for the ER orbitals traditionally scale as the number of occupied orbitals to the fifth power. As an example of the utility of the method, they provide the ER orbitals of nitrated and nitrosated benzene, and they discuss the chemical implications.

  2. Chebyshev polynomial functions based locally recurrent neuro-fuzzy information system for prediction of financial and energy market data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Parida

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Chebyshev polynomial functions based locally recurrent neuro-fuzzy information system is presented for the prediction and analysis of financial and electrical energy market data. The normally used TSK-type feedforward fuzzy neural network is unable to take the full advantage of the use of the linear fuzzy rule base in accurate input–output mapping and hence the consequent part of the rule base is made nonlinear using polynomial or arithmetic basis functions. Further the Chebyshev polynomial functions provide an expanded nonlinear transformation to the input space thereby increasing its dimension for capturing the nonlinearities and chaotic variations in financial or energy market data streams. Also the locally recurrent neuro-fuzzy information system (LRNFIS includes feedback loops both at the firing strength layer and the output layer to allow signal flow both in forward and backward directions, thereby making the LRNFIS mimic a dynamic system that provides fast convergence and accuracy in predicting time series fluctuations. Instead of using forward and backward least mean square (FBLMS learning algorithm, an improved Firefly-Harmony search (IFFHS learning algorithm is used to estimate the parameters of the consequent part and feedback loop parameters for better stability and convergence. Several real world financial and energy market time series databases are used for performance validation of the proposed LRNFIS model.

  3. The effect of phosphorylation on the salt-tolerance-related functions of the soybean protein PM18, a member of the group-3 LEA protein family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Yang, Meiyan; Cheng, Hua; Sun, Nan; Liu, Simu; Li, Shuiming; Wang, Yong; Zheng, Yizhi; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2017-11-01

    Enzymatically driven post-translated modifications (PTMs) usually happen within the intrinsically disordered regions of a target protein and can modulate variety of protein functions. Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are a family of the plant intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Despite their important roles in plant stress response, there is currently limited knowledge on the presence and functional and structural effects of phosphorylation on LEA proteins. In this study, we identified three phosphorylation sites (Ser 90 , Tyr 136 , and Thr 266 ) in the soybean PM18 protein that belongs to the group-3 LEA proteins. In yeast expression system, PM18 protein increased the salt tolerance of yeast, and the phosphorylation of this protein further enhanced its protective function. Further analysis revealed that Ser 90 and Tyr 136 are more important than Thr 266 , and these two sites might work cooperatively in regulating the salt resistance function of PM18. The circular dichroism analysis showed that PM18 protein was disordered in aqueous media, and phosphorylation did not affect the disordered status of this protein. However, phosphorylation promoted formation of more helical structure in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or trifluoroethanol (TFE). Furthermore, in dedicated in vitro experiments, phosphorylated PM18 protein was able to better protect lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the inactivation induced by the freeze-thaw cycles than its un- or dephosphorylated forms. All these data indicate that phosphorylation may have regulatory effects on the stress-tolerance-related function of LEA proteins. Therefore, further studies are needed to shed more light on functional and structural roles of phosphorylation in LEA proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Smart Control of Air Climatization System in Function on the Values of Mean Local Radiant Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cannistraro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hygrothermal comfort indoor conditions are defined as: those environmental conditions in which an individual exposed, expresses a state of satisfaction. These conditions cannot always be achieved anywhere in an optimal way and economically; in some cases they can be obtained only in work environments specific areas. This could be explained because of air conditioning systems designing is generally performed both on the basis of the fundamental parameters’ average values, such as temperature, velocity and relative humidity (Ta, va e φa and derived parameters such as operating temperature and mean radiant one (Top eTmr. However, in some specific cases - large open-spaces or in case of radiating surfaces - the descriptors defining indoor comfort conditions, based on average values, do not provide the optimum values required during the air conditioning systems design phase. This is largely due to the variability of real environmental parameters values compared to the average ones taken as input in the calculation. The results obtained in previous scientific papers on the thermal comfort have been the driving element of this work. It offers a simple, original and clever way of thinking about the new domotic systems for air conditioning, based on the “local mean radiant temperature.” This is a very important parameter when one wants to analyze comfort in environments characterized by the presence of radiating surfaces, as will be seen hereinafter. In order to take into account the effects of radiative exchanges in the open-space workplace, where any occupant may find themselves in different temperature and humidity conditions, this paper proposes an action on the domotic climate control, with ducts and vents air distribution placed in different zones. Comparisons were performed between the parameters values representing the punctual thermal comfort, with the Predicted Mean Vote PMV, in an environment marked by radiating surfaces (i

  5. Functional community structure of African monodominantGilbertiodendron dewevreiforest influenced by local environmental filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley, Elizabeth; Verbeeck, Hans; Hufkens, Koen; Van de Perre, Frederik; Doetterl, Sebastian; Baert, Geert; Beeckman, Hans; Boeckx, Pascal; Huygens, Dries

    2017-01-01

    Monodominant patches of forest dominated by Gilbertiodendron dewevrei are commonly found in central African tropical forests, alongside forests with high species diversity. Although these forests are generally found sparsely distributed along rivers, their occurrence is not thought to be (clearly) driven by edaphic conditions but rather by trait combinations of G. dewevrei that aid in achieving monodominance. Functional community structure between these monodominant and mixed forests has, however, not yet been compared. Additionally, little is known about nondominant species in the monodominant forest community. These two topics are addressed in this study. We investigate the functional community structure of 10 one-hectare plots of monodominant and mixed forests in a central region of the Congo basin, in DR Congo. Thirteen leaf and wood traits are measured, covering 95% (basal area weighted) of all species present in the plots, including leaf nutrient contents, leaf isotopic compositions, specific leaf area, wood density, and vessel anatomy. The trait-based assessment of G. dewevrei shows an ensemble of traits related to water use and transport that could be favorable for its location near forest rivers. Moreover, indications have been found for N and P limitations in the monodominant forest, possibly related to ectomycorrhizal associations formed with G. dewevrei . Reduced leaf N and P contents are found at the community level for the monodominant forest and for different nondominant groups, as compared to those in the mixed forest. In summary, this work shows that environmental filtering does prevail in the monodominant G. dewevrei forest, leading to lower functional diversity in this forest type, with the dominant species showing beneficial traits related to its common riverine locations and with reduced soil N and P availability found in this environment, both coregulating the tree community assembly.

  6. Human 2'-phosphodiesterase localizes to the mitochondrial matrix with a putative function in mitochondrial RNA turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jesper Buchhave; Andersen, Kasper Røjkjær; Kjær, Karina Hansen

    2011-01-01

    . Interestingly, 2′-PDE shares both functionally and structurally characteristics with the CCR4-type exonuclease–endonuclease–phosphatase family of deadenylases. Here we show that 2′-PDE locates to the mitochondrial matrix of human cells, and comprise an active 3′–5′ exoribonuclease exhibiting a preference...... for oligo-adenosine RNA like canonical cytoplasmic deadenylases. Furthermore, we document a marked negative association between 2′-PDE and mitochondrial mRNA levels following siRNA-directed knockdown and plasmid-mediated overexpression, respectively. The results indicate that 2′-PDE, apart from playing...

  7. Volume averaging: Local and nonlocal closures using a Green’s function approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brian D.; Valdés-Parada, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    Modeling transport phenomena in discretely hierarchical systems can be carried out using any number of upscaling techniques. In this paper, we revisit the method of volume averaging as a technique to pass from a microscopic level of description to a macroscopic one. Our focus is primarily on developing a more consistent and rigorous foundation for the relation between the microscale and averaged levels of description. We have put a particular focus on (1) carefully establishing statistical representations of the length scales used in volume averaging, (2) developing a time-space nonlocal closure scheme with as few assumptions and constraints as are possible, and (3) carefully identifying a sequence of simplifications (in terms of scaling postulates) that explain the conditions for which various upscaled models are valid. Although the approach is general for linear differential equations, we upscale the problem of linear convective diffusion as an example to help keep the discussion from becoming overly abstract. In our efforts, we have also revisited the concept of a closure variable, and explain how closure variables can be based on an integral formulation in terms of Green’s functions. In such a framework, a closure variable then represents the integration (in time and space) of the associated Green’s functions that describe the influence of the average sources over the spatial deviations. The approach using Green’s functions has utility not only in formalizing the method of volume averaging, but by clearly identifying how the method can be extended to transient and time or space nonlocal formulations. In addition to formalizing the upscaling process using Green’s functions, we also discuss the upscaling process itself in some detail to help foster improved understanding of how the process works. Discussion about the role of scaling postulates in the upscaling process is provided, and poised, whenever possible, in terms of measurable properties of (1) the

  8. Habitat connectivity and local conditions shape taxonomic and functional diversity of arthropods on green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaker, Sonja; Obrist, Martin Karl; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Moretti, Marco

    2017-05-01

    Increasing development of urban environments creates high pressure on green spaces with potential negative impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services. There is growing evidence that green roofs - rooftops covered with vegetation - can contribute mitigate the loss of urban green spaces by providing new habitats for numerous arthropod species. Whether green roofs can contribute to enhance taxonomic and functional diversity and increase connectivity across urbanized areas remains, however, largely unknown. Furthermore, only limited information is available on how environmental conditions shape green roof arthropod communities. We investigated the community composition of arthropods (Apidae, Curculionidae, Araneae and Carabidae) on 40 green roofs and 40 green sites at ground level in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. We assessed how the site's environmental variables (such as area, height, vegetation, substrate and connectivity among sites) affect species richness and functional diversity using generalized linear models. We used an extension of co-inertia analysis (RLQ) and fourth-corner analysis to highlight the mechanism underlying community assemblages across taxonomic groups on green roof and ground communities. Species richness was higher at ground-level sites, while no difference in functional diversity was found between green roofs and ground sites. Green roof arthropod diversity increased with higher connectivity and plant species richness, irrespective of substrate depth, height and area of green roofs. The species trait analysis reviewed the mechanisms related to the environmental predictors that shape the species assemblages of the different taxa at ground and roof sites. Our study shows the important contribution of green roofs in maintaining high functional diversity of arthropod communities across different taxonomic groups, despite their lower species richness compared with ground sites. Species communities on green roofs revealed to be characterized

  9. The focus of family members' functioning in the acute phase of traumatic coma; Part Two: Protecting from suffering and protecting what remains to rebuild life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaeghe, S.T.L.; van Zuuren, F.J.; Defloor, T.; Duijnstee, M.S.H.; Grypdonck, M.H.F.

    2010-01-01

    Aims.  The identification and description of the basic psychological process linked with the focus of family members’ functioning during the acute phase of traumatic coma. Background.  Earlier research learned that hope is a core category in coping with traumatic coma. Hope seems to be the drive to

  10. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase function at very early symbiont perception: a local nodulation control under stress conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Germán; Muñoz, Nacira; Alvarado-Affantranger, Xochitl; Saavedra, Laura; Davidenco, Vanina; Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita; Estrada-Navarrete, Georgina; Sánchez, Federico; Lascano, Ramiro

    2018-04-09

    Root hair curling is an early and essential morphological change required for the success of the symbiotic interaction between legumes and rhizobia. At this stage rhizobia grow as an infection thread within root hairs and are internalized into the plant cells by endocytosis, where the PI3K enzyme plays important roles. Previous observations show that stress conditions affect early stages of the symbiotic interaction, from 2 to 30 min post-inoculation, which we term as very early host responses, and affect symbiosis establishment. Herein, we demonstrated the relevance of the very early host responses for the symbiotic interaction. PI3K and the NADPH oxidase complex are found to have key roles in the microsymbiont recognition response, modulating the apoplastic and intracellular/endosomal ROS induction in root hairs. Interestingly, compared with soybean mutant plants that do not perceive the symbiont, we demonstrated that the very early symbiont perception under sublethal saline stress conditions induced root hair death. Together, these results highlight not only the importance of the very early host-responses on later stages of the symbiont interaction, but also suggest that they act as a mechanism for local control of nodulation capacity, prior to the abortion of the infection thread, preventing the allocation of resources/energy for nodule formation under unfavorable environmental conditions.

  11. Functional characterization of water transport and cellular localization of three aquaporin paralogs in the salmonid intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Steffen S; Olesen, Jesper H; Bedal, Konstanze

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal water absorption is greatly enhanced in salmonids upon acclimation from freshwater (FW) to seawater (SW); however, the molecular mechanism for water transport is unknown. We conducted a pharmacological characterization of water absorption in the rainbow trout intestine along with an in......Intestinal water absorption is greatly enhanced in salmonids upon acclimation from freshwater (FW) to seawater (SW); however, the molecular mechanism for water transport is unknown. We conducted a pharmacological characterization of water absorption in the rainbow trout intestine along...... with an investigation of the distribution and cellular localization of three aquaporins (Aqp1aa, -1ab, and -8ab) in pyloric caeca, middle (M), and posterior (P) intestine of the Atlantic salmon. In vitro iso-osmotic water absorption (J(v)) was higher in SW than FW-trout and was inhibited by (mmol L(-1)): 0.1 KCN (41......%), 0.1 ouabain (72%), and 0.1 bumetanide (82%) suggesting that active transport, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and Na(+), K(+), 2Cl(-)-co-transport are involved in establishing the driving gradient for water transport. J(v) was also inhibited by 1 mmol L(-1) HgCl(2), serosally (23% in M and 44% in P), mucosally...

  12. Personal meaning in relation to daily functioning of a patient in physical therapy practice: narratives of a patient, a family member, and physical therapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosting, Ellen; Dronkers, Jaap; Hoogeboom, Thomas; van Meeteren, Nico; Speelman, Willem Marie

    2018-05-01

    To get insight into personal meaning of a person involved in a physical therapy intervention. Mrs. A, a 76-year-old woman is referred to a physical therapist (PT) for assessment of functioning and training before total hip arthroplasty (THA). The patient, her daughter, and PT were asked to write a story about their daily life. Stories were analyzed according to the narrative scheme based on a method to find meaning in daily life, which consists of four phases: 1. Motivation; 2. Competences; 3. Performance; and 4. Mrs. A was mainly motivated by her will to do enjoyable social activities and stay independent. Although she tried her best to undertake activities (performance) that made her proud (evaluation), her pain and physical limitations were anti-competences that motivated her to attend healthcare. Although the PT seemed to be aware of personal participation goals, her main motivation was to improve and evaluate functions and activities. The daughter was motivated by good relationships and did not see herself as informal caregiver. The narrative method was a valuable tool to clarify motivations, competences, and values in the process of creating personal meaning related to functioning. This knowledge could help caregivers in applying patient-centered goal-setting and treatment on a participation level. Implications for rehabilitation Personal meaning of people's functioning within their daily context can be clarified from daily life stories. This case report demonstrates that motivations and goals may differ between patient and therapist; the PT seems to focus on improving and evaluating functions and activities, while the patient seems to focus her motivations and personal meaning on participation. This approach may help in patient-centered goal-setting at the level of activities and participation.

  13. WDR12, a Member of Nucleolar PeBoW-Complex, Is Up-Regulated in Failing Hearts and Causes Deterioration of Cardiac Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Mari Moilanen

    Full Text Available In a recent genome-wide association study, WD-repeat domain 12 (WDR12 was associated with early-onset myocardial infarction (MI. However, the function of WDR12 in the heart is unknown.We characterized cardiac expression of WDR12, used adenovirus-mediated WDR12 gene delivery to examine effects of WDR12 on left ventricular (LV remodeling, and analyzed relationship between MI associated WDR12 allele and cardiac function in human subjects. LV WDR12 protein levels were increased in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and rats post-infarction. In normal adult rat hearts, WDR12 gene delivery into the anterior wall of the LV decreased interventricular septum diastolic and systolic thickness and increased the diastolic and systolic diameters of the LV. Moreover, LV ejection fraction (9.1%, P<0.05 and fractional shortening (12.2%, P<0.05 were declined. The adverse effects of WDR12 gene delivery on cardiac function were associated with decreased cellular proliferation, activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/heat shock protein (HSP 27 pathway, and increased protein levels of Block of proliferation 1 (BOP1, essential for ribosome biogenesis. Post-infarction WDR12 gene delivery decreased E/A ratio (32%, P<0.05 suggesting worsening of diastolic function. In human subjects, MI associated WDR12 allele was associated significantly with diastolic dysfunction and left atrial size.WDR12 triggers distinct deterioration of cardiac function in adult rat heart and the MI associated WDR12 variant is associated with diastolic dysfunction in human subjects.

  14. Cloning and characterization of the biosynthetic gene cluster of 16-membered macrolide antibiotic FD-891: involvement of a dual functional cytochrome P450 monooxygenase catalyzing epoxidation and hydroxylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Fumitaka; Motegi, Atsushi; Mizoue, Kazutoshi; Eguchi, Tadashi

    2010-07-26

    FD-891 is a 16-membered cytotoxic antibiotic macrolide that is especially active against human leukemia such as HL-60 and Jurkat cells. We identified the FD-891 biosynthetic (gfs) gene cluster from the producer Streptomyces graminofaciens A-8890 by using typical modular type I polyketide synthase (PKS) genes as probes. The gfs gene cluster contained five typical modular type I PKS genes (gfsA, B, C, D, and E), a cytochrome P450 gene (gfsF), a methyltransferase gene (gfsG), and a regulator gene (gfsR). The gene organization of PKSs agreed well with the basic polyketide skeleton of FD-891 including the oxidation states and alpha-alkyl substituent determined by the substrate specificities of the acyltransferase (AT) domains. To clarify the involvement of the gfs genes in the FD-891 biosynthesis, the P450 gfsF gene was inactivated; this resulted in the loss of FD-891 production. Instead, the gfsF gene-disrupted mutant accumulated a novel FD-891 analogue 25-O-methyl-FD-892, which lacked the epoxide and the hydroxyl group of FD-891. Furthermore, the recombinant GfsF enzyme coexpressed with putidaredoxin and putidaredoxin reductase converted 25-O-methyl-FD-892 into FD-891. In the course of the GfsF reaction, 10-deoxy-FD-891 was isolated as an enzymatic reaction intermediate, which was also converted into FD-891 by GfsF. Therefore, it was clearly found that the cytochrome P450 GfsF catalyzes epoxidation and hydroxylation in a stepwise manner in the FD-891 biosynthesis. These results clearly confirmed that the identified gfs genes are responsible for the biosynthesis of FD-891 in S. graminofaciens.

  15. The effect of sleep restriction treatment on quality of sleep, sleep medication intake, and daytime function among the elderly who were members of Shiraz Jahandidegan canter in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankeh, Hamidreza; Ahmadi, Shekoofe; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Fallahi, Masoud; Khodaie, Mohammadreza; Alipour, Fardin

    2013-03-01

    Studies showed that poor quality of sleep is a common problem among the elderly. Because of drug complications and side effects such as drug dependency and resistance and decrease of sleep depth in long-term intake of sleep medication, cognitive-behavior therapy including sleep restriction therapy which does not cause these problems is more considered. This is a quasi-experimental study on 38 elderly who were members of jahandidegan canter in Shiraz. The subjects were selected according to the inclusion criteria and were divided into experimental and control groups. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used for evaluation of sleep quality. A 4 week sleep restriction therapy was implemented for experimental group and finally both groups were compared. The data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, independent and dependent t-tests in significance level of 0.05. Mean sleep quality decreased from 14.21 to 11.26 after the intervention in the experimental group while it was 13 before intervention and decreased to 12.78 after the intervention in the control group. Independent t-test showed a significant difference after the intervention (P = 0.038). Mean of sleep medication intake and daytime dysfunction after intervention were 0.947, 1.94 in experimental group and 0.894, 1.63 in control group respectively, which showed no significant difference (P = 0.903, P = 0.272). This study indicated that sleep restriction therapy can improve quality of sleep, but the amount of sleep medication intake and daytime dysfunction did not show a significant difference after intervention.

  16. Localization and function of KLF4 in cytoplasm of vascular smooth muscle cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yan; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Xin-hua; Nie, Chan-juan; Li, Yong-hui; Wen, Jin-kun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •PDGF-BB prompts the translocation of KLF4 to the cytoplasm. •PDGF-BB promotes interaction between KLF4 and actin in the cytoplasm. •Phosphorylation and SUMOylation of KLF4 participates in regulation of cytoskeletal organization. •KLF4 regulates cytoskeleton by promoting the expression of contraction-associated genes. -- Abstract: The Krüppel-like factor 4 is a DNA-binding transcriptional regulator that regulates a diverse array of cellular processes, including development, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. The previous studies about KLF4 functions mainly focused on its role as a transcription factor, its functions in the cytoplasm are still unknown. In this study, we found that PDGF-BB could prompt the translocation of KLF4 to the cytoplasm through CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and increased the interaction of KLF4 with actin in the cytoplasm. Further study showed that both KLF4 phosphorylation and SUMOylation induced by PDGF-BB participates in regulation of cytoskeletal organization by stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton in VSMCs. In conclusion, these results identify that KLF4 participates in the cytoskeletal organization by stabilizing cytoskeleton in the cytoplasm of VSMCs

  17. Localization and function of KLF4 in cytoplasm of vascular smooth muscle cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yan [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Key Laboratory of Neurobiology and Vascular Biology (China); The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijazhuang (China); Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Xin-hua; Nie, Chan-juan; Li, Yong-hui [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Key Laboratory of Neurobiology and Vascular Biology (China); Wen, Jin-kun, E-mail: wjk@hebmu.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Key Laboratory of Neurobiology and Vascular Biology (China)

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •PDGF-BB prompts the translocation of KLF4 to the cytoplasm. •PDGF-BB promotes interaction between KLF4 and actin in the cytoplasm. •Phosphorylation and SUMOylation of KLF4 participates in regulation of cytoskeletal organization. •KLF4 regulates cytoskeleton by promoting the expression of contraction-associated genes. -- Abstract: The Krüppel-like factor 4 is a DNA-binding transcriptional regulator that regulates a diverse array of cellular processes, including development, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. The previous studies about KLF4 functions mainly focused on its role as a transcription factor, its functions in the cytoplasm are still unknown. In this study, we found that PDGF-BB could prompt the translocation of KLF4 to the cytoplasm through CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and increased the interaction of KLF4 with actin in the cytoplasm. Further study showed that both KLF4 phosphorylation and SUMOylation induced by PDGF-BB participates in regulation of cytoskeletal organization by stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton in VSMCs. In conclusion, these results identify that KLF4 participates in the cytoskeletal organization by stabilizing cytoskeleton in the cytoplasm of VSMCs.

  18. Localization and diagonalization. A review of functional integral techniques for low-dimensional gauge theories and topological field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blau, M.; Thompson, G.

    1995-01-01

    We review localization techniques for functional integrals which have recently been used to perform calculations in and gain insight into the structure of certain topological field theories and low-dimensional gauge theories. These are the functional integral counterparts of the Mathai-Quillen formalism, the Duistermaat-Heckman theorem, and the Weyl integral formula respectively. In each case, we first introduce the necessary mathematical background (Euler classes of vector bundles, equivariant cohomology, topology of Lie groups), and describe the finite dimensional integration formulae. We then discuss some applications to path integrals and give an overview of the relevant literature. The applications we deal with include supersymmetric quantum mechanics, cohomological field theories, phase space path integrals, and two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory. (author). 83 refs

  19. Origin and function of the major royal jelly proteins of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) as members of the yellow gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttstedt, Anja; Moritz, Robin F A; Erler, Silvio

    2014-05-01

    In the honeybee, Apis mellifera, the queen larvae are fed with a diet exclusively composed of royal jelly (RJ), a secretion of the hypopharyngeal gland of young worker bees that nurse the brood. Up to 15% of RJ is composed of proteins, the nine most abundant of which have been termed major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs). Although it is widely accepted that RJ somehow determines the fate of a female larva and in spite of considerable research efforts, there are surprisingly few studies that address the biochemical characterisation and functions of these MRJPs. Here we review the research on MRJPs not only in honeybees but in hymenopteran insects in general and provide metadata analyses on genome organisation of mrjp genes, corroborating previous reports that MRJPs have important functions for insect development and not just a nutritional value for developing honeybee larvae. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  20. Childhood craniopharyngioma: survival, local control, endocrine and neurologic function following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danoff, B.F.; Cowchock, F.S.; Kramer, S.

    1983-01-01

    Between 1961 and 1978, 19 patients with a diagnosis of childhood or teenage craniopharyngioma received supervoltage radiotherapy. All patients had previously undergone either partial surgical resection (10 patients), total gross resection (3 patients), or aspiration and biopsy (6 patients). Fourteen patients were treated primarily and five were treated for recurrence. The five-year survival was 73% with a 10-year survival of 64%. Sixteen percent developed a recurrence following radiotherapy. Long term effects were assesed in terms of neurologic, intellectual, psychological and endocrine function. Seventy-nine percent had none or minimal neurologic disability. The mean full scale IQ for the group was 90. There were no additional endocrine deficiencies that could be directly attributed to radiation. Behavioral disorders occurred in 50%. These results are at least comparable, if not superior, to those of surgery

  1. LINE-1 protein localization and functional dynamics during the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Paolo; Wudzinska, Aleksandra; Sun, Xiaoji; Andrade, Joshua; Nayak, Shruti; Kahler, David J; Badri, Sana; LaCava, John; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Yun, Chi Y; Fenyö, David; Boeke, Jef D

    2018-01-08

    LINE-1/L1 retrotransposon sequences comprise 17% of the human genome. Among the many classes of mobile genetic elements, L1 is the only autonomous retrotransposon that still drives human genomic plasticity today. Through its co-evolution with the human genome, L1 has intertwined itself with host cell biology. However, a clear understanding of L1's lifecycle and the processes involved in restricting its insertion and intragenomic spread remains elusive. Here we identify modes of L1 proteins' entrance into the nucleus, a necessary step for L1 proliferation. Using functional, biochemical, and imaging approaches, we also show a clear cell cycle bias for L1 retrotransposition that peaks during the S phase. Our observations provide a basis for novel interpretations about the nature of nuclear and cytoplasmic L1 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) and the potential role of DNA replication in L1 retrotransposition. © 2018, Mita et al.

  2. Localization of executive functions in dual-task performance with fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szameitat, André J; Schubert, Torsten; Müller, Karsten; Von Cramon, D Yves

    2002-11-15

    We report a study that investigated the neuroanatomical correlates of executive functions in dual-task performance with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants performed an auditory and a visual three-choice reaction task either separately as single tasks or concurrently as dual tasks. In the dual-task condition, two stimuli were presented in rapid succession to ensure interference between the component tasks (psychological refractory period). The behavioral data showed considerable performance decrements in the dual-task compared to the single-task condition. Dual-task-related activation was detected with two different neuroimaging methods. First, we determined dual-task-related activation according to the method of cognitive subtraction. For that purpose, activation in the dual-task was compared directly with activation in the single-task conditions. This analysis revealed that cortical areas along the inferior frontal sulcus (IFS), the middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) are involved in dual-task performance. The results of the subtraction method were validated with the method of parametric manipulation. For this purpose, a second dual-task condition was introduced, where the difficulty of the dual-task coordination was increased compared with the first dual-task condition. As expected, behavioral dual-task performance decreased with increased dual-task difficulty. Furthermore, the increased dual-task difficulty led to an increase of activation in those cortical regions that proved to be dual-task related with the subtraction method, that is, the IFS, the MFG, and the IPS. These results support the conclusion that dorsolateral prefrontal and superior parietal cortices are involved in the coordination of concurrent and interfering task processing.

  3. The localization of estrogen receptor alpha and its function in the ovaries of postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Brodowski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The localization of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha in the ovaries of postmenopausal women is a very up-to-date topic in the aspect of using estrogens therapy in the clinical situations of different type. In ovaries of reproductive age women ERalpha is present in ovary stroma, theca and granulosa cells, ovary surface epithelium (OSE and in corpus luteum. The ovaries of postmenopausal women are smaller than those of women at the reproductive age, the division into cortex and medulla gets blurred, the ovaries have no follicles any longer, and the stroma is mainly composed of fibrous connective tissue, corpora albicantia, nerves, and blood and lymphatic vessels. The aim of our study was to investigate the immunolocalization and immunoexpression of ERalpha in the ovaries of postmenopausal women. The study involved 50 postmenopausal women who had their ovaries removed by laparotomy due to non-neoplastic diseases of the uterus. The women were divided into 3 groups (A, B, and C depending on the time that had passed since the last menstruation. Group A consisted of women who had their last menstruation no more than 5 years earlier, in group B menopause occurred 5 to 10 years earlier, group C was composed of patients who had the last menstruation over 10 years earlier. In all the patients concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing stimulating hormone (LH, estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, androstendione (A and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS in blood plasma were measured. Ovarian tissue was obtained during surgery. For morphological studies, ovaries were fixed in Bouin;s solution and 4% formalin and embedded in paraffin. Morphological analysis was carried out after hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining. Comparing to groups A and B, the ovaries in group C contained a small number of corpora albicantia located in the medullary part as well as thinned blood vessels and few lymphatic vessels and nerves. For immunoohistochemical

  4. An electron localization function study of the geometry of d(0) molecules of the period 4 metals Ca to Mn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Ronald J; Noury, Stéphane; Pilmé, Julien; Silvi, Bernard

    2004-05-17

    We have studied the geometry of the formally d(0) MX(n)() (X = F, H, CH(3) and O; n = 2-6) molecules of the period 4 metals from Ca to Mn by studying the topology of the electron localization function (ELF) in order to try to understand why many of these molecules have non-VSEPR geometries. The quantitative analysis of the core basin population shows that it is always larger than its conventional value (18) because, in the LCAO-MO scheme, the 3d basis functions centered on the metal noticeably contribute to the electron density within the core region associated with the M shell. Therefore, the density available to form the bonds is less than Z(M) - 18, the value adopted in electron counts. Under the influence of the ligands, these electrons cause the core to lose its spherical symmetry by the formation of opposite-spin pair localization basins, which in turn influence the geometry of the ligands if the interaction of the ligands with the core is sufficiently strong. All of the ligands considered in this study, except F, interact with the core sufficiently strongly to give non-VSEPR geometries, which we have rationalized on the basis of the ELF topology.

  5. Hypothetical high-level cognitive functions cannot be localized in the brain: another argument for a revitalized behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttal, William R

    2004-01-01

    A key epistemological difference between behaviorism and cognitivism concerns their respective attitudes toward the analysis of so-called cognitive processes into functional modules. Behaviorists generally say it is not possible. Cognitivists argue that this is an achievable goal. The question has been concretized by recent developments in brain imaging technology. A consideration of the matter suggests that technical and conceptual difficulties abound in the effort to localize "high-level cognitive functions" in narrowly circumscribed regions of the brain. Some of the most serious involve the ambiguous definition of the putative mental components that are to be localized and the generally unacknowledged nonlinear complexity of both psychological processes and the brain. In addition, the imaging techniques themselves are replete with technical difficulties that raise additional questions about this particular application, even though these wonderful machines can make extraordinary contributions to our knowledge of brain anatomy and physiology. The cumulative implication of these difficulties is that the cognitive approach to the study of scientific psychology has once again set out on a search for a chimera. New approaches to behaviorism may be required to set psychology back on the correct track.

  6. Orientation-weighted local Minkowski functionals in 3D for quantitative assessment of trabecular bone structure in the hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, H. F.; Bitterling, H.; Weber, C.; Kuhn, V.; Eckstein, F.; Reiser, M.

    2007-03-01

    Fragility fractures or pathologic fractures of the hip, i.e. fractures with no apparent trauma, represent the worst complication in osteoporosis with a mortality close to 25% during the first post-traumatic year. Over 90% of hip fractures result from falls from standing height. A substantial number of femoral fractures are initiated in the femoral neck or the trochanteric regions which contain an internal architecture of trabeculae that are functionally highly specialized to withstand the complex pattern of external and internal forces associated with human gait. Prediction of the mechanical strength of bone tissue can be achieved by dedicated texture analysis of data obtained by high resolution imaging modalities, e.g. computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance tomography (MRI). Since in the case of the proximal femur, the connectivity, regional distribution and - most of all - the preferred orientation of individual trabeculae change considerably within narrow spatial limits, it seems most reasonable to evaluate the femoral bone structure on an orientation-weighted, local scale. In past studies, we could demonstrate the advantages of topological analysis of bone structure using the Minkowski Functionals in 3D on a global and on a local scale. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that the prediction of the mechanical competence of the proximal femur by a new algorithm considering orientational changes of topological properties in the trabecular architecture is feasible and better suited than conventional methods based on the measurement of the mineral density of bone tissue (BMD).

  7. Ehrlichia chaffeensis TRP32 Nucleomodulin Function and Localization Is Regulated by NEDD4L-Mediated Ubiquitination

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    Tierra R. Farris

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligately intracellular bacterium that reprograms the mononuclear phagocyte through diverse effector-host interactions to modulate various host cell processes. In a previous study, we reported that the E. chaffeensis nucleomodulin TRP32 regulates transcription of host genes in several biologically relevant categories, including cell differentiation and proliferation. In this study, we investigate the effect of ubiquitination on TRP32 function and localization within the host cell. TRP32 is both mono- and polyubiquitinated on multiple lysine residues during infection and when ectopically expressed. Despite lacking a canonical PPxY motif, TRP32 interacted with, and was modified by the human HECT E3 ubiquitin (Ub ligase NEDD4L. TRP32 ubiquitination was not by K48-linked polyUb chains, nor was it degraded by the proteasome; however, TRP32 was modified by K63-linked polyUb chains detected both in the cytosol and nucleus. HECT ligase inhibitor, heclin, altered the subnuclear localization of ectopically expressed TRP32 from a diffuse nuclear pattern to a lacy, punctate pattern with TRP32 distributed around the periphery of the nucleus and nucleoli. When a TRP32 lysine null (K-null mutant was ectopically expressed, it exhibited a similar phenotype as single lysine mutants (K63R, K93R, and K123R. However, the K-null mutant showed increased amounts of cytoplasmic TRP32 compared to single lysine mutants or heclin-treated cells ectopically expressing TRP32. These alterations in localization corresponded to changes in TRP32 transcriptional repressor function with heclin-treated and single lysine mutants unable to repress transcription of a TRP32 target genes in a luciferase assay.

  8. Evaluation of the functional activity of activated sludge from local waste water treatment plant in the Arctic region

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    Il'inskiy V. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers characteristics of the activated sludge in the local wastewater treatment plant (LWTP and its ability to purify fully domestic sewage water in the Far North. Biochemical process of destruction of organic pollutants is influenced by a microbial complex functioning in aeration tanks. Taking into account climatic conditions of the region where the organic matter degradation processes are slowed, and lack of control over the operation, efficiency and occupational safety of LWTPs, it seems to be important to study the physiological characteristics of the bacteria used in bioremediation, and their ability to maximize the purifying domestic sewage in the Arctic region. Undue intervention in the biosphere systems leads to disruption of the balance of internal and external ecosystems communications. The goal of research is studying structural determination and functioning of activated sludge bacteriocenosis of LWTP TOPAS-5 (GK "Topol-ECO" in certain physical and chemical conditions of the habitat, and establishing completeness of cleaning process in this treatment plant. The paper considers the structure (quantitative and qualitative composition and function of LWTP activated sludge bacteriocenosis functioning in the Arctic region. The estimation of the activated sludge of full waste water treatment process of the LWTP has been given. The research's results have allowed to identify and determine the bacterial count of physiological groups of microorganisms purified domestic sewage; to isolate from activated sludge the bioflocculant-producing microorganisms' on the experimental medium; to evaluate efficiency of LWTP work in the Arctic region

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF RED SPIRAL GALAXIES ON THE SHAPE OF THE LOCAL K-BAND LUMINOSITY FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonne, Nicolas J.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Jones, Heath; Pimbblet, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    We have determined K-band luminosity functions for 13,325 local universe galaxies as a function of morphology and color (for K tot  ≤ 10.75). Our sample is drawn from the Two Micron All Sky Survey Extended Source Catalog, with all sample galaxies having measured morphologies and distances (including 4219 archival redshift-independent distances). The luminosity function for our total sample is in good agreement with previous works, but is relatively smooth at faint magnitudes (due to bulk flow distance corrections). We investigated the differences due to morphological and color selection using 5417 sample galaxies with NASA Sloan Atlas optical colors and find that red spirals comprise 20%-50% of all spirals with –25 ≤ M K  < –20. Fainter than M K = –24, red spirals are as common as early types, explaining the different faint end slopes (α = –0.87 and –1.00 for red and early-types, respectively). While we find red spirals comprise more than 50% of all M K  < –25 spiral galaxies, they do not dominate the bright end of the overall red galaxy luminosity function, which is dominated by early-type galaxies. The brightest red spirals have ongoing star formation and those without are frequently misclassified as early-types. The faintest ones have an appearance and Sérsic indices consistent with faded disks, rather than true bulge-dominated galaxies

  10. Physiological functions of the effects of the different bathing method on recovery from local muscle fatigue

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    Lee Soomin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, mist saunas have been used in the home as a new bathing style in Japan. However, there are still few reports on the effects of bathing methods on recovery from muscle fatigue. Furthermore, the effect of mist sauna bathing on human physiological function has not yet been revealed. Therefore, we measured the physiological effects of bathing methods including the mist sauna on recovery from muscle fatigue. Methods The bathing methods studied included four conditions: full immersion bath, shower, mist sauna, and no bathing as a control. Ten men participated in this study. The participants completed four consecutive sessions: a 30-min rest period, a 10-min all out elbow flexion task period, a 10-min bathing period, and a 10-min recovery period. We evaluated the mean power frequency (MNF of the electromyogram (EMG, rectal temperature (Tre, skin temperature (Tsk, skin blood flow (SBF, concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb, and subjective evaluation. Results We found that the MNF under the full immersion bath condition was significantly higher than those under the other conditions. Furthermore, Tre, SBF, and O2Hb under the full immersion bath condition were significantly higher than under the other conditions. Conclusions Following the results for the full immersion bath condition, the SBF and O2Hb of the mist sauna condition were significantly higher than those for the shower and no bathing conditions. These results suggest that full immersion bath and mist sauna are effective in facilitating recovery from muscle fatigue.

  11. Canine placental prostaglandin E2 synthase: expression, localization, and biological functions in providing substrates for prepartum PGF2alpha synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, Aykut; Fox, Barbara; Büchler, Urs; Boos, Alois; Hoffmann, Bernd; Kowalewski, Mariusz P

    2014-12-01

    The prepartum output of PGF2alpha in the bitch is associated with increased placental PGE2-synthase (PTGES) mRNA levels. Contrasting with this is a decreased expression of PGF2alpha-synthase (PGFS/AKR1C3) in uteroplacental compartments during prepartum luteolysis, suggesting an involvement of alternative synthetic pathways in PGF2alpha synthesis, for example, conversion of PGE2 to PGF2alpha. However, because the expression and possible functions of the respective PTGES proteins remained unknown, no further conclusion could be drawn. Therefore, a canine-specific PTGES antibody was generated and used to investigate the expression, cellular localization, and biochemical activities of canine uteroplacental PTGES throughout pregnancy and at prepartum luteolysis. Additionally, the biochemical activities of these tissues involved in the conversion of PGE2 to PGF2alpha were investigated. The endometrial PTGES was localized in the uterine surface epithelium at preimplantation and in superficial and deep uterine glands, endothelial cells, and myometrium throughout pregnancy and at parturition. Placental signals were mostly in the trophoblast. The biochemical properties of recombinant PTGES protein were confirmed. Additionally, expression of two PGE2-receptors, PTGER2/EP2 and PTGER4/EP4, revealed their decreasing expression during luteolysis. In contrast, the uteroplacental expression of prostaglandin transporter (PGT) was strongly elevated prior to parturition. These localization patterns resembled that of PTGES. The increased expression of PTGES and PGT at parturition, together with the accompanying decreased levels of PGE2-receptors and the capability of canine uterine and placental homogenates to take part in the conversion of PGE2 to PGF2alpha, as found in this study, suggest that PGE2 could be used locally as a substrate for prepartum PGF2alpha synthesis in the dog. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  12. Development of a locally sustainable functional food based on mutandabota, a traditional food in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Augustine; Linnemann, Anita R; Sybesma, Wilbert; Kort, Remco; Nout, M J R; Smid, Eddy J

    2014-05-01

    A probiotic dairy product was developed on the basis of a traditional dish called mutandabota to enable resource-poor populations in southern Africa to benefit from a functional food. Mutandabota is widely consumed in rural southern Africa, making it an ideal food matrix to carry probiotics. First, a process to produce probiotic mutandabota was designed. Raw cow milk was boiled and subsequently cooled to ambient temperature (25°C). Next, dry pulp from the fruit of the baobab tree (Adansonia digitata L.) was added to the milk at a concentration of 4% (wt/vol). This mixture was inoculated with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba and left to ferment for 24h, while the growth of the bacterial culture was monitored. Final ingredients were then added to produce probiotic mutandabota that had 14% (wt/vol) baobab fruit pulp and 7% (wt/vol) sugar in cow milk. The pH of probiotic mutandabota was pH 3.5, which ensures that the product is microbiologically safe. The viable plate count of L. rhamnosus yoba increased from 5.8 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL at the point of inoculation to 8.8 ± 0.4 log cfu/mL at the moment of consumption, thereby meeting the criterion to have a viable count of the probiotic bacterium in excess of 6 log cfu/mL of a product. Baobab fruit pulp at 4% promoted growth of L. rhamnosus yoba with a maximal specific growth rate (μmax) of 0.6 ± 0.2/h at 30°C. The developed technology, though specific for this particular product, has potential to be applied for the delivery of probiotics through a variety of indigenous foods in different regions of the world. Upon consumption, probiotic mutandabota is expected to improve the population's intestinal health, which is especially relevant for vulnerable target groups such as children and elderly people. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Manic fringe is not required for embryonic development, and fringe family members do not exhibit redundant functions in the axial skeleton, limb, or hindbrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Jennifer L.; Shifley, Emily T.; Levorse, John M.; Mani, Shyamala; Ostmann, Kristin; Perez-Balaguer, Ariadna; Walker, Dawn M.; Vogt, Thomas F.; Cole, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Tight regulation of Notch pathway signaling is important in many aspects of embryonic development. Notch signaling can be modulated by expression of fringe genes, encoding glycosyltransferases that modify EGF repeats in the Notch receptor. Although Lunatic fringe (Lfng) has been shown to play important roles in vertebrate segmentation, comparatively little is known regarding the developmental functions of the other vertebrate fringe genes, Radical fringe (Rfng) and Manic fringe (Mfng). Here we report that Mfng expression is not required for embryonic development. Further, we find that despite significant overlap in expression patterns, we detect no obvious synergistic defects in mice in the absence of two, or all three, fringe genes during development of the axial skeleton, limbs, hindbrain and cranial nerves. PMID:19479951

  14. A novel member of the trehalose transporter family functions as an H+-dependent trehalose transporter in the reabsorption of trehalose in Malpighian tubules.

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    Shingo eKikuta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In insects, Malpighian tubules are functionally analogous to mammalian kidneys in that they not only are essential to excrete waste molecules into the lumen but also are responsible for the reabsorption of indispensable molecules, such as sugars, from the lumen to the principal cells. Among sugars, the disaccharide trehalose is highly important to insects because it is the main hemolymph sugar to serve as a source of energy and carbon. The trehalose transporter TRET1 participates in the transfer of newly synthesized trehalose from the fat body across the cellular membrane into the hemolymph. Although transport proteins must play a pivotal role in the reabsorption of trehalose in Malpighian tubules, the molecular context underlying this process remains obscure. Previously, we identified a Tret1 homolog (Nlst8 that is expressed principally in the Malpighian tubules of the brown planthopper (BPH. Here, we used the Xenopus oocyte expression system to show that NlST8 exerts trehalose transport activity that is elevated under low pH conditions. These functional assays indicate that Nlst8 encodes a proton-dependent trehalose transporter (H-TRET1. To examine the involvement of Nlst8 in trehalose reabsorption, we analyzed the sugar composition of honeydew by using BPH with RNAi gene silencing. Trehalose was detected in the honeydew as waste excreted from Nlst8-dsRNA-injected BPH under hyperglycemic conditions. However, trehalose was not expelled from GFP-dsRNA-injected BPH even under hyperglycemic conditions. We conclude that NlST8 could participate in trehalose reabsorption driven by a H+ gradient from the lumen to the principal cells of the Malpighian tubules.

  15. Insights into the smooth-to-rough transitioning in Mycobacterium bolletii unravels a functional Tyr residue conserved in all mycobacterial MmpL family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernut, Audrey; Viljoen, Albertus; Dupont, Christian; Sapriel, Guillaume; Blaise, Mickaël; Bouchier, Christiane; Brosch, Roland; de Chastellier, Chantal; Herrmann, Jean-Louis; Kremer, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    In mycobacteria, MmpL proteins represent key components that participate in the biosynthesis of the complex cell envelope. Whole genome analysis of a spontaneous rough morphotype variant of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii identified a conserved tyrosine that is crucial for the function of MmpL family proteins. Isogenic smooth (S) and rough (R) variants differed by a single mutation linked to a Y842H substitution in MmpL4a. This mutation caused a deficiency in glycopeptidolipid production/transport in the R variant and a gain in the capacity to produce cords in vitro. In zebrafish, increased virulence of the M. bolletii R variant over the parental S strain was found, involving massive production of serpentine cords, abscess formation and rapid larval death. Importantly, this finding allowed us to demonstrate an essential role of Tyr842 in several different MmpL proteins, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis MmpL3. Structural homology models of MmpL4a and MmpL3 identified two additional critical residues located in the transmembrane regions TM10 and TM4 that are facing each other. We propose that these central residues are part of the proton-motive force that supplies the energy for substrate transport. Hence, we provide important insights into mechanistic/structural aspects of MmpL proteins as lipid transporters and virulence determinants in mycobacteria. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. mRNA:guanine-N7 cap methyltransferases: identification of novel members of the family, evolutionary analysis, homology modeling, and analysis of sequence-structure-function relationships

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    Radlinska Monika

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 5'-terminal cap structure plays an important role in many aspects of mRNA metabolism. Capping enzymes encoded by viruses and pathogenic fungi are attractive targets for specific inhibitors. There is a large body of experimental data on viral and cellular methyltransferases (MTases that carry out guanine-N7 (cap 0 methylation, including results of extensive mutagenesis. However, a crystal structure is not available and cap 0 MTases are too diverged from other MTases of known structure to allow straightforward homology-based interpretation of these data. Results We report a 3D model of cap 0 MTase, developed using sequence-to-structure threading and comparative modeling based on coordinates of the glycine N-methyltransferase. Analysis of the predicted structural features in the phylogenetic context of the cap 0 MTase family allows us to rationalize most of the experimental data available and to propose potential binding sites. We identified a case of correlated mutations in the cofactor-binding site of viral MTases that may be important for the rational drug design. Furthermore, database searches and phylogenetic analysis revealed a novel subfamily of hypothetical MTases from plants, distinct from "orthodox" cap 0 MTases. Conclusions Computational methods were used to infer the evolutionary relationships and predict the structure of Eukaryotic cap MTase. Identification of novel cap MTase homologs suggests candidates for cloning and biochemical characterization, while the structural model will be useful in designing new experiments to better understand the molecular function of cap MTases.

  17. Local Information Processing in Adults with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome: The Usefulness of Neuropsychological Tests and Self-Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, Annelies A.; Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    2011-01-01

    Local information processing in 42 adults with high functioning autism, 41 adults with Asperger syndrome and 41 neurotypical adults was examined. Contrary to our expectations, the disorder groups did not outperform the neurotypical group in the neuropsychological measures of local information processing. In line with our hypotheses, the…

  18. Issues in Localization of brain function: The case of lateralized frontal cortex in cognition, emotion, and psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A. Miller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The appeal of simple, sweeping portraits of large-scale brain mechanisms relevant to psychological phenomena competes with a rich, complex research base. As a prominent example, two views of frontal brain organization have emphasized dichotomous lateralization as a function of either emotional valence (positive/negative or approach/avoidance motivation. Compelling findings support each. The literature has struggled to choose between them for three decades, without success. Both views are proving untenable as comprehensive models. Recent evidence indicates that positive valence and approach motivation are associated with different areas in the left hemisphere. Evidence of other frontal lateralizations, involving distinctions among dimensions of depression and anxiety, make a dichotomous view even more problematic. Hemodynamic and electromagnetic neuroimaging studies suggest considerable functional differentiation, in specialization and activation, of subregions of frontal cortex, including their connectivity to each other and to other regions. Such findings contribute to a more nuanced understanding of functional localization that accommodates aspects of multiple theoretical perspectives.

  19. Studying the hopping parameters of half-Heusler NaAuS using maximally localized Wannier function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihi, Antik; Lal, Sohan; Pandey, Sudhir K.

    2018-04-01

    Here, the electronic behavior of half-Heusler NaAuS is studied using PBEsol exchange correlation functional by plotting the band structure curve. These bands are reproduced using maximally localized Wannier function using WANNIER90. Tight-binding bands are nicely matched with density functional theory bands. By fitting the tight-binding model, hopping parameter for NaAuS is obtained by including Na 2s, 2p, Au 6s, 5p, 5d and S 3s, 3p orbitals within the energy interval of -5 to 16 eV around the Fermi level. In present study, hopping integrals for NaAuS are computed for the first primitive unit cell atoms as well as the first nearest neighbor primitive unit cell. The most dominating hopping integrals are found for Na (3s) - S (3s), Na (2px) - S (2px), Au (6s) - S (3px), Au (6s) - S (3py) and Au (6s) - S (3pz) orbitals. The hopping integrals for the first nearest neighbor primitive unit cell are also discussed in this manuscript. In future, these hopping integrals are very important to find the topological invariant for NaAuS compound.

  20. PpeTAC1 promotes the horizontal growth of branches in peach trees and is a member of a functionally conserved gene family found in diverse plants species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardick, Chris; Callahan, Ann; Horn, Renate; Ruiz, Karina B; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana; Hollender, Courtney; Whitaker, Michael; Abbott, Albert; Scorza, Ralph

    2013-08-01

    Trees are capable of tremendous architectural plasticity, allowing them to maximize their light exposure under highly competitive environments. One key component of tree architecture is the branch angle, yet little is known about the molecular basis for the spatial patterning of branches in trees. Here, we report the identification of a candidate gene for the br mutation in Prunus persica (peach) associated with vertically oriented growth of branches, referred to as 'pillar' or 'broomy'. Ppa010082, annotated as hypothetical protein in the peach genome sequence, was identified as a candidate gene for br using a next generation sequence-based mapping approach. Sequence similarity searches identified rice TAC1 (tiller angle control 1) as a putative ortholog, and we thus named it PpeTAC1. In monocots, TAC1 is known to lead to less compact growth by increasing the tiller angle. In Arabidopsis, an attac1 mutant showed more vertical branch growth angles, suggesting that the gene functions universally to promote the horizontal growth of branches. TAC1 genes belong to a gene family (here named IGT for a shared conserved motif) found in all plant genomes, consisting of two clades: one containing TAC1-like genes; the other containing LAZY1, which contains an EAR motif, and promotes vertical shoot growth in Oryza sativa (rice) and Arabidopsis through influencing polar auxin transport. The data suggest that IGT genes are ancient, and play conserved roles in determining shoot growth angles in plants. Understanding how IGT genes modulate branch angles will provide insights into how different architectural growth habits evolved in terrestrial plants. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Functional differentiation of uterine stromal cells involves cross-regulation between bone morphogenetic protein 2 and Kruppel-like factor (KLF) family members KLF9 and KLF13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabona, John Mark P; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Simmen, Frank A; Simmen, Rosalia C M

    2010-07-01

    The inability of the uterine epithelium to enter a state of receptivity for the embryo to implant is a significant underlying cause of early pregnancy loss. We previously showed that mice null for the progesterone receptor (PGR)-interacting protein Krüppel-like factor (KLF) 9 are subfertile and exhibit reduced uterine progesterone sensitivity. KLF9 expression is high in predecidual stroma, undetectable in decidua, and enhanced in uteri of mice with conditional ablation of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2). Given the individual importance of KLF9 and BMP2 for implantation success, we hypothesized that the establishment of uterine receptivity involves KLF9 and BMP2 functional cross-regulation. To address this, we used early pregnant wild-type and Klf9 null mice and KLF9 small interfering RNA-transfected human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) induced to differentiate under standard conditions. Loss of KLF9 in mice and HESCs enhanced BMP2 expression, whereas recombinant BMP2 treatment of HESCs attenuated KLF9 mRNA levels. IGFBP1 and KLF9-related KLF13 expression were positively associated with BMP2 and inversely associated with KLF9. Prolonged, but not short-term, knockdown of KLF9 in HESCs reduced IGFBP1 expression. Mouse uterine Igfbp1 expression was similarly reduced with Klf9 ablation. PGR-A and PGR-B expression were positively associated with KLF9 in predecidual HESCs but not decidualizing HESCs. KLF13 knockdown attenuated BMP2 and PGR-B and abrogated BMP2-mediated inhibition of KLF9 expression. Results support cross-regulation among BMP2, KLF9, and KLF13 to maintain progesterone sensitivity in stromal cells undergoing differentiation and suggest that loss of this regulatory network compromises establishment of uterine receptivity and implantation success.

  2. Cloning and structure of delta-latroinsectotoxin, a novel insect-specific member of the latrotoxin family: functional expression requires C-terminal truncation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulubova, I E; Krasnoperov, V G; Khvotchev, M V; Pluzhnikov, K A; Volkova, T M; Grishin, E V; Vais, H; Bell, D R; Usherwood, P N

    1996-03-29

    The venom of the black widow spider (BWSV) (Latrodectus mactans tredecimguttatus) contains several potent, high molecular mass (>110 kDa) neurotoxins that cause neurotransmitter release in a phylum-specific manner. The molecular mechanism of action of these proteins is poorly understood because their structures are largely unknown, and they have not been functionally expressed. This study reports on the primary structure of delta-latroinsectotoxin (delta-LIT), a novel insect-specific toxin from BWSV, that contains 1214 amino acids. delta-LIT comprises four structural domains: a signal peptide followed by an N-terminal domain that exhibits the highest degree of identity with other latrotoxins, a central region composed of 15 ankyrin-like repeats, and a C-terminal domain. The domain organization of delta-LIT is similar to that of other latrotoxins, suggesting that these toxins are a family of related proteins. The predicted molecular mass and apparent mobility of the protein (approximately 130 kDa) encoded in the delta-LIT gene differs from that of native delta-LIT purified from BWSV (approximately 100 kDa), suggesting that the toxin is produced by proteolytic processing of a precursor. MALDI-MS of purified native delta-LIT revealed a molecular ion with m/z+ of 110916 +/- 100, indicating that the native delta-LIT is 991 amino acids in length. When the full-length delta-LIT cDNA was expressed in bacteria the protein product was inactive, but expression of a C-terminally truncated protein containing 991 residues produced a protein that caused massive neurotransmitter release at the locust neuromuscular junction at nanomolar concentrations. Channels formed in locust muscle membrane and artificial lipid bilayers by the native delta-LIT have a high Ca2+ permeability, whereas those formed by truncated, recombinant protein do not.

  3. Taxonomic distribution, repeats, and functions of the S1 domain-containing proteins as members of the OB-fold family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryusheva, Evgeniia I; Machulin, Andrey V; Selivanova, Olga M; Galzitskaya, Oxana V

    2017-04-01

    Proteins of the nucleic acid-binding proteins superfamily perform such functions as processing, transport, storage, stretching, translation, and degradation of RNA. It is one of the 16 superfamilies containing the OB-fold in protein structures. Here, we have analyzed the superfamily of nucleic acid-binding proteins (the number of sequences exceeds 200,000) and obtained that this superfamily prevalently consists of proteins containing the cold shock DNA-binding domain (ca. 131,000 protein sequences). Proteins containing the S1 domain compose 57% from the cold shock DNA-binding domain family. Furthermore, we have found that the S1 domain was identified mainly in the bacterial proteins (ca. 83%) compared to the eukaryotic and archaeal proteins, which are available in the UniProt database. We have found that the number of multiple repeats of S1 domain in the S1 domain-containing proteins depends on the taxonomic affiliation. All archaeal proteins contain one copy of the S1 domain, while the number of repeats in the eukaryotic proteins varies between 1 and 15 and correlates with the protein size. In the bacterial proteins, the number of repeats is no more than 6, regardless of the protein size. The large variation of the repeat number of S1 domain as one of the structural variants of the OB-fold is a distinctive feature of S1 domain-containing proteins. Proteins from the other families and superfamilies have either one OB-fold or change slightly the repeat numbers. On the whole, it can be supposed that the repeat number is a vital for multifunctional activity of the S1 domain-containing proteins. Proteins 2017; 85:602-613. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Integration of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetoencephalography Functional Maps Into a CyberKnife Planning System: Feasibility Study for Motor Activity Localization and Dose Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martin, Elena; Duran, Dunja; Ghielmetti, Francesco; Visani, Elisa; Aquino, Domenico; Marchetti, Marcello; Sebastiano, Davide Rossi; Cusumano, Davide; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; Panzica, Ferruccio; Fariselli, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provide noninvasive localization of eloquent brain areas for presurgical planning. The aim of this study is the integration of MEG and fMRI maps into a CyberKnife (CK) system to optimize dose planning. Four patients with brain metastases in the motor area underwent functional imaging study of the hand motor cortex before radiosurgery. MEG data were acquired during a visually cued hand motor task. Motor activations were identified also using an fMRI block-designed paradigm. MEG and fMRI maps were then integrated into a CK system and contoured as organs at risk for treatment planning optimization. The integration of fMRI data into the CK system was achieved for all patients by means of a standardized protocol. We also implemented an ad hoc pipeline to convert the MEG signal into a DICOM standard, to make sure that it was readable by our CK treatment planning system. Inclusion of the activation areas into the optimization plan allowed the creation of treatment plans that reduced the irradiation of the motor cortex yet not affecting the brain peripheral dose. The availability of advanced neuroimaging techniques is playing an increasingly important role in radiosurgical planning strategy. We successfully imported MEG and fMRI activations into a CK system. This additional information can improve dose sparing of eloquent areas, allowing a more comprehensive investigation of the related dose-volume constraints that in theory could translate into a gain in tumor local control, and a reduction of neurological complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The scope of public organisations with productive functions: insights from the inefficiency of Italian local public transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Di Foggia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is a well-known fact that reforms necessary to enhance competition and make the economy more attractive play a major role in the Government activity in Europe. Considering the Italian state of affairs, this paper focuses on the inefficiency of public producers in the light of certain market and legal impediments. This paper describes key barriers that undermine the healthy functioning of an important industrial and service sector of the Italian economy: specifically local public transport. This paper also sheds some light on this problem analysing the impact that a controversial regulation framework may have on an industry and suggests that the degree of liberalisation affects the return on investments.

  6. Effect of local UV irradiation of generative nuclei of Paramecium caudatum on sexual functions of the cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoblo, I.I.; Borkhsenius, O.N.

    1979-01-01

    The functions of micronucleus (MI) were studied in the period of the sexual process in Paramecium caudatum-infusoria the descendants of the cells, whose micronucleus was locally irradiated with UV rays at the dose of 3060 erg/mm 2 . It has been found that the descendants of the irradiated cells (the cells of UV clones) can be involved into the sexual process irrespoctive of the morphological type of their MI. Four out of forteen UV clones have changed the initial mating type for the opposite one. It is suggested that the change of the mating type is related to the changes of MI genome resulted from UV irradiation. The pathway of nuclear transformations in the course of sexual process was traced in cells of three UV clones. It has been found, that local UV irradiation of MI causes a number of deviations in the behaviour of MI derivatives in the metagamic part of the sexual process in the clones, whose MI have undergone substantial morphological changes. The exconjugants produced by crossing of UV clones with such changed MI and the normal test-clone were characterized by low viability

  7. Mimicking the phosphorylation of Rsp5 in PKA site T761 affects its function and cellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebska, Zaneta; Kaminska, Joanna; Chelstowska, Anna; Domanska, Anna; Rzepnikowska, Weronika; Sitkiewicz, Ewa; Cholbinski, Piotr; Gourlay, Campbell; Plochocka, Danuta; Zoladek, Teresa

    2015-12-01

    Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase belongs to the Nedd4 family of proteins, which affect a wide variety of processes in the cell. Here we document that Rsp5 shows several phosphorylated variants of different mobility and the migration of the phosphorylated forms of Rsp5 was faster for the tpk1Δ tpk3Δ mutant devoid of two alternative catalytic subunits of protein kinase A (PKA), indicating that PKA possibly phosphorylates Rsp5 in vivo. We demonstrated by immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis of GFP-HA-Rsp5 protein using the anti-phospho PKA substrate antibody that Rsp5 is phosphorylated in PKA sites. Rsp5 contains the sequence 758-RRFTIE-763 with consensus RRXS/T in the catalytic HECT domain and four other sites with consensus RXXS/T, which might be phosphorylated by PKA. The strain bearing the T761D substitution in Rsp5 which mimics phosphorylation grew more slowly at 28°C and did not grow at 37°C, and showed defects in pre-tRNA processing and protein sorting. The rsp5-T761D strain also demonstrated a reduced ability to form colonies, an increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hypersensitivity to ROS-generating agents. These results indicate that PKA may downregulate many functions of Rsp5, possibly affecting its activity. Rsp5 is found in the cytoplasm, nucleus, multivesicular body and cortical patches. The rsp5-T761D mutation led to a strongly increased cortical localization while rsp5-T761A caused mutant Rsp5 to locate more efficiently in internal spots. Rsp5-T761A protein was phosphorylated less efficiently in PKA sites under specific growth conditions. Our data suggests that Rsp5 may be phosphorylated by PKA at position T761 and that this regulation is important for its localization and function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-Term Clinical and Functional Outcomes After Treatment for Localized Ewing's Tumor of the Lower Extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indelicato, Daniel J.; Keole, Sameer R.; Shahlaee, Amir H.; Shi Wenyin; Morris, Christopher G.; Gibbs, Charles P.; Scarborough, Mark T.; Marcus, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Retrospective review describing the 35-year University of Florida experience with Ewing's tumors of the lower extremity. Patients and Methods: Fifty-three patients were treated between 1971 and 2006. Thirty patients were treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone and 23 patients were treated with surgery ± RT. Larger tumors and tumors of the femur were treated more often with definitive RT. Median potential follow-up was 19.2 years. Functional outcome was assessed using the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS). Results: Before 1985, 24% of patients were treated with surgery; since then, the rate has increased to 61%. The 15-year actuarial overall survival (OS), cause-specific survival (CSS), freedom from relapse, and limb preservation rates were 68% vs. 47% (p = 0.21), 73% vs. 47% (p = 0.13), 73% vs. 40% (p = 0.03), and 43% vs. 40% (p = 0.52), respectively, for patients treated with surgery ± RT vs. RT alone. Excluding 8 patients who underwent amputation or rotationplasty, the 15-year actuarial local control rate was 100% for the surgery ± RT group and 68% for the definitive RT group (p = 0.03). The ranges of the TESS for surgery ± RT vs. RT alone were 70-100 (mean, 94) and 97-100 (mean, 99), respectively. Twenty-six percent (6/23) of patients had complications related to surgery requiring amputation or reoperation. Conclusions: Overall survival and CSS were not statistically compromised, but we observed an increased risk of relapse and local failure in patients treated with RT alone, thereby justifying a transition toward primary surgical management in suitable patients. However, despite an adverse risk profile, patients treated with RT alone had similar long-term amputation-free survival and demonstrated comparable functional outcomes. Poor results observed in Ewing's of the femur mandate innovative surgical and RT strategies

  9. Kalirin Binds the NR2B Subunit of the NMDA Receptor, Altering Its Synaptic Localization and Function

    KAUST Repository

    Kiraly, D. D.

    2011-08-31

    The ability of dendritic spines to change size and shape rapidly is critical in modulating synaptic strength; these morphological changes are dependent upon rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Kalirin-7 (Kal7), a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor localized to the postsynaptic density (PSD), modulates dendritic spine morphology in vitro and in vivo. Kal7 activates Rac and interacts with several PSD proteins, including PSD-95, DISC-1, AF-6, and Arf6. Mice genetically lacking Kal7 (Kal7KO) exhibit deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) as well as behavioral abnormalities in models of addiction and learning. Purified PSDs from Kal7KO mice contain diminished levels of NR2B, an NMDA receptor subunit that plays a critical role in LTP induction. Here we demonstrate that Kal7KO animals have decreased levels of NR2B-dependent NMDA receptor currents in cortical pyramidal neurons as well as a specific deficit in cell surface expression of NR2B. Additionally, we demonstrate that the genotypic differences in conditioned place preference and passive avoidance learning seen in Kal7KO mice are abrogated when animals are treated with an NR2B-specific antagonist during conditioning. Finally, we identify a stable interaction between the pleckstrin homology domain of Kal7 and the juxtamembrane region of NR2B preceding its cytosolic C-terminal domain. Binding of NR2B to a protein that modulates the actin cytoskeleton is important, as NMDA receptors require actin integrity for synaptic localization and function. These studies demonstrate a novel and functionally important interaction between the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor and Kalirin, proteins known to be essential for normal synaptic plasticity.

  10. AMP-activated kinase in human spermatozoa: identification, intracellular localization, and key function in the regulation of sperm motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle-Guisado, Violeta; de Llera, Ana Hurtado; Martin-Hidalgo, David; Mijares, Jose; Gil, Maria C; Alvarez, Ignacio S; Bragado, Maria J; Garcia-Marin, Luis J

    2017-01-01

    AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), a protein that regulates energy balance and metabolism, has recently been identified in boar spermatozoa where regulates key functional sperm processes essential for fertilization. This work's aims are AMPK identification, intracellular localization, and their role in human spermatozoa function. Semen was obtained from healthy human donors. Sperm AMPK and phospho-Thr172-AMPK were analyzed by Western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence. High- and low-quality sperm populations were separated by a 40%-80% density gradient. Human spermatozoa motility was evaluated by an Integrated Semen Analysis System (ISAS) in the presence or absence of the AMPK inhibitor compound C (CC). AMPK is localized along the human spermatozoa, at the entire acrosome, midpiece and tail with variable intensity, whereas its active form, phospho-Thr172-AMPK, shows a prominent staining at the acrosome and sperm tail with a weaker staining in the midpiece and the postacrosomal region. Interestingly, spermatozoa bearing an excess residual cytoplasm show strong AMPK staining in this subcellular compartment. Both AMPK and phospho-Thr172-AMPK human spermatozoa contents exhibit important individual variations. Moreover, active AMPK is predominant in the high motility sperm population, where shows a stronger intensity compared with the low motility sperm population. Inhibition of AMPK activity in human spermatozoa by CC treatment leads to a significant reduction in any sperm motility parameter analyzed: percent of motile sperm, sperm velocities, progressivity, and other motility coefficients. This work identifies and points out AMPK as a new molecular mechanism involved in human spermatozoa motility. Further AMPK implications in the clinical efficiency of assisted reproduction and in other reproductive areas need to be studied.

  11. AMP-activated kinase in human spermatozoa: identification, intracellular localization, and key function in the regulation of sperm motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle-Guisado, Violeta; de Llera, Ana Hurtado; Martin-Hidalgo, David; Mijares, Jose; Gil, Maria C; Alvarez, Ignacio S; Bragado, Maria J; Garcia-Marin, Luis J

    2017-01-01

    AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), a protein that regulates energy balance and metabolism, has recently been identified in boar spermatozoa where regulates key functional sperm processes essential for fertilization. This work's aims are AMPK identification, intracellular localization, and their role in human spermatozoa function. Semen was obtained from healthy human donors. Sperm AMPK and phospho-Thr172-AMPK were analyzed by Western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence. High- and low-quality sperm populations were separated by a 40%–80% density gradient. Human spermatozoa motility was evaluated by an Integrated Semen Analysis System (ISAS) in the presence or absence of the AMPK inhibitor compound C (CC). AMPK is localized along the human spermatozoa, at the entire acrosome, midpiece and tail with variable intensity, whereas its active form, phospho-Thr172-AMPK, shows a prominent staining at the acrosome and sperm tail with a weaker staining in the midpiece and the postacrosomal region. Interestingly, spermatozoa bearing an excess residual cytoplasm show strong AMPK staining in this subcellular compartment. Both AMPK and phospho-Thr172-AMPK human spermatozoa contents exhibit important individual variations. Moreover, active AMPK is predominant in the high motility sperm population, where shows a stronger intensity compared with the low motility sperm population. Inhibition of AMPK activity in human spermatozoa by CC treatment leads to a significant reduction in any sperm motility parameter analyzed: percent of motile sperm, sperm velocities, progressivity, and other motility coefficients. This work identifies and points out AMPK as a new molecular mechanism involved in human spermatozoa motility. Further AMPK implications in the clinical efficiency of assisted reproduction and in other reproductive areas need to be studied. PMID:27678462

  12. AMP-activated kinase in human spermatozoa: identification, intracellular localization, and key function in the regulation of sperm motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Calle-Guisado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AMP-activated kinase (AMPK, a protein that regulates energy balance and metabolism, has recently been identified in boar spermatozoa where regulates key functional sperm processes essential for fertilization. This work′s aims are AMPK identification, intracellular localization, and their role in human spermatozoa function. Semen was obtained from healthy human donors. Sperm AMPK and phospho-Thr172-AMPK were analyzed by Western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence. High- and low-quality sperm populations were separated by a 40%-80% density gradient. Human spermatozoa motility was evaluated by an Integrated Semen Analysis System (ISAS in the presence or absence of the AMPK inhibitor compound C (CC. AMPK is localized along the human spermatozoa, at the entire acrosome, midpiece and tail with variable intensity, whereas its active form, phospho-Thr172-AMPK, shows a prominent staining at the acrosome and sperm tail with a weaker staining in the midpiece and the postacrosomal region. Interestingly, spermatozoa bearing an excess residual cytoplasm show strong AMPK staining in this subcellular compartment. Both AMPK and phospho-Thr172-AMPK human spermatozoa contents exhibit important individual variations. Moreover, active AMPK is predominant in the high motility sperm population, where shows a stronger intensity compared with the low motility sperm population. Inhibition of AMPK activity in human spermatozoa by CC treatment leads to a significant reduction in any sperm motility parameter analyzed: percent of motile sperm, sperm velocities, progressivity, and other motility coefficients. This work identifies and points out AMPK as a new molecular mechanism involved in human spermatozoa motility. Further AMPK implications in the clinical efficiency of assisted reproduction and in other reproductive areas need to be studied.

  13. A pilot survey of sexual function and quality of life following 3D conformal radiotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, Mack; Chinn, Daniel M.; Holland, John; Clarke, Michelle

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of high dose three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) for prostate cancer on the sexual function-related quality of life of patients and their partners. Methods and Materials: Sixty of 124 consecutive patients (median age 72.3 years) treated with 3D CRT for localized prostate cancer were surveyed and reported being potent prior to treatment. The answers to survey questions assessing the impact of quality of life related to sexual function from these 60 patients and their partners forms the basis for this retrospective analysis. Results: Following 3D CRT, 37 of 60 patients (62%) retained sexual function sufficient for intercourse. Intercourse at least once per month was reduced from 71 to 40%, whereas intercourse less than once per year increased from 12 to 35%. Following treatment, 25% of patients reported that the change in sexual dysfunction negatively affected their relationship or resulted in poor self-esteem. This outcome was associated with impotence following treatment (p < 0.01). Patients who had partners and satisfactory sexual function appeared to be at a higher risk of having a negatively affected relationship or losing self-esteem if they become impotent (p < 0.05). Partners of patients who reported a negatively affected relationship or loss of self-esteem appear to be less likely to return the survey instrument used (p = 0.02). Conclusions: More work is needed to evaluate the impact of radiotherapy and other treatments on the quality of life of patients and their partners to allow adequate informed consent to be given

  14. Radiation shielding member

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Nobuo; Ito, Masato; Nihei, Ken-ichi; Takeshi, Tetsu

    1998-01-01

    A radiation shielding member comprises a metal vessel and a liquid therein, and is disposed to the upper surface of a lower flange of a reactor core shroud. Waterproof hot wires are contained in the liquid and are connected to a power source disposed at the outside. Electric current is supplied to the hot wires to elevate the temperature of the liquid, and the temperature of the vessel is kept higher than an atmospheric temperature thereby suppressing generation of dew condensation or water droplets. In addition, a water repellent coating is applied to the shielding member itself to prevent deposition of water droplets. Further, the bottom of the shielding member is inclined, and a water droplet-recovering vessel is disposed at the lower portion of the shielding member, so that the water droplets collected by the inclination of the bottom are recovered to the water droplet recovering vessel. With such a constitution, access of an operator to the inside of a reactor pressure vessel is facilitated, and at the same time, the working circumstance at the reactor bottom can be improved. (I.N.)

  15. DUBNA: Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The political upheaval in what was the Soviet Union was reflected in an Extraordinary Plenipotentiaries Committee of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) Member States, held in Dubna, near Moscow, on 10-13 December, with representatives of eleven sovereign republics of the former Soviet State taking part

  16. Radiation shielding member

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuochi, Akira; Narita, Takuya; Omori, Tetsu; Nemezawa, Isao; Kimura, Kunihiro.

    1997-01-01

    A radiation shielding member comprising a lead plate or a lead fabrication product is covered integrally with a rubber, a synthetic resin or a flame retardant fabric having a thickness greater than that of an oxidation preventive membrane made of a copper material. Radiation rays are shielded by the lead material, and not only oxidation but also failure of the lead material and generation of lead pieces or powder can be prevented by the coating of the rubber, the synthetic resin or the flame retardant fabric. The shape of the radiation shielding member can be conformed to constitutional products, a reinforcing frame or plate is formed integrally with the radiation shielding plate, alternatively, lowering of strength of the structure by fabrication of the shape is reinforced by the reinforcing frame or plate. The radiation shielding member is suspended by hanging a rope on a grommet, or disposed on constitutional products, or adjacent radiation shielding members are combined with each other by fixing metals. The thickness of the coating made of rubber, synthetic rubber or flame retardant fabric is determined to 0.1mm or greater to prevent failures of the lead material or formation of lead powder. (N.H.)

  17. Whole-Body and Local Muscle Vibration Immediately Improve Quadriceps Function in Individuals With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamukoff, Derek N; Pietrosimone, Brian; Lewek, Michael D; Ryan, Eric D; Weinhold, Paul S; Lee, Dustin R; Blackburn, J Troy

    2016-07-01

    To determine the immediate effects of a single session of whole-body vibration (WBV) and local muscle vibration (LMV) on quadriceps function in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Singe-blind, randomized crossover trial. Research laboratory. Population-based sample of individuals with ACLR (N=20; mean age ± SD, 21.1±1.2y; mean mass ± SD, 68.3±14.9kg; mean time ± SD since ACLR, 50.7±21.3mo; 14 women; 16 patellar tendon autografts, 3 hamstring autografts, 1 allograft). Participants performed isometric squats while being exposed to WBV, LMV, or no vibration (control). Interventions were delivered in a randomized order during separate visits separated by 1 week. Quadriceps active motor threshold (AMT), motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude, Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) amplitude, peak torque (PT), rate of torque development (RTD), electromyographic amplitude, and central activation ratio (CAR) were assessed before and immediately after a WBV, LMV, or control intervention. There was an increase in CAR (+4.9%, P=.001) and electromyographic amplitude (+16.2%, P=.002), and a reduction in AMT (-3.1%, Pquadriceps function and could be useful modalities for restoring quadriceps strength in individuals with knee pathologies. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Sumo-targeted ubiquitin ligase RNF4 regulates the localization and function of the HTLV-1 oncoprotein Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryrear, Kimberly A.; Guo, Xin

    2012-01-01

    The Really Interesting New Gene (RING) Finger Protein 4 (RNF4) represents a class of ubiquitin ligases that target Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO)–modified proteins for ubiquitin modification. To date, the regulatory function of RNF4 appears to be ubiquitin-mediated degradation of sumoylated cellular proteins. In the present study, we show that the Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) oncoprotein Tax is a substrate for RNF4 both in vivo and in vitro. We mapped the RNF4-binding site to a region adjacent to the Tax ubiquitin/SUMO modification sites K280/K284. Interestingly, RNF4 modification of Tax protein results in relocalization of the oncoprotein from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Overexpression of RNF4, but not the RNF4 RING mutant, resulted in cytoplasmic enrichment of Tax. The RNF4-induced nucleus-to-cytoplasm relocalization was associated with increased NF-κB–mediated and decreased cAMP Response Element-Binding (CREB)–mediated Tax activity. Finally, depletion of RNF4 by RNAi prevented the DNA damage–induced nuclear/cytoplasmic translocation of Tax. These results provide important new insight into STUbL-mediated pathways that regulate the subcellular localization and functional dynamics of viral oncogenes. PMID:22106342

  19. One-electron properties of several small molecules calculated using the local density approximation within density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Patrick; Chong, Delano P.; Dupuis, Michel

    1995-02-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) is a field enjoying a tremendous recent surge in popularity among theoretical and practical chemists alike because of its ability to more easily handle larger molecular systems than conventional ab initio methods. Until recently, however, assessment of the quality of the properties predicted (and therefore the charge density) from DFT had been limited mainly to dipole moments and their nuclear coordinate and electric field derivatives. This paper presents the calculated results for some of the one-electron properties of the eight small molecules (NH3, PH3, H2O, H2S, HF, HCl, CO, and N2). The properties chosen weight different regions of the charge density, from either very close in or at the nucleus (e.g., δ, the electron density at the nucleus) to regions farther out from the nucleus (e.g., the diamagnetic susceptibility ). It is found that properties which depend on an accurate knowledge of the electron density near to the nucleus are predicted poorly by the local density approximation (LDA), while others more dependent on the charge density farther out from the nucleus are predicted much more accurately, possibly due to cancellation of errors. Use of the LDA is therefore not recommended for ``tight'' properties; use of a functional employing gradient corrections would be more suitable for this purpose.

  20. Unified many-body approach to van der Waals interactions based on semi-local polarizability functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Jan; Scheffler, Matthias; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    Electromagnetic coupling of charge fluctuations leads to van der Waals (vdW) attraction in systems ranging from metal nanoparticles to dielectric materials. In this regard, broadly applicable and accurate description of vdW interactions in complex materials is an elusive and unsolved puzzle. Many promising approaches model various subsets of this general problem, but are limited in scope by the underlying parametrization (atomic models), in accuracy due to missing many-body interactions (nonlocal density functionals), or in efficiency by working with virtual orbital space (e.g., random-phase approximation). Here, we present a unifying method that combines key elements from different theories and accurately describes vdW interactions in covalent, ionic, and metallic systems. In particular, we employ a semi-local polarizability functional of the electron density and its gradient to parametrize material response and its coupling within the many-body dispersion framework, and demonstrate the generality of the method on binding in molecular dimers and crystals, carbon-based nanomaterials, oxides, and salts, as well as on adsorption of molecules on metal surfaces. Our approach allows consistent modelling of a wide spectrum of materials as well as hybrid materials with mixed bond types.

  1. The Effects of Amofer Palm Oil Waste-based Complete Feed to Blood Profiles and Liver Function on Local Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Mayulu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Amoniation-Fermentation (amofer technology should be conducted in order to improve the low quality of by product produced from palm oil plantations and mills (palm oil waste which is used for constituent of feed ingredients in complete feed (CF. This technology also reforms the feed material into edible form. Before broadly applicable, it must be ensured that the feed does not have toxic effects on livestock. This research was peformed to evaluate the effects of amofer palm oil waste-based CF to blood profile and liver function on local sheep. Completely Randomly Design (CRD was used with 4 treaments and 4 replications. The observed variables were the levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, blood glucose, ALT and AST was analyzed by ANOVA. The average value of blood glucose levels at T1= 80.68 mg/dl, T2=79.08 mg/dl, T3=81.18 mg/dl and T4=73.70 mg/dl. The average value of hemoglobin levels at T1=10.80 g/dl, T2=10.30 g/dl, T3=11.23 g/dl and T4=10.25 g/dl. The average value of hematocrit levels at T1=31.00%, T2=31.00%, T3=33.75% and T4=30%. The average value of ALT levels at T1=17.90 ml, T2=13.83 ml, T3=18.75 ml and, T4=13.40 ml. The average value of AST level at T1=106.20 ml, T2=88.98 ml, T3=104.40 ml and T4=91.25 ml. There was no significant difference among four treatments (p>0.05. The administration CF did not cause hematological disorders which showed by the blood profiles and liver function were in normal range, so that suggested the CF was appropriate and safe for local sheep. [Keywords––amofer, complete feed, hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, liver function

  2. Genomic organization and chromosomal localization of a member of the MAP kinase phosphatase gene family to human chromosome 11p15.5 and a pseudogene to 10q11.2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesbit, M. A.; Hodges, M. D.; Campbell, L.; de Meulemeester, T. M.; Alders, M.; Rodrigues, N. R.; Talbot, K.; Theodosiou, A. M.; Mannens, M. A.; Nakamura, Y.; Little, P. F.; Davies, K. E.

    1997-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatases (MKPs) play a central role in a variety of signaling pathways. We recently described a novel murine MKP, M3/6, which is uniquely specific for c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase and p38 kinase. Here we report the localization of the

  3. Processes of Localization and Institutionalization of local Managers in Economic Functions in Danish Owned Subsidiaries in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania Around the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    been conducted from 1997 to 2002 among local CEOs, chief accountants and production managers in a Danish SME, using mainly qualitative methods. Data have been compared to primary data from similar companies in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The study has resulted in establishing a model for comparing...

  4. The consideration of rights in delivery aspiration services of the regional representative members to the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundari, I. P.; Mariana, D.; Sjoraida, D. F.

    2018-03-01

    This study examines the performance of the local representative members in serving and channeling people’s aspiration in Sumedang Regency, Indonesia. How the elected members serve their constituents and how they consider the people’s rights were the questions to be answered in this study. The study used a qualitative approach to get the natural settings in which there are many behaviors and events occurred. This study also uses an institutional theory (institutionalism), because the theory could lead the researchers to find the structure, regulation and institutional procedures which could have a significant impact on a public policy and cannot be ignored in policy analysis. This study found that to carry out their functions as elected representatives, the members of the provincial parliament always make themselves available for the community. In doing so, the members of the provincial parliament, among others, absorb and collect the constituents’ aspiration through regular working visits; accommodate and follow up the aspirations and complaints; morally and politically provide accountability to the constituencies. In addition, to receive complaints coming to the local parliament’s office, public aspiration was also obtained in working visits on a regular basis by the members of local parliament in Sumedang as their own region at recess time. In terms of rights, all the services were conducted to fulfill them. Even so, some people still doubt the veracity of such works.

  5. Stereotactic radiotherapy of vestibular schwannoma. Hearing preservation, vestibular function, and local control following primary and salvage radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putz, Florian; Mueller, Jan; Wimmer, Caterina; Goerig, Nicole; Knippen, Stefan; Semrau, Sabine; Fietkau, Rainer; Lettmaier, Sebastian [Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Iro, Heinrich; Grundtner, Philipp [Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Eyuepoglu, Ilker; Roessler, Karl [Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neurosurgery, Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    The aim of this publication is to present long-term data on functional outcomes and tumor control in a cohort of 107 patients treated with stereotactic radiotherapy (RT) for vestibular schwannoma. Included were 107 patients with vestibular schwannoma (primary or recurrent following resection) treated with stereotactic RT (either fractioned or single-dose radiosurgery) between October 2002 and December 2013. Local control and functional outcomes were determined. Analysis of hearing preservation was limited to a subgroup of patients with complete audiometric data collected before treatment and during follow-up. Vestibular function test (FVT) results could be analyzed in a subset of patients and were compared to patient-reported dizziness. After a mean follow-up of 46.3 months, actuarial local control for the whole cohort was 100% after 2, 97.6% after 5, and 94.1% after 10 years. In patients with primary RT, serviceable hearing was preserved in 72%. Predictors for preservation of serviceable hearing in multivariate analysis were time of follow-up (odds ratio, OR = 0.93 per month; p = 0.021) and pre-RT tumor size (Koos stage I-IIa vs. IIb-IV; OR = 0.15; p = 0.031). Worsening of FVT results was recorded in 17.6% (N = 3). Profound discrepancy of patient-reported dizziness and FVT results was observed after RT. In patients with primary RT, worsening of facial nerve function occurred in 1.7% (N = 1). Stereotactic RT of vestibular schwannoma provides good functional outcomes and high control rates. Dependence of hearing preservation on time of follow-up and initial tumor stage has to be considered. (orig.) [German] Praesentation von Langzeitdaten zu funktionellen Ergebnissen und Tumorkontrolle nach stereotaktischer Radiotherapie (RT) in einer Kohorte von 107 Patienten mit Akustikusneurinom. Zwischen Oktober 2002 und Dezember 2013 wurden 107 Patienten mit Akustikusneurinom (primaer oder rezidiviert nach vorangegangener Resektion) mittels stereotaktischer RT behandelt

  6. Supporting Members and Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Thank you! Over the past year, AGU has received 12,104 gifts, both large and small, from members and friends. The Union has also received corporate contributions, National Science Foundation grants, and support from the National Oceanographic Partnership Program and National Association of Geoscience Teachers. Together their generosity has benefited AGU non revenue producing programs that are critical to our science and the future health of the Union. The following list gratefully acknowledges annual gifts of $100 or more and cumulative giving of $5,000 or more. The 1919 Society ($100,000 or more) and Benefactors ($5,000-$99,999) recognize single major gifts and cumulative contributions. Three circles acknowledge annual giving: President's Circle ($1,000 or more), Leadership Circle ($200-$999), and Supporters Circle ($100-$199). Supporting Life Members, who contribute a one-time gift of $1,200 in addition to lifetime dues, are among our most loyal Supporters.

  7. Offers for our members

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    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 24 € instead of 30 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children under 100 cm. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  8. Offers for our members

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    Summer is coming, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 24 € instead of 30 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children under 100 cm. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  9. [Comment on] BOSP members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The new Board on Ocean Science and Policy (BOSP) (Eos, June 7, 1983, p. 402) met for the first time on May 4. John B. Slaughter, former director of the National Science Foundation and now chancellor of the University of Maryland in College Park, is the board's chairman. Other board members are D. James Baker, Jr. (University of Washington, Seattle); Kirk Bryan (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton University); John P. Craven (University of Hawaii); Charles L. Drake (Dartmouth College); Paul M. Fye (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Edward D. Goldberg (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); G. Ross Heath (Oregon State University); Judith T. Kildow (Massachusetts Institute of Technology); John A. Knauss (University of Rhode Island); James J. McCarthy (Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University); H. William Menard (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); C. Barry Raleigh (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory); Roger Revelle (University of California, San Diego); David A. Ross (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Brian J. Rothschild (University of Maryland); William M. Sackett (University of South Florida); John H. Steele (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); and Carl Wunsch (MIT). Wallace Broecker (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory), an original board member, resigned after the first meeting. Broecker told Eos that combining the science and policy boards resulted in a new board whose mission is too broad. A new board member will be appointed in Broecker's place

  10. The ALFALFA HI mass function: A dichotomy in the low-mass slope and a locally suppressed `knee' mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael G.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Moorman, Crystal

    2018-02-01

    We present the most precise measurement of the z = 0 HI mass function (HIMF) to date based on the final catalogue of the ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) blind HI survey of the nearby Universe. The Schechter function fit has a `knee' mass log (M_{*} h2_{70}/M_{⊙}) = 9.94 ± 0.01 ± 0.05, a low-mass slope parameter α = -1.25 ± 0.02 ± 0.1, and a normalisation φ _{*} = (4.5 ± 0.2 ± 0.8) × 10^{-3} h3_{70} Mpc^{-3 dex^{-1}}, with both random and systematic uncertainties as quoted. Together these give an estimate of the HI content of the z = 0 Universe as Ω _{HI} = (3.9 ± 0.1 ± 0.6) × 10^{-4} h^{-1}_{70} (corrected for HI self-absorption). Our analysis of the uncertainties indicates that the `knee' mass is a cosmologically fair measurement of the z = 0 value, with its largest uncertainty originating from the absolute flux calibration, but that the low-mass slope is only representative of the local Universe. We also explore large scale trends in α and M* across the ALFALFA volume. Unlike with the 40 per cent sample, there is now sufficient coverage in both of the survey fields to make an independent determination of the HIMF in each. We find a large discrepancy in the low-mass slope (Δα = 0.14 ± 0.03) between the two regions, and argue that this is likely caused by the presence of a deep void in one field and the Virgo cluster in the other. Furthermore, we find that the value of the `knee' mass within the Local Volume appears to be suppressed by 0.18 ± 0.04 dex compared to the global ALFALFA value, which explains the lower value measured by the shallower HIPASS. We discuss possible explanations and interpretations of these results and how they can be expanded on with future surveys.

  11. Nanographene and nanodiamond; new members in the nanocarbon family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoki, Toshiaki; Takai, Kazuyuki; Osipov, Vladimir; Baidakova, Marina; Vul', Alexander

    2009-06-02

    Nanographene and nanodiamond are new members of nanocarbons, which consist of nano-sized hexagonal and tetrahedral networks, respectively. The presence of edges and surfaces distinguishes nanographene and nanodiamond, respectively, from other nanocarbons owing to their structure dependent electronic features. Nanographene has an unconventional nonbonding pi-state (edge state) localized around its edge that is dependent on the edge geometry. The edge states, having localized spins, impart a nanographene-based molecular magnetic character. The structure and electronic/magnetic properties of nanodiamond vary depending on how the surface carbon atoms are terminated. Nanodiamond, with a naked surface, is subjected to structural reconstruction at the expense of sigma-dangling bonds. The hydrogenation of the surface is expected to give an electron reservoir function. The incompletely hydrogenated surface is magnetic with surface-induced spins.

  12. Dosimetric parameter predicting the deterioration of hepatic function after helical tomotherapy in patients with unresectable locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Seok Hyun; Kay, Chul Seung; Song, Jin Ho; Lee, Sea-Won; Choi, Byung Ock; Kang, Young Nam; Jang, Jeong Won; Yoon, Seung Kew; Jang, Hong Seok

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify parameters capable of predicting the deterioration of hepatic function after helical tomotherapy in patients with unresectable locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Between March 2006 and February 2012, 72 patients were eligible for this study. All patients received hypofractionated radiotherapy using the TomoTherapy Hi-Art (TomoTherapy, Madison, WI, USA) at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital and Incheon St. Mary's Hospital, the Catholic University of Korea. The radiation dose was a median 50 Gy (range: 40–50 Gy) in 10 fractions to 95% of the planning target volume. Radiation-induced hepatic toxicity was defined as an increase of at least 2 points in the Child-Pugh (CP) score within 3 months after completion of helical tomotherapy. An increase of at least 2 points in the CP score occurred in 32 of the 72 patients (44.4%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that pretreatment CP class and V 15Gy were significant parameters associated with an increase in CP score (p = 0.009 and p < 0.001, respectively). The area under receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.863 for V 15Gy (p < 0.001). For V 15Gy , with a cutoff value of 43.2%, the accuracy was 0.806 (58/72) with a sensitivity of 0.938 and a specificity of 0.725. An increase of at least 2 points in the CP score is a radiation dose-limiting factor, and the non-target normal liver receiving a dose more than 15 Gy (V 15Gy ) should be <43.2% to reduce the risk of the deterioration of hepatic function

  13. Discovery of MLL1 binding units, their localization to CpG Islands, and their potential function in mitotic chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bina, Minou; Wyss, Phillip; Novorolsky, Elise; Zulkelfi, Noorfatin; Xue, Jing; Price, Randi; Fay, Matthew; Gutmann, Zach; Fogler, Brian; Wang, Daidong

    2013-12-28

    Mixed Lineage Leukemia 1 (MLL1) is a mammalian ortholog of the Drosophila Trithorax. In Drosophila, Trithorax complexes transmit the memory of active genes to daughter cells through interactions with Trithorax Response Elements (TREs). However, despite their functional importance, nothing is known about sequence features that may act as TREs in mammalian genomic DNA. By analyzing results of reported DNA binding assays, we identified several CpG rich motifs as potential MLL1 binding units (defined as morphemes). We find that these morphemes are dispersed within a relatively large collection of human promoter sequences and appear densely packed near transcription start sites of protein-coding genes. Genome wide analyses localized frequent morpheme occurrences to CpG islands. In the human HOX loci, the morphemes are spread across CpG islands and in some cases tail into the surrounding shores and shelves of the islands. By analyzing results of chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we found a connection between morpheme occurrences, CpG islands, and chromatin segments reported to be associated with MLL1. Furthermore, we found a correspondence of reported MLL1-driven "bookmarked" regions in chromatin to frequent occurrences of MLL1 morphemes in CpG islands. Our results implicate the MLL1 morphemes in sequence-features that define the mammalian TREs and provide a novel function for CpG islands. Apparently, our findings offer the first evidence for existence of potential TREs in mammalian genomic DNA and the first evidence for a connection between CpG islands and gene-bookmarking by MLL1 to transmit the memory of highly active genes during mitosis. Our results further suggest a role for overlapping morphemes in producing closely packed and multiple MLL1 binding events in genomic DNA so that MLL1 molecules could interact and reside simultaneously on extended potential transcriptional maintenance elements in human chromosomes to transmit the memory of highly active genes

  14. Localization and functional analysis of the insect-specific RabX4 in the brain of Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Tomohide; Furutani, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Katsuhiko; Uno, Yuichi; Kanamaru, Kengo; Mizoguchi, Akira; Hiragaki, Susumu; Takeda, Makio

    2017-09-01

    Rab proteins are small monomeric GTPases/GTP-binding proteins, which form the largest branch of the Ras superfamily. The different Rab GTPases are localized to the cytosolic face of specific intracellular membranes, where they function as regulators of distinct steps in membrane trafficking. RabX4 is an insect-specific Rab protein that has no close homolog in vertebrates. There is little information about insect-specific Rab proteins. RabX4 was expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified. Antibodies against Bombyx mori RabX4 were produced in rabbits for western immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Western blotting of neural tissues revealed a single band, at approximately 26 kD. RabX4-like immunohistochemical reactivity was restricted to neurons of the pars intercerebralis and dorsolateral protocerebrum in the brain. Further immunohistochemical analysis revealed that RabX4 colocalized with Rab6 and bombyxin in the corpus allatum, a neuronal organ that secretes neuropeptides synthesized in the brain into the hemolymph. RabX4 expression in the frontal ganglion, part of the insect stomatogastric nervous system that is found in most insect orders, was restricted to two neurons on the outer region and did not colocalize with allatotropin or Rab6. Furthermore, RNA interference of RabX4 decreased bombyxin expression levels in the brain. These findings suggest that RabX4 is involved in the neurosecretion of a secretory organ in Bombyx mori. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Local injection of Lenti-Olig2 at lesion site promotes functional recovery of spinal cord injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bo-Tao; Jiang, Long; Liu, Li; Yin, Ying; Luo, Ze-Ru-Xin; Long, Zai-Yun; Li, Sen; Yu, Le-Hua; Wu, Ya-Min; Liu, Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Olig2 is one of the most critical factors during CNS development, which belongs to b-HLH transcription factor family. Previous reports have shown that Olig2 regulates the remyelination processes in CNS demyelination diseases models. However, the role of Olig2 in contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) and the possible therapeutic effects remain obscure. This study aims to investigate the effects of overexpression Olig2 by lentivirus on adult spinal cord injury rats. Lenti-Olig2 expression and control Lenti-eGFP vectors were prepared, and virus in a total of 5 μL (10 8 TU/mL) was locally injected into the injured spinal cord 1.5 mm rostral and caudal near the epicenter. Immunostaining, Western blot, electron microscopy, and CatWalk analyzes were employed to investigate the effects of Olig2 on spinal cord tissue repair and functional recovery. Injection of Lenti-Olig2 significantly increased the number of oligodendrocytes lineage cells and enhanced myelination after SCI. More importantly, the introduction of Olig2 greatly improved hindlimb locomotor performances. Other oligodendrocyte-related transcription factors, which were downregulated or upregulated after injury, were reversed by Olig2 induction. Our findings provided the evidence that overexpression Olig2 promotes myelination and locomotor recovery of contusion SCI, which gives us more understanding of Olig2 on spinal cord injury treatment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Critical adsorption profiles around a sphere and a cylinder in a fluid at criticality: Local functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabunaka, Shunsuke; Onuki, Akira

    2017-09-01

    We study universal critical adsorption on a solid sphere and a solid cylinder in a fluid at bulk criticality, where preferential adsorption occurs. We use a local functional theory proposed by Fisher et al. [M. E. Fisher and P. G. de Gennes, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Ser. B 287, 207 (1978); M. E. Fisher and H. Au-Yang, Physica A 101, 255 (1980), 10.1016/0378-4371(80)90112-0]. We calculate the mean order parameter profile ψ (r ) , where r is the distance from the sphere center and the cylinder axis, respectively. The resultant differential equation for ψ (r ) is solved exactly around a sphere and numerically around a cylinder. A strong adsorption regime is realized except for very small surface field h1, where the surface order parameter ψ (a ) is determined by h1 and is independent of the radius a . If r considerably exceeds a , ψ (r ) decays as r-(1 +η ) for a sphere and r-(1 +η )/2 for a cylinder in three dimensions, where η is the critical exponent in the order parameter correlation at bulk criticality.

  17. Local crystal structures of Ge2Sb2Te5 revealed by the atomic pair distribution function analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamoto, Shin-ichi; Kodama, Katsuaki; Iikubo, Satoshi; Taguchi, Tomitsugu; Yamada, Noboru; Proffen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Two types of optical recording crystalline material Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 have been studied by neutron and X-ray powder diffraction measurements. One is the crystalline cubic-phase Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 . The other is nanocrystalline-phase Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 . In the former, a large atomic displacement of germanium atoms was found by the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of neutron powder diffraction data. According to the electronic band structure calculation of isoelectronic GeTe, the electrical conductivity at the valence band with holes is not severely affected by the randomness at the cation site, whereas the thermal conductivity is significantly reduced by the randomness. For the nanocrystalline phase, the local crystal structure and the particle size distribution were obtained simultaneously by PDF analysis using a spherical-particle form factor. The lattice parameter is longer than that of the crystalline phase, suggesting an antimony-richer composition than the matrix. This compositional deviation would form the nanoparticle, resulting in nucleation-dominated crystal growth. (author)

  18. Absence of PTHrP nuclear localization and carboxyl terminus sequences leads to abnormal brain development and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Gu

    Full Text Available We assessed whether the nuclear localization sequences (NLS and C terminus of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP play critical roles in brain development and function. We used histology, immunohistochemistry, histomorphometry, Western blots and electrophysiological recordings to compare the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells, neuronal hippocampal synaptic transmission, and brain phenotypes including shape and structures, in Pthrp knock-in mice, which express PTHrP (1-84, a truncated form of the protein that is missing the NLS and the C-terminal region of the protein, and their wild-type littermates. Results showed that Pthrp knock-in mice display abnormal brain shape and structures; decreased neural cell proliferative capacity and increased apoptosis associated with up-regulation of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p16, p21, p27 and p53 and down-regulation of the Bmi-1 oncogene; delayed neural cell differentiation; and impaired hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity. These findings provide in vivo experimental evidence that the NLS and C-terminus of PTHrP are essential not only for the regulation of neural cell proliferation and differentiation, but also for the maintenance of normal neuronal synaptic transmission and plasticity.

  19. Casimir amplitudes and capillary condensation of near-critical fluids between parallel plates: renormalized local functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Ryuichi; Onuki, Akira

    2012-03-21

    We investigate the critical behavior of a near-critical fluid confined between two parallel plates in contact with a reservoir by calculating the order parameter profile and the Casimir amplitudes (for the force density and for the grand potential). Our results are applicable to one-component fluids and binary mixtures. We assume that the walls absorb one of the fluid components selectively for binary mixtures. We propose a renormalized local functional theory accounting for the fluctuation effects. Analysis is performed in the plane of the temperature T and the order parameter in the reservoir ψ(∞). Our theory is universal if the physical quantities are scaled appropriately. If the component favored by the walls is slightly poor in the reservoir, there appears a line of first-order phase transition of capillary condensation outside the bulk coexistence curve. The excess adsorption changes discontinuously between condensed and noncondensed states at the transition. With increasing T, the transition line ends at a capillary critical point T=T(c) (ca) slightly lower than the bulk critical temperature T(c) for the upper critical solution temperature. The Casimir amplitudes are larger than their critical point values by 10-100 times at off-critical compositions near the capillary condensation line. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  20. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.60) is Chad, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 2 November 2005. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 139 Member States became Members

  1. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.59) is the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 23 November 2004. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 138 Member States became Members

  2. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.58) is Kyrgyzstan, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 10 September 2003. The list shows the dates on which the present 137 Member States became Members

  3. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.65) is the Sultanate of Oman which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 5 February 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 146 Member States became Members [es

  4. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.67) is Cambodia which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 November 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 151 Member States became Members [es

  5. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.66) are Bahrain, Burundi, Congo and Lesotho which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 June 2009, 24 June 2009, 15 July 2009 and 13 July 2009, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 150 Member States became Members [es

  6. The crystal structure of Erwinia amylovora AmyR, a member of the YbjN protein family, shows similarity to type III secretion chaperones but suggests different cellular functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartho, Joseph D; Bellini, Dom; Wuerges, Jochen; Demitri, Nicola; Toccafondi, Mirco; Schmitt, Armin O; Zhao, Youfu; Walsh, Martin A; Benini, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    AmyR is a stress and virulence associated protein from the plant pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae species Erwinia amylovora, and is a functionally conserved ortholog of YbjN from Escherichia coli. The crystal structure of E. amylovora AmyR reveals a class I type III secretion chaperone-like fold, despite the lack of sequence similarity between these two classes of protein and lacking any evidence of a secretion-associated role. The results indicate that AmyR, and YbjN proteins in general, function through protein-protein interactions without any enzymatic action. The YbjN proteins of Enterobacteriaceae show remarkably low sequence similarity with other members of the YbjN protein family in Eubacteria, yet a high level of structural conservation is observed. Across the YbjN protein family sequence conservation is limited to residues stabilising the protein core and dimerization interface, while interacting regions are only conserved between closely related species. This study presents the first structure of a YbjN protein from Enterobacteriaceae, the most highly divergent and well-studied subgroup of YbjN proteins, and an in-depth sequence and structural analysis of this important but poorly understood protein family.

  7. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

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    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 23 € instead of 29 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12:00 p.m. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  8. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

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    2015-01-01

    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 21,50 € instead of 27 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12:00 p.m. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  9. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

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    2013-01-01

    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 21 € instead of 26 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 8 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12 h 00. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 30 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 36 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  10. Phylogenetic diversity, localization, and cell morphologies of members of the candidate phylum TG3 and a subphylum in the phylum Fibrobacteres, recently discovered bacterial groups dominant in termite guts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongoh, Yuichi; Deevong, Pinsurang; Hattori, Satoshi; Inoue, Tetsushi; Noda, Satoko; Noparatnaraporn, Napavarn; Kudo, Toshiaki; Ohkuma, Moriya

    2006-10-01

    Recently we discovered two novel, deeply branching lineages in the domain Bacteria from termite guts by PCR-based analyses of 16S rRNA (Y. Hongoh, P. Deevong, T. Inoue, S. Moriya, S. Trakulnaleamsai, M. Ohkuma, C. Vongkaluang, N. Noparatnaraporn, and T. Kudo, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:6590-6599, 2005). Here, we report on the specific detection of these bacteria, the candidate phylum TG3 (Termite Group 3) and a subphylum in the phylum Fibrobacteres, by fluorescence in situ hybridization in the guts of the wood-feeding termites Microcerotermes sp. and Nasutitermes takasagoensis. Both bacterial groups were detected almost exclusively from the luminal fluid of the dilated portion in the hindgut. Each accounted for approximately 10% of the total prokaryotic cells, constituting the second-most dominant groups in the whole-gut microbiota. The detected cells of both groups were in undulate or vibroid forms and apparently resembled small spirochetes. The cell sizes were 0.2 to 0.4 by 1.3 to 6.0 microm and 0.2 to 0.3 by 1.3 to 4.9 microm in the TG3 and Fibrobacteres, respectively. Using PCR screenings with specific primers, we found that both groups are distributed among various termites. The obtained clones formed monophyletic clusters that were delineated by the host genus rather than by the geographic distance, implying a robust association between these bacteria and host termites. TG3 clones were also obtained from a cockroach gut, lake sediment, rice paddy soil, and deep-sea sediments. Our results suggest that the TG3 and Fibrobacteres bacteria are autochthonous gut symbionts of various termites and that the TG3 members are also widely distributed among various other environments.

  11. Olefin epoxidation by molybdenum peroxo compound: molecular mechanism characterized by the electron localization function and catastrophe theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berski, Slawomir; Sensato, Fabrício R; Polo, Victor; Andrés, Juan; Safont, V S

    2011-02-03

    The oxygen atom transfer reaction from the Mimoun-type complex MoO(η(2)-O(2))(2)OPH(3) to ethylene C(2)H(4) affording oxirane C(2)H(4)O has been investigated within the framework of the Bonding Evolution Theory in which the corresponding molecular mechanism is characterized by the topological analysis of the electron localization function (ELF) and Thom's catastrophe theory (CT). Topological analysis of ELF and electron density analysis reveals that all Mo-O bonds in MoO(η(2)-O(2))(2)OPH(3) and MoO(2)(η(2)-O(2))OPH(3) belong to closed-shell type interactions though negative values of total energy densities E(e)(r(BCP)) imply some covalent contribution. The peroxo O(i)-O(j) bonds are characterized as charge-shift or protocovalent species in which pairs of monosynaptic basins V(3)(O(i)), V(3)(O(j)) with a small electron population of ~0.25e each, are localized between core basins C(O(i)), C(O(j)). The oxygen transfer reaction from molybdenum diperoxo complex MoO(η(2)-O(2))(2)OPH(3) to C(2)H(4) system can be described by the following consecutive chemical events: (a) protocovalent peroxo O(2)-O(1) bond breaking, (b) reduction of the double C(1)=C(2) bond to single C(1)-C(2) bond in ethylene, (c) displacement of oxygen O(1) with two nonbonding basins, V(i=1,2)(O(1)), (d) increase of a number of the nonbonding basins to three (V(i=1,2,4)(O(1))); (e) reorganization and reduction in the number of nonbonding basis to two basins (V(i=1,4)(O(1))) resembling the ELF-topology of the nonbonding electron density in oxirane, (e) formation of the first O(1)-C(2) bond in oxirane, (f) C(2)-O(1)-C(2) ring closure, (g) formation of singular nonbonding basin V(O(2)) in new Mo=O(2) bond. The oxygen atom is transferred as an anionic moiety carrying a rather small electronic charge ranging from 0.5 to 0.7e.

  12. Local and Global Parsing with Functional (FX-bar Theory and SCD Linguistic Strategy (I. Part I. FX-bar Schemes and Theory. Local and Global FX-bar Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Curteanu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys latest developments of SCD (Segmentation-Cohesion-Dependency linguistic strategy, with its basic components: FX-bar theory with local and (two extensions to global structures, the hierarchy graph of SCD marker classes, and improved versions of SCD algorithms for segmentation and parsing of local and global text structures. Briefly, Part I brings theoretical support (predicational feature and semantic diathesis for handing down the predication from syntactic to lexical level, introduces the new local / global FX-bar schemes (graphs for clause-level and discourse-level, the (global extension of dependency graph for SCD marker classes, the problem of (direct and inverse local FX-bar projection of the verbal group (verbal complex, and the FX-bar global projections, with the special case of sub-clausal discourse segments. Part II discusses the implications of the functional generativity concept for local and global markers, with a novel understanding on the taxonomy of text parsing algorithms, specifies the SCD marker classes, both at clause and discourse level, and presents (variants of SCD local and global segmentation / parsing algorithms, along with their latest running results.

  13. Major differences exist in the function and tissue-specific expression of human aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase and the principal human aldo-keto reductase AKR1 family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'connor, T; Ireland, L S; Harrison, D J; Hayes, J D

    1999-01-01

    cytosol; the levels of AKR1B1 and AKR1C1 were markedly elevated in livers with alcohol-associated injury, and indeed AKR1B1 was only detectable in livers with evidence of alcoholic liver disease. Western blotting of extracts from brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, prostate, skeletal muscle, small intestine, spleen and testis showed that AKR7A2 is present in all of the organs examined, and AKR1B1 is similarly widely distributed in human tissues. These experiments revealed however, that the expression of AKR1A1 is restricted primarily to brain, kidney, liver and small intestine. The AKR1C family members proved not to be as widely expressed as the other reductases, with AKR1C1 being observed in only kidney, liver and testis, and AKR1C4 being found in liver alone. As human kidney is a rich source of AKR, the isoenzymes in this organ have been studied further. Anion-exchange chromatography of human renal cytosol on Q-Sepharose allowed resolution of AKR1A1, AKR1B1, AKR1C1 and AKR7A2, as identified by substrate specificity and Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry of human kidney demonstrated that AKR7A2 is expressed in a similar fashion to the AKR1 family members in proximal and distal convoluted renal tubules. Furthermore, both AKR7A2 and AKR1 members were expressed in renal carcinoma cells, suggesting that these groups of isoenzymes may be engaged in related physiological functions. PMID:10510318

  14. Functional characterization of nuclear localization and export signals in hepatitis C virus proteins and their role in the membranous web.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviad Levin

    Full Text Available The hepatitis C virus (HCV is a positive strand RNA virus of the Flavivirus family that replicates in the cytoplasm of infected hepatocytes. Previously, several nuclear localization signals (NLS and nuclear export signals (NES have been identified in HCV prote