WorldWideScience

Sample records for melt temperature water

  1. Reaction of soda-lime-silica glass melt with water vapour at melting temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vernerová, Miroslava; Kloužek, Jaroslav; Němec, Lubomír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 416, MAY 15 (2015), s. 21-30 ISSN 0022-3093 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010844 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : glass melt * sulfate * water vapour * bubble nucleation * melt foaming * glass melting Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.825, year: 2015

  2. Melting temperature of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korobenko, V.N.; Savvatimskiy, A.I.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text: Pulse of electrical current is used for fast heating (∼ 1 μs) of metal and graphite specimens placed in dielectric solid media. Specimen consists of two strips (90 μm in thick) placed together with small gap so they form a black body model. Quasy-monocrystal graphite specimens were used for uniform heating of graphite. Temperature measurements were fulfilled with fast pyrometer and with composite 2-strip black body model up to melting temperature. There were fulfilled experiments with zirconium and tungsten of the same black body construction. Additional temperature measurements of liquid zirconium and liquid tungsten are made. Specific heat capacity (c P ) of liquid zirconium and of liquid tungsten has a common feature in c P diminishing just after melting. It reveals c P diminishing after melting in both cases over the narrow temperature range up to usual values known from steady state measurements. Over the next wide temperature range heat capacity for W (up to 5000 K) and Zr (up to 4100 K) show different dependencies of heat capacity on temperature in liquid state. The experiments confirmed a high quality of 2-strip black body model used for graphite temperature measurements. Melting temperature plateau of tungsten (3690 K) was used for pyrometer calibration area for graphite temperature measurement. As a result, a preliminary value of graphite melting temperature of 4800 K was obtained. (author)

  3. Attenuation and Velocity Structure in Spain and Morocco: Distinguishing Between Water, Temperature, and Partial Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezada, M. J.; Humphreys, E.

    2014-12-01

    Temperature, melt fraction, and water content affect seismic velocity and attenuation differently. Both are sensitive to temperature, but velocity is more sensitive to melt fraction and attenuation is thought to be more sensitive to water content. For these reasons, combining attenuation measurements with tomographic imaging of velocity structure can help untangle these fields and better resolve lithospheric structure and physical state. We map variations in attenuation beneath Spain and northern Morocco using teleseismic data generated by more than a dozen teleseismic deep-focus earthquakes recorded on a dense array of stations. For each event, we first estimate the source from the best quality recordings. We then apply an attenuation operator to the source estimate, using a range of t* values, to match the record at each station. We invert for a smooth map of t* from the ensemble of measurements. The spatial patterns in t* correlate very well with the tectonic domains in Spain and Morocco. In particular, areas in Spain that resisted deformation during the Variscan and Alpine orogenies produce very little attenuation. Comparing the attenuation map with seismic velocity structure we find that, in Morocco, some areas with strong low-velocity anomalies and recent volcanism do not cause high attenuation. These observations suggest that water content is a more likely cause for seismic attenuation in the study area than temperature, and that the non-attenuative low-velocity anomalies in Morocco are produced by partial mel.

  4. Investigation on the hot melting temperature field simulation of HDPE water supply pipeline in gymnasium pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhiqiang; Dai, Hongbin; Fu, Xibin

    2018-06-01

    In view of the special needs of the water supply and drainage system of swimming pool in gymnasium, the correlation of high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe and the temperature field distribution during welding was investigated. It showed that the temperature field distribution has significant influence on the quality of welding. Moreover, the mechanical properties of the welded joint were analyzed by the bending test of the weld joint, and the micro-structure of the welded joint was evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The one-dimensional unsteady heat transfer model of polyethylene pipe welding joints was established by MARC. The temperature field distribution during welding process was simulated, and the temperature field changes during welding were also detected and compared by the thermo-couple temperature automatic acquisition system. Results indicated that the temperature of the end surface of the pipe does not reach the maximum value, when it is at the end of welding heating. Instead, it reaches the maximum value at 300 sand latent heat occurs during the welding process. It concludes that the weld quality is the highest when the welding pressure is 0.2 MPa, and the heating temperature of HDPE heat fusion welding is in the range of 210 °C-230 °C.

  5. Methods for Melting Temperature Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Qi-Jun

    Melting temperature calculation has important applications in the theoretical study of phase diagrams and computational materials screenings. In this thesis, we present two new methods, i.e., the improved Widom's particle insertion method and the small-cell coexistence method, which we developed in order to capture melting temperatures both accurately and quickly. We propose a scheme that drastically improves the efficiency of Widom's particle insertion method by efficiently sampling cavities while calculating the integrals providing the chemical potentials of a physical system. This idea enables us to calculate chemical potentials of liquids directly from first-principles without the help of any reference system, which is necessary in the commonly used thermodynamic integration method. As an example, we apply our scheme, combined with the density functional formalism, to the calculation of the chemical potential of liquid copper. The calculated chemical potential is further used to locate the melting temperature. The calculated results closely agree with experiments. We propose the small-cell coexistence method based on the statistical analysis of small-size coexistence MD simulations. It eliminates the risk of a metastable superheated solid in the fast-heating method, while also significantly reducing the computer cost relative to the traditional large-scale coexistence method. Using empirical potentials, we validate the method and systematically study the finite-size effect on the calculated melting points. The method converges to the exact result in the limit of a large system size. An accuracy within 100 K in melting temperature is usually achieved when the simulation contains more than 100 atoms. DFT examples of Tantalum, high-pressure Sodium, and ionic material NaCl are shown to demonstrate the accuracy and flexibility of the method in its practical applications. The method serves as a promising approach for large-scale automated material screening in which

  6. In situ study at high pressure and temperature of the environment of water in hydrous Na and Ca aluminosilicate melts and coexisting aqueous fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Losq, Charles; Dalou, Célia; Mysen, Bjorn O.

    2017-07-01

    The bonding and speciation of water dissolved in Na silicate and Na and Ca aluminosilicate melts were inferred from in situ Raman spectroscopy of the samples, in hydrothermal diamond anvil cells, while at crustal temperature and pressure conditions. Raman data were also acquired on Na silicate and Na and Ca aluminosilicate glasses, quenched from hydrous melts equilibrated at high temperature and pressure in a piston cylinder apparatus. In the hydrous melts, temperature strongly influences O-H stretching ν(O-H) signals, reflecting its control on the bonding of protons between different molecular complexes. Pressure and melt composition effects are much smaller and difficult to discriminate with the present data. However, the chemical composition of the melt + fluid system influences the differences between the ν(O-H) signals from the melts and the fluids and, hence, between their hydrogen partition functions. Quenching modifies the O-H stretching signals: strong hydrogen bonds form in the glasses below the glass transition temperature Tg, and this phenomenon depends on glass composition. Therefore, glasses do not necessarily record the O-H stretching signal shape in melts near Tg. The melt hydrogen partition function thus cannot be assessed with certainty using O-H stretching vibration data from glasses. From the present results, the ratio of the hydrogen partition functions of hydrous silicate melts and aqueous fluids mostly depends on temperature and the bulk melt + fluid system chemical composition. This implies that the fractionation of hydrogen isotopes between magmas and aqueous fluids in water-saturated magmatic systems with differences in temperature and bulk chemical composition will be different.

  7. A coupled melt-freeze temperature index approach in a one-layer model to predict bulk volumetric liquid water content dynamics in snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzi, Francesco; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Hirashima, Hiroyuki; De Michele, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Liquid water in snow rules runoff dynamics and wet snow avalanches release. Moreover, it affects snow viscosity and snow albedo. As a result, measuring and modeling liquid water dynamics in snow have important implications for many scientific applications. However, measurements are usually challenging, while modeling is difficult due to an overlap of mechanical, thermal and hydraulic processes. Here, we evaluate the use of a simple one-layer one-dimensional model to predict hourly time-series of bulk volumetric liquid water content in seasonal snow. The model considers both a simple temperature-index approach (melt only) and a coupled melt-freeze temperature-index approach that is able to reconstruct melt-freeze dynamics. Performance of this approach is evaluated at three sites in Japan. These sites (Nagaoka, Shinjo and Sapporo) present multi-year time-series of snow and meteorological data, vertical profiles of snow physical properties and snow melt lysimeters data. These data-sets are an interesting opportunity to test this application in different climatic conditions, as sites span a wide latitudinal range and are subjected to different snow conditions during the season. When melt-freeze dynamics are included in the model, results show that median absolute differences between observations and predictions of bulk volumetric liquid water content are consistently lower than 1 vol%. Moreover, the model is able to predict an observed dry condition of the snowpack in 80% of observed cases at a non-calibration site, where parameters from calibration sites are transferred. Overall, the analysis show that a coupled melt-freeze temperature-index approach may be a valid solution to predict average wetness conditions of a snow cover at local scale.

  8. Temperatures and Melt Water Contents at the Onset of Phenocryst Growth in Quaternary Nepheline-Normative Basalts Erupted along the Tepic-Zacoalco Rift in Western Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, J.; Lange, R. A.; Pu, X.

    2017-12-01

    Nepheline-normative, high-Mg basalts erupted from the western Mexican arc, along the Tepic-Zacoalco rift (TZR), have a trace-element signature consistent with an asthenosphere source, whereas calc-alkaline basalts erupted from the central Mexican arc in the Michoacan-Guanajuato volcanic field (MGVF) have a trace-element signature consistent with a mantle source strongly affected by subduction fluids. In this study, olivine-melt thermometry and plagioclase-liquid hygrometry are used to constrain the temperature and melt water content of the alkaline TZR basalts. The presence of diffusion-limited growth textures in olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts provide preliminary evidence of rapid growth during ascent. For each basalt sample, a histogram of all analyzed olivines in each sample allows the most Fo-rich composition to be identified, which matches the calculated composition at the liquidus via MELTS (Ghiorso & Sack, 1995; Asimow & Ghiorso, 1998) at fO2 values of QFM +2. Therefore a newly developed olivine-melt thermometer, based on DNiol/liq (Pu et al., 2017) was used to calculate temperature at the onset of olivine crystallization during ascent. Temperatures range from 1076-1247°C, whereas those calculated using an olivine-melt thermometer based on DMgol/liq range from 1141-1236 °C. Olivine-melt thermometers based on DMgol/liq are sensitive to melt H2O content, therefore ΔT = TMg - TNi (≤ 82 degrees) may be used as a qualitative indicator of melt H2O (≤ 2.6 wt% H2O; Pu et al., 2017). When temperatures from the Ni-thermometer are applied to the most calcic plagioclase in each sample (Waters & Lange, 2015), calculated melt H2O contents range from 1.3-1.9 (± 0.4) wt%. These values are significantly lower than those obtained from high-Mg calc-alkaline basalts from the MGVF using similar methods (1.9-5.0 wt%; Pu et al., 2017), consistent with a reduced involvement of slab-derived fluids in the origin of the alkaline TZR basalts from western Mexico.

  9. Melt processed high-temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The achievement of large critical currents is critical to the applications of high-temperature superconductors. Recent developments have shown that melt processing is suitable for producing high J c oxide superconductors. Using magnetic forces between such high J c oxide superconductors and magnets, a person could be levitated.This book has grown largely out of research works on melt processing of high-temperature superconductors conducted at ISTEC Superconductivity Research Laboratory. The chapters build on melt processing, microstructural characterization, fundamentals of flux pinning, criti

  10. Cloud screening and melt water detection over melting sea ice using AATSR/SLSTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomina, Larysa; Heygster, Georg

    2014-05-01

    With the onset of melt in the Arctic Ocean, the fraction of melt water on sea ice, the melt pond fraction, increases. The consequences are: the reduced albedo of sea ice, increased transmittance of sea ice and affected heat balance of the system with more heat passing through the ice into the ocean, which facilitates further melting. The onset of melt, duration of melt season and melt pond fraction are good indicators of the climate state of the Arctic and its change. In the absence of reliable sea ice thickness retrievals in summer, melt pond fraction retrieval from satellite is in demand as input for GCM as an indicator of melt state of the sea ice. The retrieval of melt pond fraction with a moderate resolution radiometer as AATSR is, however, a non-trivial task due to a variety of subpixel surface types with very different optical properties, which give non-unique combinations if mixed. In this work this has been solved by employing additional information on the surface and air temperature of the pixel. In the current work, a concept of melt pond detection on sea ice is presented. The basis of the retrieval is the sensitivity of AATSR reflectance channels 550nm and 860nm to the amount of melt water on sea ice. The retrieval features extensive usage of a database of in situ surface albedo spectra. A tree of decisions is employed to select the feasible family of in situ spectra for the retrieval, depending on the melt stage of the surface. Reanalysis air temperature at the surface and brightness temperature measured by the satellite sensor are analyzed in order to evaluate the melting status of the surface. Case studies for FYI and MYI show plausible retrieved melt pond fractions, characteristic for both of the ice types. The developed retrieval can be used to process the historical AATSR (2002-2012) dataset, as well as for the SLSTR sensor onboard the future Sentinel-3 mission (scheduled for launch in 2015), to keep the continuity and obtain longer time sequence

  11. Fuel Rod Melt Progression Simulation Using Low-Temperature Melting Metal Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seung Dong Lee; Suh, Kune Y.; GoonCherl Park; Un Chul Lee

    2002-01-01

    The TMI-2 accident and various severe fuel damage experiments have shown that core damage is likely to proceed through various states before the core slumps into the lower head. Numerous experiments were conducted to address when and how the core can lose its original geometry, what geometries are formed, and in what processes the core materials are transported to the lower plenum of the reactor pressure vessel. Core degradation progresses along the line of clad ballooning, clad oxidation, material interaction, metallic blockage, molten pool formation, melt progression, and relocation to the lower head. Relocation into the lower plenum may occur from the lateral periphery or from the bottom of the core depending upon the thermal and physical states of the pool. Determining the quantities and rate of molten material transfer to the lower head is important since significant amounts of molten material relocated to the lower head can threaten the vessel integrity by steam explosion and thermal and mechanical attack of the melt. In this paper the focus is placed on the melt flow regime on a cylindrical fuel rod utilizing the LAMDA (Lumped Analysis of Melting in Degrading Assemblies) facility at the Seoul National University. The downward relocation of the molten material is a combination of the external film flow and the internal pipe flow. The heater rods are 0.8 m long and are coated by a low-temperature melting metal alloy. The electrical internal heating method is employed during the test. External heating is adopted to simulate the exothermic Zircaloy-steam reaction. Tests are conducted in several quasi-steady-state conditions. Given the variable boundary conditions including the heat flux and the water level, observation is made for the melting location, progression, and the mass of molten material. Finally, the core melt progression model is developed from the visual inspection and quantitative analysis of the experimental data. As the core material relocates

  12. Direct contact heat transfer characteristics between melting alloy and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Izumi; Nishi, Yoshihisa; Furuya, Masahiro

    1995-01-01

    As a candidate for an innovative steam generator for fast breeder reactors, a heat exchanger with direct contact heat transfer between melting alloy and water was proposed. The evaluation of heat transfer characteristics of this heat exchanger is one of the research subjects for the design and development of the steam generator. In this study, the effect of the pressure on heat transfer characteristics and the required degree of superheating of melting alloy above water saturation temperature are evaluated during the direct contact heat transfer experiment by injecting water into Wood's alloy. In the experiment, the pressure, the temperature of the Wood's alloy, the flow rate of feed water, and the depth of the feed water injection point are varied as parameters. As a result of the experiment, the product of the degree of Wood's alloy superheating above water saturation temperature and the depth of the feed water injection point is constant for each pressure. This constant increases as the pressure rises. (author)

  13. Eutectic melting temperature of the lowermost Earth's mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrault, D.; Lo Nigro, G.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Bouhifd, M.; Garbarino, G.; Mezouar, M.

    2009-12-01

    , and changes in the relation between sample-temperature and laser-power. In this work, we show that temperatures higher than 4000 K are necessary for melting mean mantle at the 135 GPa pressure found at the core mantle boundary (CMB). Such temperature is much higher than that from estimated actual geotherms. Therefore, melting at the CMB can only occur if (i) pyrolitic mantle resides for a very long time in contact with the outer core, (ii) the mantle composition is severely affected by additional elements depressing the solidus such as water or (iii) the temperature gradient in the D" region is amazingly steep. Other implications for the temperature state and the lower mantle properties will be presented. References (1) Ito et al., Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 143-144, 397-406, 2004 (2) Ohtani et al., Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 100, 97-114, 1997 (3) Zerr et al., Science, 281, 243-246, 1998 (4) Holland and Ahrens, Science, 275, 1623-1625, 1997 (5) Schultz et al., High Press. Res., 25, 1, 71-83, 2005.

  14. Tin in granitic melts: The role of melting temperature and protolith composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Mathias; Romer, Rolf L.; Franz, Leander; López-Moro, Francisco Javier

    2018-06-01

    Granite bound tin mineralization typically is seen as the result of extreme magmatic fractionation and late exsolution of magmatic fluids. Mineralization, however, also could be obtained at considerably less fractionation if initial melts already had enhanced Sn contents. We present chemical data and results from phase diagram modeling that illustrate the dominant roles of protolith composition, melting conditions, and melt extraction/evolution for the distribution of Sn between melt and restite and, thus, the Sn content of melts. We compare the element partitioning between leucosome and restite of low-temperature and high-temperature migmatites. During low-temperature melting, trace elements partition preferentially into the restite with the possible exception of Sr, Cd, Bi, and Pb, that may be enriched in the melt. In high-temperature melts, Ga, Y, Cd, Sn, REE, Pb, Bi, and U partition preferentially into the melt whereas Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Mo, and Ba stay in the restite. This contrasting behavior is attributed to the stability of trace element sequestering minerals during melt generation. In particular muscovite, biotite, titanite, and rutile act as host phases for Sn and, therefore prevent Sn enrichment in the melt as long as they are stable phases in the restite. As protolith composition controls both the mineral assemblage and modal contents of the various minerals, protolith composition eventually also controls the fertility of a rock during anatexis, restite mineralogy, and partitioning behavior of trace metals. If a particular trace element is sequestered in a phase that is stable during partial melting, the resulting melt is depleted in this element whereas the restite becomes enriched. Melt generation at high temperature may release Sn when Sn-hosts become unstable. If melt has not been lost before the breakdown of Sn-hosts, Sn contents in the melt will increase but never will be high. In contrast, if melt has been lost before the decomposition of Sn

  15. Experiments on melt droplets falling into a water pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okkonen, T.; Sehgal, B.R. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents experimental data and analysis related to melt droplets falling into a water pool. A binary CaO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} melt mixture is used to study the influence of melt superheat and water subcooling on droplet deformation and fragmentation. For the conditions studied (We {<=} 1000), the surface tension of the melt droplet and the film boiling stability greatly affect the fragmentation behaviour. If the melt temperature is between the liquidus and solidus point (mushy zone) or if the film boiling is stable due to a relatively low subcooling, the droplet deformation and fragmentation are mitigated. This behaviour can be related to the effective Weber number (We) of the melt droplet upon entry into the water pool. Similar phenomena can be expected also for interactions of corium (UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}) and water, which are characterized by a potentially fast transformation of melt into the mushy zone and by particularly stable film boiling. (author)

  16. Water boiling on the corium melt surface under VVER severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechta, S.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Krushinov, E.V.; Granovsky, V.S.; Sulatsky, A.A.; Khabensky, V.B.; Lopukh, D.B.; Petrov, Y.B.; Pechenkov, A.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on the interaction of corium melt with water supplied on its surface. The tests were conducted in the 'Rasplav-2' experimental facility. Corium melt was generated by induction melting in the cold crucible. The following data were obtained: heat transfer at boiling water-melt surface interaction, gas and aerosol release, post-interaction solidified corium structure. The corium melt charge had the following composition, mass%: 60% UO 2+x -16% ZrO 2 -15% Fe 2 O 3 -6% Cr 2 O 3 -3% Ni 2 O 3 . The melt surface temperature ranged within 1920-1970 K. (orig.)

  17. Water boiling on the corium melt surface under VVER severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechta, S.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Krushinov, E.V.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on the interaction between corium melt and water supplied onto its surface. The tests were conducted on the Rasplav-2' experimental facility. Induction melting in a cold crucible was used to produce the melt. The following data have been obtained: heat transfer at water boiling on the melt surface, aerosol release, structure of the post-interaction solidified corium. The corium melt had the following composition, mass %: 60%UO 2 - 16%ZrO 2 - 15%Fe 2 O 3 - 6%Cr 2 O 3 -3%Ni 2 O 3 . The melt surface temperature was 1650-1700degC. (author)

  18. Melting temperature of uranium - plutonium mixed oxide fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Tetsuya; Hirosawa, Takashi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1997-08-01

    Fuel melting temperature is one of the major thermodynamical properties that is used for determining the design criteria on fuel temperature during irradiation in FBR. In general, it is necessary to evaluate the correlation of fuel melting temperature to confirm that the fuel temperature must be kept below the fuel melting temperature during irradiation at any conditions. The correlations of the melting temperature of uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, typical FBR fuel, used to be estimated and formulized based on the measured values reported in 1960`s and has been applied to the design. At present, some experiments have been accumulated with improved experimental techniques. And it reveals that the recent measured melting temperatures does not agree well to the data reported in 1960`s and that some of the 1960`s data should be modified by taking into account of the recent measurements. In this study, the experience of melting temperature up to now are summarized and evaluated in order to make the fuel pin design more reliable. The effect of plutonium content, oxygen to metal ratio and burnup on MOX fuel melting was examined based on the recent data under the UO{sub 2} - PuO{sub 2} - PuO{sub 1.61} ideal solution model, and then formulized. (J.P.N.)

  19. Melting temperature of uranium - plutonium mixed oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Tetsuya; Hirosawa, Takashi

    1997-08-01

    Fuel melting temperature is one of the major thermodynamical properties that is used for determining the design criteria on fuel temperature during irradiation in FBR. In general, it is necessary to evaluate the correlation of fuel melting temperature to confirm that the fuel temperature must be kept below the fuel melting temperature during irradiation at any conditions. The correlations of the melting temperature of uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, typical FBR fuel, used to be estimated and formulized based on the measured values reported in 1960's and has been applied to the design. At present, some experiments have been accumulated with improved experimental techniques. And it reveals that the recent measured melting temperatures does not agree well to the data reported in 1960's and that some of the 1960's data should be modified by taking into account of the recent measurements. In this study, the experience of melting temperature up to now are summarized and evaluated in order to make the fuel pin design more reliable. The effect of plutonium content, oxygen to metal ratio and burnup on MOX fuel melting was examined based on the recent data under the UO 2 - PuO 2 - PuO 1.61 ideal solution model, and then formulized. (J.P.N.)

  20. Water jet intrusion into hot melt concomitant with direct-contact boiling of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibamoto, Yasuteru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai Research Establishment, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2005-08-01

    Boiling of water poured on surface of high-temperature melt (molten metal or metal oxide) provides an efficient means for heat exchange or cooling of melt. The heat transfer surface area can be extended by forcing water into melt. Objectives of the present study are to elucidate key factors of the thermal and hydrodynamic interactions for the water jet injection into melt (Coolant Injection mode). Proposed applications include in in-vessel heat exchangers for liquid metal reactor and emergency measures for cooling of molten core debris in severe accidents of light water reactor. Water penetration into melt may occurs also as a result of fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) in modes other than CI, it is anticipated that the present study contributes to understand the fundamental mechanism of the FCI process. The previous works have been limited on understanding the melt-water interaction phenomena in the water-injection mode because of difficulty in experimental measurement where boiling occurs in opaque invisible hot melt unlike the melt-injection mode. We conducted visualization and measurement of melt-water-vapor multiphase flow phenomena by using a high-frame-rate neutron radiography technique and newly-developed probes. Although limited knowledge, however, has been gained even such an approach, the experimental data were analyzed deeply by comparing with the knowledge obtained from relevant matters. As a result, we succeeded in revealing several key phenomena and validity in the conditions under which stable heat transfer is established. Moreover, a non-intrusive technique for measurement of the velocity and pressure fields adjacent to a moving free surface is developed. The technique is based on the measurement of fluid surface profile, which is useful for elucidation of flow mechanism accompanied by a free surface like the present phenomena. (author)

  1. Can Nano-Particle Melt below the Melting Temperature of Its Free Surface Partner?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui Xiao-Hong; Qin Shao-Jing; Wang Zong-Guo; Kang Kai; Wang Chui-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The phonon thermal contribution to the melting temperature of nano-particles is inspected. The discrete summation of phonon states and its corresponding integration form as an approximation for a nano-particle or for a bulk system have been analyzed. The discrete phonon energy levels of pure size effect and the wave-vector shifts of boundary conditions are investigated in detail. Unlike in macroscopic thermodynamics, the integration volume of zero-mode of phonon for a nano-particle is not zero, and it plays an important role in pure size effect and boundary condition effect. We find that a nano-particle will have a rising melting temperature due to purely finite size effect; a lower melting temperature bound exists for a nano-particle in various environments, and the melting temperature of a nano-particle with free boundary condition reaches this lower bound. We suggest an easy procedure to estimation the melting temperature, in which the zero-mode contribution will be excluded, and only several bulk quantities will be used as input. We would like to emphasize that the quantum effect of discrete energy levels in nano-particles, which is not present in early thermodynamic studies on finite size corrections to melting temperature in small systems, should be included in future researches. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  2. Temperature dependence of nitrogen solubility in iron base multicomponent melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.M.; Koval'chuk, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Method for calculating temperature dependence of nitrogen solubility in iron base multicomponent melts is suggested. Application areas of existing methods were determined and advantages of the new method for calculating nitrogen solubility in multicomponent-doped iron melts (Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo, Fe-Ni-Cr-Mn, Fe-Mo-V) at 1773-2073 K are shown

  3. Developing a Hygrometer for Water-Undersaturated Lherzolite Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, M. R.; Till, C. B.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of water on the composition of primitive mantle melts at arc volcanoes is a topic of wide interest and has been addressed in a number of previous experimental studies including Hirose & Kawamoto (1995), Gaetani & Grove (1998), Till et al. (2012) and Mitchell & Grove (2015). The current study builds upon the work by previous authors in an effort to develop a more robust hygrometer for primitive lherzolite melts at water-undersaturated conditions. The starting composition for this experimental study is a mixture of 75% primitive upper mantle and 25% primitive basalt (Baker et al., 1991) with a bulk H2O content of 2 wt. %. Experiments were performed at Arizona State University in the Experimental Petrology and Igneous processes Center (EPIC) from 1.2-1.6 GPa at 1150-1300 ºC for 2 days in a piston cylinder apparatus to reflect conditions relevant for arc melt equilibration (Till 2017). A double capsule design was used to prevent Fe and H2O loss with an inner Fe-presaturated Au80Pd20 capsule and an outer Au80Pd20 capsule. Run products were analyzed by electron microprobe and determined to be successful when they demonstrated 0-5% Fe-loss, olivine-melt KDs of 0.27-0.30, and minimal H2O loss. The water-undersaturated melt composition are in equilibrium with ol+opx+sp±cpx. Run products at 1.6 GPa do not contain cpx in the mineral assemblage over the studied temperature range. Observed melt compositions have SiO2 contents of 48-49 wt. % at 1.2 GPa and 46-49 wt.% at 1.6 GPa. Our experimental results suggest an enhanced effect of water on increasing the SiO2 content of the melt compared to previous studies on systems with similar water contents and anhydrous systems. Baker, et al., JGR 96, 21819-21842 (1991). Gaetani & Grove, CMP 131, 323-346 (1998). Hirose & Kawamoto, EPSL 133, 463-473 (1995). Mitchell & Grove, CMP 170, 13 (2015). Till, Am. Mineral, 102, 931-947 (2017). Till, et al., JGR 117 (2012).

  4. Analysis of Water Recovery Rate from the Heat Melt Compactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Hegde, U.; Gokoglu, S.

    2013-01-01

    Human space missions generate trash with a substantial amount of plastic (20% or greater by mass). The trash also contains water trapped in food residue and paper products and other trash items. The Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) under development by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) compresses the waste, dries it to recover water and melts the plastic to encapsulate the compressed trash. The resulting waste disk or puck represents an approximately ten-fold reduction in the volume of the initial trash loaded into the HMC. In the current design concept being pursued, the trash is compressed by a piston after it is loaded into the trash chamber. The piston face, the side walls of the waste processing chamber and the end surface in contact with the waste can be heated to evaporate the water and to melt the plastic. Water is recovered by the HMC in two phases. The first is a pre-process compaction without heat or with the heaters initially turned on but before the waste heats up. Tests have shown that during this step some liquid water may be expelled from the chamber. This water is believed to be free water (i.e., not bound with or absorbed in other waste constituents) that is present in the trash. This phase is herein termed Phase A of the water recovery process. During HMC operations, it is desired that liquid water recovery in Phase A be eliminated or minimized so that water-vapor processing equipment (e.g., condensers) downstream of the HMC are not fouled by liquid water and its constituents (i.e., suspended or dissolved matter) exiting the HMC. The primary water recovery process takes place next where the trash is further compacted while the heated surfaces reach their set temperatures for this step. This step will be referred to herein as Phase B of the water recovery process. During this step the waste chamber may be exposed to different selected pressures such as ambient, low pressure (e.g., 0.2 atm), or vacuum. The objective for this step is to remove both bound and

  5. Noise temperature measurements for the determination of the thermodynamic temperature of the melting point of palladium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edler, F.; Kuhne, M.; Tegeler, E. [Bundesanstalt Physikalisch-Technische, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    The thermodynamic temperature of the melting point of palladium in air was measured by noise thermometric methods. The temperature measurement was based on noise comparison using a two-channel arrangement to eliminate parasitic noises of electronic components by cross correlation. Three miniature fixed points filled with pure palladium (purity: {approx}99.99%, mass: {approx}90 g) were used to realize the melts of the fixed point metal. The measured melting temperature of palladium in air amounted to 1552.95 deg C {+-} 0.21 K (k = 2). This temperature is 0.45 K lower than the temperature of the melting point of palladium measured by radiation thermometry. (authors)

  6. The impact of melt ponds on summertime microwave brightness temperatures and sea-ice concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kern, Stefan; Rösel, Anja; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    2016-01-01

    % sea-ice concentration. None of the algorithms investigated performs best based on our investigation of data from summer 2009. We suggest that those algorithms which are more sensitive to melt ponds could be optimized more easily because the influence of unknown snow and sea-ice surface property...... of eight sea-ice concentration retrieval algorithms to melt ponds by comparing sea-ice concentration with the melt-pond fraction. We derive gridded daily sea-ice concentrations from microwave brightness temperatures of summer 2009. We derive the daily fraction of melt ponds, open water between ice floes......, and the ice-surface fraction from contemporary Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance data. We only use grid cells where the MODIS sea ice concentration, which is the melt-pond fraction plus the ice-surface fraction, exceeds 90 %. For one group of algorithms, e.g., Bristol and Comiso...

  7. Water boiling on the corium melt surface under VVER severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechta, S.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Krushinov, E.V.; Granovsky, V.S.; Sulatsky, A.A.; Khabensky, V.B. [Sci. Res. Technol. Inst., Leningrad (Russian Federation); Lopukh, D.B.; Petrov, Y.B.; Pechenkov, A.Y. [St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University (SPbEU), Prof. Popov st 5/3, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2000-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on the interaction of corium melt with water supplied on its surface. The tests were conducted in the 'Rasplav-2' experimental facility. Corium melt was generated by induction melting in the cold crucible. The following data were obtained: heat transfer at boiling water-melt surface interaction, gas and aerosol release, post-interaction solidified corium structure. The corium melt charge had the following composition, mass%: 60% UO{sub 2+x}-16% ZrO{sub 2}-15% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-6% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-3% Ni{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The melt surface temperature ranged within 1920-1970 K. (orig.)

  8. Water boiling on the corium melt surface under VVER severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechta, S.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Krushinov, E.V. [Research Institute of Technology, Sosnovy Bor (NITI) (RU)] [and others

    1999-07-01

    Experimental results are presented on the interaction between corium melt and water supplied onto its surface. The tests were conducted on the Rasplav-2' experimental facility. Induction melting in a cold crucible was used to produce the melt. The following data have been obtained: heat transfer at water boiling on the melt surface, aerosol release, structure of the post-interaction solidified corium. The corium melt had the following composition, mass %: 60%UO{sub 2}- 16%ZrO{sub 2}- 15%Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} - 6%Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-3%Ni{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The melt surface temperature was 1650-1700degC. (author)

  9. Experimental investigation of ice and snow melting process on pavement utilizing geothermal tail water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huajun; Zhao Jun; Chen Zhihao

    2008-01-01

    Road ice and snow melting based on low temperature geothermal tail water is of significance to realize energy cascading utilization. A small scale ice and snow melting system is built in this work. Experiments of dynamic melting processes of crushed ice, solid ice, artificial snow and natural snow are conducted on concrete pavement. The results show that the melting process of ice and snow includes three phases: a starting period, a linear period and an accelerated period. The critical value of the snow free area ratio between the linear period and the accelerated period is about 0.6. The physical properties of ice and snow, linked with ambient conditions, have an obvious effect on the melting process. The difference of melting velocity and melting time between ice and snow is compared. To reduce energy consumption, the formation of ice on roads should be avoided if possible. The idling process is an effective pathway to improve the performance of melting systems. It is feasible to utilize geothermal tail water of about 40 deg. C for melting ice and snow on winter roads, and it is unnecessary to keep too high fluid temperatures during the practical design and applications. Besides, with the exception of solid ice, the density and porosity of snow and ice tend to be decreasing and increasing, respectively, as the ambient temperature decreases

  10. Temperatures and enthalpies of melting of alkali-metal perrhenates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukas, W.; Gaune-Escard, M.

    1982-01-01

    Melting temperatures and enthalpies of melting were determined for alkali-metal perrhenates by differential enthalpic analysis using a high-temperature Calvet microcalorimeter. The following values were obtained: for LiReO 4 : 692 K and 24.9 kJ.mol -1 ; for NaReO 4 : 693 K and 33 kJ.mol -1 ; for KReO 4 : 828 K and 36 kJ.mol -1 ; for RbReO 4 : 878 K and 34 kJ.mol -1 ; for CsReO 4 : 893 K and 34 kJ.mol -1 . (author)

  11. Three-Phase Melting Curves in the Binary System of Carbon Dioxide and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, E. H.

    2017-10-01

    Invariant, three-phase melting curves, of ice VI in equilibrium with solid CO2, of ice VII in equilibrium with solid CO2, and of solid CO2 in simultaneous equilibrium with a majority aqueous and a majority CO2 fluid, were explored in the binary system of carbon dioxide and water. Diamond-anvil cells were used to develop pressures of 5 GPa. Water exhibits a large melting temperature depression (73°C less than its pure melting temperature of 253°C at 5 GPa) indicative of large concentrations of CO2 in the aqueous solution. The melting point of water-saturated CO2 does not show a measureable departure from that of the pure system at temperatures lower than ∼200°C and only 10°C at 5 GPa (from 327°C).

  12. Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Temperature, Melt, and Mass Loss: 2000-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Luthcke, Scott B.; DiGirolamo, Nocolo

    2007-01-01

    Extensive melt on the Greenland Ice Sheet has been documented by a variety of ground and satellite measurements in recent years. If the well-documented warming continues in the Arctic, melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet will likely accelerate, contributing to sea-level rise. Modeling studies indicate that an annual or summer temperature rise of 1 C on the ice sheet will increase melt by 20-50% therefore, surface temperature is one of the most important ice-sheet parameters to study for analysis of changes in the mass balance of the ice-sheet. The Greenland Ice Sheet contains enough water to produce a rise in eustatic sea level of up to 7.0 m if the ice were to melt completely. However, even small changes (centimeters) in sea level would cause important economic and societal consequences in the world's major coastal cities thus it is extremely important to monitor changes in the ice-sheet surface temperature and to ultimately quantify these changes in terms of amount of sea-level rise. We have compiled a high-resolution, daily time series of surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet, using the I-km resolution, clear-sky land-surface temperature (LST) standard product from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), from 2000 - 2006. We also use Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data, averaged over 10-day periods, to measure change in mass of the ice sheet as it melt and snow accumulates. Surface temperature can be used to determine frequency of surface melt, timing of the start and the end of the melt season, and duration of melt. In conjunction with GRACE data, it can also be used to analyze timing of ice-sheet mass loss and gain.

  13. 1D/2D analyses of the lower head vessel in contact with high temperature melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jong Eun; Cho, Jae Seon; Suh, Kune Y.; Chung, Chang H.

    1998-01-01

    One- and two-dimensional analyses were performed for the ceramic/metal melt and the vessel to interpret the temperature history of the outer surface of the vessel wall measured from typical Al 2 O 3 /Fe thermite melt tests LAVA (Lower-plenum Arrested Vessel Attack) spanning heatup and cooldown periods. The LAVA tests were conducted at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) during the process of high temperature molten material relocation from the delivery duct down into the water in the test vessel pressurized to 2.0 MPa. Both analyses demonstrated reasonable predictions of the temperature history of the LHV (Lower Head Vessel). The comparison sheds light on the thermal hydraulic and material behavior of the high temperature melt within the hemispherical vessel

  14. 3He melting pressure temperature scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halperin, W.P.; Archie, C.N.; Richardson, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    temperatures. The A feature of the melting curve which suggests itself as a thermometric fixed point is found to be T//A equals 2. 75 plus or minus 0. 11 mK. The agreement between this value and independent measurements of T//A, based on nuclear or electronic paramagnetism, Johnson noise thermometry...

  15. Experiments and analyses on melt-structure-water interactions during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seghal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Bui, V.A.; Green, J.A.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Okkonen, T.O.; Dinh, A.T.

    1998-04-01

    This report is the final report for the research project Melt Structure Water Interactions (MSWI). It describes results of analytical and experimental studies concerning MSWI during the course of a hypothetical core meltdown accident in a LWR. Emphasis has been placed on phenomena which govern vessel failure mode and timing and the mechanisms and properties which govern the fragmentation and breakup of melt jets and droplets. It was found that: 2-D effects significantly diminished the focusing effect of an overlying metallic layer on top of an oxide melt pool. This result improves the feasibility of in-vessel retention of a melt pool through external cooling of the lower head; phenomena related to hole ablation and melt discharge, in the event of vessel failure, are affected significantly by crust formation; the jet fragmentation process is a function of many related phenomena. The fragmentation rate depends not only on the traditional parameters but also on the melt physical properties, which change as the melt cools down from liquid to solid temperature; film boiling was investigated by developing a two-phase flow model and inserting it in a multi-D fluid dynamics code. It was concluded that the thickness of the film on the surface of a melt jet would be small and that the effects of the film on the process should not be large. This conclusion is contrary to the modeling employed in some other codes. The computer codes were developed and validated against the data obtained in the MSWI Project. The melt vessel interaction thermal analysis code describes the process of melt pool formation and convection and the resulting vessel thermal loadings. In addition, several innovative models were developed to describe the melt-water interaction process. The code MELT-3D treats the melt jet as a collection of particles whose movement is described with a three-dimensional Eulerian formulation. The model (SIPHRA) tracks the melt jet with an additional equation, using the

  16. Experimental study of simulant melt stream-water thermal interaction in pool and narrow geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, K.S.; Jasmin Sudha, A.; Murthy, S.S.; Rao, E.H.V.M.; Lydia, G.; Das, S.K.; Harvey, J.; Kannan, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Small scale experiments were carried out to investigate the thermal interaction characteristics of a few kilograms of Sn Pb, Bi and Zn as hot melt, in the film boiling region of water in an attempt to simulate a coherent fuel coolant interaction during a postulated severe accident in a nuclear reactor. Melt stream solidification and detached debris generation were studied with different melt superheat up to 200 deg. C, at different coolant temperatures of 30 deg. C, 50 deg. C, 70 deg. C, 90 deg. C, in pool geometry and in long narrow coolant column. The material was heated in an Alumina crucible and poured through a hot stainless steel funnel with a nozzle diameter of 7.7 mm, into the coolant. A stainless steel plate was used to collect the solidified mass after the interaction. Temperature monitoring was done in the coolant column close to the melt stream. The melt stream movement inside the coolant was imaged using a video camera at 25 fps. Measured melt stream entry velocity was around 1.5 m/sec. For low melt superheat and low coolant temperature, solidified porous tree like structure extended from the collector plate up to the melt release point. For water temperature of 70 deg. C, the solidified bed height at the center was found to decrease with increase in the melt superheat up to 150 deg. C. Fragmentation was found to occur when the melt superheat exceeded 200 deg. C. Particle size distribution was obtained for the fragmented debris. In 1D geometry, with 50 deg. C superheat, columnar solidification was observed with no fine debris. The paper gives the details of the results obtained in the experiments and highlights the role of Rayleigh-Taylor, Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities and the melt physical properties on the fragmentation kinetics. (authors)

  17. Determination of the bulk melting temperature of nickel using Monte Carlo simulations: Inaccuracy of extrapolation from cluster melting temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, J. H.; Pellenq, R. J. M.

    2010-02-01

    We have determined the bulk melting temperature Tm of nickel according to a recent interatomic interaction model via Monte Carlo simulation by two methods: extrapolation from cluster melting temperatures based on the Pavlov model (a variant of the Gibbs-Thompson model) and by calculation of the liquid and solid Gibbs free energies via thermodynamic integration. The result of the latter, which is the most reliable method, gives Tm=2010±35K , to be compared to the experimental value of 1726 K. The cluster extrapolation method, however, gives a 325° higher value of Tm=2335K . This remarkable result is shown to be due to a barrier for melting, which is associated with a nonwetting behavior.

  18. Standard Guide for Use of Melt Wire Temperature Monitors for Reactor Vessel Surveillance, E 706 (IIIE)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This guide describes the application of melt wire temperature monitors and their use for reactor vessel surveillance of light-water power reactors as called for in Practice E 185. 1.2 The purpose of this guide is to recommend the selection and use of the common melt wire technique where the correspondence between melting temperature and composition of different alloys is used as a passive temperature monitor. Guidelines are provided for the selection and calibration of monitor materials; design, fabrication, and assembly of monitor and container; post-irradiation examinations; interpretation of the results; and estimation of uncertainties. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. (See Note 1.)

  19. Water-fluxed melting of the continental crust: A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weinberg, R. F.; Hasalová, Pavlína

    212-215, January (2015), s. 158-188 ISSN 0024-4937 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : aqueous fluids * crustal anatexis * granites * silicate melts * water-fluxed melting Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.723, year: 2015

  20. Influence of gas generation on high-temperature melt/concrete interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    Accidents involving fuel melting and eventual contact between the high temperature melt and structural concrete may be hypothesized for both light water thermal reactors and liquid metal cooled breeder reactors. Though these hypothesized accidents have a quite low probability of occurring, it is necessary to investigate the probable natures of the accidents if an adequate assessment of the risks associated with the use of nuclear reactors is to be made. A brief description is given of a program addressing the nature of melt/concrete interactions which has been underway for three years at Sandia Laboratories. Emphasis in this program has been toward the behavior of prototypic melts of molten core materials with concrete representative of that found in existing or proposed reactors. The goals of the experimentation have been to identify phenomena particularly pertinent to questions of reactor safety, and phenomena particularly pertinent to questions of reactor safety, and provide quantitative data suitable for the purposes of risk assessment

  1. Melt quenching and coolability by water injection from below: Co-injection of water and non-condensable gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Dae H.; Page, Richard J.; Abdulla, Sherif H.; Anderson, Mark H.; Klockow, Helge B.; Corradini, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    The interaction and mixing of high-temperature melt and water is the important technical issue in the safety assessment of water-cooled reactors to achieve ultimate core coolability. For specific advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs, deliberate mixing of the core melt and water is being considered as a mitigative measure, to assure ex-vessel core coolability. The goal of our work is to provide the fundamental understanding needed for melt-water interfacial transport phenomena, thus enabling the development of innovative safety technologies for advanced LWRs that will assure ex-vessel core coolability. The work considers the ex-vessel coolability phenomena in two stages. The first stage is the melt quenching process and is being addressed by Argonne National Lab and University of Wisconsin in modified test facilities. Given a quenched melt in the form of solidified debris, the second stage is to characterize the long-term debris cooling process and is being addressed by Korean Maritime University via test and analyses. In this paper, experiments on melt quenching by the injection of water from below are addressed. The test section represented one-dimensional flow-channel simulation of the bottom injection of water into a core melt in the reactor cavity. The melt simulant was molten lead or a lead alloy (Pb-Bi). For the experimental conditions employed (i.e., melt depth and water flow rates), it was found that: (1) the volumetric heat removal rate increased with increasing water mass flow rate and (2) the non-condensable gas mixed with the injected water had no impairing effect on the overall heat removal rate. Implications of these current experimental findings for ALWR ex-vessel coolability are discussed

  2. Melting temperature, vapor density, and vapor pressure of molybdenum pentafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Jr, R F; Douglas, T B [National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. (USA). Inst. for Materials Research

    1977-12-01

    A sample of MoF/sub 5/ was prepared by reaction of MoF/sub 6/(g) and Mo(c). Melting curves of temperature against time established the melting temperature at zero impurity to be 318.85 K, the enthalpy of fusion to be 6.1 kJ mol/sup -1/ (+ - 5 per cent), and the cryoscopic impurity of the sample to be 0.15 mole per cent. In the presence of MoF/sub 6/(g) which was added to suppress disproportionation, the vapor density of MoF/sub 5/ over the liquid was measured by the transpiration method at 343, 363, and 383 K, the total MoF/sub 5/ that evaporated being determined by permanganate titration. The total vapor pressure of MoF/sub 5/ oligomers over the liquid was measured by a simple static method at 373 and 392 K, while melting temperatures were taken alternately to monitor possible contamination of the sample. Although the vapor pressures were adjusted for disproportionation, solution of MoF/sub 6/ in MoF/sub 5/ (1), and wall adsorption of MoF/sub 6/ their percentage uncertainty is probably several times that of the vapor densities. A combination of the two properties indicates the average extent of association of the saturated vapor to be near 2, which is the value for the dimer species (MoF/sub 5/)/sub 2/.

  3. Fragmentation and quench behavior of corium melt streams in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.W.; Wang, K.; Blomquist, C.A.; McUmber, L.M.; Schneider, J.P.

    1994-02-01

    The interaction of molten core materials with water has been investigated for the pour stream mixing mode. This interaction plays a crucial role during the later stages of in-vessel core melt progression inside a light water reactor such as during the TMI-2 accident. The key issues which arise during the molten core relocation include: (i) the thermal attack and possible damage to the RPV lower head from the impinging molten fuel stream and/or the debris bed, (ii) the molten fuel relocation pathways including the effects of redistribution due to core support structure and the reactor lower internals, (iii) the quench rate of the molten fuel through the water in the lower plenum, (iv) the steam generation and hydrogen generation during the interaction, (v) the transient pressurization of the primary system, and (vi) the possibility of a steam explosion. In order to understand these issues, a series of six experiments (designated CCM-1 through -6) was performed in which molten corium passed through a deep pool of water in a long, slender pour stream mode. Results discussed include the transient temperatures and pressures, the rate and magnitude of steam/hydrogen generation, and the posttest debris characteristics

  4. Force-dependent melting of supercoiled DNA at thermophilic temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galburt, E A; Tomko, E J; Stump, W T; Ruiz Manzano, A

    2014-01-01

    Local DNA opening plays an important role in DNA metabolism as the double-helix must be melted before the information contained within may be accessed. Cells finely tune the torsional state of their genomes to strike a balance between stability and accessibility. For example, while mesophilic life forms maintain negatively superhelical genomes, thermophilic life forms use unique mechanisms to maintain relaxed or even positively supercoiled genomes. Here, we use a single-molecule magnetic tweezers approach to quantify the force-dependent equilibrium between DNA melting and supercoiling at high temperatures populated by Thermophiles. We show that negatively supercoiled DNA denatures at 0.5 pN lower tension at thermophilic vs. mesophilic temperatures. This work demonstrates the ability to monitor DNA supercoiling at high temperature and opens the possibility to perform magnetic tweezers assays on thermophilic systems. The data allow for an estimation of the relative energies of base-pairing and DNA bending as a function of temperature and support speculation as to different general mechanisms of DNA opening in different environments. Lastly, our results imply that average in vivo DNA tensions range between 0.3 and 1.1 pN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. FARO tests corium-melt cooling in water pool: Roles of melt superheat and sintering in sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Gisuk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS 67260 (United States); Kaviany, Massoud [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Division of Advance Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Moriyama, Kiyofumi [Division of Advance Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun Sun, E-mail: hejsunny@postech.ac.kr [Division of Advance Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Byoungcheol; Lee, Mooneon; Kim, Eunho; Park, Jin Ho [Division of Advance Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Nasersharifi, Yahya [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS 67260 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • The numerical approach for FARO experimental data is suggested. • The cooling mechanism of ex-vessel corium is suggested. • The predicted minimum pool depth for no cake formation is suggested. - Abstract: The FARO tests have aimed at understanding an important severe accident mitigation action in a light water reactor when the accident progresses from the reactor pressure vessel boundary. These tests have aimed to measure the coolability of a molten core material (corium) gravity dispersed as jet into a water pool, quantifying the loose particle diameter distribution and fraction converted to cake under range of initial melt superheat and pool temperature and depth. Under complete hydrodynamic breakup of corium and consequent sedimentation in the pool, the initially superheated corium can result in debris bed consisting of discrete solid particles (loose debris) and/or a solid cake at the bottom of the pool. The success of the debris bed coolability requires cooling of the cake, and this is controlled by the large internal resistance. We postulate that the corium cake forms when there is a remelting part in the sediment. We show that even though a solid shell forms around the melt particles transiting in the water pool due to film-boiling heat transfer, the superheated melt allows remelting of the large particles in the sediment (depending on the water temperature and the transit time) using the COOLAP (Coolability Analysis with Parametric fuel-cooant interaction models) code. With this remelting and its liquid-phase sintering of the non-remelted particles, we predict the fraction of the melt particles converting to a cake through liquid sintering. Our predictions are in good agreement with the existing results of the FARO experiments. We address only those experiments with pool depths sufficient/exceeding the length required for complete breakup of the molten jet. Our analysis of the fate of molten corium aimed at devising the effective

  6. Assessment for Melting Temperature Measurement of Nucleic Acid by HRM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Pan, Xiaoming; Liang, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    High resolution melting (HRM), with a high sensitivity to distinguish the nucleic acid species with small variations, has been widely applied in the mutation scanning, methylation analysis, and genotyping. For the aim of extending HRM for the evaluation of thermal stability of nucleic acid secondary structures on sequence dependence, we investigated effects of the dye of EvaGreen, metal ions, and impurities (such as dNTPs) on melting temperature ( T m ) measurement by HRM. The accuracy of HRM was assessed as compared with UV melting method, and little difference between the two methods was found when the DNA T m was higher than 40°C. Both insufficiency and excessiveness of EvaGreen were found to give rise to a little bit higher T m , showing that the proportion of dye should be considered for precise T m measurement of nucleic acids. Finally, HRM method was also successfully used to measure T m s of DNA triplex, hairpin, and RNA duplex. In conclusion, HRM can be applied in the evaluation of thermal stability of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) or secondary structural elements (even when dNTPs are present).

  7. Description of the heating and expansion process of a water drop enclosed in a hot melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, G.; Berg, E. von.

    1985-11-01

    In the present study a simple model for the description of the heating- and expansion-process of a water drop enclosed in hot melt is developed. The model is valid between the first contact of melt and water up to the beginning of evaporation. A possible superheating by retardation of ebullition is disregarded. The balance equations for energy, mass and momentum as well as the equation of state are integrated over the radial space coordinate in both media using appropriate profiles of temperature, pressure and velocity. Thereby a system of coupled ordinary differential equations is formed for the variables of the model which are now time dependent only. The equations are solved numerically by means of a FORTRAN-program. The influence of parameters (melt-temperature, heat-transfer-coefficient between melt and water as well as drop radius) are studied. It is shown that always very rapidly a vapor-layer forms around the water drop, while the inner part of the drop did not yet 'notice' anything of the heating process. An approximation formula for the time-transfer-coefficients between melt and water. Due to this approximation, the time up to incipience of evaporation grows proportional to the drop radius, which means that in the frame of the present model even small droplets won't evaporate as a whole instantaneously. (orig.) [de

  8. Experimental investigation of 150-KG-scale corium melt jet quenching in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magallon, D.; Hohmann, H.

    1995-09-01

    This paper compares and discusses the results of two large scale FARO quenching tests known as L-11 and L-14, which involved, respectively, 151 kg of W% 76.7 UO{sub 2} + 19.2 ZrO{sub 2} + 4.1 Zr and 125 kg of W% 80 UO{sub 2} + 20 ZrO{sub 2} melts poured into 600-kg, 2-m-depth water at saturation at 5.0 MPa. The results are further compared with those of two previous tests performed using a pure oxidic melt, respectively 18 and 44 kg of W% 80 UO{sub 2} + 20 ZrO{sub 2} melt quenched in 1-m-depth water at saturation at 5.0 MPa. In all the tests, significant breakup and quenching took place during the melt fall through the water. No steam explosion occurred. In the tests performed with a pure oxide UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} melt, part of the corium (from 1/6 to 1/3) did not breakup and reached the bottom plate still molten whatever the water depth was. Test L-11 data suggest that full oxidation and complete breakup of the melt occurred during the melt fall through the water. A proportion of 64% of the total energy content of the melt was released to the water during this phase ({approximately}1.5 s), against 44% for L-14. The maximum temperature increase of the bottom plate was 330 K (L-14). The mean particle size of the debris ranged between 2.5 and 4.8mm.

  9. Investigation on Melt-Structure-Water Interactions (MSWI) during severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Yang, Z.L.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Bui, V.A.; Haraldsson, H.O.; Li, H.X.; Konovakhin, M.; Paladino, D.; Leung, W.H [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety

    1999-08-01

    This report is the final report for the work performed in 1998 in the research project Melt Structure Water Interactions (MSWI), under the auspices of the APRI Project, jointly funded by SKI, HSK, USNRC and the Swedish and Finnish power companies. The present report describes results of advanced analytical and experimental studies concerning melt-water-structure interactions during the course of a hypothetical severe core meltdown accident in a light water reactor (LWR). Emphasis has been placed on phenomena and properties which govern the fragmentation and breakup of melt jets and droplets, melt spreading and coolability, and thermal and mechanical loadings of a pressure vessel during melt-vessel interaction. Many of the investigations performed in support of this project have produced papers which have been published in the proceedings of technical meetings. A short summary of the results achieved in these papers is provided in this overview. Both experimental and analytical studies were performed to improve knowledge about phenomena of melt-structure-water interactions. We believe that significant technical advances have been achieved during the course of these studies. It was found that: the solidification has a strong effect on the drop deformation and breakup. Initially appearing at the drop surface and, later, thickening inwards, the solid crust layer dampens the instability waves on the drop surface and, therefore, hinders drop deformation and breakup. The drop thermal properties also affect the thermal behavior of the drop and, therefore, have impact on its deformation behavior. The jet fragmentation process is a function of many related phenomena. The fragmentation rate depends not only on the traditional parameters, e.g. the Weber number, but also on the melt physical properties, which change as the melt cools down from the liquidus to the solidus temperature. Additionally, the crust formed on the surface of the melt jet will also reduce the propensity

  10. Investigation on Melt-Structure-Water Interactions (MSWI) during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Yang, Z.L.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Bui, V.A.; Haraldsson, H.O.; Li, H.X.; Konovakhin, M.; Paladino, D.; Leung, W.H

    1999-08-01

    This report is the final report for the work performed in 1998 in the research project Melt Structure Water Interactions (MSWI), under the auspices of the APRI Project, jointly funded by SKI, HSK, USNRC and the Swedish and Finnish power companies. The present report describes results of advanced analytical and experimental studies concerning melt-water-structure interactions during the course of a hypothetical severe core meltdown accident in a light water reactor (LWR). Emphasis has been placed on phenomena and properties which govern the fragmentation and breakup of melt jets and droplets, melt spreading and coolability, and thermal and mechanical loadings of a pressure vessel during melt-vessel interaction. Many of the investigations performed in support of this project have produced papers which have been published in the proceedings of technical meetings. A short summary of the results achieved in these papers is provided in this overview. Both experimental and analytical studies were performed to improve knowledge about phenomena of melt-structure-water interactions. We believe that significant technical advances have been achieved during the course of these studies. It was found that: the solidification has a strong effect on the drop deformation and breakup. Initially appearing at the drop surface and, later, thickening inwards, the solid crust layer dampens the instability waves on the drop surface and, therefore, hinders drop deformation and breakup. The drop thermal properties also affect the thermal behavior of the drop and, therefore, have impact on its deformation behavior. The jet fragmentation process is a function of many related phenomena. The fragmentation rate depends not only on the traditional parameters, e.g. the Weber number, but also on the melt physical properties, which change as the melt cools down from the liquidus to the solidus temperature. Additionally, the crust formed on the surface of the melt jet will also reduce the propensity

  11. Coaxial monitoring of temperature field in selective pulsed laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Che; Chen, Zhongyun; Cao, Hongzhong; Zhou, Jianhong

    2017-10-01

    Selective Laser Melting is a rapid manufacturing technology which produces complex parts layer by layer. The presence of thermal stress and thermal strain in the forming process often leads to defects in the formed parts. In order to detect fabricate errors and avoid failure which caused by thermal gradient in time. An infrared thermal imager and a high speed CCD camera were applied to build a coaxial optical system for real-time monitoring the temperature distribution and changing trend of laser affected zone in SLM forming process. Molten tracks were fabricated by SLM under different laser parameters such as frequency, pulse width. And the relationship between the laser parameters and the temperature distribution were all obtained and analyzed.

  12. Evaluation of methods for characterizing the melting curves of a high temperature cobalt-carbon fixed point to define and determine its melting temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, David; Machin, Graham

    2012-06-01

    The future mise en pratique for the realization of the kelvin will be founded on the melting temperatures of particular metal-carbon eutectic alloys as thermodynamic temperature references. However, at the moment there is no consensus on what should be taken as the melting temperature. An ideal melting or freezing curve should be a completely flat plateau at a specific temperature. Any departure from the ideal is due to shortcomings in the realization and should be accommodated within the uncertainty budget. However, for the proposed alloy-based fixed points, melting takes place over typically some hundreds of millikelvins. Including the entire melting range within the uncertainties would lead to an unnecessarily pessimistic view of the utility of these as reference standards. Therefore, detailed analysis of the shape of the melting curve is needed to give a value associated with some identifiable aspect of the phase transition. A range of approaches are or could be used; some purely practical, determining the point of inflection (POI) of the melting curve, some attempting to extrapolate to the liquidus temperature just at the end of melting, and a method that claims to give the liquidus temperature and an impurity correction based on the analytical Scheil model of solidification that has not previously been applied to eutectic melting. The different methods have been applied to cobalt-carbon melting curves that were obtained under conditions for which the Scheil model might be valid. In the light of the findings of this study it is recommended that the POI continue to be used as a pragmatic measure of temperature but where required a specified limits approach should be used to define and determine the melting temperature.

  13. Volume dependence of the melting temperature for alkali metals with Debye's model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soma, T.; Kagaya, H.M.; Nishigaki, M.

    1983-01-01

    Using the volume dependence of the Grueneisen constant at higher temperatures, the volume effect on the melting temperature of alkali metals is studied by Lindeman's melting law and Debye's model. The obtained melting curve increases as a function of the compressed volume and shows the maximum of the melting point at the characteristic volume. The resultant data are qualitatively in agreement with the observed tendency for alkali metals. (author)

  14. Effect of boiling regime on melt stream breakup in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.W.; Gabor, J.D.; Cassulo, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    A study has been performed examining the breakup and mixing behavior of an initially coherent stream of high-density melt as it flows downward through water. This work has application to the quenching of molten core materials as they drain downward during a postulated severe reactor accident. The study has included examination of various models of breakup distances based upon interfacial instabilities dominated either by liquid-liquid contact or by liquid-vapor contact. A series of experiments was performed to provide a data base for assessment of the various modeling approaches. The experiments involved Wood's metal (T/sub m/ = 73 0 C, rho = 9.2 g/cm 3 , d/sub j/ = 20 mm) poured into a deep pool of water. The temperature of the water and wood's metal were varied to span the range from single-phase, liquid-liquid contact to the film boiling regime. Experiment results showed that breakup occurred largely as a result of the spreading and entrainment from the leading edge of the jet. However, for streams of sufficient lengths a breakup length could be discerned at which there was no longer a coherent central core of the jet to feed the leading edge region. The erosion of the vertical trailing column is by Kelvin-Helmoltz instabilities and related disengagement of droplets from the jet into the surrounding fluid. For conditions of liquid-liquid contact, the breakup length has been found to be about 20 jet diameters; when substantial vapor is produced at the interface due to heat transfer from the jet to the water, the breakup distance was found to range to as high as 50 jet diameters. The former values are close to the analytical prediction of Taylor, whereas the latter values are better predicted by the model of Epstein and Fauske

  15. Fundamentals of Melt-Water Interfacial Transport Phenomena: Improved Understanding for Innovative Safety Technologies in ALWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Anderson; M. Corradini; K.Y. Bank; R. Bonazza; D. Cho

    2005-04-26

    The interaction and mixing of high-temperature melt and water is the important technical issue in the safety assessment of water-cooled reactors to achieve ultimate core coolability. For specific advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs, deliberate mixing of the core-melt and water is being considered as a mitigative measure, to assure ex-vessel core coolability. The goal of this work is to provide the fundamental understanding needed for melt-water interfacial transport phenomena, thus enabling the development of innovative safety technologies for advanced LWRs that will assure ex-vessel core coolability. The work considers the ex-vessel coolability phenomena in two stages. The first stage is the melt quenching process and is being addressed by Argonne National Lab and University of Wisconsin in modified test facilities. Given a quenched melt in the form of solidified debris, the second stage is to characterize the long-term debris cooling process and is being addressed by Korean Maritime University in via test and analyses. We then address the appropriate scaling and design methodologies for reactor applications.

  16. Fundamentals of Melt-Water Interfacial Transport Phenomena: Improved Understanding for Innovative Safety Technologies in ALWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.; Corradini, M.; Bank, K.Y.; Bonazza, R.; Cho, D.

    2005-01-01

    The interaction and mixing of high-temperature melt and water is the important technical issue in the safety assessment of water-cooled reactors to achieve ultimate core coolability. For specific advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs, deliberate mixing of the core-melt and water is being considered as a mitigative measure, to assure ex-vessel core coolability. The goal of this work is to provide the fundamental understanding needed for melt-water interfacial transport phenomena, thus enabling the development of innovative safety technologies for advanced LWRs that will assure ex-vessel core coolability. The work considers the ex-vessel coolability phenomena in two stages. The first stage is the melt quenching process and is being addressed by Argonne National Lab and University of Wisconsin in modified test facilities. Given a quenched melt in the form of solidified debris, the second stage is to characterize the long-term debris cooling process and is being addressed by Korean Maritime University in via test and analyses. We then address the appropriate scaling and design methodologies for reactor applications

  17. The effect of melting temperature and time on the TiC particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Kun [Key Laboratory of Materials Liquid Structure and Heredity, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Ji' nan 250061 (China); Liu Xiangfa, E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Materials Liquid Structure and Heredity, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Ji' nan 250061 (China)

    2009-09-18

    In the present work, the microstructure formation process and particle size distribution of TiC in Al-Ti-C master alloys are investigated by particle size analysis, which is based on the morphology characterizing from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The TiC particle size distributions at different melting temperatures and during different melting times are researched. It is demonstrated that the TiC particle sizes increase with melting temperature and melting time elapsed. The micro size particles appear when the melting temperature is high enough.

  18. The effect of melting temperature and time on the TiC particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Kun; Liu Xiangfa

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, the microstructure formation process and particle size distribution of TiC in Al-Ti-C master alloys are investigated by particle size analysis, which is based on the morphology characterizing from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The TiC particle size distributions at different melting temperatures and during different melting times are researched. It is demonstrated that the TiC particle sizes increase with melting temperature and melting time elapsed. The micro size particles appear when the melting temperature is high enough.

  19. Temperature Effects on Aluminoborosilicate Glass and Melt Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.; Stebbins, J. F.

    2008-12-01

    Quantitative determination of the atomic-scale structure of multi-component oxide melts, and the effects of temperature on them, is a complex problem. Ca- and Na- aluminoborosilicates are especially interesting, not only because of their major role in widespread technical applications (flat-panel computer displays, fiber composites, etc.), but because the coordination environments of two of their main network cations (Al3+ and B3+) change markedly with composition and temperature is ways that may in part be analogous to processes in silicate melts at high pressures in the Earth. Here we examine a series of such glasses with different cooling rates, chosen to evaluate the role modifier cation field strength (Ca2+ vs. Na+) and of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) content. To explore the effects of fictive temperature, fast quenched and annealed samples were compared. We have used B-11 and Al-27 MAS NMR to measure the different B and Al coordinations and calculated the contents of non-bridging oxygens (NBO). Lower cooling rates increase the fraction of [4]B species in all compositions. The conversion of [3]B to [4]B is also expected to convert NBO to bridging oxygens, which should affect thermodynamic properties such as configurational entropy and configurational heat capacity. For four compositions with widely varying compositions and initial NBO contents, analysis of the speciation changes with the same, simple reaction [3]B = [4]B + NBO yields similar enthalpy values of 25±7 kJ/mol. B-11 triple quantum MAS NMR allows as well the proportions of [3]B boroxol ring and non-ring sites to be determined, and reveals more [3]B boroxol ring structures present in annealed (lower temperature) glasses. In situ, high-temperature MAS NMR spectra have been collected on one of the Na-aluminoborosilicate and on a sodium borate glass at 14.1 T. The exchange of boron between the 3- and 4-coordinated sites is clearly observed well above the glass transition temperatures, confirming the

  20. Phenomenological studies on melt-structure-water interactions (MSWI) during severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Yang, Z.L.; Haraldsson, H.O.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Konovalikhin, M.; Paladino, D.; Gubaidullin, A.A.; Kolb, G.; Theerthan, A. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety

    2000-05-01

    This is the annual report for the work performed in 1999 in the research project Melt-Structure-Water Interactions During Severe Accidents in LWRs, under the auspices of the APRI Project, jointly funded by SKI, HSK, USNRC and the Swedish and Finnish power companies. The emphasis of the work is placed on phenomena and properties which govern the fragmentation and breakup of melt jets and droplets, melt spreading and coolability, and thermal and mechanical loadings of a pressure vessel during melt-vessel interaction. We believe that significant technical advances have been achieved during the course of these studies. It was found that: The coolant temperature has significant influence on the characteristics of debris fragments produced from the breakup of an oxidic melt jet. At low subcooling the fragments are relatively large and irregular compared to the smaller particles produced at high subcooling. The melt jet density has considerable effect on the fragment size produced. As the melt density increases the fragment size becomes smaller. The mass mean size of the debris changes proportionally to the square root of the coolant to melt density ratio. The melt superheat has little effect on the debris particle size distribution produced during the melt jet fragmentation. The impingement velocity of the jet has significant impact on the fragmentation process. At lower jet velocity the melt fragments agglomerate and form a cake of large size debris. When the jet velocity is increased more complete fragmentation is obtained. The scaling methodology for melt spreading, developed during 1998, has been further validated against almost all of the spreading experimental data available so far. Experimental results for the dryout heat flux of homogeneous particulate debris beds with top flooding compare well with the Lipinski correlation. For the stratified particle beds, the fine particle layer resting on the top of another particle layer dominates the dryout processes

  1. Phenomenological studies on melt-structure-water interactions (MSWI) during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Yang, Z.L.; Haraldsson, H.O.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Konovalikhin, M.; Paladino, D.; Gubaidullin, A.A.; Kolb, G.; Theerthan, A.

    2000-05-01

    This is the annual report for the work performed in 1999 in the research project Melt-Structure-Water Interactions During Severe Accidents in LWRs, under the auspices of the APRI Project, jointly funded by SKI, HSK, USNRC and the Swedish and Finnish power companies. The emphasis of the work is placed on phenomena and properties which govern the fragmentation and breakup of melt jets and droplets, melt spreading and coolability, and thermal and mechanical loadings of a pressure vessel during melt-vessel interaction. We believe that significant technical advances have been achieved during the course of these studies. It was found that: The coolant temperature has significant influence on the characteristics of debris fragments produced from the breakup of an oxidic melt jet. At low subcooling the fragments are relatively large and irregular compared to the smaller particles produced at high subcooling. The melt jet density has considerable effect on the fragment size produced. As the melt density increases the fragment size becomes smaller. The mass mean size of the debris changes proportionally to the square root of the coolant to melt density ratio. The melt superheat has little effect on the debris particle size distribution produced during the melt jet fragmentation. The impingement velocity of the jet has significant impact on the fragmentation process. At lower jet velocity the melt fragments agglomerate and form a cake of large size debris. When the jet velocity is increased more complete fragmentation is obtained. The scaling methodology for melt spreading, developed during 1998, has been further validated against almost all of the spreading experimental data available so far. Experimental results for the dryout heat flux of homogeneous particulate debris beds with top flooding compare well with the Lipinski correlation. For the stratified particle beds, the fine particle layer resting on the top of another particle layer dominates the dryout processes

  2. Studies on melt-water-structure interaction during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Okkonen, T.J.; Bui, V.A.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Andersson, J.

    1996-10-01

    Results of a series of studies, on melt-water-structure interactions which occur during the progression of a core melt-down accident, are described. The emphasis is on the in-vessel interactions and the studies are both experimental and analytical. Since, the studies performed resulted in papers published in proceedings of the technical meetings, and in journals, copies of a set of selected papers are attached to provide details. A summary of the results obtained is provided for the reader who does not, or cannot, venture into the perusal of the attached papers. (au)

  3. Studies on melt-water-structure interaction during severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Okkonen, T.J.; Bui, V.A.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Andersson, J. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Div. of Nucl. Power Safety, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-10-01

    Results of a series of studies, on melt-water-structure interactions which occur during the progression of a core melt-down accident, are described. The emphasis is on the in-vessel interactions and the studies are both experimental and analytical. Since, the studies performed resulted in papers published in proceedings of the technical meetings, and in journals, copies of a set of selected papers are attached to provide details. A summary of the results obtained is provided for the reader who does not, or cannot, venture into the perusal of the attached papers. (au).

  4. Water- and Boron-Rich Melt Inclusions in Quartz from the Malkhan Pegmatite, Transbaikalia, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Badanina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show that the pegmatite-forming processes responsible for the formation of the Malkhan pegmatites started at magmatic temperatures around 720 °C. The primary melts or supercritical fluids were very water- and boron-rich (maximum values of about 10% (g/g B2O3 and over the temperature interval from 720 to 600 °C formed a pseudobinary solvus, indicated by the coexistence of two types of primary melt inclusions (type-A and type-B representing a pair of conjugate melts. Due to the high water and boron concentration the pegmatite-forming melts are metastable and can be characterized either as genuine melts or silicate-rich fluids. This statement is underscored by Raman spectroscopic studies. This study suggested that the gel state proposed by some authors cannot represent the main stage of the pegmatite-forming processes in the Malkhan pegmatites, and probably in all others. However there are points in the evolution of the pegmatites where the gel- or gel-like state has left traces in form of real gel inclusions in some mineral in the Malkhan pegmatite, however only in a late, fluid dominated stage.

  5. Termination of light-water reactor core-melt accidents with a chemical core catcher: the core-melt source reduction system (COMSORS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.C.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Kenton, M.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Core-Melt Source Reduction System (COMSORS) is a new approach to terminate light-water reactor core melt accidents and ensure containment integrity. A special dissolution glass is placed under the reactor vessel. If core debris is released onto the glass, the glass melts and the debris dissolves into the molten glass, thus creating a homogeneous molten glass. The molten glass, with dissolved core debris, spreads into a wide pool, distributing the heat for removal by radiation to the reactor cavity above or by transfer to water on top of the molten glass. Expected equilibrium glass temperatures are approximately 600 degrees C. The creation of a low-temperature, homogeneous molten glass with known geometry permits cooling of the glass without threatening containment integrity. This report describes the technology, initial experiments to measure key glass properties, and modeling of COMSORS operations

  6. Changes in density of aluminium, lead and zinc melts dependent on temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazachkov, S.P.; Kochegura, N.M.; Markovskij, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    Density of aluminium, lead and zinc in various aggregate states has been studied in a wide temperature range. The density of the above metals was found to manifest temperature hysteresis after melting and cyclic change at the temperature of melting and crystallization. These phenomena are in agreement with the Stuart model of liquid state

  7. Validation of the THIRMAL-1 melt-water interaction code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, C.C.; Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The THIRMAL-1 computer code has been used to calculate nonexplosive LWR melt-water interactions both in-vessel and ex-vessel. To support the application of the code and enhance its acceptability, THIRMAL-1 has been compared with available data from two of the ongoing FARO experiments at Ispra and two of the Corium Coolant Mixing (CCM) experiments performed at Argonne. THIRMAL-1 calculations for the FARO Scoping Test and Quenching Test 2 as well as the CCM-5 and -6 experiments were found to be in excellent agreement with the experiment results. This lends confidence to the modeling that has been incorporated in the code describing melt stream breakup due to the growth of both Kelvin-Helmholtz and large wave instabilities, the sizes of droplets formed, multiphase flow and heat transfer in the mixing zone surrounding and below the melt metallic phase. As part of the analysis of the FARO tests, a mechanistic model was developed to calculate the prefragmentation as it may have occurred when melt relocated from the release vessel to the water surface and the model was compared with the relevant data from FARO.

  8. Formal treatment of some low-temperature properties of melting solid helium-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, L.

    1979-01-01

    Recent observations of the low-field-strength paramagnetic susceptibility of melting solid 3 He indicate its Curie--Weiss-type behavior at temperatures T> or approx. =5 mK. These require an identical temperature behavior of the magnetic melting-pressure shift over the same temperature range. Melting-pressure-shift measurements should thus independently confirm the observed temperature behavior of the susceptibility and yield, in addition, the curie constant of melting solid 3 He. Using the theoretical value of this constant in the low- or moderate-field-strength melting-pressure-shift formula, the calculated shifts appear to be currently accessible to measurements with acceptable accuracy at T> or approx. =5 mK. The inverse problem of determination of the paramagnetic moment or magnetization of melting solid 3 He from melting-pressure shifts may be solved on the basis of a differential magnetothermodynamic relation without significant limitations on the applied external magnetic field strength or on the temperature range. Helium-3 melting-pressure and temperature measurements in the presence of a constant and uniform magnetic field of known strength should enable, within the above formalism, the determination of the magnetic phase diagram of solid 3 He at melting down to the lowest experimentally accessible temperatures. This approach may supplement other independent methods of magnetic phase-boundary-line determinations of solid 3 He

  9. Accurate thermodynamic relations of the melting temperature of nanocrystals with different shapes and pure theoretical calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jinhua; Fu, Qingshan; Xue, Yongqiang, E-mail: xyqlw@126.com; Cui, Zixiang

    2017-05-01

    Based on the surface pre-melting model, accurate thermodynamic relations of the melting temperature of nanocrystals with different shapes (tetrahedron, cube, octahedron, dodecahedron, icosahedron, nanowire) were derived. The theoretically calculated melting temperatures are in relative good agreements with experimental, molecular dynamic simulation and other theoretical results for nanometer Au, Ag, Al, In and Pb. It is found that the particle size and shape have notable effects on the melting temperature of nanocrystals, and the smaller the particle size, the greater the effect of shape. Furthermore, at the same equivalent radius, the more the shape deviates from sphere, the lower the melting temperature is. The value of melting temperature depression of cylindrical nanowire is just half of that of spherical nanoparticle with an identical radius. The theoretical relations enable one to quantitatively describe the influence regularities of size and shape on the melting temperature and to provide an effective way to predict and interpret the melting temperature of nanocrystals with different sizes and shapes. - Highlights: • Accurate relations of T{sub m} of nanocrystals with various shapes are derived. • Calculated T{sub m} agree with literature results for nano Au, Ag, Al, In and Pb. • ΔT{sub m} (nanowire) = 0.5ΔT{sub m} (spherical nanocrystal). • The relations apply to predict and interpret the melting behaviors of nanocrystals.

  10. Snow cover as a source of technogenic pollution of surface water during the snow melting period

    OpenAIRE

    Labuzova Olga; Noskova Tatyana; Lysenko Maria; Ovcharenko Elena; Papina Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    The study of pollutants in melt water of snow cover and snow disposal sites in the city of Barnaul showed that during the snow melting period the surface water is not subjected to significant technogenic impact according to a number of studied indices. The oils content is an exception: it can exceed MAC more than 20 times in river- water due to the melting of city disposal sites. Environmental damage due to an oils input into water resources during the snow melting period...

  11. Computation and measurement of air temperature distribution of an industrial melt blowing die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Li-Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The air flow field of the dual slot die on an HDF-6D melt blowing non-woven equipment is computed numerically. A temperature measurement system is built to measure air temperatures. The computation results tally with the measured results proving the correctness of the computation. The results have great valuable significance in the actual melt blowing production.

  12. Forced convective melting at an evolving ice-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramudu, Eshwan; Hirsh, Benjamin; Olson, Peter; Gnanadesikan, Anand

    2015-11-01

    The intrusion of warm Circumpolar Deep Water into the ocean cavity between the base of ice shelves and the sea bed in Antarctica causes melting at the ice shelves' basal surface, producing a turbulent melt plume. We conduct a series of laboratory experiments to investigate how the presence of forced convection (turbulent mixing) changes the delivery of heat to the ice-water interface. We also develop a theoretical model for the heat balance of the system that can be used to predict the change in ice thickness with time. In cases of turbulent mixing, the heat balance includes a term for turbulent heat transfer that depends on the friction velocity and an empirical coefficient. We obtain a new value for this coefficient by comparing the modeled ice thickness against measurements from a set of nine experiments covering one order of magnitude of Reynolds numbers. Our results are consistent with the altimetry-inferred melting rate under Antarctic ice shelves and can be used in climate models to predict their disintegration. This work was supported by NSF grant EAR-110371.

  13. Temperature calibration procedure for thin film substrates for thermo-ellipsometric analysis using melting point standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappert, Emiel J.; Raaijmakers, Michiel J.T.; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Nijmeijer, Arian; Huiskes, Cindy; Benes, Nieck E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Facile temperature calibration method for thermo-ellipsometric analysis. • The melting point of thin films of indium, lead, zinc, and water can be detected by ellipsometry. • In-situ calibration of ellipsometry hot stage, without using any external equipment. • High-accuracy temperature calibration (±1.3 °C). - Abstract: Precise and accurate temperature control is pertinent to studying thermally activated processes in thin films. Here, we present a calibration method for the substrate–film interface temperature using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The method is adapted from temperature calibration methods that are well developed for thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry instruments, and is based on probing a transition temperature. Indium, lead, and zinc could be spread on a substrate, and the phase transition of these metals could be detected by a change in the Ψ signal of the ellipsometer. For water, the phase transition could be detected by a loss of signal intensity as a result of light scattering by the ice crystals. The combined approach allowed for construction of a linear calibration curve with an accuracy of 1.3 °C or lower over the full temperature range

  14. Measurement of the Spectral Absorption of Liquid Water in Melting Snow With an Imaging Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert O.; Dozier, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Melting of the snowpack is a critical parameter that drives aspects of the hydrology in regions of the Earth where snow accumulates seasonally. New techniques for measurement of snow melt over regional scales offer the potential to improve monitoring and modeling of snow-driven hydrological processes. In this paper we present the results of measuring the spectral absorption of liquid water in a melting snowpack with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). AVIRIS data were acquired over Mammoth Mountain, in east central California on 21 May 1994 at 18:35 UTC. The air temperature at 2926 m on Mammoth Mountain at site A was measured at 15-minute intervals during the day preceding the AVIRIS data acquisition. At this elevation. the air temperature did not drop below freezing the night of the May 20 and had risen to 6 degrees Celsius by the time of the overflight on May 21. These temperature conditions support the presence of melting snow at the surface as the AVIRIS data were acquired.

  15. Human activities and its Responses to Glacier Melt Water Over Tarim River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hai; Zhou, Shenbei; Bai, Minghao

    2017-04-01

    Tarim River Basin lies in the south area of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the north-west area of China. It is the longest inland river of China. Being far away from ocean and embraced by high mountains, Tarim River Basin is the typical arid region in the world. The intensity of human activities increased rapidly in Tarim River Basin since 1980's and water resources lacking is the major issue restricting the development of social economy. The glacier melt water plays an important role for the regional social and economic development, and it accounts for 40% of mountain-pass runoff. It is a fragile mutual-dependent relationship between local sustainable development and runoff. Under the background of global change glacier melt water process has also changed especially in the arid and semi-arid region. Due to climate change, glacier in Tarim River Basin has melted in an observed way since 1980s, together with increasing trend of annual rainfall and virgin flow in mountain basins. Correspondingly, human activity gets more frequent since 1970s, resulting into the obvious fragile mutual-dependent relationship between basin runoff and water use amount. Through an analysis of meteorological, hydrological and geographical observation data from 1985 to 2015, this thesis make a multi-factor variance analysis of population, cultivation area, industrial development and runoff in upstream and mid-stream of Tarim River under changing conditions. Furthermore, the regulation function of natural factors and water demand management factors on relationship between runoff and water using amount are discussed, including temperature, rainfall, and evaporation, water conservation technology and soil-water exploitation administrative institutions. It concludes that: first, increase in glacier runoff, rainfall amount, and virgin flow haven't notably relieved ecological issue in Tarim River Basin, and even has promoted water use behaviour in different flowing areas and noticeably reduced

  16. Glacier Melt Detection in Complex Terrain Using New AMSR-E Calibrated Enhanced Daily EASE-Grid 2.0 Brightness Temperature (CETB) Earth System Data Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramage, J. M.; Brodzik, M. J.; Hardman, M.

    2016-12-01

    Passive microwave (PM) 18 GHz and 36 GHz horizontally- and vertically-polarized brightness temperatures (Tb) channels from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) have been important sources of information about snow melt status in glacial environments, particularly at high latitudes. PM data are sensitive to the changes in near-surface liquid water that accompany melt onset, melt intensification, and refreezing. Overpasses are frequent enough that in most areas multiple (2-8) observations per day are possible, yielding the potential for determining the dynamic state of the snow pack during transition seasons. AMSR-E Tb data have been used effectively to determine melt onset and melt intensification using daily Tb and diurnal amplitude variation (DAV) thresholds. Due to mixed pixels in historically coarse spatial resolution Tb data, melt analysis has been impractical in ice-marginal zones where pixels may be only fractionally snow/ice covered, and in areas where the glacier is near large bodies of water: even small regions of open water in a pixel severely impact the microwave signal. We use the new enhanced-resolution Calibrated Passive Microwave Daily EASE-Grid 2.0 Brightness Temperature (CETB) Earth System Data Record product's twice daily obserations to test and update existing snow melt algorithms by determining appropriate melt thresholds for both Tb and DAV for the CETB 18 and 36 GHz channels. We use the enhanced resolution data to evaluate melt characteristics along glacier margins and melt transition zones during the melt seasons in locations spanning a wide range of melt scenarios, including the Patagonian Andes, the Alaskan Coast Range, and the Russian High Arctic icecaps. We quantify how improvement of spatial resolution from the original 12.5 - 25 km-scale pixels to the enhanced resolution of 3.125 - 6.25 km improves the ability to evaluate melt timing across boundaries and transition zones in diverse glacial environments.

  17. Two-dimensional model of laser alloying of binary alloy powder with interval of melting temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyzeva, A. G.; Sharkeev, Yu. P.

    2017-10-01

    The paper contains two-dimensional model of laser beam melting of powders from binary alloy. The model takes into consideration the melting of alloy in some temperature interval between solidus and liquidus temperatures. The external source corresponds to laser beam with energy density distributed by Gauss law. The source moves along the treated surface according to given trajectory. The model allows investigating the temperature distribution and thickness of powder layer depending on technological parameters.

  18. Temperature fluctuations in a LiNbO 3 melt during crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tetsuro

    2004-10-01

    Variations in temperature induced by forced convection on the surface of a LiNbO3 melt during crystal growth have been studied. Temperature measurements on the melt surface of single crystals growing (∅ 50 mm) at rotation rates of 15-40 rpm on an RF-heated Czochralski puller has revealed that the melt surface continuously alternates between a steady and unsteady state of flow. This was attributed to the intermittently turbulent flow mode at intermediate rotation rates. The fluctuation period is thought to depend on the thickness of its boundary layer. The boundary layer varies in thickness due to the melt flow, which stops as the interface moves toward the crystal and resumes once the interface reverts to its former position. By contrast, at above 60 rpm, the melt surface temperature drops without fluctuation, indicating that turbulent flow is dominant at faster rotation rates.

  19. Characterization of ash melting behaviour at high temperatures under conditions simulating combustible solid waste gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Miaomiao; Dong, Qing; Huang, Yaji; Jin, Baosheng; Wang, Hongyan; Gu, Haiming

    2018-05-01

    To achieve high-temperature gasification-melting of combustible solid waste, ash melting behaviour under conditions simulating high-temperature gasification were studied. Raw ash (RA) and gasified ash (GA) were prepared respectively by waste ashing and fluidized bed gasification. Results of microstructure and composition of the two-ash indicated that GA showed a more porous structure and higher content of alkali and alkali earth metals among metallic elements. Higher temperature promoted GA melting and could reach a complete flowing state at about 1250°C. The order of melting rate of GA under different atmospheres was reducing condition > inert condition > oxidizing condition, which might be related to different existing forms of iron during melting and different flux content with atmosphere. Compared to RA, GA showed lower melting activity at the same condition due to the existence of an unconverted carbon and hollow structure. The melting temperature for sufficient melting and separation of GA should be at least 1250°C in this work.

  20. High-temperature oxidation of tungsten covered by layer of glass-enamel melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasnetsova, V.B.; Shardakov, N.T.; Kudyakov, V.Ya.; Deryabin, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    Corrosion losses of tungsten covered by the layer of glass-enamel melt were determined at 800, 850, 900, 950 deg C. It is shown that the rate of high-temperature oxidation of tungsten decreases after application of glass-enamel melt on its surface. This is probably conditioned by reduction of area of metal interaction with oxidizing atmosphere

  1. Resistance–temperature relation and atom cluster estimation of In–Bi system melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Haoran; Wang Zhiming; Zhou Yongzhi; Li Cancan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A testing device was adopted to measure the electrical resistivity of In–Bi system melts. ► A basically linear relation exists between the resistivity and temperature of In x Bi 100−x melts in measured temperature range. ► Based on Novakovic's assumption, the content of InBi atomic cluster in In x Bi 100−x melt is estimated with ρ ≈ ρ InBi x InBi + ρ m (1 − x InBi ) equation. - Abstract: A testing device for the resistivity of high-temperature melt was adopted to measure the l resistivity of In–Bi system melts at different temperatures. It can be concluded from the analysis and calculation of the experimental results that the resistivity of In x Bi 100−x (x = 0–100) melt is in linear relationship with temperature within the experiment temperature range. The resistivity of the melt decreases with the increasing content of In. The fair consistency of resistivity of In–Bi system melt is found in the heating and cooling processes. On the basis of Novakovic's assumption, we approximately estimated the content of InBi atom clusters in In x Bi 100−x melts with the resistivity data by equation ρ ≈ ρ InBi x InBi + ρ m (1 − x InBi ). In the whole components interval, the content corresponds well with the mole fraction of InBi clusters calculated by Novakovic in the thermodynamic approach. The mole fraction of InBi type atom clusters in the melts reaches the maximum at the point of stoichiometric composition In 50 Bi 50 .

  2. Investigation of melt structure and crystallization processes by high-temperature Raman spectroscopy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voron'ko, Yu.K.; Kudryavtsev, A.B.; Osiko, V.V.; Sobol', A.A.

    1988-01-01

    A review of studies dealing with the melts of alkali, rare earth and other element phosphates, gallates, germanates, niobates and tungstates, which are carried out by the method of high-temperature Raman spectroscopy, is given. The effect of the melt structure on the mechanism of the substance cystallization is considered. It is shown that vitrification and supercooling of the melt, as well as its crystallization in the from of metastable structures, are related to the effect of nonconformity between the melt and crystal strucure. The effect of nonconformity between anion motives in the melt and crystal creates obstacles for equilibrium structure nucleation, which results in the formation mainly of metastable forms with lattice structure for from the structure of the melt, though cases of equilibrium phase crystallization are also possible. 37 refs.; 13 figs.; 2 tabs

  3. Actinide, lanthanide and fission product speciation and electrochemistry in high and low temperature ionic melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Anand I.; Kinoshita, Hajime; Koster, Anne L.; May, Iain; Sharrad, Clint A.; Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Fox, O. Danny; Jones, Chris J.; Lewin, Bob G.; Charnock, John M.; Hennig, Christoph

    2004-07-01

    There is currently a great deal of research interest in the development of molten salt technology, both classical high temperature melts and low temperature ionic liquids, for the electrochemical separation of the actinides from spent nuclear fuel. We are interested in gaining a better understanding of actinide and key fission product speciation and electrochemical properties in a range of melts. Our studies in high temperature alkali metal melts (including LiCl and LiCl-KCl and CsCl-NaCl eutectics) have focussed on in-situ species of U, Th, Tc and Ru using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS, both EXAFS and XANES) and electronic absorption spectroscopy (EAS). We report unusual actinide speciation in high temperature melts and an evaluation of the likelihood of Ru or Tc volatilization during plant operation. Our studies in lower temperature melts (ionic liquids) have focussed on salts containing tertiary alkyl group 15 cations and the bis(tri-fluor-methyl)sulfonyl)imide anion, melts which we have shown to have exceptionally wide electrochemical windows. We report Ln, Th, U and Np speciation (XAS, EAS and vibrational spectroscopy) and electrochemistry in these melts and relate the solution studies to crystallographic characterised benchmark species. (authors)

  4. Actinide, lanthanide and fission product speciation and electrochemistry in high and low temperature ionic melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, Anand I.; Kinoshita, Hajime; Koster, Anne L.; May, Iain; Sharrad, Clint A.; Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Fox, O. Danny; Jones, Chris J.; Lewin, Bob G.; Charnock, John M.; Hennig, Christoph

    2004-01-01

    There is currently a great deal of research interest in the development of molten salt technology, both classical high temperature melts and low temperature ionic liquids, for the electrochemical separation of the actinides from spent nuclear fuel. We are interested in gaining a better understanding of actinide and key fission product speciation and electrochemical properties in a range of melts. Our studies in high temperature alkali metal melts (including LiCl and LiCl-KCl and CsCl-NaCl eutectics) have focussed on in-situ species of U, Th, Tc and Ru using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS, both EXAFS and XANES) and electronic absorption spectroscopy (EAS). We report unusual actinide speciation in high temperature melts and an evaluation of the likelihood of Ru or Tc volatilization during plant operation. Our studies in lower temperature melts (ionic liquids) have focussed on salts containing tertiary alkyl group 15 cations and the bis(tri-fluor-methyl)sulfonyl)imide anion, melts which we have shown to have exceptionally wide electrochemical windows. We report Ln, Th, U and Np speciation (XAS, EAS and vibrational spectroscopy) and electrochemistry in these melts and relate the solution studies to crystallographic characterised benchmark species. (authors)

  5. Liquid structure and temperature invariance of sound velocity in supercooled Bi melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emuna, M.; Mayo, M.; Makov, G.; Greenberg, Y.; Caspi, E. N.; Yahel, E.; Beuneu, B.

    2014-01-01

    Structural rearrangement of liquid Bi in the vicinity of the melting point has been proposed due to the unique temperature invariant sound velocity observed above the melting temperature, the low symmetry of Bi in the solid phase and the necessity of overheating to achieve supercooling. The existence of this structural rearrangement is examined by measurements on supercooled Bi. The sound velocity of liquid Bi was measured into the supercooled region to high accuracy and it was found to be invariant over a temperature range of ∼60°, from 35° above the melting point to ∼25° into the supercooled region. The structural origin of this phenomenon was explored by neutron diffraction structural measurements in the supercooled temperature range. These measurements indicate a continuous modification of the short range order in the melt. The structure of the liquid is analyzed within a quasi-crystalline model and is found to evolve continuously, similar to other known liquid pnictide systems. The results are discussed in the context of two competing hypotheses proposed to explain properties of liquid Bi near the melting: (i) liquid bismuth undergoes a structural rearrangement slightly above melting and (ii) liquid Bi exhibits a broad maximum in the sound velocity located incidentally at the melting temperature

  6. Effect of cavity inclination on a temperature and concentration controlled double diffusive convection at ice plate melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, M.; Ishikura, T. [Akita University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Akita (Japan); Beer, H. [Technische Unversitat Darmstadt, Institut fur Technische Thermodynamik, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-03-01

    This paper is concerned with the double diffusive convection due to the melting of an ice plate into a calcium chloride aqueous solution inside a rectangular cavity. It is mainly considered the effect of the cavity inclination {theta} on the melting rate and the mean melting Nusselt- and Sherwood-numbers, experimentally as well as numerically. The ice plate melts spontaneously with decreasing temperature at the melting front even if initially there does not exist a temperature difference between the ice and the liquid. The concentration- and temperature-gradients near the melting front induce double diffusive convection in the liquid, which will affect the melting rate. Experiments reveal that the mean melting mass increases monotonically with increasing cavity inclination. The numerical analysis based on the laminar assumption predicts well the melting mass in the range of {theta}=0-90 , however, under-predicts the melting mass in the range of {theta}=90-180 as compared with the experimental results. (orig.)

  7. Thermophysical properties of liquid Ni around the melting temperature from molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozas, R. E. [Institut für Theoretische Physik II: Soft Matter, Heinrich Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Universitätsstraße 1, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Bío-Bío, Av. Collao 1202, P.O. Box 5C, Concepción (Chile); Demiraǧ, A. D.; Horbach, J. [Institut für Theoretische Physik II: Soft Matter, Heinrich Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Universitätsstraße 1, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany); Toledo, P. G. [Chemical Engineering Department and Surface Analysis Laboratory (ASIF), University of Concepción, P.O. Box 160-C, Correo 3, Concepción (Chile)

    2016-08-14

    Thermophysical properties of liquid nickel (Ni) around the melting temperature are investigated by means of classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, using three different embedded atom method potentials to model the interactions between the Ni atoms. Melting temperature, enthalpy, static structure factor, self-diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, and thermal diffusivity are compared to recent experimental results. Using ab initio MD simulation, we also determine the static structure factor and the mean-squared displacement at the experimental melting point. For most of the properties, excellent agreement is found between experiment and simulation, provided the comparison relative to the corresponding melting temperature. We discuss the validity of the Hansen-Verlet criterion for the static structure factor as well as the Stokes-Einstein relation between self-diffusion coefficient and shear viscosity. The thermal diffusivity is extracted from the autocorrelation function of a wavenumber-dependent temperature fluctuation variable.

  8. Structural integrity investigation for RPV with various cooling water levels under pressurized melting pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The strategy denoted as in-vessel retention (IVR is widely used in severe accident (SA management by most advanced nuclear power plants. The essence of IVR mitigation is to provide long-term external water cooling in maintaining the reactor pressure vessel (RPV integrity. Actually, the traditional IVR concept assumed that RPV was fully submerged into the water flooding, and the melting pool was depressurized during the SA. The above assumptions weren't seriously challenged until the occurrence of Fukushima accident on 2011, suggesting the structural behavior had not been appropriately assessed. Therefore, the paper tries to address the structure-related issue on determining whether RPV safety can be maintained or not with the effect of various water levels and internal pressures created from core meltdown accident. In achieving it, the RPV structural behaviors are numerically investigated in terms of several field parameters, such as temperature, deformation, stress, plastic strain, creep strain, and total damage. Due to the presence of high temperature melt on the inside and water cooling on the outside, the RPV failure is governed by the failure mechanisms of creep, thermal-plasticity and plasticity. The creep and plastic damages are interacted with each other, which further accelerate the failure process. Through detailed investigation, it is found that the internal pressure as well as water levels plays an important role in determining the RPV failure time, mode and site.

  9. Decompression-induced melting of ice IV and the liquid-liquid transition in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Osamu; Stanley, H. Eugene

    1998-03-01

    Although liquid water has been the focus of intensive research for over 100 years, a coherent physical picture that unifies all of the known anomalies of this liquid, is still lacking. Some of these anomalies occur in the supercooled region, and have been rationalized on the grounds of a possible retracing of the liquid-gas spinodal (metastability limit) line into the supercooled liquid region, or alternatively the presence of a line of first-order liquid-liquid phase transitions in this region which ends in a critical point,. But these ideas remain untested experimentally, in part because supercooled water can be probed only above the homogeneous nucleation temperature TH at which water spontaneously crystallizes. Here we report an experimental approach that is not restricted by the barrier imposed by TH, involving measurement of the decompression-induced melting curves of several high-pressure phases of ice in small emulsified droplets. We find that the melting curve for ice IV seems to undergo a discontinuity at precisely the location proposed for the line of liquid-liquid phase transitions. This is consistent with, but does not prove, the coexistence of two different phases of (supercooled) liquid water. From the experimental data we calculate a possible Gibbs potential surface and a corresponding equation of state for water, from the forms of which we estimate the coordinates of the liquid-liquid critical point to be at pressure Pc ~ 0.1GPa and temperature Tc ~ 220K.

  10. Snow cover as a source of technogenic pollution of surface water during the snow melting period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labuzova Olga

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of pollutants in melt water of snow cover and snow disposal sites in the city of Barnaul showed that during the snow melting period the surface water is not subjected to significant technogenic impact according to a number of studied indices. The oils content is an exception: it can exceed MAC more than 20 times in river- water due to the melting of city disposal sites. Environmental damage due to an oils input into water resources during the snow melting period can be more than 300000 thousand rubles.

  11. Temperature dependence of diffusion coefficients of trivalent uranium ions in chloride and chloride-fluoride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, V.E.; Borodina, N.P.

    1981-01-01

    Diffusion coefficients of U 3+ ions are measured by chronopotentiometric method in chloride 3LiCl-2KCl and in mixed chloride fluoride 3LiCl(LiF)-2KCl melts in the temperature range 633-1235 K. It is shown It is shown that experimental values of diffusion-coefficients are approximated in a direct line in lg D-1/T coordinate in chloride melt in the whole temperature range and in chloride-fluoride melt in the range of 644-1040 K. Experimental values of diffusion coefficients diviate from Arrhenius equation in the direction of large values in chloride-fluoride melt at further increase of temperature up to 1235 K. Possible causes of such a diviation are considered [ru

  12. Oxygen exchange and ice melt measured at the ice-water interface by eddy correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, M.H.; Koopmans, D.; Berg, P.

    2012-01-01

    heterotrophic with a daily gross primary production of 0.69 mmol O2 mĝ̂'2 dĝ̂'1 and a respiration rate of ĝ̂'2.13 mmol O2 mĝ̂'2 dĝ̂'1 leading to a net ecosystem metabolism of ĝ̂'1.45 mmol O2 mĝ̂'2 dĝ̂'1. This application of the eddy correlation technique produced high temporal resolution O2 fluxes and ice melt......This study examined fluxes across the ice-water interface utilizing the eddy correlation technique. Temperature eddy correlation systems were used to determine rates of ice melting and freezing, and O2 eddy correlation systems were used to examine O2 exchange rates driven by biological and physical...

  13. Applicability of low-melting-point microcrystalline wax to develop temperature-sensitive formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kohei; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Iwao, Yasunori; Itai, Shigeru

    2017-10-30

    Low-melting-point substances are widely used to develop temperature-sensitive formulations. In this study, we focused on microcrystalline wax (MCW) as a low-melting-point substance. We evaluated the drug release behavior of wax matrix (WM) particles using various MCW under various temperature conditions. WM particles containing acetaminophen were prepared using a spray congealing technique. In the dissolution test at 37°C, WM particles containing low-melting-point MCWs whose melting was starting at approx. 40°C (Hi-Mic-1045 or 1070) released the drug initially followed by the release of only a small amount. On the other hand, in the dissolution test at 20 and 25°C for WM particles containing Hi-Mic-1045 and at 20, 25, and 30°C for that containing Hi-Mic-1070, both WM particles showed faster drug release than at 37°C. The characteristic drug release suppression of WM particles containing low-melting-point MCWs at 37°C was thought attributable to MCW melting, as evidenced by differential scanning calorimetry analysis and powder X-ray diffraction analysis. Taken together, low-melting-point MCWs may be applicable to develop implantable temperature-sensitive formulations that drug release is accelerated by cooling at administered site. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A technique of melting temperature measurement and its application for irradiated high-burnup MOX fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namekawa, Takashi; Hirosawa, Takashi

    1999-01-01

    A melting temperature measurement technique for irradiated oxide fuels is described. In this technique, the melting temperature was determined from a thermal arrest on a heating curve of the specimen which was enclosed in a tungsten capsule to maintain constant chemical composition of the specimen during measurement. The measurement apparatus was installed in an alpha-tight steel box within a gamma-shielding cell and operated by remote handling. The temperature of the specimen was measured with a two-color pyrometer sighted on a black-body well at the bottom of the tungsten capsule. The diameter of the black-body well was optimized so that the uncertainties of measurement were reduced. To calibrate the measured temperature, two reference melting temperature materials, tantalum and molybdenum, were encapsulated and run before and after every oxide fuel test. The melting temperature data on fast reactor mixed oxide fuels irradiated up to 124 GWd/t were obtained. In addition, simulated high-burnup mixed oxide fuel up to 250 GWd/t by adding non-radioactive soluble fission products was examined. These data shows that the melting temperature decrease with increasing burnup and saturated at high burnup region. (author)

  15. The melting curve of iron to 250 gigapascals - A constraint on the temperature at earth's center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Quentin; Jeanloz, Raymond; Bass, Jay; Svendsen, Bob; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    The melting curve of iron, the primary constituent of earth's core, has been measured to pressures of 250 gigapascals with a combination of static and dynamic techniques. The melting temperature of iron at the pressure of the core-mantle boundary (136 GPa) is 4800 + or - 200 K, whereas at the inner core-outer core boundary (330 GPa), it is 7600 + or - 500 K. A melting temperature for iron-rich alloy of 6600 K at the inner core-outer core boundary and a maximum temperature of 6900 K at earth's center are inferred. This latter value is the first experimental upper bound on the temperature at earth's center, and these results imply that the temperature of the lower mantle is significantly less than that of the outer core.

  16. Molecular dynamics for near melting temperatures simulations of metals using modified embedded-atom method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etesami, S. Alireza; Asadi, Ebrahim

    2018-01-01

    Availability of a reliable interatomic potential is one of the major challenges in utilizing molecular dynamics (MD) for simulations of metals at near the melting temperatures and melting point (MP). Here, we propose a novel approach to address this challenge in the concept of modified-embedded-atom (MEAM) interatomic potential; also, we apply the approach on iron, nickel, copper, and aluminum as case studies. We propose adding experimentally available high temperature elastic constants and MP of the element to the list of typical low temperature properties used for the development of MD interatomic potential parameters. We show that the proposed approach results in a reasonable agreement between the MD calculations of melting properties such as latent heat, expansion in melting, liquid structure factor, and solid-liquid interface stiffness and their experimental/computational counterparts. Then, we present the physical properties of mentioned elements near melting temperatures using the new MEAM parameters. We observe that the behavior of elastic constants, heat capacity and thermal linear expansion coefficient at room temperature compared to MP follows an empirical linear relation (α±β × MP) for transition metals. Furthermore, a linear relation between the tetragonal shear modulus and the enthalpy change from room temperature to MP is observed for face-centered cubic materials.

  17. Melting Penetration Simulation of Fe-U System at High Temperature Using MPS-LER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustari, A P A; Irwanto, Dwi; Yamaji, A

    2016-01-01

    Melting penetration information of Fe-U system is necessary for simulating the molten core behavior during severe accident in nuclear power plants. For Fe-U system, the information is mainly obtained from experiment, i.e. TREAT experiment. However, there is no reported data on SS304 at temperature above 1350°C. The MPS-LER has been developed and validated to simulate melting penetration on Fe-U system. The MPS-LER modelled the eutectic phenomenon by solving the diffusion process and by applying the binary phase diagram criteria. This study simulates the melting penetration of the system at higher temperature using MPS-LER. Simulations were conducted on SS304 at 1400, 1450 and 1500°C. The simulation results show rapid increase of melting penetration rate. (paper)

  18. Simulant - water experiments to characterize the debris bed formed in severe core melt accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathai, Amala M.; Anandan, J.; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Murthy, S.S.; Malarvizhi, B.; Lydia, G.; Das, Sanjay Kumar; Nashine, B.K.; Selvaraj, P.

    2015-01-01

    Molten Fuel Coolant Interaction (WO) and debris bed configuration on the core catcher plate assumes importance in assessing the Post Accident Heat Removal (PARR) of a heat generating debris bed. The key factors affecting the coolability of the debris bed are the bed porosity, morphology of the fragmented particles, degree of spreading/heaping of the debris on the core catcher and the fraction of lump formed. Experiments are conducted to understand the fragmentation kinetics and subsequent debris bed formation of molten woods metal in water at interface temperatures near the spontaneous nucleation temperature of water. Morphology of the debris particles is investigated to understand the fragmentation mechanisms involved. The spreading behavior of the debris on the catcher plate and the particle size distribution are presented for 5 kg and 10 kg melt inventories. Porosity of the undisturbed bed on the catcher plate is evaluated using a LASER sensor technique. (author)

  19. Preparation of 147Pm metal and the determination of the melting point and phase transformation temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, P.; Adair, H.L.

    1976-07-01

    The promethium metal used in the determination of the melting point and phase transformation temperatures was prepared by reduction of promethium oxide with thorium metal at 1600 0 C and distilling the promethium metal into a quartz dome. The melting point and phase transformation temperatures of promethium metal were found to be 1042 +- 5 0 C and 890 +- 5 0 C, respectively. The ratio for the heat of the high-temperature transformation to the heat of fusion was determined to be 0.415

  20. High-temperature abnormal behavior of resistivities for Bi-In melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Yun; Zu Fangqiu; Li Xianfen; Yu Jin; Liu Lanjun; Li Qiang; Chen Zhihao

    2004-01-01

    The patterns of electrical resistivities versus temperature in large temperature range have been studied, using the D.C. four-probe method, for liquid Bi-In alloys (Bi-In(33 wt%), Bi-In(38 wt%), Bi-In(50.5 wt%), Bi-In(66 wt%)). The clear turning point of each resistivity-temperature curves of the liquid Bi-In alloys is observed at the temperature much above the melting point, in which temperature range the resistivity-temperature coefficient increases rapidly. Except for the turning temperature range, the resistivities of Bi-In alloys increase linearly with temperature. Because resistivity is sensitive to the structure, this experiment shows the structural transition in Bi-In melts at the temperature much higher than the liquidus. And it is suggested that there are different Bi-In short-range orderings in different Bi-In melts, so the resistivity-temperature curves have the turns at different temperatures and the resistivity-temperature coefficients are also different

  1. High temperature water chemistry monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, P.

    1992-01-01

    Almost all corrosion phenomena in nuclear power plants can be prevented or at least damped by water chemistry control or by the change of water chemistry control or by the change of water chemistry. Successful water chemistry control needs regular and continuous monitoring of such water chemistry parameters like dissolved oxygen content, pH, conductivity and impurity contents. Conventionally the monitoring is carried out at low pressures and temperatures, which method, however, has some shortcomings. Recently electrodes have been developed which enables the direct monitoring at operating pressures and temperatures. (author). 2 refs, 5 figs

  2. Determination of the liquidus temperature of tin using the heat pulse-based melting and comparison with traditional methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Wukchul; Park, Jihye; Pearce, Jonathan V.

    2018-06-01

    In this work, the liquidus temperature of tin was determined by melting the sample using the pressure-controlled loop heat pipe. Square wave-type pressure steps generated periodic 0.7 °C temperature steps in the isothermal region in the vicinity of the tin sample, and the tin was melted with controllable heat pulses from the generated temperature changes. The melting temperatures at specific melted fractions were measured, and they were extrapolated to the melted fraction of unity to determine the liquidus temperature of tin. To investigate the influence of the impurity distribution on the melting behavior, a molten tin sample was solidified by an outward slow freezing or by quenching to segregate the impurities inside the sample with concentrations increasing outwards or to spread the impurities uniformly, respectively. The measured melting temperatures followed the local solidus temperature variations well in the case of the segregated sample and stayed near the solidus temperature in the quenched sample due to the microscopic melting behavior. The extrapolated melting temperatures of the segregated and quenched samples were 0.95 mK and 0.49 mK higher than the outside-nucleated freezing temperature of tin (with uncertainties of 0.15 mK and 0.16 mK, at approximately 95% level of confidence), respectively. The extrapolated melting temperature of the segregated sample was supposed to be a closer approximation to the liquidus temperature of tin, whereas the quenched sample yielded the possibility of a misleading extrapolation to the solidus temperature. Therefore, the determination of the liquidus temperature could result in different extrapolated melting temperatures depending on the way the impurities were distributed within the sample, which has implications for the contemporary methodology for realizing temperature fixed points of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90).

  3. Water in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayer, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (or RTILs, salts with a melting point below 25 °C) have become a subject of intense study over the last several decades. Currently, RTIL application research includes synthesis, batteries, solar cells, crystallization, drug delivery, and optics. RTILs are often composed of an inorganic anion paired with an asymmetric organic cation which contains one or more pendant alkyl chains. The asymmetry of the cation frustrates crystallization, causing the salt's melting point to drop significantly. In general, RTILs are very hygroscopic, and therefore, it is of interest to examine the influence of water on RTIL structure and dynamics. In addition, in contrast to normal aqueous salt solutions, which crystallize at low water concentration, in an RTIL it is possible to examine isolated water molecules interacting with ions but not with other water molecules. Here, optical heterodyne-detected optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE) measurements of orientational relaxation on a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate RTILs as a function of chain length and water concentration are presented. The addition of water to the longer alkyl chain RTILs causes the emergence of a long time bi-exponential orientational anisotropy decay. Such decays have not been seen previously in OHD-OKE experiments on any type of liquid and are analyzed here using a wobbling-in-a-cone model. The orientational relaxation is not hydrodynamic, with the slowest relaxation component becoming slower as the viscosity decreases for the longest chain, highest water content samples. The dynamics of isolated D2O molecules in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BmImPF6) were examined using two dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy. Spectral diffusion and incoherent and coherent transfer of excitation between the symmetric and antisymmetric modes are examined. The coherent transfer experiments are used to address the nature of inhomogeneous

  4. Shear melting and high temperature embrittlement: theory and application to machining titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Con; Koch, Sascha; Siemers, Carsten; Mukherji, Debashis; Ackland, Graeme J

    2015-04-24

    We describe a dynamical phase transition occurring within a shear band at high temperature and under extremely high shear rates. With increasing temperature, dislocation deformation and grain boundary sliding are supplanted by amorphization in a highly localized nanoscale band, which allows for massive strain and fracture. The mechanism is similar to shear melting and leads to liquid metal embrittlement at high temperature. From simulation, we find that the necessary conditions are lack of dislocation slip systems, low thermal conduction, and temperature near the melting point. The first two are exhibited by bcc titanium alloys, and we show that the final one can be achieved experimentally by adding low-melting-point elements: specifically, we use insoluble rare earth metals (REMs). Under high shear, the REM becomes mixed with the titanium, lowering the melting point within the shear band and triggering the shear-melting transition. This in turn generates heat which remains localized in the shear band due to poor heat conduction. The material fractures along the shear band. We show how to utilize this transition in the creation of new titanium-based alloys with improved machinability.

  5. Periodicity in melting temperature changes of mixed-ligand rare earth β-diketonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasev, V.E.; Stebelevskaya, N.I.; Shchelokov, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    By means of heating the crystalline samples in a capillary the melting temperatures of the compounds of the composition [M(DBM) 2 CH 3 COO]x2H 2 O and [M(DBM) 2 (TPPO) 2 xNO 3 ], where M-rare earth ion, DBM-dibenzoyl methane, TPPO-triphen hosphineylpxide, are measured. Dependences of the melting temperatures of the compounds on quantum number L and S as well as on the value of energy decrease of the ground state as to the centre of gravity of multiplet therm of lanthanide ion are studied. The presence of ''tetrad effect'' in the change of melting temperatures depending on the nuclear charge for the chelates studied is shown [ru

  6. Utilizing Rice Husk Briquettes in Firing Crucible Furnace for Low Temperature Melting Metals in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Musa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The search for alternative fuels for firing crucible furnace for low temperature melting metals has become mandatory, as a result of the pollution problem associated with the use of fossil fuels, the expense of electricity and also deforestation as a result of the use of charcoal. An agricultural waste, rice husk, in briquette form was used as an alternative fuel to fire crucible furnace to melt lead, zinc and aluminium. Results showed that lead and zinc melted and reached their pouring temperatures of 3840C and 5300C in 70 minutes and 75 minutes respectively. Aluminium was raised to a maximum temperature of 5200C in 75 and 100 minutes.The average concentration of the pollutants (CO, SO2and NOX were found to be below the tolerance limit and that of TSP (Total Suspended Particulates was found to be within the tolerance limit stipulated by Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA in Nigeria.

  7. In-situ, high pressure and temperature experimental determination of hydrogen isotope fractionation between coexisting hydrous melt and silicate-saturated aqueous fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysen, B. O.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrogen isotope fractionation between water-saturated silicate melt and silicate-saturated aqueous fluid has been determined experimentally, in-situ with the samples in the 450-800C and 101-1567 MPa temperature and pressure range, respectively. The temperatures are, therefore higher than those where hydrogen bonding in fluids and melts is important [1]. The experiments were conducted with a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC) as the high-temperature/-pressure tool and vibrational spectroscopy to determine D/H fractionation. Compositions were along the haploandesite join, Na2Si4O9 - Na2(NaAl)4O9 [Al/(Al+Si)=0-0.1], and a 50:50 (by volume) H2O:D2O fluid mixture as starting material. Platinum metal was used to enhance equilibration rate. Isotopic equilibrium was ascertained by using variable experimental duration at given temperature and pressure. In the Al-free Na-silicate system, the enthalpy change of the (D/H) equilibrium of fluid is 3.1±0.7 kJ/mol, whereas for coexisting melt, ΔH=0 kJ/mol within error. With Al/(Al+Si)=0.1, ΔH=5.2±0.9 kJ/mol for fluid and near 0 within error for coexisting melt melt. For the exchange equilibrium between melt and fluid, H2O(melt)+D2O(fluid)=H2O(fluid)+D2O(melt), the ΔH=4.6±0.7 and 6.5±0.7 kJ/mol for the two Al-free and Al-bearing compositions, respectively, respectively. The D/H equilibration within fluids and melts and, therefore, D/H partitioning between coexisting fluid and melt reflect the influence of dissolved H2O(D2O) in melts and dissolved silicate components in H2O(D2O) fluid on their structure. The positive temperature- and pressure-dependence of silicate solubility and on silicate structure in silicate-saturated aqueous fluid governs the D/H fractionation in the fluid because increasing silicate solute concentration in fluid results in silicate polymerization [2]. These structural effects may be analogous to observed solute-dependent oxygen isotope fractionation between brine and CO2 [3]. In the temperature

  8. Patterns in new dimensionless quantities containing melting temperature, and their dependence on pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. WALZER

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationships existing between melting temperature and other
    macroscopic physical quantities are investigated. A new dimensionless
    quantity Q(1 not containing the Grtineisen parameter proves to be suited for serving in future studies as a tool for the determination of the melting temperature in the outer core of the Earth. The pressure dependence of more general dimensionless quantities Q„ is determined analytically and, for the chemical elements, numerically, too. The patterns of various interesting dimensionless quantities are shown in the Periodic Table and compared.

  9. Water Recovery with the Heat Melt Compactor in a Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golliher, Eric L.; Goo, Jonathan; Fisher, John

    2015-01-01

    The Heat Melt Compactor is a proposed utility that will compact astronaut trash, extract the water for eventual re-use, and form dry square tiles that can be used as additional ionizing radiation shields for future human deep space missions. The Heat Melt Compactor has been under development by a consortium of NASA centers. The downstream portion of the device is planned to recover a small amount of water while in a microgravity environment. Drop tower low gravity testing was performed to assess the effect of small particles on a capillary-based water/air separation device proposed for the water recovery portion of the Heat Melt Compactor.

  10. High DNA melting temperature predicts transcription start site location in human and mouse.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dineen, David G

    2009-12-01

    The accurate computational prediction of transcription start sites (TSS) in vertebrate genomes is a difficult problem. The physicochemical properties of DNA can be computed in various ways and a many combinations of DNA features have been tested in the past for use as predictors of transcription. We looked in detail at melting temperature, which measures the temperature, at which two strands of DNA separate, considering the cooperative nature of this process. We find that peaks in melting temperature correspond closely to experimentally determined transcription start sites in human and mouse chromosomes. Using melting temperature alone, and with simple thresholding, we can predict TSS with accuracy that is competitive with the most accurate state-of-the-art TSS prediction methods. Accuracy is measured using both experimentally and manually determined TSS. The method works especially well with CpG island containing promoters, but also works when CpG islands are absent. This result is clear evidence of the important role of the physical properties of DNA in the process of transcription. It also points to the importance for TSS prediction methods to include melting temperature as prior information.

  11. Identification of squid species by melting temperature shifts on fluorescence melting curve analysis (FMCA) using single dual-labeled probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eunjung; Song, Ha Jeong; Kwon, Na Young; Kim, Gi Won; Lee, Kwang Ho; Jo, Soyeon; Park, Sujin; Park, Jihyun; Park, Eun Kyeong; Hwang, Seung Yong

    2017-06-01

    Real time PCR is a standard method for identification of species. One of limitations of the qPCR is that there would be false-positive result due to mismatched hybridization between target sequence and probe depending on the annealing temperature in the PCR condition. As an alternative, fluorescence melting curve analysis (FMCA) could be applied for species identification. FMCA is based on a dual-labeled probe. Even with subtle difference of target sequence, there are visible melting temperature (Tm) shift. One of FMCA applications is distinguishing organisms distributed and consumed globally as popular food ingredients. Their prices are set by species or country of origin. However, counterfeiting or distributing them without any verification procedure are becoming social problems and threatening food safety. Besides distinguishing them in naked eye is very difficult and almost impossible in any processed form. Therefore, it is necessary to identify species in molecular level. In this research three species of squids which have 1-2 base pair differences each are selected as samples since they have the same issue. We designed a probe which perfectly matches with one species and the others mismatches 2 and 1 base pair respectively and labeled with fluorophore and quencher. In an experiment with a single probe, we successfully distinguished them by Tm shift depending on the difference of base pair. By combining FMCA and qPCR chip, smaller-scale assay with higher sensitivity and resolution could be possible, andc furthermore, enabling results analysis with smart phone would realize point-of-care testing (POCT).

  12. Melting of short 1-alcohol monolayers on water: Thermodynamics and x-ray scattering studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berge, B.; Konovalov, O.; Lajzerowicz, J.

    1994-01-01

    From surface tension measurements we extract the melting entropy Delta S-2D of fatty-alcohol monolayers on water. Delta S-2D is found to be 4(kB)/mol lower than in the bulk. Because of the role of the conformational entropy, the melting transition is discontinuous for long chains, but tends to be...

  13. Drag Moderation by the Melting of an Ice Surface in Contact with Water

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2015-07-24

    We report measurements of the effects of a melting ice surface on the hydrodynamic drag of ice-shell-metal-core spheres free falling in water at a Reynolds of number Re∼2×104–3×105 and demonstrate that the melting surface induces the early onset of the drag crisis, thus reducing the hydrodynamic drag by more than 50%. Direct visualization of the flow pattern demonstrates the key role of surface melting. Our observations support the hypothesis that the drag reduction is due to the disturbance of the viscous boundary layer by the mass transfer from the melting ice surface.

  14. Drag Moderation by the Melting of an Ice Surface in Contact with Water

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Chan, Derek Y.  C.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2015-01-01

    We report measurements of the effects of a melting ice surface on the hydrodynamic drag of ice-shell-metal-core spheres free falling in water at a Reynolds of number Re∼2×104–3×105 and demonstrate that the melting surface induces the early onset of the drag crisis, thus reducing the hydrodynamic drag by more than 50%. Direct visualization of the flow pattern demonstrates the key role of surface melting. Our observations support the hypothesis that the drag reduction is due to the disturbance of the viscous boundary layer by the mass transfer from the melting ice surface.

  15. Melting temperature evolution of non-reorganized crystals. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righetti, Maria Cristina; Di Lorenzo, Maria Laura

    2011-01-01

    In the present study the correlation between the melting behaviour of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) original, non-reorganized crystals and the crystallinity increase during isothermal crystallization is presented and discussed. Since the reorganization processes modify the melting curve of original crystals, it is necessary to prevent and hinder all the processes that influence and increase the lamellar thickness. PHB exhibits melting/recrystallization on heating, the occurring of lamellar thickening in the solid state being excluded. The first step of the study was the identification of the scanning rate which inhibits PHB recrystallization at sufficiently high T c . For the extrapolated onset and peak temperatures of the main melting endotherm, which is connected to fusion of dominant lamellae, a double dependence on the crystallization time was found. The crystallization time at which T onset and T peak change their trends was found to correspond to the spherulite impingement time, so that the two different dependencies were put in relation with primary and secondary crystallizations respectively. The increase of both T onset and T peak at high crystallization times after spherulite impingement was considered an effect due to crystal superheating and an indication of a stabilization process of the crystalline phase. Such stabilization, which produces an increase of the melting temperature, is probably connected with the volume filling that occurs after spherulite impingement.

  16. Melting temperatures of MgO under high pressure determined by micro-texture observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, T.; Ohfuji, H.; Nishi, M.; Irifune, T.

    2016-12-01

    Periclase (MgO) is the second abundant mineral after bridgmanite in the Earth's lower mantle, and its melting temperature (Tm) under pressure is important to constrain the chemical composition of ultra-deep magma formed near the mantle-core boundary. However, the melting behavior is highly controversial among previous studies: a laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LHDAC) study reported a melting curve with a dTm/dP of 30 K/GPa at zero pressure [1], while several theoretical computations gave substantially higher dTm/dP of 90 100 K/GPa [2,3]. We performed a series of LHDAC experiments for measurements of Tm of MgO under high pressure, using single crystal MgO as the starting material. The melting was detected by using micro-texture observations of the quenched samples. We found that the laser-heated area of the sample quenched from the Tm in previous LHDAC experiments [1] showed randomly aggregated granular crystals, which was not caused by melting, but by plastic deformation of the sample. This suggests that the Tms of their study were substantially underestimated. On the other hand, the sample recovered from the temperature higher by 1500-1700 K than the Tms in previous LHDAC experiments showed a characteristic internal texture comparable to the solidification texture typically shown in metal casting. We determined the Tms based on the observation of this texture up to 32 GPa. Fitting our Tms to the Simon equation yields dTm/dP of 82 K/GPa at zero pressure, which is consistent with those of the theoretical predictions (90 100 K/GPa) [2,3]. Extrapolation of the present melting curve of MgO to the pressure of the CMB (135 GPa) gives a melting temperature of 8900 K. The present steep melting slope offers the eutectic composition close to peridotite (in terms of Mg/Si ratio) throughout the lower mantle conditions. According to the model for sink/float relationship between the solid mantle and the magma [4], a considerable amount of iron (Fe/(Mg+Fe) > 0.24) is expected

  17. Linear thermal expansion, thermal diffusivity and melting temperature of Am-MOX and Np-MOX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, D.; Belin, R.C.; Manara, D.; Staicu, D.; Richaud, J.-C.; Vigier, J.-F.; Scheinost, A.C.; Somers, J.; Martin, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The thermal properties of Np- and Am-MOX solid solutions were investigated. • Np- and Am-MOX solid solutions exhibit the same linear thermal expansion. • The thermal conductivity of Am-MOX is about 10% higher than that of Np-MOX. • The melting temperatures of Np-MOX and Am-MOX are 3020 ± 30 K and 3005 ± 30 K, respectively. - Abstract: The thermal properties of Np- and Am-MOX solid solution materials were investigated. Their linear thermal expansion, determined using high temperature X-ray diffraction from room temperature to 1973 K showed no significant difference between the Np and the Am doped MOX. The thermal conductivity of the Am-MOX is about 10% higher than that of Np-MOX. The melting temperatures of Np-MOX and Am-MOX, measured using a laser heating self crucible arrangement were 3020 ± 30 K and 3005 ± 30 K, respectively

  18. On the influence of water subcooling and melt jet parameters on debris formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manickam, Louis, E-mail: louis@safety.sci.kth.se; Kudinov, Pavel; Ma, Weimin; Bechta, Sevostian; Grishchenko, Dmitry

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Melt and water configuration effects on debris formation is studied experimentally. • Melt superheat and water subcooling are most influential compared to jet size. • Melt-water configuration and material properties influence particle fracture rate. • Results are compared with large scale experiments to study effect of spatial scales. - Abstract: Breakup of melt jet and formation of a porous debris bed at the base-mat of a flooded reactor cavity is expected during the late stages of a severe accident in light water reactors. Debris bed coolability is determined by the bed properties including particle size, morphology, bed height and shape as well as decay heat. Therefore understanding of the debris formation phenomena is important for assessment of debris bed coolability. A series of experiments was conducted in MISTEE-Jet facility by discharging binary-oxide mixtures of WO{sub 3}–Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and WO{sub 3}–ZrO{sub 2} into water in order to investigate properties of resulting debris. The effect of water subcooling, nozzle diameter and melt superheat was addressed in the tests. Experimental results reveal significant influence of water subcooling and melt superheat on debris size and morphology. Significant differences in size and morphology of the debris at different melt release conditions is attributed to the competition between hydrodynamic fragmentation of liquid melt and thermal fracture of the solidifying melt droplets. The particle fracture rate increases with increased subcooling. Further the results are compared with the data from larger scale experiments to discern the effects of spatial scales. The present work provides data that can be useful for validation of the codes used for the prediction of debris formation phenomena.

  19. Studies of Behavior Melting Temperature Characteristics for Multi Thermocouple In-Core Instrument Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Donghyup; Chae, Myoungeun; Kim, Sungjin; Lee, Kyulim

    2015-01-01

    Bottom-up type in-core instruments (ICIs) are used for the pressurized water reactors of OPR-1000, APR- 1400 in order to measure neutron flux and temperature in the reactor. It is a well-known technique and a proven design using years in the nuclear field. ICI consists of one pair of K-type thermocouple, five self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) and one back ground detector. K-type thermocouple's purpose is to measure the core exit temperature (CET) in the reactor. The CET is a very important factor for operating nuclear power plants and it is 327 .deg. C when generally operating the reactor in the nuclear power plant(NPP) in case of OPR- 1000. If the CET will exceed 650 .deg. C, Operators in the main control room should be considered to be an accident situation in accordance with a severe accident management guidance(SAMG). The Multi Thermocouple ICI is a new designed ICI assuming severe accident conditions. It consists of four more thermocouples than the existing design, so it has five Ktype thermocouples besides the thermocouple measuring CET is located in the same elevation as the ICI. Each thermocouple is able to be located in the desired location as required. The Multi Thermocouple ICI helps to measure the temperature distribution of the entire reactor. In addition, it will measure certain point of melted core because of the in-vessel debris of nuclear fuel when an accident occurs more seriously. In this paper, to simulate a circumstance such as a nuclear reactor severe accident was examined. In this study, the K-type thermocouples of Multi Thermocouple ICI was confirmed experimentally to be able to measure up to 1370 .deg. C before the thermocouples have been melted. And after the thermocouples were melted by debris, it was able to be monitored that the signal of EMF directed the infinite value of voltage. Therefore through the results of the test, it can be assumed that if any EMF data among the Multi Thermocouple ICI will direct the infinite value

  20. Studies of Behavior Melting Temperature Characteristics for Multi Thermocouple In-Core Instrument Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Donghyup; Chae, Myoungeun; Kim, Sungjin; Lee, Kyulim [Woojin inc, Hwasung (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Bottom-up type in-core instruments (ICIs) are used for the pressurized water reactors of OPR-1000, APR- 1400 in order to measure neutron flux and temperature in the reactor. It is a well-known technique and a proven design using years in the nuclear field. ICI consists of one pair of K-type thermocouple, five self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) and one back ground detector. K-type thermocouple's purpose is to measure the core exit temperature (CET) in the reactor. The CET is a very important factor for operating nuclear power plants and it is 327 .deg. C when generally operating the reactor in the nuclear power plant(NPP) in case of OPR- 1000. If the CET will exceed 650 .deg. C, Operators in the main control room should be considered to be an accident situation in accordance with a severe accident management guidance(SAMG). The Multi Thermocouple ICI is a new designed ICI assuming severe accident conditions. It consists of four more thermocouples than the existing design, so it has five Ktype thermocouples besides the thermocouple measuring CET is located in the same elevation as the ICI. Each thermocouple is able to be located in the desired location as required. The Multi Thermocouple ICI helps to measure the temperature distribution of the entire reactor. In addition, it will measure certain point of melted core because of the in-vessel debris of nuclear fuel when an accident occurs more seriously. In this paper, to simulate a circumstance such as a nuclear reactor severe accident was examined. In this study, the K-type thermocouples of Multi Thermocouple ICI was confirmed experimentally to be able to measure up to 1370 .deg. C before the thermocouples have been melted. And after the thermocouples were melted by debris, it was able to be monitored that the signal of EMF directed the infinite value of voltage. Therefore through the results of the test, it can be assumed that if any EMF data among the Multi Thermocouple ICI will direct the infinite value

  1. Melting temperature of H2, D2, N2 and СH4 under high pressure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the analysis indicates the presence of the melting maximum in these solids. ... values of the melting temperature in case of hydrogen up to a pressure of 4800 ... temperature, Tm, will rise with the increase in pressure, reach to a maximum and.

  2. Proton NMR study of extra Virgin Olive Oil with temperature: Freezing and melting kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallamace, Domenico; Longo, Sveva; Corsaro, Carmelo

    2018-06-01

    The thermal properties of an extra Virgin Olive Oil (eVOO) depend on its composition and indeed characterize its quality. Many studies have shown that the freezing and melting behaviors of eVOOs can serve for geographical or chemical discrimination. We use Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy to study the evolution of the fatty acids bands as a function of temperature during freezing and melting processes. In such a way we can follow separately the variations in the thermal properties of the different molecular groups during these thermodynamic phase transitions. The data indicate that the methyl group which is at the end of every fatty chain displays the major changes during both freezing and melting processes.

  3. High-temperature apparatus for chaotic mixing of natural silicate melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgavi, D.; Petrelli, M.; Vetere, F. P.; González-García, D.; Perugini, D., E-mail: diego.perugini@unipg.it [Department of Physics and Geology, Petro-Volcanology Research Group (PVRG), University of Perugia, Piazza Università, Perugia 06100 (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    A unique high-temperature apparatus was developed to trigger chaotic mixing at high-temperature (up to 1800 °C). This new apparatus, which we term Chaotic Magma Mixing Apparatus (COMMA), is designed to carry out experiments with high-temperature and high-viscosity (up to 10{sup 6} Pa s) natural silicate melts. This instrument allows us to follow in time and space the evolution of the mixing process and the associated modulation of chemical composition. This is essential to understand the dynamics of magma mixing and related chemical exchanges. The COMMA device is tested by mixing natural melts from Aeolian Islands (Italy). The experiment was performed at 1180 °C using shoshonite and rhyolite melts, resulting in a viscosity ratio of more than three orders of magnitude. This viscosity ratio is close to the maximum possible ratio of viscosity between high-temperature natural silicate melts. Results indicate that the generated mixing structures are topologically identical to those observed in natural volcanic rocks highlighting the enormous potential of the COMMA to replicate, as a first approximation, the same mixing patterns observed in the natural environment. COMMA can be used to investigate in detail the space and time development of magma mixing providing information about this fundamental petrological and volcanological process that would be impossible to investigate by direct observations. Among the potentials of this new experimental device is the construction of empirical relationships relating the mixing time, obtained through experimental time series, and chemical exchanges between the melts to constrain the mixing-to-eruption time of volcanic systems, a fundamental topic in volcanic hazard assessment.

  4. High-temperature apparatus for chaotic mixing of natural silicate melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgavi, D.; Petrelli, M.; Vetere, F. P.; González-García, D.; Perugini, D.

    2015-01-01

    A unique high-temperature apparatus was developed to trigger chaotic mixing at high-temperature (up to 1800 °C). This new apparatus, which we term Chaotic Magma Mixing Apparatus (COMMA), is designed to carry out experiments with high-temperature and high-viscosity (up to 10 6 Pa s) natural silicate melts. This instrument allows us to follow in time and space the evolution of the mixing process and the associated modulation of chemical composition. This is essential to understand the dynamics of magma mixing and related chemical exchanges. The COMMA device is tested by mixing natural melts from Aeolian Islands (Italy). The experiment was performed at 1180 °C using shoshonite and rhyolite melts, resulting in a viscosity ratio of more than three orders of magnitude. This viscosity ratio is close to the maximum possible ratio of viscosity between high-temperature natural silicate melts. Results indicate that the generated mixing structures are topologically identical to those observed in natural volcanic rocks highlighting the enormous potential of the COMMA to replicate, as a first approximation, the same mixing patterns observed in the natural environment. COMMA can be used to investigate in detail the space and time development of magma mixing providing information about this fundamental petrological and volcanological process that would be impossible to investigate by direct observations. Among the potentials of this new experimental device is the construction of empirical relationships relating the mixing time, obtained through experimental time series, and chemical exchanges between the melts to constrain the mixing-to-eruption time of volcanic systems, a fundamental topic in volcanic hazard assessment

  5. Melt water interaction tests. PREMIX tests PM10 and PM11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, A.; Schuetz, W.; Will, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Inst. fuer Reaktorsicherheit, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    A series of experiments is being performed in the PREMIX test facility in which the mixing behaviour is investigated of a hot alumina melt discharged into water. The major parameters have been: the melt mass, the number of nozzles, the distance between the nozzle and the water, and the depth of the water. The paper describes the last two tests in which 20 kg of melt were released through one and three nozzles, respectively, directly into the water whose depth was 500 mm. The melt penetration and the associated phenomena of mixing are described by means of high-speed films and various measurements. The steam production and, subsequently, the pressure increased markedly only after the melt had reached the bottom of the pool. Spreading of the melt across the bottom caused violent boiling in both tests. Whereas the boiling lasted for minutes in the single-jet test, a steam explosion occurred in the triple-jet test about one second after the start of melt penetration. (author)

  6. Phenomenological Studies on Melt-Structure-Water Interactions (MSWI) during Postulated Severe Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Park, H.S.; Giri, A.; Karbojian, A.; Jasiulevicius, A.; Hansson, R.C.; Chikkanagoudar, U.; Shiferaw, D.; Stepanyan, A.

    2004-01-01

    This is the annual report for the work performed in year 2003 in the research project 'Melt-Structure-Water Interactions (MSWI) During Severe Accidents in LWRs', under the auspices of the APRI Project, jointly funded by SKI, HSK, and the Swedish and Finnish power companies. The emphasis of the work was placed on phenomena and parameters, which govern the droplet fragmentation in steam explosions, in-vessel and ex-vessel melt/debris coolability, melt pool convection, and the thermal and mechanical loadings of a pressure vessel during melt-vessel interaction. Most research projects in 2002, such as the COMECO, POMECO and MISTEE programs, were continued. An analysis of the FOREVER experiments using the RELAP code to investigate the melt coolability, bubble dynamics and bubble stability to investigate the dynamic behavior of vapor bubble during steam explosions and associated melt fragmentation, quenching boiling experiment to investigate the thermal behavior of single melt droplet were newly initiated. The SIMECO experiment to investigate the three-layer melt pool convection was restarted. The experimental facilities for these projects were fully functional during year 2003. Many of the investigations performed during the course of the MSWI project have produced papers, which have been published in the proceedings of technical meetings and Journals. Significant technical advances were achieved during the course of these studies. These were: A series of experiments on single drop steam explosions was performed to investigate the fine fragmentation process of a metallic melt drop in various thermal conditions. For the first time, transient fine fragmentation process of a melt drop during explosion phase of a steam explosion was visualized continuously and quantified. Different triggering behavior with respect to the coolant subcooling was observed. The analyses on bubble dynamics during a single drop steam explosion and vapor bubble stability estimated the dynamic

  7. Size and temperature consideration in the liquid layer growth from nanovoids and the melting model construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Liang, X.H.; Li, M.

    2014-01-01

    A new model for the solid melting point T m (D) from nanovoids is proposed through considering the liquid layer growth behavior. This model, which does not have any adjustable parameter, introduces the classical thermodynamic treatment, i.e., the liquid nucleation and growth theory, for nanoparticle melting. With increased void diameter D, T m (D) approaches to T m0 . Moreover, T m (D) > T m0 for a small void (T m0 is the bulk melting point). In other words, the solid can be significantly superheated especially when D decreases, even if the difference of interface energy is larger than zero. This finding can be expected from the negatively curved surface of the void. The model predictions are consistent with the molecular dynamic (MD) simulation results for argon solids. Moreover, the growth of liquid layer from void surface relies on both size and temperature, which directly determine liquid layer thickness, and only when liquid layer thickness reaches to a critical value, can void become instable. - Highlights: • A united model for the crystal melting point from nanovoids is established. • Melting point increases with decreased void size. • The result is expected from the negatively curved surface of the void. • The prediction is agreed well with the MD simulation results

  8. Analytical model based on cohesive energy to indicate the edge and corner effects on melting temperature of metallic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shidpour, Reza; Hamid, Delavari H.; Vossoughi, M.

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The effect of edge and corner atoms of nanoparticle (solid line) cause melting temperature drops more compared to considering them as same as only surface atoms (dash line). This reduction is significant especially when the size of nanoparticle is below 10 nm. - Abstract: An analytical model based on cohesive energy has been conducted to study the effects of edge, corner, and inward surface relaxation as varying parameters on melting temperature of nanoparticles. It is shown that taking into account the edge and corner (EC) atoms of nanoparticle, causes to drop melting temperature more, when compared to consider them the same as only surface atoms. This reduction is significant especially when the size of nanoparticle is below 10 nm. The results are supported by available experimental results of tin, lead and gold melting temperature (T m ). Finally, it is shown that inward relaxation increases melting temperature slightly.

  9. Solid-solid phase transformation via internal stress-induced virtual melting, significantly below the melting temperature. Application to HMX energetic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitas, Valery I; Henson, Bryan F; Smilowitz, Laura B; Asay, Blaine W

    2006-05-25

    We theoretically predict a new phenomenon, namely, that a solid-solid phase transformation (PT) with a large transformation strain can occur via internal stress-induced virtual melting along the interface at temperatures significantly (more than 100 K) below the melting temperature. We show that the energy of elastic stresses, induced by transformation strain, increases the driving force for melting and reduces the melting temperature. Immediately after melting, stresses relax and the unstable melt solidifies. Fast solidification in a thin layer leads to nanoscale cracking which does not affect the thermodynamics or kinetics of the solid-solid transformation. Thus, virtual melting represents a new mechanism of solid-solid PT, stress relaxation, and loss of coherence at a moving solid-solid interface. It also removes the athermal interface friction and deletes the thermomechanical memory of preceding cycles of the direct-reverse transformation. It is also found that nonhydrostatic compressive internal stresses promote melting in contrast to hydrostatic pressure. Sixteen theoretical predictions are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiments conducted on the PTs in the energetic crystal HMX. In particular, (a) the energy of internal stresses is sufficient to reduce the melting temperature from 551 to 430 K for the delta phase during the beta --> delta PT and from 520 to 400 K for the beta phase during the delta --> beta PT; (b) predicted activation energies for direct and reverse PTs coincide with corresponding melting energies of the beta and delta phases and with the experimental values; (c) the temperature dependence of the rate constant is determined by the heat of fusion, for both direct and reverse PTs; results b and c are obtained both for overall kinetics and for interface propagation; (d) considerable nanocracking, homogeneously distributed in the transformed material, accompanies the PT, as predicted by theory; (e) the nanocracking does not

  10. Study on the optimum PCM melting temperature for energy savings in residential buildings worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, M.; de Gracia, A.; Fernández, C.; Zsembinszki, G.; Cabeza, L. F.

    2017-10-01

    To maintain comfort conditions in residential buildings along a full year period, the use of active systems is generally required to either supply heating or cooling. The heating and cooling demands strongly depend on the climatic conditions, type of building and occupants’ behaviour. The overall annual energy consumption of the building can be reduced by the use of renewable energy sources and/or passive systems. The use of phase change materials (PCM) as passive systems in buildings enhances the thermal mass of the envelope, and reduces the indoor temperature fluctuations. As a consequence, the overall energy consumption of the building is generally lower as compared to the case when no PCM systems are used. The selection of the PCM melting temperature is a key issue to reduce the energy consumption of the buildings. The main focus of this study is to determine the optimum PCM melting temperature for passive heating and cooling according to different weather conditions. To achieve that, numerical simulations were carried out using EnergyPlus v8.4 coupled with GenOpt® v3.1.1 (a generic optimization software). A multi-family residential apartment was selected from ASHRAE Standard 90.1- 2013 prototype building model, and different climate conditions were considered to determine the optimum melting temperature (in the range from 20ºC to 26ºC) of the PCM contained in gypsum panels. The results confirm that the optimum melting temperature of the PCM strongly depends on the climatic conditions. In general, in cooling dominant climates the optimum PCM temperature is around 26ºC, while in heating dominant climates it is around 20ºC. Furthermore, the results show that an adequate selection of the PCM as passive system in building envelope can provide important energy savings for both heating dominant and cooling dominant regions.

  11. Consequences of Part Temperature Variability in Electron Beam Melting of Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Brian A.; Mireles, Jorge; Ridwan, Shakerur; Wicker, Ryan B.; Beuth, Jack

    2017-12-01

    To facilitate adoption of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) parts produced via additive manufacturing (AM), the ability to ensure part quality is critical. Measuring temperatures is an important component of part quality monitoring in all direct metal AM processes. In this work, surface temperatures were monitored using a custom infrared camera system attached to an Arcam electron beam melting (EBM®) machine. These temperatures were analyzed to understand their possible effect on solidification microstructure based on solidification cooling rates extracted from finite element simulations. Complicated thermal histories were seen during part builds, and temperature changes occurring during typical Ti64 builds may be large enough to affect solidification microstructure. There is, however, enough time between fusion of individual layers for spatial temperature variations (i.e., hot spots) to dissipate. This means that an effective thermal control strategy for EBM® can be based on average measured surface temperatures, ignoring temperature variability.

  12. A study on structural analysis of highly corrosive melts at high temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtori, N

    2002-01-01

    When sodium is burned at high temperature in the atmosphere, it reacts simultaneously with H sub 2 O in the atmosphere so that it can produce high temperature melt of sodium hydroxide as a solvent. If this melt includes peroxide ion (O sub 2 sup 2 sup -), it will be a considerably active and corrosive for iron so that several sodium iron double oxides will be produced as corrosion products after the reaction with steel structures. The present study was carried out in order to investigate the ability of presence of peroxide ion in sodium hydroxide solvent at high temperature and that of identification of the several corrosion products using laser Raman spectroscopy. The measurement system with ultraviolet laser was developed simultaneously in the present work to improve the ability of the measurement at high temperature. As results from the measurements, the possibility of the presence of peroxide ion was shown up to 823K in sodium peroxide and 823K in the melt of sodium hydroxide mixed with sodium peroxide. A...

  13. A volatile-rich Earth's core inferred from melting temperature of core materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morard, G.; Andrault, D.; Antonangeli, D.; Nakajima, Y.; Auzende, A. L.; Boulard, E.; Clark, A. N.; Lord, O. T.; Cervera, S.; Siebert, J.; Garbarino, G.; Svitlyk, V.; Mezouar, M.

    2016-12-01

    Planetary cores are mainly constituted of iron and nickel, alloyed with lighter elements (Si, O, C, S or H). Understanding how these elements affect the physical and chemical properties of solid and liquid iron provides stringent constraints on the composition of the Earth's core. In particular, melting curves of iron alloys are key parameter to establish the temperature profile in the Earth's core, and to asses the potential occurrence of partial melting at the Core-Mantle Boundary. Core formation models based on metal-silicate equilibration suggest that Si and O are the major light element components1-4, while the abundance of other elements such as S, C and H is constrained by arguments based on their volatility during planetary accretion5,6. Each compositional model implies a specific thermal state for the core, due to the different effect that light elements have on the melting behaviour of Fe. We recently measured melting temperatures in Fe-C and Fe-O systems at high pressures, which complete the data sets available both for pure Fe7 and other binary alloys8. Compositional models with an O- and Si-rich outer core are suggested to be compatible with seismological constraints on density and sound velocity9. However, their crystallization temperatures of 3650-4050 K at the CMB pressure of 136 GPa are very close to, if not higher than the melting temperature of the silicate mantle and yet mantle melting above the CMB is not a ubiquitous feature. This observation requires significant amounts of volatile elements (S, C or H) in the outer core to further reduce the crystallisation temperature of the core alloy below that of the lower mantle. References 1. Wood, B. J., et al Nature 441, 825-833 (2006). 2. Siebert, J., et al Science 339, 1194-7 (2013). 3. Corgne, A., et al Earth Planet. Sc. Lett. 288, 108-114 (2009). 4. Fischer, R. a. et al. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 167, 177-194 (2015). 5. Dreibus, G. & Palme, H. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 60, 1125-1130 (1995). 6. Mc

  14. Phenomenological Studies on Melt-Structure-Water Interactions (MSWI) during Postulated Severe Accidents: Year 2004 Activity. APRI 5 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Park, H.S.; Nayak, A.K.; Hansson, R.C.; Chiferaw, D.; Stepanyan, A.; Rao, R.S.; Karbojian, A. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety

    2005-04-01

    This report presents descriptions of the major results obtained in the research program 'Melt-Structure-Water Interaction (MSWI)' at NPS/RIT during the year 2004. The primary objectives of the MSWI Project in year 2004 were to study (1) the in-vessel and exvessel melt/debris bed coolability process when melt is flooded with water, and (2) the energetics and characteristics of steam explosions. Our general approaches are to establish scaling relationships so that the data obtained in the experiments could be extended to prototypical accident geometries and conditions, develop phenomenological or computational models for the processes under investigation and validate the existing and newly developed models against data obtained at RIT and at other laboratories. In 2004, several experimental programs, such as the COMECO (Corium MElt COolability), POMECO (POrous MEdia COolability) and MISTEE (Micro-Interactions in STeam Explosion Experiments) programs were continued. The SIMECO (Simulation of MElt Coolability) program was restarted in 2004. The construction of the POMECO-GRAND (POrous MEdia COolability) facility was delayed due to lack of finances. However, existing POMECO facility was modified to study 3-D effects on debris coolability. In this report, the results from the COMECO experiment with high temperature oxidic melt, from the POMECO experiments for the multi-dimensional effects on debris bed coolability, from the SIMECO experiment for three-layer pool configuration and from the MISTEE experiments for steam explosion characteristics and loads are described. For analytical efforts, results from the COMETA code for the entire process of the steam explosions are discussed.

  15. Experimental study of the fragmentation and quench behavior of corium melts in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.K.; Blomquist, C.A.; Spencer, B.W.; McUmber, L.M.; Schneider, J.P.; Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL

    1989-01-01

    The interaction of molten core materials with water has been investigated for the pour stream mixing mode. This interaction plays a crucial role during the later stages of in-vessel core melt progression inside a light water reactor such as during the TMI-2 accident. The key issues which arise during the molten core relocation include: (1) the thermal attack and possible damage to the RPV lower head from the impinging molten fuel stream and/or the debris bed, (2) the molten fuel relocation pathways including the effects of redistribution due to core support structure and the reactor lower internals, (3) the quench rate of the molten fuel through the water in the lower plasma, (4) the steam generation and hydrogen generation during the interaction, (5) the transient pressurization of the primary system, and (6) the possibility of a steam explosion. In order to understand these issues, a series of six experiments (designated CCM-1 through -6) was performed in which molten corium passed through a deep pool of water in a long, slender pour stream mode. Results discussed include the transient temperatures and pressures, the rate and magnitude of steam/hydrogen generation, and the posttest debris characteristics. 9 refs., 29 figs

  16. The partitioning of barium and lead between silicate melts and aqueous fluids at high pressures and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bureau, Helene; Menez, Benedicte; Khodja, Hicham; Daudin, Laurent; Gallien, Jean-Paul; Massare, Dominique; Shaw, Cliff; Metrich, Nicole

    2003-01-01

    The origin of subduction-related magmas is still a matter of debate in the Earth Sciences. These magmas are characterised by their distinctive trace element compositions compared to magmas from other tectonic settings, e.g. mid-ocean ridges or rifts. The distinct trace element composition of these magmas is generally attributed to alteration of the source region by a contaminating agent: either a silicate melt or a hydrous fluid, possibly chlorine-enriched. In this study, we have used μPIXE (proton induced X-ray emission) to analyse synthetic samples obtained from a micro-experimental petrology study that aims to determine the partitioning behaviour of two key elements, Ba and Pb, between silicate melt and both pure water and saline fluids. Our experiments were performed at high-pressure (>0.34-1.53 GPa) and high-temperature (697-1082 deg. C) in a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell, that was used as a transparent rapid quench autoclave. We observed that at high pressure and temperature, in the presence of pure water, Ba and Pb are not strongly fractionated into one phase or the other. The partition coefficient of Pb is ranging from 0.46 to 1.28. Results from one experiment performed at 0.83 GPa and 847 deg. C, in the presence of a saline fluid indicate that the presence of Cl induces strong fractionation of Pb and moderate fractionation of Ba both into the silicate melt. In addition, our data indicate that Cl is strongly partitioned into the fluid phase

  17. Study of critical free-area ratio during the snow-melting process on pavement using low-temperature heating fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huajun [School of Energy and Environment Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China); Chen, Zhihao [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

    2009-01-15

    Critical free-area ratio (CFR) is an interesting phenomenon during the snow-melting process on pavement using low-temperature heating fluids such as geothermal tail water and industrial waste water. This paper is performed to further investigate the mechanism of CFR and its influencing factors. A simplified theoretical model is presented to describe the heat and mass transfer process on pavement. Especially the variation of thermal properties and the capillary effect of snow layer are considered. Numerical computation shows that the above theoretical model is effective for the prediction of CFR during the snow-melting process. Furthermore, the mechanism of CFR is clarified in detail. CFR is independent of the layout of hydronic pipes, the fluid temperature, the idling time, and weather conditions. It is both the non-uniform temperature distribution and complicated porous structure of snow layer that lead to the occurrence of CFR. Besides, the influences of operation parameters including the fluid temperature, the idling time, the pipe spacing and buried depths on snow melting are analyzed, which are helpful for the next optimal design of snow-melting system. (author)

  18. Study of critical free-area ratio during the snow-melting process on pavement using low-temperature heating fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Huajun [School of Energy and Environment Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China)], E-mail: huajunwang@126.com; Chen Zhihao [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

    2009-01-15

    Critical free-area ratio (CFR) is an interesting phenomenon during the snow-melting process on pavement using low-temperature heating fluids such as geothermal tail water and industrial waste water. This paper is performed to further investigate the mechanism of CFR and its influencing factors. A simplified theoretical model is presented to describe the heat and mass transfer process on pavement. Especially the variation of thermal properties and the capillary effect of snow layer are considered. Numerical computation shows that the above theoretical model is effective for the prediction of CFR during the snow-melting process. Furthermore, the mechanism of CFR is clarified in detail. CFR is independent of the layout of hydronic pipes, the fluid temperature, the idling time, and weather conditions. It is both the non-uniform temperature distribution and complicated porous structure of snow layer that lead to the occurrence of CFR. Besides, the influences of operation parameters including the fluid temperature, the idling time, the pipe spacing and buried depths on snow melting are analyzed, which are helpful for the next optimal design of snow-melting system.

  19. Study of critical free-area ratio during the snow-melting process on pavement using low-temperature heating fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huajun; Chen Zhihao

    2009-01-01

    Critical free-area ratio (CFR) is an interesting phenomenon during the snow-melting process on pavement using low-temperature heating fluids such as geothermal tail water and industrial waste water. This paper is performed to further investigate the mechanism of CFR and its influencing factors. A simplified theoretical model is presented to describe the heat and mass transfer process on pavement. Especially the variation of thermal properties and the capillary effect of snow layer are considered. Numerical computation shows that the above theoretical model is effective for the prediction of CFR during the snow-melting process. Furthermore, the mechanism of CFR is clarified in detail. CFR is independent of the layout of hydronic pipes, the fluid temperature, the idling time, and weather conditions. It is both the non-uniform temperature distribution and complicated porous structure of snow layer that lead to the occurrence of CFR. Besides, the influences of operation parameters including the fluid temperature, the idling time, the pipe spacing and buried depths on snow melting are analyzed, which are helpful for the next optimal design of snow-melting system

  20. Phase relations study on the melting and crystallization regions of the Bi-2223 high temperature superconductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Polasek

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The melting and solidification behavior of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3 O10 (Bi-2223 precursors has been studied. Nominal compositions corresponding to excess of liquid, Ca2CuO3 and CuO have been investigated. Each sample was made by packing a precursor powder into a silver crucible, in order to approximately simulate the situation found in 2223 silver-sheathed tapes. The samples were partially melted and then slow-cooled, being quenched from different temperatures and analyzed through X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS. The precursors decomposed peritectically during melting, forming liquid and solid phases. Very long plates with compositions falling in the vicinity of the 2223 primary phase field formed upon slow-cooling. The 2223 phase may have been formed and the results suggest that long grains of this phase might be obtained by melting and crystallization if the exact peritectic region and the optimum processing conditions are found.

  1. Modelling global fresh surface water temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, L.P.H. van; Eikelboom, T.; Vliet, M.T.H. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Temperature directly determines a range of water physical properties including vapour pressure, surface tension, density and viscosity, and the solubility of oxygen and other gases. Indirectly water temperature acts as a strong control on fresh water biogeochemistry, influencing sediment

  2. Property-Composition-Temperature Modeling of Waste Glass Melt Data Subject to a Randomization Restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Cooley, Scott K.

    2008-01-01

    Properties such as viscosity and electrical conductivity of glass melts are functions of melt temperature as well as glass composition. When measuring such a property for several glasses, the property is typically measured at several temperatures for one glass, then at several temperatures for the next glass, and so on. This data-collection process involves a restriction on randomization, which is referred to as split-plot experiment. The split-plot data structure must be accounted for in developing property-composition-temperature models and the corresponding uncertainty equations for model predictions. Instead of ordinary least squares (OLS) regression methods, generalized least squares (GLS) regression methods using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimation must be used. This article describes the methodology for developing property-composition-temperature models and corresponding prediction uncertainty equations using the GLS/REML regression approach. Viscosity data collected on 197 simulated nuclear waste glasses are used to illustrate the GLS/REML methods for developing a viscosity-composition-temperature model and corresponding equations for model prediction uncertainties. The correct results using GLS/REML regression are compared to the incorrect results obtained using OLS regression

  3. The system analysis of temperature and melting enthalpy of intermetallic compounds of antimony-lanthanoids system of Sb Ln, Sb2Ln composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badalova, M.A.; Chamanova, M.; Dodkhoev, E.S.; Badalov, A.; Abdusalyamova, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Present article is devoted to system analysis of temperature and melting enthalpy of intermetallic compounds of antimony-lanthanoids system of Sb Ln, Sb 2 Ln composition. The melting enthalpy was estimated. The temperature value was determined.

  4. Effect of Injection Molding Melt Temperatures on PLGA Craniofacial Plate Properties during In Vitro Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Pimenta de Melo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present mechanical and physicochemical properties during in vitro degradation of PLGA material as craniofacial plates based on different values of injection molded temperatures. Injection molded plates were submitted to in vitro degradation in a thermostat bath at 37 ± 1°C by 16 weeks. The material was removed after 15, 30, 60, and 120 days; then bending stiffness, crystallinity, molecular weights, and viscoelasticity were studied. A significant decrease of molecular weight and mechanical properties over time and a difference in FT-IR after 60 days showed faster degradation of the material in the geometry studied. DSC analysis confirmed that the crystallization occurred, especially in higher melt temperature condition. DMA analysis suggests a greater contribution of the viscous component of higher temperature than lower temperature in thermomechanical behavior. The results suggest that physical-mechanical properties of PLGA plates among degradation differ per injection molding temperatures.

  5. The temperature of primary melts and mantle sources of komatiites, OIBs, MORBs and LIPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    There is general agreement that the convecting mantle, although mostly peridotitic in composition, is compositionally and thermally heterogeneous on different spatial scales. The amount, sizes, temperatures and compositions of these heterogeneities significantly affect mantle dynamics because they may diverge greatly from dominant peridotites in their density and fusibility. Differences in potential temperature and composition of mantle domains affect magma production and cannot be easily distinguished from each other. This has led to radically different interpretations of the melting anomalies that produce ocean-island basalts, large igneous provinces and komatiites: most scientists believe that they originate as hot, deep-sourced mantle plumes; but a small though influential group (e.g. Anderson 2005, Foulger, 2010) propose that they derive from high proportions of easily fusible recycled or delaminated crust, or in the case of komatiites contain large amount of H2O (e.g. Grove & Parman, 2004). The way to resolve this ambiguity is an independent estimation of temperature and composition of mantle sources of various types of magma. In this paper I report application of newly developed olivine-spinel-melt geothermometers based on partition of Al, Cr, Sc and Y for different primitive lavas from mid-ocean ridges, ocean-island basalts, large igneous provinces and komatiites. The results suggest significant variations of crystallization temperature for the same Fo of high magnesium olivines of different types of mantle-derived magmas: from the lowest (down to 1220 degree C) for MORB to the highest (up to over 1500 degree C) for komatiites and Siberian meimechites. These results match predictions from Fe-Mg olivine-melt equilibrium and confirm the relatively low temperature of the mantle source of MORB and higher temperatures in the mantle plumes that produce the OIB of Iceland, Hawaii, Gorgona, Archean komatiites and several LIPs (e.g Siberian and NAMP). The

  6. A preliminary view on adsorption of organics on ice at temperatures close to melting point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangrui; Waldner, Astrid; Orlando, Fabrizio; Artiglia, Luca; Ammann, Markus; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Ice and snow play active roles in the water cycle, the energy budget of the Earth, and environmental chemistry in the atmosphere and cryosphere. The uptake of trace gases from the atmosphere may induce changes in the structure of the surface layer of ice crystals and has important consequences for atmospheric chemistry and the climate system. However, a molecular-level understanding of trace gas adsorption on ice is still missing, and also little is known about the impurity-induced ice-surface disorder in the context of environmental relevance. It is a general challenge to apply highly sensitive experimental approaches to ambient air conditions, e.g. studies of volatile surfaces, because of the strict requirements of vacuum experimental conditions. In this study, we employed synchrotron-based X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and partial electron yield Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) in a state-of-the-art Near-Ambient Pressure Photoelectron (NAPP) spectroscopy end station. The NAPP enables to utilize the surface sensitive experimental methods, XPS and NEXAFS with electron detection, on volatile surfaces, i.e. ice at temperatures approaching zero degree Celsius. XPS and NEXAFS provide unique information of hydrogen bonding network, surface concentration of organic adsorbates, depth profile of dopants in the ice, and acid-base dissociation on the surfaces. For instance, a few carboxylic acids, e.g. acetic acid and formic acid, have been recently studied by XPS and NEXAFS in NAPP. Amines are a group of nitrogen-containing basic organics with atmospheric relevance. Only few studies have been focused on amines, and atmospheric models rarely take account of them due to the limitation of knowledge. Several amines have been found to play active roles in the processes of aerosol formation, e.g. dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA) and 1-propanamine. In this study, we will focus on one of these three amines after pre-tests, and perform core

  7. Melting-pressure and density equations of 3He at temperatures from 0.001 to 30 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yonghua; Chen Guobang

    2005-01-01

    Nonsegmented equations for melting pressure and density at temperatures from 0.001 K to 30 K have been developed to fit the reference data. The maximum and average deviations between the melting pressure equation and the totaling 298 reference data are 2.17% and 0.218%, respectively. For the density equations, the average deviations are 0.236% for the liquid side and 0.218% for the solid side. Both the melting pressure curve and melting density curves predicted by the submitted equations approach their minimums at about 0.315 K

  8. Melting temperature and structural transformation of some rare-earth metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu Van Hung; Hoang Van Tich; Dang Thanh Hai

    2009-01-01

    the pressure dependence of the melting temperatures of rare-earth metals is studied using the equation of states derived from the statistical moment (SMM). SMM studies were carried out order to calculate the Helmholtz free energy of hcp, bcc Dy and fcc, bcc Ce metals at a wide range of temperatures. the stable phase of Dy and Ce metals can be determined by examining the Helmholtz free energy at a given temperature, i, e. the phase that gives the lowest free energy will be stable. For example, we found that at T lower than 1750 K the hcp Dy metal is stable. At T higher than 1750 K the bcc Dy metal is also stable. Thus 1750 K marks the phase transition temperature of Dy metal. These findings are in agreement with previous experiments. (author)

  9. A numerical study of the influence of feeding polycrystalline silicon granules on melt temperature in the continuous Czochralski process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Naoki; Kida, Michio; Arai, Yoshiaki; Sahira, Kensho

    1993-09-01

    Temperature change was simulated using a solid body rotating melt model when solid polycrystalline silicon granules were supplied to a melt in a double-crucible method. Only heat conduction was considered in the analysis. The influence of the crucible rotation rates and of the initial temperature of the supplied silicon was investigated systematically and quantitatively. The influence of the crucible rotation rate was stronger than expected, which suggests that the crucible rotation rate cannot be lowered too much because of the possibility of the melt solidifying between the inner and outer crucibles.

  10. Analysis of soft wall AdS/QCD potentials to obtain the melting temperature of scalar hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Alfredo; Ibanez, Adolfo [Universidad de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica y Astronomia, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-11-15

    We consider an analysis of potentials related to Schroedinger-type equations for scalar fields in a 5D AdS black hole background with dilaton in order to obtain melting temperatures for different hadrons in a thermal bath. The approach does not consider calculations of spectral functions, and it is easy to yield results for hadrons with an arbitrary number of constituents. We present results for scalar mesons, glueballs, hybrid mesons and tetraquarks, and we show that mesons are more resistant to being melted in a thermal bath than other scalar hadrons, and in general the melting temperature increases when hadrons contain heavy quarks. (orig.)

  11. Melt-Pool Temperature and Size Measurement During Direct Laser Sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    List, III, Frederick Alyious [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carver, Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gockel, Joy E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Additive manufacturing has demonstrated the ability to fabricate complex geometries and components not possible with conventional casting and machining. In many cases, industry has demonstrated the ability to fabricate complex geometries with improved efficiency and performance. However, qualification and certification of processes is challenging, leaving companies to focus on certification of material though design allowable based approaches. This significantly reduces the business case for additive manufacturing. Therefore, real time monitoring of the melt pool can be used to detect the development of flaws, such as porosity or un-sintered powder and aid in the certification process. Characteristics of the melt pool in the Direct Laser Sintering (DLS) process is also of great interest to modelers who are developing simulation models needed to improve and perfect the DLS process. Such models could provide a means to rapidly develop the optimum processing parameters for new alloy powders and optimize processing parameters for specific part geometries. Stratonics’ ThermaViz system will be integrated with the Renishaw DLS system in order to demonstrate its ability to measure melt pool size, shape and temperature. These results will be compared with data from an existing IR camera to determine the best approach for the determination of these critical parameters.

  12. Device for measuring high temperature heat conductivity of solids and melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magomedov, Ya.B.; Gadzhiev, G.G.

    1990-01-01

    A modification of a device for measuring heat conductivity by a compensation method when a thermocouple with gadolinium sulfide being used is suggested. Such a device has less error of measurement (8%), wider interval of working temperatures (300-1600K) and it permits to investigate the material in the wide range of heat conductivity values (0.5-30 W/(mxK)). The stainless steel 12Kh18N10T, lanthanum sulfide and melted quartz were used for the device calibration. The results obtained and the literature data on these materials agree well between each other

  13. How deep, how hot: comparing pressure and temperature estimates from amphibole and rhyolite-MELTS thermobarometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamukcu, A. S.; Gualda, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Accurately constraining the pressure and temperature of magma residence is problematic, but it is key to understanding the structure and evolution of magmatic systems. Various thermometers exist (Fe-Ti oxides, Ti-in-zircon, Zr-in-sphene, etc.), but there are fewer barometers that can be applied to volcanic rocks. Most barometers capitalize on amphibole, a relatively common mineral whose composition is sensitive to pressure and temperature changes. Glass composition is a function of pressure for magmas saturated in quartz and feldspar, and a new thermobarometer based on rhyolite-MELTS simulations using glass (matrix glass and crystal-hosted glass inclusions) compositions has been recently proposed. We compare results from amphibole and matrix glass thermobarometry. We focus on outflow high-silica rhyolite pumice from the Peach Spring Tuff (CA-NV-AZ, USA), which are characterized by sanidine+plagioclase×quartz+amphibole+sphene in a high-silica rhyolite glass matrix. Compositional variations in amphibole are slight and described by edenite and Ti-Tschermak substitution, with little Al-Tschermak substitution, suggesting small changes in temperature but not in pressure. Plagioclase compositions are also nearly homogeneous. Thus, we expect thermobarometry results to cluster around a single pressure and temperature, making these samples excellent candidates for comparing thermobarometers. Amphibole×plagioclase thermobarometry reveals: - Amphibole-plagioclase: results vary widely depending on the calibration (e.g. 150-420 MPa, 520-730 °C); combined Anderson & Smith (1995) barometer with Holland & Blundy (1990) thermometer is most consistent, suggesting crystallization at 230 MPa, 680 °C. - Amphibole-only: calibrations give significantly different results (75-115 MPa, 770-960 °C [Ridolfi et al. 2010]; 400-950 MPa, 800-950°C [Ridolfi & Renzulli 2012]). Results suggest the recent re-calibration is particularly unreliable for these rocks, and the earlier calibration is

  14. Modeling radar backscattering from melting snowflakes using spheroids with nonuniform distribution of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyynelä, Jani; Leinonen, Jussi; Moisseev, Dmitri; Nousiainen, Timo; Lerber, Annakaisa von

    2014-01-01

    In a number of studies it is reported that at the early stages, melting of aggregate snowflakes is enhanced at lower parts. In this paper, the manifestation of the resulting nonuniform distribution of water is studied for radar backscattering cross sections at C, Ku, Ka and W bands. The melting particles are described as spheroids with a mixture of water and air at the bottom part of the particle and a mixture of ice and air at the upper part. The radar backscattering is modeled using the discrete-dipole approximation in a horizontally pointing geometry. The results are compared to the T-matrix method, Mie theory, and the Rayleigh approximation using the Maxwell Garnett mixing formula. We find that the differential reflectivity and the linear depolarization ratio show systematic differences between the discrete-dipole approximation and the T-matrix method, but that the differences are relatively small. The horizontal cross sections show only small differences between the methods with the aspect ratio and the presence of resonance peaks having a larger effect on it than the nonuniform distribution of water. Overall, the effect of anisotropic distribution of water, reported for early stages of melting, is not significant for radar observations at the studied frequencies. -- Highlights: • We model backscattering from spheroidal melting snowflakes at C, Ku, Ka, and W bands. • We study the effect of anisotropic distribution of meltwater in the snow particles. • We find systematic, but relatively small differences for the backscattering properties. • We find that the aspect ratio and resonance peaks have a bigger effect than anisotropic distribution of water. • Anisotropic distribution of water is not significant for radar observations at early stages of melting

  15. Fluid–fluid–solid triple point on melting curves at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, G E; Saitov, I M

    2016-01-01

    An analysis is presented of experimental data where fluid-fluid phase transitions are observed for different substances at high temperatures with triple points on melting curves. Viscosity drops point to the structural character of the transition, whereas conductivity jumps remind of both semiconductor-to-metal and plasma nature. The slope of the phase equilibrium dependencies of pressure on temperature and the consequent change of the specific volume, which follows from the Clapeyron-Clausius equation, are discussed. P(V, T) surfaces are presented and discussed for the phase transitions considered in the vicinity of the triple points. The cases of abnormal P(T) dependencies on curves of phase equilibrium are in the focus of discussion. In particular, a P(V, T) surface is presented when both fluid-fluid and melting P(T) curves are abnormal. Particular attention is paid to warm dense hydrogen and deuterium, where remarkable contradictions exist between data of different authors. The possible connection of the P(V, T) surface peculiarities with the experimental data uncertainties is outlined. (paper)

  16. Forsterite Shock Temperatures and Entropy: New Scaling Laws for Impact Melting and Vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, E.; Root, S.; Kraus, R. G.; Townsend, J. P.; Spaulding, D.; Stewart, S. T.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Fratanduono, D.; Millot, M. A.; Mattsson, T. R.; Hanshaw, H. L.

    2017-12-01

    The observed masses, radii and temperatures of thousands of extra-solar planets have challenged our theoretical understanding of planet formation and planetary structures. Planetary materials are subject to extreme pressures and temperatures during formation and within the present-day interiors of large bodies. Here, we focus on improving understanding of the physical properties of rocky planets for calculations of internal structure and the outcomes of giant impacts. We performed flyer plate impact experiments on forsterite [Mg2SiO4] on the Z-Machine at Sandia National Laboratory and decaying shock temperature measurements at the Omega EP laser at U. Rochester. At Z, planar, supported shock waves are generated in single crystal samples, permitting observation of both compressed and released states. Using available static and dynamic thermodynamic data, we calculate absolute entropy and heat capacity along the forsterite shock Hugoniot. Entropy and heat capacity on the Hugoniot are larger than previous estimates. Our data constrain the thermodynamic properties of forsterite liquid at high pressures and temperatures and the amount of melt and vapor produced during impact events. For an ambient pressure of 1 bar, shock-vaporization begins upon reaching the liquid region on the forsterite Hugoniot (about 200 GPa). Using hydrocode simulations of giant impacts between rocky planets with forsterite mantles and iron cores and the new experimentally-constrained forsterite shock entropy, we present a new scaling law for the fraction of mantle that is melted or vaporized by the initial shock wave. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Prepared by the Center

  17. High temperature (salt melt) corrosion tests with ceramic-coated steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schütz, Adelheid [University Bayreuth, Metals and Alloys, Ludwig-Thoma-Str. 36b, D-95447 Bayreuth (Germany); Günthner, Martin; Motz, Günter [University Bayreuth, Ceramic Materials Engineering, L.-Thoma-Str. 36b, D-95447 Bayreuth (Germany); Greißl, Oliver [EnBW Kraftwerke AG, Schelmenwasenstraße 13-15, D-70567 Stuttgart (Germany); Glatzel, Uwe, E-mail: uwe.glatzel@uni-bayreuth.de [University Bayreuth, Metals and Alloys, Ludwig-Thoma-Str. 36b, D-95447 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    Thermal recycling of refuse in waste-to-energy plants reduces the problems connected to waste disposal, and is an alternative source of electric energy. However, the combustion process in waste incinerators results in a fast degradation of the steam-carrying superheater steel tubes by corrosive attack and abrasive wear. Higher firing temperatures are used to increase their efficiency but lead to higher corrosion rates. It is more economical to apply protective coatings on the superheater steel tubes than to replace the base material. In-situ tests were conducted in a waste-to-energy plant first in order to identify and quantify all involved corrosive elements. Laboratory scale experiments with salt melts were developed accordingly. The unprotected low-alloyed steel displayed substantial local corrosion. Corrosion was predominant along the grain boundaries of α-ferrite. The corrosion rate was further increased by FeCl{sub 3} and a mixture of HCL and FeCl{sub 3}. Coatings based on pre-ceramic polymers with specific filler particles were engineered to protect superheater tubes. Tests proved their suitability to protect low-alloYed steel tubes from corrosive attack under conditions typical for superheaterS in waste incinerators, rendering higher firing temperatures in waste-to-energy plants possible. - Highlights: • Corrosion wall thickness losses of 400 μm/2 weeks occurred in a waste incinerator. • Abrasion is a major problem on superheater tubes in waste incinerators. • Laboratory salt melt tests can simulate metal corrosion in waste incinerators. • Corrosion protection coatings for steel (temperature: max. 530 °C) were developed. • Higher steam temperatures are possible in WIs with the developed coatings.

  18. Hydro-Chemical Characterization of Melt Waters of Ponkar Glacier, Manang, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, R.; Sandeep, S.

    2016-12-01

    The study was carried out in Ponkar Glacier, representing Himalayan glacier of Nepal. The study aims in determining the hydrochemistry of the glacier melt water. The sampling sites included moraine dammed, Ponkar Lake at 4120 m a.s.l to the downstream glaciated river at 3580 m a.s.l. The water samples were collected from the seven different sites according to the geological features. On site measurements of the parameters like pH, temperature, electrical conductivity was done by digital multi-probes. The samples were brought to the laboratory and the parameters were analyzed according to the standard guidelines and protocols. The glacier meltwater was slightly basic with pH 7.44 (±0.32). The water was slightly hard 36.43 (±9.15) mg CaCO3/L and the electrical conductivity was found to be 47.14 (±11.18) µS/cm. The concentration of anion was in the order of HCO3 - > Cl- > SO42- > NO3- > PO43-. Calcium carbonate weathering was found out to be the major source of dissolved ions in the region. The parameters like chloride, total silica and iron were found to be 55.71 (±32.03) mg/L, 1.13 (±0.76) mg/L and 1.1 (±0.97) mg/L which is in the significant range. Whereas the concentration of manganese (<0.05 mg/L) and zinc (<0.02 mg/L) were not in detectable levels in few stations. The results of this study can be helpful in preliminary assessment of hydrochemistry and its linkage with climate change impacts in this region.

  19. Micro-scale heterogeneity in water temperature | Dallas | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micro-scale heterogeneity in water temperature was examined in 6 upland sites in the Western Cape, South Africa. Hourly water temperature data converted to daily data showed that greatest differences were apparent in daily maximum temperatures between shallow- and deep-water biotopes during the warmest period of ...

  20. Melting point of yttria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaggs, S.R.

    1977-06-01

    Fourteen samples of 99.999 percent Y 2 O 3 were melted near the focus of a 250-W CO 2 laser. The average value of the observed melting point along the solid-liquid interface was 2462 +- 19 0 C. Several of these same samples were then melted in ultrahigh-purity oxygen, nitrogen, helium, or argon and in water vapor. No change in the observed temperature was detected, with the exception of a 20 0 C increase in temperature from air to helium gas. Post test examination of the sample characteristics, clarity, sphericity, and density is presented, along with composition. It is suggested that yttria is superior to alumina as a secondary melting-point standard

  1. Low temperature study of micrometric powder of melted Fe50Mn10Al40 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora, Ligia E.; Pérez Alcazar, G.A.; Tabares, J.A.; Romero, J.J.; Martinez, A.; Gonzalez, J.M.; Palomares, F.J.; Marco, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Melted Fe 50 Mn 10 Al 40 alloy powder with particle size less than 40 μm was characterized at room temperature by XRD, SEM and XPS; and at low temperatures by Mössbauer spectrometry, ac susceptibility, and magnetization analysis. The results show that the sample is BCC ferromagnetic but with a big contribution of paramagnetic sites, and presents super-paramagnetic and re-entrant spin-glass phases with critical temperatures of 265 and 35 K, respectively. The presence of the different phases detected is due to the disordered character of the sample and the competitive magnetic interactions. The obtained values of the saturation magnetization and the coercive field as a function of temperature present a behavior which indicates a ferromagnetic phase. However, the behavior of the FC curve and that of the coercive field as a function of temperature suggest that the dipolar magnetic interaction between particles contributes to the internal magnetic field in the same way as was reported for nanoparticulate powders.

  2. Experiments on interactions between zirconium-containing melt and water (ZREX). Hydrogen generation and chemical augmentation of energetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, D.H.; Armstrong, D.R.; Gunther, W.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Basu, S.

    1998-01-01

    The results of the first data series of experiments on interactions between zirconium-containing melt and water are described. These experiments involved dropping 1-kg batches of pure zirconium or zirconium-zirconium dioxide mixture melt into a column of water. A total of nine tests were conducted, including four with pure zirconium melt and five with Zr-ZrO{sub 2} mixture melt. Explosions took place only in those tests which were externally triggered. While the extent of zirconium oxidation in the triggered experiments was quite extensive, the estimated explosion energetics were found to be very small compared to the combined thermal and chemical energy available. (author)

  3. Numerical modeling of in-vessel melt water interaction in large scale PWR`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolev, N.I. [Siemens AG, KWU NA-M, Erlangen (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between IVA4 simulations and FARO L14, L20 experiments. Both experiments were performed with the same geometry but under different initial pressures, 51 and 20 bar respectively. A pretest prediction for test L21 which is intended to be performed under an initial pressure of 5 bar is also presented. The strong effect of the volume expansion of the evaporating water at low pressure is demonstrated. An in-vessel simulation for a 1500 MW el. PWR is presented. The insight gained from this study is: that at no time are conditions for the feared large scale melt-water intermixing at low pressure in force, with this due to the limiting effect of the expansion process which accelerates the melt and the water into all available flow paths. (author)

  4. Climatology of increased temperatures and melt at Swiss Camp, western slope of Greenland ice sheet, 1991-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, K.; McGrath, D.

    2013-12-01

    Climate observations (1991-2012) will be discussed from the Swiss Camp (69deg 33‧53″N, 49deg 19‧51″W, 1176 m), located at the western slope of the Greenland ice sheet, 60 km inland from Ilulissat. The mean annual temperature of -12 C increased 3.6 C between 1991 and 2012 (1.7 C per decade) with large interannual variability in all seasons. The mean spring temperature increased from -16.0 C to -13.8 C, and the fall temperature increased from -12.4 C to -11.3 C in the same time. The winter temperature showed the largest increase of 6.5 C, whereas summer temperatures increased 3.0 C during the 21 years (1991 - 2012). Radiation has been monitored continuously at Swiss Camp since 1993. Net radiation of 50 W/ m2 was recorded in 2012, the warmest summer month on record. The entire annual snow cover melted at Swiss Camp, reducing the monthly albedo value to 0.4 with bare ice exposed. Interannual variability of snow accumulation ranged between 0.07 and 0.70 m water equivalent, whereas annual snow and ice ablation varied between +0.35 (net gain) and -1.8 m (net loss) for the time period 1991-2012. The equilibrium line altitude (ELA) is no longer located at Swiss Camp (1176 m elevation) with a net surface lowering of 9.5 m since 1991. Increasing summer air temperatures have resulted in an upward migration of both the percolation facies and ablation area of the Greenland ice sheet. The 0°C isothermal migrated upward at a rate of 35 m/a over the 1995-2012 period in West Greenland. There is a 50% probability of the mean annual dry snow line migrating above Summit by 2025, at which time Summit will experience routine melt on an annual basis. The surface mass balance observations similarly indicate that the ELA has migrated upwards at a rate of 44 m/a over the 1997-2011 period in West Greenland, resulting in a more than doubling of the ablation zone width during this period. Inter-annual variability of monthly mean albedo at the Swiss Camp (1993 - 2012). Albedo at 0.5 is

  5. Correlation between the band gap expansion and melting temperature depression of nanostructured semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jianwei, E-mail: jwl189@163.com; Zhao, Xinsheng [Laboratory for Quantum Design of Functional Material, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Liu, Xinjuan [Center for Coordination Bond and Electronic Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zheng, Xuejun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Yang, Xuexian [Department of Physics, Jishou University, Jishou 416000, Hunan (China); Zhu, Zhe [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2015-09-28

    The band gap and melting temperature of a semiconductor are tunable with the size and shape of the specimen at the nanometer scale, and related mechanisms remain as yet unclear. In order to understand the common origin of the size and shape effect on these two seemingly irrelevant properties, we clarify, correlate, formulate, and quantify these two properties of GaAs, GaN, InP, and InN nanocrystals from the perspectives of bond order-length-strength correlation using the core-shell configuration. The consistency in the theoretical predictions, experimental observations, and numerical calculations verify that the broken-bond-induced local bond contraction and strength gain dictates the band gap expansion, while the atomic cohesive energy loss due to bond number reduction depresses the melting point. The fraction of the under-coordinated atoms in the skin shell quantitatively determines the shape and size dependency. The atomic under-coordination in the skin down to a depth of two atomic layers inducing a change in the local chemical bond is the common physical origin.

  6. Synergistically improved thermal conductivity of polyamide-6 with low melting temperature metal and graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Jia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Low melting temperature metal (LMTM-tin (Sn was introduced into polyamide-6 (PA6 and PA6/graphite composites respectively to improve the thermal conductivity of PA6 by melt processing (extruding and injection molding. After introducing Sn, the thermal conductivity of PA6/Sn was nearly constant because of the serious agglomeration of Sn. However, when 20 wt% (5.4 vol% of Sn was added into PA6 containing 50 wt% (33.3 vol% of graphite, the thermal conductivity of the composite was dramatically increased to 5.364 versus 1.852 W·(m·K–1 for the PA6/graphite composite, which suggests that the incorporation of graphite and Sn have a significant synergistic effect on the thermal conductivity improvement of PA6. What is more, the electrical conductivity of the composite increased nearly 8 orders of magnitudes after introducing both graphite and Sn. Characterization of microstructure and energy dispersive spectrum analysis (EDS indicates that the dispersion of Sn in PA6/graphite/Sn was much more uniform than that of PA6/Sn composite. According to Differential Scanning Calorimetry measurement and EDS, the uniform dispersion of Sn in PA6/graphite/Sn and the high thermal conductivity of PA6/graphite/Sn are speculated to be related with the electron transfer between graphite and Sn, which makes Sn distribute evenly around the graphite layers.

  7. Air-sea flux of CO2 in arctic coastal waters influenced by glacial melt water and sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejr, Mikael Kristian; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Rysgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Annual air–sea exchange ofCO2 inYoung Sound,NEGreenlandwas estimated using pCO2 surface-water measurements during summer (2006–2009) and during an ice-covered winter 2008. All surface pCO2 values were below atmospheric levels indicating an uptake of atmospheric CO2. During sea ice formation...... and thereby efficiently blocked air–sea CO2 exchange. During sea ice melt, dissolution of CaCO3 combined with primary production and strong stratification of the water column acted to lower surface-water pCO2 levels in the fjord. Also, a large input of glacial melt water containing geochemically reactive...... year-to-year variation in annual gas exchange....

  8. Recent progress in the melt-process technique of high-temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Ikuta, H; Mizutani, U

    1999-01-01

    Recently, the performance of high-temperature super conductors prepared by the melt-process technique has been greatly improved. This progress was accomplished by the addition of Ag into the starting materials of the Sm-Ba-CuO $9 system, which prevents the formation of severe macro-sized cracks in the finished samples. The magnetic flux density trapped by this material has now reached 9 T at 25 K, which is comparable to the magnetic flux density produced by $9 ordinary superconducting magnets. The amount of magnetic flux density that can be trapped by the sample is limited by the mechanical strength rather than superconducting properties of the material. The increase in the mechanical $9 strength of the material is important both for further improvement of the material properties and for ensuring reliability of the material in practical applications. (20 refs).

  9. Kinetics of iron redox reaction in silicate melts: A high temperature Xanes study on an alkali basalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochain, B; Neuville, D R; Roux, J; Strukelj, E; Richet, P [Physique des Mineraux et Magmas, Geochimie-Cosmochimie, CNRS-IPGP, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Ligny, D de [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, LPCML, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Baudelet, F, E-mail: cochain@ipgp.jussieu.f [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin (France)

    2009-11-15

    In Earth and Materials sciences, iron is the most important transition element. Glass and melt properties are strongly affected by iron content and redox state with the consequence that some properties (i.e. viscosity, heat capacity, crystallization...) depend not only on the amounts of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}, but also on the coordination state of these ions. In this work we investigate iron redox reactions through XANES experiments at the K-edge of iron. Using a high-temperature heating device, pre-edge of XANES spectra exhibits definite advantages to make in-situ measurements and to determine the evolution of redox state with time, temperature and composition of synthetic silicate melts. In this study, new kinetics measurements are presented for a basalt melt from the 31,000-BC eruption of the Puy de Lemptegy Volcano in France. These measurements have been made between 773 K and at superliquidus temperatures up to 1923 K.

  10. Kinetics of iron redox reaction in silicate melts: A high temperature Xanes study on an alkali basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochain, B; Neuville, D R; Roux, J; Strukelj, E; Richet, P; Ligny, D de; Baudelet, F

    2009-01-01

    In Earth and Materials sciences, iron is the most important transition element. Glass and melt properties are strongly affected by iron content and redox state with the consequence that some properties (i.e. viscosity, heat capacity, crystallization...) depend not only on the amounts of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ , but also on the coordination state of these ions. In this work we investigate iron redox reactions through XANES experiments at the K-edge of iron. Using a high-temperature heating device, pre-edge of XANES spectra exhibits definite advantages to make in-situ measurements and to determine the evolution of redox state with time, temperature and composition of synthetic silicate melts. In this study, new kinetics measurements are presented for a basalt melt from the 31,000-BC eruption of the Puy de Lemptegy Volcano in France. These measurements have been made between 773 K and at superliquidus temperatures up to 1923 K.

  11. High pressure and temperature structure of liquid and solid Cd: implications for the melting curve of Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, S V; Williams, Q; Geballe, Z M; Godwal, B K; Jeanloz, R; Kalkan, B

    2014-01-01

    The structure of cadmium was characterized in both the solid and liquid forms at pressures to 10 GPa using in situ x-ray diffraction measurements in a resistively heated diamond anvil cell. The distorted hexagonal structure of solid cadmium persists at high pressures and temperatures, with anomalously large c/a ratio of Cd becoming larger as the melting curve is approached. The measured structure factor S(Q) for the melt reveals that the cadmium atoms are spaced about 0.6 Angstroms apart. The melt structure remains notably constant with increasing pressure, with the first peak in the structure factor remaining mildly asymmetric, in accord with the persistence of an anisotropic bonding environment within the liquid. Evolution of powder diffraction patterns up to the temperature of melting revealed the stability of the ambient-pressure hcp structure up to a pressure of 10 GPa. The melting curve has a positive Clausius–Clapeyron slope, and its slope is in good agreement with data from other techniques. We find deviations in the melting curve from Lindemann law type behavior for pressures above 1 GPa. (paper)

  12. Structural Investigation of Fe-Ni-S and Fe-Ni-Si Melts by High-temperature Fluorescence XAFS Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manghnani, Murli H.; Balogh, John; Hong Xinguo; Newville, Matthew; Amulele, G.

    2007-01-01

    Iron-nickel (Fe-Ni) alloy is regarded as the most abundant constituent of Earth's core, with an amount of 5.5 wt% Ni in the core based on geochemical and cosmochemical models. The structural role of nickel in liquid Fe-Ni alloys with light elements such as S or Si is poorly understood, largely because of the experimental difficulties of high-temperature melts. Recently, we have succeeded in acquiring Ni K-edge fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra of Fe-Ni-S and Fe-Ni-Si melts and alloys. Different structural environment of Ni atoms in Fe-Ni-S and Fe-Ni-Si melts is observed, supporting the effect of light elements in Fe-Ni melts

  13. Water speciation in sodium silicate glasses (quenched melts): A comprehensive NMR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, X.; Kanzaki, M.; Eguchi, J.

    2012-12-01

    Dissolution mechanism of water is an important factor governing how the dissolved water affects the physical and thermodynamic properties of silicate melts and glasses. Our previous studies have demonstrated that 1H MAS NMR in combination with 29Si-1H and 27Al-1H double-resonance NMR experiments is an effective approach for unambiguously differentiating and quantifying different water species in quenched silicate melts (glasses). Several contrasting dissolution mechanisms have been revealed depending on the melt composition: for relatively polymerized melts, the formation of SiOH/AlOH species (plus molecular H2O) and depolymerization of the network structure dominate; whereas for depolymerized Ca-Mg silicate melts, free OH (e.g. MgOH) become increasingly important (cf. [1]). The proportion of free OH species has been shown to decrease with both increasing melt polymerization (silica content) and decreasing field strength of the network modifying cations (from Mg to Ca). Our previous 1H and 29Si MAS NMR results for hydrous Na silicate glasses of limited compositions (Na2Si4O9 and Na2Si2O5) were consistent with negligible free OH (NaOH) species and depolymerizing effect of water dissolution [2]. On the other hand, there were also other studies that proposed the presence of significant NaOH species in hydrous glasses near the Na2Si2O5 composition. The purpose of this study is apply the approach of combined 1H MAS NMR and double-resonance (29Si-1H and 23Na-1H) NMR to gain unambiguous evidence for the OH speciation in Na silicate glasses (melts) as a function of composition. Hydrous Na silicate glasses containing mostly ≤ 1 wt% H2O for a range of Na/Si ratios from 0.33 to 1.33 have been synthesized by rapidly quenching melts either at 0.2 GPa using an internally heated gas pressure vessel or at 1 GPa using a piston cylinder high-pressure apparatus. NMR spectra have been acquired using a 9.4 T Varian Unity-Inova spectrometer. The 29Si and 1H chemical shifts are

  14. Elasticity of water-saturated rocks as a function of temperature and pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, S.; Simmons, G.

    1973-01-01

    Compressional and shear wave velocities of water-saturated rocks were measured as a function of both pressure and temperature near the melting point of ice to confining pressure of 2 kb. The pore pressure was kept at about 1 bar before the water froze. The presence of a liquid phase (rather than ice) in microcracks of about 0.3% porosity affected the compressional wave velocity by about 5% and the shear wave velocity by about 10%. The calculated effective bulk modulus of the rocks changes rapidly over a narrow range of temperature near the melting point of ice, but the effective shear modulus changes gradually over a wider range of temperature. This phenomenon, termed elastic anomaly, is attributed to the existence of liquid on the boundary between rock and ice due to local stresses and anomalous melting of ice under pressure.

  15. Volatile diffusion in silicate melts and its effects on melt inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Scarlato

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A compendium of diffusion measurements and their Arrhenius equations for water, carbon dioxide, sulfur, fluorine, and chlorine in silicate melts similar in composition to natural igneous rocks is presented. Water diffusion in silicic melts is well studied and understood, however little data exists for melts of intermediate to basic compositions. The data demonstrate that both the water concentration and the anhydrous melt composition affect the diffusion coefficient of water. Carbon dioxide diffusion appears only weakly dependent, at most, on the volatilefree melt composition and no effect of carbon dioxide concentration has been observed, although few experiments have been performed. Based upon one study, the addition of water to rhyolitic melts increases carbon dioxide diffusion by orders of magnitude to values similar to that of 6 wt% water. Sulfur diffusion in intermediate to silicic melts depends upon the anhydrous melt composition and the water concentration. In water-bearing silicic melts sulfur diffuses 2 to 3 orders of magnitude slower than water. Chlorine diffusion is affected by both water concentration and anhydrous melt composition; its values are typically between those of water and sulfur. Information on fluorine diffusion is rare, but the volatile-free melt composition exerts a strong control on its diffusion. At the present time the diffusion of water, carbon dioxide, sulfur and chlorine can be estimated in silicic melts at magmatic temperatures. The diffusion of water and carbon dioxide in basic to intermediate melts is only known at a limited set of temperatures and compositions. The diffusion data for rhyolitic melts at 800°C together with a standard model for the enrichment of incompatible elements in front of growing crystals demonstrate that rapid crystal growth, greater than 10-10 ms-1, can significantly increase the volatile concentrations at the crystal-melt interface and that any of that melt trapped

  16. Characterisation of Ceramic-Coated 316LN Stainless Steel Exposed to High-Temperature Thermite Melt and Molten Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Shankar, A.; Vetrivendan, E.; Shukla, Prabhat Kumar; Das, Sanjay Kumar; Hemanth Rao, E.; Murthy, S. S.; Lydia, G.; Nashine, B. K.; Mallika, C.; Selvaraj, P.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2017-11-01

    Currently, stainless steel grade 316LN is the material of construction widely used for core catcher of sodium-cooled fast reactors. Design philosophy for core catcher demands its capability to withstand corium loading from whole core melt accidents. Towards this, two ceramic coatings were investigated for its application as a layer of sacrificial material on the top of core catcher to enhance its capability. Plasma-sprayed thermal barrier layer of alumina and partially stabilised zirconia (PSZ) with an intermediate bond coat of NiCrAlY are selected as candidate material and deposited over 316LN SS substrates and were tested for their suitability as thermal barrier layer for core catcher. Coated specimens were exposed to high-temperature thermite melt to simulate impingement of molten corium. Sodium compatibility of alumina and PSZ coatings were also investigated by exposing samples to molten sodium at 400 °C for 500 h. The surface morphology of high-temperature thermite melt-exposed samples and sodium-exposed samples was examined using scanning electron microscope. Phase identification of the exposed samples was carried out by x-ray diffraction technique. Observation from sodium exposure tests indicated that alumina coating offers better protection compared to PSZ coating. However, PSZ coating provided better protection against high-temperature melt exposure, as confirmed during thermite melt exposure test.

  17. Diffusion of Water through Olivine and Clinopyroxene: Implications for Melt Inclusion Fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, T. A.; Lloyd, A. S.; Ferriss, E.

    2016-12-01

    The maximum H2O concentrations measured in olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MIs) from arc tephra fall within a narrow range of 3-5 wt%. A major question is whether this reflects parental water concentrations or diffusive exchange through the host crystal during storage and ascent. Laboratory experiments have shown that water can diffuse through 500 micron olivine in minutes to days at 1100°C. We have tested these predictions with a natural experiment using volatile (H2O, CO2, S) diffusion along melt embayments to constrain ascent rates during the 1974 eruption of Volcan Fuego to 5-8 minutes from 7 km depth [1]. Thus, olivine-hosted MIs may move from their storage region to the surface during some eruptions rapidly enough to retain almost all of their original water. Only the smallest MIs (500 microns) and large melt inclusions (>50 microns), and 4) rapid post-eruptive cooling (< 1min, clast sizes < 1 cm). The rapid diffusion of H through olivine and cpx presents a challenge to MI fidelity, but not necessarily if the above conditions are met. [1] Lloyd et al., 2014, JVGR. [2] Ferriss et al., 2016, AmMin.

  18. Thermodynamic properties, melting temperature and viscosity of the mantles of Super Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenkovic, V.; Spohn, T.; Breuer, D.

    2010-12-01

    The recent dicscovery of extrasolar planets with radii of about twice the Earth radius and masses of several Earth masses such as e.g., Corot-7b (approx 5Mearth and 1.6Rearth, Queloz et al. 2009) has increased the interest in the properties of rock at extremely high pressures. While the pressure at the Earth’s core-mantle boundary is about 135GPa, pressures at the base of the mantles of extraterrestrial rocky planets - if these are at all differentiated into mantles and cores - may reach Tera Pascals. Although the properties and the mineralogy of rock at extremely high pressure is little known there have been speculations about mantle convection, plate tectonics and dynamo action in these “Super-Earths”. We assume that the mantles of these planets can be thought of as consisting of perovskite but we discuss the effects of the post-perovskite transition and of MgO. We use the Keane equation of state and the Slater relation (see e.g., Stacey and Davies 2004) to derive an infinite pressure value for the Grüneisen parameter of 1.035. To derive this value we adopted the infinite pressure limit for K’ (pressure derivative of the bulk modulus) of 2.41 as derived by Stacey and Davies (2004) by fitting PREM. We further use the Lindeman law to calculate the melting curve. We gauge the melting curve using the available experimental data for pressures up to 120GPa. The melting temperature profile reaches 6000K at 135GPa and increases to temperatures between 12,000K and 24,000K at 1.1TPa with a preferred value of 21,000K. We find the adiabatic temperature increase to reach 2,500K at 135GPa and 5,400K at 1.1TPa. To calculate the pressure dependence of the viscosity we assume that the rheology is diffusion controlled and calculate the partial derivative with respect to pressure of the activation enthalpy. We cast the partial derivative in terms of an activation volume and use the semi-empirical homologous temperature scaling (e.g., Karato 2008). We find that the

  19. Genetics of Marbling in Wagyu Revealed by the Melting Temperature of Intramuscular and Subcutaneous Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally S. Lloyd

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme marbling or intramuscular deposition of lipid is associated with Wagyu breeds and is therefore assumed to be largely inherited. However, even within 100% full blood Wagyu prepared under standard conditions, there is unpredictable scatter of the degree of marbling. Here, we evaluate melting temperature (Tm of intramuscular fat as an alternative to visual scores of marbling. We show that “long fed” Wagyu generally has Tm below body temperature but with a considerable range under standardized conditions. Individual sires have a major impact indicating that the variation is genetic rather than environmental or random error. In order to measure differences of lower marbling breeds and at shorter feeding periods, we have compared Tm in subcutaneous fat samples from over the striploin. Supplementary feeding for 100 to 150 days leads to a rapid decrease in Tm of 50% Red Wagyu (Akaushi : 50% European crosses, when compared to 100% European. This improvement indicates that the genetic effect of Wagyu is useful, predictable, and highly penetrant. Contemporaneous DNA extraction does not affect the measurement of Tm. Thus, provenance can be traced and substitution can be eliminated in a simple and cost-effective manner.

  20. Genetics of Marbling in Wagyu Revealed by the Melting Temperature of Intramuscular and Subcutaneous Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Jose L.; Steele, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Extreme marbling or intramuscular deposition of lipid is associated with Wagyu breeds and is therefore assumed to be largely inherited. However, even within 100% full blood Wagyu prepared under standard conditions, there is unpredictable scatter of the degree of marbling. Here, we evaluate melting temperature (Tm) of intramuscular fat as an alternative to visual scores of marbling. We show that “long fed” Wagyu generally has Tm below body temperature but with a considerable range under standardized conditions. Individual sires have a major impact indicating that the variation is genetic rather than environmental or random error. In order to measure differences of lower marbling breeds and at shorter feeding periods, we have compared Tm in subcutaneous fat samples from over the striploin. Supplementary feeding for 100 to 150 days leads to a rapid decrease in Tm of 50% Red Wagyu (Akaushi) : 50% European crosses, when compared to 100% European. This improvement indicates that the genetic effect of Wagyu is useful, predictable, and highly penetrant. Contemporaneous DNA extraction does not affect the measurement of Tm. Thus, provenance can be traced and substitution can be eliminated in a simple and cost-effective manner. PMID:29201894

  1. Corium spreading: hydrodynamics, rheology and solidification of a high-temperature oxide melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journeau, Ch.

    2006-06-01

    In the hypothesis of a nuclear reactor severe accident, the core could melt and form a high- temperature (2000-3000 K) mixture called corium. In the hypothesis of vessel rupture, this corium would spread in the reactor pit and adjacent rooms as occurred in Chernobyl or in a dedicated core-catcher s in the new European Pressurized reactor, EPR. This thesis is dedicated to the experimental study of corium spreading, especially with the prototypic corium material experiments performed in the VULCANO facility at CEA Cadarache. The first step in analyzing these tests consists in interpreting the material analyses, with the help of thermodynamic modelling of corium solidification. Knowing for each temperature the phase repartition and composition, physical properties can be estimated. Spreading termination is controlled by corium rheological properties in the solidification range, which leads to studying them in detail. The hydrodynamical, rheological and solidification aspects of corium spreading are taken into account in models and computer codes which have been validated against these tests and enable the assessment of the EPR spreading core-catcher concept. (author)

  2. Hydro-chemical Characterization of Glacier Melt Water of Ponkar Glacier, Manang, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, R.; Sandeep, S.

    2017-12-01

    The study was carried out in Ponkar Glacier, representing Himalayan glacier of Nepal. The study aims in determining the physical-chemical properties of the glacier melt water. The sampling sites included moraine dammed, Ponkar Lake at 4100 m a.s.l to the downstream glaciated stream at 3580 m a.s.l. The water samples were collected from the seven different sites. Temperature was recorded by digital multi-thermometer on site. The samples were brought to the laboratory and the parameters were analyzed according to the APHA, AWWA and WEF standards. The glacier meltwater was slightly basic with pH 7.44 (±0.307). The meltwater was found to be in the range 30-60 which implies the water is moderately soft resulting value of concentration 36.429±8.664 mg CaCO3 L-1 and the electrical conductivity was found to be 47.14 (±11.18) µS/cm. The concentration of anion was in the order of HCO3 - > Cl- > SO42- > NO3- > TP-PO43- with the concentration 194.286±40.677, 55.707±30.265, 11.533±1.132 mgL-1, 1.00±0.7 mgL-1 and 0.514±0.32 mgL-1 respectively. Calcium carbonate weathering was found out to be the major source of dissolved ions in the region. The heavy metals were found in the order Al>Fe>Mn>Zn with concentration 1.34±0.648, 1.103±0.917, 0.08±0.028 and 0.023±0.004 mgL-1 respectively. The concentration of iron, manganese and zinc in some sites were below the detection limit. These results represent baseline data for the physical-chemical properties of the glacier meltwater

  3. Rapid changes in surface water carbonate chemistry during Antarctic sea ice melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elizabeth M.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Venables, Hugh J.; Whitehouse, Michael J.; Korb, Rebecca E.; Watson, Andrew J.

    2010-11-01

    ABSTRACT The effect of sea ice melt on the carbonate chemistry of surface waters in the Weddell-Scotia Confluence, Southern Ocean, was investigated during January 2008. Contrasting concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA) and the fugacity of carbon dioxide (fCO2) were observed in and around the receding sea ice edge. The precipitation of carbonate minerals such as ikaite (CaCO3.6H2O) in sea ice brine has the net effect of decreasing DIC and TA and increasing the fCO2 in the brine. Deficits in DIC up to 12 +/- 3 μmol kg-1 in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) were consistent with the release of DIC-poor brines to surface waters during sea ice melt. Biological utilization of carbon was the dominant processes and accounted for 41 +/- 1 μmol kg-1 of the summer DIC deficit. The data suggest that the combined effects of biological carbon uptake and the precipitation of carbonates created substantial undersaturation in fCO2 of 95 μatm in the MIZ during summer sea ice melt. Further work is required to improve the understanding of ikaite chemistry in Antarctic sea ice and its importance for the sea ice carbon pump.

  4. Effect of postdrawing temperature on structure, morphology and mechanical properties of melt-spun isotactic polypropylene tapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, J.; Schimanski, T.

    2005-01-01

    Structure, morphology, and mechanical properties of melt-spun and postdrawn isotactic polypropylene (iPP) tapes are analyzed to study the effect of postdraw temperature applied. For affine drawing conditions, i.e., no effective relaxation of the molecules occurs during postdrawing, the Young's

  5. Rheology Guided Rational Selection of Processing Temperature To Prepare Copovidone-Nifedipine Amorphous Solid Dispersions via Hot Melt Extrusion (HME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fengyuan; Su, Yongchao; Zhang, Jingtao; DiNunzio, James; Leone, Anthony; Huang, Chengbin; Brown, Chad D

    2016-10-03

    The production of amorphous solid dispersions via hot melt extrusion (HME) relies on elevated temperature and prolonged residence time, which can result in potential degradation and decomposition of thermally sensitive components. Herein, the rheological properties of a physical mixture of polymer and an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) were utilized to guide the selection of appropriate HME processing temperature. In the currently studied copovidone-nifedipine system, a critical temperature, which is substantially lower (∼13 °C) than the melting point of crystalline API, was captured during a temperature ramp examination and regarded as the critical point at which the API could molecularly dissolve into the polymer. Based on the identification of this critical point, various solid dispersions were prepared by HME processing below, at, and above the critical temperature (both below and above the melting temperature (T m ) of crystalline API). In addition, the resultant extrudates along with two control solid dispersions prepared by physical mixing and cryogenic milling were assessed by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, hot stage microscopy, rheology, and solid-state NMR. Physicochemical properties of resultant solid dispersions indicated that the identified critical temperature is sufficient for the polymer-API system to reach a molecular-level mixing, manifested by the transparent and smooth appearance of extrudates, the absence of API crystalline diffraction and melting peaks, dramatically decreased rheological properties, and significantly improved polymer-API miscibility. Once the critical temperature has been achieved, further raising the processing temperature only results in limited improvement of API dispersion, reflected by slightly reduced storage modulus and complex viscosity and limited improvement in miscibility.

  6. Densification behavior of gas and water atomized 316L stainless steel powder during selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruidi; Shi, Yusheng; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Li; Liu, Jinhui; Jiang, Wei

    2010-04-01

    The densification during selective laser melting (SLM) process is an important factor determining the final application of SLM-part. In the present work, the densifications under different processing conditions were investigated and the densification mechanisms were elucidated. It was found that the higher laser power, lower scan speed, narrower hatch spacing and thinner layer thickness could enable a much smoother melting surface and consequently a higher densification. The gas atomized powder possessed better densification than water atomized powder, due to the lower oxygen content and higher packing density of gas atomized powder. A large number of regular-shaped pores can be generated at a wider hatch spacing, even if the scanning track is continuous and wetted very well. The densification mechanisms were addressed and the methods for building dense metal parts were also proposed as follows: inhibiting the balling phenomenon, increasing the overlap ratio of scanning tracks and reducing the micro-cracks.

  7. Using of mass spectrum for prognosis of melting temperature of monatomic aliphatic spirits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazhev, V. V.

    2004-01-01

    In present article researching possibility of prediction of melting temperature (MT) of monatomic aliphatic spirits with using mass-spectra as descriptors structure of molecules. Mass-spectra of 84 aliphatic spirits were used. Mass-spectra were preliminarily transformed on special formula before calculations for receiving work dates of descriptors. Calculations fulfilled with help of the computer program PROGROC. Quality of prediction characterized by coefficient of R-correlation between predicted and experimental dates MT and standard s-deviation. Coefficient of R-correlation between experimental and calculated dates account for 0.9785, standard s-deviation = 11.25 deg. C. Singly R and S for training and control excerpt equally 0.9789 and 11.31 deg. C, 0,9789 and 8.87 deg. C accordingly. Advantage of workable by us method lie in that, what on comparable with literature data of accuracy for prediction property is enough to have only mass-spectrum of substance

  8. Aluminosilicate melts and glasses at 1 to 3 GPa: Temperature and pressure effects on recovered structural and density changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, S; Stebbins, Jonathan; Hankins, William B.; Sisson, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    In the pressure range in the Earth’s mantle where many basaltic magmas are generated (1 to 3 GPa) (Stolper et al. 1981), increases in the coordination numbers of the network-forming cations in aluminosilicate melts have generally been considered to be minor, although effects on silicon and particularly on aluminum coordination in non-bridging oxygen-rich glasses from the higher, 5 to 12 GPa range, are now well known. Most high-precision measurements of network cation coordination in such samples have been made by spectroscopy (notably 27Al and 29Si NMR) on glasses quenched from high-temperature, high-pressure melts synthesized in solid-media apparatuses and decompressed to room temperature and 1 bar pressure. There are several effects that could lead to the underestimation of the extent of actual structural (and density) changes in high-pressure/temperature melts from such data. For non-bridging oxygen-rich sodium and calcium aluminosilicate compositions in the 1 to 3 GPa range, we show here that glasses annealed near to their glass transition temperatures systematically record higher recovered increases in aluminum coordination and in density than samples quenched from high-temperature melts. In the piston-cylinder apparatus used, rates of cooling through the glass transition are measured as very similar for both higher and lower initial temperatures, indicating that fictive temperature effects are not the likely explanation of these differences. Instead, transient decreases in melt pressure during thermal quenching, which may be especially large for high initial run temperatures, of as much as 0.5 to 1 GPa, may be responsible. As a result, the equilibrium proportion of high-coordinated Al in this pressure range may be 50 to 90% greater than previously estimated, reaching mean coordination numbers (e.g., 4.5) that are probably high enough to significantly affect melt properties. New data on jadeite (NaAlSi2O6) glass confirm that aluminum coordination increase

  9. High temperature pressure water's blowdown into water. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Toshihisa; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Iida, Hiromasa

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the present experimental study is to clarify the phenomena in blowdown of high temperature and pressure water in pressure vessel into the containment water for evaluation of design of an advanced marine reactor(MRX). The water blown into the containment water flushed and formed steam jet plume. The steam jet condensed in the water, but some stream penetrated to gas phase of containment and contributed to increase of containment pressure. (author)

  10. Verification of IVA5 computer code for melt-water interaction analysis. Pt. 2. Three-phase flows with melt fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, N.I.

    1999-01-01

    In order to qualify IVA5 for applications in the field of the melt-water interactions in nuclear reactor safety, we analyzed the achievable accuracy by predicting phenomena that are within this class. Comparison with FARO and PREMIX experiments characterized with dynamic fragmentation of the participating materials together With the comparison with the variety of experiments documented in part 1 of this work qualified IVA5 as a code representing the state-of-the-art in the field of the multiphase flows. The code is capable of predicting multi-phase flow behavior in complicated 3D geometries and industrial networks. The code is able to predict melt-water interaction in well quantified uncertainty region. Reducing the uncertainty band needs future sophistication in the directions specified in this work. (author)

  11. Testing Snow Melt Algorithms in High Relief Topography Using Calibrated Enhanced-Resolution Brightness Temperatures, Hunza River Basin, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramage, J. M.; Brodzik, M. J.; Hardman, M.; Troy, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Snow is a vital part of the terrestrial hydrological cycle, a crucial resource for people and ecosystems. In mountainous regions snow is extensive, variable, and challenging to document. Snow melt timing and duration are important factors affecting the transfer of snow mass to soil moisture and runoff. Passive microwave brightness temperature (Tb) changes at 36 and 18 GHz are a sensitive way to detect snow melt onset due to their sensitivity to the abrupt change in emissivity. They are widely used on large icefields and high latitude watersheds. The coarse resolution ( 25 km) of historically available data has precluded effective use in high relief, heterogeneous regions, and gaps between swaths also create temporal data gaps at lower latitudes. New enhanced resolution data products generated from a scatterometer image reconstruction for radiometer (rSIR) technique are available at the original frequencies. We use these Calibrated Enhanced-resolution Brightness (CETB) Temperatures Earth System Data Records (ESDR) to evaluate existing snow melt detection algorithms that have been used in other environments, including the cross polarized gradient ratio (XPGR) and the diurnal amplitude variations (DAV) approaches. We use the 36/37 GHz (3.125 km resolution) and 18/19 GHz (6.25 km resolution) vertically and horizontally polarized datasets from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and Advanced Microwave Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) and evaluate them for use in this high relief environment. The new data are used to assess glacier and snow melt records in the Hunza River Basin [area 13,000 sq. km, located at 36N, 74E], a tributary to the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan. We compare the melt timing results visually and quantitatively to the corresponding EASE-Grid 2.0 25-km dataset, SRTM topography, and surface temperatures from station and reanalysis data. The new dataset is coarser than the topography, but is able to differentiate signals of melt/refreeze timing for

  12. Entrapment investigations of water-droplet behavior in a hot tin melt with varying discharge velocities and orifices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, G.; Mueller, K.

    1983-10-01

    Experiments were performed in which water was pressed through a thermally isolated tube into a clyindrical crucible (diameter 5 cm, height 7,5 cm both measured inside) filled with molten tin (600 K). The diameter of the circular water outlet was varied from 0.5 up to 10 mm and the discharge velocity of the water was in the range of 0.05 up to 20 m/s. In the tin melt the water divides into single drops, which emerged on the melt surface, if an interaction between water and tin melt did not occur. The probability for an interaction increased in experiments with higher discharge velocities of the water and smaller diameters of the water outlet. In experiments with discharge velocities ≥ 5 m/s and outlet diameters ≤ 2 mm one or more interactions occured in each case. At these interactions of water drops entrapped in the tin melt (called entrapment interactions) a portion of the melt was ejected from the crucible. The moment of the interaction and the pulse of the force toward the crucible bottom were recorded. (orig.) [de

  13. Melting under shock compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.I.

    1980-10-01

    A simple model, using experimentally measured shock and particle velocities, is applied to the Lindemann melting formula to predict the density, temperature, and pressure at which a material will melt when shocked from room temperature and zero pressure initial conditions

  14. MgO melting curve constraints from shock temperature and rarefaction overtake measurements in samples preheated to 2300 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fat'yanov, O. V.; Asimow, P. D.

    2014-05-01

    Continuing our effort to obtain experimental constraints on the melting curve of MgO at 100-200 GPa, we extended our target preheating capability to 2300 K. Our new Mo capsule design holds a long MgO crystal in a controlled thermal gradient until impact by a Ta flyer launched at up to 7.5 km/s on the Caltech two-stage light-gas gun. Radiative shock temperatures and rarefaction overtake times were measured simultaneously by a 6-channel VIS/NIR pyrometer with 3 ns time resolution. The majority of our experiments showed smooth monotonic increases in MgO sound speed and shock temperature with pressure from 197 to 243 GPa. The measured temperatures as well as the slopes of the pressure dependences for both temperature and sound speed were in good agreement with those calculated numerically for the solid phase at our peak shock compression conditions. Most observed sound speeds, however, were ~800 m/s higher than those predicted by the model. A single unconfirmed data point at 239 GPa showed anomalously low temperature and sound speed, which could both be explained by partial melting in this experiment and could suggest that the Hugoniot of MgO preheated to 2300 K crosses its melting line just slightly above 240 GPa.

  15. MgO melting curve constraints from shock temperature and rarefaction overtake measurements in samples preheated to 2300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fat'yanov, O V; Asimow, P D

    2014-01-01

    Continuing our effort to obtain experimental constraints on the melting curve of MgO at 100-200 GPa, we extended our target preheating capability to 2300 K. Our new Mo capsule design holds a long MgO crystal in a controlled thermal gradient until impact by a Ta flyer launched at up to 7.5 km/s on the Caltech two-stage light-gas gun. Radiative shock temperatures and rarefaction overtake times were measured simultaneously by a 6-channel VIS/NIR pyrometer with 3 ns time resolution. The majority of our experiments showed smooth monotonic increases in MgO sound speed and shock temperature with pressure from 197 to 243 GPa. The measured temperatures as well as the slopes of the pressure dependences for both temperature and sound speed were in good agreement with those calculated numerically for the solid phase at our peak shock compression conditions. Most observed sound speeds, however, were ∼800 m/s higher than those predicted by the model. A single unconfirmed data point at 239 GPa showed anomalously low temperature and sound speed, which could both be explained by partial melting in this experiment and could suggest that the Hugoniot of MgO preheated to 2300 K crosses its melting line just slightly above 240 GPa.

  16. Experimental Measurement of Frozen and Partially Melted Water Droplet Impact Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Jose; Yan, Sihong; Tan, Jason; Kreeger, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    High-speed video of single frozen water droplets impacting a surface was acquired. The droplets diameter ranged from 0.4 mm to 0.9 mm and impacted at velocities ranging from 140 m/sec to 309 m/sec. The techniques used to freeze the droplets and launch the particles against the surfaces is described in this paper. High-speed video was used to quantify the ice accretion area to the surface for varying impact angles (30 deg, 45 deg, 60 deg), impacting velocities, and break-up angles. An oxygen /acetylene cross-flow flame used to ensure partial melting of the traveling frozen droplets is also discussed. A linear relationship between impact angle and ice accretion is identified for fully frozen particles. The slope of the relationship is affected by impact speed. Perpendicular impacts, i.e. 30 deg, exhibited small differences in ice accretion for varying velocities, while an increase of 60% in velocity from 161 m/sec to 259 m/sec, provided an increase on ice accretion area of 96% at an impact angle of 60 deg. The increase accretion area highlights the importance of impact angle and velocity on the ice accretion process of ice crystals. It was experimentally observed that partial melting was not required for ice accretion at the tested velocities when high impact angles were used (45 and 60 deg). Partially melted droplets doubled the ice accretion areas on the impacting surface when 0.0023 Joules were applied to the particle. The partially melted state of the droplets and a method to quantify the percentage increase in ice accretion area is also described in the paper.

  17. Effect of Feed Melting, Temperature History and Minor Component Addition on Spinel Crystallization in High-Level Waste Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izak, Pavel; Hrma, Pavel R.; Arey, Bruce W.; Plaisted, Trevor J.

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to help design mathematical models for high-level waste (HLW) glass melter that simulate spinel behavior in molten glass. Spinel, (Fe,Ni,Mn) (Fe,Cr)2O4, is the primary solid phase that precipitates from HLW glasses containing Fe and Ni in sufficient concentrations. Spinel crystallization affects the anticipated cost and risk of HLW vitrification. To study melting reactions, we used simulated HLW feed, prepared with co-precipitated Fe, Ni, Cr, and Mn hydroxides. Feed samples were heated up at a temperature-increase rate (4C/min) close to that which the feed experiences in the HLW glass melter. The decomposition, melting, and dissolution of feed components (such as nitrates, carbonates, and silica) and the formation of intermediate crystalline phases (spinel, sodalite (Na8(AlSiO4)6(NO2)2), and Zr-containing minerals) were characterized using evolved gas analysis, volume-expansion measurement, optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction. Nitrates and quartz, the major feed components, converted to a glass-forming melt by 880C. A chromium-free spinel formed in the nitrate melt starting from 520C and Sodalite, a transient product of corundum dissolution, appeared above 600C and eventually dissolved in glass. To investigate the effects of temperature history and minor components (Ru,Ag, and Cu) on the dissolution and growth of spinel crystals, samples were heated up to temperatures above liquidus temperature (TL), then subjected to different temperature histories, and analyzed. The results show that spinel mass fraction, crystals composition, and crystal size depend on the chemical and physical makeup of the feed and temperature history

  18. Refining of high-temperature uranium melt by filtration through foam-ceramic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antsiferov, V.N.; Porozova, S.E.; Filippov, V.B.; Shtutsa, M.G.; Il'enko, E.V.; Kolotygina, N.S.

    2004-01-01

    An opportunity of applying foam-ceramic filters of corundum-mullite composition has been studied in refining natural uranium melts. Uranium melting conditions were chosen depending on technical characteristics of the foam ceramic filters. When their using, a portion of nonmetallic inclusions decreases by 20-30% (as little as 2.0-3.5% ingot weight), their size is reduced and their distribution in the ingot volume is equalized, contamination of uranium by the filter material being failed to be noticed. The parameters of foam-ceramic filters are optimized for provision of stable characteristics of uranium melt filtration process [ru

  19. Electron beam melting of sponge titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanayama, Hiroshi; Kusamichi, Tatsuhiko; Muraoka, Tetsuhiro; Onouye, Toshio; Nishimura, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    Fundamental investigations were done on electron beam (EB) melting of sponge titanium by using 80 kW EB melting furnace. Results obtained are as follows: (1) To increase the melting yield of titanium in EB melting of sponge titanium, it is important to recover splashed metal by installation of water-cooled copper wall around the hearth and to decrease evaporation loss of titanium by keeping the surface temperature of molten metal just above the melting temperature of titanium without local heating. (2) Specific power consumption of drip melting of pressed sponge titanium bar and hearth melting of sponge titanium are approximately 0.9 kWh/kg-Ti and 0.5-0.7 kWh/kg-Ti, respectively. (3) Ratios of the heat conducted to water-cooled mould in the drip melting and to water-cooled hearth in the hearth melting to the electron beam input power are 50-65% and 60-65%, respectively. (4) Surface defects of EB-melted ingots include rap which occurs when the EB output is excessively great, and transverse cracks when the EB output is excessively small. To prevent surface defects, the up-down withdrawal method is effective. (author)

  20. Abrupt Greenland Ice Sheet runoff and sea water temperature changes since 1821, recorded by coralline algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenos, N.; Hoey, T.; Bedford, J.; Claverie, T.; Fallick, A. E.; Lamb, C. M.; Nienow, P. W.; O'Neill, S.; Shepherd, I.; Thormar, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) contains the largest store of fresh water in the northern hemisphere, equivalent to ~7.4m of eustatic sea level rise, but its impacts on current, past and future sea level, ocean circulation and European climate are poorly understood. Previous estimates of GrIS melt, from 26 years of satellite observations and temperature driven melt-models over 48 years, show a trend of increasing melt. There are however no runoff data of comparable duration with which to validate temperature-based runoff models, or relationships between the spatial extent of melt and runoff. Further, longer runoff records that extend GrIS melt records to centennial timescales will enable recently observed trends to be put into a better historical context. We measured Mg/Ca, δ18O and structural cell size in annual growth bands of red coralline algae to reconstruct: (1) near surface sea water temperature; and, (2) melt/runoff from the GrIS. (1) Temperature: we reconstructed the longest (1821-2009) sub-annual resolution record of water temperature in Disko Bugt (western Greenland) showing an abrupt change in temperature oscillation patterns during the 1920s which may be attributable to the interaction between atmospheric temperature and mass loss from Jakobshavn Isbrae glacier. (2) GrIS runoff: using samples from distal parts of Søndre Strømfjord we produced the first reconstruction of decadal (1939-2002) GrIS runoff. We observed significant negative relationships between historic runoff, relative salinity and marine summer temperature. Our reconstruction shows a trend of increasing reconstructed runoff since the mid 1980s. In situ summer marine temperatures followed a similar trend. We suggest that since 1939 atmospheric temperatures have been important in forcing runoff. Subject to locating in situ coralline algae samples, these methods can be applied across hundreds to thousands of years. These results show that our technique has significant potential to enhance

  1. The Silicon Environment in Silica Polymorphs, Aluminosilicate Crystals and Melts: An In Situ High Temperature XAS Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormier, L.; Neuville, D. R.; Roux, J.; Ligny, D. de; Henderson, G. S.; Flank, A.-M.; Lagarde, P.

    2007-01-01

    High temperature X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Si K-edge has been used to obtain in situ information on SiO2 phase transitions upon heating. Important modifications are observed for the XANES spectra of the high temperature polymorphs, in relation to disordering of the SiO4 tetrahedra beyond the short-range correlations. This paper also presents the XANES spectra of anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8) from room temperature up to the melt (1900 K). This study shows the possibilities for determining the Si environment in crystals and glasses up to the liquid state using in situ XANES measurements

  2. Relationship between water temperature predictability and aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macroinvertebrate taxonomic turnover across seasons was higher for sites having lower water temperature predictability values than for sites with higher predictability, while temporal partitioning was greater at sites with greater temperature variability. Macroinvertebrate taxa responded in a predictable manner to changes in ...

  3. Water Content of Earth's Continental Mantle Is Controlled by the Circulation of Fluids or Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne; Woodland, Alan B.; Bell, David R.; Lazarov, Marina; Lapen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    A key mission of the ARES Directorate at JSC is to constrain models of the formation and geological history of terrestrial planets. Water is a crucial parameter to be measured with the aim to determine its amount and distribution in the interior of Earth, Mars, and the Moon. Most of that "water" is not liquid water per se, but rather hydrogen dissolved as a trace element in the minerals of the rocks at depth. Even so, the middle layer of differentiated planets, the mantle, occupies such a large volume and mass of each planet that when it is added at the planetary scale, oceans worth of water could be stored in its interior. The mantle is where magmas originate. Moreover, on Earth, the mantle is where the boundary between tectonic plates and the underlying asthenosphere is located. Even if mantle rocks in Earth typically contain less than 200 ppm H2O, such small quantities have tremendous influence on how easily they melt (i.e., the more water there is, the more magma is produced) and deform (the more water there is, the less viscous they are). These two properties alone emphasize that to understand the distribution of volcanism and the mechanism of plate tectonics, the water content of the mantle must be determined - Earth being a template to which all other terrestrial planets can be compared.

  4. Effect of churning temperature on water content, rheology, microstructure and stability of butter during four weeks of storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønholt, Stine; Madsen, Ann Sophie; Kirkensgaard, Jacob Judas Kain

    2014-01-01

    The effect of churning temperature (10 °C vs. 22 °C) is evaluated with respect to water content, rheology, microstructure and stability of butter produced using the batch churning method with a temperature ramp of 4 °C/min. Using pulsed-nuclear magnetic resonance, an increase in relative solid fat...... content from 44% to 49.5% was observed when decreasing the churning temperature. Due to lower solid fat content formed upon churning at high temperatures, average water droplet size significantly increased from 5.5 μm to 18.5 μm and less water could be incorporated into the butter during mixing. Using...... differential scanning calorimetry, it was observed that water addition as well as churning at low temperatures induced a transition toward more stable crystal structures, as the melting point in the high melting fraction was slightly lower for butter churned at high temperature. This did, however, not reflect...

  5. Bounding analysis of containment of high pressure melt ejection in advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Additon, S.L.; Fontana, M.H.; Carter, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the loadings on containment due to direct containment heating (DCH) as a result of high pressure melt ejection (HPME) in advanced light water reactors (ALWR) which were estimated using conservative, bounding analyses. The purpose of the analyses was to scope the magnitude of the possible loadings and to indicate the performance needed from potential mitigation methods, such as a cavity configuration that limits energy transfer to the upper containment volume. Analyses were performed for three cases which examined the effect of availability of high pressure reactor coolant system water at the time of reactor vessel melt through and the effect of preflooding of the reactor cavity. The amount of core ejected from the vessel was varied from 100% to 0% for all cases. Results indicate that all amounts of core debris dispersal could be accommodated by the containment for the case where the reactor cavity was preflooded. For the worst case, all the energy from in-vessel hydrogen generation and combustion plus that from 45% of the entire molten core would be required to equilibrate with the containment upper volume in order to reach containment failure pressure

  6. Temperature simulation of thermal plasma melting furnace for disposal of radioactive waste and preliminary research of vitrification formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Peng; Lu Yonghong; Xiang Wenyuan; Chen Mingzhou; Liu Xiajie; Qin Yuxin

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste treatment techniques currently used in nuclear power plant increase the volume greatly and bring much pressure on final disposal; Thermal plasma treatment as a crucial technique to reduce the waste volume is introduced. How to improve the efficiency of the plasma energy is the limiting factor of concern. In this paper, the temperature field of thermal plasma melting furnace is simulated, the maximal temperature of fixed bed melting furnace is calculated (about 1445 ℃). According to the optional fire-resistant materials, the feasibility of furnace fabrication is discussed. Vitrification formulas for three typical radioactive wastes are tested with their feasibilities being analyzed then. Finally, the prospect of thermal plasma techniques of radioactive waste is discussed, and issues for future study are raised. (authors)

  7. Two-temperature hydrodynamic expansion and coupling of strong elastic shock with supersonic melting front produced by ultrashort laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inogamov, Nail A; Khokhlov, Viktor A; Zhakhovsky, Vasily V; Khishchenko, Konstantin V; Demaske, Brian J; Oleynik, Ivan I

    2014-01-01

    Ultrafast processes, including nonmonotonic expansion of material into vacuum, supersonic melting and generation of super-elastic shock wave, in a surface layer of metal irradiated by an ultrashort laser pulse are discussed. In addition to the well-established two-temperature (2T) evolution of heated layer a new effect of electron pressure gradient on early stage of material expansion is studied. It is shown that the expanding material experiences an unexpected jump in flow velocity in a place where stress exceeds the effective tensile strength provided by used EoS of material. Another 2T effect is that supersonic propagation of homogeneous melting front results in distortion of spatial profile of ion temperature, which later imprints on ion pressure profile transforming in a super-elastic shock wave with time.

  8. Temperature Dependence of Electrical Resistance of Woven Melt-Infiltrated SiCf/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Matthew P.; Morscher, Gregory N.; Zhu, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have successfully shown the use of electrical resistance (ER)measurements to monitor room temperature damage accumulation in SiC fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites (SiCf/SiC) Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs). In order to determine the feasibility of resistance monitoring at elevated temperatures, the present work investigates the temperature dependent electrical response of various MI (Melt Infiltrated)-CVI (Chemical Vapor Infiltrated) SiC/SiC composites containing Hi-Nicalon Type S, Tyranno ZMI and SA reinforcing fibers. Test were conducted using a commercially available isothermal testing apparatus as well as a novel, laser-based heating approach developed to more accurately simulate thermomechanical testing of CMCs. Secondly, a post-test inspection technique is demonstrated to show the effect of high-temperature exposure on electrical properties. Analysis was performed to determine the respective contribution of the fiber and matrix to the overall composite conductivity at elevated temperatures. It was concluded that because the silicon-rich matrix material dominates the electrical response at high temperature, ER monitoring would continue to be a feasible method for monitoring stress dependent matrix cracking of melt-infiltrated SiC/SiC composites under high temperature mechanical testing conditions. Finally, the effect of thermal gradients generated during localized heating of tensile coupons on overall electrical response of the composite is determined.

  9. Efficacy of sanitized ice in reducing bacterial load on fish fillet and in the water collected from the melted ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Lizanel; Lee, Jaesung; Lopes, John A; Pascall, Melvin A

    2010-05-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of sanitized ice for the reduction of bacteria in the water collected from the ice that melted during storage of whole and filleted Tilapia fish. Also, bacterial reductions on the fish fillets were investigated. The sanitized ice was prepared by freezing solutions of PRO-SAN (an organic acid formulation) and neutral electrolyzed water (NEW). For the whole fish study, the survival of the natural microflora was determined from the water of the melted ice prepared with PRO-SAN and tap water. These water samples were collected during an 8 h storage period. For the fish fillet study, samples were inoculated with Escherichia coli K12, Listeria innocua, and Pseudomonas putida then stored on crushed sanitized ice. The efficacies of these were tested by enumerating each bacterial species on the fish fillet and in the water samples at 12 and 24 h intervals for 72 h, respectively. Results showed that each bacterial population was reduced during the test. However, a bacterial reduction of fillet samples. A maximum of approximately 2 log CFU and > 3 log CFU reductions were obtained in the waters sampled after the storage of whole fish and the fillets, respectively. These reductions were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the water from sanitized ice when compared with the water from the unsanitized melted ice. These results showed that the organic acid formulation and NEW considerably reduced the bacterial numbers in the melted ice and thus reduced the potential for cross-contamination.

  10. High-temperature vacant lattice site formation in solids and free volumes in melts studied by positron lifetime measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, H.-E.

    1991-05-01

    In the present paper a concise review is given of the application of positron lifetime measurements to the study of high-temperature vacancies in intermetallic compounds (F 76.3Al 23.7), in metal oxides (NiO), in elemental semiconductors (Si, Ge), and of the oxygen loss or uptake in YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ. Investigations of free volumes in elemental melts (Al, In, Ge) are included.

  11. High-temperature vacant lattice site formation in solids and free volumes in melts studied by positron lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.E.

    1991-01-01

    In the present paper a concise review is given of the application of positron lifetime measurements to the study of high-temperature vacancies in intermetallic compounds (F 76.3 Al 23.7 ), in metal oxides (NiO), in elemntal semiconductors (Si, Ge), and of the oxygen loss or uptake in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ . Investigations of free volumes in elemental melts (Al, In, Ge) are included. (orig.)

  12. Deducing Water Concentrations in the Parent Magma of Cumulate Clinopyroxene and Olivine: Implications for a Hydrous Parent Melt of a Primitive Deccan Lava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Water concentrations of clinopyroxene megacrysts in the Powai ankaramite flow, located near Mumbai, Deccan province, India, indicate that the parent magma of the flow hosted at least 4.3 wt.% water, an unusually high water concentration for a continental flood basalt magma. The Powai flow hosts clinopyroxene and olivine phenocrysts. Chatterjee and Sheth (2015) showed that phenocrysts in the flow were part of a cumulate layer intruded by basaltic melt at 6 kb and 1230oC, so the phenocrysts record characteristics of the cumulate parent melt. Clinopyroxene phenocrysts are oscillatorily zoned in water, Mg, Fe, and Ca concentrations, and have concentric bands 100-200 microns thick of 10-20 micron diameter melt inclusions. Olivine phenocrysts host only larger isolated melt inclusions. Zones in the cpx phenocrysts where melt inclusion-rich concentric bands occur have higher concentrations of water than inclusion-free zones. Water concentrations of cpx were used to calculate water concentrations in the melt from which the crystals formed using partition coefficients of Hauri et al. (2004). Water concentrations in the parent magma were between 4.3 and 8.2 wt. % based on water concentrations in cpx. Both Mg and Fe are relatively depleted in the water- and melt inclusion-rich zones in cpx, and Ca is enriched in these zones. Oscillatory zoning in cpx may be a result of repeated growth of cpx in water- richer and water-poorer boundary layers where water lowered melt viscosity and enhanced diffusion and crystal growth rates. Water-enhanced growth rates may have resulted in capture of melt inclusions preserved in water-rich cpx zones. Melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts preserve lower water concentrations ( 1.2 wt. %) than those indicated by water concentration in cpx phenocrysts. This disparity may be evidence of water loss from melt inclusions in olivine (Gaetani et al., 2009) or may indicate that cpx and ol crystals did not crystallize from the same parent at the same time.

  13. Disorder effect on heat capacity, self-diffusion coefficient, and choosing best potential model for melting temperature, in gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster with 55 atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taherkhani, Farid; Akbarzadeh, Hamed; Feyzi, Mostafa; Rafiee, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation has been implemented for doping effect on melting temperature, heat capacity, self-diffusion coefficient of gold–copper bimetallic nanostructure with 55 total gold and copper atom numbers and its bulk alloy. Trend of melting temperature for gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster is not same as melting temperature copper–gold bulk alloy. Molecular dynamics simulation of our result regarding bulk melting temperature is consistence with available experimental data. Molecular dynamics simulation shows that melting temperature of gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster increases with copper atom fraction. Semi-empirical potential model and quantum Sutton–Chen potential models do not change melting temperature trend with copper doping of gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster. Self-diffusion coefficient of copper atom is greater than gold atom in gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster. Semi-empirical potential within the tight-binding second moment approximation as new application potential model for melting temperature of gold–copper bulk structure shows better result in comparison with EAM, Sutton–Chen potential, and quantum Sutton–Chen potential models

  14. Disorder effect on heat capacity, self-diffusion coefficient, and choosing best potential model for melting temperature, in gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster with 55 atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taherkhani, Farid, E-mail: faridtaherkhani@gmail.com, E-mail: f.taherkhani@razi.ac.ir [Razi University, Department of Physical Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akbarzadeh, Hamed [Hakim Sabzevari University, Department of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Feyzi, Mostafa; Rafiee, Hamid Reza [Razi University, Department of Physical Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Molecular dynamics simulation has been implemented for doping effect on melting temperature, heat capacity, self-diffusion coefficient of gold–copper bimetallic nanostructure with 55 total gold and copper atom numbers and its bulk alloy. Trend of melting temperature for gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster is not same as melting temperature copper–gold bulk alloy. Molecular dynamics simulation of our result regarding bulk melting temperature is consistence with available experimental data. Molecular dynamics simulation shows that melting temperature of gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster increases with copper atom fraction. Semi-empirical potential model and quantum Sutton–Chen potential models do not change melting temperature trend with copper doping of gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster. Self-diffusion coefficient of copper atom is greater than gold atom in gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster. Semi-empirical potential within the tight-binding second moment approximation as new application potential model for melting temperature of gold–copper bulk structure shows better result in comparison with EAM, Sutton–Chen potential, and quantum Sutton–Chen potential models.

  15. External cooling: The SWR 1000 severe accident management strategy. Part 1: motivation, strategy, analysis: melt phase, vessel integrity during melt-water interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides the description of the basics behind design features for the severe accident management strategy of the SWR 1000. The hydrogen detonation/deflagration problem is avoided by containment inertization. In-vessel retention of molten core debris via water cooling of the external surface of the reactor vessel is the severe accident management concept of the SWR 1000 passive plant. During postulated bounding severe accidents, the accident management strategy is to flood the reactor cavity with Core Flooding Pool water and to submerge the reactor vessel, thus preventing vessel failure in the SWR 1000. Considerable safety margins have determined by using state of the art experiment and analysis: regarding (a) strength of the vessel during the melt relocation and its interaction with water; (b) the heat flux at the external vessel wall; (c) the structural resistance of the hot structures during the long term period. Ex-vessel events are prevented by preserving the integrity of the vessel and its penetrations and by assuring positive external pressure at the predominant part of the external vessel in the region of the molten corium pool. Part 1 describes the motivation for selecting this strategy, the general description of the strategy and the part of the analysis associated with the vessel integrity during the melt-water interaction. (author)

  16. Kinetics and mechanisms of iron redox reactions in silicate melts: The effects of temperature and alkali cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnien, V.; Pinet, O. [CEA VALRHO, SCDV/LEBV, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze, (France); Magnien, V.; Neuville, D. R.; Roux, J.; Richet, P. [IPGP, CNRS, Physique des Mineraux et Magmas, F-75252 Paris 05, (France); Cormier, L. [Univ Paris 06, IMPMC, F-75015 Paris, (France); Hazemann, J. L. [CNRS, Inst Neel, F-38043 Grenoble, (France); De Ligny, D. [Univ Lyon 1, LMLC, CNRS, UMR 5620, F-69622 Villeurbanne, (France); Pascarelli, S. [European Synchrotron Radiat Facil, F-38043 Grenoble, (France); Vickridge, I. [Univ Paris 06, INSP, F-75015 Paris, (France)

    2008-07-01

    The kinetics and the mechanisms of iron redox reactions in molten Fe-bearing pyroxene compositions have been investigated by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) experiments at the iron K-edge. The former experiments have been made only near the glass transition whereas the latter have also been performed from about 1300 to 2100 K. The same kinetics are observed with both techniques. They are described by characteristic times that depend primarily on temperature and not on the initial redox state. At high temperatures, where both kinds of reactions could be investigated, these times are similar for oxidation and reduction. From these characteristic times we have calculated as a function of temperature and composition a parameter termed effective redox diffusivity. For a given melt, the diffusivities follow two distinct Arrhenius laws, which indicate that the mechanisms of the redox reaction are not the same near the glass transition and at high temperatures. As is now well established, diffusion of divalent cations is the dominant mechanism at low temperatures but the enhanced kinetics observed for alkali-bearing melts indicate that Li{sup +} and Na{sup +} also participate in ionic transport. At super-liquidus temperatures, in contrast, diffusion of oxygen represents the dominant mechanism. (authors)

  17. Water temperature impacts water consumption by range cattle in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water consumption and DMI have been found to be positively correlated, which may interact with ingestion of cold water or grazed frozen forage due to transitory reductions in temperature of ruminal contents. The hypothesis underpinning the study explores the potential that cows provided warm drinkin...

  18. On the yield of cold and ultracold neutrons for liquid hydrogen at low temperatures near the melting point

    CERN Document Server

    Morishima, N

    1999-01-01

    The neutron scattering cross sections for liquid hydrogen in the temperature range from the melting point to the boiling point are calculated. It is shown that lowering the temperature results in a significant increase in the yield of cold neutrons: for instance, a 44% increase for an incident neutron energy of 19.4 meV. The major cause of this increment is the para-to-ortho transition of a hydrogen molecule though accompanied by an appreciable increase in the density. The results of the cold- and ultracold-neutron yields are discussed in connection with the experimental results of Altarev et al. at the WWR-M reactor.

  19. Study on technology for manufacturing alloy (lead-tin-bismuth-cadmium) having low melting temperature (≤ 80 deg C) used to shield radioactive rays for treating cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo Xuan Hung; Pham Duc Thai; Nguyen The Khanh; Vu Quang Chat; Nguyen Huu Quyet

    2007-01-01

    Up to now, hospitals in Vietnam have mostly imported radioactive equipments from America, German, France, England to treat cancer. Accompany with those equipments, alloy, namely Cyroben having low melting temperature (≤ 80 o C) is used to cover patients good tissues in order to protect them against harmful rays and help radioactive rays get through the cast hole to kill cancer cells. This project is carried out for determining chemical compositions and melting temperatures of researched alloy to create alloy having low melting temperature (≤ 80 o C) to meet demand for treating cancer in Vietnam. (author)

  20. Sequence diversity within the HA-1 gene as detected by melting temperature assay without oligonucleotide probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattiuz Pier

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The minor histocompatibility antigens (mHags are self-peptides derived from common cellular proteins and presented by MHC class I and II molecules. Disparities in mHags are a potential risk for the development of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD in the recipients of bone marrow from HLA-identical donors. Two alleles have been identified in the mHag HA-1. The correlation between mismatches of the mHag HA-1 and GvHD has been suggested and methods to facilitate large-scale testing were afterwards developed. Methods We used sequence specific primer (SSP PCR and direct sequencing to detect HA-1 gene polymorphisms in a sample of 131 unrelated Italian subjects. We then set up a novel melting temperature (Tm assay that may help identification of HA-1 alleles without oligonucleotide probes. Results We report the frequencies of HA-1 alleles in the Italian population and the presence of an intronic 5 base-pair deletion associated with the immunogeneic allele HA-1H. We also detected novel variable sites with respect to the consensus sequence of HA-1 locus. Even though recombination/gene conversion events are documented, there is considerable linkage disequilibrium in the data. The gametic associations between HA-1R/H alleles and the intronic 5-bp ins/del polymorphism prompted us to try the Tm analysis with SYBR® Green I. We show that the addition of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO during the assay yields distinct patterns when amplicons from HA-1H homozygotes, HA-1R homozygotes, and heterozygotes are analysed. Conclusion The possibility to use SYBR® Green I to detect Tm differences between allelic variants is attractive but requires great caution. We succeeded in allele discrimination of the HA-1 locus using a relatively short (101 bp amplicon, only in the presence of DMSO. We believe that, at least in certain assets, Tm assays may benefit by the addition of DMSO or other agents affecting DNA strand conformation and stability.

  1. How do the radiative effects of springtime clouds and water vapor modulate the melt onset of Arctic sea ice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Dong, X.; Xi, B.; Deng, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Earlier studies show that there is a strong positive correlation between the mean onset date of snow melt north of 70°N and the minimum Arctic sea ice extent (SIE) in September. Based on satellite records from 1980 to 2016, the September Arctic SIE minimum is most sensitive to the early melt onset over the Siberian Sea (73°-84°N, 90°-155°), which is defined as the area of focus (AOF) in this analysis. The day with melt onset exceeding 10% area of the AOF is marked as the initial melt date for a given year. With this definition, a strong positive correlation (r=0.59 at 99% confidence level) is found between the initial melt date over the AOF and the September SIE minimum over the Arctic. Daily anomalies of cloud and radiation properties are compared between six years with earliest initial melt dates (1990, 2012, 2007, 2003, 1991, 2016) and six years with latest initial melt dates (1996, 1984, 1983, 1982, 1987, 1992) using the NASA MERRA-2 reanalysis. Our results suggest that higher cloud water path (CWP) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) are clearly associated with early melt onset years through the period of mid-March to August. Major contrasts in CWP are found between the early and late onset years in a period of approximately 30 days prior to the onset to 30 days after the onset. As a result, the early melt onset years exhibit positive anomalies for downward longwave flux at the surface and negative anomalies for downward shortwave flux, shortwave cloud radiative effect (CRE) as well as net CRE. The negative net CRE is over-compensated by the positive longwave flux anomaly associated with elevated PWV, contributing to early melt onsets. The temporal evolution of CRE and PWV radiative effect during the entire melting season will be documented together with an analysis tracing the dynamical, mid-latitude origins of increased CWP and PWV prior to initial melt onsets.

  2. Pressure melting and ice skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbeck, S. C.

    1995-10-01

    Pressure melting cannot be responsible for the low friction of ice. The pressure needed to reach the melting temperature is above the compressive failure stress and, if it did occur, high squeeze losses would result in very thin films. Pure liquid water cannot coexist with ice much below -20 °C at any pressure and friction does not increase suddenly in that range. If frictional heating and pressure melting contribute equally, the length of the wetted contact could not exceed 15 μm at a speed of 5 m/s, which seems much too short. If pressure melting is the dominant process, the water films are less than 0.08 μm thick because of the high pressures.

  3. Quantifying present and future glacier melt-water contribution to runoff in a central Himalayan river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prasch

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Water supply of most lowland cultures heavily depends on rain and melt water from the upstream mountains. Especially melt-water release of alpine mountain ranges is usually attributed a pivotal role for the water supply of large downstream regions. Water scarcity is assumed as consequence of glacier shrinkage and possible disappearance due to global climate change (GCC, in particular for large parts of Central and Southeast Asia. In this paper, the application and validation of a coupled modeling approach with regional climate model (RCM outputs and a process-oriented glacier and hydrological model is presented for the central Himalayan Lhasa River basin despite scarce data availability. Current and possible future contributions of ice melt to runoff along the river network are spatially explicitly shown. Its role among the other water balance components is presented. Although glaciers have retreated and will continue to retreat according to the chosen climate scenarios, water availability is and will be primarily determined by monsoon precipitation and snowmelt. Ice melt from glaciers is and will be a minor runoff component in summer monsoon-dominated Himalayan river basins.

  4. Regions of open water and melting sea ice drive new particle formation in North East Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall Osto, M; Geels, C; Beddows, D C S; Boertmann, D; Lange, R; Nøjgaard, J K; Harrison, Roy M; Simo, R; Skov, H; Massling, A

    2018-04-17

    Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) and growth significantly influences the indirect aerosol-cloud effect within the polar climate system. In this work, the aerosol population is categorised via cluster analysis of aerosol number size distributions (9-915 nm, 65 bins) taken at Villum Research Station, Station Nord (VRS) in North Greenland during a 7 year record (2010-2016). Data are clustered at daily averaged resolution; in total, we classified six categories, five of which clearly describe the ultrafine aerosol population, one of which is linked to nucleation events (up to 39% during summer). Air mass trajectory analyses tie these frequent nucleation events to biogenic precursors released by open water and melting sea ice regions. NPF events in the studied regions seem not to be related to bird colonies from coastal zones. Our results show a negative correlation (r = -0.89) between NPF events and sea ice extent, suggesting the impact of ultrafine Arctic aerosols is likely to increase in the future, given the likely increased sea ice melting. Understanding the composition and the sources of Arctic aerosols requires further integrated studies with joint multi-component ocean-atmosphere observation and modelling.

  5. Revisiting the melting temperature of NpO2 and the challenges associated with high temperature actinide compound measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böhler, R.; Welland, M.J.; De Bruycker, F.; Boboridis, K.; Janssen, A.; Eloirdi, R.; Konings, R.J.M.; Manara, D.

    2012-01-01

    This work revisits the melting behaviour of neptunium dioxide, an actinide compound which can be produced in the nuclear fuel during operation, and which has an important impact on the nuclear fuel and waste radioactivity especially on the very long term. The present experimental approach employs

  6. Influence of postdrawing temperature on mechanical properties of melt-spun isotactic polypropylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schimanski, T.; Peijs, A.A.J.M.; Lemstra, P.J.; Loos, J.

    2004-01-01

    Mech. properties of melt-spun and postdrawn isotactic polypropylene (iPP) are studied to examine the dependence on the temp. in the postdrawing stage. In accordance with the literature, the Young's modulus is uniquely detd. by the applied draw ratio. However, we found that the overall mech. behavior

  7. Effect of coolant velocity on the fragmentation of single melt drops in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, M.H.; Frost, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    Flash X-ray radiography and high-speed photography are used to investigate the effect of the coolant velocity on the fine fragmentation of molten tin drops in water. A water cannot is used to accelerate the water to a constant speed of up to 30 m/s. The water is accelerated with a double piston arrangement including a foam shock absorber to eliminate the formation of a shock wave. In this way, the effect of coolant velocity on drop breakup is investigated in the absence of the strong shock wave that is present in most earlier studies. The results show that there is a transition from thermal to hydrodynamic fragmentation through an intermediate stage in which the drops initially undergo hydrodynamic fragmentation followed by the formation of a vapour bubble. For low velocities (9 m/s) this bubble collapses, fragmenting the remainder of the drop while at greater velocities (15 m/s) the drop breaks up within the bubble before it condenses. At 22 and 28 m/s there is no vapour formation and the drop fragments due to hydrodynamic effects. Quantitative analysis of the radiographs is used to determine the mass distribution of the melt during the drop fragmentation. Comparison with earlier work in which the ambient flow is preceded by a strong shock wave indicates that the transition from thermal to hydrodynamic breakup is strongly dependent on the characteristics of the pressure field experienced by the drop. (author)

  8. Melting Metal on a Playing Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Many of us are familiar with the demonstration of boiling water in a paper cup held over a candle or a Bunsen burner; the ignition temperature of paper is above the temperature of 100°C at which water boils under standard conditions. A more dramatic demonstration is melting tin held in a playing card. This illustration is from Tissandier's book on…

  9. Spray forming: A numerical investigation of the influence of the gas to melt ratio on the billet surface temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini; Hattel, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    atomisation taking thermal coupling into consideration and the deposition of material at the surface of the billet taking geometrical aspects such as shading into account. The coupling between these two models is accomplished by ensuring that the total droplet size distribution of the spray is the summation......The relationship between the Gas to Melt Ratio (GMR) and the surface temperature of an evolving billet surface in spray forming is investigated numerically. The basis for the analysis is an integrated approach for modelling the entire spray forming process. This model includes the droplet...... of "local" droplet size distributions along the r-axis of the spray cone. The criterion for a successful process has been a predefined process window characterised by a desired fraction solid range at a certain distance from the atomizer. Inside this process window, the gas and melt flows have been varied...

  10. Advanced temperature measurement system for the US glass industry melt tanks and delivery system. Phase 1 [final] report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    Improved temperature measurement in the melting and delivery systems of the glass making process will aid in energy conservation. The ``Needs Analysis`` survey found the greatest problem was the inability to identify in situ decalibration (drift). Phase I objectives are: a more rugged reliable sensor; high quality inner protective sheath; improved data transmission hardened to the melt tank environs; a system that reduces or eliminates drift; and an improved outer protection sheath. Results show that 4 of the 5 problem areas have been resolved; with the help of the Univ. of Missouri-Rolla`s materials group, the fifth may be solvable. The major identified problem, the inability to identify in-situ drift has been solved.

  11. Holocene evolution of a drowned melt-water valley in the Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørn Bjarke Torp; Svinth, Steffen; Bartholdy, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Cores from the salt marshes along the drowned melt-water valley of river Varde Å in the Danish Wadden Sea have been dated and analysed (litho- and biostratigraphically) to reconstruct the Holocene geomorphologic evolution and relative sea level history of the area. The analysed cores cover...... the total post-glacial transgression, and the reconstructed sea level curve represents the first unbroken curve of this kind from the Danish Wadden Sea, including all phases from the time where sea level first reached the Pleistocene substrate of the area. The sea level has been rising from - 12 m below...... the present level at c. 8400 cal yr BP, interrupted by two minor drops of sea level rise, and the Holocene sequence consists in most places of clay atop...

  12. Sorption activity investigation of ultrafine powders of high temperature melting point compounds in atmospheric pressure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudneva, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    A study is made in saturation with gas in the air for ultradispersed chromium carbonitride and boride powders synthesized in a nitrogen plasma jet according to three variants: from elements, from oxides, from chromium trichloride. It is established that in the air on temperature increasing the powders adsorb considerable amounts of oxygen and water vapor. This results in surface oxidation of powder particles and a loss in specific combination of properties. Preliminary vacuum heat treatment is shown to decrease sharply the rate of atmospheric gas adsorption. The quantity of adsorbed gases is dependent on a carbon monoxide concentration in a particle surface layer and the availability of adsorption centers. The number of such centers in the layer can be controlled by vacuum heat treatment conditions. The interaction of the powders with atmospheric gases is concluded to be of adsorption-diffusion nature [ru

  13. Melting of Dense Sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoryanz, Eugene; Degtyareva, Olga; Hemley, Russell J.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Somayazulu, Maddury

    2005-01-01

    High-pressure high-temperature synchrotron diffraction measurements reveal a maximum on the melting curve of Na in the bcc phase at ∼31 GPa and 1000 K and a steep decrease in melting temperature in its fcc phase. The results extend the melting curve by an order of magnitude up to 130 GPa. Above 103 GPa, Na crystallizes in a sequence of phases with complex structures with unusually low melting temperatures, reaching 300 K at 118 GPa, and an increased melting temperature is observed with further increases in pressure

  14. Identify the dominant variables to predict stream water temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, H.; Flagler, J.

    2016-12-01

    Stream water temperature is a critical variable controlling water quality and the health of aquatic ecosystems. Accurate prediction of water temperature and the assessment of the impacts of environmental variables on water temperature variation are critical for water resources management, particularly in the context of water quality and aquatic ecosystem sustainability. The objective of this study is to measure stream water temperature and air temperature and to examine the importance of streamflow on stream water temperature prediction. The measured stream water temperature and air temperature will be used to test two hypotheses: 1) streamflow is a relatively more important factor than air temperature in regulating water temperature, and 2) by combining air temperature and streamflow data stream water temperature can be more accurately estimated. Water and air temperature data loggers are placed at two USGS stream gauge stations #01362357and #01362370, located in the upper Esopus Creek watershed in Phonecia, NY. The ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average) time series model is used to analyze the measured water temperature data, identify the dominant environmental variables, and predict the water temperature with identified dominant variable. The preliminary results show that streamflow is not a significant variable in predicting stream water temperature at both USGS gauge stations. Daily mean air temperature is sufficient to predict stream water temperature at this site scale.

  15. Late Noachian Icy Highlands climate model: Exploring the possibility of transient melting and fluvial/lacustrine activity through peak annual and seasonal temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Ashley M.; Head, James W.; Wordsworth, Robin D.

    2018-01-01

    The nature of the Late Noachian climate of Mars remains one of the outstanding questions in the study of the evolution of martian geology and climate. Despite abundant evidence for flowing water (valley networks and open/closed basin lakes), climate models have had difficulties reproducing mean annual surface temperatures (MAT) > 273 K in order to generate the ;warm and wet; climate conditions presumed to be necessary to explain the observed fluvial and lacustrine features. Here, we consider a ;cold and icy; climate scenario, characterized by MAT ∼225 K and snow and ice distributed in the southern highlands, and ask: Does the formation of the fluvial and lacustrine features require continuous ;warm and wet; conditions, or could seasonal temperature variation in a ;cold and icy; climate produce sufficient summertime ice melting and surface runoff to account for the observed features? To address this question, we employ the 3D Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique global climate model (LMD GCM) for early Mars and (1) analyze peak annual temperature (PAT) maps to determine where on Mars temperatures exceed freezing in the summer season, (2) produce temperature time series at three valley network systems and compare the duration of the time during which temperatures exceed freezing with seasonal temperature variations in the Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) where similar fluvial and lacustrine features are observed, and (3) perform a positive-degree-day analysis to determine the annual volume of meltwater produced through this mechanism, estimate the necessary duration that this process must repeat to produce sufficient meltwater for valley network formation, and estimate whether runoff rates predicted by this mechanism are comparable to those required to form the observed geomorphology of the valley networks. When considering an ambient CO2 atmosphere, characterized by MAT ∼225 K, we find that: (1) PAT can exceed the melting point of water (>273 K) in

  16. High water contents in basaltic melt inclusions from Arenal volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, J. A.; Plank, T.; Hauri, E. H.; Melson, W. G.; Soto, G. J.

    2004-12-01

    Despite the importance of water to arc magma genesis, fractionation and eruption, few quantitative constraints exist on the water content of Arenal magmas. Early estimates, by electron microprobe sum deficit, suggested up to 4 wt% H2O in olivine-hosted basaltic andesite melt inclusions (MI) from pre-historic ET-6 tephra (Melson, 1982), and up to 7 wt% H2O in plagioclase and orthopyroxene-hosted dacitic MI from 1968 lapilli (Anderson, 1979). These high water contents are consistent with abundant hornblende phenocrysts in Arenal volcanics, but inconsistent with geochemical tracers such as 10Be and Ba/La that suggest a low flux of recycled material (and presumably water) from the subduction zone. In order to test these ideas, and provide the first direct measurements of water in mafic Arenal magmas, we have studied olivine-hosted MI from the prehistoric (900 yBP; Soto et al., 1998) ET3 tephra layer. MI range from andesitic (> 58% SiO2) to basaltic compositions ( 4 wt%) found here for Arenal basaltic MI support the semi-quantitative data from earlier studies, but are somewhat unexpected given predictions from slab tracers. Arenal water contents (4%) approach those of the 1995 eruption of Cerro Negro in Nicaragua (4-5 wt% in basaltic MI; Roggensack et al., 1997), despite the fact that the latter has Ba/La of > 100, while Arenal has Ba/La Journal of Geology; Melson, William G. (1982) Boletin de Volcanologia; Roggensack et al. (1997) Science; Soto et al. (1998) OSIVAM; Williams-Jones et al. (2001) Journal of Volc. and Geoth. Res.

  17. The calcium fluoride effect on properties of cryolite melts feasible for low-temperature production of aluminum and its alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkacheva, O.; Dedyukhin, A.; Redkin, A.; Zaikov, Yu.

    2017-07-01

    The CaF2 effect on the liquidus temperature, electrical conductivity and alumina solubility in the potassium-sodium and potassium-lithium cryolite melts with cryolite ratio (CR = (nKF+nMF)/nAlF3, M = Li, Na) 1.3 was studied. The liquidus temperature in the quisi-binary system [KF-LiF-AlF3]-CaF2 changes with the same manner as in the [KF-NaF-AlF3]-CaF2. The electrical conductivity in the KF-NaF-AlF3-CaF2 melt decreases with increasing the CaF2 content, but it slightly raises with the first small addition of CaF2 into the KF-LiF-AlF3-CaF2 melts, enriched with KF, which was explained by the increased K+ ions mobility due to their relatively low ionic potential. The contribution of the Li+ cations in conductivity of the KF-LiF-AlF3-CaF2 electrolyte is not noteworthy. The Al2O3 solubility in the KF-NaF-AlF3 electrolyte rises with the increasing KF content, but the opposite tendency is observed in the cryolite mixtures containing CaF2. The insoluble compounds - KCaAl2F9 or KCaF3 - formed in the molten mixtures containing potassium and calcium ions endorse the increase of the liquidus temperature. The calcium fluoride effect on the side ledge formation in the electrolytic cell during low-temperature aluminum electrolysis is discussed.

  18. A New Method of Constructing a Drug-Polymer Temperature-Composition Phase Diagram Using Hot-Melt Extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yiwei; Jones, David S; Donnelly, Conor; Brannigan, Timothy; Li, Shu; Andrews, Gavin P

    2018-04-02

    Current experimental methodologies used to determine the thermodynamic solubility of an API within a polymer typically involves establishing the dissolution/melting end point of the crystalline API within a physical mixture or through the use of the glass transition temperature measurement of a demixed amorphous solid dispersion. The measurable "equilibrium" points for solubility are normally well above the glass transition temperature of the system, meaning extrapolation is required to predict the drug solubility at pharmaceutically relevant temperatures. In this manuscript, we argue that the presence of highly viscous polymers in these systems results in experimental data that exhibits an under or overestimated value relative to the true thermodynamic solubility. In previous work, we demonstrated the effects of experimental conditions and their impact on measured and predicted thermodynamic solubility points. In light of current understanding, we have developed a new method to limit error associated with viscosity effects for application in small-scale hot-melt extrusion (HME). In this study, HME was used to generate an intermediate (multiphase) system containing crystalline drug, amorphous drug/polymer-rich regions as well as drug that was molecularly dispersed in polymer. An extended annealing method was used together with high-speed differential scanning calorimetry to accurately determine the upper and lower boundaries of the thermodynamic solubility of a model drug-polymer system (felodipine and Soluplus). Compared to our previously published data, the current results confirmed our hypothesis that the prediction of the liquid-solid curve using dynamic determination of dissolution/melting end point of the crystalline API physical mixture presents an underestimation relative to the thermodynamic solubility point. With this proposed method, we were able to experimentally measure the upper and lower boundaries of the liquid-solid curve for the model system. The

  19. Shock compression behavior of bi-material powder composites with disparate melting temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, Kyle T.; Swift, Damian; Barham, Matthew; Stölken, James; Kuntz, Joshua; Kumar, Mukul

    2014-01-01

    Laser driven experiments were used to investigate the shock compression behavior of powder processed Bismuth/Tungsten (Bi/W) composite samples. The constituents provide different functionality to the composite behavior as Bi could be shock melted at the pressures attained in this work, while the W could not. Samples were prepared by uniaxial pressing, and the relative density was measured as a function of particle size, applied pressure, and composition for both hot and cold pressing conditions. This resulted in sample densities between 73% and 99% of the theoretical maximum density, and also noticeable differences in microstructure in the hot and cold pressed samples. The compression waves were generated with a 1.3 × 1.3 mm square spot directly onto the surface of the sample, using irradiances between 10 12 and 10 13  W/cm 2 , which resulted in calculated peak pressures between 50 and 150 GPa within a few micrometers. Sample recovery and post-mortem analysis revealed the formation of a crater on the laser drive surface, and the depth of this crater corresponded to the depth to which the Bi had been melted. The melt depth was found to be primarily a function of residual porosity and composition, and ranged from 167 to 528 μm. In general, a higher porosity led to a larger melt depth. Direct numerical simulations were performed, and indicated that the observed increase in melt depth for low-porosity samples could be largely attributed to increased heating associated with work done for pore collapse. However, the relative scaling was sensitive to composition, with low volume fraction Bi samples exhibiting a much stronger dependence on porosity than high Bi content samples. Select samples were repeated using an Al foil ablator, but there were no noticeable differences ensuring that the observed melting was indeed pressure-driven and was not a result of direct laser heating. The resultant microstructures and damage near the spall surface were also investigated

  20. Non-linear effects of initial melt temperatures on microstructures and mechanical properties during quenching process of liquid Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 54} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Yun-Fei [School of Physics and Microelectronics Science, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Liu, Rang-Su, E-mail: liurangsu@sina.com [School of Physics and Microelectronics Science, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Tian, Ze-An; Liang, Yong-Chao [School of Physics and Microelectronics Science, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Zhang, Hai-Tao [School of Physics and Microelectronics Science, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Department of Electronic and Communication Engineering, Changsha University, Changsha 410003 (China); Hou, Zhao-Yang [Department of Applied Physics, Chang’an University, Xi’an 710064 (China); Liu, Hai-Rong [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Ai-long [College of Physics and Electronics, Hunan University of Arts and Science, Changde 415000 (China); Zhou, Li-Li [Department of Information Engineering, Gannan Medical University, Ganzhou 341000 (China); Peng, Ping [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Xie, Zhong [School of Physics and Microelectronics Science, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China)

    2015-05-15

    A MD simulation of liquid Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 54} alloys has been performed for understanding the effects of initial melt temperatures on the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties during quenching process. By using several microstructural analyzing methods, it is found that the icosahedral and defective icosahedral clusters play a key role in the microstructure transition. All the final solidification structures obtained at different initial melt temperatures are of amorphous structures, and their structural and mechanical properties are non-linearly related to the initial melt temperatures, and fluctuated in a certain range. Especially, there exists a best initial melt temperature, from which the glass configuration possesses the highest packing density, the optimal elastic constants, and the smaller extent of structural softening under deforming.

  1. Temperature transient response measurement in flowing water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainbird, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    A specially developed procedure is described for determining the thermal transient response of thermocouples and other temperature transducers when totally immersed in flowing water. The high velocity heat transfer conditions associated with this facility enable thermocouple response times to be predicted in other fluids. These predictions can be confirmed by electrical analogue experiments. (author)

  2. Escherichia coli survival in waters: Temperature dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q10 mo...

  3. Transformation of irregular shaped silver nanostructures into nanoparticles by under water pulsed laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadavali, S.; Sandireddy, V. P.; Kalyanaraman, R.

    2016-05-01

    The ability to easily manufacture nanostructures with a desirable attribute, such as well-defined size and shape, especially from any given initial shapes or sizes of the material, will be helpful towards accelerating the use of nanomaterials in various applications. In this work we report the transformation of discontinuous irregular nanostructures (DIN) of silver metal by rapid heating under a bulk fluid layer. Ag films were changed into DIN by dewetting in air and subsequently heated by nanosecond laser pulses under water. Our findings show that the DIN first ripens into elongated structures and then breaks up into nanoparticles. From the dependence of this behavior on laser fluence we found that under water irradiation reduced the rate of ripening and also decreased the characteristic break-up length scale of the elongated structures. This latter result was qualitatively interpreted as arising from a Rayleigh-Plateau instability modified to yield significantly smaller length scales than the classical process due to pressure gradients arising from the rapid evaporation of water during laser melting. These results demonstrate that it is possible to fabricate a dense collection of monomodally sized Ag nanoparticles with significantly enhanced plasmonic quality starting from the irregular shaped materials. This can be beneficial towards transforming discontinuous Ag films into nanostructures with useful plasmonic properties, that are relevant for biosensing applications.

  4. High-temperature corrosion of metals in the salt and metallic melts containing rare earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, V. V.; Abramov, A. V.; Zhilyakov, A. Yu.; Belikov, S. V.; Volkovich, V. A.; Polovov, I. B.; Rebrin, O. I.

    2016-09-01

    A complex of independent methods was employed to study the corrosion resistance of molybdenum, zirconium, tantalum and tungsten in chloride, chloride-fluoride and fluoride-oxide melts based on LiCl, CaCl2, NaCl- KCl, LiF, and containing rare earths. Tests were conducted for 30 h at 750-1050 °C. The metals showed excellent corrosion resistance in fused chlorides (the corrosion rates were below 0.0005 g/(m2 h). Despite the presence of chemically active fluoride ions in the chloride-fluoride melts, the metals studied also showed very low corrosion rates, except molybdenum, for which the rate of corrosion was 0,8 g/(m2 h). The corrosion resistance of tantalum was considerably reduced in the fluoride-oxide melts; the corrosion rate was over 1 g/(m2 h) corresponding to the 8-th grade of stability and placing tantalum to the group of "low stability" materials.

  5. Water solubility in monzogranite melts: experimental and calculated water contents at 6 kbar

    OpenAIRE

    García Moreno, Olga; Castro Dorado, Antonio; Corretgé, Luis Guillermo

    2002-01-01

    Several piston-cylinder crystallisation experiments have been performed with a synthetic monzogranitic glass with different initial water contents at 6 kbar. Comparison with calculated water contents shows: 1) some differences of the order of 10% of XH2Q; 2) "non-linear" behaviour in XH2C/T curves; and 3) similar pattern in the XH2JT curves in both measured and calculated data. Resumen Se han realizado varios experimentos de cristalización en aparatos "piston-cylinder" a 6 kbar, u...

  6. High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

  7. DEPENDENCY OF SULFATE SOLUBILITY ON MELT COMPOSITION AND MELT POLYMERIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JANTZEN, CAROL M.

    2004-01-01

    Sulfate and sulfate salts are not very soluble in borosilicate waste glass. When sulfate is present in excess it can form water soluble secondary phases and/or a molten salt layer (gall) on the melt pool surface which is purported to cause steam explosions in slurry fed melters. Therefore, sulfate can impact glass durability while formation of a molten salt layer on the melt pool can impact processing. Sulfate solubility has been shown to be compositionally dependent in various studies, (e.g. , B2O3, Li2O, CaO, MgO, Na2O, and Fe2O3 were shown to increase sulfate solubility while Al2O3 and SiO2 decreased sulfate solubility). This compositional dependency is shown to be related to the calculated melt viscosity at various temperatures and hence the melt polymerization

  8. MgO melting curve constraints from shock temperature and rarefaction overtake measurements in samples preheated to 2300 K

    OpenAIRE

    Fat'yanov, Oleg V.; Asimow, P. D.

    2014-01-01

    Continuing our effort to obtain experimental constraints on the melting curve of MgO at 100-200 GPa, we extended our target preheating capability to 2300 K. Our new Mo capsule design holds a long MgO crystal in a controlled thermal gradient until impact by a Ta flyer launched at up to 7.5 km/s on the Caltech two-stage light-gas gun. Radiative shock temperatures and rarefaction overtake times were measured simultaneously by a 6-channel VIS/NIR pyrometer with 3 ns time resolution. The majority ...

  9. The sublethal effects of zinc at different water temperatures on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sublethal effects of zinc at different water temperatures on selected ... of 96h at different water temperatures representing the seasonal temperatures in the ... are mobilised to meet increased energy demands during periods of stress.

  10. Temperature distributions in trapezoidal built in storage solar water heaters with/without phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarhan, Sefa; Sari, Ahmet; Yardim, M. Hakan

    2006-01-01

    Built in storage solar water heaters (BSSWHs) have been recognized for their more compact constructions and faster solar gain than conventional solar water heaters, however, their water temperatures quickly go down during the cooling period. A trapezoidal BSSWH without PCM storage unit was used as the control heater (reference) to investigate the effect of two differently configured PCM storage units on the temperature distributions in water tanks. In the first design, myristic acid was filled into the PCM storage tank, which also served as an absorbing plate. In the second design, lauric acid was filled into the PCM storage tank, which also served as a baffle plate. The water temperature changes were followed by five thermocouples placed evenly and longitudinally into each of the three BSSWHs. The effects of the PCMs on the water temperature distributions depended on the configuration of the PCM storage unit and the longitudinal position in the water tanks. The use of lauric acid lowered the values of the peak temperatures by 15% compared to the control heater at the upper portion of the water tanks because of the low melting temperature of lauric acid, but it did not have any consistent effect on the retention of the water temperatures during the cooling period. The ability of the myristic acid storage unit to retain the water temperatures got more remarkable, especially at the middle portion of the water tank. The myristic acid storage increased the dip temperatures by approximately 8.8% compared to the control heater. In conclusion, lauric acid storage can be used to stabilize the water temperature during the day time, while the myristic acid storage unit can be used as a thermal barrier against heat loss during the night time because of its relatively high melting temperature and low heat conduction coefficient in its solid phase. The experimental results have also indicated that the thermal characteristics of the PCM and the configuration of the PCM storage

  11. Operational efficiency of ballast water biocides at low water temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Sneekes, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    In the period 2013-2015 the effect of two biocides used for the treatment of ballast water has been evaluated at low ambient temperatures. Peraclean® Ocean and sodium hypochlorite were used as biocides. Most of the tests were conducted during winter and early spring at the laboratories of IMARES in

  12. Zircaloy behaviour in high temperature irradiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanic, V.F.

    1982-04-01

    The corrosion and hydriding of Zircaloy during irradiation in high temperature water is strongly dependent on the oxygen concentration of the water. Corrosion tests in the NRX and NRU research reactors using small samples have demonstrated the importance of water chemistry in maintaining Zircaloy corrosion and hydriding within acceptable limits. Zircaloy fuel cladding develops non-uniform, patch-type oxides during irradiation in hich temperature water containing dissolved oxygen. Results from examinations of prototype fuel cladding irradiated in the research reactors are presented to show how local variations in coolant flow, fast neutron flux, metallurgical structure and surface condition can influence the onset of non-uniform corrosion under these conditions. Destructive examinations of CANDU-PHW reactor fuel cladding have emphasized the importance of good chemistry control, especially the dissolved oxygen concentration of the water. When reactor coolants are maintained under normal reducing conditions at high pH (5 to 10 cm 3 D 2 /kg D 2 O; 2 /kg D 2 O; pH > 10 with LiOD), Zircaloy cladding develops non-uniform, patch-type oxides. These patch-type oxides tend to coalesce with time to form a thick, uniform oxide layer after extended exposure. Under reducing coolant conditions, Zircaloy cladding absorbs less than 200 mg D/kg Zr (approximately 2.5 mg/dm 2 equivalent hydrogen) in about 500 days. With oxygen in the coolant, deuterium absorption is considerably less despite the significant increase in corrosion under such conditions

  13. Corrosion of inconel in high-temperature borosilicate glass melts containing simulant nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xianhe; Yuan, Xiaoning; Brigden, Clive T.; Tao, Jun; Hyatt, Neil C.; Miekina, Michal

    2017-10-01

    The corrosion behaviors of Inconel 601 in the borosilicate glass (MW glass) containing 25 wt.% of simulant Magnox waste, and in ZnO, Mn2O3 and Fe2O3 modified Mg/Ca borosilicate glasses (MZMF and CZMF glasses) containing 15 wt.% of simulant POCO waste, were evaluated by dimensional changes, the formation of internal defects and changes in alloy composition near corrosion surfaces. In all three kinds of glass melts, Cr at the inconel surface forms a protective Cr2O3 scale between the metal surface and the glass, and alumina precipitates penetrate from the metal surface or formed in-situ. The corrosion depths of inconel 601 in MW waste glass melt are greater than those in the other two glass melts. In MW glass, the Cr2O3 layer between inconel and glass is fragmented because of the reaction between MgO and Cr2O3, which forms the crystal phase MgCr2O4. In MZMF and CZMF waste glasses the layers are continuous and a thin (Zn, Fe, Ni, B)-containing layer forms on the surface of the chromium oxide layer and prevents Cr2O3 from reacting with MgO or other constituents. MgCr2O4 was observed in the XRD analysis of the bulk MW waste glass after the corrosion test, and ZrSiO4 in the MZMF waste glass, and ZrSiO4 and CaMoO4 in the CZMF waste glass.

  14. Ex-vessel melt-coolant interactions in deep water pool: Studies and accident management for Swedish BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Chu, C.C.; Spencer, B.W.; Frid, W.; Loewenhielm, G.

    1993-01-01

    In Swedish BWRs having an annular suppression pool, the lower drywell beneath the reactor vessel is flooded with water to mitigate against the effects of melt release into the drywell during a severe accident. The THIRMAL code has been used to analyze the effectiveness of the water pool to protect lower drywell penetrations by fragmenting and quenching the melt as it relocates downward through the water. Experiments have also been performed to investigate the benefits of adding surfactants to the water to reduce the likelihood of fine-scale debris formation from steam explosions. This paper presents an overview of the accident management approach and surfactant investigations together with results from the THIRMAL analyses

  15. Ex-vessel melt-coolant interactions in deep water pool: studies and accident management for Swedish BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, C.C.; Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.; Frid, W.; Loewenhielm, G.

    1995-01-01

    In Swedish BWRs having an annular suppression pool, the lower drywell beneath the reactor vessel is flooded with water to mitigate against the effects of melt release into the drywell during a severe accident. The THIRMAL-1 code has been used to analyze the effectiveness of the water pool to protect lower drywell penetrations by fragmenting and quenching the melt as it relocates downward through the water. Experiments have also been performed to investigate the benefits of adding surfactants to the water to reduce the likelihood of fine-scale debris formation from steam explosions. This paper presents an overview of the accident management approach and surfactant investigations together with results from the THIRMAL-1 analyses. A description of the modeling incorporated in THIRMAL-1 is also provided. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of Foaming Behavior of Glass Melts by High-Temperature Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2016-01-01

    Optical monitoring techniques can record in situ the size of glass samples during a dynamic heating process. This allowed us to study sintering and expansion rate of panel glass from cathode ray tube using MnO2 as foaming agent. We show the maximum expansion rate of glass melt foaming (in situ va...... such as type and concentration of foaming agent, glass composition and particle size to obtain foam glass with high porosity and closed pores. Using this approach we show that the foaming of bottle glass is preferentially conducted at a SiC concentration of 1‒4 wt%....

  17. Decoding a protracted zircon geochronological record in ultrahigh temperature granulite, and persistence of partial melting in the crust, Rogaland, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Antonin T.; Bingen, Bernard; Duchene, Stephanie; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Seydoux-Guillaume, Anne-magali; Bosse, Valerie

    2018-04-01

    This contribution evaluates the relation between protracted zircon geochronological signal and protracted crustal melting in the course of polyphase high to ultrahigh temperature (UHT; T > 900 °C) granulite facies metamorphism. New U-Pb, oxygen isotope, trace element, ion imaging and cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging data in zircon are reported from five samples from Rogaland, South Norway. The data reveal that the spread of apparent age captured by zircon, between 1040 and 930 Ma, results both from open-system growth and closed-system post-crystallization disturbance. Post-crystallization disturbance is evidenced by inverse age zoning induced by solid-state recrystallization of metamict cores that received an alpha dose above 35 × 1017 α g-1. Zircon neocrystallization is documented by CL-dark domains displaying O isotope open-system behaviour. In UHT samples, O isotopic ratios are homogenous (δ18O = 8.91 ± 0.08‰), pointing to high-temperature diffusion. Scanning ion imaging of these CL-dark domains did not reveal unsupported radiogenic Pb. The continuous geochronological signal retrieved from the CL-dark zircon in UHT samples is similar to that of monazite for the two recognized metamorphic phases (M1: 1040-990 Ma; M2: 940-930 Ma). A specific zircon-forming event is identified in the orthopyroxene and UHT zone with a probability peak at ca. 975 Ma, lasting until ca. 955 Ma. Coupling U-Pb geochronology and Ti-in-zircon thermometry provides firm evidence of protracted melting lasting up to 110 My (1040-930 Ma) in the UHT zone, 85 My (ca. 1040-955 Ma) in the orthopyroxene zone and some 40 My (ca. 1040-1000 Ma) in the regional basement. These results demonstrate the persistence of melt over long timescales in the crust, punctuated by two UHT incursions.

  18. Lessons learnt from FARO/TERMOS corium melt quenching experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magallon, D.; Huhtiniemi, I.; Hohmann, H. [Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Center

    1998-01-01

    The influence of melt quantity, melt composition, water depth and initial pressure on quenching is assessed on the basis of seven tests performed in various conditions in the TERMOS vessel of the FARO facility at JRC-Ispra. Tests involved UO{sub 2}-based melt quantities in the range 18-176 kg at a temperature of approximately 3000 K poured into saturated water. The results suggest that erosion of the melt jet column is an efficient contributor to the amount of break-up, and thus quenching, for large pours of corium melt. The presence of Zr metal in the melt induced a much more efficient quenching than in a similar test with no Zr metal, attributed to the oxidation of the Zr. Significant amounts of H{sub 2} were produced also in tests with pure oxidic melts (e.g. about 300 g for 157 kg melt). In the tests at 5.0 and 2.0 MPa good mixing with significant melt break-up and quenching was obtained during the penetration in the water. At 0.5 MPa, good penetration of the melt into the water could still be achieved, but a jump in the vessel pressurisation occurred when the melt contacted the bottom and part (5 kg) of the debris was re-ejected from the water. (author)

  19. Ikaite crystals in melting sea ice - implications for pCO2 and pH levels in Arctic surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysgaard, S.; Glud, R. N.; Lennert, K.; Cooper, M.; Halden, N.; Leakey, R. J. G.; Hawthorne, F. C.; Barber, D.

    2012-08-01

    A major issue of Arctic marine science is to understand whether the Arctic Ocean is, or will be, a source or sink for air-sea CO2 exchange. This has been complicated by the recent discoveries of ikaite (a polymorph of CaCO3·6H2O) in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, which indicate that multiple chemical transformations occur in sea ice with a possible effect on CO2 and pH conditions in surface waters. Here, we report on biogeochemical conditions, microscopic examinations and x-ray diffraction analysis of single crystals from a melting 1.7 km2 (0.5-1 m thick) drifting ice floe in the Fram Strait during summer. Our findings show that ikaite crystals are present throughout the sea ice but with larger crystals appearing in the upper ice layers. Ikaite crystals placed at elevated temperatures disintegrated into smaller crystallites and dissolved. During our field campaign in late June, melt reduced the ice floe thickness by 0.2 m per week and resulted in an estimated 3.8 ppm decrease of pCO2 in the ocean surface mixed layer. This corresponds to an air-sea CO2 uptake of 10.6 mmol m-2 sea ice d-1 or to 3.3 ton km-2 ice floe week-1. This is markedly higher than the estimated primary production within the ice floe of 0.3-1.3 mmol m-2 sea ice d-1. Finally, the presence of ikaite in sea ice and the dissolution of the mineral during melting of the sea ice and mixing of the melt water into the surface oceanic mixed layer accounted for half of the estimated pCO2 uptake.

  20. Ikaite crystals in melting sea ice – implications for pCO2 and pH levels in Arctic surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. G. Leakey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A major issue of Arctic marine science is to understand whether the Arctic Ocean is, or will be, a source or sink for air–sea CO2 exchange. This has been complicated by the recent discoveries of ikaite (a polymorph of CaCO3·6H2O in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, which indicate that multiple chemical transformations occur in sea ice with a possible effect on CO2 and pH conditions in surface waters. Here, we report on biogeochemical conditions, microscopic examinations and x-ray diffraction analysis of single crystals from a melting 1.7 km2 (0.5–1 m thick drifting ice floe in the Fram Strait during summer. Our findings show that ikaite crystals are present throughout the sea ice but with larger crystals appearing in the upper ice layers. Ikaite crystals placed at elevated temperatures disintegrated into smaller crystallites and dissolved. During our field campaign in late June, melt reduced the ice floe thickness by 0.2 m per week and resulted in an estimated 3.8 ppm decrease of pCO2 in the ocean surface mixed layer. This corresponds to an air–sea CO2 uptake of 10.6 mmol m−2 sea ice d−1 or to 3.3 ton km−2 ice floe week−1. This is markedly higher than the estimated primary production within the ice floe of 0.3–1.3 mmol m−2 sea ice d−1. Finally, the presence of ikaite in sea ice and the dissolution of the mineral during melting of the sea ice and mixing of the melt water into the surface oceanic mixed layer accounted for half of the estimated pCO2 uptake.

  1. Temperature calibration procedure for thin film substrates for thermo-ellipsometric analysis using melting point standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappert, Emiel; Raaijmakers, Michiel; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Nijmeijer, Arian; Huiskes, Cindy; Huiskes, C.; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Precise and accurate temperature control is pertinent to studying thermally activated processes in thin films. Here, we present a calibration method for the substrate–film interface temperature using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The method is adapted from temperature calibration methods that are well

  2. PEM Water Electrolysis at Elevated Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Kalmar

    . This is followed in chapter 4 by a description of the electrolysis setups and electrolysis cells used during the work. Two different setups were used, one operating at atmospheric pressure and another that could operate at elevated pressure so that liquid water electrolysis could be performed at temperature above...... such as porosity and resistance which were supported by images acquired using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In chapters 6 and 7 the results of the steam electrolysis and pressurised water electrolysis, respectively, are presented and discussed. The steam electrolysis was tested at 130 °C and atmospheric...... needed and hence it has become acute to be able to store the energy. Hydrogen has been identified as a suitable energy carrier and water electrolysis is one way to produce it in a sustainable and environmentally friendly way. In this thesis an introduction to the subject (chapter 1) is given followed...

  3. Methane excess in Arctic surface water-triggered by sea ice formation and melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, E; Rudels, B; Schauer, U; Mau, S; Dieckmann, G

    2015-11-10

    Arctic amplification of global warming has led to increased summer sea ice retreat, which influences gas exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the atmosphere where sea ice previously acted as a physical barrier. Indeed, recently observed enhanced atmospheric methane concentrations in Arctic regions with fractional sea-ice cover point to unexpected feedbacks in cycling of methane. We report on methane excess in sea ice-influenced water masses in the interior Arctic Ocean and provide evidence that sea ice is a potential source. We show that methane release from sea ice into the ocean occurs via brine drainage during freezing and melting i.e. in winter and spring. In summer under a fractional sea ice cover, reduced turbulence restricts gas transfer, then seawater acts as buffer in which methane remains entrained. However, in autumn and winter surface convection initiates pronounced efflux of methane from the ice covered ocean to the atmosphere. Our results demonstrate that sea ice-sourced methane cycles seasonally between sea ice, sea-ice-influenced seawater and the atmosphere, while the deeper ocean remains decoupled. Freshening due to summer sea ice retreat will enhance this decoupling, which restricts the capacity of the deeper Arctic Ocean to act as a sink for this greenhouse gas.

  4. Study on superheat of TiAl melt during cold crucible levitation melting. TiAl no cold crucible levitation yokai ni okeru yoto kanetsudo no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Ninomiya, M. (Government Industrial Research Institute, Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan))

    1992-06-20

    Investigations were given on effects of test sample weights and sample positions in cold crucibles on superheat of melts when the intermetallic compound TiAl is melted using cold crucible levitation melting process, one of noncontaminated melting processes. The cold crucibles used in the experiment are a water-cooled copper crucible with an inner diameter of 42 mm and a length of 140 mm, into which a column-like ingot sample with an outer diameter of 32 mm (Al containing Ti at 33.5% by mass) was put and melted using the levitation melting. Comparisons and discussions were given on the relationship between sample weights and melt temperatures, the relationship between positions of the inserted samples and melt temperatures, and the state of contamination at melting of casts obtained from the melts resulted from the levitation melting and high-frequency melting poured into respective ceramic dies. Elevating the superheat temperature of the melts requires optimizing the sample weights and positions. Melt temperatures were measured using a radiation thermometer and a thermocouple, and the respective measured values were compared. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V alloy for biomedical applications: Temperature monitoring and microstructural evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadroitsev, I., E-mail: ihar.yadroitsau@enise.fr [Université de Lyon, Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieurs de Saint-Etienne, 58 rue Jean Parot, 42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Krakhmalev, P. [Karlstad University, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, SE-651 88 Karlstad (Sweden); Yadroitsava, I. [Université de Lyon, Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieurs de Saint-Etienne, 58 rue Jean Parot, 42023 Saint-Etienne (France)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Temperature measurements of molten pool were done using CCD camera. • Temperature of molten pool versus scanning speed and laser power was determined. • Microstructures and microhardness of SLM samples were analyzed. • Influence of heat treatment on microstructure were discussed and presented. -- Abstract: Selective laser melting (SLM) is a kind of additive manufacturing where parts are made directly from 3D CAD data layer-by-layer from powder material. SLM products are used in various industries including aerospace, automotive, electronic, chemical, biomedical and other high-tech areas. The properties of the parts produced by SLM depend strongly on the material nature, characteristics of each single track and each single layer, as well as the strength of the connections between them. Studying the temperature distribution during SLM is important because temperature gradient and heat transfer determine the microstructure and finally mechanical properties of the SLM part. In this study a CCD camera was applied for determination of the surface temperature distribution and the molten pool size of Ti6Al4V alloy. The investigation of the microstructure evolution after different heat treatments was carried out to determine the microstructure in terms of applicability for the biomedical industry.

  6. Mixing-to-eruption timescales: an integrated model combining numerical simulations and high-temperature experiments with natural melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Chiara; Perugini, Diego; De Campos, Christina; Longo, Antonella; Dingwell, Donald Bruce; Papale, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Arrival of magma from depth into shallow reservoirs and associated mixing processes have been documented as possible triggers of explosive eruptions. Quantifying the timing from beginning of mixing to eruption is of fundamental importance in volcanology in order to put constraints about the possible onset of a new eruption. Here we integrate numerical simulations and high-temperature experiment performed with natural melts with the aim to attempt identifying the mixing-to-eruption timescales. We performed two-dimensional numerical simulations of the arrival of gas-rich magmas into shallow reservoirs. We solve the fluid dynamics for the two interacting magmas evaluating the space-time evolution of the physical properties of the mixture. Convection and mingling develop quickly into the chamber and feeding conduit/dyke. Over time scales of hours, the magmas in the reservoir appear to have mingled throughout, and convective patterns become harder to identify. High-temperature magma mixing experiments have been performed using a centrifuge and using basaltic and phonolitic melts from Campi Flegrei (Italy) as initial end-members. Concentration Variance Decay (CVD), an inevitable consequence of magma mixing, is exponential with time. The rate of CVD is a powerful new geochronometer for the time from mixing to eruption/quenching. The mingling-to-eruption time of three explosive volcanic eruptions from Campi Flegrei (Italy) yield durations on the order of tens of minutes. These results are in perfect agreement with the numerical simulations that suggest a maximum mixing time of a few hours to obtain a hybrid mixture. We show that integration of numerical simulation and high-temperature experiments can provide unprecedented results about mixing processes in volcanic systems. The combined application of numerical simulations and CVD geochronometer to the eruptive products of active volcanoes could be decisive for the preparation of hazard mitigation during volcanic unrest.

  7. Water in melt inclusions from phenocrysts of dacite pumice of the Vetrovoy Isthmus (Iturup Island, Southern Kuriles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, A. A.; Smirnov, S. Z.; Maksimovich, I. A.; Plechov, P. Yu; Chertkova, N. V.; Befus, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    This work is devoted to the study of one of the largest caldera eruptions of the Kurile-Kamchatka island-arc system that occurred on the island of Iturup. The object of investigation of this work are phenocrysts of quartz and plagioclase from dacite pumice of the Isthmus of the Isthmus, which is located on the island of Iturup. The purpose of this work is to determine the water content in the melts that participated in the caldera eruption of the Vetrovoy Isthmus and the patterns of their changes during the crystallization of magma. In the course of the work, the following were carried out: 1) adaptation and calibration of the Raman spectroscopy method for determining water in rhyolite melt’s inclusions glasses in quartz and plagioclase from pumice stone; 2) determination of composition and estimation of water content in melt inclusions in quartz and plagioclase according to x-ray spectral analysis; 3) establishment of the regularities of the change in the water content during the evolution of the magmatic melt; 4) evaluation of fluid pressure by comparison with experimental data

  8. Limitations on the Estimation of Parental Magma Temperature Using Olivine-melt Equilibria: Hotspots Not So Hot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natland, J. H.

    2004-12-01

    Estimates of temperatures of magmas parental to picritic tholeiites using olivine-melt equilibria and FeO-MgO relationships depend strongly on the assumption that a liquid composition, usually a glass, is related to the most magnesian olivine in the rock, or to an olivine composition in equilibrium with mantle peridotite, along an olivine-controlled liquid line of descent. The liquid Fe2+/Fe3+ also has to be known; where data exist, average values from wet chemical determinations are used. Crystallization histories of tholeiitic picrites from islands, spreading ridges, and large igneous provinces, however, usually reveal them to be hybrid rocks that are assembled by two types of magma mixing: 1) between a) differentiated magmas that are on olivine-plagioclase or olivine-plagioclase-clinopyroxene cotectics and b) crystal sludges with abundant olivine that may have accumulated from liquids crystallizing olivine alone; and 2) between primitive magma strains in which olivine crystallized either alone or with other silicate minerals at elevated pressure on separate liquid lines of descent. Many picrites give evidence that both types of mixing have occurred. If either type has occurred, the assumption of olivine-control linking a glass and an olivine composition can only circumstantially be correct. Oxidation state can also be underestimated and therefore FeO contents overestimated if basalts have degassed S, as at Hawaii. In Case 1, hybrid host glass compositions often have higher FeO at given MgO content than liquids which produced many olivine crystals in the rock. In Case 2, the separate parental melt strains are revealed by diversity of compositions of both melt inclusions and Cr-spinel and are most often interpreted to mean local heterogeneity of the mantle source. The inclusions do not always affirm an olivine-controlled liquid line of descent. Instead, inclusions with Gorgona, but not in MORB. Where fresh glass is lacking (e.g., Gorgona), bulk-rock compositions

  9. Interaction processes between vacancies and dislocations in molybdenum in the temperature range around 0.3 of the melting temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelada-Lambri, G.I.; Lambri, O.A.; Bozzano, P.B.; Garcia, J.A.; Celauro, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical spectroscopy, electrical resistivity and transmission electron microscopy studies have been performed on pre-strained neutron irradiated single crystalline molybdenum in order to check the interaction processes between vacancies and dislocations in the temperature range between room temperature and 1273 K. The anelastic relaxation in molybdenum which appears between 800 K and 1273 K has been separated in two different physical mechanisms depending on the temperature of appearance of the relaxation peak. The physical mechanism which controls the damping peak appearing at around 800 K was related with the dragging of jogs by the dislocation under movement assisted by vacancy diffusion. The damping peak which appears at higher temperatures of about 1000 K was more consistent with the formation and diffusion of vacancies assisted by the dislocation movement

  10. Interaction processes between vacancies and dislocations in molybdenum in the temperature range around 0.3 of the melting temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelada-Lambri, G.I. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Laboratorio de Materiales, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Avenida Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Lambri, O.A. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Laboratorio de Materiales, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Avenida Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Instituto de Fisica Rosario, Member of the CONICET' s Research Staff (Argentina)], E-mail: olambri@fceia.unr.edu.ar; Bozzano, P.B. [Laboratorio de Microscopia Electronica, Unidad de Actividad Materiales, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin (Argentina); Garcia, J.A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao, Pais Vasco (Spain); Celauro, C.A. [Reactor Nuclear RA-4, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Riobamba y Berruti, 2000 Rosario (Argentina)

    2008-10-15

    Mechanical spectroscopy, electrical resistivity and transmission electron microscopy studies have been performed on pre-strained neutron irradiated single crystalline molybdenum in order to check the interaction processes between vacancies and dislocations in the temperature range between room temperature and 1273 K. The anelastic relaxation in molybdenum which appears between 800 K and 1273 K has been separated in two different physical mechanisms depending on the temperature of appearance of the relaxation peak. The physical mechanism which controls the damping peak appearing at around 800 K was related with the dragging of jogs by the dislocation under movement assisted by vacancy diffusion. The damping peak which appears at higher temperatures of about 1000 K was more consistent with the formation and diffusion of vacancies assisted by the dislocation movement.

  11. Core melt retention and cooling concept of the ERP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisshaeupl, H [SIEMENS/KWU, Erlangen (Germany); Yvon, M [Nuclear Power International, Paris (France)

    1996-12-01

    For the French/German European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) mitigative measures to cope with the event of a severe accident with core melt down are considered already at the design stage. Following the course of a postulated severe accident with reactor pressure vessel melt through one of the most important features of a future design must be to stabilize and cool the melt within the containment by dedicated measures. This measures should - as far as possible - be passive. One very promising solution for core melt retention seems to be a large enough spreading of the melt on a high temperature resistant protection layer with water cooling from above. This is the favorite concept for the EPR. In dealing with the retention of a molten core outside of the RPV several ``steps`` from leaving the RPV to finally stabilize the melt have to gone through. These steps are: collection of the melt; transfer of the melt; distribution of the melt; confining; cooling and stabilization. The technical features for the EPR solution of a large spreading of the melt are: Dedicated spreading chamber outside the reactor pit (area about 150 m{sup 2}); high temperature resistant protection layers (e.g. Zirconia bricks) at the bottom and part of the lateral structures (thus avoiding melt concrete interaction); reactor pit and spreading compartment are connected via a discharge channel which has a slope to the spreading area and is closed by a steel plate, which will resist the core melt for a certain time in order to allow a collection of the melt; the spreading compartments is connected with the In-Containment Refuelling Water Storage Tank (IRWST) with pipes for water flooding after spreading. These pipes are closed and will only be opened by the hot melt itself. It is shown how the course of the different steps mentioned above is processed and how each of these steps is automatically and passively achieved. (Abstract Truncated)

  12. Pavement Snow Melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.

    2005-01-01

    The design of pavement snow melting systems is presented based on criteria established by ASHRAE. The heating requirements depends on rate of snow fall, air temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity. Piping materials are either metal or plastic, however, due to corrosion problems, cross-linked polyethylene pipe is now generally used instead of iron. Geothermal energy is supplied to systems through the use of heat pipes, directly from circulating pipes, through a heat exchanger or by allowing water to flow directly over the pavement, by using solar thermal storage. Examples of systems in New Jersey, Wyoming, Virginia, Japan, Argentina, Switzerland and Oregon are presented. Key words: pavement snow melting, geothermal heating, heat pipes, solar storage, Wyoming, Virginia, Japan, Argentina, Klamath Falls.

  13. Estimation of paddy water temperature during crop development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centeno, H.G.S.; Horie, T.

    1996-01-01

    The crop meristem is in direct contact with paddy water during crop's vegetative stage. Ambient air temperature becomes an important factor in crop development only when internodes elongate sufficiently for the meristem to rise above the water surface. This does not occur until after panicle initiation. Crop growth at vegetative stage is affected more by water temperature than the most commonly measured air temperature. During transplanting in 1992 dry season, the maximum paddy water temperature was 10 deg C higher than the maximum air temperature. For rice crop models, the development of a submodel to estimate water temperature is important to account the effect of paddy water temperature on plant growth. Paddy water temperature is estimated from mean air temperature, solar radiation, and crop canopy. The parameters of the model were derived using the simplex method on data from the 1993 wet- and dry-season field experiments at IRRI

  14. Vulnerability of Southeast Greenland Glaciers to Warm Atlantic Water From Operation IceBridge and Ocean Melting Greenland Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, R.; Rignot, E.; Mouginot, J.; Wood, M.; Bjørk, A. A.; Morlighem, M.

    2018-03-01

    We employ National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s Operation IceBridge high-resolution airborne gravity from 2016, NASA's Ocean Melting Greenland bathymetry from 2015, ice thickness from Operation IceBridge from 2010 to 2015, and BedMachine v3 to analyze 20 major southeast Greenland glaciers. The results reveal glacial fjords several hundreds of meters deeper than previously thought; the full extent of the marine-based portions of the glaciers; deep troughs enabling warm, salty Atlantic Water (AW) to reach the glacier fronts and melt them from below; and few shallow sills that limit the access of AW. The new oceanographic and topographic data help to fully resolve the complex pattern of historical ice front positions from the 1930s to 2017: glaciers exposed to AW and resting on retrograde beds have retreated rapidly, while glaciers perched on shallow sills or standing in colder waters or with major sills in the fjords have remained stable.

  15. Flocculation alters the distribution and flux of melt-water supplied sediments and nutrients in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thor Nygaard; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge

    In the Arctic, thawing permafrost and increased melting of glaciers are important drivers for changes in fine-grained sediment supply and biogeochemical fluxes from land to sea. Flocculation of particles is a controlling factor for the magnitude of fluxes and deposition rates in the marine...... environment but comparatively little is known about the flocculation processes in the Arctic. We investigated flocculation dynamics from a melt-water river in the inner Disko Fjord, West Greenland. A novel, laser-illuminated camera system significantly improved the particle size measurement capabilities...... and settling tubes were sampled to enable sub-sampling of different floc size fractions. Flocculation was observed during periods with low turbulent shear and also at the front of the fresh water plume resulting in significant volumes of large sized flocs at depth below the plume. The floc sizes and volumes...

  16. Measurement of solid-liquid interfacial energy in the In-Bi eutectic alloy at low melting temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marasli, N; Akbulut, S; Ocak, Y; Keslioglu, K; Boeyuek, U; Kaya, H; Cadirli, E

    2007-01-01

    The Gibbs-Thomson coefficient and solid-liquid interfacial energy of the solid In solution in equilibrium with In Bi eutectic liquid have been determined to be (1.46 ± 0.07) x 10 -7 K m and (40.4 ± 4.0) x 10 -3 J m -2 by observing the equilibrated grain boundary groove shapes. The grain boundary energy of the solid In solution phase has been calculated to be (79.0 ± 8.7) x 10 -3 J m -2 by considering force balance at the grain boundary grooves. The thermal conductivities of the In-12.4 at.% Bi eutectic liquid phase and the solid In solution phase and their ratio at the eutectic melting temperature (72 deg. C) have also been measured with radial heat flow apparatus and Bridgman-type growth apparatus

  17. Melting temperature and enthalpy variations of phase change materials (PCMs): a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqin; Lee, Kyoung Ok; Medina, Mario A.; Chu, Youhong; Li, Chuanchang

    2018-06-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis is a standard thermal analysis technique used to determine the phase transition temperature, enthalpy, heat of fusion, specific heat and activation energy of phase change materials (PCMs). To determine the appropriate heating rate and sample mass, various DSC measurements were carried out using two kinds of PCMs, namely N-octadecane paraffin and calcium chloride hexahydrate. The variations in phase transition temperature, enthalpy, heat of fusion, specific heat and activation energy were observed within applicable heating rates and sample masses. It was found that the phase transition temperature range increased with increasing heating rate and sample mass; while the heat of fusion varied without any established pattern. The specific heat decreased with the increase of heating rate and sample mass. For accuracy purpose, it is recommended that for PCMs with high thermal conductivity (e.g. hydrated salt) the focus will be on heating rate rather than sample mass.

  18. 21 CFR 880.5560 - Temperature regulated water mattress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temperature regulated water mattress. 880.5560... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5560 Temperature regulated water mattress. (a) Identification. A temperature regulated water mattress is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a mattress of suitable...

  19. Thermodynamics of Oligonucleotide Duplex Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Gosche, Sherrie; Edwards, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Melting temperatures of oligonucleotides are useful for a number of molecular biology applications, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although melting temperatures are often calculated with simplistic empirical equations, application of thermodynamics provides more accurate melting temperatures and an opportunity for students to apply…

  20. Use of IR pyrometry to measure free-surface temperatures of partially melted tin as a function of shock pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifter, A.; Furlanetto, M. R.; Holtkamp, D. B.; Obst, A. W.; Payton, J. R.; Stone, J. B.; Tabaka, L. J.; Grover, M.; Macrum, G. S.; Stevens, G. D.; Turley, W. D.; Swift, D. C.; Veeser, L. R.

    2009-01-01

    Equilibrium equation of state theory predicts that the free-surface release temperature of shock-loaded tin will show a plateau at 505 K in the stress range from 19.5 to 33.0 GPa, corresponding to the solid-liquid, mixed-phase region of tin. In this paper we report free-surface temperature measurements on shock-loaded tin from 15 to 31 GPa using multiwavelength optical pyrometry. The shock waves were generated by direct contact of detonating high explosive with a tin sample, and the stress in the sample was determined by free-surface velocity measurements using photon Doppler velocimetry. We measured the emitted thermal radiance in the near IR region at four wavelengths from 1.5 to 5.0 μm. Above 25 GPa the measured free-surface temperatures were higher than the predicted 505 K, and they increased with increasing stress. This deviation may be explained by hot spots and/or variations in surface emissivity, and it may indicate a weakness in the use of a simple analysis of multiwavelength pyrometry data for conditions, such as above the melt threshold, where hot spots or emissivity variations may be significant. We are continuing to study the discrepancy to determine its cause.

  1. Excess Molar Volumes of (Propiophenone + Toluene) and Estimated Density of Liquid Propiophenone below Its Melting Temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morávková, Lenka; Linek, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 10 (2006), s. 1240-1244 ISSN 0021-9614 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/1098 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : density * excess volume * temperature dependence Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.842, year: 2006

  2. Does Ice Dissolve or Does Halite Melt? A Low-Temperature Liquidus Experiment for Petrology Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, John B.

    1992-01-01

    Measurement of the compositions and temperatures of H2O-NaCl brines in equilibrium with ice can be used as an easy in-class experimental determination of a liquidus. This experiment emphasizes the symmetry of the behavior of brines with regard to the minerals ice and halite and helps to free students from the conceptual tethers of one-component…

  3. Surface tension estimation of high temperature melts of the binary alloys Ag-Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Ali; Arslan, Hüseyin

    2017-11-01

    Surface tension calculation of the binary alloys Ag-Au at the temperature of 1381 K, where Ag and Au have similar electronic structures and their atomic radii are comparable, are carried out in this study using several equations over entire composition range of Au. Apparently, the deviations from ideality of the bulk solutions, such as activities of Ag and Au are small and the maximum excess Gibbs free energy of mixing of the liquid phase is for instance -4500 J/mol at XAu = 0.5. Besides, the results obtained in Ag-Au alloys that at a constant temperature the surface tension increases with increasing composition while the surface tension decreases as the temperature increases for entire composition range of Au. Although data about surface tension of the Ag-Au alloy are limited, it was possible to make a comparison for the calculated results for the surface tension in this study with the available experimental data. Taken together, the average standard error analysis that especially the improved Guggenheim model in the other models gives the best agreement along with the experimental results at temperature 1383 K although almost all models are mutually in agreement with the other one.

  4. Satellite-derived, melt-season surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet (2000-2005) and its relationship to mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D.K.; Williams, R.S.; Casey, K.A.; DiGirolamo, N.E.; Wan, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Mean, clear-sky surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet was measured for each melt season from 2000 to 2005 using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)–derived land-surface temperature (LST) data-product maps. During the period of most-active melt, the mean, clear-sky surface temperature of the ice sheet was highest in 2002 (−8.29 ± 5.29°C) and 2005 (−8.29 ± 5.43°C), compared to a 6-year mean of −9.04 ± 5.59°C, in agreement with recent work by other investigators showing unusually extensive melt in 2002 and 2005. Surface-temperature variability shows a correspondence with the dry-snow facies of the ice sheet; a reduction in area of the dry-snow facies would indicate a more-negative mass balance. Surface-temperature variability generally increased during the study period and is most pronounced in the 2005 melt season; this is consistent with surface instability caused by air-temperature fluctuations.

  5. Surface Properties of Al-Functionalized Mesoporous MCM-41 and the Melting Behavior of Water in Al-MCM-41 Nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterczyńska, Angelina; Deryło-Marczewska, Anna; Zienkiewicz-Strzałka, Małgorzata; Śliwińska-Bartkowiak, Małgorzata; Domin, Kamila

    2017-10-24

    We report an experimental investigation of structural and adhesive properties for Al-containing mesoporous MCM-41 and MCM-41 surfaces. In this work, highly ordered hexagonal mesoporous structures of aluminosilica with two different Si/Al molar ratios equal to 50 and 80 and silica samples were studied; Al was incorporated into the MCM-41 structures using the direct synthesis method, with CTAB as a surfactant. The incorporation of aluminum was evidenced simultaneously without any change in the hexagonal arrangement of cylindrical mesopores. The porous materials were examined by techniques such as low-temperature nitrogen sorption, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Surface properties were determined through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, potentiometric titration, and static contact angle measurements. It was shown that an increase in surface acidity leads to an increase in the wetting energy of the surface. To investigate the influence of acidity on the confinement effects, the melting behavior of water in Al-MCM-41 and MCM-41 with the same pore size was determined by using dielectric relaxation spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry methods. We found that the melting-point depression of water in pores is larger in the functionalized pores than in pure silica pores of the same pore diameter.

  6. Predicting critical temperatures of ionic and non-ionic fluids from thermophysical data obtained near the melting point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Volker C.

    2015-10-01

    In the correlation and prediction of thermophysical data of fluids based on a corresponding-states approach, the critical temperature Tc plays a central role. For some fluids, in particular ionic ones, however, the critical region is difficult or even impossible to access experimentally. For molten salts, Tc is on the order of 3000 K, which makes accurate measurements a challenging task. Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) decompose thermally between 400 K and 600 K due to their organic constituents; this range of temperatures is hundreds of degrees below recent estimates of their Tc. In both cases, reliable methods to deduce Tc based on extrapolations of experimental data recorded at much lower temperatures near the triple or melting points are needed and useful because the critical point influences the fluid's behavior in the entire liquid region. Here, we propose to employ the scaling approach leading to universal fluid behavior [Román et al., J. Chem. Phys. 123, 124512 (2005)] to derive a very simple expression that allows one to estimate Tc from the density of the liquid, the surface tension, or the enthalpy of vaporization measured in a very narrow range of low temperatures. We demonstrate the validity of the approach for simple and polar neutral fluids, for which Tc is known, and then use the methodology to obtain estimates of Tc for ionic fluids. When comparing these estimates to those reported in the literature, good agreement is found for RTILs, whereas the ones for the molten salts NaCl and KCl are lower than previous estimates by 10%. The coexistence curve for ionic fluids is found to be more adequately described by an effective exponent of βeff = 0.5 than by βeff = 0.33.

  7. Temperature and pressure determination of the tin melt boundary from a combination of pyrometry, spectral reflectance, and velocity measurements along release paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Lone, Brandon; Asimow, Paul; Fatyanov, Oleg; Hixson, Robert; Stevens, Gerald

    2017-06-01

    Plate impact experiments were conducted on tin samples backed by LiF windows to determine the tin melt curve. Thin copper flyers were used so that a release wave followed the 30-40 GPa shock wave in the tin. The release wave at the tin-LiF interface was about 300 ns long. Two sets of experiments were conducted. In one set, spectral emissivity was measured at six wavelengths using a flashlamp illuminated integrating sphere. In the other set, thermal radiance was measured at two wavelengths. The emissivity and thermal radiance measurements were combined to obtain temperature histories of the tin-LiF interface during the release. PDV was used to obtain stress histories. All measurements were combined to obtain temperature vs. stress release paths. A kink or steepening in the release paths indicate where the releases merge onto the melt boundary, and release paths originating from different shock stresses overlap on the melt boundary. Our temperature-stress release path measurements provide a continuous segment of the tin melt boundary that is in good agreement with some of the published melt curves. This work was done by National Security Technologies, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy, and supported by the Site-Directed Research and Development Program. DOE/NV/259463133.

  8. High Temperature Corrosion of Nickel in NaVO3-V2O5 Melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Porcayo-Calderon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many alloys used at high temperature in industrial processes are Ni-based and many others contain it in appreciable quantities, so it is of interest to evaluate the performance of pure nickel in order to determine the behavior of its alloys once the elements responsible for their protection have been depleted due to accelerated corrosion processes in the presence of vanadium-rich molten salts. Due to this, this work presents the study of Ni behavior in NaVO3-V2O5 mixtures at different temperatures. The behavior of pure nickel was determined by both electrochemical and mass loss measurements. The results show that the aggressiveness of the vanadium salts is increased by increasing both the V2O5 content and temperature. V2O5 addition considerably increases the current densities of the anodic and cathodic reactions. The corrosion process of Ni is modified due to the presence of its corrosion products, and its presence increases the activation energy by at least one order of magnitude. Although nickel shows a high reactivity in vanadium-rich salts, its reaction products are highly stable and protect it from the corrosive medium because the corrosion reactions trap the vanadium and block the migration of nickel ions.

  9. Water temperature issues in the 90's and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Railsback, S.F.

    1993-01-01

    Water temperature issues are expected to receive increasing attention in the 1990s. Temperature impacts are among the most common and most expensive environmental issues requiring mitigation at water projects, but few changes in mitigation technologies and little research have occurred in the past decade. Water projects alter water temperatures because the heat balances in reservoirs and in streams with altered flows are significantly different from natural. Several emerging environmental and regulatory concerns and issues are likely to focus additional attention on temperature. Climate change, should it occur as predicted, can be expected to worsen many water temperature problems and complicate the determination of appropriate mitigation for water projects. The purposes of this paper are to review current water temperature issues and mitigation methods, to identify new and future temperature issues, and to identify research needs

  10. Numerical simulation of fragmentation of hot metal and oxide melts with the computer code IVA3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussa, S.; Tromm, W.

    1994-01-01

    The phenomena of fragmentation of melts caused by water-inlet from the bottom with the computer code IVA3/11,12,13/ are investigated. With the computer code IVA3 three-component-multiphase flows can be numerically simulated. Two geometrical models are used. Both consist of a cylindrical vessel for water lying beneath a cylindrical vessel for melt. The vessels are connected to each other through a hole. Steel and UO 2 melts are. The following parameters were varied: the type of the melt (steel,UO 2 ), the water supply pressure and the geometry of the hole in the bottom plate through which the water and melt vessels are connected. As results of the numerical simulations temperature and pressure versus time curves are plotted. Additionally the volume flow rates and the volume fractions of the various phases in the vessels and the increase in surface and enthalpy of the melt during the time of simulation are depicted. With steel melts the rate of fragmentation increases with increasing water pressure and melt temperature, whereby stable channels are formed in the melt layer showing a very low flow resistance for steam. With UO 2 the formations of channels are also observed. However, these channels are not so stable that they eventually break apart and lead to the fragmentation of the UO 2 melt in drops. The fragmentation of the steel melt in water vessel is less than that of UO 2 . No essential solidification of the melt is observed in the respective duration of the simulations. However, a small drop in the melt temperature is observed. With a slight or no water pressure the melt flows from the upper vessel into the water vessel via the connecting hole. The processes take place in a very slow manner and with such a low steam production so that despite the occuring pressure peaks no sign of steam explosions could be observed. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Simulation of steam explosion in stratified melt-coolant configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, Matjaž; Centrih, Vasilij; Uršič, Mitja

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Strong steam explosions may develop spontaneously in stratified configurations. • Considerable melt-coolant premixed layer formed in subcooled water with hot melts. • Analysis with MC3D code provided insight into stratified steam explosion phenomenon. • Up to 25% of poured melt was mixed with water and available for steam explosion. • Better instrumented experiments needed to determine dominant mixing process. - Abstract: A steam explosion is an energetic fuel coolant interaction process, which may occur during a severe reactor accident when the molten core comes into contact with the coolant water. In nuclear reactor safety analyses steam explosions are primarily considered in melt jet-coolant pool configurations where sufficiently deep coolant pool conditions provide complete jet breakup and efficient premixture formation. Stratified melt-coolant configurations, i.e. a molten melt layer below a coolant layer, were up to now believed as being unable to generate strong explosive interactions. Based on the hypothesis that there are no interfacial instabilities in a stratified configuration it was assumed that the amount of melt in the premixture is insufficient to produce strong explosions. However, the recently performed experiments in the PULiMS and SES (KTH, Sweden) facilities with oxidic corium simulants revealed that strong steam explosions may develop spontaneously also in stratified melt-coolant configurations, where with high temperature melts and subcooled water conditions a considerable melt-coolant premixed layer is formed. In the article, the performed study of steam explosions in a stratified melt-coolant configuration in PULiMS like conditions is presented. The goal of this analytical work is to supplement the experimental activities within the PULiMS research program by addressing the key questions, especially regarding the explosivity of the formed premixed layer and the mechanisms responsible for the melt-water mixing. To

  12. The Effects of Annealing Temperatures on Composition and Strain in Si x Ge1-x Obtained by Melting Growth of Electrodeposited Ge on Si (100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Mastura Shafinaz Zainal; Morshed, Tahsin; Chikita, Hironori; Kinoshita, Yuki; Muta, Shunpei; Anisuzzaman, Mohammad; Park, Jong-Hyeok; Matsumura, Ryo; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop; Sadoh, Taizoh; Hashim, Abdul Manaf

    2014-02-24

    The effects of annealing temperatures on composition and strain in Si x Ge 1- x , obtained by rapid melting growth of electrodeposited Ge on Si (100) substrate were investigated. Here, a rapid melting process was performed at temperatures of 1000, 1050 and 1100 °C for 1 s. All annealed samples show single crystalline structure in (100) orientation. A significant appearance of Si-Ge vibration mode peak at ~400 cm -1 confirms the existence of Si-Ge intermixing due to out-diffusion of Si into Ge region. On a rapid melting process, Ge melts and reaches the thermal equilibrium in short time. Si at Ge/Si interface begins to dissolve once in contact with the molten Ge to produce Si-Ge intermixing. The Si fraction in Si-Ge intermixing was calculated by taking into account the intensity ratio of Ge-Ge and Si-Ge vibration mode peaks and was found to increase with the annealing temperatures. It is found that the strain turns from tensile to compressive as the annealing temperature increases. The Si fraction dependent thermal expansion coefficient of Si x Ge 1- x is a possible cause to generate such strain behavior. The understanding of compositional and strain characteristics is important in Ge/Si heterostructure as these properties seem to give significant effects in device performance.

  13. The Effects of Annealing Temperatures on Composition and Strain in SixGe1−x Obtained by Melting Growth of Electrodeposited Ge on Si (100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Mastura Shafinaz Zainal; Morshed, Tahsin; Chikita, Hironori; Kinoshita, Yuki; Muta, Shunpei; Anisuzzaman, Mohammad; Park, Jong-Hyeok; Matsumura, Ryo; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop; Sadoh, Taizoh; Hashim, Abdul Manaf

    2014-01-01

    The effects of annealing temperatures on composition and strain in SixGe1−x, obtained by rapid melting growth of electrodeposited Ge on Si (100) substrate were investigated. Here, a rapid melting process was performed at temperatures of 1000, 1050 and 1100°C for 1 s. All annealed samples show single crystalline structure in (100) orientation. A significant appearance of Si-Ge vibration mode peak at ~00 cm−1 confirms the existence of Si-Ge intermixing due to out-diffusion of Si into Ge region. On a rapid melting process, Ge melts and reaches the thermal equilibrium in short time. Si at Ge/Si interface begins to dissolve once in contact with the molten Ge to produce Si-Ge intermixing. The Si fraction in Si-Ge intermixing was calculated by taking into account the intensity ratio of Ge-Ge and Si-Ge vibration mode peaks and was found to increase with the annealing temperatures. It is found that the strain turns from tensile to compressive as the annealing temperature increases. The Si fraction dependent thermal expansion coefficient of SixGe1−x is a possible cause to generate such strain behavior. The understanding of compositional and strain characteristics is important in Ge/Si heterostructure as these properties seem to give significant effects in device performance. PMID:28788521

  14. The Effects of Annealing Temperatures on Composition and Strain in SixGe1−x Obtained by Melting Growth of Electrodeposited Ge on Si (100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastura Shafinaz Zainal Abidin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of annealing temperatures on composition and strain in SixGe1−x, obtained by rapid melting growth of electrodeposited Ge on Si (100 substrate were investigated. Here, a rapid melting process was performed at temperatures of 1000, 1050 and 1100 °C for 1 s. All annealed samples show single crystalline structure in (100 orientation. A significant appearance of Si-Ge vibration mode peak at ~400 cm−1 confirms the existence of Si-Ge intermixing due to out-diffusion of Si into Ge region. On a rapid melting process, Ge melts and reaches the thermal equilibrium in short time. Si at Ge/Si interface begins to dissolve once in contact with the molten Ge to produce Si-Ge intermixing. The Si fraction in Si-Ge intermixing was calculated by taking into account the intensity ratio of Ge-Ge and Si-Ge vibration mode peaks and was found to increase with the annealing temperatures. It is found that the strain turns from tensile to compressive as the annealing temperature increases. The Si fraction dependent thermal expansion coefficient of SixGe1−x is a possible cause to generate such strain behavior. The understanding of compositional and strain characteristics is important in Ge/Si heterostructure as these properties seem to give significant effects in device performance.

  15. Predicting the co-melting temperatures of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash and sewage sludge ash using grey model and neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Tzu-Yi; Lin, Kae-Long; Shie, Je-Lung; Chang, Tien-Chin; Chen, Bor-Yann

    2011-03-01

    A grey model (GM) and an artificial neural network (ANN) were employed to predict co-melting temperature of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash and sewage sludge ash (SSA) during formation of modified slag. The results indicated that in the aspect of model prediction, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPEs) were between 1.69 and 13.20% when adopting seven different GM (1, N) models. The MAPE were 1.59 and 1.31% when GM (1, 1) and rolling grey model (RGM (1, 1)) were adopted. The MAPEs fell within the range of 0.04 and 0.50% using different types of ANN. In GMs, the MAPE of 1.31% was found to be the lowest when using RGM (1, 1) to predict co-melting temperature. This value was higher than those of ANN2-1 to ANN8-1 by 1.27, 1.25, 1.24, 1.18, 1.16, 1.14 and 0.81%, respectively. GM only required a small amount of data (at least four data). Therefore, GM could be applied successfully in predicting the co-melting temperature of MSWI fly ash and SSA when no sufficient information is available. It also indicates that both the composition of MSWI fly ash and SSA could be applied on the prediction of co-melting temperature.

  16. In-situ temperature field measurements and direct observation of crystal/melt at vertical Bridgman growth of lead chloride under stationary and dynamic arrangement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Robert; Nitsch, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 427, Oct (2015), 7-15 ISSN 0022-0248 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14266 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : single crystal growth * temperature field measurements * crystal/melt interface * lead chloride * vertical Bridgman method Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.462, year: 2015

  17. On the influence of debris in glacier melt modelling: a new temperature-index model accounting for the debris thickness feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carenzo, Marco; Mabillard, Johan; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Reid, Tim; Brock, Ben; Burlando, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    The increase of rockfalls from the surrounding slopes and of englacial melt-out material has led to an increase of the debris cover extent on Alpine glaciers. In recent years, distributed debris energy-balance models have been developed to account for the melt rate enhancing/reduction due to a thin/thick debris layer, respectively. However, such models require a large amount of input data that are not often available, especially in remote mountain areas such as the Himalaya. Some of the input data such as wind or temperature are also of difficult extrapolation from station measurements. Due to their lower data requirement, empirical models have been used in glacier melt modelling. However, they generally simplify the debris effect by using a single melt-reduction factor which does not account for the influence of debris thickness on melt. In this paper, we present a new temperature-index model accounting for the debris thickness feedback in the computation of melt rates at the debris-ice interface. The empirical parameters (temperature factor, shortwave radiation factor, and lag factor accounting for the energy transfer through the debris layer) are optimized at the point scale for several debris thicknesses against melt rates simulated by a physically-based debris energy balance model. The latter has been validated against ablation stake readings and surface temperature measurements. Each parameter is then related to a plausible set of debris thickness values to provide a general and transferable parameterization. The new model is developed on Miage Glacier, Italy, a debris cover glacier in which the ablation area is mantled in near-continuous layer of rock. Subsequently, its transferability is tested on Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland, where debris is thinner and its extension has been seen to expand in the last decades. The results show that the performance of the new debris temperature-index model (DETI) in simulating the glacier melt rate at the point scale

  18. Specific heat measurements on metals up to their melting point; Mesure de la chaleur specifique des metaux jusqu'a leur temperature de fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affortit, Ch [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-15

    We have built an apparatus to measure the specific heat of metal up to the melting point. The method is the pulse-heating method, where the specimen is heated very rapidly (1/10 s) from room temperature to the melting point by a very intense d.c. current (1000 A). The simultaneous measurements of intensity, voltage and temperature in the specimen allows a calculation of the specific heat. We have obtained good results for niobium, tungsten, tantalum and uranium. The accuracy is around 3 to 5 per cent and allows a measurement of the heat of formation of vacancies near the melting temperature. (author) [French] Nous avons construit un appareil permettant la mesure de la chaleur specifique des metaux jusqu'a leur temperature de fusion. La methode utilisee est la methode dite de chauffage instantane, L'echantillon est echauffe tres rapidement (1/10 s) de la temperature ambiante a la temperature de fusion par le passage d'un courant tres intense ({approx} 1000 A). L'enregistrement simultane de l'intensite du courant, de la difference de potentiel aux bornes de l'echantillon et de la temperature, permet de calculer la chaleur specifique. Nous avons obtenu de bons resultats pour le niobium, le tungstene tantale et l'uranium. La precision de la methode est de l'ordre de 3 a 5 pour cent et permet une mesure de la chaleur de formation des lacunes au voisinage de la fusion. (auteur)

  19. Development of high temperature metallic melting processes related to detritiation of exhausted control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dworschak, H.; Mannone, F.; Modica, G.

    1994-01-01

    A rather critical problem to be faced in developing a safe strategy for the management of tritiated solid wastes is dealing with the outgassing property of tritium. Releases of tritium under elemental or oxide form may occur from waste items at different temperatures and rates depending upon the nature of tritium bonds into the waste matrix as well as on its 'contamination history'. Apart from the commercial value of tritium, its release from waste packages anyhow represents a risk of tritium exposure that cannot be accepted by skippers, by store and disposal site operators as well as by the general public. Consequently it is mandatory to carry out the detritiation of such wastes before their packaging and storage or disposal. In the boron carbide control rods from the Lingen BWR after about three years of operation, tritium generated by neutron reaction was essentially retained in the B 4 C matrix. The objectives of the study are to demonstrate the feasibility of two processes aimed at reducing to the maximum practicable extent the level of tritium contamination in such waste management are facilitated

  20. Synthesis of polystyrene with high melting temperature through BDE/CuCl catalyzed polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN; Xiaolong

    2001-01-01

    Lecomte, P., Drapier, I., Dubios, P. et al., Controlled radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate in the presence of palladium acetate, triphenyl phosphine, and carbon tetrachloride, Macromolecules, 1997, 30: 7631.[12]Kotani, Y., Kamigaito, Y., Sawamoto, M., Re(V)-mediated living radical polymerization of styrene: ReO2I(PPh3)2/RI initiating system, Macromolecules, 1999, 32: 2420.[13]Makino, T., Tokunaga, E., Hogen-Esch, T. E., Controlled atom transfer radical polymerizations of methyl methacrylate under micellar conditions, Polym. Prep., 1998, 39(1): 288.[14]Gaynor, S. G., Qiu, J., Matyjaszewski, K., Controlled/"living" radical polymerization applied to water-borne system, Macromolecule, 1998, 31: 5951.[15]Qiu, J., Gaynor, S. G., Matyjaszewski, K., Controlled/"living" radical polymerization of n-butyl methacrylate by reverse atom transfer radical polymerization, Macromolecules, 1999, 32: 2872.[16]Shipp, D. A., McMurtry, G. P., Gaynor, S. G. et al., Water-borne block copolymer synthesis and a simple and effective one-pot synthesis of acrylate-methacrylate block copolymers by atom transfer radical polymerization, Polym. Prep., 1999, 40(2): 448.[17]Nishikawa, T., Kamigaito, M., Sawamoto, M., Living radical polymerization in water and alcohols: suspension polymerization of methyl methacrylate with RuCl2(PPh3)3 complex, Macromolecules, 1999, 32: 2204.[18]Wan, X. L., Ying, S. K., "Living" radical emulsion polymerization of styrene under Cu0/Bpy/CCl4 and CuCl2/Bpy/AIBN system, Chinese J. Polym. Sci., 2000, (1): 27.[19]Wan, X. L., Ying, S. K., Controlled radical polymerization catalyzed by Cu/BDE complex in water medium, 1. Polymerization of styrene and synthesis of poly(St-b-MMA), J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 2000, 75(1): 802.[20]Wan, X. L., Ying, S. K., Synthesis of block copolymers by emulsion "living"/controlled radical polymerization of vinyl monomers in sequence, Polym. Prep., 1999, 40: 1055.[21]Keller, R. N., Wycoff, H. D., The synthesis

  1. Diffusion-controlled melting in granitic systems at 800-900degC and 100-200 MPa. Temperature and pressure dependence of the minimum diffusivity in granitic melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuguchi, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Iwamoto, Manji-rou; Eguchi, Hibiki; Isobe, Hiroshi; Nishiyama, Tadao

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the temperature and pressure dependence of the minimum binary diffusivity in granitic melts. The minimum diffusivities are determined by monitoring the temporal development of the diffusion-controlled melt layer(DCM) in granitic systems (albite (Ab)-quartz (Qtz)-H 2 O and orthoclase (Or)-Qtz-H 2 O) gathered during 31 melting experiments under conditions of 800-900degC and 100-200 MPa for durations of 19-72 h. The DCM is formed between single crystals (Ab or Or crystals) and powdered quartz in all runs and is characterized by a distinct concentration gradient. The maximum thickness of the DCM increases systematically with temperature, pressure, and run duration. Temporal development of the DCM obeys the parabolic growth rate law, using which the diffusivity can be estimated. Plots of concentrations along the diffusion paths in ternary diagrams (Na 2 O-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 diagram for the Ab-Qtz-H 2 O system and K 2 O-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 diagram for the Or-Qtz-H 2 O system) show linear trends rather than S-shaped trends, indicating that binary nature of diffusion occurs in these systems. Therefore, the diffusive component can be interpreted as an albite component or orthoclase and quartz components (SiO 2 ) rather than an oxide or a cation. (author)

  2. Ikaite crystals in melting sea ice – implications for pCO2 and pH levels in Arctic surface waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, Søren; Glud, R.N.; Lennert, K.

    2012-01-01

    A major issue of Arctic marine science is to understand whether the Arctic Ocean is, or will be, a source or sink for air-sea CO 2 exchange. This has been complicated by the recent discoveries of ikaite (a polymorph of CaCO 3•6H 2O) in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, which indicate that multiple...... chemical transformations occur in sea ice with a possible effect on CO 2 and pH conditions in surface waters. Here, we report on biogeochemical conditions, microscopic examinations and x-ray diffraction analysis of single crystals from a melting 1.7 km 2 (0.5-1 m thick) drifting ice floe in the Fram Strait...... during summer. Our findings show that ikaite crystals are present throughout the sea ice but with larger crystals appearing in the upper ice layers. Ikaite crystals placed at elevated temperatures disintegrated into smaller crystallites and dissolved. During our field campaign in late June, melt reduced...

  3. The Effective Convectivity Model for Simulation and Analysis of Melt Pool Heat Transfer in a Light Water Reactor Pressure Vessel Lower Head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Chi Thanh

    2009-09-01

    indispensable for scrutinizing flow physics, on the other hand, the validated CFD method can be used to generate necessary data for validation of the accident analysis models. Given the insights gained from the CFD study, physics-based models and computationally-efficient tools are developed for multi-dimensional simulations of transient thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the lower plenum of a LWR during the late phase of an in-vessel core melt progression. To describe natural convection heat transfer in an internally heated volume, and molten metal layer heated from below and cooled from the top (and side) walls, the Effective Convectivity Models (ECM) are developed and implemented in a commercial CFD code. The ECM uses directional heat transfer characteristic velocities to transport the heat to cooled boundaries. The heat transport and interactions are represented through an energy-conservation formulation. The ECM then enables 3D heat transfer simulations of a homogeneous (and stratified) melt pool formed in the LWR lower head. In order to describe phase-change heat transfer associated with core debris or binary mixture (e.g. in a molten metal layer), a temperature-based enthalpy formulation is employed in the Phase-change ECM (so called the PECM). The PECM is capable to represent natural convection heat transfer in a mushy zone. Simple formulation of the PECM method allows implementing different models of mushy zone heat transfer for non-eutectic mixtures. For a non-eutectic binary mixture, compositional convection associated with concentration gradients can be taken into account. The developed models are validated against both existing experimental data and the CFD-generated data. ECM and PECM simulations show a superior computational efficiency compared to the CFD simulation method. The ECM and PECM methods are applied to predict thermal loads imposed on the vessel wall and Control Rod Guide Tubes (CRGTs) during core debris heatup and melting in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR

  4. Galvanic high temperature cell with solid negative electrode and an electrolyte melt. Galvanische Hochtemperaturzelle mit fester negativer Elektrode und einem Schmelzelektrolyten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappus, W; Borger, W

    1987-01-08

    The purpose of the invention is to make an electrolyte melt available for high temperature cells (e.g. LiFeS cells), which guarantees ion transport and also acts as a separator. The invention starts from the fact that binary melts of the LiCl/KCl type are only liquid (i.e. without solid components) at a certain temperature at certain concentrations. With suitable mixing conditions, which apart from a eutectic composition, are mainly on the side of one of the two components, one can ensure that this component is present in the solid phase. In this way, a solid framework of LiCl, for example, is formed between the electrode plates in situ as a separator, in the pores of which the excess melt (e.g. LiCl/KCl) can carry out ion conduction. The volumetric ratio of the electrolyte melt in which liquid and solid phases are present at the working temperature of the cell should preferably be in the range of 2:1 to 1:2.

  5. Vacancy formation energies in close-packed crystals correlated with melting temperature via thermodynamics and liquid structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, R.I.M.A.; March, N.H.

    1988-08-01

    In earlier work, the vacancy formation energy E v in close-packed crystals, in units of the thermal energy k B T m at the melting temperature T m , has been connected with compressibility and specific heats, plus terms dependent on the liquid structure at T m . Here, this connection has been examined quantitatively for (a) the insulating condensed rare gases Ne, Ar and Kr, and (b) a variety of close-packed metals. For case (a), E v /k B T m can be calculated directly from thermodynamic data to obtain agreement with experiment for Ar and Kr, though not for Ne. A 'residual' contribution is estimated for Ar and Kr from diffraction and computer experiments on the density dependence of the liquid pair correlation function and is shown to be very small. Agreement is less impressive for case (b) for the eight close-packed metals for which all data required is known, the thermodynamic formula giving an average value E v /k B T m =7.8+-1.1 whereas experiment yields 9.4+-1.8. However, for the body-centred cubic alkalis the thermodynamic average value of 4.5+-0.5 is much lower than the experimental value 11.5+-2.0 consistent with the known role of ionic relaxation round the vacancy in such open structures. (author). 16 refs, 2 tabs

  6. Variation and Grey GM(1, 1) Prediction of Melting Peak Temperature of Polypropylene During Ultraviolet Radiation Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K.; Y Zhang, T.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, Z. R.

    2017-12-01

    Grey system theory regards uncertain system in which information is known partly and unknown partly as research object, extracts useful information from part known, and thereby revealing the potential variation rule of the system. In order to research the applicability of data-driven modelling method in melting peak temperature (T m) fitting and prediction of polypropylene (PP) during ultraviolet radiation aging, the T m of homo-polypropylene after different ultraviolet radiation exposure time investigated by differential scanning calorimeter was fitted and predicted by grey GM(1, 1) model based on grey system theory. The results show that the T m of PP declines with the prolong of aging time, and fitting and prediction equation obtained by grey GM(1, 1) model is T m = 166.567472exp(-0.00012t). Fitting effect of the above equation is excellent and the maximum relative error between prediction value and actual value of T m is 0.32%. Grey system theory needs less original data, has high prediction accuracy, and can be used to predict aging behaviour of PP.

  7. A phenomenological analysis of melt progression in the lower head of a pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, J.M., E-mail: jean-marie.seiler@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTN, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Tourniaire, B. [EDF/Septen, Lyon (France)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • We propose a phenomenological description of melt progression into the lower head. • We examine changes in heat loads on the vessel. • Heat loads are more severe than emphasized by the bounding situation assumption. • Both primary circuit and ex-vessel reflooding are necessary for in-vessel retention. • Vessel failure conditions are examined. - Abstract: The analysis of in-vessel corium cooling (IVC) and retention (IVR) involves the description of very complex and transient physical phenomena. To get round this difficulty, “bounding” situations are often emphasized for the demonstration of corium coolability, by vessel flooding and/or by reactor pit flooding. This approach however comes up against its own limitations. More realistic melt progression scenarios are required to provide plausible corium configurations and vessel failure conditions. Work to develop more realistic melt progression scenarios has been done at CEA, in collaboration with EDF. Development has concentrated on the French 1300 MWe PWR, considering both dry scenarios and the possibility of flooding of the RPC (reactor primary circuit) and/or the reactor pit. The models used for this approach have been derived from the analysis of the TMI2 accident and take benefit from the lessons derived from several programs related to pool thermal hydraulics (BALI, COPO, ACOPO, etc.), material interactions (RASPLAV, MASCA), critical heat flux (CHF) on the external surface of the vessel (KAIST, SULTAN, ULPU), etc. Important conclusions of this work are as follows: (a)After the start of corium melting and onset of melt formation in the core at low pressure (∼1 to 5 bars), it seems questionable that RPV (reactor pressure vessel) reflooding alone would be sufficient to achieve corium retention in the vessel; (b)If the vessel is not cooled externally, it may fail due to local heat-up before the whole core fuel inventory is relocated in the lower head; (c)Even if the vessel is

  8. Effects of air temperature and discharge on Upper Mississippi River summer water temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Brian R.; Robertson, Dale M.; Rogala, James T.

    2018-01-01

    Recent interest in the potential effects of climate change has prompted studies of air temperature and precipitation associations with water temperatures in rivers and streams. We examined associations between summer surface water temperatures and both air temperature and discharge for 5 reaches of the Upper Mississippi River during 1994–2011. Water–air temperature associations at a given reach approximated 1:1 when estimated under an assumption of reach independence but declined to approximately 1:2 when water temperatures were permitted to covary among reaches and were also adjusted for upstream air temperatures. Estimated water temperature–discharge associations were weak. An apparently novel feature of this study is that of addressing changes in associations between water and air temperatures when both are correlated among reaches.

  9. Thermal infrared remote sensing of water temperature in riverine landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handcock, Rebecca N.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Cherkauer, Keith A.; Gillespie, Alan R.; Klement, Tockner; Faux, Russell N.; Tan, Jing; Carbonneau, Patrice E.; Piégay, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    Water temperature in riverine landscapes is an important regional indicator of water quality that is influenced by both ground- and surface-water inputs, and indirectly by land use in the surrounding watershed (Brown and Krygier, 1970; Beschta et al., 1987; Chen et al., 1998; Poole and Berman, 2001).Coldwater fishes such as salmon and trout are sensitive to elevated water temperature; therefore, water temperature must meet management guidelines and quality standards, which aim to create a healthy environment for endangered populations (McCullough et al., 2009). For example, in the USA, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established water quality standards to identify specific temperature criteria to protect coldwater fishes (Environmental Protection Agency, 2003). Trout and salmon can survive in cool-water refugia even when temperatures at other measurement locations are at or above the recommended maximums (Ebersole et al., 2001; Baird and Krueger, 2003; High et al., 2006). Spatially extensive measurements of water temperature are necessary to locate these refugia, to identify the location of ground- and surface-water inputs to the river channel, and to identify thermal pollution sources. Regional assessment of water temperature in streams and rivers has been limited by sparse sampling in both space and time. Water temperature has typically been measured using a network of widely distributed instream gages, which record the temporal change of the bulk, or kinetic, temperature of the water (Tk) at specific locations. For example, the State of Washington (USA) recorded water quality conditions at 76 stations within the Puget Lowlands eco region, which contains 12,721 km of streams and rivers (Washington Department of Ecology, 1998). Such gages are sparsely distributed, are typically located only in larger streams and rivers, and give limited information about the spatial distribution of water temperature.

  10. Upgrade of the cooling water temperature measures system for HLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Weiqun; Liu Gongfa; Bao Xun; Jiang Siyuan; Li Weimin; He Duohui

    2007-01-01

    The cooling water temperature measures system for HLS (Hefei Light Source) adopts EPICS to the developing platform and takes the intelligence temperature cruise instrument for the front control instrument. Data of temperatures are required by IOCs through Serial Port Communication, archived and searched by Channel Archiver. The system can monitor the real-time temperatures of many channels cooling water and has the function of history data storage, and data network search. (authors)

  11. Effects of Temperature and Growing Seasons on Crop Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    The crop water requirement (CWR) depends on several factors including temperature and ...... infrastructure for collection, treatment and recycling of wastewater (MOEP, 2010 .... blue and grey water footprint of crops and derived crop products ...

  12. An equation of state for high pressure-temperature liquids (RTpress) with application to MgSiO3 melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Aaron S.; Bower, Dan J.

    2018-05-01

    The thermophysical properties of molten silicates at extreme conditions are crucial for understanding the early evolution of Earth and other massive rocky planets, which is marked by giant impacts capable of producing deep magma oceans. Cooling and crystallization of molten mantles are sensitive to the densities and adiabatic profiles of high-pressure molten silicates, demanding accurate Equation of State (EOS) models to predict the early evolution of planetary interiors. Unfortunately, EOS modeling for liquids at high P-T conditions is difficult due to constantly evolving liquid structure. The Rosenfeld-Tarazona (RT) model provides a physically sensible and accurate description of liquids but is limited to constant volume heating paths (Rosenfeld and Tarazona, 1998). We develop a high P-T EOS for liquids, called RTpress, which uses a generalized Rosenfeld-Tarazona model as a thermal perturbation to isothermal and adiabatic reference compression curves. This approach provides a thermodynamically consistent EOS which remains accurate over a large P-T range and depends on a limited number of physically meaningful parameters that can be determined empirically from either simulated or experimental datasets. As a first application, we model MgSiO3 melt representing a simplified rocky mantle chemistry. The model parameters are fitted to the MD simulations of both Spera et al. (2011) and de Koker and Stixrude (2009), recovering pressures, volumes, and internal energies to within 0.6 GPa, 0.1 Å3 , and 6 meV per atom on average (for the higher resolution data set), as well as accurately predicting liquid densities and temperatures from shock-wave experiments on MgSiO3 glass. The fitted EOS is used to determine adiabatic thermal profiles, revealing the approximate thermal structure of a fully molten magma ocean like that of the early Earth. These adiabats, which are in strong agreement for both fitted models, are shown to be sufficiently steep to produce either a center

  13. Exploration of the phase diagram of liquid water in the low-temperature metastable region using synthetic fluid inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Chen; Krüger, Yves; Wilke, Max

    2016-01-01

    water with a density of 0.921 kg/m3 remains in a homogeneous state during cooling down to the temperaure of −30.5 °C, where it is transformed into ice whose density corresponds to zero pressure. iii) ice melting. Ice melting temperatures of up to 6.8 °C were measured in absence of the vapour bubble, i......We present new experimental data of the low-temperature metastable region of liquid water derived from high-density synthetic fluid inclusions (996−916 kg/m3) in quartz. Microthermometric measurements include: i) Prograde (upon heating) and retrograde (upon cooling) liquid-vapour homogenisation. We...

  14. Cooling-water amounts, temperature, and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koops, F.B.J.; Donze, M.; Hadderingh, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    The release of heat from power plants into a water can take place with relative small quantities of cooling water, highly warmed up accordingly, or with large quantities of cooling water slightly warmed up. The utilization of cooling water is bound to certain guidelines established by the authorities. With the intention to protect the environment, the admissable temperatures and warming-up have been strictly limited by the authorities. In the Netherlands, we have presently temporary cooling water guidelines which allow a max. temperature of the cooling water in the cooling cycle of 30 0 C and a maximum admissible temperature rise in the condenser between 7 0 C during summer and 15 0 C during winter. It has also been determined in these requirements how much cooling water at least has to be used to discharge a specified quantity of heat. Plankton, spawn and young fish are dragged with the cooling water. Harm to these organisms can be caused mechanically by pumps, sieves and the condenser or they can be harmed by the temperature rise in the condenser. Investigations showed that mechanical harm to spawn and young fish in the cooling water flow should not be ignored, and that detectable harm to plankton organisms takes place only at water temperatures above 32 0 C. The cooling water consumption can therefore be optimised as follows: The solution of a greater temperature increase and a slightly higher value for the temperature maximum can reduce the cooling water quantity. This reduction of the cooling water quantity reduces the destruction of the fish quantity, which gets into the cooling water system, especially during the summer. If the temperature rise and the temperature itself are not selected too high, the destruction of fish may be reduced without causing serious damage to the plankton. (orig.) [de

  15. Water, lithium and trace element compositions of olivine from Lanzo South replacive mantle dunites (Western Alps): New constraints into melt migration processes at cold thermal regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Alessio; Tribuzio, Riccardo; Ottolini, Luisa; Hamada, Morihisa

    2017-10-01

    Replacive mantle dunites are considered to be shallow pathways for extraction of mantle melts from their source region. Dunites offer a unique possibility to unravel the compositional variability of the melts produced in the upper mantle, before mixing and crystal fractionation modify their original signature. This study includes a quantification of H2O, Li and trace elements (Ni, Mn, Co, Sc, V, Ti, Zr, Y and HREE) in olivine from large replacive dunite bodies (>20 m) within a mantle section exposed in the Western Italian Alps (Lanzo South ophiolite). On the basis of olivine, clinopyroxene and spinel compositions, these dunites were previously interpreted to be formed by melts with a MORB signature. Variations in Ni, Mn, Co and Ca contents in olivine from different dunite bodies suggested formation by different melt batches. The variable H2O and Li contents of these olivines agree with this idea. Compared to olivine from residual peridotites and olivine phenocrysts in MORB (both having H2O 1 ppm), the Lanzo South dunite olivine has high H2O (18-40 ppm) and low Li (0.35-0.83 ppm) contents. Geochemical modelling suggests that the dunite-forming melts were produced by low melting degrees of a mixed garnet-pyroxenite-peridotite mantle source, with a contribution of a garnet pyroxenite component variable from 20 to 80%. The Lanzo dunites experienced migration of melts geochemically enriched and mainly produced in the lowermost part of the melting region. Extraction of enriched melts through dunite channels are probably characteristic of cold thermal regimes, where low temperatures and a thick mantle lithosphere inhibit mixing with melts produced at shallower depths.

  16. Low temperature barrier wellbores formed using water flushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinzie, II; John, Billy [Houston, TX; Keltner, Thomas Joseph [Spring, TX

    2009-03-10

    A method of forming an opening for a low temperature well is described. The method includes drilling an opening in a formation. Water is introduced into the opening to displace drilling fluid or indigenous gas in the formation adjacent to a portion of the opening. Water is produced from the opening. A low temperature fluid is applied to the opening.

  17. Prediction of water temperature metrics using spatial modelling in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water temperature regime dynamics should be viewed regionally, where regional divisions have an inherent underpinning by an understanding of natural thermal variability. The aim of this research was to link key water temperature metrics to readily-mapped environmental surrogates, and to produce spatial images of ...

  18. Sea-ice cover in the Nordic Seas and the sensitivity to Atlantic water temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mari F.; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; Spall, Michael A.

    2017-04-01

    Changes in the sea-ice cover of the Nordic Seas have been proposed to play a key role for the dramatic temperature excursions associated with the Dansgaard-Oeschger events during the last glacial. However, with its proximity to the warm Atlantic water, how a sea-ice cover can persist in the Nordic Seas is not well understood. In this study, we apply an eddy-resolving configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model with an idealized topography to study the presence of sea ice in a Nordic Seas-like domain. We assume an infinite amount of warm Atlantic water present in the south by restoring the southern area to constant temperatures. The sea-surface temperatures are restored toward cold, atmospheric temperatures, and as a result, sea ice is present in the interior of the domain. However, the sea-ice cover in the margins of the Nordic Seas, an area with a warm, cyclonic boundary current, is sensitive to the amount of heat entering the domain, i.e., the restoring temperature in the south. When the temperature of the warm, cyclonic boundary current is high, the margins are free of sea ice and heat is released to the atmosphere. We show that with a small reduction in the temperature of the incoming Atlantic water, the Nordic Seas-like domain is fully covered in sea ice. Warm water is still entering the Nordic Seas, however, this happens at depths below a cold, fresh surface layer produced by melted sea ice. Consequently, the heat release to the atmosphere is reduced along with the eddy heat fluxes. Results suggest a threshold value in the amount of heat entering the Nordic Seas before the sea-ice cover disappears in the margins. We study the sensitivity of this threshold to changes in atmospheric temperatures and vertical diffusivity.

  19. Water level sensor and temperature profile detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarz, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature profile detector comprising a surrounding length of metal tubing and an interior electrical conductor both constructed of high temperature high electrical resistance materials. A plurality of gas-filled expandable bellows made of electrically conductive material is electrically connected to the interior electrical conductor and positioned within the length of metal tubing. The bellows are sealed and contain a predetermined volume of a gas designed to effect movement of the bellows from an open circuit condition to a closed circuit condition in response to monitored temperature changes sensed by each bellows

  20. Water level sensor and temperature profile detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature profile detector comprising a surrounding length of metal tubing and an interior electrical conductor both constructed of high temperature high electrical resistance materials. A plurality of gas-filled expandable bellows made of electrically conductive material is electrically connected to the interior electrical conductor and positioned within the length of metal tubing. The bellows are sealed and contain a predetermined volume of a gas designed to effect movement of the bellows from an open circuit condition to a closed circuit condition in response to monitored temperature changes sensed by each bellows.

  1. Temperature noise characteristics of pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, F.J.; Upadhyaya, B.R.

    1984-01-01

    The core exit temperature noise RMS is linearly related to the core ΔT at a commercial PWR and LOFT. Test loop observations indicate that this linear behavior becomes nonlinear with blockages, boiling, or power skews. The linear neutron flux to temperature noise phase behavior is indicative of a pure time delay process, which has been shown to be related to coolant flow velocity in the core. Therefore, temperature noise could provide a valuable diagnostic tool for the detection of coolant blockages, boiling, and sensor malfunction under both normal and accident conditions in a PWR

  2. Mechanism of high-temperature resistant water-base mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, P

    1981-01-01

    Based on experiments, the causes and laws governing the changes in the performance of water-base mud under high temperature are analyzed, and the requisites and mechanism of treating agents resisting high temperature are discussed. Ways and means are sought for inhibiting, delaying and making use of the effect of high temperature on the performance of mud, while new ideas and systematic views have been expressed on the preparation of treating agents and set-up of a high temperature resistant water-base mud system. High temperature dispersion and high temperature surface inactivation of clay in the mud, as well as their effect and method of utilization are reviewed. Subjects also touched upon include degradation and cross-linking of the high-temperature resistant treating agents, their use and effect. Based on the above, the preparation of a water-base and system capable of resisting 180 to 250/sup 0/C is recommended.

  3. Salinity and temperature variations around Peninsula Malaysia coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Ishak; Jeremy Andy Anak Dominic; Nazrul Hizam Yusof; Mohd Rafaei Murtadza

    2004-01-01

    Vertical profiles of salinity and temperature were measured at several offshore stations along east and west coast of Peninsula Malaysia coastal waters. The measurements which covered South China Sea and Straits of Malacca were made during sampling cruises for Marine Database Project for Peninsula Malaysia, and during an IAEA regional training course for Marine Pollution Project. The results show that the water temperature is highest at the surface and minimum at bottom, while the salinity is lowest at the surface and highest at the bottom. In Malacca Straits, the highest surface water temperature was 30.6 degree C and the lowest bottom water temperature was 20.4 degree C, recorded at a station located in Andaman Sea. The same station also recorded the highest surface and bottom salinity i.e. 31.3 ppt and 34.4 ppt, respectively. For South China Sea, the maximum surface water temperature was 30.4 degree C and the minimum bottom temperature was 25.9 degree C, while the highest surface salinity was 33.2 ppt and the highest bottom salinity was 34.1 ppt. The water in South China Sea also showed some degrees of stratifications with thermocline zones located between 10-40 m water depths. In Malacca Straits, stronger thermocline develops at higher latitude, while at lower latitude the water is more readily mixed. Beside the spatial variations, the seawater temperature and salinity around Peninsula Malaysia also subjected to temporal variation as seawater. (Author)

  4. Numerical Research on Magnetic Field, Temperature Field and Flow Field During Melting and Directionally Solidifying TiAl Alloys by Electromagnetic Cold Crucible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruirun; Yang, Yaohua; Gong, Xue; Guo, Jingjie; Su, Yanqing; Ding, Hongsheng; Fu, Hengzhi

    2017-12-01

    The electromagnetic cold crucible (EMCC) technique is an effective method to melt and directionally solidify reactive and high-temperature materials without contamination. The temperature field and fluid flow induced by the electromagnetic field are very important for melting and controlling the microstructure. In this article, a 3D EMCC model for calculating the magnetic field in the charges (TiAl alloys) using the T-Ω finite element method was established and verified. Magnetic fields in the charge under different electrical parameters, positions and dimensions of the charge were calculated and analyzed. The calculated results show that the magnetic field concentrates in the skin layer, and the magnetic flux density ( B) increases with increasing of the frequency, charge diameter and current. The maximum B in the charge is affected by the position of the charge in EMCC ( h 1) and the charge height ( h 2), which emerges at the middle of coils ( h c) when the relationship of h c < h 1 + h 2 < h c + δ is satisfied. Lower frequency and smaller charge diameter can improve the uniformity of the magnetic field in the charge. Consequently, the induced uniform electromagnetic stirring weakens the turbulence and improves temperature uniformity in the vicinity of the solid/liquid (S/L) interface, which is beneficial to forming a planar S/L interface during directional solidification. Based on the above conclusions, the TiAlNb alloy was successfully melted with lower power consumption and directionally solidified by the square EMCC.

  5. Diffusion of hydrous species in model basaltic melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Xuan; Wang, Qinxia; Ding, Jiale; Ni, Huaiwei

    2017-10-01

    Water diffusion in Fe-free model basaltic melt with up to 2 wt% H2O was investigated at 1658-1846 K and 1 GPa in piston-cylinder apparatus using both hydration and diffusion couple techniques. Diffusion profiles measured by FTIR are consistent with a model in which both molecular H2O (H2Om) and hydroxyl (OH) contribute to water diffusion. OH diffusivity is roughly 13% of H2Om diffusivity, showing little dependence on temperature or water concentration. Water diffusion is dominated by the motion of OH until total H2O (H2Ot) concentration reaches 1 wt%. The dependence of apparent H2Ot diffusivity on H2Ot concentration appears to be overestimated by a previous study on MORB melt, but H2Ot diffusivity at 1 wt% H2Ot in basaltic melt is still greater than those in rhyolitic to andesitic melts. The appreciable contribution of OH to water diffusion in basaltic melt can be explained by enhanced mobility of OH, probably associated with the development of free hydroxyl bonded with network-modifying cations, as well as higher OH concentration. Calculation based on the Nernst-Einstein equation demonstrates that OH may serve as an effective charge carrier in hydrous basaltic melt, which could partly account for the previously observed strong influence of water on electrical conductivity of basaltic melt.

  6. Phase transformations in Zr-29.56 at.% Cu-19.85 at.% Ni melt-spun high-temperature shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firstov, G.S.; Koval, Yu.N.; Van Humbeeck, J.; Portier, R.; Vermaut, P.; Ochin, P.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the phase transformations during crystallization of the melt-spun Zr-29.56 at.% Cu-19.85 at.% Ni high-temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA). This alloy exhibits a martensitic transformation in the bulk polycrystalline state at temperatures above crystallization of the metallic glass with the same composition. The crystallization kinetics were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The intermediate and final products of crystallization for this HTSMA were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy. The chain of the transformations starting from crystallization and ending at martensitic transformation will be described. Perspectives of the thin film production of Zr-based HTSMA will be discussed

  7. Phase transformations in Zr-29.56 at.% Cu-19.85 at.% Ni melt-spun high-temperature shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firstov, G.S. [Institute for Metal Physics, National Academy of Sciences, 36 Vernadsky blvd., UA-03680, Kiev-142 (Ukraine)]. E-mail: gfirst@imp.kiev.ua; Koval, Yu.N. [Institute for Metal Physics, National Academy of Sciences, 36 Vernadsky blvd., UA-03680, Kiev-142 (Ukraine); Van Humbeeck, J. [Department MTM, Catholic University of Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Heverlee (Leuven) (Belgium); Portier, R. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Structurale ENSCP, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Vermaut, P. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Structurale ENSCP, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Ochin, P. [Centre d' Etudes de Chimie Metallurgique-CNRS UPR2801, 15 rue Georges Urbain, 94407 Vitry-sur-Seine (France)

    2006-11-25

    The present paper focuses on the phase transformations during crystallization of the melt-spun Zr-29.56 at.% Cu-19.85 at.% Ni high-temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA). This alloy exhibits a martensitic transformation in the bulk polycrystalline state at temperatures above crystallization of the metallic glass with the same composition. The crystallization kinetics were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The intermediate and final products of crystallization for this HTSMA were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy. The chain of the transformations starting from crystallization and ending at martensitic transformation will be described. Perspectives of the thin film production of Zr-based HTSMA will be discussed.

  8. Characterizing subsurface water flow to artificial drain lines using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, D.; Brooks, E. S.; Heinse, R.; Keller, C. K.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last several years growers have experienced increasingly wet spring conditions in the Palouse Region located in North Idaho, Eastern Washington and Eastern Oregon. As a result more artificial drain lines are being installed so growers can access their fields earlier in the growing season. Additionally there has been increasing adoption of no-tillage practices among growers in order minimize erosion and runoff in the region. There is a growing body of evidence that suggests long-term no-tillage may lead to the establishment of large macropore networks through increased earthworm activity and the preservation of root channels. These macropore networks, in conjunctions with the presence of artificial drains lines, may create connected preferential flow paths from agricultural fields to receiving streams. This connectivity of flow paths from agricultural fields to receiving water bodies may increase the loading of nutrients and agricultural chemicals as some flow paths may largely bypass soil matrix interaction where materials can be sequestered. Our primary objective for this study was to characterize subsurface flow to two artificial drain lines, one under conventional tillage and the other under no-tillage, using distributed temperature sensing (DTS) technology. During the study (November 2016-April 2017) the near surface soil-water temperature was consistently colder than that of deeper depths. Temperature was thus used as a tracer as snow melt and soil-water moved from the near surface to the drain lines during snowmelt and precipitation events. The spatial and temporal variability of the temperature along the artificial drain line under no-tillage practices was found to be greater than that of the conventional tilled field. It is hypothesized that preferential flow paths are responsible for the increased variability of temperature seen in the drain line under long term no-till management. The temperature along the conventional till drain line showed a

  9. Crust behavior and erosion rate prediction of EPR sacrificial material impinged by core melt jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gen; Liu, Ming, E-mail: ming.liu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Wang, Jinshi; Chong, Daotong; Yan, Junjie

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • A numerical code was developed to analyze melt jet-concrete interaction in the frame of MPS method. • Crust and ablated concrete layer at UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} melt and concrete interface periodically developed and collapsed. • Concrete surface temperature fluctuated around a low temperature and ablation temperature. • Concrete erosion by Fe-Zr melt jet was significantly faster than that by UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} melt jet. - Abstract: Sacrificial material is a special ferro-siliceous concrete, designed in the ex-vessel core melt stabilization system of European Pressurized water Reactor (EPR). Given a localized break of RPV lower head, the melt directly impinges onto the dry concrete in form of compact jet. The concrete erosion behavior influences the failure of melt plug, and further affects melt spreading. In this study, a numerical code was developed in the frame of Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method, to analyze the crust behavior and erosion rate of sacrificial concrete, impinged by prototypic melt jet. In validation of numerical modeling, the time-dependent erosion depth and erosion configuration matched well with the experimental data. Sensitivity study of sacrificial concrete erosion indicates that the crust and ablated concrete layer presented at UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} melt and concrete interface, whereas no crust could be found in the interaction of Fe-Zr melt with concrete. The crust went through stabilization-fracture-reformation periodic process, accompanied with accumulating and collapsing of molten concrete layer. The concrete surface temperature fluctuated around a low temperature and ablation temperature. It increased as the concrete surface layer was heated to melting, and dropped down when the cold concrete was revealed. The erosion progression was fast in the conditions of small jet diameter and large concrete inclination angle, and it was significantly faster in the erosion by metallic melt jet than by oxidic melt jet.

  10. Integrated collector storage solar water heater: Temperature stratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, C.; Currie, J.; Muneer, T.

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the temperature stratification inside an Integrated Collector Storage Solar Water Heater (ICS-SWH) was carried out. The system takes the form of a rectangular-shaped box incorporating the solar collector and storage tank into a single unit and was optimised for simulation in Scottish weather conditions. A 3-month experimental study on the ICS-SWH was undertaken in order to provide empirical data for comparison with the computed results. Using a previously developed macro model; a number of improvements were made. The initial macro model was able to generate corresponding water bulk temperature in the collector with a given hourly incident solar radiation, ambient temperature and inlet water temperature and therefore able to predict ICS-SWH performance. The new model was able to compute the bulk water temperature variation in different SWH collectors for a given aspect ratio and the water temperature along the height of the collector (temperature stratification). Computed longitudinal temperature stratification results obtained were found to be in close agreement with the experimental data.

  11. Effect of Feed Melting, Temperature History, and Minor Component Addition on Spinel Crystallization in High-Level Waste Glass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Izák, Pavel; Hrma, P.; Arey, B. W.; Plaisted, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 289, 1-3 (2001), s. 17-29 ISSN 0022-3093 Grant - others:DOE(US) DE/06/76RL01830 Keywords : feed melting * crystalization * high-level waste glass Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.363, year: 2001

  12. NOAA NDBC SOS, 2006-present, sea_water_temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NDBC SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have sea_water_temperature data. Because of the nature of SOS requests,...

  13. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL, 1853-present, Water Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have water temperature data. *These services are for testing and evaluation...

  14. NOS CO-OPS Meteorological Data, Water Temperature, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has Water Temperature data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS). WARNING: These preliminary data have not...

  15. Comparison of multiple DNA dyes for real-time PCR: effects of dye concentration and sequence composition on DNA amplification and melting temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðnason, Haukur; Dufva, Hans Martin; Bang, Dang Duong

    2007-01-01

    investigate 15 different intercalating DNA dyes for their inhibitory effects on PCR, effects on DNA melting temperature and possible preferential binding to GC-rich sequences. Our results demonstrated that in contrast to the results of SYBR Green I, two intercalating dyes SYTO-13 and SYTO-82 do not inhibit......The importance of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has increased steadily in clinical applications over the last decade. Many applications utilize SYBR Green I dye to follow the accumulation of amplicons in real time. SYBR Green I has, however, a number of limitations that include...... the inhibition of PCR, preferential binding to GC-rich sequences and effects on melting curve analysis. Although a few alternative dyes without some of these limitations have been recently proposed, no large-scale investigation into the properties of intercalating dyes has been performed. In this study, we...

  16. Evolution of the microstructure and hardness of a rapidly solidified/melt-spun AZ91 alloy upon aging at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baishu; Liu Yongbing; An Jian; Li Rongguang; Su Zhenguo; Su Guihua; Lu You; Cao Zhanyi

    2009-01-01

    The effect of aging at different temperatures on a rapidly solidified/melt-spun AZ91 alloy has been investigated in depth. The microstructures of as-spun and aged ribbons with a thickness of approximately 60 μm were characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and laser optical microscopy; microhardness measurements were also conducted. It was found that the commercial AZ91 alloy undergoes a cellular/dendritic transition during melt-spinning at a speed of 34 m/s. A strengthening effect due to aging was observed: a maximum hardness of 110 HV/0.05 and an age-hardenability of 50% were obtained when the ribbon was aged at 200 deg. C for 20 min. The β-Mg 17 Al 12 phase exhibits net and dispersion types of distribution during precipitation. The dispersion of precipitates in dendritic grains or cells is the main source of strengthening

  17. Advances in high temperature water chemistry and future issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millett, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper traces the development of advances in high temperature water chemistry with emphasis in the field of nuclear power. Many of the water chemistry technologies used in plants throughout the world today would not have been possible without the underlying scientific advances made in this field. In recent years, optimization of water chemistry has been accomplished by the availability of high temperature water chemistry codes such as MULTEQ. These tools have made the science of high temperature chemistry readily accessible for engineering purposes. The paper closes with a discussion of what additional scientific data and insights must be pursued in order to support the further development of water chemistry technologies for the nuclear industry. (orig.)

  18. Diazotroph Diversity in the Sea Ice, Melt Ponds, and Surface Waters of the Eurasian Basin of the Central Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Turk-Kubo, Kendra A; Buttigieg, Pier L; Rapp, Josephine Z; Krumpen, Thomas; Zehr, Jonathan P; Boetius, Antje

    2016-01-01

    The Eurasian basin of the Central Arctic Ocean is nitrogen limited, but little is known about the presence and role of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Recent studies have indicated the occurrence of diazotrophs in Arctic coastal waters potentially of riverine origin. Here, we investigated the presence of diazotrophs in ice and surface waters of the Central Arctic Ocean in the summer of 2012. We identified diverse communities of putative diazotrophs through targeted analysis of the nifH gene, which encodes the iron protein of the nitrogenase enzyme. We amplified 529 nifH sequences from 26 samples of Arctic melt ponds, sea ice and surface waters. These sequences resolved into 43 clusters at 92% amino acid sequence identity, most of which were non-cyanobacterial phylotypes from sea ice and water samples. One cyanobacterial phylotype related to Nodularia sp. was retrieved from sea ice, suggesting that this important functional group is rare in the Central Arctic Ocean. The diazotrophic community in sea-ice environments appear distinct from other cold-adapted diazotrophic communities, such as those present in the coastal Canadian Arctic, the Arctic tundra and glacial Antarctic lakes. Molecular fingerprinting of nifH and the intergenic spacer region of the rRNA operon revealed differences between the communities from river-influenced Laptev Sea waters and those from ice-related environments pointing toward a marine origin for sea-ice diazotrophs. Our results provide the first record of diazotrophs in the Central Arctic and suggest that microbial nitrogen fixation may occur north of 77°N. To assess the significance of nitrogen fixation for the nitrogen budget of the Arctic Ocean and to identify the active nitrogen fixers, further biogeochemical and molecular biological studies are needed.

  19. Diazotroph diversity in the sea ice, melt ponds and surface waters of the Eurasian Basin of the Central Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Fernández-Méndez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Eurasian basin of the Central Arctic Ocean is nitrogen limited, but little is known about the presence and role of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Recent studies have indicated the occurrence of diazotrophs in Arctic coastal waters potentially of riverine origin. Here, we investigated the presence of diazotrophs in ice and surface waters of the Central Arctic Ocean in the summer of 2012. We identified diverse communities of putative diazotrophs through targeted analysis of the nifH gene, which encodes the iron protein of the nitrogenase enzyme. We amplified 529 nifH sequences from 26 samples of Arctic melt ponds, sea ice and surface waters. These sequences resolved into 43 clusters at 92% amino acid sequence identity, most of which were non-cyanobacterial phylotypes from sea ice and water samples. One cyanobacterial phylotype related to Nodularia sp. was retrieved from sea ice, suggesting that this important functional group is rare in the Central Arctic Ocean. The diazotrophic community in sea-ice environments appear distinct from other cold-adapted diazotrophic communities, such as those present in the coastal Canadian Arctic, the Arctic tundra and glacial Antarctic lakes. Molecular fingerprinting of nifH and the intergenic spacer region of the rRNA operon revealed differences between the communities from river-influenced Laptev Sea waters and those from ice-related environments pointing towards a marine origin for sea-ice diazotrophs. Our results provide the first record of diazotrophs in the Central Arctic and suggest that microbial nitrogen fixation may occur north of 77ºN. To assess the significance of nitrogen fixation for the nitrogen budget of the Arctic Ocean and to identify the active nitrogen fixers, further biogeochemical and molecular biological studies are needed.

  20. Estimation of the Temperature-Dependent Nitrogen Solubility in Stainless Fe-Cr-Mn-Ni-Si-C Steel Melts During Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, Marco; Hauser, Michael; Sandig, Eckhard Frank; Volkova, Olena

    2018-04-01

    The influence of chemical composition, temperature, and pressure on the nitrogen solubility of various high alloy stainless steel grades, namely Fe-14Cr-(0.17-7.77)Mn-6Ni-0.5Si-0.03C [wt pct], Fe-15Cr-3Mn-4Ni-0.5Si-0.1C [wt pct], and Fe-19Cr-3Mn-4Ni-0.5Si-0.15C [wt pct], was studied in the melt. The temperature-dependent N-solubility was determined using an empirical approach proposed by Wada and Pehlke. The thus calculated N-concentrations overestimate the actual N-solubility of all the studied Fe-Cr-Mn-Ni-Si-C steel melts at a given temperature and pressure. Consequently, the calculation model has to be modified by Si and C because both elements are not recognized in the original equation. The addition of the 1st and 2nd order interaction parameters for Si and C to the model by Wada and Pehlke allows a precise estimation of the temperature-dependent nitrogen solubility in the liquid steel bath, and fits very well with the measured nitrogen concentrations during processing of the steels. Moreover, the N-solubility enhancing effect of Cr- and Mn-additions has been demonstrated.

  1. Temperature stratification in a hot water tank with circulation pipe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the project is to investigate the change in temperature stratification due to the operation of a circulation pipe. Further, putting forward rules for design of pipe inlet in order not to disturb the temperature stratification in the hot water tank. A validated computer model based on t...

  2. Possible effects of regulating hydroponic water temperature on plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water temperature can affect many physiological processes during plant growth and development. Temperatures below or above optimum levels may influence plant metabolic activities positively or negatively. This may include accumulation of different metabolites such as phenolic compounds, reactive oxygen species ...

  3. An observational study on the temperature rising effects in water warming canal and water warming pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, J. B.; Hong, S. B. [Rural Development Cooperation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-09-15

    The power water flowed out from the multipurpose darn influences the ecosystem approximately because of the low water temperature. An appropriate counter measure to the rising water temperature is needed for growing crops especially when the temperature is below 18°C in the source of the irrigation water This observational study is practiced in Yong-Doo water warming canal and pond in the down stream of Choong-Ju multipurpose dam and is practiced for analyse and compare the rising effects in actural water temperature by actual measurement with the rising effects of planned water temperatuer by the basic theoritical method and for the help to present the direction in plan establishment through investigate the results afterwards. The results are as follows. 1. The degree of the rise of the water temperature can be decided by θ{sub x} = θ{sub 0} + K (L/(v * h)) * (T - θ{sub 0}) Then, K values of a factor representing the characteristics of the water warming canal were 0.00002043 for the type I. and 0.0000173 for the type II. respectively. 2. A variation of water temperature which produced by the difference effective temperature and water temperature in the water warming canal was θ{sub x1} = 16.5 + 15.9 (1-e{sup -0.00018x}), θ{sub x2} = 18.8 + 8.4(1-e{sup -0.000298x}) for the type I. and θ{sub x} = 19.6 + 12.8 (1-e{sup -0.00041x}) for the type II. 3. It was shown that the effects of the rise of water temperature for the type I. water warming canal were greater than that of type II. as a resultes of broadening the surface of the canal compared with the depth of water, coloring the surface of water canal and installing the resistance block. 4. In case of the type I. water warming canal, the equation between the air temperature and the degree of the rise of water temprature could be made; Y = 0.4134X + 7.728 In addition, in case of the type II. water warming canal, the correlation was very low. 5. A monthly variation of the water temperature in the water warming

  4. Global River Discharge and Water Temperature under Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Franssen, W.H.P.; Yearsley, J.R.; Ludwig, F.; Haddeland, I.; Lettenmaier, D.P.; Kabat, P.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change will affect hydrologic and thermal regimes of rivers, having a direct impact on freshwater ecosystems and human water use. Here we assess the impact of climate change on global river flows and river water temperatures, and identify regions that might become more critical for

  5. Melting of major Glaciers in the western Himalayas: evidence of climatic changes from long term MSU derived tropospheric temperature trend (1979–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Prasad

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Global warming or the increase of the surface and atmospheric temperatures of the Earth, is increasingly discernible in the polar, sub-polar and major land glacial areas. The Himalayan and Tibetan Plateau Glaciers, which are the largest glaciers outside of the Polar Regions, are showing a large-scale decrease of snow cover and an extensive glacial retreat. These glaciers such as Siachen and Gangotri are a major water resource for Asia as they feed major rivers such as the Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra. Due to scarcity of ground measuring stations, the long-term observations of atmospheric temperatures acquired from the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU since 1979–2008 is highly useful. The lower and middle tropospheric temperature trend based on 30 years of MSU data shows warming of the Northern Hemisphere's mid-latitude regions. The mean month-to-month warming (up to 0.048±0.026°K/year or 1.44°K over 30 years of the mid troposphere (near surface over the high altitude Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau is prominent and statistically significant at a 95% confidence interval. Though the mean annual warming trend over the Himalayas (0.016±0.005°K/year, and Tibetan Plateau (0.008±0.006°K/year is positive, the month to month warming trend is higher (by 2–3 times, positive and significant only over a period of six months (December to May. The factors responsible for the reversal of this trend from June to November are discussed here. The inequality in the magnitude of the warming trends of the troposphere between the western and eastern Himalayas and the IG (Indo-Gangetic plains is attributed to the differences in increased aerosol loading (due to dust storms over these regions. The monthly mean lower-tropospheric MSU-derived temperature trend over the IG plains (dust sink region; up to 0.032±0.027°K/year and dust source regions (Sahara desert, Middle East, Arabian region, Afghanistan-Iran-Pakistan and Thar Desert regions; up to 0.068±0.033

  6. Influence of fine water droplets to temperature and humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafidzal, M. H. M.; Hamzah, A.; Manaf, M. Z. A.; Saadun, M. N. A.; Zakaria, M. S.; Roslizar, A.; Jumaidin, R.

    2015-05-01

    Excessively dry air can cause dry skin, dry eyes and exacerbation of medical conditions. Therefore, many researches have been done in order to increase humidity in our environment. One of the ways is by using water droplets. Nowadays, it is well known in market stand fan equipped with water mister in order to increase the humidity of certain area. In this study, the same concept is applied to the ceiling fan. This study uses a model that combines a humidifier which functions as cooler, ceiling fan and scaled down model of house. The objective of this study is to analyze the influence of ceiling fan humidifier to the temperature and humidity in a house. The mechanism of this small model uses batteries as the power source, connected to the fan and the humidifier. The small water tank's function is to store and supply water to the humidifier. The humidifier is used to cool the room by changing water phase to fine water droplets. Fine water droplets are created from mechanism of the humidifier, which is by increasing the kinetic energy of water molecule using high frequency vibration that overcome the holding force between water molecules. Thus, the molecule of water will change to state of gas or mist. The fan is used to spread out the mist of water to surrounding of the room in order to enhance the humidity. Thermocouple and humidity meter are used to measure temperature and humidity in some period of times. The result shows that humidity increases and temperature decreases with time. This application of water droplet can be applied in the vehicles and engine in order to decrease the temperature.

  7. The effects of sub-ice-shelf melting on dense shelf water formation and export in idealized simulations of Antarctic margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Gustavo; Stern, Alon; Harrison, Matthew; Sergienko, Olga; Hallberg, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Dense shelf water (DSW) is formed in coastal polynyas around Antarctica as a result of intense cooling and brine rejection. A fraction of this water reaches ice shelves cavities and is modified due to interactions with sub-ice-shelf melt water. This modified water mass contributes to the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water, and consequently, influences the large-scale ocean circulation. Here, we investigate the role of sub-ice-shelf melting in the formation and export of DSW using idealized simulations with an isopycnal ocean model (MOM6) coupled with a sea ice model (SIS2) and a thermodynamic active ice shelf. A set of experiments is conducted with variable horizontal grid resolutions (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 km), ice shelf geometries and atmospheric forcing. In all simulations DSW is spontaneously formed in coastal polynyas due to the combined effect of the imposed atmospheric forcing and the ocean state. Our results show that sub-ice-shelf melting can significantly change the rate of dense shelf water outflows, highlighting the importance of this process to correctly represent bottom water formation.

  8. Historical Change of Equilibrium Water Temperature in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, H.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in freshwater ecosystems due to a climate change have been great concern for sustainable river basin management both for water resources utilization and ecological conservation. However, their impact seems to be difficult to evaluate because of wide variety of basin characteristics along a river network both in nature and social environment. This presentation uses equilibrium water temperature as a simple criterion index for evaluating the long-term changes of stream thermal environment due to the historical climate change in Japan. It examines, at first, the relationship between the equilibrium water temperature and the stream temperature observed for 7 years at a lower reach in the Ibo River, Japan. It analyzes, then, the seasonal and regional trends of the equilibrium water temperature change for the last 50 years at 133 meteorological station sites throughout Japan, discussing their rising or falling characteristics. The correlation analysis at the local reach of the Ibo River shows that the equilibrium water temperature has similar trend of change as the stream temperature. However, its value tends to be higher than the stream temperature in summer, while lower in winter. The onset of the higher equilibrium water temperature fluctuates annually from mid February to early April. This onset fluctuation at each spring could be influenced by the different amount of snow at the antecedent winter. The rising or falling trends of the equilibrium water temperature are analyzed both annually and seasonally through the regression analysis of the 133 sites in Japan. Consequently, the trends of the temperature change could be categorized by 12 patterns. As for the seasonal analysis, the results shows that there are many sites indicating the falling trend in spring and summer, and rising trends in autumn and winter. In particular, winter has the strong rising tendency throughout Japan. As for the regional analysis, the result illustrates the precise rationality; e

  9. Water Recycling removal using temperature-sensitive hydronen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana B. Gupta

    2002-10-30

    The overall objective of this project was to study the proposed Water Recycling/Removal Using Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogels. The main element of this technology is the design of a suitable hydrogel that can perform needed water separation for pulp and paper industry. The specific topics studied are to answer following questions: (a) Can water be removed using hydrogel from large molecules such as lignin? (b) Can the rate of separation be made faster? (c) What are the molecular interactions with hydrogel surface? (d) Can a hydrogel be designed for a high ionic strength and high temperature? Summary of the specific results are given.

  10. Measurements of hot water service consumptions: temperature influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secchi, R.; Vallat, D.; Cyssau, R. (COSTIC, Saint Remy-les-Chevreuse (France))

    This article presents a campaign of measurements of which the aim is the observation of consumptions, for individual installations equiped with a hot water tank. The study takes an interest in the temperature of the water in the tank and the instantaneous power of the generator. The instrumentation, the installations and the results of this campaign are presented in this paper. The conclusion is the ''economic'' temperature of hot sanitary water is below 60/sup 0/C but above 55/sup 0/C.

  11. Whole body cooling by immersion in water at moderate temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, F; Booth, J

    1998-06-01

    This study investigated the potential use of whole body cooling by water immersion for lowering body temperatures prior to endurance exercise. Rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk), oxygen consumption (VO2), and ventilation (VE) were measured in 7 male and 3 female subjects who were immersed in a water bath for up to 60 min. Initial water temperature was 28.8+/-1.5 degrees C and decreased to 23.8+/-1.1 degrees C by the end of immersion. Pre-immersion Tre of 37.34+/-0.36 degrees C was not altered by 60 min water immersion but decreased to 36.64+/-0.34 degrees C at 3 min post immersion (p immersion. Reductions in Tre and Tsk resulted in reduced body heat content (Hc) of approximately 545 kJ (p immersion. VO2 and VE increased from pre-immersion values of 0.34+/-0.08 L x min(-1) and 6.2+/-1.4 L x min(-1) to 0.54+/-0.09 L x min(-) and 11.5+/-5.4 L x min(-1) at the end of immersion, respectively. Heart rate remained unchanged throughout immersion. These results indicate that whole body immersion in moderately cold water temperatures is an effective cooling maneuver for lowering body temperatures and body Hc in the absence of severe physiological responses generally associated with sudden cold stress.

  12. Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, David R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The soil water and temperature system (SWATS) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil-water potential, and soil moisture as a function of depth below the ground surface at hourly intervals. The temperature profiles are measured directly by in situ sensors at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The soil-water potential and soil moisture profiles are derived from measurements of soil temperature rise in response to small inputs of heat. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil.

  13. Critical temperatures and a critical chain length in saturated diacylphosphatidylcholines: calorimetric, ultrasonic and Monte Carlo simulation study of chain-melting/ordering in aqueous lipid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharakoz, Dmitry P; Panchelyuga, Maria S; Tiktopulo, Elizaveta I; Shlyapnikova, Elena A

    2007-12-01

    Chain-ordering/melting transition in a series of saturated diacylphosphatidylcholines (PCs) in aqueous dispersions have been studied experimentally (calorimetric and ultrasonic techniques) and theoretically (an Ising-like lattice model). The shape of the calorimetric curves was compared with the theoretical data and interpreted in terms of the lateral interactions and critical temperatures determined for each lipid studied. A critical chain length has been found (between 16 and 17 C-atoms per chain) which subdivides PCs into two classes with different phase behavior. In shorter lipids, the transition takes place above their critical temperatures meaning that this is an intrinsically continuous transition. In longer lipids, the transition occurs below the critical temperatures of the lipids, meaning that the transition is intrinsically discontinuous (first-order). This conclusion was supported independently by the ultrasonic relaxation sensitive to density fluctuations. Interestingly, it is this length that is the most abundant among the saturated chains in biological membranes.

  14. Temperature impacts on the water year 2014 drought in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; Safeeq, Mohammad; AghaKouchak, Amir; Guan, Kaiyu; Funk, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    California is experiencing one of the worst droughts on record. Here we use a hydrological model and risk assessment framework to understand the influence of temperature on the water year (WY) 2014 drought in California and examine the probability that this drought would have been less severe if temperatures resembled the historical climatology. Our results indicate that temperature played an important role in exacerbating the WY 2014 drought severity. We found that if WY 2014 temperatures resembled the 1916–2012 climatology, there would have been at least an 86% chance that winter snow water equivalent and spring-summer soil moisture and runoff deficits would have been less severe than the observed conditions. We also report that the temperature forecast skill in California for the important seasons of winter and spring is negligible, beyond a lead-time of one month, which we postulate might hinder skillful drought prediction in California.

  15. Optimum hot water temperature for absorption solar cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecuona, A.; Ventas, R.; Venegas, M.; Salgado, R. [Dpto. Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Zacarias, A. [ESIME UPA, IPN, Av. de las Granjas 682, Col. Santa Catarina, 02550, D.F. Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The hot water temperature that maximizes the overall instantaneous efficiency of a solar cooling facility is determined. A modified characteristic equation model is used and applied to single-effect lithium bromide-water absorption chillers. This model is based on the characteristic temperature difference and serves to empirically calculate the performance of real chillers. This paper provides an explicit equation for the optimum temperature of vapor generation, in terms of only the external temperatures of the chiller. The additional data required are the four performance parameters of the chiller and essentially a modified stagnation temperature from the detailed model of the thermal collector operation. This paper presents and discusses the results for small capacity machines for air conditioning of homes and small buildings. The discussion highlights the influence of the relevant parameters. (author)

  16. Assessment of Mass Fraction and Melting Temperature for the Application of Limestone Concrete and Siliceous Concrete to Nuclear Reactor Basemat Considering Molten Core–Concrete Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojae Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Severe accident scenarios in nuclear reactors, such as nuclear meltdown, reveal that an extremely hot molten core may fall into the nuclear reactor cavity and seriously affect the safety of the nuclear containment vessel due to the chain reaction caused by the reaction between the molten core and concrete. This paper reports on research focused on the type and amount of vapor produced during the reaction between a high-temperature molten core and concrete, as well as on the erosion rate of concrete and the heat transfer characteristics at its vicinity. This study identifies the mass fraction and melting temperature as the most influential properties of concrete necessary for a safety analysis conducted in relation to the thermal interaction between the molten core and the basemat concrete. The types of concrete that are actually used in nuclear reactor cavities were investigated. The H2O content in concrete required for the computation of the relative amount of gases generated by the chemical reaction of the vapor, the quantity of CO2 necessary for computing the cooling speed of the molten core, and the melting temperature of concrete are evaluated experimentally for the molten core–concrete interaction analysis.

  17. Assessment of mass fraction and melting temperature for the application of limestone concrete and siliceous concrete to nuclear reactor basemat considering molten core-concrete interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Jae; Kim, Do Gyeum [Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Leon [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Eui Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Myung Suk [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Severe accident scenarios in nuclear reactors, such as nuclear meltdown, reveal that an extremely hot molten core may fall into the nuclear reactor cavity and seriously affect the safety of the nuclear containment vessel due to the chain reaction caused by the reaction between the molten core and concrete. This paper reports on research focused on the type and amount of vapor produced during the reaction between a high-temperature molten core and concrete, as well as on the erosion rate of concrete and the heat transfer characteristics at its vicinity. This study identifies the mass fraction and melting temperature as the most influential properties of concrete necessary for a safety analysis conducted in relation to the thermal interaction between the molten core and the basemat concrete. The types of concrete that are actually used in nuclear reactor cavities were investigated. The H2O content in concrete required for the computation of the relative amount of gases generated by the chemical reaction of the vapor, the quantity of CO2 necessary for computing the cooling speed of the molten core, and the melting temperature of concrete are evaluated experimentally for the molten core-concrete interaction analysis.

  18. Photometric analysis of the structure evolution on the Pb-19.4%Sn melt surface in the S-L temperature range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyakhovitskii M.M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure evolution of alloys in solidification range is considered as the first-order phase transformation from the solid state to the liquid one, which occurs by the mechanism of nucleation and growth of more symmetrical phase to less symmetrical crystalline phase. The kinetic regularities of this transformation are studied by the method of the photometric analysis of structure images (PHASI, which makes it possible to establish the temperature dependence of the relationship between the solid and liquid phases and their distribution on the melt surface. The PHASI method is based on the combined analysis of the brightness spectra of the visible light reflections from the sample surface and of the distribution of its scattering centers in different intensity intervals. The data on the structure evolution of the Sn+19.4%Pb alloy upon melting and solidification were considered in parallel with the measured spectra of sound signals. It was revealed that a distinct maximum is observed in the temperature dependence of radiation energy in the temperature range of phase transformation from the liquid into the solid state and hot crack formation occurs near the transition zone in the region of the contact of the ingot with the crucible.

  19. IMPACT OF WATER TEMPERATURE ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2002-08-07

    These tests conducted this past quarter have indicated that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels at water temperatures ranging from 7 to 23 C. Percent kill will likely be somewhat lower at very low temperatures, e.g., 7 C, but even at such low temperatures high mussel kill can still be achieved (>70% kill). This is significant because the development of a zebra mussel control method that is efficacious in such a wide range of temperatures broadens its usefulness as a potential commercial product.

  20. EFFECT OF IMMERSION TEMPERATURE ON THE WATER UPTAKE OF POLYPROPYLENE/WOOD FLOUR/ORGANOCLAY HYBRID NANOCOMPOSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Kord

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene/wood flour/organoclay hybrid nanocomposites were melt-compounded in an internal mixer at 190 oC and 60 rpm rotor speed. Then samples were fabricated by injection molding. Effects of immersion temperature on the water uptake of hybrid nanocomposite were investigated. To meet this objective, water absorption of samples was determined after 24 h immersion in distilled water at different temperatures (25, 50, 75, and 100 °C. Results indicated that immersion temperature had a significant influence on the water absorption of composites. By increasing the temperature, water absorption increases as well. The maximum water absorption of composite is decreased by increasing the nanoclay and compatibilizer content. The morphology of nanoclay was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy. The effect of morphology on water absorption was also evaluated. Due to inadequate compatibilizer, exfoliated morphology of nanoclay was not obtained, but there was evidence of intercalation. The order of intercalation for samples containing 3 phc was higher than that of 6 phc at the same PP-g-MA content due to some agglomerations of organoclay.

  1. A 400-year ice core melt layer record of summertime warming in the Alaska Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winski, D.; Osterberg, E. C.; Kreutz, K. J.; Wake, C. P.; Ferris, D. G.; Campbell, S. W.; Baum, M.; Raudzens Bailey, A.; Birkel, S. D.; Introne, D.; Handley, M.

    2017-12-01

    Warming in high-elevation regions has socially relevant impacts on glacier mass balance, water resources, and sensitive alpine ecosystems, yet very few high-elevation temperature records exist from the middle or high latitudes. While many terrestrial paleoclimate records provide critical temperature records from low elevations over recent centuries, melt layers preserved in alpine glaciers present an opportunity to develop calibrated, annually-resolved temperature records from high elevations. We present a 400-year temperature record based on the melt-layer stratigraphy in two ice cores collected from Mt. Hunter in the Central Alaska Range. The ice core record shows a 60-fold increase in melt frequency and water equivalent melt thickness between the pre-industrial period (before 1850) and present day. We calibrate the melt record to summer temperatures based on local and regional weather station analyses, and find that the increase in melt production represents a summer warming of at least 2° C, exceeding rates of temperature increase at most low elevation sites in Alaska. The Mt. Hunter melt layer record is significantly (p<0.05) correlated with surface temperatures in the central tropical Pacific through a Rossby-wave like pattern that induces high temperatures over Alaska. Our results show that rapid alpine warming has taken place in the Alaska Range for at least a century, and that conditions in the tropical oceans contribute to this warming.

  2. Increasing Water Temperature Triggers Dominance of Small Freshwater Plankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasconi, Serena; Gall, Andrea; Winter, Katharina; Kainz, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Climate change scenarios predict that lake water temperatures will increase up to 4°C and rainfall events will become more intense and frequent by the end of this century. Concurrently, supply of humic substances from terrestrial runoff is expected to increase, resulting in darker watercolor ("brownification") of aquatic ecosystems. Using a multi-seasonal, low trophic state mesocosm experiment, we investigated how higher water temperature and brownification affect plankton community composition, phenology, and functioning. We tested the hypothesis that higher water temperature (+3°C) and brownification will, a) cause plankton community composition to shift toward small sized phytoplankton and cyanobacteria, and, b) extend the length of the growing season entailing higher phytoplankton production later in the season. We demonstrate that the 3°C increase of water temperature favored the growth of heterotrophic bacteria and small sized autotrophic picophytoplankton cells with significantly higher primary production during warmer fall periods. However, 3X darker water (effect of brownification) caused no significant changes in the plankton community composition or functioning relative to control conditions. Our findings reveal that increased temperature change plankton community structure by favoring smaller sized species proliferation (autotrophic phytoplankton and small size cladocerans), and increase primary productivity and community turnover. Finally, results of this multi-seasonal experiment suggest that warming by 3°C in aquatic ecosystems of low trophic state may cause planktonic food web functioning to become more dominated by fast growing, r-trait species (i.e., small sizes and rapid development).

  3. Water Plume Temperature Measurements by an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony DeMario

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on the development and testing of a proof of principle water temperature measurement system deployed on an unmanned aerial system (UAS, for field measurements of thermal discharges into water. The primary elements of the system include a quad-copter UAS to which has been integrated, for the first time, both a thermal imaging infrared (IR camera and an immersible probe that can be dipped below the water surface to obtain vertical water temperature profiles. The IR camera is used to take images of the overall water surface to geo-locate the plume, while the immersible probe provides quantitative temperature depth profiles at specific locations. The full system has been tested including the navigation of the UAS, its ability to safely carry the sensor payload, and the performance of both the IR camera and the temperature probe. Finally, the UAS sensor system was successfully deployed in a pilot field study at a coal burning power plant, and obtained images and temperature profiles of the thermal effluent.

  4. Water Plume Temperature Measurements by an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMario, Anthony; Lopez, Pete; Plewka, Eli; Wix, Ryan; Xia, Hai; Zamora, Emily; Gessler, Dan; Yalin, Azer P

    2017-02-07

    We report on the development and testing of a proof of principle water temperature measurement system deployed on an unmanned aerial system (UAS), for field measurements of thermal discharges into water. The primary elements of the system include a quad-copter UAS to which has been integrated, for the first time, both a thermal imaging infrared (IR) camera and an immersible probe that can be dipped below the water surface to obtain vertical water temperature profiles. The IR camera is used to take images of the overall water surface to geo-locate the plume, while the immersible probe provides quantitative temperature depth profiles at specific locations. The full system has been tested including the navigation of the UAS, its ability to safely carry the sensor payload, and the performance of both the IR camera and the temperature probe. Finally, the UAS sensor system was successfully deployed in a pilot field study at a coal burning power plant, and obtained images and temperature profiles of the thermal effluent.

  5. The great melting pot. Common sole population connectivity assessed by otolith and water fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morat, Fabien; Letourneur, Yves; Dierking, Jan; Pécheyran, Christophe; Bareille, Gilles; Blamart, Dominique; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the scale and importance of individual dispersion between populations and life stages is a key challenge in marine ecology. The common sole (Solea solea), an important commercial flatfish in the North Sea, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, has a marine pelagic larval stage, a benthic juvenile stage in coastal nurseries (lagoons, estuaries or shallow marine areas) and a benthic adult stage in deeper marine waters on the continental shelf. To date, the ecological connectivity among these life stages has been little assessed in the Mediterranean. Here, such an assessment is provided for the first time for the Gulf of Lions, NW Mediterranean, based on a dataset on otolith microchemistry and stable isotopic composition as indicators of the water masses inhabited by individual fish. Specifically, otolith Ba/Ca and Sr/Ca profiles, and δ(13)C and δ(18)O values of adults collected in four areas of the Gulf of Lions were compared with those of young-of-the-year collected in different coastal nurseries. Results showed that a high proportion of adults (>46%) were influenced by river inputs during their larval stage. Furthermore Sr/Ca ratios and the otolith length at one year of age revealed that most adults (∼70%) spent their juvenile stage in nurseries with high salinity, whereas the remainder used brackish environments. In total, data were consistent with the use of six nursery types, three with high salinity (marine areas and two types of highly saline lagoons) and three brackish (coastal areas near river mouths, and two types of brackish environments), all of which contributed to the replenishment of adult populations. These finding implicated panmixia in sole population in the Gulf of Lions and claimed for a habitat integrated management of fisheries.

  6. Dynamic behaviour of bubbles of water vapour at a temperature lower than the boiling temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Franz

    1966-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the theoretical movement of the wall of vapour water bubbles in a sub-saturated boiling regime, i.e. with an average water temperature lower than the boiling temperature. While assuming that bubbles have an initial translational speed at the beginning of their condensation, the author shows that their shrinkage should result in an accelerated displacement in a direction normal to the wall and inward the liquid. Layers of hot water initially close to the wall would therefore be quickly transported towards cold water areas. Experiments allowed, in some cases, the acceleration of bubbles during their condensation to be noticed: for low sub-saturations in still water and for high sub-saturations in water in forced convection, even though, in this last case, the determination of accelerations is more delicate [fr

  7. Temperature dependence of the mechanical properties of melt-processed Dy-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors evaluated by three point bending tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, K; Nyilas, A; Sato, T; Hatakeyama, Y; Hokari, T; Teshima, H; Iwamoto, A; Mito, T

    2006-01-01

    Dy-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductor has an excellent capability of trapping magnetic flux and lower heat conductivity at cryogenic temperatures as compared with Y-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductor. The Young's modulus and the bending strength in the range from room temperature to 7 K were measured by the three-point bending tests using specimens cut from a melt-processed Dy-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductor. They were tested in a helium gas flow type cryostat at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and in a liquid nitrogen bath at Iwate University. The Young's modulus was calculated by either the slope of stress-strain curve or that of the load-deflection curve of the specimen. Although the bending strength measured in the two institutes coincided well, there was a significant discrepancy in the Young's modulus. The Young's modulus and bending strength increased with decrease of temperature down to 7 K. The amount of increase in the Young's modulus and the bending strength were about 32% and 36% of those at room temperature, respectively. The scatter of data for each run was significant and did not depend on temperature. The temperature dependence of the Young's modulus coincided with that in Y-Ba-Cu-O obtained by ultrasonic velocity. The temperature dependence of the Young's modulus and the bending strength was discussed from the view point of interatomic distance of the bulk crystal

  8. Effect of pool rotation on three-dimensional flow in a shallow annular pool of silicon melt with bidirectional temperature gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Quan-Zhuang; Peng, Lan; Liu, Jia [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems of Ministry of Education, College of Power Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044 (China); Wang, Fei, E-mail: penglan@cqu.edu.cn [Chongqing Special Equipment Inspection and Research Institute, Chongqing, 401121 (China)

    2016-08-15

    In order to understand the effect of pool rotation on silicon melt flow with the bidirectional temperature gradients, we conducted a series of unsteady three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations in a shallow annular pool. The bidirectional temperature gradients are produced by the temperature difference between outer and inner walls as well as a constant heat flux at the bottom. Results show that when Marangoni number is small, a 3D steady flow is common without pool rotation. But it bifurcates to a 3D oscillatory flow at a low rotation Reynolds number. Subsequently, the flow becomes steady and axisymmetric at a high rotation Reynolds number. When the Marangoni number is large, pool rotation can effectively suppress the temperature fluctuation on the free surface, meanwhile, it improves the flow stability. The critical heat flux density diagrams are mapped, and the effects of radial and vertical temperature gradients on the flow are discussed. Additionally, the transition process from the flow dominated by the radial temperature gradient to the one dominated by the vertical temperature gradient is presented. (paper)

  9. Adsorption of multilamellar tubes with a temperature tunable diameter at the air/water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fameau, Anne-Laure; Douliez, Jean-Paul; Boué, François; Ott, Frédéric; Cousin, Fabrice

    2011-10-15

    The ethanolamine salt of 12-hydroxy stearic acid is known to form tubes having a temperature tunable diameter. Here, we study the behavior of those tubes at the air/water interface by using Neutron Reflectivity. We observed that tubes indeed adsorbed at this interface below a fatty acid monolayer and exhibit the same temperature behavior as in bulk. There is however a peculiar behavior at around 50 °C for which the increase of the diameter of the tubes at the interface yields an unfolding of those tubes into a multilamellar layer. Upon further heating, the tubes re-fold and their diameter re-decreases after which they melt into micelles as observed in the bulk. All structural transitions at the interface are nevertheless reversible. This provides to the system a high interest for its interfacial properties because the structure at the air/water interface can be tuned easily by the temperature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reconstructing bottom water temperatures from measurements of temperature and thermal diffusivity in marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesner, F.; Lechleiter, A.; Müller, C.

    2015-07-01

    Continuous monitoring of oceanic bottom water temperatures is a complicated task, even in relatively easy-to-access basins like the North or Baltic seas. Here, a method to determine annual bottom water temperature variations from inverse modeling of instantaneous measurements of temperatures and sediment thermal properties is presented. This concept is similar to climate reconstructions over several thousand years from deep borehole data. However, in contrast, the presented method aims at reconstructing the recent temperature history of the last year from sediment thermal properties and temperatures from only a few meters depth. For solving the heat equation, a commonly used forward model is introduced and analyzed: knowing the bottom water temperature variations for the preceding years and the thermal properties of the sediments, the forward model determines the sediment temperature field. The bottom water temperature variation is modeled as an annual cosine defined by the mean temperature, the amplitude and a phase shift. As the forward model operator is non-linear but low-dimensional, common inversion schemes such as the Newton algorithm can be utilized. The algorithms are tested for artificial data with different noise levels and for two measured data sets: from the North Sea and from the Davis Strait. Both algorithms used show stable and satisfying results with reconstruction errors in the same magnitude as the initial data error. In particular, the artificial data sets are reproduced with accuracy within the bounds of the artificial noise level. Furthermore, the results for the measured North Sea data show small variances and resemble the bottom water temperature variations recorded from a nearby monitoring site with relative errors smaller than 1 % in all parameters.

  11. Sea water desalination utilizing waste heat by low temperature evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raha, A.; Srivastava, A.; Rao, I.S.; Majumdar, M.; Srivastava, V.K.; Tewari, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    Economics of a process is controlled by management of energy and resources. Fresh water has become most valued resource in industries. Desalination is a process by which fresh water resource is generated from sea water or brackish water, but it is an energy intensive process. The energy cost contributes around 25-40% to the total cost of the desalted water. Utilization of waste heat from industrial streams is one of the ecofriendly ways to produce low cost desalted water. Keeping this in mind Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) desalination technology utilizing low quality waste heat in the form of hot water (as low as 50 deg C) or low pressure steam (0.13 bar) has been developed for offshore and land based applications to produce high purity water (conductivity < 2μS/cm) from sea water. The probability of the scale formation is practically eliminated by operating it at low temperature and controlling the brine concentration. It also does not require elaborate chemical pretreatment of sea water except chlorination, so it has no environmental impact. LTE technology has found major applications in nuclear reactors where large quantity of low quality waste heat is available to produce high quality desalted water for make up water requirement replacing conventional ion exchange process. Successful continuous operation of 30 Te/day LTE desalination plant utilizing waste heat from nuclear research reactor has demonstrated the safety, reliability, extreme plant availability and economics of nuclear desalination by LTE technology. It is also proposed to utilize waste heat from Main Heat Transport (MHT) purification circuit of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) to produce about 250 Te/ day high quality desalinated water by Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) process for the reactor make up and plant utilization. Recently we have commissioned a 50 Te/day 2-effect low temperature desalination plant with cooling tower where the specific energy and cooling water requirement are

  12. Effects of melt-temperature on limiting current density in Al electrodeposition and morphology of Al electrodeposits obtained from ambient temperature type molten salt; Joongata yoyuen kara no denki aluminium mekki no genkai denryu mitsudo oyobi denseki keitai ni oyobosu mekki ekion no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, T.; Tatano, M.; Uchida, Y. [Nisshin Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-31

    Some of more important electrolytic solutions for Al electrodeposition are organic solvents, high-temperature type molten salts and low-temperature type molten salts having a melting point of 30{degree}C or lower, such as ethylmethylimidazolium chloride (EMIC). This study uses a molten salt of AlCl3-EMIC as the low-temperature type solution for high-speed electrodeposition. Discussed herein are the effects of melt temperature on limiting current density in Al electrodeposition and Al electrodeposit morphology. Limiting current density increases as melt temperature increases at any AlCl3 concentration used in this study. The AlCl3 concentration that gives the maximum limiting current density shifts from 64 to 67mol% at a melt temperature of 120{degree}C. A dense, smooth Al electrodeposited film results at a melt temperature of 100{degree}C or lower, but the electrodeposited grains become coarser as melt temperature increases. Melt temperature can be increased to 140{degree}C to secure a smooth electrodeposited film, showing possibility of 2 times faster electrodeposition than the conventional one. 21 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Genetic Programming and Standardization in Water Temperature Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Arganis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An application of Genetic Programming (an evolutionary computational tool without and with standardization data is presented with the aim of modeling the behavior of the water temperature in a river in terms of meteorological variables that are easily measured, to explore their explanatory power and to emphasize the utility of the standardization of variables in order to reduce the effect of those with large variance. Recorded data corresponding to the water temperature behavior at the Ebro River, Spain, are used as analysis case, showing a performance improvement on the developed model when data are standardized. This improvement is reflected in a reduction of the mean square error. Finally, the models obtained in this document were applied to estimate the water temperature in 2004, in order to provide evidence about their applicability to forecasting purposes.

  14. A Water Temperature Simulation Model for Rice Paddies With Variable Water Depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Atsushi; Nemoto, Manabu; Hamasaki, Takahiro; Ishida, Sachinobu; Kuwagata, Tsuneo

    2017-12-01

    A water temperature simulation model was developed to estimate the effects of water management on the thermal environment in rice paddies. The model was based on two energy balance equations: for the ground and for the vegetation, and considered the water layer and changes in the aerodynamic properties of its surface with water depth. The model was examined with field experiments for water depths of 0 mm (drained conditions) and 100 mm (flooded condition) at two locations. Daily mean water temperatures in the flooded condition were mostly higher than in the drained condition in both locations, and the maximum difference reached 2.6°C. This difference was mainly caused by the difference in surface roughness of the ground. Heat exchange by free convection played an important role in determining water temperature. From the model simulation, the temperature difference between drained and flooded conditions was more apparent under low air temperature and small leaf area index conditions; the maximum difference reached 3°C. Most of this difference occurred when the range of water depth was lower than 50 mm. The season-long variation in modeled water temperature showed good agreement with an observation data set from rice paddies with various rice-growing seasons, for a diverse range of water depths (root mean square error of 0.8-1.0°C). The proposed model can estimate water temperature for a given water depth, irrigation, and drainage conditions, which will improve our understanding of the effect of water management on plant growth and greenhouse gas emissions through the thermal environment of rice paddies.

  15. Water temperature in irrigation return flow from the Upper Snake Rock watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water returning to a river from an irrigated watershed could increase the water temperature in the river. The objective of this study was to compare the temperature of irrigation return flow water with the temperature of the diverted irrigation water. Water temperature was measured weekly in the mai...

  16. FTIR microspectroscopy and SIMS study of water-poor cordierite from El Hoyazo, Spain: Application to mineral and melt devolatilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Ventura, Giancarlo; Bellatreccia, Fabio; Cesare, Bernardo; Harley, Simon; Piccinini, Massimo

    2009-12-01

    This paper reports the microchemical and microspectroscopic FTIR study of cordierite from a partially melted graphite-bearing granulitic enclave within the dacitic lava dome of El Hoyazo (SE Spain). Optically transparent single-crystals, hand picked from the rock, were oriented using X-ray diffraction and studied by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR). Single-crystal FTIR spectroscopy shows that the examined cordierite is CO 2-rich and almost H 2O-free. Two weak and sharp peaks are observed at 3708 and 3595 cm - 1 , respectively, which are strongly polarised for E // a. These peaks are assigned to combination modes of CO 2. Very weak bands due to H 2O molecules oriented with the H…H vector // c (type I water) are occasionally observed in certain zones of the grains, associated with absorptions due to hydrated inclusions of alteration products. The very intense bands observed in the 2600-2000 cm - 1 region are assigned to CO 2 molecules oriented // a; the spectra also show the presence of 13C and 18O, and weak amounts of CO in the sample. Microspectrometric mapping shows that the distribution of C is relatively homogeneous, whereas that of H 2O is complicated by a very broad absorption extending from 3700 to 3100 cm - 1 . High-resolution FTIR imaging, done using a focal-plane array of detectors, shows that this broad absorption is associated with microfractures. SIMS analyses give an average concentration of H 2O = 0.033 ± 0.007 wt.% and CO 2 = 0.21 ± 0.07 wt.%. On the basis of these data, molar absorption coefficients can be calibrated for CO 2: ɛiCO2 (integrated) = 11,000 ± 4000 l/(mol cm - 2 ) and ɛlCO2 (linear) = 800 ± 250 l/(mol cm - 1 ). Due to the extremely low amount of H 2O and its inhomogeneous distribution, calibration of absorption ɛH2O coefficients is unreliable. The very low H 2O contents in the El Hoyazo cordierite indicate continued mineral-melt volatile exchange during decompression from ˜ 5 kbar to significantly shallower levels.

  17. Insights into mercury deposition and spatiotemporal variation in the glacier and melt water from the central Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudyal, Rukumesh; Kang, Shichang; Huang, Jie; Tripathee, Lekhendra; Zhang, Qianggong; Li, Xiaofei; Guo, Junming; Sun, Shiwei; He, Xiaobo; Sillanpää, Mika

    2017-12-01

    Long-term monitoring of global pollutant such as Mercury (Hg) in the cryosphere is very essential for understanding its bio-geochemical cycling and impacts in the pristine environment with limited emission sources. Therefore, from May 2015 to Oct 2015, surface snow and snow-pits from Xiao Dongkemadi Glacier and glacier melt water were sampled along an elevation transect from 5410 to 5678m a.s.l. in the central Tibetan Plateau (TP). The concentration of Hg in surface snow was observed to be higher than that from other parts of the TP. Unlike the southern parts of the TP, no clear altitudinal variation was observed in the central TP. The peak Total Hg (Hg T ) concentration over the vertical profile on the snow pits corresponded with a distinct yellowish-brown dust layer supporting the fact that most of the Hg was associated with particulate matter. It was observed that only 34% of Hg in snow was lost when the surface snow was exposed to sunlight indicating that the surface snow is less influenced by the post-depositional process. Significant diurnal variation of Hg T concentration was observed in the river water, with highest concentration observed at 7pm when the discharge was highest and lowest concentration during 7-8am when the discharge was lowest. Such results suggest that the rate of discharge was influential in the concentration of Hg T in the glacier fed rivers of the TP. The estimated export of Hg T from Dongkemadi river basin is 747.43gyr -1 , which is quite high compared to other glaciers in the TP. Therefore, the export of global contaminant Hg might play enhanced role in the Alpine regions as these glaciers are retreating at an alarming rate under global warming which may have adverse impact on the ecosystem and the human health of the region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Laser surface melting of 10 wt% Mo alloyed hardfacing Stellite 12 plasma transferred arc deposits: Structural evolution and high temperature wear performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilawary, Shaikh Asad Ali; Motallebzadeh, Amir; Afzal, Muhammad; Atar, Erdem; Cimenoglu, Huseyin

    2018-05-01

    Laser surface melting (LSM) process has been applied on the plasma transferred arc (PTA) deposited Stellite 12 and 10 wt% Mo alloyed Stellite 12 in this study. Following the LSM process, structural and mechanical property comparison of the LSM'ed surfaces has been made. Hardness of the LSM'ed surfaces was measured as 549 HV and 623 HV for the Stellite 12 and Stellite 12 + 10 wt% Mo deposits, respectively. Despite their different hardness and structural features, the LSM'ed surfaces exhibited similar tribological performance at room temperature (RT), where fatigue wear mechanism operates. However, the wear at 500 °C promotes tribo-oxide layer formation whose composition depended on the alloying with Mo. Thus, addition of 10 wt% Mo into Stellite 12 PTA deposit has remarkably enhanced the high temperature wear performance of the LSM'ed surface as a result of participation of complex oxide (CoMoO4) in tribo-oxide layer.

  19. Pressure-induced melting of micellar crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, K.; Schwahn, D.; Janssen, S.

    1993-01-01

    that pressure improves the solvent quality of water, thus resulting in decomposition of the micelles and consequent melting of the micellar crystal. The combined pressure and temperature dependence reveals that in spite of the apparent increase of order on the 100 angstrom length scale upon increasing......Aqueous solutions of triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide) aggregate at elevated temperatures into micelles which for polymer concentrations greater-than-or-equal-to 20% make a hard sphere crystallization to a cubic micellar crystal. Structural studies show...... temperature (decreasing pressure) the overall entropy increases through the inverted micellar crystallization characteristic....

  20. Influence of Low-Temperature Plasma Treatment on The Liquid Filtration Efficiency of Melt-Blown PP Nonwovens in The Conditions of Simulated Use of Respiratory Protective Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majchrzycka Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Filtering nonwovens produced with melt-blown technology are one of the most basic materials used in the construction of respiratory protective equipment (RPE against harmful aerosols, including bio- and nanoaerosols. The improvement of their filtering properties can be achieved by the development of quasi-permanent electric charge on the fibres. Usually corona discharge method is utilized for this purpose. In the presented study, it was assumed that the low-temperature plasma treatment could be applied as an alternative method for the manufacturing of conventional electret nonwovens for the RPE construction. Low temperature plasma treatment of polypropylene nonwovens was carried out with various process gases (argon, nitrogen, oxygen or air in a wide range of process parameters (gas flow velocity, time of treatment and power supplied to the reactor electrodes. After the modification, nonwovens were evaluated in terms of filtration efficiency of paraffin oil mist. The stability of the modification results was tested after 12 months of storage and after conditioning at elevated temperature and relative humidity conditions. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy and ATR-IR spectroscopy were used to assess changes in surface topography and chemical composition of the fibres. The modification of melt-blown nonwovens with nitrogen, oxygen and air plasma did not result in a satisfactory improvement of the filtration efficiency. In case of argon plasma treatment, up to 82% increase of filtration efficiency of paraffin oil mist was observed in relation to untreated samples. This effect was stable after 12 months of storage in normal conditions and after thermal conditioning in (70 ± 3°C for 24 h. The use of low-temperature plasma treatment was proven to be a promising improvement direction of filtering properties of nonwovens used for the protection of respiratory tract against harmful aerosols.

  1. Nanostructural studies on monoelaidin-water systems at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Chandrashekhar V

    2011-10-04

    In recent years, lipid based nanostructures have increasingly been used as model membranes to study various complex biological processes. For better understanding of such phenomena, it is essential to gain as much information as possible for model lipid structures under physiological conditions. In this paper, we focus on one of such lipids--monoelaidin (ME)--for its polymorphic nanostructures under varying conditions of temperature and water content. In the recent contribution (Soft Matter, 2010, 6, 3191), we have reported the phase diagram of ME above 30 °C and compared with the phase behavior of other lipids including monoolein (MO), monovaccenin (MV), and monolinolein (ML). Remarkable phase behavior of ME, stabilizing three bicontinuous cubic phases, motivates its study at low temperatures. Current studies concentrate on the low-temperature (ME and subsequent reconstruction of its phase diagram over the entire temperature-water composition space (temperature, 0-76 °C; and water content, 0-70%). The polymorphs found for the monoelaidin-water system include three bicontinuous cubic phases, i.e., Ia3d, Pn3m, and Im3m, and lamellar phases which exhibit two crystalline (L(c1) and L(c0)), two gel (L(β) and L(β*)), and a fluid lamellar (L(α)) states. The fluid isotropic phase (L(2)) was observed only for lower hydrations (<20%), whereas hexagonal phase (H(2)) was not found under studied conditions. Nanostructural parameters of these phases as a function of temperature and water content are presented together with some molecular level calculations. This study might be crucial for perception of the lyotropic phase behavior as well as for designing nanostructural assemblies for potential applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. Microwave measurements of water vapor partial pressure at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre, V.R.

    1991-01-01

    One of the desired parameters in the Yucca Mountain Project is the capillary pressure of the rock comprising the repository. This parameter is related to the partial pressure of water vapor in the air when in equilibrium with the rock mass. Although there are a number of devices that will measure the relative humidity (directly related to the water vapor partial pressure), they generally will fail at temperatures on the order of 150C. Since thee author has observed borehole temperatures considerably in excess of this value in G-Tunnel at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a different scheme is required to obtain the desired partial pressure data at higher temperatures. This chapter presents a microwave technique that has been developed to measure water vapor partial pressure in boreholes at temperatures up to 250C. The heart of the system is a microwave coaxial resonator whose resonant frequency is inversely proportional to the square root of the real part of the complex dielectric constant of the medium (air) filling the resonator. The real part of the dielectric constant of air is approximately equal to the square of the refractive index which, in turn, is proportional to the partial pressure of the water vapor in the air. Thus, a microwave resonant cavity can be used to measure changes in the relative humidity or partial pressure of water vapor in the air. Since this type of device is constructed of metal, it is able to withstand very high temperatures. The actual limitation is the temperature limit of the dielectric material in the cable connecting the resonator to its driving and monitoring equipment-an automatic network analyzer in our case. In the following sections, the theory of operation, design, construction, calibration and installation of the microwave diagnostics system is presented. The results and conclusions are also presented, along with suggestions for future work

  3. Rapid, dynamic segregation of core forming melts: Results from in-situ High Pressure- High Temperature X-ray Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, H. C.; Yu, T.; Wang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The timing and mechanisms of core formation in the Earth, as well as in Earth-forming planetesimals is a problem of significant importance in our understanding of the early evolution of terrestrial planets . W-Hf isotopic signatures in meteorites indicate that core formation in small pre-differentiated planetesimals was relatively rapid, and occurred over the span of a few million years. This time scale is difficult to achieve by percolative flow of the metallic phase through a silicate matrix in textural equilibrium. It has been suggested that during this active time in the early solar system, dynamic processes such as impacts may have caused significant deformation in the differentiating planetesimals, which could lead to much higher permeability of the core forming melts. Here, we have measured the change in permeability of core forming melts in a silicate matrix due to deformation. Mixtures of San Carlos olivine and FeS close to the equilibrium percolation threshold (~5 vol%FeS) were pre-synthesized to achieve an equilibrium microstructure, and then loaded into the rotational Drickamer apparatus at GSE-CARS, sector 13-BMD, at the Advanced Photon Source (Argonne National Laboratory). The samples were subsequently pressed to ~2GPa, and heated to 1100°C. Alternating cycles of rotation to collect X-ray tomography images, and twisting to deform the sample were conducted until the sample had been twisted by 1080°. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed on the resulting 3-dimensional x-ray tomographic images to evaluate the effect of shear deformation on permeability and migration velocity. Lattice-Boltzmann simulations were conducted, and show a marked increase in the permeability with increasing deformation, which would allow for much more rapid core formation in planetesimals.

  4. Does water temperature influence the performance of key survival skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, C; Button, C; Seifert, L; Armbrust, G; Croft, J L

    2018-03-01

    Aquatic survival skills may be compromised in cold water thereby increasing the likelihood of drowning. This study compared physiological, psychological, and behavioral responses of humans treading water and swimming in cold and temperate water. Thirty-eight participants were classified as inexperienced (n = 9), recreational (n = 15), or skilled (n = 10) swimmers. They performed 3 tasks: treading water (120 seconds), swim at "comfortable" pace, and swim at "fast" pace in 2 water conditions (28°C vs 10°C). Heart rate, oxygen uptake, psychometric variables, spatio-temporal (swim speed, stroke rate, and stroke length), and coordination type were examined as a function of expertise. Tasks performed in cold water-generated higher cardiorespiratory responses (HR = 145 ± 16 vs 127 ± 21 bpm) and were perceived about 2 points more strenuous on the Borg scale on average (RPE = 14.9 ± 2.8 vs 13.0 ± 2.0). The voluntary durations of both treading water (60 ± 32 vs 91 ± 33 seconds) and swimming at a comfortable pace (66 ± 22 vs 103 ± 34 seconds) were significantly reduced in cold water. However, no systematic changes in movement pattern type could be determined in either the treading water task or the swimming tasks. Water temperature influences the physical demands of these aquatic skills but not necessarily the behavior. Training treading water and swimming skills in temperate water seems to transfer to cold water, but we recommend training these skills in a range of water conditions to help adapt to the initial "cold-shock" response. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Water-temperature data acquisition activities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauszek, F.H.

    1972-01-01

    Along with the growing interest in water quality during the last decade, the need for data on all types of water-quality parameters has also increased. One parameter of particular interest, because of its many ramifications, is temperature. It influences many of the chemical and physical processes that take place in water. The solubility of gases--for example, oxygen and carbon dioxide--and the solution of mineral matter in water are functions of temperature. Such physical properties as density and viscosity vary with temperature. Oxidation of organic materials, as well as algal and bacterial growth, is promoted or retarded by favorable or unfavorable temperatures. Further, temperature bears on the utility of water: as a source of public water supplies; for industrial use, particularly if the water is used for cooling; and in the field of recreation involving contact sports, fishing, and fish culture. In recent years, temperature changes resulting from inflow of heated industrial waste, particularly effluent from power generating plants, have increased the need for temperature data to determine the degree of change, its effect on ecology, and the effect of any remedial action. Thus, because of the many extensive and intensive effects, a large amount of temperature data is collected on surface and ground waters by many agencies throughout the country. Moreover, because of its importance, there is a widespread interest in temperature even by those who are not active collectors of the data themselves. The industrialist, the manager, the public official, and others at one time or another may have need for temperature data and may well raise the questions: Who is collecting temperature data? What is the extent of the activity? Where are the data being collected? The purpose of this report is to answer these questions. The information in the report is confined to the activities of Federal and non-Federal agencies. It is based on information furnished to the Office of

  6. Low temperature study of micrometric powder of melted Fe{sub 50}Mn{sub 10}Al{sub 40} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, Ligia E. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A. A. 25360 Cali (Colombia); Perez Alcazar, G.A., E-mail: gpgeperez@gmail.com [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A. A. 25360 Cali (Colombia); Tabares, J.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A. A. 25360 Cali (Colombia); Romero, J.J. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Martinez, A. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, P.O. Box 155, Las Rozas, 28230 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, J.M. [Unidad Asociada ICMM-IMA, c/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Palomares, F.J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, C/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Marco, J.F. [Instituto de Quimica-Fisica Rocasolano, CSIC, c/Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-06-15

    Melted Fe{sub 50}Mn{sub 10}Al{sub 40} alloy powder with particle size less than 40 {mu}m was characterized at room temperature by XRD, SEM and XPS; and at low temperatures by Moessbauer spectrometry, ac susceptibility, and magnetization analysis. The results show that the sample is BCC ferromagnetic but with a big contribution of paramagnetic sites, and presents super-paramagnetic and re-entrant spin-glass phases with critical temperatures of 265 and 35 K, respectively. The presence of the different phases detected is due to the disordered character of the sample and the competitive magnetic interactions. The obtained values of the saturation magnetization and the coercive field as a function of temperature present a behavior which indicates a ferromagnetic phase. However, the behavior of the FC curve and that of the coercive field as a function of temperature suggest that the dipolar magnetic interaction between particles contributes to the internal magnetic field in the same way as was reported for nanoparticulate powders.

  7. Ammonia-water mixtures at high pressures - Melting curves of ammonia dihydrate and ammonia monohydrate and a revised high-pressure phase diagram for the water-rich region. [in primordial solar system ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, S.; Nicol, M. F.

    1991-01-01

    The phase relations of some mixtures of ammonia and water are investigated to create a phase diagram in pressure-temperature-composition space relevant to the geophysical study of bodies in the outer solar system. The mixtures of NH3(x)H2O(1-x), where x is greater than 0.30 but less than 0.51, are examined at pressures and temperatures ranging from 0-6.5 GPa and 125-400 K, respectively. The ruby luminescence technique monitors the pressure and a diamond-anvil cell compresses the samples, and the phases are identified by means of normal- and polarized-light optical microscopy. The melting curve for NH3H2O(2) is described by the equation T = 176 + 60P - 8.5P squared for the ranges of 0.06-1.4 GPa and 179-243 K. The equation for NH3H2O is T = 194 + 37P - P squared, which represents a minor correction of a previous description by Johnson et al. (1985). Observed phase transitions are consistent with the high-pressure stability limit of NH3H2O(2), and the transition boundary is found to be linear.

  8. Effects of temperature and water stresses on germination of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, we opted for the Chetoui variety that better meets the conditions of stresses induced by low temperatures and water deficit. This best performing variety must have, throughout their development cycle, been tolerant to environmental stresses; which allows us to obtain early tools for discriminative selection between ...

  9. Effects of Hot Water Treatment and Temperature on Seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, to study the effect of hot water treatment and temperature on the morphological characteristics of Arabic gum. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design in a factorial arrangement. The treatments included a ...

  10. Variability in estuarine water temperature gradients and influence on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structure and variability of water temperature gradients and potential influence on distribution of two tropical zooplankters (the mysid Mesopodopsis africana and the copepod Acartia natalensis) and their temperate congenerics (M. wooldridgei and A. longipatella) was investigated over a 10-year period in the Mgazi Estuary, ...

  11. Increasing Water Temperature Triggers Dominance of Small Freshwater Plankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Rasconi

    Full Text Available Climate change scenarios predict that lake water temperatures will increase up to 4°C and rainfall events will become more intense and frequent by the end of this century. Concurrently, supply of humic substances from terrestrial runoff is expected to increase, resulting in darker watercolor ("brownification" of aquatic ecosystems. Using a multi-seasonal, low trophic state mesocosm experiment, we investigated how higher water temperature and brownification affect plankton community composition, phenology, and functioning. We tested the hypothesis that higher water temperature (+3°C and brownification will, a cause plankton community composition to shift toward small sized phytoplankton and cyanobacteria, and, b extend the length of the growing season entailing higher phytoplankton production later in the season. We demonstrate that the 3°C increase of water temperature favored the growth of heterotrophic bacteria and small sized autotrophic picophytoplankton cells with significantly higher primary production during warmer fall periods. However, 3X darker water (effect of brownification caused no significant changes in the plankton community composition or functioning relative to control conditions. Our findings reveal that increased temperature change plankton community structure by favoring smaller sized species proliferation (autotrophic phytoplankton and small size cladocerans, and increase primary productivity and community turnover. Finally, results of this multi-seasonal experiment suggest that warming by 3°C in aquatic ecosystems of low trophic state may cause planktonic food web functioning to become more dominated by fast growing, r-trait species (i.e., small sizes and rapid development.

  12. The influence of increased temperature of waters from Cernavoda NPP on underground water sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isbasoiu, Eugen Constantin; Marinov, Anca Mariana; Moraru, Carina Nicoleta; Rizescu, Gheorghe

    1997-01-01

    The operation of Cernavoda NPP implies the change of thermal regime of waters in the Danube-Black Sea channel zone. The Danube water is used to cool the NPP systems before being delivered into channel and used in irrigations. The temperature increase of water in Cernavoda NPP installations is between 7 and 12 deg. C. The negative effects of this warming are: 1. limitation of water use for irrigations; 2. occurrence and persistence of fog in channel area; 3. thermal pollution of underground waters and limitation of underground potable water supply. The paper presents a general approach of thermal pollution problems of an aquifer and a mathematical model of forecasting the underground water temperature variation in Danube-Black Sea channel area. (authors)

  13. Investigation of catalytic oxidation of diamond by water vapor and carbon dioxide in the presence of alkali melts of some rare earth oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulakova, I.I.; Rudenko, A.P.; Sulejmenova, A.S.; Tolstopyatova, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of an investigation of the catalytic oxydation of diamond by carbon dioxide and water vapors at 906 deg C in the presence of melts of some rare earth oxides in potassium hydroxide are given. The ion La 3+ was shown to possess the most catalytic activity. The earlier proposed mechanisms of the diamond oxidation by CO 2 and H 2 O were corroborated. The ions of rare earth elements were found to accelerate the different stages of the process

  14. Force induced DNA melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosh, Mogurampelly; Maiti, Prabal K

    2009-01-01

    When pulled along the axis, double-strand DNA undergoes a large conformational change and elongates by roughly twice its initial contour length at a pulling force of about 70 pN. The transition to this highly overstretched form of DNA is very cooperative. Applying a force perpendicular to the DNA axis (unzipping), double-strand DNA can also be separated into two single-stranded DNA, this being a fundamental process in DNA replication. We study the DNA overstretching and unzipping transition using fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and argue that the conformational changes of double-strand DNA associated with either of the above mentioned processes can be viewed as force induced DNA melting. As the force at one end of the DNA is increased the DNA starts melting abruptly/smoothly above a critical force depending on the pulling direction. The critical force f m , at which DNA melts completely decreases as the temperature of the system is increased. The melting force in the case of unzipping is smaller compared to the melting force when the DNA is pulled along the helical axis. In the case of melting through unzipping, the double-strand separation has jumps which correspond to the different energy minima arising due to sequence of different base pairs. The fraction of Watson-Crick base pair hydrogen bond breaking as a function of force does not show smooth and continuous behavior and consists of plateaus followed by sharp jumps.

  15. Simulating future water temperatures in the North Santiam River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman; Risley, John C.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2016-01-01

    A previously calibrated two-dimensional hydrodynamic and water-quality model (CE-QUAL-W2) of Detroit Lake in western Oregon was used in conjunction with inflows derived from Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) hydrologic models to examine in-lake and downstream water temperature effects under future climate conditions. Current and hypothetical operations and structures at Detroit Dam were imposed on boundary conditions derived from downscaled General Circulation Models in base (1990–1999) and future (2059–2068) periods. Compared with the base period, future air temperatures were about 2 °C warmer year-round. Higher air temperature and lower precipitation under the future period resulted in a 23% reduction in mean annual PRMS-simulated discharge and a 1 °C increase in mean annual estimated stream temperatures flowing into the lake compared to the base period. Simulations incorporating current operational rules and minimum release rates at Detroit Dam to support downstream habitat, irrigation, and water supply during key times of year resulted in lower future lake levels. That scenario results in a lake level that is above the dam’s spillway crest only about half as many days in the future compared to historical frequencies. Managing temperature downstream of Detroit Dam depends on the ability to blend warmer water from the lake’s surface with cooler water from deep in the lake, and the spillway is an important release point near the lake’s surface. Annual average in-lake and release temperatures from Detroit Lake warmed 1.1 °C and 1.5 °C from base to future periods under present-day dam operational rules and fill schedules. Simulated dam operations such as beginning refill of the lake 30 days earlier or reducing minimum release rates (to keep more water in the lake to retain the use of the spillway) mitigated future warming to 0.4 and 0.9 °C below existing operational scenarios during the critical autumn spawning period for endangered

  16. Simulating future water temperatures in the North Santiam River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.; Risley, John C.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2016-04-01

    A previously calibrated two-dimensional hydrodynamic and water-quality model (CE-QUAL-W2) of Detroit Lake in western Oregon was used in conjunction with inflows derived from Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) hydrologic models to examine in-lake and downstream water temperature effects under future climate conditions. Current and hypothetical operations and structures at Detroit Dam were imposed on boundary conditions derived from downscaled General Circulation Models in base (1990-1999) and future (2059-2068) periods. Compared with the base period, future air temperatures were about 2 °C warmer year-round. Higher air temperature and lower precipitation under the future period resulted in a 23% reduction in mean annual PRMS-simulated discharge and a 1 °C increase in mean annual estimated stream temperatures flowing into the lake compared to the base period. Simulations incorporating current operational rules and minimum release rates at Detroit Dam to support downstream habitat, irrigation, and water supply during key times of year resulted in lower future lake levels. That scenario results in a lake level that is above the dam's spillway crest only about half as many days in the future compared to historical frequencies. Managing temperature downstream of Detroit Dam depends on the ability to blend warmer water from the lake's surface with cooler water from deep in the lake, and the spillway is an important release point near the lake's surface. Annual average in-lake and release temperatures from Detroit Lake warmed 1.1 °C and 1.5 °C from base to future periods under present-day dam operational rules and fill schedules. Simulated dam operations such as beginning refill of the lake 30 days earlier or reducing minimum release rates (to keep more water in the lake to retain the use of the spillway) mitigated future warming to 0.4 and 0.9 °C below existing operational scenarios during the critical autumn spawning period for endangered salmonids. A

  17. Build direction dependence of microstructure and high-temperature tensile property of Co–Cr–Mo alloy fabricated by electron beam melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Koizumi, Yuichiro; Kurosu, Shingo; Li, Yun-Ping; Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Chiba, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    The microstructures and high-temperature tensile properties of a Co–28Cr–6Mo–0.23C–0.17N alloy fabricated by electron beam melting (EBM) with cylindrical axes deviating from the build direction by 0°, 45°, 55° and 90° were investigated. The preferred crystal orientations of the γ phase in the as-EBM-built samples with angles of 0°, 45°, 55° and 90° were near [0 0 1], [1 1 0], [1 1 1] and [1 0 0], respectively. M 23 C 6 precipitates (M = Cr, Mo or Si) were observed to align along the build direction with intervals of around 3 μm. The phase was completely transformed into a single ε-hexagonal close-packed (hcp) phase after aging treatment at 800 °C for 24 h, when lamellar colonies of M 2 N precipitates and the ε-hcp phase appeared in the matrix. Among the samples, the one built with 55° deviation had the highest ultimate tensile strength of 806 MPa at 700 °C. The relationship between the microstructure and the build direction dependence of mechanical properties suggested that the conditions of heat treatment to homogenize the microstructure throughout the height of the EBM-built object should be determined by taking into account the thermal history during the post-melt period of the EBM process, especially when the solid–solid transformation is sluggish

  18. Application of carrier and plasticizer to improve the dissolution and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble baicalein by hot melt extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yilan; Luo, Rui; Chen, Yi; Ke, Xue; Hu, Danrong; Han, Miaomiao

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a suitable formulation for baicalein (a poorly water-soluble drug exhibiting high melting point) to prepare solid dispersions using hot melt extrusion (HME). Proper carriers and plasticizers were selected by calculating the Hansen solubility parameters, evaluating melting processing condition, and measuring the solubility of obtained melts. The characteristic of solid dispersions prepared by HME was evaluated. The dissolution performance of the extrudates was compared to the pure drug and the physical mixtures. Physicochemical properties of the extrudates were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Relative bioavailability after oral administration in beagle dogs was assessed. As a result, Kollidon VA64 and Eudragit EPO were selected as two carriers; Cremophor RH was used as the plasticizer. The dissolution of all the extrudates was significantly improved. DSC and PXRD results suggested that baicalein in the extrudates was amorphous. FTIR spectroscopy revealed the interaction between drug and polymers. After oral administration, the relative bioavailability of solid dispersions with VA64 and EPO was comparative, about 2.4- and 2.9-fold greater compared to the pure drug, respectively.

  19. Temperature/pressure and water vapor sounding with microwave spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhleman, D. O.; Janssen, M. A.; Clancy, R. T.; Gulkis, S.; Mccleese, D. J.; Zurek, R.; Haberle, R. M.; Frerking, M.

    1992-01-01

    Two intense microwave spectra lines exist in the martian atmosphere that allow unique sounding capabilities: water vapor at 183 GHz and the (2-1) rotational line of CO at 230 GHz. Microwave spectra line sounding is a well-developed technique for the Earth's atmosphere for sounding from above from spacecraft and airplanes, and from below from fixed surface sites. Two simple instruments for temperature sounding on Mars (the CO line) and water vapor measurements are described. The surface sounder proposed for the MESUR sites is designed to study the boundary layer water vapor distribution and the temperature/pressure profiles with vertical resolution of 0.25 km up to 1 km with reduced resolution above approaching a scale height. The water channel will be sensitive to a few tenths of a micrometer of water and the temperature profile will be retrieved to an accuracy between 1 and 2 K. The latter is routinely done on the Earth using oxygen lines near 60 GHz. The measurements are done with a single-channel heterodyne receiver looking into a 10-cm mirror that is canned through a range of elevation angles plus a target load. The frequency of the receiver is sweep across the water and CO lines generating the two spectra at about 1-hr intervals throughout the mission. The mass and power for the proposed instrument are 2 kg and 5-8 W continuously. The measurements are completely immune to the atmospheric dust and ice particle loads. It was felt that these measurements are the ultimate ones to properly study the martian boundary layer from the surface to a few kilometers. Sounding from above requires an orbiting spacecraft with multichannel microwave spectrometers such as the instrument proposed for MO by a subset of the authors, a putative MESUR orbiter, and a proposed Discovery mission called MOES. Such an instrument can be built with less than 10 kg and use less than 15 W. The obvious advantage of this approach is that the entire atmosphere can be sounded for temperature and

  20. Achieving low return temperature for domestic hot water preparation by ultra-low-temperature district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Svendsen, Svend

    2017-01-01

    District heating (DH) is a cost-effective method of heat supply, especially to area with high heat density. Ultra-low-temperature district heating (ULTDH) is defined with supply temperature at 35-45 degrees C. It aims at making utmost use of the available low-temperature energy sources. In order...... to achieve high efficiency of the ULTDH system, the return temperature should be as low as possible. For the energy-efficient buildings in the future, it is feasible to use ULTDH to cover the space heating demand. However, considering the comfort and hygiene requirements of domestic hot water (DHW...... lower return temperature and higher efficiency for DHW supply, an innovative substation was devised, which replaced the bypass with an instantaneous heat exchanger and a micro electric storage tank. The energy performance of the proposed substation and the resulting benefits for the DH system...

  1. The effect of the melting spinning cooling rate on transformation temperatures in ribbons Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, A.P.; Castro, W.B.; Anselmo, G.C. dos S.

    2014-01-01

    Ti-Ni-Cu alloys have been attracting attention by their high performance of shape memory effect and decrease of thermal and stress hysteresis in comparison with Ti-Ni binary alloys. One important challenge of microsystems design is the implementation of miniaturized actuation principles efficient at the micro-scale. Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have early on been considered as a potential solution to this problem as these materials offer attractive properties like a high-power to weight ratio, large deformation and the capability to be processed at the micro-scale. Shape memory characteristics of Ti-37,8Cu-18,7Ni alloy ribbons prepared by melt spinning were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. In these experiments particular attention has been paid to change of the velocity of cooling wheel from 21 to 63 m/s. Then the cooling rates of ribbons were controlled. The effect of this cooling rate on austenitic and martensitic transformations behaviors is discussed. (author)

  2. Development of melting temperature-based SYBR Green I polymerase chain reaction methods for multiplex genetically modified organism detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Marta; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Esteve, Teresa; Prat, Salomé; Pla, Maria

    2003-12-15

    Commercialization of several genetically modified crops has been approved worldwide to date. Uniplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods to identify these different insertion events have been developed, but their use in the analysis of all commercially available genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is becoming progressively insufficient. These methods require a large number of assays to detect all possible GMOs present in the sample and thereby the development of multiplex PCR systems using combined probes and primers targeted to sequences specific to various GMOs is needed for detection of this increasing number of GMOs. Here we report on the development of a multiplex real-time PCR suitable for multiple GMO identification, based on the intercalating dye SYBR Green I and the analysis of the melting curves of the amplified products. Using this method, different amplification products specific for Maximizer 176, Bt11, MON810, and GA21 maize and for GTS 40-3-2 soybean were obtained and identified by their specific Tm. We have combined amplification of these products in a number of multiplex reactions and show the suitability of the methods for identification of GMOs with a sensitivity of 0.1% in duplex reactions. The described methods offer an economic and simple alternative to real-time PCR systems based on sequence-specific probes (i.e., TaqMan chemistry). These methods can be used as selection tests and further optimized for uniplex GMO quantification.

  3. Warmed Winter Water Temperatures Alter Reproduction in Two Fish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkus, Tyler; Rahel, Frank J; Bergman, Harold L; Cherrington, Brian D

    2018-02-01

    We examined the spawning success of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) and Johnny Darters (Etheostoma nigrum) exposed to elevated winter water temperatures typical of streams characterized by anthropogenic thermal inputs. When Fathead Minnows were exposed to temperature treatments of 12, 16, or 20 °C during the winter, spawning occurred at 16 and 20 °C but not 12 °C. Eggs were deposited over 9 weeks before winter spawning ceased. Fathead Minnows from the three winter temperature treatments were then exposed to a simulated spring transition. Spawning occurred at all three temperature treatments during the spring, but fish from the 16° and 20 °C treatment had delayed egg production indicating a latent effect of warm winter temperatures on spring spawning. mRNA analysis of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin showed elevated expression in female Fathead Minnows at 16 and 20 °C during winter spawning that decreased after winter spawning ceased, whereas Fathead Minnows at 12 °C maintained comparatively low expression during winter. Johnny Darters were exposed to 4 °C to represent winter temperatures in the absence of thermal inputs, and 12, 16, and 20 °C to represent varying degrees of winter thermal pollution. Johnny Darters spawned during winter at 12, 16, and 20 °C but not at 4 °C. Johnny Darters at 4 °C subsequently spawned following a simulated spring period while those at 12, 16, and 20 °C did not. Our results indicate elevated winter water temperatures common in effluent-dominated streams can promote out-of-season spawning and that vitellogenin expression is a useful indicator of spawning readiness for fish exposed to elevated winter temperatures.

  4. Warmed Winter Water Temperatures Alter Reproduction in Two Fish Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkus, Tyler; Rahel, Frank J.; Bergman, Harold L.; Cherrington, Brian D.

    2018-02-01

    We examined the spawning success of Fathead Minnows ( Pimephales promelas) and Johnny Darters ( Etheostoma nigrum) exposed to elevated winter water temperatures typical of streams characterized by anthropogenic thermal inputs. When Fathead Minnows were exposed to temperature treatments of 12, 16, or 20 °C during the winter, spawning occurred at 16 and 20 °C but not 12 °C. Eggs were deposited over 9 weeks before winter spawning ceased. Fathead Minnows from the three winter temperature treatments were then exposed to a simulated spring transition. Spawning occurred at all three temperature treatments during the spring, but fish from the 16° and 20 °C treatment had delayed egg production indicating a latent effect of warm winter temperatures on spring spawning. mRNA analysis of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin showed elevated expression in female Fathead Minnows at 16 and 20 °C during winter spawning that decreased after winter spawning ceased, whereas Fathead Minnows at 12 °C maintained comparatively low expression during winter. Johnny Darters were exposed to 4 °C to represent winter temperatures in the absence of thermal inputs, and 12, 16, and 20 °C to represent varying degrees of winter thermal pollution. Johnny Darters spawned during winter at 12, 16, and 20 °C but not at 4 °C. Johnny Darters at 4 °C subsequently spawned following a simulated spring period while those at 12, 16, and 20 °C did not. Our results indicate elevated winter water temperatures common in effluent-dominated streams can promote out-of-season spawning and that vitellogenin expression is a useful indicator of spawning readiness for fish exposed to elevated winter temperatures.

  5. A simplified model to predict diurnal water temperature dynamics in a shallow tropical water pool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paaijmans, K.P.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Jacobs, A.F.G.

    2008-01-01

    Water temperature is a critical regulator in the growth and development of malaria mosquito immatures, as they are poikilothermic. Measuring or estimating the diurnal temperature ranges to which these immatures are exposed is of the utmost importance, as these immatures will develop into adults that

  6. Rhenium corrosion in chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, A.D.; Shkol'nikov, S.N.; Vetyukov, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    The results investigating rhenium corrosion in chloride melts containing sodium, potassium and chromium ions by a gravimetry potentials in argon atmosphere in a sealing quarth cell are described. Rhenium corrosion is shown to be rather considerable in melts containing CrCl 2 . The value of corrosion rate depending on temperature is determined

  7. Feasibility of active solar water heating systems with evacuated tube collector at different operational water temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarrón, Fernando R.; Porras-Prieto, Carlos Javier; García, José Luis; Benavente, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of the feasibility of an active solar water-heating system. • Profitability decreases as the required water temperature increases. • The number of collectors that maximizes profitability depends on the required temperature. • Investment in a properly sized system generates savings between 23% and 15%. • Fuel consumption can be reduced by 70%. - Abstract: With rapid advancements in society, higher water temperatures are needed in a number of applications. The demand for hot water presents a great variability with water required at different temperatures. In this study, the design, installation, and evaluation of a solar water heating system with evacuated tube collector and active circulation has been carried out. The main objective is to analyze how the required tank water temperature affects the useful energy that the system is capable of delivering, and consequently its profitability. The results show how the energy that is collected and delivered to the tank decreases with increasing the required temperature due to a lower performance of the collector and losses in the pipes. The annual system efficiency reaches average values of 66%, 64%, 61%, 56%, and 55% for required temperatures of 40 °C, 50 °C, 60 °C, 70 °C, and 80 °C. As a result, profitability decreases as temperature increases. The useful energy, and therefore the profitability, will decrease if the demand is not distributed throughout the day or focused on the end of the day. The system’s profitability was determined in two cases: considering maximum profitability of the system, assuming 100% utilization of useful energy (scenario 1); assuming a particular demand, considering that on many days all the useful energy the system can supply is not used (scenario 2). The analysis shows that through proper sizing of the system, optimizing the number of solar collectors, the investment in the solar system can be profitable with similar profitability values in the two

  8. Investigations on Temperature Fields during Laser Beam Melting by Means of Process Monitoring and Multiscale Process Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schilp

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Process monitoring and modelling can contribute to fostering the industrial relevance of additive manufacturing. Process related temperature gradients and thermal inhomogeneities cause residual stresses, and distortions and influence the microstructure. Variations in wall thickness can cause heat accumulations. These occur predominantly in filigree part areas and can be detected by utilizing off-axis thermographic monitoring during the manufacturing process. In addition, numerical simulation models on the scale of whole parts can enable an analysis of temperature fields upstream to the build process. In a microscale domain, modelling of several exposed single hatches allows temperature investigations at a high spatial and temporal resolution. Within this paper, FEM-based micro- and macroscale modelling approaches as well as an experimental setup for thermographic monitoring are introduced. By discussing and comparing experimental data with simulation results in terms of temperature distributions both the potential of numerical approaches and the complexity of determining suitable computation time efficient process models are demonstrated. This paper contributes to the vision of adjusting the transient temperature field during manufacturing in order to improve the resulting part's quality by simulation based process design upstream to the build process and the inline process monitoring.

  9. Temperature dependence on sodium-water chemical reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Kenta; Deguchi, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Koichi; Takata, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Akira; Kikuchi, Shin; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    In a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), liquid sodium is used as a heat transfer fluid because of its excellent heat transport capability. On the other hand, it has strong chemical reactivity with water vapor. One of the design basis accidents of the SFR is the water leakage into the liquid sodium flow by a breach of heat transfer tubes. This process ends up damages on the heat transport equipment in the SFR. Therefore, the study on sodium-water chemical reactions is of paramount importance for security reasons. This study aims to clarify the sodium-water reaction mechanisms using laser diagnostics. A quasi one-dimensional flame model is also applied to a sodium-water counter-flow reaction field. Temperature, H 2 , H 2 O, OH, Na and Particulate matter were measured using laser induced fluorescence and CARS in the counter-flow reaction field. The temperature of the reaction field was also modified to reduce the condensation of Na in the reaction zone. (author)

  10. Effects of temperature and salinity on light scattering by water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Hu, Lianbo

    2010-04-01

    A theoretical model on light scattering by water was developed from the thermodynamic principles and was used to evaluate the effects of temperature and salinity. The results agreed with the measurements by Morel within 1%. The scattering increases with salinity in a non-linear manner and the empirical linear model underestimate the scattering by seawater for S < 40 psu. Seawater also exhibits an 'anomalous' scattering behavior with a minimum occurring at 24.64 °C for pure water and this minimum increases with the salinity, reaching 27.49 °C at 40 psu.

  11. Grey water treatment in UASB reactor at ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmitwalli, T A; Shalabi, M; Wendland, C; Otterpohl, R

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of grey water treatment in a UASB reactor was investigated. The batch recirculation experiments showed that a maximum total-COD removal of 79% can be obtained in grey-water treatment in the UASB reactor. The continuous operational results of a UASB reactor treating grey water at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20, 12 and 8 hours at ambient temperature (14-24 degrees C) showed that 31-41% of total COD was removed. These results were significantly higher than that achieved by a septic tank (11-14%), the most common system for grey water pre-treatment, at HRT of 2-3 days. The relatively lower removal of total COD in the UASB reactor was mainly due to a higher amount of colloidal COD in the grey water, as compared to that reported in domestic wastewater. The grey water had a limited amount of nitrogen, which was mainly in particulate form (80-90%). The UASB reactor removed 24-36% and 10-24% of total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively, in the grey water, due to particulate nutrients removal by physical entrapment and sedimentation. The sludge characteristics of the UASB reactor showed that the system had stable performance and the recommended HRT for the reactor is 12 hours.

  12. Melting and evaporation analysis of the first wall in a water-cooled breeding blanket module under vertical displacement event by using the MARS code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Geon-Woo [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyoung-Kyu, E-mail: chohk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Goon-Cherl [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Kihak [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Material phase change of first wall was simulated for vertical displacement event. • An in-house first wall module was developed to simulate melting and evaporation. • Effective heat capacity method and evaporation model were proposed. • MARS code was proposed to predict two-phase phenomena in coolant channel. • Phase change simulation was performed by coupling MARS and in-house module. - Abstract: Plasma facing components of tokamak reactors such as ITER or the Korean fusion demonstration reactor (K-DEMO) can be subjected to damage by plasma instabilities. Plasma disruptions like vertical displacement event (VDE) with high heat flux, can cause melting and vaporization of plasma facing materials and burnout of coolant channels. In this study, to simulate melting and vaporization of the first wall in a water-cooled breeding blanket under VDE, one-dimensional heat equations were solved numerically by using an in-house first wall module, including phase change models, effective heat capacity method, and evaporation model. For thermal-hydraulics, the in-house first wall analysis module was coupled with the nuclear reactor safety analysis code, MARS, to take advantage of its prediction capability for two-phase flow and critical heat flux (CHF) occurrence. The first wall was proposed for simulation according to the conceptual design of the K-DEMO, and the heat flux of plasma disruption with a value of 600 MW/m{sup 2} for 0.1 s was applied. The phase change simulation results were analyzed in terms of the melting and evaporation thicknesses and the occurrence of CHF. The thermal integrity of the blanket first wall is discussed to confirm whether the structural material melts for the given conditions.

  13. Experimental Partitioning of Chalcophile Elements between Mantle Silicate Minerals and Basaltic Melt at High Pressures and Temperatures - Implications for Sulfur Geochemistry of Mantle and Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, R.; Jego, S.; Ding, S.; Li, Y.; Lee, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    The behavior of chalcophile elements during mantle melting, melt extraction, and basalt differentiation is critical for formation of ore deposits and geochemical model and evolution of crust-mantle system. While chalcophile elements are strongly partitioned into sulfides, their behavior with different extent of melting, in particular, in the absence of sulfides, can only be modeled with complete knowledge of the partitioning behavior of these elements between dominant mantle minerals and basaltic melt with or without dissolved sulfide (S2-). However, experimental data on mineral-melt partitioning are lacking for many chalcophile elements. Crystallization experiments were conducted at 3 GPa and 1450-1600 °C using a piston cylinder and synthetic silicate melt compositions similar to low-degree partial melt of peridotite. Starting silicate mixes doped with 100-300 ppm of each of various chalcophile elements were loaded into Pt/graphite double capsules. To test the effect of dissolved sulfur in silicate melt on mineral-melt partitioning of chalcophile elements, experiments were conducted on both sulfur-free and sulfur-bearing (1100-1400 ppm S in melt) systems. Experimental phases were analyzed by EPMA (for major elements and S) and LA-ICP-MS (for trace elements). All experiments produced an assemblage of cpx + melt ± garnet ± olivine ± spinel and yielded new partition coefficients (D) for Sn, Zn, Mo, Sb, Bi, Pb, and Se for cpx/melt, olivine/melt, and garnet/melt pairs. Derived Ds (mineral/basalt) reveal little effect of S2- in the melt on mineral-melt partition coefficients of the measured chalcophile elements, with Ds for Zn, Mo, Bi, Pb decreasing by less than a factor of 2 from S-free to S-bearing melt systems or remaining similar, within error, between S-free and S-bearing melt systems. By combining our data with existing partitioning data between sulfide phases and silicate melt we model the fractionation of these elements during mantle melting and basalt

  14. Melting method for miscellaneous radioactive solid waste and melting furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, Toru; Furukawa, Hirofumi; Uda, Nobuyoshi; Katsurai, Kiyomichi

    1998-01-01

    A vessel containing miscellaneous solid wastes is inserted in a crucible having a releasable material on the inner surface, they are induction-heated from the outside of the crucible by way of low temperature heating coils to melt low melting point materials in the miscellaneous wastes within a temperature range at which the vessel does not melt. Then, they are induction-heated by way of high temperature heating coils to melt the vessel and not yet melted materials, those molten materials are cooled, solidified molten material and the releasable material are taken out, and then the crucible is used again. Then, the crucible can be used again, so that it can be applied to a large scaled melting furnace which treats wastes by a unit of drum. In addition, since the cleaning of the used crucible and the application of the releasable material can be conducted without interrupting the operation of the melting furnace, the operation cycle of the melting furnace can be shortened. (N.H.)

  15. Temperature dependence of bulk viscosity in water using acoustic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, M J; Parker, N G; Povey, M J W

    2011-01-01

    Despite its fundamental role in the dynamics of compressible fluids, bulk viscosity has received little experimental attention and there remains a paucity of measured data. Acoustic spectroscopy provides a robust and accurate approach to measuring this parameter. Working from the Navier-Stokes model of a compressible fluid one can show that the bulk viscosity makes a significant and measurable contribution to the frequency-squared acoustic attenuation. Here we employ this methodology to determine the bulk viscosity of Millipore water over a temperature range of 7 to 50 0 C. The measured attenuation spectra are consistent with the theoretical predictions, while the bulk viscosity of water is found to be approximately three times larger than its shear counterpart, reinforcing its significance in acoustic propagation. Moreover, our results demonstrate that this technique can be readily and generally applied to fluids to accurately determine their temperature dependent bulk viscosities.

  16. The effect of water temperature and water hardness on reproductive indicators Hemichromis lifalili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Kopecký

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the effect of temperature and water hardness on reproductive indicators Hemichromis lifalili in aquarium conditions. From bred individuals we have compiled three breeding pairs, which we placed in aquariums with different temperature and water hardness. In experimental pairs, we evaluated these reproductive variables: number of spawning eggs, the number of hatched, dead and bred individuals. Experiments showed that 28 °C, and 8 °N water hardness increased the reproductive activity of fish and the quantity of fish hatched. Decreasing temperature in the tanks was proportionally increased the number of unhatched individuals, and the mortality. The mortality was 88 pieces per swab at 25 °C. Water at 28 °C and 8 °N hardness was reached swab to 1200 eggs pieces.

  17. Method of melting solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsuka, Katsuyuki; Mizuno, Ryokichi; Kuwana, Katsumi; Sawada, Yoshihisa; Komatsu, Fumiaki.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable the volume reduction treatment of a HEPA filter containing various solid wastes, particularly acid digestion residue, or an asbestos separator at a relatively low temperature range. Method: Solid waste to be heated and molten is high melting point material treated by ''acid digestion treatment'' for treating solid waste, e.g. a HEPA filter or polyvinyl chloride, etc. of an atomic power facility treated with nitric acid or the like. When this material is heated and molten by an electric furnace, microwave melting furnace, etc., boron oxide, sodium boride, sodium carbonate, etc. is added as a melting point lowering agent. When it is molten in this state, its melting point is lowered, and it becomes remarkably fluid, and the melting treatment is facilitated. Solidified material thus obtained through the melting step has excellent denseness and further large volume reduction rate of the solidified material. (Yoshihara, H.)

  18. Melting of gold microclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon, I.L.; Jellinek, J.

    1991-01-01

    The transition from solid-like to liquid-like behavior in Au n , n=6, 7, 13, clusters is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. A Gupta-type potential with all-neighbour interactions is employed to incorporate n-body effects. The melting-like transition is described in terms of short-time averages of the kinetic energy per particle, root-mean-square bond length fluctuations and mean square displacements. A comparison between melting temperatures of Au n and Ni n clusters is presented. (orig.)

  19. Calibration of micro-thermal analysis for the detection of glass transition temperatures and melting points: repeatability and reproducibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, H.R.

    2008-01-01

    Micro-thermal analysis (μTATM) is a technique in which thermal analysis is performed on surfaces of test specimens on a small (ca. 2×2 μm) scale. Like any thermal analysis technique, interpretation of results benefits from accurate temperature information and knowledge of the precision of the

  20. Estimation of precipitable water from surface dew point temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Wahab, M.; Sharif, T.A.

    1991-09-01

    The Reitan (1963) regression equation which is of the form lnw=a+bT d has been examined and tested to estimate precipitable water content from surface dew point temperature at different locations. The study confirms that the slope of this equation (b) remains constant at the value of .0681 deg. C., while the intercept (a) changes rapidly with the latitude. The use of the variable intercept can improve the estimated result by 2%. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  1. Solubility of corrosion products in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.P.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    1995-01-01

    A short review of solubility of corrosion products at high temperature in either neutral or alkaline water as encountered in BWR, PHWR and PWR primary coolant reactor circuits is presented in this report. Based on the available literature, various experimental techniques involved in the study of the solubility, theory for fitting the solubility data to the thermodynamic model and discussion of the published results with a scope for future work have been brought out. (author). 17 refs., 7 figs

  2. Temperature effect on water absorption in an improved periwinkle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have been carried out on the water absorption of the improved periwinkle reinforced cement stabilized lateritic bricks. These bricks were produced at different cement to laterite to periwinkle ratio of 1:3:1, 2:3:1, 3:3:1, 3:2:1, 3:1:1, and fired at an elevated temperature of 10000C and 11500C, respectively. From the ...

  3. Corrosion behaviour of construction materials for high temperature water electrolysers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikiforov, A.; Petruchina, I.; Christensen, E.; Bjerrum, N.J.; Tomas-Garcya, A.L. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemistry, Materials Science Group

    2010-07-01

    This presentation reported on a study in which the feasibility of using different corrosion resistant stainless steels as a possible metallic bipolar plate and construction material was evaluated in terms of corrosion resistance under conditions corresponding to the conditions in high temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysers (HTPEMWE). PEM water electrolysis technology has been touted as an effective alternative to more conventional alkaline water electrolysis. Although the energy efficiency of this technology can be increased considerably at temperatures above 100 degrees C, this increases the demands to all the used materials with respect to corrosion stability and thermal stability. In this study, Ni-based alloys as well as titanium and tantalum samples were exposed to anodic polarization in 85 per cent phosphoric acid electrolyte solution. Tests were performed at 80 and 120 degrees C to determine the dependence of corrosion speed and working temperature. Platinum and gold plates were also tested for a comparative evaluation. Steady-state voltammetry was used along with scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Titanium showed the poorest corrosion resistance, while Ni-based alloys showed the highest corrosion resistance, with Inconel R 625 being the most promising alloy for the bipolar plate of an HTPEMWE. 3 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  4. Whole body immersion and hydromineral homeostasis: effect of water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Chantal; Regnard, Jacques; Robinet, Claude; Mourot, Laurent; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Chennaoui, Mounir; Jammes, Yves; Dumoulin, Gilles; Desruelle, Anne-Virginie; Melin, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    This experiment was designed to assess the effects of prolonged whole body immersion (WBI) in thermoneutral and cold conditions on plasma volume and hydromineral homeostasis.10 navy "combat swimmers" performed three static 6-h immersions at 34 degrees C (T34), 18 degrees C (T18) and 10 degrees C (T10). Rectal temperature, plasma volume (PV) changes, plasma proteins, plasma and urine ions, plasma osmolality, renin, aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) were measured. Results show that compared to pre-immersion levels, PV decreased throughout WBI sessions, the changes being markedly accentuated in cold conditions. At the end of WBI, maximal PV variations were -6.9% at T34, -14.3% at T18, and -16.3% at T10. Plasma osmolality did not change during and after T34 immersion, while hyperosmolality was present at the end of T18 immersion and began after only 1 h of T10 immersion. In the three temperature conditions, significant losses of water (1.6-1.7 l) and salt (6-8 g) occurred and were associated with similar increases in osmolar and free water clearances. Furthermore, T18 and T10 immersions increased the glomerular filtration rate. There was little or no change in plasma renin and ADH, while the plasma level of aldosterone decreased equally in the three temperature conditions. In conclusion, our data indicate that cold water hastened PV changes induced by immersion, and increased the glomerular filtration rate, causing larger accumulated water losses. The iso-osmotic hypovolemia may impede the resumption of baseline fluid balance. Results are very similar to those repeatedly described by various authors during head-out water immersion.

  5. Glacial melting in Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Tariyal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mountains are amongst the most flimsy environments on Earth. They are prosperous repositories of biodiversity, water and providers of ecosystem goods and services on which downstream communities, both regional and global, rely. The transport of atmospheric pollutants and climate-altering substances can significantly impact high mountain areas, which are generally considered “clean” regions. The snow glaciers of the Himalayas, considered the “third pole”, one of the largest stores of water on the planet and accelerated melting could have far-reaching effects, such as flooding in the short-term and water shortages in the long-term as the glaciers shrink. The data available on temperature in Himalayas indicate that warming during last 3-4 decades has been more than the global average over the last century. Some of the values indicate that the Himalayas are warming 5-6 times more than the global average. Mountain systems are seen globally as the prime sufferers from climate change. There is a severe gap in the knowledge of the short and long-term implications of the impact of climate change on water and hazards in the Himalayas, and their downstream river basins. Most studies have excluded the Himalayan region because of its extreme and complex topography and the lack of adequate rain gauge data. There is an urgent need to close the knowledge gap by establishing monitoring schemes for snow, ice and water; downscaling climate models; applying hydrological models to predict water availability; and developing basin wide scenarios, which also take water demand and socioeconomic development into account. Climate change induced hazards such as floods, landslides and droughts will impose considerable stresses on the livelihoods of mountain people and downstream populations. Enhancing resilience and promoting adaptation in mountain areas have thus become among the most important priorities of this decade. It is important to strengthen local

  6. HEAT PUMP USING SUBSOIL WATERS AS LOW TEMPERATURE HEAT SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysova Alla

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic directions of perfection of heat supply systems is the tendency of transition to the low-temperature heating systems based on application of heat pump installations. We consider heat supply system with heat pump installations using subsoil waters. Numerical simulation of thermal processes in the elements of a single-stage and double-stage heat pump systems has been worked out. Values of depths of wells and their quantity, necessary for effective operation of the offered installations, and values of capacity of electric water pumps for subsoil waters unit are calculated. Capacity of compressor electric drive and coefficient of performance of heat pump for the conditions of the city of Odessa are presented.

  7. Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, H.; Altmann, H.; Kehrer, M.

    1978-08-01

    Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA and data derived of them, are reported. The diminished stability is explained by basedestruction. DNA denatures completely at room temperature, if at least every fifth basepair is broken or weakened by irradiation. (author)

  8. A Robust, Gravity-Insensitive, High-Temperature Condenser for Water Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weibo; Conboy, Thomas; Ewert, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative life support systems are vital for NASA's future long-duration human space exploration missions. A Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) system is being developed by NASA to dry and compress trash generated during space missions. The resulting water vapor is recovered and separated from the process gas flow by a gravity-insensitive condenser. Creare is developing a high-temperature condenser for this application. The entire condenser is constructed from metals that have excellent resistance to chemical attack from contaminants and is suitable for high-temperature operation. The metal construction and design configuration also offer greatest flexibility for potential coating and regeneration processes to reduce biofilm growth and thus enhancing the reliability of the condenser. The proposed condenser builds on the gravity-insensitive phase separator technology Creare developed for aircraft and spacecraft applications. This paper will first discuss the design requirements for the condenser in an HMC system that will be demonstrated on the International Space Station (ISS). Then, it will present the overall design of the condenser and the preliminary thermal test results of a subscale condenser. Finally, this paper will discuss the predicted performance of the full-size condenser and the development plan to mature the technology and enhance its long-term reliability for a flight system.

  9. An approach to estimate the freshwater contribution from glacial melt and precipitation in East Greenland shelf waters using colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stedmon, Colin; Granskog, Mats A.; Dodd, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the supply and storage of freshwater in the Arctic Ocean and its subsequent export to the North Atlantic can potentially influence ocean circulation and climate. In order to understand how the Arctic freshwater budget is changing and the potential impacts, it is important to develop......, and precipitation) and sea ice melt. We develop this approach further and investigate the use of an additional tracer, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), which is largely specific to freshwater originating from Arctic rivers. A robust relationship between the freshwater contribution from meteoric water...... processes (riverine input and sea ice formation), while previously, these waters where thought to be derived from open sea processes (cooling and sea ice formation) in the northern Barents and Kara Seas. In Greenlandic coastal waters the meteoric water contribution is influenced by Greenland ice sheet...

  10. Continuous high-temperature surveillance instrumentation for Dresden-2 hydrogen water chemistry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, M.F.; Mitchell, R.A.; Nelson, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this program (under EPRI Contract RP1930-11) is to install and operate a high-temperature surveillance instrumentation system capable of monitoring the length of cracks in boiling water reactor (BWR) piping during plant operation. The ability to measure crack growth in BWR power plant piping welds is important to rapidly identify the effectiveness of repairs (such as the Hydrogen Water Chemistry Program). The feasibility of a system capable of continuous ultrasonic instrumentation at 600 0 F (288 0 C) was successfully demonstrated at the Dresden-2 suction line known as N1B. This intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) surveillance instrumentation is sound in principal, because it survived on N1B for a time period of more than nine months from April 1985 to January 1986 (the last time data were recorded). The redesigned low-profile transducer system used for this system operated successfully for the same nine-month time period. This low profile transducer fits in the two-inch space normally occupied by insulation. As a result of poor routing of the coaxial cables running from the low-profile transducer to the electrical feed-throughs between the drywell and containment, these cables melted. Other instrument cables nearby were not damaged

  11. From Space to the Rocky Intertidal: Using NASA MODIS Sea Surface Temperature and NOAA Water Temperature to Predict Intertidal Logger Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R. P. Sutton

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of satellite-derived datasets has greatly facilitated large-scale ecological studies, as in situ observations are spatially sparse and expensive undertakings. We tested the efficacy of using satellite sea surface temperature (SST collected by NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and local water temperature collected from NOAA buoys and onshore stations to estimate submerged intertidal mussel logger temperatures. Daily SST and local water temperatures were compared to mussel logger temperatures at five study sites located along the Oregon coastline. We found that satellite-derived SSTs and local water temperatures were similarly correlated to the submerged mussel logger temperatures. This finding suggests that satellite-derived SSTs may be used in conjunction with local water temperatures to understand the temporal and spatial variation of mussel logger temperatures. While there are limitations to using satellite-derived temperature for ecological studies, including issues with temporal and spatial resolution, our results are promising.

  12. High temperature breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relation in a computer simulated Cu-Zr melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, X. J., E-mail: xjhan@sjtu.edu.cn; Li, J. G., E-mail: lijg@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dongchuan Rd. 800, 200240 Shanghai (China); Schober, H. R., E-mail: h.schober@fz-juelich.de [Peter Grünberg Institut, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2016-03-28

    Transport properties and the Stokes-Einstein (SE) relation in liquid Cu{sub 8}Zr{sub 3} are studied by molecular dynamics simulation with a modified embedded atom potential. The critical temperature T{sub c} of mode coupling theory (MCT) is derived as 930 K from the self-diffusion coefficient D and viscosity η. The SE relation breaks down around T{sub SE} = 1900 K, which is far above T{sub c}. At temperatures below T{sub SE}, the product of D and η fluctuates around a constant value, similar to the prediction of MCT near T{sub c}. The influence of the microscopic atomic motion on macroscopic properties is investigated by analyzing the time dependent liquid structure and the self-hole filling process. The self-holes for the two components are preferentially filled by atoms of the same component. The self-hole filling dynamics explains the different breakdown behaviors of the SE relation in Zr-rich liquid CuZr{sub 2} compared to Cu-rich Cu{sub 8}Zr{sub 3}. At T{sub SE}, a kink is found in the temperature dependence of both partial and total coordination numbers for the three atomic pair combinations and of the typical time of self-hole filling. This indicates a strong correlation between liquid structure, atomic dynamics, and the breakdown of SE relation. The previously suggested usefulness of the parameter d(D{sub 1}/D{sub 2})/dT to predict T{sub SE} is confirmed. Additionally we propose a viscosity criterion to predict T{sub SE} in the absence of diffusion data.

  13. Petrological Geodynamics of Mantle Melting II. AlphaMELTS + Multiphase Flow: Dynamic Fractional Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirone, Massimiliano

    2018-03-01

    In this second installment of a series that aims to investigate the dynamic interaction between the composition and abundance of the solid mantle and its melt products, the classic interpretation of fractional melting is extended to account for the dynamic nature of the process. A multiphase numerical flow model is coupled with the program AlphaMELTS, which provides at the moment possibly the most accurate petrological description of melting based on thermodynamic principles. The conceptual idea of this study is based on a description of the melting process taking place along a 1-D vertical ideal column where chemical equilibrium is assumed to apply in two local sub-systems separately on some spatial and temporal scale. The solid mantle belongs to a local sub-system (ss1) that does not interact chemically with the melt reservoir which forms a second sub-system (ss2). The local melt products are transferred in the melt sub-system ss2 where the melt phase eventually can also crystallize into a different solid assemblage and will evolve dynamically. The main difference with the usual interpretation of fractional melting is that melt is not arbitrarily and instantaneously extracted from the mantle, but instead remains a dynamic component of the model, hence the process is named dynamic fractional melting (DFM). Some of the conditions that may affect the DFM model are investigated in this study, in particular the effect of temperature, mantle velocity at the boundary of the mantle column. A comparison is made with the dynamic equilibrium melting (DEM) model discussed in the first installment. The implications of assuming passive flow or active flow are also considered to some extent. Complete data files of most of the DFM simulations, four animations and two new DEM simulations (passive/active flow) are available following the instructions in the supplementary material.

  14. Temperature effects studies in light water reactor lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erradi, Lahoussine.

    1982-02-01

    The CREOLE experiments performed in the EOLE critical facility located in the Nuclear Center of CADARACHE - CEA (UO 2 and UO 2 -PuO 2 lattice reactivity temperature coefficient continuous measurements between 20 0 C and 300 0 C; integral measurements by boron equivalent effect in the moderator; water density effects measurements with the use of over cladding aluminium tubes to remove moderator) allow to get an interesting and complete information on the temperature effects in the light water reactor lattices. A very elaborated calcurated scheme using the transport theory and the APOLLO cross sections library, has been developed. The analysed results of the whole lot of experiments show that the discrepancy between theory and experiment strongly depends on the temperature range and on the type of lattices considered. The error is mainly linked with the thermal spectrum effects. A study on the temperature coefficient sensitivity to the different cell neutron parameters has shown that only the shapes of the 235 U and 238 U thermal cross sections have enough weight and uncertainty margins to explain the observed experimental/calculation bias. Instead of arbitrarily fitting the identified wrong data on the calculation of the reactivity temperature coefficient we have defined a procedure of modification of the cross sections based on the consideration of the basic nuclear data: resonance parameters and associated statistic laws. The implementation of this procedure has led to propose new thermal cross sections sets for 235 U and 238 U consistent with the uncertainty margins associated with the previously accepted values and with some experimental data [fr

  15. Effects of temperature on SCC propagation in high temperature water injected with hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Junichi; Sato, Tomonori; Kato, Chiaki; Yoshiyuki, Kaji; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tsukada, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    To understand the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviour of austenitic stainless steels (SSs) in the boiling water reactor (BWR) coolant environment, it is significant to investigate the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) produced by the radiolysis of water on SCC under the various water chemistry and operational conditions. At the start-up or shut-down periods, for example, the conditions of radiation and temperature on the structural materials are different from those during the plant normal operation, and may be influencing on SCC behaviour. Therefore, the effect of temperature on SCC in high temperature water injected with H 2 O 2 was evaluated by SCC propagation test at the present study. Oxide films on the metal surface in crack were examined and the thermal equilibrium diagram was calculated to estimate the environmental situation in the crack. On the thermally sensitized type 304 SS, crack growth tests were conducted in high temperature water injected with H 2 O 2 to simulate water radiolysis in the core. Small CT type specimens with a width of 15.5 mm and thickness of 6.2 mm were machined from the sensitized SS. SCC growth tests were conducted in high temperature water injected with 100 ppb H 2 O 2 at 453 and 561 K. To minimize H 2 O 2 decomposition by a contact with metal surface of autoclave, the CT specimen was isolated from inner surface of the autoclave by the inner modules made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and PTFE lining was also used for the inner surface of inlet and sampling tubes. Base on the measurement of sampled water, it was confirmed that 80-90 % of injected H 2 O 2 remained around the CT specimen in autoclave. Constant load at initial K levels of 11-20 MPam 1/2 was applied to the CT specimens during crack growth tests. After crack growth tests, CT specimens were split into two pieces on the plane of crack propagation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) examination and laser Raman spectroscopy for outer oxide layer of oxide

  16. Inconel 939 processed by selective laser melting: Effect of microstructure and temperature on the mechanical properties under static and cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanagarajah, P., E-mail: p.kanagarajah@uni-paderborn.de [Lehrstuhl für Werkstoffkunde (Materials Science), University of Paderborn, Pohlweg 47-49, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Brenne, F. [Lehrstuhl für Werkstoffkunde (Materials Science), University of Paderborn, Pohlweg 47-49, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Direct Manufacturing Research Center (DMRC), Mersinweg 3, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Niendorf, T. [Lehrstuhl für Werkstoffkunde (Materials Science), University of Paderborn, Pohlweg 47-49, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Maier, H.J. [Direct Manufacturing Research Center (DMRC), Mersinweg 3, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Institut für Werkstoffkunde, Leibniz Universität Hannover, An der Universität 2, 30823 Garbsen (Germany)

    2013-12-20

    Nickel-based superalloys, such as Inconel 939, are a long-established construction material for high-temperature applications and profound knowledge of the mechanical properties for this alloy produced by conventional techniques exists. However, many applications demand for highly complex geometries, e.g. in order to optimize the cooling capability of thermally loaded parts. Thus, additive manufacturing (AM) techniques have recently attracted substantial interest as they provide for an increased freedom of design. However, the microstructural features after AM processing are different from those after conventional processing. Thus, further research is vital for understanding the microstructure-processing relationship and its impact on the resulting mechanical properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate Inconel 939 processed by selective laser melting (SLM) and to reveal the differences to the conventional cast alloy. Thorough examinations were conducted using electron backscatter diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, optical microscopy and mechanical testing. It is demonstrated that the microstructure of the SLM-material is highly influenced by the heat flux during layer-wise manufacturing and consequently anisotropic microstructural features prevail. An epitaxial grain growth accounts for strong bonding between the single layers resulting in good mechanical properties already in the as-built condition. A heat treatment following SLM leads to microstructural features different to those obtained after the same heat treatment of the cast alloy. Still, the mechanical performance of the latter is met underlining the potential of this technique for producing complex parts for high temperature applications.

  17. Melting hadrons, boiling quarks from Hagedorn temperature to ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions at CERN : with a tribute to Rolf Hagedorn

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book shows how the study of multi-hadron production phenomena in the years after the founding of CERN culminated in Hagedorn's pioneering idea of limiting temperature, leading on to the discovery of the quark-gluon plasma - announced, in February 2000 at CERN. Following the foreword by Herwig Schopper -- the Director General (1981-1988) of CERN at the key historical juncture -- the first part is a tribute to Rolf Hagedorn (1919-2003) and includes contributions by contemporary friends and colleagues, and those who were most touched by Hagedorn: Tamás Biró, Igor Dremin, Torleif Ericson, Marek Gázdzicki, Mark Gorenstein, Hans Gutbrod, Maurice Jacob, István Montvay, Berndt Müller, Grazyna Odyniec, Emanuele Quercigh, Krzysztof Redlich, Helmut Satz, Luigi Sertorio, Ludwik Turko, and Gabriele Veneziano. The second and third parts retrace 20 years of developments that after discovery of the Hagedorn temperature in 1964 led to its recognition as the melting point of hadrons into boiling quarks, and t...

  18. General corrosion of carbon steels in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gras, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    This short paper seeks to provide a summary of the main knowledge about the general corrosion of carbon steels in high temperature water. In pure water or slightly alkaline deaerated water, steels develop a protective coating of magnetite in a double layer (Potter and Mann oxide) or a single layer (Bloom oxide). The morphology of the oxide layer and the kinetics of corrosion depend on the test parameters controlling the solubility of iron. The parameters exercising the greatest influence are partial hydrogen pressure and mass transfer: hydrogen favours the solubilization of the magnetite; the entrainment of the dissolved iron prevents a redeposition of magnetite on the surface of the steel. Cubic or parabolic in static conditions, the kinetics of corrosion tends to be linear in dynamic conditions. In dynamic operation, corrosion is at least one order of magnitude lower in water with a pH of 10 than in pure water with a pH of 7. The activation energy of corrosion is 130 kJ/mol (31 kcal/mol). This results in the doubling of corrosion at around 300 deg C for a temperature increase of 15 deg C. Present in small quantities (100-200 ppb), oxygen decreases general corrosion but increases the risk of pitting corrosion - even for a low chloride content - and stress corrosion cracking or corrosion-fatigue. The steel composition has probably an influence on the kinetics of corrosion in dynamic conditions; further work would be required to clarify the effect of some residual elements. (author). 31 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Hydraulic, water-quality, and temperature performance of three types of permeable pavement under high sediment loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbig, William R.; Buer, Nicolas

    2018-05-11

    three permeable surfaces.Temperatures below each permeable surface generally followed changes in air temperature with a more gradual response observed in deeper layers. Therefore, permeable pavement may do little to mitigate heated runoff during summer. During winter, deeper layers remained above freezing even when air temperature was below freezing. Although temperatures were not high enough to melt snow or ice accumulated on the surface, temperatures below each permeable pavement did allow void spaces to remain open, which promoted infiltration of melted ice and snow as air temperatures rose above freezing. These open void spaces could potentially reduce the need for application of deicing agents in winter because melted snow and ice would infiltrate, thereby preventing refreezing of pooled water in what is known as the “black ice” effect.

  20. The effects of fire temperatures on water soluble heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, P.; Ubeda, X.; Martin, D. A.

    2009-04-01

    Fire ash are majority composed by base cations, however the mineralized organic matter, led also available to transport a higher quantity of heavy metals that potentially could increase a toxicity in soil and water resources. The amount availability of these elements depend on the environment were the fire took place, burning temperature and combusted tree specie. The soil and water contamination from fire ash has been neglected, because the majority of studies are focused on base cations dynamic. Our research, beside contemplate major elements, is focused in to study the behavior of heavy metals released from ash slurries created at several temperatures under laboratory environment, prescribed fires and wildland fires. The results presented in these communication are preliminary and study the presence of Aluminium (Al3+), Manganese (Mn2+), Iron (Fe2+) and Zinc (Zn2+) of ash slurries generated in laboratory environment at several temperatures (150°, 200°, 250°, 300°, 350°, 400°,450°, 500°, 550°C) from Quercus suber, Quercus robur, Pinus pinea and Pinus pinaster and from a low medium temperature prescribed fire in a forest dominated Quercus suber trees. We observed that ash produced at lower and medium temperatures (Pinus ashes. Fe2+ and Zn2+ showed a reduced concentration in test solution in relation to unburned sample at all temperatures of exposition. In the results obtained from prescribed fire, we identify a higher release of Al3+ and a decrease of the remain elements. The solubilization of these elements are related with pH levels and ash calcite content, because their ability to capture ions in solution. Moreover, the amount and the type of ions released in relation to unburned sample vary in each specie. In this study Al3+ release is related with Quercus species and Mn2+ with Pinus species. Fire ashes can be an environmental problem, because at long term can increase soil acidity. After all base cations have being leached, pH values decrease, and

  1. Proton NMR relaxation in hydrous melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, J.; Bacarella, A.L.; Benjamin, B.M.; Brown, L.L.; Girard, C.

    1976-01-01

    Pulse and continuous wave NMR measurements are reported for protons in hydrous melts of calcium nitrate at temperatures between -4 and 120 0 C. Although measured in different temperature ranges, spin-lattice (T 1 ) and spin-spin (T 2 ) relaxation times appear to be nearly equal to each other and proportional to the self-diffusion coefficients of solute metal cations such as Cd 2+ . At temperatures near 50 0 C, mean Arrhenius coefficients Δ H/sub T 1 / (kcal/mol) are 7.9, 7.3, and 4.8, respectively, for melts containing 2.8, 4.0, and 8.0 moles of water per mole of calcium nitrate, compared to 4.6 kcal/mol for pure water. Temperature dependence of T 1 and T 2 in Ca(NO 3 ) 2 -2.8 H 2 O between -4 and 120 0 C are non-Arrhenius and can be represented by a Fulcher-type equation with a ''zero mobility temperature'' (T 0 ) of 225 0 K, close to the value of T 0 for solute diffusion, electrical conductance and viscosity. Resolution of the relaxation rates into correlation times for intramolecular (rotational) and intermolecular (translational) diffusional motion is discussed in terms of the Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound and more recent models for dipolar relaxation

  2. Reducing the fuel temperature for pressure-tube supercritical-water-cooled reactors and the effect of fuel burnup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichita, E., E-mail: eleodor.nichita@uoit.ca; Kovaltchouk, V., E-mail: vitali.kovaltchouk@uoit.ca

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Typical PT-SCWR fuel uses single-region pins consisting of a homogeneous mixture of ThO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2}. • Using two regions (central for the ThO{sub 2} and peripheral for the PuO{sub 2}) reduces the fuel temperature. • Single-region-pin melting-to-average power ratio is 2.5 at 0.0 MW d/kg and 2.3 at 40 MW d/kg. • Two-region-pin melting-to-average power ratio is 36 at 0.0 MW d/kg and 10.5 at 40 MW d/kg. • Two-region-pin performance drops with burnup due to fissile-element buildup in the ThO{sub 2} region. - Abstract: The Pressure-Tube Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor (PT-SCWR) is one of the concepts under investigation by the Generation IV International Forum for its promise to deliver higher thermal efficiency than nuclear reactors currently in operation. The high coolant temperature (>625 K) and high linear power density employed by the PT-SCWR cause the fuel temperature to be fairly high, leading to a reduced margin to fuel melting, thus increasing the risk of actual melting during accident scenarios. It is therefore desirable to come up with a fuel design that lowers the fuel temperature while preserving the high linear power ratio and high coolant temperature. One possible solution is to separate the fertile (ThO{sub 2}) and fissile (PuO{sub 2}) fuel materials into different radial regions in each fuel pin. Previously-reported work found that by locating the fertile material at the centre and the fissile material at the periphery of the fuel pin, the fuel centreline temperature can be reduced by ∼650 K for fresh fuel compared to the case of a homogeneous (Th–Pu)O{sub 2} mixture for the same coolant temperature and linear power density. This work provides a justification for the observed reduction in fuel centreline temperature and suggests a systematic approach to lower the fuel temperature. It also extends the analysis to the dependence of the radial temperature profile on fuel burnup. The radial temperature profile is

  3. Sulfur concentration at sulfide saturation (SCSS) in magmatic silicate melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanan; Samaha, Naji-Tom; Baker, Don R.

    2007-04-01

    The sulfur concentration in silicate melts at sulfide saturation (SCSS) was experimentally investigated in a temperature range from 1150 to 1450 °C and a pressure range from 500 MPa to 1 GPa in a piston-cylinder apparatus. The investigated melt compositions varied from rhyolitic to basaltic and water concentrations varied from 0 to ˜9 wt%. All experiments were saturated with FeS melt or pyrrhotite crystals. Temperature was confirmed to have a positive effect on the SCSS. Experimental oxygen fugacities were either near the carbon-carbon monoxide buffer or one log unit above the nickel-nickel oxide buffer, and found to positively affect the SCSS. Combining our results with data from the literature we constructed a model to predict the SCSS in melts ranging in composition from komatiitic to rhyolitic, with water concentrations from 0 to 9 wt%, at pressures from 1 bar to 9 GPa and oxygen fugacities between ˜2 log units below the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer to ˜2 log units above it. The coefficients were obtained by multiple linear regression of experimental data and the best model found for the prediction of the SCSS is: ln(Sinppm)=11.35251-{4454.6}/{T}-0.03190{P}/{T}+0.71006ln(MFM)-1.98063[(MFM)(XO)]+0.21867ln(XO)+0.36192lnX where P is in bar, T is in K, MFM is a compositional parameter describing the melt based upon cation mole fractions: MFM={Na+K+2(Ca+Mg+Fe)}/{Si×(Al+Fe)}, XO is the mole fraction of water in the melt, and X is the mole fraction of FeO in the melt. This model was independently tested against experiments performed on anhydrous and hydrous melts in the temperature range from 800 to 1800 °C and 1-9 GPa. The model typically predicts the measured values of the natural log of the SCSS (in ppm) for komatiitic to rhyolitic (˜42 to ˜74 wt% SiO 2) melts to within 5% relative, but is less accurate for high-silica (>76 wt% SiO 2) rhyolites, especially those with molar ratios of iron to sulfur below 2. We demonstrate how this model can be used with

  4. SCC Initiation Testing of Alloy 600 in High Temperature Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etien, Robert A.; Richey, Edward; Morton, David S.; Eager, Julie

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) initiation tests have been conducted on Alloy 600 at temperatures from 304 to 367°C. Tests were conducted with in-situ monitored smooth tensile specimens under a constant load in hydrogenated environments. A reversing direct current electric potential drop (EPD) system was used for all of the tests to detect SCC initiation. Tests were conducted to examine the effects of stress (and strain), coolant hydrogen, and temperature on SCC initiation time. The thermal activation energy of SCC initiation was measured as 103 ± 18 kJ/mol in hydrogenated water, which is similar to the thermal activation energy for SCC growth. Results suggest that the fundamental mechanical parameter which controls SCC initiation is plastic strain not stress. SCC initiation was shown to have a different sensitivity than SCC growth to dissolved hydrogen level. Specifically, SCC initiation time appears to be relatively insensitive to hydrogen level in the nickel stability region.

  5. Development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at higher temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkous, C.A. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This report describes efforts in developing new solid polymer electrolytes that will enable operation of proton exchange membrane electrolyzers at higher temperatures than are currently possible. Several ionomers have been prepared from polyetheretherketone (PEEK), polyethersulfone (PES), and polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) by employing various sulfonation procedures. By controlling the extent of sulfonation, a range of proton conductivities could be achieved, whose upper limit actually exceeded that of commercially available perfluoralkyl sulfonates. Thermoconductimetric analysis of samples at various degrees of sulfonation showed an inverse relationship between conductivity and maximum operating temperature. This was attributed to the dual effect of adding sulfonate groups to the polymer: more acid groups produce more protons for increased conductivity, but they also increase water uptake, which mechanically weakens the membrane. This situation was exacerbated by the limited acidity of the aromatic sulfonic acids (pK{sub A} {approx} 2-3). The possibility of using partial fluorination to raise the acid dissociation constant is discussed.

  6. An operational analysis of Lake Surface Water Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma K. Fiedler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Operational analyses of Lake Surface Water Temperature (LSWT have many potential uses including improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP models on regional scales. In November 2011, LSWT was included in the Met Office Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Ice Analysis (OSTIA product, for 248 lakes globally. The OSTIA analysis procedure, which has been optimised for oceans, has also been used for the lakes in this first version of the product. Infra-red satellite observations of lakes and in situ measurements are assimilated. The satellite observations are based on retrievals optimised for Sea Surface Temperature (SST which, although they may introduce inaccuracies into the LSWT data, are currently the only near-real-time information available. The LSWT analysis has a global root mean square difference of 1.31 K and a mean difference of 0.65 K (including a cool skin effect of 0.2 K compared to independent data from the ESA ARC-Lake project for a 3-month period (June to August 2009. It is demonstrated that the OSTIA LSWT is an improvement over the use of climatology to capture the day-to-day variation in global lake surface temperatures.

  7. Reaction- and melting behaviour of LWR-core components UO2, Zircaloy and steel during the meltdown period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, P.

    1976-07-01

    The reaction behaviour of the UO 2 , Zircaloy-4 and austenitic steel core components was investigated as a function of temperature (till melting temperatures) under inert and oxidizing conditions. Component concentrations varied between that of Corium-A (65 wt.% UO 2 , 18% Zry, 17% steel) and that of Corium-E (35 wt.% UO 2 , 10% Zry, 55% steel). In addition, Zircaloy and stainless steel were used with different degrees of oxidation. The paper describes systematically the phases that arise during heating and melting. The integral composition of the melts and the qualitative as well as quantitative analysis of the phases present in solidified corium are given. In some cases melting points have been determined. The reaction and melting behaviour of the corium specimens strongly depends on the concentration and on the degree of oxidation of the core components. First liquid phases are formed at the Zry-steel interface at about 1,350 0 C. The maximum temperatures of about 2,500 0 C for the complete melting of the corium-specimens are well below the UO 2 melting point. Depending on the steel content and/or degree of oxidation of Zry and steel, a homogeneous metallic or oxide melt or two immiscible melts - one oxide and the other metallic - are obtained. During the melting experiments performed under inert gas conditions the chemical composition of the molten specimens generally change by evaporation losses of single elements, especially of uranium, zirconium and oxygen. The total weight losses go up to 30%; under oxidizing conditions they are substantially smaller due to the occurrence of different phases. In air or water vapor, the occurrence of the phases and the melting behaviour of the core components are strongly influenced by the oxidation rate and the oxygen supply to the surface of the melt. In the case of the hypothetical core melting accident, a heterogeneous melt (oxide and metallic) is probable after the meltdown period. (orig./RW) [de

  8. Comparison of spray congealing and melt emulsification methods for the incorporation of the water-soluble salbutamol sulphate in lipid microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalia, Santo; Traini, Daniela; Young, Paul M; Di Sabatino, Marcello; Passerini, Nadia; Albertini, Beatrice

    2013-02-01

    Salbutamol sulphate is widely used as bronchodilator for the treatment of asthma. Its use is limited by the relatively short duration of action and hence sustained delivery of salbutamol sulphate offers potential benefits to patients. This study explores the preparation of lipid microparticles (LMs) as biocompatible carrier for the prolonged release of salbutamol sulphate. The LMs were produced using different lipidic materials and surfactants, by classical melt emulsification-based methods (oil-in-water and water-in-oil-in-water emulsions) and the spray congealing technique. For the LMs obtained by melt emulsification a lack of release modulation was observed. On the other hand, the sustained release of salbutamol sulphate was achieved with glyceryl behenate microparticles prepared by spray congealing. These LMs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and differential scanning calorimetry. The drug loading was 4.72% (w/w). The particle size distribution measured by laser diffraction and electrical zone sensing was represented by a volume median diameter (Dv(50)) of 51.7-71.4 µm. Increasing the atomization air pressure from 4 to 8 bar produced a decrease of the Dv(50) to 12.7-17.5 µm. Incorporation of the hydrophilic salbutamol sulphate into LMs with sustained release characteristics was achieved by spray congealing.

  9. Carbon dioxide and water vapor high temperature electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Verostko, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    The design, fabrication, breadboard testing, and the data base obtained for solid oxide electrolysis systems that have applications for planetary manned missions and habitats are reviewed. The breadboard tested contains sixteen tubular cells in a closely packed bundle for the electrolysis of carbon dioxide and water vapor. The discussion covers energy requirements, volume, weight, and operational characteristics related to the measurement of the reactant and product gas compositions, temperature distribution along the electrolyzer tubular cells and through the bundle, and thermal energy losses. The reliability of individual cell performance in the bundle configuration is assessed.

  10. Room temperature synthesis of water-repellent polystyrene nanocomposite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonggang; Jiang Dong; Zhang Xia; Zhang Zhijun; Wang Qihua

    2010-01-01

    A stable superhydrophobic polystyrene nanocomposite coating was fabricated by means of a very simple and easy method. The coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectrum. The wettability of the products was also investigated. By adding the surface-modified SiO 2 nanoparticles, the wettability of the coating changed to water-repellent superhydrophobic, not only for pure water, but also for a wide pH range of corrosive liquids. The influence of the drying temperature and SiO 2 content on the wettability of the nanocomposite coating was also investigated. It was found that both factors had little or no significant effect on the wetting behavior of the coating surface.

  11. Prediction of the optimum hybridization conditions of dot-blot-SNP analysis using estimated melting temperature of oligonucleotide probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokai, Sachiko; Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Nishio, Takeshi

    2010-08-01

    Although the dot-blot-SNP technique is a simple cost-saving technique suitable for genotyping of many plant individuals, optimization of hybridization and washing conditions for each SNP marker requires much time and labor. For prediction of the optimum hybridization conditions for each probe, we compared T (m) values estimated from nucleotide sequences using the DINAMelt web server, measured T (m) values, and hybridization conditions yielding allele-specific signals. The estimated T (m) values were comparable to the measured T (m) values with small differences of less than 3 degrees C for most of the probes. There were differences of approximately 14 degrees C between the specific signal detection conditions and estimated T (m) values. Change of one level of SSC concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0x SSC corresponded to a difference of approximately 5 degrees C in optimum signal detection temperature. Increasing the sensitivity of signal detection by shortening the exposure time to X-ray film changed the optimum hybridization condition for specific signal detection. Addition of competitive oligonucleotides to the hybridization mixture increased the suitable hybridization conditions by 1.8. Based on these results, optimum hybridization conditions for newly produced dot-blot-SNP markers will become predictable.

  12. Criteria for the spreading of oxide melts: Test series miniKATS-1 to -5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppinger, B.; Fieg, G.; Massier, H.; Schuetz, W.; Stegmaier, U.; Stern, G.

    2001-09-01

    In a long series of larger spreading tests with high temperature oxide melts (KATS tests) many parameters have been varied which are influencing the spreading behaviour (viscosity, pouring rate, substratum of spreading surface, presence of water). In spite of an extensive instrumentation using different thermocouples, an infrared camera and several video cameras, only in very few cases the behaviour of the melt front at the very moment of immobilization could be detected in detail. Therefore in the additional miniKATS series five small scale (5 kg) spreading tests with oxide melts have been conducted to investigate the mechanical properties of the spreading front in the moment of immobilization. It turned out that in all cases the bulk of the melt at this moment was still liquid at a temperature close to the initial one. Depending on the initial melt properties two distinct phenomena have been observed which control the immobilization of the melt: the first phenomena is the crust formation at the surface, the crusts at the bottom combined with the crust at the surface of the melt. In the other case the whole melt front was still above the liquid temperature at the moment of immobilization. Here the surface tension was controlling the spreading, it was in balance with the driving gravitational force. In none of the test bulk freezing has been detected. (orig.)

  13. High-resolution gulf water skin temperature estimation using TIR/ASTER

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; ManiMurali, R.; Mahender, K.

    to separate geomorphic features. It is demonstrated that high resolution water skin temperature of small water bodies can be determined correctly, economically and less laboriously using space-based TIR/ASTER and that estimated temperature can be effectively...

  14. Effect of Mantle Wedge Hybridization by Sediment Melt on Geochemistry of Arc Magma and Arc Mantle Source - Insights from Laboratory Experiments at High Pressures and Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, A.; Dasgupta, R.; Tsuno, K.; Nelson, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Generation of arc magmas involves metasomatism of the mantle wedge by slab-derived H2O-rich fluids and/or melts and subsequent melting of the modified source. The chemistry of arc magmas and the residual mantle wedge are not only regulated by the chemistry of the slab input, but also by the phase relations of metasomatism or hybridization process in the wedge. The sediment-derived silica-rich fluids and hydrous partial melts create orthopyroxene-rich zones in the mantle wedge, due to reaction of mantle olivine with silica in the fluid/melt [1,2]. Geochemical evidence for such a reaction comes from pyroxenitic lithologies coexisting with peridotite in supra-subduction zones. In this study, we have simulated the partial melting of a parcel of mantle wedge modified by bulk addition of sediment-derived melt with variable H2O contents to investigate the major and trace element chemistry of the magmas and the residues formed by this process. Experiments at 2-3 GPa and 1150-1300 °C were conducted on mixtures of 25% sediment-derived melt and 75% lherzolite, with bulk H2O contents varying from 2 to 6 wt.%. Partial reactive crystallization of the rhyolitic slab-derived melt and partial melting of the mixed source produced a range of melt compositions from ultra-K basanites to basaltic andesites, in equilibrium with an orthopyroxene ± phlogopite ± clinopyroxene ± garnet bearing residue, depending on P and bulk H2O content. Model calculations using partition coefficients (from literature) of trace elements between experimental minerals and silicate melt suggest that the geochemical signatures of the slab-derived melt, such as low Ce/Pb and depletion in Nb and Ta (characteristic slab signatures) are not erased from the resulting melt owing to reactive crystallization. The residual mineral assemblage is also found to be similar to the supra-subduction zone lithologies, such as those found in Dabie Shan (China) and Sanbagawa Belt (Japan). In this presentation, we will also

  15. Simulation experiment on the flooding behaviour of core melts: KATS-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieg, G.; Massier, H.; Schuetz, W.; Stegmaier, U.; Stern, G.

    2000-11-01

    For future Light Water Reactors special devices (core catchers) are being developed to prevent containment failure by basement erosion after reactor pressure vessel meltthrough during a core meltdown accident. Quick freezing of the molten core masses is desirable to reduce release of radioactivity. Several concepts of core catcher devices have been proposed based on the spreading of corium melt onto flat surfaces with subsequent water cooling. A KATS-experiment has been performed to investigate the flooding behaviour of high temperature melts using alumina-iron thermite melts as a simulant. The oxidic thermite melt is conditioned by adding other oxides to simulate a realistic corium melt as close as possible in terms of liquidus and solidus temperatures. Before flooding with water, spreading of the separate oxidic and metallic melts has been done in one-dimensional channels with a silicate concrete as the substrate. The flooding rate was, in relation to the melt surface, identical to the flooding rate in EPR. (orig.) [de

  16. Coercivity of the Nd–Fe–B hot-deformed magnets diffusion-processed with low melting temperature glass forming alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seelam, U.M.R. [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials (ESICMM), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Liu, Lihua [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials (ESICMM), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Akiya, T.; Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T. [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials (ESICMM), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Sakuma, N.; Yano, M.; Kato, A. [Advanced Material Engineering Division, Toyota Motor Corporation, Susono 410-1193 (Japan); Hono, K., E-mail: kazuhiro.hono@nims.go.jp [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials (ESICMM), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    Nd- and Pr-based alloys with bulk glass forming ability and low melting temperatures, Nd{sub 60}Al{sub 10}Ni{sub 10}Cu{sub 20} and Pr{sub 60}Al{sub 10}Ni{sub 10}Cu{sub 20}, were used for grain boundary diffusion process to enhance the coercivity of hot-deformed magnets. The coercivity increment was proportional to the weight gain after the diffusion process. For the sample with 64% weight gain, the coercivity increased up to 2.8 T, which is the highest value for bulk Nd–Fe–B magnets that do not contain heavy rare-earth elements, Dy or Tb. Approximately half of the intergranular regions were amorphous and the remaining regions were crystalline. Magnetic isolation of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains by the Nd-rich amorphous/crystalline intergranular phases is attributed to the large coercivity enhancement. The coercivity does not change after the crystallization of the intergranular phase, indicating that the coercivity is not influenced by the strain at the interface with the crystalline intergranular phase. - Highlights: • Bulk-glass forming alloys were infiltrated into hot-deformed Nd–Fe–B magnets. • Very high coercivity of 2.8 T was attained without heavy rare-earth elements. • Approximately half of the inter-granular regions were amorphous. • Crystallization of amorphous intergranular phase does not change coercivity.

  17. Melting in super-earths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stixrude, Lars

    2014-04-28

    We examine the possible extent of melting in rock-iron super-earths, focusing on those in the habitable zone. We consider the energetics of accretion and core formation, the timescale of cooling and its dependence on viscosity and partial melting, thermal regulation via the temperature dependence of viscosity, and the melting curves of rock and iron components at the ultra-high pressures characteristic of super-earths. We find that the efficiency of kinetic energy deposition during accretion increases with planetary mass; considering the likely role of giant impacts and core formation, we find that super-earths probably complete their accretionary phase in an entirely molten state. Considerations of thermal regulation lead us to propose model temperature profiles of super-earths that are controlled by silicate melting. We estimate melting curves of iron and rock components up to the extreme pressures characteristic of super-earth interiors based on existing experimental and ab initio results and scaling laws. We construct super-earth thermal models by solving the equations of mass conservation and hydrostatic equilibrium, together with equations of state of rock and iron components. We set the potential temperature at the core-mantle boundary and at the surface to the local silicate melting temperature. We find that ancient (∼4 Gyr) super-earths may be partially molten at the top and bottom of their mantles, and that mantle convection is sufficiently vigorous to sustain dynamo action over the whole range of super-earth masses.

  18. Low temperature hydrolysis of laboratory tholins in ammonia-water solutions: Implications for prebiotic chemistry on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Somogyi, Árpád; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Smith, Mark A.

    2009-05-01

    Laboratory tholins react rapidly in 13 wt% ammonia-water at low temperature, producing complex organic molecules containing both oxygen and altered nitrogen functional groups. These reactions display first-order kinetics with half-lives between 0.3 and 14 days at 253 K. The reaction timescales are much shorter than the freezing timescales of impact melts and volcanic sites on Titan, providing ample time for the formation of oxygenated, possibly prebiotic, molecules on its surface. Comparing the rates of the hydrolysis reactions in ammonia-water to those measured in pure water [Neish, C.D, Somogyi, A., Imanaka, H., Lunine, J.I., Smith, M.A., 2008a. Astrobiology 8, 273-287], we find that incorporation of oxygen into the tholins is faster in the presence of ammonia. The rate increases could be due to the increased pH of the solution, or to the availability of new reaction pathways made possible by the presence of ammonia. Using labeled 15NH 3 water, we find that ammonia does incorporate into some products, and that the reactions with ammonia are largely independent of those with water. A related study in HO18 confirms water as the source of the oxygen incorporated into the oxygen containing products.

  19. Influence of spatial discretization, underground water storage and glacier melt on a physically-based hydrological model of the Upper Durance River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafaysse, M.; Hingray, B.; Etchevers, P.; Martin, E.; Obled, C.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryThe SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU hydrological model ( Habets et al., 2008) presents severe limitations for alpine catchments. Here we propose possible model adaptations. For the catchment discretization, Relatively Homogeneous Hydrological Units (RHHUs) are used instead of the classical 8 km square grid. They are defined from the dilineation of hydrological subbasins, elevation bands, and aspect classes. Glacierized and non-glacierized areas are also treated separately. In addition, new modules are included in the model for the simulation of glacier melt, and retention of underground water. The improvement resulting from each model modification is analysed for the Upper Durance basin. RHHUs allow the model to better account for the high spatial variability of the hydrological processes (e.g. snow cover). The timing and the intensity of the spring snowmelt floods are significantly improved owing to the representation of water retention by aquifers. Despite the relatively small area covered by glaciers, accounting for glacier melt is necessary for simulating the late summer low flows. The modified model is robust over a long simulation period and it produces a good reproduction of the intra and interannual variability of discharge, which is a necessary condition for its application in a modified climate context.

  20. Effect of water electrolysis temperature of hydrogen production system using direct coupling photovoltaic and water electrolyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuhiko Maeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose control methods of a photovoltaic (PV-water electrolyzer (ELY system that generates hydrogen by controlling the number of ELY cells. The advantage of this direct coupling between PV and ELY is that the power loss of DC/DC converter is avoided. In this study, a total of 15 ELY cells are used. In the previous researches, the electrolyzer temperature was constantly controlled with a thermostat. Actually, the electrolyzer temperature is decided by the balance of the electrolysis loss and the heat loss to the outside. Here, the method to control the number of ELY cells was investigated. Maximum Power Point Tracking efficiency of more than 96% was achieved without ELY temperature control. Furthermore we construct a numerical model taking into account of ELY temperature. Using this model, we performed a numerical simulation of 1-year. Experimental data and the simulation results shows the validity of the proposed control method.

  1. A cost-effective melting temperature assay for the detection of single-nucleotide polymorphism in the MBL2 gene of HIV-1-infected children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arraes L.C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a fast (less than 3 h and cost-effective melting temperature assay method for the detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the MBL2 gene. The protocol, which is based on the Corbett Rotor Gene real time PCR platform and SYBR Green I chemistry, yielded, in the cohorts studied, sensitive (100% and specific (100% PCR amplification without the use of costly fluorophore-labeled probes or post-PCR manipulation. At the end of the PCR, the dissociation protocol included a slow heating from 60º to 95ºC in 0.2ºC steps, with an 8-s interval between steps. Melting curve profiles were obtained using the dissociation software of the Rotor Gene-3000 apparatus. Samples were analyzed in duplicate and in different PCR runs to test the reproducibility of this technique. No supplementary data handling is required to determine the MBL2 genotype. MBL2 genotyping performed on a cohort of 164 HIV-1-positive Brazilian children and 150 healthy controls, matched for age and sex and ethnic origin, yielded reproducible results confirmed by direct sequencing of the amplicon performed in blind. The three MBL2 variants (Arg52Cys, Gly54Asp, Gly57Glu were grouped together and called allele 0, while the combination of three wild-type alleles was called allele A. The frequency of the A/A homozygotes was significantly higher among healthy controls (0.68 than in HIV-infected children (0.55; P = 0.0234 and the frequency of MBL2 0/0 homozygotes was higher among HIV-1-infected children than healthy controls (P = 0.0296. The 0 allele was significantly more frequent among the 164 HIV-1-infected children (0.29 than among the 150 healthy controls (0.18; P = 0.0032. Our data confirm the association between the presence of the mutated MBL2 allele (allele 0 and HIV-1 infection in perinatally exposed children. Our results are in agreement with the literature data which indicate that the presence of the allele 0 confers a relative risk of 1.37 for HIV-1 infection through

  2. A survey of reference electrodes for high temperature waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molander, A.; Eriksson, Sture; Pein, K.

    2000-11-01

    In nuclear power plants, corrosion potential measurements are used to follow the conditions for different corrosion types in reactor systems, particularly IGSCC in BWRs. The goal of this work has been to give a survey of reference electrodes for high temperature water, both those that are used for nuclear environments and those that are judged to possible future development. The reference electrodes that are used today in nuclear power plants for corrosion potential measurements are of three types. Silver chloride electrodes, membrane electrodes and platinum electrodes (hydrogen electrodes). The principals for their function is described as well as the conversion of measured potentials to the SHE scale (Standard Hydrogen Electrode). Silver chloride electrodes consist of an inner reference system of silver chloride in equilibrium with a chloride solution. The silver chloride electrode is the most common reference electrode and can be used in several different systems. Platinum electrodes are usually more robust and are particularly suitable to use in BWR environment to follow the hydrogen dosage, but have limitations at low and no hydrogen dosage. Ceramic membrane electrodes can be with different types of internal reference system. They were originally developed for pH measurements in high temperature water. If pH is constant, the membrane electrode can be used as reference electrode. A survey of ceramic reference electrodes for high temperature water is given. A ceramic membrane of the type used works as an oxygen conductor, so the potential and pH in surrounding medium is in equilibrium with the internal reference system. A survey of the lately development of electrodes is presented in order to explain why the different types of electrodes are developed as well as to give a background to the possibilities and limitations with the different electrodes. Possibilities of future development of electrodes are also given. For measurements at low or no hydrogen dosage

  3. Water geochemistry to estimate reservoir temperature of Stabio springs, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera, Sebastian; Soma, Linda

    2017-04-01

    The Mendrisiotto region located in Southern Switzerland and close to the Italian border, is characterized by the presence of a thick sequence of Mesozoic limestones and dolostones above a volcanic rocks from Permian (Bernoulli, 1964). Within the carbonates, fractures and dissolution processes increased limestone permeability and favored the widespread presence of springs. The presence of few localized H2S and CH4 bearing springs is known from historical times in Stabio. Its localization is related to the faulting affecting the area (Balderer et Al., 2007). These waters were classified by Greber et Al. (1997) as Na-(Ca)-(Mg)-HCO3-Cl-(SO4) type with having a total dissolved solid content in the range of 0.8 and 1.2 gl-1. According with Balderer et Al. (2007) the stable isotopic composition deviates from the global meteoric water line (IAEA, 1984) being the values of δ18O and δ2H respectively 0.8 ‰ and 5‰ lower than the normal shallow groundwater of the area. The values of δ13C of TDIC (-1.54‰ 1.44 ) indicate exchange with CO2 of thermo - metamorphic or even Mantle origin. While 14C in TDIC (7.95, 26.0 pMC) and 3H (1.1 ±0.7, 3.1±0.7 TU) indicates uprising of deep water along faults with some mixing. To estimate reservoir temperature, a new sampling was conducted in 2015 for chemical and isotopic analysis. The sampling was carried out from the only source that allows getting water directly from the dolostone in order to avoid mixing. Although some differences are noticed respect to previous studies, the results show a substantial agreement for stable isotopic composition of water, δ13C and 14C of TDIC. Reservoir temperature was calculated by using several geothermometers. The results show a great variability ranging from 60 ˚ C using Silica to more than 500 ˚ C using cationic ( Na - Ca) geothermometers; indicating that besides mixing, exchange processes and chemical reactions along flow path affect results. This study was partially funded by Azienda

  4. Sensitivity of Sump Water Temperature to Containment Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Misuk; Kim, Seoung Rae [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    This paper is focused on the containment behavior analysis in the above described cases using GOTHIC-IST (generation of thermal-hydraulic information for containments, industry standard toolset). GOTHIC-IST version 7.2a is an integrated, general purpose thermal-hydraulics software package for design, licensing, safety and operating analysis of nuclear power plant containments and other confinement buildings. In this study, we perform the sensitivity the sump water temperature to containment integrity. For 35% RIH break accident with the malfunction of spray system, local air coolers, ECC(emergency core cooling) pump and heat exchanger, the peak pressure at boiler room do not exceed the design pressure 124kPa(g) of the containment and containment integrity is secured. If accompanied the malfunction of heat exchanger or pump in the time of low pressure safety injection, of ECCS, it will be one of the aggravating factors to the integrity of core and containment.

  5. Electrochemical corrosion potential and noise measurement in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, Clinton; Chen, Yaw-Ming; Chu, Fang; Huang, Chia-Shen

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) is one of the most important methods in boiling water reactor(BWR) system to mitigate and prevent stress corrosion cracking (SCC) problems of stainless steel components. Currently, the effectiveness of HWC in each BWR is mainly evaluated by the measurement of electrochemical corrosion potentials (ECP) and on-line monitoring of SCC behaviors of stainless steels. The objective of this work was to evaluate the characteristics and performance of commercially available high temperature reference electrodes. In addition, SCC monitoring technique based on electrochemical noise analysis (ECN) was also tested to examine its crack detection capability. The experimental work on electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) measurements reveals that high temperature external Ag/AgCl reference electrode of highly dilute KCl electrolyte can adequately function in both NWC and HWC environments. The high dilution external Ag/AgCl electrode can work in conjunction with internal Ag/AgCl reference electrode, and Pt electrode to ensure the ECP measurement reliability. In simulated BWR environment, the electrochemical noise tests of SCC were carried out with both actively and passively loaded specimens of type 304 stainless steel with various electrode arrangements. From the coupling current and corrosion potential behaviors of the passive loading tests during immersion test, it is difficult to interpret the general state of stress corrosion cracking based on the analytical results of overall current and potential variations, local pulse patterns, statistical characteristics, or power spectral density of electrochemical noise signals. However, more positive SCC indication was observed in the power spectral density analysis. For aqueous environments of high solution impedance, successful application of electrochemical noise technique for SCC monitoring may require further improvement in specimen designs and analytical methods to enhance detection sensitivity

  6. A metastable liquid melted from a crystalline solid under decompression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuanlong; Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Kono, Yoshio; Park, Changyong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Shen, Guoyin

    2017-01-01

    A metastable liquid may exist under supercooling, sustaining the liquid below the melting point such as supercooled water and silicon. It may also exist as a transient state in solid-solid transitions, as demonstrated in recent studies of colloidal particles and glass-forming metallic systems. One important question is whether a crystalline solid may directly melt into a sustainable metastable liquid. By thermal heating, a crystalline solid will always melt into a liquid above the melting point. Here we report that a high-pressure crystalline phase of bismuth can melt into a metastable liquid below the melting line through a decompression process. The decompression-induced metastable liquid can be maintained for hours in static conditions, and transform to crystalline phases when external perturbations, such as heating and cooling, are applied. It occurs in the pressure-temperature region similar to where the supercooled liquid Bi is observed. Akin to supercooled liquid, the pressure-induced metastable liquid may be more ubiquitous than we thought.

  7. Effect of drinking water temperature on water intake and performance of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huuskonen, A; Tuomisto, L; Kauppinen, R

    2011-05-01

    Very limited information is available on the effects of drinking water temperature on dairy calves. Therefore, the present experiment was designed to study the effects on performance, health, and water consumption of dairy calves offered drinking water either warm (16 to 18 °C) or cold (6 to 8 °C). The calves (60 calves/treatment) were housed in an insulated barn in pens (3.0 × 3.5m; 5 calves in each) providing 2.1m(2)/calf. During the experimental period (20 to 195 d of age), the calves had free access to water from an open water bowl (depth 80 mm, diameter 220 mm, 2-L capacity, 1 bowl/pen). During the preweaning period (20 to 75 d of age), all calves received milk replacer (7.5L/calf daily) and had free access to commercial starter, grass silage, and hay. During the postweaning period (75 to 195 d), the weaned calves had free access to grass silage and hay and were given 3 kg/d (air-dry basis) of a commercial concentrate mixture. During the preweaning period, the water intake of the calves offered warm water was 47% higher than that of the calves offered cold water. Water intake in both treatments increased rapidly during weaning and for a few days following weaning. At 180 to 195 d of age, the calves consumed approximately 18 to 20 L of water daily. Calves offered warm water drank 7 and 8% more water during the postweaning period and overall during the experimental period, respectively, compared with those offered cold water. No treatment differences were observed in dry matter or energy intakes, body weight gains, or feed conversion rates. Furthermore, total serum IgG concentrations of the calves did not differ during the preweaning or postweaning periods. Dairy calves consumed more warm than cold water, but the increase in water intake did not influence feed intake, body weight gain, or health parameters. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Design of Water Temperature Control System Based on Single Chip Microcomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hanhong; Yan, Qiyan

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we mainly introduce a multi-function water temperature controller designed with 51 single-chip microcomputer. This controller has automatic and manual water, set the water temperature, real-time display of water and temperature and alarm function, and has a simple structure, high reliability, low cost. The current water temperature controller on the market basically use bimetal temperature control, temperature control accuracy is low, poor reliability, a single function. With the development of microelectronics technology, monolithic microprocessor function is increasing, the price is low, in all aspects of widely used. In the water temperature controller in the application of single-chip, with a simple design, high reliability, easy to expand the advantages of the function. Is based on the appeal background, so this paper focuses on the temperature controller in the intelligent control of the discussion.

  9. Niobium interaction with chloride-carbonate melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, S.A.; Kuznetsova, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    Niobium interaction with chloride-carbonate melt NaCl-KCl-K 2 CO 3 (5 mass %) in the temperature range of 973-1123 K has been studied. The products and niobium corrosion rate have been ascertained, depending on the temperature of melt and time of allowance. Potentials of niobium corrosion have been measured. Refs. 11, figs. 3, tabs. 2

  10. Comparative Study on Two Melting Simulation Methods: Melting Curve of Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhong-Li; Li Rui; Sun Jun-Sheng; Zhang Xiu-Lu; Cai Ling-Cang

    2016-01-01

    Melting simulation methods are of crucial importance to determining melting temperature of materials efficiently. A high-efficiency melting simulation method saves much simulation time and computational resources. To compare the efficiency of our newly developed shock melting (SM) method with that of the well-established two-phase (TP) method, we calculate the high-pressure melting curve of Au using the two methods based on the optimally selected interatomic potentials. Although we only use 640 atoms to determine the melting temperature of Au in the SM method, the resulting melting curve accords very well with the results from the TP method using much more atoms. Thus, this shows that a much smaller system size in SM method can still achieve a fully converged melting curve compared with the TP method, implying the robustness and efficiency of the SM method. (paper)

  11. Modeling of melt retention in EU-APR1400 ex-vessel core catcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granovsky, V. S.; Sulatsky, A. A.; Khabensky, V. B.; Sulatskaya, M. B. [Alexandrov Research Inst. of Technology NITI, Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation); Gusarov, V. V.; Almyashev, V. I.; Komlev, A. A. [Saint Petersburg State Technological Univ. SPbSTU, St.Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bechta, S. [KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Kim, Y. S. [KHNP, 1312 Gil 70, Yuseongdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, R. J.; Kim, H. Y.; Song, J. H. [KAERI, 989 Gil 111, Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    A core catcher is adopted in the EU-APR1400 reactor design for management and mitigation of severe accidents with reactor core melting. The core catcher concept incorporates a number of engineering solutions used in the catcher designs of European EPR and Russian WER-1000 reactors, such as thin-layer corium spreading for better cooling, retention of the melt in a water-cooled steel vessel, and use of sacrificial material (SM) to control the melt properties. SM is one of the key elements of the catcher design and its performance is critical for melt retention efficiency. This SM consists of oxide components, but the core catcher also includes sacrificial steel which reacts with the metal melt of the molten corium to reduce its temperature. The paper describes the required properties of SM. The melt retention capability of the core catcher can be confirmed by modeling the heat fluxes to the catcher vessel to show that it will not fail. The fulfillment of this requirement is demonstrated on the example of LBLOCA severe accident. Thermal and physicochemical interactions between the oxide and metal melts, interactions of the melts with SM, sacrificial steel and vessel, core catcher external cooling by water and release of non-condensable gases are modeled. (authors)

  12. Water temperature forecasting and estimation using fourier series and communication theory techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    Fourier series and statistical communication theory techniques are utilized in the estimation of river water temperature increases caused by external thermal inputs. An example estimate assuming a constant thermal input is demonstrated. A regression fit of the Fourier series approximation of temperature is then used to forecast daily average water temperatures. Also, a 60-day prediction of daily average water temperature is made with the aid of the Fourier regression fit by using significant Fourier components

  13. Solar High Temperature Water-Splitting Cycle with Quantum Boost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Robin [SAIC; Davenport, Roger [SAIC; Talbot, Jan [UCSD; Herz, Richard [UCSD; Genders, David [Electrosynthesis Co.; Symons, Peter [Electrosynthesis Co.; Brown, Lloyd [TChemE

    2014-04-25

    A sulfur family chemical cycle having ammonia as the working fluid and reagent was developed as a cost-effective and efficient hydrogen production technology based on a solar thermochemical water-splitting cycle. The sulfur ammonia (SA) cycle is a renewable and sustainable process that is unique in that it is an all-fluid cycle (i.e., with no solids handling). It uses a moderate temperature solar plant with the solar receiver operating at 800°C. All electricity needed is generated internally from recovered heat. The plant would operate continuously with low cost storage and it is a good potential solar thermochemical hydrogen production cycle for reaching the DOE cost goals. Two approaches were considered for the hydrogen production step of the SA cycle: (1) photocatalytic