WorldWideScience

Sample records for member applicant countries

  1. Migration from New EU Member Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to give predictions of the migration potential from the 7 new EU member countries to the EEA/EU-13 countries. Being able to analyze 'real' migration behavior from these particular countries over the period 1990-2000 helps me to avoid problems related to (double) o...

  2. Migration from the new EU member countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Møller; Lund Thomsen, Trine

    2012-01-01

    investigates the potentials, limitations and conflicts of interests that are connected with temporary employment of Eastern European migrant workers within the unskilled labour sectors seen from the perspective of Danish labour market actors; politicians, labour marked unions, Danish employers, Danish......During the past four years more than 52.500 Eastern European EU citizens have worked and lived in Denmark. Migrant workers from the new EU countries are characterized by a high degree of mobility, flexibility and eagerness in terms of working and adapting to working conditions. Poorer socioeconomic...... and working conditions in their home countries as well as being of another cultural background than their Danish colleagues brings with it many challenges. This article examines the consequences of low-skilled labour migration to Denmark from the new EU member countries in Eastern Europe. The article...

  3. Fuel safety criteria in NEA member countries - Compilation of responses received from member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    In 2001 the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) issued a report on Fuel Safety Criteria Technical Review. The objective was to review the present fuel safety criteria and judge to which extent they are affected by the 'new' design elements, such as different cladding materials, higher burnup, the use of MOX fuels, etc. The report stated that the current framework of fuel safety criteria remains generally applicable, being largely unaffected by the 'new' or modern design elements. The levels (numbers) in the individual safety criteria may, however, change in accordance with the particular fuel and core design features. Some of these levels have already been - or are continuously being - adjusted. The level adjustments of several other criteria (RIA, LOCA) also appears to be needed, on the basis of experimental data and the analysis thereof. As a follow-up, among its first tasks, the CSNI Special Expert Group on Fuel Safety Margins (SEG FSM) initiated the collection of information on the present fuel safety criteria used in NEA member states with the objective to solicit national practices in the use of fuel safety criteria, in particular to get information on their specific national levels/values, including their recent adjustments, and to identify the differences and commonalties between the different countries. Two sources of information were used to produce this report: a compilation of responses to a questionnaire prepared for the June 2000 CNRA meeting, and individual responses from the SEGFSM members to the new revised questionnaire issued by the task Force preparing this report. In accordance with the latter, the fuel safety criteria discussed in this report were divided into three categories: (A) safety criteria - criteria imposed by the regulator; (B) operational criteria - specific to the fuel design and provided by the fuel vendor as part of the licensing basis; (C) design criteria - limits employed by vendors and/or utilities for fuel

  4. Compensation for nuclear damage in the OECD member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The study aims to describe briefly the main features of the system for compensation of nuclear damage in OECD Member Countries, emphasising the practical arrangements for compensating such damage, with illustrations drawn from various national legal provisions applicable to such cases. The study indicates and compares legislative provisions which are specifically nuclear, without going into the substantive and procedural rules of the general law, reference to which frequently occurs in enactments relating to nuclear third party liability. The references to national nuclear legislation illustrate the manner in which effect has been given to international Conventions. (Auth.) [fr

  5. STATE REGULATION OF FRANCHISING IN THE EU MEMBER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomiya Ohinok

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In despite of extensive research of franchising in the scientific community, there are a lot of unresolved issues relating to franchising, in particular its regulation at the national level and at the level of the European Union that is why the purpose of the paper is to summarise and present the difference between state regulation of franchising in the EU member states and to research the basic principles of state regulation of franchising in the EU also to analyze legislation of the franchise relationship. Methodology. The survey is based on a comparison of data from all EU member countries and analisis of the legal framework of each country in particular and in general EU legislation. The article is devoted to a detailed analysis of main features of the franchise business in Europe. The mechanism of implementation of franchise relations between EU member states are studied. Government regulation of franchising in the EU member states are investigated. The rate of growth of franchising in Europe are analized. Results. By comparing different state laws and regulations of franchising we have identified the most effective and productive. We divided counties into two groups due to their regulation of franchising: countries which do not have a special government regulation of franchising; the countries which have state regulation of franchising; countries which have government regulation of franchising and it is governed by EU law, countries in which regulation is carried out in accordance with EU law. Thus, results of the survey showed that government regulation of franchising, as well as its regulation at the level of EU institutions have a positive impact on the development of franchising relationships. Practical implications of the results of the paper will help to develop well known network of franchise bussiness without legislative interference. Value/originality. It is first time we have grouped countries due to the main aspects of state

  6. Regulatory Inspection of Nuclear Power Plants in NEA Member Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Based on the replies to a questionnaire, this report gives a description and comparative evaluation of the regulatory inspection activities in several NEA Member countries. The questionnaire which was circulated to all Member countries requested details on the organisation, system, scope and objectives of nuclear regulatory inspection and the effort required throughout all stages of the life of a nuclear plant including the use of independent bodies or consultants. Additional information was requested on the documentation concerned with regulatory inspections, incident and accident reporting procedures, and the duties, powers and bases for recruitment of regulatory personnel with the object of covering all related aspects. However, because of the differences in national practices and perhaps in the interpretation of the questionnaire, it proved to be extremely difficult to make an evaluation and comparison of inspection activities and effort involved in these Member countries. This report, which includes a section on the nuclear power programme in Member countries, should therefore only be regarded as an initial review but it provides a useful contribution to the exchange of experience and views on regulatory inspection practices

  7. Comparative Price Levels of New EU Member Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taušer Josef

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes comparative price levels of 10 new EU member countries from Central, East, and South-East Europe and discusses their main determinants. A comparison of comparative price levels is logically followed by a comparison of relative GDP per capita in purchasing power parities. Further, the Balassa-Samuelson efect is theoretically explained and empirically tested using a sample of EU27 countries (excluding Luxemburg. The results of simple regression analysis confrm that diferences in comparative price levels can be explained by the diferences in relative GDP per capita in purchasing power parities. Besides the Balassa-Samuelson efect there are, however, many other factors that have an impact on comparative price levels. Tey are related to the lower competitiveness of domestic companies on international markets as the result of such factors as a lower quality of production, inefcient organizational structures and management styles, insufcient marketing and business skills, or a poor approach to international distribution channels.

  8. The Use and Development of Probabilistic Safety Assessment in NEA Member Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The mission of the CSNI is to assist Member countries in maintaining and further developing the scientific and technical knowledge base required to assess the safety of nuclear reactors and fuel cycle facilities. The mission of the Working Group on Risk Assessment (WGRisk) is to advance the understanding and utilisation of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) in ensuring continued safety of nuclear installations in Member countries. In pursuing this goal, the Working Group shall recognize the different methodologies for identifying contributors to risk and assessing their importance. While the Working Group shall continue to focus on the more mature PSA methodologies for Level 1, Level 2, internal, external, shutdown, etc. It shall also consider the applicability and maturity of PSA methods for considering evolving issues such as human reliability, software reliability, ageing issues, etc., as appropriate. This report provides descriptions of the current status of PSA programmes in Member countries including basic background information, guidelines, various PSA applications, major results in recent studies, PSA based plant modifications and research and development topics. While the compilation is a not complete compilation it provides a 'snapshot' of the current situation in the Member countries and hence it provides reference information and various insights to both the PSA practician and others involved in the nuclear industry. The terms PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) and PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) are utilised to denote this subject. In each of the chapters the objective is to present a 'snapshot' of the current status. The main issues considered in the different chapters are Background Information, Quantitative Safety Guidelines, Status of PSA Programmes, PSA Applications, PSA Related Research and Development and PSA Based Plant Modifications. It is important to note that the information contained in this report represents current practices in

  9. Regulatory inspection of nuclear power plants in NEA member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronow, W.S.; Ilani, O.

    1977-01-01

    The increasing use of nuclear power and public interest in the safety controls led to the proposal by the sub-Committe on Licensing of the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations for a specialist meeting on regulatory inspection practices. This report which was prepared at the request of the sub-Committee to assist in the exchange of views and experience at the meeting reviews the response to a questionnaire on the systems employed, the scope and objectives and the effort involved in regulatory inspection throughout all stages of the life of a nuclear power plant. Other aspects of regulatory inspection activities are discussed including documentation, procedures for changes in technical specification and modifications to plant, powers and duties of regulatory inspection personnel and actions to be taken in the event of an accident or emergency. The report concludes with some comments on those aspects of regulatory inspection practices where further information and an exchange of experience might prove to be beneficial to Member countries. (author)

  10. Safety practice and regulations in different IGORR member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, C.; Minguet, J.L.; Arnould, F.

    1999-01-01

    In the suggestions of the 1996 IGORR 5 conference, Technicatome proposed 'Comparing Regulations for Research Reactors in Participating Countries'. The aim was to enhance and facilitate the dissemination of pertinent information amongst potential utilities of operational research reactors. A questionnaire on the following topics was subsequently sent out to IGORR 5 participants : Procedures for Research Reactors and Associated Equipment, Safety Analysis, Safety Related Components, Radiation Protection and Management of Nuclear materials. The objective of the present paper is to identify major trends, similarities and differences in the approaches adopted by different countries. Its scope has been limited to: Licensing and Regulatory approach; Operating and Safety documents; Safety Analysis; Radiological Safety; Management of Nuclear Materials. The investigations carried out indicate that to a large extent international recommendations (IAEA, ICPR,..) are being followed and that there is a general tendency to integrate them into national legislation and regulations. Although Safety Culture varies from one country to another an overall general consensus exists on the basic approach to safety inasmuch as: different countries have their own legally defined Safety Authorities, a Preliminary Safety Report is required before a research reactor can be built, and a final Safety Report before the core can be loaded with nuclear fuel and the reactor made critical; these documents must be accepted by the Safety Authorities concerned; a combination of defense-in-depth strategy (deterministic approach) and probabilistic analysis is applied; three or more safety classes are used to categorize systems and components; the single failure criterion is taken into consideration for systems and components having safety functions; both Operating Basis and Safety Shutdown type earthquakes are considered; the crashing of an aircraft onto a research reactor is taken into consideration

  11. Consideration of probabilistic safety objectives in OECD/NEA member countries: Short overview and update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Versteeg, M.F.; Andrews, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Almost every member country of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) uses probabilistic safety criteria (PSC), in one way or another, for the safety assessment of nuclear power plants. The choice of the PSC, their applicability, and whether or not these PSC are used in a formal and/or legal way, is dependent on the political and regulatory situation. The spectrum of utilization includes the use as design requirements and the use as a regulatory and licensing tool be the authorities. The paper summarises the various PSC applied to the assessment of nuclear power plant in the OECD member countries and presents in more detail the use of PSC on the public health level in the Netherlands, United Kingdom and USA. 10 refs, 1 fig., 6 tabs

  12. STATE REGULATION OF FRANCHISING IN THE EU MEMBER COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Solomiya Ohinok

    2015-01-01

    In despite of extensive research of franchising in the scientific community, there are a lot of unresolved issues relating to franchising, in particular its regulation at the national level and at the level of the European Union that is why the purpose of the paper is to summarise and present the difference between state regulation of franchising in the EU member states and to research the basic principles of state regulation of franchising in the EU also to analyze legislation of the franchi...

  13. Application of food irradiation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    The panel on the Application of Food Irradiation in Developing Countries was convened in Vienna by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in August 1964. The members of this panel examined the problem of food preservation in geographical areas where much food was lost through spoilage, deterioration and insect infestation. It was thought, that radiation treatment should be used to solve these preservation problems. The attendees included 13 experts, four observers from research organizations, and 2 representatives from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in Rome. The members of the panel examined the use of ionizing radiation to preserve fish, fruits, and vegetables and to inactivate disease producing viruses which are closely associated with animal products. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Application of food irradiation in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-05-01

    The panel on the Application of Food Irradiation in Developing Countries was convened in Vienna by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in August 1964. The members of this panel examined the problem of food preservation in geographical areas where much food was lost through spoilage, deterioration and insect infestation. It was thought, that radiation treatment should be used to solve these preservation problems. The attendees included 13 experts, four observers from research organizations, and 2 representatives from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in Rome. The members of the panel examined the use of ionizing radiation to preserve fish, fruits, and vegetables and to inactivate disease producing viruses which are closely associated with animal products. Refs, figs and tabs.

  15. Nuclear education and training in OECD member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagata, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    Mankind now enjoys many benefits from nuclear-related technologies. There is, however, growing concern in many OECD countries that nuclear education and training is decreasing, perhaps to problematic levels. This report conveys the results of a pioneering survey on nuclear education and training in almost 200 organizations in 16 countries. In most countries there are now fewer comprehensive, high-quality nuclear technology programs at universities than before. Facilities and faculties for nuclear education are aging, and the number of nuclear programs is declining. The principal reason for the deterioration of nuclear education is the downward spiral of budgetary cut and low enrolment of student whose perception is affected by the educational circumstances, negative public perception, the downsizing of the industry, and reductions in government-funded nuclear programmes, where little strategic planning is occurring. Unless something is done to arrest it, this downward spiral of declining student interest and academic opportunities will continue. Failure to take appropriate steps now will seriously jeopardize the provision of adequate expertise tomorrow. We must act now on the following recommendations: strategic role of governments; the challenges of revitalizing nuclear education by university; vigorous research and maintaining high-quality training; and benefits of collaboration and sharing best practices. (author)

  16. Biofuel implementation agendas. A review of Task 39 Member Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Neeft, J.; Van Thuijl, E.; Wismeijer, R.; Mabee, W.

    2007-01-01

    Biofuels for use in the transportation sector have been produced on a significant scale since the 1970's, using a variety of technologies. The biofuels widely available today are predominantly sugar- and starch-based bioethanol, and oilseed- and waste oil-based biodiesel, although new technologies under development may allow the use of lignocellulosic feedstocks. Measures to promote the use of biofuels include renewable fuel mandates, tax incentives, and direct funding for capital projects or fleet upgrades. This paper provides a review of the policies behind the successful establishment of the biofuel industry in countries around the world. The impact of direct funding programs and excise tax exemptions are examined using the United States as a case study. It is found that the success of five major bioethanol producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Minnesota) is closely related to the presence of funding designed to support the industry in its start-up phase. The study concludes that successful policy interventions can take many forms, but that success is equally dependent upon external factors which include biomass availability, an active industry, and competitive energy prices

  17. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in South East European Countries and New Member States of European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardhyl Dauti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper accounts for the main determinants of Foreign Direct Investment flows to 5-SEEC and the 10-New Member States of the EU countries by using an augmented Gravity Model. The study takes into account country specific institutional factors that determine foreign investors’ decisions from 14 core European Union countries to invest into SEE-5 and EU-NMS-10 countries. From the results of the study we find that gravity factors and institutional related determinants like control of corruption, political stability, bilateral FDI agreement, WTO membership and transition progress appear to significantly determine inward FDI flows from core EU countries to host economies of South East European region and new European Union member states.

  18. Summary of nuclear power and fuel cycle data in OECD Member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    A questionnaire on Electricity Generation, Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data is distributed annually to OECD Member countries. Member countries were asked to provide, where available, various statistics for the previous calendar year (1982) and modified projections up to the year 2000. Tables 1 to 8 are based on the responses received and update the March 1982 issue. Tables 3 to 8 show the revised electricity, nuclear power and fuel cycle supply and demand projections in OECD Member countries to the year 2000. Figure 1 illustrates the contribution of the different fuel sources to the OECD's electricity generation from 1974 to 1982. Figure 2 shows the nuclear share of electricity generation in the OECD countries for 1982 and 1985. Figure 3 gives the fuel cycle supply and demand from the Tables 5, 6 and 8 in the OECD area

  19. The economic cost of low domestic product prices in OPEC Member Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerer, N.; Ban, J.

    2000-01-01

    The present state of subsidies on major oil products (gasoline, kerosene, diesel and fuel oil) in OPEC Member Countries is analysed, in order to quantify their economic cost, keeping in mind the importance of reforming or gradually removing subsidies as one of the crucial economic challenges facing many Member Countries. The paper begins with a general definition and description of subsidies, then discusses briefly the key issues in reforming/removing them, with the potential benefits. Following a section on subsidy level estimations in recent years, the subsidy implications in terms of the accruing budget burden and foregone revenues from additional export potential are presented. This is together with some arguments supporting the process of adjustment towards internationally competitive prices for oil products as an inescapable development for Member Countries; this should progress in gradual, but firm steps. (author)

  20. COMPULSORY SOCIAL CONTRIBUTIONS IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES NOT MEMBERS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINEL NEDELUŢ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A proper understanding of the "details" of the pension system in our country can only be known if the essential, defining characteristics of pension systems in European Union countries and most developed countries in the world. Among the defining elements of any pension scheme among the most important are (a the share of social contributions and (2 tax base. In the present social security contributions will be applied in the following countries are not EU Member States: Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Iceland, Macedonia, Moldova, Norway, Russia, Serbia, Montenegro, Turkey, Ukraine, Japan, United States of America. For a better comparison and social security contributions are presented in Romania. In the vast majority of these countries (a base contributions is the gross income, (2 are used to calculate the progressive contribution rates for retirement, particularly in most developed countries, (3 pension contribution is supported both by the employee (employee and employer, almost equally.

  1. A COMPARISON OF ASTRONOMY IN 15 MEMBER COUNTRIES OF THE ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERKRUIT, PC

    1994-01-01

    Various data are collected for 15 member countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) that have to do with the practising of astronomy: (1) using the report of the Astronomy expert meeting of the Megascience Forum of the OECD, the level of astronomy funding, size of

  2. RWMC support to member countries and relationship with the IAEA, EC and other organisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This documents provides information on how the work of the NEA/RWMC supports the needs of NEA member countries and how it differs from, and complements, the related work of the IAEA and EC. In particular, the document reviews the respective roles and specificities of these organisations and their modus operandi, including co-operation and co-ordination mechanisms. (authors)

  3. Nuclear data applications in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, M.K.; Schmidt, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology currently receive an increasing attention in many developing countries. More than 15 developing countries operate, construct or plan nuclear power reactors, 70 developing countries are using or planning to use nuclear techniques in medicine, agriculture, industry, and for other vital purposes. The generation, application and computer processing of nuclear data constitute important elements of the nuclear infrastructure needed for the successful implementation of nuclear science and technology. Developing countries become increasingly aware of this need, and, with the help and cooperation of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, are steadily gaining in experience in this field. The paper illustrates this development in typical examples. (orig.)

  4. EFFECTS OF OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRICES ON INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION IN THE EUROZONE MEMBER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz BAYAR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Industrial production is one of the leading indicators of gross domestic product which reflects the overall economic performance of a country. In other words decreases or increases in industrial production point out a contracting or expanding economy. Therefore, changes in prices of oil and natural gas which are the crucial inputs to the industrial production are also important for the overall economy. This study examines the effects of changes in oil and natural gas prices on the industrial production in the 18 Eurozone member countries during the period January 2001-September 2013 by using panel regression. We found that oil prices and natural gas prices had negative effect on industrial production in the Eurozone member countries.

  5. Energy conservation: an alternative for investment in the oil sector for OPEC member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamani, M.

    2005-01-01

    Investment in the oil sector is the main policy of expanding net crude oil export capacity in OPEC Member Countries. The other alternative should be improving energy conservation policies. Since these countries benefit from cheap energy sources, it is reasonable to expect inefficient use of energy in their economies, resulting in relatively high energy intensity. This paper deals with the causality relationship between energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP). First, stationary tests are run. Second, if there is a cointegrating relationship, an error correction model is applied; otherwise a standard Granger causality test is conducted. It was discovered that for all OPEC Member Countries we cannot statistically accept causality running from energy to GDP. Therefore, not only are proper conservation policies not a threat to economic growth, they also lead to an expansion of oil export capacity. (author)

  6. Sustainable food production in marginal lands—Case of GDLA member countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabbir A. Shahid

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable food production in the changing climate and dwindling water resources in the Global Dry Land Alliance (GDLA member countries is a real challenge, especially when considering marginal lands in dryland systems. The definition of marginal land is very vague and defined from different perspectives (pragmatism about marginal lands. Dryland itself indicates "marginality" due to water stress. In general, the abandoned agriculture land where food production is not economical, and has low inherent productivity potential is considered marginal; however, a land may be marginal for agriculture but vital for grazing. In this paper attempts have been made to give review of literature (water stress, extent of marginal saline lands, marginality. Policy matters (development of soil, water and agriculture strategies that GDLA and member countries should consider for future sustainable food production in their countries, including but not limited to, assessment of land resources for agriculture potential, defining, mapping and characterizing marginal lands, and use of innovative technologies (conservation agriculture, climate smart agriculture, integrated soil reclamation program and capacity building for food production, are discussed. The international perception (FAO, UNEP, CGIAR on marginal lands is also described. An innovative approach of using national biocapacity and ecological footprint is used to assess marginality of GDLA member countries. Ecological overshoot (using 1.5 earth planets and biocapacity debtor and creditor countries are highlighted. Challenges and best management practices for food production in marginal lands are included. Other important issues, like leasing land abroad, GDLA strategic food reserves and best management practices, innovative ideas for food production are shared. Finally recommendations are drafted for actions by GDLA, its member countries and the partners.

  7. Pesticide Applicator Certification in Indian Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    This website provides information about the EPA Plan for the Federal Certification of Applicators of Restricted Use Pesticides within Indian Country, including plan requirements, how to become certified, how to register for training, and who is certified.

  8. FEATURES OF TECHNOLOGIES TRANSFER SYSTEMS IN EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION MEMBER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Solovieva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In article forms and conditions of interaction of participants of innovative process, feature of creation and development of organizational system of a transfer of technologies in member countries of the Eurasian Economic Union are considered. On the basis of a transfer systems analysis functioning in the EEU countries, the author allocates the key and most perspective directions of development of integration of scientific and educational, production spheres and the state for the purpose of formation of special mechanisms of the organization of the innovative processes providing effective interaction between all its participants. The conclusion about need of creation of the organizational system based on integration of institutes of the state, science, business and education in the EEU countries for formation of competitive hi-tech production, increase in the status of the countries in the world market of technologies is drawn.

  9. The Nexus between FDI and Growth in the SAARC Member Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sangjoon Jun

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of foreign direct investment (FDI) on South Asian economies' output growth, utilizing recent panel cointegration testing and estimation techniques. Annual panel data on eight SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) member countries' macroeconomic variables over the period 1960- 2013 are employed in empirical analysis. Using various heterogeneous panel cointegration and panel causality tests, a bi-directional relationship between FDI and growth ...

  10. EU enlargement and new member countries' involvement in the exchange rates system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatka Bilas

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available For each country, joining the union is a unique process, considering advantages and disadvantages which a country can thus obtain. In order to fulfill conditions for the EU accession, transition countries must achieve different convergence criteria. Expansion of the EU brings along many challenges including coordination of policies and conducting a common monetary policy. After joining the EU new members are expected to have a minimum of two years of participation in the Exchange Rate Mechanism 2 before accepting euro. ERM2 can be a flexible and efficient framework for the determination of a appropriate level of irrevocable exchange rate fixing according to euro, as well as for achieving macroeconomic stability. Even though, considering demands for complete abolition of capital controls and high capital mobility, fixed exchange rate with fluctuation margins of ±15% is to become sensitive to the capital movements and speculative attacks.

  11. The comparative burden of salmonellosis in the European Union member states, associated and candidate countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jong Birgitta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella is an infectious agents causing numerous cases of illness each year, and thereby having significant economic impact. Using returning Swedish travellers we estimated the burden of salmonellosis in different European countries. Methods From the Swedish database on notifiable communicable diseases 15,864 cases with travel-associated salmonellosis acquired in Europe from 1997–2003 were retrieved. These cases were compared to a dataset from the same years on 14,171 randomly selected Swedish residents, with a history of recent overnight travel in Europe. Distribution of salmonellosis in returning travellers and the distribution of Salmonella Enteritidis was analysed for different member states in the European Union, associated and candidate countries. The risk of being notified with a salmonella infection after return from each European country/region was calculated, and compared with official reporting data rom these countries. Using Norway as reference country, we could 1 construct comparable incidence estimates and 2 calculate the "under-reporting" in each country compared to Norway. Results The highest burden of salmonellosis was estimated for Bulgaria (2741/100,000, followed by Turkey with 2344/100 000 and Malta with 2141/100 000. S. Enteritidis is the dominating serotype, 66.9 % of all cases and phage type 4 accounts for 37.5 % of the S. Enteritidis cases Conclusion Using returning tourists as a sentinel population can provide a useful base for comparison of disease burdens in different countries/regions. Focusing prevention of salmonellosis to prevention of egg and poultry associated S. Enteritidis infection will have a major impact from a public health perspective and will significantly lower the burden of disease in most European countries.

  12. International migration and unemployment in established member countries of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Palát

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to evaluate relationships of the rate of migration and the unemployment rate in established member countries of the European Union covering also the period of the last financial and economic crisis and using statistical methods. To determine parameters of a regression function were used methods of regression and correlation analysis including testing the statistical significance. Nearly all countries (except Luxemburg and Austria show a negative linear relationship between tested indicators however not always statistically significant. Based on these results, the existence of correlation is evident between the crude rate of net migration and the unemployment rate in more than a half of the monitored countries. Calculated correlation indices show highly statistically significant results for typically immigrant’s destination countries, e.g. Germany, United Kingdom, Luxembourg, and Belgium but we can find statistically significant results also in countries which are facing enormous economic problems during the last financial and economic crisis, esp. in Ireland, Spain and Italy. With an exemption of Belgium, the selected type of regression function doesn’t play a role as it regards the statistical significance of correlation indices and the use of polynomials of higher degrees doesn’t improve those results significantly. The analysis of the crude rate of net migration and the unemployment rate presented in this paper can be further used and developed when other variables would be added to the model.

  13. Summary of nuclear power and fuel cycle data in OECD member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    A questionnaire on Electricity Generation, Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data is distributed annually to OECD Member Countries. In the questionnaire of January 1986, countries were asked to provide historical data for 1984 and 1985 and most likely projections up to the year 2005. The replies to the questionnaire are presented in this Summary. Not all countries have revised or made new projections since the April 1985 issue. Too few countries were able to provide projections beyond 2000 to include data for 2005 in this year's Summary. Data for 1985 are in some cases provisional. Where no data were available the Secretariat made estimates, based on information of IEA, IAEA, the previous Brown Book, OECD/IEA Energy Statistics and other sources. The electricity generation and production data for fuel cycle services refer to those facilities located within the country, and thus exclude imports. The fuel cycle requirements, however, refer to the amounts of fuel cycle services necessary for national nuclear power programmes. The Addendum contains an analysis of the present and past projections for OECD nuclear capacity to 2000

  14. Main features of licensing requirements for nuclear installations in several OECD member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1977-01-01

    The present paper contains a brief description of the main features of the above-mentioned six countries' licensing systems, namely the legal regime applicable, the appropriate licensing bodies, the general frame and scope of the respective national regimes, the involvement of the public and technical safety bodies as well as the inspection procedures. This description is supplemented by some introductory remarks. (orig.) [de

  15. Main features of licensing requirements for nuclear installations in several OECD member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1975-01-01

    The present paper contains a brief description of the main features of the above-mentioned six countries' licensing systems, namely the legal regime applicable, the appropriate licensing bodies, the general frame and scope of the respective national regimes, the involvement of the public and technical safety bodies as well as the inspection procedures. This description is supplemented by some introductory remarks. (orig.) [de

  16. The Nexus between FDI and Growth in the SAARC Member Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjoon Jun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of foreign direct investment (FDI on South Asian economies' output growth, utilizing recent panel cointegration testing and estimation techniques. Annual panel data on eight SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation member countries' macroeconomic variables over the period 1960- 2013 are employed in empirical analysis. Using various heterogeneous panel cointegration and panel causality tests, a bi-directional relationship between FDI and growth is found. We find evidence for both FDI-led growth and growth-induced FDI hypotheses for the South Asian economies over the sample period. Individual member countries exhibit heterogeneity in terms of the direction or existence of causality subject to their idiosyncratic economic conditions. Among various regressors, FDI, financial development, human capital, and government consumption show the most significant positive effects on output growth. As determinants of FDI, GDP, financial development, human capital, and government consumption are found significant in the region. The bi-directional causality between FDI and growth is found robust to the inclusion of other control variables and using different estimation techniques.

  17. Customer Satisfaction Among the Members of the Summit Point Golf and Country Club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERONICA JOY V. BENCITO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the customer satisfaction among the members of the Summit Point Golf and Country Club which served as the basis for continuous improvement. It determined the level of customer satisfaction on the services offered by the Summit Point employees in terms of food and beverages, customer service and facilities. Lastly, it also tested the significant differences on the level of customer satisfactions when grouped according to their membership variables of the club. The descriptive type of research was used to assess the operation of the club. Data gathered were analyzed using the weighted mean and ANOVA method. The members of the Summit Point Golf and Country Club are generally satisfied in terms of facilities and amenities, food and beverages and customer service. The hypothesis has no significant difference between the membership profile and level of customer satisfaction in terms of facilities and amenities and customer service is rejected. This means that their responses differ as to their reasons of joining the club, their obtained degree and the frequency of playing in the club.

  18. The burden of cancer in member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimman, Merel; Norman, Rosana; Jan, Stephen; Kingston, David; Woodward, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the most recent data on cancer rates and the burden of cancer in the ASEAN region. Epidemiological data were sourced from GLOBOCAN 2008 and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) lost were estimated using the standard methodology developed within the World Health Organization's Global Burden of Disease study. Overall, it was estimated there were over 700,000 new cases of cancer and 500,000 cancer deaths in ASEAN in the year 2008, leading to approximately 7.5 million DALYs lost in one year. The most commonly diagnosed cancers were lung (98,143), breast (86,842) and liver cancers (74,777). The most common causes of cancer death were lung cancer (85,772), liver cancer (69,115) and colorectal cancer (44,280). The burden of cancer in terms of DALYs lost was highest in Laos, Viet Nam and Myanmar and lowest in Brunei, Singapore and the Philippines. Significant differences in the patterns of cancer from country to country were observed. Another key finding was the major impact played by population age distribution on cancer incidence and mortality. Cancer rates in ASEAN are expected to increase with ageing of populations and changes in lifestyles associated with economic development. Therefore, ASEAN member countries are strongly encouraged to put in place cancer-control health care policies, focussed on strengthening the health systems to cope with projected increases in cancer prevention, treatment and management needs.

  19. Regulations for safe transport of spent fuels from nuclear power plants in CMEA member countries. Part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zizka, B.

    1978-11-01

    The regulations for safe transport of spent fuel from nuclear power plants in the CMEA member countries consist of general provisions, technical requirements for spent fuel transport, transport conditions, procedures for submitting reports on transport, regulations for transport and protection of radioactive material to be transported, procedures for customs clearance, technical and organizational measures for the prevention of hypothetical accidents and the elimination of their consequences. The bodies responsible for spent fuel transport in the CMEA member countries are listed. (J.B.)

  20. Status of radiation applications in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.

    1979-01-01

    A summary is given of the following applications: radiotherapy; sterilization of medical products and biological tissues; inactivation of virus; food preservation; insect control and eradication; improvement in field crops; treatment of waste waters and sewage sludge. In industry, irradiation technology has contributed to the manufacturing industries for new product developments in the plastics, textiles, wood, rubber, petroleum, concrete and chemical industries. Irradiation technology offers a fascinating outlet for developing countries for improving their condition of medical care, upgrading of their natural materials, stimulating their industrial development, decreasing their food losses and increasing their crop production. These lines would certainly contribute to their national economy and would result in an enhanced rate of development. However, transfer of radiation technology to developing countries should be undertaken in view of the actual national and regional needs and supported by an overall well studied national and regional planning for trained manpower development. The choice of a radiation source for a potential application should be based on the demand of the process, compromise between desirability and cost and quantitative data on installation, operation and maintenance conditions, and costs. The program developed and implemented by Egypt is herein presented. Facilities, organization, personnel, current and past activities, and future plans are described. (author)

  1. Financial aspects of nuclear power programmes from the experience of the Foratom Member Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riverola Pelayo, R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the financial aspects of the nuclear power programme from the experience of the Foratom Member countries. To appreciate the magnitude of the financial requirement the investments for the nuclear programme over the period 1976-85 are related to gross national product and gross capital formation. An examination is made of the sources and systems of financing for nuclear power stations and for all stages of the fuel cycle. The importance of interest during construction of the nuclear plant is considered in detail as, with the lengthening of construction times, this has now become a major factor in the total cost of a nuclear station. The possible accounting conventions under which interest during construction can be treated are examined and a study is made of the investment profile, the cost of money and the effect of inflation. The fiscal aspects of nuclear finance are studied with reference to national regulations and amortization rules. The amortization of nuclear installations also presents certain problems associated with their dismantling once their useful life is over, and this raises the question of the need to create a reserve fund which can commence with the startup of the power plant. For the fuel cycle a distinction can be made between areas of high (economic) risk such as in the prospecting and mining of uranium and the reprocessing of irradiated fuel, and those areas of normal risk such as the manufacture of fuel elements. The difficulties of obtaining credit for the first phase should be considered. (author)

  2. Financial aspects of nuclear power programmes from the experience of the FORATOM member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riverola-Pelayo, R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the financial aspects of nuclear power programme from the experience of the FORATOM member countries. To appreciate the magnitude of the financial requirement, the investments for the nuclear programme over the period 1976-85 are related to gross national product and gross capital formation. An examination is made of the sources and systems of financing for nuclear power stations and for all stages of the fuel cycle. The importance of interest during construction of nuclear plant is considered in detail as, with the lengthening of construction times, this has now become a major factor in the total cost of a nuclear station. The possible accounting conventions under which interest during construction can be treated are examined and a study is made of the investment profile, the cost of money and the effect of inflation. The fiscal aspects of nuclear finance are studied with reference to national regulations and amortization rules. The amortization of nuclear installations also presents certain problems associated with their dismantling once their useful life is over and this raises the question of the need to create a reserve fund which can commence with the startup of the power plant. For the fuel cycle, a distinction can be made between phases of high (economic) risk such as in the prospection and mining of uranium and the reprocessing of irradiated fuel, and those areas of normal risk such as the manufacture of fuel elements. The difficulties of obtaining credit for the first phase should be considered

  3. Nuclear legislation. Analytical study. Regulatory and Institutional framework for nuclear activities in OECD Member countries. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This study is part of a series of analytical studies of the major aspects of nuclear legislation in OECD Member countries and is published in two volumes. This Volume I of the study is a revision and an expansion of a 1969 study concerning the organisation and general regime governing nuclear activities. The national studies were prepared, to the extent possible, following a standard plan for all countries to facilitate information retrieval and comparison. (NEA) [fr

  4. Fiscal Consolidation Start and its Determinants Analysis Within European Member Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Mihóková

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the research from the theoretical point of view is to define the "start of fiscal consolidation" and to clarify the effects of selected determinants on its initiation. The purpose of the paper, in an empirical context, is to empirically assess the impact of selected determinants on the start of consolidation in the EU member states in 1995-2015 using quantitative economics. The paper was developed within the project VEGA 1/0967/15. Methodology: The empirical assessment of the research objective is divided into four phases: (1 creation of research review using EBHC methodology, (2 identification of “start” of fiscal consolidation within selected period, (3 panel econometric analysis: model specification, quantification of model’s parameters and model verification and (4 research assessment and discussion. Within the analysis, the traditional, specific and general methods were used (systemic review according to EBHC methodology, content analysis, panel regression analysis, synthesis. Approach: Approach identifies “start” of consolidation episodes using selected identification rules. Using the panel regression analysis (OLS, FEM and REM models approach the statistically significant macroeconomic, fiscal, political and other determinants and quantification of the polarity of their impact on the fiscal consolidation start were analysed. Findings: Based on the performed econometric analysis can be stated that the start of consolidation is significantly determined by initial macroeconomic and fiscal situation in the country which are captured by the size of output gap and GDP growth as well as the size of CAPB, budget expenditure and the revenue side. Political and other determinants (such as crisis can also influence the start of consolidation episodes..

  5. The European PV market evaluation for potential investors - actual information on the 15 EU member state countries and Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdziel, M.

    2004-01-01

    The EU has ambitious targets for the introduction of PV. According to the white book of the European Commission, the target for 2010 is to install 3000 MWp. In the following the European PV markets of the 15 EU member state countries and Switzerland are presented and evaluated for potential investors. (author)

  6. Real purchasing power of oil revenues for OPEC Member Countries: a broad currency basket and dynamic trade pattern approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazraati, M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the real purchasing power of OPEC Member Countries' oil revenues, which are subject to 'the value of the US dollar vis-a-vis other major currencies' and 'world imported inflation'. The exponential weighting average formula with a broad basket of currencies is suggested. The basket of currencies is labelled as a broad currency basket and includes the major trading partners of OPEC Member Countries. The weights are normalized OPEC import shares of the countries of the basket and are updated and adjusted every year to incorporate a gradual change in the trade pattern. In other words, the dynamic trade pattern approach is incorporated in the calculations. The nominal dollar oil revenues of OPEC Member Countries are about $5,099 billion during 1970 to 2004, of which $3,725 bn (73 per cent) have been lost due to imported inflation and the dollar's depreciation. Imported inflation and dollar depreciation have had a respective 78.6 per cent and 21.4 per cent contribution to the losses of the purchasing power of OPEC Member Countries. The imported inflation rate approaches a stable low level, but OPEC still has a lot of concerns on dollar swings. The euro offers opportunities for many oil-exporting nations that have extensive trade relations with Euro-zone countries. Payments for oil exports can be invoked in euros at the prevailing dollar-euro rate on the day of a given contract, or any other trigger formula. This would immunize a major portion of OPEC oil revenues from dollar depreciation. (author)

  7. How Do the Faculty Members Go for Trolls? A View from An Emerging Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Bugra KUZU DEMIR

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the findings of an exploratory, qualitative phenomenological study and investigates opinions and evaluations of faculty members about trolls encountered in social media and mass medium. The research was carried out in Anadolu University in Turkey. A total of 18 faculty members from 9 faculties in 12 different departments responded to 4 interview questions. Faculty members' views on trolls were elicited through 2 rounds of semi-structured focus group interviews. Findings were based on content analyses of interview transcripts. Results are presented in four categories which emerged from perceptions, strategies, incidences and feelings. Trolls’ aims and their success in doing so when it comes to the research group are discussed. This research concludes that purity, hazard and intelligence of trolls are still dubious facts for the Anadolu University faculty members.

  8. Production and application of radioisotopes in Asian Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Youfeng

    1997-01-01

    Production and application of radioisotopes in some Asian countries including Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Uzbekistan, and Viet Nam are introduced

  9. Nuclear legislation analytical study. Regulatory and institutional framework for nuclear activities in OECD member countries. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This study is part of a series of analytical studies of the major aspects of nuclear legislation in OECD Member countries and is published in two volumes. This volume II of the study is a revision and an expansion of a 1969 study concerning the organisation and general regime governing nuclear activities. The national studies were prepared, to the extent possible, following a standard plan for all countries to facilitate information retrieval and comparison. This volume also contains tables of international conventions of relevance to the nuclear field. (NEA) [fr

  10. Protective measures adopted in OECD member countries in response to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yoshikazu

    1988-01-01

    The report outlines the measures for exposure prevention taken in West European countries following the Chernobyl power plant accident. In particular, the radioactivity regulation levels for foods (derived intervention levels) adopted in these countries are described in detail, citing from the reports of the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health of OECD/NEA (The Radiological Impact of the Chernobyl Accident in OECD Countries) and an scientific seminar held by EC (International Scientific Seminar on Foodstuffs Intervention Levels Following a Nuclear Accident). It is pointed out that these countries rather largely vary in measures taken and the derived intervention levels adopted although the principles for radiation protection which provide the basis for emergency protection measures must be nearly the same in all of the countries. It is necessary to establish consistent standards in each country in consideration of an accident, like the one at Chernobyl, that may have global effects. The ICRP recommendations and IAEA safety guidelines so far are centered on ''near-field'' measures to be taken in areas near an accident site. Thus, studies should be made to establish measures to be taken in areas far from the site. (Nogami, K.)

  11. The role of union support in coping with job insecurity: A study among union members from three European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sjoerd Goslinga; Johnny Hellgren; Antonio Chirumbolo; Hans De Witte; Katharina Näswall; Magnus Sverke

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines the potential moderating role of union support in the relationship between job insecurity and work-related attitudes and well-being of unionised employees. Survey data collected among union members from three European countries (The Netherlands, Italy and Sweden) indicate that job insecurity is associated with reduced levels of job satisfaction, well-being and organisational commitment. Contrary to expectations, union support moderated neither the effect of job inse...

  12. Leader-member exchange (LMX) and culture: a meta-analysis of correlates of LMX across 23 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockstuhl, Thomas; Dulebohn, James H; Ang, Soon; Shore, Lynn M

    2012-11-01

    This study extends leader-member exchange (LMX) research by meta-analyzing the role of national culture in moderating relationships between LMX and its correlates. Results based on 282 independent samples (N = 68,587) from 23 countries and controlling for extreme response style differences indicate that (a) relationships of LMX with organizational citizenship behavior, justice perceptions, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and leader trust are stronger in horizontal-individualistic (e.g., Western) contexts than in vertical-collectivistic (e.g., Asian) contexts; and (b) national culture does not affect relationships of LMX with task performance, organizational commitment, and transformational leadership. These findings highlight that although members are universally sensitive to how their leaders treat them, members' responses in Asian contexts may also be influenced by collective interests and role-based obligations. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Waste management and radiation protection overview of the practices in the NEA member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.; Riotte, H.; Ruegger, B.

    2000-01-01

    For many years the NEA has been reviewing waste management practices in Member States. Measures applied in the nuclear fuel cycle to reduce waste generation are outlined and characteristics of waste management in all steps of the nuclear fuel cycle are described. Views gained are discussed. (author)

  14. Report on nuclear safety in EU applicant countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Nuclear safety in the candidate countries to the European Union is a major issue which needs to be addressed in the frame of the enlargement process. The Heads of the nuclear safety Regulatory Bodies of the European Union member states having nuclear power plants, i.e. Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom thought it was their duty to offer their assistance to the European Union institutions at a moment when the expansion of the Union is being considered. As a consequence, they decided to issue a report giving their collective opinion on nuclear safety in those applicant countries having at least one nuclear power reactor (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia) and covering: the status of the regulatory regime and regulatory body and the nuclear power plant safety status. This report is based on the knowledge they gained through multilateral assistance programmes, in particular the Phare programmes, and also through bilateral contacts. It must be stressed that in some cases, they recognised that their current knowledge was not sufficient to express a clear and exhaustive opinion. Also, it should be pointed out that the judgements are based on widely applied Western European design standards for the defence-in-depth and associated barriers. Quantitative comparisons of Probabilistic Safety Assessments have not been used as the available results are of widely different depth and quality. They also recognised that such a report could only present the situation at a given moment and they intend to periodically update it so as to reflect the changes which may occur in these countries. At this stage, the report does not cover radioactive waste or radiation protection issues in any detail. After they had taken the decision to issue this report, they decided to create an association, the Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA) in order to increase the co

  15. Report on nuclear safety in EU applicant countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    Nuclear safety in the candidate countries to the European Union is a major issue which needs to be addressed in the frame of the enlargement process. The Heads of the nuclear safety Regulatory Bodies of the European Union member states having nuclear power plants, i.e. Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom thought it was their duty to offer their assistance to the European Union institutions at a moment when the expansion of the Union is being considered. As a consequence, they decided to issue a report giving their collective opinion on nuclear safety in those applicant countries having at least one nuclear power reactor (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia) and covering: the status of the regulatory regime and regulatory body and the nuclear power plant safety status. This report is based on the knowledge they gained through multilateral assistance programmes, in particular the Phare programmes, and also through bilateral contacts. It must be stressed that in some cases, they recognised that their current knowledge was not sufficient to express a clear and exhaustive opinion. Also, it should be pointed out that the judgements are based on widely applied Western European design standards for the defence-in-depth and associated barriers. Quantitative comparisons of Probabilistic Safety Assessments have not been used as the available results are of widely different depth and quality. They also recognised that such a report could only present the situation at a given moment and they intend to periodically update it so as to reflect the changes which may occur in these countries. At this stage, the report does not cover radioactive waste or radiation protection issues in any detail. After they had taken the decision to issue this report, they decided to create an association, the Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA) in order to increase the co

  16. Comparative Analysis of OECD Member Countries' Competitive Advantage in National Human Resource Development System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hunseok; Choi, Yeseul; Choi, Myungweon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess, evaluate, and compare the competitive advantages of the human resource development systems of advanced countries. The Global Human Resource Development Index was utilized for this study, since it has been validated through an expert panel's content review and analytic hierarchy process. Using a sample of 34…

  17. Survey of Ergonomics Databases in Member Countries of the International Ergonomics Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    6 China 2 Ireland 1 Japan 3 13 countries 4Luxembourg 1 30 respondents Netherlands 1 South Africa 1 Switzerland 2 Thailand 1 Uruguay 1 *Some British...Biological Engineering and Computing World Textile Abstracts Medicina del Lavoro Medicina y Segundad del Trabajo Zeitschrift fi~r Arbeituwisenchaft Mens en

  18. Dairy chain competitiveness in EU’s new member states, candidate and potential candidate countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkum, van S.

    2009-01-01

    This comparative analysis of structures and performances of the dairy supply chain in 20 south-eastern and eastern European countries shows that even after many years of structural change, the sector is still dominated by small-scale and subsistence farming, which results in weak vertical

  19. Business cycle synchronization among member countries of Eurozone during the process of European integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatopluk Kapounek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the correlation of the business cycles between the Eurozone member states in the period 1957–2003. The analysed period is divided into the four parts (1959–1972, 1973–1985, 1986–1994, 1995–2003, which correspond to integration waves and relate approximately to the European integration process. The empirical analysis is based on the time series correlation. The authors discuss the impact of the EC enlargements on the business cycles correlation as well as on qualitative changes in the interaction between the states.

  20. Analysis and Identification of Potential Business Opportunities with TPP Member Countries in Fresh Food Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Malca Guaylupo, Oscar; Florián Mendo, Samir; Barrantes Rivas, Sofía; Cerdán Torres, Sara; Zhu Gálvez, Eloha

    2016-01-01

    Peruvian export structure has been based over the years, on traditional products whose nature can be explained from Peru's pattern of comparative advantages. In order to intensify trade flows to a greater number of markets, Peru has signed many trade agreements and, following the strategy, has concluded negotiations of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP). However, Peru's market shares in imports from countries with which it has trade agreements are low, reflecting a poor level of ex...

  1. The future of FDI in south eastern European countries: Messages from new EU member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penev Slavica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the interlinking of inward FDI, EU accession, and transition-related structural reform processes, and identifies the largest lags of SEE-6 countries in EU accession and transition processes, whose removal would have a positive impact on inward FDI. The analysis is based on EBRD Transition Indicators, the World Bank Doing Business Index, and the World Bank Governance Index. We find an obvious correlation of inward FDI, transition, and EU accession processes of NMS-10 countries and claim that SEE-6 countries will broadly follow the same pattern: their relative position as FDI recipients will gradually improve along with the progress of EU accession and transition processes. The analysis identifies the following main gaps of the SEE-6 in these processes: (i in terms of economic system development - enterprise restructuring and governance, and sectoral reforms in energy, infrastructure, capital markets, and private equity; (ii in terms of the governance of economy and society at large - regulatory quality and rule of law; and (iii in terms of the business environment - dealing with construction permits, enforcing contracts, and registering property. Progress in narrowing down these gaps would mean a step forward in EU accession and transition, and consequently an improvement of SEE-6 countries’ positions as locations for inward FDI.

  2. Perspective of Family Members of Transitions to Alternative Levels of Care in Anglo-Saxon Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merla, C; Wickson-Griffiths, A; Kaasalainen, S; Dal Bello-Haas, V; Banfield, L; Hadjistavropoulos, T; Di Sante, E

    2018-01-01

    This scoping review explores circumstances surrounding the decision about, and eventual experience of, transitioning older adults into alternative levels of housing (ALH), such as long-term care. This topic is examined from a family member perspective, given their exposure and involvement in the care of older adult relatives during this transitional period. The scoping review methodology is based on the framework of Arksey and O'Malley and subsequent recommendations from Levac, Colquhoun, and O'Brien. Approximately 470 articles were reviewed covering the period between 2000 and November 2014; 37 articles met inclusion criteria. A temporal organization of themes was used to describe the experiences of family members in the pretransition, active transition, and posttransition periods of moving older adult relatives into ALH. This paper highlights the transitional period as a time of crisis, with a lack of planning, support, and transparent discussion. This study identifies a need for future research on the potential benefits of family support groups, interim transitional housing options, different models of ALH, changing roles in the posttransition period, and the need for a comprehensive list of housing options for older adults. Results have the potential to inform policy/practice and improve the lives of older adults and their family.

  3. Sanctioning international protection applicants for choosing the country of asylum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Mozetič

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Major disparities in the regulation and application of international protection exist among EU member states. Therefore, applicants for international protection want to choose the state where they lodge an application. Instead of harmonizing law on international protection, member states sanction applicants for international protection who lodge an application in the preferred member states and not in the one responsible under the Dublin III Regulation. According to the New International Protection Act, implementing EU procedural directive, it may be assumed that an applicant implicitly withdrew her/his application, if s/he left the asylum home without authorisation, and in that case the procedure is discontinued. If an applicant lodges a subsequent application after more than nine months or more than once, her/his application will possibly not be subject of a substantial examination.In order to prevent ”asylum shopping” EU allows for the possibility that some applicants, who would be entitled to refugee status or subsidiary protection, are never granted such protection. However, this is contrary to the principle of non-refoulement as developed in the case-law of the ECtHR and the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Slovenia. Mechanisms that aim to prevent ”asylum shopping” may be contrary to the well-established principles of human rights protection, unfair or unreasonable and affect the most marginalized applicants for international protection.

  4. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TAX POLICIES APPLICABLE IN THE NEW AND ORIGINAL EU MEMBER-STATES

    OpenAIRE

    KvÄ›ta Kubátová

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare the tax policies of the twelve new countries of the European Union with those of the existing fifteen members. These countries have sometimes been criticized because of their tax-favoring policies especially lower rates and revenues and various tax exceptions, namely, for capital tax. Critical comments have even been made about the establishment of the flat tax in some of these countries. The indicators monitored in this comparison are the tax quota, ...

  5. Analysis and Identification of Potential Business Opportunities with TPP Member Countries in Fresh Food Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Malca Guaylupo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Peruvian export structure has been based over the years, on traditional products whose nature can be explained from Peru's pattern of comparative advantages. In order to intensify trade flows to a greater number of markets, Peru has signed many trade agreements and, following the strategy, has concluded negotiations of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP. However, Peru's market shares in imports from countries with which it has trade agreements are low, reflecting a poor level of exploitation of treaties. The objective of this article is to identify the Peruvian potential commercial opportunities within the framework of the TPP through the use of commercial indexes such as the index of comparative advantages and the classification of strategies according to the quadrants proposed by the Ansoff matrix. The identification of commercial opportunities is the first step that needs to be taken so that Peru can take advantage of its comparative advantages and the current trade agreements by designing commercial strategies that allows our entrepreneurs and producers to be more competitive abroad.

  6. Burden of cancer attributable to tobacco smoking in member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristina, Susi Ari; Endarti, Dwi; Thavorncharoensap, Montarat

    2016-10-01

    Cancer is an increasing problem in ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations). Tobacco use is a well-established risk factor for many types of cancers. Evidence on burden of cancer attributable to tobacco is essential to raise public and political awareness of the negative effects of tobacco on cancer and to be used to stimulate political action aims at reducing smoking prevalence in ASEAN member countries. The objective of this study was to estimate burden of cancer attributable to tobacco smoking in ASEAN, 2012. In this study, smoking prevalence was combined with Relative Risks (RRs) of cancer to obtain Smoking Attributable Fractions (SAFs). Cancer incidence and mortality data among individuals aged 15 years and older were derived from GLOBOCAN 2012. Fourteen types of cancer were included in the analysis. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the impact of the use of alternative RRs and the use of alternative prevalence of smoking in some countries. The findings showed that tobacco smoking was responsible for 131,502 cancer incidence and 105,830 cancer mortality in ASEAN countries in 2012. In other words, tobacco smoking was accounted for 28.4% (43.3% in male and 8.5% in female) of cancer incidence and 30.5% (44.2% in male and 9.4% in female) of cancer mortality in ASEAN. When looking at the types of cancer, lung cancer showed the strongest association with tobacco smoking. Incidence of cancer and cancer mortality attributable to tobacco smoking varied by countries due to the differences in size of population, background risk of cancer, and prevalence of smoking in each country. According to the sensitivity analyses, RRs of lung cancer, pharynx cancer, and larynx cancer used in the estimates have significant impact on the estimates. As about one-third of cancer incidence and mortality in ASEAN are attributable to tobacco smoking ASEAN member countries are strongly encouraged to put in place stronger tobacco control policies and to strengthen the

  7. A review of radiological hazards associated with tin by-product mineral processing industry in the SEATRAD centre member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udompornwirat, S.

    1993-01-01

    Radiological hazards associated with the tin by-product mineral processing industry has recently become an issue of concern in the SEATRAD Centre member countries namely, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. The SEATRAD Centre, with the assistance of a United Nations Development Program consultant, carried out an investigation on radioactivity problems at twelve tin by-product mineral processing plants in Malaysia and Thailand. The investigation included a survey of external gamma radiation levels and dust sampling for internal dose estimation as well as characterising the potential sources of radiation exposure in the plants. This paper reviews the nature of the tin by-product mineral processing industry and the general levels of associated radiological hazards. In addition, data provided by the government organisations in the member countries are reviewed. Typical annual effective doses experienced by the industry's workers are estimated on the basis of existing information, and possible measures to reduce exposure are discussed. It is concluded that the estimated median effective dose experienced by the workers is about 18 to 19 mSv per annum. Maximum exposures may exceed 200 mSv per annum. The important exposure pathways are external gamma radiation and internal radiation arising through intake of radioactive dust. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  8. Licensing systems and inspection of nuclear installations in NEA Member countries. Part 1, Description of licensing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This study provides an assessment of the legislative and regulatory provisions applicable and of the practices followed in the countries concerned and is divided into two separate sections. This document is the first part only. It contains the description of national licensing and inspection systems for nuclear installations in the twenty OECD countries which have specific regulations in this field. Each analysis has been presented following a plan which is as standardised as possible so as to facilitate comparison between the national systems. Part II, which is not included in this document, contains the diagrams illustrating the steps in the licensing procedure and the duties of the bodies involved as well as certain additional documents. It also includes a table showing the sequence of the main steps in the licensing process in the countries covered by this Study

  9. Measures taken in the member countries of the European Communities for anti-seismic design compared to actual US practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinck, W.; Maurer, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    Most countries of the European Communities base their anti-seismic design parameters on specific US earthquake characteristics. There are, however, important discrepancies in the basic data reported on the two continents as well as in their design application. This was one of the topics under discussion within an European working group on methodologies, criteria and standards in nuclear safety. The contribution is based on an inventory of the applied national practices, the existing specifications, regulations, and guidelines applied in the design, the manufacture, and the safety assessment of structures, systems, and components to withstand potential earthquake consequences in the countries of the European Communities. In a comparison of these national specifications and guidelines the common points of agreement are identified and the divergences discussed with reference to the US practice. Special attention is given to the divergencies for definition and determination of the reference eathquakes. In European countries the definitions of the reference earthquakes are largely analogous to definitions in the US Federal Regulations but expressed in a different way. For European countries, threshold values are proposed to guarantee safety for nuclear power plants. (Auth.)

  10. Socioeconomic impact of cancer in member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): the ACTION study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimman, Merel; Jan, Stephen; Kingston, David; Monaghan, Helen; Sokha, Eav; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Bounxouei, Bounthaphany; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Khin, Myo; Cristal-Luna, Gloria; Khuhaprema, Thiravud; Hung, Nguyen Chan; Woodward, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Cancer can be a major cause of poverty. This may be due either to the costs of treating and managing the illness as well as its impact upon people's ability to work. This is a concern that particularly affects countries that lack comprehensive social health insurance systems and other types of social safety nets. The ACTION study is a longitudinal cohort study of 10,000 hospital patients with a first time diagnosis of cancer. It aims to assess the impact of cancer on the economic circumstances of patients and their households, patients' quality of life, costs of treatment and survival. Patients will be followed throughout the first year after their cancer diagnosis, with interviews conducted at baseline (after diagnosis), three and 12 months. A cross-section of public and private hospitals as well as cancer centers across eight member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) will invite patients to participate. The primary outcome is incidence of financial catastrophe following treatment for cancer, defined as out-of-pocket health care expenditure at 12 months exceeding 30% of household income. Secondary outcomes include illness induced poverty, quality of life, psychological distress, economic hardship, survival and disease status. The findings can raise awareness of the extent of the cancer problem in South East Asia and its breadth in terms of its implications for households and the communities in which cancer patients live, identify priorities for further research and catalyze political action to put in place effective cancer control policies.

  11. The role of union support in coping with job insecurity: A study among union members from three European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoerd Goslinga

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the potential moderating role of union support in the relationship between job insecurity and work-related attitudes and well-being of unionised employees. Survey data collected among union members from three European countries (The Netherlands, Italy and Sweden indicate that job insecurity is associated with reduced levels of job satisfaction, well-being and organisational commitment. Contrary to expectations, union support moderated neither the effect of job insecurity on job satisfaction nor its effect on wellbeing. However, in two countries a moderating effect of union support on relation between the job insecurity and organisational commitment was found. Opsomming Die huidige studie ondersoek die potensiële modererende rol van vakbond ondersteuning in die verhouding tussen werksonsekerheid en werksverwante houdings en welstand van werknemers wat aan ’n, vakbond behoort. Opname data wat ingesamel is tussen vakbond lede van drie Europese lande (Nederland, Italië en Swede toon dat werksonsekerheid geassosieer word met verlaagde vlakke van werkstevredenheid, welstand en organisasieverbondenheid. Teen verwagting, het vakbond ondersteuning nie die effek van werksonsekerheid op wekstevredenheid of welstand gemodereer nie. Daar is egter in twee lande ’n, moderende effek van vakbond ondersteuning op die verwantskap tussen werksonsekerheid en organisasie gebondenheid gevind.

  12. Analysis of the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the export revenues of OPEC member states and on the oil import requirements of non-Annex I countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden NH van der; Linde C van der; Lako P; Rooijen SNM van; Netherlands Energy Research; Netherlands Institute of International Relations; NOP

    2000-01-01

    The members of the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) continue to voice their concerns about the adverse impact of the implementation of greenhouse gas emission reduction policies on the oil exporting countries. Referring to Article 4.8 of the UNFCCC, the OPEC is of the opinion

  13. Thermal cycling in LWR components in OECD-NEA member countries - CSNI integrity and ageing working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faidy, Claude; Chapuliot, Stephane; Mathet, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Thermal cycling is a widespread and recurring problem in nuclear power plants worldwide. Several incidents with leakage of primary water inside the containment challenged the integrity of NPPs although no release outside of containment occurred. Thermal cycling was not taken into account at the design stage. Regulatory bodies, utilities and researchers have to address it for their operating plants. It is a complex phenomenon that involves and links thermal hydraulic, fracture mechanic, materials and plant operation. Thermal cycling is connected either to operating transients (low cycle fatigue) or to complex phenomenon like stratification, vortex and mixing (low and high cycle fatigue). The former is covered by existing rules and codes. The latter is partially addressed by national rules and constitutes the subject of this report. In 2002, the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) requested the working group on the integrity of reactor components and structures (IAGE WG) to prepare a program of work on thermal cycling to provide information to NEA member countries on operational experience, regulatory policies, countermeasures in place, current status of research and development, and to identify areas where research is needed both at national and international levels. The working group proposed a 3 fold program that covered: - Review of operating experience, regulatory framework, countermeasures and current research; - Benchmark to assess calculation capabilities in NEA member countries for crack initiation and propagation under a cyclic thermal loading, and ultimately to develop screening criteria to identify susceptible components; results of the benchmark were published in 2005; - Organisation of an international conference in cooperation with the EPRI and the USNRC on fatigue of reactor components. This conference reviews progress in the areas and provides a forum for discussion and exchange of information between high level experts. The

  14. Measures taken in the member countries of the European Communities for anti-seismic design compared to actual US practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinck, W.; Maurer, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    Most countries of the European Communities base their anti-seismic design parameters on specific US earthquake characteristics. There are, however, important discrepancies in the basic data reported on the two continents as well as in their design application. This was one of the topics under discussion within an European working group on methodologies, criteria and standards in nuclear safety. Unlike US practice, in some European countries the maximum earthquake that can be envisaged (corresponding to the Safe Shutdown Earthquake-SEE-in US practice) is defined by adding a margin of safety to the maximum probable earthquake (corresponding to the Operating Basis Earthquake-OBE-in US for which statistical data exist). - Differences exist also in the design parameters to be taken into account in the different European countries especially in the evaluation of the maximum acceleration and on the relationship of the acceleration vs. earthquake intensity. For design purposes, in US as well as in European countries, the assumption is made that seismic waves basically approximate a sustained simple harmonic motion. Under this assumption the Neumann correlation which gives the relationship between the modified Mercalli intensity, the wave period and the ground acceleration is applied. While in the US a whole spectrum of wave periods (from 0.33 to 6.0 sec) -in function of the type of foundation (soil, bed-rock) and the distance of the epicenter- are considered, the European countries base their investigations on shorter wave periods (approximately 0.3 sec). - Mention is made of the existing differences in the relationship of horizontal to vertical acceleration levels. These differences in the evaluation of the earthquake characteristics influence the design to protect the power plants against seismic effects especially as far as stress and strain limits for structures and components within the elastic range and in the excess of yield are concerned

  15. Body Composition and Dietary Intake of Elite Cross-country Skiers Members of the Greek National Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Sousana K; Gouvianaki, Anna; Grammatikopoulou, Maria G; Maraki, Zoi; Pagkalos, Ioannis G; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Hassapidou, Maria N; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-12-01

    To assess the anthropometric characteristics and dietary intake of the Greek national cross-country skiing team. Thirty-three athletes (10 females aged 20 ± 5 years; 23 males aged 20 ± 6 years old) participated in the study. All athletes were members of the Greek national ski team, and they had been selected to take part in the Winter Olympics, World Ski Championships, European Ski Championships or other international events, according to their performance. Body composition was estimated by bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and skinfold thickness. The athletes recorded their physical activity and dietary intake for 3 training days, and on a competition day. The female skiers had 14.2±1.9% body fat, the men 11.0±1.5% body fat. Female athletes consumed a diet of 1988±319 Kcal during training days and 2011±330 Kcal during competition days. Male athletes consumed 2255±790 Kcal and 2125±639 Kcal respectively. These values are below those recommended for highly active people. During the training period, carbohydrate, fat and protein contributed to 44.5±7.1%, 39.2±5.3% and 16.1±3.7% of the total energy intake (EI) respectively for the males, and to 52.8±5.6%, 33.0±3.7% and 14.3±2.5% of the EI of the women. Between training and competition days, men demonstrated an increased carbohydrate and reduced fat consumption when competing (PGreek national cross-country ski team could put the athletes at risk of nutritional deficiencies, and possibly compromise their athletic performance.

  16. Public Integrity, Economic Freedom and Governance Performance. A Comparative Study for the EU Member States and Acceding Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani MATEI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The studies concerning the impact of corruption on the effectiveness of governance are numerous, valorising profound approaches, based on criteria and standards related to good governance, organizational behaviour. The concepts and mechanisms specific for econometrics and statistics provide the quantitative support for qualitative analyses, substantiating public policies, in view to assure effectiveness in performance measurement. For EU Member States and acceding countries, the level of development and social organization determines specific ethical behaviours. In this context, the current paper aims a comparative economic and social evaluation of the correlations between corruption, performance and economic freedom in the states mentioned, following the various significant stages of the EU enlargement. The working hypotheses turn into consideration the following issues:# Corruption holds national specific character and the statistic, econometric or sociologic analyses reveal that it is stable during time.# The climate of economic freedom and the intensity of corruption influence powerfully the economic performance.# The EU membership, “seniority” in EU, regional context determine different attitudes and perceptions on the corruption phenomena.# For the newer EU states or the acceding countries, the strategies of integrity have mimetic character and the National Integrity Systems have structured powerful connections aimed at determining an action focused on public integrity.In the analyses achieved, the EU is approached globally, at least from statistic point of view, and the conclusions aim situations specific to the groups of states that have been or will be the beneficiaries of the EU enlargement. The quantitative analyses use both own results of the researches carried out by the authors and public results of World Bank or Heritage Foundation, as well as results of authorities responsible for national statistics. The paper uses the

  17. Co-operation of the CMEA member countries in the development of different reactor types, including certain aspects of their nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panasenkov, A.; Barbur, I.; Barchenkov, A.; Molnar, L.; Tolpygo, V.; Khake, V.; Shcherbinin, B.

    1977-01-01

    The report gives an account of the problems of the projected development of atomic power and evaluates its role in the fuel and power complex and long-range development of interconnected power systems of the CMEA member countries. The report emphasizes the importance of scientific and technical co-operation in the creation of thermal and fast-neutron power reactors with 1000-1500MW(e) units, and in the elaboration of nuclear plants for heating services. The positive experience of the international scientific and research group of scientists of the CMEA member countries carrying out reactor-physics studies on critical assemblies is mentioned. The report contains basic conclusions from the forecasts for nuclear power in the CMEA member countries up to 1990, including forecasting methodology; the role of nuclear power plants in saving natural and enriched uranium for a projected period; and the impact of nuclear power development rates on its structure (thermal and fast reactor ratio). It lists the impacts of scientific and technical co-operation of the CMEA member countries on the fuel cycle, including the transport of spent nuclear fuel, its recovery, reprocessing and radioactive waste disposal. Particular effects of co-operation of the CMEA member countries on the radiation safety of nuclear power plants and environmental protection are analysed. The report notes the role of the international economic associations Interatomenergo and Interatominstrument in the accelerated development of nuclear power. (author)

  18. Nuclear medicine and related radionuclide applications in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Symposium presentations were divided into sessions devoted to the following topics: Radioimmunoassay and related techniques (4 papers and 4 poster presentations); Radionuclide applications in the diagnosis of parasitic diseases (7 papers and 2 posters); Instrumentation (6 papers and 4 posters); Clinical nuclear medicine: liver, bones, thyroid, cardiovascular system, lungs, kidneys, brain (23 papers and 15 posters); Organization of nuclear medicine services in the developing countries (9 papers and 5 posters); Training in nuclear medicine (4 papers) and the panel discussion. Future of Nuclear Medicine in the developing countries. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers and posters

  19. Determinants of Capital Integration among Strategic Alliance Members in the Retail Sector: Evidence from Central and Southeast European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Butigan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Survival of firms requires continuous search for new and a restructuring of the existing competitive advantages. These can come either from firms’ internal factors or from cooperation with the environment. Cooperation among firms commonly takes place through the formation of strategic alliances. However, such form of cooperation presents only one stage in the integration of business entities. In the long run, strategic alliances can cease to exist or transform into a higher form of association based on capital integration. The objective of this paper is to explore the determinants of capital integration among strategic alliance member firms in retail sectors of several Central and Southeast European countries. Overall, the obtained findings suggest that business entities engage in integration with the aim of reaching hidden knowledge and skills, accessing distribution and supply channels, and developing new products and services. Integration is also driven with the aim of risk diversification and possible better market positioning, achieving the economies of scale, and improving organization and marketing. The opportunistic behavior of partners and limited managerial control represent its strongest barriers.

  20. Information on scientific and technological co-operation between the CMEA member countries in radioactive waste burial in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolpygo, V.K.

    1984-02-01

    Research on radioactive waste treatment and disposal constitutes an important area of cooperation between the CMEA member countries. An important part in cooperation has been assigned to the study of systems for disposing radioactive waste of all kinds in geological formations. The cooperation which was initiated in 1971 was realized within the two research programmes scheduled for subsequent periods, viz. for 1971 to 1975, and from 1976 to 1983. Programme work for 1971 to 1975 included three major fields of research: theoretical and experimental research, scientific and technological research and methodological research. As regards methodological research and results of work by the plan for 1976 to 1983, comprehensive research on the methods of disposing radioactive waste in geological formations has been practically completed and documents relating to the industrial introduction of these methods have been prepared. The results of research renders it possible to properly organize from the standpoint of methodology surveying, designing of schematic diagrams and structures of all facilities involving the burial of radioactive waste in geological formations, the evaluation of suitability of the sanitary protection zone from the standpoint of environmental protection and the rational use of natural resources. The drawing of prognostic charts and the development of recommendations on the use of interior of the earth for burying radioactive waste make it possible for the planning bodies, ministries and agencies to evaluate the possibilities for underground burial of radioactive waste in selecting a site and in designing and construction of new nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities

  1. The Asian Development Bank's past and future involvement in financing gas projects in developing member countries of the Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the Bank's involvement in financing gas projects in its developing member countries (DMC's). The paper highlights the scope of the Bank's past activities in the sector, the DMC's which had received assistance from the Bank, the types of projects financed by the Bank, the benefits expected to be derived from the projects, and the past problems encountered by the Bank. The operational framework under which past Bank lending to the gas sector was conducted is also described. The prospects of natural gas playing a prominent role as an environmentally preferred energy source to oil and coal are outlined. Indications of the direction of the Bank's future efforts to help its gas-resource-rich as well as its gas-resource-poor DMC's to quicken the use of natural gas are given. While emphasizing the Bank's contributions in helping its DMC's to increase gas supply to alleviate energy shortages, the paper stresses the important role the Bank has played and will play in institution-building and sector-development work. The paper explores the possibility for the Bank to expand its operations in the gas sector which will lead to the efficient and accelerated development of a clean energy source that will help its DMC's avoid a third oil crisis and reduce the damaging build-up of a greenhouse gas which now threatens to harm the global environment

  2. Development and localisation of casemix applications for inpatient hospital activity in EU member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, M M

    1999-01-01

    The successful infiltration of casemix techniques across geographical, systemic and cultural boundaries provides an interesting and timely example of the translation of research evidence into health policy development. This paper explores the specifics of this policy development by reviewing the application of casemix techniques within the acute hospital systems of European Union member states. The fact that experimentation with or application of casemix measures can be reported for the majority of European Union member states would suggest that the deployment of these measures can be expected to continue to expand within these health systems into the new millennium.

  3. Fostering applications of neutron scattering techniques in developing countries: IAEA's role

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranjpe, Shriniwas K. [Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: S.K.Paranjpe@iaea.org; Mank, G. [Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Ramamoorthy, N. [Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-11-15

    Over the last 60 years research reactors have played an important role in technological and socio-economical development of mankind. Neutron scattering has been the workhorse for research and development in materials science. Developing countries with moderate flux research reactors have also been involved in using this technique. The reactors and the facilities around them have a large potential for applications, while their under-utilization has been a concern for many member states. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been supporting its member states in the enhancement of utilization of their research reactors. Technical meetings focussing on the area of current interests with potential applications are organized under the project on 'effective utilization of research reactors,' e.g. on residual stress measurement, neutron reflectometry. Coordinated research projects (CRPs) bring together scientists from developed and developing countries, build collaborations, and exchange expertise and technology. The CRPs on research reactor utilization include topics like development of small-angle neutron scattering applications and development of sources and imaging systems for neutron radiography. New CRPs on the measurement of residual stress and accelerator-driven neutron sources will be initiated soon. The results from these meetings of CRPs are published as technical documents of the IAEA that would act as guidelines for capacity building for research reactor managers. This paper will present some of the salient features of IAEA activities in promoting research reactor utilization.

  4. A study on Factors Affecting Application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT by Faculty Members of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Biglari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to investigate the factors affecting on ICT application by faculty members of University of Razi. A descriptive-correlative research survey method was used. The statistical population of this research consist of faculty members of University of Kermanshah (N=271. Sampling method was stratified randomization (n=116. Questionnaire was used for data collection, the validity of which was confirmed by the opinions of some of professionals and faculty members of Agriculture Education and Extension and for determining reliability Cronbach's Alpha (0.83 was used. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software. The findings reveal that there’s a significant positive relationship between the number of published papers in internal and external journals and conferences, familiarity with internet services, skill in driving computer, skill in using internet services, using internet for meeting educational and research needs, skill in English language, attitude towards using ICT in education and research, scientific rank and use of internet for supervising over  thesis and dissertation, on the one hand, and the variable of application of ICT by faculty members of University of Kermanshah. In regression analysis, the predicting variables of factors affecting on application of ICT by faculty members, including skill in using internet services, attitude towards using ICT in research and education and the number of published papers in foreign journals and conferences were entered in 3 stages, which in total explain 25.1 percent variance of dependent variable. 

  5. 77 FR 64109 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Stakeholder Representative Members of the Missouri...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Notice is for individuals interested in serving as a stakeholder member on the Committee. In accordance... in the stakeholder interest categories listed below: a. Hydropower; b. Irrigation; c. Major... include: 1. The name of the applicant and the primary stakeholder interest category that person is...

  6. 78 FR 36174 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Stakeholder Representative Members of the Missouri...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Notice is for individuals interested in serving as a stakeholder member on the Committee. In accordance... in the stakeholder interest categories listed below: a. Conservation Districts; b. Fish and Wildlife... the applicant and the primary stakeholder interest category that person is qualified to represent; 2...

  7. 77 FR 35663 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Stakeholder Representative Members of the Missouri...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... Notice is for individuals interested in serving as a stakeholder member on the Committee. In accordance... in the stakeholder interest categories listed below: a. Environmental/Conservation Organizations; b... include: 1. The name of the applicant and the primary stakeholder interest category that person is...

  8. Co-operation of the CMEA member countries in the developing power reactors of various types, including some aspects of their nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbur, I.; Barchenkov, A.; Molnar, L; Panasenkov, A.; Tolpygo, V.; Hake, V.; Shcherbinin, B.

    1977-01-01

    The report gives an account of the problems of projected development of atomic power and evaluates its role in the fuel and power complex and long-range development of interconnected power systems of the CMEA member countries. The report emphasizes the importance of scientific and technical co-operation in the creation of power reactors on thermal and fast neutrons with 1000-1500 MW unit electric capacity as well as in the elaboration of nuclear plants for heating services. It notes the positive experience of the International scientific and research group of scientists of the CMEA member countries carrying out reactor-physical studies on the critical assembly and its contribution to the elaboration of power reactors. The report contains basic conclusions from the development forecast for nuclear power of the CMEA member countries up to 1990 including forecasting methodology; role of nuclear power plants in saving natural and enriched uranium for a projected period; impact of nuclear power development rates on its structure (thermal and fast reactor ratio); relation between the beginning of mass commissioning of nuclear power plants with fast reactors and the integral demand for nuclear fuel; scale of required capacities of fuel cycle services; time dependence of fuel cycle on nuclear fuel requirements. It examines the problems and lists the results of scientific and technical co-operation of the CMEA member countries in the field of fuel cycle, including the transport of spent nuclear fuel, its recovery, reprocessing and radioactive waste disposal. Particular questions of co-operation of the CMEA member countries to secure radiation safety of nuclear power plants and environmental protection are analyzed. The report notes the role of international economic associations - ''Interatomenergo'' and ''Interatominstrument'' - in the accelerated development of nuclear power on the basis of cooperation and specialization in the manufacture of equipment for nuclear power

  9. Trade and foreign direct investment: Evidence from South East European countries and new European Union member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardhyl Dauti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to provide an empirical assessment of the complementarity or substituting relationship between Trade and FDI in a link to country characteristics, using bilateral level data between FDI and trade for the period 1994 – 2010. In the research, an augmented gravity model has been used to test the relationship between Trade (both export and import, FDI stock and country characteristics between OECD-20 countries and SEE-5 and EU-NMS-10 countries. The empirical model considers how the relationship between FDI and Trade determine whether type of FDI into SEE-5 and EU-NMS-10 from core OECD-20 countries, is vertical or horizontal. With regard to the relationship between exports and FDI, the findings of the research showed mixed evidence, thus supporting vertical FDI for EU-NMS-10 countries, and horizontal FDI for SEE-5 countries. On the other hand, based on the relationship between imports and FDI, the results of the research supported vertical FDI for both EU-NMS-10 and SEE-5 group of countries. The basic conclusion is that the research provides an empirical evidence on the mixed nature of FDI into the host SEE-5 and EU-NMS-10 countries, supporting both complementary and substituting relationship between trade and FDI in the host countries.

  10. Application in the Nordic countries of ICRP publication 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The radiation protection institutes of the five Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, published in 1976 a joint report on the applicability of international radiation protection recommendations in the Nordic countries. The report was mainly based on the set of recommendations issued by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In the report it was stated that 'if the basic recommendations of ICRP are subsequently revised, it is the intention of the radiation protection institutes to consider equivalent changes in the recommended basis for regulatory texts and, if there is full agreement, jointly to announce changes which may be made in respect to the principles which have been recommended here'. In 1977 ICRP published its revised basic recommendations (ICRP Publication 26) which resulted from the examination of new information during the last decade and since the Commission's previous basic recommendations (ICRP Publication 9 adopted in 1965. In 1978 the representatives of the radiation protection institutes of the Nordic countries agreed at their meeting in Helsinki to prepare a joint policy document on the application of the revised ICRP recommendations in the Nordic countries. In common with the previous joint report of the Nordic radiation protection institutes of 1976 the present recommendations deal only with ionizing radiation. In the new recommendations ICRP has more clearly than in the previous recommendations systematized the basic principles in radiation protection by crystallizing its system of dose limitation in three main points: a) no practice shall be adopted unless its introduction produces a positive net benefit; b) all exposures shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account; and C) the dose equivalent to individuals shall not exceed the limits recommended for the appropriate circumstances by the Commission. The levels for basic dose

  11. Status of direct containment heating in CSNI member countries. Report of task group on ex-vessel thermal-hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The status of activities on direct containment heating in the light water reactor program in OECD/CSNI countries is presented. Experimental and analytical studies are reviewed. Approaches or measures are discussed for accident management in relation to direct containment heating. A discussion is given of common and diverging views among the countries based, in part, on response to a questionnaire. The key issues are discussed and recommendations are provided for future CSNI work on direct containment heating

  12. CFL Labeling Harmonization in the United States, China, Brazil andELI Member Countries: Specifications, Testing, and MutualRecognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Denver, Andrea; Biermayer, Peter; Dillavou, Tyler

    2005-07-20

    This report examines critical differences among energy-efficient labeling programs for CFLs in Brazil, China, the United States, and the seven members of the international Efficient Lighting Initiative (ELI) in terms of technical specifications and test procedures, and review issues related to international harmonization of these standards.

  13. Application in the Nordic Countries of international radioactive waste recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In the publication ''Report on the Applicability of International Radiation Protection Recommendations in the Nordic Countries'' published in 1976 the radiation protection authorities in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden expressed their agreement on the main principles of radiation protection. All aspects of radiation protection are covered in the recommendations. Since the recommendations were released new information on radioactive protection has been published e.g. by ICRP, IAEA and OECD/NEA and the radiation protection authorities have felt it necessary to make a revision of Chapter 21, Radioactive Waste, in the Recommendations of the Nordic Countries. Since 1982, a working group from the radiation protection authorities has been working on that revision. In this work the experience from national and international work has been incorporated. The new recommendations are divided into two main parts, one dealing with waste originating from the nuclear fuel cycle (nuclear waste) and one with waste from other sources (non-nuclear waste). These recommendations have been approved by the Nordic radiation protection authorities at a meeting in Finland, September 1985 and replace the corresponding recommendations in Chapter 21 in The 1976 Nordic Recommendations. (author)

  14. A global survey on occupational health services in selected international commission on occupational health (ICOH) member countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Jorma; Lehtinen, Suvi; Valenti, Antonio; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2017-10-05

    The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH), and the European Union (EU) have encouraged countries to organize occupational health services (OHS) for all working people irrespective of the sector of economy, size of enterprise or mode of employment of the worker. The objective of this study was to survey the status of OHS in a sample of countries from all continents. A questionnaire focusing on the main aspects of OHS was developed on the basis of ILO Convention No. 161 and several other questionnaire surveys used in various target groups of OHS. The questionnaire was sent to 58 key informants: ICOH National Secretaries. A total of 49 National Secretaries responded (response rate 84.5%), from countries that employ 70% of the total world labour force. The majority of the respondent countries, 67%, had drawn up an OHS policy and implement it with the help of national occupational safety and health (OSH) authorities, institutes of occupational health or respective bodies, universities, and professional associations. Multidisciplinary expert OHS resources were available in the majority (82%) of countries, but varied widely in quantitative terms. The average OHS coverage of workers was 24.8%, with wide variation between countries. In over two thirds (69%) of the countries, the content of services was mixed, consisting of preventive and curative services, and in 29% preventive only. OHS financing was organized according to a mixed model among 63% and by employers only among 33% of the respondents. The majority of countries have drawn up policies, strategies and programmes for OHS. The infrastructures and institutional and human resources for the implementation of strategies, however, remain insufficient in the majority of countries (implementation gap). Qualitatively, the content and multidisciplinary nature of OHS corresponds to

  15. Marketing of butter in the European Community, demand functions and policy alternatives with a restriction to four member countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Oskam; B. Wierenga (Berend)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractIn this article optimum instrument values for two different objectives of an EC marketing policy for butter are considered. In the first part of the study the demand equations of four EC countries, le., West Germany, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Denmark, are estimated and

  16. Fostering the local production and application of industrial radiotracers in developing countries - IAEA's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Haji-Saeid, S.; Jin, Joon-Ha; Ramamoorthy, Natesan; )

    2006-01-01

    Radiotracer techniques provide fast and accurate information for solving various process problems in industrial plants. The IAEA is playing an important role in supporting the development and transfer of radiotracer techniques to developing countries. The IAEA has implemented 5 coordinated research projects (CRP), including two on-going projects, in the field of radiotracer and sealed source applications in industry. The CRPs facilitated the acquisition and dissemination of know-how and technology for wear/corrosion measurement, residence time: distribution (RTD) study, validation of computed fluid dynamics data, industrial process tomography and inter-well connectivity study. A number of technical cooperation projects have been executed to strengthen the capability of radiotracer groups in developing Member States and to create awareness in the industries about the technical and economical benefits of radiotracer technology. The IAEA's regional projects have strongly impacted the transfer and adoption of the techniques. The status of radiotracer use in developing countries reveals that the lack of timely availability of radiotracers as one of the major problems. Development of some radionuclide generators is a possible solution. Cooperation among the international radiotracer communities is necessary to enhance the availability and use of radiotracers in developing countries. (author)

  17. Current positions in OECD member countries on competence profiles at present and requirements for the future: review of questionnaire responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The picture is mixed and very dependent on the state of the industry in the particular country. A key determinant is the social, political and economic views of the place of nuclear power generation within the energy policy. Where there is support at a political level or there are clearer financial incentives then the industry can develop and has the impetuous to maintain their capabilities and competence. If the industry position is not as strong the social pressures increase so that it is not viewed as a career. Recruitment and retention and maintaining competence becomes more difficult. Furthermore there are trends to move away from the traditional engineering and science degrees towards subjects which have a 'consumer vogue' and even more proven track records of employment. This in turn puts pressure on the availability of university level education at all levels. Hence if there are not well developed alternatives within a country and programmes of cooperation the very foundation of training and development is under threat. The problems have been recognised and there are a number of initiatives in place both in regulatory bodies, training establishments and the utilities. Recognition of the problem and transfer of good practices will help. Fundamentally there has to be the underpinning infrastructure to support education and training which in itself will allow for cross fertilization with the industry. It is clear that the problem is international and there has to be scope for international cooperation. (authors)

  18. The effect of private investment, exports, imports, inflation and GDP on per capita premium: Evidence from members of OPEC countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Abedini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine the relationship between GDP, export, import, private sector investment and inflation on insurance per capita of OPEC countries. Insurance is a non-banking institution that by making sure and secure, can make and develop manufacturing and service rendering easier. Insurance companies can make financial steady and reduce stress. So, it plays essential role in economy. For this aim, data over the period 2003-2011 is collected. We use regression and SPSS software for analysis. Results for 80 year – country show that there was a positive and significant correlation between GDP, export, import, inflation and insurance per capita, which shows whenever productivity increases, insurance increases too. Results also show that there was a positive relationship between import and insurance per capita. In addition, results show that there was a positive and significant relationship between inflation and dependent variable. However, there was no significant relationship between exports and insurance per capita. The results show that there was no significant relationship between GDP and insurance per capita and finally, there was a non-significant and negative relationship between private sector investment and insurance per capita.

  19. Clinical Utilization of Repeated Open Application Test Among American Contact Dermatitis Society Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gabrielle E; Botto, Nina; Butler, Daniel C; Murase, Jenny E

    2015-01-01

    The repeated open application test (ROAT) provides useful information regarding allergens in suspected cases of allergic contact dermatitis; however, standardized methodology has not been established. The aim of this study was to assess how ROAT is used in clinical and research settings. We distributed a survey regarding ROAT practice to the American Contact Dermatitis Society and conducted a literature review of ROAT utilization in research. A total of 67 American Contact Dermatitis Society members participated in the survey. Respondents most frequently recommend application of leave-on products twice daily (46.0%) and rinse-off products once daily (43.5%). The most commonly used anatomical sites include the forearm (38.7%) and antecubital fossa (32.3%). Most respondents continue ROAT for 1 (49.2%) or 2 weeks (31.7%). Literature review of 32 studies (26 leave-on, 6 rinse-off) revealed that application frequency is most common at twice daily for both leave-on (96.2%) and rinse-off (50.0%) products. The most common anatomical site is the forearm (62.5%), with an overall study duration of 3 to 4 weeks (65.6%). When comparing ROAT clinical and research practice, the majority trend was consistent for leave-on product application frequency and anatomical site, but not for rinse-off product application frequency, or overall duration. Further research is needed to determine best practice recommendations.

  20. Legal and Institutional Regime for the Management of Arid and Semi-arid Ecosystems in the IGAD Member Countries, with Special Reference to Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojwang', J.B

    2001-01-01

    Drought and desertification constitute the most severe limitations to effective utilisation of natural resources and thus socio-economic development in the countries of Eastern Africa. Ojwang' says that, the criteria for combating desertification may derived from international law, and in particular from the Conventional to Combat Desertification (1994). This can be made at the levels of policy, law and institutions, to maintain an optimal interaction of the various elements of ecology which ensures the requisite balances. This can be achieved by promotion of regional co-operation through organizations such as International Authority on Development (IGAD). IGAD member countries have adopted approaches to the physical and social problems occasioned by conditions of drought though limited in maintaining balanced ecological cycles

  1. The socioeconomic burden of cancer in member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)--stakeholder meeting report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Stephen; Kimman, Merel; Kingston, David; Woodward, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The ACTION (Asean CosTs In ONcology) Study will be one of the largest observational studies of the burden of cancer ever conducted in Asia. The study will involve 10,000 newly diagnosed patients with cancer and will be carried out across eight low- and middle income countries within the ASEAN region (Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Cambodia, Myanmar, Viet Nam, Laos and the Philippines). Patients will be interviewed three times over 12 months to assess their health, use of health care services, out of pocket costs related to their illness, social and quality of life issues. The project is a collaboration between the George Institute for Global Health, the ASEAN Foundation and Roche. The aim of the study is to assess the health and socioeconomic impact of cancer on patients in ASEAN communities, and the factors that may impact on these outcomes.

  2. Economic Performance of SME Agricultural Producers in the Context of Risk Management: Focus on Visegrad 4 Member Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vavřina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The long term regulation of the EU agrarian sector via the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP and its respective instruments focuses on the sustainable development both of the agriculture and rural area as a whole. It is needed above all to stress out the equalization instruments of CAP within the context of negative impacts’ diminish of outer sectorial environment in relation with the economic status of agricultural businesses, specifically the small and medium ones. The EU programming period of years 2014-2020 is focused from the view point of the agrarian sector on more efficient CAP to encourage the competitiveness of European farmers. The aforementioned programming period is for agricultural producers from V4 countries the first one when CAP guarantees the maximum amount of operational subsidies for them, of course regarding the respective agreed EU accession treaties. Nevertheless, CAP subsidies cannot be considered to be the key factor of competitiveness within EU single market. The relation between long term increasing of production’s inputs on one hand and the decreasing of agricultural producers’ prices on the other one can be marked as very important negative aspect within the need of farmers’ sustainable competitiveness. So, the direct consequence of a negative influence of aforementioned factor is the subsequent negative direct influence on profitability of agricultural producers. The need for increasing the efficiency of production, marketing and other related processing activities appears to be relevant and inevitable. The business processes are repeated cyclically, that is why there is emerged the need for its systematic and continuous management, measurement, assessment and subsequent changes and optimization. The management of risks has to be involved in the business activities of agricultural businesses regardless their economic size and branch, taking into account possible negative influences. The article aims at

  3. Metabolic Capabilities of the Members of the Order Halanaerobiales and Their Potential Biotechnological Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roush, Daniel W [Missouri University of Science and Technology; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL; Mormile, Dr. Melanie R. [Missouri University of Science and Technology

    2014-01-01

    The order Halanaerobiales contains a number of well-studied halophiles that possess great potential for biotechnological applications. The unique halophilic adaptations that these organisms utilize, such as salting-in mechanisms to increase their intercellular concentration of KCl, combined with their ability to ferment simple sugars, provides an excellent platform for biotechnological development over a wide range of salt levels and possible other extreme conditions, such as alkaline conditions. From fermented foods to oil reservoirs, members of Halanaerobiales are found in many environments. The environmental conditions many of these organisms grow are similar to industrially important processes, such as alkaline pre-treated biomass stocks, treatment of crude glycerol from biodiesel production, salty fermented foods, as well as bioremediation of contaminants under extreme conditions of salinity and in some cases, alkalinity. From salt stable enzymes to waste fermentations, bioremediation options, bioenergy, and microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR), Halanaerobiales can provide a wide spectrum of environmentally friendly solutions to current problems.

  4. The legal situation relating to the reprocessing in other EC member countries of spent fuel from German nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haedrich, H.

    1993-01-01

    The author states that reprocessing can continue, showing by his analysis that discontinuing the reprocessing of spent fuel from Germany in installations in France or Great Britain would mean a breach of - prior-ranking - Euratom law, which offers equally efficient protection of public security and public health and safety in accordance with the internationally defined and accepted state of the art in science and technology. In addition, such a decision would mean an infringement of the basic principles of the free market economy as laid down by the Euratom treaty and by the EC treaty, as there are no facts or conditions allowing application of the exemption provision given by the EC treaty. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Evaluating National Environmental Sustainability: Performance Measures and Influential Factors for OECD-Member Countries featuring Canadian Performance and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbick, Kenneth S.

    This research reviews five studies that evaluate national environmental sustainability with composite indices; performs uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of techniques for building a composite index; completes principal components factor analysis to help build subindices measuring waste and pollution, sustainable energy, sustainable food, nature conservation, and sustainable cities (Due to its current importance, the greenhouse gases (GHG) indicator is included individually as another policy measure.); analyses factors that seem to influence performance: climate, population growth, population density, economic output, technological development, industrial structure, energy prices, environmental governance, pollution abatement and control expenditures, and environmental pricing; and explores Canadian policy implications of the results. The techniques to build composite indices include performance indicator selection, missing data treatment, normalisation technique, scale-effect adjustments, weights, and aggregation method. Scale-effect adjustments and normalisation method are significant sources of uncertainty inducing 68% of the observed variation in a country's final rank at the 95% level of confidence. Choice of indicators also introduces substantial variation as well. To compensate for this variation, the current study recommends that a composite index should always be analysed with other policy subindices and individual indicators. Moreover, the connection between population and consumption indicates that per capita scale-effect adjustments should be used for certain indicators. Rather than ranking normalisation, studies should use a method that retains information from the raw indicator values. Multiple regression and cluster analyses indicate economic output, environmental governance, and energy prices are major influential factors, with energy prices the most important. It is statistically significant for five out of seven performance measures at the 95

  6. Determinants of geographic variations in implantation of cardiac defibrillators in the European Society of Cardiology member countries--data from the European Heart Rhythm Association White Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubinski, Andrzej; Bissinger, Andrzej; Boersma, Lucas; Leenhardt, Antoine; Merkely, Bela; Oto, Ali; Proclemer, Alessandro; Brugada, Josep; Vardas, Panos E; Wolpert, Christian

    2011-05-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major health concern in developed countries. Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy in the prevention of SCD and total mortality reduction. However, the high individual costs and the reimbursement policy may limit widespread ICD utilization. This study analyzed the temporal and the geographical trends of the ICD implantation rate. Data were gathered from two editions of the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) White Books published in 2008 and 2009. The analysis revealed significant differences in the rates of ICD implantation per million capita between the countries, but the median implantations was constantly increasing. The number of ICD implantations correlated with gross domestic product (GDP), GDP per capita, expenditure on health, life expectancy, and the number of implanting centres. There are great number of differences in the ICD-implanting rates between EHRA member countries, consequent to the increase in the number of ICD implantations. The ICD implantation rates are related to national economic status and healthcare expenses.

  7. Application of food irradiation processes to developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, D.Is.; Cramwinckel, A.B.; Hollman, P.C.; Jong, de W.J.H.J.; Labrijn, J.F.; Slangen, H.J.; Stegeman, H.; Veen, van der N.G.; Wolters, Th.C.; Oortwijn, H.

    1986-01-01

    Sprouting of- and fungal attack on tuber, bulb and foot products is a common problem to most countries. Sprouting can be delayed by storage at low temperature, and partly prevented by a proper use of chemical sprout inhibitors. Cooling is, however, energy consuming, expensive and not practicabie

  8. A study on the impact of the quality of management education on the new economy-knowledge: Evidence from members of OIC countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Yokhaneh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effects of Quality of Management Education (QME at universities on knowledge creation, application and distribution in knowledge based economy(KEI. The study also investigates the influence of QME on effective use of knowledge in economic development(KI.Using some regression technique, the study has determined a positive relationship of the effects of QME on KEI and KI in members of organization of Islamic cooperation (OIC. In addition, the study investigates the position of Iran in terms of quality of management education and the level of knowledge based economy.

  9. The technology gap and efficiency measure in WEC countries: Application of the hybrid meta frontier model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Yung-Ho; Lee, Jen-Hui; Lu, Ching-Cheng; Shyu, Ming-Kuang; Luo, Zhengying

    2012-01-01

    This study develops the hybrid meta frontier DEA model for which inputs are distinguished into radial inputs that change proportionally and non-radial inputs that change non-proportionally, in order to measure the technical efficiency and technology gap ratios (TGR) of four different regions: Asia, Africa, America, and Europe. This paper selects 87 countries that are members of the World Energy Council from 2005 to 2007. The input variables are industry and population, while the output variances are gross domestic product (GDP) and the amount of fossil-fuel CO 2 emissions. The result shows that countries’ efficiency ranking among their own region presents more implied volatility. In view of the Technology Gap Ratio, Europe is the most efficient of any region, but during the same period, Asia has a lower efficiency than other regions. Finally, regions with higher industry (or GDP) might not have higher efficiency from 2005 to 2007. And higher CO 2 emissions or population also might not mean lower efficiency for other regions. In addition, Brazil is not OECD member, but it is higher efficiency than other OECD members in emerging countries case. OECD countries are better efficiency than non-OECD countries and Europe is higher than Asia to control CO 2 emissions. If non-OECD countries or Asia countries could reach the best efficiency score, they should try to control CO 2 emissions. - Highlights: ► The new meta frontier Model for evaluating the efficiency and technology gap ratios. ► Higher CO 2 emissions might not lower efficiency than any other regions, like Europe. ► Asia’s output and CO 2 emissions simultaneously increased and lower of its efficiency. ► Non-OECD or Asia countries should control CO 2 emissions to reach best efficiency score.

  10. 25 CFR 1000.18 - May a Consortium member Tribe withdraw from the Consortium and become a member of the applicant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-governance activities for a member Tribe, that planning activity and report may be used to satisfy the planning requirements for the member Tribe if it applies for self-governance status on its own. (b) Submit... for Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Eligibility § 1000.18 May a Consortium member Tribe...

  11. Pharmacoeconomic research and application in 10 Asian countries between 2003 and 2013: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, V.N.H.; Hoang, T.M.; Postma, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To describe and analyze specific aspects of pharmacoeconomic research and application in 10 Asian countries in recent years from 2003 to 2013. Methods: Our study concentrated on 10 Asian countries, including China, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan,

  12. Application of adult attachment theory to group member transference and the group therapy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, Rayna D; Marmarosh, Cheri

    2010-03-01

    Although clinical researchers have applied attachment theory to client conceptualization and treatment in individual therapy, few researchers have applied this theory to group therapy. The purpose of this article is to begin to apply theory and research on adult dyadic and group attachment styles to our understanding of group dynamics and processes in adult therapy groups. In particular, we set forth theoretical propositions on how group members' attachment styles affect relationships within the group. Specifically, this article offers some predictions on how identifying group member dyadic and group attachment styles could help leaders predict member transference within the therapy group. Implications of group member attachment for the selection and composition of a group and the different group stages are discussed. Recommendations for group clinicians and researchers are offered. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Applications of advanced transport aircraft in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobetz, F. W.; Assarabowski, R. J.; Leshane, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    Four representative market scenarios were studied to evaluate the relative performance of air-and surface-based transportation systems in meeting the needs of two developing contries, Brazil and Indonesia, which were selected for detailed case studies. The market scenarios were: remote mining, low-density transport, tropical forestry, and large cargo aircraft serving processing centers in resource-rich, remote areas. The long-term potential of various aircraft types, together with fleet requirements and necessary technology advances, is determined for each application.

  14. Status report on developments and cooperation on risk-informed inservice-inspection and non-destructive testing (NDT) qualification in OECD-NEA member countries - CSNI integrity and ageing working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skanberg, Lars

    2005-01-01

    presented at the Workshop have been published in the proceedings referenced NEA/CSNI/R(2004)9. The two reports along with the NRWG-report EUR 21320 are the main source of information for this Status Report on Developments and Cooperation on Risk-Informed In-Service-Inspection and Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) Qualification in OECD-NEA member countries. The report is organized in the following way: introduction to early ISI strategies and Augmented ISI and NDT Qualification; Risk-Informed In-Service Inspection (RI-ISI): Development of RI-ISI strategies, RI-ISI Regulatory guidance, Important aspects of RI-ISI, Overview of RI-ISI methods, Comparison of methods, Overview of RI-ISI applications and pilot studies, RI-ISI experience so far, Further evaluations and developments of RI-ISI methodologies; Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) Qualification: Development of NDT qualification strategies, NDT-qualification requirements and applications, NDT-qualification experience. Conclusions and recommendations are then given

  15. 76 FR 31309 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Stakeholder Representative Members of the Missouri...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... the Missouri River recovery and mitigation plan; and annual preparation of a work plan and associated.... Recreation; i. Water Supply; and j. At Large; Terms of stakeholder representative members of the MRRIC are... input when needed. Ability to contribute to the overall balance of representation on MRRIC. Agreement to...

  16. Innovation Trends in NAFTA Countries: An Econometric Analysis of Patent Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Rodríguez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes innovation trends in North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA countries by means of the number of patent applications during the period 1965 to 2008. Making use of patent data released by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO and the Network for Science and Technology Indicators (Red Iberoamericana de Ciencia y Tecnología, RICYT, we search for presence of multiple structural changes in the patent applications series in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. Such changes may suggest that firms’ innovative activity has been modified in these countries (Mansfield, 1986. Accordingly, it would be expected that the new regulations implemented in these countries in the 1980s and 1990s have influenced their intellectual property regimes through the NAFTA and the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS agreement. Consequently, the question conducting this research is how the new dispositions affecting intellectual regimes in NAFTA countries have affected innovation activities in these countries. The results achieved in this research confirm the existence of multiple structural changes in the series of patent applications resulting from the new legislation implemented in these countries.

  17. Monitoring of workers and members of the general public for the incorporation of thorium and uranium in the EU and selected countries outside the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, E.; Oeh, U.; Hoellriegl, V.; Roth, P.; Regulla, D.

    2003-01-01

    Among the 92 natural elements, thorium and uranium are elements with only radioactive isotopes. Due to their long half-lives, 232 Th, 235 U and 238 U are the parent nuclides of decay chains, each comprising about 12 daughter isotopes. The daughter isotopes always include several α-emitters and β-emitters. Therefore, incorporation of thorium and uranium may result in significant internal radiation exposure. Indeed, isotopes of these two elements are among those with the highest effective dose following intake by inhalation or ingestion[1]. Thorium and uranium are ubiquitously abundant in the human environment in varying concentrations and therefore may enter also the biosphere. Consequently, these elements are present in food and drinking water and also in the human body. Differences in the environ-mental concentrations, but also dietary habits will influence the internal radiation dose of members of the public. Moreover, human activities may lead to accumulation of thorium and uranium in particular areas. Both the elements have numerous applications even in the non-nuclear industry. Increased concentrations require adequate monitoring of workers. Besides the selection of a method suitable to assess intake or body content of thorium and uranium with the necessary sensitivity and accuracy, the interpretation of measured data with regard to occupational exposure requires the differentiation between incorporation of thorium and uranium at work place and uptake from natural sources respectively. In order to keep the internal exposure due to thorium and uranium for workers as well as for members of the public within acceptable limits and to differentiate between occupational and natural sources of exposure, adequate knowledge is required on: sources of natural Th und U uptake, use of Th und U in industry, procedures to assess individual internal exposure, methods to determine committed effective doses for intakes of Th and U. In the reporting period, studies were

  18. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-15

    This report presents a description of the status of photovoltaic (PV) power systems in the 20 participating countries of the IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme. A survey of the status of PV power systems applications and markets in each country has been conducted every two years for the past six years and biennial reports published. The decision has now been taken to move to shorter annual reports and this is the first such report. This report presents an overview of PV power systems applications and markets at the end of 1998 and analyses the trends in PV power systems implemented between 1992 and 1998. (author)

  19. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    This report presents a description of the status of photovoltaic (PV) power systems in the 20 participating countries of the IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme. A survey of the status of PV power systems applications and markets in each country has been conducted every two years for the past six years and biennial reports published. The decision has now been taken to move to shorter annual reports and this is the first such report. This report presents an overview of PV power systems applications and markets at the end of 1998 and analyses the trends in PV power systems implemented between 1992 and 1998. (author)

  20. Application of the distinct element method to the analysis of the concrete members under impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuya, Hiroshi; Kajikawa, Yasuo; Nakata, Yoshihiko

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the distinct element method is applied to the analysis of the behavior of a structure under impact. At first, this method is applied to the one-dimensional wave propagation problem by comparing with the experimental results and the theoretical results. The effectiveness of this method is confirmed by including not only elastic behavior but also the fracture of a structural member. Second, this method is developed to two-dimensional problems to simulate the behavior of a simply supported beam under an impact load. Finally, it could be shown that this method is effective to simulate wide phenomena from elastic behavior to a fracture under impact. ((orig.))

  1. State of Diabetes Self-Management Education in the European Union Member States and Non-EU Countries: The Diabetes Literacy Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henna Riemenschneider

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diabetes self-management education (DSME is considered essential for improving the prevention and care of diabetes through empowering patients to increase agency in their own health and care processes. However, existing evidence regarding DSME in the EU Member States (EU MS is insufficient to develop an EU-wide strategy. Objectives. This study presents the state of DSME in the 28 EU MS and contrasts it with 3 non-EU countries with comparable Human Development Index score: Israel, Taiwan, and the USA (ITU. Because type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM disproportionately affects minority and low-income groups, we paid particular attention to health literacy aspects of DSME for vulnerable populations. Methods. Data from multiple stakeholders involved in diabetes care were collected from Feb 2014 to Jan 2015 using an online Diabetes Literacy Survey (DLS. Of the 379 respondents (249 from EU MS and 130 from ITU, most were people with diabetes (33% in the EU MS, 15% in ITU and care providers (47% and 72%. These data were supplemented by an expert survey (ES administered to 30 key informants. Results. Access to DSME varies greatly in the EU MS: an average of 29% (range 21% to 50% of respondents report DSME programs are tailored for people with limited literacy, educational attainment, and language skills versus 63% in ITU. More than half of adult T2DM patients and children/adolescents participate in DSME in EU MS; in ITU, participation of T1DM patients and older people is lower. Prioritization of DSME (6.1 ± 2.8 out of 10 and the level of satisfaction with the current state of DSME (5.0 ± 2.4 out of 10 in the EU MS were comparable with ITU. Conclusion. Variation in availability and organization of DSME in the EU MS presents a clear rationale for developing an EU-wide diabetes strategy to improve treatment and care for people with diabetes.

  2. E-Commerce in OIC members: Facts - Challenges - Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Abdali, Abid

    2005-01-01

    The study seeks to explore the importance of E-Commerce and ICT and their impact on economies of OIC members. Challenges and obstacles of E-Commerce application in member states are analyzed and discussed. The study has concluded that E-Commerce has become an important application in most member states. It also showed that despite there has been growth in the application of E-Commerce in some countries, but in general OIC members as a whole are still behind in the track compared to other grou...

  3. Synthetic Biology Approaches to Engineer Probiotics and Members of the Human Microbiota for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bober, Josef R; Beisel, Chase L; Nair, Nikhil U

    2018-03-12

    An increasing number of studies have strongly correlated the composition of the human microbiota with many human health conditions and, in several cases, have shown that manipulating the microbiota directly affects health. These insights have generated significant interest in engineering indigenous microbiota community members and nonresident probiotic bacteria as biotic diagnostics and therapeutics that can probe and improve human health. In this review, we discuss recent advances in synthetic biology to engineer commensal and probiotic lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria, and Bacteroides for these purposes, and we provide our perspective on the future potential of these technologies. 277 Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering Volume 20 is June 4, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  4. Application of Breathing Architectural Members to the Natural Ventilation of a Passive Solar House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Soon Park

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficient operation of a passive solar house requires an efficient ventilation system to prevent the loss of energy and provide the required ventilation rates. This paper proposes the use of “breathing architectural members” (BAMs as passive natural ventilation devices to achieve much improved ventilation and insulation performance compared to mechanical ventilation. Considering the importance of evaluating the ventilation and insulation performances of the members, we also propose numerical models for predicting the heat and air movements afforded by the members. The numerical model was validated by comparison with experimental results. The effectiveness of the BAMs was also verified by installation in houses located in an area with warm climate. For this purpose, chamber experiments were performed using samples of the BAMs, as well as numerical simulations to assess natural ventilation and heat load. The main findings of the study are as follows: (1 the one-dimensional chamber experiments confirmed the validity of the numerical models for predicting the heat and air movements afforded by the BAMs. Comparison of the experimental and calculated values for the temperature of air that flowed into the room from outside revealed a difference of less than 5%; (2 observations of the case studies in which BAMs were installed in the ceilings and exterior walls of Tokyo model houses revealed good annual ventilation and energy-saving effects. When BAMs with an opening area per unit area of A = 0.002 m2/m2 were applied to three surfaces, the required ventilation rate was 0.5 ACH (air changes per hour, and this was achieved consistently. Compared to a house with general insulation and conventional mechanical ventilation, heating load was reduced by 15.3%–40.2% depending on the BAM installation points and the differing areas of the house models.

  5. 19 CFR 122.49b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...” means air carrier employees and their family members and persons traveling onboard a commercial aircraft...), air carrier employees, their family members, and persons onboard for the safety of the flight are...) Date of birth; (iii) Place of birth (city, state—if applicable, country); (iv) Gender (F = female; M...

  6. 75 FR 32419 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Stakeholder Representative Members of the Missouri...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... of a work plan and associated budget requests. Administrative Support. To the extent authorized by.... Irrigation; f. Major Tributaries; g. Navigation; h. Recreation; i. Water Quality; and j. Waterways Industries... to the overall balance of representation on MRRIC. All applicants will be notified in writing as to...

  7. Well scintillation counting systems for nuclear medicine applications in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This report of a consultants' meeting, organized by the Medical Applications Section of the Division of Life Sciences, IAEA, during the period 23-25 May 1977, examines well scintillation counting systems in the light of the requirements of laboratories in developing countries. It has three facets: 1) identification of the most rewarding applications of nuclear medicine techniques, 2) identification of favourable design attributes of instruments used in such applications, and 3) development of maintenance strategies to assure reliable performance of the instruments once put into service. Some characteristics of commercially available well scintillation counting systems are given

  8. Spent fuel management strategies in eight countries and applicability to Sweden. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    International Energy Associates Limited (IEAL) undertook this study on behalf of Sweden's National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SKN) from June to October 1986. The purpose of the project was to compare the programs and regulations for the management of spent fuel from nuclear power plants and disposal of high-level radioactive waste in eight countries: Belgium, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Japan, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States. This final report includes revisions requested by SKN upon review of the draft report dated in September 26, 1986. The study is presented in three volumes. Volume I (Section 2.0 of the report) consists of detailed country-specific reports on the policies, regulations and strategies for spent fuel and high-level waste management in each of the eight countries. The information contained in these country-specific reports was used as the basis for comparing the options in each country in terms of cost, environmental impact, and public acceptability, and for comparing the policies and regulatory requirements affecting these activities in each country. These comparisons are provided in Volume II (Section 3.0 of the report). Section 3.0 also includes a discussion of the applicability to Sweden of the strategies and policies in the eight countries studied. Finally, Volume III of the report (Section 4.0) presents the laws, regulations and other documents pertinent to spent fuel and high-level waste management in these countries. Descriptive summaries of the documents are provided in Section 4.0, a comparison guide to the documents themselves (the great majority of them in English) which are provided in 15 volumes of appendices

  9. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    As part of the work of the IEA PVPS programme, annual surveys of photovoltaic (PV) power applications and markets are carried out in the participating countries. The objective of the series of annual Trends reports is to present and interpret developments in both the PV systems and components being used in the PV power systems market and the changing applications for these products within that market. These trends are analyzed in the context of the business, policy and non-technical environment in the reporting countries. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to {+-}0 %. Data on production levels and system prices vary depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. This report presents the results of the 10th international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and production in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2004 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2004. (au)

  10. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-08-01

    As part of the work of the IEA PVPS programme, annual surveys of photovoltaic (PV) power applications and markets are carried out in the reporting countries. The objective of the series of annual Trends reports is to present and interpret developments in both the PV systems and components being used in the PV power systems market and the changing applications for these products within that market. These trends are analyzed in the context of the business, policy and non-technical environment in the reporting countries. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to ±10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices varies depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. This report presents the results of the 15th international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and production in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2009 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2009.

  11. Needs of a member country. Paper presented at the 3rd Plenary Meeting of the International Road Research Documentation, Paris, 8-10 November 1977.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demmenie, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    A member of the IRRD-scheme is constantly confronted with the following problems: (1) the necessary funds have to be available (2) personnel who are qualified to prepare the input to disseminate the output (3)sufficient users have to be recruited for a break even point. The paper outlines what a

  12. Job insecurity, union support and the intention to resign membership. A psychological contract perspective tested among union members in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Witte, Hans; Sverke, Magnus; Van Ruysseveldt, Joris; Goslinga, Sjoerd; Chirumbolo, Antonio; Hellgren, Johnny; Näswall, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the consequences of job insecurity among union members. Starting from the dominance of the instrumental motive for union membership, and using psychological contract theory, we hypothesize that the perception of job insecurity will correlate with a lower level of perceived union

  13. Implementing US GDP in Chained Prices for Cross-country GDP Growth and Sectoral Comparisons: Application to Selected ASEAN Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dumagan, Jesus C.

    2008-01-01

    GDP in constant prices of ASEAN countries suffers from substitution bias by ignoring relative price changes and makes GDP growth and shares dependent on the base year. These analytical deficiencies led the US since the mid-1990s to convert GDP from constant to chained prices. Thus, cross-country comparisons in constant prices are analytically shaky even with the same base year. Therefore, this paper implements US GDP in chained prices in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand to allev...

  14. Short message service (SMS) applications for disease prevention in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déglise, Carole; Suggs, L Suzanne; Odermatt, Peter

    2012-01-12

    The last decade has witnessed unprecedented growth in the number of mobile phones in the developing world, thus linking millions of previously unconnected people. The ubiquity of mobile phones, which allow for short message service (SMS), provides new and innovative opportunities for disease prevention efforts. The aim of this review was to describe the characteristics and outcomes of SMS interventions for disease prevention in developing countries and provide recommendations for future work. A systematic search of peer-reviewed and gray literature was performed for papers published in English, French, and German before May 2011 that describe SMS applications for disease prevention in developing countries. A total of 34 SMS applications were described, among which 5 had findings of an evaluation reported. The majority of SMS applications were pilot projects in various levels of sophistication; nearly all came from gray literature sources. Many applications were initiated by the project with modes of intervention varying between one-way or two-way communication, with or without incentives, and with educative games. Evaluated interventions were well accepted by the beneficiaries. The primary barriers identified were language, timing of messages, mobile network fluctuations, lack of financial incentives, data privacy, and mobile phone turnover. This review illustrates that while many SMS applications for disease prevention exist, few have been evaluated. The dearth of peer-reviewed studies and the limited evidence found in this systematic review highlight the need for high-quality efficacy studies examining behavioral, social, and economic outcomes of SMS applications and mobile phone interventions aimed to promote health in developing country contexts.

  15. First forum ''BISE'' for: the intelligent energy in the municipalities and the new member states, of candidate countries and western Balkans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The european commission and the european association of municipalities (Energie Cites) established a permanent ''Intelligent Energy Forum of European Municipalities'' (named BISE Forum) as form of periodical information exchange between municipal associations and other potential partners in Europe. In the framework of the reduction of the sustainable energy gap between the Central and Eastern European Countries and the most advanced energy-efficient EU 15 countries, the aim of this forum is to promote the creation of national energy cities networks, to integrate the initiatives and networks at an European scale and to promote the idea of an European Emergency Plan in order to improve energy efficiency in Eastern European Countries as quickly as possible. This document presents the proceedings and a selection of cases studies linked to the first BISE Forum. (A.L.B.)

  16. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-15

    As part of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme, annual surveys of PV power applications and markets in the 20 participating countries are carried out. The objective of the survey reports is to present and interpret trends in both PV systems and components being used in the PV power systems market, as well as changing applications within that market, in the context of business situations, policies and relevant non-technical factors in the reporting countries. The survey report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV, nor as a policy document. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the business strategies of PV companies and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. This report presents the results of the fifth International Survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications and markets in the reporting countries at the end of 1999 and analyses trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 1999. (author)

  17. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-09-01

    As part of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme, annual surveys of PV power applications and markets in the 20 participating countries are carried out. The objective of the survey reports is to present and interpret trends in both PV systems and components being used in the PV power systems market, as well as changing applications within that market, in the context of business situations, policies and relevant non-technical factors in the reporting countries. The survey report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV, nor as a policy document. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the business strategies of PV companies and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. This report presents the results of the fifth International Survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications and markets in the reporting countries at the end of 1999 and analyses trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 1999. (author)

  18. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    As part of the PVPS programme, annual surveys of photovoltaics (PV) power applications and markets in the 20 participating countries are carried out. The objective of the survey reports is to present and interpret trends in both PV systems and components being used in the PV power systems market, and changing applications for these products within that market. These trends are analyzed in the context of the business, policy and non-technical environment in the reporting countries. The survey report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV, nor as a policy document. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the business strategies of PV companies and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. This report presents the results of the sixth international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications and markets in the reporting countries at the end of 2000 and analyses trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2000. (author)

  19. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-15

    As part of the PVPS programme, annual surveys of photovoltaics (PV) power applications and markets in the 20 participating countries are carried out. The objective of the survey reports is to present and interpret trends in both PV systems and components being used in the PV power systems market, and changing applications for these products within that market. These trends are analyzed in the context of the business, policy and non-technical environment in the reporting countries. The survey report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV, nor as a policy document. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the business strategies of PV companies and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. This report presents the results of the sixth international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications and markets in the reporting countries at the end of 2000 and analyses trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2000. (author)

  20. Mapping ergonomics application to improve SMEs working condition in industrially developing countries: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawati, Setia; Lawson, Glyn; Sutarto, Auditya Purwandini

    2014-01-01

    In industrially developing countries (IDC), small and medium enterprises (SMEs) account for the highest proprotion of employment. Unfortunately, the working conditions in SMEs are often very poor and expose employees to a potentially wide range of health and safety risks. This paper presents a comprehensive review of 161 articles related to ergonomics application in SMEs, using Indonesia as a case study. The aim of this paper is to investigate the extent of ergonomics application and identify areas that can be improved to promote effective ergonomics for SMEs in IDC. The most urgent issue found is the need for adopting participatory approach in contrast to the commonly implemented top-down approach. Some good practices in ergonomics application were also revealed from the review, e.g. a multidisciplinary approach, unsophisticated and low-cost solutions, and recognising the importance of productivity. The review also found that more work is still required to achieve appropriate cross-cultural adaptation of ergonomics application.

  1. An Examination of the Special Education Teacher Training Programs in Turkey and European Union Member Countries in Terms of Language Development and Communication Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmese, Pelin Pistav; Kayhan, Nilay

    2016-01-01

    The academic terms and the periods of the courses related to the language development and communication differs considerably in the programs of the countries which train teachers for the special education department. The aim of this study is to examine the contents and credits of the communication and the language development courses in Teacher…

  2. Decentralized approaches to wastewater treatment and management: applicability in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, May A; Tarhini, Akram; Nasr, Joumana A

    2009-01-01

    Providing reliable and affordable wastewater treatment in rural areas is a challenge in many parts of the world, particularly in developing countries. The problems and limitations of the centralized approaches for wastewater treatment are progressively surfacing. Centralized wastewater collection and treatment systems are costly to build and operate, especially in areas with low population densities and dispersed households. Developing countries lack both the funding to construct centralized facilities and the technical expertise to manage and operate them. Alternatively, the decentralized approach for wastewater treatment which employs a combination of onsite and/or cluster systems is gaining more attention. Such an approach allows for flexibility in management, and simple as well as complex technologies are available. The decentralized system is not only a long-term solution for small communities but is more reliable and cost effective. This paper presents a review of the various decentralized approaches to wastewater treatment and management. A discussion as to their applicability in developing countries, primarily in rural areas, and challenges faced is emphasized all through the paper. While there are many impediments and challenges towards wastewater management in developing countries, these can be overcome by suitable planning and policy implementation. Understanding the receiving environment is crucial for technology selection and should be accomplished by conducting a comprehensive site evaluation process. Centralized management of the decentralized wastewater treatment systems is essential to ensure they are inspected and maintained regularly. Management strategies should be site specific accounting for social, cultural, environmental and economic conditions in the target area.

  3. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-15

    This report presents the results of the ninth international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and applications in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2003 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2003. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to {+-} 10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices vary depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  4. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-15

    This report presents the results of the eighth international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and applications in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2002 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2002. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to {+-} 10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices vary depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  5. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This report presents the results of the eighth international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and applications in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2002 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2002. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to ± 10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices vary depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  6. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-08-01

    This report presents the results of the 13 th international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and applications in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2007 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2007. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to ± 10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices vary depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  7. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-08-01

    This report presents the results of the 11 th international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and applications in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2005 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2005. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to ± 10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices vary depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  8. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-08-15

    This report presents the results of the 11{sup th} international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and applications in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2005 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2005. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to {+-} 10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices vary depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  9. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-08-01

    This report presents the results of the 12 th international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and applications in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2006 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2006. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to ± 10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices vary depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  10. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-08-15

    This report presents the results of the 13{sup th} international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and applications in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2007 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2007. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to {+-} 10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices vary depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  11. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-08-15

    This report presents the results of the 12{sup th} international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and applications in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2006 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2006. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to {+-} 10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices vary depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  12. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    This report presents the results of the ninth international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and applications in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2003 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2003. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to ± 10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices vary depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  13. Approaches to the international standards application in healthcare and public health in different countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Sarancha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of consequent development, and guided by an increasing demand of different types of the organizations regarding structured management, the system of standardization has been established. The idea behind standardization is adjusting the characteristics of a product, process or a production cycle to make them consistent and in line with the rules regarding what is proper and acceptable. The “standard” is a document that specifies such established set of criteria covering a broad range of topics and applicable to commissioners of health, specialists in primary care, public health staff, and social care providers, as well as the local authorities and service users. Health products, ranging from medical devices and health informatics to traditional medicines and unconventional healing tools are all in the focus of standards’ application. Different countries have their own quality management traditions based on their history, mentality, socio-economic environment and the local regulations. Taking into consideration that community social system organization and the quality of social infrastructure are the main foundations of social relations and future prosperity, here we review the existing standardization environment in the health sector in different countries, both developed and those on a convergence path. We focused on standardization environment in the United States of America, Great Britain, Germany, Ukraine, Russian Federation, Croatia and Albania. In order to simplify comprehension, we also demonstrate the algorithm of standardization, as well as the opportunities for application of the international standards in healthcare and public health.

  14. Public debt improves the stability of exchange rates in developing countries? The specific case of news European members (2004 and 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Cuénoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to speak about the current situation in Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC. The majority of them have been entering in European Union in 2004 and 2007. This step has been increasing their international attractiveness and improves their economic growth. However, they must stabilize exchange rate to sustain their foreign direct investment attraction. Two strategies are adopting about the regulation of exchange rate. Bulgarian, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania Slovenia and Slovakia are entering in Exchange Rate Mechanism 2 (ERM2 to adopt quickly euro currency (it is now the case for Slovenia in 2007, Slovakia in 2009 and Estonia in 2011. Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic and Romania prefer only to stabilize their currency for the moment. Despite the strong economic dynamic of these countries before the Subprime crisis, the impact reveals the incapacity for several of them to improve currencies stabilities. The theoretical approach about Mundell-Fleming trilemma informs the necessity to scarify monetary policy in a context of free financial market and fixed exchange rate. In a reality, the capacity to use fiscal policy appears supplementary indeed more efficient.

  15. Applications of gene-based technologies for improving animal production and health in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makkar, H.P.S.; Viljoen, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    This book provides a compilation of peer-reviewed scientific contributions from authoritative researchers attending an international symposium convened by the Animal Production and Health Sub-programme of the Animal Production and Health (APH), Joint FAO/IAEA Programme in cooperation with the Animal Production and Health Division of the FAO. These Proceedings contain invaluable information on the role and future potential of gene-based technologies for improving animal production and health, possible applications and constraints in the use of this technology in developing countries and their specific research needs

  16. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    This report presents the results of the 14{sup th} international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and production in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2008 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2008. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to{+-}10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices varies depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  17. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    This report presents the results of the 14 th international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications, markets and production in the reporting countries and elsewhere at the end of 2008 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2008. This report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the strategies of businesses and public authorities, and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. The scope of the report is limited to PV applications with a rated power of 40 W or more. Most national data supplied were accurate to±10 %. Accuracy of data on production levels and system prices varies depending on the willingness of the relevant national PV industry to provide data for the survey. Key data for this publication were drawn from national survey reports, which were supplied by representatives from each of the participating countries. (author)

  18. Emergency medicine clerkship curriculum in a high-income developing country: methods for development and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Arif Alper; Cakal, Elif Dilek; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2018-06-07

    The published recommendations for international emergency medicine curricula cover the content, but exclude teaching and learning methods, assessment, and evaluation. We aim to provide an overview on available emergency medicine clerkship curricula and report the development and application experience of our own curriculum. Our curriculum is an outcome-based education, enriched by e-learning and various up-to-date pedagogic principles. Teaching and learning methods, assessment, and evaluation are described. The theory behind our practice in the light of recent literature is discussed aiming to help other colleagues from developing countries to have a clear map for developing and tailoring their own curricula depending on their needs. The details of our emergency medicine clerkship will serve as an example for developing and developed countries having immature undergraduate emergency medicine clerkship curricula. However, these recommendations will differ in various settings depending on available resources. The main concept of curriculum development is to create a curriculum having learning outcomes and content relevant to the local context, and then align the teaching and learning activities, assessments, and evaluations to be in harmony. This may assure favorable educational outcome even in resource limited settings.

  19. Spent fuel management strategies in eight countries and applicability to Sweden. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The spent fuel management activities described in volume 1 are compared in three areas. The first section summarizes the spent fuel management options being followed in each country and compares those options with regard to cost, environmental impact and public acceptability. Next section reviews and compares national policies on nuclear power, spent fuel management and high-level waste disposal and assesses their impact on the development and licensing of nuclear power plants. The third section compares the regulatory requirements affecting spent fuel managementin terms of their overall spirit and characteristics and in terms of the responsibilities of the utilities and the regulatory authorities. Finally, the last section addresses the applicability to Sweden of the findings from these comparisons, focusing on cost efficiency, health and safety, environmental impact, public acceptance and licensing procedures

  20. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    This report presents the results of the seventh international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications and markets in the reporting countries at the end of 2001 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2001. The survey report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology, nor as a policy document. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the business strategies of PV companies and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. (author)

  1. Trends in photovoltaic applications. Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-08-15

    This report presents the results of the seventh international survey. It provides an overview of PV power systems applications and markets in the reporting countries at the end of 2001 and analyzes trends in the implementation of PV power systems between 1992 and 2001. The survey report is not intended to serve as an introduction to PV technology, nor as a policy document. It is prepared to assist those responsible for developing the business strategies of PV companies and to aid the development of medium term plans for electricity utilities and other providers of energy services. It also provides guidance to government officials responsible for setting energy policy and preparing national energy plans. (author)

  2. Evolution of the radiological protection policy. Applications in developing countries. IPEN a case of study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, A.M.P.L.; Sordi, G.M.A. A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to show the radiological protection development in Brazil from the beginning, when President Joao Cafe Filho signed an agreement with the U.S.A. In this agreement, Brazil joined the 'Atoms for Peace' program established on August 3., 1955. Yet in 1955, Brazil participated as a foundation member in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). As a result, the Iea - 'Instituto de Energia Atomica'- was created on August 31., 1956 and a research reactor type swimming pool was installed to produce radioisotopes and prepare experts in the field of nuclear activities. This reactor is maintained in operation at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), former Iea. Having the Iea as a case of study, we analyze the radiological protection evolution during the fifty years of its life. We correlate this development with the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) Regulations. CNEN was also created in 1956. The first safety standard in Brazil was delivered in 1973. Therefore, this paper will focus the radiological protection development at national level. Both institutions followed the international radiological protection recommendations, under the difficulties imposed by the historical conditions of a developing country. In order to have an outline of the radiological protection development, we inform that it was started as a section of the Radiological Division at the Iea. At that time, the Iea had four divisions. The radiological protection was performed by four people, being two physicists and two technicians that accomplished all the duties. On that occasion, approximately 30 people operated the Iea. The work staff at IPEN increased, arriving to 1600 people in 1998, including 150 persons in the radiological protection activities. Nowadays, 1200 people, including 100 persons in the health physics duties operate the IPEN. (authors)

  3. Evolution of the radiological protection policy. Applications in developing countries. IPEN a case of study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, A.M.P.L.; Sordi, G.M.A. A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This paper aims to show the radiological protection development in Brazil from the beginning, when President Joao Cafe Filho signed an agreement with the U.S.A. In this agreement, Brazil joined the 'Atoms for Peace' program established on August 3., 1955. Yet in 1955, Brazil participated as a foundation member in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). As a result, the Iea - 'Instituto de Energia Atomica'- was created on August 31., 1956 and a research reactor type swimming pool was installed to produce radioisotopes and prepare experts in the field of nuclear activities. This reactor is maintained in operation at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), former Iea. Having the Iea as a case of study, we analyze the radiological protection evolution during the fifty years of its life. We correlate this development with the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) Regulations. CNEN was also created in 1956. The first safety standard in Brazil was delivered in 1973. Therefore, this paper will focus the radiological protection development at national level. Both institutions followed the international radiological protection recommendations, under the difficulties imposed by the historical conditions of a developing country. In order to have an outline of the radiological protection development, we inform that it was started as a section of the Radiological Division at the Iea. At that time, the Iea had four divisions. The radiological protection was performed by four people, being two physicists and two technicians that accomplished all the duties. On that occasion, approximately 30 people operated the Iea. The work staff at IPEN increased, arriving to 1600 people in 1998, including 150 persons in the radiological protection activities. Nowadays, 1200 people, including 100 persons in the health physics duties operate the IPEN. (authors)

  4. Facilitating wider application of progesterone RIA for improving livestock production in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswin Perera, B.M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Research and development programmes supported by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division on improving livestock production in developing countries have identified three major biological constraints: feeding, breeding management and diseases. Proper breeding management is important in order to achieve optimum economic benefits (through products such as milk, meat and offspring) from an animal during its lifespan. This requires early attainment of puberty, short intervals from calving to conception, high conception rates and low number of matings or artificial inseminations (Als) per conception. The use of radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measuring progesterone in milk of dairy animals or in blood of meat animals, together with recording of data on reproductive events and production parameters, is an indispensable tool that provides information both on problems in breeding management by farmers as well as deficiencies in the Al services provided to them by government, co-operative or private organizations. This allows appropriate strategies and interventions to be adopted to overcome these limitations. Progesterone RIA can also detect animals that have not conceived by Al within 21 days after mating (early non-pregnancy diagnosis or N-PD), and alert farmers to the need to have these animals closely observed for oestrus and re-inseminated at the appropriate time. In order to ensure the sustained use of RIA technology for progesterone measurement in developing Member States, the IAEA has been engaged in the development and transfer of simple, robust and cheap methods of RIA. The system currently being used is based on a direct (non-extraction) method, using a 125 I-progesterone tracer and a solid-phase separation method (antibody coated tubes). In order to ensure wider availability (and lower cost) of the two key reagents required for the assay, the IAEA has initiated a programme to assist Member States to develop the capability to produce these in selected regional or

  5. Evaluation of activities promoting fruits and vegetables consumption in 8 countries members of the Global Alliance for Promoting Fruit and Vegetable Consumption “5 a day” – AIAM5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Moñino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This article compiles practices promoting fruits and vegetables consumption launched by eight members of AIAM5 - Global Alliance for Promoting Fruits and Vegetables Consumption “5 a day”, with the aim of identifying best practices in the approaching strategies, programs and activities to encourage fruits and vegetables consumption. Material and Methods: A questionnaire designed to categorize and identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, cost-effectiveness, feasibility and practices with the greatest potential to adapt to national health promoting policies, was used. Questionnaires from eight countries from AIAM5 were evaluated: Mexico, Chile, Costa Rica, Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia, Nicaragua and Spain. Results: One of the greatest strengths of the organizations of AIAM5 is the prestige and the professional, technical and academic knowledge that back up their activities. One evident weakness of their strategies is the lack of measuring practices of the impact of the implemented activities, and the evaluation of their cost-effectiveness. It was also observed that some of the entities that carry out the programs “5 a day” are conceived as social enterprises with diverse types of partners and allies. Conclusions: It is recommended that AIAM5 members should make an effort to measure the impact of their activities and interventions by setting quantifiable goals, and using indicators to assess the degree of achievement of the activities carried out. It is also recommended to exploit the niche of opportunities provided by the Corporate Social Responsibility to help them achieve their objectives of promoting fruits and vegetables consumption.

  6. Reactor physics activities in NEA member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This document is a compilation of National activity reports presented at the thirty-third Meeting of the NEA Committee on Reactor Physics, held at OECD Headquarters, Paris, from 15th - 19th October 1990

  7. Country clustering applied to the water and sanitation sector: a new tool with potential applications in research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Kyle; Crocker, Jonny; Kayser, Georgia Lyn; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-03-01

    The fields of global health and international development commonly cluster countries by geography and income to target resources and describe progress. For any given sector of interest, a range of relevant indicators can serve as a more appropriate basis for classification. We create a new typology of country clusters specific to the water and sanitation (WatSan) sector based on similarities across multiple WatSan-related indicators. After a literature review and consultation with experts in the WatSan sector, nine indicators were selected. Indicator selection was based on relevance to and suggested influence on national water and sanitation service delivery, and to maximize data availability across as many countries as possible. A hierarchical clustering method and a gap statistic analysis were used to group countries into a natural number of relevant clusters. Two stages of clustering resulted in five clusters, representing 156 countries or 6.75 billion people. The five clusters were not well explained by income or geography, and were distinct from existing country clusters used in international development. Analysis of these five clusters revealed that they were more compact and well separated than United Nations and World Bank country clusters. This analysis and resulting country typology suggest that previous geography- or income-based country groupings can be improved upon for applications in the WatSan sector by utilizing globally available WatSan-related indicators. Potential applications include guiding and discussing research, informing policy, improving resource targeting, describing sector progress, and identifying critical knowledge gaps in the WatSan sector. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Critical review of SWAT applications in the upper Nile basin countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. van Griensven

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT is an integrated river basin model that is widely applied within the Nile basin. Up to date, more than 20 peer-reviewed papers describe the use of SWAT for a variety of problems in the upper Nile basin countries, such as erosion modelling, land use and climate change impact modelling and water resources management. The majority of the studies are focused on locations in the tropical highlands in Ethiopia and around Lake Victoria. The popularity of SWAT is attributed to the fact that the tool is freely available and that it is readily applicable through the development of geographic information system (GIS based interfaces and its easy linkage to sensitivity, calibration and uncertainty analysis tools. The online and free availability of basic GIS data that are required for SWAT made its applicability more straightforward even in data-scarce areas. However, the easy use of SWAT may not always lead to appropriate models which is also a consequence of the quality of the available free databases in these regions. In this paper, we aim at critically reviewing the use of SWAT in the context of the modelling purpose and problem descriptions in the tropical highlands of the Nile basin countries. To evaluate the models that are described in journal papers, a number of criteria are used to evaluate the model set-up, model performances, physical representation of the model parameters, and the correctness of the hydrological model balance. On the basis of performance indicators, the majority of the SWAT models were classified as giving satisfactory to very good results. Nevertheless, the hydrological mass balances as reported in several papers contained losses that might not be justified. Several papers also reported the use of unrealistic parameter values. More worrying is that many papers lack this information. For this reason, most of the reported SWAT models have to be evaluated critically. An important gap is

  9. Practical application of linear growth measurements in clinical research in low-and middle-income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, Jan Maarten; Himes, John H.; Van Buuren, Stef; Denno, Donna M.; Suchdev, Parminder S.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims: Childhood stunting is a prevalent problem in low-and middle-income countries and is associated with long-term adverse neurodevelopment and health outcomes. In this review, we define indicators of growth, discuss key challenges in their analysis and application, and offer suggestions

  10. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The document lists the 135 Member States of the Agency as of 19 March 2003. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/56) is the Republic of Honduras. The dates on which the present 135 Member States became Members are given in an Attachment. It also shows the States whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  11. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document lists the 130 Member States of the Agency as of 1 December 1999. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/52) is Angola. The dates on which the present 130 Member States became Members, and the state Honduras) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute are given in an Attachment

  12. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.55) is the Republic of Botswana, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 20 March 2002. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 134 Member States became Members. It also shows the State whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference, but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  13. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The document lists the 132 Member States of the Agency as of 1 June 2001. The new Members since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/53) are Central African Republic and Azerbaijan. The dates on which the present 132 Member States became Members are given in an Attachment. It also shows the States whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  14. Challenges for the registration of vaccines in emerging countries: Differences in dossier requirements, application and evaluation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellepiane, Nora; Pagliusi, Sonia

    2018-06-07

    The divergence of regulatory requirements and processes in developing and emerging countries contributes to hamper vaccines' registration, and therefore delay access to high-quality, safe and efficacious vaccines for their respective populations. This report focuses on providing insights on the heterogeneity of registration requirements in terms of numbering structure and overall content of dossiers for marketing authorisation applications for vaccines in different areas of the world. While it also illustrates the divergence of regulatory processes in general, as well as the need to avoid redundant reviews, it does not claim to provide a comprehensive view of all processes nor existing facilitating mechanisms, nor is it intended to touch upon the differences in assessments made by different regulatory authorities. This report describes the work analysed by regulatory experts from vaccine manufacturing companies during a meeting held in Geneva in May 2017, in identifying and quantifying differences in the requirements for vaccine registration in three aspects for comparison: the dossier numbering structure and contents, the application forms, and the evaluation procedures, in different countries and regions. The Module 1 of the Common Technical Document (CTD) of 10 countries were compared. Modules 2-5 of the CTDs of two regions and three countries were compared to the CTD of the US FDA. The application forms of eight countries were compared and the registration procedures of 134 importing countries were compared as well. The analysis indicates a high degree of divergence in numbering structure and content requirements. Possible interventions that would lead to significant improvements in registration efficiency include alignment in CTD numbering structure, a standardised model-application form, and better convergence of evaluation procedures. Copyright © 2018.

  15. Patterns of lung cancer mortality in 23 countries: Application of the Age-Period-Cohort model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yi-Chia

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking habits do not seem to be the main explanation of the epidemiological characteristics of female lung cancer mortality in Asian countries. However, Asian countries are often excluded from studies of geographical differences in trends for lung cancer mortality. We thus examined lung cancer trends from 1971 to 1995 among men and women for 23 countries, including four in Asia. Methods International and national data were used to analyze lung cancer mortality from 1971 to 1995 in both sexes. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR were analyzed in five consecutive five-year periods and for each five-year age group in the age range 30 to 79. The age-period-cohort (APC model was used to estimate the period effect (adjusted for age and cohort effects for mortality from lung cancer. Results The sex ratio of the ASMR for lung cancer was lower in Asian countries, while the sex ratio of smoking prevalence was higher in Asian countries. The mean values of the sex ratio of the ASMR from lung cancer in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Japan for the five 5-year period were 2.10, 2.39, 3.07, and 3.55, respectively. These values not only remained quite constant over each five-year period, but were also lower than seen in the western countries. The period effect, for lung cancer mortality as derived for the 23 countries from the APC model, could be classified into seven patterns. Conclusion Period effects for both men and women in 23 countries, as derived using the APC model, could be classified into seven patterns. Four Asian countries have a relatively low sex ratio in lung cancer mortality and a relatively high sex ratio in smoking prevalence. Factors other than smoking might be important, especially for women in Asian countries.

  16. Selected Musculoskeletal and Performance Characteristics of Members of a Women's Professional Football Team: Application of a Pre-participation Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nett, Beth; Brosky, Joseph A; Velarde, Lynnuel; Pariser, David P; Boyce, David A

    2010-02-01

    Although it is common practice to administer pre-participation examinations (PPE) of athletes prior to training, there are no clearly established formats. Elements integral to the PPE fall within the scope of physical therapist practice, and are often categorized as a form of primary prevention for musculoskeletal disorders as defined in the Guide to Physical Therapist Practice. The purpose of this study is to describe the design and implementation of a PPE for a women's professional (gridiron) football team. The results and findings from this PPE provide one of the first musculoskeletal profiles and information about selected physical characteristics from members of a female professional football team. Players from the Kentucky Karma women's football team, a member of the National Women's Football League (NWFA), volunteered to participate in a PPE. Of twenty-five eligible team members, thirteen consented to participate. The PPE consisted of a health history questionnaire, a musculoskeletal screening, and a series of physical performance and agility tests. The players' average (± SD) age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage were 29.6 (± 5.6) yrs., 1.66 (± .05) m, 66.8 (± 12.6) kg, 24.1 (± 3.7), and 27.4 (± 6.6) %, respectively. Commonly reported injuries were similar to those reported in men's collegiate football. This is one of the first papers to report on a model PPE for a women's professional football team. Future research is needed to establish a standard PPE, recognize common injuries, and develop prevention strategies unique to women's professional football.

  17. Application of patient safety indicators internationally: a pilot study among seven countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drösler, Saskia E; Klazinga, Niek S; Romano, Patrick S; Tancredi, Daniel J; Gogorcena Aoiz, Maria A; Hewitt, Moira C; Scobie, Sarah; Soop, Michael; Wen, Eugene; Quan, Hude; Ghali, William A; Mattke, Soeren; Kelley, Edward

    2009-08-01

    To explore the potential for international comparison of patient safety as part of the Health Care Quality Indicators project of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) by evaluating patient safety indicators originally published by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). A retrospective cross-sectional study. Acute care hospitals in the USA, UK, Sweden, Spain, Germany, Canada and Australia in 2004 and 2005/2006. Routine hospitalization-related administrative data from seven countries were analyzed. Using algorithms adapted to the diagnosis and procedure coding systems in place in each country, authorities in each of the participating countries reported summaries of the distribution of hospital-level and overall (national) rates for each AHRQ Patient Safety Indicator to the OECD project secretariat. Each country's vector of national indicator rates and the vector of American patient safety indicators rates published by AHRQ (and re-estimated as part of this study) were highly correlated (0.821-0.966). However, there was substantial systematic variation in rates across countries. This pilot study reveals that AHRQ Patient Safety Indicators can be applied to international hospital data. However, the analyses suggest that certain indicators (e.g. 'birth trauma', 'complications of anesthesia') may be too unreliable for international comparisons. Data quality varies across countries; undercoding may be a systematic problem in some countries. Efforts at international harmonization of hospital discharge data sets as well as improved accuracy of documentation should facilitate future comparative analyses of routine databases.

  18. Spent fuel management strategies in eight countries and applicability to Sweden. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    International Energy Associates Limited undertook this study on behalf of Sweden's National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel. The purpose of the project was to compare the programs and regulations for the management of spent fuel from nuclear power plants in eight countries: Belgium, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Japan, Switzerland, The United Kingdom and the Uinted States. The study is presented in three volumes. Volume I consists of detailed country-specific reports on the policies, regulations, and strategies for spent fuel and high-level waste management in each of the eight countries

  19. Near-death experiences, attacks by family members, and absence of health care in their home countries affect the quality of life of refugee women in Germany: a multi-region, cross-sectional, gender-sensitive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesuthasan, Jenny; Sönmez, Ekin; Abels, Ingar; Kurmeyer, Christine; Gutermann, Jana; Kimbel, Renate; Krüger, Antje; Niklewski, Guenter; Richter, Kneginja; Stangier, Ulrich; Wollny, Anja; Zier, Ulrike; Oertelt-Prigione, Sabine; Shouler-Ocak, Meryam

    2018-02-01

    The year 2016 has marked the highest number of displaced people worldwide on record. A large number of these refugees are women, yet little is known about their specific situation and the hurdles they have to face during their journey. Herein, we investigated whether sociodemographic characteristics and traumatic experiences in the home country and during the flight affected the quality of life of refugee women arriving in Germany in 2015-2016. Six hundred sixty-three women from six countries (Afghanistan, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Somalia, and Eritrea) living in shared reception facilities in five distinct German regions were interviewed by native speakers using a structured questionnaire. Sociodemographic data and information about reasons for fleeing, traumatic experiences, symptoms, quality of life, and expectations towards their future were elicited. All information was stored in a central database in Berlin. Descriptive analyses, correlations, and multivariate analyses were performed. The most frequent reasons cited for fleeing were war, terror, and threat to one's life or the life of a family member. Eighty-seven percent of women resorted to smugglers to make the journey to Europe, and this significantly correlated to residence in a war zone (odds ratio (OR) = 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-4.6, p = 0.003) and homelessness prior to fleeing (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1-4.3, p = 0.04). Overall the described quality of life by the women was moderate (overall mean = 3.23, range of 1-5) and slightly worse than that of European populations (overall mean = 3.68, p Refugee women experience multiple traumatic experiences before and/or during their journey, some of which are gender-specific. These experiences affect the quality of life in their current country of residence and might impact their integration. We encourage the early investigation of these traumatic experiences to rapidly identify women at higher risk and to improve health

  20. Monitoring and evaluation of Solar Home Systems. Experiences with applications of solar PV for households in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieuwenhout, F.D.J.; Van Dijk, A.; Van Dijk, V.A.P.; Hirsch, D.; Lasschuit, P.E.; Van Roekel, G.; Arriaza, H.; Hankins, M.; Sharma, B.D.; Wade, H.

    2000-09-01

    Solar energy is a promising solution to meet demand for electricity services of rural households in remote locations in developing countries. After some early successes, more and more doubts have arisen about the effectiveness and suitability of small PV systems for rural development. Many organisational, financial and technical problems appear difficult to tackle. A literature survey has been conducted to make an inventory of experiences with solar photovoltaic applications for households in developing countries. The major conclusion from the extensive literature research performed during this study is that there is not enough information available about the performance of solar home systems and projects. This slows down further development and successful dissemination. refs

  1. Food category consumption and obesity prevalence across countries: an application of Machine Learning method to big data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, Jocelyn; Fallah-Fini, Saeideh; Nau, Claudia; Glass, Thomas; Global Obesity Prevention Center Team

    The applications of sophisticated mathematical and numerical tools in public health has been demonstrated to be useful in predicting the outcome of public intervention as well as to study, for example, the main causes of obesity without doing experiments with the population. In this project we aim to understand which kind of food consumed in different countries over time best defines the rate of obesity in those countries. The use of Machine Learning is particularly useful because we do not need to create a hypothesis and test it with the data, but instead we learn from the data to find the groups of food that best describe the prevalence of obesity.

  2. Preconception health assessment in China, Lebanon and the Philippines: applicability to other countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Mary-Elizabeth; Charafeddine, Lama; Zhong, Nanbert; Padilla, Carmencita D; Yunis, Khalid; El Rafei, Reem; Alamiddine, Kawthar; Zhao, Xinliang; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Howson, Christopher P

    2014-07-01

    To test the utility of a preconception checklist tool in identifying preconception health needs of women in three countries; China, Lebanon and the Philippines. An academic medical center within each country participated in the development and testing of a preconception checklist tool, which was administered over a 6 month period to selected target groups in each country. The checklist provided valuable data on the preconception health of 6,530 women. Aggregated data identified common preconception health needs across all countries, including provision of modern contraceptives and adequate immunization coverage; HIV and STI screening; treatment for anemia; and counseling for maintenance of a healthy weight. A preconception checklist tool was found to be useful in distinct cultural settings. The study was a pilot. Future steps include validation and standardization of the checklist, data from which could be used to help shape preconception care policies and implementation strategies.

  3. 27 CFR 447.52 - Import restrictions applicable to certain countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Iraq, Libya, Mongolia, North Korea, Sudan, Syria, and Vietnam. This policy applies to countries or.... Such information may, for example, include a verifiable statement in the English language of a...

  4. Application of ICT in strengthening health information systems in developing countries in the wake of globalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simba, Daudi O; Mwangu, Mughwira

    2004-12-01

    Information Communication Technology (ICT) revolution brought opportunities and challenges to developing countries in their efforts to strengthen the Health Management Information Systems (HMIS). In the wake of globalisation, developing countries have no choice but to take advantage of the opportunities and face the challenges. The last decades saw developing countries taking action to strengthen and modernise their HMIS using the existing ICT. Due to poor economic and communication infrastructure, the process has been limited to national and provincial/region levels leaving behind majority of health workers living in remote/rural areas. Even those with access do not get maximum benefit from ICT advancements due to inadequacies in data quality and lack of data utilisation. Therefore, developing countries need to make deliberate efforts to address constraints threatening to increase technology gap between urban minority and rural majority by setting up favourable policies and appropriate strategies. Concurrently, strategies to improve data quality and utilisation should be instituted to ensure that HMIS has positive impact on people's health. Potential strength from private sector and opportunities for sharing experiences among developing countries should be utilised. Short of this, advancement in ICT will continue to marginalise health workers in developing countries especially those living in remote areas.

  5. Manufacturing of REBCO coils strongly bonded to cooling members with epoxy resin aimed at its application to Maglev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Katsutoshi; Ogata, Masafumi; Hasegawa, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Paraffin has a risk of losing thermal coupling during cooling down. • We propose an epoxy impregnated REBCO coil co-wound with PTFE tape. • The coil is tightly bonded to cooling members by epoxy resin without the degradation. • We made a REBCO racetrack coil with the same outer dimension as the Maglev magnet. - Abstract: The REBCO coated conductor has been attracted attention because of its high current density in the presence of high magnetic field. If the coated conductor is applied to Maglev, the operational temperature of the on-board magnets will be over 40 K and energy consumption of cryocoolers will be reduced. That high operational temperature also means the absence of liquid helium. Therefore, reliable thermal coupling is desirable for cooling the coils. We propose an epoxy impregnated REBCO coil co-wound with PTFE tape. While the PTFE tape prevents the performance degradation of the coil, the epoxy resin bonds the coil to cooling members. We carried out three experiments to confirm that the coil structure which we propose has robust thermal coupling without the degradation. First, thermal resistances of paraffin and epoxy were measured varying the temperature from room temperature to 10 K. The measurement result indicates that paraffin has a risk of losing thermal coupling during cooling down. In another experiment, PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) tape insulator prevented performance degradation of a small epoxy impregnated REBCO coil, while another REBCO coil with polyimide tape showed clear performance degradation. Finally, we produced a racetrack REBCO coil with the same outer dimension as a Maglev on-board magnet coil. Although the racetrack coil was installed in a GFRP coil case and tightly bonded to the case by epoxy impregnation, any performance degradation was not observed

  6. Manufacturing of REBCO coils strongly bonded to cooling members with epoxy resin aimed at its application to Maglev

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, Katsutoshi, E-mail: mizuno.katsutoshi.14@rtri.or.jp; Ogata, Masafumi; Hasegawa, Hitoshi

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Paraffin has a risk of losing thermal coupling during cooling down. • We propose an epoxy impregnated REBCO coil co-wound with PTFE tape. • The coil is tightly bonded to cooling members by epoxy resin without the degradation. • We made a REBCO racetrack coil with the same outer dimension as the Maglev magnet. - Abstract: The REBCO coated conductor has been attracted attention because of its high current density in the presence of high magnetic field. If the coated conductor is applied to Maglev, the operational temperature of the on-board magnets will be over 40 K and energy consumption of cryocoolers will be reduced. That high operational temperature also means the absence of liquid helium. Therefore, reliable thermal coupling is desirable for cooling the coils. We propose an epoxy impregnated REBCO coil co-wound with PTFE tape. While the PTFE tape prevents the performance degradation of the coil, the epoxy resin bonds the coil to cooling members. We carried out three experiments to confirm that the coil structure which we propose has robust thermal coupling without the degradation. First, thermal resistances of paraffin and epoxy were measured varying the temperature from room temperature to 10 K. The measurement result indicates that paraffin has a risk of losing thermal coupling during cooling down. In another experiment, PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) tape insulator prevented performance degradation of a small epoxy impregnated REBCO coil, while another REBCO coil with polyimide tape showed clear performance degradation. Finally, we produced a racetrack REBCO coil with the same outer dimension as a Maglev on-board magnet coil. Although the racetrack coil was installed in a GFRP coil case and tightly bonded to the case by epoxy impregnation, any performance degradation was not observed.

  7. The members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The document lists the 124 Member States of the Agency as of 1 September 1996. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/Rev.47) is Georgia. In an attachment are given the dates on which the 124 Member States became Members, the State (Latvia) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the State (Republic of Moldova) whose application for membership has been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference

  8. The members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.46) is Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 123 Member States became Members. It also shows the States whose applications for membership of the Agency have been approved by the General Conference but which have not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the State whose application for membership has been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference

  9. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    No new Member has joined the Agency since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.45). The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 122 Member States became Members. It also shows the State whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the States whose applications for membership have been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference

  10. The members of the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-10

    The document lists the 124 Member States of the Agency as of 1 September 1996. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/Rev.47) is Georgia. In an attachment are given the dates on which the 124 Member States became Members, the State (Latvia) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the State (Republic of Moldova) whose application for membership has been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference.

  11. The Members of the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-11

    No new Member has joined the Agency since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.45). The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 122 Member States became Members. It also shows the State whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the States whose applications for membership have been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference.

  12. The members of the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-26

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.46) is Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 123 Member States became Members. It also shows the States whose applications for membership of the Agency have been approved by the General Conference but which have not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the State whose application for membership has been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference.

  13. OECD Ülkelerinde Eğlence Vergisi Uygulamaları(Amusement Tax Applications in the OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernur AÇIKGÖZ ERSOY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 17th century, “the right of the poor” was a transitory tax on the income of entertainment in favor of public assistance in France. “The right of the poor” was abolished later by the regime of Vichy, which created a permanent tax on games and entertainment to the direct benefit of the communes. Later, other European countries followed the example of France by introducing a so-called amusement tax. The paper is organized as follows: The first part presents the historical development and theoretical base of amusement tax and amusement tax applications in the OECD countries. The second part shows the amusement tax application in Turkey, and the last part resumes arguments in favor of the maintenance or an abolishment of the tax on entertainment.

  14. Promoting space research and applications in developing countries through small satellite missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, M.

    The high vantage-point of space offers very direct and tangible benefits to developing countries when carefully focused upon their real and particular communications and Earth observation needs. However, until recently, access to space has been effectively restricted to only those countries prepared to invest enormous sums in complex facilities and expensive satellites and launchers: this has placed individual participation in space beyond the sensible grasp of developing countries. However, during the last decade, highly capable and yet inexpensive small satellites have been developed which provide an opportunity for developing countries realistically to acquire and operate their own independent space assets - customized to their particular national needs. Over the last 22 years, the Surrey Space Centre has pioneered, developed and launched 23 nano-micro-minisatellite missions, and has worked in partnership with 12 developing countries to enable them to take their first independent steps into space. Surrey has developed a comprehensive and in-depth space technology know-how transfer and 'hands-on' training programme that uses a collaborative project comprising the design, construction, launch and operation of a microsatellite to acquire an indigenous space capability and create the nucleus of a national space agency and space industry. Using low cost small satellite projects as a focus, developing countries are able to initiate a long term, affordable and sustainable national space programme specifically tailored to their requirements, that is able to access the benefits derived from Earth observation for land use and national security; improved communications services; catalyzing scientific research and indigenous high-technology supporting industries. Perhaps even more important is the long-term benefit to the country provided by stimulating educational and career opportunities for your scientists and engineers and retaining them inside the country rather the

  15. Sectoral energy demand studies: Application of the end-use approach to Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Events since August 1990 have shown that the world is still dependent on oil despite efforts to decrease that dependency since the oil crisis of 1973 and 1979. Thirteen countries participated in the REDP (UNDP-funded Regional Energy Development Programme) energy planning activities called ''Sectoral energy demand studies'' in which country teams benefited from training in energy data analysis, sectoral accounting of energy demand, and forecasting with the use of MEDEE-S model. This publication documents the training materials on sectoral energy demand series. It includes eight chapters which were indexed separately. Refs, figs, tabs

  16. Manufacturing of REBCO coils strongly bonded to cooling members with epoxy resin aimed at its application to Maglev

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Katsutoshi; Ogata, Masafumi; Hasegawa, Hitoshi

    2014-11-01

    The REBCO coated conductor has been attracted attention because of its high current density in the presence of high magnetic field. If the coated conductor is applied to Maglev, the operational temperature of the on-board magnets will be over 40 K and energy consumption of cryocoolers will be reduced. That high operational temperature also means the absence of liquid helium. Therefore, reliable thermal coupling is desirable for cooling the coils. We propose an epoxy impregnated REBCO coil co-wound with PTFE tape. While the PTFE tape prevents the performance degradation of the coil, the epoxy resin bonds the coil to cooling members. We carried out three experiments to confirm that the coil structure which we propose has robust thermal coupling without the degradation. First, thermal resistances of paraffin and epoxy were measured varying the temperature from room temperature to 10 K. The measurement result indicates that paraffin has a risk of losing thermal coupling during cooling down. In another experiment, PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) tape insulator prevented performance degradation of a small epoxy impregnated REBCO coil, while another REBCO coil with polyimide tape showed clear performance degradation. Finally, we produced a racetrack REBCO coil with the same outer dimension as a Maglev on-board magnet coil. Although the racetrack coil was installed in a GFRP coil case and tightly bonded to the case by epoxy impregnation, any performance degradation was not observed.

  17. System of Health Accounts and Health Satellite Accounts : Application in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakhimovsky, S.; Hernandez-Peña, P.; van Mosseveld, C.; Palacios, A.

    2014-01-01

    Health accounting data that show economic and financial resource flows within a health system are critical to informing health and economic policy – at both national and international levels. However, countries vary widely in their health accounting histories as well as the demand for and capacity

  18. FII 2 and the applicable freedoms of movement in third country situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Nijkeuter (Erwin); M.F. de Wilde (Maarten)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstractIn this article, the authors discuss the approach that the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) adopts in deciding which of the European treaty freedoms apply to third country situations. On 13 November 2012 the CJEU delivered a landmark ruling on this matter in the Test

  19. Lost productivity due to premature mortality in developed and emerging countries: an application to smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzin, Joseph; Marton, Jeno P; Menzin, Jordan A; Willke, Richard J; Woodward, Rebecca M; Federico, Victoria

    2012-06-25

    Researchers and policy makers have determined that accounting for productivity costs, or "indirect costs," may be as important as including direct medical expenditures when evaluating the societal value of health interventions. These costs are also important when estimating the global burden of disease. The estimation of indirect costs is commonly done on a country-specific basis. However, there are few studies that evaluate indirect costs across countries using a consistent methodology. Using the human capital approach, we developed a model that estimates productivity costs as the present value of lifetime earnings (PVLE) lost due to premature mortality. Applying this methodology, the model estimates productivity costs for 29 selected countries, both developed and emerging. We also provide an illustration of how the inclusion of productivity costs contributes to an analysis of the societal burden of smoking. A sensitivity analysis is undertaken to assess productivity costs on the basis of the friction cost approach. PVLE estimates were higher for certain subpopulations, such as men, younger people, and people in developed countries. In the case study, productivity cost estimates from our model showed that productivity loss was a substantial share of the total cost burden of premature mortality due to smoking, accounting for over 75 % of total lifetime costs in the United States and 67 % of total lifetime costs in Brazil. Productivity costs were much lower using the friction cost approach among those of working age. Our PVLE model is a novel tool allowing researchers to incorporate the value of lost productivity due to premature mortality into economic analyses of treatments for diseases or health interventions. We provide PVLE estimates for a number of emerging and developed countries. Including productivity costs in a health economics study allows for a more comprehensive analysis, and, as demonstrated by our illustration, can have important effects on the

  20. State of the Art of the Development and Application of Anti-Seismic Systems in Europe and Other Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Alessandro; Forni, Massimo

    2008-07-01

    There are already approximately 5,000 structures in the world, located in over 30 countries, that have been protected by seismic isolation (SI), energy dissipation (ED) and other modern seismic vibration passive control (SVPC) systems. The number of such applications is increasing everywhere more and more. It has been confirmed that, in each country, the extension of the use of the SVPC systems is conclusively influenced by earthquake experience, the availability of specific design rules and the features of those adopted. With regard to application, Japan has consolidated its worldwide leadership, with over 3,000 seismically isolated buildings, many others protected by ED systems and several isolated bridges & viaducts. Second is now the P. R. China, with 610 isolated buildings and 45 with dampers, in addition to numerous isolated bridges & viaducts. The Russian Federation is third for the number of isolated buildings, which are approximately 600. In the USA, due to the very penalizing design code in force for SI of buildings, there are at present only a few new applications of this kind (an overall number of approximately 200 was reported), although the US isolated buildings are mostly quite important, half being retrofits; on the contrary, the use of SI for bridges & viaducts and that of ED for buildings are more popular in the USA. At present (April 2008), Italy (which remains the worldwide leader as regards the application of the SVPC systems to cultural heritage and keeps a key role also as to the number and importance of bridges & viaducts protected by such systems) is at the fifth place, at least for the number of isolated buildings already open to activity: they are 51, besides others protected by other SVPC systems. There, thanks to the new national seismic code (enforced in May 2003), there has been a significant recent increase of building application and design of the SVPC systems. With regard to the use of such systems in other countries, Italy is now

  1. State of the Art of the Development and Application of Anti-Seismic Systems in Europe and Other Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martelli, Alessandro; Forni, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    There are already approximately 5,000 structures in the world, located in over 30 countries, that have been protected by seismic isolation (SI), energy dissipation (ED) and other modern seismic vibration passive control (SVPC) systems. The number of such applications is increasing everywhere more and more. It has been confirmed that, in each country, the extension of the use of the SVPC systems is conclusively influenced by earthquake experience, the availability of specific design rules and the features of those adopted. With regard to application, Japan has consolidated its worldwide leadership, with over 3,000 seismically isolated buildings, many others protected by ED systems and several isolated bridges and viaducts. Second is now the P. R. China, with 610 isolated buildings and 45 with dampers, in addition to numerous isolated bridges and viaducts. The Russian Federation is third for the number of isolated buildings, which are approximately 600. In the USA, due to the very penalizing design code in force for SI of buildings, there are at present only a few new applications of this kind (an overall number of approximately 200 was reported), although the US isolated buildings are mostly quite important, half being retrofits; on the contrary, the use of SI for bridges and viaducts and that of ED for buildings are more popular in the USA. At present (April 2008), Italy (which remains the worldwide leader as regards the application of the SVPC systems to cultural heritage and keeps a key role also as to the number and importance of bridges and viaducts protected by such systems) is at the fifth place, at least for the number of isolated buildings already open to activity: they are 51, besides others protected by other SVPC systems. There, thanks to the new national seismic code (enforced in May 2003), there has been a significant recent increase of building application and design of the SVPC systems. With regard to the use of such systems in other countries, Italy

  2. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document lists the 129 Member States of the Agency as of 1 June 1999. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/51) is Benin. The dates on which the present 129 states became Members, and the state (Honduras) whose application for membership of the Agency has been recommended by the Board of Governors to be considered at the 43rd session of the General Conference are given in an Attachment

  3. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The new member since the last list of Member States of the Agency was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.44) is Yemen. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the 122 States became members of the Agency, as well as the State whose application for membership of the Agency was approved by the General Conference, but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  4. The members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The new members since the last list of Member States of the Agency was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.42) are: Armenia, Coratia, the Czech Republic, Lithuania, the Marshall Islands, the Slovak Republic and Uzbekistan. The Attachment to the circular shows the dates on which the 120 States became members of the Agency, as well as those States whose application for membership of the Agency was approved by the General Conference, but who have not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  5. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document lists the 128 Member States of the Agency as of 18 September 1998. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/50) is Burkina Faso. In an attachment the dates on which the present 128 states became Members, and the state (Benin) whose application for membership of the Agency has been recommended by the Board of Governors to be considered at the 42nd session of the General Conference are given

  6. The Members of the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-13

    The new member since the last list of Member States of the Agency was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.44) is Yemen. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the 122 States became members of the Agency, as well as the State whose application for membership of the Agency was approved by the General Conference, but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute.

  7. The members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document lists the 127 Member States of the Agency as of 1 January 1998. The new Members since the last issue of of the list (INFCIRC/2/49) are Malta and the Republic of Moldova. In an attachment are given the dates on which the present 127 states become Members, the state (Burkina Faso) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  8. The members of the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-15

    The document lists the 127 Member States of the Agency as of 1 January 1998. The new Members since the last issue of of the list (INFCIRC/2/49) are Malta and the Republic of Moldova. In an attachment are given the dates on which the present 127 states become Members, the state (Burkina Faso) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute.

  9. The Members of the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-18

    The document lists the 128 Member States of the Agency as of 18 September 1998. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/50) is Burkina Faso. In an attachment the dates on which the present 128 states became Members, and the state (Benin) whose application for membership of the Agency has been recommended by the Board of Governors to be considered at the 42nd session of the General Conference are given

  10. The Members of the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-16

    The document lists the 129 Member States of the Agency as of 1 June 1999. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/51) is Benin. The dates on which the present 129 states became Members, and the state (Honduras) whose application for membership of the Agency has been recommended by the Board of Governors to be considered at the 43rd session of the General Conference are given in an Attachment.

  11. Applications of partial order theory in the assessment of transportation sustainability for Islamic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassafi, A.M.; Vaziri, M.

    2006-01-01

    This study attempts to characterize national passenger and freight transportation sustainability. Based on the indicator that measures the conformity of the growths of all sectors with transportation, the Islamic countries are comparatively studied. The proposed measure, elasticity for each pair of variables indicates the extent to which the two variables have been changing consistently. The study database consisted of key aspects of transportation sustainability in the form of national variables including transportation, economic, social and environmental categories for the period 1980-1995. Firstly, the elasticity of social, environmental and economic variables with respect to passenger and freight transportation variables was developed. Using individual elasticities, composite passengers and freight sustainability indices were suggested. Then, utilizing partial order theory and Hasse Diagram Technique (HDT), two composite indices were employed to visualize the comparative situation of the countries. Based on comparative appraisal achieved by HDT, country ranking were developed. The methodology may be applied to any other time and geographic area for addressing pertinent issues for balancing and sustainable development of transportation systems. (author)

  12. THE IMPACT OF LOGISTICS INDUSTRY ON ECONOMIC GROWTH: AN APPLICATION IN OECD COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Sezer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The most significant elements that enable us to understand economic growth and development levels of nations are economic indicators of the country of interest. As much as these indicators have positive and high values, they affect the economic, social, psychological and cultural texture of the nation positively. These effects increase the culture, living and welfare levels of the individuals in the society. Logistics is one of the tools that play an important role in the change and improvement of economic indicators. Logistics industry provides significant macro contributions to national economy by creating employment, and creating national income and foreign investment influx. On the micro scale, logistics industry is a key industry in increasing the competitive power of corporations. Furthermore, the logistics industry has an important mission in revitalizing and improvement of the competitiveness of other industries. Today, all industries are dependent on logistics sector. The present study aimed to investigate how the logistics variables of transportation and communication affected economic growth in 34 OECD countries. The effect of both transportation industry variables and communication industry variables that form the logistics industry on the increase in per capita income in OECD countries was identified.

  13. Major concerns in developing countries: applications of the Precautionary Principle in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Raúl; Freire Morales, Rocío; Harari, Homero

    2004-01-01

    Ecuador is a Latin American country with one of the biggest biodiversities. At the same time, social and environmental problems are also big. Poverty, political and social problems as well as questions like old transport systems, imported hazards from industrialized countries and lack of information and weak health care systems are the framework of this situation. The most common problems are the use of heavy metals in many activities without safety and health protection, a low technological oil production during two decades, intensive use of pesticides in agriculture, and some other chemical risks. A limited capacity to develop prevention strategies, reduced technical and scientific skills, and the absence of a reliable information and control system, lead to a weak response mechanism. The Precautionary Principle could help to stimulate prevention, protection and to have a new tool to improve the interest in environment and health problems. Reinforcing the presence of international organizations like the World Health Organization or the International Labour Organization, establishing bridges among scientific organizations from developed and developing countries and introducing the Precautionary Principle in the legislation and daily practices of industry and agriculture could lead to an improvement in our environment and health.

  14. AXIOMS AND INTERNAL CONTROL REQUIREMENTS MANAGEMENT IN THE PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS. APPLICATION MODE IN ROMANIA AND OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENEA CONSTANTIN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of any institution is to have a management that would implement public policies, programs and projects aimed at fulfilling the mission of the institution and the objectives of the government, through the rational use of resources (often limited and at the same time to satisfy stakeholders. Implement a system of internal control has emerged as a necessity from globalization and liberalization of financial markets, free movement of capital, information, people and goods through the application of internationally recognized standards and to be understood in a uniform manner. The research was focused on the one hand, the literature review Romanian and foreign legislation and internal control management system, providing a theoretical and practical approach, but on the other hand, we considered appropriate to perform a research on the application of internal control management system in member states of the European Union.

  15. Future of Remote Presence in Developing Countries and its Applications in Medicine (Robot to Otorob

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iftikhar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mobile robots are expensive for developing and under developed countries. Their utilizations are general in field of medicine, from neurosurgery to intensive care units. Our ongoing project “OTOROB” which stands for Orthopedic Robot is more specific for the usage of orthopedic surgeons with special consideration on its cost effectiveness. Statistical analysis of the survey conducted helped to identify the requirement of orthopedic surgeons to make OTOROB more specific. A new concept of VIrtual Presence (VIP Specialist Clinic and Roboscope are discussed.

  16. Industrial uses of geothermal energy: A framework for application in a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, N.C.; Bernardo, R.O.; Cornelio, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a model of approach for agroindustrial development utilizing geothermal energy in an agriculturally based tropical developing country. Presented is the complexity of patterns in raw materials productivity, demand and the present problems of preserving their quality from biological deterioration thru drying. Utilization of a geothermal agroindustrial estate have to be carefully studied and programmed in reply to an almost constant heat demand profile consistent with seasonal available raw materials. This study uses the Tongonan Geothermal Field in Leyte Island as the model for presentation

  17. [Application of marketing strategies for the management of public hospitals from the viewpoint of the staff members].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros S, Jorge; Berné M, Carmen

    2006-03-01

    The implementation of the marketing strategies in public hospitals provides management advantages and improves the relationship between customers and staff. To analyze the application of marketing strategies in a public hospital, from the perspective of the staff. A structured survey that asked about perceptions in 50 items about communication between personnel and customers/users, customer satisfaction, participation in the development of new policies and incentives for efficiency was applied to a stratified sample of the staff. Factorial and regression analyses were performed to define the impact of marketing strategies on the degree of preoccupation and orientation of the organization towards the satisfaction of customer needs. The survey was applied to 74 males and 122 females. The survey showed that the orientation of the hospital towards the satisfaction of its beneficiaries basically depends on the generation of an organizational culture oriented towards them and the implementation of adequate policies in staff management and quality of service. These basic aspects can be accompanied with practices associated to the new marketing approaches such as a market orientation, customer orientation and relational marketing. All these factors presented positive and significant relations. New marketing strategies should be applied, to achieve an efficient and customer oriented hospital management.

  18. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.54) are the Republic of Tajikistan, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 10 September 2001 and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 31 October 2001. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 133 Member States became Members. It also shows the States whose applications for membership of the Agency have been approved by the General Conference, but which have not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  19. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The document lists the 136 Member States of the Agency as of 6 May 2003. The new Members since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/57) are Eritrea and the Republic of Seychelles. Cambodia withdrew from the Agency with effect from 26 March 2003. The dates on which the present 136 Member States became Members are given in an Attachment. It also shows the States whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  20. Organization of public services in remote rural areas in developing countries: application to decentralized rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, D.N.

    2005-01-01

    The electrical sector has traditionally been organized as a natural monopoly. The intensity in capital of the grid and the public service obligation of electrical distribution led to the creation of electrical companies with exclusive territorial concessions. This approach has recently been challenged because of its failure to electrify remote rural villages in developing countries. A new set of solutions appeared under the umbrella of Decentralized Rural Electrification (DRE) thanks to technological innovations that replace collective infrastructures with individual systems. However, the widespread deployment of decentralized technologies remains impaired by numerous obstacles at various levels: institutional, legal, organizational, social, financial... New models that take into account the specificities of DRE must now be imagined. The study of two case studies in Morocco and India provide insightful examples of possible strategies to accelerate the deployment of DRE and therefore attain the objectives of rural electrification. Two major policies stand out: public service delegation and the approach of delivering equipment by the public market. Even though these models are too recent to conclude on their viability and permanence, they provide guidelines for the public and private players of the sector to generalize the access to electrical services to rural populations in developing countries, and contribute to their development. (author)

  1. ASPECTS REGARDING WOOD WELDING IN THE CONTEXT OF APPLICABILITY IN THE LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona-Elena DUMITRAȘCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Furniture, as traditional sector in Romania, is one of the few areas that bring profit. It is a field that contributes to the economical competitiveness through the variety of products for import and export. In this context, joining wood is essential for the production of wood products. Therefore, knowing the environmentally-friendly methods for wood joints could lead to performance and progress. Welding technology of wood as an alternative method to bonding wood elements or wooden structures has not been addressed in Romania until now. The paper presents a review performed with the aim of contribute to the knowledge of this innovative technology, to show the problems and the possibilities, of least developed countries, to contribute at this area of reasearch. The general aim is to present the main methods and to analyze their advantages and disadvantages in the context of development in the least developed countries. The results showed that both methods, at low and hight temperature, has benefits but there are and some economic and knowledge barriers for extended the technology.The overall conclusion of this research is to find efficient solutions for wood welding in order to obtain new better and cleaner wood products

  2. eFAST for Pneumothorax: Real-Life Application in an Urban Level 1 Center by Trauma Team Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximus, Steven; Figueroa, Cesar; Whealon, Matthew; Pham, Jacqueline; Kuncir, Eric; Barrios, Cristobal

    2018-02-01

    The focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) examination has become the standard of care for rapid evaluation of trauma patients. Extended FAST (eFAST) is the use of ultrasonography for the detection of pneumothorax (PTX). The exact sensitivity and specificity of eFAST detecting traumatic PTX during practical "real-life" application is yet to be investigated. This is a retrospective review of all trauma patients with a diagnosis of PTX, who were treated at a large level 1 urban trauma center from March 2013 through July 2014. Charts were reviewed for results of imaging, which included eFAST, chest X-ray, and CT scan. The requirement of tube thoracostomy and mechanism of injury were also analyzed. A total of 369 patients with a diagnosis of PTX were identified. A total of 69 patients were excluded, as eFAST was either not performed or not documented, leaving 300 patients identified with PTX. A total of 113 patients had clinically significant PTX (37.6%), requiring immediate tube thoracostomy placement. eFAST yielded a positive diagnosis of PTX in 19 patients (16.8%), and all were clinically significant, requiring tube thoracostomy. Chest X-ray detected clinically significant PTX in 105 patients (92.9%). The literature on the utility of eFAST for PTX in trauma is variable. Our data show that although specific for clinically significant traumatic PTX, it has poor sensitivity when performed by clinicians with variable levels of ultrasound training. We conclude that CT is still the gold standard in detecting PTX, and clinicians performing eFAST should have adequate training.

  3. X-ray fluorescence in Member States: Cuba. Activities in Centre for Technological Applications and Nuclear Development (CEADEN)[X-ray Fluorescence in the IAEA and its Member States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla-Alvarez, Roman [Centre for Technological Applications and Nuclear Development, CEADEN, Havana (Cuba)

    2007-08-15

    The CEADEN Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry has a two-fold mission: providing analytical services to the industry, health care and environmental control institutions, and carrying out research projects aimed to introduce the use of nuclear and related analytical techniques in different type of investigations. The laboratory works on a self-sustained financial basis and has held accreditation by the Cuban QA/QC authority according to the ISO regulations since 1992. In 2004 the Laboratory upgraded its Quality Management System to fulfil the requirements of the ISO 17025 standard. XRF constitutes one of the more used analytical techniques, and the analytical work is carried out following validated analytical instructions. The laboratory applies three different XRF spectrometers, allowing the applications of XRF technique to the study of samples of diverse nature: A spectrometer based on {sup 241}Am and {sup 109}Cd annular radioisotope excitation sources is employed for the analysis of metal alloys and raw materials, thus allowing determination of minor and major constituents in a prompt way. A TXRF spectrometer using a cut-off reflector to modify the excitation spectrum is applied to the analysis of metals in liquid samples and for the identification of pigments in minute samples of paintings. A third spectrometer is based on the principle of polarized excitation using X-ray tube and secondary targets (EDPXRF). By choosing suitable secondary targets the excitation energy can be selected as close as possible to the absorption edge of the elements of interest, thus improving the efficiency of X-ray production. Whilst the flux intensity of the characteristic radiation of the secondary target element is only two orders of magnitude lower than that of the direct X-ray tube anode emission, the intensity of the Bremstrahlung radiation reaching the sample decreases by a factor of about thousand. The latter allows to reduce the detected continuum background and to improve

  4. Interprofessional education for whom? --challenges and lessons learned from its implementation in developed countries and their application to developing countries: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno F Sunguya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence is available on the potential efficacy of interprofessional education (IPE to foster interprofessional cooperation, improve professional satisfaction, and improve patient care. While the intention of the World Health Organization (WHO is to implement IPE in all countries, evidence comes from developed countries about its efficiency, challenges, and barriers to planning and implementing IPE. We therefore conducted this review to examine challenges of implementing IPE to suggest possible pathways to overcome the anticipated challenges in developing countries. METHODS: We searched for literatures on IPE in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases. We examined challenges or barriers and initiatives to overcome them so as to suggest methods to solve the anticipated challenges in developing countries. We could not conduct a meta-analysis because of the qualitative nature of the research question and the data; instead we conducted a meta-narrative of evidence. RESULTS: A total of 40 out of 2,146 articles were eligible for analyses in the current review. Only two articles were available from developing countries. Despite the known benefits of IPE, a total of ten challenges or barriers were common based on the retrieved evidence. They included curriculum, leadership, resources, stereotypes and attitudes, variety of students, IPE concept, teaching, enthusiasm, professional jargons, and accreditation. Out of ten, three had already been reported in developing countries: IPE curriculum, resource limitations, and stereotypes. CONCLUSION: This study found ten important challenges on implementing IPE. They are curriculum, leadership, resources, stereotypes, students' diversity, IPE concept, teaching, enthusiasm, professional jargons, and accreditation. Although only three of them are already experienced in developing countries, the remaining seven are potentially important for developing countries, too. By knowing these

  5. Interprofessional education for whom? --challenges and lessons learned from its implementation in developed countries and their application to developing countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunguya, Bruno F; Hinthong, Woranich; Jimba, Masamine; Yasuoka, Junko

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is available on the potential efficacy of interprofessional education (IPE) to foster interprofessional cooperation, improve professional satisfaction, and improve patient care. While the intention of the World Health Organization (WHO) is to implement IPE in all countries, evidence comes from developed countries about its efficiency, challenges, and barriers to planning and implementing IPE. We therefore conducted this review to examine challenges of implementing IPE to suggest possible pathways to overcome the anticipated challenges in developing countries. We searched for literatures on IPE in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases. We examined challenges or barriers and initiatives to overcome them so as to suggest methods to solve the anticipated challenges in developing countries. We could not conduct a meta-analysis because of the qualitative nature of the research question and the data; instead we conducted a meta-narrative of evidence. A total of 40 out of 2,146 articles were eligible for analyses in the current review. Only two articles were available from developing countries. Despite the known benefits of IPE, a total of ten challenges or barriers were common based on the retrieved evidence. They included curriculum, leadership, resources, stereotypes and attitudes, variety of students, IPE concept, teaching, enthusiasm, professional jargons, and accreditation. Out of ten, three had already been reported in developing countries: IPE curriculum, resource limitations, and stereotypes. This study found ten important challenges on implementing IPE. They are curriculum, leadership, resources, stereotypes, students' diversity, IPE concept, teaching, enthusiasm, professional jargons, and accreditation. Although only three of them are already experienced in developing countries, the remaining seven are potentially important for developing countries, too. By knowing these challenges and barriers in advance, those who implement IPE programs

  6. Application of SAR remote sensing and crop modeling for operational rice crop monitoring in South and South East Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyono, T. D.; Holecz, F.; Khan, N. I.; Barbieri, M.; Maunahan, A. A.; Gatti, L.; Quicho, E. D.; Pazhanivelan, S.; Campos-Taberner, M.; Collivignarelli, F.; Haro, J. G.; Intrman, A.; Phuong, D.; Boschetti, M.; Prasadini, P.; Busetto, L.; Minh, V. Q.; Tuan, V. Q.

    2017-12-01

    This study uses multi-temporal SAR imagery, automated image processing, rule-based classification and field observations to classify rice in multiple locations in South and South Asian countries and assimilate the information into ORYZA Crop Growth Simulation Model (CGSM) to monitor rice yield. The study demonstrates examples of operational application of this rice monitoring system in: (1) detecting drought impact on rice planting in Central Thailand and Tamil Nadu, India, (2) mapping heat stress impact on rice yield in Andhra Pradesh, India, and (3) generating historical rice yield data for districts in Red River Delta, Vietnam.

  7. Will Governmental Incentives in Developing Countries Support Companies to Innovate More? Evidences from Skin Care Patent Applications in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Domicio da Silva Souza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent Brazilian Governments have provided incentives to support domestic innovation; however, some claim that the country has set conflicting policies towards innovation, industrial property and biodiversity exploitation. After an analysis of patent applications filled in the Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property, we observed that current governmental measures have not performed as expected, at least in the skin care industry. Throughout the paper we discuss plausible reasons why this sector has not managed to innovate more, reasons that may affect other businesses as well. This case is exemplary to developing economies that have implemented or are in the process of renewing their innovation policies.

  8. Wireless application guidelines for usability design and evaluation for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoja, S.A.; Ursani, A.A.; Ali, A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide guidelines for designing wireless applications. These guidelines are developed with the help of Human Computer Interaction based Usability Evaluation surveys and tests results. These guidelines will help in making wireless applications more usable and attractive for users and will help designers to plan effective interactive applications. The guidelines presented in the paper have been derived from the results of surveys, usability tests and SET (Summative Evaluation Tests) carried out over 200 people of Karachi, Pakistan, from different walks of life with different academic and professional backgrounds, making imperative suggestions not only to improve the usability of exciting features given in wireless and mobile products, but also provide suggestions to improve usability of basic components such as, text, navigation, interactivity, multimedia, control and behavior. (author)

  9. Slovenia joins IPPOG as member

    CERN Multimedia

    'marcelloni, claudia

    2018-01-01

    Slovenia became an official member of IPPOG on 19 April 2018. The MOU was signed by the head of Particle Physics Department at Jozef Stefan Institute representing Slovenia participation at IPPOG. Andrej Gorišek, country representative for Slovenia in IPPOG, brought the document to the meeting in Italy where IPPOG chairs signed it, confirming Slovenia membership to the collaboration.

  10. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The document lists the 125 Member States of the Agency as of 1 September 1997. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/Rev.48) is Latvia. In an Attachment are given the dates on which the present 125 States became Members, the State (Republic of Moldova) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the States (Malta and Burkina Faso) whose applications for membership have been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference

  11. The Members of the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-22

    The document lists the 125 Member States of the Agency as of 1 September 1997. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/Rev.48) is Latvia. In an Attachment are given the dates on which the present 125 States became Members, the State (Republic of Moldova) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the States (Malta and Burkina Faso) whose applications for membership have been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference.

  12. Comparison of the methods of seismic analysis applicable to fast reactors in the EEC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defalque, M.; Kunsch, P.; Preumont, A.

    1986-01-01

    The countries in the Community which are concerned by this study are those currently involved in the operation or development of fast reactors, namely: FRANCE (Phenix - Superphenix), FRG - BELGIUM - THE NETHERLANDS associated within DeBeNe (SNR - 300), UNITED KINGDOM (UK) (PFR-CDFR), ITALY (PEC). The first aim of the study is to enumerate the common points and differences in the national rules and regulations for the seismic analysis of fast breeder reactors. Such divergences may be encountered at different design stages, namely: in the definition of the seismic input data, in the choice of design limits and in the degree of conservatism applied to the calculation methods employed. For every one of these three stages, it is necessary to identify the points likely to influence the results of the analysis and consequently the over-all safety margin with regard to the event concerned. 73 refs

  13. Smart grid application in development countries : smart electricifcation : Indian case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upadhyay, G.

    2012-01-01

    A recent report has shown that there are 400 million people in India are without electricity. This work investigates the smart grid application in India for rural/remote electrification and its economic benefits. A field trip was organised to an unelectrified village in India to understand the

  14. Nuclear techniques in groundwater hydrology and their application in the country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, K.C.B.

    1982-01-01

    Two main branches of isotope hydrology, namely, environmental isotope hydrology and artificial isotope hydrology are briefly described. At present these techniques are used in a limited way in India. Some of the applications of these techniques in India are mentioned. They include: (1) dating of groundwater, (2) determining recharge values of formations, and (3) studying flow characteristics of acquifers. (M.G.B.)

  15. Implementing the United Kingdom Government's 10-Year Teenage Pregnancy Strategy for England (1999-2010): Applicable Lessons for Other Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Alison; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Ingham, Roger

    2016-07-01

    Teenage pregnancy is an issue of inequality affecting the health, well-being, and life chances of young women, young men, and their children. Consequently, high levels of teenage pregnancy are of concern to an increasing number of developing and developed countries. The UK Labour Government's Teenage Pregnancy Strategy for England was one of the very few examples of a nationally led, locally implemented evidence-based strategy, resourced over a long duration, with an associated reduction of 51% in the under-18 conception rate. This article seeks to identify the lessons applicable to other countries. The article focuses on the prevention program. Drawing on the detailed documentation of the 10-year strategy, it analyzes the factors that helped and hindered implementation against the World Health Organization (WHO) ExpandNet Framework. The Framework strives to improve the planning and management of the process of scaling-up of successful pilot programs with a focus on sexual and reproductive health, making it particularly suited for an analysis of England's teenage pregnancy strategy. The development and implementation of the strategy matches the Framework's key attributes for successful planning and scaling up of sexual and reproductive health programs. It also matched the attributes identified by the Centre for Global Development for scaled up approaches to complex public health issues. Although the strategy was implemented in a high-income country, analysis against the WHO-ExpandNet Framework identifies many lessons which are transferable to low- and medium-income countries seeking to address high teenage pregnancy rates. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Country status of application, manufacturing and sterilization of single-use medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norimah Yusof

    1986-01-01

    The paper reviews the current status of application of single-use medical products in Malaysia. The status of their manufacturing and sterilization is also discussed. The increasing production of such items calls for a more reliable and efficient sterilization technique in particular, radiation sterilization. In line with the demand and the effort to increase local production of medical products, UTN would be providing irradiation service together with research and development in this particular field by 1988. (author)

  17. Practical application of corporate governance principles in a developing country: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Wanjiru Gachie; Desmond Wesley Govender

    2017-01-01

    The importance of examining corporate governance in organisations cannot be overemphasised. Corporate governance failure which has resulted from weak corporate governance systems has highlighted the need for research aimed at contributing to the improvement and reform of corporate governance at business, national and international level. A review of corporate governance mechanisms and their practical application in two retail companies in South Africa was undertaken. The research question tha...

  18. Impacts of intellectual property rights on marker-assisted selection research and application for agriculture in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henson-Apollonio, V.

    2007-01-01

    Although the impact of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in commercial and public sector breeding programmes in developing countries is to date limited to a few crops and traits, the potential benefits of using markers linked to genes of interest in breeding programmes for improving the productivity of crops, livestock, forest trees and farmed fish is substantial. While more recent methods associated with the use of MAS are technically demanding and often expensive, most applications of basic MAS were initially described in the literature, and thus will likely have very few intellectual property (IP) restrictions associated with their use, irrespective of the agricultural sector involved. For example, isolating DNA, amplifying specific gene sequences from that DNA (with most available primers), separating fragments using gel/polyacrylamide electrophoresis and imaging of fragments with standard techniques are likely to be available without restriction to scientists and breeders in the developing world, even as part of a commercial service. Problems arise when there is a need to use or develop high-throughput modes, which require more sophisticated technologies. For high-throughput use, a breeder will want to use the most efficient techniques that are currently available. This means that the more advanced processes/methods, reagents, software applications/simulations and equipment, which provide the most effective means to exploit MAS fully, are most likely covered by intellectual property rights (IPRs) such as patent rights, confidential information (trade secrets) and copyrights, both in industrialized countries and also in many developing countries such as Brazil, China and India. In situations where breeders wish to use cutting edge technologies and the most efficient markers, care must be taken to avoid activities that may infringe IPRs when using MAS methodologies. (author)

  19. Spent fuel management strategies in eight countries and applicability to Sweden. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents the texts of laws and regulations on the management of spent nuclear fuel in eight countries: Belgium, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Japan, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States. Reports and articles presented by the governments are also provided which in many cases offer useful descriptions of programs, regulations, and policies. Summary descriptions of each of the documents are presented in this volume. The scope of the materials provided covers policies and regulations on spent fuel storage (wet and dry, at-reactor and centralized), packaging, handling, transportation, reprocessing, and disposal. Types of documents include legislation, decrees and ordinances, regulations and regulatory guidance, statements of policy and important articles. All important nuclear legislation is included whether or not it deals with spent fuel management explicitly. This includes basic atomic energy laws and laws on financial liability, environmental protection, physical security etc. Similarly, regulations and ordinances having broad impact on nuclear activities are included, such as radiation protection, environmental protection and emergency planning requirements, as well as regulations dealing with spent fuel and waste management topics directly. All legal documents provided are currently in effect

  20. Application of anaerobic bioreactor landfilling as an energy production alternative in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartaj, M.; Ahmadifar, M. [Isfahan Univ. of Technology (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Despite increases in recycling, composting, and incineration, landfilling remains the major method for managing municipal solid wastes (MSW) worldwide. The most common problems associated with landfill operation are the generation of leachate and gases. Methane gas is a by-product of MSW landfilling and is the third most important greenhouse gas after water vapor and carbon dioxide. This study investigated the feasibility of using anaerobic bioreactors for methane production from MSW in developing countries. Laboratory scale studies were conducted to investigate the performance of a bioreactor reactor under anaerobic conditions as an alternative waste management strategy and gas production. The reactor was made of a plastic container measuring 0.5 x 0.5 x 1.0 m. MSW was placed into the reactor in layers and compacted to achieve a density of 550 kg/m{sup 3}. Twenty eight litres of leachate was recirculated daily for 157 days. The final chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the leachate reduced from a maximum value of 64900 mg/L to a value of 5300 mg/L, showing a 92 per cent reduction. The average methane concentration in generated gas was 58 per cent and gas generation rate was 90 L/kg of waste on wet basis. It was concluded that anaerobic bioreactor technology with accompanying leachate recirculation performs very well in terms of decomposition of MSW and reduction of COD of the leachate. It also has a considerable potential for methane production which could be used as a source of energy. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  1. Is nonoperative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction applicable to children in a resource-poor country?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osifo Osarumwense

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nonoperative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction gives good results in adults but there are scant studies on its outcome in children. This study reports outcomes and experiences with nonoperative and operative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction in children in a resource-poor country. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of records of children who were managed with adhesive intestinal obstruction at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital between January 2002 and December 2008. Results: Adhesive intestinal obstruction accounted for 21 (8.8% of 238 children managed with intestinal obstruction. They were aged between 7 weeks and 16 years (mean 3 ± 6.4 years, comprising 13 males and eight females (ratio 1.6:1. Prior laparotomy for gangrenous/perforated intussusception (seven, 33.3%, perforated appendix (five, 23.8%, perforated volvulus (three, 14.3%, penetrating abdominal trauma (two, 9.5% and perforated typhoid (two, 9.5% were major aetiologies. Adhesive obstruction occurred between 6 weeks and 7 years after the index laparotomies. All the 21 children had initial nonoperative management without success, owing to lack of total parenteral nutrition and monitoring facilities. Outcomes of open adhesiolysis performed between 26 and 48 h in six (28.6% children due to poor response to nonoperative management, 11-13 days in 12 (57.1% who responded minimally and 2-5 weeks in three (14.3% who had relapse of symptoms were encouraging. Exploration of the 21 adhesive obstructions confirmed small bowel obstruction due to solitary bands (two, 9.5%, multiple bands/adhesions (13, 61.9% and encasement, including one bowel gangrene (six, 28.6%. Postoperatively, the only child who had recurrence during 1-6 years of follow-up did well after a repeat adhesiolysis. Conclusion: Nonoperative management was unsuccessful in this setting. Open adhesiolysis may be adopted in children to prevent avoidable morbidities and

  2. POTENTIAL AND FUTURE TRENDS ON INDUSTRIAL RADIATION PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IN EMERGING COUNTRY - BRAZIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampa, M.H.O.; Omi, N.M.; Rela, C.S.; Tsai, D.

    2004-01-01

    Brazil started the use of radiation technology in the seventies on crosslinking polyethylene for insulation of wire and electronic cables and sterilization of medical care devices. The present status of industrial applications of radiation shows that the use of this technology is increasing according to the economical development and the necessity to become the products manufactured in the local industries competitive in quality and price for internal and external market. The on going development activities in this area are concentrated on polymers processing (materials modification), foodstuff treatment and environmental protection. The development, the promotion and the technical support to consolidate this technology to the local industries is the main attribution of Institute for Energetic and Nuclear Research-IPEN, a governmental Institution

  3. POTENTIAL AND FUTURE TRENDS ON INDUSTRIAL RADIATION PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IN EMERGING COUNTRY - BRAZIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampa, M.H.O.; Omi, N.M.; Rela, C.S.; Tsai, D.

    2004-10-06

    Brazil started the use of radiation technology in the seventies on crosslinking polyethylene for insulation of wire and electronic cables and sterilization of medical care devices. The present status of industrial applications of radiation shows that the use of this technology is increasing according to the economical development and the necessity to become the products manufactured in the local industries competitive in quality and price for internal and external market. The on going development activities in this area are concentrated on polymers processing (materials modification), foodstuff treatment and environmental protection. The development, the promotion and the technical support to consolidate this technology to the local industries is the main attribution of Institute for Energetic and Nuclear Research-IPEN, a governmental Institution.

  4. Application of plant biotechnology to address water and salt stress in developing countries (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masmoudi, K.

    2005-01-01

    Drought and salinity are major constraints on crop production and food security, and have adverse impact especially on socio-economic aspect in the Middle East and North Africa region. Studies of the physiological response of wheat to salt stress indicate that sequestering sodium that enters the leaf away from the cell cytosol, and enhancing osmotic adjustment capability, can ameliorate the negative impact of soil water salinity on plant growth. Sodium at high millimolar levels in the cytoplasm is toxic to plant and yeast cells, Sequestration of Na/sup +/ ions into the vacuole through the action of tonoplast proton pumps (an H/sup +/-ATPase in the case of yeast, and either an H/sup +/-pyrophosphatase (H/sup +/-PPase) or H/sup +/-ATPase in the case of plants) and an Na/sup +//H/sup +/ anti porter is one mechanism that confers salt tolerance to these organisms. The cloning and characterization of genes encoding these tonoplast transport proteins from crop plants may contribute to our understanding of how to enhance crop plant response to saline stress. We cloned wheat ortho logs of the Arabidopsis genes AtNHXI and AVP I using a wheat cDNA library, The full length sequence for the wheat Na/sup +//H/sup +/ anti porter (TNHX3) and the vacuolar H/sup +/-pyrophosphatase (TVP I) were deposited in Genbank database under the accession number AY296910 and AY296911, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence of TNHXj is l homologous to the sequences of other NHX gene products cloned from wheat as well as barley and Arabidopsis. The vacuolar H/sup +/-PPase pump we cloned, TVP I is the first member of this gene family cloned from wheat. Function of TNHXj as a cation/proton antiporter was demonstrated using the nhxl yeast mutant. TNHXj was capable of suppressing the hygromycin sensitivity of nhxl. Functional characterization of the wheat H/sup +/-PPase TVP I was demonstrated using the yeast enal (plasma membrane Na/sup +/-efflux transporter) mutant. Expression of TVP I in enal

  5. Practical application of corporate governance principles in a developing country: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjiru Gachie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of examining corporate governance in organisations cannot be overemphasised. Corporate governance failure which has resulted from weak corporate governance systems has highlighted the need for research aimed at contributing to the improvement and reform of corporate governance at business, national and international level. A review of corporate governance mechanisms and their practical application in two retail companies in South Africa was undertaken. The research question that informed the study was: What is the nature of corporate governance mechanisms in the South African retail sector? The research design entailed analysis of secondary data, namely Annual Reports and other pertinent documents, and document analysis was used to show what is accessible to the ordinary share/stake-holder and what is not. Data analysis was conducted both qualitatively and quantitatively. With regard to corporate governance mechanisms, the results and discussion show that the two companies have not yet complied with the King II and III codes. Recommended strategies to strengthen corporate governance mechanisms in the South African retail sector should include a commitment to risk disclosure and revamping of the corporate governance structure of the ‘whole’ system.

  6. Application of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in developing countries--a review of recent developments (2000-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong Qing; Jinadasa, K B S N; Gersberg, Richard M; Liu, Yu; Ng, Wun Jern; Tan, Soon Keat

    2014-08-01

    Inadequate access to clean water and sanitation has become one of the most pervasive problems afflicting people throughout the developing world. Replication of centralized water-, energy- and cost-intensive technologies has proved ineffective in resolving the complex water-related problems resulting from rapid urbanization in the developing countries. Instead constructed wetlands (CWs) have emerged and become a viable option for wastewater treatment, and are currently being recognized as attractive alternatives to conventional wastewater treatment methods. The primary objective of this review is to present a comprehensive overview of the diverse range of practice, applications and researches of CW systems for removing various contaminants from wastewater in developing countries, placing them in the overall context of the need for low-cost and sustainable wastewater treatment systems. Emphasis of this review is placed on the treatment performance of various types of CWs including: (i) free water surface flow CW; (ii) subsurface flow CW; (iii) hybrid systems; and, (iv) floating treatment wetland. The impacts of different wetland design and pertinent operational variables (e.g., hydraulic loading rate, vegetation species, physical configurations, and seasonal variation) on contaminant removal in CW systems are also summarized and highlighted. Finally, the cost and land requirements for CW systems are critically evaluated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Member states buoy up beleagured EMBL

    CERN Multimedia

    Balter, M

    1999-01-01

    EMBL's governing council, made up of delegates from the lab's 16 member countries, agreed in principle to meet the costs of a multimillion-dollar pay claim, the result of a recent ruling by the ILO in Geneva (1 page).

  8. Critical analysis of e-health readiness assessment frameworks: suitability for application in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauco, Kabelo Leonard; Scott, Richard E; Mars, Maurice

    2018-02-01

    Introduction e-Health is an innovative way to make health services more effective and efficient and application is increasing worldwide. e-Health represents a substantial ICT investment and its failure usually results in substantial losses in time, money (including opportunity costs) and effort. Therefore it is important to assess e-health readiness prior to implementation. Several frameworks have been published on e-health readiness assessment, under various circumstances and geographical regions of the world. However, their utility for the developing world is unknown. Methods A literature review and analysis of published e-health readiness assessment frameworks or models was performed to determine if any are appropriate for broad assessment of e-health readiness in the developing world. A total of 13 papers described e-health readiness in different settings. Results and Discussion Eight types of e-health readiness were identified and no paper directly addressed all of these. The frameworks were based upon varying assumptions and perspectives. There was no underlying unifying theory underpinning the frameworks. Few assessed government and societal readiness, and none cultural readiness; all are important in the developing world. While the shortcomings of existing frameworks have been highlighted, most contain aspects that are relevant and can be drawn on when developing a framework and assessment tools for the developing world. What emerged is the need to develop different assessment tools for the various stakeholder sectors. This is an area that needs further research before attempting to develop a more generic framework for the developing world.

  9. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The new members since the last list of Member States of the Agency was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.43) are: Kazakhstan and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea withdrew from membership of the Agency as of 13 June 1994. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the 121 States became members of the Agency, as well as those States whose application for membership of the Agency was approved by the General Conference, but who have not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  10. Energy supply in the member countries of the European Communities - opportunities and risks for the German EVU and their jobs. Energieversorgung in den Mitgliedsstaaten der Europaeischen Gemeinschaft - Chancen und Risiken fuer die bundesdeutschen EVU und deren Arbeitsplaetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfaffenberger, W

    1990-05-01

    The Single European Market will also have an effect on the cable-carried and non-cable-carried energy industry. Fears and hopes accompany its development. Fears that because of the unequal starting-positions of the countries in the end through political efforts competitive advantages could arise for certain countries which could work to the detriment in particular of employees in the Federal Republic's energy industry. Hopes that the Single Market will in the long term contribute to parity of living-standards in the countries of the EC and will make possible increased prosperity through improved and extended trade. The study aims to take stock of the energy situation in the European Community, to weigh up the economic advantages and disadvantages of a single market for energy and to explain the effects of the single market on the situation of the cable-carried energy industry in the Federal Republic and its employees. (orig.).

  11. Segmentation algorithm for non-stationary compound Poisson processes. With an application to inventory time series of market members in a financial market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, B.; Lillo, F.; Farmer, J. D.

    2010-11-01

    We introduce an algorithm for the segmentation of a class of regime switching processes. The segmentation algorithm is a non parametric statistical method able to identify the regimes (patches) of a time series. The process is composed of consecutive patches of variable length. In each patch the process is described by a stationary compound Poisson process, i.e. a Poisson process where each count is associated with a fluctuating signal. The parameters of the process are different in each patch and therefore the time series is non-stationary. Our method is a generalization of the algorithm introduced by Bernaola-Galván, et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 168105 (2001)]. We show that the new algorithm outperforms the original one for regime switching models of compound Poisson processes. As an application we use the algorithm to segment the time series of the inventory of market members of the London Stock Exchange and we observe that our method finds almost three times more patches than the original one.

  12. Continuous country-wide rainfall observation using a large network of commercial microwave links: Challenges, solutions and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwala, Christian; Boose, Yvonne; Smiatek, Gerhard; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Commercial microwave link (CML) networks have proven to be a valuable source for rainfall information over the last years. However, up to now, analysis of CML data was always limited to certain snapshots of data for historic periods due to limited data access. With the real-time availability of CML data in Germany (Chwala et al. 2016) this situation has improved significantly. We are continuously acquiring and processing data from 3000 CMLs in Germany in near real-time with one minute temporal resolution. Currently the data acquisition system is extended to 10000 CMLs so that the whole of Germany is covered and a continuous country-wide rainfall product can be provided. In this contribution we will elaborate on the challenges and solutions regarding data acquisition, data management and robust processing. We will present the details of our data acquisition system that we run operationally at the network of the CML operator Ericsson Germany to solve the problem of limited data availability. Furthermore we will explain the implementation of our data base, its web-frontend for easy data access and present our data processing algorithms. Finally we will showcase an application of our data in hydrological modeling and its potential usage to improve radar QPE. Bibliography: Chwala, C., Keis, F., and Kunstmann, H.: Real-time data acquisition of commercial microwave link networks for hydrometeorological applications, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 991-999, doi:10.5194/amt-9-991-2016, 2016

  13. Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.63) is Palau which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 2 March 2007. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 144 Member States became Members [fr

  14. Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.63) is Palau which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 2 March 2007. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 144 Member States became Members [es

  15. mHealth Application Areas and Technology Combinations*. A Comparison of Literature from High and Low/Middle Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaza, Haitham; Marschollek, Michael

    2017-08-08

    With the continuous and enormous spread of mobile technologies, mHealth has evolved as a new subfield of eHealth. While eHealth is broadly focused on information and communication technologies, mHealth seeks to explore more into mobile devices and wireless communication. Since mobile phone penetration has exceeded other infrastructure in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), mHealth is seen as a promising component to provide pervasive and patient-centered care. The aim of our research work for this paper is to examine the mHealth literature to identify application areas, target diseases, and mHealth service and technology types that are most appropriate for LMICs. Based on the 2011 WHO mHealth report, a combination of search terms, all including the word "mHealth", was identified. A literature review was conducted by searching the PubMed and IEEE Xplore databases. Articles were included if they were published in English, covered an mHealth solution/ intervention, involved the use of a mobile communication device, and included a pilot evaluation study. Articles were excluded if they did not provide sufficient detail on the solution covered or did not focus on clinical efficacy/effectiveness. Cross-referencing was also performed on included articles. 842 articles were retrieved and analyzed, 255 of which met the inclusion criteria. North America had the highest number of applications (n=74) followed by Europe (n=50), Asia (n=44), Africa (n=25), and Australia (n=9). The Middle East (n=5) and South America (n=3) had the least number of studies. The majority of solutions addressed diabetes (n=51), obesity (n=25), CVDs (n=24), HIV (n=18), mental health (n=16), health behaviors (n=16), and maternal and child's health (MCH) (n=11). Fewer solutions addressed asthma (n=7), cancer (n=5), family health planning (n=5), TB (n=3), malaria (n=2), chronic obtrusive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n=2), vision care (n=2), and dermatology (n=2). Other solutions targeted stroke, dental

  16. Continuing to Confront COPD International Physician Survey: physician knowledge and application of COPD management guidelines in 12 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis KJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kourtney J Davis,1 Sarah H Landis,2 Yeon-Mok Oh,3 David M Mannino,4 MeiLan K Han,5 Thys van der Molen,6 Zaurbek Aisanov,7 Ana M Menezes,8 Masakazu Ichinose,9 Hana Muellerova11Worldwide Epidemiology, GlaxoSmithKline, Wavre, Belgium; 2Worldwide Epidemiology, GlaxoSmithKline, Uxbridge, UK; 3University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea; 4University of Kentucky College of Public Health, Lexington, KY, USA; 5Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 6University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 7Pulmonology Research Institute, Moscow, Russia; 8Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil; 9Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, JapanAim: Utilizing data from the Continuing to Confront COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease International Physician Survey, this study aimed to describe physicians’ knowledge and application of the GOLD (Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of COPD diagnosis and treatment recommendations and compare performance between primary care physicians (PCPs and respiratory specialists.Materials and methods: Physicians from 12 countries were sampled from in-country professional databases; 1,307 physicians (PCP to respiratory specialist ratio three to one who regularly consult with COPD, emphysema, or chronic bronchitis patients were interviewed online, by telephone or face to face. Physicians were questioned about COPD risk factors, prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment, including knowledge and application of the GOLD global strategy using patient scenarios.Results: Physicians reported using spirometry routinely (PCPs 82%, respiratory specialists 100%; P<0.001 to diagnose COPD and frequently included validated patient-reported outcome measures (PCPs 67%, respiratory specialists 81%; P<0.001. Respiratory

  17. Impact assessment of the European Clinical Trials Directive: a longitudinal, prospective, observational study analyzing patterns and trends in clinical drug trial applications submitted since 2001 to regulatory agencies in six EU countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann Markus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shifts in clinical trial application rates over time indicate if the attractiveness of a country or region for the conduct of clinical trials is growing or decreasing. The purpose of this observational study was to track changes in drug trial application patterns across several EU countries in order to analyze the medium-term impact of the EU Clinical Trials Directive 2001/20/EC on the conduct of drug trials. Methods Rates of Clinical Trial Applications (CTA for studies with medicinal products in those six countries in the EU, which authorize on average more than 500 trials per year, were analyzed. Publicly available figures on the number of annually submitted CTA, the distribution of trials per phase and the type of sponsorship were tracked; missing data were provided by national drug agencies. Results Since 2001, the number of CTA in Italy and Spain increased significantly (5.0 and 2.5% average annual growth. For Italy, the gain was driven by a strong increase of applications from academic trial sponsors; Spain's growth was due to a rise in trials run by commercial sponsors. The Netherlands, Germany, France and the UK saw a decline (1.9, 2.3, 3.0 and 5.3% average annual diminution; significant (P Conclusions The EU Clinical Trials Directive 2001/20/EC did not achieve the harmonization of clinical trial requirements across Europe. Rather, it resulted in the leveling of clinical trial activities caused by a continuing decrease in CTA rates in the Netherlands, Germany, France and the UK. Southern European countries, Italy and Spain, benefited to some extent from policy changes introduced by the Directive. In Italy's case, national funding measures helped to considerably promote the conduct of non-commercial trials. On the other hand, the EU Directive-driven transition from liberal policy environments, based on non-explicit trial approval through notifications, towards red-taped processes of trial authorization, contributed to

  18. Electricity and fluid fuels from biomass and coal using advanced technologies: a cost comparison for developing country applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartha, S; Larson, E D; Williams, R H [Center for Energy and Environment Studies School of Engineering and Applied Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Katofsky, R E [Arthur D. Little Co., Cambridge, MA (United States); Chen, J [Thermo Fibertek, Inc., Auburn, MA (United States); Marrison, C I [Oliver, Wyman and Co., New York, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    prospectively lower than with present-day coal-fuelled steam electric power generation using flue gas desulphurization, while sulphur emissions would be much lower. Assuming costs for plantation-grown biomass based on commercial plantation practice in Brazil, it is shown that the break-even coal price is lower that the cost of coal projected by the World Bank for many developing countries for the year 2005. For fluid fuels, a comparison is made between biomass and coal as feedstocks for the production of methanol and H{sub 2}. These fuels are the energy carriers of choice for vehicles based on fuel cell technologies. Fuel cell technology for transport applications is rapidly advancing, and fuel cell buses have already been demonstrated and will be available commercially before 2000; fuel cells could be available for automotive applications in the period 2005-2010. The main attractions of fuel cell vehicles for developing countries are their favourable emissions characteristics (zero or near-zero pollutant emissions without the need for control technologies), their high fuel economy (energy requirements per kilometre are just one third to one half those for internal combustion engine vehicles) and their energy supply diversity advantages (natural gas, biomass and coal can be used at fuel costs per kilometre that are prospectively competitive with costs for petroleum). As in the case of power generation, it is shown that methanol and H{sub 2} derived from plantation-grown biomass have good prospects for being competitive with coal-derived methanol and H{sub 2} in many regions, assuming biomass prices based on Brazilian experience with commercial plantations and World Bank projections of coal prices for developing countries. (author) 68 refs, 7 figs, 7 tabs

  19. Electricity and fluid fuels from biomass and coal using advanced technologies: a cost comparison for developing country applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartha, S.; Larson, E.D.; Williams, R.H.; Katofsky, R.E.; Chen, J.; Marrison, C.I.

    1995-01-01

    prospectively lower than with present-day coal-fuelled steam electric power generation using flue gas desulphurization, while sulphur emissions would be much lower. Assuming costs for plantation-grown biomass based on commercial plantation practice in Brazil, it is shown that the break-even coal price is lower that the cost of coal projected by the World Bank for many developing countries for the year 2005. For fluid fuels, a comparison is made between biomass and coal as feedstocks for the production of methanol and H 2 . These fuels are the energy carriers of choice for vehicles based on fuel cell technologies. Fuel cell technology for transport applications is rapidly advancing, and fuel cell buses have already been demonstrated and will be available commercially before 2000; fuel cells could be available for automotive applications in the period 2005-2010. The main attractions of fuel cell vehicles for developing countries are their favourable emissions characteristics (zero or near-zero pollutant emissions without the need for control technologies), their high fuel economy (energy requirements per kilometre are just one third to one half those for internal combustion engine vehicles) and their energy supply diversity advantages (natural gas, biomass and coal can be used at fuel costs per kilometre that are prospectively competitive with costs for petroleum). As in the case of power generation, it is shown that methanol and H 2 derived from plantation-grown biomass have good prospects for being competitive with coal-derived methanol and H 2 in many regions, assuming biomass prices based on Brazilian experience with commercial plantations and World Bank projections of coal prices for developing countries. (author)

  20. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/16: The Potential of Technology for the Control of Small Weapons: Applications in Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALTMANN, JURGEN

    2000-07-01

    For improving the control of small arms, technology provides many possibilities. Present and future technical means are described in several areas. With the help of sensors deployed on the ground or on board aircraft, larger areas can be monitored. Using tags, seals, and locks, important objects and installations can be safeguarded better. With modern data processing and communication systems, more information can be available, and it can be more speedily processed. Together with navigation and transport equipment, action can be taken faster and at greater range. Particular considerations are presented for cargo control at roads, seaports, and airports, for monitoring designated lines, and for the control of legal arms. By starting at a modest level, costs can be kept low, which would aid developing countries. From the menu of technologies available, systems need to be designed for the intended application and with an understanding of the local conditions. It is recommended that states start with short-term steps, such as acquiring more and better radio transceivers, vehicles, small aircraft, and personal computers. For the medium term, states should begin with experiments and field testing of technologies such as tags, sensors, and digital communication equipment.

  1. Emerging radiotherapy technology in a developing country: A single Brazilian institution assessment of stereotactic body radiotherapy application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Fabio Ynoe; Bonifacio, Lorine Arias; Neves-Junior, Wellington Pimenta; Hanna, Samir Abdallah; Abreu, Carlos Eduardo Cintra Vita; Arruda, Fernando Freire; Silva, Joao Luis Fernandes; Carvalho, Heloisa Andrade, E-mail: fymoraes@gmail.com [Hospital Sirio-Libanes, Sao Paulo, SP(Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    Objective: To provide a quantitative profile of the indications and use of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in a developing country oncology-based institution. In addition, to describe the patient and treatment characteristics, and to provide a temporal analysis. Method: SBRT patients treated from 2007 to 2015 were retrospectively evaluated by two independently investigators. Data were stratified and compared in two periods: first experience (FE) (May 2007 to April 2011), and following experience (FollowE) (May 2011 to April 2015). The following parameters were compared between the groups: total number of treated patients and lesions, treatment site, additional image fusion used, formal protocol adoption, and SBRT planning technique. Results: One hundred and seventy-six (176) patients with 191 lesions were treated: 34 (18%) lesions in the FE and 157 (82%) lesions in FollowE. The majority of lesions were metastases (60.3%), and lung (60.2%) was the most common treatment site, followed by spine (31%), and others (8.8%). An average of 1.4 (±0.6) additional imaging exams for delineation was performed. Conformal 3D radiotherapy planning technique was used in 64.4%, and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in the remaining 35.6% (p=0.0001). Higher rates of curative treatments were observed in FE, as well as more lung lesions, patients ≥ 70 years, 3D conformal, number of additional images and ECOG 0, and all presented p<0.05. The global rate of protocol statement was 79%, lung treatment being the most stated. Conclusion: SBRT application is rapidly increasing in our setting. Treatment sites and planning techniques are becoming more diversified and complex. (author)

  2. Reflection of the Cointegration Relation among the Stock Markets on the Portfolio Choices: An Empirical Application for Fragile Five Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulfen Tuna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the long-term relationship between each pair of the countries separate from those in the Stock Markets of Fragile Five Countries and determine the optimal portfolio options for each of the BIITS countries according to the pieces of evidence obtained. Thus, the reflection of the concertedness among financial markets to the optimal portfolio options has been studied. Accordingly, long term relationships between each pair of BIITS countries have been investigated with monthly price value between June 2006 and July 2015 by means of Maki Cointegration Test. Optimal portfolio options have been established according to the Markowitz Model considering the long-term relationships between the markets. The pieces of evidence obtained show that lower-risk portfolios than the ones in their own national markets can be established in BIITS countries by applying international diversification

  3. One recommendation of nuclear power export. GDP model application to the countries which expressed nuclear power introduction and consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Tekehiko

    2010-01-01

    South Korea has been excited in nuclear business after the success in the contract to build nuclear power plants in UAE. Since more than 60 countries expressed nuclear power introduction and new countries were on the rise with exporting reactor technology accumulated, new era over nuclear renaissance seems to begin. This article at first classified countries, which expressed nuclear power introduction, with an economic level of GDP per capita. Then each classified country's requirements of nuclear power introduction were taken into consideration such as economic development, consumption pattern and technology attitude. As a result recommendation of nuclear power export was proposed. Different approach to each country targeted was suggested as shown in 'nuclear power GDP model'. (T. Tanaka)

  4. Review of international developments and cooperation on Risk-Informed In-Service-Inspection (RI-ISI) and Non-destructive Testing (NDT) Qualification in OECD-NEA member countries- Responses to the questionnaire - CSNI/integrity and ageing working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In December 2000, the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) and the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) agreed to prepare a state-of-the art report addressing the present situation and regulatory aspects in NEA member countries on: - Risk based / risk informed in-service inspections (ISI) developments, - Qualification of NDT system to be used for the inspections. The CSNI gave mandate to the CSNI working group on the Integrity of Components and Structures (IAGE) to prepare the report. In order to get a good basis for compiling the report with an overview on the present situation in OECD countries and regulatory aspects on the further developments of RI-ISI and NDT qualification approaches a questionnaire was prepared. This questionnaire was organised in two parts. The first part addressed used risk based / risk informed ISI approaches and regulatory aspects on the further developments. The second part addressed used NDT qualification approaches and other measures for getting reliable inspection results as well as regulatory aspects on the further developments of qualification approaches. Some parts of the questionnaire addressed topics, which have been dealt with in other European or national programs. Available relevant information from these programs has been also collected. The questionnaire was circulated in 2003 among NEA member countries organisations. Appendix 1 contains the questionnaire. Appendix 2 contains the compilation of responses to the questionnaire. A workshop was organized to complement the questionnaire (NEA/CSNI/R(2004)9 Proceedings of the CSNI Workshop on 'International developments and cooperation on Risk-Informed In-Service- Inspection (RI-ISI) and Non-destructive Testing (NDT) Qualification' held in Stockholm, Sweden on 13-14 April 2004 and hosted by SKI). In addition to regulators, licensees, manufacturers and researchers, this workshop gathered international organisations (i.e. EC, IAEA) and the main

  5. ERAWATCH Country Reports 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph

    between the national priorities and the structural challenges, highlighting the latest developments, their dynamics and impact in the overall national context. They further analyse and assess the ability of the policy mix in place to consistently and efficiently tackle these challenges. These reports were......This analytical country report is one of a series of annual ERAWATCH reports produced for EU Member States and Countries Associated to the Seventh Framework Programme for Research of the European Union (FP7). The main objective of the ERAWATCH Annual Country Reports is to characterise and assess...... the performance of national research systems and related policies in a structured manner that is comparable across countries. The Country Report 2012 builds on and updates the 2011 edition. The report identifies the structural challenges of the national research and innovation system and assesses the match...

  6. Efficiency of the Slovak forestry in comparison to other European countries: An application of Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalčík Miroslav

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency improvement is important for increasing the competitiveness of any sector and the same is essential for the forestry sector. A non-parametric approach – Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA was used for the assessment of forestry efficiency. The paper presents the results of the efficiency evaluation of forestry in European countries using DEA. One basic and two modified models (labour and wood sale were proposed, based on available input and output data from Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounts for Forests and specific conditions of forestry also. The sample size was 22 countries and the data for 2005–2008 was processed. Obtained results show average efficiency in the range of 69 – 90% (depending on the model. Based on the results of the analysis following can be concluded: Slovak forestry achieved under average efficiency in comparison to other European countries, there were great differences in efficiency among individual countries; state of economy (advanced countries and countries with economy in transition and region did not influence the efficiency statistically significant.

  7. Rhodium-catalyzed [5 + 2 + 1] cycloaddition of ene-vinylcyclopropanes and CO: reaction design, development, application in natural product synthesis, and inspiration for developing new reactions for synthesis of eight-membered carbocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Yu, Zhi-Xiang

    2015-08-18

    Practical syntheses of natural products and their analogues with eight-membered carbocyclic skeletons are important for medicinal and biological investigations. However, methods and strategies to construct the eight-membered carbocycles are limited. Therefore, developing new methods to synthesize the eight-membered carbocycles is highly desired. In this Account, we describe our development of three rhodium-catalyzed cycloadditions for the construction of the eight-membered carbocycles, which have great potential in addressing the challenges in the synthesis of medium-sized ring systems. The first reaction described in this Account is our computationally designed rhodium-catalyzed two-component [5 + 2 + 1] cycloaddition of ene-vinylcyclopropanes (ene-VCPs) and CO for the diastereoselective construction of bi- and tricyclic cyclooctenones. The design of this reaction is based on the hypothesis that the C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)) reductive elimination of the eight-membered rhodacycle intermediate generated from the rhodium-catalyzed cyclopropane cleavage and alkene insertion, giving Wender's [5 + 2] cycloadduct, is not easy. Under CO atmosphere, CO insertion may occur rapidly, converting the eight-membered rhodacycle into a nine-membered rhodacycle, which then undergoes an easy C(sp(2))-C(sp(3)) reductive elimination process and furnishes the [5 + 2 + 1] product. This hypothesis was supported by our preliminary DFT studies and also served as inspiration for the development of two [7 + 1] cycloadditions: the [7 + 1] cycloaddition of buta-1,3-dienylcyclopropanes (BDCPs) and CO for the construction of cyclooctadienones, and the benzo/[7 + 1] cycloaddition of cyclopropyl-benzocyclobutenes (CP-BCBs) and CO to synthesize the benzocyclooctenones. The efficiency of these rhodium-catalyzed cycloadditions can be revealed by the application in natural product synthesis. Two eight-membered ring-containing natural products, (±)-asterisca-3(15),6-diene and (+)-asteriscanolide, have been

  8. Management of radioactive wastes with regard to radioisotope application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The report contains the abstracts of lectures held for the instruction of members of developing countries concerned with waste processing from isotope applications in research, medicine and industry. (HP)

  9. Development of advanced earthquake resistant performance verification on reinforced concrete underground structures. Pt. 3. Applicability of soil-structure Interaction analysis using nonlinear member model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Jun; Ohtomo, Keizo; Kawai, Tadashi; Kanatani, Mamoru; Matsuo, Toyofumi

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain verification data concerning performance of RC duct-type underground structures subject to strong earth quakes. This paper presents the investigated results of numerical simulation obtained from shaking table tests of box-type structure models with a scale of about 1/2. We proposed practical nonlinear member models, by which mechanical properties of RC member and soil are defined as hysteresis models (RC: axial force dependent degrading tri-linear model, soil: modified Ramberg-Osgood model), and joint elements are used to evaluate the interaction along the interface of two materials between soil and RC structures; including the slippage and separation. Consequently, the proposed models could simulate the test results on the deformation of soil and RC structure, as well as damage of RC structures which is important in verifying their seismic performance with practical accuracy. (author)

  10. NEA’S Plans for Strengthening International Implementation of the Application of Defence in Depth Philosophies in Nuclear Power Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blundell, N., E-mail: Neil.BLUNDELL@oecd.org [Nuclear Safety Division, OECD NEA, Paris (France)

    2014-10-15

    Full text: Following the Fukushima Daiichi Accident the OECD NEA established and delivered three tasks related to Defence in Depth for its member states. These consisted of: • A review of member state and NEA activities directly related to the accident by the Fukushima Senior Task Group set up by the OECD NEA Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA). • An international expert review of the NEA’s wide ranging joint nuclear safety research portfolio. • A joint workshop on ‘Challenges and Enhancements to Defence in Depth (DiD) in light of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident’ on 5th June 2013 by both the OECD NEA Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) and Committee for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI). These tasks encompassed firstly, how the NEA member states understand the concept of DiD and its value within Nuclear Safety. Secondly, how DiD is implemented at present, focussing on how it is implemented to deal with external events, and finally what future areas the NEA members considered NEA as a whole should be carrying forward to enhance the understanding and implementation of Defence-in-Depth. Such areas included: • Exploring what the DiD safety goal concept ”practically eliminate large and early offsite releases” means and how is it implemented. • Independence and margins in the implementation of DiD. • Human interventions considering catastrophic external events effects on emergency response and recovery. • Detailed identification of additional safety research after Fukushima. This presentation provides a summary of those tasks and NEA’s international programme of activities to bring its members together in those areas they highlighted to deliver enhancement in the understanding and implementation of defence in depth. (author)

  11. Towards mobile staff members management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encheva, Sylvia

    2017-07-01

    Todays project management requires a number of abilities which involve finding quick solutions to shortage of staff members with possession of specific qualities. When persons with team responsibilities are under pressure or due to various circumstances are unable to perform exhaustive search in databases, an interactive visualization tool can come in quite handy in finding good solutions unforeseen occurrences. In particular we propose application of selected graphs for facilitating mobile human resource management.

  12. Oil production responses to price changes. An empirical application of the competitive model to OPEC and non-OPEC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramcharran, Harri

    2002-01-01

    Falling oil prices over the last decade, accompanied by over-production by some OPEC members and the growth of non-OPEC supply, warrant further empirical investigation of the competitive model to ascertain production behavior. A supply function, based on a modification of Griffin's model, is estimated using data from 1973-1997. The sample period, unlike Griffin's, however, includes phases of price increase (1970s) and price decrease (1980s-1990s), thus providing a better framework for examining production behavior using the competitive model. The OPEC results do not support the competitive hypothesis; instead, a negative and significant price elasticity of supply is obtained. This result offers partial support for the target revenue theory. For most of the non-OPEC members, the estimates support the competitive model. OPEC's loss of market share and the drop in the share of oil-based energy should signal adjustments in price and quantity based on a competitive world market for crude oil

  13. A Framework for Macroprudential Bank Solvency Stress Testing; Application to S-25 and Other G-20 Country FSAPs

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas A. Jobst; Li L Ong; Christian Schmieder

    2013-01-01

    The global financial crisis has placed the spotlight squarely on bank stress tests. Stress tests conducted in the lead-up to the crisis, including those by IMF staff, were not always able to identify the right risks and vulnerabilities. Since then, IMF staff has developed more robust stress testing methods and models and adopted a more coherent and consistent approach. This paper articulates the solvency stress testing framework that is being applied in the IMF’s surveillance of member countr...

  14. Application of best practice for setting minimum energy efficiency standards in technically disadvantaged countries: Case study of Air Conditioners in Brunei Darussalam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xunpeng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Setting MEPS requires significant data, financial resources and technical capacity. • Application of best practice in technical disadvantaged countries (TDCs) was demonstrated. • Best practice was successfully applied to Brunei for its AC MEPS. • For Brunei, COP at 2.9 is recommended and 15% efficiency improvement is achievable. • The methodology is applicable to other appliances in any TDCs. - Abstract: Application of the best practice of setting minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) in technically disadvantaged countries (TDCs) faces many barriers. The best practice of determining MEPS has a comprehensive analytical framework including engineering-economic analysis, life-cycle cost-benefit analysis, as well stakeholders’ and market impact assessments. However, TDCs usually are lack of reference product classes, market data, and other necessary inputs data. This study demonstrated how to overcome those barriers to apply the best practice to TDCs using the actual experience in setting initial MEPS for Air Conditioners (ACs) in Brunei from scratch with limited secondary data as an example. The series of application works include definition of the product classes and the baseline group; collection of market data; formulation of cost-efficiency relationship from the market data; examination of the economic, environmental, and financial impacts of various MEPS options; revealing of the consumers’ willingness to pay; and analysis of the impacts and responses from the industry and consumers. The coordination with the compliance of the Montreal Protocol was also considered. The methodology should also be applicable to setting MEPF for other appliances in any TDCs.

  15. The impact of marketing systems on soil sustainability of agriculture in developing countries : a method and an application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaño, J.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Tilburg, van A.

    2005-01-01

    This article is concerned with soil-sustainability problems of agriculture in developing countries, in particular with soil erosion. The aim of our study is to develop a comprehensive model that explains the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices with respect to soil conservation. Our

  16. Using Cluster Analysis to Group Countries for Cost-effectiveness Analysis: An Application to Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Louise B; Bhanot, Gyan; Kim, Sun-Young; Sinha, Anushua

    2018-02-01

    To explore the use of cluster analysis to define groups of similar countries for the purpose of evaluating the cost-effectiveness of a public health intervention-maternal immunization-within the constraints of a project budget originally meant for an overall regional analysis. We used the most common cluster analysis algorithm, K-means, and the most common measure of distance, Euclidean distance, to group 37 low-income, sub-Saharan African countries on the basis of 24 measures of economic development, general health resources, and past success in public health programs. The groups were tested for robustness and reviewed by regional disease experts. We explored 2-, 3- and 4-group clustering. Public health performance was consistently important in determining the groups. For the 2-group clustering, for example, infant mortality in Group 1 was 81 per 1,000 live births compared with 51 per 1,000 in Group 2, and 67% of children in Group 1 received DPT immunization compared with 87% in Group 2. The experts preferred four groups to fewer, on the ground that national decision makers would more readily recognize their country among four groups. Clusters defined by K-means clustering made sense to subject experts and allowed a more detailed evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of maternal immunization within the constraint of the project budget. The method may be useful for other evaluations that, without having the resources to conduct separate analyses for each unit, seek to inform decision makers in numerous countries or subdivisions within countries, such as states or counties.

  17. Developing countries participation in climate policies - Application to the electric and to the transport sectors in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathy, S.

    2004-03-01

    This PhD thesis is based on the observation that developing countries will not participate in climate policies as long as they perceive them as another constraint on their development. We demonstrate that emission reduction projects realised in DCs under the Kyoto Protocol may have a leverage effect on development by removal of barriers to development. They may also favour the implementation of domestic policies that will attract foreign private investors in projects responding to development priorities of the host country. We show the limits of the Kyoto Protocol concerning the implementation of emission reductions in high inertia sectors (transportation) and the necessity to coordinate climate policies with official development aid flows for the financing of infrastructures in an emerging context of public-private partnership. (author)

  18. Expert views on societal responses to different applications of nanotechnology: a comparative analysis of experts in countries with different economic and regulatory environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Nidhi, E-mail: guptanidhi12@gmail.com; Fischer, Arnout R. H., E-mail: arnout.fischer@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group (Netherlands); George, Saji, E-mail: saji_george@nyp.gov.sg [Nanyang Polytechnic, Centre for Sustainable Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Life Sciences (Singapore); Frewer, Lynn J., E-mail: lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    The introduction of different applications of nanotechnology will be informed by expert views regarding which (types of) application will be most societally acceptable. Previous research in Northern Europe has indicated that experts believe that various factors will be influential, predominant among these being public perceptions of benefit, need and consumer concern about contact with nanomaterials. These factors are thought by experts to differentiate societal acceptance and rejection of nanotechnology applications. This research utilises a larger sample of experts (N = 67) drawn from Northern America, Europe, Australasia, India and Singapore to examine differences in expert opinion regarding societal acceptance of different applications of nanotechnology within different technological environments, consumer cultures and regulatory regimes. Perceived risk and consumer concerns regarding contact with nano-particles are thought by all experts to drive rejection, and perceived benefits to influence acceptance, independent of country. Encapsulation and delivery of nutrients in food was thought to be the most likely to raise societal concerns, while targeted drug delivery was thought most likely to be accepted. Lack of differentiation between countries suggests that expert views regarding social acceptance may be homogenous, independent of local contextual factors.

  19. Expert views on societal responses to different applications of nanotechnology: a comparative analysis of experts in countries with different economic and regulatory environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; George, Saji; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of different applications of nanotechnology will be informed by expert views regarding which (types of) application will be most societally acceptable. Previous research in Northern Europe has indicated that experts believe that various factors will be influential, predominant among these being public perceptions of benefit, need and consumer concern about contact with nanomaterials. These factors are thought by experts to differentiate societal acceptance and rejection of nanotechnology applications. This research utilises a larger sample of experts (N = 67) drawn from Northern America, Europe, Australasia, India and Singapore to examine differences in expert opinion regarding societal acceptance of different applications of nanotechnology within different technological environments, consumer cultures and regulatory regimes. Perceived risk and consumer concerns regarding contact with nano-particles are thought by all experts to drive rejection, and perceived benefits to influence acceptance, independent of country. Encapsulation and delivery of nutrients in food was thought to be the most likely to raise societal concerns, while targeted drug delivery was thought most likely to be accepted. Lack of differentiation between countries suggests that expert views regarding social acceptance may be homogenous, independent of local contextual factors

  20. Telemedicine for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, Carlo; Pozzani, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Developing countries need telemedicine applications that help in many situations, when physicians are a small number with respect to the population, when specialized physicians are not available, when patients and physicians in rural villages need assistance in the delivery of health care. Moreover, the requirements of telemedicine applications for developing countries are somewhat more demanding than for developed countries. Indeed, further social, organizational, and technical aspects need to be considered for successful telemedicine applications in developing countries. Objective We consider all the major projects in telemedicine, devoted to developing countries, as described by the proper scientific literature. On the basis of such literature, we want to define a specific taxonomy that allows a proper classification and a fast overview of telemedicine projects in developing countries. Moreover, by considering both the literature and some recent direct experiences, we want to complete such overview by discussing some design issues to be taken into consideration when developing telemedicine software systems. Methods We considered and reviewed the major conferences and journals in depth, and looked for reports on the telemedicine projects. Results We provide the reader with a survey of the main projects and systems, from which we derived a taxonomy of features of telemedicine systems for developing countries. We also propose and discuss some classification criteria for design issues, based on the lessons learned in this research area. Conclusions We highlight some challenges and recommendations to be considered when designing a telemedicine system for developing countries. PMID:27803948

  1. Current status of nucleonic gauge applications in Brazil and the needs for the technology in Latin American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnet, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    Brazil is actually the only country in Latin America that design and manufacture nucleonic gauges in industrial scale for internal market and export. There are some local companies that manufacture or assemble simple first generation nucleonic gauges for density, level and thickness gauges for pulp and paper industry, metallurgy and mineral ore processing and beverage packaging. There is apparently a market saturation due to economic crisis, public concern and licence procedures. (author)

  2. Poly(Neopentyl Glycol Furanoate): A Member of the Furan-Based Polyester Family with Smart Barrier Performances for Sustainable Food Packaging Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Genovese; Nadia Lotti; Valentina Siracusa; Andrea Munari

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been an increased interest from the food packaging industry toward the development and application of bioplastics, to contribute to the sustainable economy and to reduce the huge environmental problem afflicting the planet. In the present work, we focus on a new furan-based polyester, poly(neopentyl glycol 2,5-furanoate) (PNF) to be used for sustainable food packaging applications. The aromatic polyester was successfully synthesized with high molecular weight, th...

  3. Estonian President : Missile Shield Should Cover All NATO Member Countries

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Poola presidendi Lech Kaczynski ühepäevasest töövisiidist Eestisse. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves ja Poola riigipea kõnelesid kohtumisel Euroopa tulevikust, NATO laienemisest, Euroopa Liidu naabruspoliitikast ja energiajulgeolekust, võtsid vastu ühisdeklaratsiooni, milles kutsusid Euroopa riikide valitsusi arutama võimalust luua rahvusvaheline komisjon kommunismi inimsusevastaste kuritegude ja inimõiguste rikkumiste uurimiseks

  4. Status of electricity markets and competition in ERRA member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szoerenyi, G.

    2002-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Conditions of effective competition; Regulated third party access in power; Number of plyers (market share) - generation; Number of players at present and/or in future competition - supply; Number of eligible customers; Market structure facilitates efficient competition; Supply market - Surplus installed capacity over demand; Supply market - Import. All available data are tabulated. (R.P.)

  5. Regulations relating to trading of irradiated food in Europe Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlermann, D.

    1997-01-01

    Only recently, the European Union has prepared a new draft of a Directive to harmonize the food laws of the 15 member states with regard to food irradiation. At present 3 members have not regulated food irradiation, 4 other members have a total ban, the remaining 8 members have widely varying clearances. Members of the European Economic Area (zone of associated European states) will have to adopt such a Directive once in force. It is expected that the European Parliament soon will pass the Directive which only provides for spices irradiated up to 10 kGy. However, for a transition period of five years it will allow members states to continue with national regulations. The European Single Market should provide for free trade in any item legally marketed in any member state and, hence, for marketing irradiated food to member states which have not yet a clearance or not for that particular food. Other European countries, i e the former members of the COMECON, have widely varying clearances; some are still in the process of renewing their respective juridical systems, and food irradiation is not a priority. For such reasons, imports of irradiated food from such countries into the E U are difficult and diverse. The main factor causing a lack of commercial application of food irradiation and of inter-E U trade is the low interest of food industry and food trade. Consumer acceptance is of second consideration. The European Directive will fulfill the most prominent demand of consumer organization, the labelling of irradiated food with no exception, even for the most minute ingredient. There is no reliable information about quantities of irradiated food in Europe; for official statistics it is considered not different from other food. (Author)

  6. Operational tools and applications of EO satellite data to retrieve surface fluxes in semi-arid countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguy, Maliko

    The objective of the thesis is to develop and evaluate useful tools and applications of Earth Observation (EO) satellite data to estimate surface fluxes in semi-arid countries. In a first part (Chapter 4), we assess the performance of a new parameterisation scheme of ground heat flux (G) to be used in remote sensing (RS) evapotranspiration (ET) estimation methods. The G-parameterisation optimized with AMMA flux data performs well and improves the sensible heat flux (H) and ET retrieved by means of the triangle method (Jiang & Islam, 2001). In a second part (Chapter 5), the triangle method is compared with ET estimated by means of a land surface model (JULES). An attempt is made to calibrate JULES using the triangle method through Monte Carlo simulations, but the two methods supply rather different results, indicating that further intercomparison tasks should be carried out to assess the performance of RS-based algorithms and land surface models in estimating the components of the land surface energy balance. Chapter 6 presents a set of operational examples for retrieving surface fluxes using RS data. The first example is the study of temporal evolution of ET-maps in Western Africa under monsoonal influence. In a second example, we apply the new scheme proposed in Chapter 4 to retrieve and analyse the long term evolution (2000-2009) of the surface energy balance components, G, H and ET at several sites of the Segura Basin (S-E Spain) using MODIS-Terra data (land surface temperature and NDVI). Temporal and spatial distribution of evapotranspiration reveals different controls on ET. (Chapter 6). In the last example, MODIS-Aqua Sea Surface Temperature (SST) is used to validate a mathematical model to retrieve surface fluxes in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Mar Menor, S-E Spain). El objetivo de esta tesis es de desarrollar y evaluar herramientas y aplicaciones de la teledetección para estimar flujos de superficie en zonas semiáridas. En una primera parte (Cap

  7. Clinical application of traditional herbal medicine in five countries and regions: Japan; South Korea; Mainland China; Hong Kong, China; Taiwan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Chen

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: The clinical dosages of traditional herbal medicine used in the mainland China are relatively large compared with those prescribed in the other four countries and regions, and the range of dosages in mainland China is more flexible. On the other hand, clinical dosages of TOP50 are the lowest in Japan, where the dosage range is also the narrowest, supporting the idea that Doctors of Kampo medicine are highly cautious and are likely to adhere strictly to classical formulae, while Hong Kong, China and Taiwan, China are in the middle. The dosage of TOP50 in South Korea is significantly lower than that used in the mainland China; Hong Kong, China and Taiwan, China where the adherence to the classical formulae was the lowest, albeit slightly higher than that in Japan. The methods of clinical application of traditional herbal medicine in the five countries and regions were affected by multiple factors, including history, geography, climate, and culture.

  8. Global products or customization to different countries: Conceptual framework and application at Wahler, A german company Of the automotive sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Conde Jussani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Competition in global markets demands product strategies that can help firms deal with the dilemma of global products versus customization, in serving the markets of different countries. Global products lead to large scales, automation, lower costs, plus the easy transfer of people and technology among many subsidiaries, as well as between corporate headquarters and the subsidiaries. However, the lack of customization makes it difficult to gain share in countless market segments, in many countries, and it may even stop a firm from entering in certain countries. This study outlines a model designed to facilitate this type of decision-making. First, based on the literature, a conceptual model was drawn up and the decision-related elements were grouped into seven factors that aid product customization decisions: 1. Market Positioning; 2. Customers’ strategic importance; 3. Product life-cycle development; 4. Legal requirements; 5. Physical environment; 6. Infrastructure and compatibility; and 7. Suppliers’ strategic importance. The case method was used, given the complex nature of the problem, which calls for an in-depth analysis. The model was tested on one of the products made a German company with a Brazilian subsidiary. The components of the valve and the technological trends were analyzed. The case study showed that the influencing factors are interrelated. It became clear that the technological component is directly related with the seven decision factors, and this aspect is analyzed in depth. Nevertheless, further studies are necessary to validate the model, since the case method does not allow one to generalize the findings.

  9. Nuclear and isotopic techniques for addressing nutritional problems, with special reference to current applications in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Venkatesh

    2002-03-01

    Nuclear and isotopic techniques are valuable tools in human nutritional research studies. Isotopes, both radioactive and nonradioactive, enable detailed evaluations of nutrient intake, body composition, energy expenditure, status of micronutrients, and nutrient bioavailability. In recent times, isotopic methods have been widely used in a number of coordinated research projects and technical cooperation projects of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Nutrition Programme. The doubly labeled water technique combines the use of the stable isotopes oxygen-18 and hydrogen-2 (deuterium) to measure total energy expenditure in free-living human subjects, and to investigate the magnitude and causes of both undernutrition and the emergence of obesity in developing countries. The deuterium dilution technique is a reliable tool to measure breastmilk intake and thereby infant growth and development. In collaboration with the World Health Organization's Growth Monitoring Program, this technique is being used to generate new data on growth standards for children in developing countries. This technique is also used in the measurement of body composition by the estimation of lean body mass and fat mass in individuals. Stable isotopes of iron and zinc have been successfully used to assess the nutritional impact of several nationwide food supplementation-programs conducted on pregnant and lactating women and children in both industrialized and developing countries. Isotopic techniques are especially suitable for monitoring changes in body composition, energy metabolism, and mineral status (with particular reference to osteoporosis) in the elderly. Nuclear methods have also served to develop models for a physiological reference man in Asia in support of radiological health and safety issues, for establishing elemental composition of foods, and for measurement of pollutants in the environment.

  10. Application of Virtual Rain and Stream Gauge Information Service for Improved Flood Early Warning System in Lower Mekong Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnayake, S. B.; Jayasinghe, S.; Meechaiya, C.; Markert, K. N.; Lee, H.; Towashiraporn, P.; Anderson, E.; Okeowo, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Asia is the most vulnerable region in the world to hydro-meteorological extreme events, exacerbated by climate variability and change. Impacts of floods have been on the rapid increase in the recent decades. Myanmar is one of the most vulnerable countries in the lower Mekong region due to its socioeconomic situation (eg; Nargis in 2008, monsoon floods in 2015, etc). Early warning is an effective way to prepare for hydro-meteorological hazards, to minimize disaster risks; however, early warning systems in Myanmar are seriously hampered by limited observation networks. The Virtual Rain and Stream Gauge Information Service (VRSGIS) has been developed by SERVIR-Mekong program of Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC) to address these gaps and to provide dense, satellite-based rainfall and water level data, which are calibrated and validated with available in-situ observations. This service would enhance decision making in lower Mekong countries, including Myanmar, to minimize impacts of impending disasters. This service contains rainfall data from GPM IMERG and GSMap, CMORPH, TRMM, and CHIRPS, and water levels for 15 locations using Jason-2/3 altimetry. The virtual daily rainfall data sets are being calibrated with Gamma distribution method and are made publicly accessible through a user-friendly web interface.This paper presents a case study of satellite-derived rainfall data accessed from VRSGIS for hydrological modeling in Myanmar, to estimate inundation areas in Kalay township area of Chindwin River basin during the country's worst flood in 2015. Twelve out of fourteen States of Myanmar were severely affected, 103 people were killed, and one million were displaced due to heavy rains associated with Komen cyclone. The aforementioned rainfall data products are used as inputs for HEC-HMS hydrological runoff model to calculate river flows along Chindwin River, and HEC-RAS hydraulic model is used to estimate inundation areas in downstream including Kalay township

  11. Virtual Reality: State of Military Research and Applications in Member Countries (La realite virutelle: L’etat actuel des travaux de recherche et des applications militaires dans les pays membres de l’Alliance)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    avec des réglages ergonomiques) avec un casque de Réalité Virtuelle (Kaiser Proview 60) en 1999. Cette équipe est également le chef de file du projet...7B.7.2 Activité Image - ENSAM L’activité Image propose un mastère spécialisé en simulation et Réalité Virtuelle. Le but est de former des chefs de...Large-Scale Virtual Worlds. Conference Companion ACM SIGCHI 󈨣, 45-46. Darken, R.P. (1994). Hands-Off Interaction With Menus in Virtual Spaces

  12. Transfer of radiation technology to developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Vitomir; Ridwan, Mohammad

    1993-10-01

    Transfer of technology is a complex process with many facets, options and constraints. While the concept is an important step in bringing industrialization process to agricultural based countries, it is clear, however, that a country will only benefit from a new technology if it addresses a real need, and if it can be absorbed and adapted to suit the existing cultural and technological base. International Atomic Energy Agency, as UN body, has a mandate to promote nuclear applicationsand assist Member States in transfer of technology for peaceful applications. This mandate has been pursued by many different mechanisms developed in the past years: technical assistance, coordinated research programmes, scientific and technical meetings, publications, etc. In all these activities the Agency is the organizer and initiator, but main contributions come from expert services from developed countries and, increasingly, from developing countries themselves. The technical cooperation among developing coutries more and more becomes part of different programmes. In particular, regional cooperation has been demonstrated as an effective instrument for transfer of technology from developed and among developing countries. Some examples of actual programmes are given.

  13. Evaluation of clinical trials by Ethics Committees in Germany: Experience of applicants with the review of requests for opinion of the Ethics Committees - results of a survey among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (VFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russ, Hagen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The review of requests for a positive opinion of the ethics committees (application procedure as a requirement to start a clinical trial in Germany has been completely redesigned with the transposition of EU Directive 2001/20/EC in the 12th Amendment of the German Medicines Act in August 2004. The experience of applicants (sponsors, legal representatives of sponsors in the EU and persons or organizations authorized by the sponsors to make the application, respectively in terms of interactions with the ethics committees in Germany has been positive overall, especially with respect to ethics committee adherence to the statutory timelines applicable for review of requests. However, inconsistencies between ethics committees exist in terms of the form and content of the requirements for application documents and their evaluation.With the objective of further improving both the quality of applications and the evaluation of those applications by ethics committees, a survey among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (VFA was conducted from January to April 2008. Based on reasoned opinions issued by the respective ethics committee in charge of the coordinating principal investigator (coordinating ethics committee, the type and frequency of formal and content-related objections to applications according to § 7 of the German Good Clinical Practice (GCP Regulation were systematically documented, and qualitative and quantitative analyses performed. 21 out of 44 members of the VFA participated in the survey. 288 applications for Phase I–IV studies submitted between January and December 2007 to 40 ethics committees were evaluated.This survey shows that about one in six applications is incomplete and has formal and/or content objections, respectively, especially those that pertain to documents demonstrating the qualification of the investigator and/or suitability of the facilities. These objections are attributable to

  14. Law for Country: the Structure of Warlpiri Ecological Knowledge and Its Application to Natural Resource Management and Ecosystem Stewardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles C. C. Holmes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Ecological Knowledge (IEK is deeply encoded in social processes. Our research shows that from an Indigenous perspective, IEK is a way of living whose core aim is to sustain the healthy functioning of people and country through relationships of reciprocity. However, IEK is often portrayed more prosaically as a body of knowledge about the environment. We introduce a framework, called ngurra-kurlu, that enables appreciation of indigenous perspectives on IEK. The framework was identified from the collaborative work of the authors with Warlpiri aboriginal elders in the Tanami Desert region of central Australia. Ngurra-kurlu facilitates cross-cultural understanding by distilling, from a complex cultural system, the five distinct conceptual categories that comprise IEK: law, skin, ceremony, language, and country. The framework enables engagement with nuanced environmental knowledge because it synthesizes, for cross-cultural audiences, all the key areas of knowledge and practice in which IEK is located. In particular, the framework highlights how social systems mediate the transmission, deployment, and regulation of environmental knowledge in on-ground situations, including collaborative natural resource management. Although the framework was generated in relation to one indigenous group, the epistemological structure of Warlpiri IEK is relevant throughout Australia, and the framework can be applied internationally to the emerging interest in fostering ecosystem stewardship in which the cultural connections between people and place are an integral part of ecosystems management.

  15. Glued structural members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell C. Moody; Jen Y. Liu

    1999-01-01

    Glued structural members are manufactured in a variety of configurations. Structural composite lumber (SCL) products consist of small pieces of wood glued together into sizes common for solid-sawn lumber. Glued-laminated timber (glulam) is an engineered stress-rated product that consists of two or more layers of lumber in which the grain of all layers is oriented...

  16. CERN welcomes new members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Lithuania is on course to become an associate member of CERN, pending final approval by the Lithuanian parliament. Associate membership will allow representatives of the Baltic nation to take part in meetings of the CERN Council, which oversees the Geneva-based physics lab.

  17. DUBNA: Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The political upheaval in what was the Soviet Union was reflected in an Extraordinary Plenipotentiaries Committee of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) Member States, held in Dubna, near Moscow, on 10-13 December, with representatives of eleven sovereign republics of the former Soviet State taking part

  18. Promoting safety in nuclear installations. The IAEA has established safety standards for nuclear reactors and provides expert review and safety services to assist Member States in their application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    More than 430 nuclear power plants (NPPs) are currently operating in 30 countries around the world. The nuclear share of total electricity production ranges from about 20 percent in the Czech Republic and United States to nearly 78 percent in France and Lithuania. Worldwide, nuclear power generates about 16% of the total electricity. The safety of such nuclear installations is fundamental. Every aspect of a power plant must be closely supervised and scrutinized by national regulatory bodies to ensure safety at every phase. These aspects include design, construction, commissioning, trial operation, commercial operation, repair and maintenance, plant upgrades, radiation doses to workers, radioactive waste management and, ultimately, plant decommissioning. Safety fundamentals comprise defence-in-depth, which means having in place multiple levels of protection. nuclear facilities; regulatory responsibility; communicating with the public; adoption of the international convention on nuclear safety including implementation of IAEA nuclear safety standards. This publication covers topics of designing for safety (including safety concepts, design principles, and human factors); operating safety (including safety culture and advance in operational safety); risk assessment and management

  19. Migration processes in SCO member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Sergeevna Antonyuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns modern state and development of migration processes in SCO member states. As a main method of research statistical analysis was applied. The article shows that migration streams between SCO member states are rather intensive, and the problem of labor migration becomes more and more urgent. The countries of consuming and supplying of labour force are clearly differentiated in the region. For some countries, labor export is the key sector of economy. At the same time, interstate relations between SCO member states sometimes are rather disputed. The most urgent factors causing the development of migration processes in the region were determined. Among them, thefactor of growing outflows from China isespecially noted. It is noted that migration processes are discussed by SCO member states nowadays in terms of illegal migration and international criminality connected with it. It means that the question of labor migration is a real problem. It is indicated that the creation of a specific joint commission on migration policy affiliated with the Council of Foreign Ministers of SCO member states is the necessary condition of effective interaction in migration questions within the framework of Shanghai Cooperation Organization.

  20. Status of nuclear desalination in IAEA member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Some of the IAEA Member States have active nuclear desalination programmes and, during the last few years, substantial overall progress has been made in this field. As part of the ongoing activities within the IAEA's nuclear power programme, it was thus decided to prepare a status report, which would briefly describe the recent nuclear seawater desalination related developments and relevant IAEA activities. This status report briefly covers salient aspects of the new generation reactors and a few innovative reactors being considered for desalination and other non-electrical applications, the recent advances in the commonly employed desalination processes and their coupling to nuclear reactors. A summary of techno-economic feasibility studies carried out in interested Member States has been presented and the potable water cost reduction strategies from nuclear desalination plants have been discussed. The socio-economic and environmental benefits of nuclear power driven desalination plants have been elaborated. It is expected that the concise information provided in this report would be useful to the decision makers in the Member States and would incite them to consider or to accelerate the deployment of nuclear desalination projects in their respective countries

  1. Poly(Neopentyl Glycol Furanoate: A Member of the Furan-Based Polyester Family with Smart Barrier Performances for Sustainable Food Packaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Genovese

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, there has been an increased interest from the food packaging industry toward the development and application of bioplastics, to contribute to the sustainable economy and to reduce the huge environmental problem afflicting the planet. In the present work, we focus on a new furan-based polyester, poly(neopentyl glycol 2,5-furanoate (PNF to be used for sustainable food packaging applications. The aromatic polyester was successfully synthesized with high molecular weight, through a solvent-free process, starting directly from 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid. PNF was revealed to be a material with good thermal stability, characterized by a higher Tg and Tm and a lower RAF fraction compared to poly(propylene 2,5-furanoate (PPF, ascribable to the two methyl side groups present in PNF glycol-sub-unit. PNF’s mechanical characteristics, i.e., very high elastic modulus and brittle fracture, were found to be similar to those of PPF and PEF. Barrier properties to different gases, temperatures and relative humidity were evaluated. From the results obtained, PNF was showed to be a material with very smart barrier performances, significantly superior with respect to PEF’s ones. Lastly, PNF’s permeability behavior did not appreciably change after contact with food simulants, whereas it got worse with increasing RH, due to the polar nature of furan ring.

  2. Poly(Neopentyl Glycol Furanoate): A Member of the Furan-Based Polyester Family with Smart Barrier Performances for Sustainable Food Packaging Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Laura; Lotti, Nadia; Siracusa, Valentina; Munari, Andrea

    2017-09-04

    In the last decade, there has been an increased interest from the food packaging industry toward the development and application of bioplastics, to contribute to the sustainable economy and to reduce the huge environmental problem afflicting the planet. In the present work, we focus on a new furan-based polyester, poly(neopentyl glycol 2,5-furanoate) (PNF) to be used for sustainable food packaging applications. The aromatic polyester was successfully synthesized with high molecular weight, through a solvent-free process, starting directly from 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid. PNF was revealed to be a material with good thermal stability, characterized by a higher T g and T m and a lower RAF fraction compared to poly(propylene 2,5-furanoate) (PPF), ascribable to the two methyl side groups present in PNF glycol-sub-unit. PNF's mechanical characteristics, i.e., very high elastic modulus and brittle fracture, were found to be similar to those of PPF and PEF. Barrier properties to different gases, temperatures and relative humidity were evaluated. From the results obtained, PNF was showed to be a material with very smart barrier performances, significantly superior with respect to PEF's ones. Lastly, PNF's permeability behavior did not appreciably change after contact with food simulants, whereas it got worse with increasing RH, due to the polar nature of furan ring.

  3. X-ray fluorescence in Member States (Indonesia): Application of ED XRF in supporting national program of air quality improvement in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhayatun, Santoso; Diah Dwiana Lestiani

    2014-01-01

    Since 1997, the National Nuclear Energy Agency, BATAN has been involved in the IAEA’s RAS projects for the application of nuclear analytical techniques to characterize airborne particulate samples. The measurement of the elemental composition of the particulate matters is a key factor in utilization of the data for the determination of possible sources, which the process of identification and apportionment of pollutants to their sources is an important step in air quality management. Nuclear analytical methods such as XRF and PIXE are suitable for characterizations and need to be applied to produce large data sets of elemental compositions of APM. To maintain the sustainability of research in supporting the national program of air quality improvement in Indonesia, in 2011, BATAN has proposed new equipment, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) Epsilon 5. During the last two years, based on MoU between BATAN and the Ministry of Environment, the assessment and monitoring of air quality has been expanded into 15 cities in Indonesia. In this review, we present the research activities related to the application of XRF in APM samples characterization. (author)

  4. Poly(Neopentyl Glycol Furanoate): A Member of the Furan-Based Polyester Family with Smart Barrier Performances for Sustainable Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munari, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been an increased interest from the food packaging industry toward the development and application of bioplastics, to contribute to the sustainable economy and to reduce the huge environmental problem afflicting the planet. In the present work, we focus on a new furan-based polyester, poly(neopentyl glycol 2,5-furanoate) (PNF) to be used for sustainable food packaging applications. The aromatic polyester was successfully synthesized with high molecular weight, through a solvent-free process, starting directly from 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid. PNF was revealed to be a material with good thermal stability, characterized by a higher Tg and Tm and a lower RAF fraction compared to poly(propylene 2,5-furanoate) (PPF), ascribable to the two methyl side groups present in PNF glycol-sub-unit. PNF’s mechanical characteristics, i.e., very high elastic modulus and brittle fracture, were found to be similar to those of PPF and PEF. Barrier properties to different gases, temperatures and relative humidity were evaluated. From the results obtained, PNF was showed to be a material with very smart barrier performances, significantly superior with respect to PEF’s ones. Lastly, PNF’s permeability behavior did not appreciably change after contact with food simulants, whereas it got worse with increasing RH, due to the polar nature of furan ring. PMID:28869555

  5. Atom for peace in countries of socialosm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petros'yants, A.M.; Kostadinov, K.; Osztrovszki, Gy.; Mitzinger, V.; Cardenas, R.; Felicki, Ya.; Neumann, Ya.; Panasenkov, A.F.; Kulyamin, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    Anniversary edition of collected articles devoted to 30 years of the council for Mutual Economic Assistance is a collective endeavour of eminent scientists and engineers from countries of the socialist community, which reflects the process of development and practical experience in the application of achievements of nuclear science and technology in national economics of the CMEA member-states. The book contains a broad account of modern problems as well as of future trends in the further development of various branches of nuclear science and technology in the CMEA member-states, their fruitful co-operation within the framework of the CMEA Permanent Commission on Peaceful Application of Nuclear Energy, the activities of corresponding international scientific and economic organizations of the CMEA member-states. The contents of the book clearly demonstrate that under the conditions of a socialist society atom for peace is an effective instrument for the acceleration of scientific and technical progress, which is used entirely for the well-being of Man [ru

  6. Lessons learned from the application of a participatory evaluation methodology to healthy municipalities, cities and communities initiatives in selected countries of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Marilyn; Franceschini, Maria Cristina

    2007-01-01

    Health promotion has made significant strides in the past few decades in the Americas. Creating a healthy and supportive setting, also known as the settings approach, continues to be one of the most widely used health promotion strategies. Interest in evaluating the effectiveness of these strategies has been increasing greatly in the past few years. Participatory evaluation holds great promise for helping to generate this evidence and promote understanding of the factors that affect, positively or negatively, the advances of health promotion in the Region. During 2004-2006, a Participatory Evaluation methodology was introduced into several countries in the Americas through formal trainings conducted by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in collaboration with country partners. This article summarizes the main lessons learned from the application of the participatory evaluation methodology in various countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Factors affecting the evaluation of the initiatives were identified at multiple levels (individual, community, organizational, political, economic, etc.). Specific issues that were addressed included the political context, turnover of personnel in key institutions, concerns related to the effectiveness of participatory processes, and the existence of strong and sustained leadership at the country level. These factors are intertwined and affect each other in very complex ways, a fact that was reflected in the municipalities' experiences with participatory evaluation. Challenges included the ability to secure resources for the evaluation, the time needed to conclude the process, and working in an intersectoral manner. However, participating municipalities reported that the process of implementing a participatory evaluation and working with various stakeholders had an empowering effect: communities and stakeholders were more willing and interested in participating in health promotion initiatives in a sustained manner

  7. Supporting Members and Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Thank you! Over the past year, AGU has received 12,104 gifts, both large and small, from members and friends. The Union has also received corporate contributions, National Science Foundation grants, and support from the National Oceanographic Partnership Program and National Association of Geoscience Teachers. Together their generosity has benefited AGU non revenue producing programs that are critical to our science and the future health of the Union. The following list gratefully acknowledges annual gifts of $100 or more and cumulative giving of $5,000 or more. The 1919 Society ($100,000 or more) and Benefactors ($5,000-$99,999) recognize single major gifts and cumulative contributions. Three circles acknowledge annual giving: President's Circle ($1,000 or more), Leadership Circle ($200-$999), and Supporters Circle ($100-$199). Supporting Life Members, who contribute a one-time gift of $1,200 in addition to lifetime dues, are among our most loyal Supporters.

  8. FAO/IAEA international symposium on applications of gene-based technologies for improving animal production and health in developing countries. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Genetic engineering is at the forefront of much biological research - basic, adaptive and applied or near market. Manipulation of genes to bring about the expression of a specific product, or to produce a characteristic or trait, offers exciting possibilities within both the plant and the animal kingdom. The opportunities, in terms of improving livestock productivity or reducing losses from disease, lie in a number of areas. In almost all areas of this research, isotopic markers are extensively used and are in most cases essential for achieving the levels of sensitivity required for genetic characterization and manipulation. Genetic engineering has the potential to solve many problems relating to animal productivity and health. At present the focus is on the problems that face livestock producers in the developed world. If the full benefit of this technology is to be realized globally, the problems confronting livestock farmers in developing countries will have to be considered. The characterization and application of methods in these regions has to be managed and exploited. It is hoped that this Symposium will stimulate the international exchange of information and ideas that contribute to greater accessibility and enhanced use of gene based technologies in animal agriculture in developing countries. OBJECTIVES: To create an interactive environment to discuss the role and future potential of gene based technologies for improving animal production and health; To identify constraints in the use of gene based technologies in developing countries and to determine how to use these technologies in a simple, practical way; To identify and prioritize specific research needs; To explore the possibility of international co-ordination in the area of gene based technologies in animal agriculture; To examine ethical, technological, policy and environmental issues and the role of nuclear techniques in the further development and application of gene based technologies with

  9. FAO/IAEA international symposium on applications of gene-based technologies for improving animal production and health in developing countries. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Genetic engineering is at the forefront of much biological research - basic, adaptive and applied or near market. Manipulation of genes to bring about the expression of a specific product, or to produce a characteristic or trait, offers exciting possibilities within both the plant and the animal kingdom. The opportunities, in terms of improving livestock productivity or reducing losses from disease, lie in a number of areas. In almost all areas of this research, isotopic markers are extensively used and are in most cases essential for achieving the levels of sensitivity required for genetic characterization and manipulation. Genetic engineering has the potential to solve many problems relating to animal productivity and health. At present the focus is on the problems that face livestock producers in the developed world. If the full benefit of this technology is to be realized globally, the problems confronting livestock farmers in developing countries will have to be considered. The characterization and application of methods in these regions has to be managed and exploited. It is hoped that this Symposium will stimulate the international exchange of information and ideas that contribute to greater accessibility and enhanced use of gene based technologies in animal agriculture in developing countries. OBJECTIVES: To create an interactive environment to discuss the role and future potential of gene based technologies for improving animal production and health; To identify constraints in the use of gene based technologies in developing countries and to determine how to use these technologies in a simple, practical way; To identify and prioritize specific research needs; To explore the possibility of international co-ordination in the area of gene based technologies in animal agriculture; To examine ethical, technological, policy and environmental issues and the role of nuclear techniques in the further development and application of gene based technologies with

  10. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Summer is coming, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 25 € instead of 31 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 8 € on presentation of your Staff Association member ticket. Free for children under 100 cm. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.  

  11. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 24 € instead of 30 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children under 100 cm. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  12. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Summer is coming, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 24 € instead of 30 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children under 100 cm. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  13. [Comment on] BOSP members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The new Board on Ocean Science and Policy (BOSP) (Eos, June 7, 1983, p. 402) met for the first time on May 4. John B. Slaughter, former director of the National Science Foundation and now chancellor of the University of Maryland in College Park, is the board's chairman. Other board members are D. James Baker, Jr. (University of Washington, Seattle); Kirk Bryan (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton University); John P. Craven (University of Hawaii); Charles L. Drake (Dartmouth College); Paul M. Fye (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Edward D. Goldberg (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); G. Ross Heath (Oregon State University); Judith T. Kildow (Massachusetts Institute of Technology); John A. Knauss (University of Rhode Island); James J. McCarthy (Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University); H. William Menard (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); C. Barry Raleigh (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory); Roger Revelle (University of California, San Diego); David A. Ross (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Brian J. Rothschild (University of Maryland); William M. Sackett (University of South Florida); John H. Steele (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); and Carl Wunsch (MIT). Wallace Broecker (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory), an original board member, resigned after the first meeting. Broecker told Eos that combining the science and policy boards resulted in a new board whose mission is too broad. A new board member will be appointed in Broecker's place

  14. A method for performance comparison of polycentric knees and its application to the design of a knee for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, T S; Sujatha, S

    2017-08-01

    Polycentric knees for transfemoral prostheses have a variety of geometries, but a survey of literature shows that there are few ways of comparing their performance. Our objective was to present a method for performance comparison of polycentric knee geometries and design a new geometry. In this work, we define parameters to compare various commercially available prosthetic knees in terms of their stability, toe clearance, maximum flexion, and so on and optimize the parameters to obtain a new knee design. We use the defined parameters and optimization to design a new knee geometry that provides the greater stability and toe clearance necessary to navigate uneven terrain which is typically encountered in developing countries. Several commercial knees were compared based on the defined parameters to determine their suitability for uneven terrain. A new knee was designed based on optimization of these parameters. Preliminary user testing indicates that the new knee is very stable and easy to use. The methodology can be used for better knee selection and design of more customized knee geometries. Clinical relevance The method provides a tool to aid in the selection and design of polycentric knees for transfemoral prostheses.

  15. A novel mobile phone application to assess nutrition environment measures in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rebecca; Alvey, Jeniece; Fuentes, Deborah

    2014-09-01

    Consumer nutrition environment measures are important to understanding the food environment, which affects individual dietary intake. A nutrition environment measures survey for supermarkets (NEMS-S) has been designed on paper for use in Guatemala. However, a paper survey is not an inconspicuous data collection method. To design, pilot test, and validate the Guatemala NEMS-S in the form of a mobile phone application (mobile app). CommCare, a free and open-source software application, was used to design the NEMS-S for Guatemala in the form of a mobile app. Two raters tested the mobile app in a single Guatemalan supermarket. Both the interrater and the test-retest reliability of the mobile app were determined using percent agreement and Cohen's kappa score and compared with the interrater and test-retest reliability of the paper version. Interrater reliability was very high between the paper survey and the mobile app (Cohen's kappa > 0.90). Test-retest reliability ranged from kappa 0.78 to 0.91. Between two certified NEMS-S raters, survey completion time using the mobile app was 5 minutes less than that with the paper form (35 vs. 40 minutes). The NEMS-S mobile app provides for more rapid data collection, with equivalent reliability and validity to the NEMS-S paper version, with advantages over a paper-based survey of multiple language capability and concomitant data entry.

  16. Is Poland an Innovative Country?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chybowska, Dorota; Chybowski, Leszek; Souchkov, Valeri

    2018-03-01

    The potential for innovativeness is difficult to measure, though many have attempted to do so. In order to look at Poland's innovation potential, its current position and its opportunity to grow, compared with developing and developed countries, this study analysed the patent statistics of the Polish and European Patent Offices. Poland has been a member of the European Union for over a decade now. Therefore, we took into consideration the statistics for patent applications and grants for the last decade, up to the first quarter of 2016. The questions we wanted to answer concerned not only the technology fields that Poland patented its inventions in, but also the types of patent grantees and applicants. In order to determine why Poland is still considered to be only a moderate innovator by the Innovation Union Scoreboard, we also gathered information on Polish inventors abroad in 2015 and the first quarter of 2016, to see their number, technology fields, and types of patent grantees. Finally, we attempted to identify the main barriers that seem to inhibit Polish technology and innovation growth, despite significantly growing R&D intensities (up from 0.56 GDP and EUR 1,139 M in 2004 to 0.94 GDP and EUR 3,864 M in 2014).

  17. OAS :: Member States

    Science.gov (United States)

    the Human Resources of the OAS, including its organizational structure, each organizational unit's contract and travel control measure reports, the applicable procurement rules and regulations, and the

  18. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.63) is Palau which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 2 March 2007. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 144 Member States became Members

  19. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.67) is Cambodia which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 November 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 151 Member States became Members

  20. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.64) is Nepal which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 8 July 2008. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 145 Member States became Members

  1. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.61) are Belize, Mozambique and Malawi, which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 31 March 2006, 18 September 2006 and 2 October 2006 respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 142 Member States became Members

  2. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.66) are Bahrain, Burundi, Congo and Lesotho which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 June 2009, 24 June 2009, 15 July 2009 and 13 July 2009, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 150 Member States became Members

  3. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.62) is Montenegro which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 30 October 2006. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 143 Member States became Members

  4. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.66) are Bahrain, Burundi, Congo and Lesotho which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 June 2009, 24 June 2009, 15 July 2009 and 13 July 2009, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 150 Member States became Members [ru

  5. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.67) is Cambodia which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 November 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 151 Member States became Members [fr

  6. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.61) are Belize, Mozambique and Malawi, which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 31 March 2006, 18 September 2006 and 2 October 2006 respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 142 Member States became Members [fr

  7. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.66) are Bahrain, Burundi, Congo and Lesotho which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 June 2009, 24 June 2009, 15 July 2009 and 13 July 2009, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 150 Member States became Members [fr

  8. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.65) is the Sultanate of Oman which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 5 February 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 146 Member States became Members [fr

  9. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.59) is the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 23 November 2004. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 138 Member States became Members

  10. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.66) are Bahrain, Burundi, Congo and Lesotho which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 June 2009, 24 June 2009, 15 July 2009 and 13 July 2009, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 150 Member States became Members [es

  11. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.67) is Cambodia which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 November 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 151 Member States became Members [es

  12. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.60) is Chad, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 2 November 2005. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 139 Member States became Members

  13. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.65) is the Sultanate of Oman which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 5 February 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 146 Member States became Members [es

  14. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.58) is Kyrgyzstan, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 10 September 2003. The list shows the dates on which the present 137 Member States became Members

  15. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.65) is the Sultanate of Oman which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 5 February 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 146 Member States became Members

  16. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.67) is Cambodia which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 November 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 151 Member States became Members [ru

  17. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 21 € instead of 26 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 8 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12 h 00. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 30 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 36 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  18. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 21,50 € instead of 27 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12:00 p.m. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  19. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 23 € instead of 29 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12:00 p.m. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  20. Cryogenic support member

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.; Nicol, T.H.

    1987-01-01

    A cryogenic support member is described for restraining a cryogenic system comprising; a rod having a depression at a first end. The rod is made of non-metallic material. The non-metallic material has an effectively low thermal conductivity; a metallic plug; and a metallic sleeve. The plug and the sleeve are shrink-fitted to the depression in the rod and assembled thereto such that the plug is disposed inside the depression of the rod. The sleeve is disposed over the depression in the rod and the rod is clamped therebetween. The shrink-fit clamping the rod is generated between the metallic plug and the metallic sleeve

  1. Country nuclear power profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA`s programme for nuclear power plant performance assessment and feedback. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the energy and economic situation and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. The task was included in the IAEA`s programmes for 1993/1994 and 1995/1996. In March 1993, the IAEA organized a Technical Committee meeting to discuss the establishment of country data ``profiles``, to define the information to be included in the profiles and to review the information already available in the IAEA. Two expert meetings were convened in November 1994 to provide guidance to the IAEA on the establishment of the country nuclear profiles, on the structure and content of the profiles, and on the preparation of the publication and the electronic database. In June 1995, an Advisory Group meeting provided the IAEA with comprehensive guidance on the establishment and dissemination of an information package on industrial and organizational aspects of nuclear power to be included in the profiles. The group of experts recommended that the profiles focus on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. In its first release, the compilation would cover all countries with operating power plants by the end of 1995. It was also recommended to further promote information exchange on the lessons learned from the countries engaged in nuclear programmes. For the preparation of this publication, the IAEA received contributions from the 29 countries operating nuclear power plants and Italy. A database has been implemented and the profiles are supporting programmatic needs within the IAEA; it is expected that the database will be publicly accessible in the future. Refs, figs, tabs.

  2. Country nuclear power profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme for nuclear power plant performance assessment and feedback. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the energy and economic situation and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. The task was included in the IAEA's programmes for 1993/1994 and 1995/1996. In March 1993, the IAEA organized a Technical Committee meeting to discuss the establishment of country data ''profiles'', to define the information to be included in the profiles and to review the information already available in the IAEA. Two expert meetings were convened in November 1994 to provide guidance to the IAEA on the establishment of the country nuclear profiles, on the structure and content of the profiles, and on the preparation of the publication and the electronic database. In June 1995, an Advisory Group meeting provided the IAEA with comprehensive guidance on the establishment and dissemination of an information package on industrial and organizational aspects of nuclear power to be included in the profiles. The group of experts recommended that the profiles focus on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. In its first release, the compilation would cover all countries with operating power plants by the end of 1995. It was also recommended to further promote information exchange on the lessons learned from the countries engaged in nuclear programmes. For the preparation of this publication, the IAEA received contributions from the 29 countries operating nuclear power plants and Italy. A database has been implemented and the profiles are supporting programmatic needs within the IAEA; it is expected that the database will be publicly accessible in the future

  3. Thermal effects in concrete members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, A.K.

    1977-01-01

    When subjected to temperature changes and restrained from free movement, a member develops stresses. Restrained members are sometimes assumed to act independently of other members. A method of analysis and design for thermal stresses in such members is provided. The method of analysis, based on the ultimate strength concept, greatly reduces the computational efforts for determining thermal effects in concrete members. Available charts and tables and the recommendations given herein simplify the design. (Auth.)

  4. Nuclear power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, J.A.; Covarrubias, A.J.; Csik, B.J.; Fattah, A.; Woite, G.

    1977-01-01

    This paper is intended to be a companion to similar papers by OECD/NEA and CMEA and will summarize the nuclear power system plans of developing Member States most likely to have nuclear programmes before the year 2000. The information that is presented is derived from various sources such as the Agency 1974 study of the market for nuclear power in developing countries, the annual publication, ''Power Reactors in Member States - 1976 Edition'', various nuclear power planning studies carried out by the Agency during the period 1975 and 1976, direct correspondence with selected Member States and published information in the open literature. A preliminary survey of the prospects for nuclear power in Member States not belonging to the OECD or having centrally planned economies indicates that about 27 of these countries may have operating nuclear power plants by the end of the century. In the 1974 Edition of the ''Market Survey'' it was estimated that the installed nuclear capacity in these countries might reach 24 GW by 1980, 157 GW by 1190 and 490 GW by the year 2000. It now appears that these figures are too high for a number of reasons. These include 1) the diminished growth in electrical demand which has occurred in many Member States during the last several years, 2) the extremely high cost of nuclear plant construction which has placed financial burdens on countries with existing nuclear programmes, 3) the present lack of commercially available small and medium power reactors which many of the smaller Member States would need in order to expand their electric power systems and 4) the growing awareness of Member States that more attention should be paid to exploitation of indigenous energy sources such as hydroelectric power, coal and lignite

  5. Application of solar disinfection for treatment of contaminated public water supply in a developing country: field observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Atif; Scholz, Miklas; Khan, Sadia; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2013-03-01

    A sustainable and low-cost point-of-use household drinking water solar disinfection (SODIS) technology was successfully applied to treat microbiologically contaminated water. Field experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency of SODIS and evaluate the potential benefits and limitations of SODIS under local climatic conditions in Karachi, Pakistan. In order to enhance the efficiency of SODIS, the application of physical interventions were also investigated. Twenty per cent of the total samples met drinking water guidelines under strong sunlight weather conditions, showing that SODIS is effective for complete disinfection under specific conditions. Physical interventions, including black-backed and reflecting rear surfaces in the batch reactors, enhanced SODIS performance. Microbial regrowth was also investigated and found to be more controlled in reactors with reflective and black-backed surfaces. The transfer of plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) released from the bottle material polyethylene terephthalate (PET) under SODIS conditions was also investigated. The maximum DEHP concentration in SODIS-treated water was 0.38 μg/L less than the value of 0.71 μg/L reported in a previous study and well below the WHO drinking-quality guideline value. Thus SODIS-treated water can successfully be used by the people living in squatter settlements of mega-cities, such as Karachi, with some limitations.

  6. Adaptive Noise Suppression of Pediatric Lung Auscultations With Real Applications to Noisy Clinical Settings in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanouilidou, Dimitra; McCollum, Eric D.; Park, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    Goal Chest auscultation constitutes a portable low-cost tool widely used for respiratory disease detection. Though it offers a powerful means of pulmonary examination, it remains riddled with a number of issues that limit its diagnostic capability. Particularly, patient agitation (especially in children), background chatter, and other environmental noises often contaminate the auscultation, hence affecting the clarity of the lung sound itself. This paper proposes an automated multiband denoising scheme for improving the quality of auscultation signals against heavy background contaminations. Methods The algorithm works on a simple two-microphone setup, dynamically adapts to the background noise and suppresses contaminations while successfully preserving the lung sound content. The proposed scheme is refined to offset maximal noise suppression against maintaining the integrity of the lung signal, particularly its unknown adventitious components that provide the most informative diagnostic value during lung pathology. Results The algorithm is applied to digital recordings obtained in the field in a busy clinic in West Africa and evaluated using objective signal fidelity measures and perceptual listening tests performed by a panel of licensed physicians. A strong preference of the enhanced sounds is revealed. Significance The strengths and benefits of the proposed method lie in the simple automated setup and its adaptive nature, both fundamental conditions for everyday clinical applicability. It can be simply extended to a real-time implementation, and integrated with lung sound acquisition protocols. PMID:25879837

  7. Development, features and application of DIET ASSESS & PLAN (DAP) software in supporting public health nutrition research in Central Eastern European Countries (CEEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Kadvan, Agnes; Nikolić, Marina; Zeković, Milica; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2018-01-01

    In order to meet growing public health nutrition challenges in Central Eastern European Countries (CEEC) and Balkan countries, development of a Research Infrastructure (RI) and availability of an effective nutrition surveillance system are a prerequisite. The building block of this RI is an innovative tool called DIET ASSESS & PLAN (DAP), which is a platform for standardized and harmonized food consumption collection, comprehensive dietary intake assessment and nutrition planning. Its unique structure enables application of national food composition databases (FCDBs) from the European food composition exchange platform (28 national FCDBs) developed by EuroFIR (http://www.eurofir.org/) and in addition allows communication with other tools. DAP is used for daily menu and/or long-term diet planning in diverse public sector settings, foods design/reformulation, food labelling, nutrient intake assessment and calculation of the dietary diversity indicator, Minimum Dietary Diversity-Women (MDD-W). As a validated tool in different national and international projects, DAP represents an important RI in public health nutrition epidemiology in the CEEC region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The applicability of space imagery to the small-scale topographic mapping of developing countries: A case study — the Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, G.; El Niweiri, A. E. H.

    After reviewing the current status of topographic mapping in Sudan, the paper considers the possible applications of space inagery to the topographic mapping of the country at 1 : 100,000 scale. A comprehensive series of tests of the geometric accuracy and interpretability of six types of space imagery taken by the Landsat MSS, RBV and TM sensors, the MOMS scanner, the ESA Metric Camera and NASA's Large Format Camera have been conducted over a test area established in the Red Sea Hills area of Sudan supplemented by further interpretation tests carried out over the area of Khartoum and the Gezira. The results of these tests are given together with those from comparative tests carried out with other images acquired by the same sensors over test areas in developed countries (UK and USA). Further collateral information on topographic mapping at 1 : 100,000 scale from SPOT imagery has been provided by the Ordnance Survey based on its tests and experience in North Yemen. The paper concludes with an analysis of the possibilities of mapping the main (non-equatorial) area of Sudan at 1 : 100,000 scale based on the results of the extensive series of tests reported in the paper and elsewhere. Consideration is also given to the infrastructure required to support such a programme.

  9. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE ADOPTION AND APPLICATION OF ACCOUNTING POLICIES TRANSITION COUNTRIES WITH REGARD TO COMPANIES IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŽELJKO GRUBLJEŠIĆ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Accounting policy should be seen as a framework within which policy is formed to keep business events with the primary objective of increasing safety, especially financial reporting of management. Some management companies is who is responsible for the end result of the economic activity of enterprises run by. To be able to reliably managed by the company shall have a built in system management and logging of all activity in the company, it is necessary to respect the recommendations of the internal control and audit and external audit recommendations. The accounting policy is closely related to the implementation of IAS/IFRS, which are more practical use in the Republic of Serbia starting from 2002. Greater application of these standards, companies must make changes to the accounting policies as it begins to implement the increasing number of requirements of the standard in the field of increase of caution, especially in the context of recognition and accreditation. Practically the back door is introduced replacing "the concept of historical cost" (caution, "the concept of fair value" (neutrality. The emergence of large financial and global crisis of 2008, a growing number of actors want to be informed through the financial statements of the real and the real situation in the companies, which are trying to raise the level of protection above all creditors and investors. Also in the first half of 2013, and the state wants to ensure protection management in the public sector and imposes solutions obligatory presence of Internal Auditors of the public sector in public enterprises.

  10. Environmental Impact Assessment in the Visegrad Group countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gałaś, Slávka, E-mail: sgalas@geol.agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Department of Environmental Analysis, Cartography and Economic Geology Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30 059 Krakow (Poland); Gałaś, Andrzej, E-mail: pollux@geol.agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Department of Environmental Analysis, Cartography and Economic Geology Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30 059 Krakow (Poland); Zeleňáková, Martina, E-mail: martina.zelenakova@tuke.sk [Technical University of Košice, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice (Slovakia); Zvijáková, Lenka, E-mail: lenkazvijakova@gmail.com [Technical University of Košice, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice (Slovakia); Fialová, Jitka, E-mail: jitka.fialova@mendelu.cz [Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Department of Landscape Management, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Comparison and evaluation of EIA systems in the V4 countries are presented. • Strengths and weaknesses of EIA systems based on a questionnaire survey are stated. • The function and efficiency of the EIA application in the V4 countries are analysed. • Irregularities and shortcomings of EIA systems in the V4 should be eliminated. The Environmental Impact Assessment Directive (EIA Directive) has created a reference framework for the implementation of the system of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) into the legal systems of the Member States of the European Union, including the countries belonging to the Visegrad Group (V4): Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Hungary. The Directive was the basis for the introduction of compulsory stages of the EIA process in the V4. The stages were then adapted to national requirements, including thresholds of the qualifying criteria of projects at the screening and scoping stages. The EIA system in the analysed countries has been growing, changing and being modified together with the political and economic changes of the last 30 years. Although all Visegrad Group countries are members of the EU and should harmonize the provisions of the EIA Directive and its amendments, there still exist singularities in each country's national EIA legislation, in terms of complementarities among the V4 countries, access to information resources, protection of natural resources, mitigation of socio-environmental impacts, or transboundary impact assessment. The article compares and evaluates the EIA systems in the four countries, specifies similarities and differences in the implementation of administrative proceedings and points out opportunities to strengthen the system. It presents selected results of a study conducted in 2013 within the framework of the international project “Assessment of the quality of the environment in the V4 Countries” (AQE V4). This paper indicates examples of good practice in the EIA

  11. Environmental Impact Assessment in the Visegrad Group countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gałaś, Slávka; Gałaś, Andrzej; Zeleňáková, Martina; Zvijáková, Lenka; Fialová, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison and evaluation of EIA systems in the V4 countries are presented. • Strengths and weaknesses of EIA systems based on a questionnaire survey are stated. • The function and efficiency of the EIA application in the V4 countries are analysed. • Irregularities and shortcomings of EIA systems in the V4 should be eliminated. The Environmental Impact Assessment Directive (EIA Directive) has created a reference framework for the implementation of the system of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) into the legal systems of the Member States of the European Union, including the countries belonging to the Visegrad Group (V4): Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Hungary. The Directive was the basis for the introduction of compulsory stages of the EIA process in the V4. The stages were then adapted to national requirements, including thresholds of the qualifying criteria of projects at the screening and scoping stages. The EIA system in the analysed countries has been growing, changing and being modified together with the political and economic changes of the last 30 years. Although all Visegrad Group countries are members of the EU and should harmonize the provisions of the EIA Directive and its amendments, there still exist singularities in each country's national EIA legislation, in terms of complementarities among the V4 countries, access to information resources, protection of natural resources, mitigation of socio-environmental impacts, or transboundary impact assessment. The article compares and evaluates the EIA systems in the four countries, specifies similarities and differences in the implementation of administrative proceedings and points out opportunities to strengthen the system. It presents selected results of a study conducted in 2013 within the framework of the international project “Assessment of the quality of the environment in the V4 Countries” (AQE V4). This paper indicates examples of good practice in the EIA

  12. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The Courir shops propose the following offer: 15% discount on all articles (not on sales) in the Courir shops (Val Thoiry, Annemasse and Neydens) and 5% discount on sales upon presentation of your Staff Association membership card and an identity card before payment. Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 21 € instead of 26 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 8 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12 h 00. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 30 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 36 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  13. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2013-01-01

    La banque LCL propose aux membres de l’Association du personnel les avantages suivants : – Un barème Privilège sur le Prêt immobilier – Des avantages tarifaires sur l’épargne, notamment l’assurance-vie. – Un taux préférentiel de prêt à la consommation. En outre, jusqu’au 30 septembre 2013, elle offre 50€ à tous les nouveaux clients, membres de l'Association du personnel. Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Tickets "Zone terrestre" : 21 € instead of de 26 €. Access to Aqualibi : 5 euros instead of 8 euros on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12 h 00. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Free car park. * * * * * * * Full day ticket: – Children : 30 CHF instead of 39 CHF &...

  14. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The warm weather arrives, it's time to take advantage of our offers Walibi and Aquapark! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 21 € instead of 26 € Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 8 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12 h 00. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Half-day ticket (5 hours): – Children: 26 CHF instead of 35 CHF – Adults : 32 CHF instead of 43 CHF Day ticket: – Children: 30 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 36 CHF instead of 49 CHF Free for children under 5.

  15. Country programme review. Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This document reviews the current nuclear program in Ethiopia, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical cooperation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; human health; water and geothermal resources; industrial applications and instrumentation; radiation protection; higher education; programming, coordination and development

  16. Country programme review. Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This document reviews the current nuclear program in Guatemala, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical co-operation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; human health; radiation protection; industrial applications and hydrology; nuclear analytical techniques; nuclear instrumentation and nuclear information

  17. ORTA VE DOĞU AVRUPA ÜLKELERİ AB’YE GİREREK ÜRETİM VE FİNANS KAPİTALİZMİNDE İLERLEME KAYDETTİLER Mİ? (WERE CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ABLE TO MAKE PROGRESS BY BEING FULL MEMBERS OF THE EU?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent DOĞRU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ÖZ: Orta ve Doğu Avrupa Ülkeleri (CEE Estonya, Slovakya, Slovenya, Letonya, Polonya, Litvanya, Çek Cumhuriyeti ve Macaristan Avrupa Birliği ile sürdürdükleri müzakere sürecini bitirerek, 1 Mayıs 2004 tarihinde toplu halde Birliğe tam üye oldular. Çoğunluğu eski Sosyalist Bloku üyeleri olan bu ülkeler, AB’ye girerek kapitalist piyasa nimetlerinden faydalanmaya çalıştılar. Bu çalışma, geçen yedi yıllık süreçte bu ülkelerin amaçlarına hangi ölçüde ulaştıklarını incelemektedir. Çalışmada kullanılan kapitalizmin temel göstergeleri Mehmet Altan’ın “Kapitalizm Bu Köye Uğramadı” çalışmasında geçen ve Türkiye için kabul ettiği makroekonomik değişkenlerdir. Bu değişkenler, özel sektör istihdam oranı, özel sektör üretiminin toplam üretim içindeki payı, ticaretin toplam hâsıla içindeki payı, yabancı banka sayısındaki artış, özel yatırımların toplam hâsıla içindeki payı, şehirleşme oranı, borsa kapitalizasyonudur. Özel sektör ve yabancı sermaye itişli bu makroekonomik değişkenlerin CEE ülkeler için 2004 sonrası dönemde pozitif yönde anlamlı bir farklılaşma gösterip göstermediği analiz edilmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre, AB’ye girmek bu ülkelere ticaretlerini arttırma imkânı tanımış ve ticaret kapitalizminde ciddi bir ilerleme kaydetmelerine sebep olmuştur. Ancak üretim kapitalizmi ve finans kapitalizmi alanlarında ilerlemenin olduğuna dair güçlü delil bulunamamıştır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Kapitalizm, Bölgesel Ekonomik Topluluklar, Orta ve Doğu Avrupa Ülkeleri Ekonomileri. ABSTRACT: Central and Eastern European countries, Estonia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Latvia, Poland, Lithuania, the Czech Republic and Hungary, became full members of the European Union on 1 May 2004 after completing the process of accession negotiations. These countries, mostly past member of the Communist Bloc, tried to utilize the benefits of the

  18. Comparative Analysis of Minimum Income Guaranteed Schemes within the Member States of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Maria Stănescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The commitment of the European Union (EU Member States towards accomplishing the commonly agreed goals (1997 European Employment Strategy, Lisbon 2000, and Europe 2020 is supported by a continuous assessment of domestic social policy tendencies. From this perspective, the main goal of the paper is to comparatively analyse the last safety net for the most vulnerable people. The screening of guaranteed minimum resources provides an overview of the applicable statutory basis, schemes in place, types of social benefits concerned, financing and organisation mechanisms, eligibility conditions, duration and time limits. As methodology, the article uses the MISSOC database, and due to the current lack of comparable information, recommendations for further harmonisation are included. 20 of the EU member states follow the minimum income guaranteed (MIG regulations adopted already during the pre-accession period and updated after the accession phase. Seven types of domestic regulations are in force, among which the most frequent ones are acts and laws (ten countries. Common concepts used are social, and assistance. Provided allowances are mainly focused on elderly people, unemployment benefits, pensions, allowances supporting various house related costs, and benefits for disabled people. In line with 2007, 2010, and 2014 data, the financing of guaranteed minimum resources continues to remain mainly central with a shift in 2014 towards mixed financing (both central and local. The management in 2014 continues to be mainly centrally organised but the local stakeholders are also empowered. The residency is the most frequent eligibility condition. No nationality is required in 24 EU member states, for all allowances (21 countries or for particular ones (three countries. 17 member states require no age conditions. Unlimited guaranteed minimum resources were provided in 2014 as long as the eligibility criteria were met in 23 EU member states.

  19. Eqüidade em áreas sócio-econômicas com impacto na saúde em países da União Européia Equity in socioeconomic sectors with an impact on health in European Union member countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Rosário Giraldes

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Pode ser eventualmente mais adequado corrigir desigualdades no domínio da educação, estilos de vida ou nutrição do que no domínio da saúde. O presente artigo propõe-se medir as desigualdades existentes, em países da União Européia, em áreas sócio-econômicas com impacto na saúde da população. Utilizou-se o coeficiente de Gini para quantificar as desigualdades entre países da União Européia no que respeita a educação e atividades culturais, estilos de vida, nutrição, desemprego, utilização de serviços de saúde e despesa em saúde. Os indicadores que apresentam coeficientes de Gini mais elevados são a percentagem da população com ensino secundário elevado, o consumo per capita de manteiga e o consumo per capita de embalagens de medicamentos. Consiste motivo de preocupação para o setor saúde que a área da educação apresente uma tão grande desigualdade em relação à percentagem de inscritos no ensino secundário elevado, em países da União Européia. A desigualdade que existe no consumo per capita de manteiga é igualmente de salientar por causa do impacto que a nutrição tem, por exemplo, na incidência de doenças cárdio e cerebrovasculares e do peso que essas doenças têm na estrutura de mortalidade.It may sometimes be more appropriate to correct inequalities in the domains of education, lifestyles, or nutrition than that of health. The current study proposes to measure existing inequalities in European Union member countries in socioeconomic areas with an impact on the population's health. The Gini coefficient was used to quantify inequalities among member countries with regard to education and cultural activities, lifestyles, nutrition, unemployment, use of health care services, and health expenditures. The indicators with the highest Gini coefficients are the percentage of the population with a secondary school education (level of schooling just preceding the university, per capita butter

  20. Improving access to transport in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Savill, T

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Improving access and mobility of people with disabilities is an essential component of the alleviation of poverty in developing countries. Disabled people are among the most socially excluded members of society and poorly designed and inaccessible...

  1. Scientific collaboration between 'old' and 'new' member states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Mitze, Timo Friedel

    2016-01-01

    following the two enlargement waves 2004 and 2007 has significantly increased the co-publication intensity of the new member states with other member countries. The empirical results based on data collected from the Web of Science database and Difference-in-Difference estimations point towards a conclusion...... that joining the EU indeed has had an additional positive impact on the co-publication intensity between the new and old member states and, in particular, between the new member states themselves. These results give tentative support for the successfulness of the EU’s science policies in achieving a common...

  2. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.69) is the Commonwealth of Dominica, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 17 February 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 153 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  3. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.70) is Papua New Guinea, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 April 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 154 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  4. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.69) is the Commonwealth of Dominica, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 17 February 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 153 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  5. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.74) is Swaziland, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 15 February 2013. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 159 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  6. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.71) is Rwanda, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 September 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 155 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  7. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.68) is the Lao People's Democratic Republic which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 November 2011. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 152 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statue with the depositary Government [fr

  8. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.73) is Trinidad and Tobago, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 9 November 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 158 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [fr

  9. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.70) is Papua New Guinea, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 April 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 154 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [ru

  10. Family members' experiences of autopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppewal, F; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    Background. The experiences of family members will teach us how to handle an autopsy, the ultimate quality assessment tool. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine surviving family members' experience of autopsy. Method. Seven GPs were asked to approach surviving family members of

  11. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.76) is Brunei Darussalam, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 18 February 2014. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 162 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [fr

  12. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.70) is Papua New Guinea, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 April 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 154 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [fr

  13. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.71) is Rwanda, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 September 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 155 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [fr

  14. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.69) is the Commonwealth of Dominica, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 17 February 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 153 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [fr

  15. The members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The 42nd revision of INFCIRC/2 lists the 113 Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency as of 1 January 1993. It includes Slovenia as a new Member State as of 21 September 1992, Cambodia replaces the former name ''Democratic Kampuchea'' and Czechoslovakia was deleted as it ceased to be a member of the Agency as of 1 January 1993 (INFCIRC/417)

  16. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.68) is the Lao People's Democratic Republic which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 November 2011. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 152 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statue with the depositary Government [es

  17. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.73) is Trinidad and Tobago, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 9 November 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 158 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  18. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.70) is Papua New Guinea, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 April 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 154 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  19. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.71) is Rwanda, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 September 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 155 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  20. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.76) is Brunei Darussalam, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 18 February 2014. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 162 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  1. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.72) are Fiji and Togo, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 2 November 2012 and 1 November 2012, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 157 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  2. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.76) is Brunei Darussalam, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 18 February 2014. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 162 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  3. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.73) is Trinidad and Tobago, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 9 November 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 158 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  4. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.68) is the Lao People's Democratic Republic which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 November 2011. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 152 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statue with the depositary Government

  5. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.71) is Rwanda, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 September 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 155 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [ru

  6. Static Members of Classes in C#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian LUPASC

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The C# language is object-oriented, which is why the declared member data must be part of a class. Thus, there is no possibility to declare certain variables that can be accessed from anywhere within the application, as it happens, for example, with global variables at the C language level. Making this work in C# is possible through static members of the class. Declaring a class implies defining some of its member data that later receive values when creating each object. A static member of the class can be interpreted as belonging only to the class, not to the objects subsequently created, which means that for the non-static data, there are as many children as there were objects created, while for the static ones there is only one copy, regardless of the number of created objects. In this regard, this paper presents the main aspects that characterize these abstract concepts of object oriented programming in general and C# language in particular, detailing how to develop an application that includes both static and non-static members. At the same time, particularities in the mirror for the two types of data, restrictions on use and potential limitations are presented.

  7. Challenges to developing countries after joining WTO: risk assessment of chemicals in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Junshi

    2004-01-01

    FAO/WHO encourages member countries to develop national food control measures based on risk assessment in order to assure proper protection level to consumers and facilitate fair trade. This is particularly important for developing countries as WTO members because it is clearly stated in the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) Agreement that: (a) SPS measures should be based on risk assessment techniques developed by relevant international organizations; and (b) Codex standards which is based on risk assessment are regarded as the international norm in trade dispute settlement. When conducting risk assessment on food chemicals (including additives and contaminants) in developing countries, in most cases it is not necessary to conduct their own hazard characterization because the ADIs or PTWIs of food chemicals developed by international expert groups (e.g. JECFA) are universally applicable and also developing countries do not have the resources to repeat those expensive toxicological studies. On the other hand, it is necessary to conduct exposure assessment in developing countries because exposure to food chemicals varies from country to country. This is not only crucial in setting national standards, but also very important for developing countries to participate in the process of developing Codex standards. In addition to food standard development, risk assessment is also useful in setting up priorities in imported food inspection and evaluating the success of various food safety control measures

  8. Challenges to developing countries after joining WTO: risk assessment of chemicals in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junshi

    2004-05-20

    FAO/WHO encourages member countries to develop national food control measures based on risk assessment in order to assure proper protection level to consumers and facilitate fair trade. This is particularly important for developing countries as WTO members because it is clearly stated in the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) Agreement that: (a) SPS measures should be based on risk assessment techniques developed by relevant international organizations; and (b) Codex standards which is based on risk assessment are regarded as the international norm in trade dispute settlement. When conducting risk assessment on food chemicals (including additives and contaminants) in developing countries, in most cases it is not necessary to conduct their own hazard characterization because the ADIs or PTWIs of food chemicals developed by international expert groups (e.g. JECFA) are universally applicable and also developing countries do not have the resources to repeat those expensive toxicological studies. On the other hand, it is necessary to conduct exposure assessment in developing countries because exposure to food chemicals varies from country to country. This is not only crucial in setting national standards, but also very important for developing countries to participate in the process of developing Codex standards. In addition to food standard development, risk assessment is also useful in setting up priorities in imported food inspection and evaluating the success of various food safety control measures.

  9. Energy policies of IEA countries: 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This compilation contains a broad analysis of recent trends and an easily accessible overview of energy policy of the 26 member countries of the International Energy Agency and other key non-member countries such as China, India and Russia, during the last 12 months. The overview section examines trends in energy markets, including an analysis of energy demand and supply, energy prices and energy related CO{sub 2} emissions. It highlights key policy trends across member and non-member countries on energy security, energy market reform, climate change mitigation, energy efficiency, renewables and energy R&D. The book contains a special chapter on energy efficiency, which compares the most successful efficiency policies of member countries on the basis of In-Depth Review findings of the past three years. It also presents the major findings of the World Energy Outlook 2006, key statistical information and brief summaries of major IEA publications released during the past year. In past years summaries of In-Depth Reviews conducted in the cycle covered by this book, as well as Standard Reviews, were published as part of the book. From this year they will only be available from the IEA's website on www.iea.org. Chapter headings are: Executive summary; Energy efficiency; World energy outlook 2006; Energy security; Energy market reform; Climate change; Renewable energy; Technology, research and development; Energy policies in key non-member countries; and Energy balances and key statistical data of IEA countries. 25 figs., 11 tabs., 4 annexes.

  10. Are recommendations from carcinoma of the cervix Patterns of Care studies (PCS) in the United States of America (USA) applicable to centers in developing countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craighead, Peter S.; Smulian, Hubert G.; Groot, Henk J. de; Toit, Pierre F.M. du

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To compare patient demographics, treatment resources, practice patterns, and outcome results for squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (SCC) between the 1978 and 1983 Patterns of Care studies (PCS) in the United States of America (USA) and a nonacademic center within a developing country. Methods and Materials: Patient details (race, age, stage, and number per year), treatment used, and treatment outcome were retrieved from the charts of the 1160 cases registered at this center with SCC of the cervix between 1976 and 1985. Demographic variables and Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were calculated and compared with results from published PCS reviews. Results: There is a significant difference in the racial group presentation of cervix cancer at this center compared with the PCS reviews (p < 0.005), and median ages are significantly lower at this center (t = p < 0.001). The proportion of patients with Stage III or more was significantly higher at this center than the PCS centers (24 vs. 47%, p < 0.001). There were also vast differences in facility resources. Fewer cases at this center underwent intracavitary insertions than at PCS centers. Mean Point A doses were significantly reduced for this center compared with the PCS reviews. Kaplan-Meier estimates were similar for Stage I and II in PCS centers and this center, but were inferior for this center in Stage III patients (p < 0.05 for OS and p < 0.01 for LC). Late morbidity rates were similar for both PCS centers and this center. Conclusion: PCS recommendations may be applicable to nonacademic centers within developing countries, if the latter use staging techniques that are consistent with the PCS staging guidelines

  11. Flame-Resistant Composite Materials For Structural Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Richard K.

    1995-01-01

    Matrix-fiber composite materials developed for structural members occasionally exposed to hot, corrosive gases. Integral ceramic fabric surface layer essential for resistance to flames and chemicals. Endures high temperature, impedes flame from penetrating to interior, inhibits diffusion of oxygen to interior where it degrades matrix resin, resists attack by chemicals, helps resist erosion, and provides additional strength. In original intended application, composite members replace steel structural members of rocket-launching structures that deteriorate under combined influences of atmosphere, spilled propellants, and rocket exhaust. Composites also attractive for other applications in which corrosion- and fire-resistant structural members needed.

  12. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2009 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-08-01

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compiles background information on the status and development of nuclear power programs in Member States. It consists of organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programs and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy, and electricity situation in each country, and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programs in the world. The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated in 1990s. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. This is the 2009 edition issued on CD-ROM and Web pages. It updates the country information for 44 countries. The CNPP is updated based on information voluntarily provided by participating IAEA Member States. Participants include the 30 countries that have operating nuclear power plants, as well as 14 countries having past or planned nuclear power programmes (Bangladesh, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Italy, Kazakhstan, Nigeria, Philippines, Poland, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey and Vietnam). For the 2009 edition, 26 countries provided updated or new profiles. For the other countries, the IAEA updated the profile statistical tables on nuclear power, energy development, and economic indicators based on information from IAEA and World Bank databases

  13. The Algorithm and Application of Automatic Generation of the 3D Modeling of the Member Structure%杆系结构三维模型图自动生成的算法与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓霞; 於时才; 邢静忠

    2001-01-01

    利用AutoCAD提供的DXF数据交换功能,提出了一种新的生成算法。将空间斜杆一次性生成,直接读取空间杆系结构的有限元分析数据或优化设计数据,自动生成其三维模型图。文末给出了该算法在空间塔式起重机和空间网架、网壳造型中的应用。%By utilizing the DXF exchange function of AutoCAD, a new algorithm for generating the 3D model of structure is presented. If can generate a space oblique pole at one time, and by using the finite element analysis original data and the data of optimum design of member structure, 3D modeling were automatically generated with this algorithm. The application of the algorithm in constructing the 3D modeling of the space tower crane and the framework was introduced in the end。

  14. Priorities in national space strategies and governance of the member states of the European Space Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaensen, Maarten; Giannopapa, Christina; Sagath, Daniel; Papastefanou, Anastasia

    2015-12-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has twenty Member States with a variety of strategic priorities and governance structures regarding their space activities. A number of countries engage in space activities exclusively though ESA, while others have also their own national space programme. Some consider ESA as their prime space agency and others have additionally their own national agency with respective programmes. The main objective of this paper is to provide an up-to date overview and a holistic assessment of strategic priorities and the national space governance structures in 20 ESA Member States. This analysis and assessment has been conducted by analysing the Member States public documents, information provided at ESA workshop on this topic and though unstructured interviews. The paper is structured to include two main elements: priorities and trends in national space strategies and space governance in ESA Member States. The first part of this paper focuses on the content and analysis of the national space strategies and indicates the main priorities and trends in Member States. The priorities are categorised with regards to technology domains, the role of space in the areas of sustainability and the motivators that boost engagement in space. These vary from one Member State to another and include with different levels of engagement in technology domains amongst others: science and exploration, navigation, Earth observation, human space flight, launchers, telecommunications, and integrated applications. Member States allocate a different role of space as enabling tool adding to the advancement of sustainability areas including: security, resources, environment and climate change, transport and communication, energy, and knowledge and education. The motivators motivating reasoning which enhances or hinders space engagement also differs. The motivators identified are industrial competitiveness, job creation, technology development and transfer, social benefits

  15. Cooperation with COMECON members in coke chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medricky. Z

    1987-05-01

    Discusses activities of the coking industry division of the standing committee for iron metallurgy of the COMECON. The following cooperation fields are analyzed: raw material basis for coking industry, coal charge preparation and methods for reducing proportion of coking coal in a coal charge (heat treatments, formed coke processes, partial briquetting, pelletizing, increasing coking temperature, packing etc.), coking technology, coke quenching, screening, chemical processing of coal gas, environmental protection in the coking industry, environmental effects of coking, pitch coke production, methods for increasing labor productivity. Research programs coordinated by member countries are reviewed. Programs in which Czechoslovakia participates are discussed.

  16. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2013 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-08-01

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compile background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Member States. The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programs and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy, and electricity situation in each country and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programs in the world. This 2013 edition, issued on CD-ROM and Web pages, contains updated country information for 51 countries

  17. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.72) are Fiji and Togo, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 2 November 2012 and 1 November 2012, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 157 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [ru

  18. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.72) are Fiji and Togo, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 2 November 2012 and 1 November 2012, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 157 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [fr

  19. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.72) are Fiji and Togo, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 2 November 2012 and 1 November 2012, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 157 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  20. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.75) are San Marino and the Bahamas, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 25 November 2013 and 7 January 2014, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 161 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  1. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.75) are San Marino and the Bahamas, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 25 November 2013 and 7 January 2014, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 161 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  2. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.75) are San Marino and the Bahamas, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 25 November 2013 and 7 January 2014, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 161 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [fr

  3. Energy policies of IEA countries: 1994 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This 1994 edition contributes to the IEA's on-going analysis of countries'energy policies and market developments. it reviews recent trends and developments in energy demand and supply, efficiency, technology and environment. This year's Energy Policies includes: - critical reviews of all 23 IEA Member countries, including in-depth reviews of Finland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg and Switzerland; - a synthesis report highlighting major energy policy developments and market trends in IEA Member countries and an overview of significant energy developments elsewhere in the world; -an analysis of trends in key energy indicators over a twenty year period. (authors)

  4. Reserve requirement systems in OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Yueh-Yun C. O’Brien

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the reserve requirements of OECD countries. Reserve requirements are the minimum percentages or amounts of liabilities that depository institutions are required to keep in cash or as deposits with their central banks. To facilitate monetary policy implementation, twenty-four of the thirty OECD countries impose reserve requirements to influence their banking systems’ demand for liquidity. These include twelve OECD countries that are also members of the European Economic and...

  5. Co-ordinated research programme on application of stable isotope tracer methods to studies of amino acid, protein, and energy metabolism in malnourished populations of developing countries. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The use of isotopes has revolutionized the field of human nutrition research, but has been of greatest benefit to industrialized countries. The International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring programmes using isotopic and related technologies in human nutrition research to address issues that are of priority to developing countries. Scientists participating in the Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism in Malnourished Populations of Developing Countries'' are conducting research on the interaction between infection and amino acid metabolism, particularly the potential diversion of substrates from anabolic pathways to fight infection in marginally nourished children during periods of infections. This topic is of great importance to the nutritional status of children in developing countries, who frequently or chronically have infections and who, as a consequence, may have alterations in nutrient requirements. The CRP has developed and implemented a standardized protocol for measuring leucine oxidation during infection in 8 different countries. The CRP is expected to contribute important new knowledge about interactions between protein utilization, the stresses of unhygienic environments, and infections in marginally nourished people. This information is expected to be applicable to efforts to increase efficient utilization of limited food resources in developing countries. Another highlight of the CRP is that it represents an international team of nutrition scientists who together are building nutritional biology research capabilities in developing countries. Refs, figs, tabs

  6. Co-ordinated research programme on application of stable isotope tracer methods to studies of amino acid, protein, and energy metabolism in malnourished populations of developing countries. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The use of isotopes has revolutionized the field of human nutrition research, but has been of greatest benefit to industrialized countries. The International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring programmes using isotopic and related technologies in human nutrition research to address issues that are of priority to developing countries. Scientists participating in the Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ``Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism in Malnourished Populations of Developing Countries`` are conducting research on the interaction between infection and amino acid metabolism, particularly the potential diversion of substrates from anabolic pathways to fight infection in marginally nourished children during periods of infections. This topic is of great importance to the nutritional status of children in developing countries, who frequently or chronically have infections and who, as a consequence, may have alterations in nutrient requirements. The CRP has developed and implemented a standardized protocol for measuring leucine oxidation during infection in 8 different countries. The CRP is expected to contribute important new knowledge about interactions between protein utilization, the stresses of unhygienic environments, and infections in marginally nourished people. This information is expected to be applicable to efforts to increase efficient utilization of limited food resources in developing countries. Another highlight of the CRP is that it represents an international team of nutrition scientists who together are building nutritional biology research capabilities in developing countries. Refs, figs, tabs.

  7. INTERESTS OF THE MEMBER STATES IN THE EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Michałowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the interests of the member countries in the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU, which is formed by Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan. The author argues that Russia has been involved in the project primarily for geopolitical reasons. Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan have perceived the integration within EEU primarily through the possible economic benefits. While analyzing the interests of the members in the EEU, the author also refers to the development of the economic situation in each country in recent years. The starting point for discussion is the analysis of benefits of economic integration in the light of theory.

  8. Computer Programme Library at Ispra: Service to IAEA Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    In 1964, in view of the increasingly important role of computers in atomic energy, the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development established a Computer Programme Library (CPL) at Ispra, Italy. The original purpose of this Library, then consisting chiefly of programmes for reactor calculations, was to improve communication between the originators of the computer programmes and the scientists and engineers in Member States of the OECD who used them, thus furthering the efficient and economic use of the many large and expensive computers in the countries concerned. During the first few years of the Library's operation, a growing interest in its activities became evident in countries which were not members of the OECD. The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, aware that such countries which were Member States of the IAEA could benefit from the Library's services, concluded an agreement with the Nuclear Energy Agency in 1967 to the effect that these services would be extended to all IAEA Member States. In March 1968, the Director General announced by circular letter that these services were available, and requested the governments of Member States that were not members of OECD to nominate establishments to participate in the activities of the Computer Programme Library. By August 1973, 32 such establishments were regularly using the services of the CPL

  9. Multidimensional Welfare Comparisons of EU Member States Before, During, and After the Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, M. Azhar; Siersbæk, Nikolaj; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    How did the financial crisis affect population welfare in EU member states in key dimensions such as income, health, and education? Using EU-SILC data, we seek to answer this question by way of first order dominance comparisons between countries and over time. The novel feature of our study...... is that we perform welfare comparisons on the basis of multi-level multidimensional ordinal data. We find that the countries most often dominated are southern and eastern European member states, and the dominant countries are mostly northern and western European member states. However, for most country...

  10. IEA countries energy policy. Report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The International Energy Agency is interested by the energy policy of its 23 members countries. This book sums up the evolution of energy policy in 1991 and 1992, sticking particularly to energy proposal and demand, to energy efficiency, to interaction between energy and environment, to the energy technology and to research and development activities. The 23 countries are examined regularly. The elaborate examinations refer to the energy policy of each member country to dictate the common orientation of their policy. Ministers meetings of IEA take place regularly. The latest took place in PARIS on the fourth of June 1993 where the ministers confirmed that there were essential elements of the energy policy and that they recommended to all countries to take that in account in the formulation of their strategies. Beyond the examinations by country, this book contains a whole report which throws into relief the main new acts which were happened in the IEA members countries and a glimpse on the evolution of the energy situation in the no members countries. It gives specific data and informations on the governmental budgets allocated to research and development energy activities. 6 annexes, 12 graphs., 5 tabs

  11. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials delivered by Members up to 30 June 1969 in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  12. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials which Members had delivered up to 30 June 1975, in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  13. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials which Members had delivered up to 31 March 1974, in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  14. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials which Members had delivered up to the end of 1970, in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  15. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials which Members had delivered up to the end of 1972, in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  16. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials which Members had delivered up to the end of 1971, in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  17. Working with Difficult Group Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottler, Jeffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    Describes types of group members who are challenging in group settings including entitled, manipulative, and character-disordered clients. Provides suggestions for working with these group members, either as isolated cases or as homogenous populations, emphasizing the protection of other clients' rights. Includes 31 references. (Author/CRR)

  18. Country report: a methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology which could be applicable to establish a country report. In the framework of nuclear non proliferation appraisal and IAEA safeguards implementation, it is important to be able to assess the potential existence of undeclared nuclear materials and activities as undeclared facilities in the country under review. In our views a country report should aim at providing detailed information on nuclear related activities for each country examined taken 'as a whole' such as nuclear development, scientific and technical capabilities, etc. In order to study a specific country, we need to know if there is already an operating nuclear civil programme or not. In the first case, we have to check carefully if it could divert nuclear material, if there are misused declared facilities or if they operate undeclared facilities and conduct undeclared activities aiming at manufacturing nuclear weapon. In the second case, we should pay attention to the development of a nuclear civil project. A country report is based on a wide span of information (most of the time coming from open sources but sometimes coming also from confidential or private ones). Therefore, it is important to carefully check the nature and the credibility (reliability?) of these sources through cross-check examination. Eventually, it is necessary to merge information from different sources and apply an expertise filter. We have at our disposal a lot of performing tools to help us to assess, understand and evaluate the situation (cartography, imagery, bibliometry, etc.). These tools allow us to offer the best conclusions as far as possible. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (author)

  19. Archival Education in Scandinavian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Hanefi Kutluoğlu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Every country has responsibilities to provide the necessary personnel needed for their archival inheritance by education. Education can be shaped through tradition, historical inheritance and scientifi c necessities by defi ning the right educational method. Scandinavian countries have determined different education models based on their tradition, historical inheritance and requirements. In this article we focused on the formation of archival tradition, application of archival education in Scandinavian countries and the infl uence of the developments taking place in Europe on these countries. The relation between the archival education in European and Scandinavian countries is evaluated through a comparative method, and similarities to other countries are also evaluated. Finally, the present situation of archival education and the measures needed in this fi eld are taken into consideration.

  20. Design and evaluation of a mobile application to assist the self-monitoring of the chronic kidney disease in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrinho, Alvaro; da Silva, Leandro Dias; Perkusich, Angelo; Pinheiro, Maria Eliete; Cunha, Paulo

    2018-01-12

    The chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide critical problem, especially in developing countries. CKD patients usually begin their treatment in advanced stages, which requires dialysis and kidney transplantation, and consequently, affects mortality rates. This issue is faced by a mobile health (mHealth) application (app) that aims to assist the early diagnosis and self-monitoring of the disease progression. A user-centered design (UCD) approach involving health professionals (nurse and nephrologists) and target users guided the development process of the app between 2012 and 2016. In-depth interviews and prototyping were conducted along with healthcare professionals throughout the requirements elicitation process. Elicited requirements were translated into a native mHealth app targeting the Android platform. Afterward, the Cohen's Kappa coefficient statistics was applied to evaluate the agreement between the app and three nephrologists who analyzed test results collected from 60 medical records. Finally, eight users tested the app and were interviewed about usability and user perceptions. A mHealth app was designed to assist the CKD early diagnosis and self-monitoring considering quality attributes such as safety, effectiveness, and usability. A global Kappa value of 0.7119 showed a substantial degree of agreement between the app and three nephrologists. Results of face-to-face interviews with target users indicated a good user satisfaction. However, the task of CKD self-monitoring proved difficult because most of the users did not fully understand the meaning of specific biomarkers (e.g., creatinine). The UCD approach provided mechanisms to develop the app based on the real needs of users. Even with no perfect Kappa degree of agreement, results are satisfactory because it aims to refer patients to nephrologists in early stages, where they may confirm the CKD diagnosis.

  1. Comparative analysis of government debt in the European Union's member states, 2000-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talpoş Ioan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a detailed comparative analysis of the evolution of government debt stocks in the E.U. Member States at the end of the period 31.12.2000-31.12.2013 from the point of view of the share of these debts in the GDP, with a focus on six groups of the E.U. Member States (E.U.-28 countries, E.U.-27 countries, Euro area-18 countries, Euro area-17 countries, Non Euro area-10 countries, Non Euro area-11 countries, on the E.U. Member States with a government debt stock share above or below 60% of the GDP at 31.12.2013, on the Member States which recorded very large deviations of the government debt stocks and of those stocks' shares in PIB in the analyzed period or which recorded a decrease in government debt stock shares in PIB - and, separately, on Romania as well.

  2. EU CONTRIBUTION TO SUPPORT DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Popa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the EU aid concerning to improved the economic situation from developing countries. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify how EU states contribute to helping poor countries, members of the World Trade Organization. For the beginning, we define the EU’position before, during and after the Doha Round – a round of WTO multilateral trade negotiations. Moreover, we analyse the development dimension, focusing on countries „marginalized” until early of XXI century in terms of international trade, because this represents the idea-axis of the Doha Round. In this context, the EU – one of the leading global commercial players and a key member of the institution mentioned above – has set several objectives to achieve the basic goal of negotiations and several ways to support developing countries. To conclude, we propose to define the key points of the European aid for least developed and developing countries.

  3. Two members of the CERN HPD team present their babies. André Braem (left) holds in his hands a 5-inch glass HPD, while a ceramic HPD for medical applications is shown by Christian Joram. The large detector in the middle is a 10-inch HPD developed for an astrophysics experiment.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    Two members of the CERN HPD team present their babies. André Braem (left) holds in his hands a 5-inch glass HPD, while a ceramic HPD for medical applications is shown by Christian Joram. The large detector in the middle is a 10-inch HPD developed for an astrophysics experiment.

  4. The text of the amended Protocol to the Agreement between the Kingdom of Swaziland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The text of the amended Protocol to the Agreement between the Kingdom of Swaziland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency [es

  5. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2010 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-08-01

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compiles background information on the status and development of nuclear power programs in Member States. It consists of organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programs and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy, and electricity situation in each country, and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programs in the world. The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated in 1990s. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. This is the 2010 edition issued on CD-ROM and Web pages. It updates the country information for 48 countries. The CNPP is updated based on information voluntarily provided by participating IAEA Member States. Participants include the 29 countries that have operating nuclear power plants, as well as 19 countries having past or planned nuclear power programmes (Bangladesh, Belarus, Chile, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Italy, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Morocco, Nigeria, Philippines, Poland, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey and Vietnam). For the 2010 edition, 24 countries provided updated or new profiles. For the other countries, the IAEA updated the profile statistical tables on nuclear power, energy development, and economic indicators based on information from IAEA and World Bank databases. The CNPP reports have been prepared by each Member State in accordance with the IAEA format. The IAEA is not responsible for the content of these reports

  6. Directory of gamma processing facilities in Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-02-01

    Ionizing radiation can modify physical, chemical and biological properties of materials. This characteristic of radiation was recognised very soon after the discovery of radioactivity. At present, the principal applications concern sterilisation of health care products, food irradiation and materials modification for polymers. Besides naturally occurring radioactive isotopes, artificial ones were produced using cyclotrons. A significant impetus, however, was given to the radiation processing industry with the advent of nuclear reactors, which were used to produce radioisotopes. Gamma ray emitters like cobalt-60 became popular radiation sources for medical and industrial applications. Many gamma ray irradiators have been built and it is estimated that less than 200 are currently in operation all over the world. In recent times, the use of electron accelerators as a radiation source (sometimes equipped with X ray converter) is increasing. However, gamma irradiators are difficult to replace, especially in the case of non-uniform and high-density products. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has several programmes related to industrial irradiation applications for processing of various products including those related to health care, pharmaceuticals, food and polymers, and applications associated with plant design, dosimetry and safety. Through the technical co-operation programme, the IAEA supports these activities in developing countries and helps them to build local capacity to implement various industrial applications of radiation processing. The IAEA also organises and conducts training courses and workshops, provides individual training to personnel, and sends experts to the radiation facilities in Member States where help is needed. All these activities can be carried out much more efficiently and effectively if there were a comprehensive directory of radiation facilities operating in Member States. Also, such a compilation would be a valuable tool for

  7. Techniques for assessing water resource potentials in the developing countries: with emphasis on streamflow, erosion and sediment transport, water movement in unsaturated soils, ground water, and remote sensing in hydrologic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George C.

    1971-01-01

    Hydrologic instrumentation and methodology for assessing water-resource potentials have originated largely in the developed countries of the temperature zone. The developing countries lie largely in the tropic zone, which contains the full gamut of the earth's climatic environments, including most of those of the temperate zone. For this reason, most hydrologic techniques have world-wide applicability. Techniques for assessing water-resource potentials for the high priority goals of economic growth are well established in the developing countries--but much more are well established in the developing countries--but much more so in some than in other. Conventional techniques for measurement and evaluation of basic hydrologic parameters are now well-understood in the developing countries and are generally adequate for their current needs and those of the immediate future. Institutional and economic constraints, however, inhibit growth of sustained programs of hydrologic data collection and application of the data to problems in engineering technology. Computer-based technology, including processing of hydrologic data and mathematical modelling of hydrologic parameters i also well-begun in many developing countries and has much wider potential application. In some developing counties, however, there is a tendency to look on the computer as a panacea for deficiencies in basic hydrologic data collection programs. This fallacy must be discouraged, as the computer is a tool and not a "magic box." There is no real substitute for sound programs of basic data collection. Nuclear and isotopic techniques are being used increasingly in the developed countries in the measurement and evaluation of virtually all hydrologic parameter in which conventional techniques have been used traditionally. Even in the developed countries, however, many hydrologists are not using nuclear techniques, simply because they lack knowledge of the principles involved and of the potential benefits

  8. Botswana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This study was carried out in Botswana, Tanzania and Zambia as part of the project `Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa` funded by the Danish International Development Agency (Danida). The project was conducted parallel to the UNEP/GEF project `Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations` which involved 8 other developing countries and 2 regional projects in Latin America and the SADC region. The limitation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is a complex issue, intimately connected with economic development at local, national, regional and global levels. Key economic sectors such as energy, agriculture, industry and forestry all produce GHGs, and are likely to be affected directly and indirectly by any mitigation policy. The UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies, initiated in 1991, attempted to address these complex issues, developing a methodological framework and testing it through practical application in ten countries. (EHS) 28 refs.

  9. International application of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxation in obesity reduction: factors that may influence policy effectiveness in country-specific contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Judy; Techakehakij, Win

    2012-09-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxation is becoming of increasing interest as a policy aimed at addressing the rising prevalence of obesity in many countries. Preliminary evidence indicates its potential to not only reduce obesity prevalence, but also generate public revenue. However, differences in country-specific contexts create uncertainties in its possible outcomes. This paper urges careful consideration of country-specific characteristics by suggesting three points in particular that may influence the effectiveness of a volume-based soft drink excise tax: population obesity prevalence, soft drink consumption levels, and existing baseline tax rates. Data from 19 countries are compared with regard to each point. The authors suggest that SSB or soft drink taxation policy may be more effective in reducing obesity prevalence where existing obesity prevalence and soft drink consumption levels are high. Conversely, in countries where the baseline tax rate is already considered high, SSB taxation may not have a noticeable impact on consumption patterns or obesity prevalence, and may incur negative feedback from the beverage industry or the general public. Thorough evaluation of these points is recommended prior to adopting SSB or soft drink taxation as an obesity reduction measure in any given country. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  11. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  12. Thermal effects in concrete members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, A.K.

    1977-01-01

    The proposed method of analysis for concrete members subjected to temperature changes is consistent with the requirements of ultimate strength design. This also facilitates the provision of the same safety margin as for other loads. Due to cracks and creep in concrete, thermal stresses are nonlinear; they are dependent on the effective member stiffness, which in turn vary with the magnitude of loading. Therefore it is inconsistent to have an ultimate strength design in conjunction with an analysis based on the linear elastic theory. It is proposed that when the requirements of serviceability are met, the neutral axis corresponding to the ultimate load capacity conditions be considered for temperature-induced loadings. This conforms with the fact that the thermal load, because of creep and formation of cracks in the member, can be self-relieving as the failure load condition or ultimate capacity is approached. The maximum thermal load that can develop in dependent on the effective cross section of the member. Recommendations are made for determining the average effective member stiffness, which lies between the stiffness corresponding to the cracked (at ultimate condition) and the uncracked sections. In the proposed method, thermal stresses are not considered completely self-relieving. The stresses are considered simultaneously with stresses resulting from other causes. A step-by-step approach is presented for analysis and design of concrete members subjected to temperature changes

  13. Space strategy and governance of ESA small member states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagath, Daniel; Papadimitriou, Angeliki; Adriaensen, Maarten; Giannopapa, Christina

    2018-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has twenty-two Member States with a variety of governance structures and strategic priorities regarding their space activities. The objective of this paper is to provide an up-to date overview and a holistic assessment of the national space governance structures and strategic priorities of the eleven smaller Member States (based on annual ESA contributions). A link is made between the governance structure and the main strategic objectives. The specific needs and interests of small and new Member States in the frame of European Space Integration are addressed. The first part of the paper focuses on the national space governance structures in the eleven smaller ESA Member States. The governance models of these Member States are identified including the responsible ministries and the entities entrusted with the implementation of space strategy/policy and programmes of the country. The second part of this paper focuses on the content and analysis of the national space strategies and indicates the main priorities and trends in the eleven smaller ESA Member States. The priorities are categorised with regards to technology domains, the role of space in the areas of sustainability and the motivators for space investments. In a third and final part, attention is given to the specific needs and interests of the smaller Member States in the frame of European space integration. ESA instruments are tailored to facilitate the needs and interests of the eleven smaller and/or new Member States.

  14. Research Performances of Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoubnasabjafari, Maryam; Sadeghifar, Eliza; Khalili, Majid; Ansarin, Khalil; Jouyban, Abolghasem

    2012-01-01

    Scientometric analysis of academic institutions provides useful information for policy makers, international and national organizations to invest in the research fields of the institutions to gain more outputs with less cost. The objectives of this work were to report a scientometric analysis of Islamic states considering a number of indicators. The number of articles and patents published by members of organization of Islamic conference were extracted from Scopus(TM) along with the top journals, authors, document type, universities, language of the publications and subjects. The analyses of data revealed that Turkey is the leading country followed by Iran, Egypt, Malaysia and Nigeria when total numbers of indexed articles in Scopus(TM) are considered. When the articles of 2006-2010 are considered the ranks are Turkey, Iran, Malaysia, Egypt and Pakistan. the increased pattern was observed for scientific performances of OIC members however, more investments are required to fill the gap between OIC members and the leading countries.

  15. Multivariate Analysis of Countries according to Subdimensions of Human Development and Gender Inequality Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selay Giray

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Human Development Index (HDI is an index aiming to measure human development by taking into account a long and healthy life, access to knowledge and a decent standard of living. The 2013 Human Development Report presents HDI values and ranks, the Inequality-adjusted HDI the Gender Inequality Index (GII and the Multidimensional Poverty Index. The aim of this study is to evaluate countries according to their similarities and differences using the indicators contained in the 2013 human development report. A figure created in two dimensional space was used by evaluation. Locations of Turkey, OECD and Eurasian countries are analyzed and interpreted elaborately. Multidimensional scaling is a statistical technique provides visual representation of the objects using proximity patterns. The most recent data of countries were analyzed by Multidimensional Scaling analysis (MDS. Stress value obtained from metric multidimensional scaling application was found in desired range. Also it was determined that we can trust the interpretations made of the map. To begin with, comparison by country groups was made, then remarkable points were interpreted on the basis of country. As examination of the map obtained from MDS application with HDI and GII indexes, it was remarked that OECD countries were grouped on the left hand side and Eurasian countries were grouped on the right hand side. Turkey, a member of OECD, located far away from other OECD countries and located closer to Eurasian countries. According to HDI and GII indexes Mexico is closest country to Turkey. Also Mexico is the country, which is perceived similar to Turkey.

  16. Energy policies of IEA countries: 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This compilation contains a broad analysis of recent trends and an easily accessible overview of energy policy of the 26 member countries of the International Energy Agency and other key non-member countries such as China, India and Russia, during the last 12 months. The overview section examines trends in energy markets, including an analysis of energy demand and supply, energy prices and energy related CO{sub 2} emissions. It highlights key policy trends across member and non-member countries on energy security, energy market reform, climate change mitigation, energy efficiency, renewables and energy R&D. The book contains a special chapter on energy efficiency, which compares the most successful efficiency policies of member countries on the basis of In-Depth Review findings of the past three years. It also presents the major findings of the World Energy Outlook 2006, key statistical information and brief summaries of major IEA publications released during the past year. In past years summaries of In-Depth Reviews conducted in the cycle covered by this book, as well as Standard Reviews, were published as part of the book. From this year they will only be available from the IEA's website on www.iea.org. Chapter headings are: Executive summary; Energy efficiency; World energy outlook 2006; Energy security; Energy market reform; Climate change; Renewable energy; Technology, research and development; Energy policies in key non-member countries; and Energy balances and key statistical data of IEA countries. 25 figs., 11 tabs., 4 annexes.

  17. Alcohol fuels for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Partha

    1993-01-01

    The importance of alcohol as an alternative fuel has been slowly established. In countries such as Brazil, they are already used in transport and other sectors of economy. Other developing countries are also trying out experiments with alcohol fuels. Chances of improving the economy of many developing nations depends to a large extent on the application of this fuel. The potential for alcohol fuels in developing countries should be considered as part of a general biomass-use strategy. The final strategies for the development of alcohol fuel will necessarily reflect the needs, values, and conditions of the individual nations, regions, and societies that develop them. (author). 5 refs

  18. Country watch: India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, A; Sehgal, P N

    1995-01-01

    Linking more than 3000 health and development organizations, the Voluntary Health Association of India (VHAI) is one of the largest networks in the country. In 1990 VHAI began incorporating HIV/STD-related activities into its broader programs. An existing infrastructure for intersectoral collaboration in the areas of community health promotion, public policy, information and documentation, and communications facilitated inclusion of the new activities. Several VHAI departments collaborate in offering training courses, workshops, and seminars at the state and community levels to involve nongovernmental organizations and professional groups in HIV/STD prevention and counseling. More than 950 persons have been trained so far, including trainers of primary health care workers, family physicians, medical practitioners, social scientists, teachers, community volunteer workers, and youth leaders. Local experts act as training resource persons; materials produced locally, abroad, and by VHAI itself are used. Training facilities are offered free of charge to member organizations; VHAI also awards fellowships for field training and financial support for approved projects. VHAI suggests intervention measures to governmental and nongovernmental organizations related to drug users, youth, truck drivers, blood donors, and people living with HIV/AIDS. The information, documentation, and communications departments provide members with a wide variety of information, education, and communication (IEC) materials that can be translated into local languages: posters, folders, flip charts, stickers, and folk songs. VHAI advocacy issues that have been highlighted through the press include: confidentiality, protection against discrimination, the right of all persons to health care, and the need to make properly-equipped STD clinics available. VHAI has established sub-networks in Tamil Nadu (155 organizations) and Manipur (55 organizations) states. VHAI has found that incorporating HIV

  19. First forum ''BISE'' for: the intelligent energy in the municipalities and the new member states, of candidate countries and western Balkans; Premier forum ''BISE'' pour: l'energie intelligente dans les minicipalites des nouveaux etats membres, des pays candidats et des Balkans occidentaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The european commission and the european association of municipalities (Energie Cites) established a permanent ''Intelligent Energy Forum of European Municipalities'' (named BISE Forum) as form of periodical information exchange between municipal associations and other potential partners in Europe. In the framework of the reduction of the sustainable energy gap between the Central and Eastern European Countries and the most advanced energy-efficient EU 15 countries, the aim of this forum is to promote the creation of national energy cities networks, to integrate the initiatives and networks at an European scale and to promote the idea of an European Emergency Plan in order to improve energy efficiency in Eastern European Countries as quickly as possible. This document presents the proceedings and a selection of cases studies linked to the first BISE Forum. (A.L.B.)

  20. First forum ''BISE'' for: the intelligent energy in the municipalities and the new member states, of candidate countries and western Balkans; Premier forum ''BISE'' pour: l'energie intelligente dans les minicipalites des nouveaux etats membres, des pays candidats et des Balkans occidentaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The european commission and the european association of municipalities (Energie Cites) established a permanent ''Intelligent Energy Forum of European Municipalities'' (named BISE Forum) as form of periodical information exchange between municipal associations and other potential partners in Europe. In the framework of the reduction of the sustainable energy gap between the Central and Eastern European Countries and the most advanced energy-efficient EU 15 countries, the aim of this forum is to promote the creation of national energy cities networks, to integrate the initiatives and networks at an European scale and to promote the idea of an European Emergency Plan in order to improve energy efficiency in Eastern European Countries as quickly as possible. This document presents the proceedings and a selection of cases studies linked to the first BISE Forum. (A.L.B.)

  1. Application of risk perception and communication strategies to manage disease outbreaks of coastal shrimp farming in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan

    2008-01-01

      Risk and uncertainty are very common issues in coastal shrimp industry like in any other business. A variety of risks are associated in shrimp farming like, production risks, technical risks, economical risks and disease of shrimp. However, risk of economic losses due to shrimp mortality (for...... diseases) is the major concern of shrimp producers of developing countries like Bangladesh, India, Thailand, China and many other countries. The risk of disease outbreaks in shrimp farms could be effectively prevented and managed by early identification of disease occurrence and by rapid communication...

  2. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2007 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme on assessment and feedback of nuclear power plant performance. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. It covers background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in countries having nuclear plants in operation and/or plants under construction. This is the 2007 edition issued on CD-ROM and Web pages. It updates the country information, in general, to the end of 2006 for 39 countries. The CNPP is updated based on information voluntarily provided by participating IAEA Member States. Participants include the 30 countries that have operating nuclear power plants, as well as nine countries having past or planned nuclear power programmes (Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Italy, Kazakhstan, Poland, Turkey, and Vietnam). For the 2007 edition, 21 countries provided information to the IAEA to update their profiles. For the 18 other countries, the IAEA updated the profile statistical tables on nuclear power, energy development, and economic indicators based on information from IAEA and World Bank databases. These 18 countries are Argentina, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Egypt, Finland, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, and Ukraine. Overall, the CNPP reviews the organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes in participating countries, and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international frameworks in each country. It compiles the current issues in the new environment within which the electricity and nuclear sector operates, i.e. energy policy, and privatization and deregulation in

  3. Burnout in Female Faculty Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy-Vu, Lisa; Beck, Keli; Moore, Justin B

    2017-04-01

    Despite approximately equal numbers of male and female medical school graduates, women are entering academic medicine at a lower rate than their male colleagues. Of those who do assume a faculty position, female faculty members report higher levels of burnout, often attributable to gender-specific difficulties in clinical expectations and maintenance of work-life balance. Many of these struggles are attributable to issues that are amenable to supportive policies, but these policies are inconsistent in their availability and practice. This commentary presents evidence for inconsistencies in the day-to-day experience of female faculty members, and proposes solutions for the mitigation of the challenges experienced more often by female faculty members with the goal of diversifying and strengthening academic medicine.

  4. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    The information given in this document is divided into two parts. In part I the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials delivered by Members up to 31 December 1965 in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D. Part III contains information about materials which had not been delivered by 31 December but which had been allocated, in accordance with Article XI. F. 1 of the Statute, to approved Agency projects for which project arrangements were in force on that date

  5. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The information given in this document is divided into two parts. In part I the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials delivered by Members up to 31 December 1964 in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D. Part II contains information about materials which had not been delivered by 31 December but which had been allocated, in accordance with Article XI. F. 1 of the Statute, to approved Agency projects for which project arrangements were in force on that date

  6. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    The information given in this document is divided into two parts. In part I the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials delivered by Members up to 30 June 1968 in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX,D. Part II contains information about materials which had not been delivered by 30 June 1968 but which had been allocated, in accordance with Article XI.F.I of the Statute, to approved Agency projects for which project arrangements were in force on that date

  7. Governance Dynamics and the Application of the Multilevel Governance Approach in Vocational Education and Training (VET) in the European Neighbourhood Countries: The Case of the ENPI South Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin Arribas, J. Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses moves towards good multilevel governance approaches in Vocational Education and Training (VET) as an effective way to improve VET policy making in transition and developing countries, focusing on the Southern Neighbourhood of the EU (ENPI South). The centralised approaches in public administration and to VET governance still…

  8. The application of Intervention Mapping in developing and implementing school-based sexuality and HIV/AIDS education in a developing country context: the case of Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mkumbo, K.; Schaalma, H.P.; Kaaya, S.; Leerlooijer, J.N.; Mbwambo, J.; Kilonzo, G.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Effective sexuality and HIV/AIDS education programmes are needed to protect young people against HIV/AIDS and teenage pregnancy in Tanzania and other Sub-Saharan African countries. Using a theory- and evidence-based approach and adapting the programmes to local contexts, increases the

  9. Application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to Reduce Multicollinearity Exchange Rate Currency of Some Countries in Asia Period 2004-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Sri; Sugiarto, Teguh; Madu, Ludiro; Holiawati; Subagyo, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to apply the model principal component analysis to reduce multicollinearity on variable currency exchange rate in eight countries in Asia against US Dollar including the Yen (Japan), Won (South Korea), Dollar (Hong Kong), Yuan (China), Bath (Thailand), Rupiah (Indonesia), Ringgit (Malaysia), Dollar (Singapore). It looks at yield…

  10. Considerations for the selection of an applicable energy efficiency test procedure for electric motors in Malaysia: Lessons for other developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanti, P.A.A.; Mahlia, T.M.I.

    2009-01-01

    Electric motors are a major energy-consuming appliance in the industrial sector. According to a survey, electric motors account for more than 70% of the total growth from 1991 to 2004 in electricity consumption in this sector in Malaysia. To reduce electricity consumption, Malaysia should consider resetting the minimum energy efficiency standards for electric motors sometime in the coming year. The first step towards adopting energy efficiency standards is the creation of a procedure for testing and rating equipment. An energy test procedure is the technical foundation for all energy efficiency standards, energy labels and other related programs. The test conditions in the test procedure must represent the conditions of the country. This paper presents the process for the selection of an energy test procedure for electric motors in Malaysia based on the country's conditions and requirements. The adoption of test procedures for electric motors internationally by several countries is also discussed in this paper. Even though the paper only discusses the test procedure for electric motors in Malaysia, the methods can be directly applied in other countries without major modifications.

  11. Application of AHP for the development of waste management systems that minimize infection risks in developing countries: Case studies Lesotho and South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available -analysis approach, has been incorporated with international Life Cycle Management best practice to subsequently develop a decision support tool (WasteOpt) to optimise developing country rural Health Care Waste Management (HCWM) systems to address a main objective...

  12. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2011 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-08-01

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compiles background information on the status and development of nuclear power programs in Member States. It consists of organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programs and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy, and electricity situation in each country, and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programs in the world. The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated in 1990s. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. This is the 2011 edition issued on CD-ROM and Web pages. It updates the country information for 50 countries. The CNPP is updated based on information voluntarily provided by participating IAEA Member States. Participants include the 29 countries that have operating nuclear power plants, as well as 21 countries having past or planned nuclear power programmes (Bangladesh, Belarus, Chile, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Italy, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Lithuania, Morocco, Nigeria, Philippines, Poland, Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey and Vietnam). For the 2011 edition, 23 countries provided updated or new profiles. For the other countries, the IAEA updated the profile statistical tables on nuclear power, energy development, and economic indicators based on information from IAEA and World Bank databases.

  13. Transfer pricing rules in EU member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important area of international taxes is transfer pricing. Transfer price is a price set by a taxpayer when selling to, buying from, or sharing resources with a related (associated person. The tran­sac­tions between these persons should be assessed at their arm’s length price in according the arm’s length principle – international accepted standard – as the price which would have been agreed between unrelated parties in free market conditions. This paper is focused on the tranfer pricing rules used in particular EU Member States so as if EU Member States apply the arm’s length principle, define the related persons, apply recommendations of the OECD Guidelines, use the transfer pricing methods, require TP Documentation, exercise specific transfer pricing audit or impose specific penalties and apply APAs. Transfer pricing rules should prevent taxpayers from shifting income to related person organized in tax havens or in countries where they enjoy some special tax benefit.

  14. Gas Emergency Policy: Where do IEA Countries Stand?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Natural gas is of increasing importance in the energy mix of IEA Member countries. And yet this growing reliance on natural gas has been coupled with an increased risk of gas disruptions in recent years. Gas security is now an important policy concern for many IEA Member countries, and the IEA has sought to develop its expertise and analysis in this field. This Working Paper looks at the possible remedies that are available for dealing with gas security concerns, and takes stock of developments in gas emergency policy in IEA Member countries.

  15. ALA Salary Survey: Personal Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Libraries, 1971

    1971-01-01

    A survey of the members of the American Library Association revealed that the principal salary determinants are academic degree, type of employer and sex. The obvious differences in the earnings of men and women is not only found in the early experience years but any narrowing which does take place in the wage gap seems to take place at the…

  16. Assessing Sustainability in Developing Country Contexts: The Applicability of Green Building Rating Systems to Building Design and Construction in Madagascar and Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Ozolins, Peter Charles

    2010-01-01

    Buildings have significant and complex impacts both in their construction and in their use. Green building rating systems have been developed and promoted in more economically-advanced countries to offer guidelines to reduce negative impacts and to promote sustainable practices of building construction and operations. The green building rating system called Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), established in 1995 by the U.S. Green Building Council, is increasingly accepted as...

  17. Estimating infertility prevalence in low-to-middle-income countries: an application of a current duration approach to Demographic and Health Survey data

    OpenAIRE

    Polis, Chelsea B.; Cox, Carie M.; Tun?alp, ?zge; McLain, Alexander C.; Thoma, Marie E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract STUDY QUESTION Can infertility prevalence be estimated using a current duration (CD) approach when applied to nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data collected routinely in low- or middle-income countries? SUMMARY ANSWER Our analysis suggests that a CD approach applied to DHS data from Nigeria provides infertility prevalence estimates comparable to other smaller studies in the same region. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Despite associations with serious negative hea...

  18. Understanding Heterogeneous Preferences of Cooperative Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalogeras, N.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Lans, van der I.A.; Garcia, P.; Dijk, van G.

    2009-01-01

    We study the heterogeneity in the preference structure of cooperative members. Using conjoint analysis the utility that members attach to intra-organizational and strategic attributes of their cooperative is elicited. Recognizing that members are not homogenous, a concomitant finitemixture

  19. Policy Instruments for Eco-Innovation in Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Eun; Park, Mi; Roh, Tae; Han, Ki

    2015-01-01

    Eco-innovation globally emerged as an effort to implement sustainable development. States and firms established and implemented policies and strategies for eco-innovation as one route to achieving sustainable development. Eco-innovation has been facilitated in developed countries, specifically OECD members and European countries, through action plans. Recently, eco-innovation policies have emerged in developing countries. Thus, this study analyzes eco-innovation policies in Asian countries. ...

  20. The IAEA Member States' database of discharges of radionuclides to the atmosphere and the aquatic environment (DIRATA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkovskyy, Volodymyr; Hood, Graeme

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper provides the abstract model for authors. It embodies all the required formats and it is written complying with them. DIRATA is the IAEA Member States' database on discharges of radionuclides to the atmosphere and the aquatic environment (http://dirata.iaea.org/). It is a worldwide centralized repository of data submitted by IAEA Member States on a voluntary basis and each site dataset includes annual discharge and detection limits. Regulatory limits are given by Member States whenever available and a limited amount of information on the location of the site (country, geographical coordinates, water body into which radioactivity is released, number, names and types of installations) is also included. One of important purposes of DIRATA is to assist UNSCEAR in the preparation of the regular reports to the UN General Assembly and to serve Member States as a technical means for reporting and reviewing within the framework of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. The on-line version of the DIRATA database was deployed for the pilot application by Member States and the general public in 2006 and provides tools for: 1-)Input of the primary information by IAEA Member States and international organizations in batch or interactive (record by record) modes. The Microsoft Excel template is provided on the DIRATA website for the batch input; 2-) On-line access of Member States and the public to the dataset. The information contained in DIRATA is available for downloading (in CSV format) and interactive review. The new web-based version of DIRATA has inherited all of the important features contained on the previous CD-ROM versions, and has been extended by the number of principally new functionalities. The paper describes the structure, functionalities and content of the DIRATA database. (author)

  1. Expert views on societal responses to different applications of nanotechnology: a comparative analysis of experts in countries with different economic and regulatory environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; George, S.; Frewer, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of different applications of nanotechnology will be informed by expert views regarding which (types of) application will be most societally acceptable. Previous research in Northern Europe has indicated that experts believe that various factors will be influential, predominant among

  2. Consequences of EU air quality directives for spatial development plans in various EU countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelemeijer, R.B.A.; Blom, W.F.; Bouwman, A.A.; Hammingh, P.; Backes, C.W.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few years, the highest Dutch court of justice has rejected many building plans for new homes, roads and businesses because of reasons related to EU air quality limit values. This has made it clear that detailed impact assessments are necessary to having plans approved for permits, and that failure to achieve limit values can be a reason to reject a plan. An investigation to see whether such issues have also played a role in other EU countries has proven the contrary. Only a few similar court cases have taken place in other countries, while air quality limit values are breached in other EU countries as well. The reason is that the Netherlands has implemented the first EU Daughter Directive in a relatively strict manner in comparison to other countries, in particular: Adopting a strict legal coupling of air quality and spatial planning policies, with many types of plans being subject to an air quality impact assessment; Perceiving limit values as absolute limit values, whereas in many other countries a need to meet a limit value is weighted with other interests in granting permits; Applying limit values to the whole country. Although this application is, in principle, valid for all EU member states, some member states apply limit values only to locations where people can be exposed; Since air quality assessment is detailed in the Netherlands, many locations are appointed where air quality limit values are breached. Clearly, the role of limit values in granting permits for plans differs considerably among the EU countries, while the underlying EU legislation is the same, and while limit values are breached in other countries as well [nl

  3. TO ALL MEMBERS OF THE PERSONNEL

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Temporary work for children of members of the personnel During the period mid-June to mid-September 2003, there will be a limited number of vacancies for temporary work at CERN (normally unskilled work of routine nature) which will be made available to children of members of the personnel (i.e. anyone holding an employment or association contract with CERN). It should be noted that candidates must be aged between 18 and 24 inclusive on the first day of the contract, and that they must have insurance cover for both illness and accident. In view of the limited number of vacancies available, no children previously appointed at CERN under this scheme can be considered. The duration of all appointments will be 4 weeks, the allowance being CHF 1582.- for this period. Application form can be obtained from Martine PLAZA, HR Division (by using the slip in the bulletin or by electronic mail to Martine.Plaza@cern.ch) or at http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/general/HN-personnel/ Completed application forms must be returne...

  4. TO ALL MEMBERS OF THE PERSONNEL

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Temporary work for children of members of the personnel During the period mid-June to mid-September 2003, there will be a limited number of vacancies for temporary work at CERN (normally unskilled work of routine nature) which will be made available to children of members of the personnel (i.e. anyone holding an employment or association contract with CERN). It should be noted that candidates must be aged between 18 and 24 inclusive on the first day of the contract, and that they must have insurance cover for both illness and accident. In view of the limited number of vacancies available, no children previously appointed at CERN under this scheme can be considered. The duration of all appointments will be 4 weeks, the allowance being CHF 1582.- for this period. Application form can be obtained from Martine PLAZA, HR Division (by electronic mail to Martine.Plaza@cern.ch) or at http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/general/HN-personnel/ Completed application forms must be returned to this service by 2 May 2003 at th...

  5. TO ALL MEMBERS OF THE PERSONNEL

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Temporary work for children of members of the personnel During the period mid-June to mid-September 2003, there will be a limited number of vacancies for temporary work at CERN (normally unskilled work of routine nature) which will be made available to children of members of the personnel (i.e. anyone holding an employment or association contract with CERN). It should be noted that candidates must be aged between 18 and 24 inclusive on the first day of the contract, and that they must have insurance cover for both illness and accident. In view of the limited number of vacancies available, no children previously appointed at CERN under this scheme can be considered. The duration of all appointments will be 4 weeks, the allowance being CHF 1582.- for this period. Application form can be obtained from Martine PLAZA, HR Division (by electronic mail to Martine.Plaza@cern.ch) or at http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/general/HN-personnel/ Completed application forms must be returned to this service by 2 May 2003 at t...

  6. Evaluation Model of the Entrepreneurial Character in EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Madalin Munteanu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The evidence of entrepreneurship development as a factor of sustainable growth at national and regional level frequently calls for the interest of theorists and practitioners on identifying and outlining the best conditions and economic essential prerequisites for supporting the entrepreneurial initiatives on the long term. In this context, the objective of the present research is to analyse and measure the entrepreneurial character of the European Union member countries in an integrated manner, by developing an innovative model for proposing specific action lines and objectively evaluating the entrepreneurship development in the investigated states. Our model is based on a synthesis variable of the entrepreneurial national character, which was developed by sequential application of principal component analysis, while the initial variables are from secondary sources with good conceptual representativeness. Depending on the objective relevance of the three model components (cultural, economic and administrative, and entrepreneurial education components, the achieved results confirm the importance of a favourable cultural and economic and administrative background for entrepreneurship development and they reiterate the inefficiency of isolated entrepreneurial education unless supported by good entrepreneurial culture or adequate economic and administrative infrastructure. The case of Romania, in relation with the European Union member countries, is presented in detail.

  7. Community Members Draw the Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Freeland

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether a community-based task force’s redistricting plan in Ventura County, California, positively affected fair representation, social equity issues, community interests, and the electoral process. Examination and evaluation of the organizational strategies and collaborations involved in the task force’s redistricting process find that the Board of Supervisors districts that members of the community drew were successful in improving and maintaining fair representation. This finding is based on comparing supervisorial votes and policies with community members’ votes on state propositions and local measures, in addition to conducting interviews with task force members, politicians, and community activists. This study finds that citizen participation in governmental processes improves overall community health and political participation.

  8. Power reactors in member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This is the first issue of a periodical computer-based listing of civilian nuclear power reactors in the Member States of the IAEA, presenting the situation as of 1 April 1975. It is intended as a replacement for the Agency's previous annual publication of ''Power and Research Reactors in Member States''. In the new format, the listing contains more information about power reactors in operation, under construction, planned and shut down. As far as possible all the basic design data relating to reactors in operation have been included. In future these data will be included also for other power reactors, so that the publication will serve to give a clear picture of the technical progress achieved. Test and research reactors and critical facilities are no longer listed. Of interest to nuclear power planners, nuclear system designers, nuclear plant operators and interested professional engineers and scientists

  9. New offer for our members

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Evolution 2, your specialist for Outdoor Adventures Be it for a ski lesson, a parachute jump or for a mountain bike descent, come live an unforgettable experience with our outdoor specialists. Benefit from a 10 % discount on all activities: Offer is open to SA members and their family members living in the same household, upon presentation of the membership card. Offer available for all bookings made between 1 June 2018 and 30 May 2019. Offer available on all the Evoltion2 sites. A wide range of summer and winter activities. More information on http://evolution2.com/ Contact and reservation : +33 (0)4.50.02.63.35 management@evolution2.com

  10. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    The information given in this document is divided into two parts. In part I the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials delivered up to 30 September 1962 by Member States in compliance with requests the Agency has made under Article IX. D. Part II contains information about materials which have not yet been delivered but which have been allocated, in accordance with Article XI. F. 1 of the Statute, to approved Agency projects for which project agreements were in force on 30 September 1962. Reports on subsequent deliveries of materials and revised information about allocated but undelivered materials will be issued from time to time

  11. Communication Among Melanoma Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Deborah J; Albrecht, Terrance; Hay, Jennifer; Eggly, Susan; Harris-Wei, Julie; Meischke, Hendrika; Burke, Wylie

    2017-01-01

    Interventions to improve communication among family members may facilitate information flow about familial risk and preventive health behaviors. This is a secondary analysis of the effects of an interactive website intervention aimed at increasing communication frequency and agreement about health risk among melanoma families. Participants were family units, consisting of one family member with melanoma identified from a previous research study (the case) and an additional first degree relative and a parent of a child 0–17. Family triads were randomized to receive access to the website intervention or to serve as control families. Family communication frequency and agreement about melanoma prevention behaviors and beliefs were measured at baseline and again at one year post randomization. Intervention participants of all three types significantly increased the frequency of communication to their first degree relatives (Parents, siblings, children; range =14–18 percentage points; all pcommunication about cancer risk. PMID:28248624

  12. New support line for members

    Science.gov (United States)

    AGU has recently established a new customer "support line"—solutions@agu.org—as the point of contact on AGU's staff for members and other individual constituents who have not been able to resolve issues or get questions answered promptly or to their satisfaction through customary channels.Over the past year, there have been many changes at AGU. Unfortunately—and perhaps as a result of these changes—communication with members and individual constituents has suffered. Some individuals report, for example, that e-mail messages are not answered to their satisfaction, or in a timely manner. Instructions on AGU's Web site are unclear in some areas. Problems related specifically to the transition to electronic publishing are cropping up.

  13. Shielding member for thermonuclear device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, Masanori

    1997-06-30

    In a thermonuclear device for shielding fast neutrons by shielding members disposed in a shielding vessel (vacuum vessel and structures such as a blanket disposed in the vacuum vessel), the shielding member comprises a large number of shielding wires formed fine and short so as to have elasticity. The shielding wires are sealed in a shielding vessel together with water, and when the width of the shielding vessel is changed, the shielding wires follow after the change of the width while elastically deforming in the shielding vessel, so that great stress and deformation are not formed thereby enabling to improve reliability. In addition, the length, the diameter and the shape of each of the shielding wires can be selected in accordance with the shielding space of the shielding vessel. Even if the shape of the shielding vessel is complicated, the shielding wires can be inserted easily. Accordingly, the filling rate of the shielding members can be changed easily. It can be produced more easily compared with a conventional spherical pebbles. It can be produced more easily than existent spherical shielding pebbles thereby enabling to reduce the production cost. (N.H.)

  14. Indigenous well-being in four countries: An application of the UNDP'S Human Development Index to Indigenous Peoples in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimond Eric

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canada, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand consistently place near the top of the United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Index (HDI rankings, yet all have minority Indigenous populations with much poorer health and social conditions than non-Indigenous peoples. It is unclear just how the socioeconomic and health status of Indigenous peoples in these countries has changed in recent decades, and it remains generally unknown whether the overall conditions of Indigenous peoples are improving and whether the gaps between Indigenous peoples and other citizens have indeed narrowed. There is unsettling evidence that they may not have. It was the purpose of this study to determine how these gaps have narrowed or widened during the decade 1990 to 2000. Methods Census data and life expectancy estimates from government sources were used to adapt the Human Development Index (HDI to examine how the broad social, economic, and health status of Indigenous populations in these countries have changed since 1990. Three indices – life expectancy, educational attainment, and income – were combined into a single HDI measure. Results Between 1990 and 2000, the HDI scores of Indigenous peoples in North America and New Zealand improved at a faster rate than the general populations, closing the gap in human development. In Australia, the HDI scores of Indigenous peoples decreased while the general populations improved, widening the gap in human development. While these countries are considered to have high human development according to the UNDP, the Indigenous populations that reside within them have only medium levels of human development. Conclusion The inconsistent progress in the health and well-being of Indigenous populations over time, and relative to non-Indigenous populations, points to the need for further efforts to improve the social, economic, and physical health of Indigenous peoples.

  15. Indigenous well-being in four countries: an application of the UNDP'S human development index to indigenous peoples in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Martin; Mitrou, Francis; Lawrence, David; Guimond, Eric; Beavon, Dan

    2007-12-20

    Canada, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand consistently place near the top of the United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Index (HDI) rankings, yet all have minority Indigenous populations with much poorer health and social conditions than non-Indigenous peoples. It is unclear just how the socioeconomic and health status of Indigenous peoples in these countries has changed in recent decades, and it remains generally unknown whether the overall conditions of Indigenous peoples are improving and whether the gaps between Indigenous peoples and other citizens have indeed narrowed. There is unsettling evidence that they may not have. It was the purpose of this study to determine how these gaps have narrowed or widened during the decade 1990 to 2000. Census data and life expectancy estimates from government sources were used to adapt the Human Development Index (HDI) to examine how the broad social, economic, and health status of Indigenous populations in these countries have changed since 1990. Three indices - life expectancy, educational attainment, and income - were combined into a single HDI measure. Between 1990 and 2000, the HDI scores of Indigenous peoples in North America and New Zealand improved at a faster rate than the general populations, closing the gap in human development. In Australia, the HDI scores of Indigenous peoples decreased while the general populations improved, widening the gap in human development. While these countries are considered to have high human development according to the UNDP, the Indigenous populations that reside within them have only medium levels of human development. The inconsistent progress in the health and well-being of Indigenous populations over time, and relative to non-Indigenous populations, points to the need for further efforts to improve the social, economic, and physical health of Indigenous peoples.

  16. Indonesian country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munawir Zulqarnain, M.

    2005-01-01

    BATAN started to study EB (electron beam) flue gas treatment in 2001 after a joint memorandum of understanding on application of EB flue gas treatment in Power Plant between BATAN (National Nuclear Energy Agency), BPPT (Technology Implementation and Assessment Agency) and Indonesia Power Company was signed. Among several power plants (coal or oil) in Indonesia only one is installed with flue gas treatment equipment. This is to reduce CO 2 emission from the newest of coal power plant in Indonesia with 1200 MWe. The BATAN starts by seeking and learning data and engineering concept and processes from other countries to install an EB flue gas treatment equipment. The role of demonstration plant installation is very important to the future EB flue gas treatment in Indonesia. (S. Ohno)

  17. Country programming mission. Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In response to a request from the Government of Namibia conveyed in a letter dated 29 November 1990 IAEA provided a multi-disciplinary Programming Mission which visited Namibia from 15 - 19 July 1991. The terms of reference of the Mission were: 1. To assess the possibilities and benefits of nuclear energy applications in Namibia's development; 2. To advise on the infrastructure required for nuclear energy projects; 3. To assist in the formulation of project proposals which could be submitted for Agency assistance. This report is based on the findings of the Mission and falls into 3 sections with 8 appendices. The first section is a country profile providing background information, the second section deals with sectorial needs and institutional review of the sectors of agriculture including animal production, life sciences (nuclear medicine and radiotherapy) and radiation protection. The third section includes possible future technical co-operation activities

  18. The Czech and Slovak Federal Republic - a member state of CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederle, J.

    1992-01-01

    Czechoslovakia became a CERN member state on January 1, 1992 at a meeting of the CERN Board, the highest CERN body; the admission was based on the required unanimous approval by all the 16 CERN member country representatives. The establishment of CERN, its development, aims and fields of research activities are briefly outlined. (Z.S.). 8 figs

  19. Multidimensional Welfare Comparisons of EU Member States Before, During, and After the Financial Crisis: A Dominance Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, M. Azhar; Siersbæk, Nikolaj; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    How did the financial crisis affect population welfare in EU member states in key dimensions such as income, health, and education? Using EU-SILC data, we seek to answer this question by way of first order dominance comparisons between countries and over time. The novel feature of our study...... is that we perform welfare comparisons on the basis of multi-level multidimensional ordinal data. We nd that the countries most often dominated are southern and eastern European member states, and the dominant countries are mostly northern and western European member states. However, for most country...

  20. General practitioners’ views on the acceptability and applicability of a web-based intervention to reduce antibiotic prescribing for acute cough in multiple European countries: a qualitative study prior to a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthierens Sibyl

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interventions to promote prudent antibiotic prescribing by general practitioners (GPs have often only been developed for use in one country. We aimed to develop an intervention which would be appropriate to implement in multiple European countries in order to offer greater benefit to practice whilst using fewer resources. The INTRO (INternet TRaining for antibiOtic use intervention needed to deliver training to GPs in the use of C-Reactive Protein (CRP near patient tests to help diagnose acute cough and in communication skills to help explain prescribing decisions to patients. We explored GPs’ views on the initial version of INTRO to test acceptability and potentially increase applicability for use in multiple countries before the start of a randomised trial. Method 30 GPs from five countries (Belgium, England, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain, were interviewed using a “think aloud” approach. GPs were asked to work through the intervention and discuss their views on the content and format in relation to following the intervention in their own practice. GPs viewed the same intervention but versions were created in five languages. Data were coded using thematic analysis. Results GPs in all five countries reported the view that the intervention addressed an important topic, was broadly acceptable and feasible to use, and would be a useful tool to help improve clinical practice. However, GPs in the different countries identified aspects of the intervention that did not reflect their national culture or healthcare system. These included perceived differences in communication style used in the consultation, consultation length and the stage of illness at which patient typically presented. Conclusion An online intervention to support evidence-based use of antibiotics is acceptable and feasible to implement amongst GPs in multiple countries. However, tailoring of the intervention to suit national contexts was necessary by

  1. Energy policies of IEA countries. 1993 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Energy policies in Member countries's and the international energy situation are highlighted in this 1993 edition. It reviews recent trends and developments in energy demand, conservation and efficiency, supply of primary fuels, environment, technology and R and D. This year's Review also gives an overview of significant developments in key policy areas since the IEA's creation, on the occasion of its 20th anniversary. Member countries' energy policies are reviewed in depth on a four-year cycle. In-depth reviews of the energy policies of Austria, Denmark, Germany, Greece, the United Kingdom and the United States were conducted in 1993. Energy policy developments and supply and demand trends for the other 17 countries are updated from the previous in-depth reviews and summarized in this volume. (authors). figs., tabs

  2. 7 CFR 1425.19 - Member cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Member cooperatives. 1425.19 Section 1425.19... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.19 Member cooperatives. A CMA may obtain loans or LDP's on behalf of a member cooperative when the member...

  3. Assessment of national waste generation in EU Member States’ efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Halkos, George; Petrou, Kleoniki Natalia

    2018-01-01

    Waste generation and management may be considered as either a by-product of economic actions or even used as input to economic activity like energy recovery. Every country produces different amounts of municipal solid waste (MSW) and with different composition. This paper deals with the efficiency of 28 EU Member States for the years 2008, 2010 and 2012 by employing Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and by using eight parameters, namely waste generation, employment rate, capital formation, GDP,...

  4. Macroeconomic sources of foreign exchange risk in new EU members

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočenda, Evžen; Poghosyan, T.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 11 (2009), s. 2164-2173 ISSN 0378-4266 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA402/08/1376; GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : foreign exchange risk * time-varying risk premium * Stochastic discount factor * new EU member countries Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.908, year: 2009

  5. EU MEMBER STATES AND FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION– EMPIRICAL COMPARISON

    OpenAIRE

    Žan Oplotnik; Mateja Finžgar

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of an article is to compare systems of fiscal decentralization in EU member states according to selected quantitative criteria and European Charter of Local Self-Government principles. The results show that a higher number of lower levels of government usually indicate a greater share of local finance within the total public finance, however, this finding does not confirm the inverse link. Even though the structure of expenditures in EU countries is similar, the shares of funds fo...

  6. Windscale planning application. Statement of submissions by British Nuclear Fuels Limited pursuant to rule 6(6) of the town and country planning (inquiries procedure) rules, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-05-01

    This is an outline planning application for plant for reprocessing irradiated oxide nuclear fuels and support site services. The general background of the application is stated and the history of the negotiations with the Secretary of State for the Environment and other planning authorities. The activities of the company are described; and the importance of reprocessing in the economy of nuclear power, and in relation to radioactive waste management is discussed. The application continues under the following headings: the need for the proposed plant, plutonium risks, method of reprocessing, the treatment storage and disposal of waste, radiological protection. Matters of local importance are also dealt with, such as visual impact, employment, and site services. (U.K.)

  7. Views of Medical Doctors Regarding the 2013 WHO Adult HIV Treatment Guidelines Indicate Variable Applicability for Routine Patient Monitoring, for Their Family Members and for Themselves, in South-Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Willem Daniel Francois; Fairlie, Lee; Feldman, Charles; Cleaton-Jones, Peter; Chersich, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    South African doctors (n = 211) experienced in antiretroviral therapy use were asked via an online questionnaire about the WHO 2013 adult antiretroviral integrated guidelines, as well as clinical and personal issues, in three hypothetical scenarios: directing the Minister of Health, advising a family member requiring therapy amidst unstable antiretroviral supplies, and where doctors themselves were HIV-positive. Doctors (54%) favoured the 500 cells/μl WHO initiation threshold if advising the Minister; a third recommended retaining the 350 cells/μl threshold used at the time of the survey. However, they favoured a higher initiation threshold for their family member. Doctors were 4.9 fold more likely to initiate modern treatment, irrespective of their CD4 cell count, for themselves than for public-sector patients (95%CI odds ratio = 3.33-7.33; Pfamily and friends. Respondents were overwhelmingly in favour of continued antiretrovirals after breastfeeding. In conclusion, doctors largely supported adult WHO guidelines as public policy, although would initiate treatment at higher CD4 counts for their family and themselves. Resistance to INH-prophylaxis is unexpected and warrants investigation.

  8. Estimating infertility prevalence in low-to-middle-income countries: an application of a current duration approach to Demographic and Health Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polis, Chelsea B; Cox, Carie M; Tunçalp, Özge; McLain, Alexander C; Thoma, Marie E

    2017-05-01

    Can infertility prevalence be estimated using a current duration (CD) approach when applied to nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data collected routinely in low- or middle-income countries? Our analysis suggests that a CD approach applied to DHS data from Nigeria provides infertility prevalence estimates comparable to other smaller studies in the same region. Despite associations with serious negative health, social and economic outcomes, infertility in developing countries is a marginalized issue in sexual and reproductive health. Obtaining reliable, nationally representative prevalence estimates is critical to address the issue, but methodological and resource challenges have impeded this goal. This cross-sectional study was based on standard information available in the DHS core questionnaire and data sets, which are collected routinely among participating low-to-middle-income countries. Our research question was examined among women participating in the 2013 Nigeria DHS (n = 38 948). Among women eligible for the study, 98% were interviewed. We applied a CD approach (i.e. current length of time-at-risk of pregnancy) to estimate time-to-pregnancy (TTP) and 12-month infertility prevalence among women 'at risk' of pregnancy at the time of interview (n = 7063). Women who were 18-44 years old, married or cohabitating, sexually active within the past 4 weeks and not currently using contraception (and had not been sterilized) were included in the analysis. Estimates were based on parametric survival methods using bootstrap methods (500 bootstrap replicates) to obtain 95% CIs. The estimated median TTP among couples at risk of pregnancy was 5.1 months (95% CI: 4.2-6.3). The estimated percentage of infertile couples was 31.1% (95% CI: 27.9-34.7%)-consistent with other smaller studies from Nigeria. Primary infertility (17.4%, 95% CI: 12.9-23.8%) was substantially lower than secondary infertility (34.1%, 95% CI: 30.3-39.3%) in this population

  9. Directory of cyclotrons used for radionuclide production in Member States [2006 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    The present directory of cyclotron facilities used for the production of radionuclides in Member States is an update of the one compiled by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in late 2001 and published in 2002. This directory was prepared through information collected by questionnaires that the IAEA sent to known institutions operating cyclotrons for radionuclide production. Technical as well as administrative data supplied to the IAEA as of November 2005 were taken into account. The directory is considered to include most of the cyclotrons of the world that are used at least partially for radionuclide production. There are 262 entries for cyclotrons operating in 39 Member States of the IAEA. This is an increase of 7% over the 246 reported in the 2002 cyclotron directory. This can be compared to the 350 or so cyclotrons believed to be presently operating in the world, which are involved in some aspects of radionuclide production. The increase has been in the number of cyclotrons in developed countries, but even more so in the developing countries. The increase in number during the last four years was driven by several factors, i.e. advent of advances in medical imaging, introduction of compact, user friendly medical cyclotron, and a recent decision that costs for 15 O-oxygen position emission tomography (PET) studies in Japan and 18 F-FDG PET studies in Germany and the United States of America are eligible for reimbursement by government or health insurance companies. There is no doubt that the fastest growing segment of the market is in the commercial distribution of FDG to local hospitals. The IAEA is promoting cyclotron technology as applied to nuclear medicine. Requests for cyclotron technology is steadily increasing; many developing Member States are interested in this technology. There is need to stimulate, build and maintain consulting capability in interested developing Member States. There are good reasons to believe that the number of cyclotron

  10. Measuring temporal liking simultaneously to Temporal Dominance of Sensations in several intakes. An application to Gouda cheeses in 6 Europeans countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A; Chambault, M; Dreyfuss, L; Gilbert, C C; Hegyi, A; Henneberg, S; Knippertz, A; Kostyra, E; Kremer, S; Silva, A P; Schlich, P

    2017-09-01

    The idea of having untrained consumers performing Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) and dynamic liking in the same session was recently introduced (Thomas, van der Stelt, Prokop, Lawlor, & Schlich, 2016). In the present study, a variation of the data acquisition protocol was done, aiming to record TDS and liking simultaneously on the same screen in a single session during multiple product intakes. This method, called Simultaneous Temporal Drivers of Liking (S-TDL), was used to describe samples of Gouda cheese in an international experiment. To test this idea, consumers from six European countries (n=667) assessed 4 Gouda cheeses with different ages and fat contents during one sensory evaluation session. Ten sensory attributes and a 9-point hedonic scale were presented simultaneously on the computer screen. While performing TDS, consumers could reassess their liking score as often as they wanted. This new type of sensory data was coded by individual average liking scores while a given attribute was perceived as dominant (Liking While Dominant; LWD). Although significant differences in preference were observed among countries, there were global preferences for a longer dominance of melting, fatty and tender textures. The cheese flavour attribute was the best positive TDL, whereas bitter was a strong negative TDL. A cluster analysis of the 667 consumers identified three significant liking clusters, each with different most and least preferred samples. For the TDL computation by cluster, significant specific TDL were observed. These results showed the importance of overall liking segmentation before TDL analysis to determine which attributes should have a longer dominance duration in order to please specific consumer targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Are the current recommendations for the use of aspirin in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease applicable in low-income countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noubiap JJ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jean Jacques N Noubiap,1,2 Jobert Richie N Nansseu3,41Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 2Medical Diagnostic Center, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 3Sickle Cell Disease Unit, Mother and Child Centre, Chantal BIYA Foundation, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 4Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, CameroonAbstract: Although evidence has accumulated that long-term aspirin therapy is beneficial in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD, a lot of controversies persist regarding the benefit of aspirin use in primary prevention of CVD. In low-income countries (LIC specifically, the decision to prescribe aspirin for primary CVD prevention is more problematic, as there is a dearth of evidence in this regard. Aspirin has been shown to have relative beneficial effects in preventing a first myocardial infarction, but not stroke. However, as stroke is the prevailing CVD in many LIC, especially in Africa, the benefit of aspirin in these settings is therefore questionable. Indeed, there is no published trial that has evaluated the benefits and risks of continuous aspirin therapy in populations of LIC. Furthermore, though cardiovascular risk assessment is crucial in decision-making for the use of aspirin in primary prevention of CVD, there are no risk assessment tools that have been validated in African populations. Studies are urgently warranted, to determine the usefulness of aspirin in primary prevention of CVD in low-income settings where the drug is highly available and affordable, as CVD is becoming the leading cause of deaths in LIC.Keywords: aspirin, cardiovascular disease, primary prevention, low-income countries

  12. Country report: utilization of MINT's research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ab Khalic b Hj Wood; Adnan b Bukhari; Wee Boon Siong

    2004-01-01

    MINT has only one research reactor, i.e. TRIGA MKII reactor, equipped with various neutron irradiation facilities such as rotary rack and rabbit system. Apart from counting facilities for NAA work, other facilities available for the respective studies include facilities for neutron radiography and SANS. At Present most of reactor operation time has been utilized for samples irradiation related to the NAA application. Majority of the samples are from MINT analytical chemistry laboratory where the present authors work, and the rest of the samples are from local universities. They provide analytical chemistry services for other government departments as well as private companies. In order to improve the reactor utilization, the management of MINT has formed Reactor Interest Group (RIG) at the national level in 2002, which embraces members from various institutions in this country. To support the RIG activities, MINT provides seed funding to finance various activities for the reactor utilization, which include financing project to make use of SANS, neutron radiography and radioisotopes production (mainly for tracer studies carried out by MINT's tracer group) facilities, and funding for basic study in BNCT. (author)

  13. Building capacity for information and communication technology use in global health research and training in China: a qualitative study among Chinese health sciences faculty members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Abdullah, Abu S; Ma, Zhenyu; Fu, Hua; Huang, Kaiyong; Yu, Hongping; Wang, Jiaji; Cai, Le; He, Huimin; Xiao, Jian; Quintiliani, Lisa; Friedman, Robert H; Yang, Li

    2017-06-28

    The demand to use information and communications technology (ICT) in education and research has grown fast among researchers and educators working in global health. However, access to ICT resources and the capacity to use them in global health research remains limited among developing country faculty members. In order to address the global health needs and to design an ICT-related training course, we herein explored the Chinese health science faculty members' perceptions and learning needs for ICT use. Nine focus groups discussions (FGDs) were conducted during December 2015 to March 2016, involving 63 faculty members working in areas of health sciences from six universities in China. All FGDs were audio recorded and analysed thematically. The findings suggest that the understandings of ICT were not clear among many researchers; some thought that the concept of ICT was too wide and ambiguous. Most participants were able to cite examples of ICT application in their research and teaching activities. Positive attitudes and high needs of ICT use and training were common among most participants. Recommendations for ICT training included customised training programmes focusing on a specific specialty, maintaining a balance between theories and practical applications, more emphasis on the application of ICT, and skills in finding the required information from the bulk information available in the internet. Suggestions regarding the format and offering of training included short training programmes, flexible timing, lectures with practicum opportunities, and free of charge or with very minimal cost to the participants. Two participants suggested the linking of ICT-related training courses with faculty members' year-end assessment and promotion. This study among health sciences faculty members in China demonstrated a high level of need and interest in learning about ICT use in research and training. The results have important implications for the design and implementation of

  14. Comparative study of the methods used for treatment and final disposal of sewage sludge in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelessidis, Alexandros; Stasinakis, Athanasios S

    2012-06-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment results to the production of large quantities of sewage sludge, which requires proper and environmentally accepted management before final disposal. In European Union, sludge management remains an open and challenging issue for the Member States as the relative European legislation is fragmentary and quite old, while the published data concerning sludge treatment and disposal in different European countries are often incomplete and inhomogeneous. The main objective of the current study was to outline the current situation and discuss future perspectives for sludge treatment and disposal in EU countries. According to the results, specific sludge production is differentiated significantly between European countries, ranging from 0.1 kg per population equivalent (p.e.) and year (Malta) to 30.8 kg per p.e. and year (Austria). More stringent legislations comparing to European Directive 86/278/EC have been adopted for sludge disposal in soil by several European countries, setting lower limit values for heavy metals as well as limit values for pathogens and organic micropollutants. A great variety of sludge treatment technologies are used in EU countries, while differences are observed between Member States. Anaerobic and aerobic digestion seems to be the most popular stabilization methods, applying in 24 and 20 countries, respectively. Mechanical sludge dewatering is preferred comparing to the use of drying beds, while thermal drying is mainly applied in EU-15 countries (old Member States) and especially in Germany, Italy, France and UK. Regarding sludge final disposal, sludge reuse (including direct agricultural application and composting) seems to be the predominant choice for sludge management in EU-15 (53% of produced sludge), following by incineration (21% of produced sludge). On the other hand, the most common disposal method in EU-12 countries (new Member States that joined EU after 2004) is still landfilling. Due to the obligations

  15. Republic of Venezuela. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R

    1985-06-01

    countries in the region. In 1981, 1 million of the countrys, residents were foreign born. The oil industry attracted many immigrants, and illegal immigration is a serious problem. 41% of the population is under 15 years of age, the birth rate is 33-37, the death rate is 5, the infant mortality rate is 39, and life expectancy is 69 years. Average household size is 5.28. Family life is highly unstable. 32% of the couples are in informal unions, and these couples account for 52% of all births. 20% of the households are headed by low income women. The total fertility rate was 6.7 in 1961 and is currently 4.3. There are 3.2 million housing units, and 800,000 of these are classified as inadequate. 65% of the population is mestizo, 20% is European, and the remaining 15% are from various other countries or members of indigenous groups. The population is predominantly Catholic. The literacy rate is 83%; however, 71% of the males and 84% of the females in rural areas are illiterate. 31.5% of the population is in the labor force, and 27.5% of the labor force is female. 20% of the labor force is in the service sector and many of these work in the overgrown government bureaucracy. Only 15% of the labor force is engaged in the primary sector. 37% of the residents of Caracas and 80% of the country's rural residents live below the poverty level.

  16. Building country image process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubović Jovan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The same branding principles are used for countries as they are used for the products, only the methods are different. Countries are competing among themselves in tourism, foreign investments and exports. Country turnover is at the level that the country's reputation is. The countries that begin as unknown or with a bad image will have limits in operations or they will be marginalized. As a result they will be at the bottom of the international influence scale. On the other hand, countries with a good image, like Germany (despite two world wars will have their products covered with a special "aura".

  17. To all members of the personnel

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Temporary work for children of members of the personnel During the period mid-June to mid-September 2005, a limited number of vacancies for temporary work at CERN (normally unskilled work of a routine nature) will be available to children of members of the personnel (i.e. anyone holding an employment or association contract with CERN). It should be noted that candidates must be aged between 18 and 24 inclusive on the first day of the contract, and that they must have insurance cover for both illness and accident. In view of the limited number of vacancies available, no children having previously worked at CERN under this scheme can be considered. The duration of all appointments will be 4 weeks and the allowance for the period will be CHF 1621.- net. Candidates should apply via the HR Department's electronic recruitment system (E-rt) : http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/internal/personnel/pmd/cr/Staff-kids-05.pdf Completed application forms must be returned to this Service by 8 April 2005 ...

  18. To all members of the personnel

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Summer work for children of members of the personnel During the period from 13 June to 16 September 2011 inclusive, there will be a limited number of jobs for summer work at CERN (normally unskilled work of a routine nature), which will be made available to children of members of the personnel (i.e. anyone holding an employment or association contract with the Organization). Candidates must be aged between 18 and 24 inclusive on the first day of the contract, and must have insurance coverage for both illness and accident. The duration of all contracts will be 4 weeks and the allowance will be 1717 CHF for this period. Candidates should apply via the HR Department’s electronic recruitment system (E-rt): https://ert.cern.ch/browse_intranet/wd_pds?p_web_site_id=1&p_web_page_id=8886&p_no_apply=&p_show=N Completed application forms must be returned by 11 April 2011 at the latest. The results of the selection will be available by the end of May 2011. For further information, please con...

  19. To all members of the personnel

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Temporary work for children of members of the personnel During the period from 15 June to 11 September 2009 inclusive, there will be a limited number of jobs for temporary work at CERN (normally unskilled work of routine nature), which will be made available to children of members of the personnel (i.e. anyone holding an employment or association contract with the Organization). Candidates must be aged between 18 and 24 inclusive on the first day of the contract, and must have insurance coverage for both illness and accident. The duration of all appointments will be 4 weeks and the allowance will be CHF 1717. - for this period. Candidates should apply via HR Department’s electronic recruitment system (E-rt): https://ert.cern.ch/browse_www/wd_pds?p_web_page_id=6970 Completed application forms must be returned by 10 April 2009 at the latest. The results of the selection will be available on 22 May 2009. For further information, please contact: mailto:Inger.Carriero@cern.c...

  20. To all members of the personnel

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Temporary work for children of members of the personnel During the period from 15 June to 11 September 2009 inclusive, there will be a limited number of jobs for temporary work at CERN (normally unskilled work of a routine nature), which will be made available to children of members of the personnel (i.e. anyone holding an employment or association contract with the Organization). Candidates must be aged between 18 and 24 inclusive on the first day of the contract, and must have insurance coverage for both illness and accident. The duration of all appointments will be 4 weeks and the allowance will be CHF 1717. - for this period. Candidates should apply via the HR Department’s electronic recruitment system (E-rt): https://ert.cern.ch/browse_www/wd_pds?p_web_page_id=6970 Completed application forms must be returned by 10 April 2009 at the latest. The results of the selection will be available on 22 May 2009. For further information, please contact: mailto:Inger.Carriero@...