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Sample records for melon cucumis melo

  1. The genome of melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Benjak, Andrej; Sanseverino, Walter; Bourgeois, Michael; Mir, Gisela; González, Víctor M; Hénaff, Elizabeth; Câmara, Francisco; Cozzuto, Luca; Lowy, Ernesto; Alioto, Tyler; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Blanca, Jose; Cañizares, Joaquín; Ziarsolo, Pello; Gonzalez-Ibeas, Daniel; Rodríguez-Moreno, Luis; Droege, Marcus; Du, Lei; Alvarez-Tejado, Miguel; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Melé, Marta; Yang, Luming; Weng, Yiqun; Navarro, Arcadi; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Aranda, Miguel A; Nuez, Fernando; Picó, Belén; Gabaldón, Toni; Roma, Guglielmo; Guigó, Roderic; Casacuberta, Josep M; Arús, Pere; Puigdomènech, Pere

    2012-07-17

    We report the genome sequence of melon, an important horticultural crop worldwide. We assembled 375 Mb of the double-haploid line DHL92, representing 83.3% of the estimated melon genome. We predicted 27,427 protein-coding genes, which we analyzed by reconstructing 22,218 phylogenetic trees, allowing mapping of the orthology and paralogy relationships of sequenced plant genomes. We observed the absence of recent whole-genome duplications in the melon lineage since the ancient eudicot triplication, and our data suggest that transposon amplification may in part explain the increased size of the melon genome compared with the close relative cucumber. A low number of nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat disease resistance genes were annotated, suggesting the existence of specific defense mechanisms in this species. The DHL92 genome was compared with that of its parental lines allowing the quantification of sequence variability in the species. The use of the genome sequence in future investigations will facilitate the understanding of evolution of cucurbits and the improvement of breeding strategies.

  2. Fine genetic mapping of a locus controlling short internode length in melon (Cucumis melo L.)

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    Compact and dwarfing vining habits in melon (Cucumis melo L.; 2n = 2x = 24) may have commercial importance since they can contribute to the promotion of concentrated fruit set and can be planted in higher plant densities than standard vining types. A diminutive (dwarf) melon mutant line (PNU-D1) wi...

  3. Quality of landrace melon seeds (Cucumis melo L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Delwing, Andréa Becker; Franke, Lúcia Brandão; Barros, Ingrid Bergman Inchausti de

    2007-01-01

    O estudo avaliou a qualidade de sementes de seis acessos de melões crioulos (Cucumis melo L.), oriundos de propriedades de agricultores familiares de diferentes regiões do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os ensaios experimentais foram realizados no Laboratório de Análise de Sementes do Ministério da Agricultura (LASO/LANAGRO-RS) e no Laboratório de Sementes do Departamento de Plantas Forrageiras e Agrometereologia da Faculdade de Agronomia da UFRGS. As sementes de cada acesso foram avaliadas qua...

  4. Physiological and health quality of melon (Cucumis melo) seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Muniz, Marlove Fátima Brião; Gonçalves, Nilton; Garcia, Danton Camacho

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes testes na identificação do nível de vigor e da qualidade sanitária de lotes de sementes de melão (Cucumis melo L.). Foram avaliados quatro lotes de sementes das cultivares Gaúcho e Carvalho, submetidas aos testes de primeira contagem de germinação, emergência em campo, deterioração controlada, envelhecimento acelerado e sanidade. Os resultados indicaram que os testes de deterioração controlada e envelhecimento acelerado apresentam ...

  5. The effect of ripening stages on the antioxidant potential of melon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivar Hikapel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, Puji; Daryono, Budi Setiadi; Supriyadi

    2017-06-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivar Hikapel, a new cultivar of melon, is one of non-netted orange-fleshed melon. Non-netted orange-fleshed melon is known as source of several phytochemicals such as phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, and carotenoids. During the ripening stages there are chemical changes of the fruit including antioxidant properties. The aims of this research were to study the changes of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compound during ripening stages of melon cv. Hikapel. Melon with three ripening stages (27 DAA, 29 DAA, and 32 DAA) were harvested and analyzed their antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid, total-phenolic, -flavonoid, and -carotenoid content. The results showed that ascorbic acid and carotenoid content increased during ripening stages, whereas total phenolic and antioxidant activity decreased. The ripening stages affected antioxidant activity of Cucumis melo L. cv. Hikapel. Antioxidant activity positively correlated with ascorbic acid, total-phenolic, and -flavonoid content. On the other hand, total carotenoid negatively correlated with antioxidant activity.

  6. Pengaruh Pemberian Mikoriza Vesikula Arbuskula (MVA) Campuran terhadap Kemunculan Penyakit Layu Fusarium pada Tanaman Melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Najmah Farhati; Purnomowati Purnomowati; Uki Dwiputranto

    2017-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) has economic potential to be cultivated because the fruit contains protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphor, fiber, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin C, and niacin. Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum will decrease melon crop production. One of controlling method to Fusarium wilt diseases on melon plants which safe for environtmental by using biological control. One of microorganisms which can be biological control agent is Vesicular Arbuscul...

  7. Influence of phosphorus management on melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martuscelli, Maria; Di Mattia, Carla; Stagnari, Fabio; Speca, Stefano; Pisante, Michele; Mastrocola, Dino

    2016-06-01

    At harvest time, melon quality is related to internal and external parameters, which are very important for consumer attractiveness and marketable yield. Several agronomic factors can affect the quality of melon fruits and among them mineral availability may play a significant role. Therefore the aim of the work was to investigate the effect of phosphorus fertigation on melon fruit (Cucumis melo L.) qualitative characteristics, such as fruit size and yield, pulp colour and firmness, aroma and taste, as well as the accumulation of bioactive antioxidant compounds, namely phenols and carotenoids, and their antiradical properties. Results allowed us to extrapolate the optimal P doses to be used for melon fertigation, to achieve high yield and fruit quality characteristics. Modelling the optimal P dose allowed us to maximize yield and resulted in around 257 kg P2 O5 ha(-1) , even if the quality indices relating to carotenoid content, texture and colour of the melon flesh were not significantly different between samples fertigated with the two highest levels tested. It can be assumed that the level of 200 kg P2 O5 ha(-1) would be a good compromise between optimization of agronomic performance and melon fruit quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Phylogenetics of Cucumis (Cucurbitaceae: Cucumber (C. sativus belongs in an Asian/Australian clade far from melon (C. melo

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    Schaefer Hanno

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melon, Cucumis melo, and cucumber, C. sativus, are among the most widely cultivated crops worldwide. Cucumis, as traditionally conceived, is geographically centered in Africa, with C. sativus and C. hystrix thought to be the only Cucumis species in Asia. This taxonomy forms the basis for all ongoing Cucumis breeding and genomics efforts. We tested relationships among Cucumis and related genera based on DNA sequences from chloroplast gene, intron, and spacer regions (rbcL, matK, rpl20-rps12, trnL, and trnL-F, adding nuclear internal transcribed spacer sequences to resolve relationships within Cucumis. Results Analyses of combined chloroplast sequences (4,375 aligned nucleotides for 123 of the 130 genera of Cucurbitaceae indicate that the genera Cucumella, Dicaelospermum, Mukia, Myrmecosicyos, and Oreosyce are embedded within Cucumis. Phylogenetic trees from nuclear sequences for these taxa are congruent, and the combined data yield a well-supported phylogeny. The nesting of the five genera in Cucumis greatly changes the natural geographic range of the genus, extending it throughout the Malesian region and into Australia. The closest relative of Cucumis is Muellerargia, with one species in Australia and Indonesia, the other in Madagascar. Cucumber and its sister species, C. hystrix, are nested among Australian, Malaysian, and Western Indian species placed in Mukia or Dicaelospermum and in one case not yet formally described. Cucumis melo is sister to this Australian/Asian clade, rather than being close to African species as previously thought. Molecular clocks indicate that the deepest divergences in Cucumis, including the split between C. melo and its Australian/Asian sister clade, go back to the mid-Eocene. Conclusion Based on congruent nuclear and chloroplast phylogenies we conclude that Cucumis comprises an old Australian/Asian component that was heretofore unsuspected. Cucumis sativus evolved within this Australian

  9. Qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de melão (Cucumis melo Physiological and health quality of melon (Cucumis melo seeds

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    Marlove Fátima Brião Muniz

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes testes na identificação do nível de vigor e da qualidade sanitária de lotes de sementes de melão (Cucumis melo L.. Foram avaliados quatro lotes de sementes das cultivares Gaúcho e Carvalho, submetidas aos testes de primeira contagem de germinação, emergência em campo, deterioração controlada, envelhecimento acelerado e sanidade. Os resultados indicaram que os testes de deterioração controlada e envelhecimento acelerado apresentam sensibilidade suficiente para avaliação do potencial fisiológico de sementes de melão, mas os testes de avaliação de plântulas não mostraram sensibilidade suficiente para realizar uma estratificação dos lotes pelo vigor. Aspergillus spp. e Fusarium oxysporum foram encontrados associados às sementes.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of different vigour tests in the identification of vigour levels and health quality of melon (Cucumis melo L. seeds. Four seed lots of Gaúcho and Carvalho cultivars were evaluated. Seeds were submitted to the first germination counting, field emergence, controlled deterioration and aging, cold vigour and health tests. Results indicated that controlled deterioration and accelerated aging tests presented enough sensibility for evaluating the physiological potential of melon seeds. Tests of seedling evaluation did not show enough sensibility to identify hiht quality seed lots. Aspergillus ssp. and Fusarium oxysporum were detected associated with seeds.

  10. Heterologous Expression and Biochemical Characterization of Two Lipoxygenases in Oriental Melon, Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino.

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    Songxiao Cao

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenases (LOXs are a class of non-heme iron-containing dioxygenases that catalyse oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to produce hydroperoxidation that are in turn converted to oxylipins. Although multiple isoforms of LOXs have been detected in several plants, LOXs in oriental melon have not attracted much attention. Two full-length LOX cDNA clones, CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 which have been isolated from oriental melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino cultivar "Yumeiren", encode 902 and 906 amino acids, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 included all of the typical LOX domains and shared 58.11% identity at the amino acid level with each other. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 were members of the type 2 13-LOX subgroup which are known to be involved in biotic and abiotic stress. Heterologous expression of the full-length CmLOX10 and truncated CmLOX13 in Escherichia coli revealed that the encoded exogenous proteins were identical to the predicted molecular weights and possessed the lipoxygenase activities. The purified CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 recombinant enzymes exhibited maximum activity at different temperature and pH and both had higher affinity for linoleic acid than linolenic acid. Chromatogram analysis of reaction products from the CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 enzyme reaction revealed that both enzymes produced 13S-hydroperoxides when linoleic acid was used as substrate. Furthermore, the subcellular localization analysis by transient expression of the two LOX fusion proteins in tobacco leaves showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 proteins were located in plasma membrane and chloroplasts respectively. We propose that the two lipoxygenases may play different functions in oriental melon during plant growth and development.

  11. Syntenic relationships between cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. and melon (C. melo L. chromosomes as revealed by comparative genetic mapping

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    Staub Jack E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (2n = 2 × = 14 and melon, C. melo L. (2n = 2 × = 24 are two important vegetable species in the genus Cucumis (family Cucurbitaceae. Both species have an Asian origin that diverged approximately nine million years ago. Cucumber is believed to have evolved from melon through chromosome fusion, but the details of this process are largely unknown. In this study, comparative genetic mapping between cucumber and melon was conducted to examine syntenic relationships of their chromosomes. Results Using two melon mapping populations, 154 and 127 cucumber SSR markers were added onto previously reported F2- and RIL-based genetic maps, respectively. A consensus melon linkage map was developed through map integration, which contained 401 co-dominant markers in 12 linkage groups including 199 markers derived from the cucumber genome. Syntenic relationships between melon and cucumber chromosomes were inferred based on associations between markers on the consensus melon map and cucumber draft genome scaffolds. It was determined that cucumber Chromosome 7 was syntenic to melon Chromosome I. Cucumber Chromosomes 2 and 6 each contained genomic regions that were syntenic with melon chromosomes III+V+XI and III+VIII+XI, respectively. Likewise, cucumber Chromosomes 1, 3, 4, and 5 each was syntenic with genomic regions of two melon chromosomes previously designated as II+XII, IV+VI, VII+VIII, and IX+X, respectively. However, the marker orders in several syntenic blocks on these consensus linkage maps were not co-linear suggesting that more complicated structural changes beyond simple chromosome fusion events have occurred during the evolution of cucumber. Conclusions Comparative mapping conducted herein supported the hypothesis that cucumber chromosomes may be the result of chromosome fusion from a 24-chromosome progenitor species. Except for a possible inversion, cucumber Chromosome 7 has largely remained intact in

  12. A genetic map of melon (Cucumis melo L.) with RFLP, RAPD, isozyme, disease resistance and morphological markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudracco-Arnas, S; Pitrat, M

    1996-07-01

    One hundred and ten markers were analysed for linkage in 218 F2 plants derived from two divergent cultivars ('Védrantais' and 'Songwhan Charmi') of Cucumis melo (L.). Thirty-four RFLPs, 64 RAPDs, one isozyme, four disease resistance markers and one morphological marker were used to construct a genetic map spanning 14 linkage groups covering 1390 cM of the melon genome. RAPD and RFLP markers detected similar polymorphism levels. RFLPs were largely due to base substitutions rather than insertion/deletions. Twelve percent of markers showed distorted segregation. Phenotypic markers consisted of two resistance genes against Fusarium wilt (Fom-1 and Fom-2), one gene (nsv) controlling the resistance to melon necrotic spot virus, one gene (Vat) conferring resistance to Aphis gossypii, and a recessive gene for carpel numbers (3 vs 5 carpels: p).

  13. Transcriptomic and physiological characterization of the fefe mutant of melon (Cucumis melo) reveals new aspects of iron-copper crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Brian M; McInturf, Samuel A; Amundsen, Keenan

    2014-09-01

    Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) homeostasis are tightly linked across biology. In previous work, Fe deficiency interacted with Cu-regulated genes and stimulated Cu accumulation. The C940-fe (fefe) Fe-uptake mutant of melon (Cucumis melo) was characterized, and the fefe mutant was used to test whether Cu deficiency could stimulate Fe uptake. Wild-type and fefe mutant transcriptomes were determined by RNA-seq under Fe and Cu deficiency. FeFe-regulated genes included core Fe uptake, metal homeostasis, and transcription factor genes. Numerous genes were regulated by both Fe and Cu. The fefe mutant was rescued by high Fe or by Cu deficiency, which stimulated ferric-chelate reductase activity, FRO2 expression, and Fe accumulation. Accumulation of Fe in Cu-deficient plants was independent of the normal Fe-uptake system. One of the four FRO genes in the melon and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) genomes was Fe-regulated, and one was Cu-regulated. Simultaneous Fe and Cu deficiency synergistically up-regulated Fe-uptake gene expression. Overlap in Fe and Cu deficiency transcriptomes highlights the importance of Fe-Cu crosstalk in metal homeostasis. The fefe gene is not orthologous to FIT, and thus identification of this gene will provide clues to help understand regulation of Fe uptake in plants. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Transcriptomic and physiological characterization of the fefe mutant of melon (Cucumis melo) reveals new aspects of iron–copper crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Brian M.; McInturf, Samuel A.; Amundsen, Keenan

    2014-01-01

    Summary Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) homeostasis are tightly linked across biology. In previous work, Fe deficiency interacted with Cu regulated genes and stimulated Cu accumulation. The C940-fe (fefe) Fe uptake mutant of melon (Cucumis melo) was characterized, and the fefe mutant was used to test whether Cu deficiency could stimulate Fe uptake. Wild type and fefe mutant transcriptomes were determined by RNA-seq under Fe and Cu deficiency. FeFe regulated genes included core Fe uptake, metal homeostasis, and transcription factor genes. Numerous genes were regulated by both Fe and Cu. The fefe mutant was rescued by high Fe or by Cu deficiency, which stimulated ferric-chelate reductase activity, FRO2 expression, and Fe accumulation. Accumulation of Fe in Cu deficient plants was independent of the normal Fe uptake system. One of the four FRO genes in the melon and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) genomes was Fe regulated, and one was Cu regulated. Simultaneous Fe and Cu deficiency synergistically upregulated Fe uptake gene expression. Overlap in Fe and Cu deficiency transcriptomes highlights the importance of Fe– Cu crosstalk in metal homeostasis. The fefe gene is not orthologous to FIT, thus identification of this gene will provide clues to help understand regulation of Fe uptake in plants. PMID:24975482

  15. Pengaruh Pemberian Mikoriza Vesikula Arbuskula (MVA Campuran terhadap Kemunculan Penyakit Layu Fusarium pada Tanaman Melon (Cucumis melo L.

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    Najmah Farhati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Melon (Cucumis melo L. has economic potential to be cultivated because the fruit contains protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphor, fiber, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin C, and niacin. Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum will decrease melon crop production. One of controlling method to Fusarium wilt diseases on melon plants which safe for environtmental by using biological control. One of microorganisms which can be biological control agent is Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM. This research use experimental method with a Completely Randomized Design (CRD. The experimental treatment consists of two types of treatment which combine 5 doses of VAM mixture ( 0 g/plant, 10 g/plant, 12,5 g/plant, 15 g/plant, 17,5 g/plant and two inoculation method VAM is inoculated when seeds are planted and inoculation when the seedlings are replanted. Each treatment was repeated 3 times and each unit consist of three plant, so there are 30 units of experiments or 90 plants. The main variabels are observed consist of the incubation periode of the disease and the intensity of fusarium wilt and the supporting variabels consist of pH, temperature, humidity, and the scale of infection. The mixed MVA 15 g/plant dosage inoculated when seeds are planted and 15 g/plant dosage inoculated when the seedlings are replanted is the most effective to suppress incubation period of Fusarium wilt disease.

  16. Etude des caractéristiques botaniques, agronomiques et de la biologie florale du melon africain (Cucumis melo var. L. agrestis Naudin, Cucurbitaceae

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    Baudoin JP.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of botanic, agronomic characters and fl oral biology of African melon (Cucumis melo L. var. agrestis Naudin, Cucurbitaceae. African melon, Cucumis melo var. agrestis, is a cultivated crop for which dried seeds are used in preparation of sauce pistachio, a valuable food in Côte dʼIvoire. Few studies are concerned with this crop as compared to melon species cultivated in temperate countries. Agronomic and morphological characteristics of C. melo var. agrestis are studied based on eight characters: germination rate, emergence time, date of fl owering, duration of life cycle, weight of mature berries, mean number of seeds per berry, weight of 100 seeds and seeds shape. Floral biology and mating system are studied on the basis of 19 parameters. Results of these studies showed that C. melo var. agrestis has a life cycle duration of 110 to 150 days varying with seasons. The mean number of berries per plant is variable (5 to 15 and the percentage of seeds per berry is low (6,83%. African melon is andromonoecious with a phenological interval between male and hermaphrodite fl owers occurrence. The pollen grains of hermaphrodite fl owers are viable and the stigmata are mature before fl owers are opening. The implications of fl oral biology on the mating system are discussed in view of yield breeding and study of gene fl ow among individuals on fields.

  17. The Effect of CmLOXs on the Production of Volatile Organic Compounds in Four Aroma Types of Melon (Cucumis melo.

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    Yufan Tang

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenases (LOXs play important role in the synthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, which influence the aroma of fruit. In this study, we elucidate that there is a positive relationship between LOXs activity and VOC production in melon (Cucumis melo, and CmLOX genes are involved in fruit aroma generation in melon. To this end, we tested four aroma types of melon that feature a thin pericarp: two aromatic cultivars of the oriental melons (C. melo var. makuwa Makino, 'Yu Meiren' (YMR and 'Cui Bao' (CB; a non-aromatic oriental pickling melon (C. melo var. conomon, 'Shao Gua' (SHAO; and a non-aromatic snake melon (C. melo L. var. flexuosus Naud, 'Cai Gua' (CAI. A principal component analysis (PCA revealed that the aromas of SHAO and CAI are similar in nature because their ester contents are lower than those of YMR and CB. Ethyl acetate, benzyl acetate, (E, Z-2, 6-nonadienal and menthol are four principal volatile compounds that affect the aromatic characteristics of these four types of melons. The LOX activity and total ester content in YMR were the highest among the examined melon varieties. The expression patterns of 18 CmLOX genes were found to vary based on the aromatic nature of the melon. Four of them were highly expressed in YMR. Moreover, we treated the fruit disks of YMR with LOX substrates (linoleic acid and linolenic acid and LOX inhibitors (n-propyl gallate and nordihydroguariaretic acid. Substrate application promoted LOX activity and induced accumulation of hexanal, (2E-nonenal and straight-chain esters, such as ethyl acetate. In contrast, LOX inhibitors decreased the levels of these compounds. The effect of CmLOXs in the biosynthesis of esters in melons are discussed.

  18. The Effect of CmLOXs on the Production of Volatile Organic Compounds in Four Aroma Types of Melon (Cucumis melo).

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    Tang, Yufan; Zhang, Chong; Cao, Songxiao; Wang, Xiao; Qi, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) play important role in the synthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which influence the aroma of fruit. In this study, we elucidate that there is a positive relationship between LOXs activity and VOC production in melon (Cucumis melo), and CmLOX genes are involved in fruit aroma generation in melon. To this end, we tested four aroma types of melon that feature a thin pericarp: two aromatic cultivars of the oriental melons (C. melo var. makuwa Makino), 'Yu Meiren' (YMR) and 'Cui Bao' (CB); a non-aromatic oriental pickling melon (C. melo var. conomon), 'Shao Gua' (SHAO); and a non-aromatic snake melon (C. melo L. var. flexuosus Naud), 'Cai Gua' (CAI). A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the aromas of SHAO and CAI are similar in nature because their ester contents are lower than those of YMR and CB. Ethyl acetate, benzyl acetate, (E, Z)-2, 6-nonadienal and menthol are four principal volatile compounds that affect the aromatic characteristics of these four types of melons. The LOX activity and total ester content in YMR were the highest among the examined melon varieties. The expression patterns of 18 CmLOX genes were found to vary based on the aromatic nature of the melon. Four of them were highly expressed in YMR. Moreover, we treated the fruit disks of YMR with LOX substrates (linoleic acid and linolenic acid) and LOX inhibitors (n-propyl gallate and nordihydroguariaretic acid). Substrate application promoted LOX activity and induced accumulation of hexanal, (2E)-nonenal and straight-chain esters, such as ethyl acetate. In contrast, LOX inhibitors decreased the levels of these compounds. The effect of CmLOXs in the biosynthesis of esters in melons are discussed.

  19. Influence of selenium on growth, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activity in melon (Cucumis melo L.) seedlings under salt stress

    OpenAIRE

    Hu KeLing; Zhang Ling; Wang JiTao; You Yang

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of exogenous selenium (Se) supply (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 μM) on the growth, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activity of 100 mM NaCl-stressed melon (Cucumis melo L.) seedlings. Salt stress significantly reduced the growth attributes including stem length, stem diameter, dry weight and increased antioxidative enzyme activity [superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT)]. Moreover, the plant exhibited a significant i...

  20. CmBGI Gene Expression encoding β-glucosidase in melon (Cucumis melo L. under stress condition

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    Yuanita Rachmawati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available CmBGI is the enzymatic genes encoding β-glucosidase that involved in Abscisic Acid (ABA metabolism of Cucumis melo L. β-glucosidase promotes the accumulation of glucose, fructose, and sucrose, and it might act as a regulator that mediates melon fruit ripening both climacteric and nonclimacteric. ABA mediates adaptive responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Agricultural Balitbang in 1997 showed that there were approximately 158.600 ha of degraded land scattered in three zones of agroecosystems in Yogyakarta (DIY. One of them is Dlingo Bantul area which has a karst type critical land area. Karst provides stress to the certain plant growth. One way to conserve critical land is making this area for agriculture. Cultivar TACAPA and TA were superior melons that have been developed by Genetic Laboratory of Biology Faculty UGM. This preliminary research was conducted to examine molecular characterization of CmBGI gene expression in cultivar TACAPA and TA which are planted in normal condition medium and in critical land medium treatment. Total RNA was extracted from leaf tissue then Reversed Transcriptase (RT-PCR to collect cDNA library. cDNA was amplified using specific primer. Spectrophotometry was conducted in λ260 nm and electrophoresis run in 1.5% agarose gel. Control of band chosen was Cm-Actin. CmBGI gene concentration of TACAPA and TA in normal condition medium are in succession 578.5 and 579.4 μg/ml then for critical land medium treatment 743.4 and 773.5 μg/ml. CmBGI band was showed both of TACAPA and TA as ± 1258 bp. Cm-actin was showed band of DNA as ± 445 bp. CmBGI gene concentration in critical land medium treatment which is given greater stress on melons are higher than normal condition. This suggests that the CmBGI gene is expressed more in cultivar TACAPA and TA melons when they are grown under stress condition.

  1. Qualidade de melão rendilhado (Cucumis melo L. em função do sistema de cultivo Quality of net melon (Cucumis melo L. in function of the culture system

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    Pablo Forlan Vargas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a qualidade de frutos de cinco cultivares de melão rendilhado (Cucumis melo L., cultivados em casa de vegetação, em função do sistema de produção. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação na UNESP-FCAV, Jaboticabal-SP, no período de novembro de 2005 à fevereiro de 2006. O experimento foi delineado em esquema fatorial 5 X 2, em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos resultaram da combinação de cinco híbridos de melão rendilhado: Maxim, Bônus 2, Shinju 200, Fantasy e Louis e dois sistemas de cultivo: no solo e em substrato de fibra da casca de coco. As características avaliadas foram: massa fresca do fruto, espessura de mesocarpo, intensidade de rendilhamento da casca, pH, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez titulável, índice de maturação (RATIO, e vitamina C. Não houve interação significativa entre os sistemas de cultivo e cultivares para nenhuma das características avaliadas. O cultivo de melão em substrato resultou em frutos com qualidade superior ao cultivo em solo. Os híbridos Louis e Fantasy foram os que apresentaram melhor desempenho qualitativo de frutos.The aim of this study was to evaluate the fruit quality of five net melon (Cucumis melo L. cultivars, grown in a greenhouse, in function of production system. The study was carried out in a greenhouse at UNESP-FCAV, Jaboticabal-SP, Brazil, during the period of November, 2005 to February, 2006. The study was carried out using a 5 x 2 factorial scheme, in randomized complete block design with four repetitions. The treatments resulted the combination of five net melon hybrids: Maxim, Bônus 2, Shinju 200, Fantasy and Louis and two cultivations systems: in soil and in coconut fiber substrate. The characters evaluated were: fresh weight of fruit, mesocarp thickness, fruit shape index, pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, maturation index (RATIO; and vitamin C. No interactions were observed

  2. An efficient regeneration protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H J; Gao, P; Wang, X Z; Luan, F S

    2014-01-08

    An efficient selection and plant regeneration protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, using cotyledon node zone-stem connection region of melon, has been developed. The new Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methodology, independent of organ culture, used the entire germinated seed as explants. The transformation system was maximized to maintain the integrity of melon itself, thus avoiding the limitations of traditional tissue culture methods. The transformation was carried out under a non-sterile environment. The incorporation of a selectable marker (neomycin phosphotransferase II) into the genome of transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. The transformation frequency based on the PCR was 13%. Transgenic melon plants were usually detected by PCR in less than 1 month after Agrobacterium inoculation, and seeds could be harvested in 3 months. The growth characteristics and morphology of the transgenic plants were identical to the untransformed wild-type plants. This method would be beneficial for facilitating the characteristics of gene functions and for boosting the manipulation of melon transformation for commercial purposes.

  3. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity from peels and seeds of melon (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus and their antiproliferative effect in cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Rolim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Melon (Cucumis melo L. has high economic value and in recent years, its production has increased; however, part of the fruit is wasted. Usually, inedible parts such as peel and seeds are discarded during processing and consumption. Extracts of melon residues were prepared and their phenolic compounds, antioxidants and antiproliferative activities were evaluated. Total phenolic compounds were found in hydroethanolic, hydromethanolic, and aqueous extracts, especially for melon peel (1.016 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g. Flavonoids total content found for melon peel aqueous extract was 262 µg of catechin equivalent (CA/100 g. In all extracts of melon peel significant amounts of gallic acid, catechin, and eugenol were found. For total antioxidant capacity, reported as ascorbic acid equivalent, the hydroethanolic and hydromethanolic extracts in peels and hydromethanolic in seeds were 89, 74, and 83 mg/g, respectively. Different extracts of melon showed iron and copper ions chelating activity at different concentrations, especially melon peel aqueous extract, reaching values of 61% for iron and 84% for copper. The hydroethanolic extract of melon peel presented a significant ability for hydroxyl radicals scavenging (68%. To assess the antiproliferative potential in human cancer cell lines, such as kidney carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, cervical adenocarcinoma and cervical carcinoma, MTT assay was performed. The proliferation was inhibited by 20–85% at extracts concentrations of 0.1–1.0 mg/mL in all cancer cell lines. The results suggest that melon residues extracts display a high antioxidant activity in in vitro assays and have effective biological activity against the growth of human tumor cells.

  4. EVALUATION OF FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MELON HYBRIDS (Cucumis melo L. IN POLLINATOR ATTRACTIVENESS

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    LÚCIA HELENA PIEDADE KIILL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Floral morphology and biology are important characteristics for plant-pollinator interactions and may influence the behavior of these agents. This study aimed to determine which floral attributes of different melon hybrids influence this interaction and, consequently, their attractiveness in simultaneous crops. The study was conducted in the region of Petrolina, State of Pernambuco (PE/Juazeiro, State of Bahia (BA and Mossoró, State of Rio Grande do Norte (RN, in areas with the following melon hybrids: Yellow type, Piel de Sapo, Cantaloupe and Galia. For studies on floral morphology and biology, hermaphrodites and male flowers of each hybrid were analyzed for their size and nectar chamber size, pollen and nectar production, anthesis time and flower lifespan. Floral visitors were observed simultaneously in hybrids of three types of melon, from 5:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., in the two study sites. Evaluations of the corolla diameter and flower height indicated that the hermaphrodite flowers were larger in size than male flowers in all types of melon investigated, in both study sites. As for nectar chamber, male flowers are larger in width, but smaller in height, compared to hermaphrodite flowers. Regarding the volume of nectar, differences were found between floral types for the hybrids evaluated, in the two study sites; the hermaphrodite flowers produced 2-7 times more nectar than male flowers in all studied hybrids. Observations of visits of Apis mellifera to areas with simultaneous flowering of the three types of melon demonstrated differences in the frequency of visits between hybrids, floral type and foraged resource. Flowers of the hybrids Piel de Sapo and Cantaloupe exhibited larger corolla diameter, larger dimensions of the nectar chamber and greater supply of resources for foraging, which could explain the higher number of visits of bees to their flowers in the sites studied.

  5. Quantitative trait loci analysis of melon (Cucumis melo L.) domestication-related traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Aurora; Martín-Hernández, Ana Montserrat; Dolcet-Sanjuan, Ramón; Garcés-Claver, Ana; Álvarez, José María; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Picó, Belén; Monforte, Antonio José

    2017-09-01

    Loci on LGIV, VI, and VIII of melon genome are involved in the control of fruit domestication-related traits and they are candidate to have played a role in the domestication of the crop. The fruit of wild melons is very small (20-50 g) without edible pulp, contrasting with the large size and high pulp content of cultivated melon fruits. An analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling fruit morphology domestication-related traits was carried out using an in vitro maintained F 2 population from the cross between the Indian wild melon "Trigonus" and the western elite cultivar 'Piel de Sapo'. Twenty-seven QTL were identified in at least two out of the three field trials. Six of them were also being detected in BC1 and BC3 populations derived from the same cross. Ten of them were related to fruit morphological traits, 12 to fruit size characters, and 5 to pulp content. The Trigonus alleles decreased the value of the characters, except for the QTL at andromonoecious gene at linkage group (LG) II, and the QTL for pulp content at LGV. QTL genotypes accounted for a considerable degree of the total phenotypic variation, reaching up to 46%. Around 66% of the QTL showed additive gene action, 19% exhibited dominance, and 25% consisted of overdominance. The regions on LGIV, VI, and VIII included the QTL with more consistent and strong effects on domestication-related traits. QTLs on those regions were validated in BC2S1, BC2S2, and BC3 families, with "Trigonus" allele decreasing the fruit morphological traits in all cases. The validated QTL could represent loci involved in melon domestication, although further experiments as genomic variation studies across wild and cultivated genotypes would be necessary to confirm this hypothesis.

  6. EVALUATION OF FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MELON HYBRIDS (Cucumis melo L.) IN POLLINATOR ATTRACTIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    KIILL,LÚCIA HELENA PIEDADE; FEITOZA,EDSÂNGELA DE ARAÚJO; SIQUEIRA,KÁTIA MARIA MEDEIROS DE; RIBEIRO,MÁRCIA DE FÁTIMA; SILVA,EVA MÔNICA SARMENTO DA

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Floral morphology and biology are important characteristics for plant-pollinator interactions and may influence the behavior of these agents. This study aimed to determine which floral attributes of different melon hybrids influence this interaction and, consequently, their attractiveness in simultaneous crops. The study was conducted in the region of Petrolina, State of Pernambuco (PE)/Juazeiro, State of Bahia (BA) and Mossoró, State of Rio Grande do Norte (RN), in areas with the f...

  7. High-quality total RNA isolation from melon (Cucumis melo L. fruits rich in polysaccharides

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    Gabrielle Silveira de Campos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Melon, a member of the family Cucurbitaceae, is the fourth most important fruit in the world market and, on a volume basis, is Brazil’s main fresh fruit export. Many molecular techniques used to understand the maturation of these fruits require high concentrations of highly purified RNA. However, melons are rich in polyphenolic compounds and polysaccharides, which interfere with RNA extraction. This study aimed to determine the most appropriate method for total RNA extraction from melon fruits. Six extraction buffers were tested: T1 guanidine thiocyanate/phenol/chloroform; T2 sodium azide/?-mercaptoethanol; T3 phenol/guanidine thiocyanate; T4 CTAB/PVP/?-mercaptoethanol; T5 SDS/sodium perchlorate/PVP/?-mercaptoethanol, and T6 sarkosyl/PVP/guanidine thiocyanate, using the AxyPrepTM Multisource Total RNA Miniprep Kit. The best method for extracting RNA from both mature and green fruit was based on the SDS/PVP/?-mercaptoethanol buffer, because it rapidly generated a high quality and quantity of material. In general, higher amounts of RNA were obtained from green than mature fruits, probably due to the lower concentration of polysaccharides and water. The purified material can be used as a template in molecular techniques, such as microarrays, RT-PCR, and in the construction of cDNA and RNA-seq data.

  8. Bin mapping of genomic and EST-derived SSRs in melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Silva, I; Eduardo, I; Blanca, J; Esteras, C; Picó, B; Nuez, F; Arús, P; Garcia-Mas, J; Monforte, Antonio José

    2008-12-01

    We report the development of 158 primer pairs flanking SSR motifs in genomic (gSSR) and EST (EST-SSR) melon sequences, all yielding polymorphic bands in melon germplasm, except one that was polymorphic only in Cucurbita species. A similar polymorphism level was found among EST-SSRs and gSSRs, between dimeric and trimeric EST-SSRs, and between EST-SSRs placed in the open reading frame or any of the 5'- or 3'-untranslated regions. Correlation between SSR length and polymorphism was only found for dinucleotide EST-SSRs located within the untranslated regions, but not for trinucleotide EST-SSRs. Transferability of EST-SSRs to Cucurbita species was assayed and 12.7% of the primer pairs amplified at least in one species, although only 5.4% were polymorphic. A set of 14 double haploid lines from the cross between the cultivar "Piel de Sapo" and the accession PI161375 were selected for the bin mapping approach in melon. One hundred and twenty-one SSR markers were newly mapped. The position of 46 SSR loci was also verified by genotyping the complete population. A final bin-map was constructed including 80 RFLPs, 212 SSRs, 3 SNPs and the Nsv locus, distributed in 122 bins with an average bin length of 10.2 cM and a maximum bin length of 33 cM. Map density was 4.2 cM/marker or 5.9 cM/SSR.

  9. Construction of a genome-anchored, high-density genetic map for melon (Cucumis melo L.) and identification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1 resistance QTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branham, Sandra E; Levi, Amnon; Katawczik, Melanie; Fei, Zhangjun; Wechter, W Patrick

    2018-04-01

    Four QTLs and an epistatic interaction were associated with disease severity in response to inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1 in a recombinant inbred line population of melon. The USDA Cucumis melo inbred line, MR-1, harbors a wealth of alleles associated with resistance to several major diseases of melon, including powdery mildew, downy mildew, Alternaria leaf blight, and Fusarium wilt. MR-1 was crossed to an Israeli cultivar, Ananas Yok'neam, which is susceptible to all of these diseases, to generate a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 172 lines. In this study, the RIL population was genotyped to construct an ultra-dense genetic linkage map with 5663 binned SNPs anchored to the C. melo genome and exhibits the overall high quality of the assembly. The utility of the densely genotyped population was demonstrated through QTL mapping of a well-studied trait, resistance to Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (Fom) race 1. A major QTL co-located with the previously validated resistance gene Fom-2. In addition, three minor QTLs and an epistatic interaction contributing to Fom race 1 resistance were identified. The MR-1 × AY RIL population provides a valuable resource for future QTL mapping studies and marker-assisted selection of disease resistance in melon.

  10. Marker-assisted selection of Fusarium wilt-resistant and gynoecious melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, P; Liu, S; Zhu, Q L; Luan, F S

    2015-12-08

    In this study, molecular markers were designed based on the sex determination genes ACS7 (A) and WIP1 (G) and the domain in the Fusarium oxysporum-resistant gene Fom-2 (F) in order to achieve selection of F. oxysporum-resistant gynoecious melon plants. Markers of A and F are cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences that distinguish alleles according to restriction analysis. Twenty F1 and 1863 F2 plants derived from the crosses between the gynoecious line WI998 and the Fusarium wilt-resistant line MR-1 were genotyped based on the markers. The results showed that the polymerase chain reaction and enzyme digestion results could be effectively used to identify plants with the AAggFF genotype in F2 populations. In the F2 population, 35 gynoecious wilt-resistant plants were selected by marker-assisted selection and were confirmed by disease infection assays, demonstrating that these markers can be used in breeding to select F. oxysporum-resistant gynoecious melon plants.

  11. The Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene Family in Melon (Cucumis melo L.: Bioinformatic Analysis and Expression Patterns

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    Yazhong eJin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH, encoded by multigene family in plants, play a critical role in plant growth, development, adaptation, fruit ripening and aroma production. Thirteen ADH genes were identified in melon genome, including 12 ADHs and one formaldehyde dehydrogenease (FDH, designated CmADH1-12 and CmFDH1, in which CmADH1 and CmADH2 have been isolated in Cantaloupe. ADH genes shared a lower identity with each other at the protein level and had different intron-exon structure at nucleotide level. No typical signal peptides were found in all CmADHs, and CmADH proteins might locate in the cytoplasm. The phylogenetic tree revealed that 13 ADH genes were divided into 3 groups respectively, namely long-, medium- and short-chain ADH subfamily, and CmADH1,3-11, which belongs to the medium-chain ADH subfamily, fell into 6 medium-chain ADH subgroups. CmADH12 may belong to the long-chain ADH subfamily, while CmFDH1 may be a Class III ADH and serve as an ancestral ADH in melon. Expression profiling revealed that CmADH1, CmADH2, CmADH10 and CmFDH1 were moderately or strongly expressed in different vegetative tissues and fruit at medium and late developmental stages, while CmADH8 and CmADH12 were highly expressed in fruit after 20 days. CmADH3 showed preferential expression in young tissues. CmADH4 only had slight expression in root. Promoter analysis revealed several motifs of CmADH genes involved in the gene expression modulated by various hormones, and the response pattern of CmADH genes to ABA, IAA and ethylene were different. These CmADHs were divided into ethylene-sensitive and –insensitive groups, and the functions of CmADHs were discussed.

  12. An oligo-based microarray offers novel transcriptomic approaches for the analysis of pathogen resistance and fruit quality traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.

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    Garcia-Mas Jordi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melon (Cucumis melo is a horticultural specie of significant nutritional value, which belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance is second only to the Solanaceae. Its small genome of approx. 450 Mb coupled to the high genetic diversity has prompted the development of genetic tools in the last decade. However, the unprecedented existence of a transcriptomic approaches in melon, highlight the importance of designing new tools for high-throughput analysis of gene expression. Results We report the construction of an oligo-based microarray using a total of 17,510 unigenes derived from 33,418 high-quality melon ESTs. This chip is particularly enriched with genes that are expressed in fruit and during interaction with pathogens. Hybridizations for three independent experiments allowed the characterization of global gene expression profiles during fruit ripening, as well as in response to viral and fungal infections in plant cotyledons and roots, respectively. Microarray construction, statistical analyses and validation together with functional-enrichment analysis are presented in this study. Conclusion The platform validation and enrichment analyses shown in our study indicate that this oligo-based microarray is amenable for future genetic and functional genomic studies of a wide range of experimental conditions in melon.

  13. An oligo-based microarray offers novel transcriptomic approaches for the analysis of pathogen resistance and fruit quality traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarell-Creus, Albert; Cañizares, Joaquin; Vilarrasa-Blasi, Josep; Mora-García, Santiago; Blanca, José; Gonzalez-Ibeas, Daniel; Saladié, Montserrat; Roig, Cristina; Deleu, Wim; Picó-Silvent, Belén; López-Bigas, Nuria; Aranda, Miguel A; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Nuez, Fernando; Puigdomènech, Pere; Caño-Delgado, Ana I

    2009-10-12

    Melon (Cucumis melo) is a horticultural specie of significant nutritional value, which belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance is second only to the Solanaceae. Its small genome of approx. 450 Mb coupled to the high genetic diversity has prompted the development of genetic tools in the last decade. However, the unprecedented existence of a transcriptomic approaches in melon, highlight the importance of designing new tools for high-throughput analysis of gene expression. We report the construction of an oligo-based microarray using a total of 17,510 unigenes derived from 33,418 high-quality melon ESTs. This chip is particularly enriched with genes that are expressed in fruit and during interaction with pathogens. Hybridizations for three independent experiments allowed the characterization of global gene expression profiles during fruit ripening, as well as in response to viral and fungal infections in plant cotyledons and roots, respectively. Microarray construction, statistical analyses and validation together with functional-enrichment analysis are presented in this study. The platform validation and enrichment analyses shown in our study indicate that this oligo-based microarray is amenable for future genetic and functional genomic studies of a wide range of experimental conditions in melon.

  14. Influence of selenium on growth, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activity in melon (Cucumis melo L. seedlings under salt stress

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    Hu KeLing

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of exogenous selenium (Se supply (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 μM on the growth, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activity of 100 mM NaCl-stressed melon (Cucumis melo L. seedlings. Salt stress significantly reduced the growth attributes including stem length, stem diameter, dry weight and increased antioxidative enzyme activity [superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, catalase (CAT]. Moreover, the plant exhibited a significant increase in electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA content under NaCl stress. Se supplementation not only improved the growth parameters but also successfully ameliorated the adverse effect caused by salt stress in melon seedlings. However, the mitigation of NaCl-stressed seedlings was different depending on the Se concentration. At lower concentrations (2–8 μM, Se improved growth and acted as antioxidant by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and increasing in SOD and POD enzymes activity under salt stress. At higher concentrations (16 μM, Se exerted diminished beneficial effects on growth. Whereas CAT activity was enhanced. The result indicated that Se supplementation had a positive physiological effect on the growth and development of salt-stressed melon seedlings.

  15. Mapping resistance to alternaria cucumerina in cucumis melo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection with Alternaria cucumerina causes Alternaria leaf blight (ALB), a disease characterized by lesion formation on leaves, leading to substantial yield and quality losses in Cucumis melo (melon). While fungicides are effective against ALB, reduction in the frequency of application would be eco...

  16. A consensus linkage map for molecular markers and Quantitative Trait Loci associated with economically important traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.

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    Schaffer Arthur

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of molecular marker linkage maps have been developed for melon (Cucumis melo L. over the last two decades. However, these maps were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making comparative analysis among maps difficult. In order to solve this problem, a consensus genetic map in melon was constructed using primarily highly transferable anchor markers that have broad potential use for mapping, synteny, and comparative quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis, increasing breeding effectiveness and efficiency via marker-assisted selection (MAS. Results Under the framework of the International Cucurbit Genomics Initiative (ICuGI, http://www.icugi.org, an integrated genetic map has been constructed by merging data from eight independent mapping experiments using a genetically diverse array of parental lines. The consensus map spans 1150 cM across the 12 melon linkage groups and is composed of 1592 markers (640 SSRs, 330 SNPs, 252 AFLPs, 239 RFLPs, 89 RAPDs, 15 IMAs, 16 indels and 11 morphological traits with a mean marker density of 0.72 cM/marker. One hundred and ninety-six of these markers (157 SSRs, 32 SNPs, 6 indels and 1 RAPD were newly developed, mapped or provided by industry representatives as released markers, including 27 SNPs and 5 indels from genes involved in the organic acid metabolism and transport, and 58 EST-SSRs. Additionally, 85 of 822 SSR markers contributed by Syngenta Seeds were included in the integrated map. In addition, 370 QTL controlling 62 traits from 18 previously reported mapping experiments using genetically diverse parental genotypes were also integrated into the consensus map. Some QTL associated with economically important traits detected in separate studies mapped to similar genomic positions. For example, independently identified QTL controlling fruit shape were mapped on similar genomic positions, suggesting that such QTL are possibly responsible for the phenotypic variability

  17. Characterization of endophytic bacteria from cucurbit fruits with potential benefits to agriculture in melons (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassner, Hanoch; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Compant, Stéphane; Sessitsch, Angela; Katzir, Nurit; Portnoy, Vitaly; Yaron, Sima

    2015-07-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms that mainly colonize vegetative parts, but are also found in reproductive and disseminating organs, and may have beneficial characteristics. To identify microorganisms associated with the agriculturally important family, Cucurbitaceae, endophytes were initially determined in fruits of Cucumis melo Reticulatus Group 'Dulce' by a cultivation-independent approach based on fluorescence in situ hybridization using double labeling of oligonucleotide probes. Alpha-, Beta-, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were localized inside the fruits. Culturable bacteria were further isolated and identified from fruit tissues of 'Dulce', from fruits of other cultivated and wild-field-grown Cucurbitaceae, and from wild fruits growing under natural conditions. Low densities of culturable bacteria were detected in the investigated fruits, especially in four out of the five wild species, regardless of their growing environment. Substantial differences were observed between the wild and cultivated cucurbit taxa in regard to the number of colonized fruits as well as the type of endophytes. Bacillus was the most dominant genus of endophytes colonizing fruits of Cucurbitaceae. The antagonistic effects of isolated endophytes were assessed against cucurbit disease agents in dual-culture assays. Several bacterial isolates exhibited antagonistic properties against the tested plant pathogens. The identified bacteria may be useful for protecting plants not only in the field, but also for post-harvest. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Electronic detection of Drechslera sp. fungi in charentais melon ( Cucumis melo Naudin) using carbon-nanostructure-based sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenshields, Márcia W C C; Mamo, Messai A; Coville, Neil J; Spina, Andréa P; Rosso, Diogo Filipe; Latocheski, Elaine C; Destro, João Guilherme; Pimentel, Ida C; Hümmelgen, Ivo A

    2012-10-24

    The development of chemical sensor technology in recent years has stimulated an interest regarding the use of characteristic volatiles and odors as a rapid and early indication of deterioration in fruit quality. The fungal infestation by Drechslera sp. in melons is a severe problem, and we demonstrate that electronic sensors based on carbon nanostructures are able to detect the presence of these fungi in melon. The responses of sensor conductance G and capacitance C at 27 kHz were measured and used to calculate their ΔG and ΔC variation over the full melon ripening process under shelf conditions with proliferation of Drechslera sp. fungi. The sensor response showed that these fungi can be electronically identified in charentais melon, constituting an effective and cheap test procedure to differentiate between infected and uninfected melon.

  19. Evaluation of two potential Cucumis spp. resources for grafting melons

    OpenAIRE

    Gisbert Doménech, Carmina; Gammoudi, N.; Munera Giménez, María; Giné Blasco, Ariadna; Pocurull, M.; Sorribas Royo, Francisco Javier; Picó Sirvent, Belén

    2017-01-01

    Cultivation of Cucumis melo is hampered by soil stresses. Grafting is used to overcome these limitations. Different cucurbits belonging to several genera have been used as rootstocks for melons: Cucurbita, Lagenaria, Luffa, etc. However, negative effects on fruit quality appear in some rootstock-scion combinations. The selection of new resistant rootstocks that do not cause this negative impact in quality is necessary to improve melon cultivation. In this work, we evaluated two rootstocks, cl...

  20. Effets de la durée de l'éclairement artificiel sur la croissance végétative du melon (Cucumis melo L.

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    Remadi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of Artificial Light Duration on Vegetative Growth of Muskmelon Cucumis melo L. Two varieties of muskmelon, F1.6802 and Super sprint, were lighted, from cotyledon stage, during 30, 50 and 70 days. The artificial light increased total dry matter and organ dry matter (stem, leaf, root, leaves number per plant and leaf area. It also stimulated stem internodes elongation. Best results were obtained with super sprint plants treated during 70 days.

  1. Identifikasi berat, diameter, dan tebal daging buah melon (Cucumis melo L. kultivar action 434 tetraploid akibat perlakuan kolkisin

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    Y. Ulung Anggraito

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian farmers are very dependence on certificated seed from another countries. In the other side the natural resources andmen powers very abundance. For these reason it is properly developed the research in agriculture sector, especially on plants breeding.It can be hoped that in the future the dependence on certificated seed from another countries can be minimized. The objective of thisresearch were: (1 to find out the concentration and dipping period which is effective to induce polyploid in musk melon plant, (2identify the weight, diameter, dan flesh thickness of tetraploid musk melon as result of colchicines treatment. The sample of this researchwas Action 434 musk melon cultivar, product of Chia-Thai Seed, Thailand. The number of sample was 480 plants, which plants on fieldrandomly. There were four colchicines concentration as an independent variable: 0.0%, 0.05%, 0.10% and 0.2%. The dipping periodwere 12, 16, 20, and 24 hours for each concentration respectively. Completely Random Design was used in three replications. Datameasurement were analyzed with Two Way ANOVA, DMRT, and LSD. From this research can be concluded that: (1 0.2 % colchicinesis the most effective concentration to induce polyploid on musk melon, with dipping period effective varied from 16–24 hours, (2 thereare changes in weight, diameter, and flesh thickness characters, with the increased tendency of each character in definite norm.

  2. Studi Ketahanan Melon (Cucumis melo L) Terhadap Layu Fusarium Secara In Vitro dan Kaitannya dengan Asam Salisilat

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatmiko, Endang Sulistyaningsih, dan Rudi Hari Murti, Bambang

    2013-01-01

    INTISARILayu fusarium adalah penyakit utama melon yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis (Fom). Pemuliaan tanaman secara in-vitro melalui variasi somaklonal telah digunakan selama beberapa dekade untuk  perbaikan karakter ketahanan tanaman.  Asam salisilat diketahui sebagai salah satu senyawa yang berperan penting terhadap ketahanan tanaman. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan konsentrasi optimal dari asam fusarat yang dapat digunakan untuk tujuan skrining ketahanan layu...

  3. Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Fruit Traits in Melon (Cucumis melo L.) Based on CAPS Markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, A. M.; Liu, S.; Wang, X.; Luan, F.; Baloch, A. W.; Baloch, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    In the current experiment, the quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was done by composite interval mapping method to detect QTLs in edge, central parts and fruit shape of melon. In this context, 235 F/sub 2/ populations along with their parents were evaluated for fruit size, shape and color under replicated trail at Horticulture Experimental Station of Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China, during the growing year 2014. Moreover, 96 pairs of CAPS markers were used to construct a linkage map using F/sub 2/ population that was derived from the cross between two contrasting parents (MR-1 and Topmark). The total length of linkage map was found to be 4984.1cM with an average of 51.9177 cM between the markers. In a total, we detected ten QTLs, in which one was major, while others were minor. Five QTLs were detected in the edge part of melon fruit and three QTLs were detected in central parts of melon and all were considered as Brix content. Two QTLs were related with fruit shape. Our present genetic and QTLs mapping would be proved useful in plant breeding programs for the improvement of economically important horticultural traits. (author)

  4. Penetration, Post-penetration Development, and Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Cucumis melo var. texanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faske, T R

    2013-03-01

    Cucumis melo var. texanus, a wild melon commonly found in the southern United States and two accessions, Burleson Co. and MX 1230, expressed resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in preliminary experiments. To characterize the mechanism of resistance, we evaluated root penetration, post-penetration development, reproduction, and emigration of M. incognita on these two accessions of C. melo var. texanus. Additionally, we evaluated 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus for their reaction against M. incognita in a greenhouse experiment. Fewer (P ≤ 0.05) J2 penetrated the root system of C. melo var. texanus accessions (Burleson Co. and MX 1230) and C. metuliferus (PI 482452) (resistant control), 7 days after inoculation (DAI) than in C. melo 'Hales Best Jumbo' (susceptible control). A delayed (P ≤ 0.05) rate of nematode development was observed at 7, 14, and 21 DAI that contributed to lower (P ≤ 0.05) egg production on both accessions and C. metuliferus compared with C. melo. Though J2 emigration was observed on all Cucumis genotypes a higher (P ≤ 0.05) rate of J2 emigration was observed from 3 to 6 DAI on accession Burleson Co. and C. metuliferus than on C. melo. The 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus varied relative to their reaction to M. incognita with eight supporting similar levels of nematode reproduction to that of C. metuliferus. Cucumis melo var. texanus may be a useful source of resistance against root-knot nematode in melon.

  5. The use of gamma radiation aiming to post harvest conservation of Cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo L. var. Cantaloupensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Alessandra Aparecida Zilio Cozzo de

    2007-01-01

    Although Brazilian fruit culture has been growing in the international market, the fruit quality and the post harvest technology have not been improved properly. In Brazil, fruit nutritional factors are very important because of their potential to provide suitable nutrients for a significant part of the Country population. Some post harvest technologies, such as ionizing radiation, can keep the physical, chemical, nutritional and sensorial characteristics of the natural fruit, improving the quality of the fruits in the market. This work evaluated the effects of Cobalt 60 irradiation in Cantaloupe melon, aiming the post harvest conservation during 7 days of storage, at a temperature ranging from 20 to 22 deg C. The doses of irradiation were set to 0, 150, 300, 450, 600, 750 and 900 Gy, based on the multiple of 150 Gy quarantine dose, aiming to establish the lowest, the highest and the ideal doses. Afterwards, physical, chemical and nutritional characteristics of irradiated fruit were checked and, finally, the sensorial characteristics through acceptability test. Results indicated that the doses higher than 450 Gy affected firmness, pulp yield and color (L and a * ) parameters. Nevertheless, analyzing physical, chemical and nutritional parameters, doses of 450 and 900 Gy kept pH, tetrable acidity, soluble solids, color (a * and b * ), chlorophyll and carotenoids, phenolic compounds, respiratory rate and ethylene level. The storage period was the most important factor that affected the quality of the fruit, despite of the radiation doses. Based on the acceptability test, the best evaluated fruits were from the treatments of 450 and 900 Gy. This work allowed to conclude that fruit radiation is an appropriate technology for Cantaloupe melon post harvest conservation, but it is necessary to be used in combination with other technologies, especially to fungi control. (author)

  6. Agrobacterium mediated transformation of Tunisian Cucumis melo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transgenic Cucumis melo cv. Maazoun containing the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II) chimeric gene conferring resistance to kanamycin were obtained from cotyledons explants inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (GV3101) that contained the binary vector plasmid pADI. Transformed shoots were obtained ...

  7. CmMDb: a versatile database for Cucumis melo microsatellite markers and other horticulture crop research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawna; Chaduvula, Pavan K; Bonthala, Venkata S; Manjusha, Verma; Siddiq, Ebrahimali A; Polumetla, Ananda K; Prasad, Gajula M N V

    2015-01-01

    Cucumis melo L. that belongs to Cucurbitaceae family ranks among one of the highest valued horticulture crops being cultivated across the globe. Besides its economical and medicinal importance, Cucumis melo L. is a valuable resource and model system for the evolutionary studies of cucurbit family. However, very limited numbers of molecular markers were reported for Cucumis melo L. so far that limits the pace of functional genomic research in melon and other similar horticulture crops. We developed the first whole genome based microsatellite DNA marker database of Cucumis melo L. and comprehensive web resource that aids in variety identification and physical mapping of Cucurbitaceae family. The Cucumis melo L. microsatellite database (CmMDb: http://65.181.125.102/cmmdb2/index.html) encompasses 39,072 SSR markers along with its motif repeat, motif length, motif sequence, marker ID, motif type and chromosomal locations. The database is featured with novel automated primer designing facility to meet the needs of wet lab researchers. CmMDb is a freely available web resource that facilitates the researchers to select the most appropriate markers for marker-assisted selection in melons and to improve breeding strategies.

  8. Potencialidades fitoquímicas do melão (Cucumis melo L. na região Noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul - Brasil Phytochemical potentialities of melon (Cucumis melo L. in the northwest region of Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Muller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O melão (Cucumis melo L. é uma fruta muito apreciada por suas qualidades e sua produção vem crescendo e ganhando espaço no mercado nacional e internacional. Em regiões como o Noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul, destaca-se como uma nova alternativa de renda para vários agricultores. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o potencial fitoquímico de alguns cultivares de melão da região Noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul. A análise fitoquímica utilizando como farmacógeno as folhas, foi realizada para a verificação da presença de metabólitos secundários, tais como: saponinas, cumarinas, cardiotônicos, cianogenéticos, alcalóides, taninos, antraquinonas, flavonoides, e óleos voláteis. Também foi avaliado o teor de suco a partir dos frutos. Dentre os cinco cultivares analisados, Gaúcho, Imperial, Hy Mark, Magelan, e Cantaloupe, o cultivar Gaucho apresentou a maior variedade em metabólitos secundários. Na avaliação do teor de suco a cultivar Magelan se destacou em comparação às demais cultivares testadas.The melon (Cucumis melo L. is a fruit highly appreciated for its qualities and its production has been growing and gaining space in the national and in the international market. In regions like the northwest of Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil, it stands out as a new income alternative for farmers. In this context, this study aimed to analyze the phytochemical potential of some melon cultivars in the northwest region of Rio Grande do Sul. The phytochemical analysis, using the leaves as pharmacogen, was performed to verify the presence of secondary metabolites such as saponins, coumarins, cardiac glycosides, cyanogenetic glicosides, alkaloids, tannins, anthraquinones, flavonoids and volatile oils. The juice content from the fruits was also evaluated. Among the five analyzed cultivars, Gaucho, Imperial, Hy Mark, Magelan and Cantaloupe, cultivar Gaucho had the greatest variety of secondary metabolites. In the

  9. Effect of different sources of fertilizers on the phosphorus absorption and the yield of the under irrigation melon (Cucumis melo L) sowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas Ocampo, A.

    2002-01-01

    The fertilizer injection through irrigation system is a common practice in second melon sowings. Nevertheless, the application of some phosphoric sources by that way can have problems due to the absorption reactions and precipitation in the ground, which reduces its mobility and assimilation by the plants. Phosphoric sources of fertirrigation to diverse doses, were evaluated in melon (Cucusmis melo L.) Cantaloupe cv Hy Mark in second sowings, about the phosphoric absorption and the fruit commercial production , (b) the content of soluble P in the solution of the ground, to correlate this with the optimal production and thus obtain the external requirement of P and (c) to quantify the economic costs of the application of the different sources. The experiment took place in the ground of the Inceptisol order, sub-group Vertic Haplustepts in Carrillo, Guanacaste, in the property Melones de Sardinal S.A. The used sources of P2O5 were: Map(12-60-0) in doses of 36 and 54 kg/ha, H3PO4 to 36kg/ha and Fertg (8-24-0) in doses of 18 and 36 kg/ha. Besides, establishing in absolute witness 0 kg/ha. The melon redeeming was evaluated in number of cajas/ha, sizes 9, 12, 15 and 18. According to the dry weight and the nourishment concentration of the aerial biomass of each sample, the absorption of nourishment in the cultivation in kg/ha and g/ha was calculated, for a sowing density of 12940 plantas/ha. The external efficiency of phosphorus for melon with the different sources was determined, for getting this were made applications of progressively increasing doses of P. The dose of phosphorus to reach that requirement (concentration of P in the solution of the ground that is necessary for an optimal yield), in the balance point it's obtained by means of interpolation of the dose of P through the isotherm and the correlation of the optimal yield of the cultivation. The greater absorption of P took place in the stage of previous growth to the flowering and in the beginning and arrival

  10. Filamentous fungi isolated from the rhizosphere of melon plants (Cucumis melo L. cv. Gold Mine cultivated in soil with organic amendments Fungos filamentosos isolados da rizosfera de meloeiros (Cucumis melo L. cv. Gold Mine cultivados em solo com compostos orgânicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Paiva Coutinho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizosphere soil samples were collected in a semiarid area, in the region of the São Francisco River valley, Petrolina, Pernambuco state, Brazil, to study the diversity of filamentous fungi in a soil cultivated with melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Gold Mine and receiving different organic amendments: Treatment 1 (control, without organic compost; T2 (77% coconut fiber, 20% goat manure and 3% K2SO4; T3 (10% Ricinus communis leaves and stems, 50% Pennisetum purpureum leaves and 40% goat manure; T4 (77% coconut fiber, 20% goat manure and 3% termophosphate; T5 (47% Pennisetum purpureum leaves, 50% goat manure and 3% K2SO4; and T6 (57% Pennisetum purpureum leaves, 40% goat manure and 3% termophosphate. Fungal isolation was carried out by the serial dilution technique to 1:1000. The Sorensen index of similarity, frequency and distribution of the fungi were evaluated. Seventy-eight species of filamentous fungi were isolated and identified, plus several Basidiomycota (04 and Mycelia sterilia (02. The predominant genera were Aspergillus and Penicillium, with 15 and 13 species, respectively. A greater number of species was found in the sowing period (49, and in relation to the organic fertilization, treatment 6 provided the greatest species diversity (43 species. Most of the species are saprobes and only a few are considered to be potential pathogens on melon plants, such as Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani and Myrothecium roridum.Foram coletadas amostras de solo rizosférico em uma área semiárida, na região do Vale do São Francisco, Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brasil, com o objetivo de conhecer a diversidade dos fungos filamentosos presentes em solo cultivado com melão (Cucumis melo cv. Gold Mine e adubado com diferentes compostos orgânicos: Tratamento 1 (controle, sem adição de compostos orgânicos; T2 (77% de bagaço de côco, 20% de esterco de caprino e 3% de K2SO4; T3 (10% de torta de mamona, 50% de capim elefante e 40% de esterco de caprino; T4 (77% de

  11. Qualidade de melões (Cucumis melo L. var. cantalupensis Naud., híbrido Torreon, produzidos em hidroponia e armazenados em embalagens de polietileno Quality of Torreon hybrid melon fruits (Cucumis melo L. var. cantalupensis Naud. grown in hydroponic system and stored in polyethylene packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve por objetivos avaliar a permeabilidade de filmes de polietileno de diferentes espessuras e densidades ao O2 e ao CO2, a composição gasosa (O2, CO2 e etileno formada no interior das embalagens e a qualidade físico-química de melões (Cucumis melo L. var. cantalupensis Naud., híbrido Torreon, produzidos no sistema hidropônico "Nutrient Film Technique" (NFT e armazenados em embalagens de polietileno. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: (1 armazenamento refrigerado (sem uso de filme; (2 polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD de 40µm; (3 PEBD de 60µm; (4 PEBD de 90µm; (5 polietileno de média densidade (PEMD de 40µm; (6 PEMD de 60µm. Os frutos permaneceram armazenados durante 25 dias a 3,8±0,2°C e por mais dois dias a 20°C. Os filmes de PEBD de 60 e 90µm e o PEMD de 60µm apresentaram menor permeabilidade ao CO2, mantendo as maiores concentrações de CO2 nas embalagens. O filme de PEBD de 90µm apresentou menor permeabilidade ao O2. A menor concentração de etileno foi obtida com o uso de PEBD de 40µm. O uso de filmes reduziu drasticamente a perda de massa dos frutos, quando comparados aos frutos não embalados. Os frutos acondicionados na embalagem de PEBD de 40µm mantiveram uma maior firmeza da polpa após o período de armazenamento, não diferindo estatisticamente dos frutos armazenados em PEMD de 40µm. Já a incidência de podridões foi significativamente menor nos frutos armazenados em PEMD de 60µm. De modo geral, os filmes avaliados mantêm semelhante a qualidade físico-química de melões híbrido Torreon produzidos hidroponicamente no sistema NFT.This study was carried out to evaluate the permeability to O2 and CO2, and gas composition (O2, CO2 and ethylene inside packages of different thickness and density polyethylene films. Moreover, the physical and chemical quality of Torreon hybrid melon fruit (Cucumis melo L. var. cantalupensis Naud. grown in a Nutrient Film Technique hydroponic system and stored

  12. Characteristics and composition of cucumis melo seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, S.; Batool, F.; Akhtar, T.; Tariq, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive characterization study was carried out on Cucumis melo seed oil, in order to evaluate its suitability as an edible vegetable oil. The oil was extracted by sohxlet apparatus using n-hexane as solvent that produced a yield of 47.33% (w/w). The oil was found to have light yellow colour and an agreeable odour, showing density up to 0.728 g/cm/sup 3/. The values of refractive index, iodine number and saponification number came out to be 1.466 (at 25 deg. C), 135.6 g/100 g and 301.6 mg KOH/100 g, respectively. GC-analysis gave total unsaturation content of 64.9% with linolenic acid (C18:3) being the predominant showing a proportion of 43.4%, followed by heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) with 23.1% and palmitic acid (C16:0) with 8.7%. The physicochemical properties of this oil are highly comparable to those of soybean and sunflower oils. Therefore, the test melon seed-oil could be developed into different commercial products to serve as an alternate vegetable oil in region like Pakistan, where this melon grows abundantly. (author)

  13. Transcriptome sequencing for SNP discovery across Cucumis melo

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    Blanca José

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melon (Cucumis melo L. is a highly diverse species that is cultivated worldwide. Recent advances in massively parallel sequencing have begun to allow the study of nucleotide diversity in this species. The Sanger method combined with medium-throughput 454 technology were used in a previous study to analyze the genetic diversity of germplasm representing 3 botanical varieties, yielding a collection of about 40,000 SNPs distributed in 14,000 unigenes. However, the usefulness of this resource is limited as the sequenced genotypes do not represent the whole diversity of the species, which is divided into two subspecies with many botanical varieties variable in plant, flowering, and fruit traits, as well as in stress response. As a first step to extensively document levels and patterns of nucleotide variability across the species, we used the high-throughput SOLiD™ system to resequence the transcriptomes of a set of 67 genotypes that had previously been selected from a core collection representing the extant variation of the entire species. Results The deep transcriptome resequencing of all of the genotypes, grouped into 8 pools (wild African agrestis, Asian agrestis and acidulus, exotic Far Eastern conomon, Indian momordica and Asian dudaim and flexuosus, commercial cantalupensis, subsp. melo Asian and European landraces, Spanish inodorus landraces, and Piel de Sapo breeding lines yielded about 300 M reads. Short reads were mapped to the recently generated draft genome assembly of the DHL line Piel de Sapo (inodorus x Songwhan Charmi (conomon and to a new version of melon transcriptome. Regions with at least 6X coverage were used in SNV calling, generating a melon collection with 303,883 variants. These SNVs were dispersed across the entire C. melo genome, and distributed in 15,064 annotated genes. The number and variability of in silico SNVs differed considerably between pools. Our finding of higher genomic diversity in wild

  14. Development and utility of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) linked to the Fom-2 fusarium wilt resistance gene in melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X Y; Wolff, D W; Baudracco-Arnas, S; Pitrat, M

    1999-08-01

    Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. melonis Snyder & Hans, is a worldwide soil-borne disease of melon (Cucumis melo L.). Resistance to races 0 and 1 of Fusarium wilt is conditioned by the dominant gene Fom-2. To facilitate marker-assisted backcrossing with selection for Fusarium wilt resistance, we developed cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) markers by converting RAPD markers E07 (a 1.25-kb band) and G17 (a 1.05-kb band), respectively. The RAPD-PCR polymorphic fragments from the susceptible line 'Vedrantais' were cloned and sequenced in order to construct primers that would amplify only the target fragment. The derived primers, E07SCAR-1/E07SCAR-2 from E07 and G17SCAR-1/G17SCAR-2 from G17, yielded a single 1.25-kb fragment (designated SCE07) and a 1.05-kb fragment (designated SCG17) (the same as RAPD markers E07 and G17), respectively, from both resistant and susceptible melon lines, thus demonstrating locus-specific associated primers. Potential CAPS markers were first revealed by comparing sequence data between fragments amplified from resistant (PI 161375) and susceptible ('Vedrantais') lines and were then confirmed by electrophoresis of restriction endonuclease digestion products. Twelve restriction endonucleases were evaluated for their potential use as CAPS markers within the SCE07 fragment. Three (BclI, MspI, and BssSI) yielded ideal CAPS markers and were subsequently subjected to extensive testing using an additional 88 diverse melon cultigens, 93 and 119 F(2) individuals from crosses of 'Vedrantais' x PI 161375 and 'Ananas Yokneam'×MR-1 respectively, and 17 families from a backcross BC(1)S(1) population derived from the breeding line 'MD8654' as a resistance source. BclI- and MspI-CAPS are susceptible-linked markers, whereas the BssSI-CAPS is a resistant-linked marker. The CAPS markers that resulted from double digestion by BclI and BssSI are co-dominant. Results

  15. Pewarisan Karakter Fenotip Melon (Cucumis melo L. ‘Hikapel Aromatis’ Hasil Persilangan ♀ ‘Hikapel’ dengan ♂ ‘Hikadi Aromatik’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Setiadi Daryono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop cultivars with superior phenotypes of melon and high level of productivity. This research used the individual results of crossing between melon  ♀ ‘Hikapel' with ♂ 'Hikadi Aromatik'. The research included qualitative and quantitative phenotype characterization test. The research was conducted in Center of Agrotechnology Innovation University of Gadjah Mada (PIAT-UGM, Kalitirto, Berbah, Sleman, Yogyakarta and Laboratory of Genetics Faculty of Biology UGM on December 2016 until March 2017. Quantitative data analysis used ANOVA testing through PKBT-STAT 2.02 software with Random Complete Block Design (RCBD method at significance level of 1% and 5%. Melon 'Hikapel Aromatik' has several advantages including oval shape, without net, without lobes, crispy texture, skin-collored yellow RHS (6A, has a 7-14 brix, has volatile aromatic compound and transposon influenced. Based on the results of recapitulation of variance, the characters of 'Hikapel Aromatik' was not uniform.

  16. Mapping the Flavor Contributing Traits on "Fengwei Melon" (Cucumis melo L. Chromosomes Using Parent Resequencing and Super Bulked-Segregant Analysis.

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    Hong Zhang

    Full Text Available We used a next-generation high-throughput sequencing platform to resequence the Xinguowei and Shouxing melon cultivars, the parents of Fengwei melon. We found 84% of the reads (under a coverage rate of "13×" placed on the reference genome DHL92. There were 2,550,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 140,000 structural variations in the two genomes. We also identified 1,290 polymorphic genes between Xinguowei and Shouxing. We combined specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq and bulked-segregant analysis (super-BSA to analyze the two parents and the F2 extreme phenotypes. This combined method yielded 12,438,270 reads, 46,087 SLAF tags, and 4,480 polymorphic markers (average depth of 161.81×. There were six sweet trait-related regions containing 13 differential SLAF markers, and 23 sour trait-related regions containing 48 differential SLAF markers. We further fine-mapped the sweet trait to the genomic regions on chromosomes 6, 10, 11, and 12. Correspondingly, we mapped the sour trait-related genomic regions to chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, and 12. Finally, we positioned nine of the 61 differential markers in the sweet and sour trait candidate regions on the parental genome. These markers corresponded to one sweet and eight sour trait-related genes. Our study provides a basis for marker-assisted breeding of desirable sweet and sour traits in Fengwei melons.

  17. Identification of QTLs for resistance to powdery mildew and SSR markers diagnostic for powdery mildew resistance genes in melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukino, Nobuko; Ohara, Takayoshi; Monforte, Antonio J; Sugiyama, Mitsuhiro; Sakata, Yoshiteru; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Matsumoto, Satoru

    2008-12-01

    Powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii is an important foliar disease in melon. To find molecular markers for marker-assisted selection, we constructed a genetic linkage map of melon based on a population of 93 recombinant inbred lines derived from crosses between highly resistant AR 5 and susceptible 'Earl's Favourite (Harukei 3)'. The map spans 877 cM and consists of 167 markers, comprising 157 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 7 sequence characterized amplified region/cleavage amplified polymorphic sequence markers and 3 phenotypic markers segregating into 20 linkage groups. Among them, 37 SSRs and 6 other markers were common to previous maps. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified two loci for resistance to powdery mildew. The effects of these QTLs varied depending on strain and plant stage. The percentage of phenotypic variance explained for resistance to the pxA strain was similar between QTLs (R (2) = 22-28%). For resistance to pxB strain, the QTL on linkage group (LG) XII was responsible for much more of the variance (41-46%) than that on LG IIA (12-13%). The QTL on LG IIA was located between two SSR markers. Using an independent population, we demonstrated the effectiveness of these markers. This is the first report of universal and effective markers linked to a gene for powdery mildew resistance in melon.

  18. Effect of Digestate and Biochar Amendments on Photosynthesis Rate, Growth Parameters, Water Use Efficiency and Yield of Chinese Melon (Cucumis melo L. under Saline Irrigation

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    Mohammed M. A. Elbashier

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recent interest in biochar and digestate as soil amendments for improving soil quality and increasing crop production, there is inadequate knowledge of the effect of the combination of biochar and digestate, particularly under saline irrigation conditions. A pot experiment with Chinese melon was conducted in a greenhouse, biochar (5% and digestate (500 mL/pot were used with and without the recommended mineral NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium fertilizer dose (120-150-150 Kg ha−1. The plants were irrigated with tap water (SL0 and 2 dS/m (SL1 NaCl solution. The growth, photosynthesis rate, water use efficiency (WUE and yield of Chinese melon were affected positively when biochar was combined with digestate amendment, particularly under saline irrigation water with and without mineral NPK fertilizer. The maximum yield under normal water was obtained by digestate (SL0: 218.87 t ha−1 and biochar amendment combined with digestate (SL1: 118.8 t ha−1 under saline water. The maximum WUE values were noticed with the biochar and digestate combination under all water treatments (SL0: 32.2 t ha−1 mm−1 and SL1: 19.6 t ha−1 mm−1. It was concluded that digestate alone was more effective than the use of biochar, particularly with normal water. The combination of biochar with digestate had a significant effect on the Chinese melon growth, photosynthesis rate, water use efficiency and yield under saline irrigation, and it can be used as an alternative fertilizer for mineral NPK fertilizer.

  19. Molecular variation in Cucumis melo as revealed by isoenzyme and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular variation in Cucumis melo as revealed by isoenzyme and RAPD markers. Tarek M Mohamed. Abstract. No Abstract. The Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Vol. 23(2) 2005: 141-153. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  20. Cloning of disease-resistance homologues in end sequences of BAC clones linked to Fom-2, a gene conferring resistance to Fusarium wilt in melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Hong; Choi, Woobong; Thomas, Claude E; Dean, Ralph A

    2002-06-01

    Disease resistance has not yet been characterized at the molecular level in cucurbits, a group of high-value, nutritious, horticultural plants. Previously, we genetically mapped the Fom-2 gene that confers resistance to Fusarium wilt races 0 and I of melon. In this paper, two cosegregating codominant markers (AM, AFLP marker; FM, Fusarium marker) were used to screen a melon bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. Identified clones were fingerprinted and end sequenced. Fingerprinting analysis showed that clones identified by each marker assembled into two separate contigs at high stringency. GenBank searches produced matches to leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) of resistance genes (R genes); to retroelements and to cellulose synthase in clones identified by FM; and to nucleotide-binding sites (NBSs) of R genes, retroelements, and cytochrome P-450 in clones identified by AM. A 6.5-kb fragment containing both NBS and LRR sequences was found to share high homology to TIR (Toll-interleukin-1 receptor)-NBS-LRR R genes, such as N, with 42% identity and 58% similarity in the TIR-NBS and LRR regions. The sequence information may be useful for identifying NBS-LRR class of R genes in other cucurbits.

  1. Analytical traceability of melon (Cucumis melo var reticulatus): proximate composition, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in relation to cultivar, plant physiology state, and seasonal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maietti, Annalisa; Tedeschi, Paola; Stagno, Caterina; Bordiga, Matteo; Travaglia, Fabiano; Locatelli, Monica; Arlorio, Marco; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2012-06-01

    Two morphologically different cultivars of Italian melons (Baggio and Giusto) were characterized considering samples harvested in different times, at the beginning (BPP) and at the end of the physiological plant production period (EPP). Proximate composition, protein, minerals, pH, phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, condensed tannins, and flavonoids were measured, showing a significant decrease in EPP samples (phenolics, antioxidant capacity, condensed tannins, and flavonoids); ascorbic acid decreased in Giusto cv, carotenoids in Baggio cv. Mineral content increased in either the cultivars (EPP samples). Year-to-year difference was significantly highlighted; the plant growing cycle significantly affected the chemotype. Despite these effects, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) permitted the discrimination of Baggio from Giusto cv, and the discrimination of BPP from EPP samples as well. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Controlling the Sex of Flowers in Different Stages of Growth and Development of Melon (Cucumis melo var. reticualus L. with Ethephon Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Arabsalmani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of ethephon on control of male flowers in melon, a split plot experiment, with randomized complete blocks design and three replications, was conducted in Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Varamin, Iran, during 2005-2006. The main factor included three levels of plant growth stage (3-leaf, 6-leaf and early reproductive stage and sub-plots included four ethephon levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg/L. The appearance time of female flowers, number of male and female flowers (7 and 14 days after application of ethephon, total yield and female/male flowers ratio were evaluated. Results showed that plant response to increasing concentration of ethephon depends on plant growth stage. By using the ethephon concentrations of 100, 200 and 300 mg/L, the emergence of female flowers was delayed 6, 13 and 15 days, respectively, in comparison to control. The highest yield (26430 kg/ha was obtained with spraying of 200 mg/L ethephon in trifoliate plants. In this case, the ratio of female to male flowers was highest (81.5%. A high dose of ethephon (over 200 mg/L was associated with reduced yield and ratio of female to male flowers, at all stages of plant growth, especially in reproductive growth stage. The results this research showed that the beneficial effects of ethephon application is possible only if the right time is chosen with respect to plant growth.

  3. Changes in evapotranspiration of summer and winter crops of netted melon [Cucumis melo] grown under glass in relation to meteorological and plant-related factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, T.

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of evapotranspiration taken in the summer and winter on netted melon crops grown under glass were taken to characterize seasonal and daily changes. The data were compared to meteorological and plant-related factors to seek some relationships. Evapotranspiration followed a sigmoid curve until one week after pollination, and then decreased gradually during fruit growth. Cumulative evapotranspirations after transplanting were about 116 kg and 60 kg, respectively, for the summer and winter crops, whereas the peak evapotranspirations were 3.O kg plant(-1) day(-1) and 1.3 kg plant(-1) day(-1). The rapid increase h the evapotranspiration during the early stage was associated with the increase in leaf area; its gradual decrease during fruit growth was associated with a decrease in the transpiration potential of leaves. Therefore, irrigation amounts should be increased with leaf development and decreased with fruit growth. The curve of solar radiation in sunny summer days peaked at noon, whereas vapor pressure deficit usually peaked in early or mid afternoon; evapotranspirations in the afternoon had higher values than had those in the morning. In winter, vapor pressure deficit was relatively high during late afternoon and early morning because of heating, whereas it was low during the remainder of the day on account of low ventilation. These fluctuations led to a weak correlation between evapotranspiration and vapor pressure deficit. Regression analyses indicated that solar radiation was a main meteorological factor affecting evapotranspiration

  4. Comparison of Different Methods for Separation of Haploid Embryo Induced through Irradiated Pollen and Their Economic Analysis in Melon (Cucumis melo var. inodorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Baktemur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Irradiated pollen technique is the most successful haploidization technique within Cucurbitaceae. After harvesting of fruits pollinated with irradiated pollen, classical method called as “inspecting the seeds one by one” is used to find haploid embryos in the seeds. In this study, different methods were used to extract the embryos more easily, quickly, economically, and effectively. “Inspecting the seeds one by one” was used as control treatment. Other four methods tested were “sowing seeds direct nutrient media,” “inspecting seeds in the light source,” “floating seeds on liquid media,” and “floating seeds on liquid media after surface sterilization.” Y2 and Y3 melon genotypes selected from the third backcross population of Yuva were used as plant material. Results of this study show that there is no statistically significant difference among methods “inspecting the seeds one by one,” “sowing seeds direct CP nutrient media,” and “inspecting seeds in the light source,” although the average number of embryos per fruit is slightly different. No embryo production was obtained from liquid culture because of infection. When considered together with labor costs and time required for embryo rescue, the best methods were “sowing seeds directly in the CP nutrient media“ and ”inspecting seeds in the light source.”

  5. [Identification of two Fusarium isolates and their crude toxin allelopathic effect on Cucumis melo seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Juan; Xue, Quan-Hong; Du, Jun-Zhi; Chen, Jiao-Jiao

    2013-01-01

    Eight fungi isolates were obtained from Fusarium-infected Cucumis melo (melon) plants and their rhizosphere soils. Taking melon cultivar 'Xitian 1' as test material, the re-inoculation and seed germination experiments were conducted to investigate the pathogenicity and growth inhibition effect of these fungi isolates on melon. Through the determination of the induced enzyme activities, resistant substance contents, and cell membrane permeability of potted melon roots, the allelopathic effect of the crude toxins of two harmful fungi was studied, and according to the morphological characteristics and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequencing, the two harmful fungi were identified. The crude toxins of the two harmful fungi TF and HF had strong inhibition effects on the germination and growth of the melon seeds. The MDA and soluble protein contents and the cell membrane permeability of the 'Xitian 1' seedlings roots all increased, among which, the MDA content and cell membrane permeability increased by 108.6% and 40.6%, respectively when treated with the stock solution of TF toxin, compared with the control. The crude toxins of the two harmful fungi improved the induced enzyme activities of the melon roots, with the increment of the PAL and POD activities under the treatment of 10-fold dilution of TF crude toxin increased by 25.6% and 23.2%, respectively. When treated with the stock solution of HF toxin, the PAL activity significantly increased by 30.0%. The two harmful fungi TF and HF were primarily identified as Fusarium equisti and F. proliferatum, respectively. This study showed that the two Fusarium isolates could not infect melon via re-inoculation, but could negatively affect the melon's normal growth and normal physiological and biochemical metabolism via toxins excretion, and in the meantime, improve the root protective enzyme activities, with the effects of both benefit and harmfulness on melon plants. The allelopathic hazard of the crude toxins of the

  6. Medieval herbal iconography and lexicography of Cucumis (cucumber and melon, Cucurbitaceae) in the Occident, 1300-1458.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S; Janick, Jules; Daunay, Marie-Christine

    2011-09-01

    The genus Cucumis contains two species of important vegetable crops, C. sativus, cucumber, and C. melo, melon. Melon has iconographical and textual records from lands of the Mediterranean Basin dating back to antiquity, but cucumber does not. The goal of this study was to obtain an improved understanding of the history of these crops in the Occident. Medieval images purportedly of Cucumis were examined, their specific identity was determined and they were compared for originality, accuracy and the lexicography of their captions. The manuscripts having accurate, informative images are derived from Italy and France and were produced between 1300 and 1458. All have an illustration of cucumber but not all contain an image of melon. The cucumber fruits are green, unevenly cylindrical with an approx. 2:1 length-to-width ratio. Most of the images show the cucumbers marked by sparsely distributed, large dark dots, but images from northern France show them as having densely distributed, small black dots. The different size, colour and distribution reflect the different surface wartiness and spininess of modern American and French pickling cucumbers. The melon fruits are green, oval to serpentine, closely resembling the chate and snake vegetable melons, but not sweet melons. In nearly all manuscripts of Italian provenance, the cucumber image is labelled with the Latin caption citruli, or similar, plural diminuitive of citrus (citron, Citrus medica). However, in manuscripts of French provenance, the cucumber image is labelled cucumeres, which is derived from the classical Latin epithet cucumis for snake melon. The absence of melon in some manuscripts and the expropriation of the Latin cucumis/cucumer indicate replacement of vegetable melons by cucumbers during the medieval period in Europe. One image, from British Library ms. Sloane 4016, has a caption that allows tracing of the word 'gherkin' back to languages of the geographical nativity of C. sativus, the Indian

  7. Medieval herbal iconography and lexicography of Cucumis (cucumber and melon, Cucurbitaceae) in the Occident, 1300–1458

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Janick, Jules; Daunay, Marie-Christine

    2011-01-01

    Background The genus Cucumis contains two species of important vegetable crops, C. sativus, cucumber, and C. melo, melon. Melon has iconographical and textual records from lands of the Mediterranean Basin dating back to antiquity, but cucumber does not. The goal of this study was to obtain an improved understanding of the history of these crops in the Occident. Medieval images purportedly of Cucumis were examined, their specific identity was determined and they were compared for originality, accuracy and the lexicography of their captions. Findings The manuscripts having accurate, informative images are derived from Italy and France and were produced between 1300 and 1458. All have an illustration of cucumber but not all contain an image of melon. The cucumber fruits are green, unevenly cylindrical with an approx. 2:1 length-to-width ratio. Most of the images show the cucumbers marked by sparsely distributed, large dark dots, but images from northern France show them as having densely distributed, small black dots. The different size, colour and distribution reflect the different surface wartiness and spininess of modern American and French pickling cucumbers. The melon fruits are green, oval to serpentine, closely resembling the chate and snake vegetable melons, but not sweet melons. In nearly all manuscripts of Italian provenance, the cucumber image is labelled with the Latin caption citruli, or similar, plural diminuitive of citrus (citron, Citrus medica). However, in manuscripts of French provenance, the cucumber image is labelled cucumeres, which is derived from the classical Latin epithet cucumis for snake melon. The absence of melon in some manuscripts and the expropriation of the Latin cucumis/cucumer indicate replacement of vegetable melons by cucumbers during the medieval period in Europe. One image, from British Library ms. Sloane 4016, has a caption that allows tracing of the word ‘gherkin’ back to languages of the geographical nativity of C

  8. The quest for epigenetic regulation underlying unisexual flower development in Cucumis melo

    KAUST Repository

    Latrasse, David

    2017-05-08

    BackgroundMelon (Cucumis melo) is an important vegetable crop from the Cucurbitaceae family and a reference model specie for sex determination, fruit ripening and vascular fluxes studies. Nevertheless, the nature and role of its epigenome in gene expression regulation and more specifically in sex determination remains largely unknown.ResultsWe have investigated genome wide H3K27me3 and H3K9ac histone modifications and gene expression dynamics, in five melon organs. H3K9ac and H3K27me3 were mainly distributed along gene-rich regions and constrained to gene bodies. H3K9ac was preferentially located at the TSS, whereas H3K27me3 distributed uniformly from TSS to TES. As observed in other species, H3K9ac and H3K27me3 correlated with high and low gene expression levels, respectively. Comparative analyses of unisexual flowers pointed out sex-specific epigenetic states of TFs involved in ethylene response and flower development. Chip-qPCR analysis of laser dissected carpel and stamina primordia, revealed sex-specific histone modification of MADS-box genes. Using sex transition mutants, we demonstrated that the female promoting gene, CmACS11, represses the expression of the male promoting gene CmWIP1 via deposition of H3K27me3.ConclusionsOur findings reveal the organ-specific landscapes of H3K9ac and H3K27me3 in melon. Our results also provide evidence that the sex determination genes recruit histone modifiers to orchestrate unisexual flower development in monoecious species.

  9. REQUERIMENTOS DE POLINIZAÇÃO DO MELOEIRO (Cucumis melo l. NO MUNICÍPIO DE ACARAÚ - CE - BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Maciel Sousa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried in commercial areas cultivate with muskmelon (Cucumis melo L., variety AF- 646, in the municipal district of Acaraú, state of Ceará, Brazil. The investigation was split in four treatments: hand cross pollination, open pollination in presence of the honey bee hives, open pollination and resricted pollination. The observed variables were: rate of fruit set, fruit weight and seed number of fruits. The hand cross pollination showed the best effect to number of fruit set, fruit weight and seed number of fruits, following to open pollination in presence of the honey bee hives, open pollination and resricted pollination, without fruit set. Considering the melon cultivated at open fields and during the dry season in NE Brazil, it is possible to conclude that it depends on biotic pollinators and that honeybees promote efficientily the pollination.

  10. Efeito do tipo de corte nas características físico-químicas e microbiológicas do melão 'cantaloupe' (Cucumis melo L. Híbrido hy-Mark minimamente processado Effect of type of cutting on the physical chemical and microbiological characteristics of 'Cantaloupe' melon (Cucumis melo L. Hybrid hy-Mark minimally processed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Cordeiro de Oliveira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de dois tipos de cortes (manual e mecânico nas características físico-químicas e microbiológicas do melão 'Cantaloupe' minimamente processado e refrigerado. Frutos com grau de maturação adequado foram selecionados, lavados, sanificados (200 ppm de cloro ativo/2 minutos e processados de acordo com o tipo de corte. Os frutos utilizados para o corte mecânico foram descascados em máquina descascadora e após a retirada das sementes, submetidos ao corte com auxílio de máquina de corte. Os destinados ao corte manual foram descascados e cortados com auxílio facas, colocados em imersão em solução de hipoclorito de sódio (20 ppm de cloro ativo por 30 segundos e acondicionados em embalagens flexíveis PET, armazenados a 4°C ± 1°C e avaliados a cada três dias por um período de 15 dias. Ao final dos experimentos, concluiu-se que para o processamento mínimo de melão 'Cantaloupe', o corte manual foi o mais indicado, por apresentar melhor estabilidade das características de cor, textura, pH, umidade e contagens microbiológicas durante o armazenamento.The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of two types of cutting (manual and mechanic on the physical-chemical and microbiological characteristics of processed and refrigerated 'Cantaloupe' melon. The fruits in the appropriate stage of ripening were selected, washed, sanitized (200ppm of active chlorine/2 minutes and processed in agreement with types of cutting. The fruits used for the mechanical cutting were cutting in peeling machine and after at retreat of the seeds, submitted to the cutting with aid of cutting machine. The fruits destined at manual cutting were peeled and cut with aid of knives, immerged in chlorinated water (20 mg.L-1 of active chlorine for 30 seconds and conditioned in PET flexible packing, stored at 4°C ± 1°C and were carried out each three days during 15 days. At the end of the experiments it was

  11. Cucurbits [Cucumber, melon, pumpkin and squash

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of this chapter is on the edible members of the Cucurbitaceae family. The three important food-grade cucurbit genera Citrullus, Cucumis, and Cucurbita include the species Citrullus lanatus watermelons), Cucumis melo (cantaloupes and other sweet melons), Cucumis sativa (cucumbers and pick...

  12. Detection of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting the cucurbit weed Cucumis melo var. dudaim in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting Cucumis melo var. dudaim, a cucurbit weed, in Florida. It provides an overview of this virus reservoir for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

  13. A comparative analysis of phloem exudate proteins from Cucumis melo, Cucumis sativus and Cucurbita maxima by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabnis, D D; Hart, J W

    1976-01-01

    Proteins in sieve tube exudate from Cucumis melo L., Cucumis sativus L. and Cucurbita maxima Duch. were analysed by gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. Estimated molecular weights and isoelectric points for the major and minor proteins from each plant species are presented. Electrophoresis revealed striking differences between the protein complements of exudatc from the two genera investigated. Similarly, although a few exudate proteins from the two species of Cucumis possessed identical molecular weights, several major proteins were peculiar to each species. Isoelectric focusing of proteins in exudate samples from the three plants confirmed the marked differences in their protein complements. Furthermore, focusing also revealed differences between cultivars of Cucumis sativus. Both Cucumis sativus and Cucurbita maxima possessed relatively large amounts of basic proteins; these were absent in exudate from Cucumis melo. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to present concepts regarding the interrelationships and possible functional roles of P-proteins.

  14. Physiological effects of ozone on cultivars of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and muskmelon (Cucumis melo) widely grown in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Bayon, J M; Barnes, J D; Ollerenshaw, J H; Davison, A W

    1993-01-01

    Two cultivars of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and muskmelon (Cucumis melo), which are widely grown in Spain, were exposed to ozone (70 nl litre(-1), 6 h d(-1)) for 21 days. Ozone sensitivity was assessed by recording the extent of visible injury, changes in fast-fluorescence kinetics, the relative-growth rate (R) of root (RR) and shoot (RS), and effects on the number of flowers produced per plant. Leaf gas exchange was measured in order to provide some indication of the factors underlying differential response to ozone. After 9-10 days of fumigation, all the cultivars developed typical visible symptoms of zone injury on the older leaves. However, significant (P watermelon, there was a marked reduction in the rate of CO(2) assimilation as a result of exposure to ozone, and this was accompanied by a parallel decrease in stomatal conductance. Mean plant-relative-growth rate (R) was markedly (P watermelon, but there were no significant effects on R in muskmelon. Ozone reduced root growth relative to the shoot in three out of four cultivars-an effect that may be of considerable ecological significance. Moreover, exposure to ozone reduced flower production in both muskmelon and watermelon, which indicated effects on yield. There was no correlation between a variety of methods used to assess ozone sensitivity and visible injury, and reasons for this are discussed. This observation draws clear attention to the dangers in ranking plants for ozone sensitivity purely on the basis of visible symptoms. It is concluded from this study that ozone-insensitive genotypes should be identified and considered for planting in the major areas of melon production concentrated on the Mediterranean coast of Spain.

  15. Comparison of some local melon genotypes selected from Lake Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to compare some local melon (Cucumis melo L.) genotypes selected from the Lake Van Basin (65 ER 02, 65 ER 04, and 13 TAT 05) with some commercial melon cultivars (Ananas, Makdimon F1, and Rambo F1) for some yield and quality related traits observed in field and high tunnel conditions for two ...

  16. Identification and Molecular Characterization of the cDNA Encoding Cucumis melo Allergen, Cuc m 3, a Plant Pathogenesis-Related Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Sankian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melon (Cucumis melo allergy is one of the most common food allergies, characterized by oral allergy syndrome. To date, two allergen molecules, Cuc m 1 and Cuc m 2, have been fully characterized in melon pulp, but there are few reports about the molecular characteristics of Cuc m 3. Methods:The Cuc m 3 cDNA has been characterized by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE, which revealed a 456 base-pair (bp fragment encoding a 151-amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 16.97 kDa, and identified 79 and 178 bp untranslated sequences at the 5′ and 3´ ends, respectively. Results: In silico analysis showed strong similarities between Cuc m 3 and other plant pathogen-related protein 1s from cucumber, grape, bell pepper, and tomato. Conclusion: Here we report the identification and characterization of the Cuc m 3 cDNA, which will be utilized for further analyses of structural and allergenic features of this allergen

  17. Therapeutic Effect of Cucumis melo L. Extract on Insulin Resistance and the Gut Microbiome in Lepob/Lepob Mice

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    Daeun Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity results in the progression of metabolic disorders, especially type 2 diabetes (T2DM. Obesity-induced insulin resistance (IR is a causative factor of T2DM morbidity in obese people. It is generally held by clinicians that IR is caused by adiposity-related inflammation that is mediated by changes in composite ions in the gut microbiome. This experimental study was designed to investigate the effects of Cucumis melo L. (Cucumis on obesity-induced IR in genetically leptin-deficient Lepob/Lepob mice. Specifically, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of Cucumis and the effects of Cucumis on the gut microbiota. We evaluated glucose control by measuring FBS, performing the OGTT, quantifying serum IR, calculating the HOMA-IR, and determining the lipid profiles. To see whether inflammation was reduced, we analyzed adipose tissue macrophages as well as monocytes in the blood. We also profiled the gut microbiota to determine whether the ratios of microbial phyla changed. We found that Cucumis improved IR in obese mice and relieved inflammation in adipose tissue and blood. Simultaneously, the microbiota composition ratios changed. In conclusion, administration of Cucumis improved IR by reducing inflammation, thereby changing the gut microbiota composition. Cucumis is thus a promising treatment for obesity-induced insulin resistance and the inflammatory state.

  18. Neuroprotective effect of Cucumis melo Var. flexuosus leaf extract on the brains of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Doaa S

    2017-02-01

    The central nervous system is one of the most vulnerable organs affected by the oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus. Healthy food provides an important source for antioxidants. Therefore, the protective effect of Cucumis melo var. flexuosus (C. melo var. flexuosus) leaf extract on the brains of diabetic rats was investigated. Adult male albino rats divided into 5 groups of 6 rats each were assigned into a normal control group and four diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg bw). One of the four diabetic groups was left untreated and was considered as a diabetic control group while the three other groups were treated with C. melo var. flexuosus leaf extract at the doses of 30, 60 and 120 mg/kg bw for a period of 30 days. After completion of experimental duration plasma and brains were used for evaluating biochemical changes. The obtained data showed that C. melo var. flexuosus leaf extract treatment lowered blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, brain tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin levels, brain malondialdehyde content and caspase-3 activity. Furthermore, the treatment resulted in a marked increase in plasma dopamine, melatonin, brain vascular endothelial growth factor-A levels, brain catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. From the present study, it can be concluded that the C. melo var. flexuosus leaf extract exerts a neuroprotective effect against oxidative damage associated with diabetes.

  19. Evaluation of Cucumis ficifolius A. Rich. Accessions for Resistance to Fusarium Wilt

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Yuichi

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Fusarium wilt of melon (Cucumis melo L.), which is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis is regarded as a severe disease worldwide. Among the races (0, 1, 2 and 1,2), no gene conferringhigh resistance to race 1,2 has been identified in melon Wild Cucumis species have been reported to possess resistance to some melon diseases, and some of the methods of overcome to the reproductive barriers in genus Cucumis interspecific crosses were reported. We evaluated C. ficifolius for novel r...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-26 - Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South... and Vegetables § 319.56-26 Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America. (a) Cantaloupe and watermelon from Ecuador. Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (fruit) (Citrullus lanatus...

  1. Qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de melão (Cucumis melo)

    OpenAIRE

    Muniz,Marlove Fátima Brião; Gonçalves,Nilton; Garcia,Danton Camacho

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes testes na identificação do nível de vigor e da qualidade sanitária de lotes de sementes de melão (Cucumis melo L.). Foram avaliados quatro lotes de sementes das cultivares Gaúcho e Carvalho, submetidas aos testes de primeira contagem de germinação, emergência em campo, deterioração controlada, envelhecimento acelerado e sanidade. Os resultados indicaram que os testes de deterioração controlada e envelhecimento acelerado apresentam ...

  2. Enhanced Virulence Gene Activity of Agrobacterium in Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. cv. ‘Birdie’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul K.M. MOHIUDDIN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. cultivar ‘Birdie’, was evaluated for its response to the tumorigenic Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the oncogenic A. rhizogenes strains. Stem and petiole of three week-old in vitro-grown muskmelon plants were inoculated with five strains of A. tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes each and observed phenotypic expressions i.e. induction of crown galls and hairy roots. This phenotypic expression was efficaciously increased when virulence gene activity of different strains of two Agrobacterium species was enhanced. Intensive studies on enhancement of virulence gene activity of Agrobacterium found to be correlated to the appropriate light intensity (39.3 μmol m-2 s-1 with a specific concentration of monocyclic phenolic compound, acetosyringone (20 μM. The gene activity was also influenced by several other physical factors e.g. plant tissue type, Agrobacterium species and their strains, and plant tissue-Agrobacterium interaction. Among the different A. tumefaciens strains, LBA4404 showed the best virulence gene activity in both stem and petiole through the formation of higher rate of crown galls. On the other hand, strain 15834 of A. rhizogenes showed better gene activity in stem and 8196 in petiole through the formation of higher rate of hairy roots as well as higher average number of hairy roots. Among the two different types of explants, petiole was more susceptible to both Agrobacterium species. Thus it was concluded that future muskmelon transformation study can efficiently be carried out with LBA4404, 15834 and 8196 strains using petiole explants by adding 20 μM of acetosyringone in the medium.

  3. Protection of melon plants against Cucumber mosaic virus infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to characterize a virus causing severe mosaic, yellowing, stunting and leaf deformation on melon (Cucumis melo L.), and evaluate the capacity of Pseudomonas fluorescens as biofertilizer to improve plant growth and restrict the accumulation of the virus in the plant. The virus was identified as an ...

  4. (Cucumis melo L.) cultivars to soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi in Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl11

    2012-10-30

    Oct 30, 2012 ... Melon is an important dessert fruit in the Sistan region of. Iran, but its cultivation is threatened by attacks of. Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi), Monosporascus cannonballus (Pollack and Uecker) and Rhizoctonia solani (Kuhn) (Safarnezhad, 2004). Melon death induced by these soil-borne plant pathogenic ...

  5. Visita de abejas (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apoidea a flores de melón Cucumis melo (Cucurvitaceae en Panamá

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    Juan Carlos Di Trani de la Hoz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se observaron las visitas observadas a flores seleccionadas en un cultivo del Distrito de San Lorenzo, Chiriquí, del 6 de Enero y el 19 de Febrero del 2002, desde las 6:30 am hasta las 4:30 pm, y se anotaron características de las visita, como el tiempo de visita y el tipo de recurso colectado. Las visitas fueron mayormente para la recolección de néctar (casi 3/4. La recolección de polen se concentró hacia las primeras horas de la mañana, cesando definitivamente a las 11:00 am. El tiempo medio de recolección fue similar para ambos recursos, pero fue marcadamente distinto para cada sexo floral. Las visitas a flores femeninas fueron significativamente (Prueba t Student, pBee (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apoidea visitation to cantaloupe Cucumis melo (Cucurvitaceae flowers in Panama. Flower visits by bees were observed in a melon cultivated field of San Lorenzo district, in Chiriquí, Panama, from January 6 to February 19, 2002, from 6:30 am to 4:30 pm We recorded the duration of each foraging event and the type of resource collected. Flower visits were mostly for nectar collection (∼75 %. Pollen foraging was concentrated in the first hours of the morning and ended by 11:00 am The mean collection time was similar for both food resources, but was different between flower sexes. Flower visits to female flowers took longer (Student's t test, p<0.0001, with a mean time duration of 8.4±4.4 s, whereas in male flowers mean visitation time was of 4.0±1.5 s. Finally, the mean time for each floral sex remained practically constant through the evolution of the crop. Our results were similar to the found ones in temperate zone crops, so apparently tropical conditions of Panama do not change the bee visit patterns on melon flowers. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 677-680. Epub 2007 June, 29.

  6. Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Expression of Cuc m 2, a Major Allergen in Cucumis melo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Sankian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies reported the clinical features of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity after ingestion of melon. Melon allergy is a common IgE-mediated fruit allergy in Iran. This prompted us to investigate immunochemical and molecular properties of the major allergen in melon fruit, to compare the IgE-binding capacity of the natural protein with the recombinant allergen, and to determine cross-reactivity of the major allergen with closely-related allergens from other plants displaying clinical cross-reactivity with melon. Methods: Identification and molecular characterization of the major melon allergen were performed using IgE immunoblotting, allergen-specific ELISA, affinity-based purifications, cross-inhibition assays, cloning, and expression of the allergen in Escherichia coli. Results: Melon profilin was identified and isolated as a major IgE-binding component and designated as Cuc m 2. Sequencing corresponding cDNA revealed an open reading frame of 363 bp coding for 131 amino acid residues and two fragments of 171 bp and 383 bps for the 5’and 3’ UTRs, respectively. Significant cross-reactivity was found between melon profilin and Cynodon dactylon, tomato, peach, and grape profilins in cross-inhibition assays. Although the highest degree of amino acid identity was revealed with watermelon profilin, there was no significant cross-reactivity between melon and watermelon profilins. Conclusion: Melon profilin is the major IgE-binding component in melon extract, and the recombinant and natural forms exhibited similar IgE-binding capacities. A part of the fruit-fruit and pollen-fruit cross-reactions could be explained by the presence of this conserved protein; however, sequence homology provides insufficient information to predict IgE cross-reactivity of profilins.

  7. Primeiro ciclo de seleção massal na população PM3 de melão (Cucumis melo L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Medeiros

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho realizar o primeiro ciclo de seleção massal na população PM3 de melão. Foi usada a população PM3 de melão, obtida pelo Setor de Melhoramento Genético de Plantas do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Alagoas (SMGP/CECA/UFAL. A colheita foi realizada aos 75 dias após a semeadura. Os frutos foram colhidos totalizaram 1188 frutos, os quais foram analisados a morfologia externa, objetivando a formação de classes fenotípicas em função dos caracteres qualitativos, culminando na obtenção de 40 classes fenotípicas. A classe fenotípica CF 17 foi selecionada por apresentar cor do fruto amarelo, ausência de costelas, ausência de rendilhamento, cor da polpa salmão e formato do fruto arredondado a ovalado. Em seguida foi feita uma seleção dos frutos de melão para os seguintes caracteres quantitativos dentro da classe fenotípica selecionada: peso do fruto acima de 740,0 gramas; diâmetro longitudinal acima de 11,0 cm; diâmetro transversal acima de 10,0 cm, espessura da polpa acima de 1,9 cm; espessura da casca acima de 0,2 cm; diâmetro da cavidade menor que 8,0 cm. A classe fenotípica CF 17 foi à única selecionada.First mass selection cycle in melon PM3 population (Cucumis melo L  Abstract: The objective of this work make the first mass selection cycle in melon PM3 population. It was used to melon PM3 population, obtained by the sector of improvement genetic of plants of center science land the Federal University of Alagoas (SMGP/CECA/UFAL. Plants were harvested at 75 days after sowing. The fruits were harvested totaled 1188 fruits, which were analyzed the external morphology, aiming at the formation of phenotypic classes on the basis of qualitative character, culminating in getting 40 phenotypic classes. Phenotypic class CF 17 has been selected for display color of yellow fruit, no ribs, no rendilhamento, color of salmon flesh and rounded to oval fruit shape. Then a selection

  8. Diversity in expression of phosphorus (P responsive genes in Cucumis melo L.

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    Ana Fita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phosphorus (P is a major limiting nutrient for plant growth in many soils. Studies in model species have identified genes involved in plant adaptations to low soil P availability. However, little information is available on the genetic bases of these adaptations in vegetable crops. In this respect, sequence data for melon now makes it possible to identify melon orthologues of candidate P responsive genes, and the expression of these genes can be used to explain the diversity in the root system adaptation to low P availability, recently observed in this species. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: Transcriptional responses to P starvation were studied in nine diverse melon accessions by comparing the expression of eight candidate genes (Cm-PAP10.1, Cm-PAP10.2, Cm-RNS1, Cm-PPCK1, Cm-transferase, Cm-SQD1, Cm-DGD1 and Cm-SPX2 under P replete and P starved conditions. Differences among melon accessions were observed in response to P starvation, including differences in plant morphology, P uptake, P use efficiency (PUE and gene expression. All studied genes were up regulated under P starvation conditions. Differences in the expression of genes involved in P mobilization and remobilization (Cm-PAP10.1, Cm-PAP10.2 and Cm-RNS1 under P starvation conditions explained part of the differences in P uptake and PUE among melon accessions. The levels of expression of the other studied genes were diverse among melon accessions, but contributed less to the phenotypical response of the accessions. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first time that these genes have been described in the context of P starvation responses in melon. There exists significant diversity in gene expression levels and P use efficiency among melon accessions as well as significant correlations between gene expression levels and phenotypical measurements.

  9. Diversity in expression of phosphorus (P) responsive genes in Cucumis melo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fita, Ana; Bowen, Helen C; Hayden, Rory M; Nuez, Fernando; Picó, Belén; Hammond, John P

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a major limiting nutrient for plant growth in many soils. Studies in model species have identified genes involved in plant adaptations to low soil P availability. However, little information is available on the genetic bases of these adaptations in vegetable crops. In this respect, sequence data for melon now makes it possible to identify melon orthologues of candidate P responsive genes, and the expression of these genes can be used to explain the diversity in the root system adaptation to low P availability, recently observed in this species. Transcriptional responses to P starvation were studied in nine diverse melon accessions by comparing the expression of eight candidate genes (Cm-PAP10.1, Cm-PAP10.2, Cm-RNS1, Cm-PPCK1, Cm-transferase, Cm-SQD1, Cm-DGD1 and Cm-SPX2) under P replete and P starved conditions. Differences among melon accessions were observed in response to P starvation, including differences in plant morphology, P uptake, P use efficiency (PUE) and gene expression. All studied genes were up regulated under P starvation conditions. Differences in the expression of genes involved in P mobilization and remobilization (Cm-PAP10.1, Cm-PAP10.2 and Cm-RNS1) under P starvation conditions explained part of the differences in P uptake and PUE among melon accessions. The levels of expression of the other studied genes were diverse among melon accessions, but contributed less to the phenotypical response of the accessions. This is the first time that these genes have been described in the context of P starvation responses in melon. There exists significant diversity in gene expression levels and P use efficiency among melon accessions as well as significant correlations between gene expression levels and phenotypical measurements.

  10. Plantas hospederas de los virus más importantes que infectan el melón, Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Sánchez

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Las especies hospederas naturales de los virus (PRSV, WMV-2, CMV y ZYMV que infectan el cultivo de melón (Cucumis melo L. para la exportación en Costa Rica se identificaron en plantaciones comerciales de dos fincas ubicadas, una en la provincia de Guanacaste, y la otra en la provincia de Puntarenas. En ambas fincas se cultiva el melon con irrigación durante la época seca, pero su manejo cultural es diferente. La finca A con una larga trayectoria en el cultivo de melón en rotación con maíz, sorgo y arroz, y con poco control de malezas; mientras que la finca B con una corta trayectoria en la producción del melón y un mayor control de malezas. La diversidad de especies vegetales fue estudiada en cuadrantes de 100 m2 en cinco diferentes comunidades de plantas previamente seleccionadas en la finca A (cultivo, canal de drenaje, charral, potrero mejorado, y semi-bosque y tres en la finca B (cultivo, charral, pastizal natural, semi-bosque. El número de cuadrantes estudiados dependió del área total cultivada en cada una de las fincas. Todas las especies de plantas representadas en cada cuadrante se recolectaron e identificaron pero solo aquellas especies que presentaron síntomas virales en el campo fueron analizadas por ELISA para determinar la presencia de los cuatro virus estudiados. La diversidad de especies, porcentaje de cobertura y época de aparición de las especies hospederas fue monitoreada durante un año calendario en cinco fechas diferentes. Un total de 86 y 72 especies de plantas fueron identificadas en las fincas A y B respectivamente. Catorce encontradas positivas por lo menos para uno de los cuatro virus. Los cuatro virus fueron encontrados en cada finca en cada fecha de muestreo indicando que la permanencia y abundancia de algunas especies hospederas garantiza la permanencia de los cuatro virus en el campo como fuente de inóculo primario para la próxima siembra. Varias especies de plantas hospederas silvestres previamente

  11. High presence/absence gene variability in defense-related gene clusters of Cucumis melo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Víctor M; Aventín, Núria; Centeno, Emilio; Puigdomènech, Pere

    2013-11-12

    Changes in the copy number of DNA sequences are one of the main mechanisms generating genome variability in eukaryotes. These changes are often related to phenotypic effects such as genetic disorders or novel pathogen resistance. The increasing availability of genome sequences through the application of next-generation massive sequencing technologies has allowed the study of genomic polymorphisms at both the interspecific and intraspecific levels, thus helping to understand how species adapt to changing environments through genome variability. Data on gene presence/absence variation (PAV) in melon was obtained by resequencing a cultivated accession and an old-relative melon variety, and using previously obtained resequencing data from three other melon cultivars, among them DHL92, on which the current draft melon genome sequence is based. A total of 1,697 PAV events were detected, involving 4.4% of the predicted melon gene complement. In all, an average 1.5% of genes were absent from each analyzed cultivar as compared to the DHL92 reference genome. The most populated functional category among the 304 PAV genes of known function was that of stress response proteins (30% of all classified PAVs). Our results suggest that genes from multi-copy families are five times more likely to be affected by PAV than singleton genes. Also, the chance of genes present in the genome in tandem arrays being affected by PAV is double that of isolated genes, with PAV genes tending to be in longer clusters. The highest concentration of PAV events detected in the melon genome was found in a 1.1 Mb region of linkage group V, which also shows the highest density of melon stress-response genes. In particular, this region contains the longest continuous gene-containing PAV sequence so far identified in melon. The first genome-wide report of PAV variation among several melon cultivars is presented here. Multi-copy and clustered genes, especially those with putative stress-response functions

  12. Evaluation of potential new sources of melon host plant resistance to the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) genotypes that support fewer numbers of whitefly could reduce the frequency or the amount of insecticide applications required to keep the insects in check, as was the case with cotton where measurable resistance to whitefly in some genotypes reduced the number of sprays, thu...

  13. Cucurbit powdery mildew of melon incited by Podosphaera xanthii: global and western U.S. perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM) is a major problem of melon (Cucumis melo L.) production worldwide, that is mostly caused by two fungi: Podosphaera xanthii and Golovinomyces cichoracearum (DC) V.P. Heluta (formerly Erysiphe cichoracearum). The two species may co-infect in some areas of northern Europe...

  14. USDA 846-1 fractal melon and derived recombinant inbred lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture announces the release of a melon (Cucumis melo L.) breeding line with highly branched, fractal-type architectural growth habit and 81 derived recombinant inbred lines (RIL). The indeterminate, monoecious USDA 846-1 produces 2...

  15. Physicochemical properties and chemical composition of Seinat (Cucumis melo var. tibish seed oil and its antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhari, S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seinat (Cucumis melo var. tibish seeds were analyzed for their physiochemical properties and chemical composition of the oil in addition to antioxidant activity. The crude oil content was 31.1%, while the moisture, fiber, protein, ash and total sugar contents were 4.2%, 24.7%, 28.5%, 4.3%, and 6.9%, respectively. The main fatty acids were linoleic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids (61.10%, 18.75%, 10.37% and 9.18%, respectively. The total phenolic content was 28.17 mg·g–1 oil. Seinat seed oil also contained a good level of tocopherols; of which δ-tocopherol (63.43% showed the highest content. β-sitosterol was found at 289 mg·100g–1 oil of total sterols (302 mg·100g–1 in the oil. The crude oil showed a good antioxidant activity in four assays including reducing power, β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity, ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities.Se analizó las propiedades fisicoquímicas y la composición de aceites de semillas de seinat (Cucumis melo var. Tibish además de su actividad antioxidante. El contenido de aceite crudo fue de 31,1%, mientras que la humedad, fibra, proteínas, cenizas y contenido total de azúcares fue de 4,2%, 24,7%, 28,5%, 4,3%, y 6,9%, respectivamente. Los principales ácidos grasos fueron: linoleico, oleico, palmítico, y esteárico (61,10%, 18,75%, 10,37% y 9,18%, respectivamente. El contenido de fenoles totales fue de 28,17 mg.g–1 de aceite. El aceite de semilla de Seinat también contiene un buen nivel de tocoferoles, de los cuales el mayoritario es δ-tocoferol (63,43%. β-sitosterol es el esterol mayoritario con 289 mg·100 g–1 de aceite y los esteroles totales 302 mg·100 g–1 de aceite. El aceite crudo mostró una buena actividad antioxidante en cuatro ensayos incluyendo la reducción de potencia, actividad de inhibición de blanqueo del β-caroteno, actividad captadora de radicales ABTS y DPPH.

  16. Storabelity of melon for different ripeness stages at harvest. Selection of instrumental procedures for quality assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Agulheiro Santos, Ana Cristina; Barreiro Elorza, Pilar; Ruiz-Altisent, Margarita

    1998-01-01

    The consumption of melon (Cucumis melo L.) has been, until several years ago, regional, seasonal and without commercial interest. Recent commercial changes and world wide transportation have changed this situation. Melons from 3 different ripeness stages at harvest and 7 cold storage periods have been analysed by destructive and non destructive tests. Chemical, physical, mechanical (non destructive impact, compression, skin puncture and Magness- Taylor) and sensory tests were carried out in o...

  17. miRNA-mediated auxin signalling repression during Vat-mediated aphid resistance in Cucumis melo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Sampurna; Addo-Quaye, Charles; Thompson, Gary A

    2016-06-01

    Resistance to Aphis gossypii in melon is attributed to the presence of the single dominant R gene virus aphid transmission (Vat), which is biologically expressed as antibiosis, antixenosis and tolerance. However, the mechanism of resistance is poorly understood at the molecular level. Aphid-induced transcriptional changes, including differentially expressed miRNA profiles that correspond to resistance interaction have been reported in melon. The potential regulatory roles of miRNAs in Vat-mediated aphid resistance were further revealed by identifying the specific miRNA degradation targets. A total of 70 miRNA:target pairs, including 28 novel miRNA:target pairs, for the differentially expressed miRNAs were identified: 11 were associated with phytohormone regulation, including six miRNAs that potentially regulate auxin interactions. A model for a redundant regulatory system of miRNA-mediated auxin insensitivity is proposed that incorporates auxin perception, auxin modification and auxin-regulated transcription. Chemically inhibiting the transport inhibitor response-1 (TIR-1) auxin receptor in susceptible melon tissues provides in vivo support for the model of auxin-mediated impacts on A. gossypii resistance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. [Bee (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apoidea) visitation to cantaloupe Cucumis melo (Cucurvitaceae) flowers in Panama].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Hoz, Juan Carlos Di Trani

    2007-06-01

    Flower visits by bees were observed in a melon cultivated field of San Lorenzo district, in Chiriqui, Panama, from January 6 to February 19, 2002, from 6:30 am to 4:30 pm We recorded the duration of each foraging event and the type of resource collected. Flower visits were mostly for nectar collection (approximately 75 %). Pollen foraging was concentrated in the first hours of the morning and ended by 11:00 am The mean collection time was similar for both food resources, but was different between flower sexes. Flower visits to female flowers took longer (Student's t test, pmelon flowers.

  19. Tolerance of melon cultivars to irrigation water salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Francisco A. de L.; Medeiros, José F. de; Gheyi, Hans R.; Dias, Nildo da S.; Preston, Welka; Vasconcelos, Cybelle B. e L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of saline water for irrigation causes severe restriction to nutritional balance, growth and production in many crops due to the effect of salts on plant and soil. The objective of this study was to investigate the response of melon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivars to various levels of irrigation water salinity on yield and fruit quality. A field experiment was conducted in a split-plot randomized block design with four replicates. The factors were five levels of irrigation water s...

  20. Effect of household and industrial processing on levels of pesticide residues and degradation products in melons

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnechère, Aurore; Hanot, Vincent; Bragard, Claude; Bedoret, Thomas; Van Loco, Joris

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two varieties of melons (Cucumis melo) were treated by two fungicides (carbendazim and maneb) and four insecticides (acetamiprid, cyromazin, imazalil and thiamethoxam) to quantify the effect of household processing on the pesticide residues. To ensure sufficiently high levels of residues in flesh and peels, the most concentrated formulations were applied pursuant to Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs). The peeling step decreased the concentration of pesticide residues for ...

  1. Instrumental and sensory analyses of quality attributes of grafted specialty melons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wenjing; Zhao, Xin; Huber, Donald J; Sims, Charles A

    2015-11-01

    Soilborne disease management remains a great challenge in melon production with the phaseout of soil fumigant methyl bromide. Grafting has been shown to be an effective approach to control soilborne diseases. However, previous research has yielded mixed results regarding the impacts of rootstock on fruit quality. Very few studies have assessed melon quality attributes using both sensory evaluation and instrumental methods. Galia melon 'Arava' (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Ser.) and honeydew melon 'Honey Yellow' (C. melo L. var. inodorus Naud.) were grafted onto commercial hybrid squash (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) rootstocks and root-knot nematode-resistant Cucumis metulifer E. Mey. ex Naud. rootstock. The grafting combinations were evaluated under different production conditions. Grafting with hybrid squash rootstocks resulted in reduced soluble solids content (SSC) and decreased sensory ratings of 'Arava' fruit. By contrast with grafted 'Arava', grafted 'Honey Yellow' did not exhibit significant differences in sensory properties and instrumental measurements regardless of production conditions and rootstock selection. The effects of grafting on fruit quality attributes differed between the two distinctive types of melon scion used. Potential negative impacts of rootstocks on melon fruit quality need to be considered in the selection and use of disease-resistant rootstocks. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Toxicity of insecticides used in the Brazilian melon crop to the honey bee Apis mellifera under laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Ewerton; Araujo, Elton; Maia, André; Silva, Francisco; Bezerra, Carlos; Silva, Janisete

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This study aimed at evaluating the toxicity of insecticides used in melon crop (Cucumis melo L.) on adults of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) under laboratory conditions. Three ways of exposure were used: direct spraying, feeding with insecticide contaminated diet, and contact with sprayed leaves. Bees were exposed to the insecticides abamectin, acetamiprid, cartap chloride, chlorfenapyr, cyromazin, deltamethrin, thiamethoxam, flufenoxuron, and pyriproxyfen at ...

  3. Determination of changes in tastes of İpsala and Kırkağaç melons against Melon fly [Myiopardalis pardalina (Bigot, 1891

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydemir BARIŞ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Melon fly [Myiopardalis pardalina (Bigot, 1891 (Diptera: Tephritidae] is the most important pest of the melons (Cucumis melo L. (Cucurbitaceae: Cucurbitales. The larvae cause to damage by feeding in seed cavity. Also, the tissues damaged by larvae turn brown and occurring scent spread in melon. This study aims to determine change in the taste of melon tissues damaged by larvae for the first time in Turkey. For this purpose, Kırkağaç and İpsala variety melons widely utilized in the province Ankara were selected in this study. Fruit taste (points, water-soluble dry matter, titratable acidity (TA and pH measurements were included in analysis of melon. Statistical differences were determined in Kırkağaç melon with melon fly with respect to control in terms of all of the features discussed in the fruit analysis. A statistically significant difference was observed compared to the control in the other measurements excluding the only titratable acidity in İpsala melon with melon fly.

  4. An AFLP marker linked to the Pm-1 gene that confers resistance to Podosphaera xanthii race 1 in Cucumis melo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Matoso Teixeira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil produced 330,000 metric tons of melons in 2005, principally in the Northeast region where one of the most important melon pathogens is the powdery mildew fungus Podosphaera xanthii. The disease is controlled mainly by incorporating single dominant resistance genes into commercial hybrids. We report on linkage analysis of the Pm-1 resistance gene, introgressed from the AF125Pm-1 Cantalupensis Charentais-type breeding line into the yellow-fleshed melon (Group Inodorus breeding line AF426-S by backcrossing to produce the resistant line AF426-R, and the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP marker M75/H35_155 reported to be polymorphic between AF426-S and AF426-R. Segregation analysis of M75/H35_155 using a backcross population of 143 plants derived from [AF426-R x AF426-S] x AF426-S and screened for resistance to P. xanthii race 1 produced a recombination frequency of 4.9%, indicating close linkage between M75/H35_155 and Pm-1. Using the same segregating population, the M75/H35_155 marker had previously been reported to be distantly linked to Prv¹, a gene conferring resistance to papaya ringspot virus-type W. Since M75/H35_155 is linked to Prv¹ at a distance of 40.9 cM it is possible that Pm-1 and Prv¹ are also linked.

  5. Hexanoic Acid Treatment Prevents Systemic MNSV Movement in Cucumis melo Plants by Priming Callose Deposition Correlating SA and OPDA Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Fernández-Crespo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Unlike fungal and bacterial diseases, no direct method is available to control viral diseases. The use of resistance-inducing compounds can be an alternative strategy for plant viruses. Here we studied the basal response of melon to Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV and demonstrated the efficacy of hexanoic acid (Hx priming, which prevents the virus from systemically spreading. We analysed callose deposition and the hormonal profile and gene expression at the whole plant level. This allowed us to determine hormonal homeostasis in the melon roots, cotyledons, hypocotyls, stems and leaves involved in basal and hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR to MNSV. Our data indicate important roles of salicylic acid (SA, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA, jasmonic-isoleucine, and ferulic acid in both responses to MNSV. The hormonal and metabolites balance, depending on the time and location associated with basal and Hx-IR, demonstrated the reprogramming of plant metabolism in MNSV-inoculated plants. The treatment with both SA and OPDA prior to virus infection significantly reduced MNSV systemic movement by inducing callose deposition. This demonstrates their relevance in Hx-IR against MNSV and a high correlation with callose deposition. Our data also provide valuable evidence to unravel priming mechanisms by natural compounds.

  6. DNA fingerprinting of Chinese melon provides evidentiary support of seed quality appraisal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao

    Full Text Available Melon, Cucumis melo L. is an important vegetable crop worldwide. At present, there are phenomena of homonyms and synonyms present in the melon seed markets of China, which could cause variety authenticity issues influencing the process of melon breeding, production, marketing and other aspects. Molecular markers, especially microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs are playing increasingly important roles for cultivar identification. The aim of this study was to construct a DNA fingerprinting database of major melon cultivars, which could provide a possibility for the establishment of a technical standard system for purity and authenticity identification of melon seeds. In this study, to develop the core set SSR markers, 470 polymorphic SSRs were selected as the candidate markers from 1219 SSRs using 20 representative melon varieties (lines. Eighteen SSR markers, evenly distributed across the genome and with the highest contents of polymorphism information (PIC were identified as the core marker set for melon DNA fingerprinting analysis. Fingerprint codes for 471 melon varieties (lines were established. There were 51 materials which were classified into17 groups based on sharing the same fingerprint code, while field traits survey results showed that these plants in the same group were synonyms because of the same or similar field characters. Furthermore, DNA fingerprinting quick response (QR codes of 471 melon varieties (lines were constructed. Due to its fast readability and large storage capacity, QR coding melon DNA fingerprinting is in favor of read convenience and commercial applications.

  7. DNA fingerprinting of Chinese melon provides evidentiary support of seed quality appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Ma, Hongyan; Luan, Feishi; Song, Haibin

    2012-01-01

    Melon, Cucumis melo L. is an important vegetable crop worldwide. At present, there are phenomena of homonyms and synonyms present in the melon seed markets of China, which could cause variety authenticity issues influencing the process of melon breeding, production, marketing and other aspects. Molecular markers, especially microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are playing increasingly important roles for cultivar identification. The aim of this study was to construct a DNA fingerprinting database of major melon cultivars, which could provide a possibility for the establishment of a technical standard system for purity and authenticity identification of melon seeds. In this study, to develop the core set SSR markers, 470 polymorphic SSRs were selected as the candidate markers from 1219 SSRs using 20 representative melon varieties (lines). Eighteen SSR markers, evenly distributed across the genome and with the highest contents of polymorphism information (PIC) were identified as the core marker set for melon DNA fingerprinting analysis. Fingerprint codes for 471 melon varieties (lines) were established. There were 51 materials which were classified into17 groups based on sharing the same fingerprint code, while field traits survey results showed that these plants in the same group were synonyms because of the same or similar field characters. Furthermore, DNA fingerprinting quick response (QR) codes of 471 melon varieties (lines) were constructed. Due to its fast readability and large storage capacity, QR coding melon DNA fingerprinting is in favor of read convenience and commercial applications.

  8. DNA Fingerprinting of Chinese Melon Provides Evidentiary Support of Seed Quality Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Ma, Hongyan; Luan, Feishi; Song, Haibin

    2012-01-01

    Melon, Cucumis melo L. is an important vegetable crop worldwide. At present, there are phenomena of homonyms and synonyms present in the melon seed markets of China, which could cause variety authenticity issues influencing the process of melon breeding, production, marketing and other aspects. Molecular markers, especially microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are playing increasingly important roles for cultivar identification. The aim of this study was to construct a DNA fingerprinting database of major melon cultivars, which could provide a possibility for the establishment of a technical standard system for purity and authenticity identification of melon seeds. In this study, to develop the core set SSR markers, 470 polymorphic SSRs were selected as the candidate markers from 1219 SSRs using 20 representative melon varieties (lines). Eighteen SSR markers, evenly distributed across the genome and with the highest contents of polymorphism information (PIC) were identified as the core marker set for melon DNA fingerprinting analysis. Fingerprint codes for 471 melon varieties (lines) were established. There were 51 materials which were classified into17 groups based on sharing the same fingerprint code, while field traits survey results showed that these plants in the same group were synonyms because of the same or similar field characters. Furthermore, DNA fingerprinting quick response (QR) codes of 471 melon varieties (lines) were constructed. Due to its fast readability and large storage capacity, QR coding melon DNA fingerprinting is in favor of read convenience and commercial applications. PMID:23285039

  9. Sucrose accumulation in mature sweet melon fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, A.A.; Aloni, B.

    1987-01-01

    Mesocarp tissue from sucrose-accumulating sweet melon (Cucumis melo cv. Galia) showed sucrose synthase activity (ca 1 nkat/gfw) while soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities were not observed. Sucrose uptake into mesocarp discs was linear with sucrose concentration (1-500 mM) and unaffected by PCMBS and CCCP. Sucrose compartmentation into the vacuole also increased linearly with sucrose concentration as indicated by compartmental efflux kinetics. Mesocarp discs incubated in 14 C-fructose + UDP-glu synthesized 14 C-sucrose and efflux kinetics indicated that the 14 C-sucrose was compartmentalized. These data support the hypothesis that two mechanisms are involved in sucrose accumulation in sweet melon: (1) compartmentation of intact sucrose and (2) synthesis of sucrose via sucrose synthase and subsequent compartmentation in the vacuole

  10. MELOGEN: an EST database for melon functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Ibeas, Daniel; Blanca, José; Roig, Cristina; González-To, Mireia; Picó, Belén; Truniger, Verónica; Gómez, Pedro; Deleu, Wim; Caño-Delgado, Ana; Arús, Pere; Nuez, Fernando; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Puigdomènech, Pere; Aranda, Miguel A

    2007-09-03

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is one of the most important fleshy fruits for fresh consumption. Despite this, few genomic resources exist for this species. To facilitate the discovery of genes involved in essential traits, such as fruit development, fruit maturation and disease resistance, and to speed up the process of breeding new and better adapted melon varieties, we have produced a large collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from eight normalized cDNA libraries from different tissues in different physiological conditions. We determined over 30,000 ESTs that were clustered into 16,637 non-redundant sequences or unigenes, comprising 6,023 tentative consensus sequences (contigs) and 10,614 unclustered sequences (singletons). Many potential molecular markers were identified in the melon dataset: 1,052 potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 356 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found. Sixty-nine percent of the melon unigenes showed a significant similarity with proteins in databases. Functional classification of the unigenes was carried out following the Gene Ontology scheme. In total, 9,402 unigenes were mapped to one or more ontology. Remarkably, the distributions of melon and Arabidopsis unigenes followed similar tendencies, suggesting that the melon dataset is representative of the whole melon transcriptome. Bioinformatic analyses primarily focused on potential precursors of melon micro RNAs (miRNAs) in the melon dataset, but many other genes potentially controlling disease resistance and fruit quality traits were also identified. Patterns of transcript accumulation were characterised by Real-Time-qPCR for 20 of these genes. The collection of ESTs characterised here represents a substantial increase on the genetic information available for melon. A database (MELOGEN) which contains all EST sequences, contig images and several tools for analysis and data mining has been created. This set of sequences constitutes also the basis for an oligo

  11. MELOGEN: an EST database for melon functional genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puigdomènech Pere

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melon (Cucumis melo L. is one of the most important fleshy fruits for fresh consumption. Despite this, few genomic resources exist for this species. To facilitate the discovery of genes involved in essential traits, such as fruit development, fruit maturation and disease resistance, and to speed up the process of breeding new and better adapted melon varieties, we have produced a large collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs from eight normalized cDNA libraries from different tissues in different physiological conditions. Results We determined over 30,000 ESTs that were clustered into 16,637 non-redundant sequences or unigenes, comprising 6,023 tentative consensus sequences (contigs and 10,614 unclustered sequences (singletons. Many potential molecular markers were identified in the melon dataset: 1,052 potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 356 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were found. Sixty-nine percent of the melon unigenes showed a significant similarity with proteins in databases. Functional classification of the unigenes was carried out following the Gene Ontology scheme. In total, 9,402 unigenes were mapped to one or more ontology. Remarkably, the distributions of melon and Arabidopsis unigenes followed similar tendencies, suggesting that the melon dataset is representative of the whole melon transcriptome. Bioinformatic analyses primarily focused on potential precursors of melon micro RNAs (miRNAs in the melon dataset, but many other genes potentially controlling disease resistance and fruit quality traits were also identified. Patterns of transcript accumulation were characterised by Real-Time-qPCR for 20 of these genes. Conclusion The collection of ESTs characterised here represents a substantial increase on the genetic information available for melon. A database (MELOGEN which contains all EST sequences, contig images and several tools for analysis and data mining has been created. This set of

  12. A new strategy to protect Katsura-uri (Japan's heirloom pickling melon, Cucumis melo var. conomon from extinction

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    Azusa Sasaki

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: This demonstrated a new strategy to protect this heirloom vegetable from extinction by adding a new function that could increase its demand as a low-calorie fruit in the present diet habit for human health.

  13. Molecular markers linked to papaya ring spot virus resistance and Fusarium race 2 resistance in melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Yariv; Kovalski, Irina; Dogimont, Catherine; Pitrat, Michel; Portnoy, Vitaly; Katzir, Nurit; Perl-Treves, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    In melon, the Fom-1 gene confers monogenic resistance against the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, races 0 and 2, while the closely linked Prv gene specifies resistance against the papaya ring spot virus. Markers linked to these resistance (R) genes were identified using two recombinant inbred line populations, derived from crosses between Cucumis melo Vedrantais and C. melo PI 161375, and between C. melo Vedrantais and C. melo PI 414723, respectively. Using bulked segregant analysis, as well as systematic scoring of the mapping populations, we developed two amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, two random amplified polymorphic DNA markers and five restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers linked to this locus. Four of the RFLP sequences bear homology to nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat R genes, indicating the presence of a significant R-gene cluster in this locus. Our study provides the most closely linked markers published so far for these important traits. It also improves the resolution of the whole linkage group IX, which was difficult to order in our previous studies. Two of the markers were converted to cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers to facilitate their application in marker-assisted selection. Testing these two markers in several melon lines revealed different marker haplotypes in the melon germplasm and supported multiple, independent origin of the Fusarium races 0 and 2 resistance trait.

  14. Estimativa do plastocrono em meloeiro (Cucumis melo L. cultivado em estufa plástica em diferentes épocas do ano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streck Nereu Augusto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O meloeiro (Cucumis melo L. é uma hortaliça de alto valor econômico. A emissão de nós é um componente importante em modelos matemáticos de simulação do crescimento e desenvolvimento de culturas de hábito de crescimento decumbente como o meloeiro e outras cucurbitáceas. A emissão de nós pode ser calculada utilizando-se o conceito do plastocrono, que é o intervalo de tempo entre o aparecimento de nós sucessivos em uma haste de dicotiledôneas. Quando a soma térmica é usada como medida de tempo fisiológico em plantas, o plastocrono tem como unidades degreesC dia nó-1. Estudos anteriores mostraram que o plastocrono em meloeiro varia com o genótipo e a época de cultivo. Este trabalho teve por objetivo estimar o plastocrono em meloeiro transplantado em diferentes épocas de cultivo no interior de estufa plástica. Foram realizadas 12 épocas de semeadura e transplante no interior de uma estufa plástica de 10m X 25m, coberta com polietileno transparente de baixa densidade, localizada no Campo Experimental do Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS. O híbrido utilizado foi o HY-MARK (grupo Cantaloupe. Em 12 plantas etiquetadas por época de transplante, contou-se o número de nós visíveis (NN na haste principal da planta duas vezes por semana. A soma térmica diária (STd, degreesC dia foi calculada levando-se em conta as temperaturas cardinais de aparecimento de nós em meloeiro (10, 34 e 45degreesC. A soma térmica acumulada (STa, degreesC dia, a partir da data de transplante das plântulas, foi calculada somando-se a STd. O plastocrono foi calculado como sendo o inverso do coeficiente angular da regressão linear entre NN e STa para cada época. O plastocrono calculado variou entre as épocas de cultivo de 13,4 a 21,8degreesC dia nó-1, com um valor médio de 18,6 (?2,3degreesC dia nó-1. Esta diferença de plastocrono entre as épocas de cultivo pode representar vários dias do calendário civil

  15. Caracterización química y sensorial de vino artesanal de melón (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud., cv. Ovation

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    C. Padín

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años la producción de melón (Cucumis melo L. ha experimentado un notable aumento generando excedentes en el mercado y no siempre se consigue vender a los mejores precios, por lo que los porcentajes de pérdidas poscosecha son altos (Martínez, 2007. El objetivo de esta investigación fue caracterizar química y sensorialmente vino de melón. La intención fue generar una tecnología sencilla para la producción de una bebida alcohólica de alta calidad a partir de este fruto y con ello aportar una alternativa de comercialización en la región Falconiana y otras regiones productoras del país. Los ensayos se condujeron, para las variables químicas, en un diseño completamente aleatorizado con 3 tratamientos. Los vinos se elaboraron a partir de 8 L de jugo puro de melón de concentración inicial de sólidos solubles totales 16, 20 y 25 ºBx, acidez total (5,5 g/L y pH (3,8 ajustados, respectivamente denominados tratamientos V1, V2, V3 (3 repeticiones. Colocados en fermentadores de 9 L de capacidad, estériles. Inoculados con 1 g/L de Saccharomyces cerevisiae, e incubados a 28 ºC por 10 días; seguido de trasiego, embotellado, encorchado y almacenamiento por 2 meses. El jugo de melón mostró, sólidos solubles totales 8,00 ºBx, acidez total titulable 0,15 % y pH 5,20. Los vinos, respectivamente V1, V2 y V3, presentaron las siguientes características: grado alcohólico 7, 8, 10 ºGL; alcohol metílico 0,008; 0,002; 0,004 g/L; acetato de etilo 0,02; 0,04; 0,08 mg/L; azúcares totales 20, 40, 58 g/L; acidez volátil 0,814; 0,854; 0,815 g/L; acidez total 6,26; 6,08; 6,00 g/L; acidez iónica 4,00; 3,91; 3,93. Se evidenciaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p ≤ 0,05 entre los tratamientos. Los 3 vinos de melón cumplieron con los requisitos: grado alcohólico, alcohol metílico, acetato de etilo, acidez volátil y acidez total establecidos en la norma venezolana COVENIN 3342-1997. V1 y V2 presentaron caracter

  16. Metabolomic and elemental profiling of melon fruit quality as affected by genotype and environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernillon, Stéphane; Biais, Benoit; Deborde, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a global crop in terms of economic importance and nutritional quality. The aim of this study was to explore the variability in metabolite and elemental composition of several commercial varieties of melon in various environmental conditions. Volatile and non......-volatile metabolites as well as mineral elements were profiled in the flesh of mature fruit, employing a range of complementary analytical technologies. More than 1,000 metabolite signatures and 19 mineral elements were determined. Data analyses revealed variations related to factors such as variety, growing season...... tools to characterize the quality of fruits cultivated under commercial conditions. They can also provide knowledge on fruit metabolism and the mechanisms of plant response to environmental modifications, thereby paving the way for metabolomics-guided improvement of cultural practices for better fruit...

  17. Validation of a Landscape-Based Model for Whitefly Spread of the Cucurbit Yellow Stunting Disorder Virus to Fall Melons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrière, Yves; Degain, Ben; Liesner, Leighton; Dutilleul, Pierre; Palumbo, John C

    2017-10-01

    The cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) transmitted by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) has caused significant reductions in fall melon (Cucumis melo L.) yields in Yuma County, Arizona. In a recent landscape-based study, we found evidence that cotton and spring melon fields increased abundance of B. tabaci and spread of CYSDV infection in fall melon fields. Here, we show that a statistical model derived from data collected in 2011-2012 and based on areas of cotton and spring melon fields located within 1,500 m from edges of fall melon fields was sufficient to retrospectively predict incidence of CYSDV infection in fall melon fields during 2007-2010. Nevertheless, the slope of the association between areas of spring melon fields and incidence of CYSDV infection was three times smaller in 2007-2010 than in 2011-2012, whereas the slope of the association between areas of cotton fields and incidence of CYSDV infection was consistent between study periods. Accordingly, predictions were more accurate when data on areas of cotton alone were used as a basis for prediction than when data on areas of cotton and spring melons were used. Validation of this statistical model confirms that crop isolation has potential for reducing incidence of CYSDV infection in fall melon fields in Yuma County, although isolation from cotton may provide more consistent benefits than isolation from spring melon. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Dietary supplementation with a specific melon concentrate reverses vascular dysfunction induced by cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillon, Julie; Jover, Bernard; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max; Richard, Sylvain; Virsolvy, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Obesity-related metabolic syndrome is associated with high incidence of cardiovascular diseases partially consecutive to vascular dysfunction. Therapeutic strategies consisting of multidisciplinary interventions include nutritional approaches. Benefits of supplementation with a specific melon concentrate, enriched in superoxide dismutase (SOD), have previously been shown on the development of insulin resistance and inflammation in a nutritional hamster model of obesity. We further investigated arterial function in this animal model of metabolic syndrome and studied the effect of melon concentrate supplementation on arterial contractile activity. The study was performed on a hamster model of diet-induced obesity. After a 15-week period of cafeteria diet, animals were supplemented during 4 weeks with a specific melon concentrate ( Cucumis melo L.) Contractile responses of isolated aorta to various agonists and antagonists were studied ex vivo . Cafeteria diet induced vascular contractile dysfunction associated with morphological remodeling. Melon concentrate supplementation partially corrected these dysfunctions; reduced morphological alterations; and improved contractile function, especially by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and expression of endogenous SOD. Supplementation with the specific melon concentrate improves vascular dysfunction associated with obesity. This beneficial effect may be accounted for by induction of endogenous antioxidant defense. Such an approach in line with nutritional interventions could be a useful strategy to manage metabolic syndrome-induced cardiovascular trouble.

  19. Dietary supplementation with a specific melon concentrate reverses vascular dysfunction induced by cafeteria diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Carillon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity-related metabolic syndrome is associated with high incidence of cardiovascular diseases partially consecutive to vascular dysfunction. Therapeutic strategies consisting of multidisciplinary interventions include nutritional approaches. Benefits of supplementation with a specific melon concentrate, enriched in superoxide dismutase (SOD, have previously been shown on the development of insulin resistance and inflammation in a nutritional hamster model of obesity. Objective: We further investigated arterial function in this animal model of metabolic syndrome and studied the effect of melon concentrate supplementation on arterial contractile activity. Design and results: The study was performed on a hamster model of diet-induced obesity. After a 15-week period of cafeteria diet, animals were supplemented during 4 weeks with a specific melon concentrate (Cucumis melo L. Contractile responses of isolated aorta to various agonists and antagonists were studied ex vivo. Cafeteria diet induced vascular contractile dysfunction associated with morphological remodeling. Melon concentrate supplementation partially corrected these dysfunctions; reduced morphological alterations; and improved contractile function, especially by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and expression of endogenous SOD. Conclusions: Supplementation with the specific melon concentrate improves vascular dysfunction associated with obesity. This beneficial effect may be accounted for by induction of endogenous antioxidant defense. Such an approach in line with nutritional interventions could be a useful strategy to manage metabolic syndrome–induced cardiovascular trouble.

  20. Sodium and chloride exclusion and retention by non-grafted and grafted melon and Cucurbita plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, M.; Plaut, Z.; Ben-Hur, M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of grafting on Na and Cl– uptake and distribution in plant tissues were quantified in a greenhouse experiment using six combinations of melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Arava) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne×Cucurbita moschata Duchesne cv. TZ-148): non-grafted, self-grafted, melons grafted on pumpkins, and pumpkins grafted on melons. Total Na concentration in shoots of plants with pumpkin or melon rootstocks was 400 mmol kg−1, respectively, regardless of the scion. In contrast, shoot Cl– concentrations were quite similar among the different scion–rootstock combinations. Na concentrations in exudates from cut stems of plants with a pumpkin rootstock were very low (<0.18 mM), whereas those in the exudates of plants with melon rootstocks ranged from 4.7 mM to 6.2 mM, and were quite similar to the Na concentration in the irrigation water. Root Na concentrations averaged 11.7 times those in the shoots of plants with pumpkin rootstocks, while in plants with melon rootstocks, values were similar. Two mechanisms could explain the decrease in shoot Na concentrations in plants with pumpkin rootstocks: (i) Na exclusion by the pumpkin roots; and (ii) Na retention and accumulation within the pumpkin rootstock. Quantitative analysis indicated that the pumpkin roots excluded ∼74% of available Na, while there was nearly no Na exclusion by melon roots. Na retention by the pumpkin rootstocks decreased its amount in the shoot by an average 46.9% compared with uniform Na distribution throughout the plant. In contrast, no retention of Na could be found in plants grafted on melons. PMID:20729482

  1. Sodium and chloride exclusion and retention by non-grafted and grafted melon and Cucurbita plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, M; Plaut, Z; Ben-Hur, M

    2011-01-01

    The effects of grafting on Na and Cl(-) uptake and distribution in plant tissues were quantified in a greenhouse experiment using six combinations of melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Arava) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne×Cucurbita moschata Duchesne cv. TZ-148): non-grafted, self-grafted, melons grafted on pumpkins, and pumpkins grafted on melons. Total Na concentration in shoots of plants with pumpkin or melon rootstocks was 400 mmol kg(-1), respectively, regardless of the scion. In contrast, shoot Cl(-) concentrations were quite similar among the different scion-rootstock combinations. Na concentrations in exudates from cut stems of plants with a pumpkin rootstock were very low (<0.18 mM), whereas those in the exudates of plants with melon rootstocks ranged from 4.7 mM to 6.2 mM, and were quite similar to the Na concentration in the irrigation water. Root Na concentrations averaged 11.7 times those in the shoots of plants with pumpkin rootstocks, while in plants with melon rootstocks, values were similar. Two mechanisms could explain the decrease in shoot Na concentrations in plants with pumpkin rootstocks: (i) Na exclusion by the pumpkin roots; and (ii) Na retention and accumulation within the pumpkin rootstock. Quantitative analysis indicated that the pumpkin roots excluded ∼74% of available Na, while there was nearly no Na exclusion by melon roots. Na retention by the pumpkin rootstocks decreased its amount in the shoot by an average 46.9% compared with uniform Na distribution throughout the plant. In contrast, no retention of Na could be found in plants grafted on melons.

  2. Calidad de melón cantaloupe ( Cucumis melo cubierto con una película comestible de alginato - hpmc - parafina

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    Ma Concepción Reyes-Avalos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción : El melón es un fruto que tiene un corto periodo de almacenamiento. Una alternativa para extender este periodo es el uso de películas comestibles. En el presente estudio se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación de una película comestible de alginato de sodio - hidroxipropilmetilcelulosa - parafina (ALG - HPMC - PAR, sobre la calidad de melón Cantaloupe durante dos tipos de almacenamiento. Método : Frutos de melón Cantaloupe se cubrieron con una película comestible de alginato - hidroxipropilmetil celulosa - parafina (ALG - HPMC - PAR, y no cubiertos (CONTROL. Los melones se almacenaron por 21 días a 5ºC y 95% de humedad relativa (Hr. Cada siete días, los frutos se sometieron a análisis de índice de daños por frío, pérdida de peso, textura, y concentración de CO 2 y etileno d e la atmósfera interna del fruto. Además, para simular manejo comercial, al término de cada periodo de siete días en refrigeración, una muestra de melones era extraída del frigorífico y expuesta a condiciones ambientales de temperatura y humedad relativa ( 25ºC y 21 - 25% respectivamente durante tres días (almacenamiento combinado, y medidos los parámetros anteriormente mencionados. Resultados : La aplicación de la película comestible provocó que los frutos cubiertos tuvieran una mayor concentración de CO 2 y menor concentración de etileno en la atmósfera interna del fruto, contribuyendo a que los melones cubiertos mantuvieron su calidad por un mayor tiempo de almacenamiento, manteniéndose más firmes, con menor pérdida de peso y sufrir menor índice de daños por frío con respecto los frutos control. Discusión : Los resultados demuestran la factibilidad de la aplicación de películas comestibles para mantener la calidad del melón Cantaloupe almacenado en refrigeración y en almacenamiento combinado.

  3. Kinetic study on adsorption of Cr(VI), Ni(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from Cucumis melo peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjuladevi, M.; Anitha, R.; Manonmani, S.

    2018-03-01

    The adsorption of Cr(VI), Ni(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II), ions from aqueous solutions by Cucumis melo peel-activated carbon was investigated under laboratory conditions to assess its potential in removing metal ions. The adsorption behavior of metal ions onto CMAC was analyzed with Elovich, intra-particle diffusion rate equations and pseudo-first-order model. The rate constant of Elovich and intra-particle diffusion on CMAC increased in the sequence of Cr(VI) > Ni(II) > Cd(II) > Pb(II). According to the regression coefficients, it was observed that the kinetic adsorption data can fit better by the pseudo-first-order model compared to the second-order Lagergren's model with R 2 > 0.957. The maximum adsorption of metal ions onto the CMAC was found to be 97.95% for Chromium(VI), 98.78% for Ni(II), 98.55% for Pb(II) and 97.96% for Cd(II) at CMAC dose of 250 mg. The adsorption capacities followed the sequence Ni(II) ≈ Pb(II) > Cr(VI) ≈ Cd(II) and Ni(II) > Pb(II) > Cd(II) > Cr(VI). The optimum adsorption conditions selected were adsorbent dosage of 250 mg, pH of 3.0 for Cr(VI) and 6.0 for Ni(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II), adsorption concentration of 250 mg/L and contact time of 180.

  4. Root transcriptional responses of two melon genotypes with contrasting resistance to Monosporascus cannonballus (Pollack et Uecker infection

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    Roig Cristina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monosporascus cannonballus is the main causal agent of melon vine decline disease. Several studies have been carried out mainly focused on the study of the penetration of this pathogen into melon roots, the evaluation of symptoms severity on infected roots, and screening assays for breeding programs. However, a detailed molecular view on the early interaction between M. cannonballus and melon roots in either susceptible or resistant genotypes is lacking. In the present study, we used a melon oligo-based microarray to investigate the gene expression responses of two melon genotypes, Cucumis melo ‘Piel de sapo’ (‘PS’ and C. melo ‘Pat 81’, with contrasting resistance to the disease. This study was carried out at 1 and 3 days after infection (DPI by M. cannonballus. Results Our results indicate a dissimilar behavior of the susceptible vs. the resistant genotypes from 1 to 3 DPI. ‘PS’ responded with a more rapid infection response than ‘Pat 81’ at 1 DPI. At 3 DPI the total number of differentially expressed genes identified in ‘PS’ declined from 451 to 359, while the total number of differentially expressed transcripts in ‘Pat 81’ increased from 187 to 849. Several deregulated transcripts coded for components of Ca2+ and jasmonic acid (JA signalling pathways, as well as for other proteins related to defence mechanisms. Transcriptional differences in the activation of the JA-mediated response in ‘Pat 81’ compared to ‘PS’ suggested that JA response might be partially responsible for their observed differences in resistance. Conclusions As a result of this study we have identified for the first time a set of candidate genes involved in the root response to the infection of the pathogen causing melon vine decline. This information is useful for understanding the disease progression and resistance mechanisms few days after inoculation.

  5. Root transcriptional responses of two melon genotypes with contrasting resistance to Monosporascus cannonballus (Pollack et Uecker) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Cristina; Fita, Ana; Ríos, Gabino; Hammond, John P; Nuez, Fernando; Picó, Belén

    2012-11-08

    Monosporascus cannonballus is the main causal agent of melon vine decline disease. Several studies have been carried out mainly focused on the study of the penetration of this pathogen into melon roots, the evaluation of symptoms severity on infected roots, and screening assays for breeding programs. However, a detailed molecular view on the early interaction between M. cannonballus and melon roots in either susceptible or resistant genotypes is lacking. In the present study, we used a melon oligo-based microarray to investigate the gene expression responses of two melon genotypes, Cucumis melo 'Piel de sapo' ('PS') and C. melo 'Pat 81', with contrasting resistance to the disease. This study was carried out at 1 and 3 days after infection (DPI) by M. cannonballus. Our results indicate a dissimilar behavior of the susceptible vs. the resistant genotypes from 1 to 3 DPI. 'PS' responded with a more rapid infection response than 'Pat 81' at 1 DPI. At 3 DPI the total number of differentially expressed genes identified in 'PS' declined from 451 to 359, while the total number of differentially expressed transcripts in 'Pat 81' increased from 187 to 849. Several deregulated transcripts coded for components of Ca2+ and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathways, as well as for other proteins related to defence mechanisms. Transcriptional differences in the activation of the JA-mediated response in 'Pat 81' compared to 'PS' suggested that JA response might be partially responsible for their observed differences in resistance. As a result of this study we have identified for the first time a set of candidate genes involved in the root response to the infection of the pathogen causing melon vine decline. This information is useful for understanding the disease progression and resistance mechanisms few days after inoculation.

  6. Beneficios socioeconómicos al utilizar plástico en el cultivo del melón (Cucumis melo L. en el municipio Miranda del estado Zulia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Nava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se condujo un experimento con la finalidad de determinar los beneficios socioeconómicos al utilizar plástico en el cultivo del melón (Cucumis melo L. en la comunidad de Villa Hermosa del Municipio Miranda, estado Zulia en el segundo semestre del año 2008. Se determinaron los costos de producción por hectárea, ingresos, número de aplicaciones de agroquímicos, utilización de mano de obra, días de germinación de las plántulas y masa fresca acumulada. En un área de 2 hectáreas con riego por goteo, se cultivaron plantas de melón híbrido Ovación. Se determinaron dos tratamientos, uno con la utilización del acolchado plástico y el otro sin el uso del plástico. El ensayo se condujo como un experimento de bloques al azar, cada unidad experimental estuvo constituida por 20 plantas seleccionadas al azar. Las evaluaciones se realizaron semanalmente. El análisis estadístico detectó diferencias entre los tratamientos evaluados para la variable masa fresca acumulada, el mayor valor de esta variable se obtuvo con el uso del acolchado plástico (1,67 Kg, cuando no se utilizó plástico fue de 0.80 Kg. Las plántulas germinaron en campo a los tres días para los dos tratamientos, por lo que el plástico no influyó en la germinación. Los productores obtienen mejores ingresos por hectárea (17.704 Bs F en cada ciclo, con menor número de aplicaciones de agroquímicos (10, viéndose menos expuestos al contacto con los productos y utilizando menor cantidad de personal, siendo una alternativa en cuanto al problema existente en el municipio Miranda de escasez de mano de obra.

  7. Analysis of expressed sequence tags generated from full-length enriched cDNA libraries of melon

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    Bendahmane Abdelhafid

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melon (Cucumis melo, an economically important vegetable crop, belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family which includes several other important crops such as watermelon, cucumber, and pumpkin. It has served as a model system for sex determination and vascular biology studies. However, genomic resources currently available for melon are limited. Result We constructed eleven full-length enriched and four standard cDNA libraries from fruits, flowers, leaves, roots, cotyledons, and calluses of four different melon genotypes, and generated 71,577 and 22,179 ESTs from full-length enriched and standard cDNA libraries, respectively. These ESTs, together with ~35,000 ESTs available in public domains, were assembled into 24,444 unigenes, which were extensively annotated by comparing their sequences to different protein and functional domain databases, assigning them Gene Ontology (GO terms, and mapping them onto metabolic pathways. Comparative analysis of melon unigenes and other plant genomes revealed that 75% to 85% of melon unigenes had homologs in other dicot plants, while approximately 70% had homologs in monocot plants. The analysis also identified 6,972 gene families that were conserved across dicot and monocot plants, and 181, 1,192, and 220 gene families specific to fleshy fruit-bearing plants, the Cucurbitaceae family, and melon, respectively. Digital expression analysis identified a total of 175 tissue-specific genes, which provides a valuable gene sequence resource for future genomics and functional studies. Furthermore, we identified 4,068 simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 3,073 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the melon EST collection. Finally, we obtained a total of 1,382 melon full-length transcripts through the analysis of full-length enriched cDNA clones that were sequenced from both ends. Analysis of these full-length transcripts indicated that sizes of melon 5' and 3' UTRs were similar to those of tomato, but

  8. Allelopathy by extracts of Caatinga species on melon seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreya Kalyana de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The melon crop is of great socioeconomic importance in Brazil and some species from the Caatinga biome show allelopathic effects on other species. The aim of this study was to assess leaf and seed extracts of cumaru (Amburana cearensis (Allemao A.C. Sm., the jujube tree (Zizyphus joazeiro Mart., Jucá (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. Ex. Tul. Var. Ferrea and mulungu (Erythrina velutina Willd. on the emergence of melon seeds (Cucumis melo L.. Leaves and seeds were used to produce extracts for each species at concentrations of a 1%, b 0.5% c 0.25%, d 0.125% and e 0% (control. The experiment was conducted with each extract type and its respective concentrations in a completely randomized design, with four replicates, each of 20 seeds. The percentage emergence and rate index, percentage of abnormal seedlings, seedling dry matter and seedling shoot and root length were assessed. Seed extracts of A. cearensis prevented melon germination, whereas the other extracts had no effect on this variable. Leaf extracts of A. cearensis and leaf and seed extracts of Z. joazeiro, C. ferrea and E. velutina resulted in abnormal melon seedlings. The percentage of abnormal melon seedlings exceeded 30% when treated with C. ferrea seed extract at the highest concentration. Most extracts did not affect seedling dry matter, but E. velutina leaf and seed extract increased the dry matter accumulation of melon seedlings and Z. joazeiro seed extract decreased dry matter accumulation at a concentration of 0.25%. The highest concentrations of mulungu and jucá leaf extracts promoted the shoot growth of melon seedlings. The extract from E. velutina seeds negatively affected root length compared to the control, similar to the effect of C. ferrea and E. velutina leaf extracts at the highest concentrations. Extracts of different organs of Caatinga plants can affect the emergence and characteristics related to seedling growth, depending on the concentration. Most extracts did not affect

  9. Functional method implementation of post-crop conservation of melon cantaloupe, using ionizing radiation as quality control technique in productive chain; Implantacao de metodo funcional de conservacao pos-colheita de meloes cantaloupe, utilizando as radiacoes ionizantes como tecnica de controle de qualidade na cadeia produtiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Alessandra A.Z. Cozzo de; Matraia, Clarice; Walder, Julio Marcos M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia]. E-mail: aazcozzo@cena.usp.br; Spoto, Marta H.F.; Silva, Paula P.M. da; Maretti, Marina S. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao

    2005-07-01

    The Brazilian fruit culture is an alternative to minimize the lack-of-food problem using management and post harvest appropriate techniques. Gamma radiation technology is a possible technique used for food, enlarging its shelf-life, eliminating pathogenic microorganisms and in the quarantine treatment. The irradiation with seven doses (150,300,450,600,750 and 900 Gy) was used in Cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melon var. Cantaloupensis) aiming to establish the minimum, maximum and ideal doses, according to Brazilian laws, analyzing weight, color, firmness, pulp and juice quantity and sensory aspects, using the Difference Control Test. The results indicate that storage influenced significantly the weight, color and pulp quantity parameters. Doses higher than 450 Gy however influenced the firmness, juice quantity and sensory aspects characteristics. These results are indicating that the minimum dose was 150 Gy, the maximum dose was 900 Gy and the ideal dose for the quarantine treatment and to increase shelf-life of the Cantaloupe melon was 450 Gy. The data obtained allowed us to conclude that the ionizing radiation can increase the shelf-life of the Cantaloupe melon using doses up to 450 Gy making it proper to exportation. (author)

  10. Improving tolerance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis in melon using tissue culture and mutation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantoglu, Y.; Secer, E.; Tutluer, I.; Kunter, B.; Peskircioglu, H.; Sagel, Z.; Erzurum, K.

    2010-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is a vascular disease of the Cucurbitaceae family, especially in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), caused by the soil fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (FOM). This pathogen persists in the soil for extended periods of time, and the only effective control is the use of resistant cultivars. During the last three decades, tissue culture techniques have been utilised in crop improvement to generate changes in the genetic material of plants via in vitro somaclonal variations (by organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis) and induced mutagenesis. More recently, researchers have been using in vitro techniques to investigate the effects of fungal culture filtrates or toxins on susceptible and resistant genotypes of different plant species or cultivars to assess disease resistance. This method is effectively used for cucumber and melon. There are various in vitro culture techniques that can be used for cucumber (Malepszy, 1988). In this chapter, we show a method for mass-selection of melon mutants resistant to Fusarium wilt. In vitro selection of resistant cells, from both irradiated and non- irradiated explants, is performed using culture filtrates of different FOM races. This research could lead to the development of new melon cultivars resistant to Fusarium wilt. (author)

  11. Volatile emerging contaminants in melon fruits, analysed by HS-SPME-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotta, Fabrizio; Verzera, Antonella; Tripodi, Gianluca; Condurso, Concetta

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research was to develop and validate a headspace-solid phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method for the determination of volatile emerging contaminants in fruit. The method showed good precision (RSD ≤ 14%) and satisfactory recoveries (99.1-101.7%) and LOD and LOQ values ranging between 0.011-0.033 μg kg -1 and 0.037-0.098 μg kg -1 , respectively. The method was applied to investigate the content of volatile emerging contaminants in two varieties of melon fruit (Cucumis melo L.) cultivated adjoining high-risk areas. Glycol ethers, BHT, BHA and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) were determined in melon fruit pulps for the first time, with different sensitivities depending on sample and variety. Although the amount of the volatile contaminants in the melon samples were in the order of µg kg -1 , the safety of vegetable crops cultivated near risk areas should be more widely considered. The results showed that this accurate and reproducible method can be useful for routine safety control of fruits and vegetables.

  12. Hypersensitive response to Aphis gossypii Glover in melon genotypes carrying the Vat gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villada, Emilio Sarria; González, Elisa Garzo; López-Sesé, Ana Isabel; Castiel, Alberto Fereres; Gómez-Guillamón, María Luisa

    2009-01-01

    Aphis gossypii Glover causes direct and indirect damage to Cucumis melo L. crops. To decrease the harmful effects of this pest, one of the most economically and environmentally acceptable options is to use genetically resistant melon varieties. To date, several sources of resistance carrying the Vat gene are used in melon breeding programmes that aim to prevent A. gossypii colonization and the subsequent aphid virus transmission. The results suggest that the resistance conferred by this gene is associated with a microscopic hypersensitive response specific against A. gossypii. Soon after aphid infestation, phenol synthesis, deposits of callose and lignin in the cell walls, damage to the plasmalemma, and a micro-oxidative burst were detected in genotypes carrying the Vat gene. According to electrical penetration graph experiments, this response seems to occur after aphid stylets puncture the plant cells and not during intercellular stylet penetration. This type of plant tissue reaction was not detected in melon plants infested with Bemisia tabaci Gennadius nor Myzus persicae Sulzer.

  13. Agrobacterium mediated transformation of Tunisian Cucumis melo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-19

    Sep 19, 2007 ... mgl-1 NAA and 0.1 mgl-1 BAP. Bacteria strain and plasmid vector. Genetic transformation was performed using the Agrobacterium strain GV3101 containing the binary plasmid pADI (Figure 1) that carries a neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II) gene under the control of CaMV promoter (Hernould et al., ...

  14. Generation of a BAC-based physical map of the melon genome

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    Puigdomènech Pere

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucumis melo (melon belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance among horticulture crops is second only to Solanaceae. Melon has high intra-specific genetic variation, morphologic diversity and a small genome size (450 Mb, which make this species suitable for a great variety of molecular and genetic studies that can lead to the development of tools for breeding varieties of the species. A number of genetic and genomic resources have already been developed, such as several genetic maps and BAC genomic libraries. These tools are essential for the construction of a physical map, a valuable resource for map-based cloning, comparative genomics and assembly of whole genome sequencing data. However, no physical map of any Cucurbitaceae has yet been developed. A project has recently been started to sequence the complete melon genome following a whole-genome shotgun strategy, which makes use of massive sequencing data. A BAC-based melon physical map will be a useful tool to help assemble and refine the draft genome data that is being produced. Results A melon physical map was constructed using a 5.7 × BAC library and a genetic map previously developed in our laboratories. High-information-content fingerprinting (HICF was carried out on 23,040 BAC clones, digesting with five restriction enzymes and SNaPshot labeling, followed by contig assembly with FPC software. The physical map has 1,355 contigs and 441 singletons, with an estimated physical length of 407 Mb (0.9 × coverage of the genome and the longest contig being 3.2 Mb. The anchoring of 845 BAC clones to 178 genetic markers (100 RFLPs, 76 SNPs and 2 SSRs also allowed the genetic positioning of 183 physical map contigs/singletons, representing 55 Mb (12% of the melon genome, to individual chromosomal loci. The melon FPC database is available for download at http://melonomics.upv.es/static/files/public/physical_map/. Conclusions Here we report the construction

  15. Effect of household and industrial processing on the levels of pesticide residues and degradation products in melons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnechère, A; Hanot, V; Bragard, C; Bedoret, T; van Loco, J

    2012-01-01

    Two varieties of melons (Cucumis melo) were treated with two fungicides (carbendazim and maneb) and four insecticides (acetamiprid, cyromazin, imazalil and thiamethoxam) to quantify the effect of household processing on the pesticide residues. To ensure sufficiently high levels of residues in flesh and peel, the most concentrated formulations were applied observing good agricultural practice. The peeling step decreased the concentration of pesticide residues for maneb, imazalil and acetamiprid by more than 90%. Cyromazin, carbendazim and thiamethoxam were reduced by approximately 50%. The reduction of the pesticides could not be fully explained by the systemic character of the pesticides. However, the agricultural practices (time of application), solubility and mode of action (systemic versus contact pesticide) of the pesticides could be used to explain the difference in processing factors for the studied pesticides. Degradation products (melamine and ethylenethiourea) were also investigated in this study, but were not detected.

  16. Effects of gamma radiation on melon read-to-eat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Polizel, Francine Fernanda; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter

    2013-01-01

    This work comes from the irradiation of Cantaloupe melons (Cucumis melo L.), with the aid of gamma irradiation (Co60) to physical and chemical changes to assess their conservation. The research aimed to evaluate the effects of irradiation on melons, including the possibility of conservation, through pH, acidity, soluble solids and fresh squash. The samples were minimally processed and submitted to gamma radiation Co 60 at doses of 0 (control); 1kGy and 2kGy. Physicochemical analyzes were made in periods of 1, 7 and 14 days after irradiation treatment. On day 1 and day 7, pH levels in irradiated samples had increased compared to control. Since the 14th day, the dose decreased 1kGy equaling the control. Soluble solids showed a statistical gradual decrease according to the increase of dose. The 14th had no significant difference while the 7th the dose was increased. The 1kGy sample decreased in another dose compared to the control. In fresh squash, absent statistics were observed for all samples in the three periods. And for the analysis of titratable acidity, there was observed no significant difference at day 1. There was observed a decrease in the 2kGy and 1kGy dose to 7 days compared to the control. On 14th day, a reduction in the dose of 2kGy and deterioration of 1kGy dose of the sample. Therefore, it demonstrates the irradiation doses of 2kGy, 1kGy physic-chemically alters the Cantaloupe melon pH, soluble solids content and acidity. And the dose of 2kGy is the one that longer preserves samples based on acidity values, greater and smaller values of soluble solids. (author)

  17. Effects of gamma radiation on melon read-to-eat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Polizel, Francine Fernanda, E-mail: jujuba_angelo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fran_sininho@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia em Piracicaba (FATEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This work comes from the irradiation of Cantaloupe melons (Cucumis melo L.), with the aid of gamma irradiation (Co60) to physical and chemical changes to assess their conservation. The research aimed to evaluate the effects of irradiation on melons, including the possibility of conservation, through pH, acidity, soluble solids and fresh squash. The samples were minimally processed and submitted to gamma radiation Co{sup 60} at doses of 0 (control); 1kGy and 2kGy. Physicochemical analyzes were made in periods of 1, 7 and 14 days after irradiation treatment. On day 1 and day 7, pH levels in irradiated samples had increased compared to control. Since the 14th day, the dose decreased 1kGy equaling the control. Soluble solids showed a statistical gradual decrease according to the increase of dose. The 14th had no significant difference while the 7th the dose was increased. The 1kGy sample decreased in another dose compared to the control. In fresh squash, absent statistics were observed for all samples in the three periods. And for the analysis of titratable acidity, there was observed no significant difference at day 1. There was observed a decrease in the 2kGy and 1kGy dose to 7 days compared to the control. On 14th day, a reduction in the dose of 2kGy and deterioration of 1kGy dose of the sample. Therefore, it demonstrates the irradiation doses of 2kGy, 1kGy physic-chemically alters the Cantaloupe melon pH, soluble solids content and acidity. And the dose of 2kGy is the one that longer preserves samples based on acidity values, greater and smaller values of soluble solids. (author)

  18. A set of EST-SNPs for map saturation and cultivar identification in melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monforte Antonio J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few genomic tools available in melon (Cucumis melo L., a member of the Cucurbitaceae, despite its importance as a crop. Among these tools, genetic maps have been constructed mainly using marker types such as simple sequence repeats (SSR, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP in different mapping populations. There is a growing need for saturating the genetic map with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, more amenable for high throughput analysis, especially if these markers are located in gene coding regions, to provide functional markers. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs from melon are available in public databases, and resequencing ESTs or validating SNPs detected in silico are excellent ways to discover SNPs. Results EST-based SNPs were discovered after resequencing ESTs between the parental lines of the PI 161375 (SC × 'Piel de sapo' (PS genetic map or using in silico SNP information from EST databases. In total 200 EST-based SNPs were mapped in the melon genetic map using a bin-mapping strategy, increasing the map density to 2.35 cM/marker. A subset of 45 SNPs was used to study variation in a panel of 48 melon accessions covering a wide range of the genetic diversity of the species. SNP analysis correctly reflected the genetic relationships compared with other marker systems, being able to distinguish all the accessions and cultivars. Conclusion This is the first example of a genetic map in a cucurbit species that includes a major set of SNP markers discovered using ESTs. The PI 161375 × 'Piel de sapo' melon genetic map has around 700 markers, of which more than 500 are gene-based markers (SNP, RFLP and SSR. This genetic map will be a central tool for the construction of the melon physical map, the step prior to sequencing the complete genome. Using the set of SNP markers, it was possible to define the genetic relationships within a collection of forty

  19. A set of EST-SNPs for map saturation and cultivar identification in melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleu, Wim; Esteras, Cristina; Roig, Cristina; González-To, Mireia; Fernández-Silva, Iria; Gonzalez-Ibeas, Daniel; Blanca, José; Aranda, Miguel A; Arús, Pere; Nuez, Fernando; Monforte, Antonio J; Picó, Maria Belén; Garcia-Mas, Jordi

    2009-07-15

    There are few genomic tools available in melon (Cucumis melo L.), a member of the Cucurbitaceae, despite its importance as a crop. Among these tools, genetic maps have been constructed mainly using marker types such as simple sequence repeats (SSR), restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) in different mapping populations. There is a growing need for saturating the genetic map with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), more amenable for high throughput analysis, especially if these markers are located in gene coding regions, to provide functional markers. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from melon are available in public databases, and resequencing ESTs or validating SNPs detected in silico are excellent ways to discover SNPs. EST-based SNPs were discovered after resequencing ESTs between the parental lines of the PI 161375 (SC) x 'Piel de sapo' (PS) genetic map or using in silico SNP information from EST databases. In total 200 EST-based SNPs were mapped in the melon genetic map using a bin-mapping strategy, increasing the map density to 2.35 cM/marker. A subset of 45 SNPs was used to study variation in a panel of 48 melon accessions covering a wide range of the genetic diversity of the species. SNP analysis correctly reflected the genetic relationships compared with other marker systems, being able to distinguish all the accessions and cultivars. This is the first example of a genetic map in a cucurbit species that includes a major set of SNP markers discovered using ESTs. The PI 161375 x 'Piel de sapo' melon genetic map has around 700 markers, of which more than 500 are gene-based markers (SNP, RFLP and SSR). This genetic map will be a central tool for the construction of the melon physical map, the step prior to sequencing the complete genome. Using the set of SNP markers, it was possible to define the genetic relationships within a collection of forty-eight melon accessions as efficiently as with SSR

  20. Relaxin and atrial natriuretic peptide pathways participate in the anti-fibrotic effect of a melon concentrate in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Carillon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, a model of human essential hypertension, oxidative stress is involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis associated with hypertension. Dietary supplementation with agents exhibiting antioxidant properties could have a beneficial effect in remodeling of the heart. We previously demonstrated a potent anti-hypertrophic effect of a specific melon (Cucumis melo L. concentrate with antioxidant properties in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Relaxin and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP were reported to reduce collagen deposition and fibrosis progression in various experimental models. Objective: The aim of the present investigation was to test the hypothesis that, beside reduction in oxidative stress, the melon concentrate may act through relaxin, its receptor (relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1, RXFP1, and ANP in SHR. Design and results: The melon concentrate, given orally during 4 days, reduced cardiomyocyte size (by 25% and totally reversed cardiac collagen content (Sirius red staining in SHR but not in their normotensive controls. Treatment with the melon concentrate lowered cardiac nitrotyrosine-stained area (by 45% and increased by 17–19% the cardiac expression (Western blot of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase. In addition, plasma relaxin concentration was normalized while cardiac relaxin (Western blot was lowered in treated SHR. Cardiac relaxin receptor level determined by immunohistochemical analysis increased only in treated SHR. Similarly, the melon concentrate reversed the reduction of plasma ANP concentration and lowered its cardiac expression. Conclusions: The present results demonstrate that reversal of cardiac fibrosis by the melon concentrate involves antioxidant defenses, as well as relaxin and ANP pathways restoration. It is suggested that dietary SOD supplementation could be a useful additional strategy against cardiac hypertrophy

  1. Resistance gene homologues in melon are linked to genetic loci conferring disease and pest resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Y.; Silberstein, L.; Kovalski, I.; Perin, C.; Dogimont, C.; Pitrat, M.; Klingler, J.; Thompson, A.; Perl-Treves, R.

    2002-05-01

    Genomic and cDNA fragments with homology to known disease resistance genes (RGH fragments) were cloned from Cucumis melo using degenerate-primer PCR. Fifteen homologues of the NBS-LRR gene family have been isolated. The NBS-LRR homologues show high divergence and, based on the partial NBS-fragment sequences, appear to include members of the two major subfamilies that have been described in dicot plants, one that possesses a TIR-protein element and one that lacks such a domain. Genomic organization of these sequences was explored by DNA gel-blot analysis, and conservation among other Cucurbitaceae was assessed. Two mapping populations that segregate for several disease and pest resistance loci were used to map the RGH probes onto the melon genetic map. Several NBS-LRR related sequences mapped to the vicinity of genetic loci that control resistance to papaya ringspot virus, Fusarium oxysporum race 1, F. oxysporum race 2 and to the insect pest Aphis gossypii. The utility of such markers for breeding resistant melon cultivars and for cloning the respective R-genes is discussed.

  2. Investigation about selecting strong type of melons by using melon paleness factor fusarium oxysporum f.sp.melonis and mutation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantoglu, Y.; Secer, E.; Kunter, B.; Erzurum, K.; Maden, S.; Yanmaz, R.

    2009-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is a vascular disease of the Cucurbitaceae family, especially in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), caused by the soil fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (FOM). This pathogen persists in the soil for extended periods of time, and the only effective control is the use of resistant varieties. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis is a very serious disease factor for farmers in Turkey. In this research, we show a method for mass-selection of melon mutants resistant to Fusarium wilt. In vitro selection of resistant cells, which are come from irradiated and non-irradiated explants, is done using culture filtrates of different FOM races. According to our results we determined effective irradiation doses and filtrate treatment dose by Linear Regression Analysis. According to our results 21.75 Gy is effective dose for in vitro Yuva cv. explants to induce mutation and for filtrate treatment 6.73% is the proper dose to select survive calluses and plantlets. We recommended using 10 and 20 Gy gamma ray doses for in vitro melon plantlets to induce mutation by our results. We succeed to regenerate 6% plantlets which were obtained and selected from irradiated plantlets and regenerated in in vitro medias which were include 6.73 % filtrate. Although 16.7% of resistant or tolerant plantlets can continue their viability in greenhouse conditions after disease inoculation treatment, we observed 4 plants had a surviving capability in a limited time. That is very important for breeding cycle and this research can lead to the development of new melon cultivars that will be resistant to Fusarium wilt.

  3. Whole Genome Re-Sequencing and Characterization of Powdery Mildew Disease-Associated Allelic Variation in Melon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathishkumar Natarajan

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew is one of the most common fungal diseases in the world. This disease frequently affects melon (Cucumis melo L. and other Cucurbitaceous family crops in both open field and greenhouse cultivation. One of the goals of genomics is to identify the polymorphic loci responsible for variation in phenotypic traits. In this study, powdery mildew disease assessment scores were calculated for four melon accessions, 'SCNU1154', 'Edisto47', 'MR-1', and 'PMR5'. To investigate the genetic variation of these accessions, whole genome re-sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was performed. A total of 754,759,704 quality-filtered reads were generated, with an average of 82.64% coverage relative to the reference genome. Comparisons of the sequences for the melon accessions revealed around 7.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, 1.9 million InDels, and 182,398 putative structural variations (SVs. Functional enrichment analysis of detected variations classified them into biological process, cellular component and molecular function categories. Further, a disease-associated QTL map was constructed for 390 SNPs and 45 InDels identified as related to defense-response genes. Among them 112 SNPs and 12 InDels were observed in powdery mildew responsive chromosomes. Accordingly, this whole genome re-sequencing study identified SNPs and InDels associated with defense genes that will serve as candidate polymorphisms in the search for sources of resistance against powdery mildew disease and could accelerate marker-assisted breeding in melon.

  4. Efficiency and environmental indexes to evaluate the sustainability of mineral and organic fertilization in an irrigated melon crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Villena Gordo, Raquel; Cartagena Causapé, María Carmen; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; María Tarquis Alfonso, Ana; Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa

    2014-05-01

    Melon is traditionally cultivated in fertigated farmlands in the center of Spain with high inputs of water and N fertilizer. Excess N can have a negative impact, from the economic point of view, since it can diminish the production and quality of the fruit, from the environmental point of view, since it is a very mobile element in the soil and can contaminate groundwater. From health point of view, nitrate can be accumulated in fruit pulp, and, in addition, groundwater is the fundamental supply source of human populations. Best management practices are particularly necessary in this region as many zones have been declared vulnerable to NO3- pollution (Directive 91/676/CEE) During successive years, a melon crop (Cucumis melo L.) was grown under field conditions applying mineral and organic fertilizers under drip irrigation. Different doses of ammonium nitrate were used as well as compost derived from the wine-distillery industry which is relevant in this area. The present study reviews the most common N efficiency indexes [1] under the different management options with a view to maximizing yield and minimizing N loss. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA04-111-C3 and INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01. [1] Castellanos, M., Tarquis, A., Ribas, F., Cabello, M., Arce, A., & Cartagena, M. (2013). Nitrogen fertigation: An integrated agronomic and environmental study. Agricultural Water Management, 120, 46-55.

  5. Symptoms and Sensitivity to Chilling Injury of Cantaloupe Melons during Postharvest Síntomas y Sensibilidad a Daño por Enfriamiento de Melones Reticulados durante Poscosecha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Krarup

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The nature and development of specific symptoms of chilling injury (CI and the variation in sensitivity to the disorder of different cultivars of cantaloupe melons (Cucumis melo L. subsp. melo var. cantalupensis Naudin was assessed during two seasons. Twenty-three cultivars of the Eastern Shipper (2, Western Shipper (13 and Galia (8 types were grown in a semiarid environment in Curacaví (33º27’ S, 70º38’ W, Chile, using common cultural practices. Fruits were harvested at the half-slip stage, except Galia (3/5 color, graded ,washed, and stored for 18 days at 0 ºC, with an additional 3 days at 20 ºC. Symptoms of CI appeared with varying intensity in almost all cultivars and were generally similar. Symptoms developed progressively: surface discoloration progressed from light pink to brownish to black, followed by large sunken areas, and eventually, discrete indentations and net whitening. Surface decay was not present in most fruits and should be considered a consequence rather than a symptom of CI. Cultivars had different sensitivities to the disorder; some cultivars were severely injured (Athena, Colima and Revigal whereas others developed almost no symptoms of CI (Hy-Mark, Gal 96, and Voyager I. The response variability to chilling showed the need for precise temperature recommendations for these cultivars, and signaled a potential for future long-term transport or storage of some cultivars.La naturaleza y el desarrollo de los síntomas de daño por enfriamiento (CI y la variación en sensibilidad de diversos cultivares de melones reticulados (Cucumis melo L. subsp. melo var. cantalupensis Naudin a este desorden fisiológico se evaluaron durante dos temporadas. Veintitrés cultivares de los tipos Eastern (1, Western (15 y Galia (8 se cultivaron en un ambiente semi-árido en Curacaví (33º27’ S, 70º38’ O, Chile, en cultivos realizados de manera convencional, y los frutos se cosecharon al estado de madurez de medio desprendimiento

  6. Armazenamento sob condições ambiente e aceitabilidade do melão 'F1 Jangada' produzido em sistema hidropônico Storage under atmosphere conditions and acceptability of the melon 'F1 Jangada' croped in hydroponic system

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    Maria M. Rinaldi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o período de armazenamento pós-colheita e a aceitabilidade pelo consumidor de melão híbrido 'F1 Jangada' (Cucumis melo L., produzido em sistema hidropônico, mantido em condições ambiente (22 ± 2 ºC e umidade relativa de 40 ± 5%. O experimento compreendeu o período de 21-6-2005 a 2-8-2005. Foi utilizado o esquema fatorial 5 x 2, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco períodos de armazenamento (0; 7; 21; 28 e 42 dias e dois tipos de substrato (areia e fibra de coco, com três repetições, em que cada repetição consistiu em cinco frutos de meloeiro. Foram avaliados o pH, a acidez titulável, os sólidos solúveis, a perda de massa fresca, a análise sensorial e a decisão de compra dos melões. Foram verificados efeitos do tipo de substrato e tempo de armazenamento sobre os valores de pH dos melões. A acidez titulável dos melões diminuiu significativamente nos primeiros sete dias de armazenamento, em ambos os substratos. Não foram verificados efeitos do tipo de substrato e tempo de armazenamento nos sólidos solúveis dos melões durante o armazenamento. Não houve diferença de perda de massa fresca dos frutos produzidos nos dois substratos, sendo de 7,1 ± 0,2%, durante os 42 dias de armazenamento. O tipo de substrato não interferiu na aparência geral, cor, textura e sabor dos melões. Aos 42 dias de armazenamento, os melões produzidos nos dois tipos de substrato apresentaram-se aceitáveis pelo consumidor. No entanto, os produzidos no substrato com areia apresentaram melhor aceitabilidade e decisão de compra ao longo do armazenamento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the storage period postharvest and acceptability by consumer of hybrid melon 'F1 Jangada' (Cucumis melo L., produced in hydroponic system, stored in atmosphere conditions (22 ± 2 ºC and 40 ± 5% relative humidity. The research was carried from June 21st to August 2nd, 2005. It was

  7. Determination of the melon chloroplast and mitochondrial genome sequences reveals that the largest reported mitochondrial genome in plants contains a significant amount of DNA having a nuclear origin

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    Aranda Miguel A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The melon belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance among vegetable crops is second only to Solanaceae. The melon has a small genome size (454 Mb, which makes it suitable for molecular and genetic studies. Despite similar nuclear and chloroplast genome sizes, cucurbits show great variation when their mitochondrial genomes are compared. The melon possesses the largest plant mitochondrial genome, as much as eight times larger than that of other cucurbits. Results The nucleotide sequences of the melon chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes were determined. The chloroplast genome (156,017 bp included 132 genes, with 98 single-copy genes dispersed between the small (SSC and large (LSC single-copy regions and 17 duplicated genes in the inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb. A comparison of the cucumber and melon chloroplast genomes showed differences in only approximately 5% of nucleotides, mainly due to short indels and SNPs. Additionally, 2.74 Mb of mitochondrial sequence, accounting for 95% of the estimated mitochondrial genome size, were assembled into five scaffolds and four additional unscaffolded contigs. An 84% of the mitochondrial genome is contained in a single scaffold. The gene-coding region accounted for 1.7% (45,926 bp of the total sequence, including 51 protein-coding genes, 4 conserved ORFs, 3 rRNA genes and 24 tRNA genes. Despite the differences observed in the mitochondrial genome sizes of cucurbit species, Citrullus lanatus (379 kb, Cucurbita pepo (983 kb and Cucumis melo (2,740 kb share 120 kb of sequence, including the predicted protein-coding regions. Nevertheless, melon contained a high number of repetitive sequences and a high content of DNA of nuclear origin, which represented 42% and 47% of the total sequence, respectively. Conclusions Whereas the size and gene organisation of chloroplast genomes are similar among the cucurbit species, mitochondrial genomes show a wide variety of sizes

  8. Determination of the melon chloroplast and mitochondrial genome sequences reveals that the largest reported mitochondrial genome in plants contains a significant amount of DNA having a nuclear origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Moreno, Luis; González, Víctor M; Benjak, Andrej; Martí, M Carmen; Puigdomènech, Pere; Aranda, Miguel A; Garcia-Mas, Jordi

    2011-08-20

    The melon belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance among vegetable crops is second only to Solanaceae. The melon has a small genome size (454 Mb), which makes it suitable for molecular and genetic studies. Despite similar nuclear and chloroplast genome sizes, cucurbits show great variation when their mitochondrial genomes are compared. The melon possesses the largest plant mitochondrial genome, as much as eight times larger than that of other cucurbits. The nucleotide sequences of the melon chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes were determined. The chloroplast genome (156,017 bp) included 132 genes, with 98 single-copy genes dispersed between the small (SSC) and large (LSC) single-copy regions and 17 duplicated genes in the inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb). A comparison of the cucumber and melon chloroplast genomes showed differences in only approximately 5% of nucleotides, mainly due to short indels and SNPs. Additionally, 2.74 Mb of mitochondrial sequence, accounting for 95% of the estimated mitochondrial genome size, were assembled into five scaffolds and four additional unscaffolded contigs. An 84% of the mitochondrial genome is contained in a single scaffold. The gene-coding region accounted for 1.7% (45,926 bp) of the total sequence, including 51 protein-coding genes, 4 conserved ORFs, 3 rRNA genes and 24 tRNA genes. Despite the differences observed in the mitochondrial genome sizes of cucurbit species, Citrullus lanatus (379 kb), Cucurbita pepo (983 kb) and Cucumis melo (2,740 kb) share 120 kb of sequence, including the predicted protein-coding regions. Nevertheless, melon contained a high number of repetitive sequences and a high content of DNA of nuclear origin, which represented 42% and 47% of the total sequence, respectively. Whereas the size and gene organisation of chloroplast genomes are similar among the cucurbit species, mitochondrial genomes show a wide variety of sizes, with a non-conserved structure both in gene number

  9. Systems approach for exploring the intricate associations between sweetness, color and aroma in melon fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freilich, Shiri; Lev, Shery; Gonda, Itay; Reuveni, Eli; Portnoy, Vitaly; Oren, Elad; Lohse, Marc; Galpaz, Navot; Bar, Einat; Tzuri, Galil; Wissotsky, Guy; Meir, Ayala; Burger, Joseph; Tadmor, Yaakov; Schaffer, Arthur; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, James; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Katzir, Nurit

    2015-03-03

    Melon (Cucumis melo) fruits exhibit phenotypic diversity in several key quality determinants such as taste, color and aroma. Sucrose, carotenoids and volatiles are recognized as the key compounds shaping the above corresponding traits yet the full network of biochemical events underlying their synthesis have not been comprehensively described. To delineate the cellular processes shaping fruit quality phenotypes, a population of recombinant inbred lines (RIL) was used as a source of phenotypic and genotypic variations. In parallel, ripe fruits were analyzed for both the quantified level of 77 metabolic traits directly associated with fruit quality and for RNA-seq based expression profiles generated for 27,000 unigenes. First, we explored inter-metabolite association patterns; then, we described metabolites versus gene association patterns; finally, we used the correlation-based associations for predicting uncharacterized synthesis pathways. Based on metabolite versus metabolite and metabolite versus gene association patterns, we divided metabolites into two key groups: a group including ethylene and aroma determining volatiles whose accumulation patterns are correlated with the expression of genes involved in the glycolysis and TCA cycle pathways; and a group including sucrose and color determining carotenoids whose accumulation levels are correlated with the expression of genes associated with plastid formation. The study integrates multiple processes into a genome scale perspective of cellular activity. This lays a foundation for deciphering the role of gene markers associated with the determination of fruit quality traits.

  10. Agronomic evaluation of green biodegradable mulch on melon

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    Ferruccio Filippi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A two-year research was carried out in 2004-2005 in order to evaluate the effects of biodegradable green mulch on melon (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud. yield and quality. The loss of quality due to the presence of spot caused by the residues of biodegradable plastics was also investigated. The research was conducted over two years, in open field, at S. Piero a Grado, Pisa, Italy, (lat. 43.67498, long. 10.34737, from the beginning of May to the end of July of each year. The films tested in the first year experiment were two biodegradable ones with different colours (black and green compared with a low-density polyethylene (LDPE film, while in 2005 three biodegradable films, (two green and one black were compared with a traditional LDPE film. The two green biodegradable films had different properties related to the biodegradation rate, faster in film Cv205, because of a different degree of Mater Bi polymer inside the film. In each year a randomized block design with four replications was followed. Green biodegradable films allowed obtaining a higher yield than LDPE films maybe because of the higher soil temperatures reached, and excellent fruit quality, especially for the soluble solids content and the ripening process. At the same time, the presence of residues on the fruit skin was rather low because of the degradation of films occurred at the ripening time. In the first year, the percentage of spotted fruits was low for every kind of film, while in the second one the green film showed a higher presence of residues on skin compared with the black one. The biodegradable materials covered the soil for the whole crop cycle with a good mulching effect, and the successive degradation allowed to avoid the removal and disposal of plastic film, with a certain economic advantage.

  11. Application of water footprint in a fertirrigated melon crop under semiarid conditions: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa; Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Villena Gordo, Raquel; Cartagena Causapé, María Carmen; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; María Tarquis Alfonso, Ana

    2015-04-01

    In recent times, there has been a major increase in the use of water and fertilizers in order to increase agricultural production, while at the same time there has increased evidence that aquifers are reducing their water level, enriched by nutrient and degraded as a result of pollution. So best management practices are needed for much of cropped, irrigated and fertirrigated land, to avoid contamination of fresh water and groundwater. The concept of "water footprint" (WF) was introduced as an indicator for the total volume of direct and indirect freshwater used, consumed and/or polluted [1]. The WF distinguishes between blue water (volume of surface and groundwater consumed), green water (rain-water consumed), and grey water (volume of freshwater that is required to assimilate the load of pollutants based on existing ambient water quality standards). This study is focused in calculating the crops WF using a real case of study in a fertirrigated melon crop under semiarid conditions which is principally cultivated in the centre of Spain declared vulnerable zone to nitrate pollution by applying the Directive 91/676/CEE. During successive years, a melon crop (Cucumis melo L.) was grown under field conditions applying mineral and organic fertilizers. Different doses of ammonium nitrate were used as well as compost derived from the wine-distillery industry which is relevant in this area. This application help us to review the different concepts in which is based WF. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA04-111-C3 and INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01. Keywords: Water footprint, nitrogen, fertirrigation, inorganic fertilizers, organic amendments, winery waste, semiarid conditions. [1] Hoekstra, A.Y. 2003. Virtual water trade. Proceedings of the International Expert Meeting on Virtual Water Trade, Delft, The Netherlands, 12-13 December 2002. Value of Water Research Report Series No. 12, UNESCO-IHE, Delft, The Netherlands.

  12. Bacillus cucumis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpfer, Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Kloepper, Joseph W; Hu, Chia-Hui; McInroy, John A

    2016-02-01

    A facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive staining, endospore-forming bacterium, isolated from the rhizosphere of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus ), was taxonomically investigated. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity comparisons, strain AP-6 T clustered together with other species of the genus Bacillus and showed highest similarities with Bacillus drentensis LMG 21831 T (99.1 %), Bacillus vireti LMG 21834 T (98.7 %) and Bacillus soli LMG 21838 T (98.5 %). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the sequences of the type strains of other species of the genus Bacillus was 98.5 % or less. Chemotaxonomic features supported the grouping of the strain in the genus Bacillus ; for example, the major fatty acids were anteiso-C 15 : 0 , iso-C 15 : 0 and C 16 : 0 , the polar lipid profile contained the major components diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified glycolipid, the major quinone was menaquinone MK-7 and the major compound in the polyamine pattern was spermidine. Additionally, DNA-DNA hybridization with B. drentensis LMG 21831 T , B. vireti LMG 21834 T and B. soli LMG 21838 T resulted in relatedness values that were clearly below 70 %. Physiological and biochemical test results were also different from those of the most closely related species. As a consequence, AP-6 T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus , for which the name Bacillus cucumis sp. nov. is proposed, with AP-6 T ( = CIP 110974 T  = CCM 8651 T ) as the type strain.

  13. Melo carboniferous basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flossdarf, A.

    1988-01-01

    This report is about of the Melo carboniferous basin which limits are: in the South the large and high Tupambae hill, in the west the Paraiso hill and the river mountains, in the North Yaguaron river basin to Candidata in Rio Grande del Sur in Brazil.

  14. Strobilurin and boscalid in the quality of net melon fruits

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    Ana Claudia Macedo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, fungicides were used exclusively for disease control; however observations of physiological effects brought a new concept to the use of these products. Strobilurins have positive physiological effects on crop yield, due to the increase of liquid photosynthesis and better hormonal balance. However, boscalid complements the action of these fungicides, applied alternately or together. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of strobilurins (azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin, boscalid and the mixture of these on the physical-chemical quality of net melon fruits (Cucumis melo var. Reticulatus. The experiment was conducted in the municipality of São Manuel (SP, using the hybrid of Cantaloupe M2-308 net melon, the experimental design was in randomized blocks with five replicates. The treatments used were: T1 - control; T2 - azoxystrobin 60g ha-1 of active principle (a.p.; T3 - boscalid 75g ha-1 of the a.p.; T4 - pyraclostrobin 50g ha-1 of the a.p.; T5 - boscalid (37,5g ha-1 of the a.p. + pyraclostrobin (25g ha-1 of the a.p. The first application of the treatments was carried out at fourteen days after the transplanting of the seedlings and the others at seven day intervals, totaling eight applications throughout the cycle. Two fruits of each plot were collected, which were identified for analysis in the laboratory. The following characteristics were evaluated: fresh fruit mass; mesocarp thickness, pulp texture, peel trajectory, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids and the ratio. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and the averages compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability using the SISVAR program. The fruits of the plants treated with boscalid 75g ha-1 were the ones that showed higher concentration of soluble solids and low titratable acidity, resulting in a better ratio. Despite the lower value, the fruits of the plants treated with pyraclostrobin 50g ha-1 showed a high ratio value, besides presenting higher

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber (Cucumis...

  16. Caracterização morfológica e dissimilaridade genética entre variedades crioulas de melão Morphological characterization and genetic dissimilarity in melon landraces

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    Raquel Silviana Neitzke

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Variedades crioulas de melão (Cucumis melo são cultivadas no Sul do Brasil para consumo familiar e também para comercialização dos frutos. No entanto, existe uma carência de trabalhos relativos a sua caracterização. Este trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar e avaliar a variabilidade genética de variedades crioulas de melão do Sul do Brasil mantidos no Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Cucurbitáceas da Embrapa Clima Temperado. Foram caracterizados 14 acessos utilizando 26 descritores morfológicos de fruto. Os dados foram analisados pelos métodos de agrupamento de Tocher e hierárquico UPGMA. Os métodos de agrupamento foram parcialmente concordantes. O acesso C88 possui características distintas, ficando isolado dos demais, pois é o único entre todos os avaliados que apresenta formato piriforme e sem gomos, cor de epicarpo creme, cor de polpa branca e ruptura profunda no fruto. Existe grande variabilidade genética, para caracteres de frutos, nas variedades crioulas de melão conservadas nesse Banco Ativo de Germoplasma, com potencial para uso no melhoramento genético, destacando-se o acesso C71 por possuir sabor adocicado e polpa de cor laranja e o C72, por apresentar elevados valores de peso de fruto e espessura de polpa.Melon landraces (Cucumis melo are cultivated in South of Brazil for family consumption and also for marketing fruits. However, there is a lack of works related to characterization of these landraces. The objective of this work was to characterize and evaluate genetic variability of melon landraces from South of Brazil which are maintained in the Cucurbitaceae Genebank at Embrapa Clima Temperado, trough morphological characterization. Fourteen accessions were characterized in 26 morphological fruit descriptors. Data were analyzed by Tocher grouping method and UPGMA hierarchical. The two methods agreed partially. The accession C88 has unique characteristics, being isolated when compared to the other accessions, it

  17. Strain-specific and recessive QTLs involved in the control of partial resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1.2 in a recombinant inbred line population of melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchepied, L; Dogimont, C; Pitrat, M

    2005-06-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (FOM) causes serious economic losses in melon (Cucumis melo L.). Two dominant resistance genes have been identified, Fom-1 and Fom-2, which provide resistance to races 0 and 2 and races 0 and 1, respectively, however FOM race 1.2 overcomes these resistance genes. A partial resistance to FOM race 1.2 that has been found in some Far East accessions is under polygenic control. A genetic map of melon was constructed to tag FOM race 1.2 resistance with DNA markers on a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between resistant (Isabelle) and susceptible (cv. Védrantais) lines. Artificial root inoculations on plantlets of this population using two strains, one that causes wilting (FOM 1.2w) and one that causes yellowing (FOM 1.2y), resulted in phenotypic and genotypic data that enabled the identification of nine quantitative trait loci (QTLs). These QTLs were detected on five linkage groups by composite interval mapping and explained between 41.9% and 66.4% of the total variation. Four digenic epistatic interactions involving seven loci were detected and increased the total phenotypic variation that was explained. Co-localizations between QTLs and resistance gene homologs or resistance genes, such as Fom-2 and Vat, were observed. A strain-specific QTL was detected, and some QTLs appeared to be recessive.

  18. Host Reaction of Watermelon mosaic virus Isolates Infecting Melon from Different Geographical Origins in Xinjiang of China

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    Dong WANG

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV is one of the major viruses infecting cucurbit crops worldwide. Although WMV is very common worldwide, little is known about the biological traits of WMV isolates from China. Hence, this study aimed to characterize 11 WMV isolates infecting melon from different geographical origins in Xinjiang based on experimental hosts. Sap inoculation of the 11 WMV isolates onto a range of 13 plant species revealed some differences compared to the WMV isolates collected from other countries. Our results showed that, overall, there were no obvious correlations of host responses to inoculation with WMV isolates from different geographical origins. However, isolate JS-1 caused mild mosaic on Cucurbita moschata, whereas the remaining 10 isolates were asymptomatic on this plant species. Moreover, in Datura stramonium, isolate TYG-1 induced mosaic, whereas the remaining 10 isolates did not infect this species. All isolates infected systemically Cucurbita pepo and Cucumis melo plants, causing severe symptoms. All isolates did not induce any symptoms on Cucumis sativus, but the virus could be detected using RT-PCR. Additionally, all isolates infected systemically Nicotiana tabacum plants, causing mild mosaics. Chenopodium amaranticolor and Chenopodium quinoa reacted to all isolates by chlorotic local lesions in the inoculated leaves, and the virus was detected in the inoculated leaves using RT-PCR. In addition, the attempts to transmit the isolates to Luffa cylindrica, Vicia faba, Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna unguiculata or Pisum sativum failed as confirmed by negative RT-PCR. Our results would be useful for understanding the biological variability of WMV.

  19. Qualidade dos frutos de tipos de melão,produzidos em ambiente protegido Quality of melon fruit type produced under protected system

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    Micheline Tavares Paduan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O interesse pela cultura do melão no Brasil tem aumentado muito nos últimos anos, pelas crescentes exportações e pelo incremento no consumo do mercado interno. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características físicas e químicas, assim como a atividade da pectinametilesterase dos frutos de tipos de melão (Cucumis melo L., produzidos em ambiente protegido, no município de Centenário do Sul-PR. Os tipos estudados foram: Valenciano ('Amarelo-Ouro', Caipira ('Gaúcho Caipira', Net Melon ('Net Galia', Orange ('Orange Melon' e Pele-de-Sapo ('Filipo', com cinco repetições, utilizando seis frutos por repetição em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os frutos do Valenciano e Pele-de-Sapo destacaram-se quanto à massa, com valores 2,02 e 2,07 kg, respectivamente, e formatos alongados, enquanto os demais tipos apresentaram formatos arredondados e massa em torno de 1,4 kg. Os melões Pele-de-Sapo apresentaram espessura da polpa de 43,36 mm, estatisticamente superior à dos frutos Valenciano, com 38,98 mm. A menor espessura de polpa, 24,78 cm, e a maior espessura de casca, 9,74 mm, foram encontradas nos frutos do tipo Caipira que diferiu estatisticamente dos outros tipos. Os valores de pH não se apresentaram estatisticamente diferentes e variaram de 6,24 a 6,48. O Net Melon apresentou polpa com 12,3ºBrix e diferiu estatisticamente do Orange, Valenciano e Pele-de-Sapo, com 11;12; 10,34 e 9,94 ºBrix, respectivamente. O Caipira atingiu 5,06ºBrix, e também o menor conteúdo de acidez, 0,10 g de ac. cítrico.100-1 g de suco, o que inviabiliza sua comercialização. A atividade da pectinametilesterase na polpa dos frutos foi muito baixa, inferior a 0,005 PEu x 10(4 mL-1, nos cinco tipos avaliados. Na região norte do Paraná (Vale do Paranapanema, sob condições de cultivo protegido, os melões Pele-de-Sapo, Net Melon, Orange e Valenciano apresentaram boas características físicas e químicas dos frutos, destacando-se o Net Melon

  20. Reaction of melon genotypes to the gummy stem blight and the downy mildew Reação de genótipos de melão ao crestamento gomoso e ao míldio

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    Gil R dos Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The gummy stem blight (Didymella bryoniae and the downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis are two foremost melon (Cucumis melo diseases, considering their effects on yield and fruit quality. Despite the importance of such diseases, relatively few studies have been done so far on the identification of resistance sources to D. bryoniae and P. cubensis in Brazil. This work aimed at evaluating the resistance of commercial melon genotypes to the gummy stem blight and the downy mildew. Firstly, the most aggressive and representative D. bryoniae isolate was selected. Subsequently, the resistance of 86 melon genotypes to stem infection was studied upon greenhouse conditions by inoculating with the previously selected isolate. Afterwards, the resistance to mildew and leaf infection by D. bryoniae of 28 melon genotypes was evaluated in the field, under natural infection. In the greenhouse, all 86 melon genotypes were infected and showed stem infection symptoms caused by D. bryoniae four days after inoculation. Nevertheless, a significant variation on the resistance levels of the melon genotypes was found. Under field conditions and natural inoculation, genotypes Taslaki and Sary Juliabi were the most susceptible to leaf infection by D. bryoniae, significantly differing from the other genotypes. The lowest levels of susceptibility were identified in genotypes Perlita Busle S1, Valenciano Elíptico, Glaver, MR1, and 2526. All genotypes were susceptible to the downy mildew, albeit differing in susceptibility levels.O crestamento gomoso do caule (Didymella bryoniae e o míldio (Pseudoperonospora cubensis estão entre as principais doenças do meloeiro (Cucumis melo ocasionando redução da produtividade e da qualidade dos frutos. Apesar da importância dessas doenças, são poucos os trabalhos envolvendo a identificação de fontes de resistência a D. bryoniae e a P. cubensis no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de gen

  1. Acúmulo de metais pesados e alterações químicas em Cambissolo cultivado com meloeiro Accumulation of heavy metals and chemical alterations in a Ultisol cultivated with melon

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    Alessandra M. S. Mendes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Com a utilização intensiva de agroquímicos, os solos cultivados podem ter o teor de metais pesados disponíveis às plantas aumentado com possível contaminação subsequente da cadeia trófica. Propôs-se, no presente trabalho, avaliar a influência do tempo de uso agrícola de um Cambissolo Háplico cultivado com meloeiro (Cucumis melo L. sob o acúmulo de metais pesados e as características químicas do solo. O solo com plantios de meloeiro com um, dois e três anos de implantação foram avaliados, além de uma área de vegetação natural, nas camadas de 0-20 e 20-40 cm de profundidade. Os resultados mostraram que o tempo de cultivo alterou as características químicas do solo, com aumento do pH e do teor de N, P e K nas duas camadas de solo estudadas; já os teores de Ca foram diminuídos pelo cultivo. Houve acréscimos no teor total e disponível de Ni, Pb, Cu e Mn, na camada superficial, em função do tempo de cultivo do solo, enquanto os teores totais de Fe e Zn foram reduzidos em ambas as camadas avaliadas, no entanto, os teores disponíveis ainda são relativamente baixos.Soil cultivation using agrochemicals may increase the concentration of availability of heavy metals to plant and cause contamination of the trophic chain as well. This work was carried out to evaluate the influence of length of time under cultivation with melon (Cucumis melo L. on the heavy metals accumulation and chemical alterations in Ultisol. Melon plantations of one, two and three years were studied. A benchmark area under natural vegetation was used to compare the data obtained. The results showed that the lengthiest time under cultivation altered the chemical characteristics of the soil. An increase in pH and contents of N, P and K was observed for the two soil layers evaluated. On the other hand, Ca contents were decreased by cultivation. The larger the cultivation time the higher the concentration of N, Pb, Cu, and Mn in the soil surface layer, whereas

  2. Non-Destructive Assessment of Aroma Volatiles from a Climacteric Near-Isogenic Line of Melon Obtained by Headspace Stir-Bar Sorptive Extraction

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    Juan Pablo Fernández-Trujillo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A climacteric aromatic near-isogenic line (NIL of melon (Cucumis melo L. SC3-5-1 contained an introgression of the non-climacteric Korean cultivar “Shongwan Charmi” accession PI 161375 (SC in the genetic background of the non-climacteric cultivar “Piel de Sapo” (PS. The aroma production was monitored during ripening at 21 °C in intact fruit using headspace sorptive bar extraction (HSSE. Bars were composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and aromas were desorbed and analyzed by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry. The aromatic profile was composed of 70 aromatic compounds plus 21 alkanes with a predominance of esters, particularly acetate (2-methylbutyl acetate, 2-methylpropyl acetate, hexyl acetate, and phenylmethyl acetate. Some compounds were severely affected by postharvest time. The acetate esters (3-methylbutyl acetate, butan-2-yl acetate and phenylmethyl acetate decreased with ripening and sulfur-derived compounds (S-methyl butanethioate and S-methyl 3-methylbutanethioate increased gradually with ripening. A few compounds increased at the senescence phase (propyl ethanoate. Other compounds such as hexadecanoic acid showed a marked decrease after harvest, some decreasing from a relative maximum at harvest (2-methylpropyl hexanoate; n-hexanoic acid; nonanoic acid.

  3. Distinct colonization patterns and cDNA-AFLP transcriptome profiles in compatible and incompatible interactions between melon and different races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis

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    Delledonne Massimo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis Snyd. & Hans. (FOM causes Fusarium wilt, the most important infectious disease of melon (Cucumis melo L.. The four known races of this pathogen can be distinguished only by infection on appropriate cultivars. No molecular tools are available that can discriminate among the races, and the molecular basis of compatibility and disease progression are poorly understood. Resistance to races 1 and 2 is controlled by a single dominant gene, whereas only partial polygenic resistance to race 1,2 has been described. We carried out a large-scale cDNA-AFLP analysis to identify host genes potentially related to resistance and susceptibility as well as fungal genes associated with the infection process. At the same time, a systematic reisolation procedure on infected stems allowed us to monitor fungal colonization in compatible and incompatible host-pathogen combinations. Results Melon plants (cv. Charentais Fom-2, which are susceptible to race 1,2 and resistant to race 1, were artificially infected with a race 1 strain of FOM or one of two race 1,2 w strains. Host colonization of stems was assessed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 14, 16, 18 and 21 days post inoculation (dpi, and the fungus was reisolated from infected plants. Markedly different colonization patterns were observed in compatible and incompatible host-pathogen combinations. Five time points from the symptomless early stage (2 dpi to obvious wilting symptoms (21 dpi were considered for cDNA-AFLP analysis. After successful sequencing of 627 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs differentially expressed in infected plants, homology searching retrieved 305 melon transcripts, 195 FOM transcripts expressed in planta and 127 orphan TDFs. RNA samples from FOM colonies of the three strains grown in vitro were also included in the analysis to facilitate the detection of in planta-specific transcripts and to identify TDFs differentially expressed among races

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of the Melon-Fusarium oxysporumf. sp.melonisRace 1.2 Pathosystem in Susceptible and Resistant Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia Sebastiani, M; Bagnaresi, Paolo; Sestili, Sara; Biselli, Chiara; Zechini, Antonella; Orrù, Luigi; Cattivelli, Luigi; Ficcadenti, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis Snyd. & Hans race 1.2 (FOM1.2) is the most virulent and yield-limiting pathogen of melon ( Cucumis melo L.) worldwide. Current information suggest that the resistance to race 1.2 is controlled by multiple recessive genes and strongly affected by the environment. RNA-Seq analysis was used to identify candidate resistance genes and to dissect the early molecular processes deployed during melon-FOM1.2 interaction in the resistant doubled haploid line NAD and in the susceptible genotype Charentais-T (CHT) at 24 and 48 h post-inoculation (hpi). The transcriptome analysis of the NAD-FOM1.2 interaction identified 2,461 and 821 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 24 hpi and at 48 hpi, respectively, while in susceptible combination CHT-FOM1.2, 882 and 2,237 DEGs were recovered at 24 hpi and at 48 hpi, respectively. The overall expression profile suggests a prompt activation of the defense responses in NAD due to its basal defense-related machinery that allows an early pathogen recognition. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analyses revealed a total of 57 GO terms shared by both genotypes and consistent with response to fungal infection. GO classes named "chitinase activity," "cellulase activity," "defense response, incompatible interaction," "auxin polar transport" emerged as major factors of resistance to FOM1.2. The data indicated that NAD reacts to FOM1.2 with a fine regulation of Ca 2+ -mediated signaling pathways, cell wall reorganization, and hormone crosstalk (jasmonate and ethylene, auxin and abscissic acid). Several unannotated transcripts were recovered providing a basis for a further exploration of the melon resistance genes. DEGs belonging to the FOM1.2 genome were also detected in planta as a resource for the identification of potential pathogenicity factors. This work provides a broader view of the dynamic changes of the melon transcriptome triggered by FOM1.2 and highlights that the resistance response of NAD is mainly

  5. Distinct colonization patterns and cDNA-AFLP transcriptome profiles in compatible and incompatible interactions between melon and different races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestili, Sara; Polverari, Annalisa; Luongo, Laura; Ferrarini, Alberto; Scotton, Michele; Hussain, Jamshaid; Delledonne, Massimo; Ficcadenti, Nadia; Belisario, Alessandra

    2011-02-21

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis Snyd. & Hans. (FOM) causes Fusarium wilt, the most important infectious disease of melon (Cucumis melo L.). The four known races of this pathogen can be distinguished only by infection on appropriate cultivars. No molecular tools are available that can discriminate among the races, and the molecular basis of compatibility and disease progression are poorly understood. Resistance to races 1 and 2 is controlled by a single dominant gene, whereas only partial polygenic resistance to race 1,2 has been described. We carried out a large-scale cDNA-AFLP analysis to identify host genes potentially related to resistance and susceptibility as well as fungal genes associated with the infection process. At the same time, a systematic reisolation procedure on infected stems allowed us to monitor fungal colonization in compatible and incompatible host-pathogen combinations. Melon plants (cv. Charentais Fom-2), which are susceptible to race 1,2 and resistant to race 1, were artificially infected with a race 1 strain of FOM or one of two race 1,2 w strains. Host colonization of stems was assessed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 14, 16, 18 and 21 days post inoculation (dpi), and the fungus was reisolated from infected plants. Markedly different colonization patterns were observed in compatible and incompatible host-pathogen combinations. Five time points from the symptomless early stage (2 dpi) to obvious wilting symptoms (21 dpi) were considered for cDNA-AFLP analysis. After successful sequencing of 627 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) differentially expressed in infected plants, homology searching retrieved 305 melon transcripts, 195 FOM transcripts expressed in planta and 127 orphan TDFs. RNA samples from FOM colonies of the three strains grown in vitro were also included in the analysis to facilitate the detection of in planta-specific transcripts and to identify TDFs differentially expressed among races/strains. Our data suggest that resistance against FOM

  6. Screening suitable reference genes for normalization in reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR analysis in melon.

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    Qiusheng Kong

    Full Text Available Melon (Cucumis melo. L is not only an economically important cucurbitaceous crop but also an attractive model for studying many biological characteristics. Screening appropriate reference genes is essential to reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR, which is key to many studies involving gene expression analysis. In this study, 14 candidate reference genes were selected, and the variations in their expression in roots and leaves of plants subjected to biotic stress, abiotic stress, and plant growth regulator treatment were assessed by RT-qPCR. The stability of the expression of the selected genes was determined and ranked using geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm identified the two most stable genes for each set of conditions: CmADP and CmUBIep across all samples, CmUBIep and CmRPL in roots, CmRAN and CmACT in leaves, CmADP and CmRPL under abiotic stress conditions, CmTUA and CmACT under biotic stress conditions, and CmRAN and CmACT under plant growth regulator treatments. NormFinder determined CmRPL to be the best reference gene in roots and under biotic stress conditions and CmADP under the other experimental conditions. CmUBC2 and CmPP2A were not found to be suitable under many experimental conditions. The catalase family genes CmCAT1, CmCAT2, and CmCAT3 were identified in melon genome and used as target genes to validate the reliability of identified reference genes. The catalase family genes showed the most upregulation 3 days after inoculation with Fusarium wilt in roots, after which they were downregulated. Their levels of expression were significantly overestimated when the unsuitable reference gene was used for normalization. These results not only provide guidelines for the selection of reference genes for gene expression analyses in melons but may also provide valuable information for studying the functions of catalase family genes in stress responses.

  7. Screening suitable reference genes for normalization in reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR analysis in melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Niu, Penghui; Xie, Junjun; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2014-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo. L) is not only an economically important cucurbitaceous crop but also an attractive model for studying many biological characteristics. Screening appropriate reference genes is essential to reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), which is key to many studies involving gene expression analysis. In this study, 14 candidate reference genes were selected, and the variations in their expression in roots and leaves of plants subjected to biotic stress, abiotic stress, and plant growth regulator treatment were assessed by RT-qPCR. The stability of the expression of the selected genes was determined and ranked using geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm identified the two most stable genes for each set of conditions: CmADP and CmUBIep across all samples, CmUBIep and CmRPL in roots, CmRAN and CmACT in leaves, CmADP and CmRPL under abiotic stress conditions, CmTUA and CmACT under biotic stress conditions, and CmRAN and CmACT under plant growth regulator treatments. NormFinder determined CmRPL to be the best reference gene in roots and under biotic stress conditions and CmADP under the other experimental conditions. CmUBC2 and CmPP2A were not found to be suitable under many experimental conditions. The catalase family genes CmCAT1, CmCAT2, and CmCAT3 were identified in melon genome and used as target genes to validate the reliability of identified reference genes. The catalase family genes showed the most upregulation 3 days after inoculation with Fusarium wilt in roots, after which they were downregulated. Their levels of expression were significantly overestimated when the unsuitable reference gene was used for normalization. These results not only provide guidelines for the selection of reference genes for gene expression analyses in melons but may also provide valuable information for studying the functions of catalase family genes in stress responses.

  8. Melão tupã: produtividade, qualidade do fruto e resistência a viroses Tupã melon: agronomic performance, fruit quality and virus resistance

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    Waldelice Oliveira de Paiva

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Progênies de melão (Cucumis melo L. cv. Tupã, um tipo que associa as características favoráveis do fruto do melão Amarelo e do melão Cantaloupe, foram submetidas à inoculação artificial com cinco vírus [Watermerlon mosaic virus (WMV-2, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-w, Zucchini yelow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Squash mosaic virus (SqMV e Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV], em casa de vegetação. A produção e a qualidade do fruto foram avaliadas em campo. Progênies de três famílias mostraram resistência ao PRSV-w e ao ZYMV, algumas manifestaram resistência também ao WMV-2. Cerca de 63,15% apresentaram resistência somente ao PRSV-w e 52,63% somente ao ZYMV. A resistência para a combinação do PRSV-w e ZYMV ocorreu em 42,10% das progênies e a resistência tripla a PRSV-w, ZYMV e WMV-2 em 36,84%. Uma progênie foi resistente aos quatro vírus (PRSV-w, ZYMV, WMV-2 e CMV. Para o caráter concentração de colheita o comportamento das progênies foi muito variável, observando-se progênies onde a metade dos frutos foram colhidos até os 80 dias, e outras onde até os 70 dias nenhum fruto havia sido colhido. Em relação ao tipo Amarelo, foram muito tardias para a maturação dos frutos, mas mostraram semelhanças com o fruto para peso médio, formato, diâmetro interno e espessura da polpa. A firmeza da polpa variou de 7,78 N a 35,6 N, sendo que em 20% das progênies a firmeza da polpa foi superior a 20 N, muito semelhante aos melões do tipo Cantaloupe.Progenies of melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Tupã, that associate the favorable fruit characteristics of yellow casaba cantaloupe types, were submitted to artificial inoculation with five virus: Watermerlon mosaic virus (WMV-2, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Squash mosaic virus (SqMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, in greenhouse. Yield and the fruit quality were evaluated in the field. Progenies of three families showed marked resistance to PRSV-W and to ZYMV

  9. Potencial de vida útil pós-colheita de quatro genótipos de melão tipo Galia Potential of postharvest shelf life of four genotypes of Galia type melons

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    Patrícia Lígia Dantas de Morais

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o potencial de vida útil pós-colheita de melões (Cucumis melo L. tipo Galia (genótipos Primal, Solarking, Total e Vicar. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 (genótipos x 4 (tempos de armazenamento: 0, 3, 6 e 9 dias, com três repetições. Os frutos foram colhidos no estádio de maturação IV (predominantemente amarelo e armazenados à temperatura de 20 ± 1ºC e umidade relativa de 50 ± 2%. O genótipo Solarking apresentou uma firmeza média de polpa superior aos demais, do inicio ao final do período de armazenamento. Em todos os genótipos, os valores de sólidos solúveis no início do armazenamento encontraram-se dentro da faixa aceitável para comercialização no mercado externo, havendo pouca variação com o decorrer do período de armazenamento. A aparência interna limitou o tempo de vida útil pós-colheita do genótipo Total em apenas seis dias. Os genótipos Solarking, Vicar e Primal apresentaram maior potencial na conservação pós-colheita, principalmente o híbrido Solarking, que chegou aos nove dias de armazenamento com boa aparência interna.The postharvest life span of Galia (genotypes Primal, Solarking, Total, and Vicar melons (Cucumis melo L. was evaluated by a four (genotypes x four (storage periods: 0, 3, 6, and 9 days factorial experiment, in a completely randomized design with three replications. The fruits were harvested at maturation stage IV (yellow color predominance, and stored under 20 ± 1ºC and HR 50 ± 2%. Solarking's average firmness was better than that of the other genotypes during the experimental period. At the beginning of the experiment all genotypes had soluble solids contents at the level (eight to ten percent required for exportation, with these levels varying slightly during storage. The internal aspect limited to six days the postharvest life span of genotype Total. Solarking, Vicar, and Primal showed great postharvest conservation potential

  10. Yield, nutrient utilization and soil properties in a melon crop amended with wine-distillery waste compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Villena Gordo, Raquel; Cartagena Causapé, María Carmen; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa

    2014-05-01

    In Spain, large quantities of wine are produced every year (3,339,700 tonnes in 2011) (FAO, 2011) with the consequent waste generation. During the winemaking process, solid residues like grape stalks are generated, as well as grape marc and wine lees as by-products. According to the Council Regulation (EC) 1493/1999 on the common organization of the wine market, by-products coming from the winery industry must be sent to alcohol-distilleries to generate exhausted grape marc and vinasses. With an adequate composting treatment, these wastes can be applied to soils as a source of nutrients and organic matter. A three-year field experiment (2011, 2012 and 2013) was carried out in Ciudad Real (central Spain) to study the effects of wine-distillery waste compost application in a melon crop (Cucumis melo L.). Melon crop has been traditionally cultivated in this area with high inputs of water and fertilizers, but no antecedents of application of winery wastes are known. In a randomized complete block design, four treatments were compared: three compost doses consisted of 6.7 (D1), 13.3 (D2) and 20 t compost ha-1 (D3), and a control treatment without compost addition (D0). The soil was a shallow sandy-loam (Petrocalcic Palexeralfs) with a depth of 0.60 m and a discontinuous petrocalcic horizon between 0.60 and 0.70 m, slightly basic (pH 8.4), poor in organic matter (0.24%), rich in potassium (410 ppm) and with a medium level of phosphorus (22.1 ppm). During each growing period four harvests were carried out and total and marketable yield (fruits weighting end of the crop cycle, four plants per treatment were sampled and the nutrient content (N, P and K) was determined. Soil samplings (0-30 cm depth) were carried before the application of compost and at the end of each growing season and available N and P, as well as exchangeable K content were analyzed. With this information, an integrated analysis was carried out with the aim to evaluate the suitability of this compost as

  11. Chromosomal structures and repetitive sequences divergence in Cucumis species revealed by comparative cytogenetic mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunxia; Cheng, Chunyan; Li, Ji; Yang, Shuqiong; Wang, Yunzhu; Li, Ziang; Chen, Jinfeng; Lou, Qunfeng

    2015-09-25

    Differentiation and copy number of repetitive sequences affect directly chromosome structure which contributes to reproductive isolation and speciation. Comparative cytogenetic mapping has been verified an efficient tool to elucidate the differentiation and distribution of repetitive sequences in genome. In present study, the distinct chromosomal structures of five Cucumis species were revealed through genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) technique and comparative cytogenetic mapping of major satellite repeats. Chromosome structures of five Cucumis species were investigated using GISH and comparative mapping of specific satellites. Southern hybridization was employed to study the proliferation of satellites, whose structural characteristics were helpful for analyzing chromosome evolution. Preferential distribution of repetitive DNAs at the subtelomeric regions was found in C. sativus, C hystrix and C. metuliferus, while majority was positioned at the pericentromeric heterochromatin regions in C. melo and C. anguria. Further, comparative GISH (cGISH) through using genomic DNA of other species as probes revealed high homology of repeats between C. sativus and C. hystrix. Specific satellites including 45S rDNA, Type I/II, Type III, Type IV, CentM and telomeric repeat were then comparatively mapped in these species. Type I/II and Type IV produced bright signals at the subtelomeric regions of C. sativus and C. hystrix simultaneously, which might explain the significance of their amplification in the divergence of Cucumis subgenus from the ancient ancestor. Unique positioning of Type III and CentM only at the centromeric domains of C. sativus and C. melo, respectively, combining with unique southern bands, revealed rapid evolutionary patterns of centromeric DNA in Cucumis. Obvious interstitial telomeric repeats were observed in chromosomes 1 and 2 of C. sativus, which might provide evidence of the fusion hypothesis of chromosome evolution from x = 12 to x = 7 in

  12. Substrato e solução nutritiva desenvolvidos a partir de efluente de biodigestor para cultivo do meloeiro Substrate and nutrient solution developed using a biodigestor effluent for melon cultivation

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    Luiz V. E. Villela Jr.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Buscando a sustentabilidade em uma pequena propriedade agrícola visou-se com o presente estudo, ao aproveitamento do efluente de biodigestor proveniente da fermentação anaeróbia de estrume bovino, no cultivo sem solo do meloeiro. O experimento foi conduzido em Jaboticabal, SP, Brasil, localizado na Latitude 21º 15- 22" S e Longitude 48º 18- 58" W. Cultivou-se o meloeiro (Cucumis melo L. cv. Bonus nº 2 em substrato, com semeadura realizada em outubro de 2003 e se utilizou delineamento experimental em blocos casualisados com 16 tratamentos e 5 repetições, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4 (4 substratos e 4 soluções nutritivas. Os 4 substratos se compunham de diferentes proporções da mistura entre a parte sólida do efluente de biodigestor e a areia grossa lavada; as 4 soluções nutritivas foram compostas pela parte líquida do efluente de biodigestor (biofertilizante em substituição a adubos minerais hidrossolúveis. A adição do efluente à areia proporcionou crescimento vegetativo mais rápido, maior precocidade na colheita, frutos mais pesados e maior produtividade à cultura do meloeiro. Adubos minerais hidrossolúveis utilizados no cultivo de plantas em substrato podem ser parcialmente substituídos pelo biofertilizante estudado.Looking for the sustainability of a small farming enterprise, the present study focused the benefit of the biodigestor effluent resulting from the anaerobic fermentation of the bovine manure in a soilless melon plant experiment. The research was conducted in Jaboticabal, in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, at latitude of 21° 15- 22-- S and a longitude of 48° 18- 58-- W. The melon plant (Cucumis melo L. cv Bonus n° 2 was grown with substrate, seedling obtained in 10/2003. An experimental design was adapted in a randomized block with 16 treatments and 5 replications in a factorial 4 x 4 (4 substrates and 4 nutrient solutions. The 4 substrates were made up of different proportions in volume of the blend

  13. Concentração salina e fases de exposição à salinidade do meloeiro cultivado em substrato de fibra de coco Salt concentration and phases of exposure tosalinity of melon grown in coconut fiber substrate

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    Nildo da Silva Dias

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available No semiárido, a escassez de água de boa qualidade faz com que os produtores utilizem água salobra para preparar a solução nutritiva. Com o objetivo de investigar a utilização de água salobra na irrigação de meloeiro (Cucumis melo L., cv. AF 015 cultivado em substrato de fibra de coco em casa de vegetação, plantas foram nutridas com soluções salinas de condutividades elétricas (CEs 1,1 (testemunha; 2,5; 4,0 e 5,5 dS m-1 aplicadas durante as fases: crescimento vegetativo (10-30 dias após o transplantio-DAT; florescimento (31-50 DAT e frutificação e maturação (51-70 DAT. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 12 tratamentos arranjados em um esquema fatorial 4x3 (níveis de salinidade x tempo de exposição dos sais, com três repetições. Houve correlação na perda relativa por incremento de CEs das variáveis de crescimento e de produção do meloeiro em função da salinidade da solução nutritiva para cada fase de exposição. As soluções nutritivas preparadas com água salobra podem ser utilizadas no cultivo do meloeiro em substrato de fibra de coco com o mínimo de perdas relativas de massa média de frutos por incremento de CEs, quando aplicadas na fase de florescimento.Scarcity of good water quality in semiarid region causes producers to use brackish water to prepare the nutrient solution. In order to investigate the use of brackish water in irrigation of greenhouse-melon (Cucumis melo L., cv. AF 015 grown in coconut fiber substrate, plants were irrigated with saltine nutrient solutions of electrical conductivities (ECs of 1.1 (control, 2.5, 4.0 and 5.5 dS m-1, applied during the phases of vegetative growth (10-30 days after transplanting, DAT, flowering (31-50 DAT and fruiting and ripening (51-70 DAT. The design was completely randomized, with 12 treatments arranged in a 4x3 factorial design (salinity levels x exposure time of the salts, with three replications. There was a correlation in

  14. The influence of wine-distillery waste compost on nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics and uptake by a melon crop in a shallow calcareous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, M. I.; Villena, R.; Ribas, F.; Castellanos, M. T.; Cabello, M. J.; Arce, A.; Cartagena, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    In Mediterranean countries, the large quantity of organic wastes generated by the winery industry constitutes a serious environmental concern, due to its low pH and high content of phenolic compounds. This is accompanied by a seasonal production that makes their management difficult. Winery wastes are characterized by high organic matter contents, low electrical conductivity values and notable contents in macronutrients, so their use as organic amendments is a good management option for improving soil fertility. However, a composting treatment is necessary to convert these organic wastes into more stable, hygienic and humic-rich materials. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of the application of exhausted grape marc compost (composed of dealcoholized pulp, skins and stems) as fertilizer in soil nitrogen and phosphorus availability and uptake by a melon crop (Cucumis melo L.). This experiment was carried out from May to September 2011 in Ciudad Real (Spain). This area was designated "vulnerable zone" by the "Nitrates Directive" 91/676/CEE. The soil was a shallow sandy-loam (Alfisol Xeralf Petrocalcic Palexeralfs) with a depth of 0.60 m and a discontinuous petrocalcic horizon between 0.60 and 0.70 m, slightly basic (pH 7.9), poor in organic matter (0.20%), rich in potassium (407 ppm) and with a medium level of phosphorus (19.4 ppm). The experiment had a randomised complete block design, with four treatments consisted of four compost doses: 0 (D0), 6.7 (D1), 13.3 (D2) and 20 T compost ha-1 (D3), in order to determine the optimum dose to ensure nutrient demand, maximizing yield and minimizing nutrient losses. Acknowledgements This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01.

  15. Melão minimamente processado: um controle de qualidade Minimally processed melon: a quality control

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    Karla Suzanne Florentino da Silva Chaves Damasceno

    2005-12-01

    distribution of agricultural products, through procedures like selection, cleaning, washing, peeling and cutting, which do not affect their organoleptic characteristics and add value to them. The process results in natural and practical products, which require less time for preparation and consumption to fulfill the demands of modern life. The purpose of minimally processed and cooled food is to provide a product that is similar to the fresh one to guarantee safety, maintaining the nutritive and sensory quality. The process has attracted attention to research mainly regarding microbiological, physicochemical and sensory alterations that influence the shelf life of these products. The target of the research was to evaluate the effect of commercialization temperature (15ºC on the quality of the Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. inodorus minimally processed. Fruits packed in trays and involved in plastic film were randomly acquired in a local supermarket. Treatments were: temperatures (4 and 15ºC, storage periods (5, 10, 15 and 1, 2 and 3 days at 4 and 15ºC, respectively and a control treatment of minimally processed melon on day zero. Samples were analyzed as far as their physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics are concerned. The melon quality was significantly affected during refrigerated storage. At commercialization temperature (15ºC, the product is only valid for 24 hours. Storage at 4°C allows conservation up to 5 days and it is necessary to display the adequate time of storage and temperature on the label of the product.

  16. Qualidade final de melão osmoticamente desidratado em soluções de sacarose com adição de ácidos Quality of osmotically dehydrated melon in sucrose solutions with addition of acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Janet Sanjinez Argandoña

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A desidratação osmótica associada à adição de ácidos fracos representa uma alternativa de processamento brando, resultando em um produto com características sensoriais praticamente inalteradas e apropriado para o consumo imediato. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência dos ácidos cítrico e lático na obtenção de melão osmoticamente desidratado e na qualidade final do produto. Pedaços de melão (Cucumis melo inodorus, cultivar: Gold Mine, de 40x30x15 mm, foram imersos em três tipos de soluções (sacarose + ácido cítrico, sacarose + ácido lático e sacarose com diferentes concentrações de sacarose (50 a 70ºBrix. A desidratação osmótica foi realizada em temperatura controlada (30 a 50ºC por até três horas. A adição de ácidos não influenciou significativamente na variação da cromaticidade. No entanto, a concentração da solução desidratante e a temperatura tiveram efeitos significativos no aumento da luminosidade do produto. A tensão na ruptura foi menor nas amostras processadas em relação à fruta fresca, porém a deformação na ruptura foi significativamente mais alta nas amostras tratadas com ácido lático a 50ºC, fornecendo produtos mais viscoelásticos, porém mais firmes.The combination of osmotic dehydration and weak acids addition is a mild process that results in a final product with organoleptic characteristics very similar to fresh and "ready to eat" fruit, appropriate for immediate consumption. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the influence of citric and lactic acids on the production of osmotically dehydrated melon and on its final quality. Melon (Cucumis melo inodorus, cultivar Gold Mine pieces of 40x30x15 mm were immersed in three types of dehydrating solutions (sucrose + citric acid, sucrose + lactic acid and control of different concentrations (50 to 70ºBrix. Osmotic dehydration was carried out for up to three hours under controlled temperature (30 to 50ºC. The addition

  17. Estudo da utilização do efluente de biodigestor no cultivo hidropônico do meloeiro Utilization of biodigestor effluent in the hydroponic cultivation of melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz V. E. Villela Junior

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se o aproveitamento do efluente de biodigestor no cultivo hidropônico do meloeiro, desenvolveu-se a presente pesquisa. O experimento foi conduzido no Departamento de Engenharia Rural da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias da UNESP, campus de Jaboticabal, cultivando-se o meloeiro (Cucumis melo L. cv. Bonus nº 2. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualisados, com 6 repetições, cujos tratamentos foram: 1 cultivo hidropônico em sistema fechado tipo NFT ("nutrient film technique" com uso de solução nutritiva organo-mineral (biofertilizante com complementação mineral; 2 cultivo hidropônico em sistema fechado tipo NFT, com uso de solução nutritiva 100% mineral; 3 cultivo hidropônico em sistema aberto, com substrato e solução nutritiva organo-mineral e 4 cultivo hidropônico em sistema aberto, com substrato e solução nutritiva 100% mineral. O biofertilizante e o substrato foram obtidos a partir do efluente de biodigestor, produzido com estrume bovino. As plantas cultivadas no tratamento 1 tiveram desenvolvimento prejudicado, devido ao acúmulo de partículas sólidas junto ao sistema radicular. O tratamento 2 proporcionou às plantas desenvolvimento vegetativo mais rápido e maior produtividade. Os frutos produzidos no tratamento 2 apresentaram maior peso, formato mais alongado e maior teor de sólidos solúveis totais. A substituição parcial de adubos minerais por biofertilizante mostrou-se possível em sistema hidropônico aberto com substrato.With the objective to use effluent of biodigestor in the hydroponic cultivation, an experiment was conducted in the Department of Rural Engineering Faculty of Agricultural and Veterenary Sciences of UNESP, campus of Jaboticabal where a melon crop (Cucumis melo L. cv. Bonus nº 2 was cultivated. The experimental design used was a randomized blocks, with 6 repetitions and the treatments studied were: 1 hydroponic cultivation in closed system type NFT

  18. Produção e qualidade de melão influenciados por matéria orgânica, nitrogênio e micronutrientes Effects of organic matter, nitrogen and micronutrients on yield and quality of melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    lementino Marcos Batista de Faria

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência de nitrogênio, boro, molibdênio e zinco aplicados por fertirrigação e adição de esterco de gado ao solo sobre a produtividade e qualidade dos frutos de melão (Cucumis melo, em dois solos do Submédio São Francisco. Foram realizados seis experimentos nos anos de 1998, 1999 e 2000, sendo três num Latossolo Vermelho-amarelo, textura arenosa, em Petrolina (PE e três num Vertissolo, em Juazeiro (BA. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e nove tratamentos, assim constituídos: 1- N1, 2- N2, 3- N3, 4- N1 + EG, 5- N2 + EG, 6- N2 + (B + Mo + Zn, 7- N2 + (B + Mo, 8- N2 + (B + Zn e 9- N2 + (Mo +Zn, em que N1, N2 e N3 representam 0 ou 30, 80 e 160 kg ha-1 de N, respectivamente; EG, 20 m³ ha-1 de esterco de gado; B, 1,1 kg ha-1 de B; Mo, 0,4 kg ha-1 de Mo e Zn, 4 kg/ha de Zn. O N e os micronutrientes foram aplicados via água de irrigação. A produtividade do melão apresentou resposta a nitrogênio no Latossolo em 1998 e 2000 e no Vertissolo em 1999. Foi com 80 kg/ha de N que se obtiveram produtividade significativamente superior (32,0 a 40,2 t ha-1 em maior ocorrência dos experimentos. O EG provocou aumentos significativos apenas na produtividadede frutos, em 1998 e no peso médio dos frutos (PMF em 2000, no Vertissolo. O teor de sólidos solúveis dos frutos aumentou com a aplicação de N no Latossolo, em 2000. Os micronutrientes não exerceram efeito significativo consistente. Em dois anos, o Vertissolo proporcionou PMF superior ao do Latossolo.The effects of nitrogen, boron, molybdenum and zinc applied as fertigation, and cattle manure applied to the soil, were evaluated on the yield and quality of melon (Cucumis melo in two types of soils of the Submedio São Francisco River Valley, Brazil. Six experiments were carried out in 1998, 1999 and 2000, three being in a red yellow Latosoil in Petrolina, and three in a Vertisoil, in Juazeiro, in a randomized complete block design

  19. 'Egusi' Melon, Citrullus lanatus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Lee, Y.K., Chung, W.I. and Ezura, H., (2003). Efficient plant regeneration via organogenesis in winter squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch). Plant Science 164: 413–418. Ntui, V.O. and Uyoh, E.A. (2005). Inheritance of stripe pattern on fruits and seed colour in ''Egusi'' melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.). Glob. J. Agri. Sci. 4, 29–32.

  20. Cultivation and uses of cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated cucurbits have spread through trade and exploration from their respective Old and New World centers of origin to the six arable continents and are important in local, regional and world trade. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), melon (Cucumis melo L.), pumpkin, squash and gourd (Cucurbita spp...

  1. Researches about selecting resistant melon types to fusarium oxyporum f. sp.melonis race 1,2 by using tissue culture and mutation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is a vascular disease of the Cucurbitaceae family caused by the soil fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (FOM), which is very detrimental to muskmelons (Cucumis melo L.). Fusarium wilt of melon is prevalent in temperate and tropical regions and causes a worldwide problem. FOM can survive in the soil for extended periods of time as chlamydospores, and is capable of colonizing crop residues and roots of most crops grown in rotation with melon. The only effective control is the use of resistant varieties. Four races of FOM have been identified, namely 0, 1, 2 and 1.2. Race 1.2 was further subdivided into race 1.2y and 1.2w, which cause yellowing and wilt symptoms, respectively. Two resistance genes (Fom-1 and Fom-2) have been identified in melons. Fom-1 confers resistance to FOM races 0 and 2, and Fom-2 confers resistance to races 0 and 1. These two genes are extensively used in breeding programmes, which can be assisted by marker assisted selection using markers linked to these resistance genes. No genes have been identified that confer resistance to race 1.2. However, polygenic recessive genes have been found to confer resistance to race 1.2 in Piboule genotypes. Melon production in Turkey is 1,700,000 tons and it is declining the year after year because of Fusarium wilt. Therefore, Fusarium wilt has a high economic importance in the cultivation of muskmelon in Turkey. In some parts of Turkey the prevalent races of this pathogen were determined. FOM has caused severe losses for farmers as our native cultivars are not resistant to this disease. It is believed our native cultivars will disappear if resistance to FOM is not introduced into the cultivated material. For this reason, many scientists in Turkey are focusing on research to develop new resistant cultivars via conventional and biotechnological breeding methods. In vitro techniques became widely spread during the 20th century, and their potential to make important contributions to plant

  2. Pectin from muskmelon (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus) peels: extraction optimization and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumaran, Chandrasekaran; Banupriya, Loganathan; Harinee, Somasundharam; Sivaranjani, Sivagurunathan; Sharmila, Govindasamy; Rajasekar, Vinayagam; Kumar, Narasimhan Manoj

    2017-05-01

    Pectin derived from plant waste sources is currently focused as an economical and eco-friendly approach. Optimization of pectin extraction from muskmelon peel by response surface methodology (RSM) was investigated in this study. Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was used to identify the optimal level of the extraction variables such as time, pH and temperature. A second-order model equation for pectin extraction was obtained from multiple regression analysis of experimental data with the correlation coefficient (R 2 ) value of 0.92. ANOVA results showed that linear effect of temperature and combined effect of pH with temperature were found significant for pectin extraction from muskmelon peel. Validation results had good agreement with the predicted results. Pectin extracted from muskmelon peel was classed as high methoxy pectin with the equivalent weight of 384.5 g/mol. Non-newtonian pseudoplastic flow behaviour was observed for muskmelon pectin from the viscosity studies.

  3. RESPUESTA DE 14 CULTIVARES DE MELÓN (Cucumis melo L. AL CLETODIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Luis Lor\\u00EDa-Quir\\u00F3s

    2009-01-01

    afectados por este herbicida; mientras que los cultivares del tipo cantaloupe fueron ligeramente más susceptibles. Los cultivares se recuperaron dos semanas después de la aplicación. Otras variables como número de hojas y guías, área foliar, biomasa de tallos y hojas no fueron afectadas por el cletodim. Bajo las condiciones de evaluación y desde el punto de vista de selectividad, se sugiere que es posible utilizar cletodim en un rango de dosis de 36 a 84 g ia/ha en los cultivares de melón evaluados.

  4. Correlated response of in vitro regeneration capacity from different source of explants inCucumis melo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, R V; Nuez, F

    1995-01-01

    The variation among and within different populations of the regeneration ability from leaf, cotyledon and hypocotyl explants has been studied. A control population and two lines selected by their regeneration capacity from leaf explants were used. Significant differences among the plants of the control population,for the organogenic response, were detected. The regeneration capacity varies depending on the type of explant. Selection in order to improve the regeneration frequency from leaf explants also raises the organogenic response in the other explant types. This result suggests the presence of a partial common genetic system controlling the regeneration frequency of the diverse types of explants.

  5. Screening of Furanone in Cucurbita melo and Evaluation of its Bioactive Potential Using In Silico Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nidhi; Sudandiradoss, C; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2016-12-01

    The work presented here attempts to screen for the presence of 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone in fruits and also any bioactive potential present in the fruit extracts. Curcurbita melo was selected for the study, and the fruit was crushed, filtered and extracted with ethyl acetate as the solvent. The resulting extract was subjected to disk diffusion test using Kirby Bauer method for checking its antimicrobial potential. Melon extract showed promising results against different clinical pathogens, 19-mm zone being the largest against Klebsiella pneumoniae and 17 mm against Shigella dysenteriae. GC-MS data of the melon extract confirmed the existence of furanone derivative in the extract. To evaluate the antimicrobial activity, in silico studies were performed using AutoDock 4.0 software, and topoisomerase was used as the target protein molecule for the isolated compound and 3-methyl-2-(2-oxopropyl)furan as the ligand. Further, the results were interpreted using PyMol and Ligplot plus softwares. The results confirmed the presence of molecular interactions between the protein molecule and the ligand. It can be envisaged that these interactions are responsible for the inhibitory effects of the extract .

  6. Conservação pós-colheita de melão Charentais tratado com 1-MCP e armazenado sob refrigeração e atmosfera modificada Postharvest conservation of charentais melons treated with 1-MCP and stored under refrigeration and modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pahlevi A de Souza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar a vida útil pós-colheita de melão tipo Charentais (Cucumis melo L. sob refrigeração, tratados com 1-MCP e associado ou não a atmosfera modificada (AM, foram conduzidos dois experimentos em laboratório da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, Fortaleza-CE. Os frutos foram provenientes da Agroindústria Nolem Comercial Importadora e Exportadora Ltda, localizada no Agropólo Mossoró Açu-RN. Os frutos foram tratados com 300 e 600 ppb de 1-MCP, em seguida, metade desses frutos foram embalados em filmes plásticos, mantendo-se frutos embalados sem aplicação de 1-MCP nas mesmas condições de armazenamento dos demais. Os melões foram armazenados por 21 dias sendo 14 dias (9±1ºC e 87±5% UR + 7 dias (22±2ºC e 70±5% UR. Em função da aparência externa, a vida útil pós-colheita dos frutos armazenados sob atmosfera modificada, com ou sem tratamento inicial de 1-MCP foi de 21 dias, enquanto que dos frutos tratados inicialmente apenas com 1-MCP foi de 19 dias. A aplicação do 1-MCP proporcionou redução na atividade respiratória e na produção de etileno, e maior retenção da firmeza da polpa, menor perda de massa e melhor aparência externa quando associado a atmosfera modificada. A atmosfera modificada, isoladamente, foi eficiente em reduzir a perda de massa e manter melhor aparência externa.Aiming to evaluate the postharvest shelf life of Charentais melon (Cucumis melo L. stored under refrigeration, the fruits were treated with 1-MCP, associated or not with modified atmosphere (MAP. Two experiments were carried out at the laboratory of Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical in Fortaleza, Brazil, analyzing the chemical and physic quality characteristics. The fruits were obtained at the Agroindústria Nolem Comercial Importadora e Exportadora Ltda, located in Mossoró Açu, Brazil. The fruits were treated with 300 and 600 nL L-1 of 1-MCP, half of those were wrapped in plastic films, which were wrapped without the use of 1

  7. Avaliação do processo de impregnação a vácuo em melão, utilizando diferentes substâncias Evaluation of the process of vacuum impregnation in melon using different substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciu José Reno

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cortes cilíndricos de melões (Cucumis melo var. inodorus Naudin tipo amarelo foram submetidos à impregnação com soluções de cloreto de cálcio (0,5 g.100 mL-1 de solução, adicionadas de amido gelatinizado (0, 5 e 10 g.100 mL-1 de solução e glicose (0, 10 e 20 g.100 mL-1 de solução, com pressão de vácuo (84,4; 50,5 e 16,6 kPa controlada. Foram feitas medidas do teor de sólidos solúveis totais, perda ou incorporação de componentes e textura de pedaços dos melões antes e após impregnação a vácuo. As variações desses parâmetros foram calculadas em relação aos do fruto original. Alterações na viscosidade das soluções devido aos processamentos também foram quantificadas. A existência de processos sinergísticos entre os fluxos de solutos do fruto e da solução pode ser constatada e analisada através de superfícies de resposta para as diferentes pressões, em função das concentrações de amido gelatinizado e de glicose nas soluções. A mobilidade molecular dos componentes do fruto e da solução em relação à viscosidade foi discutida.Cylindrical cuts of melon (Cucumis melo var inodorus Naudin, yellow type were submitted to impregnation with calcium chloride solutions (0.5 g.100 mL-1 of solution added with gelatinized starch (0. 5 and 10 g.100 mL-1 of solution and glucose (0. 10 and 20 g.100 mL-1 of solution with controlled vacuum pressure (84.4; 50.5 and 16.6 kPa. Measurements of the total soluble solids, incorporation or loss components (turgidity and texture of melon slices were made before and after vacuum impregnation. Quality parameter variations were calculated in relation to the original fruit. Alterations in the viscosity of the solutions during the processing had been also quantified. The existence of synergistic processes between the solute flows from the fruit and from the solution was evident and could be analyzed using response surfaces for the different pressures as a function of the glucose

  8. Reação de genótipos de meloeiro a Myrothecium Reaction of melon genotypes to Myrothecium roridum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissônia A Noronha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A expansão da cultura do meloeiro (Cucumis melo L. no Nordeste brasileiro tem favorecido a ocorrência de doenças como o cancro-de-mirotécio, causado pelo fungo Myrothecium roridum. Visando selecionar genótipos com potencial de utilização nos programas de melhoramento e/ou no manejo integrado da doença, foram avaliados 150 genótipos de meloeiro. Plantas com 22 dias de idade, desenvolvidas em casa de vegetação, foram feridas no colo e inoculadas com uma suspensão do patógeno (3x10(6 conídios/ml. As avaliações foram realizadas diariamente, até seis dias após a retirada da câmara úmida, com o auxílio de uma escala descritiva de notas de 0 a 4. Com os dados da última avaliação, os genótipos foram distribuídos em cinco classes de reação à doença. Nenhum genótipo foi imune ou altamente resistente ao patógeno, enquanto 26,7% foram medianamente resistentes (MR e 73,3% foram suscetíveis (S ou altamente suscetíveis (AS. Esses resultados evidenciam a dificuldade na obtenção de fontes com elevados níveis de resistência a M. roridum. Os grupos Cantaloupe, Charentais, Gália e 'Indefinido' apresentaram a maior freqüência de genótipos com a reação MR e a menor freqüência de genótipos AS. A maioria dos genótipos dos grupos Valenciano Verde (66,7%, Cantaloupe (57,4%, Gália (60,0% e 'Indefinido' (53,8% foram S. Os genótipos 'PI 420149', 'Caroline', 'A3', 'Chilton' e 'PS-1 Pele de Sapo' apresentaram os menores valores de severidade final da doença e mostraram-se promissoras fontes de resistência ao patógeno e devem ser preferidos sob condições favoráveis à doença.The expansion of the melon (Cucumis melo L. fields in the Brazilian Northeast favored the occurrence of diseases such as the Myrothecium stem canker caused by the fungus Myrothecium roridum. In order to select genotypes with potential use in genetic breeding programs and in integrated disease management, 150 melon genotypes were evaluated. Twenty

  9. Fontes e métodos de aplicação de fósforo na cultura do melão Sources and application methods of phosphorus on the melon crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Teixeira de Lima Brito

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Em Petrolina, PE, foi realizado um estudo com a cultura do melão (Cucumis melo L., cultivar Valenciano Amarelo, num Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de fontes de fósforo aplicadas convencionalmente (em fundação e via água de irrigação. O experimento consistiu de cinco tratamentos: 1. superfosfato simples; 2. MAP (fosfato monoamônico, aplicados pelo método convencional (em fundação; 3. MAP aplicado até 15 dias após a germinação; 4. MAP aplicado até 30 dias após a germinação e 5. MAP aplicado até 42 dias após a germinação. Nos tratamentos 3, 4 e 5 o MAP foi aplicado via água de irrigação. Os tratamentos receberam a mesma dosagem de fósforo (120 kg/ha de P2O5, conforme recomendado pela análise do solo. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Constatou-se que as maiores produtividades de frutos comerciais foram obtidas com MAP (27,42 t/ha e com superfosfato simples (25,96 t/ha aplicados pelo método convencional, não diferindo do MAP aplicado via água de irrigação até 30 e 42 dias após a germinação, mas superando a produtividade de 19,47 t/ha obtida com o MAP aplicado via água de irrigação até 15 dias após a germinação. Verificou-se que as fontes de fósforo e os modos de aplicação não influenciaram no peso médio dos frutos (1,86 kg/fruto -- 89,40% dos frutos obtidos enquadraram-se nos tipos 6 e 8 -- e no teor de sólidos solúveis nos frutos por ocasião da colheita, cujos valores oscilaram entre 12,75 e 13,17º Brix.This study was carried out at Petrolina, PE, Brazil, with the objective of evaluating the effect of two sources of phosphorus applied conventionally and through trickle water irrigation on melon (Cucumis melo L., cv. Valenciano Amarelo. The experiment was run in a randomized complete blocks design, with four replications and five treatments: 1. simple superphosphate; 2. monoammonium phosphate (MAP applied

  10. Modificações dos componentes de parede celular do melão tipo Galia durante o armazenamento sob refrigeração Cell wall components changes in 'Galia' melons during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josivan B. MENEZES

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa avaliou as modificações dos componentes estruturais de parede celular do melão tipo Galia (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus durante o armazenamento refrigerado (7°C±1, UR: 88% ±3. O material de parede celular e suas frações foram determinados por gravimetria. Determinou-se o conteúdo de açúcares neutros na fração hemicelulósica e no resíduo celulósico, o teor de ácidos urônicos e o grau de esterificação na fração de substâncias pécticas, e o teor de cálcio total e ligado. A fração de substâncias pécticas foi submetida à cromatografia de filtração em gel e os açúcares neutros da fração hemicelulósica foram analisados por cromatografia a gás. O conteúdo de material de parede celular mostrou pouca variação durante o armazenamento. As variações mais expressivas foram registradas nas frações isoladas da parede celular (fração de substâncias pécticas, fração hemicelulósica e fração celulósica, sendo que para as duas primeiras verificou-se redução durante o armazenamento e para a última observou-se elevação. O conteúdo de açúcares neutros não celulósicos mostrou tendência de redução apenas durante as duas semanas iniciais de armazenamento. Praticamente, não houve alteração no grau de esterificação e nos conteúdos de cálcio total e cálcio ligado. A principal característica foi a manutenção dos níveis de xilose e glicose na parede celular, o que indicou constância do polímero xiloglucana.This research evaluated changes in the cell wall components in ‘Galia’ melons (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus during refrigerated storage (7°C±1, RH: 88% ±3. Cell wall material and their fractions were determined by gravimetry method. Neutral sugars in hemicellulosic fraction and cellulosic residue, uronic acids content and degree of esterification in pectic fraction, , total calcium and bound calcium were analyzed. The pectic fraction was analyzed by gel

  11. The Effect of Different Cucurbit Rootstocks on Some Morphological and Physiological Traits of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Super Dominus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reihane Mesgari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cucumber is one of the most important vegetable crops for the local consumption and exportation. The use of grafted vegetable seedlings has been popular in many countries during recent years. Growing fruit-bearing vegetables, chiefly tomato, cucumber and watermelon through grafted seedlings become a widespread practice worldwide. Grafting is a valuable technique to avoid soil-borne diseases, provide biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, enhance nutrient uptake, optimize water use, and increase fruit yield and quality. Vegetable grafting is a new topic in Iran and there are a limited number of studies on grafted vegetable production. However, attention to grafting by researchers has recently increased. Suitable rootstocks should be identified and characterized for the effective utilization of grafting. The rootstock's vigorous root system increases the efficiency of water and nutrient absorption, and may also serve as a source of endogenous plant hormones, thus leading to increased growth and yield in addition to disease control. In the present study, we investigated the response of two Cucurbita sp. and an Iranian melon as rootstocks for cucumber. Materials and methods: In order to study the effect of cucurbit rootstocks and grafting method on growth, yield and fruit quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Super Dominus, an experiment was conducted as a factorial design in the base of RCBD with three replications in the greenhouse and research farm, University of Zanjan. Treatments were included three rootstocks (Cucurbita moschata L., Lagenaria siceraria and Cucumis melo L. and ungrafted plants (control and two grafting method (hole insertion and splice grafting. Seeds were sown simultaneously in plastic pots. For obtaining the same stem diameter of scion and rootstocks, cucumber seeds were planted four days earlier than rootstocks seeds. The seedlings were grown in an environment-controlled greenhouse with 25/20 day

  12. The effect of acoustic system variables on sound signals of Melon varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Khoshnam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cucumis melo includes a wide range of varieties. The acoustic is production, transmission and energy received form medium vibrations. Acoustic or sonic tests applies for grading productions, ripening determination of fruit firmness and sorting of broken eggs and so on in agriculture. Currently these methods are generalized for measuring non-spherical fruits properties. The primary objective of the present research was to investigate the effect of acoustic system variables such as impact places, impactor material type, pendulum angle and sound level meter position on acoustics response of two different melon varieties, including Zard-Eyvanekey and Sousky-Sabz. These results can be useful for designing acoustic implements related to agricultural products. Materials and Methods This research was conducted on 65 samples of Zard-Eyvanekey and Sousky-Sabz varieties (export varieties. A laboratory recording system used to acquire the acoustic impulse information that was comprised a mechanical excitement mechanism (an impactor such as pendulum, sound level meter, a lap-top computer and software to control the experimental setup and to analyze its results (Cool Edit Pro 2.0 Software, and melon-bed. The impactor consists of diameter and long copper rod 3 mm and 256 mm, respectively. The ball mass was 72.13 gram. The acoustic signal was sensed by a sound level meter (SLM type 2270 B&K company Denmark. The samples locate on soft cushion for keeping because this bed prevents vibration distortion and causes free vibration. We consider three measurements on equator or mid-section of each fruit (approximately 120 degree for diminishing inherent diversity of sample shapes. The sound level meter was placed at a distance of 2-5 mm from the fruit surface. The effects of sound level meter, impactor ball and pendulum angle on sound signals were investigated. The effects of other parameters were analyzed by factorial test in randomized complete plot by

  13. Bitter melon: antagonist to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerurkar, Pratibha; Ray, Ratna B

    2010-06-01

    The incidence of cancer is increasing worldwide, in spite of substantial progress in the development of anti-cancer therapies. One approach to control cancer could be its prevention by diet, which inhibits one or more neoplastic events and reduces cancer risk. Dietary compounds offer great potential in the fight against cancer by inhibiting the carcinogenesis process through the regulation of cell homeostasis and cell-death machineries. For centuries, Ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine) has recommended the use of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) as a functional food to prevent and treat diabetes and associated complications. It is noteworthy to mention that bitter melon extract has no-to-low side effects in animals as well as in humans. The anti-tumor activity of bitter melon has recently begun to emerge. This review focuses on recent advancements in cancer chemopreventive and anti-cancer efficacy of bitter melon and its active constituents. Several groups of investigators have reported that treatment of bitter-melon-related products in a number of cancer cell lines induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis without affecting normal cell growth. Therefore, the effect of bitter melon should be beneficial for health, and use of the non-modified dietary product is cost effective.

  14. Effect of green manure and Trichoderma harzianum on the survival of Fusarium solani and on development in the melon= Efeito de adubo verde e Trichoderma harzianum na sobrevivência de Fusarium solani e no desenvolvimento do meloeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joacy Fonsêca Neto

    2016-06-01

    . harzianum e C. juncea, na proporção de 1% peso/volume. Também foi utilizada uma bolsa de tecido sintético, contendo inóculo de F. solani, que foi enterrada a 5 cm de profundidade. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x4, solo infestado e não infestado com F. solani, além de solo sem material vegetal e sem T. harzianum; solo com crotalária; solo com T. harzianum; solo com crotalária e T. harzianum; e nove repetições; cada vaso representou uma unidade experimental. Foram avaliadas a sobrevivência do F. solani e as variáveis de crescimento do meloeiro. A incorporação de C. juncea e T. harzianum de forma isolada ou a interação deles reduz a sobrevivência de F. solani. Além disso, a incorporação de C. juncea ao solo propicia maior acúmulo de matéria fresca e seca da parte aérea do meloeiro. . Cucumis melo.

  15. Temas de Historia: El golpe de Melo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Serpa Flórez

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available El 16 de abril de 1854, en las horas de la noche, el general José María Melo, comandante general del ejército, se apoderó de los cuarteles de Bogotá. Al día siguiente, por la mañana, envió una comisión ante el Presidente de la República, José María Obando, a ofrecerle la dictadura. El presidente rechazó tal propuesta y convocó al Consejo de Gobierno, al vicepresidente José de Obaldía, al Procurador General de la Nación y al designado, general Tomás Herrera, para estudiar la situación.

  16. EcoTILLING for the identification of allelic variants of melon eIF4E, a factor that controls virus susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Mas Jordi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Translation initiation factors of the 4E and 4G protein families mediate resistance to several RNA plant viruses in the natural diversity of crops. Particularly, a single point mutation in melon eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E controls resistance to Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV in melon. Identification of allelic variants within natural populations by EcoTILLING has become a rapid genotype discovery method. Results A collection of Cucumis spp. was characterised for susceptibility to MNSV and Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV and used for the implementation of EcoTILLING to identify new allelic variants of eIF4E. A high conservation of eIF4E exonic regions was found, with six polymorphic sites identified out of EcoTILLING 113 accessions. Sequencing of regions surrounding polymorphisms revealed that all of them corresponded to silent nucleotide changes and just one to a non-silent change correlating with MNSV resistance. Except for the MNSV case, no correlation was found between variation of eIF4E and virus resistance, suggesting the implication of different and/or additional genes in previously identified resistance phenotypes. We have also characterized a new allele of eIF4E from Cucumis zeyheri, a wild relative of melon. Functional analyses suggested that this new eIF4E allele might be responsible for resistance to MNSV. Conclusion This study shows the applicability of EcoTILLING in Cucumis spp., but given the conservation of eIF4E, new candidate genes should probably be considered to identify new sources of resistance to plant viruses. Part of the methodology described here could alternatively be used in TILLING experiments that serve to generate new eIF4E alleles.

  17. Efeito do ambiente protegido cultivado com melão sobre os elementos meteorológicos e sua relação com as condições externas Effect of greenhouse cultivated with melon crop under meteorological elements and its relationship with external conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A. N. Vásquez

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito do ambiente protegido cultivado com melão (Cucumis melo L. sobre os elementos meteorológicos e sua relação com as condições externas. O experimento foi conduzido no período de 5-10-2001 a 7-1-2002, em estufa plástica de 420 m², construída com estrutura metálica galvanizada, com dois vãos de altura central de 4,6 m e lateral de 3,0 m, composto de quatro janelas frontais, cobertas com filme de polietileno transparente de alta densidade, com aditivo ultravioleta e espessura de 150 µm. A irrigação foi efetuada por gotejamento, com lâmina total de 279,6 mm, manejada utilizando um minitanque instalado no interior do ambiente. Os elementos meteorológicos foram obtidos por sistema de aquisição automático instalado no interior do ambiente protegido e, externamente, com medidas da radiação global, temperatura e umidade relativa do ar. Verificou-se que a radiação solar global e a umidade relativa no ambiente protegido foram, em média, inferiores às condições externas, enquanto a temperatura foi superior no período analisado. A relação entre os elementos meteorológicos medidos externamente e no interior do ambiente protegido foi expressa por meio de equações de regressão linear e quadrática.The objective of this research was to study the effect of greenhouse cultivated with melon (Cucumis melo L. under meteorological elements and its relationship with external conditions. The study was carried out during the period of October 5, 2001 to January 7, 2002. The greenhouse had 420 m², constructed in galvanized metallic structure with two voids, height in the central part of 4.6 m and lateral of 3.0 m, having four front windows covered with a film of transparent polyethylene of high density with addictive ultraviolet and thickness of 150 µm. A drip irrigation system was used with a total water depth of 279.6 mm applied. The irrigation management was done through a small

  18. Efeito da concentração de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva e do número de frutos por planta sobre a produção do meloeiro Effect of nitrogen concentration in nutrient solution and number of fruits per plant on yield of melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe V. Purquerio

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, na UNESP em Jaboticabal (SP, de junho a novembro de 2001, com o objetivo de avaliar a produção do melão (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus, híbrido Bônus nº2, cultivado em sistema hidropônico NFT, em função da concentração de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva (80, 140, 200 e 300 mg L-1 e número de frutos por planta (2, 3, 4 e livre. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas, com seis repetições. Aos 80 dias após o transplantio, foram observados 2, 3, 4 e 5,1 frutos por planta e, posteriormente na colheita, 2, 2,9, 3,0 e 3,4 frutos por planta, respectivamente para os tratamentos com 2, 3, 4 e fixação livre, sendo esta redução atribuída ao abortamento de frutos. Houve redução no peso médio do 1º, 2º e 3º fruto colhido, com o aumento da concentração de nitrogênio. Plantas com o menor número de frutos, apresentaram maior peso médio dos mesmos, porém com menor produção por planta. A maior produção (2.474 g/planta foi obtida com 80 mg L-1 de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva.The effects of different nitrogen concentrations (80; 140; 200 and 300 mg L-1 and fruit number per plant (2; 3; 4 and free setting, were investigated on net melon production (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus, Bonus nº 2 hybrid. The experiment was carried out in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil, in NFT hydroponic system, from June to November, 2001. The experimental design was of randomized split plots, replicated six times. At 80 days after seedling transplant 2; 3; 4 and 5.1 fruits per plant were found. However, at harvest there were 2; 2.9; 3.0 and 3.4 fruits per plant, relative to 2; 3; 4 and free setting per plant treatment. This observed fruit reduction was attributed to fruit abortion. With the increase of nitrogen concentrations a reduction in first, second and third fruit weight was found. Plants with fewer fruits, produced higher average

  19. The cucurbits of mediterranean antiquity: identification of taxa from ancient images and descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janick, Jules; Paris, Harry S; Parrish, David C

    2007-12-01

    A critical analysis was made of cucurbit descriptions in Dioscorides' De Materia Medica, Columella's De Re Rustica and Pliny's Historia Naturalis, works on medicine, agriculture and natural science of the 1st century ce, as well as the Mishna and Tosefta, compilations of rabbinic law derived from the same time period together with cucurbit images dating from antiquity including paintings, mosaics and sculpture. The goal was to identify taxonomically the Mediterranean cucurbits at the time of the Roman Empire. By ancient times, long-fruited forms of Cucumis melo (melon) and Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd) were selected, cultivated and used as vegetables around the Mediterranean and, in addition, bottle-shaped fruits of L. siceraria were employed as vessels. Citrullus lanatus (watermelons) and round-fruited forms of Cucumis melo (melons) were also consumed, but less commonly. A number of cucurbit species, including Bryonia alba, B. dioica, Citrullus colocynthis and Ecballium elaterium, were employed for medicinal purposes. No unequivocal evidence was found to suggest the presence of Cucumis sativus (cucumber) in the Mediterranean area during this era. The cucumis of Columella and Pliny was not cucumber, as commonly translated, but Cucumis melo subsp. melo Flexuosus Group (snake melon or vegetable melon).

  20. Current status of MELOS1 Mars exploration planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Takehiko; Imamura, Takeshi; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Yamagishi, Akihiko; Okada, Tatsuaki; Kubota, Takashi; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Fujita, Kazuhisa; Oyama, Akira

    2012-07-01

    MELOS (an acronym of Mars Exploration with Lander-Orbiter Synergy) is Japan's new and ambitious plan for a series of Mars exploration missions. The ultimate goal of the MELOS series missions is to understand the solid planet, the surface processes, the atmosphere, and its surrounding plasma environment as one integrated system. This, of course, requires multiple missions of orbiters and landers, equipped with various instruments. The first of the MELOS series, MELOS1, is currently under planning. The mission consists of two elements: an orbiter and an entry-descent-landing (EDL) demonstrator. The scientific objective of the orbiter is the spatial and temporal variability of Martian dust, which have significant effect on the Martian climate through a variety of processes, such as heating of atmosphere by absorption of the sunlight, etc. To continuously monitor the evolution of dust storms, the orbit (near equatorial, as opposed to polar orbits in most missions) is so designed (1) that enables the orbiter nearly in synchronization with the planet's rotation when it is around the apocenter, and (2) that the apocenter's local time is always maintained near the noon. The instruments on board MELOS1 include the imaging polarimeter (visible wavelengths), the thermal-infrared camera, the sub-mm sounder, plus the ultra-stable oscillator for the radio occultation science. The EDL demonstrator will primarily perform experiments of engineering aspects, while a small portion of its payload will be available for scientific experiments. Current proposals include the interior-structure study, the astro-biological experiments, and the surface-geology study. The selection will take place in this year and the MELOS1 mission will be proposed for the launch around 2020. We welcome inputs from the world Mars science community and/or contributed instruments that require and benefit from MELOS1's unique orbit.

  1. Technical Efficiency of Wet Season Melon Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananti Yekti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Melon is one of high-value horticulture commodity which is cultivated widely in Kulon Progo regency. The nature of agricultural products is heavily dependent on the season, so it causes the prices of agricultural products always fluctuated every time. In wet season the price of agricultural products tends to be more expensive. Melon cultivation in wet season provide an opportunity to earn higher profits than in the dry season. The price of agricultural products tends to be more expensive in wet season, thus melon cultivation in wet season prospectively generate high profits. In order to achieve high profitability, melon farming has to be done efficiently. Objective of this study was to 1 determined the factors that influence melon production in wet season 2 measured technical efficiency of melon farming and 3 identified the factors that influanced technical efficiency. Data collected during April – June 2014. Location determined by multistage cluster sampling. 45 samples of farmers who cultivated melon during wet season obtained based on quota sampling technique. Technical efficiency was measured using Cobb-Douglas Stochastic Frontier. The result reveals that 1 land use, quantity of seed, K fertilizer contributed significantly increasing melon production, while N fertilizer decreased melon production significantly 2 technical efficiency indeces ranged from 0.40 to 0.99, with a mean of  0.77; 3 farmer’s experience gave significant influence to technical efficiency of melon farming in wet season.

  2. The possible origin of Cucumis anguria L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuse, A.D.J.

    1958-01-01

    Cucumis anguria L., the “West India Gherkin” or “Bur Gherkin”, is a cultigen known to have occurred in the West Indies in a cultivated or more or less adventitious state since before 1650 when the first accounts of this plant were published (1, 2). The occurrence of a single species of this old

  3. Performance of different greenhouse cucumber cultivars (Cucumis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 2 year trial was conducted with 15 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) varieties from diverse origins in the greenhouse conditions (southern Iran) to study genetic variation and to identify genetically distant parents to be involved in a hybrid seed production as well as to identify the most effective components of grain yield.

  4. Nutrient uptake by greenhouse net melonAcúmulo de nutrientes e rendimento de óleo em plantas de girassol influenciados pelo vigor dos aquênios e pela densidade de semeadura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana da Silva Cardoso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available For presenting more commercial value, the net melon (Cucumis melo L. var reticulatus Naud. has been an option of greenhouse planting for the horticulturists. This work was carried out in Piracicaba, Brazil with the aim of evaluating the nutrient uptake from this melon cultivated in greenhouse. To obtain the nutrients accumulation in the different stages of the plant development, plants were collected in the transplant day (seedling, in the vegetative stage, in the beginning of the flowering stage, in the beginning and in the middle of fruit production period and in the harvest period. It was verified that the greatest increase of nutrient uptake happened between the beginning of the flowering and the beginning of the fruit production. The greatest dry matter accumulation happened between the beginning of the fruit production and the middle of fruit production period. The decrescent order of nutrients accumulated in the above ground part of the plant was: potassium > nitrogen > calcium > magnesium > sulphur > phosphorus > iron > manganese > zinc > copper ~ boron. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o acúmulo de nutrientes e o rendimento de óleo dos aquênios em plantas de girassol produzidas sob a influência do vigor dos aquênios e da densidade de semeadura. Para isto, foi instalado um experimento no campo experimental no município de Seropédica/RJ, em outubro de 2006, com três distintos lotes de aquênios de girassol cv Embrapa 122 V2000, classificados como de baixo, de médio e de alto vigor, sob duas densidades de semeadura (45.000 e 75.000 sementes ha-1. Aos 20, 60 e 100 dias após a semeadura (DAS, foram coletadas as plantas para avaliação da massa de matéria seca e do acúmulo de nitrogênio, de fósforo, de potássio e de cálcio, no caule, nas folhas e nos capítulos. Nas plantas coletadas aos 100 DAS, foi feita também a avaliação do rendimento de aquênios (kg ha-1, do teor de óleo e do rendimento de óleo (kg ha-1. Observou

  5. Serological and molecular detection and prevalence of Cucurbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the 2009 growing seasons, virus-like symptoms were noticed on cucurbit crops (melons (Cucumis melo L.) and watermelons [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai)] grown in the Sistan region. The symptoms were widespread and included initial chlorotic lesions followed by yellowing of whole leaves and ...

  6. Effect of chromium toxicity on germination and early seedling growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-19

    Jul 19, 2010 ... This study was conducted to determine and compare the inhibitory effects of chromium on seed germination and early seedling growth of melon (Cucumis melo L.). Chromium applications were controls; 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200 and 300 mgl-1 Cr in germination stage, and controls; 2.5, 5, 10,. 20, 30 ...

  7. Serological and molecular detection and prevalence of Cucurbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl2

    2012-08-21

    Aug 21, 2012 ... During the 2009 growing seasons, virus-like symptoms were noticed on cucurbit crops (melons. (Cucumis melo L.) and watermelons [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai)] grown in the Sistan region. The symptoms were widespread and included initial chlorotic lesions followed by yellowing of.

  8. Plectosphaerella species associated with root and collar rots of horticultural crops in southern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlucci, A.; Raimondo, M.L.; Santos, J.; Phillips, A.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Plectosphaerella cucumerina, most frequently encountered in its Plectosporium state, is well known as a pathogen of several plant species causing fruit, root and collar rot, and collapse. It is considered to pose a serious threat to melon (Cucumis melo) production in Italy. In the present study, an

  9. Podosphaera xanthii but not Golovinomyces cichoracearum infects Cucurbits in a Greenhouse at Salinas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two fungal species are the primary causes of cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM): Podosphaera xanthii and Golovinomyces cichoracearum. CPM on melon (Cucumis melo L.), cucumber (C. sativus L.) and summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) in a greenhouse at Salinas, California in winter 2011 was confirmed to be in...

  10. Efficient plant regeneration from cotyledonary node explants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient regeneration system was developed using cotyledonary node of two inbred line of melon, Cucumis melo 'CM-15' and 'CM-23'. The induction of shoots was achieved on Murashige and Skoog (MS) solid medium supplemented with different combinations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and indole- 3-acetic acid ...

  11. Substrato e solução nutritiva desenvolvidos a partir de efluente de biodigestor para cultivo do meloeiro Substrate and nutrient solution developed using a biodigestor effluent for melon cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz V. E. Villela Jr.; Jairo A. C. de Araújo; José C. Barbosa; Luiz R.B. Perez

    2007-01-01

    Buscando a sustentabilidade em uma pequena propriedade agrícola visou-se com o presente estudo, ao aproveitamento do efluente de biodigestor proveniente da fermentação anaeróbia de estrume bovino, no cultivo sem solo do meloeiro. O experimento foi conduzido em Jaboticabal, SP, Brasil, localizado na Latitude 21º 15- 22" S e Longitude 48º 18- 58" W. Cultivou-se o meloeiro (Cucumis melo L. cv. Bonus nº 2) em substrato, com semeadura realizada em outubro de 2003 e se utilizou delineamento experim...

  12. Discriminating Nigerian 'Egusi' melon accessions using agro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Egusi' melon is an important vegetable crop in the tropics and subtropics that is rich in protein, oils and vitamins. Agro-morphological traits, sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were used to evaluate 50 accessions of 'egusi' melon collected from various parts of the ...

  13. Atributos químicos de um argissolo e rendimento de melão mediante o uso de adubos verdes, calagem e adubação Chemical attributes of an argisol and melon yield as affected by green fertilizers, liming and fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clementino Marcos Batista de Faria

    2007-04-01

    Station in Petrolina, state of Pernambuco, from January 1999 to December 2001, on a sandy Yellow Eutrophic Argisol, with the objective of evaluating the effect of green fertilizers associated with liming and mineral and organic fertilization on the soil chemical attributes and the yield and quality of irrigated melon (Cucumis melo. A randomized complete block design with split-plots and four replications was used. The treatments assigned to the main plots were the green fertilizers: (1 corn (Zea mays, with removal of crop residues, as control (MI; (2 black mucuna (Mucuna aterrima (MP; (3 corn + cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (MC and (4 different green fertilizers every year: two successive cultivations of crotalaria (Crotalaria juncea in the first year; pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum + cowpea in toe second year, and crotalaria + cowpea in the third year (RA. In the subplots the treatments were the following: a full lime dose plus mineral and organic fertilization, according to soil analysis (DC and b half of the treatment of "a" (MD. The green fertilizers were grown in the first semester, followed by melon in the second. All green fertilizers increased Ca+2 levels and CEC in the 0-10 cm and 10 - 20 cm soil layers compared to the control (MI, with exception of MP regarding CEC at 0-10 cm. At this depth, there was also an increase in the levels of soil K and organic matter, with exception of the K levels in MC. In the year that melon yield was the highest it was observed that fruit yield in the RA treatment was than those of MP or the control. Likewise, higher yields were obtained with DC than with MD. In the same year, the levels of total soluble solids in the fruits were higher in the treatment with MP than in the control.

  14. Evaluación agronómica de melón (cucumis melo l bajo condiciones de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Borrego

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar las variables más relacionadas con el rendimiento, así como los principales componentes de variación, se establecieron en campo, en Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila, 12 genotipos de melón, en un diseño de Bloques Completos al Azar, con cuatro repeticiones. La parcela experimental fue de dos surcos de cinco metros de largo sembrados a doble hilera. Los genotipos en estudio fueron: híbridos: Primo, Pronto, Challenger, Cheyenne, Hi-Line, Cruiser, Durango, Apache, Laguna, Caravelle y Main Pak, y la variedad Top Mark, testigo; las variables evaluadas fueron: rendimiento (11 variables: cuantitativas y cualitativas; fenológicas (tres variables; agroclimáticas (cinco Variables y fisiológicas (cuatro variables. Se encontraron correlaciones significativas (p<0,05 y negativas, entre rendimiento y precocidad, peso promedio de frutos y número de frutos, así como entre número de frutos y longitud de fruto. Las variables fisiológicas más relacionadas fueron fotosíntesis y uso eficiente del agua. En el análisis de componentes principales, se encontró que hasta el componente tres, se explica el 65% de la varianza. En el componente uno, se encuentra un alto valor en las características de rendimiento (producción, peso y tamaño, por lo que se llamaría “Características Cuantitativas del Rendimiento”. En el componente dos, la mayor variación es el de “Componente de Precocidad”. Los componentes tres al seis, explican en proporciones muy similares las otras variables, siendo en el seis donde se encuentra con mayor valor la fotosíntesis. El análisis de regresión lineal múltiple fue significativo (p<0,057 que, por las condiciones del estudio, se considera adecuado. El rendimiento en t/ha, se explica por una ecuación lineal múltiple (r2=0,99 de 10 variables

  15. Functional method implementation of post-crop conservation of melon cantaloupe, using ionizing radiation as quality control technique in productive chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Alessandra A.Z. Cozzo de; Matraia, Clarice; Walder, Julio Marcos M.; Spoto, Marta H.F.; Silva, Paula P.M. da; Maretti, Marina S.

    2005-01-01

    The Brazilian fruit culture is an alternative to minimize the lack-of-food problem using management and post harvest appropriate techniques. Gamma radiation technology is a possible technique used for food, enlarging its shelf-life, eliminating pathogenic microorganisms and in the quarantine treatment. The irradiation with seven doses (150,300,450,600,750 and 900 Gy) was used in Cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melon var. Cantaloupensis) aiming to establish the minimum, maximum and ideal doses, according to Brazilian laws, analyzing weight, color, firmness, pulp and juice quantity and sensory aspects, using the Difference Control Test. The results indicate that storage influenced significantly the weight, color and pulp quantity parameters. Doses higher than 450 Gy however influenced the firmness, juice quantity and sensory aspects characteristics. These results are indicating that the minimum dose was 150 Gy, the maximum dose was 900 Gy and the ideal dose for the quarantine treatment and to increase shelf-life of the Cantaloupe melon was 450 Gy. The data obtained allowed us to conclude that the ionizing radiation can increase the shelf-life of the Cantaloupe melon using doses up to 450 Gy making it proper to exportation. (author)

  16. Effect of reproductive mode on host plant utilization of melon aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangdong; Gao, Xue

    2010-12-01

    Variation in the reproductive mode of melon aphid Aphis gossypii Glover occurred on the large geographic scale, but the performance of different reproductive modes to use host plant is poorly understood. Life tables of melon aphid population that undergo the anholocyclic, androcyclic, and intermediate reproductive mode were conducted on different host plants. The results showed that the anholocyclic and androcyclic strains could become adults and produce offspring on cotton Gossypium hirsutum L., whereas the intermediate strain could not. The survival rate, net reproductive rate (R(0)), and intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) of the androcyclic strain on cotton were significantly greater than that of the anholocyclic strain. The three strains could aptly use cucurbits host plants including cucumber Cucumis sativa L., pumpkin Cucurbita moschata (Duchesne ex Lam.), and zucchini Cucurbita pepo L.; survival rate and R(0) were not significantly different on these two host plants. Moreover, the r(m) of the anholocyclic strain on cucumber and the androcyclic strain on pumpkin and zucchini were significantly greater than that of the other two strains. The abilities of the three strains to use a host plant were flexible, because their r(m) on pumpkin or zucchini became equal after rearing for four successive generations; furthermore, the intermediate strain attained the ability to use cotton, and the performance of anholocyclic and intermediate strains to use cotton also significantly increased after feeding on pumpkin or zucchini for one or three generations. It was concluded that the reproductive mode and feeding experience affected the performance of melon aphid to use a host plant. © 2010 Entomological Society of America

  17. [Isolation of protoplasts from vegetable tissues using extracellular lytic enzymes from fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alconada, T M; Martínez, M J

    1995-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis, a pathogen of melon (Cucumis melo L.), was grown in shaken cultures at 26 degrees C in a mineral salts medium containing glucose, xylan and apple pectin as carbon sources. The extracellular enzymic complex obtained from these cultures showed lytic activity on plant tissues, causing maceration of melon fruits, potato tubers and carrot roots. Protoplasts were isolated from melon fruits when the maceration was carried out under appropriate osmotic conditions. This fact suggest a possible relationship between the enzymes produced by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis and their pathogenicity on melon plants.

  18. Assembly of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) somaclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarzyńska, Agnieszka; Kuśmirek, Wiktor; Pawełkowicz, Magdalena; PlÄ der, Wojciech; Nowak, Robert M.

    2017-08-01

    The development of next generation sequencing opens the possibility of using sequencing in various plant studies, such as finding structural changes and small polymorphisms between species and within them. Most analyzes rely on genomic sequences and it is crucial to use well-assembled genomes of high quality and completeness. Herein we compare commonly available programs for genomic assembling and newly developed software - dnaasm. Assemblies were tested on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) lines obtained by in vitro regeneration (somaclones), showing different phenotypes. Obtained results shows that dnaasm assembler is a good tool for short read assembly, which allows obtaining genomes of high quality and completeness.

  19. Uncommon disorders and decay in near-isogenic lines of melon and reference cultivars Acidentes fisiológicos e podridões atípicas em linhas quase-isogénicas de melão e em cultivares de referência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Martínez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Postharvest disorders and rots can produce important economic losses in fruits stored for long time for exportation. The genetic and physiological basis of some disorders in melon (Cucumis melo L. are unknown and particularly the possible relation with climacteric behavior. A collection of melon near-isogenic lines (NILs (SC3-5 and seven more showing climacteric and two non-climacteric ripening pattern were analyzed to study genetic and physiological aspects of fruit disorders and rots. Two non-climacteric (Nicolás; Inodorus Group; and Shongwan Charmi PI161375, Conomon Group and two climacteric cultivars (Fado, Reticulatus Group; Védrantais, Cantaloupensis Group were used as reference. The field was divided in eight blocks containing one three-plant replication for each NIL, two for the parental cultivar Piel de Sapo and one or two for the reference cultivars. Replications evaluated were more than six in the cultivars studied. Plant problems included aphids, powdery mildew, and leaf wind injury. Preharvest fruit disorders included whole fruit cracking in cultivar Védrantais and NIL 5M2, and stylar-end cracking in cultivar Fado. Climacteric NILs with yellow skin were particularly affected by over-ripening, stylar-end cracking, and sunburn during cultivation. At harvest, two NILs showed slight placental tissue necrosis which was inherited from SC and were also detected after storage. Other uncommon disorders seen at harvest or 30 days after storage at 8ºC included warted skin (scarring, flesh discoloration (light brown or translucent areas, hollow flesh disorder, and deep furrow netting inherited from SC. Less common rots included grey mould, bacterial soft rot, Penicillium rot, cottony leak and internal Cladosporium rot. Stylar-end hardness below 20 N·mm-1 was associated with cracking and softening. The incidence of the disorders and rots was too low to confirm that the genetic component played a role in their development

  20. Geological map of Uruguay Esc 1,100,000. Melo Sheet D-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrando, L.; Andreis, R.

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Melo) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological characteristics soils belong to the pre devonian period in Melo, Buena Vista Yaguari and Tres islas formations. These metamorphic rocks would be compared with the orogenic cycle of the east and southeast groups

  1. Níveis de nitrogênio por fertirrigação e densidade de plantio na cultura do melão em um Vertissolo Nitrogen levels through fertirrigation and plant density on melon crop in a Vertisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLEMENTINO MARCOS BATISTA DE FARIA

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho constou de um experimento com melão (Cucumis melo L., conduzido em um Vertissolo, em Juazeiro, BA, em 1995, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de níveis de N por fertirrigação e de densidades de plantio na produtividade e qualidade de fruto. Os níveis de N foram 0, 80, 130 e 180 kg/ha, combinados com os espaçamentos 2,00 e 1,80 m entre linhas e 0,20 m entre plantas, com uma ou duas plantas por cova. A fonte de N foi a uréia, aplicada diariamente até 42 dias após a germinação, por meio da irrigação por gotejamento. Todos os tratamentos receberam uma adubação uniforme de 120 kg/ha de P2O5 e 120 kg/ha de K2O. Os espaçamentos entre linhas não causaram diferenças significativas em nenhuma variável estudada. O nível de 80 kg/ha de N combinado com uma planta por cova proporcionou uma produtividade de 34,07 t/ha, com 55,7% de frutos próprios para o mercado interno, não-significativamente (P £ 0,05 inferior à produtividade obtida com os níveis mais elevados de N em qualquer combinação. Com este mesmo nível, obtiveram-se frutos com 10,22º Brix significativamente (P£ 0,05 superior ao do tratamento sem N e não-significativamente inferior ao dos outros níveis. Para se obter uma maior parte de frutos próprios para o mercado externo, foi necessário elevar a densidade para duas plantas por cova e o nível de N para 130 ou 180 kg/ha. O peso médio dos frutos aumentou de 1,008 para 1,705 kg, à medida que foram aumentados os níveis de N ou se diminuiu a densidade de plantio de duas para uma planta por cova.This study consisted of one experiment with melon (Cucumis melo L., carried out in a Vertisol in Juazeiro, BA, Brazil, in 1995, with the objective of evaluating the effects of nitrogen levels through fertirrigation and plant density on fruit yield and quality. The N levels were 0, 80, 130 and 180 kg/ha, combined with row spacings of 2.0 and 1.8 m and 0.20 m between plants within the row, with one or two plants

  2. Physicochemical Pro~rti~ of Curd Prepared from Melon Seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melon seed was investigated as an alternative to s~ybeansfor production olhigh protein curd. The coagulating properlies of calcium [}:ulphate and the nature ol the curd obtainedfrom melon seeds' were investigated "lhe:yield. 'pro.ximate composition and semory properties ol the melon curd were determine.d"The yield C!l ...

  3. Mathematical modelling of cucumber (cucumis sativus) drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahari, N.; Hussein, S. M.; Nursabrina, M.; Hibberd, S.

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of using an experiment based mathematical model (empirical model) and a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage to describe the drying curve of cucumis sativus (cucumber). Drying experiments were conducted using conventional air drying and data obtained from these experiments were fitted to seven empirical models using non-linear least square regression based on the Levenberg Marquardt algorithm. The empirical models were compared according to their root mean square error (RMSE), sum of square error (SSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). A logarithmic model was found to be the best empirical model to describe the drying curve of cucumber. The numerical result of a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage was also compared with experiment data for cucumber drying. A good agreement was obtained between the model predictions and the experimental data.

  4. Radiation sterilization facility for melon fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danno, A.

    1985-01-01

    The melon fly (Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett) has been observed in Amami Island since l975. Kagoshima Prefecture has had a melon fly eradication project underway since 1979. A mass-fearing facility and a radiation sterilization facility were constructed in Naze in March of l98l. In the early stages of the project, sterile insects were produced at the rate of 4 x l0/sup 6/ pupae/week. In the later stages, the activity of the project was enlarged by tenfold. The conditions for design of the radiation sterilization facility, which has been developed with a central control system for automated irradiation, are examined from an engineering standpoint

  5. Material evaluation for bagging of cantaloupe melons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pradi Vendruscolo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate different materials for field bagging with respect to the physicochemical changes caused in cantaloupe melon fruits. The study was conducted in a protected environment in the city of Goiânia, Goiás in Brazil. The experiment consisted of five treatments, with bagging of cantaloupe melon fruits with four materials (newspaper, Kraft paper, NWF, and polyethylene and a control treatment without bagging, in a randomized block design with five replications of one plant with a fruit each. Fruits were evaluated for physicochemical characteristics. Number of days from bagging to harvest was also recorded and visual aspects of the fruit were observed. The materials as well as the time interval between the bagging and harvest affect physicochemical characteristics such as accumulation of soluble solids and thickness of the green pulp halo and visual aspects of the fruit. This study recommends bagging cantaloupe melons using white non-woven fabric or to not use the technique at all, under the conditions similar to those used in the study. In addition, using polyethylene for the bagging of fruit is not recommended, because this material has a deleterious effect on the characteristics essential for commercialization of melons.

  6. SENSORY ATTRIBUTES AND CONSUMPTION OF MELON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    ABSTRACT. The study investigated the sensory attributes of melon-soybean soup with Indian spinach vegetables which was observed to be poorly accepted in consumption. Descriptive research design and sensory evaluation was used. The study population comprised three hundred and fifty students from 100-500 level ...

  7. récolte du melon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2015 ... de productivité (Swinburne, 1983). Après la récolte, le fruit est sensible aux pourritures causées par Alternaria alternata, Fusarium spp.,. Rhizopus stolonifer et Trichothecium roseum (Bi et. Wang, 1987). Les pertes de melons sont souvent dues aux parasites cryptogamiques qui se manifestent sur la surface ...

  8. Hidrogeologic and geophysical studies into Agro school Melo UTU Cerro Largo province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzen, W.; Santana, I.; Mari, C.

    1986-01-01

    The technical University UTU of Uruguay requested and Hidrogeologic study with the aim to analyze the factibility to discover underground stream waters which supply groundwaters into agro school Ing Agr. Alcides E Pintos Melo, Cerro Largo province.

  9. Occidental diffusion of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) 500–1300 CE: two routes to Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2012-01-01

    Background The cucumber, Cucumis sativus, is one of the most widely consumed fruit vegetables the world over. The history of its dispersal to the Occident from its centre of origin, the Indian subcontinent, has been incorrectly understood for some time, due to the confusion of cucumbers with vegetable melons. Iconographic and literary evidence has shown that cucumber was absent in Roman times, up to 500 CE, but present in Europe by late medieval times, 1300. The objective of the present investigation was to determine more accurately when the cucumber arrived in Europe and by what route. Findings and Conclusions The evidence for the movement of C. sativus westward is entirely lexicographical until the 10th century. Syriac, Persian and Byzantine Greek sources suggest the presence of cucumbers, to the east and north-east of the Mediterranean Sea (modern Iran, Iraq and Turkey), by the 6th or 7th century. Arabic medical writings suggest the presence of cucumbers in Spain as early as the mid-9th century and in Tunisia by the early 10th century. Descriptive evidence in Arabic establishes the presence of cucumbers in Andalusia by the second half of the 10th century. Latin translations from Arabic sources indicate the presence of cucumbers in southern Italy by the second half of the 11th century. These writings, together with lexicographical discrepancies in names of cucurbits in late medieval Latin writings, suggest that cucumber was introduced to Europe by two independent diffusions. One diffusion appears to have been overland from Persia into eastern and northern Europe and preceded the Islamic conquests. The other, subsequent diffusion into western and southern Europe, was probably by a mostly maritime route from Persia or the Indian subcontinent into Andalusia. PMID:22104164

  10. Eficiência no uso da água e interferência de plantas daninhas no meloeiro cultivado nos sistemas de plantio direto e convencional Water use efficiency and weed interference in melon crop under conventional and no-tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M.S. Teófilo

    2012-09-01

    filme de polietileno nos dois sistemas de plantio ou com cobertura morta no plantio direto aumentou a eficiência no uso da água em relação ao solo sem cobertura. No tratamento sem capinas no sistema de plantio convencional, além da perda total na produtividade comercial, a interferência das plantas daninhas aumentou o consumo de água em 9,6%.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the conventional and no-tillage systems and weed management strategies on water use efficiency in melon crop (Cucumis melo. Thus, an experiment was carried out in a randomized block design in split-plots in Mossoró-RN. The plots were constituted of two tillage systems (conventional and no-tillage and the sub-plots of three weed management systems (plastic mulch, weeding, and no weeding. Density and dry weight of the weeds at 30 days after transplanting, commercial and total yield and daily consumption of water were evaluated. Irrigation management was performed by the characteristic soil water curve for each cropping system at 15 and 30 cm of depth and water control by daily reading a set of tensiometers installed to keep the soil above 75% of field capacity. Water use efficiency (USA, given in kg of fruit per m3, was determined based on the crop's yield and water consumption. It was found that the no-tillage system reduced weed density and dry matter in 86.7 and 61%, respectively, compared to conventional tillage, and weed interference reduced commercial yield by 100% under conventional tillage and 36.5% under no-tillage. Soil with plastic mulch under no-tillage and conventional systems, and straw mulching under no-tillage reduced water consumption by 23% (388.8 m3 ha-1, 21% (363.0 m3 ha-1 and 13% (215.0 m3 ha-1, respectively, compared to the weeding treatment under conventional tillage. Soil with plastic mulch under the two tillage systems, or straw mulching under no-tillage increased the efficiency of water use from the ground without cover. In the no

  11. The Effect Of Cucumis Metuliferus E Meye (Cucurbitaceae) On Rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extract of fruit pulp of Cucumis metuliferus was screened for its effects on gastric functions and mucosal intergrity in albino rats. The study revealed significant (P < 0.05) dose-dependent decrease in the number and type of gastro mucosal lesions as compared to ranitidine (a standard anti-gastric ulcer drug). Similarly, the ...

  12. A genetic linkage map of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L) combining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers are both simple and efficient maker systems adapted to many crops and for multiple purposes. In this study a genetic map based on SRAP and ISSR markers was constructed for cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) based on ...

  13. Genetic identification of a dwarf mutant in cucumber ( Cucumis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dwarf (compact) plant architecture is an important trait in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) breeding. A dwarf type mutant was selected from the cucumbers. The morphological and reproductive characteristics of the dwarf were compared with the vine plants. The dwarf type of cucumbers is characterized by its short ...

  14. Growth performance of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) in spent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) in spent engine oil contaminated soil amended with compost of Urena lobata L. ... The growth parameters decreased with increase in the levels of contamination, however the application of Urena lobata significantly increased the plant height, number of leaves, leaf ...

  15. The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Sanwen; Li, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2009-01-01

    Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA...

  16. The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, S.W.; Li, R.Q.; Vossen, van der E.A.G.

    2009-01-01

    Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA

  17. Responses of cucumber ( Cucumis sativa L ) to nitrogen in Obubra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The responses of Cucumber (Cucumis sativa L) to nitrogen was studied in two filed experiments conducted in the teaching and Research farm of the Department of Crop Science, Obubra Campus, Cross River State University of Technology during the 2003 and 2004 cropping seasons. The experiments were laid out in a ...

  18. Physicochemical properties of curd prepared from melon seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    54% appeared to be most suitable for making curd of smooth texture. In general scores for all the sensory attributes evaluated increased with increased calcium sulphate concentration. The melon curd was highly rated and very well accepted. Keywords: Melon curd, coagulation, protein, calcium, sulphate, acceptabilit

  19. Melon husk-based activated carbon for treatment of industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adsorption of organic contaminants from industrial effluent using melon husk activated carbon has been investigated. Melon husk was carbonized at 450oC for 20 minutes and activated with sulphuric acid to produce granular activated carbon (AC). The fixed carbon increased with increase in concentration of activating ...

  20. Assessment of protein quality of processed melon seed as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety six day - old broiler chicks were used in a 4 - week feeding trial to determine the protein quality of processed melon seed as a component of broiler chick diet. The protein quality was assessed using blood associated parameters including Haemoglobin indices and selected serum enzymes. The processed melon ...

  1. Preliminary Study on the Use of Urea Activated Melon ( Citrullus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary Study on the Use of Urea Activated Melon ( Citrullus colocynthis ) Husk in the Adsorption of Cadmium from Waste Water. ... Experimental data were also evaluated to find out kinetic characteristics of the adsorption process. Adsorption ... Keywords: Bioadsorption, Cadmium removal, Waste water, Melon husk ...

  2. Efficacy of primextra gold in controlling weeds of melon ( Citrillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted in the Center of Ecological Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State to evaluate the efficacy of Primextra Gold (290g /l S – Metalochlor and 370g/l Atrazine) herbicide in controlling weeds in melon and to determine its safety for use in melon. The experiment was carried out between ...

  3. Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems Based on Melon Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Melon oil and cow fat were extracted by standard methods and used in the formulation of SNEDDS based on either melon oil alone, or its admixture with cow fat by utilizing varying ratios of oil(s), surfactants and co-surfactants, with or without carbosil, a glidant. The formulations were encapsulated in hard gelatin ...

  4. Effects Of The Physical Dimensions On Forces To Break Melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanical shelling of melon seeds in experimental impeller-type machines resulted in high percentages of broken seeds and cotyledons. It is difficult to predict the orientations of the seeds during impact with the cylindrical ring. The physical dimensions of melon seeds were measured and compressed between ...

  5. TOXICITY OF INSECTICIDES USED IN MUSKMELON ON FIRST-INSTAR LARVAE OF Chrysoperla genanigra FREITAS (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, BÁRBARA KARINE DE ALBUQUERQUE; GODOY, MAURÍCIO SEKIGUCHI DE; LIMA, ALRICÉLIA GOMES DE; OLIVEIRA, ANNA KÉZIA SOARES DE; PASTORI, PATRIK LUIZ

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Brazil is one of the world's largest producers of melon (Cucumis melo L.), and Rio Grande do Norte and Ceará are the largest producers states of the country (99% of exports). This crop had great socio- economic importance in the Brazilian Northeast, however, it is affected by insect pests and consequently, large amounts of pesticides are applied to it, which greatly affect beneficial organisms, such as Chrysopidae. This bioassay evaluated the toxicity of nine insecticides used in com...

  6. João Cabral de Melo Neto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ernesto Ríos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A la pregunta sobre los primeros poetas brasileños, y más aun sobre aquellos que han apuntalado, nutrido y vivificado el idioma portugués, y escrito esas epopeyas particulares de un país, acudirá el nombre de João Cabral de Melo Neto (Recife, 1920-Río de Janeiro, 1999, quizá más conocido por sus libros Morte e vida Severina, O engenheiro y O cão sem plumas. Es vasta la bibliografía y traducción de esos temas y libros. De ahí mi interés en presentar estos poemas de su libro Pedra do sono, un libro de juventud —escrito antes de sus veinte años—, libre, telúrico y estelar, sin pretensiones ni esquemas, asombrado por el mundo y sus objetos, a los que deforma en un sinuoso ‘surrealismo’, mitad lúdico, mitad misterio.

  7. The effect of insecticide applications to melon crop on melon aphid and its natural enemies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, J.; Gonzalez, J.E.; Ceballos, J.; Checa, B.

    1999-01-01

    Melons are an important export crop for Panama and are cultivated on more than 1000 ha of land. Long growing season, extending well into January, allows several generations and build up of heavy populations of an important insect pest, Aphis gossypii, the melon aphid. Growers find it difficult to cultivate melons without several applications of insecticides. Although the insecticide applications control the aphids, they may also have adverse effects on the natural enemies of the aphid, in particular the two predatory insects Cycloneda sanguinea and Chrysoperla carnea. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impact of insecticide applications on these insects and on the yield of melons, and to estimate residues of the applied insecticides in soil. The insecticides were applied as four different type of treatments to melon crop. The treatments were (i) three periodic applications of endosulfan (Thiodan 35EC), each at 0.52 kg a.i./ha, (ii) three applications of fenitrothion (Sumithion 50WP), each at 0.35 kg a.i./ha, (iii) two applications of fenitrothion and one of endosulfan, and (iv) grower's treatment, which included applications of six different insecticides. The effect of the insecticide applications was evaluated by estimating numbers of each of the three type of insects before and within 72 hours after the applications and estimating yield of melons. All insecticide treatments reduced the populations of Aphis gossypii, but they also reduced the numbers of the benificial insects. Endosulfan was somewhat less toxic to C. carnea than the other insecticides were, since greater number of C. carnea were recorded from the plots treated with endosulfan than the other treated plots. The best yield of melons was recorded in the plots which were sprayed with fenitrothion, followed by the plots sprayed with endosulfan. and then those with grower's insecticides. Soon after the application of endosulfan the residue in the soil was 0.2 mg/kg, but it declined to less

  8. Genetic identification of a dwarf mutant in cucumber (Cucumis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    madam mine

    2012-03-08

    Mar 8, 2012 ... Path analysis of the correlation between fruit number and plant traits of cucumber populations. HortScience, 35: 708-711. Gusmini G, Wehner TC (2008). Fifty-five years of yield improvement for cucumber, melon, and watermelon in the United States. HortTechnology, 18: 9-12. Hedden P (2003). The genes ...

  9. O estado da arte das sementes crioulas no Rio Grande do Sul com ênfase em sementes crioulas de melão (Cucumis melo L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa Becker Delwing

    2006-01-01

    Este estudo objetivou avaliar o ‘estado da arte’ das sementes ‘crioulas’ no Rio Grande do Sul, possibilitando uma discussão sobre a biodiversidade de plantas cultivadas mantidas por agricultores que ainda utilizam sementes próprias, o diagnóstico sobre as causas da preferência por tais sementes, as dificuldades para sua manutenção e as estratégias desenvolvidas nas diferentes realidades locais para promoção do uso de tais recursos. Para levantar subsídios sobre tecnologia de sementes usadas p...

  10. Visita de abejas (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apoidea) a flores de melón Cucumis melo (Cucurvitaceae) en Panamá

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Di Trani de la Hoz

    2007-01-01

    Se observaron las visitas observadas a flores seleccionadas en un cultivo del Distrito de San Lorenzo, Chiriquí, del 6 de Enero y el 19 de Febrero del 2002, desde las 6:30 am hasta las 4:30 pm, y se anotaron características de las visita, como el tiempo de visita y el tipo de recurso colectado. Las visitas fueron mayormente para la recolección de néctar (casi 3/4). La recolección de polen se concentró hacia las primeras horas de la mañana, cesando definitivamente a las 11:00 am. El tiempo med...

  11. Uso da abelha canudo (Scaptotrigona sp. nov.) na polinizaÃÃo do meloeiro (Cucumis melo L.) em ambiente protegido

    OpenAIRE

    AntÃnio Diego de Melo Bezerra

    2014-01-01

    As abelhas sÃo os principais agentes de polinizaÃÃo em culturas agrÃcolas. No caso do melÃo a falta desses agentes pode resultar uma queda na produÃÃo superior a 90%. Em cultivos protegidos a introduÃÃo de abelhas vem substituindo a mÃo de obra utilizada na polinizaÃÃo manual. O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar a viabilidade da utilizaÃÃo da abelha canudo (Scaptotrigona sp. nov.) na polinizaÃÃo do melÃo var. Natal, em ambiente protegido. Para tanto, a biologia floral do meloeiro, os reque...

  12. The Nudo, Rollo, Melon codes and nodal correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlado, J.M.; Aragones, J.M.; Minguez, E.; Pena, J.

    1975-01-01

    Analysis of nodal calculation and checking results by the reference reactor experimental data. Nudo code description, adapting experimental data to nodal calculations. Rollo, Melon codes as improvement in the cycle life calculations of albedos, mixing parameters and nodal correlations. (author)

  13. Storage and irradiation of Cucumis pollen and their influence on pollen vitality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oost, E.H.; Nijs, A.P.M. den

    1979-01-01

    In connection with an interspecific hybridization programme and a mentor pollen experiment in Cucumis, the optimal storage conditions and in vitro germination medium for both fresh and irradiated pollen of the cultivated cucumber and two wild African Cucumis species have been searched for. (Auth.)

  14. SHRINKAGE AND MOISTURE LOSS OF DRIED MELON SEEDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of 100g clean, mature, freshly washed melon seeds were dried at intervals of 1/4, 1/2, 1 and 2h in an air-oven at 60O C. The experiments were carried out with five different bulk samples of melon seeds. The moisture content of the seeds at each drying stage was determined. The moisture loss in grams per ...

  15. Fertilizer use efficiency by maize (Zea mays) and egusi- melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DBOY

    Three separate field studies were conducted in a rainforest area to determine efficient use of applied fertilizers by maize and egusi-melon in various ratios of mixtures in an ultisol in Nigeria. The experiment was a factorial combination of seven cropping ratios of maize and egusi-melon (MA:EM 1:0, 1:1, 2:1,. 3:1, 1:2, and 1:3, ...

  16. Germination and In-Vitro Regeneration in 'Egusi' Melon, Citrullus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out in order to determine the germination and in-vitro regeneration of five accessions of “egusi' melon. Seeds from de-coated melon were used for germination and in-vitro regeneration was carried out on excised pregerminated cotyledons in MS medium (4.43g of MS, 30g of sucrose, water of pH 5.8, ...

  17. Minimally processed yellow melon enriched with probiotic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Martins de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The demand for healthy diets with fresh foods, especially minimally processed fruits and vegetables, resulted in a variety of products available to consumers. The nutritional benefits of probiotic lactic acid bacteria contribute to increase consumption of minimally processed vegetables enriched with these microorganisms in supermarkets and restaurants, since the modern consumer search products of high functionality and safety. The aim of this study was to assess the viability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 on minimally processed yellow melon and determine the microbiological and physicochemical properties of this food. The counts of L. rhamnosus were above 108 CFU g-1, and the microbiological quality of melons was safe to consumers. The pH lowered and the acidity increased over time in minimally processed melons. The soluble solids did not differ between samples. The color coordinates L* and a* have not changed and melon firmness decreased over time. The scanning electron microscopy revealed adhesion of L. rhamnosus HN001 on the surface of treated melon. Despite some physicochemical changes, the production of minimally processed melon enriched with L. rhamnosus is feasible transforming it into a potential vehicle for probiotics.

  18. Bitter melon therapy: an experimental treatment of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebultan, S P

    1995-01-01

    People in Asia often use a medicinal plant, bitter melon (Mamordica charantia), to treat various diseases (e.g., malaria). It has anti-viral, anti-tumor, and immune system boosting properties. Some Asians, especially Filipinos, eat bitter melon. They believe that bitter melon cleanses the blood and boosts the immune system. Rural Filipino midwives place a strong bitter melon extract in a newborn's mouth to activate the immune system. An HIV-infected man in California uses bitter melon therapy. Bitter melon therapy can be prepared by extracting juices from fresh leaves and fruits and adding purified water to the extract to control the potency. Another preparation involves bringing two pounds of leaves and fruits in a gallon of purified water to a boil, allowing it to simmer for five minutes, filtering the decoction in a sterile strainer, and storing it in the refrigerator. The therapy can be administered either orally or via the rectum. The HIV-infected California man drank 10 ounces of the juices or a combination of juices and decoction each day for five days a week during the first year. He then switched to rectal retention enema due to the bad taste. He increased the dosage to 16 ounces/day and the duration to seven days a week. He held an inserted enema bag or rectal syringe until the juices/decoction had been absorbed. Sometimes he would infuse most of the therapy two times a day. Within seven days of rectal retention enema delivery of the bitter melon therapy, his energy level increased rapidly and his physical stamina and appetite improved. One year after therapy began, his CD4 count increased greatly. Later, his CD4/CD8 ratios had returned to normal. He no longer experiences acute sinusitis or recurrent respiratory infections. He has had no serious side effects.

  19. Genetic quality control in mass-reared melon flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, T.

    2002-01-01

    Quality control in mass-reared melon flies, Bactrocera cucurbitae, after eradication is discussed, based on the results of artificial selection experiments. First, a brief history of quality control in mass-rearing of insects is described. In practical mass- rearing of melon fly, many traits have already been differentiated between mass-reared and wild flies. These differing traits are reviewed and the factors which caused these differences are considered. It was considered that the differences between wild and mass-reared melon flies depended on the selection pressures from the mass-rearing method. Next, the results of several artificial selection experiments using the melon fly are reviewed. Finally, consideration is given to some correlated responses to artificial selection in mass-rearing. Longevity that is correlated to early fecundity was successfully controlled by artificial selection for reproduction in the mass-rearing system. On the basis of these results, an improved method for quality control in mass-reared melon fly with considerations for quantitative genetics is discussed

  20. Quality improvement of oriental melon and watermelon using bioceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H.K.; Lee, K.J.; Ryou, Y.S.

    1996-01-01

    Oriental melon and watermelon plants were cultivated in the soil treated with bioceramics in a greenhouse during summer season from June 1st to August 20th, 1995. Two application methods were employed, one was a mixed treatment of soil and bioceramics, and the other was a spray treatment of bioceramic solution on the stems and leaves. And two types of bioceramics were also stopped by five levels. In order to analyze the bioceramic effect on oriental melon and watermelon, the growth rate of stems, leaves and fruits were measured in the greenhouse. After harvest, the sweetness of fruits was measured and the freshness of fruits based on the storage period was tested by human taste and smell sense. The results are summarized as follows. 1. The growth rates of stems, leaves and fruits of oriental melon and watermelon were the largest in the bioceramic treatment of No. 3. 2. The density of oriental melon and watermelon was the largest in the bioceramic treatment of No. 3 and No. 2 respectively. 3. The Brix number of watermelon was 10.6 in non-bioceramic treatment and 11.5 in the bioceramic treatment of No. 2, and that of oriental melon was 8.6 in non-bioceramic treatment and 12.3 in the bioceramic treatment of No. 2. 4. The storage duration of watermelon treated with bioceramics was about 50 days in the condition of the ambient temperature of 25∼30°C. (author)

  1. Last instar larva of Microstigmus nigrophthalmus Melo (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae, Pemphredoninae, with notes on biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor Christiano Buys

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The last instar larva of Microstigmus nigrophthalmus Melo, 1992 is described. It markedly differs from that of M. comes Krombein, 1967 the only other species in the genus whose mature larva have been described, for features as follows: presence of spinnerets; setae on the labrum, maxillae and labium; mandibles with tridentate apex and a bidentate lateral projection; lack of the conical supranal processo Notes on habitat, structure, and content of nests are also presented.

  2. CULTURAL LANDSCAPE IN JOÃO CABRAL DE MELO NETO: THE EXPERIENCES OF CAPIBARIBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Manir Miguel Feitosa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze in which way the landscape and the art are convergent dimensions that express the possibility of dialog between geography and literature having as object the work O cão sem plumas, by the poet João Cabral de Melo Neto. Our reading was done by the light of the cultural humanistic geography, based on the phenomenological-existentialistic theory.

  3. O "desenho de arquiteto" de João Cabral de Melo Neto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Cardeal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomando como ponto de partida a metáfora “desenho de arquiteto”, este ensaio aborda os aspectos arquitetônicos da poesia de João Cabral de Melo Neto. Para tal, propõe uma leitura retrospectiva da obra até o livro A educação pela pedra (1966, considerado pela crítica o mais arquitetônico da produção cabralina.

  4. Studies on mating competition of irradiated melon flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limohpasmanee, W.

    1994-01-01

    Mating competition is the key factor for fruit flies control by using sterile insect technique project. Mass rearing and irradiation can reduce the mating competition of fruit flies. This experiment has purpose to evaluate the mating competition of the irradiated melon fly. The results show that mating competition values of irradiated melon flies were 0.36 and 0.24 when they mated with normal and irradiated females. Both normal male and female can mate more frequency than irradiated flies. (Z=1.322, P<0.05; Z=1.851, P<0.05). The results show that quality of mass rearing and irradiated melon fly was lower than the normal flies. So that quality of irradiated fly must be improved and the number of released flies as less must be higher than natural flies 6 time

  5. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Tabei, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    We established improved methods for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch). Vacuum infiltration of cotyledonary explants with Agrobacterium suspension enhanced the Agrobacterium infection efficiency in the proximal regions of explants. Wounding treatment was also essential for kabocha squash. Cocultivation on filter paper wicks suppressed necrosis of explants, keeping regeneration efficacy. Putative transgenic plants were screened by kanamycin resistance and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence. These putative transgenic plants grew normally and T1 seeds were obtained, and stable integration and transmission of the transgene in T1 generations were confirmed by Southern hybridization and PCR. The average transgenic efficiency for cucumber and kabocha squash was 11.9 ± 3.5 and 9.2 ± 2.9 %, respectively.

  6. Physiological maturity in gherkin (Cucumis anguria L.) seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, Maria Aparecida de

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as modificações físicas e fisiológicas das sementes de maxixe (Cucumis anguria L.) durante o processo de maturação, as quais são aspectos importantes no que diz respeito à obtenção de sementes de alta qualidade e minimização de sua deterioração no campo. O experimento foi conduzido na Horta Didática e as análises realizadas no Laboratório de Análise de Sementes, Departamento de Ciências Vegetais, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA). As sementes...

  7. PHYSIOLOGY OF SEED MATURATION DE Maxixe (Cucumis L. anguria)

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, Maria Aparecida de

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as modificações físicas e fisiológicas das sementes de maxixe (Cucumis anguria L. durante o processo de maturação, as quais são aspectos importantes no que diz respeito à obtenção de sementes de alta qualidade e minimização de sua deterioração no campo. O experimento foi conduzido na Horta Didática e as análises realizadas no Laboratório de Análise de Sementes, Departamento de Ciências Vegetais, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA). As sementes ...

  8. An Evaluation of Some Mechanical Methods for Shelling Melon Seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of investigations were conducted on a number of mechanical devices which were designed for shelling melon seeds. The results of these investigations are reported in two parts in order to facilitate the presentation. Part I describe the results of using devices which subject the seeds to a combination of pressure and ...

  9. Inhibition of Growth of Fungi Isolated From Deteriorating Melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of extracts of Punica granatum and Cymbopogon citratus on Aspergillus nivale, Rhizopus stolonifer , Mucor mucido and Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from deteriorating melon seed using radial growth technique. Phytochemical screening revealed that extracts the plants ...

  10. Inhibition of Growth of Fungi Isolated From Deteriorating Melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Abstract. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of extracts of Punica granatum and. Cymbopogon citratus on Aspergillus nivale, Rhizopus stolonifer , Mucor mucido and. Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from deteriorating melon seed using radial growth technique. Phytochemical screening revealed that extracts the ...

  11. Lecithin extraction and characterization from melon seeds obtained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melon seed oils from different agricultural zones of Nigeria were sampled. Oils were extracted using soxhlet extraction techniques, characterized and lecithin extracted using standard biochemical methods. The percentage oil yield was higher when n-hexane solvent system was used than when chloroform/methanol solvent ...

  12. Sensory attributes and consumption of melon-soybean soup blends ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the sensory attributes of melon-soybean soup with Indian spinach vegetables which was observed to be poorly accepted in consumption. Descriptive research design and sensory evaluation was used. The study population comprised three hundred and fifty students from 100-500 level with a sample ...

  13. Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems Based on Melon Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Preformulation istropicity test. Different batches of SNEDDS were prepared based on escalating ratios of melon oil, cow fat, surfactants and co-surfactant. The .... indomethacin. Five replicate determinations were carried out and the mean taken to obtain the absolute drug content for each batch. Drug dissolution studies.

  14. SHRINKAGE AND MOISTURE LOSS OF DRIED MELON SEEDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study showed that fresh melon seeds dried to 7.4% moisture content(wb) lost 539.2 grams of moisture per kilogram dry matter and the percentage shrinkage of the seeds was 33.9%. Graphs of moisture loss in grams per kilogram dry matter were plotted against percentage shrinkage. A straight line relationship was ...

  15. an evalution of some mechanical methods for shelling melon seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    When the pressure was increased, more seeds were broken and there was a lot of heat generated between the drum and the belt due to friction. In general the results of the tests on the two devices indicate that the application of pressure coupled .... The static bending properties of melon seeds show that both the shells and.

  16. Effects of locust bean pulp with melon husk supplementation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of locust bean pulp with melon husk supplementation on nitrogen utilization and blood chemistry of West African Dwarf goats were assessed in a 3 months feeding trial. Eighteen West African Dwarf goats with an average weight of 6.00 ± 0.15kg were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments with two replicates ...

  17. WATERMELON MOSAIC VIRUS OF PUMPKIN (Cucurbita maxima FROM SULAWESI: IDENTIFICATION, TRANSMISSION, AND HOST RANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasmo Wakmana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A mosaic disease of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima was spread widely in Sulawesi. Since the virus had not yet been identified, a study was conducted to identify the disease through mechanical inoculation, aphid vector transmission, host range, and electron microscopic test. Crude sap of infected pumpkin leaf samples was rubbed on the cotyledons of healthy pumpkin seedlings for mechanical inoculation. For insect transmission, five infective aphids were infected per seedling. Seedlings of eleven different species were inoculated mechanically for host range test. Clarified sap was examined under the electron microscope. Seeds of two pumpkin fruits from two different infected plants were planted and observed for disease transmission up to one-month old seedlings. The mosaic disease was transmitted mechanically from crude sap of different leaf samples to healthy pumpkin seedlings showing mosaic symptoms. The virus also infected eight cucurbits, i.e., cucumber (Cucumis sativus, green melon (Cucumis melo, orange/rock melon (C. melo, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo, pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, water melon (Citrulus vulgaris, Bennicosa hispida, and blewah (Cucurbita sp.. Aphids  transmitted the disease from one to other pumpkin seedlings. The virus was not transmitted by seed. The mosaic disease of pumpkin at Maros, South Sulawesi, was associated with flexious particles of approximately 750 nm length, possibly a potyvirus, such as water melon mosaic virus rather than papaya ringspot virus or zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

  18. Karakterisasi Biokimia Aeromonas hydrophila dan Potensinya Sebagai Pemacu Pertumbuhan Bibit Tanaman Melon Emas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I KETUT SIADI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical Characterization of Aeromonas hydrophila and Its Potential for Growth Stimulatorof Golden Melo Seedlings.The results showed that this research got 20 nitrogen fix bacteria isolate,However, Pg2 isolate could increase the growth of golden melo. The treatment with Pg2 isolatesignificantly increased the golden melo growth. All the plant growth parameters of treated plants weresignificantly higher than those of un-treated control plants (P<0.05. The leaf chlorophyll content, plantgrowth rate, and fresh and dry weights of plant were significantly higher than those of un-treatedcontrol plants. Isolates identified as Enterobacter cloacae PG2 percentage of 98.05% probability.

  19. Detection and occurrence of Melon yellow spot virus in Ecuador: an emergent threat to melon and watermelon production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide, more than fifty viruses have been reported in cucurbit crops. In Ecuador, approximately 3000 Ha of watermelon, melon and cucumbers are cultivated annually. However, very few studies have been conducted to identify viruses responsible for important epidemics in this crop in Ecuador. During...

  20. Conditional Clemency after the Golpe de Melo of 1854: Constitutionalism and Tradition in Early Republican Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Rosenthal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines indultos after the Golpe de Melo of 1854. While the government hoped that these acts of clemency would erase all traces of the rebellion, a flood of appeals for indultos ensured that the post-war reckoning went on longer than the war itself. Drawing on archival and published material documenting this phenomenon, the article documents post-war politics in New Granada. The tension between popular ideals concerning pardonable behavior and the dispassionate constitutionalism promoted by the government documents the limits of the early republican project.

  1. Early Ukrainian-Belarusian-Polish traditional melo-massif: Interethnic wedding macro-areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymenko Iryna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Through rhythm-typological analysis and cartography the author has detected a similarity in the typological structure of early traditional musical forms belonging to agricultural and wedding genres on the territory which unites Ukraine, Belarus (within its ethnic area at the beginning of the 20th century, Eastern Poland (the Vistula river basin, and Lithuania (Dzūkija and Aukštaitija. This concerns several dozen song types, composed of items from a common grammatical base, forming the Ukrainian- Belarusian-Polish early-traditional melo-massif ‒ UBPEM. These types share interethnic (2-4-lingual areals, which do not correlate with linguistic ones.

  2. Sterilization of the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), with gamma-radiation: Effect of dose on oviposition behavior of irradiated females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruya, T.

    1990-01-01

    In a laboratory condition, the visiting and the puncturing frequencies of gamma-irradiated Dacus cucurbitae females on cucumber Cucumis sativus fruits were examined. In the non-irradiated females, the frequencies reached equilibrium ca. 1 week after adult emergence. The frequencies of the irradrated females decreased with irradiation dosage, but gradually resumed frequency with age. A similar trend was found in the relationship between the irradiation dose and the rates of the puncturing frequency to the visiting frequency. As the irradiation dose increased, the rate of under-developed ovaries increased. The ratio of cumulative puncturing frequency in the 70 Gy irradiated (completely sterile) females to that of the non-irradiated females was estimated as 1/200 when daily survival rate in the field was assumed to be 0.85. The completely sterile adult females (40 days old) made punctures on all sizes of cucumber cultivated in a greenhouse. However, these punctures do not significantly damage the fruit. The sting of the sterile melon fly would not be a serious problem in eradication programs based on the Sterile Insect Technique

  3. Dehydrated melon containing antioxidants and calcium from grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulda N. M. Chambi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Grape juice has a high antioxidant potential, capable of fighting oxidative processes in the body. The juice is mainly marketed in its concentrated form, which has a high content of glucose and fructose. The juice concentrate may then be used as an osmotic agent to dehydrated fruit with a relatively short shelf-life at room temperature, such as melon. The osmotic dehydration process can also be combined with conventional drying in order to further reduce the water activity (a w of the product. Finally, the antioxidant-rich melon meets the consumers’ demand for foods which contain ingredients that may impart health benefits. Results: Melon dehydrated by osmotic process at 200, 400 and 600 mbar, using grape juice concentrate (GJC, showed no significant differences in physical characteristics (a w , °Brix, and moisture content. Higher efficiency was observed when dehydration was performed at 200 mbar. After osmotic dehydration with GJC, both plasmolysis of the melon cells and an increase in intercellular spaces were observed by optical microscopy, with no negative impact on the mechanical properties (True stress, Hencky’s strain and deformability modulus. Calcium present in GJC was impregnated into the melon matrix, thus contributing with the mineral composition and mechanical properties of the final product. No significant differences were observed for the antioxidant capacity of melon dehydrated both with GJC and GJC followed by air-drying at 50 and 70°C. This demonstrates that it is possible to combine the two processes to obtain a product with intermediate moisture without decreasing its antioxidant capacity. The samples scored above the acceptable limit (>5 varying between like slightly to like moderately, resulting in a purchase intent with average scores between 3 (maybe/maybe not buy and 4 (probably would buy. Conclusions: A product with intermediate water activity, acidic, firm, high antioxidant capacity, rich in calcium

  4. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  5. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    2004-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60 Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment

  6. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge E-mail: jmancini@usp.br; Delincee, Henry E-mail: henry.delincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br

    2004-10-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a {sup 60}Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  7. Arsenic speciation in xylem sap of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihucz, Victor G. [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); Tatar, Eniko [Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Virag, Istvan [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Cseh, Edit; Fodor, Ferenc [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Plant Physiology, Budapest (Hungary); Zaray, Gyula [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary)

    2005-10-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) and high-performance liquid chromatography double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-DF-ICP-MS) were used for total arsenic determination and arsenic speciation of xylem sap of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in hydroponics containing 2 {mu}mol dm{sup -3} arsenate or arsenite, respectively. Arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were identified in the sap of the plants. Arsenite was the predominant arsenic species in the xylem saps regardless of the type of arsenic treatment, and the following concentration order was determined: As(III) > As(V) > DMA. The amount of total As, calculated taking into consideration the mass of xylem sap collected, was almost equal for both treatments. Arsenite was taken up more easily by cucumber than arsenate. Partial oxidation of arsenite to arsenate (<10% in 48 h) was observed in the case of arsenite-containing nutrient solutions, which may explain the detection of arsenate in the saps of plants treated with arsenite. (orig.)

  8. Comparison of some local melon genotypes selected from Lake Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... microclimate which allows for vegetable production. The province Van lies between 35o 55' and 39o 24' N latitude and 42o 05' and 44o 22' E longitude and 1725 m altitude; the altitude of Lake Van is 1646 m and the altitude of the basin varies from 1600 to 2500 m (Gulser, 1992). The variety trials in melon ...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF MELON F1 SEEDS BASED ON LINES WITH GENIC MALE STERILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Sokolov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The perspective technology of development of melon of F1hybrids seeds by use maternal lines with an original form of genic mail sterility and marker trait (lobed leaves was studied. Elements of technology allow developing hybrid seeds of melon with hybridity of 90-95%.

  10. Effect of Substitution of Melon with Soybean on the Nutrient Content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional cakes were prepared from a blend of melon and soybean meal. The blended meal contained 10% and 20% soybean respectively while unblended meal contained 100% melon meal which served as control. Cakes obtained from the blends were analysed for proximate composition, amino acid content and ...

  11. Diplomacy, Courtly Service and Catholic Inks: The London Lawsuit of Francisco de Melo Manuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BRAVO LOZANO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1676 Francisco de Melo, Portuguese ambassador in London and lord chamberlain of the Queen Catherine of Braganza, was involved in a typographic controversy that affected his diplomatic dignity and his palatine office. Service and obedience to two members of the Lusitanian Royal House, with different natures and responsibilities, show the delicate balance between the political sphere of negotiation and the domestic space. According to his career and his dual position, the impression’s permission of a catholic book in the protestant court caused the dispute analyzed in these pages. Although it can be interpreted as an eventual case, it emphasizes the confessional reality of England and how such printed texts found ways of diffusion through the diplomacy and the environment of the royal consort.

  12. Bitter Melon Extract Promotes Granulation Tissue Growth and Angiogenesis in the Diabetic Wound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rekha; Garcia-Gomez, Ignacio; Gudehithlu, Krishnamurthy P; Singh, Ashok K

    2017-01-01

    Bitter melon is a plant fruit that has been shown to exert a hypoglycemic effect when used systemically in patients with diabetes. This study was designed to investigate the topical effect of bitter melon on diabetic wounds using the wound chamber model in rats. Two bilateral wound chambers were implanted subcutaneously in the thoracic-lumbar region of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin 7 days after implantation of wound chambers. After 24 hours of induction of diabetes, aqueous extract of bitter melon was injected into 1 wound chamber, and saline (0.9% sodium chloride solution) was injected into the contralateral chamber once daily for 3 days. Wound fluid was collected on day 4 for analysis, following which rats were euthanized. The granulation tissue encapsulating the wound chamber was removed and processed for histology. Controls included diabetic rats with wound chambers injected with saline (instead of bitter melon) and nondiabetic rats with wound chambers injected with bitter melon. In rats with diabetes, wound granulation tissue treated with bitter melon was well formed, with distinct cellular layers, whereas the saline-treated granulation tissue showed a severe loss of tissue organization and blood vessels. Moreover, the bitter melon treatment increased angiogenesis in the diabetic granulation tissue, marked by abundant microvessels and large blood vessels. In nondiabetic rats, no differences in wound granulation tissues were observed between saline- and bitter melon-treated groups. Bitter melon treatment had no effect on systemic blood glucose levels or insulin receptor substrate 1, suggesting that its stimulatory effect on diabetic granulation tissue was not due to alteration of systemic blood glucose levels. When applied locally to diabetic wounds, bitter melon extract prevents regression of granulation tissue and blood vessels, thus accelerating and improving wound healing.

  13. Caracterización Etnobotánica, Agro-morfológica, Sensorial, Físico-química, Nutricional y Molecular de las Variedades Locales de Melón de Villaconejos

    OpenAIRE

    Escribano Martín, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    El melón (Cucumis melo L.) es un sector estratégico para España ya que nuestro país es el primer exportador mundial y el primer productor de la Unión Europea. En la Comunidad de Madrid se cultiva el 1% de la producción nacional principalmente en Villaconejos. Allí se comenzaron a cultivar melones de secano a finales del siglo XIX, en principio sólo para consumo familiar, pero poco después para el comercio. Los agricultores y sus familias se dedicaron exclusivamente a su cultivo, compitiendo a...

  14. Pusaudžu melošana vecāku-pusaudžu mijiedarbības kontekstā

    OpenAIRE

    Lučkina, Jeļena

    2014-01-01

    Maģistra darba pētījuma mērķis bija apskatīt pusaudžu melošanu (dzimumatšķirības melošanas biežumā un tēmās), un noskaidrot kādas pastāv saistības starp pusaudžu melošanu un vecāku-pusaudžu attiecību aspektiem. Balstoties uz analizēto literatūru, tika izvirzīti četri pētījuma jautājumi: Vai pastāv dzimumatšķirības pusaudžu pašnovērtētajā melošanas biežumā un tēmās?; Kādas tēmas prevalē pusaudžu melošanā vecākiem?; Kādas sakarības pastāv starp pusaudžu melošanas biežumu un attiecību aspektiem ...

  15. Consumers sensory evaluation of melon sweetness and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Agulheiro-Santos, Ana Cristina; Rato, Ana; Laranjo, Marta; Gonçalves, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    CONSUMERS SENSORY EVALUATION OF MELON SWEETNESS AND QUALITY Agulheiro Santos, A.C, Rato, A.E., Laranjo, M. and Gonçalves, C. Departamento de Fitotecnia, Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrânicas (ICAAM), Instituto de Investigação e Formação Avançada (IIFA), Universidade de Évora, Polo da Mitra, Ap.94, 7002-554 Évora, Portugal. ABSTRACT The sensory quality of fruits is made of a range of attributes like sweetness, acidity, aroma...

  16. Rainbow tensor model with enhanced symmetry and extreme melonic dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoyama, H.; Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.

    2017-08-01

    We introduce and briefly analyze the rainbow tensor model where all planar diagrams are melonic. This leads to considerable simplification of the large N limit as compared to that of the matrix model: in particular, what are dressed in this limit are propagators only, which leads to an oversimplified closed set of Schwinger-Dyson equations for multi-point correlators. We briefly touch upon the Ward identities, the substitute of the spectral curve and the AMM/EO topological recursion and their possible connections to Connes-Kreimer theory and forest formulas.

  17. Promise of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) bioactives in cancer prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Komal; Kumar, Dileep; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-10-01

    Recently, there is a paradigm shift that the whole food-derived components are not 'idle bystanders' but actively participate in modulating aberrant metabolic and signaling pathways in both healthy and diseased individuals. One such whole food from Cucurbitaceae family is 'bitter melon' (Momordica charantia, also called bitter gourd, balsam apple, etc.), which has gained an enormous attention in recent years as an alternative medicine in developed countries. The increased focus on bitter melon consumption could in part be due to several recent pre-clinical efficacy studies demonstrating bitter melon potential to target obesity/type II diabetes-associated metabolic aberrations as well as its pre-clinical anti-cancer efficacy against various malignancies. The bioassay-guided fractionations have also classified the bitter melon chemical constituents based on their anti-diabetic or cytotoxic effects. Thus, by definition, these bitter melon constituents are at cross roads on the bioactivity parameters; they either have selective efficacy for correcting metabolic aberrations or targeting cancer cells, or have beneficial effects in both conditions. However, given the vast, though dispersed, literature reports on the bioactivity and beneficial attributes of bitter melon constituents, a comprehensive review on the bitter melon components and the overlapping beneficial attributes is lacking; our review attempts to fulfill these unmet needs. Importantly, the recent realization that there are common risk factors associated with obesity/type II diabetes-associated metabolic aberrations and cancer, this timely review focuses on the dual efficacy of bitter melon against the risk factors associated with both diseases that could potentially impact the course of malignancy to advanced stages. Furthermore, this review also addresses a significant gap in our knowledge regarding the bitter melon drug-drug interactions which can be predicted from the available reports on bitter melon

  18. FUNCTIONAL MALE STERILITY AND ITS USE IN BREEDING OF VEGETABLE AND MELON CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Bocharnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the manifestation of functional male sterility and its importance in the breeding of melons. Utilization of functional male sterility allows solving the problem effective hybrid seed production.

  19. Reducing the impact of irrigated crops on freshwater availability: the case of Brazilian yellow melons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito de Figueirêdo, M.C.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Kroeze, C.; Silva Barros, da V.; Sousa, de J.A.; Souza de Aragão, F.A.; Sonsol Gondim, R.; Potting, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study quantifies freshwater consumption throughout the life cycle of Brazilian exported yellow melons and assesses the resulting impact on freshwater availability. Results are used to identify improvement options. Moreover, the study explores the further impact of variations in

  20. The transgenosis main directions in vegetable and melon production: theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. В. Лещук

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with priority directions of vegetable and melon plants selection. The wide varieties of alien genetic information transferring methods during the transgenic plants creation of vegetable and melon species are grounded. The essence of the new hybrids identification method as genetic engineering products: kind of cabbage, tomatoes, carrots, zucchini, lettuce seed, pea Pisum sativum, common bean, eggplant and capsicum is revealed. The transgenosis main directions of botanical taxa varieties of vegetable and melon plants on condition of the international and national practice holding are proved. The international practice of the state approbation and registration of genetically engineered structures in biological objects (plant varieties and in their processed products are studied. A monitoring about food and pharmaceutical substances based on genetically modified varieties and hybrids structures of vegetable and melon plants have been held.

  1. The Biological Activity of Kumchura Rhizome to Melon Fly: I. Crude Kumchura Bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edhi Martono

    1996-12-01

    effects observed were larval development inhibition and delay. In the repellency tests, proportionally less melon flies were found on diet containing kumchura, but no effect on oviposition was observed.

  2. Performance of continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) on fermentative biohydrogen production from melon waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyari, K.; Sarto; Syamsiah, S.; Prasetya, A.

    2016-11-01

    This research was meant to investigate performance of continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) as bioreactor for producing biohydrogen from melon waste through dark fermentation method. Melon waste are commonly generated from agricultural processing stages i.e. cultivation, post-harvesting, industrial processing, and transportation. It accounted for more than 50% of total harvested fruit. Feedstock of melon waste was fed regularly to CSTR according to organic loading rate at value 1.2 - 3.6 g VS/ (l.d). Optimum condition was achieved at OLR 2.4 g VS/ (l.d) with the highest total gas volume 196 ml STP. Implication of higher OLR value is reduction of total gas volume due to accumulation of acids (pH 4.0), and lower substrate volatile solid removal. In summary, application of this method might valorize melon waste and generates renewable energy sources.

  3. Antibacterial activity of Phyllantus emblica, Coriandrum sativum, Culinaris medic, Lawsonia alba and Cucumis sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Dawood Ali; Hassan, Fouzia; Ullah, Hanif; Karim, Sabiha; Baseer, Abdul; Abid, Mobasher Ali; Ubaidi, Muhammad; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Present study deals with the demonstration of the antibacterial activity of very common medicinal plants of Pakistani origin i.e., Phyllantus emblica, Coriandrum sativum, Culinaris medic, Lawsonia alba and Cucumis sativus. The extracts were prepared in crude form by the use of hydro-alcoholic solution and were screened for antibacterial activity against various bacterial species by disk diffusion method. Assay was performed using clinical isolates of B. cereus, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Crude extract of Phyllantus emblica fruit exhibited strong activity against standard cultures of all studied bacteria. Lawsonia alba showed good activity against standard cultures of all the used microorganisms. Coriandrum sativum was effective only against Bacillus cereus, while Cucumis sativus and Culinaris medic showed poor activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa only. Hence, Phyllantus emblica exhibited strong antibacterial activity against a wide range of bacteria it means that Phyllantus emblica extract contains some compounds which have broad spectrum of bactericidal activity.

  4. Promise of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) bioactives in cancer prevention and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Komal; Kumar, Dileep; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there is a paradigm shift that the whole food-derived components are not ‘idle bystanders’ but actively participate in modulating aberrant metabolic and signaling pathways in both healthy and diseased individuals. One such whole food from Cucurbitaceae family is ‘bitter melon’ (Momordica charantia, also called bitter gourd, balsam apple, etc.), which has gained an enormous attention in recent years as an alternative medicine in developed countries. The increased focus on bitter melon consumption could in part be due to several recent pre-clinical efficacy studies demonstrating bitter melon potential to target obesity/type II diabetes-associated metabolic aberrations as well as its pre-clinical anti-cancer efficacy against various malignancies. The bioassay-guided fractionations have also classified the bitter melon chemical constituents based on their anti-diabetic or cytotoxic effects. Thus, by definition, these bitter melon constituents are at cross roads on the bioactivity parameters; they either have selective efficacy for correcting metabolic aberrations or targeting cancer cells, or have beneficial effects in both conditions. However, given the vast, though dispersed, literature reports on the bioactivity and beneficial attributes of bitter melon constituents, a comprehensive review on the bitter melon components and the overlapping beneficial attributes is lacking; our review attempts to fulfill these unmet needs. Importantly, the recent realization that there are common risk factors associated with obesity/type II diabetes-associated metabolic aberrations and cancer, this timely review focuses on the dual efficacy of bitter melon against the risk factors associated with both diseases that could potentially impact the course of malignancy to advanced stages. Furthermore, this review also addresses a significant gap in our knowledge regarding the bitter melon drug-drug interactions which can be predicted from the available reports on bitter

  5. Pengaruh Perbandingan Sari Buah Nenas Dan Melon Serta Konsentrasi Gula Terhadap Mutu Permen Jahe (Hard Candy)

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela, Connie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect ratio of pineapple with melon and sugar concentration of the quality of hard candy. This study used completely randomized design with two factors, ie : ratio of pineapple and melon (N) (40% : 40%, 45% : 35%, 50% : 30%, 55% : 25%) and sugar concentration (G) (50%, 55%, 60%, 65%). The analyzed parameters were moisture content, vitamin C content, total acid, total soluble solid, ash content, sensory test (color, flavor, taste, and texture). ...

  6. Fertilizer use efficiency by maize ( Zea mays ) and egusi-melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three separate field studies were conducted in a rainforest area to determine efficient use of applied fertilizers by maize and egusi-melon in various ratios of mixtures in an ultisol in Nigeria. The experiment was a factorial combination of seven cropping ratios of maize and egusi-melon (MA:EM 1:0, 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 1:2, and 1:3, ...

  7. Economic analysis of irrigated melon cultivated in greenhouse with and without soil plastic mulching

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Elvis M. de C.; Carvalho, Jacinto de A.; Viol, Miguel A.; Rezende, Fátima C.; Thebaldi, Michael S.; Diotto, Adriano V.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to analyze technically and economically the irrigated ‘Gália’ melon (Hybrid Nectar), cultivated in greenhouse with and without using plastic mulch covering on the soil. Simultaneously, two experiments were conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD), in which melon plants were submitted to five water availability levels, defined by 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150% of crop evapotranspiration, with four replicates. The difference between experiments w...

  8. [The life story of Joaquim Alberto Cardoso de Melo: Quincas, Um berro à vida].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zancan, Lenira; Matida, Álvaro Hideyoshi

    2015-10-01

    The article seeks to reflect on the contribution of Joaquim Alberto Cardoso de Melo (1936-1993) to the field of public health relating his life story and his scientific production with core issues of education and health, present in his time and which remain in debate to this day. His contribution resulted in the production of new meanings for health practices, with the understanding as social and transdisciplinary phenomena. Based on conversations with co-authors and friends and rereading of his texts, it was decided to approach his biography from: (i) his skills and participation in initiatives and practices of preventive medicine and popular education, which fomented the critical analysis of health education; (ii) his presence as an educator in public health courses throughout the country, eliciting the deconstruction of the theories and practices of education and health with managers, students, professionals and teachers; (iii) his availability for transdisciplinary dialogue with the humanities and social sciences in the search for "epistemological sutures" between reason and passion, capable of responding to the dilemmas and challenges of healthcare work. These three trajectories indicate that the performance of "Quincas" must be understood from his restlessness as a health professional and educator, engaged in the production of knowledge and practices related to the complexity of the phenomenon of life.

  9. O Sol Laranja e Negro de João Cabral de Melo Neto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Tiscoski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O poeta pernambucano João Cabral de Melo Neto publica Sevilha andando em 1990, já aposentado da carreira diplomática que lhe possibilitou o contato com a cidade e o povo sevilhano, desde 1956, quando trabalha em pesquisas históricas no Arquivo das Índias de Sevilha. Após ter morado em cidades como Londres, Marselha e Barcelona, é transferido para a andaluza Cadiz, e novamente reside em Sevilha em 1962. Tendo ainda passado no decorrer de sua carreira diplomática por Berna, Senegal e Honduras, é a Andaluzia que se estabelece como lugar da linguagem poética e concreta, eleita Sevilha a cidade onde os elementos de sua poesia se realizam em lâmina, pedra, o sol laranja e negro, a mulher que anda. Sevilha andando e Andando Sevilha finalizam sua produção poética e reproduzem em serena e bruta semelhança o homem da terra que lhe remete ao sertanejo, a Pernambuco, a Recife.

  10. Effects of sudden melon intake on ruminal parameters of non-adapted sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco L.C. Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of varying amounts of melon with high sugar content offered to sheep without prior melon experience and that were not adapted to consuming it. We used 12 eight-month-old, rumen-cannulated crossbred sheep weighing 25 kg each. The animals received a base diet of roughage, and then half were randomly selected to have 25% of their diet replaced with melon (G25% and the other half had 75% of their diet replaced with melon (75%. Ruminal fluid was collected before administration of melon and at 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after the administration of the fruit. Sheep from the G25% group presented volatile fatty acid ruminal acidosis (sub-acute between 3 and 6 h after consumption. This acidosis was characterized by a rumen pH slightly lower than 5.6, increased discrete L-lactic acid content, and increased redox potential (RP and methylene blue redox (MBR time of the ruminal fluid. The G75% group presented lactic ruminal acidosis at T6h, characterized by a rumen pH lower than 5.0, high lactate-L content, increased RP and MBR time, and increased ruminal fluid osmolarity. Therefore, offering large amounts of melon (75% of dry matter (DM is not recommended but 25% of DM of this fruit can be used safely.

  11. Molecular characters of melon (Cucumismelo L. "Tacapa") in response to karst critical land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, Yuanita; Daryono, Budi Setiadi; Aristya, Ganies Riza

    2017-06-01

    Yogyakarta district has 158.600 ha critical land and spread off in three Agro Ecosystem zones. Two of them are karsts critical land. Critical lands which contain calcium carbonate in high concentration and water dehydration in upper surface give abiotic stress in wide range of plant. Melon cultivar TACAPA has superior characteristic derived from parental crossing, ♀ Action 434 and ♂ PI 371795 and potential to be developed in karsts critical land. Abscicic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone expressed by plant in abiotic stress condition. CmBG1 is a gene which regulate ABA hormone in melon. The purposes of this research were examining the molecular character of melon cultivar TACAPA in response to karsts critical land in order to study molecular characterization of CmBG1 gene. Analysis was done qualitatively by using Reverse Transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and Electrophoresis, while quantitative analysis was conducted by observing absorbance score in spectrophotometer. CmBG1 gene expression is examined by using Real time PCR (qPCR). Molecular characters obtained are CmBG1 detected in size ±1258 bp, CmBG1 gene concentrations in melon which planted in control media are lower than melon in critical lands media. These results are similar with the real time quantitative analysis method. It also be revealed that melon TACAPA is more potential plant compared to another cultivar that can be developed in karst critical land area.

  12. Development and Performance Evaluation of Manually and Motorized Operated Melon Shelling Machine using Impact Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Olusegun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Melon shelling in most part of the world is usually done manually by hand, and like all other manual operations it is time consuming and strenuous. The design and construction of manually and motorized operated melon shelling machine using impact method was done in order to meet the domestic, commercial and industrial requirement of melon for food processing. Two of the main cultivars of melon found in Western part of Nigeria; which are Bara and Serewe can be shelled properly by this machine; the machine is made up of three sections namely the hopper, the shelling chamber which consists of the shelling disc and the shaft, and the gear system. The machine was made from locally sourced materials and it can be used in both urban and rural areas even where there is no power supply. The percentage of melon been shelled in either manual or motorized operation in two successive runs of the two types of melon (Bara and Serewe was found to be above eighty percent (80% and the shelling efficiency of the machine is above 68%.

  13. Effect of mulching on melon (cv. Campero) crop coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerekovic, Natasa; Todorovic, Mladen; Snyder, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    and development parameters which can contribute in difference of Kc values for this climatic region. Since the crop is mostly bare soil during initial growth, the Kc ini is mainly determined by the wetting frequency through irrigation and precipitation, the fraction of soil wetted by irrigation, and the ETo rate....... The Kc mid values determined with equations are average adjustments for the mid-season period for the melon crop in Policoro, taking in consideration relevant weather data for wind speed and relative humidity as averages for these period. High Kc values were related to irrigation events. Kc end values...... consideration of all growing and management parameters is needed when crop evapotranspiration has to be estimated under local conditions. This work has shown that peak Kc estimation can be improved by applying the corrections for relative humidity, wind speed and plant height as it suggested in FAO 56...

  14. Melon oil methyl ester: an environmentally friendly fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Fasogbon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Demand for energy is growing across the globe due to the direct relationship between the well-being and prosperity of people and energy usage. However, meeting this growing energy demand in a safe and environmentally friendly manner is a key challenge. To this end, methyl esters (biodiesels have been and are being widely investigated as alternatives to fossil fuels in compression ignition engines. In this study, melon (Colocynthis Citrullus Lanatus oil was used to synthesize biodiesel (methyl ester using the transesterification method in the presence of a sodium hydroxide promoter. The emissions profile of the biodiesel was investigated by setting up a single-cylinder four-stroke air-cooled CI engine connected to a TD115-hydraulic dynamometer and an Eclipse Flue Gas Analyzer (FGA with model number EGA4 flue gas analyzer. The engine was run at engine speeds of 675, 1200 and 1900rpm for biodiesel/diesel blends at 21°C on a volume basis of 0/100(B0, 10/90(B10, 20/80(B20, 30/70(B30, 40/60(B40 and 50/50(B50. The test showed a downward trend in the emissions profile of the biodiesel, with remarkable reductions of about 55% in the dangerous-carbon monoxide exhaust gas pollutant and 33.3% in the unfriendly SOX from 100% diesel to B30-biodiesel concentration. Increasing the speed from 675 to 1200 and then to 1900 rpm also afforded further reductions in CO and SOX exhaust emissions. NOX however increased marginally by 2.1% from the same 100% diesel to the B30-biodiesel composition. Based on the remarkable reduction in CO and SOX and the marginal increase in NOX as the concentration of the biodiesel increased in the blends, the study concludes that melon oil methyl ester is an environmentally friendly fuel.

  15. Chemical signature of two Permian volcanic ash deposits within a bentonite bed from Melo, Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane M. Calarge

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A Permian bentonite deposit at Melo, Uruguay is composed of a calcite-cemented sandstone containing clay pseudomorphs of glass shards (0-0.50 m overlying a pink massive clay deposit (0.50-2.10m. The massive bed is composed of two layers containing quartz and smectite or pure smectite respectively. The smectite is remarkably homogeneous throughout the profile: it is a complex mixed layer composed of three layer types whose expandability with ethylene glycol (2EG 1EG or 0EG sheets in the interlayer zone which correspond to low-, medium- and high-charge layers respectively varies with the cation saturating the interlayer zone. The smectite homogeneity through the profile is the signature of an early alteration process in a lagoonal water which was over saturated with respect to calcite. Compaction during burial has made the bentonite bed a K-depleted closed system in which diagenetic illitization was inhibited. Variations in major, REE and minor element abundances throughout the massive clay deposit suggest that it originated from two successive ash falls. The incompatible element abundances are consistent with that of a volcanic glass fractionated from a rhyolite magma formed in a subduction/collision geological context.Um depósito Permiano de bentonita em Melo, Uruguai,é composto por um arenito com cimento calcítico contendo pseudomorfos de argila sobre detritos vítreos(0-0.50 m superpostos a um deposito maciço de argila rosado (0.50-2.10 m. A camada maciça é composta por dois níveis contendo quartzo e esmectita ou esmectita pura, respectivamente. A homogeneidade de esmectita ao longo do perfil é notável: trata-se de um interestratificado composto de três tipos de camadas, cuja expansibilidade com etileno-glicol (folhas 2EG, 1EG ou 0EG na zona interfoliar correspondentes a camadas com baixa, média e alta carga, respectivamente variam com o tipo de cátion que satura a zona interfoliar. A homogeneidade da esmectita ao longo do perfil

  16. Marcas da violência e jogos do poder no romance urbano de Patrícia Melo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Castanheira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the romance O Matador (The Killer by Patrícia Melo. Its thematic universe and discursive strategies break not only with the prospects of the more contemporary feminist literary criticism, but also with the bourgeois ideological system, more broadly. The object is to highlight how the use of the male voice and masculine cultural experiences, taken to its ultimate consequences, may be converted into a subliminal criticism regarding the ways of how the discriminating speeches are built, through sexual, economic and social criteria in our society.

  17. Efecto de la aplicación de bioactivadores y del raleo manual de frutos sobre el rendimiento y la calidad de melón (Cucumis melo L. bajo cultivo protegido en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Alvarado-Sánchez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto del raleo manual de frutos y de la aplicación de los bioactivadores Algamix y Engordone sobre el rendimiento y la calidad del melón amarillo var. JMX-902. No se encontraron diferencias significativas con respecto a la firmeza del fruto, concentración de sólidos solubles totales, peso del fruto, rendimiento total, peso del fruto comercializable, rendimiento comercializable, y rendimiento por planta. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos para el número de frutos por planta; las plantas tratadas con solo Engordone y solo Algamix presentaron mayor número de frutos por planta con respecto a otros tratamientos, pero estos resultados no fueron distintos de los del Testigo. Se encontraron diferencias significativas al distribuir la producción según distintas categorías de peso; el rendimiento de frutos de melón con un peso de entre 601-800 gramos fue superior en plantas tratadas con solo Algamix respecto a los demás tratamientos; el rendimiento de frutos de melón con un peso de entre 801-1000 gramos fue superior en plantas tratadas con solo Engordone respecto a los demás tratamientos.

  18. Identificação de marcadores moleculares ligados a gene de resistência ao vírus do mosaico (PRSV-W) em melão (Cucumis melo L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Matoso Teixeira

    2004-01-01

    A importância da cultura do meloeiro é crescente no Brasil, sobretudo na região Nordeste, tanto pelo volume comercializado como por ser estabelecida geralmente em pequenas propriedades. Diversas enfermidades acometem esta cultura, destacando-se as viroses. Dentre estas, o mosaico, causado pelo Papaya ringspot virus - estirpe melancia (PRSV-W) é das mais importantes. Dentre as estratégias de controle desta doença, o emprego de cultivares resistentes apresenta-se como um método prático e ...

  19. Inducement of mitosis delay by cucurbitacin E, a novel tetracyclic triterpene from climbing stem of Cucumis melo L., through GADD45γ in human brain malignant glioma (GBM) 8401 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Y-C; Chen, M-J; Huang, T-Y

    2014-02-27

    Cucurbitacin E (CuE) is a natural compound previously shown to have anti-feedant, antioxidant and antitumor activities as well as a potent chemo-preventive action against cancer. The present study investigates its anti-proliferative property using MTT assay; CuE demonstrated cytotoxic activity against malignant glioma GBM 8401 cells and induced cell cycle G2/M arrest in these cells. CuE-treated cells accumulated in metaphase (CuE 2.5-10 μM) as determined using MPM-2 by flow cytometry. We attempted to characterize the molecular pathways responsible for cytotoxic effects of CuE in GBM 8401 cells. We studied the genome-wide gene expression profile on microarrays and molecular networks by using pathway analysis tools of bioinformatics. The CuE reduced the expression of 558 genes and elevated the levels of 1354 genes, suggesting an existence of the common pathways involved in induction of G2/M arrest. We identified the RB (GADD45β and GADD45γ) and the p53 (GADD45α) signaling pathways as the common pathways, serving as key molecules that regulate cell cycle. Results indicate that CuE produced G2/M arrest as well as the upregulation of GADD45 γ and binding with CDC2. Both effects increased proportionally with the dose of CuE, suggesting that the CuE-induced mitosis delay is regulated by GADD45γ overexpression. Our findings suggest that, in addition to the known effects on cancer prevention, CuE may have antitumor activity in glioma therapy.

  20. Effects of Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon) on Ischemic Diabetic Myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czompa, Attila; Gyongyosi, Alexandra; Szoke, Kitti; Bak, Istvan; Csepanyi, Evelin; Haines, David D; Tosaki, Arpad; Lekli, Istvan

    2017-03-20

    Objective : A rat model is here used to test a hypothesis that Momordica charantia (Bitter melon (BM)) extract favorably alters processes in cardiovascular tissue and is systemically relevant to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related cardiovascular disease. Methods : Male Lean and Zucker Obese (ZO) rats were gavage-treated for six weeks with 400 mg/kg body weight bitter melon (BM) extract suspended in mucin-water vehicle, or with vehicle (Control). Animals were segregated into four treatment groups, 10 animals in each group, according to strain (Lean or ZO) and treatment (Control or BM). Following six-week treatment periods, peripheral blood was collected from selected animals, followed by sacrifice, thoracotomy and mounting of isolated working heart setup. Results : Body mass of both Lean and ZO rats was unaffected by treatment, likewise, peripheral blood fasting glucose levels showed no significant treatment-related effects. However, some BM treatment-related improvement was noted in postischemic cardiac functions when Lean, BM-treated animals were compared to vehicle treated Lean control rats. Treatment of Lean, but not ZO, rats significantly reduced the magnitude of infarcted zone in isolated hearts subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of working mode reperfusion. Immunohistochemical demonstration of caspase-3 expression by isolated heart tissues subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion, revealed significant correlation between BM treatment and reduced expression of this enzyme in hearts obtained from both Lean and ZO animals. The hierarchy and order of caspase-3 expression from highest to lowest was as follows: ZO rats receiving vehicle > ZO rats receiving BM extract > Lean rats treated receiving vehicle > Lean rats administered BM extract. Outcomes of analyses of peripheral blood content of cardiac-related analytics: with particular relevance to clinical application was a significant elevation in blood of ZO

  1. Effects of Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon on Ischemic Diabetic Myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Czompa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A rat model is here used to test a hypothesis that Momordica charantia (Bitter melon (BM extract favorably alters processes in cardiovascular tissue and is systemically relevant to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM and related cardiovascular disease. Methods: Male Lean and Zucker Obese (ZO rats were gavage-treated for six weeks with 400 mg/kg body weight bitter melon (BM extract suspended in mucin–water vehicle, or with vehicle (Control. Animals were segregated into four treatment groups, 10 animals in each group, according to strain (Lean or ZO and treatment (Control or BM. Following six-week treatment periods, peripheral blood was collected from selected animals, followed by sacrifice, thoracotomy and mounting of isolated working heart setup. Results: Body mass of both Lean and ZO rats was unaffected by treatment, likewise, peripheral blood fasting glucose levels showed no significant treatment-related effects. However, some BM treatment-related improvement was noted in postischemic cardiac functions when Lean, BM-treated animals were compared to vehicle treated Lean control rats. Treatment of Lean, but not ZO, rats significantly reduced the magnitude of infarcted zone in isolated hearts subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of working mode reperfusion. Immunohistochemical demonstration of caspase-3 expression by isolated heart tissues subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion, revealed significant correlation between BM treatment and reduced expression of this enzyme in hearts obtained from both Lean and ZO animals. The hierarchy and order of caspase-3 expression from highest to lowest was as follows: ZO rats receiving vehicle > ZO rats receiving BM extract > Lean rats treated receiving vehicle > Lean rats administered BM extract. Outcomes of analyses of peripheral blood content of cardiac-related analytics: with particular relevance to clinical application was a significant elevation in

  2. Protein (Viridiplantae): 128519 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9:7 3650:7 ... 1003877:7 ... 3655:7 ... 3656:1095 ... PREDICTED: pectinesterase inhibitor-like Cucumis melo MANNSCLV...IVSLIGVLLFTIILNVASSNYVISTICSKSSNPPFCSSVLKSSGTTYLKGLAVYTLNLAHTNASKSLTLARSLATTTTNPQ

  3. Accumulation of Charantin and Expression of Triterpenoid Biosynthesis Genes in Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuong, Do Manh; Jeon, Jin; Morgan, Abubaker M A; Kim, Changsoo; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Sook Young; Park, Sang Un

    2017-08-23

    Charantin, a natural cucurbitane type triterpenoid, has been reported to have beneficial pharmacological functions such as anticancer, antidiabetic, and antibacterial activities. However, accumulation of charantin in bitter melon has been little studied. Here, we performed a transcriptome analysis to identify genes involved in the triterpenoid biosynthesis pathway in bitter melon seedlings. A total of 88,703 transcripts with an average length of 898 bp were identified in bitter melon seedlings. On the basis of a functional annotation, we identified 15 candidate genes encoding enzymes related to triterpenoid biosynthesis and analyzed their expression in different organs of mature plants. Most genes were highly expressed in flowers and/or fruit from the ripening stages. An HPLC analysis confirmed that the accumulation of charantin was highest in fruits from the ripening stage, followed by male flowers. The accumulation patterns of charantin coincide with the expression pattern of McSE and McCAS1, indicating that these genes play important roles in charantin biosynthesis in bitter melon. We also investigated optimum light conditions for enhancing charantin biosynthesis in bitter melon and found that red light was the most effective wavelength.

  4. Grafting of Romanian Melons and Watermelons for Culture from South Area of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Sora

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The vegetable grafting is useful in Romania; it is more difficult in watermelons and melons and it is continuously developing. The research was aimed the establishing of the technological stages for seedling producing of scions (Romanian melons and watermelons and rootstocks (F1 hybrids of Lagenaria siceraria and Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata for obtaining of grafted plant seedlings. The experience was realized out on a collection consisting from two Romanian scions, melon (‘Fondant’ variety and watermelon (‘Dochiţa’ variety obtained at Research and Development Station for Vegetable Growing Buzău and two rootstocks, bottle gourd - L. siceraria (‘Emphasis’ F1 and interspecific hybrid squash - C. maxima x C. moschata (‘Cobalt’ F1. The obtaining of scion and rootstock plants was made according to the ecological requirements of the species. The grafting was made by annexation (splice grafting. The plants had optimal diameters for splice grafting. Between scions (‘Fondant’ and ‘Dochiţa’ are no diference, statistical analysis could not be performed. Technological stages for producing grafted seedlings of Romanian melon and watermelon were established. The grafting was performed successfully for cucurbit symbiotes (scions and rootstocks. These technological stages for grafting by annexation of Romanian melons and watermelons are recommended for cultures in the south area of Romania.

  5. Pharmacological evaluation of ameliorative effect of aqueous extract of Cucumis sativus L. fruit formulation on wound healing in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mithun Vishwanath K Patil; Amit D Kandhare; Sucheta D Bhise

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of present investigation was to formulate and evaluate the ameliorative effect of aqueous extract of Cucumis sativus L. fruit cream formulation on experimentally induced wounds in rats. Materials and Methods: The cream was formulated using soft white paraffin base containing 2.5%, 5%, and 10% w/w of aqueous extract of of Cucumis sativus L. fruit. Excision wounds of size 300 mm 2 and 2 mm depth were used for the study of rate of contraction of wound and epithelization. All the thr...

  6. Cytoprotection mediated antiulcer effect of aqueous fruit pulp extract of Cucumis sativus

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    Swapnil Sharma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was aimed to evaluate the gastroprotective potential of Cucumis Sativus fruit pulp aqueous extract (CSE in gastric ulcerated rats. Methods: Cytoprotective potential was evaluated via oral administration of CSE at the doses of 250, 500 &1000 mg/kg three times in a day, for 5 days before the induction of ulcers in indomethacin and pyloric ligation induced ulcer model. Further, its effects were studied on various parameters volume of gastric juice, pH, free and total acidity, protein concentration, acid output in gastric juice, lipid peroxide (LPO, and activities of enzymic antioxidants-super oxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT in gastric mucosa. The levels of hexose, hexosamine, sialic acid, fucose in gastric mucosa and gastric juice were also examined. The extent of healing was also determined with post administration of CSE at the same doses & dosage schedule in acetic acid induced model. Results: In indomethacin and pyloric ligation model, the pretreatment with CSE and ranitidine significantly reduced the lesion index, in comparison with control treated group (P< 0.05. The percentages of protection of ulcers were 25.8, 65.7, 80.6 & 93.8 for the treated groups of CSE and ranitidine whereas in pyloric ligation it was 31.26, 55.18, 93.26 & 95.51 respectively. In pyloric ligation model, CSE resulted in significant increase in pH, enzymic antioxidants i.e. SOD & CAT, with a significant decrease in volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity, protein & carbohydrate concentration and LPO levels. In acetic acid inducer model, treatment with Cucumis sativus (CSE caused significant reduction in lesion index in when compared to control treated group, providing evidence for ulcer healing capacity of it. The presence of the flavonoids and polyphenols may be responsible for the gastroprotective effect of CSE. Conclusions: The aqueous fruit pulp extract of Cucumis sativus (CSE has a gastroprotective property.

  7. A new frontier of Okinawa's agriculture: An economic evaluation of the melon fly eradication project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakazu, H.

    2006-01-01

    During the post-reversion period (1972-2002), Okinawa's GDP has grown on average by 6.40% annually. In the growth process, agricultural activities have been rapidly replaced by construction and services activities such as public works and tourism. Okinawa's agriculture has been diversifying from traditional sugarcane and pineapple cultivation to flowers, tropical fruits and various healthy foods such as bitter melon or ''goya'' and turmeric. This paper attempts to post-evaluate the area-wide melon fly eradication project in Okinawa which was successfully completed in 1993. The melon flies affected more than 40 important vegetables and fruits in Okinawa. The sterile insect technique (SIT), an environmentally friendly method, was adopted to eradicate the flies. Based on conventional cost-benefit analysis, the project produced net accumulated benefits after 6 years of the eradication. The study shows that the project is viable even on commercial basis

  8. Sterilization of the melon fly, dacus cucurbitae coquillett, with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruya, Tadashi; Zukeyama, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    The relationships between radiation dose and mating competitiveness of gamma irradiated melon fly males were studied with two methods; those being FRIED's method and the method of the direct counting of normal and irradiated flies in copula under the coexistence of normal females, normal males and irradiated males. In the former method, the mating competitiveness of irradiated males did not reduced significantly with doses from 1 to 10 kR, but at 30 kR, reduced significantly. In the latter method, the mating competitiveness values of males irradiated with 7 and 12 kR were less than unity, but not significant. At 30 kR, the mating competitiveness reduced significantly. It can be said that the harmful effect of irradiation on the mating competitiveness of the melon flies was negligible with a dose of 7 kR, which was used in the eradication project of melon fly from Kume Island. (author)

  9. Monitoring Resistance to Spinosad in the Melon Fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae in Hawaii and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chun Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinosad is a natural insecticide with desirable qualities, and it is widely used as an alternative to organophosphates for control of pests such as the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett. To monitor the potential for development of resistance, information about the current levels of tolerance to spinosad in melon fly populations were established in this study. Spinosad tolerance bioassays were conducted using both topical applications and feeding methods on flies from field populations with extensive exposure to spinosad as well as from collections with little or no prior exposure. Increased levels of resistance were observed in flies from the field populations. Also, higher dosages were generally required to achieve specific levels of mortality using topical applications compared to the feeding method, but these levels were all lower than those used for many organophosphate-based food lures. Our information is important for maintaining effective programs for melon fly management using spinosad.

  10. Towards a TILLING platform for functional genomics in Piel de Sapo melons

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    Pujol Marta

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of genetic and genomic resources for melon has increased significantly, but functional genomics resources are still limited for this crop. TILLING is a powerful reverse genetics approach that can be utilized to generate novel mutations in candidate genes. A TILLING resource is available for cantalupensis melons, but not for inodorus melons, the other main commercial group. Results A new ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized (EMS melon population was generated for the first time in an andromonoecious non-climacteric inodorus Piel de Sapo genetic background. Diverse mutant phenotypes in seedlings, vines and fruits were observed, some of which were of possible commercial interest. The population was first screened for mutations in three target genes involved in disease resistance and fruit quality (Cm-PDS, Cm-eIF4E and Cm-eIFI(iso4E. The same genes were also tilled in the available monoecious and climacteric cantalupensis EMS melon population. The overall mutation density in this first Piel de Sapo TILLING platform was estimated to be 1 mutation/1.5 Mb by screening four additional genes (Cm-ACO1, Cm-NOR, Cm-DET1 and Cm-DHS. Thirty-three point mutations were found for the seven gene targets, six of which were predicted to have an impact on the function of the protein. The genotype/phenotype correlation was demonstrated for a loss-of-function mutation in the Phytoene desaturase gene, which is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis. Conclusions The TILLING approach was successful at providing new mutations in the genetic background of Piel de Sapo in most of the analyzed genes, even in genes for which natural variation is extremely low. This new resource will facilitate reverse genetics studies in non-climacteric melons, contributing materially to future genomic and breeding studies.

  11. Effects of a cantaloupe melon extract/wheat gliadin biopolymer during aortic cross-clamping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kick, Jochen; Hauser, Balázs; Bracht, Hendrik; Albicini, Maura; Oter, Sükrü; Simon, Florian; Ehrmann, Ulrich; Garrel, Catherine; Sträter, Jörn; Brückner, Uwe B; Leverve, Xavier M; Schelzig, Hubert; Speit, Günter; Radermacher, Peter; Muth, Claus-Martin

    2007-04-01

    We previously reported in healthy volunteers that a cantaloupe melon extract chemically combined with wheat gliadin (melon extract/gliadin) and containing SOD, catalase and residual glutathione peroxidase (GPx), protected against DNA strand-break damage induced by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO), a well-established model of DNA damage resulting from oxidative stress. Aortic cross-clamping is a typical example of ischemia/reperfusion injury-related oxidative stress, and therefore we investigated whether this melon extract/gliadin would also reduce DNA damage after aortic cross-clamping and reperfusion. Prospective, randomized, controlled experimental study. Animal laboratory. 18 anesthetized, mechanically ventilated and instrumented pigs. After 14 days of oral administration of 1250 mg of the melon extract/gliadin (n=9) or vehicle (n=9), animals underwent 30 min of thoracic aortic cross-clamping and 4 h of reperfusion. Before clamping, immediately before declamping, and at 2 and 4 h of reperfusion, we measured blood isoprostane (immunoassay) and malondialdehyde concentrations (fluorimetric thiobarbituric acid test), SOD, catalase and GPx activities (spectrophotometric kits), NO formation (nitrate+nitrite; chemoluminescence), DNA damage in whole blood samples and isolated lymphocytes exposed to hyperbaric oxygen (comet assay). Organ function was also evaluated. Kidney and spinal cord specimen were analysed for apoptosis (TUNEL assay). The melon extract/gliadin blunted the DNA damage, reduced spinal cord apoptosis and attenuated NO release, however, without any effect on lipid peroxidation and organ function. Pre-treatment with the oral melon extract/gliadin may be a therapeutic option to reduce oxidative cell injury affiliated with aortic cross-clamping.

  12. Towards a TILLING platform for functional genomics in Piel de Sapo melons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Mireia; Xu, Meihong; Esteras, Cristina; Roig, Cristina; Monforte, Antonio J; Troadec, Christelle; Pujol, Marta; Nuez, Fernando; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Picó, Belén

    2011-08-11

    The availability of genetic and genomic resources for melon has increased significantly, but functional genomics resources are still limited for this crop. TILLING is a powerful reverse genetics approach that can be utilized to generate novel mutations in candidate genes. A TILLING resource is available for cantalupensis melons, but not for inodorus melons, the other main commercial group. A new ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized (EMS) melon population was generated for the first time in an andromonoecious non-climacteric inodorus Piel de Sapo genetic background. Diverse mutant phenotypes in seedlings, vines and fruits were observed, some of which were of possible commercial interest. The population was first screened for mutations in three target genes involved in disease resistance and fruit quality (Cm-PDS, Cm-eIF4E and Cm-eIFI(iso)4E). The same genes were also tilled in the available monoecious and climacteric cantalupensis EMS melon population. The overall mutation density in this first Piel de Sapo TILLING platform was estimated to be 1 mutation/1.5 Mb by screening four additional genes (Cm-ACO1, Cm-NOR, Cm-DET1 and Cm-DHS). Thirty-three point mutations were found for the seven gene targets, six of which were predicted to have an impact on the function of the protein. The genotype/phenotype correlation was demonstrated for a loss-of-function mutation in the Phytoene desaturase gene, which is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis. The TILLING approach was successful at providing new mutations in the genetic background of Piel de Sapo in most of the analyzed genes, even in genes for which natural variation is extremely low. This new resource will facilitate reverse genetics studies in non-climacteric melons, contributing materially to future genomic and breeding studies.

  13. Una nueva especie de Meloe Linnaeus, 1758 del suroeste de Marruecos incluida en el grupo de M. (Eurymeloe rugosus Marsham, 1802 (Coleoptera: Meloidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz, José L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific collections of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC, Madrid hold an extense set of entomological materials collected in Morocco along the first decades of the XXth century by the preeminent naturalist M. Martínez de la Escalera. Morphological studies of the specimens of the genus Meloe Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Meloidae reveals the existence of populations morphologically differentiated along the coastal regions of Essaouira and Ifni. These populations are included within the Meloe rugosus Marsham, 1802 species group in the subgenus Eurymeloe Reitter, 1911. Their differential traits with respect to all other North African and European species of the Meloe rugosus species group are constant, and permit considering these populations as a taxonomic independent unit described herein, Meloe baamarani n. sp. This new species is characterized by having a black, opaque, general coloration all over the body and appendages; black short vestiture; broad head with broadly rounded temples, without median longitudinal groove; long antennae, with segments III to VIII subcylindrical and longer than wide; pronotum transverse, with convergent sides toward the base, without median groove; head and pronotum punctuation dense; aedeagus narrow, median lobe wide and strong, dorsally sinuous, with ventral hooks close to the apex. Meloe baamarani can be only confused on the western regions of northern Africa with Meloe mediterraneus Müller, 1925. This species shares a general appearance with M. baamarani, but differs in many morphological traits. Among those, tegument micro-reticulation, absence of median groove along the head, pronotum morphology and macrosculpture, and configuration of the male genitalia, are included.Las colecciones científicas del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC, Madrid albergan un extenso material entomológico recogido en Marruecos a principios del siglo XX por el insigne naturalista M. Mart

  14. Genome-wide identification and comparative expression analysis of LEA genes in watermelon and melon genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Celik Altunoglu, Yasemin; Baloglu, Mehmet Cengiz; Baloglu, Pinar; Yer, Esra Nurten; Kara, Sibel

    2017-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are large and diverse group of polypeptides which were first identified during seed dehydration and then in vegetative plant tissues during different stress responses. Now, gene family members of LEA proteins have been detected in various organisms. However, there is no report for this protein family in watermelon and melon until this study. A total of 73 LEA genes from watermelon (ClLEA) and 61 LEA genes from melon (CmLEA) were identified in this co...

  15. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. Hardwickii, the wild progenitor of cultivated cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bang; Zhang, Dan; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-11-01

    The complete chloroplast genome sequence of wild cucumber (Cucumis sativus var. hardwickii) was determined and characterized in this study. The genome is of 155 277 bp in length, containing a pair of inverted repeats regions (IRs) of 25 198 bp, which are separated by a large single-copy region of 86 618 bp and a small single-copy region of 18 263 bp. The wild cucumber chloroplast genome has 130 known genes, including 85 protein-coding genes, 8 ribosomal RNA genes, and 37 tRNA genes. Among these genes, 19 comprise one or two introns. There are 11 tRNA genes present in the IR of the chloroplast genome. Phylogenomic analysis showed that C. sativus var. hardwickii forms a cluster with other Cucumis species with strong bootstrap supports and is closely related to C. sativus var. sativus. This newly sequenced chloroplast genome sequence may provide useful genetic information to explore wild cucumber germplasms for cucumber breeding programs.

  16. Genome-wide characterization of microsatellites in Cucumis hystrix and in silico identification of polymorphic SSR markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumis hystrix (2n = 2x = 24, genome HH) is a wild relative of cucumber (C. sativus L., 2n = 2x = 14) that possesses multiple disease resistances and has a great potential for cucumber improvement. Despite its importance, there is no genomic resource currently available for C. hystrix. To expedite ...

  17. First report of powdery mildew on cucumis zambianus, cucurbita digitata and zehneria scabraCaused by podosphaera xanthii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew is a serious disease of cucurbit crops worldwide. In the fall of 2016, symptoms of powdery mildew were observed on 2-month old plants of Cucumis zambianus, Cucurbita digitata and Zehneria scabra in research plots in Charleston, SC. Incidence on 28 plants of C. zambianus was 64.3%. On ...

  18. Use of molecular markers aids in the development of diverse inbred backcross lines in Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a Mediterranean fresh-market type with a relatively narrow genetic base. To broaden its base for plant improvement, 42 diverse accessions were compared employing a previously defined standard marker array to choose wide-based parental lines for use in bac...

  19. Investigation of the Use of "Cucumis Sativus" for Remediation of Chromium from Contaminated Environmental Matrices: An Interdisciplinary Instrumental Analysis Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lynsey R.; Edwards, Michael R.; Farmer, Russell; Greenly, Kathryn J.; Hensler, Sherri; Jenkins, Scott E.; Joyce, J. Michael; Mann, Jason A.; Prentice, Boone M.; Puckette, Andrew E.; Shuford, Christopher M.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rhoten, Melissa C.

    2009-01-01

    An interdisciplinary, semester-long project is presented in which students grow Cucumis sativus (cucumber) plants from seeds and study the ability of the plants to remediate a heavy metal from contaminated soil or water or both. Phytoremediation strategies for environmental cleanup are presented as possible alternatives to chemical based clean-up…

  20. Polyphasic analysis of Acidovorax citrulli strains from northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirley Michele Marques Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bacterial fruit blotch (BFB of cucurbit plants is caused by Acidovorax citrulli and represents a serious concern to melon (Cucumis melo L. growers worldwide, including those in Brazil. Thirty-four A. citrulli strains from different melon production areas of northeastern Brazil were characterized for their virulence on melon fruits and their substrate utilization and molecular profiles. Based on the analysis of BFB severity on melon fruits, the A. citrulli strains were divided into three groups, classified as mildly, moderately or highly virulent. Although host-related groups were not observed, the watermelon and ‘melão-pepino’ strains exhibited only low or moderate virulence on melon fruit. Substrate utilization profiles revealed that 94 % of the 95 tested compounds were used by A. citrulli strains as a carbon source. Overall, based on substrate utilization, low variability was observed with no relationship to host of origin. The formation of one group of A. citrulli strains based on Repetitive Sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR analysis confirmed the low variability observed in the substrate utilization analyses. Bayesian inference based on the analysis of 23S rDNA partial sequence data resulted in one well-supported clade and clustered the strains with the A. citrulli-type species with high posterior probability support. Based on the markers used, the Brazilian A. citrulli strains belong to a single group, which corresponds to the previously described Group I for this bacterium in the United States.

  1. Fora sem dentro? Em torno de um poema de João Cabral de Melo Neto

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    Alfredo Bosi

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O POEMA "Na festa da casa-grande", de João Cabral de Melo Neto, está centrado na figura do cassaco de engenho. Os seus procedimentos estilísticos lembram de perto as técnicas pictóricas de Joan Miró, às quais o poeta dedicou um ensaio revelador. O uso de figuras intensas e isoladas e de linhas melódicas breves obedece a uma poética de superfície que difere programadamente da perspectiva clássica e de sua ilusão de profundidade. Mas esses procedimentos não valem por si mesmos de um modo absoluto: foram usados pelo poeta tanto neste poema (que transforma o cassaco em coisa vazia como em textos anteriores que apontavam para uma atitude vital de resistência do rio ou do trabalhador nordestino. O que marca realmente a diferença é a presença de um lado de dentro, a voz do poema, que é interna em O cão sem plumas, O rio e Morte e vida severina, mas é exterior em Na festa na casa-grande, cujo falante �� um deputado com acento nordestino. Onde não há perspectiva, a voz assume o papel de doador de sentido.THE POEM "Na festa da casa-grande", by João Cabral de Melo Neto, focuses on the figure of a sugar cane mill laborer. Melo Neto's stylistic procedures closely bring to mind the pictorial techniques of Joan Miró, to which the poet dedicated an insightful essay. The use of intense, isolated figures and of brief melodic lines are in accordance with a surface-minded poetics, whose agenda differs from the classical perspective and its illusion of depth. Such procedures, however, are valueless in themselves from an absolute viewpoint: they were used by the poet both in this poem (which turns sugar cane mill laborers into an empty thing and in previous texts that pointed toward a vital attitude of resistance, either by the river or by the workers of Brazil's Northeast. What really makes the difference is the presence of an inner face, the voice of the poem, which is internal in O cão sem plumas, O rio and Morte e vida severina, but

  2. Bitter melon: a panacea for inflammation and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandawate, Prasad R.; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Padhye, Subhash B.; Anant, Shrikant

    2017-01-01

    Nature is a rich source of medicinal plants and their products that are useful for treatment of various diseases and disorders. Momordica charantia, commonly known as bitter melon or bitter gourd, is one of such plants known for its biological activities used in traditional system of medicines. This plant is cultivated in all over the world, including tropical areas of Asia, Amazon, east Africa, and the Caribbean and used as a vegetable as well as folk medicine. All parts of the plant, including the fruit, are commonly consumed and cooked with different vegetables, stir-fried, stuffed or used in small quantities in soups or beans to give a slightly bitter flavor and taste. The plant is reported to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial, anti-obesity, and immunomodulatory activities. The plant extract inhibits cancer cell growth by inducing apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, autophagy and inhibiting cancer stem cells. The plant is rich in bioactive chemical constituents like cucurbitane type triterpenoids, triterpene glycosides, phenolic acids, flavonoids, essential oils, saponins, fatty acids, and proteins. Some of the isolated compounds (Kuguacin J, Karaviloside XI, Kuguaglycoside C, Momordicoside Q–U, Charantin, α-eleostearic acid) and proteins (α-Momorcharin, RNase MC2, MAP30) possess potent biological activity. In the present review, we are summarizing the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities of Momordica charantia along with a short account of important chemical constituents, providing a basis for establishing detail biological activities of the plant and developing novel drug molecules based on the active chemical constituents. PMID:26968675

  3. Desenvolvimento larval de Macrobrachium birai Lobão, Melo & Fernandes (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea, Palaemonidae em laboratório Larval development of Macrobrachium birai Lobão, Melo & Fernandes (Decapoda, Caridea, Palaemonidae, under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Graça Melo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium birai Lobão, Melo & Fernandes, 1986, espécie de camarão de água doce do Brasil, foi capturada no Rio Branco, Cananéia, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. No início do desenvolvimento embrionário os ovos têm cor verde oliva e tamanho médio de 0,60 x 0,43 mm. As larvas foram criadas, individualmente, a temperatura média de 25ºC. O desenvolvimento larval de Macrobrachium birai é do tipo prolongado, constituído de 15 estágios morfológicos de zoea e o decapodito. A metamorfose foi atingida em 144 dias de cultivo, através de 44 ecdises. As mudas ocorreram em intervalos de dois a oito dias e em média com 3,3 dias. As larvas de M. birai possuem algumas características morfológicas que podem diferenciá-las das larvas de M. olfersii (Wiegmann, 1836.Macrobrachium birai Lobão, Melo & Fernandes, 1986, a native Brazilian species of freshwater shrimp, was captured along the coast of Rio Branco, Cananéia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The eggs in early development were green and the average size was 0.60 x 0.43 mm. The larvae were reared in laboratory at average temperature of 25ºC. Macrobrachium birai has a prolonged larval development, with 15 morphological zoeal stages and the decapodito. The metamorphose was obtained in 144 days, through about 44 ecdysis. The molts occurred from two to eight days, in average of 3.3 days. The larvae of the M. birai present some morphological characteristics distinct from that of M. olfersii (Wiegmann, 1836.

  4. Economic Yield and Profitability of Maize/Melon Intercrop as Influenced by Inorganic Fertilizer Application in Humid Forest Ultisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolawole E. LAW-OGBOMO

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The trial assessed the viability and profitability of maize and melon production under sole and mixed cropping system on a forest Ultisol. This was conducted as an on-farm trial at Evboneka, Edo State, Nigeria in April 2008 and 2009. The trial involved three cropping patterns (sole maize, sole melon and maize/melon mixture and four levels of NPK fertilizer (0, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 in a 3 � 4 factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results revealed that economic yield of maize and melon increased as the fertilizer rate increase. The sole crops had higher yield than in their mixed stands in the entire fertilizer rate. However, land equivalent ratio (LER values of the mixed crop stands were higher than in their respective sole cropping. The LER was highest (1.47 in maize/melon mixed stands treated with 400 kg NPK ha-1. The production cost and economic return followed the same trend as they increased with an increase in fertilizer rate. The sole melon crop had the lowest production cost ($ 316.50-588.51 and economic return ($ 873-1,305 in the entire fertilizer rate compared to the sole maize and maize/melon mixed crop in that order. The net farm income does not follow a definite trend among the three cropping patterns, but the maize/melon intercrop value ($ 748.11-997.52 was the highest. The optimum yield was produced from maize/melon mixed stands treated with 200 kg ha-1. This treatment also gave the highest benefit-cost ratio of 2.19, in addition to ensuring better crop diversity in the rainforest ultisol.

  5. Eradication of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, by mass release of sterile flies in Okinawa prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakinohana, H.; Kuba, H.; Kohama, T.; Kinjo, K.; Taniguchi, M.; Nakamori, H.; Tanahara, A.; Sokei, Y.

    1997-01-01

    In 1972, MAFF, Japan and the Okinawa Prefectural Government initiated an experimental eradication project of the melon fly from Kume Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Following the successful eradication on Kume Island in 1978, large scale SIT was started to eradicate the melon fly on the 3 groups of islands, Miyako, Okinawa and Yaeyama of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan in 1984, 1986 and 1989, and eradication was achieved in 1987, 1990 and 1993, respectively. For the successful eradication on Miyako, Okinawa and Yaeyama groups of islands, about 6,340, 30,940 and 15,440 million sterile melon flies were released, respectively

  6. Within plant resistance to water flow in tomato and sweet melons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is probably due to that fact that Kp includes the hydraulic conductance of the root system, which offers the highest resistance to water flow in a plant, and the frictional resistance of the proximal part of the crown. Day time course of water relation parameters were monitored in melon and tomato (predawn, 1100 to 1400 h) ...

  7. Annotated world bibliography of host plants of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with ...

  8. Methoprene application and diet protein supplementation to male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, modifies female remating behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methoprene (an analogue of juvenile hormone) application and feeding on a protein diet is known to enhance male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), mating success. In the present study we investigated the effect of these treatments on male B. cucurbitae’s ability to i...

  9. Land Use Cover Mapping of Water Melon and Cereals in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costanza Fiorentino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The new high-resolution images from the satellites as IKONOS, SPOT5, Quickbird2 give us the opportunity to map ground features, which were not detectable in the past, by using medium resolution remote sensed data (LANDSAT. More accurate and reliable maps of land cover can then be produced. However, classification procedure with these images is more complex than with the medium resolution remote sensing data for two main reasons: firstly, because of their exiguous number of spectral bands, secondly, owing to high spatial resolution, the assumption of pixel independence does not generally hold. It is then necessary to have a multi-temporal series of images or to use classifiers taking into account also proximal information. The data in this study were (i a remote sensing image taken by SPOT5 satellite in July 2007 and used to discriminate the water melon cover class and, (ii three multi-temporal remote sensing images taken by SPOT5 satellite in May, June and July 2008 used to discriminate water melon and cereal crop cover classes. For water melon recognition, providing a single image in 2007, an object-oriented technique was applied instead of a traditional, per pixel technique obtaining an increase of overall accuracy of 15%. In 2008, since it was available a multi-temporal data set, a traditional ‘Maximum Likelihood’ technique was applied for both water melon and cereal crop cover class. The overall accuracy is greater than 95%.

  10. Effect of replacement of rice offal with graded levels of melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding value of melon (Citrulus vulgaris) seed offal (MSO) was determined in a 12-week feeding trial using 25 six weeks old male rabbits with an average initial weight of 485g. The animals were fed diets containing 0,7.5, 15, 22.5 and 30% MSO in a completely randomized design (CRD). Digestibility trial and ...

  11. Field captures of wild melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) with an improved male attractant, raspberry ketone formate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eric B; Casana-Giner, Victor; Oliver, James E

    2007-08-01

    Field-trapping evaluations of the new male attractant, formic acid 4-(3-oxobutyl) phenyl ester (raspberry ketone formate [RKF]) were conducted in Hawaii with wild populations of melon flies, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), to determine its activity in the field and to evaluate new plastic matrix formulations. All tests were compared with the standard melon fly attractant 4-(4-acetoxyphenyl) -2-butanone (cuelure [CL]), which is the attractant of choice for detection programs aimed at melon fly and other cuelure-responding Bactrocera fruit flies. Results of these tests over a range of doses on cotton wicks showed that at a 1-g dose raspberry ketone formate was 1.5-2 times more attractive compared with cuelure for up to 11 wk in the field. Lower doses applied on cotton wicks were less active, presumably due to hydrolysis of RKF to raspberry ketone. Raspberry ketone formate embedded in a plastic plug formulation also was field tested, and it was shown to be more attractive to male melon fly compared with cuelure. The use of this new attractant in control and detection programs is discussed.

  12. The effect of ethylene on transgenic melon ripening and fruit quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In cell wall expression analysis, MPG1 increased when fruits of transgenic melons were exposed to ethylene; showing they are ethylene- dependent. MPG2 decreased ... Ethylene productions in transgenic fruits were reestablished when ethylene was applied, exhibiting the same behavior as transgenic fruits. Antioxidant ...

  13. Characterization of a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momordica charantia is often called bitter melon, bitter gourd or bitter squash because its fruit has a bitter taste. The fruit has been widely used as vegetable and herbal medicine. Alpha-eleostearic acid is the major fatty acid in the seeds, but little is known about its biosynthesis. As an initia...

  14. Eco-Friendly (Water Melon Peels: Alternatives to Wood-based Particleboard Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. D. Idris

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using water melon peels as alternatives to wood-based particleboard composites. The water melon peels composite boards were produced by compressive moulding using recycled low density polyethylene (RLDPE as a binder. The RLDPE was varies from 30 to 70wt% with interval of 10wt%. The microstructure, water absorption(WA, thickness swelling index(TS, modulus of rupture (MOR, modulus of elasticity (MOE, internal bonding strength(IB, impact strength and wear properties of the boards were determined. The results showed that high modulus of rupture of 11.45N/mm2, MOE of 1678N/mm2, IB of 0.58N/mm2, wear rate of 0.31g were obtained from particleboard produced at 60wt%RLDPE. The uniform distribution of the water melon particles and the RLDPE in the microstructure of the composites board is the major factor responsible for the improvement in the mechanical properties. The results showed that the MOE, MOR and IB meet the minimum requirements of the European standards, for general purpose like panelling, ceiling, partitioning. Hence, water melon particles can be used as a substitute to wood-based particleboard for general purpose applications also besides being environmental friendly of using watermelon and RLDPE in production of particleboard, this alternative to wood-based particleboard is very cost-effective.

  15. within plant resistance to water flow in tomato and sweet melons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    In this study, within plant resistance to water transport (hydraulic conductance) was monitored in tomato (Lycopersicum esculuntum) and sweet melon (Citrullus lanatus) using the high pressure flow meter (HPFM) and evaporative flux (EF) methods. In the evaporative flux method, measure- ments of transpiration flux and leaf ...

  16. Within plant resistance to water flow in tomato and sweet melons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, within plant resistance to water transport (hydraulic conductance) was monitored in tomato (Lycopersicum esculuntum) and sweet melon (Citrullus lanatus) using the high pressure flow meter (HPFM) and evaporative flux (EF) methods. In the evaporative flux method, measurements of transpiration flux and leaf ...

  17. THE USE OF GENETIC RESOURCES IN BREEDING OF VEGETABLE AND MELON CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Burenin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the modern homeland assortment of vegetable crops is given. The donors of the most important traits and the accessions  of vegetable and melon crops perspective for breeding from the VIR collection are shown. The short characteristic of the varieties is given.

  18. Genome-wide identification and comparative expression analysis of LEA genes in watermelon and melon genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik Altunoglu, Yasemin; Baloglu, Mehmet Cengiz; Baloglu, Pinar; Yer, Esra Nurten; Kara, Sibel

    2017-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are large and diverse group of polypeptides which were first identified during seed dehydration and then in vegetative plant tissues during different stress responses. Now, gene family members of LEA proteins have been detected in various organisms. However, there is no report for this protein family in watermelon and melon until this study. A total of 73 LEA genes from watermelon ( ClLEA ) and 61 LEA genes from melon ( CmLEA ) were identified in this comprehensive study. They were classified into four and three distinct clusters in watermelon and melon, respectively. There was a correlation between gene structure and motif composition among each LEA groups. Segmental duplication played an important role for LEA gene expansion in watermelon. Maximum gene ontology of LEA genes was observed with poplar LEA genes. For evaluation of tissue specific expression patterns of ClLEA and CmLEA genes, publicly available RNA-seq data were analyzed. The expression analysis of selected LEA genes in root and leaf tissues of drought-stressed watermelon and melon were examined using qRT-PCR. Among them, ClLEA - 12 - 17 - 46 genes were quickly induced after drought application. Therefore, they might be considered as early response genes for water limitation conditions in watermelon. In addition, CmLEA - 42 - 43 genes were found to be up-regulated in both tissues of melon under drought stress. Our results can open up new frontiers about understanding of functions of these important family members under normal developmental stages and stress conditions by bioinformatics and transcriptomic approaches.

  19. Effects of UV-B irradiation on photomovement in the desmid, Cosmarium cucumis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeder, D.-P.

    1987-01-01

    Monochromatic UV-B irradiation affects neither the absorption nor the fluorescence of the bulk pigments in the desmid Cosmarium cucumis but it impairs photomovement of these organisms at fluence rates which are not higher than the ambient level of solar UV-B irradiation. Photoaccumulations and phototaxis are strongly inhibited especially at wavelengths <= 300 nm while photodispersal at higher white light fluence rates is hardly affected by supplementary UV-B. This effect has important consequences for the growth and survival of populations in their natural environment: these photosynthetic organisms utilize photomovement to find and stay in areas of suitable visible light fluence rates. The UV-B component of solar irradiation both impairs the strategy of the organisms to find a suitable position and the escape mechanism by which the cells move out of areas with too strong white illuminances which photooxidize the bulk pigments and bleach the population within a few days. (author)

  20. Optical properties of the iridescent organ of the comb-jellyfish Beroë cucumis (Ctenophora)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Victoria; Vigneron, Jean Pol; Lousse, Virginie; Parker, Andrew

    2006-04-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy, analytical modeling, and detailed numerical simulations, the iridescence observed from the comb rows of the ctenophore Beroë cucumis was investigated. It is shown that the changing coloration which accompanies the beating of comb rows as the animal swims can be explained by the weakly-contrasted structure of the refractive index induced by the very coherent packing of locomotory cilia. The colors arising from the narrow band-gap reflection are shown to be highly saturated and, as a function of the incidence angle, cover a wide range of the visible and ultraviolet spectrum. The high transparency of the structure at the maximal bioluminescence wavelength is also explained.

  1. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of wild cucumber (Cucumis sativus var. Hardwickii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ju; Liu, Bang; Jiang, Honghai

    2016-11-01

    The complete chloroplast genome sequence of wild cucumber (Cucumis sativus var. hardwickii) was generated by de novo assembly with low-coverage whole-genome sequence data. The 155 277 bp genome containing a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25 198 bp separated by a large single-copy region of 86 618 bp and a small single-copy region of 18 263 bp. The chloroplast genome contains 130 known genes, including 89 protein-coding genes, eight rRNA genes (four kinds), and 37 tRNA genes (30 kinds). Eighteen genes are duplicated in the inverted repeat regions, 16 genes contain one intron, two genes, and one ycf contain two introns. Phylogenomic analysis showed that C. sativus var. Hardwickii is closely related to C. sativus and C. hystrix.

  2. Assessment of Salicylic Acid Impacts on Seedling Characteristic of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. under Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein MARDANI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of various concentrations of salicylic acid (SA on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedling characteristic were evaluated under different water stress levels by using a factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design with three replications at experimental greenhouse of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. The studied factors included three water deficit levels (100% FC, 80% FC, and 60% FC considered as first factor and five levels of SA concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 mM as second factor. Results showed that foliar application of SA at the highest concentration enhanced leaf area, leaf and dry weight while decreased stomatal conductance under high level of water deficit stress. Though, severe water deficit stress sharply raised the SPAD reading values. In general, exogenous SA application could develop cucumber seedling characteristic and improve water stress tolerance.

  3. Influence of modified atmosphere packaging on radiation tolerance in the phytosanitary pest melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) producing a low oxygen environment to increase produce shelf life may increase the radiation tolerance of insect pests receiving phytosanitary irradiation treatment on traded agricultural commodities. Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is an i...

  4. The Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae illustrated in medieval manuscripts known as the Tacuinum Sanitatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Beginning in the last two decades of the 14th century, richly illuminated versions of the Tacuinum Sanitatis, the Latin translation of an 11th-century Arabic manuscript known as Taqwim al-Sihha bi al-Ashab al-Sitta, were produced in northern Italy. These illustrated manuscripts provide a window on late medieval life in that region by containing some 200 full-page illustrations, many of which vividly depict the harvest of vegetables, fruits, flowers, grains, aromatics and medicinal plants. Our objective was to search for and identify the images of taxa of Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae. Methods We have located all reported illustrated Tacuinum Sanitatis and similar or related manuscripts, searched through printed or electronic reproductions of them, categorized six of them that display full-page illustrations as archetypic, and established the identity of the Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae appearing in these six manuscripts. Key Results and Conclusions Of the Cucurbitaceae, Cucumis sativus (short-fruited cucumbers), Cucumis melo (including round as well as elongate melons), Citrullus lanatus (both sweet watermelons and citrons), and Lagenaria siceraria (including bottle-shaped as well as long gourds), are illustrated. Of the Solanaceae, Solanum melongena (egg-shaped purple aubergines) and Mandragora sp. (mandrake) are illustrated. These depictions include some of the earliest known images of cucumber, casaba melon (Cucumis melo Inodorous Group) and aubergine, each of which closely resembles an extant cultivar-group or market type. Overall, the botanically most accurate images are in the version of the Tacuinum located in the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna, cod. ser. n. 2644. Similarities and differences in botanical accuracy among the images of Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae in the six archetypal Tacuinum manuscripts suggest to us that another illustrated Tacuinum, now lost, may have antedated and served as a model or inspiration for the

  5. The Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae illustrated in medieval manuscripts known as the Tacuinum Sanitatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2009-06-01

    Beginning in the last two decades of the 14th century, richly illuminated versions of the Tacuinum Sanitatis, the Latin translation of an 11th-century Arabic manuscript known as Taqwim al-Sihha bi al-Ashab al-Sitta, were produced in northern Italy. These illustrated manuscripts provide a window on late medieval life in that region by containing some 200 full-page illustrations, many of which vividly depict the harvest of vegetables, fruits, flowers, grains, aromatics and medicinal plants. Our objective was to search for and identify the images of taxa of Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae. We have located all reported illustrated Tacuinum Sanitatis and similar or related manuscripts, searched through printed or electronic reproductions of them, categorized six of them that display full-page illustrations as archetypic, and established the identity of the Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae appearing in these six manuscripts. Of the Cucurbitaceae, Cucumis sativus (short-fruited cucumbers), Cucumis melo (including round as well as elongate melons), Citrullus lanatus (both sweet watermelons and citrons), and Lagenaria siceraria (including bottle-shaped as well as long gourds), are illustrated. Of the Solanaceae, Solanum melongena (egg-shaped purple aubergines) and Mandragora sp. (mandrake) are illustrated. These depictions include some of the earliest known images of cucumber, casaba melon (Cucumis melo Inodorous Group) and aubergine, each of which closely resembles an extant cultivar-group or market type. Overall, the botanically most accurate images are in the version of the Tacuinum located in the Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna, cod. ser. n. 2644. Similarities and differences in botanical accuracy among the images of Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae in the six archetypal Tacuinum manuscripts suggest to us that another illustrated Tacuinum, now lost, may have antedated and served as a model or inspiration for the six surviving archetypic manuscripts.

  6. Cucurbita spp. and Cucumis sativus enhance the dissipation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by stimulating soil microbial community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    A number of Cucurbita species have the potential to extract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil, but their impact on the soil microbial communities responsible for PCB degradation remains unclear. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three Cucurbita and one Cucumis species on PCB dissipation and soil microbial community structure. Compared to the unplanted control, enhanced losses of PCBs (19.5%-42.7%) were observed in all planted soils. Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata treatments were more efficient in PCB dissipation, and have similar patterns of soil phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and PCB congener profiles. Cucurbita treatments tend to have higher soil microbial biomass than Cucumis. Gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria were significantly correlated with PCB degradation rates (R(2) = 0.719, p Cucurbita related soil microorganisms could play an important role in remediation of PCB contaminated soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative Efficacy of Insecticides on Bactrocera tryoni and Zeugodacus cucumis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Laboratory and Semifield Trials in Fruiting Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, L J; Missenden, B P; Wright, C

    2017-08-01

    In-field management of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and Zeugodacus cucumis (French) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in fruiting vegetable crops has relied almost exclusively on organophosphate cover sprays. Laboratory and semifield trials were performed to compare a number of alternative insecticides for efficacy against these species. A novel semifield method was used whereby the insecticides were applied to crops as cover sprays under field conditions, and treated plants bearing fruit were transferred to large cages and exposed to fruit flies. Efficacy was assessed in terms of numbers of pupae developing from treated fruit. A laboratory cage method was also used to assess effects on adult mortality and comparative effects of 1- and 3-d-aged residues. The neonicotinoids clothianidin and thiacloprid were very effective against B. tryoni and Z. cucumis. Clothianidin was the only insecticide other than dimethoate to affect adult mortality. The synthetic pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin was also very effective, particularly in semifield trials, although higher incidence of aphid and whitefly infestation was observed in this treatment compared to others. Cyantraniliprole was effective against B. tryoni, but less effective against Z. cucumis. Imidacloprid, bifenthrin, spinetoram, and abamectin were all relatively less effective, although all demonstrated a suppressive effect. © Commonwealth of Australia, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, 2017.

  8. Beneficial Role of Bitter Melon Supplementation in Obesity and Related Complications in Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, Nusrat; Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Jain, Preeti; Reza, Hasan Mahmud

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome are becoming epidemic both in developed and developing countries in recent years. Complementary and alternative medicines have been used since ancient era for the treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Bitter melon is widely used as vegetables in daily food in Bangladesh and several other countries in Asia. The fruits extract of bitter melon showed strong antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities in experimental condition both in vivo and in vitro. Recent scientific evaluation of this plant extracts also showed potential therapeutic benefit in diabetes and obesity related metabolic dysfunction in experimental animals and clinical studies. These beneficial effects are mediated probably by inducing lipid and fat metabolizing gene expression and increasing the function of AMPK and PPARs, and so forth. This review will thus focus on the recent findings on beneficial effect of Momordica charantia extracts on metabolic syndrome and discuss its potential mechanism of actions. PMID:25650336

  9. Wear behavior of Al-7%Si-0.3%Mg/melon shell ash particulate composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulwahab, M; Dodo, R M; Suleiman, I Y; Gebi, A I; Umar, I

    2017-08-01

    The present study examined wear characteristics of A356/melon shell ash particulate composites. Dry-sliding the stainless steel ball against specimen disc revealed the abrasive wear behavior of the composites under loads of 2 and 5N. The composite showed lower wear rate of 2.182 × 10 -4 mm 3 /Nm at 20 wt% reinforced material under load of 5N. Results showed that wear rate decreased significantly with increasing weight percentage of melon shell ash particles. Microstructural analyses of worn surfaces of the composites reveal evidence of plastic deformation of matrix phase. The wear resistance of A356 increased considerably with percentage reinforcement. In other words, the abrasive mass loss decreased with increasing percentage of reinforcement addition at the both applied loads. The control sample suffered a highest mass loss at 5 N applied load.

  10. Economic analysis of irrigated melon cultivated in greenhouse with and without soil plastic mulching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis M. de C. Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to analyze technically and economically the irrigated ‘Gália’ melon (Hybrid Nectar, cultivated in greenhouse with and without using plastic mulch covering on the soil. Simultaneously, two experiments were conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD, in which melon plants were submitted to five water availability levels, defined by 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150% of crop evapotranspiration, with four replicates. The difference between experiments were only about the soil covering with plastic mulch: with (CC or without (SC plastic mulch. The economically optimal irrigation depths were 208.83 and 186.88 mm, resulting in yields of 50.85 and 44.51 t ha-1 for the experiments with and without mulching, respectively. The results showing the economically optimal irrigation depths were very close to those that produced the highest yield.

  11. The structure of melon necrotic spot virus determined at 2.8 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yasunobu; Tanaka, Hideaki; Yamashita, Eiki; Kubo, Chikako; Ichiki-Uehara, Tamaki; Nakazono-Nagaoka, Eiko; Omura, Toshihiro; Tsukihara, Tomitake

    2007-01-01

    The structure of melon necrotic spot virus is reported. The structure of melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) was determined at 2.8 Å resolution. Although MNSV is classified into the genus Carmovirus of the family Tombusviridae, the three-dimensional structure of MNSV showed a higher degree of similarity to tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), which belongs to the genus Tombusvirus, than to carnation mottle virus (CMtV), turnip crinkle virus (TCV) or cowpea mottle virus (CPMtV) from the genus Carmovirus. Thus, the classification of the family Tombusviridae at the genus level conflicts with the patterns of similarity among coat-protein structures. MNSV is one of the viruses belonging to the genera Tombusvirus or Carmovirus that are naturally transmitted in the soil by zoospores of fungal vectors. The X-ray structure of MNSV provides us with a representative structure of viruses transmitted by fungi

  12. Screening of Turkish Melon Accessions for Resistance to ZYMV, WMV and CMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan EKBIC

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Çukurova University Department of Horticulture more than 350 melon accessions were collected from different ecological parts of Turkey which is located on the secondary genetic diversification center of this crop, and their characterization studies are near completion. Furthermore, evaluation studies of these materials have started. In the present study 67 melon accessions, sampled from this germplasm, were tested for resistance to zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and watermelon mosaic virus (WMV. After resistance tests made by mechanical inoculation, four accessions (‘CU 100’, ‘CU 287’, ‘CU 305’ and ‘CU 328’ were found resistant to ZYMV and three accessions (‘CU 305’, ‘C 264’, and ‘C 276’ to WMV. No resistant genotype was found to CMV.

  13. Beneficial Role of Bitter Melon Supplementation in Obesity and Related Complications in Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Ashraful Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome are becoming epidemic both in developed and developing countries in recent years. Complementary and alternative medicines have been used since ancient era for the treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Bitter melon is widely used as vegetables in daily food in Bangladesh and several other countries in Asia. The fruits extract of bitter melon showed strong antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities in experimental condition both in vivo and in vitro. Recent scientific evaluation of this plant extracts also showed potential therapeutic benefit in diabetes and obesity related metabolic dysfunction in experimental animals and clinical studies. These beneficial effects are mediated probably by inducing lipid and fat metabolizing gene expression and increasing the function of AMPK and PPARs, and so forth. This review will thus focus on the recent findings on beneficial effect of Momordica charantia extracts on metabolic syndrome and discuss its potential mechanism of actions.

  14. Characterization of a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Heping; Sethumadhavan, Kandan; Grimm, Casey C; Ullah, Abul H J

    2014-01-01

    Momordica charantia is often called bitter melon, bitter gourd or bitter squash because its fruit has a bitter taste. The fruit has been widely used as vegetable and herbal medicine. Alpha-eleostearic acid is the major fatty acid in the seeds, but little is known about its biosynthesis. As an initial step towards understanding the biochemical mechanism of fatty acid accumulation in bitter melon seeds, this study focused on a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP, 3-sn-phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.4) that hydrolyzes the phosphomonoester bond in phosphatidate yielding diacylglycerol and P(i). PAPs are typically categorized into two subfamilies: Mg(2+)-dependent soluble PAP and Mg(2+)-independent membrane-associated PAP. We report here the partial purification and characterization of an Mg(2+)-independent PAP activity from developing cotyledons of bitter melon. PAP protein was partially purified by successive centrifugation and UNOsphere Q and S columns from the soluble extract. PAP activity was optimized at pH 6.5 and 53-60 °C and unaffected by up to 0.3 mM MgCl2. The K(m) and Vmax values for dioleoyl-phosphatidic acid were 595.4 µM and 104.9 ηkat/mg of protein, respectively. PAP activity was inhibited by NaF, Na(3)VO(4), Triton X-100, FeSO4 and CuSO4, but stimulated by MnSO4, ZnSO4 and Co(NO3)2. In-gel activity assay and mass spectrometry showed that PAP activity was copurified with a number of other proteins. This study suggests that PAP protein is probably associated with other proteins in bitter melon seeds and that a new class of PAP exists as a soluble and Mg(2+)-independent enzyme in plants.

  15. Characterization of Melon necrotic spot virus Occurring on Watermelon in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Ryun Kwak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV was recently identified on watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris in Korea, displaying as large necrotic spots and vein necrosis on the leaves and stems. The average occurrence of MNSV on watermelon was found to be 30–65% in Hapcheon and Andong City, respectively. Four isolates of the virus (MNSV-HW, MNSV-AW, MNSV-YW, and MNSV-SW obtained from watermelon plants in different areas were non-pathogenic on ten general indicator plants, including Chenopodium quinoa, while they infected systemically six varieties of Cucurbitaceae. The virus particles purified by 10–40% sucrose density gradient centrifugation had a typical ultraviolet spectrum, with a minimum at 245 nm and a maximum at 260 nm. The morphology of the virus was spherical with a diameter of 28–30 nm. Virus particles were observed scattered throughout the cytoplasm of watermelon cells, but no crystals were detected. An ELISA was conducted using antiserum against MNSV-HW; the optimum concentrations of IgG and conjugated IgG for the assay were 1 μl/ml and a 1:8,000–1:10,000 dilutions, respectively. Antiserum against MNSV-HW could capture specifically both MNSV-MN from melon and MNSV-HW from watermelon by IC/RT-PCR, and they were effectively detected with the same specific primer to produce product of 1,172 bp. The dsRNA of MNSV-HW had the same profile (4.5, 1.8, and 1.6 kb as that of MNSV-MN from melon. The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein of MNSV-HW gave a different phylogenetic tree, having 17.2% difference in nucleotide sequence compared with MNSV isolates from melon.

  16. Impact of Vat resistance in melon on viral epidemics and genetic structure of virus populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeny, Alexandra; Desbiez, Cécile; Millot, Pauline; Wipf-Scheibel, Catherine; Nozeran, Karine; Gognalons, Patrick; Lecoq, Hervé; Boissot, Nathalie

    2017-09-15

    Cultivar choice is at the heart of cropping systems and resistant cultivars should be at the heart of disease management strategies whenever available. They are the easiest, most efficient and environmentally friendly way of combating viral diseases at the farm level. Among the melon genetic resources, Vat is a unique gene conferring resistance to both the melon aphid Aphis gossypii and the viruses it carries. The 'virus side' of this pleiotropic phenotype is seldom regarded as an asset for virus control. Indeed, the effect of Vat on virus epidemics in the field is expected to vary according to the composition of aphid populations in the environment and long-term studies are needed to draw a correct trend. Therefore, the first objective of the study was to re-evaluate the potential of Vat to reduce viral diseases in melon crops. The second objective was to investigate the potential of Vat to exert a selection pressure on virus populations. We monitored the epidemics of Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) in two melon lines having a common genetic background, a resistant line (R) and a susceptible line (S), in eight field trials conducted in southeastern France between 2011 and 2015. Vat had limited impact if any on WMV epidemics probably because A. gossypii is not the main vector of WMV in the field, but a favorable impact on CMV, yet of variable intensity probably related to the importance of A. gossypii in the total aphid population. Vat had a significant impact on CABYV epidemics with mean incidence reduction exceeding 50% in some trials. There was no effect of Vat on the structure of virus populations, both for the non-persistent WMV transmitted by numerous aphid species and for the persistent CABYV transmitted predominantly by A. gossypii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Diet Composition of Beaked Whales and Melon-Headed Whales from the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The Diet Composition of Beaked Whales and Melon-Headed...cascadiaresearch.org Award Number: N00014-14-1-0412 LONG-TERM GOALS Knowledge of the diet of a species is crucial for understanding it’s behavior...activities. Assessing diet for many species of cetaceans is difficult, given that most foraging occurs far below the surface and that stomach

  18. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) and its medicinal potency

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Baby; Jini, D

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia), commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam p...

  19. Impact of castor meal on root-knot and free-living nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Helena Silvino Prata Ritzinger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil amendment may enhance soil quality as well as reduce plant-parasitic nematode. Despite the many applications already undertaken using castor meal, its efficiency in controlling root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita when applied to melon (Cucumis melo is still not clear. Three different amounts of castor meal (Ricinus communis applied were evaluated in microplots planted with melon either with or without RKN. The impact of castor meal on soil free-living nematode communities was also determined. Total nematode genera richness was estimated as 37 for the entire set of microplots sampled across both sampling dates. Rarefaction analysis resulted in 12 collector's curves out of the total of 30 that reached the horizontal asymptote. Univariate ANOVA with two factors yielded differences (p < 0.05 only with regard to the time factor. Simpson, Shannon, Evenness and Equitability indices showed a trend toward moderate increases by the end of the experiment, while the other indices were higher for tomato in pre-transplant sampling compared to harvest. Nematode community and diversity changed during the course of the experiment, although there was substantial confounding heterogeneity within and between the factorial combinations from the beginning. Root knot population was not reduced by the castor meal but increased throughout the period, regardless of treatment. RKN reduced melon yield, number and weight of melon.

  20. An Optimised Aqueous Extract of Phenolic Compounds from Bitter Melon with High Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing Pei Tan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. is a tropical fruit claimed to have medicinal properties associated with its content of phenolic compounds (TPC. The aim of the study was to compare water with several organic solvents (acetone, butanol, methanol and 80% ethanol for its efficiency at extracting the TPC from freeze-dried bitter melon powder. The TPC of the extracts was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and their antioxidant capacity (AC was evaluated using three assays. Before optimisation, the TPC and AC of the aqueous extract were 63% and 20% lower, respectively, than for the best organic solvent, 80% ethanol. However, after optimising for temperature (80 °C, time (5 min, water-to-powder ratio (40:1 mL/g, particle size (1 mm and the number of extractions of the same sample (1×, the TPC and the AC of the aqueous extract were equal or higher than for 80% ethanol. Furthermore, less solvent (40 mL water/g and less time (5 min were needed than was used for the 80% ethanol extract (100 mL/g for 1 h. Therefore, this study provides evidence to recommend the use of water as the solvent of choice for the extraction of the phenolic compounds and their associated antioxidant activities from bitter melon.

  1. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on shelf life, visual quality and nutritional quality of netted melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y; Wang, B L; Shui, D J; Cao, L L; Wang, C; Yang, T; Wang, X Y; Ye, H X

    2015-04-01

    The effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on shelf life, fruit visual quality and nutritional quality were investigated. Netted melons were treated with air (control) and 0.6 µl l(-1) 1-MCP at 25 ℃ for 24 h, and then stored at 25 ℃ or 10 ℃ for 10 days. 1-MCP significantly extended the shelf life, inhibited weight loss and delayed firmness decline of melon fruits. Ethylene production was also inhibited and respiration rate was declined. 1-MCP retarded 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) increases and inhibited ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activity. Moreover, 1-MCP treatment reduced the decrease in total soluble solids and titratable acidity, as well as the decrease of the content of sugars (sucrose, fructose and glucose). These results indicated that 1-MCP treatment is a good method to extend melon shelf life and maintain fruit quality, and the combination of 1-MCP and low temperature storage resulted in more acceptable fruit quality. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Modelling sustainable salt water management under deficit irrigation conditions for melon in Spain and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Kelly N; Cabello, María J; Valnir Júnior, Manuel; Tarjuelo, José M; Domínguez, Alfonso

    2015-08-30

    In water scarcity areas the use of saline water for irrigation is a common practice. In this study, experimental data from two two-year melon tests were collected for the calibration (2004 'Yellow Melon' (YeMe) type) and validation (2002 YeMe, 2005 and 2006 'Piel de Sapo' (PiSa) type) processes in melon crop simulation under deficit irrigation conditions using salt water. The simulations were carried out for Castilla-La Mancha (Spain) and Ceará (Brazil) using the MOPECO model, which includes optimized regulated deficit irrigation (ORDI) methodology. The objective was to determine the most suitable irrigation strategy for both areas. Under fresh water conditions, ORDI may increase yield by up to 20% (PiSa) and 7% (YeMe) compared with constant deficit irrigation. Higher water deficit should be induced during the vegetative development and ripening stages. The rainfall between irrigation periods is able to leach the salts supplied by the irrigation water. The combination of ORDI with different strategies for managing saline water may increase water use efficiency. In these areas it may be of interest not to apply the leaching fraction (saving up to 67% of irrigation water). However, leaching of the soluble salts accumulated before starting the most sensitive periods may be suitable. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Adapting the Melon Production Model to Climate Change in Giao Thuy district, Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo, AT.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded in a package of climate change adaptation, researchers and farmers tested the melon hybrid variety, Kim Hoang Hau (KHH, for yield and disease resistance during the spring-summer season from March to June 2015 in Giao Thuy district, Nam Dinh province. The results were analysed and subsequently discussed with local farmers in focused groups. Analysis showed that the KHH was suitable to local soil conditions. The farmers preferred this new variety over the local melon, because not only did KHH give higher yield and pest resistance, it also showed less vulnerability to climatic stressors. Farmers decided to grow KHH based on the prevailing good market price at that time. However, farmers only shifted away from the old melon when they could anticipate the possibility of selling the new product. Those who did not continue with the KHH had difficulty in actively accessing the market for this new product. This study suggests that the market information does not solely drive the process of the adaptation itself, but it also provides relevant stimuli to farmers enabling them to successfully shift to new crop varieties. This study also implies that such process-based understanding is crucial in formulating strategies that increase the farmer's capacity to adapt to climate change.

  4. Estimatation of evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of melon cultivated in protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia S. Lozano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to determine the water consumption and the crop coefficient of melon in a protected environment. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Technical Center of Irrigation of the State University of Maringá, in Maringá, PR. The melon hybrid used was Sunrise and the irrigations were performed daily by drip irrigation. Crop water requirement was quantified based on its evapotranspiration directly measured through constant water table lysimeters. Weather information was collected in an automatic weather station, installed inside the protected environment, which allowed to calculate the reference evapotranspiration by the Penman-Monteith method. The total water consumption of the melon crop was 295 mm, reaching maximum crop evapotranspiration of 5.16 mm d-1. The phenological stages were shorter in the initial, growth and intermediate phases, compared with the data from FAO. The determined crop coefficients were 0.87, 1.15 and 0.64 for the initial, intermediate and final stages, respectively

  5. Strategies to improve palatability and increase consumption intentions for Momordica charantia (bitter melon): a vegetable commonly used for diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snee, Laura S; Nerurkar, Vivek R; Dooley, Dian A; Efird, Jimmy T; Shovic, Anne C; Nerurkar, Pratibha V

    2011-07-28

    Although beneficial to health, dietary phytonutrients are bitter, acid and/or astringent in taste and therefore reduce consumer choice and acceptance during food selection. Momordica charantia, commonly known as bitter melon has been traditionally used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine to treat diabetes and its complications. The aim of this study was to develop bitter melon-containing recipes and test their palatability and acceptability in healthy individuals for future clinical studies. A cross-sectional sensory evaluation of bitter melon-containing ethnic recipes was conducted among 50 healthy individuals. The primary endpoints assessed in this analysis were current consumption information and future intentions to consume bitter melon, before and after provision of attribute- and health-specific information. A convenience sample of 50, self-reported non-diabetic adults were recruited from the University of Hawaii. Sensory evaluations were compared using two-way ANOVA, while differences in stage of change (SOC) before and after receiving health information were analyzed by Chi-square (χ2) analyses. Our studies indicate that tomato-based recipes were acceptable to most of the participants and readily acceptable, as compared with recipes containing spices such as curry powder. Health information did not have a significant effect on willingness to consume bitter melon, but positively affected the classification of SOC. This study suggests that incorporating bitter foods in commonly consumed food dishes can mask bitter taste of bitter melon. Furthermore, providing positive health information can elicit a change in the intent to consume bitter melon-containing dishes despite mixed palatability results.

  6. Strategies to improve palatability and increase consumption intentions for Momordica charantia (bitter melon): A vegetable commonly used for diabetes management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Although beneficial to health, dietary phytonutrients are bitter, acid and/or astringent in taste and therefore reduce consumer choice and acceptance during food selection. Momordica charantia, commonly known as bitter melon has been traditionally used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine to treat diabetes and its complications. The aim of this study was to develop bitter melon-containing recipes and test their palatability and acceptability in healthy individuals for future clinical studies. Methods A cross-sectional sensory evaluation of bitter melon-containing ethnic recipes was conducted among 50 healthy individuals. The primary endpoints assessed in this analysis were current consumption information and future intentions to consume bitter melon, before and after provision of attribute- and health-specific information. A convenience sample of 50, self-reported non-diabetic adults were recruited from the University of Hawaii. Sensory evaluations were compared using two-way ANOVA, while differences in stage of change (SOC) before and after receiving health information were analyzed by Chi-square (χ2) analyses. Results Our studies indicate that tomato-based recipes were acceptable to most of the participants and readily acceptable, as compared with recipes containing spices such as curry powder. Health information did not have a significant effect on willingness to consume bitter melon, but positively affected the classification of SOC. Conclusions This study suggests that incorporating bitter foods in commonly consumed food dishes can mask bitter taste of bitter melon. Furthermore, providing positive health information can elicit a change in the intent to consume bitter melon-containing dishes despite mixed palatability results. PMID:21794176

  7. Strategies to improve palatability and increase consumption intentions for Momordica charantia (bitter melon: A vegetable commonly used for diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shovic Anne C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although beneficial to health, dietary phytonutrients are bitter, acid and/or astringent in taste and therefore reduce consumer choice and acceptance during food selection. Momordica charantia, commonly known as bitter melon has been traditionally used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine to treat diabetes and its complications. The aim of this study was to develop bitter melon-containing recipes and test their palatability and acceptability in healthy individuals for future clinical studies. Methods A cross-sectional sensory evaluation of bitter melon-containing ethnic recipes was conducted among 50 healthy individuals. The primary endpoints assessed in this analysis were current consumption information and future intentions to consume bitter melon, before and after provision of attribute- and health-specific information. A convenience sample of 50, self-reported non-diabetic adults were recruited from the University of Hawaii. Sensory evaluations were compared using two-way ANOVA, while differences in stage of change (SOC before and after receiving health information were analyzed by Chi-square (χ2 analyses. Results Our studies indicate that tomato-based recipes were acceptable to most of the participants and readily acceptable, as compared with recipes containing spices such as curry powder. Health information did not have a significant effect on willingness to consume bitter melon, but positively affected the classification of SOC. Conclusions This study suggests that incorporating bitter foods in commonly consumed food dishes can mask bitter taste of bitter melon. Furthermore, providing positive health information can elicit a change in the intent to consume bitter melon-containing dishes despite mixed palatability results.

  8. Induced resistance by cresotic acid (3-hydroxy-4-methyl methylbenzoic acid) against wilt disease of melon and cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, H.; Li, Z.; Zhang, D.; Li, W.; Tang, W.

    2004-01-01

    Cresotic acid (3-hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid) was proved be active in controlling wilt diseases of melon and cotton plants grown in the house. Soil drench with 200-1000 ppm cresotic acid induced 62-77 %, 69-79 % and 50-60 % protection against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp melonis (FOM) in melon, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp vasinfectum (FOV) and Verticillium dahliae in cotton, respectively. Since no inhibitory effect of cresotic acid on mycelial growth of these three fungual pathogens was observed in vitro, it is suggested that control of these wilt diseases with cresotic acid resulted from induced resistance. Cresotic acid induced resistance in melon plants not only against race 0, race 1, race 2 and race 1,2, but also against a mixture of these four races of FOM, suggesting a non-race- specific resistance. Level of induced resistance by cresotic acid against FOM depended on inoculum pressure applied to melon plants. At 25 day after inoculation with FOM, percentage protection induced by cresotic acid under low inoculum pressure retained a level of 51 %, while under high inoculum pressure percentage protection decreased to only 10 %. High concentrations of cresotic acid significantly reduced plant growth. Reduction in fresh weight of melon (36-51%) and cotton (42-71%) was obtained with 500-1000 ppm cresotic acid, while only less than 8% reduction occurred with 100-200 ppm. (author)

  9. Development of Random Amplified Polymorphism DNA Markers Linked to CMV-B2 Resistance Gene in Melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUDI SETIADI DARYONO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Two random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers linked to CMV-B2 resistance gene (Creb-2 in melon cultivar Yamatouri were cloned and sequenced to design sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR markers for detection of CMV-B2 resistance gene (Creb-2 in melon. SCOPE14 derived from OPE-14 yielded a single DNA band at 541 bp, while SCAPB05 derived from APB-05, yielded a single DNA band at 1,046 bp, respectively. Segregation of SCOPE14 and SCAPB05 markers in bulk of F2 plants demonstrated that they were co-segregated with RAPD markers from which the SCAR markers were originated. Furthermore, results of SCAR analysis in diverse melons showed SCAPB05 primers obtained a single 1,046 bp linked to Creb-2 in resistant cultivars Sanuki-shirouri and Kohimeuri. However, SCOPE14 failed to detect Creb-2 in diverse melons. Results of this study revealed that SCAR analysis not only confirmed melons that had been clearly scored for resistance to CMV-B2 by RAPD markers, but also clarified the ambiguous resistance results obtained by the RAPD markers.

  10. Purification, physico-chemical characterization and thermodynamics of chitooligosaccharide binding to cucumber (Cucumis sativus) phloem lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nareddy, Pavan Kumar; Bobbili, Kishore Babu; Swamy, Musti J

    2017-02-01

    A chitooligosaccharide-specific lectin has been purified from the phloem exudate of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) by affinity chromatography on chitin. The molecular weight of the cucumber phloem lectin (CPL) was determined as 51912.8Da by mass spectrometry whereas SDS-PAGE yielded a single band with a subunit mass of 26kDa, indicating that the protein is a homodimer. Peptide mass fingerprinting studies strongly suggest that CPL is identical to the 26kDa phloem protein 2 (PP2) from cucumber. CD spectroscopy indicated that CPL is a predominantly β-sheets protein. Hemagglutination activity of CPL was mostly unaffected between 4 and 90°C and between pH 4.0 and 10.0, indicating functional stability of the protein. Isothermal titration calorimetric studies indicate that the CPL dimer binds to two chitooligosaccharide ((GlcNAc) 2-6 ) molecules with association constants ranging from 1.0×10 3 to 17.5×10 5 M -1 . The binding reaction was strongly enthalpy driven (ΔH b =-ve) with negative contribution from binding entropy (ΔS b =-ve). The enthalpy-driven nature of binding reactions suggests that hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions stabilize the CPL-chitooligosaccharide association. Enthalpy-entropy compensation was observed for the CPL-chitooligosaccharide interaction, indicating that water molecules play an important role in the binding process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Molybdenum and iron mutually impact their homeostasis in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigani, Gianpiero; Di Silvestre, Dario; Agresta, Anna Maria; Donnini, Silvia; Mauri, Pierluigi; Gehl, Christian; Bittner, Florian; Murgia, Irene

    2017-02-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) and iron (Fe) are essential micronutrients required for crucial enzyme activities in plant metabolism. Here we investigated the existence of a mutual control of Mo and Fe homeostasis in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Plants were grown under single or combined Mo and Fe starvation. Physiological parameters were measured, the ionomes of tissues and the ionomes and proteomes of root mitochondria were profiled, and the activities of molybdo-enzymes and the synthesis of molybdenum cofactor (Moco) were evaluated. Fe and Mo were found to affect each other's total uptake and distribution within tissues and at the mitochondrial level, with Fe nutritional status dominating over Mo homeostasis and affecting Mo availability for molybdo-enzymes in the form of Moco. Fe starvation triggered Moco biosynthesis and affected the molybdo-enzymes, with its main impact on nitrate reductase and xanthine dehydrogenase, both being involved in nitrogen assimilation and mobilization, and on the mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component. These results, together with the identification of > 100 proteins differentially expressed in root mitochondria, highlight the central role of mitochondria in the coordination of Fe and Mo homeostasis and allow us to propose the first model of the molecular interactions connecting Mo and Fe homeostasis. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Estimation and Analysis of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Leaf Cellular Heat Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, C. R.

    1993-01-01

    Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduction by cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv Poinsett 76 and cv Ashley) leaf discs was used as a viability assay to examine the effect of temperature pretreatment on the tissue response to acute hyperthermia. Semi-logarithmic plots of TTC reduction as a function of incubation time at different temperatures from 40 to 60[deg]C resembled the heat survival curves of animal cells. Heat inactivation rates were obtained and subjected to "quasi" Arrhenius analyses by analytical methods derived from the animal studies. The Arrhenius plots of TTC reduction rates for cv Ashley leaf discs preincubated at 25 or 37[deg]C and for cv Poinsett 76 preincubated at 37[deg]C were linear with the same activation energy (Ea) of about 80 kcal mol-1. The Arrhenius plot of cv Poinsett 76 preincubated at 25[deg]C was nonlinear with an Ea of about 80 kcal mol-1 at temperatures below 46[deg]C and an Ea of about 27.5 kcal mol-1 at temperatures above 47[deg]C. The significance of these differences is discussed in terms of the role of protein denaturation in the thermal sensitivity of cucumber disc reduction of TTC and the applicability of these methods to the analysis of plant cellular heat sensitivity. PMID:12231745

  13. Induction by Electric Currents of Ethylene Biosynthesis in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Fruit 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Akitsugu; Gao, Jun Ping; Nakamura, Reinosuke

    1991-01-01

    The effects of an electric current on ethylene biosynthesis were investigated in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit that were producing almost no ethylene. Direct currents at 0.5 to 3.0 milliamperes induced much ethylene synthesis, with a rapid continuous increase in the rate, which reached a peak within 5 to 6 hours and then decreased. The rate of production was greater with a stronger current. Ethylene production was not observed after the use of a sine-wave alternating current (60 hertz) at 3 milliamperes, the magnitude at which a direct current had the greatest effect. The activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase and ethylene forming enzyme (EFE) increased before the rise in ethylene production. ACC synthase and EFE were activated sixfold and fourfold, respectively, by 2 hours. The concentration of ACC increased linearly up to 6 hours and then decreased. Ethylene induction by an electric current was suppressed almost completely by the infiltration of the cucumbers with 5 millimolar aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of ACC synthase, and was also suppressed 70% by 5 millimolar salicylic acid, an inhibitor of EFE. The results indicate that the ethylene induced by the direct current was synthesized via the ACC-ethylene pathway as a result of electrical stress, a new kind of stress to be identified. PMID:16668503

  14. Phytochrome, Gibberellins, and Hypocotyl Growth (A Study Using the Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) long hypocotyl Mutant).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Juez, E.; Kobayashi, M.; Sakurai, A.; Kamiya, Y.; Kendrick, R. E.

    1995-01-01

    The possible involvement of gibberellins (GAs) in the regulation of hypocotyl elongation by phytochrome was examined. Under white light the tall long hypocotyl (lh) cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) mutant, deficient in a type B-like phytochrome, shows an increased "responsiveness" (defined as response capability) to applied GA4 (the main endogenous active GA) compared to the wild type. Supplementing far-red irradiation results in a similar increase in responsiveness in the wild type. Experiments involving application of the precursor GA9 and of an inhibitor of GA4 inactivation suggest that both the GA4 activation and inactivation steps are phytochrome independent. Endogenous GA levels of whole seedlings were analyzed by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using deuterated internal standards. The levels of GA4 (and those of GA34, the inactivated GA4) were lower in the lh mutant under low-irradiance fluorescent light compared with the wild type, similar to wild type under higher irradiance light during the initial hypocotyl extension phase, and higher during the phase of sustained growth, in which extension involved an increase in the number of cells in the upper region. In all cases, growth of the lh mutant was more rapid than that of the wild type. It is proposed that GA4 and phytochrome control cell elongation primarily through separate mechanisms that interact at a step close to the terminal response. PMID:12228348

  15. Next generation sequencing and omics in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) breeding directed research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawełkowicz, Magdalena; Zieliński, Konrad; Zielińska, Dorota; Pląder, Wojciech; Yagi, Kouhei; Wojcieszek, Michał; Siedlecka, Ewa; Bartoszewski, Grzegorz; Skarzyńska, Agnieszka; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    In the post-genomic era the availability of genomic tools and resources is leading us to novel generation methods in plant breeding, as they facilitate the study of the genotype and its relationship with the phenotype, in particular for complex traits. In this study we have mainly concentrated on the Cucumis sativus and (but much less) Cucurbitaceae family several important vegetable crops. There are many reports on research conducted in Cucurbitaceae plant breeding programs on the ripening process, phloem transport, disease resistance, cold tolerance and fruit quality traits. This paper presents the role played by new omic technologies in the creation of knowledge on the mechanisms of the formation of the breeding features. The analysis of NGS (NGS-next generation sequencing) data allows the discovery of new genes and regulatory sequences, their positions, and makes available large collections of molecular markers. Genome-wide expression studies provide breeders with an understanding of the molecular basis of complex traits. Firstly a high density map should be created for the reference genome, then each re-sequencing data could be mapped and new markers brought out into breeding populations. The paper also presents methods that could be used in the future for the creation of variability and genomic modification of the species in question. It has been shown also the state and usefulness in breeding the chloroplastomic and mitochondriomic study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of adding borax and modifying pH on effectiveness of food attractants for melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyck, P F; Rousse, P; Ryckewaert, P; Fabre, F; Quilici, S

    2004-06-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most damaging pest of cucurbits in Reunion Island. The influence of adding borax and modifying pH on the effectiveness of different food attractants for both sexes of the melon fly is analyzed by a release-recapture method in field cages. Adding borax to protein hydrolysates Nulure and Buminal strongly reduced their attractiveness for B. cucurbitae. Acidification of 5% Buminal solution (from pH 6 to pH 3) doubled its attractiveness for melon fly. Conversely, Torula yeast at pH 10.5 was significantly more attractive than the standard Torula yeast at pH 9 (28% of captured flies compared with 17%). However, a further pH increase of the yeast solution does not improve its attractiveness. The results are discussed in relation to other studies on pH modification of various baits for Tephritidae.

  17. Water and nutrient productivity in melon crop by fertigation under subsurface drip irrigation and mulching in contrasting soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Otávio Câmara Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cropping intensification and technical, economic and environmental issues require efficient application of production factors to maintain the soil productive capacity and produce good quality fruits and vegetables. The production factors, water and NPK nutrients, are the most frequent limiting factors to higher melon yields. The objective of the present study was to identify the influence of subsurface drip irrigation and mulching in a protected environment on the water and NPK nutrients productivity in melon cropped in two soil types: sandy loam and clay. The melon crop cultivated under environmental conditions with underground drip irrigation at 0.20m depth, with mulching on sandy loam soil increased water and N, P2O5 and K use efficiency.

  18. Observações epistemológicas sobre política do direito no pensamento de Ferreira de Melo

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Isaac Newton Sabbá; UNIVALI

    2011-01-01

    Este artigo tratará de aspectos epistemológicos de política do direito, tendo como eixo central sua localização no universum jurídico, bem como seu relacionamento com a ciência do direito. Para aí chegar-se, serão desenvolvidas as definições dessas duas categorias fundamentais, tendo como marco teórico os estudos de política do direito do professor Osvaldo Ferreira de Melo. Palavras-chave: Teoria do conhecimento. Filosofia da ciência. Epistemologia da política do direito. Ciência do direito....

  19. O Melos e Harmonia Acústica (1988) de César Guerra-Peixe, Koellreutter e Hindemith: similaridades e princípios básicos

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann,Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    O Melos e Harmonia Acústica de César GUERRA-PEIXE (1988) apresenta um compêndio da atividade didática deste compositor expresso em forma de apostila. O presente trabalho busca traçar as possíveis influências comparando-o ao Caderno de Estudos com Koellreutter do próprio GUERRA-PEIXE (1944) e ao The Craft of Musical Composition de Paul HINDEMITH (1937), visando compreender melhor os pressupostos técnicos e teóricos.

  20. Exposure to minimally processed pear and melon during shelf life could modify the pathogenic potential of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colás-Medà, Pilar; Viñas, Inmaculada; Oliveira, Márcia; Anguera, Marina; Serrano, Jose C E; Abadias, Maribel

    2017-04-01

    Survival and virulence of foodborne pathogens can be influenced by environmental factors such as the intrinsic properties of food as well as the extrinsic properties that contribute to food shelf life (e.g., temperature and gas atmosphere). The direct contribution of food matrix characteristics on the survival of L. monocytogenes during fresh-cut fruit shelf life is not very well understood. In addition, the gastrointestinal tract is the primary route of listeriosis infection and penetration of the intestinal epithelial cell barrier is the first step in the infection process. Hence, the pathogenic potential of L. monocytogenes, measured as the capability for the organism to survive a simulated gastrointestinal tract and the proportion of cells able to subsequently adhere to and invade differentiated Caco-2 cells, subjected to fresh-cut pear and melon shelf life, was investigated. Samples were inoculated, stored at 10 °C for 7 days and evaluated after inoculation and again after 2 and 7 days of storage. A decrease in L. monocytogenes' capacity to survive a simulated gastrointestinal tract was observed with increasing storage time, regardless of the fruit matrix evaluated. Furthermore, L. monocytogenes placed on fresh-cut pear and melon was subjected to an attachment and invasion assay after crossing the simulated gastrointestinal tract. After inoculation, pathogen on fresh-cut pear showed 5-fold more capacity to adhere to Caco-2 cells than pathogen on fresh-cut melon. After 2 days of storage, L. monocytogenes grown on fresh-cut melon showed similar adhesive capacity (1.11%) than cells grown on pear (1.83%), but cells grown on melon had the higher invasive capacity (0.0093%). We can conclude that minimally processed melon could represent a more important hazard than pear under the studied shelf life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. PRESERVING VITAMIN C CONTENT IN MELONS DURING LONG-TERM STORAGE BY TREATMNET WITH IONIZED AIR AND SHRINK WRAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Stepanenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents and analyzes the results of experimental studies of the dynamics of vitamin C content in fruit of melons. We considered melons of average ripening period from Bereginya and Golden varieties during storage by treatment with ionized air and shrink wrapping. Studies conducted in 2011-2013 at the National Institute of Vine and Wine Magarach (Yalta and Taurian State Agrotechnological University (Melitopol. For the experiment we used a melon fruit of medium ripening, varieties Golden and Bereginya that grow in the steppe zone of southern Ukraine (farm PE Borisov of Yakymovka district, Zaporozhye region. Collection of fruits and their selection for laying deposited were performed in accordance with relevant standards. To determine the mass concentration of ascorbic acid we used iodometric method. Before laying melon fruit for storage of pre-cooled for 25 hours and then spent processing and packaging. In our experiment, we maintained the relative humidity (GDP about of 85% and air temperature of +3 Celcium degrees in the repository. The treatment was carried out using the fruits developed by own patented device for preparing food for storage. Analysis of the experimental data led to the following conclusions: The content of ascorbic acid during the storage of fruits melon was reduced. Storage of fruits, packed (in whole or in part in shrimp and processed by ionized air gave significantly better preservation of vitamin C in the fruit compared to fruit without processing by air and  unpackaged fruits and in control. Storage of fruits, fully packaged and processed by ionized air, gave the best results in the equalization of other research options. The fruits of melon of variety Golden somewhat better retained vitamin C by the end of the storage period, although its original content was lower than in fruit of varieties Bereginya. Keywords: storage of fruits, vitamin C, ionized air, shrink wrap.

  2. PRESERVING VITAMIN C CONTENT IN MELONS DURING LONG-TERM STORAGE BY TREATMNET WITH IONIZED AIR AND SHRINK WRAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanenko D.S.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents and analyzes the results of experimental studies of the dynamics of vitamin C content in fruit of melons. We considered melons of average ripening period from Bereginya and Golden varieties during storage by treatment with ionized air and shrink wrapping. Studies conducted in 2011-2013 at the National Institute of Vine and Wine Magarach (Yalta and Taurian State Agrotechnological University (Melitopol. For the experiment we used a melon fruit of medium ripening, varieties Golden and Bereginya that grow in the steppe zone of southern Ukraine (farm PE Borisov of Yakymovka district, Zaporozhye region. Collection of fruits and their selection for laying deposited were performed in accordance with relevant standards. To determine the mass concentration of ascorbic acid we used iodometric method. Before laying melon fruit for storage of pre-cooled for 25 hours and then spent processing and packaging. In our experiment, we maintained the relative humidity (GDP about of 85% and air temperature of +3 Celcium degrees in the repository. The treatment was carried out using the fruits developed by own patented device for preparing food for storage. Analysis of the experimental data led to the following conclusions: The content of ascorbic acid during the storage of fruits melon was reduced. Storage of fruits, packed (in whole or in part in shrimp and processed by ionized air gave significantly better preservation of vitamin C in the fruit compared to fruit without processing by air and unpackaged fruits and in control. Storage of fruits, fully packaged and processed by ionized air, gave the best results in the equalization of other research options. The fruits of melon of variety Golden somewhat better retained vitamin C by the end of the storage period, although its original content was lower than in fruit of varieties Bereginya.

  3. Multi-criteria optimization of the flesh melons skin separation process by experimental and statistical analysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Medvedkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research and innovation activity to create energy-efficient processes in the melon processing, is a significant task. Separation skin from the melon flesh with their subsequent destination application in the creation of new food products is one of the time-consuming operations in this technology. Lack of scientific and experimental base of this operation holding back the development of high-performance machines for its implementation. In this connection, the technique of the experiment on the separation of the skins of melons in the pilot plant and the search for optimal regimes of its work methods by statistical modeling is offered. The late-ripening species of melon: Kalaysan, Thorlami, Gulab-sary are objects of study. Interaction of factors influencing on separating the melon skins process is carried out. A central composite rotatable design and fractional factorial experiment was used. Using the method of experimental design with treatment planning template in Design Expert v.10 software yielded a regression equations that adequately describe the actual process. Rational intervals input factors values are established: the ratio of the rotational speed of the drum to the abrasive supply roll rotational frequency; the gap between the supply drum and the shearing knife; shearing blade sharpening angle; the number of feed drum spikes; abrading drum orifices diameter. The mean square error does not exceed 12.4%. Regression equations graphic interpretation is presented by scatter plots and engineering nomograms that can be predictive of a choice of rational values of the input factors for three optimization criteria: minimal specific energy consumption in the process of cutting values, maximal specific performance by the pulp and pulp extraction ratio values. Obtained data can be used for the operational management of the process technological parameters, taking into account the geometrical dimensions of the melon and its inhomogeneous structure.

  4. Engineering melon plants with improved fruit shelf life using the TILLING approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Dahmani-Mardas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruit ripening and softening are key traits that have an effect on food supply, fruit nutritional value and consequently, human health. Since ethylene induces ripening of climacteric fruit, it is one of the main targets to control fruit over ripening that leads to fruit softening and deterioration. The characterization of the ethylene pathway in Arabidopsis and tomato identified key genes that control fruit ripening.To engineer melon fruit with improved shelf-life, we conducted a translational research experiment. We set up a TILLING platform in a monoecious and climacteric melon line, cloned genes that control ethylene production and screened for induced mutations that lead to fruits with enhanced shelf life. Two missense mutations, L124F and G194D, of the ethylene biosynthetic enzyme, ACC oxidase 1, were identified and the mutant plants were characterized with respect to fruit maturation. The L124F mutation is a conservative mutation occurring away from the enzyme active site and thus was predicted to not affect ethylene production and thus fruit ripening. In contrast, G194D modification occurs in a highly conserved amino acid position predicted, by crystallographic analysis, to affect the enzymatic activity. Phenotypic analysis of the G194D mutant fruit showed complete delayed ripening and yellowing with improved shelf life and, as predicted, the L124F mutation did not have an effect.We constructed a mutant collection of 4023 melon M2 families. Based on the TILLING of 11 genes, we calculated the overall mutation rate of one mutation every 573 kb and identified 8 alleles per tilled kilobase. We also identified a TILLING mutant with enhanced fruit shelf life. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of TILLING as a reverse genetics tool to improve crop species. As cucurbits are model species in different areas of plant biology, we anticipate that the developed tool will be widely exploited by the scientific community.

  5. Stabilisation of Clay Soil with Lime and Melon Husk Ash for use in Farm Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Mohammed

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The rising cost of traditional stabilising agents and the need for economical utilisation of industrial and agricultural waste for beneficial engineering purposes has encouraged an investigation into the stabilization of clay soil with lime and melon husk ash. The chemical composition of the melon husk ash that was used in stabilising clay soil was determined. The clay soil was divided into two parts, one part was used to determine the index properties while the other part was treated at British Standard Light (BSL compaction energy with 0 %, 2 %, 4 %, 6 % and 8 % melon husk ash by dry weight of the soil and each was admixed with 2 %, 4 %, 6 % and 8 % lime. The stabilised clay soil was cured for 7, 14 and 28 days before the unconfined compressive strength were determined while the coefficients of permeability of the stabilised clay soil were also determined at 28 days of curing. The data obtained from the experiment was subjected to analysis of variance to examine the significance at 5% level. Results showed that the natural clay soil belong to A-7-6 or CH (clay of high plasticity in the American Association of State Highway Transportation Official (AASHTO and Unified Soil Classification System (1986. The chemical composition of the ash had aluminum oxide, iron oxide and silicon dioxide values of 18.5%, 2.82% and 51.24% respectively. The unconfined compressive strength and coefficient of permeability of the natural clay soil was determined to be 285 kN/m2 and 1.45 x 10-5 cm/s, respectively. Increase in melon husk ash and lime percent increases the unconfined compressive strength (UCS of the stabilised clay soil significantly (p < 0.05 and decrease the coefficient of permeability when compared with the natural clay soil. The peak values of unconfined compressive strength for 7, 14 and 28 days of curing are 1200 kN/m2, 1598 kN/m2 and 1695 kN/m2 respectively at 6% MHA and 8% lime content while the lowest value for coefficient of permeability was 0

  6. What do spring migrants reveal about sex and host selection in the melon aphid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Sophie

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host plants exert considerable selective pressure on aphids because the plants constitute their feeding, mating and oviposition sites. Therefore, host specialisation in aphids evolves through selection of the behavioural and chemical mechanisms of host-plant location and recognition, and through metabolic adaptation to the phloem content of the host plant. How these adaptive traits evolve in an aphid species depends on the complexity of the annual life cycle of that species. The purpose of this field study was to determine how winged spring-migrant populations contribute to the evolution and maintenance of host specialisation in Aphis gossypii through host-plant choice and acceptance. We also assessed whether host-specialised genotypes corresponded exclusively to anholocyclic lineages regardless of the environmental conditions. Results The spring populations of cotton-melon aphids visiting newly planted melon crops exhibited an unexpectedly high level of genetic diversity that contrasted with the very low diversity characterising the host-specialised populations of this aphid species. This study illustrated in natura host-plant-selection pressure by showing the great differences in genetic diversity between the spring-migrant populations (alate aphids and the melon-infesting populations (the apterous offspring of the alate aphids. Moreover, an analysis of the genetic composition of these alate and apterous populations in four geographic regions suggested differences in life-history strategies, such as host choice and reproductive mode, and questioned the common assertion that A. gossypii is an anholocyclic species throughout its distribution area, including Europe. Conclusions Our results clearly demonstrate that the melon plant acts as a selective filter against the reproduction of non-specialised individuals. We showed that olfactory cues are unlikely to be decisive in natura for host recognition by spring-migrant aphid

  7. The Challenge of Peat Substitution in Organic Seedling Production: Optimization of Growing Media Formulation through Mixture Design and Response Surface Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Giovanni Ceglie

    Full Text Available Peat replacement is an increasing demand in containerized and transplant production, due to the environmental constraints associated to peat use. However, despite the wide information concerning the use of alternative materials as substrates, it is very complex to establish the best materials and mixtures. This work evaluates the use of mixture design and surface response methodology in a peat substitution experiment using two alternative materials (green compost and palm fibre trunk waste for transplant production of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.; melon, (Cucumis melo L.; and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. in organic farming conditions. In general, the substrates showed suitable properties for their use in seedling production, showing the best plant response the mixture of 20% green compost, 39% palm fibre and 31% peat. The mixture design and applied response surface methodology has shown to be an useful approach to optimize substrate formulations in peat substitution experiments to standardize plant responses.

  8. The Challenge of Peat Substitution in Organic Seedling Production: Optimization of Growing Media Formulation through Mixture Design and Response Surface Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceglie, Francesco Giovanni; Bustamante, Maria Angeles; Ben Amara, Mouna; Tittarelli, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Peat replacement is an increasing demand in containerized and transplant production, due to the environmental constraints associated to peat use. However, despite the wide information concerning the use of alternative materials as substrates, it is very complex to establish the best materials and mixtures. This work evaluates the use of mixture design and surface response methodology in a peat substitution experiment using two alternative materials (green compost and palm fibre trunk waste) for transplant production of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.); melon, (Cucumis melo L.); and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in organic farming conditions. In general, the substrates showed suitable properties for their use in seedling production, showing the best plant response the mixture of 20% green compost, 39% palm fibre and 31% peat. The mixture design and applied response surface methodology has shown to be an useful approach to optimize substrate formulations in peat substitution experiments to standardize plant responses. PMID:26070163

  9. Silicon improves salt tolerance by increasing root water uptake in Cucumis sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-Xing; Xu, Xuan-Bin; Hu, Yan-Hong; Han, Wei-Hua; Yin, Jun-Liang; Li, Huan-Li; Gong, Hai-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Silicon enhances root water uptake in salt-stressed cucumber plants through up-regulating aquaporin gene expression. Osmotic adjustment is a genotype-dependent mechanism for silicon-enhanced water uptake in plants. Silicon can alleviate salt stress in plants. However, the mechanism is still not fully understood, and the possible role of silicon in alleviating salt-induced osmotic stress and the underlying mechanism still remain to be investigated. In this study, the effects of silicon (0.3 mM) on Na accumulation, water uptake, and transport were investigated in two cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cultivars ('JinYou 1' and 'JinChun 5') under salt stress (75 mM NaCl). Salt stress inhibited the plant growth and photosynthesis and decreased leaf transpiration and water content, while added silicon ameliorated these negative effects. Silicon addition only slightly decreased the shoot Na levels per dry weight in 'JinYou 1' but not in 'JinChun 5' after 10 days of stress. Silicon addition reduced stress-induced decreases in root hydraulic conductivity and/or leaf-specific conductivity. Expressions of main plasma membrane aquaporin genes in roots were increased by added silicon, and the involvement of aquaporins in water uptake was supported by application of aquaporin inhibitor and restorative. Besides, silicon application decreased the root xylem osmotic potential and increased root soluble sugar levels in 'JinYou 1.' Our results suggest that silicon can improve salt tolerance of cucumber plants through enhancing root water uptake, and silicon-mediated up-regulation of aquaporin gene expression may in part contribute to the increase in water uptake. In addition, osmotic adjustment may be a genotype-dependent mechanism for silicon-enhanced water uptake in plants.

  10. Boron excess affects photosynthesis and antioxidant apparatus of greenhouse Cucurbita pepo and Cucumis sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Marco; Remorini, Damiano; Pardossi, Alberto; Guidi, Lucia

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the behavior of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under boron (B) excess. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in a sandy soil-peat mixture using a nutrient solution containing 0.2 (control), 10 and 20 mg L(-1) B. Visible symptoms were quantified and leaf B accumulation, gas exchanges, chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence, malondialdehyde by-products and antioxidants were investigated 20 days after the beginning of the treatments. Boron toxicity induced oxidative load and leaf necrotic burns coupled with the reduction of leaf growth and biomass accumulation in both species. Boron excess resulted in a decrease of Chl a/b ratio, potential (Fv/Fm) and actual (ΦPSII) PSII quantum efficiency, photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration (E) as well. A general stimulation of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase was observed, and a significant increase in the oxidized form of ascorbate and glutathione was evidenced for treated plants of both species. A difference between the two species was observed: C. pepo appeared to be more sensitive to B stress being damaged at all B concentration. C. sativus grown at 10 mg L(-1) B in nutrient solution showed some down-regulated mechanisms, i.e. increase in Chl b content and a good photochemical PSII efficiency as well as a higher amount of constitutive antioxidant molecules, that, however, are not sufficient to contrast the negative effects of B.

  11. Endogenous salicylic acid accumulation is required for chilling tolerance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Li, Liang; Shang, Qing-Mao; Liu, Xin-Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Gang

    2014-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important plant hormone, and its exogenous application can induce tolerance to multiple environmental stresses in plants. In this study, we examine the potential involvement of endogenous SA in response to chilling in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings. A low temperature of 8 °C induces a moderate increase in endogenous SA levels. Chilling stimulates the enzymatic activities and the expression of genes for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and benzoic acid-2-hydroxylase rather than isochorismate synthase. This indicates that the PAL enzymatic pathway contributes to chilling-induced SA production. Cucumber seedlings pretreated with SA biosynthesis inhibitors accumulate less endogenous SA and suffer more from chilling damage. The expression of cold-responsive genes is also repressed by SA inhibitors. The reduction in stress tolerance and in gene expression can be restored by the exogenous application of SA, confirming the critical roles of SA in chilling responses in cucumber seedlings. Furthermore, the inhibition of SA biosynthesis under chilling stress results in a prolonged and enhanced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation. The application of exogenous SA and the chemical scavenger of H2O2 reduces the excess H2O2 and alleviates chilling injury. In contrast, the protective effects of SA are negated by foliar spraying with high concentrations of H2O2 and an inhibitor of the antioxidant enzyme. These results suggest that endogenous SA is required in response to chilling stress in cucumber seedlings, by modulating the expression of cold-responsive genes and the precise induction of cellular H2O2 levels.

  12. Cucumis sativus Aqueous Fraction Inhibits Angiotensin II-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress In Vitro

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    Celeste Trejo-Moreno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and oxidative stress play major roles in endothelial dysfunction, and are key factors in the progression of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of three subfractions (SFs from the Cucumis sativus aqueous fraction to reduce inflammatory factors and oxidative stress induced by angiotensin II (Ang II in human microvascular endothelial cells-1 (HMEC-1 cells. The cells were cultured with different concentrations of Ang II and 0.08 or 10 μg/mL of SF1, SF2, or SF3, or 10 μmol of losartan as a control. IL-6 (Interleukin 6 concentration was quantified. To identify the most effective SF combinations, HMEC-1 cells were cultured as described above in the presence of four combinations of SF1 and SF3. Then, the effects of the most effective combination on the expression of adhesion molecules, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO were evaluated. Finally, a mass spectrometry analysis was performed. Both SF1 and SF3 subfractions decreased the induction of IL-6 by Ang II, and C4 (SF1 and SF3, 10 μg/mL each was the most effective combination to inhibit the production of IL-6. Additionally, C4 prevented the expression of adhesion molecules, reduced the production of ROS, and increased the bioavailability of NO. Glycine, arginine, asparagine, lysine, and aspartic acid were the main components of both subfractions. These results demonstrate that C4 has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.

  13. Iron-Deficiency Stress Responses in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Roots (A Possible Role for Ethylene?).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romera, F. J.; Alcantara, E.

    1994-01-01

    Most dicotyledonous species respond to Fe deficiency by developing several mechanisms known as Fe-deficiency stress responses. To study the regulation of these responses, young cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. cv Ashley) were grown in nutrient solution for 11 d, being deprived of Fe during the last 4 or 5 d. Inhibitors of ethylene synthesis (2 or 10 [mu]M aminoethoxyvinylglycine; 10 or 20 [mu]M aminooxyacetic acid; 1, 2, 5, or 10 [mu]M Co2+ as CoCl2) or action (50, 200, or 800 [mu]M Ag+ as silver thiosulfate) were added to the nutrient solution at different times during this period of growth with no Fe. After this period, the reduction of Fe3+ ethylenedi-aminetetraacetate by the roots of entire plants was measured with ferrozine by reading the absorbance at 562 nm after 2 h. The presence of the ethylene inhibitors in the nutrient solution inhibited the Fe-deficiency stress responses ferric-reducing capacity and subapical root swelling. In another experiment, the addition of 1 [mu]M 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), a precursor of ethylene synthesis, to the nutrient solution of plants having low ferric-reducing activity increased notably the ferric-reducing capacity and subapical root swelling. Here we show evidence that ethylene plays a role in the development of Fe-deficiency stress responses, since when ethylene synthesis or action was inhibited, the responses were also inhibited, and when a precursor of ethylene (ACC) was added, the responses were increased. PMID:12232270

  14. Iron deficiency affects nitrogen metabolism in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants

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    Borlotti Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitrogen is a principal limiting nutrient in plant growth and development. Among factors that may limit NO3- assimilation, Fe potentially plays a crucial role being a metal cofactor of enzymes of the reductive assimilatory pathway. Very few information is available about the changes of nitrogen metabolism occurring under Fe deficiency in Strategy I plants. The aim of this work was to study how cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants modify their nitrogen metabolism when grown under iron deficiency. Results The activity of enzymes involved in the reductive assimilation of nitrate and the reactions that produce the substrates for the ammonium assimilation both at root and at leaf levels in Fe-deficient cucumber plants were investigated. Under Fe deficiency, only nitrate reductase (EC 1.7.1.1 activity decreased both at the root and leaf level, whilst for glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2 and glutamate synthase (EC 1.4.1.14 an increase was found. Accordingly, the transcript analysis for these enzymes showed the same behaviour except for root nitrate reductase which increased. Furthermore, it was found that amino acid concentration greatly decreased in Fe-deficient roots, whilst it increased in the corresponding leaves. Moreover, amino acids increased in the xylem sap of Fe-deficient plants. Conclusions The data obtained in this work provided new insights on the responses of plants to Fe deficiency, suggesting that this nutritional disorder differentially affected N metabolism in root and in leaf. Indeed under Fe deficiency, roots respond more efficiently, sustaining the whole plant by furnishing metabolites (i.e. aa, organic acids to the leaves.

  15. MENTIMUN(Cucumis Sativus L DI DESA TIRTA MULYA KECAMATAN MAKARTI JAYA KABUPATEN BANYUASIN II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irham Falahudin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. that includes or creeping vines and is one type of vegetable-fruit of the gourd family labuan (Cucurbitaceae that has been popular throughout the world and favored from Asia. Cucumber cultivation in Indonesia, found almost in every region, ranging from lowland to highland hot climate (tropical and moderate. One animal that has an abundant amount in cucumber plants are insects. This study aims to know the different types of species that exist on the Order Coleoptera cucumber farm in the village of Tirta Mulya District of makarti Jaya Banyuasin II and determine the role of the Order Coleoptera insects on cucumber plantations in the village of Tirta Mulya District of makarti Jaya Banyuasin II. This is a qualitative study conducted in October-November 2014 held in Cucumber Plants in the village of Tirta Mulya District of makarti Jaya Banyuasin II. Catching insects done using transect method and pitfall traps such as sweeping the net, pit fall traps and light traps, results in identification in the laboratory penelitanya UIN Raden Fatah Palembang. The results of this study indicate that insects are caught in a cucumber plantation obtained as many as 113 individual 3 families and 7 species. Insects which dominates in the village of Tirta Mulya District of makarti Jaya Banyuasin II is Cocinella repanda, Curinus coeruleus, Coelophora inaequalis, and Aulacophora similis, and insects that have the fewest number is Micraspis discolor, Micraspis vincta and Oryctes rhinoceros. The role of the Order Coleoptera Insects in general predators of the family Coccinellidae to eradicate mites while the family Chrysomelidae Scarabacidae and are pests that attack on cucumber plants that can cause death.

  16. Host plants of Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae); and provisional list of suitable host plants of the Melon Fly, Bactrocera(Zeugodacus)cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae),Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with...

  17. Equilibrium and Kinetics Study of Adsorption of Crystal Violet onto the Peel of Cucumis sativa Fruit from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Smitha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of low-cost, locally available, high efficiency and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. This study investigates the potential use of the peel of Cucumis sativa fruit for the removal of crystal violet (CV dye from simulated wastewater. The effects of different system variables, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time were investigated and optimal experimental conditions were ascertained. The results showed that as the amount of the adsorbent increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly. Optimum pH value for dye adsorption was determined as 7.0. The adsorption of crystal violet followed pseudo-second order rate equation and fit well Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The maximum removal of CV was obtained at pH 7 as 92.15% for adsorbent dose of 0.2 g/50 mL and 25 mg L-1 initial dye concentration at room temperature. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir equation was 34.24 mg g-1. Furthermore, adsorption kinetics of (CV was studied and the rate of adsorption was found to conform to pseudo-second order kinetics with a good correlation (R2 > 0.9739. The peel of Cucumis sativa fruit can be attractive options for dye removal from diluted industrial effluents since test reaction made on simulated dyeing wastewater show better removal percentage of (CV.

  18. Cucurbita spp. and Cucumis sativus enhance the dissipation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by stimulating soil microbial community development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C.; Xu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    A number of Cucurbita species have the potential to extract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil, but their impact on the soil microbial communities responsible for PCB degradation remains unclear. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three Cucurbita and one Cucumis species on PCB dissipation and soil microbial community structure. Compared to the unplanted control, enhanced losses of PCBs (19.5%–42.7%) were observed in all planted soils. Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata treatments were more efficient in PCB dissipation, and have similar patterns of soil phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and PCB congener profiles. Cucurbita treatments tend to have higher soil microbial biomass than Cucumis. Gram-negative (G − ) bacteria were significantly correlated with PCB degradation rates (R 2 = 0.719, p − bacteria were correlated with dissipation of the penta homologue group (R 2 = 0.590, p − bacteria contributed significantly to soil PCB dissipation. • Fungi have a great potential in the dissipation of high chlorinated biphenyls. -- Cucurbita associated fungi and G − bacteria have important influence on soil PCB dissipation rate and congener profile

  19. Efficacy and safety evaluation of intravenous infusion of cervus and cucumis polypeptides for treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liyou; Zhang, Hongwei; Li, Xinmin; Yang, Chunyan; Wang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Lifeng; Cui, Mingwu; Han, Lijun

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of intravenous cervus and cucumis polypeptides for treating avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) in regard to pain and hip function in a randomized clinical trial. A total of 96 subjects with ANFH who were recruited at the Orthopaedic Hospital Affiliated with Hebei United University and Qian Hai Femoral Head Hospital of Beijing were assigned by lottery to an intervention group (n = 48) or a control group (n = 48). All subjects underwent physical therapy and rehabilitation exercises. In addition, subjects in the intervention group were given intravenous infusions of cervus and cucumis polypeptides. Visual analogue scale (VAS), Harris hip score, and radiography or magnetic resonance imaging were applied to assess all subjects at the beginning of treatment and 3, 6, and 9 months afterward. All the subjects were followed up for 2 years. At the beginning of treatment, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of the general condition of patients or the VAS and Harris hip scores (all P > 0.05). At 3, 6, and 9 months after treatment, however, the VAS score decreased and the Harris hip score increased in all patients, with the improvement of intervention group significantly greater than that of the control group (P 0.05). Intravenous infusion of cervus and cucumis polypeptides relieved pain and improved hip function of subjects with ANFH. Thus, the intravenous infusion of cervus and cucumis polypeptides was a safe, effective treatment for ANFH.

  20. PO.EX em EXPO (ou POesia EXperimental em EXPOsição: Ernesto Melo e Castro, António Barros e Silvestre Pestana na Casa da Escrita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manaíra Aires Athayde

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Review of three exhibitions: Ernesto MELO E CASTRO, Do Leve à Luz (3 october - 2 november 2012; António BARROS, Progestos_Obgestos (30 november - 21 december 2012; Silvestre PESTANA, Povo Novo Virtual (8 february - 1 march 2013. Ciclo NAS ESCRITAS PO.EX, Casa da Escrita, Coimbra, Portugal.

  1. Water consumption and soil moisture distribution in melon crop with mulching and in a protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Otávio Câmara Monteiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mulching has become an important technique for land cover, but there are some technical procedures which should be adjusted for these new modified conditions to establish optimum total water depth. It is also important to observe the soil-water relations as soil water distribution and wetted volume dimensions. The objective of the present study was to estimate melon evapotranspiration under mulching in a protected environment and to verify the water spatial distribution around the melon root system in two soil classes. Mulching provided 27 mm water saving by reducing water evaporation. In terms of volume each plant received, on average, the amount of 175.2 L of water in 84 days of cultivation without mulching, while when was used mulching the water requirement was 160.2 L per plant. The use of mulching reduced the soil moisture variability throughout the crop cycle and allowed a greater distribution of soil water that was more intense in the clay soil. The clayey soil provided on average 43 mm more water depth retention in 0.50 m soil deep relative to the sandy loam soil, and reduced 5.6 mm the crop cycle soil moisture variation compared to sandy loam soil.

  2. Surfactin triggers biofilm formation of Bacillus subtilis in melon phylloplane and contributes to the biocontrol activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeriouh, Houda; de Vicente, Antonio; Pérez-García, Alejandro; Romero, Diego

    2014-07-01

    The biocontrol activity of many Bacillus species has been traditionally related to the direct antagonism of pathogens. In previous works, we reported that B. subtilis strain UMAF6614 was an efficient biocontrol agent that produced bacillomycin, fengycin and surfactin lipopeptides. Bacillomycins and fengycins were shown to have antagonistic activity towards fungal and bacterial pathogens of cucurbits; however, the functionality of surfactin remained unclear. In this study, the role of surfactin in the biocontrol activity of this strain was investigated. We observed that a deficiency in surfactin production led to a partial reduction of disease suppression by this biocontrol agent, which coincided with a defect in biofilm formation and the colonization of the melon phylloplane. These effects were due to a dramatic reduction in the production of exopolysaccharide and the TasA protein, which are the two major components of the extracellular matrix. We propose that the biocontrol activity of this strain is the result of the coordinated action of the three families of lipopeptides. B. subtilis UMAF6614 produces surfactin to trigger biofilm formation on melon phylloplane, which ensures the long-term persistence and the adequate secretion of suppressive lipopeptides, bacillomycins and fengycins, which efficiently target pathogens. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Odor-Active Compounds in the Special Flavor Hops Huell Melon and Polaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiens, Silva D; Steinhaus, Martin

    2018-02-14

    The volatiles isolated from samples of the special flavor hop varieties, Huell Melon and Polaris, and from the aroma hop variety, Hallertau Tradition, by solvent extraction and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) were subjected to a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA), which resulted in 46 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 16 to 2048. On the basis of high FD factors, myrcene, (3R)-linalool, and 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid were confirmed as important variety-independent hop odorants. (1R,4S)-Calamenene was identified for the first time as an odor-active compound in hops. Clear differences in the FD factors and their subsequent objectification by stable isotope dilution quantitation suggested that high concentrations of the esters ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, and propyl 2-methylbutanoate cause the characteristic fruity, cantaloupe-like odor note in Huell Melon hops, whereas the fruity and minty odor notes in Polaris are associated with high amounts of 3-methylbutyl acetate and 1,8-cineole.

  4. Fatty Acid Methyl Esters of Melon Seed Oil: Characterisation for Potential Diesel Fuel Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. EJIKEME

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME, biodiesel, are alternative diesel fuels usually obtained from renewable sources, mainly, vegetable and animal oils through transesterification among other processes. Melon seed oil was extracted from melon seeds bought from a local market, degummed and alkali refined using standard methods. FAME of the oil was produced using methanol in the molar ration of 1:6, 1% sodium hydroxide catalyst at the reaction temperature of 60 deg C for the duration of 1h. Results obtained showed that the fatty acid methyl esters had a specific gravity of 0.8786, viscosity of 6.24 centistokes, pH of 7.23, heating value of 36.34 J/g and flash point of 148 deg C. The FAME yield was 87.35% under the reaction conditions that applied. The infrared spectra of both the refined oil and the methyl esters from it, showed peaks at 1721.3cm-1 and 1167.8cm-1 (C=O and C-O stretches large and medium absorbance's for oils and methyl esters. Generally, the fuel properties of the FAME compared with values obtained under the same conditions for conventional petroleum diesel that was sourced from a retail outlet; suggesting that biodiesel from MSO could be used alone or in blends with petrodiesel to power compression ignition (diesel engines.

  5. Effects of processing methods on the proximate composition and momordicosides K and L content of bitter melon vegetable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donya, Alice; Hettiarachchy, Navam; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson; Chen, Pengyin; Jalaluddin, Mohammed

    2007-07-11

    Bitter melon (Mormodica charantia L.) has been associated with health benefits such as hypoglycemic, antiatherogenic, and anti-HIV activities. The vegetable, however, has an unpleasant bitter taste. The purpose of this research was to establish the effect of various processing methods on the moisture, lipid, and protein content of the Sri Lanka variety of bitter melon and to determine the effect of the processing methods on momordicosides K and L contents. The processing methods used were frying, blanching, sun drying, oven drying, freeze drying, and bitter masking with five different commercial bitter masking agents. Moisture, lipid, and protein analyses were done using standard AACC methods. Drying decreased moisture content from 92% to 9.5-10.2%. Frying lowered moisture content to 0.8% while increasing lipid content from 3.6 to 67%. Protein content remained unaffected by treatments. A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS) method was used to identify momordicosides K and L in methanolic extracts of fresh and processed samples. Only extracted ion chromatographs for blanched bitter melon and bitter melon with MY 68 agent showed the absence of momordicosides K and L.

  6. LOLA SYSTEM: A code block for nodal PWR simulation. Part. II - MELON-3, CONCON and CONAXI Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragones, J. M.; Ahnert, C.; Gomez Santamaria, J.; Rodriguez Olabarria, I.

    1985-01-01

    Description of the theory and users manual of the MELON-3, CONCON and CONAXI codes, which are part of the core calculation system by nodal theory in one group, called LOLA SYSTEM. These auxiliary codes, provide some of the input data for the main module SIMULA-3; these are, the reactivity correlations constants, the albe does and the transport factors. (Author) 7 refs

  7. LOLA SYSTEM: A code block for nodal PWR simulation. Part. II - MELON-3, CONCON and CONAXI Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragones, J. M.; Ahnert, C.; Gomez Santamaria, J.; Rodriguez Olabarria, I.

    1985-07-01

    Description of the theory and users manual of the MELON-3, CONCON and CONAXI codes, which are part of the core calculation system by nodal theory in one group, called LOLA SYSTEM. These auxiliary codes, provide some of the input data for the main module SIMULA-3; these are, the reactivity correlations constants, the albe does and the transport factors. (Author) 7 refs.

  8. Epidemiology of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in the US Southwest and development of virus resistant melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), emerged in the Southwest USA in 2006, where it is transmitted by the MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci. The virus results in late-season infection of spring melon crops with limited economic impact; however, all summer and fall cucurbits become ...

  9. Bio-active Compounds of Bitter Melon Genotypes (Momordica charantia L. in Relation to Their Physiological Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navam S. Hettiarachchy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia L is one of the most popular cooked vegetables in many Asian countries. Its experimental use in mice has indicated improvement in glucose tolerance against Type II diabetes and reduction in blood cholesterol. However, it has not been proven which alkaloids, polypeptides, or their combinations in the Bitter Melon extract are responsible for the medicinal effects. Green and white varieties of Bitter Melon differ strikingly in their bitter tastes, green being much more bitter than white. It is not yet known whether they are different in their special nutritional and hypoglycemic properties. Nutritional qualities of Bitter Melons such as protein, amino acids, minerals, and polyphenolics contents were determined using four selected varieties such as Indian Green [IG], Indian White [IW], Chinese Green [CG], and Chinese White [CW] grown at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff [UAPB] Agricultural Research Center. Results indicated that protein levels of IW were significantly higher than IG in both flesh and seed. Methods: Four Bitter Melon varieties, Indian Green [IG], Indian White [IW], Chinese Green [CG] and Chinese White [CW] were used for phytochemical analyses to determine protein contents, protein hydrolysis, amino acids contents, and their antioxidant and antimutagenic activities. All analyses were conducted following standard methods. Statistical analyses wereconducted using JMP 5 software package [SAS]. The Tukey’s HSD procedure was used for the significance of differences at the 5% level. Results: Moisture contents across the four varieties of Bitter Melon flesh ranged between 92.4 and 93.5%, and that of seed ranged between 53.3 and 75.9%. Protein contents of the flesh were highest in IW [9.8%] and lowest in CG [8.4%]. Seed protein contents were the highest in IW [31.3%] and lowest in IG [27.0%]. Overall, white varieties had higher protein contents than the green varieties. Compared with soy

  10. Molecular mapping and candidate gene analysis for resistance to powdery mildew in Cucumis sativus stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P N; Miao, H; Lu, H W; Cui, J Y; Tian, G L; Wehner, T C; Gu, X F; Zhang, S P

    2017-08-31

    Powdery mildew (PM) of cucumber (Cucumis sativus), caused by Podosphaera xanthii, is a major foliar disease worldwide and resistance is one of the main objectives in cucumber breeding programs. The resistance to PM in cucumber stem is important to the resistance for the whole plant. In this study, genetic analysis and gene mapping were implemented with cucumber inbred lines NCG-122 (with resistance to PM in the stem) and NCG-121 (with susceptibility in the stem). Genetic analysis showed that resistance to PM in the stem of NCG-122 was qualitative and controlled by a single-recessive nuclear gene (pm-s). Susceptibility was dominant to resistance. In the initial genetic mapping of the pm-s gene, 10 SSR markers were discovered to be linked to pm-s, which was mapped to chromosome 5 (Chr.5) of cucumber. The pm-s gene's closest flanking markers were SSR20486 and SSR06184/SSR13237 with genetic distances of 0.9 and 1.8 cM, respectively. One hundred and fifty-seven pairs of new SSR primers were exploited by the sequence information in the initial mapping region of pm-s. The analysis on the F 2 mapping population using the new molecular markers showed that 17 SSR markers were confirmed to be linked to the pm-s gene. The two closest flanking markers, pmSSR27and pmSSR17, were 0.1 and 0.7 cM from pm-s, respectively, confirming the location of this gene on Chr.5. The physical length of the genomic region containing pm-s was 135.7 kb harboring 21 predicted genes. Among these genes, the gene Csa5G623470 annotated as encoding Mlo-related protein was defined as the most probable candidate gene for the pm-s. The results of this study will provide a basis for marker-assisted selection, and make the benefit for the cloning of the resistance gene.

  11. QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA E SANITÁRIA DE SEMENTES DE MELÃO UTILIZADAS NO PÓLO AGRÍCOLA ASSU-BARAÚNA-MOSSORÓ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreya Kalyana de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate the physiological and sanity quality of melon (Cucumis melo L. seeds used in agricultural region Assu-Baraúna-Mosssó in the Rio Grande do Norte. For seed lots each from the hybrids Goldex and Vereda were used. Research was conducted at the Seed Analysis Laboratory and Irrigation Agricultural of the Department of Crop Science of the UFERSA from August 2006 to July 2007. The physiological quality was evaluated by the germination, first count germination, accelerated aging, emergence speed index, electrical conductivity and seedling emergence, beyond the seed moisture content. The sanity was determinated by the method of filter paper with freezer, in four replications with 100 seeds per lot and completly randomized design. From the results obtained, it was concluded that first count germination, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity and seedling emergence tests only identified low and high seed lot from the hybrids Goldex and Vereda. The electrical conductivity test is most indicated to estimation of melon seed physiological potential, it was also possible to reduce the imbibition period of seeds prior this test. The pathogens associated with melon seeds were Aspergillus spp., Fusarium sp. and Macrophomina sp. and the physiological quality of seeds was not affected with the microrganisms presence.

  12. Immunolocalization of a class III chitinase in two muskmelon cultivars reacting differently to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldé, José Alage; Francisco, Rita; Queiroz, Alvaro; Regalado, Ana Paula; Ricardo, Cândido Pinto; Veloso, Maria Manuela

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis is a highly specialized fungus that attacks the root system of melon (Cucumis melo L.). In this work the presence of a class III chitinase was examined by immunological techniques in the root and stem base of a susceptible (cv. Galia) and a resistant (cv. Bredor) melon during the infection process. By immunolocalization it was not possible to detect the constitutive presence of class III chitinase in any of the cultivars. However, the immunolabelling appeared in the root tissues of both cultivars as a consequence of wounding and of infection by F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis. Distinct patterns of chitinase detection were observed in the roots of the two cultivars as the infection progressed. Furthermore, by western blotting distinct class III chitinase isoforms were detected, which responded differently to the F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis infection. Our results strongly indicate that a relationship exists between class III chitinase and melon resistance to Fusarium infection, and that the resistance is associated with certain isoforms of this enzyme.

  13. Effect of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sabato, Susy F.

    2013-01-01

    The access to nutritious food is an essential dimension of food meal. High potential for fresh-cut industry exists and ready-to-eat fruit market has grown rapidly in recent years due to the health benefits associated. Although there is many concerns to food safety other parameters like texture, taste, color and sensory acceptance are fundamental principles of acceptance to any food. Actually the use of instrumental measurements has proven to be a major predictor of sensory responses. According to many authors, the addition of different techniques should always be considered to provide additional information of the sensory aspects. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya. The fruits were purchased in a market of Sao Paulo, at the same point of ripeness and sent to the IPEN/CNEN-SP. The fruits were sanitized and manually cut into cubes of approximately 2 x 2 cm with the aid of stainless steel knives and packed in polyethylene bags. Melons and papaya were irradiated in a Multipurpose Gamma Source (IPEN - Sao Paulo - Brazil) and were divided in six groups for color analysis: Control; 0.5 kGy; 1.0 kGy, 1.5kGy, 2.0 kGy and 3.0kGy. After the treatment, the MP fruits were kept in a refrigerator at 4 deg C ± 1 deg C until the end of the analysis. The color of the samples was determined using a Minolta colorimeter CR-400 Chromameter. The parameters L * , a * and b * were evaluated. The results were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance One-Dimensional Analysis of Variance (One-Way-ANOVA) followed by Tukey test. All statistical analysis was performed using the program Graph Pad Prism 5 and adopting a significance level of 5 % (p * parameter of any dose despite the tendency to darkening observed for the group of 3.0 kGy. This fact also occurred for the chromatographic coordinates a * and b * which remained in the same tonality for all treatments (p<0.05). Current results

  14. Aboio Livre: Representações Ecológicas na Poesia de José Inácio Vieira de Melo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calila das Mercês Oliveira (UEFS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda as representações ecológicas na poesia de José Inácio Vieira de Melo (1968, poeta alagoano radicado na Bahia. A partir de Pedra Só (2012, tendo como recorte o capítulo Aboio Livre, é realizada uma análise da poética que envolve de forma concomitante lírica e meio ambiente. Conhecido como Cavaleiro de Fogo, o poeta apresenta um sertão místico que vai além das mazelas sociais, trazendo à tona a reflexão universal do que é “ser humano”. Expondo considerações de outros escritores e formadores de opinião acerca de sua obra e as fazendo interagir com as teorias de Alfredo Bosi, Octávio Paz, Félix Guattari, Serge Moscovici, Roland Barthes, entre outros.

  15. Quantity and quality of guinea pig (cavia porcellus) spermatozoa after administration of methanol extract of bitter melon (momordica charantia) seed and depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Syafruddin; Hutahaean, Salomo; Nursal

    2018-03-01

    The discovery of male contraceptive drugs continues to be pursued, due to the few participation of men associated with the lack of contraceptive options for men. The combination of bitter melon seed methanol extract and DMPA are the options that currently apply to men. Therefore, the use of guinea pigs as experimental animals conducted research using experimental methods with complete randomized design (CRD). There are 4 control groups and 4 treatment groups. The first group, control group of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) for 0 week (K0), The second one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g Body Weight/day for 0 week (P0), the third one, control group of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 4 weeks (K1), the fourth one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g BW/day for 4 weeks + Depot medroxy Progesterone Acetate (P1), the fifth one, control group of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 8 weeks (K2), the sixth one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g BW/day for 8 weeks + DMPA (P2), the seventh one, control group of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 12 weeks (K3), the eighth one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g BW/day for 12 weeks + DMPA (P3). Methanol extract of bitter melon seed to decrease the quantity and quality of guinea pig spermatozoa decreased significantly, i.e. viability and normal morphology of spermatozoa (p<0.05).

  16. Effects of wounding, humidity, temperature, and inoculum concentrations on the severity of corky dry rot caused by Fusarium semitectum in melon fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Jardelina Oliveira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Corky dry rot, caused by Fusarium semitectum, is the main postharvest disease of melons in Brazil. This study investigated the effects of wounding, humidity, temperature, and inoculum concentration on the severity of corky dry rot under controlled conditions. Cantaloupe and honeydew melon types were inoculated by spraying conidial suspensions of three F. semitectum isolates. In all experiments, the tested F. semitectum isolates did not differ in relation to disease severity, but, the cantaloupe melon showed higher levels of severity. No lesions appeared on fruits that lacked wounds, and increasing wound age reduced lesion severity. Melons that were inoculated with F. semitectum developed symptoms regardless of the presence or absence of a moist chamber at the post-inoculation stage, but the lesions were larger under moist chamber conditions. There were no symptoms at 10°C, but a temperature increase from 15 to 25°C resulted in a disease severity increase. The largest lesions were observed when both melon types were inoculated with a concentration of 106 conidia mL-1, but even the lowest concentration (101 conidia mL-1 was sufficient for causing lesions. Injury reduction and/or the acceleration of melon healing, as well as environmental variable control and a reduction of inoculum sources, are essential to reducing corky dry rot severity.

  17. Effect of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sabato, Susy F., E-mail: adriana.fabbri@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos

    2013-07-01

    The access to nutritious food is an essential dimension of food meal. High potential for fresh-cut industry exists and ready-to-eat fruit market has grown rapidly in recent years due to the health benefits associated. Although there is many concerns to food safety other parameters like texture, taste, color and sensory acceptance are fundamental principles of acceptance to any food. Actually the use of instrumental measurements has proven to be a major predictor of sensory responses. According to many authors, the addition of different techniques should always be considered to provide additional information of the sensory aspects. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of irradiation on color of minimally processed melon and papaya. The fruits were purchased in a market of Sao Paulo, at the same point of ripeness and sent to the IPEN/CNEN-SP. The fruits were sanitized and manually cut into cubes of approximately 2 x 2 cm with the aid of stainless steel knives and packed in polyethylene bags. Melons and papaya were irradiated in a Multipurpose Gamma Source (IPEN - Sao Paulo - Brazil) and were divided in six groups for color analysis: Control; 0.5 kGy; 1.0 kGy, 1.5kGy, 2.0 kGy and 3.0kGy. After the treatment, the MP fruits were kept in a refrigerator at 4 deg C ± 1 deg C until the end of the analysis. The color of the samples was determined using a Minolta colorimeter CR-400 Chromameter. The parameters L{sup *}, a{sup *} and b{sup *} were evaluated. The results were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance One-Dimensional Analysis of Variance (One-Way-ANOVA) followed by Tukey test. All statistical analysis was performed using the program Graph Pad Prism 5 and adopting a significance level of 5 % (p<0.05), expressed as the mean results ± standard deviation. Samples of papaya and melons showed no statistical difference for the L{sup *} parameter of any dose despite the tendency to darkening observed for the group of 3.0 kGy. This

  18. Development of transport technique by chilling for melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptela: Dephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanahara, A.; Kirihara, S.; Kakinohana, H.

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of chilling on mass-reared melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae COQ., groups of adult flies were exposed to 3, 0.5, -2.2 and -3.5°C for 6, 12, 24 and 48h. The recovery and longevity of adult chilled for less than 24h at about 0.5°C was not adversely affected. A special container for chilled flies, which was able to keep the temperature below 10°C for 4h, was designed for their long-distance transport. The longevities of flies using aerial distribution by helicopter and hand release on the ground using the chilled transport container were compared with direct release from an emergence box without chilling at Miyagi Island in Okinawa Prefecture. There were no significant differences in longevity between the three release methods

  19. Mass rearing of the melon fly in Okinawa, Japan - Special reference to quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishii, Masaaki; Kakinohana, Hiroyuki

    2000-01-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), had been completely eradicated from Okinawa, Japan in 1993 (Yamagishi et al. 1993, Kakinohana 1994, Kuba et al. 1996). Following the expansion of target areas during the eradication campaign, the number of flies produced was increased from 5 million to 280 million per week. In the process of the eradication project, the mass reared strains had been replaced three times with new strains. The aim of this paper is to show the changes in various traits of the third strain that were regularly monitored in the factory. First, unintentional and intentional artificial selections to which the strain was exposed are mentioned. Second, the changes in the monitored traits are shown, and finally, the relation between selection and the response to selection is discussed

  20. Optical sensing method for screening disease in melon seeds by using optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changho; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Kim, Jeong-Yeon; Jung, Hee-Young; Kim, Jeehyun

    2011-01-01

    We report a noble optical sensing method to diagnose seed abnormalities using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Melon seeds infected with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) were scanned by OCT. The cross-sectional sensed area of the abnormal seeds showed an additional subsurface layer under the surface which is not found in normal seeds. The presence of CGMMV in the sample was examined by a blind test (n = 140) and compared by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The abnormal layers (n = 40) were quantitatively investigated using A-scan sensing analysis and statistical method. By utilizing 3D OCT image reconstruction, we confirmed the distinctive layers on the whole seeds. These results show that OCT with the proposed data processing method can systemically pick up morphological modification induced by viral infection in seeds, and, furthermore, OCT can play an important role in automatic screening of viral infections in seeds.

  1. Endogenous antioxidant defense induction by melon superoxide dismutase reduces cardiac hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillon, Julie; Rugale, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Max; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Lacan, Dominique; Jover, Bernard

    2014-08-01

    We assessed the influence of SODB, a melon superoxide dismutase (SOD), on left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in SHR. SODB (4 or 40U SOD) was given orally for 4 or 28 days to SHR. For each treatment period, LV weight index (LVWI) and cardiomyocytes size were measured. SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase expressions, and LV production and presence of superoxide anion were determined. Pro-inflammatory markers were also measured. SODB reduced LVWI and cardiomyocytes size after 4 or 28 days. Cardiac SOD and GPx increased by 30-40% with SODB. The presence but not production of superoxide anion was significantly reduced by SODB. No effect of SODB was detected on inflammatory status in any group. The beneficial effect of SODB on cardiac hypertrophy seems to be related to the stimulation of endogenous antioxidant defense, suggesting that SODB may be of interest as a dietary supplementation during conventional antihypertensive therapy.

  2. Anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon): a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Lawrence; Birtwhistle, Richard; Kotecha, Jyoti; Hannah, Susan; Cuthbertson, Sharon

    2009-12-01

    It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. Momordica charantia (bitter melon) is a popular fruit used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present article reviews the clinical data regarding the anti-diabetic potentials of M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects.

  3. 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Induced Photodynamic Damage of the Photosynthetic Electron Transport Chain of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Cotyledons 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Baishnab Charan; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    1991-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv Poinsette) plants were sprayed with 20 millimolar 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and then incubated in dark for 14 hours. Upon transfer to sunlight (≃800 watts per square meter) the plants died after 5 hours of exposure due to photosensitization reaction of metalloporphyrins. Due to the photodynamic damage, photosystem II (PSII), photosystem I (PSI), and whole chain reactions were impaired. PSII activity was more susceptible to photodynamic damage than PSI. The variable fluorescence was significantly reduced in ALA-treated plants within 1 hour of exposure to sunlight. At low temperature (77°K), the PSI fluorescence peak height (F734) was drastically reduced and blue shifted by 6 nanometers. The photodynamic damage was irreversible; rather, it continued upon dark incubation of ALA-treated cucumber plants exposed to sunlight for 15 minutes. In the latter experiment, continued production of malondialdehyde during dark treatment suggests the degradation of unsaturated membrane lipids. PMID:16668252

  4. Anti diabetic effect of Momordica charantia (bitter melone on alloxan induced diabetic rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakaiah Vangoori, Mishra SS, Ambudas B, Ramesh P, Meghavani G, Deepika K, Prathibha A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the anti diabetic effect of the bitter melon on Alloxan induced diabetes in experimental animals (rabbits. Materials and Methods: the alcohol extract of whole fruit was tested for its efficacy in Alloxan (150mg/kg induced diabetic rabbit. The diabetic rabbits were divided into 5groups. Group I (control received 2% gumacasia, groupie (positive control received standard drug Metformin (62.5mg+2%GA, group III, IV, V (T1 T2 T3 were treated orally with a daily dose of 0.5(gm 1gm, 1.5gm respectively for 35 days, for all diabetic rabbits after giving TEST,NC,PC preparations, the blood samples were collected and determined the blood glucose level 0,1,3,24hrs intervals. 0hr reading is before drug giving and remaining 3 readings after drugs giving. 24th her reading is considered as 0hr reading for the next day. Results: administration of alcohol of an extract of bitter melon produced a dose dependent decrease in blood glucose levels in Alloxan induced rabbits. There was a significant fall in blood sugar level in High dose (1.5GM/kg in comparison to low dose (0.5gm/kg and median dose (1gm/kg shown by LSD test. This is comparable to the effect of Metformin. Conclusion: the results of this study show that chronic oral administration of an extract of Momordica charantia fruit at an appropriate dosage may be good alternative anti diabetic agent.

  5. Genetic divergence among accessions of melon from traditional agriculture of the Brazilian Northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, F A S; Torres Filho, J; Nunes, G H S; Queiróz, M A; Bordallo, P N; Buso, G S C; Ferreira, M A; Costa, Z P; Bezerra Neto, F

    2013-12-06

    The genetic divergence of 38 melon accessions from traditional agriculture of the Brazilian Northeast and three commercial hybrids were evaluated using fruit descriptors and microsatellite markers. The melon germplasm belongs to the botanic varieties cantalupensis (19), momordica (7), conomon (4), and inodorus (3), and to eight genotypes that were identified only at the species level. The fruit descriptors evaluated were: number of fruits per plant (NPF), fruit mass (FM; kg), fruit longitudinal diameter (LD; cm), fruit transversal diameter (TD; cm), shape index based on the LD/TD ratio, flesh pulp thickness, cavity thickness (CT; cm), firmness fruit pulp (N), and soluble solids (SS; °Brix). The results showed high variability for all descriptors, especially for NPF, LD, and FM. The grouping analysis based on fruit descriptors produced eight groups without taxonomic criteria. The LD (22.52%), NPF (19.70%), CT (16.13%), and SS (9.57%) characteristics were the descriptors that contributed the most to genotype dissimilarity. The 17 simple sequence repeat polymorphic markers amplified 41 alleles with an average of 2.41 alleles and three genotypes per locus. Some markers presented a high frequency for the main allele. The genetic diversity ranged from 0.07 to 0.60, the observed heterozygosity had very low values, and the mean polymorphism information content was 0.32. Molecular genetic similarity analyses clustered the accessions in 13 groups, also not following taxonomic ranks. There was no association between morphoagronomic and molecular groupings. In conclusion, there was great variability among the accessions and among and within botanic groups.

  6. CROSS-TOLERANCE MECHANISM INDUCTION IN MELON SEEDS BY PRIMING PRIOR DRYING

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    Jean Marcel Sousa Lira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The loss of benefits after re-drying is one of the drawbacks of the seed priming technique. Different types of stresses have been used before re-drying to preserve the priming benefits. This process may be seen as promoting cross tolerance to increase the defense mechanisms that prevent loss of viability in seeds primed after drying. We tested the effect of some stresses to induce cross-tolerance and different drying conditions with the aim of maintaining priming benefits in melon seeds. The seeds were primed in an aerated KNO3 solution (0.35M, -1.7MPa, 25 °C, in the dark for six days. The primed seeds were then submitted to slow drying, fast drying, cold shock + slow drying, cold shock + fast drying, heat shock + slow drying, heat shock + fast drying, PEG + slow drying, PEG + fast drying, ABA + slow drying, ABA + fast drying and no drying (planted directly after priming. We evaluated antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT and APX, germinability, mean time of germination (MTG and mean rate of germination (MRG. A completely randomized design was used with three repetitions of 50 seeds in each treatment. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and means were compared by the Scott-Knott test (p ≤ 0.05. ABA increased SOD activity after drying and CAT activity was reduced by priming. APX activity was not observed. The stress submission prior to re-drying improved the MRG and reduced MTG. Therefore, the induction of the cross-tolerance mechanism could be effective to maintain priming benefits in melon seeds.

  7. Carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from legumes based rotations under conventional and organic practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Navarro, Virginia; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Fernández, Juan A.

    2017-04-01

    In this study we assessed the effect of two different rotations based on winter (faba bean) or summer (cowpea) legumes on the direct emissions of CO2 and CH4. Faba bean was rotated with the summer melon crop (Cucumis melo) while cowpea was rotated with the winter broccoli crop (Brassica oleracea). We also assessed if different legume cultivars and management practices (conventional and organic) significantly influenced gas emissions. The study was randomly designed in blocks with four replications, in plots of 10 m2, during two complete cycles. Gas samples were taken in different times (0, 30 and 60 minutes) once a week using the static gas chamber technique for each crop. Results showed that cumulative CO2 emissions in broccoli decreased after the rotation with both cowpea cultivars under conventional management practices. Faba bean cultivars and management practices had no influence on cumulative CO2 emissions in melon crop. Cumulative CH4 emissions in broccoli crop were lowest after the rotation with Grey-eyed pea than Black-eyed pea cultivar, under both management practices. However, faba bean cultivars and management practices had no influence on cumulative CH4 emissions in melon crop. Cumulative CH4 emissions in melon crop were highest than in the rest of crops. Cowpea cultivar and management practice influenced cumulative CH4 and CO2 emissions of broccoli crop, respectively. Faba bean cultivar and management practice had no effect on cumulative CH4 and CO2 emissions of melon crop. Acknowledgements: This research was financed by the FP7 European Project Eurolegume (FP7-KBBE-613781).

  8. Genome-wide characterization of simple sequence repeats in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Philipp W

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Until very recently, cucumber genetic and genomic resources, especially molecular markers, have been very limited, impeding progress of cucumber breeding efforts. Microsatellites are short tandemly repeated DNA sequences, which are frequently favored as genetic markers due to their high level of polymorphism and codominant inheritance. Data from previously characterized genomes has shown that these repeats vary in frequency, motif sequence, and genomic location across taxa. During the last year, the genomes of two cucumber genotypes were sequenced including the Chinese fresh market type inbred line '9930' and the North American pickling type inbred line 'Gy14'. These sequences provide a powerful tool for developing markers in a large scale. In this study, we surveyed and characterized the distribution and frequency of perfect microsatellites in 203 Mbp assembled Gy14 DNA sequences, representing 55% of its nuclear genome, and in cucumber EST sequences. Similar analyses were performed in genomic and EST data from seven other plant species, and the results were compared with those of cucumber. Results A total of 112,073 perfect repeats were detected in the Gy14 cucumber genome sequence, accounting for 0.9% of the assembled Gy14 genome, with an overall density of 551.9 SSRs/Mbp. While tetranucleotides were the most frequent microsatellites in genomic DNA sequence, dinucleotide repeats, which had more repeat units than any other SSR type, had the highest cumulative sequence length. Coding regions (ESTs of the cucumber genome had fewer microsatellites compared to its genomic sequence, with trinucleotides predominating in EST sequences. AAG was the most frequent repeat in cucumber ESTs. Overall, AT-rich motifs prevailed in both genomic and EST data. Compared to the other species examined, cucumber genomic sequence had the highest density of SSRs (although

  9. O Melos e Harmonia Acústica (1988 de César Guerra-Peixe, Koellreutter e Hindemith: similaridades e princípios básicos The Melos e Harmonia Acústica (1988 of César Guerra-Peixe, Koellreutter and Hindemith: basic principles and similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Hartmann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O Melos e Harmonia Acústica de César GUERRA-PEIXE (1988 apresenta um compêndio da atividade didática deste compositor expresso em forma de apostila. O presente trabalho busca traçar as possíveis influências comparando-o ao Caderno de Estudos com Koellreutter do próprio GUERRA-PEIXE (1944 e ao The Craft of Musical Composition de Paul HINDEMITH (1937, visando compreender melhor os pressupostos técnicos e teóricos.The Melos e Harmonia Acústica by César GUERRA-PEIXE (1988, presented a survey of the didactical activity of this composer expressed in a textbook form. This research attempts to trace possible influences, comparing it to The Craft of Musical Composition by Paul HINDEMITH (1937 and Caderno de Estudos com Koellreutter by GUERRA-PEIXE (1944 in order to better understand the technical and theoretical approaches embodied in it.

  10. Fenugreek seeds extracts as growth regulatory and feeding inhibitor for the African Melon Lady Bird Beetle: Henosepilachna elaterii (Rossi)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelbagi, A. O.; Mahmoud, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of the extracts of fenugreek seeds on feeling and development of the African melon ladybird beetle, Henosepilachna elaterii. (Rossi). Seeds of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graceum) were extracted by distilled water and organic solvents (chloroform, acetone and ethanol), and the extracts were tested against the African melon ladybird beetle under laboratory conditions. Both aqueous and organic extracts showed significant growth regulatory activities, mainly prolonging the larval duration. The effect was clear in late in stars. The organic extracts showed strong feeding inhibitory activity against the fourth larval in star, where the amounts of food consumed inversely related to dose. The effects induced by acetone and ethanol extracts were greater than chloroform extract. Phyto chemical groups present in various fractions were identified. Various aspects of efficacy against the test insect are discussed.(Author)

  11. Translocation-based genetic sexing system to enhance the sterile insect technique against the melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCombs, S.D.; Lee, S.G.; Saul, S.H.

    1993-01-01

    The autosomal recessive bubble wing (bw) mutant was used to construct a translocation-based genetic sex sorting system in the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett). The translocation stock has females with the bubble wing phenotype that are unable to fly, but the males are wild-type and fly normally. The bubble wing translocation strain has lower egg hatch, larval viability, and eclosion rates than the wild-type strain. Expression of the bubble wing trait is temperature-dependent, with high expression of the trait in 92% of adults at 23°C but in only 15% of adults at 28°C. This translocation-based sex sorting system is the only method available for automatic separation of male and female melon flies in sterile insect release programs

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF FRUIT FLY (Bactrocera spp) IN CHILI, BITTER MELON, GUAVA AND GUAVA BOL IN THE AMBON CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Tariyani; Patty, John Alfred; Siahaya, Victor George

    2013-01-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are important pests of horticultural crops with the intensity of their attacks can achieve 100%. The control by quarantine regulations and the use of attractants will be more successful when the information about the species that attack horticultural crops has been known clearly. This study aimed to identify the species of fruit fly that attack pepper (Capsicum annum), bitter melon, guava and guava bol and to know the number and sex ratio of fruit fly pests....

  13. Application of Cinnamon oil Nanoemulsion to Control Foodborne Bacteria such as Listeria Sp. and Salmonella Sp. On Melons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Sumit Kumar

    Listeria and Salmonella related recalls and outbreaks are of major concern to the melon industry. Cinnamon oil has shown its usefulness in food treatment due to strong antifungal, antiviral, and antibacterial activities. However, its applications are limited due to poor solubility of cinnamon oil in water. Utilization of Cinnamon oil nanoemulsion may offer effective antimicrobial washing treatment to melon industry. The purpose of this study was to test the antimicrobial efficacy of cinnamon oil nanoemulsion on melons against major food borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica. Different formulations of cinnamon oil nanoemulsion were made by ultrasonication using Tween 80 as an emulsifier. Nanoemulsion exhibiting the smallest oil droplets was applied. Oil droplets were characterized for particle size by dynamic light scattering. Microbroth dilution assay was performed on three strains each of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica to find out the antimicrobial efficacy of cinnamon oil nanoemulsion. Honeydew and cantaloupe were artificially inoculated with the strains mentioned above followed by treatment in nanoemulsion (control, 0.1%, 0.25%, and 0.5%) for one minute. Samples were dried and enumerated after one hour of treatment on selective media (PALCAM and XLD agar). The average diameter of nanoemulsion was 9.63+/-0.3nm. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cinnamon oil nanoemulsion for both Listeria and Salmonella strains was 0.078% v/v and 0.039% v/v, respectively and the minimum bactericidal concentration was 0.078125% v/v for both. Compared to the water control, 0.5% nanoemulsion showed up to 7.7 and 5.5 log CFU/gm reductions in L. monocytogenes and S. enterica, respectively. The data suggests that cinnamon oil nanoemulsion can be used as an effective natural microbial control agent for melons. Keywords: Nanoemulsion, ultrasonication, antimicrobial.

  14. Phytotoxicity of Alachlor, Bromacil and Diuron as single or mixed herbicides applied to wheat, melon, and molokhia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nahhal, Yasser; Hamdona, Nisreen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the phytotoxicity of herbicides applied singly or as mixtures to different crops under greenhouse conditions. Growth inhibition of the crops was taken as an indicator of phytotoxicity. Phytotoxicity of mixtures was estimated by calculating EC50 value in toxic units. EC50 (mg/kg soil) of Alachlor, Bromacil and/or Diuron were: 11.37, 4.77, 1.64, respectively, on melon; 0.11, 0.08, 0.24, respectively, on molokhia, and 3.91, 3.08, 1.83, respectively, on wheat. EC50 values of binary mixture tests of (Alachlor + Bromacil), (Alachlor + Diuron), and (Bromacil + Diuron) were 12.21, 5.84, 10.22 on melon, 0.982, 925.4, 38.1 on molokhia, and 0.673, 1.34, 0.644 on wheat. Tertiary mixture tests showed EC50 values (TU/kg soil) of (Alachlor + Bromacil + Diuron) was 633.9 on melon, 3.02 on molokhia and 32.174 on wheat. Diuron was more toxic than Alachlor and Bromacil to the tested crops based on individual tests. Molokhia was the most sensitive crop to herbicides. Binary mixtures showed a synergistic effect as compared to the tertiary mixtures.

  15. Performance Evaluation Of Africa Elemi Melon And Africa Locust Bean Oil As Potential Quenchants For Medium Carbon Steel

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    C. S. Ibeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative and comparative study was carried out on some locally sourced oils melon oil Africa elemi oil and Africa locust bean oil to evaluate suitability as substitute quenching media to mineral-based oil. The cooling ability of the oils was investigated using AISI 1034 medium carbon steel. The effect of heat transfer coefficient on quench severity mechanical properties of the quenched specimens were investigated in the course of the study. Results showed that the peak rate of heat extraction of melon oil Africa locust bean and Africa elemi oil were higher than that of mineral oil. Higher heat transfer coefficient of 1463 1023 Wm2k were obtained for melon oil and Africa locust bean Africa elemi and SAE 40 oil have heat transfer coefficient of 982 and 469 Wm2k respectively. The selected oils can be used as quenchants for medium carbon steel since the oils exhibits better cooling properties and mechanical properties than mineral-based oil.

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis of gamma-aminobutyric acid responses in hypoxia-treated and untreated melon roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Longquan; Wu, Xiaolei; Tian, Zhen; Jia, Kaizhi; Pan, Yinghong; Li, Jingrui; Gao, Hongbo

    2015-08-01

    Hypoxia is one of the main environmental stresses that accounts for decreasing crop yield. To further investigate the mechanisms whereby exogenous GABA alleviates hypoxia injury to melon seedlings, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed using roots subjected to normal aeration and hypoxia conditions with or without GABA (5mM). The results indicated that protein spots on gels after hypoxia and hypoxia+GABA treatment were significantly changed. Three "matched sets" were analyzed from four treatments, and 13 protein spots with large significant differences in expression were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Exogenous GABA treatment enhanced the expression of protein in cytosolic phosphoglycerate kinase 1, exaA2 gene product, dnaJ and myb-like DNA-binding domain-containing proteins, as well as elongation factor-1 alpha and hypothetical proteins in hypoxia-induced roots. However, the hypoxia+GABA treated roots had a significantly lower expression of proteins including malate dehydrogenase, nucleoside diphosphate kinase, disease resistance-like protein, disulfide isomerase, actin, ferrodoxin NADP oxidoreductase, glutathione transferase, netting associated peroxidase. This paper describes the effect of GABA on melon plants under hypoxia-induced stress using proteomics, and supports the alleviating function of GABA in melon plants grown under hypoxic conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship between the nutrition status and sensory characteristics of melon fertilized with wine-distillery waste compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, María Isabel; Sánchez-Palomo, Eva; González, Miguel Angel; Castellanos, Maria Teresa; Villena, Raquel; Cartagena, Maria Carmen; Ribas, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    The interest in developing sustainable agriculture is becoming more important day by day. A large quantity of wastes from the wine and distillery industry are produced and constitute a serious problem not only environmental but also economic. The use of exhausted grape marc compost as organic amendment is a management option of the fertility of soils. On the other hand, consumers are increasingly concerned about the type, quality and origin of food production. Flavor and aroma are most often the true indicators of shelf-life from the consumer's point of view. The aim of this study was to relate the nutritional status of melon fertilized with exhausted grape marc compost with the sensory profile of fresh-cut fruits. A field experiment was established with three doses of compost (1, 2 and 3 kg per linear meter) and a control. Melons were harvested at maturity and the sensory evaluation was carried out by an expert panel of melon tasters to describe odour, flavour and texture. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentration was determined in the fruits to calculate nutrient absorption. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01

  18. Melon Transcriptome Characterization: Simple Sequence Repeats and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Discovery for High Throughput Genotyping across the Species

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    José Miguel Blanca

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Melon ( L. ranks among the highest-valued fruit crops worldwide. Some genomic tools are available for this crop, including a Sanger transcriptome. We report the generation of 689,054 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs from two 454 sequencing runs, using normalized and nonnormalized complementary DNA (cDNA libraries prepared from four genotypes belonging to the two subspecies and the main commercial types. 454 ESTs were combined with the Sanger available ESTs and de novo assembled into 53,252 unigenes. Over 63% of the unigenes were functionally annotated with Gene Ontology (GO terms and 21% had known orthologs of (L. Heynh. Annotation distribution followed similar tendencies than that reported for , suggesting that the dataset represents a fairly complete melon transcriptome. Furthermore, we identified a set of 3298 unigenes with microsatellite motifs and 14,417 sequences with single nucleotide variants of which 11,655 single nucleotide polymorphism met criteria for use with high-throughput genotyping platforms, and 453 could be detected as cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS. A set of markers were validated, 90% of them being polymorphic in a number of variable accessions. This transcriptome provides an invaluable new tool for biological research, more so when it includes transcripts not described previously. It is being used for genome annotation and has provided a large collection of markers that will allow speeding up the process of breeding new melon varieties.

  19. Reduction of Fusarium rot and maintenance of fruit quality in melon using eco-friendly hot water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yuan; Droby, Samir; Zhang, Danfeng; Wang, Wenjie; Liu, Yongsheng

    2014-12-01

    Significant losses in harvested fruit can be directly attributable to decay fungi and quality deterioration. Hot water treatment (HWT) has been demonstrated to be an effective and economic environment-friendly approach for managing postharvest decay and maintaining fruit quality. In this study, the effects of HWT (45 °C for 10, 15, 20, and 25 min) on in vitro growth of Fusarium oxysporum, in vivo Fusarium rot, and natural decay of melon were investigated. HWT inhibited spore germination and germ tube elongation of F. oxysporum. Protein impairment and ATP consumption triggered by HWT contributed to the inhibitory effect. Results of in vivo studies showed that HWT effectively controlled Fusarium rot and natural decay of melon. Correspondingly, HWT induced a significant increase in content of total phenolic compounds and lignin of melon. These findings indicate that the effects of HWT on Fusarium rot may be associated with the direct fungal inhibition and the elicitation of defense responses in fruit. Importantly, HWT used in this study had beneficial effects on fruit quality as well. HWT may represent an effective non-chemical approach for management of postharvest Fusarium rot.

  20. Pepino japonês (Cucumis sativus L. submetido ao tratamento com fécula de mandioca Japonese cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. submitted of the treatment with cassava starch film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelen Cristina dos Reis

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a qualidade e a vida útil do pepino (Cucumis sativus L., utilizando recobrimento com película de fécula de mandioca. Após seleção, amostras de pepino japonês foram mergulhadas em suspensões de fécula de mandioca a 0, 2, 3 e 4%, secos ao ar e armazenados em câmara fria a 5ºC e 95% de UR por 8 dias. As análises realizadas foram perda de massa, pH, sólidos solúveis (SS , acidez titulável (AT, Cor L*a*b e firmeza. O delineamento utilizado foi o DIC com 3 repetições, com os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 4 x 5. O valor encontrado para firmeza nas amostras tratadas com película a 4% foram menores em comparação aos outros tratamentos, isto, provavelmente se deve à plasticidade do tecido que estas amostras apresentaram. A película reduziu significativamente a perda de massa das amostras mantidas sob refrigeração. A aplicação de película de fécula de mandioca na concentração mais elevada (4%, proporcionou ao pepino um aspecto melhor de conservação, tornando o produto mais atraente.This work was made to evaluate the properties and postharvest life of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. coated with cassava starch film. After the selection the fruits were dipped in suspensions 0, 2, 3 and 4% starch, dried naturally and stored in chamber cold (5ºC ± 1ºC and 90% ± 5% HR during 8 days and the analyses were done in the time zero and in intervals of 2 days. The analyses done were loss mass, titratable acidity (TA, pH, soluble solids (SS, color L*a*b and firmness. The test was conducted in completely randomized design, with three repetitions, with the treatments disposed in factory layout 4x5. The value found for firmness in the samples treated with biofilm at 4% was smaller in comparison to the other treatments, this, is probably due to the plasticity of the tissue that these samples presented. The film reduced the loss of mass of the samples maintained under refrigeration

  1. Assessment of Attractiveness of Plants as Roosting Sites for the Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T.; Vargas, Roger I.

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter (“roost”). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some crop species, such as papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), suggests that bait spray applications to crop borders could also help in suppression of B. dorsalis populations. In order to develop improved recommendations for application of bait sprays to border plants for suppression of melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations, the relative attractiveness of a range of plant species, in a vegetative (non-flowering) stage, was tested to wild melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations established in a papaya orchard in Hawaii. A total of 20 plant species were evaluated, divided into four categories: 1) border plants, including corn, Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae), windbreaks and broad-leaved ornamentals, 7 species; 2) weed plants commonly found in agricultural fields in Hawaii, 6 species; 3) host crop plants, 1 species- zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L. (Violales: Curcurbitaceae), and 4) locally grown fruit trees, 6 species. Plants were established in pots and placed in an open field, in clusters encircling protein bait traps, 20 m away from the papaya orchard. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), panax, Polyscias guilfoylei (Bull) Bailey (Apiales: Araliaceae), tiger's claw, Erythnna variegata L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) were identified as preferred roosting hosts for the melon fly, and tiger's claw, panax, castor bean, Canada cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (Asterales: Asteraceae

  2. Assessment of attractiveness of plants as roosting sites for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T; Vargas, Roger I

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter ("roost"). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some crop species, such as papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), suggests that bait spray applications to crop borders could also help in suppression of B. dorsalis populations. In order to develop improved recommendations for application of bait sprays to border plants for suppression of melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations, the relative attractiveness of a range of plant species, in a vegetative (non-flowering) stage, was tested to wild melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations established in a papaya orchard in Hawaii. A total of 20 plant species were evaluated, divided into four categories: 1) border plants, including corn, Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae), windbreaks and broad-leaved ornamentals, 7 species; 2) weed plants commonly found in agricultural fields in Hawaii, 6 species; 3) host crop plants, 1 species- zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L. (Violales: Curcurbitaceae), and 4) locally grown fruit trees, 6 species. Plants were established in pots and placed in an open field, in clusters encircling protein bait traps, 20 m away from the papaya orchard. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), panax, Polyscias guilfoylei (Bull) Bailey (Apiales: Araliaceae), tiger's claw, Erythnna variegata L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) were identified as preferred roosting hosts for the melon fly, and tiger's claw, panax, castor bean, Canada cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), Brazilian

  3. Macronutrient composition of three cucurbit species cultivated for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .) Matsum. & Nakai., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin, and Cucumis melo var. agrestis L.] largely cultivated in Côte d'Ivoire and consumed as sauce thickeners were analyzed for their proximate composition and compared to a local landrace of ...

  4. Momordica charantia (bitter melon attenuates high-fat diet-associated oxidative stress and neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feher Domonkos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising epidemic of obesity is associated with cognitive decline and is considered as one of the major risk factors for neurodegenerative diseases. Neuroinflammation is a critical component in the progression of several neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Increased metabolic flux to the brain during overnutrition and obesity can orchestrate stress response, blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption, recruitment of inflammatory immune cells from peripheral blood and microglial cells activation leading to neuroinflammation. The lack of an effective treatment for obesity-associated brain dysfunction may have far-reaching public health ramifications, urgently necessitating the identification of appropriate preventive and therapeutic strategies. The objective of our study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon on high-fat diet (HFD-associated BBB disruption, stress and neuroinflammatory cytokines. Methods C57BL/6 female mice were fed HFD with and without bitter melon (BM for 16 weeks. BBB disruption was analyzed using Evans blue dye. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS perfused brains were analyzed for neuroinflammatory markers such as interleukin-22 (IL-22, IL-17R, IL-16, NF-κB1, and glial cells activation markers such as Iba1, CD11b, GFAP and S100β. Additionally, antioxidant enzymes, ER-stress proteins, and stress-resistant transcription factors, sirtuin 1 (Sirt1 and forkhead box class O transcription factor (FoxO were analyzed using microarray, quantitative real-time RT-PCR, western immunoblotting and enzymatic assays. Systemic inflammation was analyzed using cytokine antibody array. Results BM ameliorated HFD-associated changes in BBB permeability as evident by reduced leakage of Evans blue dye. HFD-induced glial cells activation and expression of neuroinflammatory markers such as NF-κB1, IL-16, IL-22 as well as IL-17R were normalized in the brains of mice supplemented with BM

  5. Development and validation of a mathematical model for growth of pathogens in cut melons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; Friedrich, Loretta M; Danyluk, Michelle D; Harris, Linda J; Schaffner, Donald W

    2013-06-01

    Many outbreaks of foodborne illness associated with the consumption of fresh-cut melons have been reported. The objective of our research was to develop a mathematical model that predicts the growth rate of Salmonella on fresh-cut cantaloupe over a range of storage temperatures and to validate that model by using Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on cantaloupe, honeydew, and watermelon, using both new data and data from the published studies. The growth of Salmonella on honeydew and watermelon and E. coli O157:H7 on cantaloupe, honeydew, and watermelon was monitored at temperatures of 4 to 25°C. The Ratkowsky (or square-root model) was used to describe Salmonella growth on cantaloupe as a function of storage temperature. Our results show that the levels of Salmonella on fresh-cut cantaloupe with an initial load of 3 log CFU/g can reach over 7 log CFU/g at 25°C within 24 h. No growth was observed at 4°C. A linear correlation was observed between the square root of Salmonella growth rate and temperature, such that √growth rate = 0.026 × (T - 5.613), R(2) = 0.9779. The model was generally suitable for predicting the growth of both Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 on cantaloupe, honeydew, and watermelon, for both new data and data from the published literature. When compared with existing models for growth of Salmonella, the new model predicts a theoretic minimum growth temperature similar to the ComBase Predictive Models and Pathogen Modeling Program models but lower than other food-specific models. The ComBase Prediction Models results are very similar to the model developed in this study. Our research confirms that Salmonella can grow quickly and reach high concentrations when cut cantaloupe is stored at ambient temperatures, without visual signs of spoilage. Our model provides a fast and cost-effective method to estimate the effects of storage temperature on fresh-cut melon safety and could also be used in subsequent quantitative microbial risk

  6. Optimising the use of plastic protective covers in field grown melon on a farm scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Benincasa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This in-farm research study was aimed at evaluating new strategies in the use of plastic protective covers in field grown melon in order to expand the production period and reduce costs. Four experiments were set up in 2010 and repeated in 2011 in Central Italy, in an inland region with a temperate climate. We evaluated: i the use of high tunnels for two growing cycles per year, i.e. for very early and very late production (target transplanting in late winter and mid-summer, respectively, for either one year or two consecutive years, and the use of grafted plants in the second year as an alternative to normal plants to prevent soil born diseases; ii the use of ethylene-vinyl-acetate film low tunnels alone or combined with non-woven floating row covers for transplanting in early spring; iii the use of non-woven low tunnels for transplanting in mid-spring; iv the use of biodegradable and conventional polyethylene ground mulch films, both in the presence of nonwoven low tunnels. As far as the non-woven cover is concerned, we adopted the strategy of removing later with respect to usual practices, i.e. ten days after the onset of first pistillate flowers. This was based on the evidence that covers hamper honeybee circulation, which may be exploited on a farm-scale to delay pollination until an adequate number of pistillate flowers set, in order to shorten scaled fruit ripening and harvest. Our results demonstrate that high tunnels may be used for at least four consecutive melon growing cycles (early and late productions for two years with good off-season yields and no appreciable drawbacks in terms of disease scale-up, irrespective of the use of normal or grafted plants. The non-woven low tunnel was effective in hampering honeybee circulation and its delayed removal allowed the harvest period to be halved, a more uniform fruit size to be obtained, and labour productivity of harvest to be increased. This had positive implications on the management of

  7. Mining the bitter melon (momordica charantia l.) seed transcriptome by 454 analysis of non-normalized and normalized cDNA populations for conjugated fatty acid metabolism-related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) produce high levels of eleostearic acid, an unusual conjugated fatty acid with industrial value. Deep sequencing of non-normalized and normalized cDNAs from developing bitter melon seeds was conducted to uncover key genes required for biotechnological tran...

  8. Pharmacological evaluation of ameliorative effect of aqueous extract of Cucumis sativus L. fruit formulation on wound healing in Wistar rats

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    Mithun Vishwanath K Patil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of present investigation was to formulate and evaluate the ameliorative effect of aqueous extract of Cucumis sativus L. fruit cream formulation on experimentally induced wounds in rats. Materials and Methods: The cream was formulated using soft white paraffin base containing 2.5%, 5%, and 10% w/w of aqueous extract of of Cucumis sativus L. fruit. Excision wounds of size 300 mm 2 and 2 mm depth were used for the study of rate of contraction of wound and epithelization. All the three formulations were evaluated for various pharmaceutical parameters such as pH, viscosity, spreadability, and acute skin irritation study. Epithelialization period, wound contraction, scar width, and histopathological evaluation parameters were used for pharmacological evaluation of wound healing activity of the formulation. Statistical Analysis: All the results were expressed as mean±SEM. Data analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism 5.0 software (GraphPad, San Diego, CA, USA. Statistical comparisons were made between drug-treated groups and disease control animals. Data of disease activity index were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance; Dunnett′s multiple range test was applied for post hoc analysis, whereas data of wound area and percent wound contraction were analyzed using two-way repeated analysis of variance, Bonferroni′s multiple range test was applied for post hoc analysis. A value of P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Cream formulation of AECS when applied topically did not show any sign and symptoms of skin irritation. The treatment with aqueous extract of C. sativus fruit cream formulation (2.5%, 5%, and 10% w/w resulted in significance decrease (P<0.05, P<0.001, and P<0.001, respectively in wound area, epithelization period, and scar width, whereas rate of wound contraction significance increased (P<0.001 respectively when compared with control group animals. Conclusion: The present investigation

  9. Identification of the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips, Thrips palmi.

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    Sudhakar V S Akella

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips Thrips palmi, a major pest of vegetable and ornamental plants around the world. The species causes damage both through feeding activities and as a vector of tospoviruses, and is a threat to world trade and European horticulture. Improved methods of detecting and controlling this species are needed and the identification of an aggregation pheromone will contribute to this requirement. Bioassays with a Y-tube olfactometer showed that virgin female T. palmi were attracted to the odour of live males, but not to that of live females, and that mixed-age adults of both sexes were attracted to the odour of live males, indicating the presence of a male-produced aggregation pheromone. Examination of the headspace volatiles of adult male T. palmi revealed only one compound that was not found in adult females. It was identified by comparison of its mass spectrum and chromatographic details with those of similar compounds. This compound had a structure like that of the previously identified male-produced aggregation pheromone of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. The compound was synthesised and tested in eggplant crops infested with T. palmi in Japan. Significantly greater numbers of both males and females were attracted to traps baited with the putative aggregation pheromone compared to unbaited traps. The aggregation pheromone of T. palmi is thus identified as (R-lavandulyl 3-methyl-3-butenoate by spectroscopic, chromatographic and behavioural analysis.

  10. Identification of the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips, Thrips palmi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akella, Sudhakar V S; Kirk, William D J; Lu, Yao-bin; Murai, Tamotsu; Walters, Keith F A; Hamilton, James G C

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips Thrips palmi, a major pest of vegetable and ornamental plants around the world. The species causes damage both through feeding activities and as a vector of tospoviruses, and is a threat to world trade and European horticulture. Improved methods of detecting and controlling this species are needed and the identification of an aggregation pheromone will contribute to this requirement. Bioassays with a Y-tube olfactometer showed that virgin female T. palmi were attracted to the odour of live males, but not to that of live females, and that mixed-age adults of both sexes were attracted to the odour of live males, indicating the presence of a male-produced aggregation pheromone. Examination of the headspace volatiles of adult male T. palmi revealed only one compound that was not found in adult females. It was identified by comparison of its mass spectrum and chromatographic details with those of similar compounds. This compound had a structure like that of the previously identified male-produced aggregation pheromone of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. The compound was synthesised and tested in eggplant crops infested with T. palmi in Japan. Significantly greater numbers of both males and females were attracted to traps baited with the putative aggregation pheromone compared to unbaited traps. The aggregation pheromone of T. palmi is thus identified as (R)-lavandulyl 3-methyl-3-butenoate by spectroscopic, chromatographic and behavioural analysis.

  11. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) and its medicinal potency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Baby; Jini, D

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia), commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is also used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented in the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present review is an attempt to highlight the antidiabetic activity as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects on diabetes.

  12. Momordica charantia (bitter melon inhibits primary human adipocyte differentiation by modulating adipogenic genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerurkar Vivek R

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escalating trends of obesity and associated type 2 diabetes (T2D has prompted an increase in the use of alternative and complementary functional foods. Momordica charantia or bitter melon (BM that is traditionally used to treat diabetes and complications has been demonstrated to alleviate hyperglycemia as well as reduce adiposity in rodents. However, its effects on human adipocytes remain unknown. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of BM juice (BMJ on lipid accumulation and adipocyte differentiation transcription factors in primary human differentiating preadipocytes and adipocytes. Methods Commercially available cryopreserved primary human preadipocytes were treated with and without BMJ during and after differentiation. Cytotoxicity, lipid accumulation, and adipogenic genes mRNA expression was measured by commercial enzymatic assay kits and semi-quantitative RT-PCR (RT-PCR. Results Preadipocytes treated with varying concentrations of BMJ during differentiation demonstrated significant reduction in lipid content with a concomitant reduction in mRNA expression of adipocyte transcription factors such as, peroxisome proliferator-associated receptor γ (PPARγ and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c and adipocytokine, resistin. Similarly, adipocytes treated with BMJ for 48 h demonstrated reduced lipid content, perilipin mRNA expression, and increased lipolysis as measured by the release of glycerol. Conclusion Our data suggests that BMJ is a potent inhibitor of lipogenesis and stimulator of lipolysis activity in human adipocytes. BMJ may therefore prove to be an effective complementary or alternative therapy to reduce adipogenesis in humans.

  13. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon and its medicinal potency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baby Joseph

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia, commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is also used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented in the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present review is an attempt to highlight the antidiabetic activity as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects on diabetes.

  14. Eradication of melon flies (Dacus cucurbitae) of the Kume Island using sterile males under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahashi, Osamu

    1984-01-01

    On the assumption that there were approximately 250,000 normal melon flies (Dacus cucurbitae) in the Kume Island as of February 1975, sterile flies have been released into the field. A previous experiment undertaken in the Kudaka Island revealed that the number of sterile pupae (with 7 kR of irradiation) should be ten times larger than that of normal flies for obtaining satisfactory results. 2,500,000 or more pupae per week were required for the purpose of eradication in the Kume Island. Satisfactory results were not obtained because of the limited production of sterile flies (1,000,000 per week). Since a mass-production facility was established in Autumn 1975, the weekly release of 1,500,000 - 2,000,000 flies became possible. Since May 1976, 3,500,000 - 4,000,000 sterile flies began to be released weekly. As a result, the rate of hatchability of eggs decreased with increasing the proportion of sterile flies to normal flies. The number of female flies caught in monitor traps also suggested that there were few normal male flies. The incidence of injuried fruits of Melothria japonica Maxim. Okinawa began to decrease remarkably from May 1976. None of 156,000 fruits were injuried between October 1976 and September 1977. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Influence of hot water dip and gamma irradiation on postharvest fungal decay of Galia melons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkai-Golan, R.; Padova, R.; Ross, I.; Lapidot, M.; Copel, A.; Davidson, H.

    1993-01-01

    Dipping Galia melons in hot water at 52 deg C for 5 min or at 55 deg for 2 min resulted in 12-15% decay (caused by Alternaria alternata, Fusarium spp. and Trichothecium roseum) during prolonged storage (12 d at 6 deg plus 3 d at 18 deg ) compared with 75% decay in untreated fruit or 60% decay in cold-water-dipped fruit. Irradiation at 0.5 or 1 kGy had no significant effect on decay development. However, combination of heat treatment with a 0.5 kGy dose prevented fungal growth, resulting in 5% decay during storage. Combinations of heating with 1 kGy irradiation gave no improvement in anti-fungal effect over treatment with 0.5 kGy and sometimes resulted in a decreased suppressive effect. Reducing the duration of dipping at 55 deg from 2 to 0.5 min, applied alone or in combination with irradiation, considerably reduced the anti-fungal effect of the treatment. The effective combined treatment resulted in 12-15% of slight peel damage, but all the fruits were regarded as marketable. No differences in fruit firmness were recorded among the treatments

  16. Novel toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains against the melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishir, Md Asaduzzaman; Akter, Asma; Bodiuzzaman, Md; Hossain, M Aftab; Alam, Md Musfiqul; Khan, Shakil Ahmed; Khan, Shakila Nargis; Hoq, M Mozammel

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (melon fruit fly) is one of the most detrimental vegetable-damaging pests in Bangladesh. The toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been reported against a few genera of Bactrocera in addition to numerous other insect species. Bt strains, harbouring cry1A-type genes were, therefore, assayed in vivo against the 3(rd) instar larvae of B. cucurbitae in this study. The biotype-based prevalence of cry1 and cry1A genes was calculated to be 30.8% and 11.16%, respectively, of the test strains (n=224) while their prevalence was greatest in biotype kurstaki. Though three indigenous Bt strains from biotype kurstaki with close genetic relationship exhibited higher toxicity, maximum mortalities were recorded for Btk HD-73 (96%) and the indigenous Bt JSc1 (93%). LC50 and LC99 values were determined to be 6.81 and 8.32 for Bt JSc1, 7.30 and 7.92 for Bt SSc2, and 6.99 and 7.67 for Btk HD-73, respectively. The cause of toxicity and its variation among the strains was found to be correlated with the synergistic toxic effects of cry1, cry2, cry3 and cry9 gene products, i.e. relevant Cry proteins. The novel toxicity of the B. thuringiensis strains against B. cucurbitae revealed in the present study thus will help in developing efficient and eco-friendly control measures such as Bt biopesticides and transgenic Bt cucurbits.

  17. Impact of a snail pellet on the phytoavailability of different metals to cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Sabine; Krupp, Eva M; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg

    2013-02-01

    FePO4 based molluscicides (snail pellets) also contain a chelating agent. The influence of the chelating agent, which is intrinsically present in the molluscicide, on the phytoavailability of other metals present in the growth medium was investigated in the present study. Cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus) were grown in a hydroponic nutrient solution and exposed for one week to different metals in combination with a chelating agent containing molluscicide. Oven dried roots and shoots of plants were HNO 3/H2O2 microwave digested and analysed regarding total Fe, stable isotopic (54)Fe, Cd, Pb, and Bi concentrations using ICP-MS. The results showed that the addition of a chelating agent enhances the Fe phytoavailability to the plant, whether as an intrinsic part of the molluscicide or added individually. Additionally, the chelating agent present in the pesticide mobilises externally added metals and thus increases their phytoavailability. In particular the significantly higher Cd concentration in shoots from plants exposed to chelating agents indicates a potentially detrimental environmental effect.

  18. Phloem unloading follows an extensive apoplasmic pathway in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit from anthesis to marketable maturing stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liping; Sun, Huihui; Li, Ruifu; Zhang, Lingyun; Wang, Shaohui; Sui, Xiaolei; Zhang, Zhenxian

    2011-11-01

    The phloem unloading pathway remains unclear in fruits of Cucurbitaceae, a classical stachyose-transporting species with bicollateral phloem. Using a combination of electron microscopy, transport of phloem-mobile symplasmic tracer carboxyfluorescein, assays of acid invertase and sucrose transporter, and [(14)C]sugar uptake, the phloem unloading pathway was studied in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit from anthesis to the marketable maturing stage. Structural investigations showed that the sieve element-companion cell (SE-CC) complex of the vascular bundles feeding fruit flesh is apparently symplasmically restricted. Imaging of carboxyfluorescein unloading showed that the dye remained confined to the phloem strands of the vascular bundles in the whole fruit throughout the stages examined. A 37 kDa acid invertase was located predominantly in the cell walls of SE-CC complexes and parenchyma cells. Studies of [(14)C]sugar uptake suggested that energy-driven transporters may be functional in sugar trans-membrane transport within symplasmically restricted SE-CC complex, which was further confirmed by the existence of a functional plasma membrane sucrose transporter (CsSUT4) in cucumber fruit. These data provide a clear evidence for an apoplasmic phloem unloading pathway in cucumber fruit. A presumption that putative raffinose or stachyose transporters may be involved in soluble sugars unloading was discussed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Regulation of Mitochondrial Function and Biogenesis in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Cotyledons during Early Seedling Growth 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Steven A.; Grof, Christopher P. L.; Bryce, James H.; Leaver, Christopher J.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the respiratory metabolism of the greening cotyledons of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) during early seedling growth and to investigate how this is integrated with changes in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. In light-grown cotyledons, lipid mobilization extended from germination to 6 days postimbibition, reaching a maximum at 3 to 4 days postimbibition. The rate of dark oxygen uptake reached a maximum at 2 days postimbibition in dark-grown and 3 days postimbibition in light-grown cotyledons. Development of photosynthetic capacity occurred from 4 to 7 days postimbibition. In dark-grown cotyledons, lipid mobilization extended beyond 7 days postimbibition, and there was no greening or acquisition of photosynthetic competence. Measurements of mitochondrial function indicated that the respiratory capacity of the tissue changed such that during lipid mobilization there was a much greater capacity for the operation of the nondecarboxylating portion of the citric acid cycle (succinate to oxaloacetate), whereas during the development of photosynthetic function the activity of the remainder of the cycle (oxaloacetate to succinate) was induced. Comparison of the maximum capacities for mitochondrial substrate oxidations in vitro with the rates of in vivo substrate oxidations, predicted from the rate of lipid breakdown, indicated that mitochondria in this tissue operate at or below state 4 rates, suggesting limitation by both availability of ADP and substrate. PMID:16668884

  20. Involvement of Singlet Oxygen in 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Induced Photodynamic Damage of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Chloroplasts 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Niranjan; Tripathy, Baishnab Charan

    1992-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L., cv Poinsette) plants were sprayed with 20 millimolar 5-aminolevulinic acid and then incubated in the dark for 14 hours. The intact chloroplasts were isolated from the above plants in the dark and were exposed to weak light (250 micromoles per square meter per second). Within 30 minutes, photosystem II activity was reduced by 50%. The singlet oxygen (1O2) scavengers, histidine and sodium azide (NaN3) significantly protected against the damage caused to photosystem II. The hydroxyl radical scavenger formate failed to protect the thylakoid membranes. The production of 1O2 monitored as N,N-dimethyl p-nitrosoaniline bleaching increased as a function of light exposure time of treated chloroplasts and was abolished by the 1O2 quencher, NaN3. Membrane lipid peroxidation monitored as malondialdehyde production was also significantly reduced when chloroplasts were illuminated in the presence of NaN3 and histidine. Protochlorophyllide was the most abundant pigment accumulated in intact chloroplasts isolated from 5-aminolevulinic acid-treated plants and was probably acting as type II photosensitizer. PMID:16668650

  1. Ultraviolet-Induced Photodegradation of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Microsomal and Soluble Protein Tryptophanyl Residues in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, C. R.

    1993-01-01

    The in vitro effects of ultraviolet B (280-320 nm) radiation on microsomal membrane proteins and partially purified ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was investigated by measuring the direct photolytic reduction of tryptophan fluorescence and the formation of fluorescent photooxidation products. Exposure of microsomes and Rubisco to monochromatic 300-nm radiation resulted in the loss of intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and the production of blue-emitting fluorophores. The major product of tryptophan photolysis was tentatively identified as N-formylkynurenine (N-FK). Even though the rates of tryptophan photodegradation and N-FK formation were similar, the amount of blue fluorescence produced was significantly higher in the microsomes relative to Rubisco. Studies with various free radical scavengers and other modifiers indicated that tryptophan photodegradation requires oxygen and that the subsequent formation of N-FK may involve reactive oxygen species. The optimum wavelengths for loss of typtophan fluorescence were 290 nm for the microsomes and 280 nm for Rubisco. The temperature dependence of tryptophan fluorescence and rate of tryptophan photodegradation indicated an alteration in the cucumber microsomal membranes at about 24[deg]C, which influenced protein structure and tryptophan photosensitivity. PMID:12231746

  2. Antisense suppression of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) sucrose synthase 3 (CsSUS3) reduces hypoxic stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyun; Sui, Xiaolei; Guo, Jinju; Wang, Zhenyu; Cheng, Jintao; Ma, Si; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Zhenxian

    2014-03-01

    Sucrose synthase (SUS; EC 2.4.1.13) plays important roles in sugar metabolism and abiotic stress response. But the genes encoding SUS in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) have not been well studied. Here, we isolated four cucumber sucrose synthase genes (CsSUS). Among them, CsSUS3, which highly expressed in the roots, was chosen for further study. Immunolocalization and subcellular localization analysis indicated that CsSUS3 localized in the cytosol and the plasma membrane, and mainly existed in the companion cells of phloem in the roots. When suffering hypoxia stress from flooding, CsSUS3 expression and SUS activity in roots increased, especially in the lateral roots; moreover, the soluble SUS activity increased clearly, but the membrane fraction hardly changed. Compared with the wild-type cucumbers, the transgenic lines with antisense expression of CsSUS3 were more sensitive to flooding. After 6 d of flooding, the SUS activity, soluble sugar and uridine 5'-diphosphate glucose (UDPG) content and the ratio of ATP/ADP in the roots of transgenic plants were significantly lower than that in wild-type plants. Moreover, the transgenic lines grew more slowly with more yellow necrosis in the leaves. These findings suggested CsSUS3 participated in resisting hypoxic stress. Furthermore, the mechanism of CsSUS3 in resisting hypoxic stress was also discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Silencing of the gibberellin receptor homolog, CsGID1a, affects locule formation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Liu, Xingwang; Yang, Sen; Chen, Chunhua; Xue, Shudan; Cai, Yanling; Wang, Dandan; Yin, Shuai; Gai, Xinshuang; Ren, Huazhong

    2016-04-01

    Gibberellins are phytohormones with many roles, including the regulation of fruit development. However, little is known about the relationship between GA perception and fleshy fruit ontogeny, and particularly locule formation. We characterized the expression of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) GA receptor gene (CsGID1a) using quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization and a promoter::β-glucuronidase (GUS) assay. CsGID1a-RNAi cucumber fruits were observed by dissecting microscope, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Finally, genome-wide gene expression in young fruits from a control and the RNAi line was compared using a digital gene expression (DGE) analysis approach. The expression pattern of CsGID1a was found to be closely correlated with fruit locule formation, and silencing CsGID1a in cucumber resulted in fruits with abnormal carpels and locules. Overexpression of CsGID1a in the Arabidopsis thaliana double mutant (gid1a gid1c) resulted in 'cucumber locule-like' fruits. The DGE analysis suggested that expression of genes related to auxin synthesis and transport, as well as the cell cycle, was altered in CsGID1a-RNAi fruits, a result that was supported by comparing the auxin content and cellular structures of the control and transgenic fruits. This study demonstrates a previously uncharacterized GA signaling pathway that is essential for cucumber fruit locule formation. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. JOÃO CABRAL DE MELO NETO: LA IMAGEN DEL RÍO EN LA POÉTICA DE LOS DESVALIDOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GLORIA VERGARA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we review the cosmic image of water, from the theory of Gaston Bachelard, in two long poems of João Cabral de Melo Neto: O Rio ("The River" and O cão sem plumas ("The dog without feathers". I will see the river as cosmic image of the helpless in "The River" and the first part of "The dog without feathers", Paisagem do Capibaribe, understanding that poetry is not a complaint, but these texts denouncing misery. This poems project the worldview of those who resist the rigor, not only hunger and social spoils, but the river. The creatures that inhabit this world are as far away, the neglected, ignored what society. In the river, these beings are confused with the lama, not just your bank or depth, but the margin between liquid and solid, between the filth and survival. The gift of the destitute is his strength. Thus, the different shades reaching cosmic water image helps us to perceive the existence deployments in the "helpless" than lyrical subjects are depicted in Brazilian poetry.

  5. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto." © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Cooling parameters for fruits and vegetables of different sizes in a hydrocooling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruel Bárbara

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The cooling of fruits and vegetables in hydrocooling system can be a suitable technique. This work aimed to define cooling time for fruits and vegetables of different sizes, presenting practical indexes that could be used to estimate cooling time for produce with similar characteristics. Fruits (orange melon-Cucumis melo, mango-Mangifera indica, guava-Psidium guajava, orange-Citrus sinensis Osbeck, plum-Prunus domestica, lime-Citrus limon, and acerola-Prunus cerasus and vegetables (cucumber-Cucumis sativus, carrot-Daucus carota, and green bean-Phaseolus vulgaris, were cooled in a hydrocooling system at 1°C. The volume of fruits and vegetables ranged between 8.18 cm³ and 1,150.35 cm³, and between 13.06 cm³ and 438.4 cm³, respectively. Cooling time varied proportionally to produce volume (from 8.5 to 124 min for fruits, and from 1.5 to 55 min, for vegetables. The relationship between volume and time needed to cool fruits (from 1.03 min cm-3 to 0.107 min cm-3 and vegetables (from 0.06 min cm-3 to 0.12 min cm-3 is an index that could be used to estimate cooling time for fruits and vegetables with similar dimensions as those presented in this work.

  7. De novo comparative transcriptome analysis of genes involved in fruit morphology of pumpkin cultivars with extreme size difference and development of EST-SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulou, Aliki; Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Psomopoulos, Fotis; Manioudaki, Maria; Moysiadis, Theodoros; Kapazoglou, Aliki; Osathanunkul, Maslin; Michailidou, Sofia; Kalivas, Apostolos; Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Nianiou-Obeidat, Irini; Madesis, Panagiotis

    2017-07-30

    The genetic basis of fruit size and shape was investigated for the first time in Cucurbita species and genetic loci associated with fruit morphology have been identified. Although extensive genomic resources are available at present for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), melon (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), genomic databases for Cucurbita species are limited. Recently, our group reported the generation of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) transcriptome databases from two contrasting cultivars with extreme fruit sizes. In the current study we used these databases to perform comparative transcriptome analysis in order to identify genes with potential roles in fruit morphology and fruit size. Differential Gene Expression (DGE) analysis between cv. 'Munchkin' (small-fruit) and cv. 'Big Moose' (large-fruit) revealed a variety of candidate genes associated with fruit morphology with significant differences in gene expression between the two cultivars. In addition, we have set the framework for generating EST-SSR markers, which discriminate different C. pepo cultivars and show transferability to related Cucurbitaceae species. The results of the present study will contribute to both further understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating fruit morphology and furthermore identifying the factors that determine fruit size. Moreover, they may lead to the development of molecular marker tools for selecting genotypes with desired morphological traits. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Genome-Wide Analysis of Simple Sequence Repeats in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Cui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia is widely cultivated as a vegetable and medicinal herb in many Asian and African countries. After the sequencing of the cucumber (Cucumis sativus, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, and melon (Cucumis melo genomes, bitter gourd became the fourth cucurbit species whose whole genome was sequenced. However, a comprehensive analysis of simple sequence repeats (SSRs in bitter gourd, including a comparison with the three aforementioned cucurbit species has not yet been published. Here, we identified a total of 188,091 and 167,160 SSR motifs in the genomes of the bitter gourd lines ‘Dali-11’ and ‘OHB3-1,’ respectively. Subsequently, the SSR content, motif lengths, and classified motif types were characterized for the bitter gourd genomes and compared among all the cucurbit genomes. Lastly, a large set of 138,727 unique in silico SSR primer pairs were designed for bitter gourd. Among these, 71 primers were selected, all of which successfully amplified SSRs from the two bitter gourd lines ‘Dali-11’ and ‘K44’. To further examine the utilization of unique SSR primers, 21 SSR markers were used to genotype a collection of 211 bitter gourd lines from all over the world. A model-based clustering method and phylogenetic analysis indicated a clear separation among the geographic groups. The genomic SSR markers developed in this study have considerable potential value in advancing bitter gourd research.

  9. Anatomical Description of the Female Reproductive Organ and Radiation Induced Histological changes of Ovary of Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roksana Huque and Sharmina Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    Application of gamma radiation as a physical method of disinfestations against melon flies was recognized as a potential quarantine treatment. At 50 Gy, oocytes showed degeneration one day after treatment whereas seven-day-old oocytes did not differ greatly in appearance from control groups. Abnormal enlargement of trophocyte cells and vacuolization of oocytes occurred predominantly following the treatment with 100 and 150 Gy. One day after treatment with 150 Gy trophocytes underwent hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Irradiation at 100 and 150 Gy reduced the fertility to almost zero percent in the female melon flies.(authors)

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus from Guatemala: Another emergent species in the Squash leaf curl virus clade

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, J.K.

    2011-06-01

    The genome of a new bipartite begomovirus Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus from Guatemala (MCLCuV-GT) was cloned and the genome sequence was determined. The virus causes distinct symptoms on melons that were not previously observed in melon crops in Guatemala or elsewhere. Phylogenetic analysis of MCLCuV-GT and begomoviruses infecting cucurbits and other host plant species indicated that its closest relative was MCLCuV from Costa Rica (MCLCuV-CR). The DNA-A components of two isolates shared 88.8% nucleotide identity, making them strains of the same species. Further, both MCLCuV-GT and MCLCuV-CR grouped with other Western Hemisphere cucurbit-infecting species in the SLCV-clade making them the most southerly cucurbit-infecting members of the clade to date. Although the common region of the cognate components of MCLCuV-GT and MCLCuV-CR, shared similar to 96.3% nucleotide identity. While DNA-A and DNA-B components of MCLCuV-GT were less than 86% nucleotide identity with the respective DNAA and DNA-B common regions of MCLCuV-CR. The late viral genes of the two strains shared the least nt identity (<88%) while their early genes shared the highest nt identity (>90%). The collective evidence suggests that these two strains of MCLCuV are evolutionarily divergent owing in part to recombination, but also due to the accumulation of a substantial number of mutations. In addition they are differentially host-adapted, as has been documented for other cucurbit-infecting, bean-adapted, species in the SLCV clade. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Phytotoxicity of Alachlor, Bromacil and Diuron as single or mixed herbicides applied to wheat, melon, and molokhia

    OpenAIRE

    El-Nahhal, Yasser; Hamdona, Nisreen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the phytotoxicity of herbicides applied singly or as mixtures to different crops under greenhouse conditions. Growth inhibition of the crops was taken as an indicator of phytotoxicity. Phytotoxicity of mixtures was estimated by calculating EC50 value in toxic units. EC50 (mg/kg soil) of Alachlor, Bromacil and/or Diuron were: 11.37, 4.77, 1.64, respectively, on melon; 0.11, 0.08, 0.24, respectively, on molokhia, and 3.91, 3.08, 1.83, respectively, on wheat. EC50 values ...

  12. Variability and genetic structure of the population of watermelon mosaic virus infecting melon in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, I.M.; Malpica, J.M.; Diaz-Pendon, J.A.; Moriones, E.; Fraile, A.; Garcia-Arenal, F.

    2004-01-01

    The genetic structure of the population of Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in Spain was analysed by the biological and molecular characterisation of isolates sampled from its main host plant, melon. The population was a highly homogeneous one, built of a single pathotype, and comprising isolates closely related genetically. There was indication of temporal replacement of genotypes, but not of spatial structure of the population. Analyses of nucleotide sequences in three genomic regions, that is, in the cistrons for the P1, cylindrical inclusion (CI) and capsid (CP) proteins, showed lower similar values of nucleotide diversity for the P1 than for the CI or CP cistrons. The CI protein and the CP were under tighter evolutionary constraints than the P1 protein. Also, for the CI and CP cistrons, but not for the P1 cistron, two groups of sequences, defining two genetic strains, were apparent. Thus, different genomic regions of WMV show different evolutionary dynamics. Interestingly, for the CI and CP cistrons, sequences were clustered into two regions of the sequence space, defining the two strains above, and no intermediary sequences were identified. Recombinant isolates were found, accounting for at least 7% of the population. These recombinants presented two interesting features: (i) crossover points were detected between the analysed regions in the CI and CP cistrons, but not between those in the P1 and CI cistrons, (ii) crossover points were not observed within the analysed coding regions for the P1, CI or CP proteins. This indicates strong selection against isolates with recombinant proteins, even when originated from closely related strains. Hence, data indicate that genotypes of WMV, generated by mutation or recombination, outside of acceptable, discrete, regions in the evolutionary space, are eliminated from the virus population by negative selection

  13. The effect of ammonium ions on the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in Cucumis sativus L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genowefa Kubiak-Dobosz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, alanine aminotransferase (GPT and aspartate aminotransferase (GOT were studied in various organs of Cucumis sativus L. seedlings in relation to the uptake of mineral nitrogen (in form of N03- or NH4+ from the medium. Activity of GDH, GPT, and GOT was higher in young leaves and roots of cucumber seedlings if the plants developed- in an ammonium medium. No similar changes of aminotransferases activity were noted in the cotyledons. Factors affecting varying effect of ammonium ions upon GPT and GOT activity are discussed for particular organs of cucumber seedlings.

  14. Novel edible oil sources: Microwave heating and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin; Koubaa, Mohamed; Lopez-Cervantes, Jaime; Yousefabad, Seyed Hossein Asadi; Hosseini, Seyedeh Fatemeh; Karimi, Masoumeh; Motazedian, Azam; Asadifard, Samira

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of various microwave heating times (1, 3, 5, 10, and 15min) on the chemical properties of novel edible oil sources, including Mashhadi melon (Cucumis melo var. Iranians cv. Mashhadi), Iranian watermelon (Citrullus lanatus cv. Fire Fon), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. Styriaca), and yellow apple (Malus domestica cv. Golden Delicious) seed oils. The evaluated parameters were peroxide value (PV), conjugated diene (CD) and triene (CT) values, carbonyl value (CV), p-anisidine value (AnV), oil stability index (OSI), radical scavenging activity (RSA), total tocopherols, total phenolics, as well as chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Results showed that extended microwave heating involves decreased quality of the seed oils, mainly due to the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products. Microwave heating time also affects the total contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, phenolics and tocopherols, which clearly decrease by increasing the exposure time. The order of oxidative stability of the analyzed edible oils was pumpkin>Mashhadi melon>Iranian watermelon>yellow apple. The obtained results demonstrated the promising potential of these novel edible oils for different food applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Allelopathic effects of Juglone and decomposed walnut leaf juice on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, effects of juglone and decomposed walnut leaf juice on muskmelon (Cucumis melo cv. Galia) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Beith Alpha) seed germination percentage and postgermination seedling growth were investigated. Decomposition was carried out by keeping the leaves in distilled water.

  16. Benefits from Bio and organic fertilization by cucumber (Cucumis Sativus) with application of 15N stable isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galal, Y. G. M.; Soliman, S. M.; Ahmed, F. A.; El-Sherbiny, A. E. A.; Dahdouh, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    Benefits from bio and organic fertilizer were evaluated under cucumber (Cucumis Sativus) crop grown on sandy soil at a field scale. The experiment was conducted under drip irrigation system. Fertilization treatment indicated that the combination of 50% mineral fertilizer (MF) + 50% organic compost (OC) was superior over all other fertilization treatment when the fresh weight of cucumber biomass or fruits was considered. It means that half of the recommended dose of of mineral fertilizer is enough to meet the requirement of cucumber crop when supplemented with organic compost. Nitrogen derived from mineral fertilizer (Ndff) by cucumber at different plant growth stages was significantly affected by the rate of addition and enhanced with microbial inoculation. Arbuscular mycorrhizea (AMF) was superior over Azospirillum and Rhizobium inoculations. The enhancement of Ndff uptake by plants was more pronounced at the fruit stage than at vegetative, flowering and hay growth stages. The highest values of Ndfa were induced by Rhizobium at hay stage followed by fruit. Similar trend, but to different extents was noticed with AMF and Azospirillum inoculum s. Most of nitrogen derived from compost (Ndfc) was occurred by addition of 50% MF + 50% Oc. Rhizobium and AMF were more effective than Azospirilum. High quantities of Ndfc were recognized at hay stage compared to other growth stages.The efficient use of mineral fertilizer-N (%NUE) was increased by addition of half:half mineral and organic fertilizer. Similarly, it seems that microbial inoculation in general has a synergistic effect on enhancement of %NUE. Higher NUE occurred at hay growth stage than others. (Author)

  17. SELDI-TOF MS-based discovery of a biomarker in Cucumis sativus seeds exposed to CuO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Young-Sun; Park, Eun-Sil; Kim, Tae-Oh; Lee, Hoi-Seon; Lee, Sung-Eun

    2014-11-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) can inhibit plant seed germination and root elongation via the release of metal ions. In the present study, two acute phytotoxicity tests, seed germination and root elongation tests, were conducted on cucumber seeds (Cucumis sativus) treated with bulk copper oxide (CuO) and CuO NPs. Two concentrations of bulk CuO and CuO NPs, 200 and 600ppm, were used to test the inhibition rate of root germination; both concentrations of bulk CuO weakly inhibited seed germination, whereas CuO NPs significantly inhibited germination, showing a low germination rate of 23.3% at 600ppm. Root elongation tests demonstrated that CuO NPs were much stronger inhibitors than bulk CuO. SELDI-TOF MS analysis showed that 34 proteins were differentially expressed in cucumber seeds after exposure to CuO NPs, with the expression patterns of at least 9 proteins highly differing from those in seeds treated with bulk CuO and in control plants. Therefore, these 9 proteins were used to identify CuO NP-specific biomarkers in cucumber plants exposed to CuO NPs. A 5977-m/z protein was the most distinguishable biomarker for determining phytotoxicity by CuO NPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the SELDI-TOF MS results showed variability in the modes of inhibitory action on cucumber seeds and roots. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that the phytotoxic effect of metal oxide NPs on plants is not caused by the same mode of action as other toxins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Electrical Impedance Analysis of Tissue Properties Associated with Ethylene Induction by Electric Currents in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, A.; Manabe, T.; Tsuji, H.; Iwamoto, T.

    1995-01-01

    A study based on electrical impedance analysis of tissue properties was conducted in order to understand the relationship between impedance components and ethylene biosynthesis induced by direct current in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit. Impedances were measured at a range of alternating current frequencies from 500 Hz to 1 MHz. We calculated capacitances representing the plasma membranes, C1, and organelle membranes, C2, and resistances representing extracellular space, R1, cytoplasm, R2, and organelle interior, R3. Direct current of 1 to 3 mA induced ethylene synthesis with a sharp peak at 1 h. The rate of production was greater with a stronger current. This abrupt induction of ethylene synthesis was accompanied by an equally abrupt activation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase within 1 h, but not that of ACC oxidase, which was activated only at the later stages of the treatment at a time when ethylene production and ACC synthase activity were declining. Using direct current of 0 to 3 mA, C2, R1, and R2 increased abruptly, and C1 increased gradually after 3 h. The rates of increases were greater with currents of larger magnitude, R3 was not affected during passage of the current. Diazocyclopentadiene, an inhibitor of ethylene action, eliminated the direct current induction of R1 but had no effect on the increases in C2 and R2. Diazocyclopentadiene counteracted the stimulative effects of exogenously applied ethylene with respect to respiration and activities of ACC oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. These results indicate that an externally applied current may generate signal(s) by altering the functions of organelle membranes and/or cytoplasmic pH to induce ACC synthase. PMID:12228354

  19. Integrative Analyses of Nontargeted Volatile Profiling and Transcriptome Data Provide Molecular Insight into VOC Diversity in Cucumber Plants (Cucumis sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guo; Tian, Peng; Zhang, Fengxia; Qin, Hao; Miao, Han; Chen, Qingwen; Hu, Zhongyi; Cao, Li; Wang, Meijiao; Gu, Xingfang; Huang, Sanwen; Chen, Mingsheng; Wang, Guodong

    2016-09-01

    Plant volatile organic compounds, which are generated in a tissue-specific manner, play important ecological roles in the interactions between plants and their environments, including the well-known functions of attracting pollinators and protecting plants from herbivores/fungi attacks. However, to date, there have not been reports of holistic volatile profiling of the various tissues of a single plant species, even for the model plant species. In this study, we qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed 85 volatile chemicals, including 36 volatile terpenes, in 23 different tissues of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants using solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Most volatile chemicals were found to occur in a highly tissue-specific manner. The consensus transcriptomes for each of the 23 cucumber tissues were generated with RNA sequencing data and used in volatile organic compound-gene correlation analysis to screen for candidate genes likely to be involved in cucumber volatile biosynthetic pathways. In vitro biochemical characterization of the candidate enzymes demonstrated that TERPENE SYNTHASE11 (TPS11)/TPS14, TPS01, and TPS15 were responsible for volatile terpenoid production in the roots, flowers, and fruit tissues of cucumber plants, respectively. A functional heteromeric geranyl(geranyl) pyrophosphate synthase, composed of an inactive small subunit (type I) and an active large subunit, was demonstrated to play a key role in monoterpene production in cucumber. In addition to establishing a standard workflow for the elucidation of plant volatile biosynthetic pathways, the knowledge generated from this study lays a solid foundation for future investigations of both the physiological functions of cucumber volatiles and aspects of cucumber flavor improvement. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  20. Taxonomía y distribución de Meloe (Eurymeloe saharensis Chobaut, 1898 (Coleoptera, Meloidae, con nuevas sinonimias y primeros registros para Europa y la Macaronesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-París, M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A small group of species of the genus Meloe related to M. saharensis Chobaut, 1898 stands out amongst the rarest species of the family Meloidae in the Mediterranean Basin. The taxonomic study of nine specimens (including type material of M. saharensis, M. otini Peyerimhoff, 1949 and M. vignai Bologna, 1990, allows us to conclude that previously reported specific differences between M. saharensis, M. otini and M. marianii Kaszab, 1983, particularly the appearance of the metanotum, fall within the variability of a single species. The study of a broader set of characters, including male genitalia, does not contribute to the separation of taxa except for M. vignai. Consequently, we propose the formal synonymy of M. marianii (syn. nov. and M. otini (syn. nov. with M. saharensis, and therefore this species complex is reduced to two taxa: M. saharensis and M. vignai. Specimens examined allow us to assign a broad geographic range to M. saharensis, which extends from Israel and Saudi Arabia to the Canary Islands (Tenerife, with presence in southeastern Spain and most of the northern African countries (Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. Despite its antiquity, dating back more than 80 years, the record of M. saharensis in Murcia represents the first known data about its presence in Europe.Entre las especies más raras de la familia Meloidae en la cuenca mediterránea destaca un pequeño grupo de especies del género Meloe relacionadas con M. saharensis Chobaut, 1898. El estudio taxonómico de nueve ejemplares (incluido el material tipo de M. saharensis, M. otini Peyerimhoff, 1949 y M. vignai Bologna, 1990, permite concluir que las diferencias específicas señaladas previamente entre M. saharensis, M. otini y M. marianii Kaszab, 1983, en especial la visibilidad del metanoto, entran dentro de la variabilidad de una única especie. El estudio de un conjunto más amplio de caracteres (incluida la genitalia masculina tampoco permite la separación de taxones