Carla Vanina Dagatti
Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue comparar y establecer relaciones entre los diferentes indicadores de crecimiento entre plantas de vid con dos niveles de infestación (alto y leve de Meloidogyne spp. El estudio se realizó en un viñedo cv Merlot, situado en Agrelo, Mendoza, donde se escogieron 2 parcelas, con y sin nematodos, con diferentes niveles de crecimiento vegetativo. Los indicadores a evaluar fueron: peso y número de racimos por planta, peso de poda, cantidad de entrenudos y área foliar de hojas y feminelas. El grado de infestación de nematodos de cada parcela se determinó mediante la técnica flotación - centrifugación. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó la prueba de wilcoxon (Mann Whitney U y el test de student. Además, mediante un análisis de regresión lineal, se comprobó si existía relación entre los indicadores evaluados y la densidad de población de Meloidogyne spp. expresado en número de estados juveniles (J2 presentes en el suelo. Los resultados indicaron que la parcela con menor densidad poblacional de juveniles de Meloidogyne spp., presentó mayor peso promedio de madera de poda, así como también un área foliar de hojas y feminelas superior. Con respecto al peso promedio de racimos por planta, dicha parcela también superó a aquella con alta concentración de nematodos.
Carneiro, R.M.D.G.; Lourdes Mendes, de M.; Almeida, M.R.A.; Santos, Dos M.F.A.; Gomes, A.C.M.M.; Karssen, G.
A root-knot nematode parasitising yakon (Polymia sonchifolia) in São Paulo State, Brazil, is identified as Meloidogyne inornata. The species is redescribed from this material and compared with the original description of M. inornata. The female perineal patterns have a distinct, high, dorsal arch
Greenhouse and field experiments were undertaken to determine the possibility of using soil amendments with different C:N levels or applied at different rates and times in the control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.)in tomato c.v Cal J.A naturally infested field was used while artificial inoculation was done in the greenhouse. Root galling was rated on a scale of 0-10, nematode population was estimated by counting second stage juveniles extracted from 200 cm 3 soil and fruit yields were recorded at the end of the season. Nematode population densities and galling indices were significantly (P< or=0.05) lower in amended soils compared to the control. Application of the amendments also resulted in significant (P< or=0.05) increase in yields. Chicken manure, compost manure, neem products and pig manure were were the most effective amendments. Fresh chicken manure had a more suppressive effect on nematode than when the manure was decomposed within or outside a nematode infested field. A general decrease in juvenile populations and galling was observed with increase of organic amendments applied
Veenhuizen, P.T.M.; Schoemakers, N.; Vos, J.; Versteegen, F.; Landeweert, R.; Karssen, G.
Hier volgen de samenvattingen van de bijeenkomst van 20 maart 2007 van de KNPV-werkgroep Meloidogyne. 1) Kwantitatieve multiplexdetectie van aaltjes; 2). Meloidogyne chitwoodi en M. fallax: vergelijking visuele beoordeling en Taqman-PCR aan pootaardappelen; 3) Detectie van Meloidogyne spp. in
Gelpud Chaves Cristian
Full Text Available
El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L. presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp., en el Departamento de Nariño (Colombia, se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%. En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense L. en los Departamentos de Nariño y Putumayo y 4 genotipos silvestres (S. mammosum, S. hirtum, S. marginatum y S. umbellatum buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en todos los genotipos, 2.04% genotipos resistentes, 34.7% moderadamente resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raIz, (R2 = 0.71 y 0.98,el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.
Caboni, Pierluigi; Saba, Marco; Oplos, Chrisostomos; Aissani, Nadhem; Maxia, Andrea; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania; Casu, Laura; Ntalli, Nikoletta
This report describes activity against Meloidogyne spp. and chemical characterisation of the essential oil and methanol extract of Petroselinum crispum aerial parts. The study was based on the hypothesis that P. crispum could be used as an intercrop and soil amendment in tomato culture for nematode control. The methanol extract and the essential oil exhibited significant nematicidal activity against M. incognita, M. hapla and M. arenaria, the first being the most sensitive species, with EC50 /72 h values of 140 ± 15 and 795 ± 125 mg L(-1) for the extract and oil respectively. The most abundant furanocoumarin compounds in the methanolic extract were xanthotoxin, psoralen, bergapten and oxypeucedanin; levels ranged from 1.77 to 46.04 mg kg(-1) wet weight. The EC50 /24 h values of xanthotoxol, psoralen and xanthotoxin against M. incognita were 68 ± 33, 147 ± 88 and 200 ± 21 mg L(-1) respectively. The addition of fresh parsley paste to soil reduced the number of M. incognita females and plant galls on tomato roots; EC50 values were 24.79 and 28.07 mg g(-1) respectively. Moreover, parsley paste enhanced tomato growth in a dose-response manner. Parsley exhibits promising nematicidal activity as an organic amendment and as a source of nematotoxic furanocoumarins. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Crops under greenhouses offer the possibility of vegetables production of high added value by focusing on earliness. They help to spread the availability timing of vegetables and fruits in the market throughout the year. However, these crops are subject to numerous attacks entailing heavy losses of yield quantity and quality. The plant parasitic nematodes especially rot-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are considered dangerous enemies of these cultures. The evolution study of these nematodes in different soil types allows one to compare the migration and movement of these nematodes in sandy soils considered as light soils, in clay soils heavy and intermediate silty clay soils. These soils have also rates of organic matter and a percentage of magnesium and calcium that might provide better conditions to the survival and migration of second stage larvae inoculated at a rate of 650 juveniles per pot of 24 cm in diameter where plants of melon Cucumis melo var. (Charentais) known to be susceptible to Meloidogyne was cultivated. The results for the population development of Meloidogyne, after a growing period of 3 months show an increase in the number of eggs, juvenile stages, inflated, swollen females and males in the 3 types of soil and that independently of clay fraction although clay soil may asphyxiate Meloidogyne. The development of the three species of Meloidogyne studied in these soils, the parameters taken into consideration (index of galls, which were 1.58, 1.75 and 1.5 for the sandy clay and the middle ground soils, vigour index and the evolution of populations of Meloidogyne and roots and soil as well as parameters related to production reveal the adaptation of these root-knot nematodes to the clay and sandy loam soils. At the end of culture, the final populations are important in the soils studied; 2680 for soil S. (sandy), 2272 for soil A (clay) and 2327 for soil I (intermediate) with a multiplication rate almost similar ( 4.12, 3.49 and 3
Camilla Martins de Oliveira
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Soybean is a commodity of great economic importance worldwide, particularly in Brazil, world’s second largest producer. Nematodes, especially those of the Meloidogyne genus, severely limit productivity. Identification of nematode species is important for effective soybean management. Here, 26 populations of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp. from 15 municipalities in the states of Bahia, Mato Grosso, Goias, and Minas Gerais were characterized based on the morphology of the female perineal region, esterase profile, and identification based on amplification of specific regions of the population genome. Among the Meloidogyne spp. populations obtained, M. incognita and M. javanica, were identified. No mixed populations were present in the samples. Diagnosis based on molecular analysis was shown to be reliable and the fastest for characterization of nematode populations compared to other methods analyzed.
Root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., RKN) can negatively impact both herbaceous annual and woody perennial hosts. RKN infestations also may increase plant host susceptibility to other stresses such as those imposed by water deficits or various diseases. However, little is known about direct or ind...
Marcielly F. Turatto
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR have different mechanisms of action in the development of plants, such as growth promotion, production of phytohormones and antibiotic substances and changes in root exudates. These help to control plant diseases. In order to evaluate the potential of microorganisms in the control of Meloidogyne javanica and Ditylenchus spp., five rhizobacteria isolated from rhizosphere of garlic cultivated in the Curitibanos (SC region were tested. Hatching chambers were set on Petri dishes, in which were added 10 mL of bacterial suspension and 1 mL of M. javanica eggs suspension, at the rate of 4500, on the filter paper of each chamber. The same procedure was performed with 300 juvenile Ditylenchus spp. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications. The evaluations were performed every 72 h for nine days. The antagonized population of nematodes was determined in Peters counting chamber, determining the percentage hatching (for M. javanica and motility (for Ditylenchus spp. Isolates CBSAL02 and CBSAL05 significantly reduced the hatching of M. javanica eggs (74% and 54.77%, respectively and the motility of Ditylenchus spp. (55.19% and 53.53%, respectively in vitro. Isolates were identified as belonging to the genera Pseudomonas (CBSAL05 and Bacillus (CBSAL02.
Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood) Susceptibility of genotypes of Solanum spp. to the nematode causative of the root knot Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood)
Cristian Gelpud Chaves
Full Text Available El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L.) presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp., en el Departamento de Nariño (Colombia), se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%. En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense L.) en los Departamentos de Nariño y Putumayo y 4 genotipos silvestres (S. mammosum, S. hirtum, S. marginatum y S. umbellatum) buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz) y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en todos los genotipos, 2.04% genotipos resistentes, 34.7% moderadamente resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raíz, (R² = 0.71 y 0.98), el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum) es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.The green orange (Solanum quitoense L.) crop has decreased in its productivity due to the pathogens attack such as the root knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. In the Nariño Department of Colombia, pest incidences near to 79% and losses of 50% have been reported. In this study, 45 genotypes of Solanum quitoense were collected in Nariño and Putumayo
Full Text Available The objectives of the research were to study the effect of P. penetrans and soil solarization on the population of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. and the effect of soil solarization on the infectivity of P. penetrans. The research was done in the field with high population of plant parasitic nematode especially root-knot nematodes. Soil solarization was done in dry season by covering the soil before french beans (buncis were planted with transparent plastic and P. penetrans were inoculated before soil solarization. Factorial design in Completely Randomized Design was used in this experiment with the following factors: 1 soil solarization (within 1, 2, and 3 moths; 2 isolates of P. penetrans (i.e. isolate 2 and 3. The research results were: 1 Isolate 2 and 3 of P. penetrans were able to parasitize root-knot nematodes in soil solarized within 1, 2, and 3 months; 2 the length of soil solarization afected the infectivity of P. penetrans on Meloidogyne spp. The percentages of Meloidogyne spp. infected with isolate 2 of P. penetrans in soil solarization within 1, 2, and 3 months were 40.3%; 25.7%, and 10.1%, respectively, whereas in soil inoculated with isolate 3 of P. penetrans were: 37.3%, 10.2%, and 2.2%, respectively; 3 inoculation of P. penetrans reduced the root damage caused by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.; and 4 treatment of P. penetrans combined with soil solarization reduced the root damage caused by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.. Key words: Pasteuria penetrans, soil solarization, root-knot nematode
Sari, D. I. P.; Lisnawita; Oemry, S.; Safni, I.; Lubis, K.; Tantawi, A. R.
Root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) is one of the important pathogens that causes big impact on potato crop yields. One of the control strategies for controlling this nematode is the use of biofumigants. Biofumigants are volatile toxic compound derived from plants, and have biocide properties against insects and plant pathogens. Organic waste such as Brassicaceae, Leguminoceae, and Solanaceae can be used as biofumigant sources. This research was conducted to determine the effectiveness of Brassicaceae, Leguminoceae, and Solanaceae as biofumigants against Meloidogyne spp. The experiment was set in a completely randomized design (CRD) with the treatments were organic wastes including Brassicaceae, Leguminoceae, and Solanaceae, both single and combinations, and 2 controls (positive and negative controls) with 3 replications. Each of the biofumigant treatments was prepared and stored for 2 weeks. Potato tubers were transplanted 15 days after germination into polybag inoculated with 1,000 Meloidogyne spp. J2s. The results showed that Brassicaceae + Solanaceae were effective in decreasing the number of galls in potato plants, however only Solanaceae improved plant growth.
Full Text Available Alternative methods for the control of nematodes, such as the use of plant secondary metabolites, can be explored for integrated pest management systems. The objective of this work was to assess the best solvent for obtaining allyl isothiocyanate from Crambe abyssinica leaves, and the effects of this extract on Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica. Dry leaves of C. abyssinica at 200 mg L-1 were used to prepare extracts by using water (by infusion and grinding, acetone, water + ethanol (hydroalcoholic extraction, methanol, hexane, and chloroform as solvents. Following the evaporation of the solvents, the residue was resuspended in water for use in the experiments. Distilled water and chemical nematicide were used as control treatments. Once the most effective extracts were defined, the following dosages of dried crambe leaves were used: 0, 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg L-1. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to quantify the allyl isothiocyanate present in the extracts. After the solvents evaporated, the residues were eluted with water and used in assays with 200 eggs for the hatching test or 200 second stage juveniles (J2 for mobility and mortality tests. The hydroalcoholic extract was the most effective in reducing the hatching of M. incognita and M. javanica juveniles, by 71.6 and 74.4 percentage points, respectively. The mortality of M. incognita and M. javanica in the hydroalcoholic extract was 93.2 and 64.4%, respectively, followed by the methanol extract (17.6 and 34% and the extract obtained by grinding (9.2 and 28%. The hydroalcoholic extract at 250 mg L-1 showed high nematicidal effect. The HPLC analysis of the extracts revealed that only the methanol and hydroalcoholic extracts had allyl isothiocyanate, indicating that the inhibitory effects on the hatching, mobility, and mortality were not solely attributed to the presence of this compound.
Utari, E.; Lisnawita; Safni, I.; Lubis, K.; Tantawi, AR; Hasanuddin
The root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) is one of important pathogens on potato crops in North Sumatra, Indonesia. This nematode causes significant crop losses on potatoes directly and indirectly. The effect of fungal isolates (Trichoderma sp. 1, Mucor sp.1, Aspergillus sp. 2, Mucor sp. 2) that were isolated from rhizosphere of potato in North Sumatra were studied in green house experiments on the growth of potato and the reproduction of the nematode (Meloidogyne spp). The results showed that Trichoderma sp. 1 caused a significant gall reduction, while Mucor sp.1 and Mucor sp.2 could improve the growth of potato.
nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. in micro plot and in the field. The pathogenicity study in micro plot was done in Banguntapan, and field experiment was done in Ngipiksari, Pakem, Steman, Yogyakarta. The plots were arranged in Randomized Completely Block Design with three replications. The treatments used in the research were: isolat no. 2 and 3 of P. penetrans; carbofuran nematicide. and control. The results in micro plot test were: 1 root damage caused by root-knot nematodes in plot treated with P. penetrans lower than the control, and 2 percentages of parasitism of P. penetrans were 63.57 % (in isolate no. 2 and 53.46 % (in isolate no. 3. In field experiment the results showed: 1 P. penetrans found to be effective in reducing root damage caused by Meloidogyne spp. especially in 45 days old of tomato plant, whereas in 90 days old the effectiveness were decreased; 2 P. penetrans was able to grow and reproduction in the field: 3 the level of parasitisms of P. penetrans were increased rapidly during the experiment: and 4 the highest yield was found in tomato treated with carbofuran and followed by isolate 2, isolate 3, and control.
Full Text Available Potency of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L. root endophytic bacteria from Sorong District West Papua as biocontrol agent of Meloidogyne spp. Root knot nematodes/RKN, Meloidogyne spp. is one of the important pathogens in sweet potato plant. The disease incidence rate by the RKN on sweetpotato crop in Sorong District reached 88.77%. This study aims to get the sweet potato root endophytic bacteria that have potential as biocontrol agents against Meloidogyne spp. Endophytic bacteria was isolated from the roots of healthy sweet potato sampled from Sorong District, West Papua Province. Isolation and selection of bacteria using TSA media. Selected bacterial isolates, which were non-pathogenic to plants and humans then were identified with PCR technique using universal primer 63-F / 1387-R. The ability of bacteria to produce the lipase enzyme was selected using the media NB agar and rhodamine B. The protease enzyme-producing bacteria were selected using skim milk media. The chitinase enzyme-producing bacteria were selected using the colloidal chitin media. Production of cyanide was detected using filter paper soaked in a solution of CDS. The effectiveness of culture filtrate of bacteria as biocontrol agents was measured based on the percentage of 2nd juvenile mortality and egg hatching of Meloidogyne spp. Four isolates of endophytic bacteria, that were Enterobacter sp EAS (1a, Enterobacter sp. EAS (3a Enterobacter ludwigii EAS (4, and Burkholderia cepacia EAS (6 produced lipase and protease. In addition, B. cepacia EAS (6 also produced chitinase. Those isolates caused mortality of the 2nd juvenile 81.4 to 95.2% and inhibited the egg hatching of Meloidogyne spp. 53.13 to 81.92%.
David Eduardo Álvarez
Full Text Available El lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. es un frutal andino de gran importancia económica en Colombia, sin embargo, las áreas sembradas y rendimientos han sufrido una evidente reducción debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo Meloidogyne spp., que ha ocasionado pérdidas de hasta 50%. En la naturaleza existen diferentes recursos vegetales con propiedades nematicidas, destacándose al género Tagetes. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la actividad nematicida del aceite esencial de Tagetes zypaquirensis sobre Meloidogyne spp. Bajo condiciones de invernadero se evaluaron cuatro concentraciones del aceite esencial (100, 200, 400, 800mg/kg de suelo las cuales fueron aplicadas a un suelo con juveniles de segundo estadio del nematodo +400 J2/100g. Además, se establecieron tres comparadores: un tratamiento sin aplicación de aceite esencial, un suelo sin nematodo y un suelo tratado con i.a carbofuran (33,2% bajo una dosis de 2cc/L. Para cada tratamiento, las variables a evaluar fueron: severidad, altura de planta, peso fresco y seco al aire, peso fresco radical, número de huevos del nematodo/100g raíz y número de J2/100g de suelo. Los componentes mayoritarios del aceite esencial de T. zypaquirensis fueron dihidrotagetona y E-tagetona con una proporción relativa de 42,2 y 22,9%, respectivamente. Los resultados indicaron, que la concentración 800mg/kg de aceite esencial presentó la misma acción nematicida que el suelo tratado con carbofuran al reducir las poblaciones de Meloidogyne spp. y presentar valores similares en las variables fitométricas. Se concluye que el aceite esencial T. zypaquirensis puede ser una alternativa para el manejo de la enfermedad del nudo radical.
Silvia Renata S Wilcken
Full Text Available A enxertia é uma técnica alternativa frequentemente recomendada para a cultura do pepino em áreas infestadas com nematóides das galhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o fator de reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em seis porta-enxertos para pepino (abóbora 'Menina Brasileira', moranga 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' e 'Excite Ikki' e quatro híbridos de pepino (Cucumis sativus tipo japonês ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' e 'Tsuyataro'. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa-de-vegetação, um com cada espécie do nematóide, sendo cada parcela constituída de uma planta mantida em vaso contendo 2 litros de solo autoclavado. Nove dias após transplante, cada planta foi inoculada com 5.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio (população inicial - Pi de M. javanica ou M. incognita raça 2. Tomateiros 'Rutgers' foram utilizados como padrão de viabilidade do inóculo, em ambos os experimentos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições por tratamento. Sessenta dias após a inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada, quanto ao peso fresco da raiz, número total de nematóides presentes no solo e na raiz (população final - Pf, número de nematóides/g de raiz e fator de reprodução de ambas as espécies de Meloidogyne (FR=Pf/Pi. Todos os porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino testados apresentaram fatores de reprodução superiores a um, proporcionando a multiplicação de M. javanica e de M. incognita raça 2, porém, os valores nos híbridos de pepino foram superiores aos dos porta-enxertos.Grafting is an alternative technique often recommended for the cucumber crop in root-knot nematodes infested areas. This study aimed to determine the reproduction factor of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 2 on six rootstocks for cucumber (squash 'Menina Brasileira, pumpkim 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A
Vanessa A. Antes
Full Text Available The present study was focused on the parasitism of Meloidogyne species on the roots of native nursery plants from the Atlantic forest. Native plants were selected from a commercial nursery in Western Paraná, searching for the natural infection of Meloidogyne. Also, the seeds of native plants were cultivated in sterile soil and inoculated with M. incognita. In both the experiments, the number of galls and number of eggs and J2 per root, allied to the reproduction factor of M. incognita on each inoculated plant were assessed. Natural infection by M. javanica was found on Cordia ecalyculata, Citharexyllum myrianthum and Aspidosperma subincanum and by M. incognita on Croton urucurana, Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus, Tabebuia impetiginosa and T. serratifolia. Meloidogyne incognita induced galls formation on Genipa americana, Schinus terebinthifolius and Rollinia mucosa after inoculation, which suggested that those plants could host this nematode in natural biomes. Nursery soil should be disinfested before seeding the native forest plants for reforestation purposes
Woo Jong Ha
Full Text Available A liquid bio-formulation containing chitinolytic bacteria, chitin and their products was assessed for its potential biological control against root-knot nematodes on cucumber. The bio-formulation was prepared by cultures of three chitinolytic bacteria, Chromobacterium sp. strain C-61, Lysobacter engymogenes and Serratia plymuthica in minimal medium supplemented with chitin. Under pot conditions, the bio-formulation showed better growth of cucumber plants, and less root galls and population density of Meloidogyne spp. than control media without the bio-formulation. In a greenhouse, 75-fold diluted bio-formulations were treated instead of water around cucumber plants through hoses for drip irrigation six times at 5-day intervals from the transplanting date. After 30 and 60 days, the treatment provided about 7% and 10% enhancement in the plant height and about 78% and 69% reduction in population density of Meloidogyne spp. in the rhizosphere, respectively. In addition, the experiments showed that the control effects occurred only in the soils contacted with the bio-formulation. Undiluted bio-formulations were drenched three times at 10-day intervals around cucumber plants severely infested with Meloidogyne spp. The treatment showed about 37% plant enhancement without dead plants compared with 37% death in the untreated control, and about 82% nematode reduction. These results suggest that the bio-formulation can be practically used to control the root-knot nematode on cucumber.
Guilherme Bessa Miranda
Full Text Available Quarenta e sete acessos de Psidium spp. foram avaliados em casa de vegetação quanto à resistência a M. enterolobii, visando ao desenvolvimento de porta-enxertos e cultivares resistentes. Cinco a sete mudas de cada acesso foram produzidas por propagação vegetativa ou a partir de sementes e, no estádio de quatro pares de folhas, foram submetidas à inoculação com 500 ovos desse nematoide. Cento e trinta e cinco dias após, extraiu-se metade do sistema radicular das plantas (cortado ao longo de seu eixo longitudinal para extração de ovos. As mudas foram replantadas com as raízes restantes e mantidas vivas em casa de vegetação. As contagens de ovos foram feitas em três alíquotas de 1 mL/planta, e multiplicadas por dois para obtenção da população final (Pf. As Pf's de todas as alíquotas foram submetidas a ANOVA, a qual indicou diferenças significativas (pForty-seven accessions of Psidium spp. were evaluated under greenhouse conditions for resistance to M. enterolobii, as part of an effort to develop resistant rootstocks and cultivars. For each accession, five to seven plants were produced from stem cuttings or from true seeds and, at the stage of four pairs of leaves, they were inoculated with 500 nematode eggs. One hundred and thirty-five days later, the plants were removed from the pots and half of root system was processed for extraction of eggs. The plants were replanted with the remaining roots. The egg counts, obtained from three 1 mL aliquots per plant, were multiplied by two to obtain the final nematode population (Pf. The Pf values of all aliquots were submitted to ANOVA, which revealed significant differences among accessions and among plants of the same accession. The plants were classified as resistant or susceptible based on the reproduction factor (RF = Pf/500. All plants of cattley guava (P. cattleyanum (accessions 115 and 116 were resistant (RF <1 to M. enterolobii, while other Psidium spp. presented some plants
Davies, Keith G
Pasteuria penetrans is an endospore-forming bacterium, which is a hyperparasite of root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp. that are economically important pests of a wide range of crops. The life cycle of the bacterium and nematode are described with emphasis on the bacterium's potential as a biocontrol agent. Two aspects that currently prohibit the commercial development of the bacterium as a biocontrol agent are the inability to culture it outside its host and its host specificity. Vegetative growth of the bacterium is possible in vitro; however, getting the vegetative stages of the bacterium to enter sporogenesis has been problematic. Insights from genomic survey sequences regarding the role of cation concentration and the phosphorylation of Spo0F have proved useful in inducing vegetative bacteria to sporulate. Similarly, genomic data have also proved useful in understanding the attachment of endospores to the cuticle of infective nematode juveniles, and a Velcro-like model of spore attachment is proposed that involves collagen-like fibres on the surface of the endospore interacting with mucins on the nematode cuticle. Ecological studies of the interactions between Daphnia and Pasteuria ramosa are examined and similarities are drawn between the co-evolution of virulence in the Daphnia system and that of plant-parasitic nematodes.
Nancy Mercedes Soto Deza
Full Text Available In croping fields infested with nematodes, the RCBD complete blocks design was applied. 85% pure chicken manure was also incorporated, 15 t / ha and 30 t /. Spores of B. subtilis, 1 X106 eng / mL and 2 x 106 sperm / mL Capsicum annuum seeds in direct seeding were inoculated (experiment I and transplantation (experiment II. At 45 and 90 days analysis of nematode populations were determined, nodulation index, plant height and fruit number. The data was subjected to analysis of variance using the Statgraphics Plus 5.0 software. To estimate the significant differences between treatments, the Tukey test was applied. Initially, the study showed highly infested knot nematode Meloidogyne spp., 275 to 27720 soil nematodes/100 cm3, and in Trial II it was between 9 and 1 nematodes/100 cm3 of soil, with significant difference (P & 0.05. The final population recorded after the application of Bacillus subtilis, was 13 and 0 nematodes/100 cm3 of soil, the nematode population levels, decreased significantly, showing significant difference (P & 0.05. Efficacy of B. subtilis on Meloidogyne spp., it was clear, reduced initial populations of the nematode, reaching a reproduction rate less than 1, non-galling index reached grade 3. The interaction of B. subtilis with poultry manure amendment favored the production achieved in the cultivation of Capsicum annuum.
Full Text Available In Colombia, root-knot nematodes Meloidog yne spp. are considered as one of the main constraints in lulo crop production . These nematodes can cause root damage resulting in low production. The aim of this study was to evaluate under field conditions the reaction of 16 genotypes of lulo, Solanum quitoense Lam. (Solanaceae, of the Castilla variety and the species S. hirtum Vahl., previously selected in a greenhouse experiment and categorized as moderately resistant and resistant to the attack by Meloidog yne sp. A chemical treatment and a control treatment, the latter based on the most susceptible genotype in greenhouse experiments were also included. The experiment was conducted in a lulo grove naturally infested with root-knot nematodes under a randomized complete block design with three replications and nine plants per experimental unit. The response variables were incidence, severity and yield. The incidence was higher than 80 % in all cases, but the severity varied because of their genetic condition; BR03 and BR01 being genotypes with lower rates of severity, with values of 1.0 % and 0.8 %, respectively. The yield analysis of variance showed significant differences, indicating that genotypes SQBR01 and SQLF04, reached the highest values with 4.77 and 4.74 t/ha in a total of three harvests.
Janse, J.; Slooten, van M.A.; Wurff, van der A.W.G.
During 5 years, Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture did research to find a rootstock with high resistance against the most important root knot nematodes or Meloidogyne species in greenhouses in the Netherlands, M. incognita, M. hapla and M. javanica. Rootstocks should combine resistance with good
Full Text Available Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp. and melon thrips (Thrips palmy Karny are two serious pests on potato. These pests are conventionally controlled with synthetic pesticides. Cultural practices based on integrated pest management (IPM are alternative methods to control these pests. The study aimed to determine the effectiveness of combined applications of cultural practices and potato cultivars in reducing the incidences of nematode and thrips. Treatments evaluated were methods of nematode and thrips control by implementing IPM and conventional practices. A split-plot randomized complete block design with four replications was sed. The main plots were IPM or cultural practices (subsoiling, soil solarization and use of trap crop of marigold Tagetes erecta and conventional practices using synthetic pesticides. The subplots were five potato cultivars, i.e. No. 095 (Herta x FLS–17, 720050/Kikondo, 676068/ I.1085, Granola, and Atlantic. The results showed that applications of cultural practices in combination with potato cultivars reduced Meloidogyne spp. population and potato tuber damage by 53.70% and 61.36%, respectively, as well as a significantly decreased thrips population. In the cultural control plots, thrips populations were below the action threshold (10.0 nymphs per leaf, therefore no single application of pesticide was used. This was in contrast to the conventional control treatments where insecticide was spayed 10 times until harvest. The subsoiling and solarization cut off the life cycle of the thrips and any survive thrips were trapped by marigold plant. Population of T. palmi on the five potato cultivars differed significantly; the lowest population was found on the cultivars No. 095 (Herta x FLS-17 and 676068/I.1085. The cultural control practices combined with potato cultivar No. 095 (Herta x FLS–17 were the best treatment for controlling Meloidogyne spp. and T. palmi on potato and also produced the highest yield (31.01 t
Resistência de porta-enxertos para pessegueiro e ameixeira aos nematóides causadores de galhas (Meloidogyne spp. Resistance of rootstock for peach tree and plum to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.
José Carlos Fachinello
Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de comparar o comportamento de cinco diferentes porta-enxertos para frutas de caroço em frente a duas espécies de nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne (Meloidogyne javanica e Meloidogyne incognita. O cultivar GF 677 foi obtido a partir do cultivo in vitro e os demais porta-enxertos a partir de sementes. Aos dois meses, as plântulas foram repicadas e inoculadas com uma mistura de Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita aos 30, 60 e 70 dias após o plantio em canteiros incorporando-se 0,2kg de solo altamente infestado com os nematóides ao redor de cada planta. Ao final do experimento, avaliaram-se o desenvolvimento das plantas e o grau de infecção de cada cultivar. O grau de resistência dos cultivares foi estimado a partir do índice de galhas, obtido através de uma escala de grau ou nota, a qual varia de 0 a 5, em função do número de galhas ou ootecas. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o cultivar Okinawa não apresentou galhas no sistema radicular e na análise de crescimento foi superior aos demais cultivares. Os cultivares R-15-2 e Aldrighi foram considerados resistentes aos fitonematóides por apresentarem pequeno número de galhas no sistema radicular. Já o cultivar GF 677 apresentou maior número de galhas no sistema radicular, chegando a 126 galhas/g de raiz.The work was carried out with the objective of comparing the response of five different stone fruit rootstocks to two nematode species (Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne incognita. The cultivar GF677, which was obtained from in vitro cultivation and the others rootstocks, were obtained from seedlings. Two month old plants were transplanted and inoculated with a mixture of both nematode species at 30, 60, 70 days after planting, by incorporating 0.2kg of highly infested soil around each cultivar. The development of the roststocks were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Number of galls, ranging from 0 to 5 was used to score the
The endospore-forming bacterium Pasteuria penetrans is an obligate parasite of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). This bacterium is commonly found in agricultural soils and has been associated with suppression of Meloidogyne spp. In a field site naturally infested with both P. penetrans and M...
Abou El-Atta, Doaa Abd El-Maksoud; Ghazy, Noureldin Abuelfadl; Osman, Mohamed Ali
Sancassania (Caloglyphus) berlesei (Michael) is a cosmopolitan and free-living mite that inhabits soil as well as laboratory colonies of insects and fungi and may have a role as a biocontrol agent of nematodes. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperature on the development, reproduction, and food consumption of S. berlesei fed egg masses of root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., an important group of agricultural pests. Mites were reared at 20, 25 or 30 °C in the dark. The mites could feed on the nematode egg masses, and their developmental time decreased at higher temperatures. Time from the egg to adult was similar in females and males reared at the same temperature. Adult females lived longer than males at 25 °C, but not at 20 or 30 °C. Generally, females showed a higher rate of food consumption than males. Females laid the largest number of eggs at 20 and 25 °C (199.7 and 189.8 eggs/female, respectively), but the intrinsic rate of natural increase was highest at 30 °C (r m = 0.29). In comparing our data with previous reports, we noted that S. berlesei that fed on egg masses of root-knot nematodes showed a longer developmental time and a lower reproductive rate than Sancassania mites that fed on other diets. Nonetheless, the relatively high value of r m (e.g., at 25 and 30 °C) suggests that this mite may have certain advantages as a biocontrol agent of root-knot nematodes.
Guilherme Bessa Miranda
Full Text Available Quarenta e sete acessos de Psidium spp. foram avaliados em casa de vegetação quanto à resistência a M. enterolobii, visando ao desenvolvimento de porta-enxertos e cultivares resistentes. Cinco a sete mudas de cada acesso foram produzidas por propagação vegetativa ou a partir de sementes e, no estádio de quatro pares de folhas, foram submetidas à inoculação com 500 ovos desse nematoide. Cento e trinta e cinco dias após, extraiu-se metade do sistema radicular das plantas (cortado ao longo de seu eixo longitudinal para extração de ovos. As mudas foram replantadas com as raízes restantes e mantidas vivas em casa de vegetação. As contagens de ovos foram feitas em três alíquotas de 1 mL/planta, e multiplicadas por dois para obtenção da população final (Pf. As Pf's de todas as alíquotas foram submetidas a ANOVA, a qual indicou diferenças significativas (p<0,01 entre acesssos e entre plantas de mesmo acesso. A classificação dos acessos quanto à resistência foi feita pelo fator de reprodução (FR=Pf/500. Todas as plantas do araçazeiro (P. cattleyanum (acessos 115 e 116 foram resistentes (FR<1 a M. enterolobii, enquanto que em outros araçás e goiabas houve um número variável de indivíduos com FR abaixo ou pouco acima de 1. Estas plantas serão multiplicadas vegetativamente e reavaliadas quanto à resistência a M. enterolobii.
Davies, K G; Rowe, J A; Williamson, V M
Specific host-parasite interactions exist between species and strains of plant parasitic root-knot nematodes and the Gram-positive bacterial hyperparasite Pasteuria penetrans. This bacterium produces endospores that adhere to the cuticle of migrating juveniles, germinate and colonise the developing female within roots. Endospore attachment of P. penetrans populations to second-stage juveniles of the root-knot nematode species Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne hapla showed there were interactive differences between bacterial populations and nematode species. Infected females of M. incognita produced a few progeny which were used to establish two nematode lines from single infective juveniles encumbered with either three or 26 endospores. Single juvenile descent lines of each nematode species were produced to test whether cuticle variation was greater within M. hapla lines that reproduce by facultative meiotic parthenogenesis than within lines of M. incognita, which reproduces by obligate parthenogenesis. Assays revealed variability between broods of individual females derived from single second-stage juvenile descent lines of both M. incognita and M. hapla suggesting that progeny derived from a single individual can differ in spore adhesion in both sexual and asexual nematode species. These results suggest that special mechanisms that produced these functional differences in the cuticle surface may have evolved in both sexually and asexually reproducing nematodes as a strategy to circumvent infection by this specialised hyperparasite.
Full Text Available Taxonomically restricted genes (TRGs, i.e., genes that are restricted to a limited subset of phylogenetically related organisms, may be important in adaptation. In parasitic organisms, TRG-encoded proteins are possible determinants of the specificity of host-parasite interactions. In the root-knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne incognita, the map-1 gene family encodes expansin-like proteins that are secreted into plant tissues during parasitism, thought to act as effectors to promote successful root infection. MAP-1 proteins exhibit a modular architecture, with variable number and arrangement of 58 and 13-aa domains in their central part. Here, we address the evolutionary origins of this gene family using a combination of bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches. Map-1 genes were solely identified in one single member of the phylum Nematoda, i.e., the genus Meloidogyne, and not detected in any other nematode, thus indicating that the map-1 gene family is indeed a TRG family. A phylogenetic analysis of the distribution of map-1 genes in RKNs further showed that these genes are specifically present in species that reproduce by mitotic parthenogenesis, with the exception of M. floridensis, and could not be detected in RKNs reproducing by either meiotic parthenogenesis or amphimixis. These results highlight the divergence between mitotic and meiotic RKN species as a critical transition in the evolutionary history of these parasites. Analysis of the sequence conservation and organization of repeated domains in map-1 genes suggests that gene duplication(s together with domain loss/duplication have contributed to the evolution of the map-1 family, and that some strong selection mechanism may be acting upon these genes to maintain their functional role(s in the specificity of the plant-RKN interactions.
Starr, J. L.; Tomaszewski, E. K.; Mundo-Ocampo, M.; Baldwin, J. G.
Meloidogyne sp. from five pecan (Carya illinoensis) orchards in Texas were distinctive in host range and iszoyme profiles from common species of Meloidogyne but were morphologically congruent with Meloidogyne partityla Kleynhans, a species previously known only in South Africa. In addition to pecan, species of walnut (Juglans hindsii and J. regia) and hickory (C. ovata) also were hosts. No reproduction was observed on 15 other plant species from nine families, including several common hosts of other Meloidogyne spp. Three esterase phenotypes and two malate dehydrogenase phenotypes of M. partityla were identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Each of these isozyme phenotypes was distinct from those of the more common species M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and M. javanica. PMID:19277175
Starr, J L; Tomaszewski, E K; Mundo-Ocampo, M; Baldwin, J G
Meloidogyne sp. from five pecan (Carya illinoensis) orchards in Texas were distinctive in host range and iszoyme profiles from common species of Meloidogyne but were morphologically congruent with Meloidogyne partityla Kleynhans, a species previously known only in South Africa. In addition to pecan, species of walnut (Juglans hindsii and J. regia) and hickory (C. ovata) also were hosts. No reproduction was observed on 15 other plant species from nine families, including several common hosts of other Meloidogyne spp. Three esterase phenotypes and two malate dehydrogenase phenotypes of M. partityla were identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Each of these isozyme phenotypes was distinct from those of the more common species M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and M. javanica.
Efeitos de diferentes níveis de matéria orgânica no solo e de inóculo sobre a interação planta-Meloidogyne spp. e a produção massal de Pasteuria penetrans Effects of cow manure levels in the soil and inoculum concentration on the plant-Meloidogyne spp. interaction and on the mass production of Pasteuria penetrans
Fábio Ramos Alves
Full Text Available Foram estudados os efeitos de quatro proporções de esterco de curral no solo, 0, 20, 33 e 50% (V:V, e três níveis de inóculo de Meloidogyne spp. (3.000, 6.000 e 9.000 J2 por planta na concentração de fenóis em raízes de tomateiro, no desenvolvimento das fêmeas, nas células gigantes induzidas por esses patógenos e na infecção e reprodução de Pasteuria penetrans. O experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com doze repetições, sendo avaliado 50 dias após a inoculação das plantas. O tamanho médio das fêmeas do nematóide foi maior quando as plantas foram inoculadas com 3.000 J2. Maior percentual de fêmeas infectadas por P. penetrans foi observado quando não se utilizou esterco no substrato ou quando as plantas foram inoculadas com 3.000 J2. As plantas inoculadas com 9.000 J2 e cultivadas no substrato com 20% de esterco foram as que produziram mais endósporos. A concentração de fenóis nas raízes aumentou à medida que se acrescentou esterco de curral ao substrato. As células gigantes de plantas cultivadas no substrato com 33 e 50% de esterco apresentaram menores número, tamanho e quantidade de núcleos. O aumento da proporção de esterco de curral ao substrato causou aumento nas concentrações de fenóis nas raízes, fato que foi deletério às células gigantes, prejudicial ao desenvolvimento do nematóide e à reprodução de P. penetrans.The effects of four different proportions of cow manure, 0, 20, 33 and 50% (V:V and three Meloidogyne spp. inoculum levels (3,000; 6,000 and 9,000 J2 per plant on the phenol concentration in the tomato roots, in the nematode female development, the giant cells induced by the nematode and on the reproduction of Pasteuria penetrans were investigated. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse, in a completely randomized design with twelve replicates, and evaluated 50 days after inoculation. The size of nematode females was higher when
IDENTIFICACIÓN DE GENES CANDIDATOS DE PATOGENICIDAD EN LA INTERACCIÓN DE LA CEPA CENICAFE 9501 CON EL NEMÁTODO DEL NUDO RADICAL Meloidogyne spp. IDENTIFICATION OF PATHOGENIC CANDIDATES GENES IN THE INTERACTION OF THE CENICAFE 9501 STRAIN WITH THE ROOT KNOT NEMATODE Meloidogyne spp.
Nadya Lorena Cardona Bustos
Full Text Available En 1997 se registró por primera vez el aislamiento de un hongo Hyphomycete de suelos de Chinchiná (Caldas, Colombia atacando huevos y otros estadios biológicos de las especies de nematodos fitoparásitos Meloidogyne incognita y M. javanica provenientes de lotes comerciales con café. Debido a la imposibilidad de clasificarlo taxonómicamente en los géneros actuales, este aislamiento se ha denominado temporalmente como CENICAFE 9501. Dado su potencial como biocontrolador, se propuso identificar genes candidatos involucrados en el proceso de patogenicidad de huevos de Meloidogyne. Con este fin se construyeron librerías diferenciales mediante el método de hibridación sustractiva. La secuenciación de 188 clones obtenidos permitió identificar 80 unigenes, de los cuales el mayor porcentaje correspondió a secuencias sin homología (32%, seguidas por genes candidatos a funciones de patogénesis (22%, transporte celular (17%, síntesis de proteínas (11% y en menor proporción aquellos involucrados con transcripción y metabolismo primario (18%. Dentro de aquellos genes que contienen marcos de lectura con homología a proteínas que intervienen en la patogenicidad se encuentran una peptidasa, un receptor para sitios de ubiquitinación, una deubiquinasa, una ubiquinona oxidoreductasa, proteína relacionada con la degradación de pared celular, glicosil hidrolasa e hidroxilasa de ácidos grasos, asi como una serin proteasa. Se hace necesaria la validación de las funciones putativas de estos genes candidatos con el fin de incrementar el conocimiento básico de la fisiología de este hongo con potencial biorregulador.In 1997 it was reported for the first time from soil isolation of a Hyphomycete fungus from Chinchiná ( Caldas, Colombia , attacking eggs and other biological stages of the plant parasite nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica, from commercial coffee plots. Due to the impossibility to classify it taxonomically under current
Several species of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are known to have significant presence on turf grass in golf course greens, particularly in the western United States. Nematodes isolated from a golf course in King Co., Washington were identified as Meloidogyne minor based on analysis of the...
Sorribas Royo, Francisco Javier; Giné Blasco, Ariadna; López Gómez, Manuel; Vela Delgado, María Dolores; Ornat Longarón, Cèsar; Talavera Rubia, Miguel Francisco; Verdejo Lucas, Soledad
Se realizaron estudios en invernaderos infestados con Meloidogyne incognita o M. javanica, y que presentaban gradientes de infestación entre 0 y 11800 juveniles 250 cm-3 de suelo, para determinar la tasa máxima de multiplicación del nematodo (TMM), la densidad de equilibrio de la población (DE) y el efecto sobre la producción
Full Text Available Banana production is seriously hindered by Meloidogyne spp. all over the world. Endophytes are ideal candidates compared to pesticides as an environmentally benign agent. In the present study, endophytes isolated from banana roots infected by Meloidogyne spp. with different disease levels were tested in vitro, and in sterile and nature banana monoculture soils against Meloidogyne javanica. The proportion of antagonistic endophytes were higher in the roots of middle and high disease levels. Among those, bacteria were dominant, and Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp. and Streptomyces spp. showed more abundant populations. One strain, named as SA, with definite root inner-colonization ability was isolated and identified as Streptomyces sp. This strain showed an inhibiting rate of >50% in vitro and biocontrol efficiency of 70.7% in sterile soil against Meloidogyne javanica, compared to the control. Greenhouse experiment results showed that the strain SA exhibits excellent biological control ability for plant-parasites both in roots and in root-knot nematode infested soil. SA treatment showed a higher number of bacterivores, especially Mesorhabditis and Cephalobus. The maturity index was significantly lower, while enrichment index (EI was significantly higher in the SA treatment. In conclusion, this study presents an important potential application of the endophytic strain Streptomyces sp. for the control of plant-parasitic nematodes, especially Meloidogyne javanica, and presents the effects on the associated variation of the nematode community.
Pasteuria penetrans is an obligate parasite of Meloidogyne spp. Endospores of P. penetrans attach to the cuticle of the second-stage juvenile (J2) and the bacterium completes its life cycle in the mature female nematode; infected females are filled with millions of endospores and produce few to no ...
Pasteuria penetrans is a parasite of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Infected nematodes are not killed by the bacterium, but instead of producing eggs, females produce millions of infectious endospores. In addition to sterilizing females, P. penetrans can reduce nematode infection of roots...
Verdejo Lucas, Soledad; Español Pons, Montserrat; Ornat Longarón, Cèsar; Sorribas Royo, Francisco Javier
The occurrence of Pasteuria spp. In Spanish oils is reported. A total of 160 soil samples were collected from vegetable crops, kiwi and citrus orchards, and deciduous fruit trees. Bacteria were found associated with six nematode genera but they were only observed within females of Meloidogyne spp., second-stage juveniles and males of Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and juveniles of Pratylenchus spp.
Pasteuria penetrans is a parasite of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.). Spores of P. penetrans attach to the cuticle of second stage juvenile (J2) and sterilize infected female. This study looked at different factors that influence spore attachment of P. penetrans to M. arenaria. Incubating J2 ...
The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is a major pathogen of pepper (Capsicum spp.), causing significant yield losses in heavily infected plants. The N-gene confers resistance to M. incognita, and has been successfully used to mitigate nematode damage in specific pepper varieties f...
Feb 5, 1996 ... 149-175 body annules intersected by 14 longitudinal lines (incisures), protruding lateral fields marked by four incisures, and an ... line, while the two outer lines are mere continuations of lon- gitudinal lines from further ..... Andrassy (1982), is possibly a printer's error, since no other. Neotliada (1o(1ulation ...
Bell, Christopher A; Atkinson, Howard J; Andrade, Alan C; Nguyen, Hoa X; Swibawa, I Gede; Lilley, Catherine J; McCarthy, James; Urwin, P E
Coffee yields are adversely affected by plant-parasitic nematodes and the pathogens are largely underreported because a simple and reliable identification method is not available. We describe a polymerase chain reaction-based approach to rapidly detect and quantify the major Pratylenchus and Meloidogyne nematode species that are capable of parasitizing coffee. The procedure was applied to soil samples obtained from a number of coffee farms in Brazil, Vietnam, and Indonesia to assess the prevalence of these species associated both with coffee (Coffea arabica and C. canephora) and its intercropped species Musa acuminata (banana) and Piper nigrum (black pepper). Pratylenchus coffeae and P. brachyurus were associated with coffee in all three countries but there were distinct profiles of Meloidogyne spp. Meloidogyne incognita, M. exigua, and M. paranaensis were identified in samples from Brazil and M. incognita and M. hapla were detected around the roots of coffee in Vietnam. No Meloidogyne spp. were detected in samples from Indonesia. There was a high abundance of Meloidogyne spp. in soil samples in which Pratylenchus spp. were low or not detected, suggesting that the success of one genus may deter another. Meloidogyne spp. in Vietnam and Pratylenchus spp. in Indonesia were more numerous around intercropped plants than in association with coffee. The data suggest a widespread but differential nematode problem associated with coffee production across the regions studied. The issue is compounded by the current choice of intercrops that support large nematode populations. Wider application of the approach would elucidate the true global scale of the nematode problem and the cost to coffee production. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0 International license .
Vilas Boas Lenisa Cezar
Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo estudar em condições de casa de vegetação a reação de clones de bananeira, em relação a Meloidogyne incognita raça 2. Mudas micropropagadas foram inoculadas, utilizando-se da suspensão de M. incognita, formada de ovos e de juvenis do segundo estádio, totalizando 20.000 / muda. A inoculação foi feita após cinco dias do transplante das mudas para sacos de plástico preto de cinco litros de capacidade, contendo solo, areia e esterco, na proporção 3:1:1, esterilizado em caldeira a 100ºC, por duas horas. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Após 120 dias, os clones foram avaliados. Determinou-se o número de ovos e juvenis contido no sistema radicular, sendo utilizado o clone CPA-34, a cultivar Grande Naine, como padrão de suscetibilidade. Amostras de 200 cm³ de solo foram coletadas para a determinação do número de nematóides no solo. De acordo com os fatores de reprodução (Pf/Pi, verificou-se que o clone CPA-34 apresentou-se suscetível ao nematóide, como era esperado, com o maior fator de reprodução, seguido do clone CPA-49, da cultivar Maçã, com índice superior a um. Os demais clones testados apresentaram fator de reprodução menor que um, indicando certa resistência ao nematóide M. incognita raça 2. Entretanto, nas análises estatísticas, foram verificadas diferenças significativas entre o clone-padrão CPA-34, quando comparado com os clones CPA-58 e CPA-54. Para os resultados de peso de raízes e peso da parte aérea, a diferença foi significativa (1% para todos os clones testados, apresentando os maiores valores para os clones não inoculados.
Marissônia de Araujo Noronha
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to accomplish a survey on populations of Meloidogyne and Pratylenchus species in sugarcane farming areas in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Twenty samples of soil and roots were processed to extract and quantify nematodes; however, the identification of Meloidogyne species was performed using only 12 samples. Pratylenchus spp. were reported at moderate population levels of 68-1556 specimens 50g-1 of roots and 2-298 specimens 100cm-3 of soil in twenty analyzed samples. For Meloidogyne spp., these values were of 12-487 specimens 50g-1 of roots and 0-140 specimens 100cm-3 of soil. Based on electrophoresis of esterase isozymes, M. incognita was reported to be the most frequent species, followed by M. javanica and M. arenaria. Pratylenchus species identified through morphometrical and morphological characteristics were P. zeae and P. brachyurus , with predominance for the first species. No significant correlation (P≤0.05 were reported between nematode populations and sugarcane cropping systems.
Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp. are sedentary endoparasitic that attacks various economically important plants. Utilization of nematode’s fungal egg parasite as biocontrol agents of sedentary endoparasitic nematodes have a good possibility of potential success to be applied in the field level, because this fungi is able to colonize in and causes damage to eggs as well as female nematodes inside the root. The purpose of this research are to know the parasitism ability of this parasitic fungi to Meloidogyne incognita eggs, and its effects on second stage larvae hatching rate and the development of galls number in the host. The result shows that the parasitic fungi, those of Trichoderma, Penicillium, Talaromyces, Fusarium genera were able to parasitize root-knot nematode eggs (25.09 to 89.79%, caused root-knot nematode egg hatching to decrease, suppressed the formation of galls, and reduced the population of second stage nematode larvae in the greenhouse. Nematoda puru-akar Meloidogyne spp. adalah nematoda endoparasitik sedentari, bersifat polifag, dan mempunyai nilai ekonomi tinggi. Pemanfaatan jamur parasit telur sebagai agens hayati pengendali nematoda endoparasitik sedentari mempunyai potensi tingkat keberhasilan tinggi untuk diterapkan pada aras lapangan karena mampu mengoloni dan merusak telur maupun stadium nematoda betina yang terlindungi jaringan tanaman. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui kemampuan parasitasi isolat-isolat jamur parasit telur terhadap telur nematoda Meloidogyne incognita, dan pengaruhnya terhadap tingkat penetasan telur menjadi L-2, serta pembentukan jumlah puru pada tanaman terserang. Hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa jamur parasit telur yang termasuk genera Tricoderma, Penicillium, Talaromyces, dan Fusarium mampu memarasit telur M. incognita berkisar antara 25,09–89,79%, mengakibatkan penurunan persentase jumlah L-2 nematoda yang bersangkutan, serta menekan pembentukan puru akar pada aplikasi aras
Poinar George O
Full Text Available Abstract Background The harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae is native to central and eastern Asia and was purposely introduced into Europe to control aphids. While it proved to be a good biological control agent, its rapid spread and buildup of large populations made it a nuisance, since it overwinters in homes, emits unpleasant odors, stains fabrics, occasionally bites humans and feeds on apples, pears and grapes. Aside from the above, the ravenous appetite of H. axyridis results in their consumption of harmless native insects, including even other ladybird beetles. A study of the natural enemies of H. axyridis in Denmark revealed the presence of nematodes. The present study describes this nematode parasite and discusses aspects of its development and ecology. Methods Adult harlequin ladybird beetles were collected from March to November from four localities in Copenhagen on different plant species. In addition, groups of last-instar larvae and pupae (n = 50 were examined for the presence of nematodes. Living and recently dead nematodes were removed from adult H. axyridis in 0.5% saline solution, the nematodes were then heat killed (at 75C, fixed in 5% formalin and transferred to glycerin on slides for further examination and measurements. Results A new species of Allantonematidae (Tylenchida, Parasitylenchus bifurcatus n. sp., is described from adults of the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis in Denmark. The new species is characterized by a straight stylet lacking basal thickenings, a bursa and a forked tail tip in the vermiform (infective females and juvenile males. The new species is compared with P. coccinellinae previously described from ladybird beetles in France. Parasitism resulted in depletion of the fat body and partial or complete atrophy of the reproductive organs of the beetles. Infections occurred throughout the year with rates of parasitism reaching up to 35%. The rate increased to 60
Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) cultivars are highly susceptible to the southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), with considerable yield losses when this nematode is not managed. Empirical evidence suggested that wild watermelon (Cucumis africanus) and wild cucumber (Cucumis myriocarpus) were highly ...
Biological control against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita was proven to occur in tomato, Solanum lycopersicom, soil-drenched with different isolates of Trichoderma harzianum and a commercial suspension of Serratia marcescens (Nemaless). The potential of such biocontrol agents to trigger plant defense ...
Udalov, V.B.; Prikhod'ko, V.F.
Full text: Seeds were treated with EI and selection was carried out over 5 years. In the susceptible cv. ''M15'' treated with 0.05% EI for 21 h 7.6% of plants were found resistant, 72% only slightly susceptible. Mutants were used in crosses and hybrids showed 57-89% resistance over 6 generations. (author)
Xie, Jialian; Li, Shaojun; Mo, Chenmi; Wang, Gaofeng; Xiao, Xueqiong; Xiao, Yannong
Secreted effectors in plant root-knot nematodes (RKNs, or Meloidogyne spp.) play key roles in their parasite processes. Currently identified effectors mainly focus on the early stage of the nematode parasitism. There are only a few reports describing effectors that function in the latter stage. In this study, we identified a potential RKN effector gene, Misp12, that functioned during the latter stage of parasitism. Misp12 was unique in the Meloidogyne spp., and highly conserved in Meloidogyne incognita. It encoded a secretory protein that specifically expressed in the dorsal esophageal gland, and highly up-regulated during the female stages. Transient expression of Misp12-GUS-GFP in onion epidermal cell showed that Misp12 was localized in cytoplast. In addition, in planta RNA interference targeting Misp12 suppressed the expression of Misp12 in nematodes and attenuated parasitic ability of M. incognita. Furthermore, up-regulation of jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) pathway defense-related genes in the virus-induced silencing of Misp12 plants, and down-regulation of SA pathway defense-related genes in Misp12-expressing plants indicated the gene might be associated with the suppression of the plant defense response. These results demonstrated that the novel nematode effector Misp12 played a critical role at latter parasitism of M. incognita. PMID:27446188
Infectivity and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood on African yam bean, Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst Ex. A. Rich) Harms accessions as influenced by botanical soil amendments.
Root-knot nematodes (RKN; Meloidogyne spp.) are among the most destructive of the plant parasitic nematodes, infecting almost all cultivated plants and resulting in yield losses of billions of dollars annually. NPR1 (nonexpresser of pathogenesis related genes 1, AtNPR1) plays a positive role in the ...
Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Samsun, Turkey is needed to assess their potential to cause economic damage on many crop plants. Surveys on the distribution and infestation rates of cyst nematodes in cabbage fields in Samsun were conducte...
Konani, Ehsan; Panahandeh, Yousef; Pourjam, Ebrahim; Álvarez-Ortega, Sergio; Pedram, Majid
Two rare species of the family Tylenchidae are described and illustrated based on morphological and morphometric characters. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies provided details of anterior end structures, helpful in generic identification of the studied populations. Discotylenchus biannulatus n. sp. is characterized by its dorso-ventrally flattened smooth cephalic region having two proximal annuli and a rectangular perioral disc, short longitudinal amphidial slits, lateral field with four incisures, stylet 9-10 μm long, with the conus shorter than half the total stylet length and with posteriorly directed knobs, well-developed median bulb, mono-prodelphic reproductive system with rounded empty spermatheca and short postvulval uterine sac (PUS), and filiform tail with pointed end. It is compared with other species of Discotylenchus having four lines in the lateral field. The Iranian population of Labrys chinensis is characterized by its long and slender (a = 45.2-57.2) body, smooth rounded cephalic region and an offset disc-like apical labial plate, short longitudinal lateral amphidial slits, lateral field with two incisures, moderately developed stylet with the conus less than half the total length and posteriorly directed knobs, median bulb fusiform with distinct but weak valve, gradually joining the isthmus, vulva at 57.2-59.1% with small flaps, elongate conoid tail, uniformly and slightly narrowing toward end with broadly rounded terminus and rare males. The minor morphological differences of the recovered population with the type population are discussed.
Jada, M. Y.; Gungula, D. T.; Jacob, I.
Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterrenea L. Verdc.) is an important crop produced in Adamawa State of Nigeria. However, the production of the crop is seriously threatened by root-knot nematodes (RKNs; Meloidogyne spp.). Since cultural methods have not been very effective in controlling RKN, carbofuran was evaluated to determine its efficacy in controlling M. javanica in Yola during 2002 and 2003. Three bambara groundnut cultivars (Kwachanjiwa, Kwaheuma, and Kwatolotolo) were evaluated using three...
Humphreys-Pereira, Danny A; Elling, Axel A
Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are among the most important plant pathogens. In this study, the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the root-knot nematodes, M. chitwoodi and M. incognita were sequenced. PCR analyses suggest that both mt genomes are circular, with an estimated size of 19.7 and 18.6-19.1kb, respectively. The mt genomes each contain a large non-coding region with tandem repeats and the control region. The mt gene arrangement of M. chitwoodi and M. incognita is unlike that of other nematodes. Sequence alignments of the two Meloidogyne mt genomes showed three translocations; two in transfer RNAs and one in cox2. Compared with other nematode mt genomes, the gene arrangement of M. chitwoodi and M. incognita was most similar to Pratylenchus vulnus. Phylogenetic analyses (Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference) were conducted using 78 complete mt genomes of diverse nematode species. Analyses based on nucleotides and amino acids of the 12 protein-coding mt genes showed strong support for the monophyly of class Chromadorea, but only amino acid-based analyses supported the monophyly of class Enoplea. The suborder Spirurina was not monophyletic in any of the phylogenetic analyses, contradicting the Clade III model, which groups Ascaridomorpha, Spiruromorpha and Oxyuridomorpha based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Importantly, comparisons of mt gene arrangement and tree-based methods placed Meloidogyne as sister taxa of Pratylenchus, a migratory plant endoparasitic nematode, and not with the sedentary endoparasitic Heterodera. Thus, comparative analyses of mt genomes suggest that sedentary endoparasitism in Meloidogyne and Heterodera is based on convergent evolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Moslemi, F.; Fatemy, S.; Bernard, F.
Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), play a major role in loss of agricultural production. Natural substances, such as salicylic acid (SA) could possibly be involved in inducing host plant resistance against nematodes. The present study is concerned with exploring the effects of varying concentrations of SA as seed priming and soil drench on tomato growth parameters and the reproduction of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. SA at 50 μM concentration caused only 2% of juvenile mortality under in vitro conditions. SA applied as 50 μM seed treatment caused 95% and, as a soil drench, 78% reduction in the number of egg masses that formed on tomato plants. The numbers of galls were reduced to a lesser extent. Final nematode density per gram of soil was reduced to less than 1 by the 50 μM SA seed treatment, and in other treatments decreased by between 70 and 88% compared with control plants. Our results indicate SA has potential to lower root knot nematode reproduction in tomato, and seed priming is a fairly easy method to work with. (Author)
Integrated management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) for tomato production and productivity. Bayuh Belay1* ... important food and cash crop of the farmers and is ...... some part of the research budget without any reservation.
Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. are among the main pathogens of greenhouse crops worldwide. Plant resistance is currently the method of choice for controlling these pests. To select resistant tomato against two common species of root-knot nematodes, M. incognita and M. arenaria, 36 commercial tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivars were screened. Seventeen tomato cultivars were resistant to both root-knot nematodes: six in cherry tomato, ‘Tenten’, ‘Cadillac’, ‘Cutti’, ‘Sweet’, ‘Ppotto’, ‘Lycopin-9’, eight in globe tomato, ‘Lovely 240’, ‘Dotaerang Dia’, ‘Cupirang’, ‘Dotaerang Master’, ‘Super Dotaerang’, ‘Dotaerang Season’, ‘Miroku’, ‘Hoyong’, and three in root stock, ‘Special’, ‘Fighting’, and ‘Magnet’.
Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. are among the main pathogens of greenhouse crops worldwide.Plant resistance is currently the method of choice for controlling these pests. To select resistant tomato againsttwo common species of root-knot nematodes, M. incognita and M. arenaria, 36 commercial tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivars were screened. Seventeen tomato cultivars were resistant to bothroot-knot nematodes: six in cherry tomato, ‘Tenten’, ‘Cadillac’, ‘Cutti’, ‘Sweet’, ‘Ppotto’, ‘Lycopin-9’, eightin globe tomato, ‘Lovely 240’, ‘Dotaerang Dia’, ‘Cupirang’, ‘Dotaerang Master’, ‘Super Dotaerang’,‘Dotaerang Season’, ‘Miroku’, ‘Hoyong’, and three in root stock, ‘Special’, ‘Fighting’, and ‘Magnet’.
Liu, Chang; Timper, Patricia; Ji, Pingsheng; Mekete, Tesfamariam; Joseph, Soumi
The bacterium Pasteuria penetrans is a parasite of root-knot nematodes ( Meloidogyne spp.). Endospores of P. penetrans attach to the cuticle of second-stage juveniles (J2) and subsequently sterilize infected females. When encumbered by large numbers of spores, juveniles are less mobile and their ability to infect roots is reduced. This study looked at different factors that influence spore attachment of P. penetrans to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria . Pretreatment of J2 with root exudates of eggplant ( Solanum melongena cv. Black beauty) reduced spore attachment compared with pretreatment with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), suggesting that the nematode surface coat was altered or the spore recognition domains on the nematode surface were blocked. Spore attachment was equally reduced following exposure to root exudates from both host and nonhost plants for M. arenaria , indicating a common signal that affects spore attachment. Although phytohormones have been shown to influence the lipophilicity of the nematode surface coat, auxins and kinetins did not affect spore attachment compared with PBS. Root exudates reduced spore attachment more in sterilized soil than in natural soil. Sterilization may have eliminated microbes that consume root exudates, or altered the chemical components of the soil solution or root exudates. Root exudates caused a greater decrease in spore attachment in loamy sand than in a sandy loam soil. The sandy loam had higher clay content than the loamy sand, which may have resulted in more adsorption of compounds in the root exudates that affect spore attachment. The components of the root exudates could have also been modified by soil type. The results of this study demonstrate that root exudates can decrease the attachment of P. penetrans endospores to root-knot nematodes, indicating that when these nematodes enter the root zone their susceptibility to spore attachment may decrease.
Phan, Ngan Thi; De Waele, Dirk; Lorieux, Mathias; Xiong, Lizhong; Bellafiore, Stephane
Meloidogyne graminicola is a major plant-parasitic nematode affecting rice cultivation in Asia. Resistance to this nematode was found in the African rice genotypes Oryza glaberrima and O. longistaminata; however, due to interspecific hybrid sterility, the introgression of resistance genes in the widely consumed O. sativa varieties remains challenging. Recently, resistance was found in O. sativa and, here, we report for the first time the histological and genetic characterization of the resistance to M. graminicola in Zhonghua 11, an O. sativa variety. Bright-light microscopy and fluorescence observations of the root tissue of this variety revealed that the root cells surrounding the nematode displayed a hypersensitivity-like reaction with necrotic cells at early stages of infection when nematodes are migrating in the root's mesoderm. An accumulation of presumably phenolic compounds in the nematodes' neighboring root cells was also observed. In addition, at a later stage of infection, not only were few feeding sites observed but also the giant cells were underdeveloped, underlining an incompatible interaction. Furthermore, we generated a hybrid O. sativa population by crossing Zhonghua 11 with the susceptible O. sativa variety IR64 in order to describe the genetic background of this resistance. Our data suggested that the resistance to M. graminicola infection was qualitative rather than quantitative and, therefore, major resistance genes must be involved in this infection process. The full characterization of the defense mechanism and the preliminary study of the genetic inheritance of novel sources of resistance to Meloidogyne spp. in rice constitute a major step toward their use in crop breeding.
Olga A Postnikova
Full Text Available Nematodes are one of the major limiting factors in alfalfa production. Root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp. are widely distributed and economically important sedentary endoparasites of agricultural crops and they may inflict significant damage to alfalfa fields. As of today, no studies have been published on global gene expression profiling in alfalfa infected with RKN or any other plant parasitic nematode. Very little information is available about molecular mechanisms that contribute to pathogenesis and defense responses in alfalfa against these pests and specifically against RKN. In this work, we performed root transcriptome analysis of resistant (cv. Moapa 69 and susceptible (cv. Lahontan alfalfa cultivars infected with RKN Meloidogyne incognita, widespread root-knot nematode species and a major pest worldwide. A total of 1,701,622,580 pair-end reads were generated on an Illumina Hi-Seq 2000 platform from the roots of both cultivars and assembled into 45,595 and 47,590 transcripts in cvs Moapa 69 and Lahontan, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a number of common and unique genes that were differentially expressed in susceptible and resistant lines as a result of nematode infection. Although the susceptible cultivar showed a more pronounced defense response to the infection, feeding sites were successfully established in its roots. Characteristically, basal gene expression levels under normal conditions differed between the two cultivars as well, which may confer advantage to one of the genotypes toward resistance to nematodes. Differentially expressed genes were subsequently assigned to known Gene Ontology categories to predict their functional roles and associated biological processes. Real-time PCR validated expression changes in genes arbitrarily selected for experimental confirmation. Candidate genes that contribute to protection against M. incognita in alfalfa were proposed and alfalfa-nematode interactions with
Marlon Henrique Hahn
Full Text Available The alternative control is an environmentally safe and ecologically viable option for controlling plant pathogens. Considering the great importance of nematodes in soybean, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of nematophagous fungi against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in soybean. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with five treatments and four replicates. The treatments were Pochonia chlamydosporia, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Coprinus comatus, a mixture of P. chlamydosporia and P. lilacinus, and control plants inoculated with M. incognita and without treatment. We evaluated number of eggs and second stage juveniles (J2 in soil and roots, number of galls and reproduction factor (RF. There were no differences among the treatments and the control plants for number of eggs and J2 in soil and roots, number of galls and RF. The P. chlamydosporia treatments caused the reduction of the number of J2 in roots. Thus, was possible to conclude that P. chlamydosporia has potential to control M. incognita in soybean plants.
Dorhout, R.; Gommers, F.J.; Kollöffel, C.
The effect of Meloidogyne incognita on water flow in tomato roots was investigated in rooted split-stem cuttings. Total water flow through infected root parts was significantly lower than through comparable uninfected parts. Total water uptake was correlated with total length of the root
Pecan, Carya illinoensis, is an economically important nut crop and member of the Juglandaceae native to the southern USA. Discovered in South Africa in 1986, Meloidogyne partityla was first found infecting pecan in USA in 1996 and currently occurs in Texas, New Mexico, Georgia, Arizona, Oklahoma a...
Vetiver, a nonhost grass for certain nematodes, was studied for production of compounds active against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. In laboratory assays studying effects on second-stage juvenile (J2) activity and viability, crude vetiver root and shoot extracts were nematotoxic, res...
Xing, Lijuan; Westphal, Andreas
Quantitative growth response of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) sensitive to Meloidogyne incognita is poorly understood. Determination of soil population densities of second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita with Baermann funnel extraction often is inaccurate at low soil temperatures. In greenhouse experiments, three sandy soils were inoculated with dilution series of population densities of eggs or J2 of M. incognita and planted in small containers to watermelon ‘Royal Sweet’ or subjected to Baermann funnel extraction. After five weeks of incubation in the greenhouse bioassay plants in egg-inoculated soils, gall numbers on watermelon roots related more closely to inoculated population densities than J2 counts after Baermann funnel extraction. In April 2004, perpendicularly-inserted tubes (45-cm diameter, 55-cm deep) served as microplots where two methyl bromide-fumigated sandy soils were inoculated with egg suspensions of M. incognita at 0, 100, 1,000 or 10,000 eggs/100 cm3 of soil in 15-cm depth. At transplanting of 4-week old watermelon seedlings, soils were sampled for the bioassay or for extraction of J2 by Baermann funnel. In the Seinhorst function of harvested biomass in relation to nematode numbers, decline of biomass with increasing population densities of M. incognita was accurately modeled by the inoculated eggs (R2 = 0.93) and by the counts of galls on the bioassay roots (R2 = 0.98); but poorly by J2 counts (R2 = 0.68). Threshold levels of watermelon top dry weight to M. incognita were 122 eggs/100 cm3 soil, 1.6 galls on bioassay roots, or 3.6 J2/100 cm3 of soil. Using the bioassay in early spring for predicting risk of nematode damage appeared useful in integrated pest management systems of watermelon. PMID:23482631
Hewlett, T. E.; Cox, R.; Dickson, D. W.; Dunn, R. A.
Two years of data collected from the Florida Nematode Assay Laboratory of the Florida Cooperative Extension Service and 4 years of data from the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, were compiled to find out the distribution of Pasteuria spp. on nematodes in Florida soils. Information recorded came from 335 samples and included nematode genera with Pasteuria endospores attached, host plants associated with the samples, and the origins of the samples. Pasteuria spp. were detected on 14 different plant-parasitic nematode genera in 41 Florida counties and associated with over 39 different plant species and in seven fallow fields. Pasteuria-infected nematodes were associated with a wide range of plant hosts, although frequency of associations with these hosts reflected the sample bias of the laboratories involved. Meloidogyne and Hoplolaimus spp. were the two nematode genera most frequently associated with Pasteuria. Pasteuria spp. were observed attached to members of these two genera in 176 and 59 soil samples, respectively. PMID:19279936
Thaísa Muriel Mioranza
Full Text Available The root knot nematodes can reduce yield potential of plants, thus requiring searching control methods that are effective and eco-friendly. The purpose of this study was to analyze the efficiency of turmeric rhizome aqueous extract (Curcuma longa on hatching, immobilization and mortality of juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita. A completely randomized design was used, with concentrations of 1%, 5%, 10% and 15% of turmeric extract and distilled water as a control treatment, with four replications. The juveniles of nematodes were directly exposed to turmeric extract for 24 h, while eggs were exposed during 15 days. The turmeric extract on J2 of Meloidogyne incognita, in vitro tests, promoted from the concentration of 10% total paralysis of nematodes and in the concentration of 15% more than 90% mortality. All tested concentrations caused reduction in juveniles hatching. Thereby, the turmeric aqueous extract has nematicidal potential against M. incognita, encouraging its study in the interaction plant-nematode.
Full Text Available The nematicidal activity of the essential oil/pure components and plant extracts of naturally grown aromatic plant species against hatching, migration and mortality of the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita was investigated. The pure components carvacrol, thymol, and linalool at 1, 2 and 4 mg liter-1 concentrations were the most toxic against M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2s followed by terpineol and menthone. Hatching was completely inhibited at low concentrations (2, 4 mg liter-1 of carvacrol, thymol, and linalool. Clove extracts (1 mg liter-1 of Allium sativum significantly reduced hatching activity to below 8%, followed by flower extracts of Foeniculum vulgare which reduced hatching to below 25%. These extracts were also toxic against J2s of M. incognita (LC50 43 followed by leaf extracts of Pinus pinea, Origanum syriacum, Mentha microcorphylla, Eucalyptus spp. and Citrus sinensis with an estimated LC50 of 44, 50, 65, 66 and 121 ppm respectively. Flower extracts of F. vulgare had the highest effect on J2 mortality in sand (86%. The highest concentration of essential oils (6% was detected in leaf extracts of Origanium syriacum. Over 30 major components were identified in all the plant extracts tested.
Vanessa dos Santos Paes-Takahashi
Full Text Available O comércio de mudas sem certificação contribui para disseminação de pragas e doenças, que podem causar sérios danos às plantas cultivadas. Na região de Itapetininga (SP, foram apreendidas, pela equipe da Defesa Agropecuária, mudas de aceroleira, goiabeira e amoreira, comercializadas em caminhões, que apresentavam galhas nas raízes, sintoma típico causado por Meloidogyne spp. A identificação da espécie foi feita através da morfologia da configuração perineal de fêmeas e região labial de machos, bem como através da caracterização do fenótipo enzimático de esterase. Foi constatada a presença de M. enterolobii nas amostras analisadas. Trata-se do primeiro relato do parasitismo de M. enterolobii em mudas de amoreira no mundo.
Beom Ryong Kang
Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. are parasites that attack many field crops and orchard trees, and affect both the quantity and quality of the products. A root-colonizing bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6, possesses beneficial traits including strong nematicidal activity. To determine the molecular mechanisms involved in the nematicidal activity of P. chlororaphis O6, we constructed two mutants; one lacking hydrogen cyanide production, and a second lacking an insecticidal toxin, FitD. Root drenching with wild-type P. chlororaphis O6 cells caused juvenile mortality in vitro and in planta. Efficacy was not altered in the fitD mutant compared to the wild-type but was reduced in both bioassays for the mutant lacking hydrogen cyanide production. The reduced number of galls on tomato plants caused by the wild-type strain was comparable to that of a standard chemical nematicide. These findings suggest that hydrogen cyanide-producing root colonizers, such as P. chlororaphis O6, could be formulated as “green” nematicides that are compatible with many crops and offer agricultural sustainability.
McSorley, R; Dickson, D W
In a field experiment conducted on sandy soil in Florida during the 1993 season, rotation crops of castor (Ricinus communis), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringina), 'Mississippi Silver' cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), American jointvetch (Aeschynomene americana), 'Dehapine 51' cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), and 'SX-17' sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense) were effective in maintaining low population densities (450/100 cm(3) soil) resulted after 'Clemson Spineless' okra (Hibiscus esculentus) and 'Kirby' soybean (Glycine max). Following a winter cover crop of rye (Secale cereale), densities of M. incognita following the six most effective rotation crops (1993 season) remained relatively low (crop planted in 1994, but increased by the end of the eggplant crop. The rotation crops planted during 1993 had little effect on yield of eggplant in 1994. Eggplant yield was inversely correlated with preplant densities (Pi) of Belonolaimus longicaudatus (r = -0.282; P crop cultivars were lower (P crops intended for suppression of individual Meloidogyne spp. be evaluated for their response to other nematode pests as well.
Presti Mardiyani Purwaningtyas
Full Text Available Parasitic Root-Lession nematode of Pratylenchus coffeae can reduce the Indonesian coffee plants productivity. Several studies reported that Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis endophytic bacteria were antagonistic bacteria to nematode. The objective of this research was to reveal the effectiveness of bacterial colonies density of P. fluorescens (UB_Pf1, B.subtilis (UB BS1, and a combination of both bacteria on nematode mortality using median lethal concentration (LC50 and median lethal time 50 (LT50. The densities of bacteria used in this study were 107, 109, 1011 and 1013 cfu/ml. 35 testing nematodes were used and the mortality was counted at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after treatments. The results showed that LC50 values of P. fluorescens was (UB_Pf1 was 4,3x108 cfu/ml, LC50 B. subtilis (UB_Bs1 was 1,9x109cfu/ ml, and LC50 combination of both bacteria was, 8x107 cfu/ml. It implies that the application of the combination of both bacteria are more pathogenic than single bacterial treatment. The results also showed that the highest LT50 value was 13.21 hours combination of bacterial colonies with a density of 1013 cfu/ml and the lowest LT50 value was 52.00 hours on P. fluorescens (UB_Pf1 treatment with colonies density of 107 cfu/ml.How to CitePurwaningtyas, P. M., Rahardjo, B. T., & Tarno, H. (2016. The Effect of Bacteria Colony Pseudomonas fluorescens (UB_Pf1 and Bacillus subtilis (UB_Bs1 on the Mortality of Pratylenchus coffeae (Tylenchida: Pratylenchidae. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3, 286-293.
The endospore-forming bacterium Pasteuria penetrans is an obligate parasite of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of crop sequence on abundance of P. penetrans. The experiment was conducted from 2000 to 2008 at a field site naturally infested with both the bacterium and its host Meloidogyne arenaria and included the following crop sequences: continuous peanut (Arachis hypogaea) (P-P-P) and peanut rotated with either 2 years of corn (Zea mays) (C-C-P), 1 year each of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and corn (Ct-C-P), or 1 year each of corn and a vegetable (V-C-P). The vegetable was a double crop of sweet corn and eggplant (Solanum melongena). A bioassay with second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. arenaria from a greenhouse (GH) population was used to estimate endospore abundance under the different crop sequences. A greater numerical increase in endospore densities was expected in the P-P-P and V-C-P sequences than in the other sequences because both peanut and eggplant are good hosts for M. arenaria. However, endospore densities, as determined by bioassay, did not substantially increase in any of the sequences during the 9-year experiment. To determine whether the nematode population had developed resistance to the resident P. penetrans, five single egg-mass (SEM) lines from the field population of M. arenaria were tested alongside the GH population for acquisition of endospores from the field soil. Four of the five SEM lines acquired 9 to 14 spores/J2 whereas the GH population and one of the SEM lines acquired 3.5 and 1.8 spores/J2, respectively. Endospore densities estimated with the four receptive SEM lines were highest in the P-P-P plots (14-20 spores/J2), intermediate in the V-C-P plots (6-7 spores/J2), and lowest in the Ct-C-P plots (< 1 spore/J2). These results indicate that the field population of M. arenaria is heterogeneous for attachment of P. penetrans endospores. Moreover, spore densities
The endospore-forming bacterium Pasteuria penetrans is an obligate parasite of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of crop sequence on abundance of P. penetrans. The experiment was conducted from 2000 to 2008 at a field site naturally infested with both the bacterium and its host Meloidogyne arenaria and included the following crop sequences: continuous peanut (Arachis hypogaea) (P-P-P) and peanut rotated with either 2 years of corn (Zea mays) (C-C-P), 1 year each of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and corn (Ct-C-P), or 1 year each of corn and a vegetable (V-C-P). The vegetable was a double crop of sweet corn and eggplant (Solanum melongena). A bioassay with second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. arenaria from a greenhouse (GH) population was used to estimate endospore abundance under the different crop sequences. A greater numerical increase in endospore densities was expected in the P-P-P and V-C-P sequences than in the other sequences because both peanut and eggplant are good hosts for M. arenaria. However, endospore densities, as determined by bioassay, did not substantially increase in any of the sequences during the 9-year experiment. To determine whether the nematode population had developed resistance to the resident P. penetrans, five single egg-mass (SEM) lines from the field population of M. arenaria were tested alongside the GH population for acquisition of endospores from the field soil. Four of the five SEM lines acquired 9 to 14 spores/J2 whereas the GH population and one of the SEM lines acquired 3.5 and 1.8 spores/J2, respectively. Endospore densities estimated with the four receptive SEM lines were highest in the P-P-P plots (14-20 spores/J2), intermediate in the V-C-P plots (6-7 spores/J2), and lowest in the Ct-C-P plots (< 1 spore/J2). These results indicate that the field population of M. arenaria is heterogeneous for attachment of P. penetrans endospores. Moreover, spore densities
Preston, J F; Dickson, D W; Maruniak, J E; Nong, G; Brito, J A; Schmidt, L M; Giblin-Davis, R M
Pasteuria spp. include endospore-forming bacterial pathogens of cladoceran crustaceans and plant-parasitic nematodes. Propagation of these nematode pathogens requires attachment of soilborne endospores to nematode hosts, infection, growth, sporulation, and release of endospores to repeat the cycle of infection and propagation. The ability of these bacteria to suppress the levels of plant-parasitic nematodes in the field has made them particularly promising candidates for biocontrol of nematode diseases of plants. Genes encoding 16S ribosomal RNA have been sequenced for the cladoceran (water flea) parasite and type species, Pasteuria ramosa, and for Pasteuria spp. isolated from root-knot (Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 and Meloidogyne sp.), soybean cyst (Heterodera glycines), and sting (Belonolaimus longicaudatus) nematodes. These have provided a phylogenetic basis for their designation to a distinct clade within the family Alicyclobacillaceae of the gram-positive endospore-forming bacteria. Two apparent biotypes of P. penetrans demonstrating a host preference for different Meloidogyne spp. showed identical 16S rDNA sequences, suggesting host-recognition evolves within a given species. The sequences of genes encoding sporulation transcription factors, sigE and sigF, from P. penetrans biotype P-20 show different phylogenetic relationships to other endospore-forming bacteria, supporting their application to further discriminate Pasteuria spp. and biotypes. Distribution of an adhesin-associated epitope on polypeptides from different Pasteuria isolates provides an immunochemical approach to differentiate species and biotypes with specific host preferences. Application of bioinformatics to genomic data, as well as further characterization of the biochemical basis for host recognition, will facilitate development of Pasteuria spp. as benign alternatives to chemical nematicides.
RAVI DATT SHARMA
Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com esse trabalho, avaliar a eficiência de Pasteuria penetrans no controle de Meloidogyne javanica em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos eram compostos de quatro níveis de inóculo de P. penetrans, 0, 10x10(5, 50x10(5 e 100x10(5 endósporos/kg de solo autoclavado. Imediatamente após a inoculação da bactéria P. penetrans no solo autoclavado, 1.000 juvenis de segundo estádio de M. javanica foram inoculados em cada vaso. Quarenta e oito horas após a inoculação do nematóide, uma plântula de soja cv. FT-Cristalina, com três dias de idade, foi transplantada para cada vaso. O experimento foi avaliado em duas etapas: a primeira, 89 dias após o transplantio da soja, e a segunda, 90 dias após um segundo(plantio de soja, em seqüência a um pousio de 30 dias. Na primeira avaliação, o maior peso da matéria fresca da planta foi obtido no tratamento com 100x10(5 endósporos/kg de solo, o que diferiu significativamente (PIn a greenhouse experiment, the efficiency of Pasteuria penetrans against Meloidogyne javanica was evaluated on soybean cv. FT-Cristalina using four inoculum levels of P. penetrans viz: 0, 10x10(5, 50x10(5 and 100x10(5 endospores/kg of soil. Immediately after inoculating the autoclaved soil with P. penetrans, 1,000 second-stage juveniles were inoculated in each pot. After 48 hours of nematode inoculation, a 3-day old soybean seedling was transplanted in each pot. The experiment was evaluated in two steps of which the first evaluation was made after 89 days of transplanting the seedlings; and the second after 90 days of soybean sowing in sequence with a following period of 30 days. In the first evaluation, the highest fresh plant weight was observed in treatment with 100x10(5 endospores/kg of soil which differed significantly (P<0.05 from other treatments except the untreated control. The maximum increase in fresh pod weight of treatment with 100x10(5 endospores/kg of soil differed significantly
Peng, Huan; Long, Haibo; Huang, Wenkun; Liu, Jing; Cui, Jiangkuan; Kong, Lingan; Hu, Xianqi; Gu, Jianfeng; Peng, Deliang
The northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) is a damaging nematode that has caused serious economic losses worldwide. In the present study, a sensitive, simple and rapid method was developed for detection of M. hapla in infested plant roots by combining a Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) card with loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The specific primers of LAMP were designed based on the distinction of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences between M. hapla and other Meloidogyne spp. The LAMP assay can detect nematode genomic DNA at concentrations low to 1/200 000, which is 100 times more sensitive than conventional PCR. The LAMP was able to highly specifically distinguish M. hapla from other closely related nematode species. Furthermore, the advantages of the FTA-LAMP assay to detect M. hapla were demonstrated by assaying infected root galls that were artificially inoculated. In addition, M. hapla was successfully detected from six of forty-two field samples using FTA-LAMP technology. This study was the first to provide a simple diagnostic assay for M. hapla using the LAMP assay combined with FTA technology. In conclusion, the new FTA-LAMP assay has the potential for diagnosing infestation in the field and managing the pathogen M. hapla.
Ravi Datt Sharma
Full Text Available O nematóide-das-galhas radiculares, Meloidogyne javanica, comumente causa redução em produtividade de ervilha, Pisum sativum L., no Distrito Federal. O efeito de Meloidogyne javanica no crescimento da ervilha cv. Triofin foi avaliado em cinco níveis de inóculos: 0, 10, 100, 1.000 e 10.000 ovos/kg de solo, em casa de vegetação. Houve redução progressiva no crescimento da planta com o aumento do inóculos. O fator de multiplicação foi negativamente proporcional ao inóculo inicial. A nodulação bacteriana também foi seriamente afetada em todos os níveis de inóculo, exceto no de 10 ovos/kg do solo, que apresentou 61,63% de aumento no de número de nódulos/planta.The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica commonly causes yield reduction of pea (Pisum sativum L. in the Federal District of Brazil. The effect of M. javanica on the growth of pea cv. Triofin was studied with five inoculum levels namely 0, 10, 100, 1,000, and 10,000 eggs/kg of soil under greenhouse conditions. There was a progressive decrease in plant growth as the inoculum levels of nematode increased. The rate of nematode multiplication was inversely proportional to the inoculum level. Rhizobial nodulation was adversely affected at all the inoculum levels except for the inoculum level of 10 eggs/kg of soil which showed a 61.63% increase in number of bacterial nodules.
Bishop, Alistair H; Gowen, Simon R; Pembroke, Barbara; Trotter, James R
A species of the hyper-parasitic bacterium Pasteuria was isolated from the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ardenensis infecting the roots of ash (Fraxinus excelsior). It is morphologically different from some other Pasteuria pathogens of nematodes in that the spores lack a basal ring on the ventral side of the spore and have a unique clumping nature. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the clumps of spores are not random aggregates but result from the disintegration of the suicide cells of the thalli. Sporulation within each vegetative mycelium was shown to be asynchronous. In addition to the novel morphological features 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed this to be a new species of Pasteuria which we have called P. hartismeri. Spores of P. hartismeri attach to juveniles of root-knot nematodes infecting a wide range of plants such as mint (Meloidogyne hapla), rye grass (unidentified Meloidogyne sp.) and potato (Meloidogyne fallax).
In this study, resistance to Meloidogyne hapla populations is the focal point. It involves a screening of fodder radish and Tagetes varieties with a number of local M. hapla populations to determine their infection rate.
Soil fumigation and in-row treatments of nematicides have been the common protocol for pre-and in-season management of plant parasitic nematodes (PPN’s) in vegetable production. One issue not addressed is the depth at which the highest concentration of nematodes occur. In the United States, applicat...
Bambang Rahayu TP
Full Text Available Soil microbes including actinomycetes are known to produce various hydrolytic enzymes and antibiotics that can be used as biological controlling agents nematode. Therefore, surveys conducted in several areas in Yogyakarta, Central Java and East Java, to search for actinomycetes with chitinolytic, proteolytic, and chitino-proteolytic activity. Isolation of Actinomycetes produced 84 isolates, and most was obtained from shrimp head waste (26 isolates. After the selection based on their ability to hydrolyze chitines and protein in the medium, those whith the highest chitin and protein hydrolysis activity, are consecutive PSJ 27, TL 8, and TL 10 isolates. Test results of crude enzyme produced by selected isolates against root-knot nematode eggshell, showed that the isolates that have chitino-proteolytic activity (TL 10, is a highly effective isolate in damage eggshell. There are three types of damage to the nematode eggs. In the young eggs, crude enzyme preparation causing damage on vitelline and chitin layers. In the older eggs, preparation of crude enzyme cause premature hatching. Sebagian mikrobia tanah, termasuk aktinomisetes, diketahui mampu menghasilkan berbagai enzim hidrolitik dan antibiotik yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai agens pengendalian hayati nematoda. Oleh karena itu,survei dilakukan di beberapa daerah di Yogyakarta, Jawa Tengah, dan Jawa Timur untuk mencari aktinomisetes yang mempunyai aktivitas kitinolitik, proteolitik dan kitino-proteolitik. Isolasi aktinomisetes menghasilkan 84 isolat, dan yang terbanyak diperoleh dari limbah kepala udang (26 isolat. Setelah dilakukan seleksi berdasarkan kemampuannya menghidrolisis kitin dan protein dalam medium, yang mempunyai aktivitas hidrolisis protein, kitin, protein dan kitin tertinggi berturut-turut adalah isolat PSJ 27, TL 8, dan TL 10. Hasil uji enzim kasar yang dihasilkan isolat terpilih terhadap perusakan kulit telur nematoda puru-akar menunjukkan bahwa isolat yang memiliki aktivitas kitino-proteolitik (TL10 merupakan isolat yang sangat efektif dalam merusak kulit telur.Terdapat tiga tipe kerusakan pada telur nematoda. Sediaan enzim kasar menyebabkan kerusakan atau terkoyaknya lapisan vitelin dan lapisan kitin pada telur muda. Pada telur yang sudah tua, sedíaan enzim kasar menyebabkan pecahnya lapisan kulit telur yang menyebabkan penetasan yang prematur
Persson, Christina; Jansson, Hans-Börje
The ability of nematode-trapping fungi to colonize the rhizosphere of crop plants has been suggested to be an important factor in biological control of root-infecting nematodes. In this study, rhizosphere colonization was evaluated for 38 isolates of nematode-trapping fungi representing 11 species. In an initial screen, Arthrobotrys dactyloides, A. superba, and Monacrosporium ellipsosporum were most frequently detected in the tomato rhizosphere. In subsequent pot experiments these fungi and the non-root colonizing M. geophyropagum were introduced to soil in a sodium alginate matrix, and further tested both for establishment in the tomato rhizosphere and suppression of root-knot nematodes. The knob-forming M. ellipsosporum showed a high capacity to colonize the rhizosphere both in the initial screen and the pot experiments, with more than twice as many fungal propagules in the rhizosphere as in the root-free soil. However, neither this fungus nor the other nematode-trapping fungi tested reduced nematode damage to tomato plants. PMID:19270886
Lubis, K.; Lubis, A. M.; Siregar, L. A. M.; Lisnawita; Safni, I.; Tantawi, A. R.
This research was aimed to determine root morphology of several potato varieties which were applied by organic materials into the planting medium inoculated nematodes. The research was conducted at Research Station of Horticulture in Berastagi, Sumatera Utara on May to November 2016. The randomized block design was used with two factors; the first factor was K1 = Positive control (no use compost / inoculation of nematodes) K2 = Negative control (no use compost / no inoculation of nematodes) K3 = Using compost mucuna and inoculation of nematode, K4 = Using compost peanuts and inoculation of nematodes and the second factor was potato varieties (Tenggo, Maglia, and Margahayu). The results showed that organic matters increased the shoot fresh weight, the root fresh weight, the tubers weight and the number of tubers, root diameter, root lenght. However, organic matters also increased the number of nematodes. Varieties of Tenggo and Maglia showed significant affect to all observed characters. The interaction of the two treatments had significant affect to the shoot fresh weight, the number of root-knot, and the number of tubers, root lenght. However, no significant affect was observed in root wet weight, and tuber weight.
M. Y. Jada
Full Text Available Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterrenea L. Verdc. is an important crop produced in Adamawa State of Nigeria. However, the production of the crop is seriously threatened by root-knot nematodes (RKNs; Meloidogyne spp.. Since cultural methods have not been very effective in controlling RKN, carbofuran was evaluated to determine its efficacy in controlling M. javanica in Yola during 2002 and 2003. Three bambara groundnut cultivars (Kwachanjiwa, Kwaheuma, and Kwatolotolo were evaluated using three application timings (at planting, 3 and 6 weeks after planting, and none. Results indicated that applying carbofuran at planting provided the greatest reduction in M. javanica population levels, which lead to increased yields in bambara groundnuts compared to the other two application timings. Furthermore, both Kwachanjiwa and Kwatolotolo provided similar high yields compared to Kwaheuma, which was most likely related to the M. javanica tolerance in these cultivars.
K. H. Ooi
Full Text Available Forty isolates of Fusarium oxysporum were tested for their pathogenicity to roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. var. sabdariffa in a plant house. The most virulent isolate was later used in a disease complex experiment with a root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Disease severity of roselle seedlings inoculated with a combination of fungus and nematode was higher than those inoculated with either fungus or nematode individually. Seedlings that were inoculated with fungus two weeks after nematode inoculation showed the highest disease severity compared to that inoculated with nematode two weeks after fungal inoculation or that inoculated simultaneously with both pathogens. It seems that root infections by M. incognita increased the colonization of roselle by F. oxysporum and subsequently caused higher damage to the roselle seedlings. The high wilt incidence in the presence of M. incognita and F. oxysporum may be due to the synergistic relationship between these two pathogens.
Al-Hazmi, A S; Sasser, J N
The development of Meloidogyne platani on sycamore was followed for 40 days (22-28 C). Juveniles penetrated the feeder roots behind the root cap and invaded the vascular cylinder within 3 days after inoculation. All subsequent development of the nematodes and host effects occurred only within the stele. The second juvenile molt and sex differentiation occurred by the 17th day. Young females were observed by the 26th day. Eggs were observed inside the roots by the 35th day and were exposed to the surface of galls by the 40th day. In pathogenicity studies, a significant negative correlation was shown to exist between fresh shoot and root weights and inoculum density. Besides sycamore, white ash was the only hardwood species tested to become infected. Of the herbacious plants tested, tobacco was heavily galled, tomato and watermelon moderately galled, and pepper only slightly galled. Egg production was moderate on tobacco, slight on tomato and watermelon, and absent on pepper.
Zainab M. Ahmed
Full Text Available Seeds of local trees, such Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Adenanthera pavonina L., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit and Eucalyptus spp., were used as aqueous extract at 25, 50 and 100 % concentration to control the activity of Meloidogyne javanica (Treub Citwood. All seed extracts showed lethal effect on M. javanica eggs, and a gradual decrease in egg hatching and an increase in mortality of second-stage juveniles were observed with the increase in extract concentration. L. leucocephala was found to be most effective in reducing egg hatching, whereas 100 % mortality of juveniles was observed in the case of A. indica seed extract. Number of knots was significantly reduced at 100 % concentration when seeds of chick pea and mung bean were treated and soil was drenched with A. pavonina and Eucalyptus spp. seed extract.
Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Meloidogyne 名詞 一般 * * * * ネコブセンチュ...ウ ネコブセンチュウ ネコブセンチュー Thesaurus2015 200906002822195970 C LS05 UNKNOWN_1 Meloidogyne
Wéverson Lima Fonseca
Full Text Available Manipueira, a liquid residue obtained from the cassava industrialization, shows high toxicity to the microbial diversity. This study aimed at evaluating the potential of manipueira applied to the soil to control Meloidogyne incognita in soybean. A completely randomized design, in a 2 x 11 factorial scheme, was used, consisting of two application forms of manipueira (single and two applications, in eleven concentrations (0 %, 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 %, 50 %, 60 %, 70 %, 80 %, 90 % and 100 %, with five replications per treatment. Some agronomic traits and parasitism characteristics were also evaluated. The plants that received a single application of manipueira showed a gain of 100.41 % in root length, while the volume and fresh root mass showed gains of 81.52 % and 28.11 %, respectively, with the two applications. Regarding parasitism, the single application was more effective in reducing the number of juveniles in the soil and roots, where the concentrations of manipueira to kill 50 % of the nematodes were 1.65 % and 4.37 %, respectively. Thus, besides being effective in controlling M. incognita, manipueira has a positive effect on the development of soybean and may be recommended as a nematicide and also as an organic fertilizer.
Ros-Ibanez, C.; Robertson, L.; Martinez-Lluch, M. C.; Cano-Garcia, A.; Lacasa-Plasencia, A.
The root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita is a major soil parasite of pepper crops in greenhouses in Southeast Spain. Due to the limitations of the use of soil fumigants, grafting plants on resistant rootstocks (R-rootstocks) has become an important alternative to chemical nematicides. The repeated use of R-rootstocks can bring about the selection of virulent populations capable of overcoming resistance. We carried out a six-year investigation on resistant rootstocks in a naturally M. incognita infested greenhouse, and found that two successive years of growing plants grafted on R-rootstocks Atlante (ATL) were sufficient to overcome resistance (galling index 1.5 and 5.6 in the first and second years respectively). A large variability was observed between several R-rootstocks. Two R-rootstocks (C19 and Snooker) behaved like ATL while two others (Terrano and DRO 8801) were not infected by RKN. Laboratory studies with the same R-rootstocks, inoculated with two nematode isolates (avirulent and virulent against ATL) confirmed the greenhouse results, indicating that some rootstocks may be infested by virulent populations and others may not. It suggests that different R-genes, which are differentially overcome by RKN, have been introgressed into the rootstocks. This may have consequences for the management of resistant rootstocks in the field. (Author)
Renata Rodrigues Robaina
Full Text Available The use of resistant rootstocks could be a promising method to control nematodeMeloidogyne enterolobiiin commercial plantations of guava. The present study aimed to evaluate the success of grafting guava as a scion on accessions of cattley guava as rootstocks resistant to M. enterolobii.The treatments consisted of the rootstocks cattley guava plants (three accessions of Psidium cattleyanum and common guava (control. In the apical wedge grafting method, scion of Paluma cultivated variety was used. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four treatments and five replicates, and eight plants per plot. The saplings produced as described before were planted in the field where the initial growth of the different combinations were evaluated. Graft success was observed for the control (common guava and for accessions 115 and 117 of cattley guava plants, with success rates of 63, 32 and 29%, respectively. In the field, the cattley guava used as rootstocks hampered Paluma canopy development and caused death of plants. Incompatibility of P. cattleyanumas rootstocks for P. guajavaPaluma was confirmed one year after cultivation in field.
Oostendorp, M; Dickson, D W; Mitchell, D J
A microplot study on the influence of cropping sequences with peanut in summer and bare fallowed or cover crops of rye or vetch in winter on the population development of Pasteuria penetrans was initiated in the spring of 1987. The number of spores of P. penetrans attached per second-stage juvenile of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 increased from 0.11 in the fall of 1987 to 7.6, 8.6, and 3.6 in the fall of 1989 in the rye, vetch, and fallowed plots, respectively. Higher (P rye and vetch plots than in fallowed plots. No influence of P. penetrans on peanut, rye, or vetch yield was observed in 1987 and 1988, but in 1989 peanut yield was 64% higher (P cropping sequences in the spring of 1988 and 1989 but not in the fall following the peanut crop. In the spring the plots with rye had the lowest nematode numbers in either year (P rye, vetch, and fallowed).
Full Text Available We examined the efficacy of a bacterium for biocontrol of the root-knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne hapla in carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. Among 542 bacterial isolates from various soils and plants, the highest nematode mortality was observed for treatments with isolate C1-7, which was identified as Bacillus cereus based on cultural and morphological characteristics, the Biolog program, and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses. The population density and the nematicidal activity of B. cereus C1-7 remained high until the end of culture in brain heart infusion broth, suggesting that it may have sustainable biocontrol potential. In pot experiments, the biocontrol efficacy of B. cereus C1-7 was high, showing complete inhibition of root gall or egg mass formation by RKN in carrot and tomato plants, and subsequently reducing RKN damage and suppressing nematode population growth, respectively. Light microscopy of RKN-infected carrot root tissues treated with C1-7 showed reduced formation of gall cells and fully developed giant cells, while extensive gall cells and fully mature giant cells with prominent cell wall ingrowths formed in the untreated control plants infected with RKNs. These histopathological characteristics may be the result of residual or systemic biocontrol activity of the bacterium, which may coincide with the biocontrol efficacies of nematodes in pots. These results suggest that B. cereus C1-7 can be used as a biocontrol agent for M. hapla.
Abad, P.; Gouzy, J.; Aury, J.M.; Tytgat, T.O.G.; Smant, G.
Plant-parasitic nematodes are major agricultural pests worldwide and novel approaches to control them are sorely needed. We report the draft genome sequence of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, a biotrophic parasite of many crops, including tomato, cotton and coffee. Most of the
Viaene, N.; Wiseborn, D.B.; Karssen, G.
The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne minor, was described during 2004 after it was found on potato roots in a field in the Netherlands and in golf courses in England, Wales, and Ireland (2). Since it is associated with yellow patch disease in turf grass and causes deformation of potato tubers (2), it
Beginning in 1998, a bioassay using second-stage juveniles (J2) from a greenhouse (GH) population of Meloidogyne arenaria (Ma) was used to monitor endospore densities of the bacterium Pasteuria penetrans, which was parasitizing Ma in a crop rotation study. Spore densities of the bacterium were very...
We hypothesized that root exudates would influence the spore attachment of Pasteuria penetrans to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria). An experiment was carried out using a factorial arrangement of two single spore (SS) lines cultured from P. penetrans and three single egg mass(SEM)lines cult...
Wiratno,; Taniwiryono, D.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Riksen, J.A.G.; Rietjens, I.; Djiwanti, S.R.; Kammenga, J.E.; Murk, A.J.
Nematicidal activity of extracts from plants was assayed against Meloidogyne incognita. In laboratory assays extracts from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L), clove (Syzygium aromaticum L), betelvine (Piper betle L), and sweet flag (Acorus calamus L) were most effective in killing the nematode, with an
Papert, A; Kok, CJ; van Elsas, JD
Bacterial communities associated with the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne fallax egg masses were compared with those present in the rhizoplane. Two agricultural soils with different nematode population dynamics were used in a glasshouse study, with either potato or tomato as host plant for the
Steam and soil solarization were investigated for control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria in two years of field trials on a commercial flower farm in Florida. The objective was to determine if pre-plant steam treatments in combination with solarization, or solarization alone effective...
Papert, A; Kok, CJ; van Elsas, JD
Bacterial communities associated with the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne fallax egg masses were compared with those present in the rhizoplane. Two agricultural soils with different nematode population dynamics were used in a glasshouse study, with either potato or tomato as host plant for the
Sirca, S.; Urek, G.; Karssen, G.
The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead originally described from Tanzania is also distributed in South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Ethiopia (3). Although this species is a relatively unknown root-knot nematode, M. ethiopica parasitizes several economical important crops, such as tomato,
The interactions of the cyst nematodes Heterodera daverti, H. goldeni and H. zeae with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita on rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars Giza 178 and Sakha 101 were studied in the greenhouse. Inoculation with H. goldeni alone or one week before inoculation with M. incogni...
The reactions of five rice cultivars to the cyst nematodes Heterodera daverti and H. zeae and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita were determined in the greenhouse. The results showed that both H. daverti and H. zeae infected and reproduced successfully on some of the tested rice cultivars....
Beek, van der J.G.; Folkertsma, R.; Poley, L.M.; Koert, van P.H.G.; Bakker, J.
Six isolates of Meloidogyne hapla, including four race A and two race B isolates, eight isolates of M. chitwoodi, and five isolates of M. fallax were submitted to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) to study the similarity between the various isolates of the three species based upon total
Beek, van der J.G.; Veldhuis, W.B.J.; ZijIstra, C.; Silfhout, van C.H.
A procedure for long-term preservation of gennplasm of Meloidogyne hapla and M. chitwoodi in liquid nitrogen is described, including a pretrearrnenr with 10% ethanediol for 2 h at room temperature and 40 % ethanecliol for 45 min on ice. Survival rates ranged from 45 to 98 % with an average of 75 %.
Oka, Y.; Karssen, G.; Mor, M.
In a turfgrass nursery in Arava, Israel, a population of root-knot nematodes was isolated from poorly growing Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) with symptoms of foliar chlorosis and roots with very small, smooth galls and protruding egg masses. The isolated population (genus Meloidogyne) included
Teklu, M.G.; Schomaker, C.H.; Been, T.H.
The fodder radish varieties Anaconda, Contra, Defender, Doublet and Terranova, known to have some partial resistance, were compared to the standard variety, Radical, to estimate their relative susceptibility (RS) for both population dynamic parameters of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and to evaluate Pi
Cetintas, R; Dickson, D W
The long-term persistence and suppressiveness of Pasteuria penetrans against Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 were investigated in a formerly root-knot nematode suppressive site following 9 years of continuous cultivation of three treatments and 4 years of continuous peanut. The three treatments were two M. arenaria race 1 nonhost crops, bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum cv. Pensacola var. Tifton 9), rhizomal peanut (Arachis glabrata cv. Florigraze), and weed fallow. Two root-knot nematode susceptible weeds commonly observed in weed fallow plots were hairy indigo (Indigofera hirsuta) and alyce clover (Alysicarpus vaginalis). The percentage of J2 with endospores attached reached the highest level of 87% in 2000 in weed fallow, and 63% and 53% in 2002 in bahiagrass and rhizomal peanut, respectively. The percentage of endospore-filled females extracted from peanut roots grown in weed fallow plots increased from nondetectable in 1999 to 56% in 2002, whereas the percentages in bahiagrass and rhizomal peanut plots were 41% and 16%, respectively. Over 4 years, however, there was no strong evidence that endospores densities reached suppressive levels because peanut roots, pods, and pegs were heavily galled, and yields were suppressed. This might be attributed to the discovery of M. javanica infecting peanut in this field in early autumn 2001. A laboratory test confirmed that although the P. penetrans isolate specific to M. arenaria attached to M. javanica J2, no development occurred. In summary, P. penetrans increased on M. arenaria over a 4-year period, but apparently because of infection of M. javanica on peanut at the field site root-knot disease was not suppressed. This was confirmed by a suppressive soil test that showed a higher level of soil suppressiveness than occurred in the field (P = 0.01).
Mujeebur Rahman KHAN
Full Text Available Studies were conducted to determine damage potential of Meloidogyne graminicola on the commonly grown rice cv. Sugandh-5 and to devise an effective management strategy. The nematicides were applied through root-dip (200 ppm solution and soil application of 2 kg ha-1 phorate 10G (25 mg a.i./pot, carbofuran 3G (83.3 mg a.i./pot and 1 L ha-1, carbosulfan 20EC (5µL/pot and chlorpyriphos 20 EC (6.25 µL/pot in both nematode infested and non-infested soil with five modes of application viz., root-dip, single soil application (15 days after transplanting, root-dip + one soil application, two soil applications, and root-dip + two soil applications (15 and 30 days. Application of nematicides did not cause any toxicity symptoms on rice plants. In nematode infested soil, terminal and spiral galls developed on the rice roots, and plants suffered 20−31% decrease in the plant growth parameters. Carbofuran and phorate through root-dip plus single soil application provided greatest suppression in galling (16−20%, egg mass production (18−22% and soil population (27.5−58.2% of M. graminicola, and subsequently increased all the plant growth variables by 9−19%. Root-dip + two soil applications increased plant growth and suppressed nematodes, but was equal to root dip + one soil application. Root-dip treatment alone with carbosulfan also significantly suppressed root galling (10−12% and improved the dry weight of roots and shoots (7−10%.
Pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) leaves have been used in traditional medicine, including as anthelmintics. Methanolic extracts from these plants were investigated for activity against the southern root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita. Dried, ground p...
Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Meloidogyne incognita 名詞 一般 * * *... * サツマイモネコブセンチュウ サツマイモネコブセンチュウ サツマイモネコブセンチュー Thesaurus2015 200906067339177841 C LS05 UNKNOWN_2 Meloidogyne incognita
Khallouk, Samira; Voisin, Roger; Portier, Ulysse; Polidori, Joël; Van Ghelder, Cyril; Esmenjaud, Daniel
Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) (Meloidogyne spp.) are highly polyphagous pests that parasitize Prunus crops in Mediterranean climates. Breeding for RKN-resistant Prunus cultivars, as an alternative to the now-banned use of nematicides, is a real challenge, because the perennial nature of these trees increases the risk of resistance breakdown. The Ma plum resistance (R) gene, with a complete spectrum, and the RMia peach R gene, with a more restricted spectrum, both provide total control of Meloidogyne incognita, the model parthenogenetic species of the genus and the most important RKN in terms of economic losses. We investigated the durability of the resistance to this nematode conferred by these genes, comparing the results obtained with those for the tomato Mi-1 reference gene. In multiyear experiments, we applied a high and continuous nematode inoculum pressure by cultivating nematode-infested susceptible tomato plants with either Prunus accessions carrying Ma or RMia R genes, or with resistant tomato plants carrying the Mi-1 gene. Suitable conditions for Prunus development were achieved by carrying out the studies in a glasshouse, in controlled conditions allowing a short winter leaf fall and dormancy. We first assessed the plum accession 'P.2175', which is heterozygous for the Ma gene, in two successive 2-year evaluations, for resistance to two M. incognita isolates. Whatever the isolate used, no nematodes reproducing on P.2175 were detected, whereas galls and nematodes reproducing on tomato plants carrying Mi-1 were observed. In a second experiment with the most aggressive isolate, interspecific full-sib material (P.2175 × ['Garfi' almond × 'Nemared' peach]), carrying either Ma or RMia (from Nemared) or both (in the heterozygous state) or neither of these genes, was evaluated for 4 years. No virulent nematodes developed on Prunus spp. carrying R genes, whereas galling and virulent individuals were observed on Mi-1-resistant tomato plants. Thus, the resistance to
Jul 31, 2012 ... Intermittent assessment of resistance genes in the ecosystem should be ..... among resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolated from integrated fish .... independent studies on the emerging phylogenetic view of bacterial .... Functional.
Full Text Available Local isolates of Streptomyces spp. were proven could suppress "lincat disease" of tobacco in the field. Six isolates were chosen for partial characterization of their bacteriological properties as based for the next experiments purposes. The results indicated that the isolates produce miselium with spore chains, gram positive, aerob, catalase and oxidase positive. The isolates also hydrolize starch, gelatine and esculine; produce lecithinase enzyme, reduce nitrate to nitrite, do not produce melanine pigment, did not produce hydrogen sulfide. The isolates were sensitive against streptomycine and rifampicin; able to use several carbon and nitrogen sources tested. Capable to grow on several medium pH, from 4,3 to 8,0. The isolates were able to grow from 5° C to 45° C; able to grow on medium containing 4% to 7% NaCl and ion the medium containing 0,1% of phenol. Plant pathogenicity test result showed negative responses which indicated that the used isolates were non plant pathogenic. The ability in suppressing lincat pathogen (Ralstonia solanacearum and Meloidogyne incognita in vitro was vary between isolates. Streptomyces spp, isolat lokal terbukti dapat menekan penyakit lunvat tembakau di lapangan. Sebanyak enam isolat dipilih untuk dicirikan sebagai sifat-sifat bakteriologinya sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai dasar dalam penelitian berikutnya. Penelitian dilakukan terhadap sifat morfologi, fisiologi dan sifat biokimia. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa isolat yang diteliti menghasilkan miselium yang memproduksi rangkaian spora, Gram positif, aerob, katalase dan oksidase positif. Isolat-isolat tersebut menghidrolisis pati, gelatin, eskulin; membentuk ensim lechitinase, mereduksi nitrat menjadi nitrit, tidak menghasilkan pigmen melanin, tidak membentuk hidrogen sulfida. Isolat yang diteliti peka terhadap antibiotik streptomisin dan nifampisin; mampu menggunakan beberapa sumber karbon dan sumber nitrogen yang diujikan, Kisaran pH untuk
Full Text Available Plant root exudates affect root-knot nematodes egg hatch. Chemicals in root exudates can attract nematodes to the roots or result in repellence, motility inhibition or even death. However, until recently little was known about the relationship between tomato root exudates chemicals and root-knot nematodes. In this study, root exudates were extracted from three tomato rootstocks with varying levels of nematode resistance: Baliya (highly resistant, HR, RS2 (moderately resistant, MR and L-402 (highly susceptible, T. The effects of the root exudates on Meloidogyne incognita (M. incognita egg hatch, survival and chemotaxis of second-stage juveniles (J2 were explored. The composition of the root exudates was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS prior to and following M. incognita inoculation. Four compounds in root exudates were selected for further analysis and their allopathic effect on M. incognita were investigated. Root exudates from each tomato rootstocks (HR, MR and T strains suppressed M. incognita egg hatch and increased J2 mortality, with the highest rate being observed in the exudates from the HR plants. Exudate from HR variety also repelled M. incognita J2 while that of the susceptible plant, T, was demonstrated to be attractive. The relative amount of esters and phenol compounds in root exudates from HR and MR tomato rootstocks increased notably after inoculation. Four compounds, 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol, L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate, dibutyl phthalate and dimethyl phthalate increased significantly after inoculation. The egg hatch of M. incognita was suppressed by each of the compound. L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate showed the most notable effect in a concentration-dependent manner. All four compounds were associated with increased J2 mortality. The greatest effect was observed with dimethyl phthalate at 2 mmol·L-1. Dibutyl phthalate was the only compound observed to repel M. incognita J2 with no effect being detected in
Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as taxas reprodutivas de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e de Meloidogyne javanica em oito espécies de plantas consideradas medicinais, em vasos com 500 ml de solo, sob condição de casa de vegetação. Cada planta foi inoculada com 5000 ovos, em média, estabelecendo-se cinco repetições. Realizaram-se as avaliações após 45 a 55 dias das inoculações, com base nos índices de massas de ovos e nos fatores de reprodução dos nematóides. Achillea millefolium (mil-folhas, Arctium lappa (bardana, Bryophyllum calycinum (folha-da-fortuna e Crassula portulacea (bálsamo foram hospedeiras não eficientes ou desfavoráveis a ambas as espécies. Plectranthus barbatus (boldo e Polygonum hidropiperoides (polígono foram eficientes à reprodução das duas espécies. Achyrocline satureoides (macela e Tropaeolum majus (chagas foram eficientes para M. javanica e não para M. incognita.The reproductive rates of the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica in the roots of eight medicinal plant species were assessed under greenhouse condition. Each plant, growing in a pot containing 500 ml of sterilized soil, was inoculated with an average number of 5,000 eggs, with five repetitions. Egg mass index and reproduction factor data were used for the evaluation, 45-55 days after plant inoculation. Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Bryophyllum calycinum, and Crassula portulacea were rated as poor or nonefficient hosts, while Plectranthus barbatus and Polygonum hidropiperoides were efficient for both nematode species. Achyrocline satureoides and Tropaeolum majus were efficient for M. javanica, but nonefficient for M. incognita.
Carter, William W.
The degree of resistance by a cotton plant to Meloidogyne incognita is affected by soil temperature, particularly in moderately resistant cultivars, The total number of nematodes in the resistant and moderately resistant rools at 35 C was equal to, or greater than, the number in susceptible roots at 20, 25, or 30 C. A shift in numbers to developing and egg-bearing forms of nematodes in the susceptible cultivar as tentperature increased indicates development was affected by temperature rather ...
Kinloch, Robert A.
A replicated field study was conducted from 1972 to 1980 involving soybeans grown in 2-, 3-, and 4-year rotations with maize in soil infested with Meloidogyne incognita. Monocultured soybeans were maintained as controls. Cropping regimes involved root-knot nematode susceptible and resistant soybean cultivars and soybeans treated and not treated with nematicides. Yields of susceptible cultivars declined with reduced length of rotation. Nematicide treatment significantly increased yields of sus...
Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Fernandez, Ivan; Lok, Gerrit B; Pozo, María J; Pieterse, Corné M J; Van Wees, Saskia C M
Beneficial root endophytes such as Trichoderma spp. can reduce infections by parasitic nematodes through triggering host defences. Little is currently known about the complex hormone signalling underlying the induction of resistance. In this study, we investigated whether Trichoderma modulates the hormone signalling network in the host to induce resistance to nematodes. We investigated the role and the timing of the jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-regulated defensive pathways in Trichoderma-induced resistance to the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. A split-root system of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) was used to study local and systemic induced defences by analysing nematode performance, defence gene expression, responsiveness to exogenous hormone application, and dependence on SA and JA signalling of Trichoderma-induced resistance. Root colonization by Trichoderma impeded nematode performance both locally and systemically at multiple stages of the parasitism, that is, invasion, galling and reproduction. First, Trichoderma primed SA-regulated defences, which limited nematode root invasion. Then, Trichoderma enhanced JA-regulated defences, thereby antagonizing the deregulation of JA-dependent immunity by the nematodes, which compromised galling and fecundity. Our results show that Trichoderma primes SA- and JA-dependent defences in roots, and that the priming of responsiveness to these hormones upon nematode attack is plastic and adaptive to the parasitism stage. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.
Primary acute conununity-acquired pneumonia was unconunon. ... organisms such as Klebsiella spp. are frequent causes of nosocomial infections."o The larrer ... Accepted 11 Sep 1992. recognised cause of community-acquired Gram-nega-.
P. E. V. Aguiar
Full Text Available Mato Grosso is the third largest producer of bean from Brazil, being the third harvest (irrigated the most productive, but diseases such as anthracnose, web blight and nematodes of galls cause losses to producers. In addition, a measure widely used and little studied for the control of diseases and nematodes in Mato Grosso is the biological control, which consists of the action of other microorganisms on phytopathogens. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma harzianum and T. asperellum in the development (height of plants, chlorophyll and number of pods of culture of bean, in the control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, web blight (Rhizoctonia solani and in the population of Meloidogyne spp. in the soil. The experiment was accomplished in area experimental of University Federal of Mato Grosso/Campus Sinop. The experimental design was of entirely randomized with 12 parcels of 5m² each, with 3 treatments and 4 replications. The cultivar used was Whitey, carioca group, and the seed treatment performed with product Pyraclostrobin + Thiophanate Methyl + Fipronil and after drying of the inoculation of biocontrol agents and manual seeding. It was observed that the application of T. harzianum and T. asperellum, not promoted increase of chlorophyll, height of plants in bean culture, without reducing the population of Meloidogyne spp.. However, biocontrol agents have reduced the severity of anthracnose and web blight and promoted an increase in the average number of plant pods-1. It is therefore concluded that biocontrol agents show potential for application in bean culture in the North of Mato Grosso.
Murga-Gutiérrez, Santos Nélida; Alvarado-Ibáñez, Juan Carlos; Vera-Obando, Nora Yessenia
Se investigó el efecto del follaje del “huacatay” Tagetes minutasobre la nodulación radicular producida por el nematodo Meloidogyne incognitaque parasita el “pimiento páprika” Capsicum annuumcultivado en invernadero, con la finalidad de obtener una alternativa de control de este nematodo. Se utilizaron tres grupos experimentales y un testigo, con 12 macetas cada uno, las cuales contenían suelo y arena estériles (1:1). A este substrato se adicionó el follaje de T. minutaal 20, 35 y 50% (v/...
Hirunsalee, Anan; Barker, K. R.; Beute, M. K.
A 3-year microplot study was initiated to characterize the population dynamics, reproduction potential, and survivorship of single or mixed populations of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 (Ma1) and race 2 (Ma2), as affected by crop rotations of peanut 'Florigiant' and M. incognita races 1 and 3-resistant 'McNair 373' and susceptible 'Coker 371-Gold' tobacco. Infection, reproduction, and root damage by Ma2 on peanut and by Ma1 on resistant tobacco were limited in the first year. Infection, reproduc...
, F. Naserinasab; , N. Sahebani; , H.R. Etebarian
In this study, Trichoderma harzianum BI was evaluated for its capacity to reduce the incidence and pathogenicity of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica on tomato. Culture Şltrates of T. harzianum BI at different concentrations, (standard, 1:1, 1:10, and 1:100) were studied. In vitro studies revealed that hatching of M. javanica eggs was inhibited by the culture Şltrates and this inhibition was positively correlated with increase in the concentration of culture Şltrates. Parasitism of ...
Lidya Morita Sondang
Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat ketahanan 2 klon Eucalyptus spp yaitu Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla terhadap Mycosphaerella spp serta mengetahui virulensi Mycospaherella spp pada 2 kelas umur (2 dan 3 bulan) pada tanaman Eucalyptus spp. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan pengambilan sampel bibit tanaman Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla dari pembibitan PT.Toba Pulp...
Doucet, Marcelo E.; Lax, Paola
El género Meloidogyne comprende varias especies, algunas de las cuales ocasionan severos daños a numerosos cultivos pudiendo afectar seriamente su producción. En este trabajo se presenta una síntesis de los principales aspectos relacionados con este nematodo en el país. Academia Nacional de Agronomía y Veterinaria
Carneiro, R.M.D.G.; Correa, V.R.; Almeida, M.R.A.; Gomes, A.C.M.M.; Deimi, A.M.; Castagnone-Sereno, P.; Karssen, G.
A new root-knot nematode parasitising vegetables, flowers and fruits in Brazil, Iran and Chile, is described as Meloidogyne luci n. sp. The female has an oval to squarish perineal pattern with a low to moderately high dorsal arc and without shoulders, similar to M. ethiopica. The female stylet is
Steam and soil solarization were investigated for control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria in two years of field trials on a commercial flower farm in Florida. The objective was to determine if pre-plant steam treatments in combination with solarization, or solarization alone effective...
This study on the interactions between various cultivars of the black pepper plant (Piper nigrum L. ) and three of its pathogens, Meloidogyne Incognita (Kofoid & White) , Radopholus similis (Cobb) , Thorne and
Kutywayo, V.; Been, T.H.
A glasshouse experiment was carried out to investigate the host status of six important weeds in intensive agricultural cropping systems to Meloidogyne chitwoodi and Pratylenchus penetrans. Senecio vulgaris L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic. and Solanum nigrum L. were hosts of M. chitwoodi with
Plant volatile signatures are often used as cues by herbivores to locate their preferred hosts. Here, we report on the volatile organic compounds used by the subterranean root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita for host location. We compared responses of infective second stage juveniles (J2s)...
Been, Thomas H.; Molendijk, Leendert P.G.; Teklu, Misghina G.; Schomaker, Corrie H.
Relative tuber infestation and quality of two Meloidogyne chitwoodi resistant potato genotypes, AR04-4096 and 2011M1, were compared in glasshouse experiments at initial population density (Pi) = 16 second-stage juveniles (g dry soil)−1 in the presence and absence of the bristle oat, Avena strigosa.
Thoden, T.C.; Korthals, G.W.; Visser, J.H.M.; Gastel-Topper, van A.W.W.
For several years, a new species of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne minor, has been reported from parts of The Netherlands, Belgium, UK and Ireland. So far, this species causes most problems on golf courses but has also been reported from a potato field in Zeijerveld (The Netherlands) where it
Wood, B. W.
The effect of the interaction between Meloidogyne partityla and Mesocriconema xenoplax on nematode reproduction and vegetative growth of Carya illinoinensis ‘Desirable’ pecan was studied in field microplots. Meloidogyne partityla suppressed reproduction of M. xenoplax, whereas the presence of M. xenoplax did not affect the population density of M. partityla second-stage juveniles in soil. Above-ground tree growth, as measured by trunk diameter 32 months following inoculation, was reduced in the presence of M. partityla alone or in combination with M. xenoplax as compared with the uninoculated control trees. The interaction between M. partityla and M. xenoplax was significant for dry root weight 37 months after inoculation. Results indicate that the presence of the two nematode species together caused a greater reduction in root growth than M. xenoplax alone, but not when compared to M. partityla alone. Mouse-ear symptom severity in pecan leaves was increased in the presence of M. partityla compared with M. xenoplax and the uninoculated control. Infection with M. partityla increased severity of mouse-ear symptoms expressed by foliage. The greater negative impact of M. partityla on vegetative growth of pecan seedlings in field microplots indicates that it is likely a more detrimental pathogen to pecan than is M. xenoplax and is likely an economic pest of pecan. PMID:19440263
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify nematodes species of the genus Meloidogyne associated with upland ornamental plants. We sampled ten ornamental species in a commercial nursery in San Isidro, Heredia, Costa Rica between 2011-2012. Morphometric measurements of the stylet length, the tail length, and the hyaline region of J2s, as well as perineal patterns of egg-carrying females were used for identification, Genomic DNA was extracted from single J2s and molecular analyses were performed by amplifying the intergenic region between cytochrome oxidase subunit II of the COII and the long subunit of the ARN ribosomal genes by PCR-RFLP. Combining these methods allowed identification of five species of nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne (M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. hispanica, M. incognita and M. javanica, and new restriction enzyme patterns were reported for M. hapla and M. javanica using AluI. Additionally, a preliminary report of M. hispanica was described by sequencing the 28S and 18S regions.
Solano-Gonzalez, Stefany; Esquivel-Hernandez, Alejandro; Molina-Bravo, Ramon; Morera-Brenes, Bernal
Nematodes species of the genus Meloidogyne associated with upland ornamental plants were identified. Ten ornamental species in a commercial nursery were sampled in San Isidro, Heredia, Costa Rica between 2011-2012. Morphometric measurements of the stylet length, the trail length, and the hyaline region of J_2s as well as perineal patterns of egg-carrying females were used for identification, Genomic DNA was extracted from single J_2s and molecular analyses were performed by amplifying the intergenic region between cytochrome oxidase subunit II of the COII and the long subunit of the ARN ribosomal genes by PCR-RFLP. Combining these methods allowed identification of five species of nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne (M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. hispanica, M. incognita and M. javanica), and new restriction enzyme patterns were reported for M. hapla and M. javanica using AluI. Additionally a preliminary report of M. hispanica was described by sequencing the 28S and 18S regions. (author) [es
Daniel Rufino Amaral
Full Text Available As nematodes cause great damage to Brazilian coffee production, effective methods to control these parasites are necessary. In a previous work Allium cepa L., Cajanus cajan (L. Mill., Crotalaria juncea L., Ficus elastica Roxb., Ruta graveolens L., Stylosanthes guianensis Aubl., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. Dewit., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Catharanthus roseus G. Don, Tagetes minuta L., Ricinus communis L. and Coffea arabica L. produced active substances against Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, a nematode widely disseminated through Brazilian coffee fields. Thus, aqueous extracts of such plants, collected in a different season from that of the previous work, as well as crude metabolites produced in liquid medium by Fusarium moniliforme Shelden and Cylindrocarpon magnusianum (Sacc. Woll., were submitted to in vitro assays with M. exigua second-stage juveniles (J2. All plants and fungi produced active substances against J2. Therefore, their metabolites were applied to six-month-old coffee plants inoculated with M. exigua. After 90 days in a greenhouse, those samples obtained from A. cepa, L. leucocephala, R. graveolens and F. moniliforme inhibited the production of galls and eggs by M. exigua, demonstrating potential to control such parasite.Os nematóides acarretam grandes perdas aos produtores brasileiros de café, sendo necessário o desenvolvimento de métodos eficientes para o seu controle. Em trabalho anterior, Allium cepa L., Cajanus cajan (L. Mill., Crotalaria juncea L., Ficus elastica Roxb., Ruta graveolens L., Stylosanthes guianensis Aubl., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. Dewit., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Catharanthus roseus G. Don, Tagetes minuta L., Ricinus communis L. e Coffea arabica L. produziram substâncias ativas contra o nematóide Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, que é amplamente disseminado pelos cafezais brasileiros. Dando continuidade a esse trabalho, extratos aquosos das plantas mencionadas, coletadas em época diferente daquela
Tariq, M.; Dawar, S.
Six months field experiment were set up from June to November in Department of Botany, University of Karachi to investigate the influence of mangroves (Avicennia marina, Rhizophora mucronata) parts separately or combined parts for the control of Meloidogyne javanica (Treub.) Chitwood. Mangroves parts including leaves, stem, pneumatophore and combined parts were applied to field in form of powder at rate of 60 g/plot, capsules and pellets at 120 g/plot. Results pertaining to seed germination percentage, plant length, plant weight and yield showed outstanding improvement in both okra and mung bean when combined parts pellets of A. marina and R. mucronata were used. All parts of A. marina, R. mucronata pellets and powder were effective in controlling of M. javanica infection but maximum reduction in root knot nematode were obtained by the amendment of mangrove combined parts powder. (author)
Qiu, Jinya Jack; Westerdahl, Becky B.; Anderson, Cindy; Williamson, Valerie M.
We have developed a simple PCR assay protocol for detection of the root-knot nematode (RKN) species Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica extracted from soil. Nematodes are extracted from soil using Baermann funnels and centrifugal flotation. The nematode-containing fraction is then digested with proteinase K, and a PCR assay is carried out with primers specific for this group of RKN and with universal primers spanning the ITS of rRNA genes. The presence of RKN J2 can be detected among large numbers of other plant-parasitic and free-living nematodes. The procedure was tested with several soil types and crops from different locations and was found to be sensitive and accurate. Analysis of unknowns and spiked soil samples indicated that detection sensitivity was the same as or higher than by microscopic examination. PMID:19259460
Pokharel, Ramesh R; Abawi, George S; Zhang, Ning; Duxbury, John M; Smart, Christine D
Thirty-three isolates of root-knot nematode were recovered from soil samples from rice-wheat fields in Nepal and maintained on rice cv. BR 11. The isolates were characterized using morphology, host range and DNA sequence analyses in order to ascertain their identity. Results indicated phenotypic similarity (juvenile measurements, perennial pattern, host range and gall shape) of the Nepalese isolates with Meloidogyne graminicola, with minor variations. The rice varieties LA 110 and Labelle were susceptible to all of the Nepalese isolates, but differences in the aggressiveness of the isolates were observed. Phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of partial internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the rRNA genes indicated that all Nepalese isolates formed a distinct clade with known isolates of M. graminicola with high bootstrap support. Furthermore, two groups were identified within the M. graminicola clade. No correlation between ITS haplotype and aggressiveness or host range was found among the tested isolates.
Mauricio Batista Fialho
Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that volatile organic compounds (VOCs, produced by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were able to inhibit the development of phytopathogenic fungi. In this context, the nematicidal potential of the synthetic mixture of VOCs, constituted of alcohols and esters, was evaluated for the control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica, which causes losses to crops of high economic value. The fumigation of substrate containing second-stage juveniles with VOCs exhibited nematicidal effect higher than 30% for the lowest concentration tested (33.3 µL g-1 substrate, whereas at 66.6 and 133.3 µL g-1 substrate, the nematode mortality was 100%. The present results stimulate other studies on VOCs for nematode management.
Full Text Available An experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions to test the control of Meloidogyne incognita and Helicotylenchus dihystera by Tagetes patula nana var. Petit Harmony and T. erecta var. Orange. For each of these nematode species, the population levels tested were considered as high, moderate and low. These populations were obtained mixing infested soil with sterilized one. Both Tagetes species gave satisfactory control. The decrease in population of nematodes in comparison with tomato was ranged from 15.5 to 136.3% depencing on the nematode species and on its population level on the soil No significate difference was found between the two Tagetes species. There was a greater decrease in population density for M. incognita than for H. dihystera; this was particulary true at the lowest population levels tested. In the case of M. incognita, an inverse relation was found between degree of control and population density of these nematodes in soil.
Tedford, E C; Fortnum, B A
Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P Eleusine indica, Sorghum halepense, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, and Datura stramonium were poor hosts for M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus hybridus, Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, Setaria lutescens, Vicia villosa, Sida spinosa, Rumex crispus, and Portulaca oleracea were moderate hosts and Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Xanthium strumarium, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactylon, Paspalum notatum, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, and Rumex acetosella were poor hosts for M. incognita. None of the above were good hosts for M. incognita. Tobacco 'PD4' supported large numbers of both nematode species.
Smittle, D A; Johnson, A W
Phenamiphos applied at 6.7 kg ai/ha through a solid set or a center pivot irrigation system with 28 mm of water effectively controlled root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne incognita, and resulted in greater snap bean growth and yields irrespective of growing season, tillage method, or cover crop system. The percentage yield increases attributed to this method of M. incognita control over nontreated controls were 45% in the spring crop, and 90% and 409% in the fall crops following winter rye and fallow, respectively. Root galling was not affected by tillage systems or cover crop, but disk tillage resulted in over 50% reduction in bean yield compared with yields from the subsoil-bed tillage system.
McSorley, R; Dickson, D W; de Brito, J A; Hewlett, T E; Frederick, J J
The effects of 12 summer crop rotation treatments on population densities of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 and on yields of subsequent spring vegetable crops were determined in microplots. The crop sequence was: (i) rotation crops during summer 1991 ; (ii) cover crop of rye (Secale cereale) during winter 1991-92; (iii) squash (Cucurbita pepo) during spring 1992; (iv) rotation crops during summer 1992; (v) rye during winter 1992-93; (vi) eggplant (Solanum melongena) during spring 1993. The 12 rotation treatments were castor (Ricinus communis), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), crotalaria (Crotalaria spectabilis), fallow, hairy indigo (Indigofera hirsuta), American jointvetch (Aeschynomene americana), sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), soybean (Glycine max), horsebean (Canavalia ensiformis), sesame (Sesamum indicum), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Compared to peanut, the first eight rotation treatments resulted in lower (P crops may provide a means for depressing M. arenaria population densities on a short-term basis to enhance yields in a subsequent susceptible vegetable crop.
Full Text Available Sequential changes induced by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica (Treub Chitwood in mung bean (Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek cv. MN95 were studied. Physiological and biochemical changes were recorded 15, 30 and 45 days after nematode inoculation. The changes noted varied with the length of exposure to the nematode. Chlorophyll and carotenoid contents decreased in nematode-infected plants. Total phenols increased in the leaves compared with the controls for up to 30 days after inoculation. Protein content declined significantly at 30 days after exposure to the nematodes. Amylase activity was enhanced in both the leaves and the stems as compared with the controls. The results suggested that plants responded to the nematode by adopting biochemical strategies to withstand the adverse effects of infection.
Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne arenaria are important parasitic nematodes of vegetable and ornamental crops. Microplot and greenhouse experiments were conducted to test commercial formulations of the biocontrol agent Pasteuria penetrans for control of M. incognita on tomato and cucumber and M. arenaria on snapdragon. Three methods of application for P. penetrans were assessed including seed, transplant, and post-plant treatments. Efficacy in controlling galling and reproduction of the two root-knot nematode species was evaluated. Seed treatment application was assessed only for M. incognita on cucumber. Pasteuria treatment rates of a granular transplant formulation ranged from 1.5 × 10(5) endospores/cm(3) to 3 × 10(5) endospores/cm(3) of transplant mix applied at seeding. Additional applications of 1.5 × 10(5) endospores/cm(3) of soil were applied as a liquid formulation to soil post-transplant for both greenhouse and microplot trials. In greenhouse cucumber trials, all Pasteuria treatments were equivalent to steamed soil for reducing M. incognita populations in roots and soil, and reducing nematode reproduction and galling. In cucumber microplot trials there were no differences among treatments for M. incognita populations in roots or soil, eggs/g root, or root condition ratings. Nematode reproduction on cucumber was low with Telone II and with the seed treatment plus post-plant application of Pasteuria, which had the lowest nematode reproduction. However, galling for all Pasteuria treatments was higher than galling with Telone II. Root-knot nematode control with Pasteuria in greenhouse and microplot trials varied on tomato and snapdragon. Positive results were achieved for control of M. incognita with the seed treatment application on cucumber.
ABD EL FATTAH, A.I.; KAMEL, H.A.; EL-NAGDI, W.M.A.
The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of irradiation of sugar beet seeds on the plant resistance to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infection in addition to some morphological parameters, biochemical components and root technological characters. Relative to control (non-irradiated seeds), the obtained data showed that, all doses except 10 Gy significantly increased root length of un inoculated plants and the most effective dose was 200 Gy. All doses significantly decreased root diameter except 50 and 100 Gy. The 10 and 400 Gy significantly reduced root fresh weight while 50, 100 and 200 Gy caused non-significant increase. All doses significantly increased root fresh weight/dry weight than control. There was non-significant effect on the morphological parameters of the plants germinated from gamma irradiated seeds and inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita. Total chlorophyll of seed irradiated and un inoculated plants were significantly reduced by all doses except 200 Gy. All doses of gamma radiation caused non-significant decrease in the total chlorophyll of the infected plants. In un inoculated plants, a significant reduction in the total phenol was occurred due to all doses of gamma radiation. In contrast, in inoculated plants, 10 and 25 Gy caused significant reduction in the total phenol while 50 and 400 Gy caused significant increase in the total phenol.Significant increase in sucrose % was observed due to 10 Gy in the un inoculated plants. The 400 Gy caused significant decrease while other doses caused non-significant decrease in the sucrose %. In the inoculated plants, 50, 100 and 400 Gy caused significant increase in sucrose %. All doses significantly increased total soluble salts percent (TSS %) of either inoculated or un inoculated plants. Purity % was increased by all doses in the inoculated plants.The number of galls and egg masses were reduced gradually by increasing gamma doses and 100 Gy caused the highest reduction 89
Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Rosskopf, Erin N
Experiments were conducted in the greenhouse to assess root galling and egg production of three root-knot nematode species, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica, on several weeds common to Florida agricultural land. Weeds evaluated were Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed), Cyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge), Eleusine indica (goosegrass), Portulaca oleracea (common purslane), and Solanum americanum (American black nightshade). Additionally, although it is recommended as a cover crop in southern regions of the U.S., Aeschynomene americana (American jointvetch) was evaluated as a weed following the detection of root galling in a heavy volunteer infestation of an experimental field in southeastern Florida. Weeds were propagated from seed and inoculated with 1000 nematode eggs when plants reached the two true-leaf stage. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum 'Rutgers') was included as a positive control. Aeschynomene americana and P. oleracea roots supported the highest number of juveniles (J2) and had the highest number of eggs/g of root for all three species of Meloidogyne tested. However, though P. oleracea supported very high root levels of the three nematode species tested, its fleshy roots did not exhibit severe gall symptoms. Low levels of apparent galling, combined with high egg production, increase the potential for P. oleracea to support populations of these three species of root-knot nematodes to a degree that may not be appropriately recognized. This research quantifies the impact of P. oleracea as a host for M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica compared to several other important weeds commonly found in Florida agricultural production, and the potential for A. americana to serve as an important weed host of the three species of root-knot nematode tested in southern regions of Florida.
Timper, Patricia; Davis, Richard F; Tillman, P Glynn
Substantial reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on winter cover crops may lead to damaging populations in a subsequent cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) crop. The amount of population increase during the winter depends on soil temperature and the host status of the cover crop. Our objectives were to quantify M. incognita race 3 reproduction on rye (Secale cereale) and several leguminous cover crops and to determine if these cover crops increase population densities of M. incognita and subsequent damage to cotton. The cover crops tested were 'Bigbee' berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum), 'Paradana' balansa clover (T. balansae), 'AU Sunrise' and 'Dixie' crimson clover (T. incarnatum), 'Cherokee' red clover (T. pratense), common and 'AU Early Cover' hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), 'Cahaba White' vetch (V. sativa), and 'Wrens Abruzzi' rye. In the greenhouse tests, egg production was greatest on berseem clover, Dixie crimson clover, AU Early Cover hairy vetch, and common hairy vetch; intermediate on Balansa clover and AU Sunrise crimson clover; and least on rye, Cahaba White vetch, and Cherokee red clover. In both 2002 and 2003 field tests, enough heat units were accumulated between 1 January and 20 May for the nematode to complete two generations. Both AU Early Cover and common hairy vetch led to greater root galling than fallow in the subsequent cotton crop; they also supported high reproduction of M. incognita in the greenhouse. Rye and Cahaba White vetch did not increase root galling on cotton and were relatively poor hosts for M. incognita. Only those legumes that increased populations of M. incognita reduced cotton yield. In the southern US, M. incognita can complete one to two generations on a susceptible winter cover crop, so cover crops that support high nematode reproduction may lead to damage and yield losses in the following cotton crop. Planting rye or Meloidogyne-resistant legumes as winter cover crops will lower the risk of increased nematode populations
Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W
In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.
Adekunle O.K.; Owa T.E.
greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate the effects of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita in cowpea and the influence of these pathogens on the yield of cowpea. The interaction of both pathogens resulted in higher population density of the nematode at harvest and correspondingly reduced grain yield in comparison to inoculation of either pathogen alone or un-inoculated control. An almost equal number of nematode juveniles penetrate...
Hajji Lobna; Chattaoui Mayssa; Regaieg Hajer; M'Hamdi-Boughalleb Naima; Rhouma Ali; Horrigue-Raouani Najet
In this study, three local isolates of Trichoderma (Tr1: T. viride, Tr2: T. harzianum and Tr3: T. asperellum) were isolated and evaluated for their biocontrol effectiveness under in vitro conditions and in greenhouse. In vitro bioassay revealed a biopotential control against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici and Meloidogyne javanica (RKN) separately. All species of Trichoderma exhibited biocontrol performance and (Tr1) Trichoderma viride was the most efficient. In fact, growth rat...
Elmer, W. H.; LaMondia, J. A.
Successful plant pathogens co-evolve and adapt to the environmental constraints placed on host plants. We compared the salt tolerance of two salt marsh pathogens, Fusarium palustre and Meloidogyne spartinae, to genetically related terrestrial species, F. sporotrichioides and Meloidogyne hapla, to assess whether the salt marsh species had acquired selective traits for persisting in saline environments or if salt tolerance was comparable among Fusarium and Meloidogyne species. Comparisons of both species were made in vitro in vessels containing increasing concentration of NaCl. We observed that F. palustre was more tolerant to NaCl than F. sporotrichioides. The radial expansion of F. palustre on NaCl-amended agar plates was unaffected by increasing concentrations up to 0.3 M. F. sporotrichioides showed large reductions in growth at the same concentrations. Survival of M. hapla was greatest at 0 M, and reduced by half in a 0.3 M solution for 4 days. No juveniles survived exposure to 0.3 M NaCl for 12 days. M. spartinae survived at all NaCl concentrations tested, including 1.0 M for at least 12 days. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that marine organisms in the upper tidal zone must osmoregulate to withstand a wide range of salinity and provide evidence that these pathogens evolved in saline conditions and are not recent introductions from terrestrial niches.
Rapid identification of cyst (Heterodera spp., Globodera spp.) and root-knot (Meloidogyne spp.) nematodes on the basis of ITS2 sequence variation detected by PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) in cultures and field samples
Clapp, J.P.; Van der Stoel, C.D.; Van der Putten, W.H.
Cyst and root-knot nematodes show high levels of gross morphological similarity. This presents difficulties for the study of their ecology in natural ecosystems. In this study, cyst and root-knot nematode species, as well as some ectoparasitic nematode species, were identified using the second
Full Text Available In this study, we have characterized the role of carotenoids and chlorophyll in the compatible interaction between the sedentary root knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne graminicola and the monocot model plant rice (Oryza sativa. Previous transcriptome data showed a differential expression of carotenoid and chlorophyll biosynthesis genes in nematode-induced giant cells and gall tissue. Metabolite measurement showed that galls indeed accumulate chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids, as well as the hormone abscisic acid (ABA. When ABA was externally applied on rice plants, or when ABA-biosynthesis was inhibited, a significant increase in gall formation and nematode development was found, showing the complex role of ABA in this interaction. ABA application suppressed jasmonic acid (JA levels in the plants, while ABA-biosynthesis inhibition lead to increased JA levels confirming an antagonism between ABA and JA in rice roots. In addition, combined applications of ABA and JA showed that the ABA-effect can overcome JA-induced defense. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that the accumulation of chlorophyll and carotenoid precursors would be beneficial to nematode infection. Indeed, when chemically blocking the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway at different steps, which leads to differential accumulation of carotenoids and chlorophyll in the plants, a positive and clear link between accumulation of carotenoids and chlorophyll and rice susceptibility to RKN was detected.
Full Text Available With a diverse host range, Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode is listed as one of the most economically important obligate parasites of agriculture. This nematode species establishes permanent feeding sites in plant root systems soon after infestation. A compatible host-nematode interaction triggers a cascade of morphological and physiological process disruptions of the host, leading to pathogenesis. Such disruption is reflected by altered gene expression in affected cells, detectable using molecular approaches. We employed a high-throughput proteomics approach to elucidate the events involved in a compatible banana- M. incognita interaction. This study serves as the first crucial step in developing natural banana resistance for the purpose of biological-based nematode management programme. We successfully profiled 114 Grand naine root proteins involved in the interaction with M. incognita at the 30th- and 60th- day after inoculation (dai. The abundance of proteins involved in fundamental biological processes, cellular component organisation and stress responses were significantly altered in inoculated root samples. In addition, the abundance of proteins in pathways associated with defence and giant cell maintenance in plants such as phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, glycolysis and citrate cycle were also implicated by the infestation.
Schmidt, L M; Preston, J F; Nong, G; Dickson, D W; Aldrich, H C
We report on the development of a PCR-based assay to detect Pasteuria penetrans infection of Meloidogyne arenaria in planta using specific primers for recently sequenced sigE, spoIIAB and atpF genes of P. penetrans biotype P20. Amplification of these genes in crude DNA extracts of ground tomato root galls using real-time kinetic PCR distinguished infected from uninfected M. arenaria race 1 by analysis of consensus thresholds for single copy genes. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using the sigE primer sequence as a probe shows hybridization to P. penetrans cells in various stages of vegetative (pre-endospore) development. Ratios of gene copies for sigE and 16S rDNA were obtained for P. penetrans and compared to Bacillus subtilis as a genomic paradigm of endospore-forming bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis of the sigE gene from Gram-positive, endospore-forming bacteria finds P. penetrans most closely related Paenbacillus polymyxa. The sporulation genes (spo genes), particularly sigE, have sequence diversity that recommends them for species and biotype differentiation of the numerous Pasteuria isolates that infect a large number of plant-parasitic nematodes.
Baidoo, Richard; Mengistu, Tesfamariam Mekete; Brito, Janete A; McSorley, Robert; Stamps, Robert H; Crow, William T
Pasteuria penetrans is considered as the primary agent responsible for soil suppressiveness to root-knot nematodes widely distributed in many agricultural fields. A preliminary survey on a Pittosporum tobira field where the grower had experienced a continuous decline in productivity caused by Meloidogyne incognita showed that the nematode was infected with Pasteuria penetrans . For effective control of the nematode, the bacterium and the host must coexist in the same root zone. The vertical distribution of Pasteuria penetrans and its relationship with the nematode host in the soil was investigated to identify (i) the vertical distribution of P. penetrans endospores in an irrigated P. tobira field and (ii) the relationship among P. penetrans endospore density, M. incognita J2 population density, and host plant root distribution over time. Soil bioassays revealed that endospore density was greater in the upper 18 cm of the top soil compared with the underlying depths. A correlation analysis showed that the endospore density was positively related to the J2 population density and host plant root distribution. Thus, the vertical distribution of P. penetrans was largely dependent on its nematode host which in turn was determined by the distribution of the host plant roots. The Pasteuria was predominant mostly in the upper layers of the soil where their nematode host and the plant host roots are abundant, a factor which may be a critical consideration when using P. penetrans as a nematode biological control agent.
Full Text Available Soil amendments with powdered seeds of Trigonella foenum - graecum (fenugreek caused soil suppressiveness against Meloidogyne javanica. Decomposed seeds of fenugreek caused marked reduction in nematode population densities and subsequent root-knot development as compared to the aqueous extract of the seeds indicating that some indirect factors are involved in the suppression of root-knot nematode. Both decomposed seeds and aqueous extracts enhanced plant height and fresh weights of shoot whereas root growth remained uninfluenced. Changes in fungal communities associated with nematode control were studied by comparing population numbers of fungi in the soil and in internal root tissues (endorhiza in non-amended and fenugreekamended soils. Acremonium sp., Chaetomium globosum, Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani were found to colonize inner root tissues of mungbean. Acremonium sp., C. globosum and F.solani were isolated in a relatively higher frequency from roots growing in the amended soils while M. phaseolina and R. solani colonized greatly in roots growing in non-amended soil. Of the fungi isolated from soils, Penicillium brefaldianum caused maximum juvenile mortality of M.javanica whereas F.solani caused greatest inhibition of egg hatch.
Sung Min Hwang
Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes represent a significant problem in cucumber, causing reduction in yield and quality. To develop screening methods for resistance of cucumber to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, development of root-knot nematode of four cucumber cultivars (‘Dragonsamchuk’, ‘Asiastrike’, ‘Nebakja’ and ‘Hanelbakdadaki’ according to several conditions such as inoculum concentration, plant growth stage and transplanting period was investigated by the number of galls and egg masses produced in each seedling 45 days after inoculation. There was no difference in galls and egg masses according to the tested condition except for inoculum concentration. Reproduction of the nematode on all the tested cultivars according to inoculum concentration increased in a dose-dependent manner. On the basis of the result, the optimum conditions for root-knot development on the cultivars is to transplant period of 1 week, inoculum concentration of 5,000 eggs/plant and plant growth stage of 3-week-old in a greenhouse (25 ± 5°C. In addition, under optimum conditions, resistance of 45 commercial cucumber cultivars was evaluated. One rootstock cultivar, Union was moderately resistant to the root-knot nematode. However, no significant difference was in the resistance of the others cultivar. According to the result, we suggest an efficient screening method for new resistant cucumber to the root-knot nematode, M. incognita.
Aissani, Nadhem; Tedeschi, Paola; Maietti, Annalisa; Brandolini, Vincenzo; Garau, Vincenzo Luigi; Caboni, Pierluigi
In recent years, there has been a great development in the search for new natural pesticides for crop protection aiming a partial or total replacement of currently used chemical nematicides. Glucosinolate breakdown products are volatile and are therefore good candidates for nematodes fumigants. In this article, the methanol-aqueous extract (1:1, w/v) of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) fresh roots (MAH) was in vitro tested for nematicidal activity against second stage (J2) Meloidogyne incognita. The EC50 of MAH after 3 days of J2 immersion in test solutions was 251 ± 46 mg/L. The chemical composition analysis of the extract carried out by the GC-MS technique showed that allylisothicyanate was the most abundant compound. This pure compound induced J2 paralysis with an EC50 of 52.6 ± 45.6 and 6.6 ± 3.4 mg/L after 1 h and 3 days of incubation. The use of LC-MS/MS showed for the first time that horseradish root is rich in polyphenols. The study of isothiocyanate degradation in soil showed that allylisothiocyanate was the most quickly degradable compound (half-life <10 min), whereas no significant differences in half-life time were noted between degradation in regular and autoclaved soil.
Mario Fleitas Díaz
Full Text Available In the houses of protected crops Agricultural Company República Dominicana, Carlos Manuel de Céspedes municipality, Camagüey, an experiment was developed to evaluate different doses of bionematicide HeberNem in controlling the nematode Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood and his participation in the growth and development of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum crop, the experimental design was in randomized blocks, the test was composed of 8 treatments replicated twice, evaluating a total of 40 plants for each treatment which were measured: plant height, stem diameter the number of leaflets, the number of clusters per plant, number of flowers per cluster and number of fruits per bunch, they were made weekly. Also at the end of the campaign took root degree determined according to the scale indicated by Zeck, (1971. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and determined the levels of statistical significance at 5%, by dócima Tukey multiple range. We found an inverse relationship between the parameters of growth and development weighed against the presence of M. incognita Chitwood. At doses of 8 l / ha, 12 l / ha and 16 l / ha were achieved better results in controlling the nematode M. incognita Chitwood.
Mônica Anghinoni Müller
Full Text Available The control of nematodes in plants can be challenging, and there is a need for alternative, environmentally conscious methods for their management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis on the in vitro toxicity and control of Meloidogyne incognita in CD 206 and CD 215 soybean cultivars. Using an in vitro assay, 500 M. incognita eggs per plate were observed for 15 days after incubation with rosemary extract at concentrations of 1%, 5%, and 10%. Soybean plants were studied under greenhouse conditions, and starting at V3 stage, were sprayed weekly with the same concentration of rosemary extract for 64 days. Three days after the first treatment, each soybean plant was inoculated with 1800 eggs and 400 second-stage juveniles (J2. At the end of this essay, number of eggs and J2 in the roots and soil, number of galls, and the reproduction factor (RF were evaluated. Our results showed that in the in vitro assay, rosemary extract reduced the number of M. incognita eggs that hatched. Under greenhouse conditions, the CD 206 cultivar showed a 48% reduction in the number of galls, as well as fewer eggs in the soil and a lower RF. Similarly, in the CD 215 cultivar, the number of eggs was reduced and the RF was lower. These results indicate the potential for rosemary extract to control M. incognita in soybean crops.
Full Text Available Antioxidant and nematicidal properties were evaluated for R. emodi extractives which are extracted by standardizing and adopting accelerated solvent extraction (ASE method along with traditional Soxhlet extraction. The extracted material was separated using flash chromatography and the separation conditions and solvents were standardized for the extracted plant constituents. The purity was detected by using analytical reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. LC-MS/MS detection in the direct infusion mode of the isolated, purified products afforded four anthraquinones, characterized by their infrared spectra (IR and 1H spectra as chrysophanol, physcion, emodin, and aloe-emodin. Five antraquinone glucoside derivatives and piceatannol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside have also been detected from the extracted product. During in vitro evaluation the antioxidant potential of methanolic crude extract (CE1 was the highest, followed by ethyl acetate crude extract (CE2 and chloroform extract (CE3 in DPPH radical scavenging activity. The CE1 also demonstrated outstanding nematicidal activity as compared with other extracts, pure anthraquinones, and even positive control azadirachtin. The study conclusively demonstrated the antioxidant potential of R. emodi extracts and also its ability in extenuating the Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode. The bioassay results can be extrapolated to actual field condition and clinical studies.
Pradana Pandu Ankardiansyah
Full Text Available Infection caused by root knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne incognita may cause yield losses. Little is known regarding the effectiveness of endophytic bacterial group as biocontrol agents of RKN. This research was aimed to obtain endophytic bacteria group from 16 species of plants, which effectively controlled the RKN. Isolation of endophytic bacteria group was conducted using NA 20%, NA 50%, TSA 20%, TSA 50%, and King’s B medium. All of the bacteria groups giving negative result in hypersensitive and haemolytic tests, was further examined for their ability to produce protease, chitinase, and cyanide acid. The same endophytic bacteria groups were also tested for their potential to control juvenile 2 of M. incognita on tomatoes by seed treatment and soil drenching. Agronomical and pathological traits were observed 40 days after nematodes infestation. Eighty endophytic bacteria groups were successfully isolated and 17 of them were considered potential. Physiological test showed that 16 groups of endophytic bacteria can produce protease enzyme, 12 groups can produce chitinase enzyme, and 5 groups can produce cyanide acid. Specific endophytic bacteria group, i.e. TmtN5 from roots of tomato plant, is the most effective isolate for suppressing root damage and population of RKN. This group was effective as biocontrol agents of RKN because it produceds chitinase, protease, and cyanide acid. This research provided a new information regarding the potential use of endophytic bacteria group as a biocontrol agent of RKN.
CARLA DA SILVA SOUSA
Full Text Available Mycorrhizal fungi has been shown to affect some species of parasitic nematodes, in many cases reducing oviposition and the number of galls on the root system of infected plants. In order to evaluate the biocontrol potential of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to reduce the infectivity of Meloidogyne incognita in tomato plants, an experiment was conducted with a randomized block design with eight replications in a factorial with thefollowing treatments: with and without M . incognita, with presence and absence of fungal species Glomus clarum Nicolson & Schenck, Gigaspora albida Schanck & amp; Smith and Acaulospora scrobiculata Trappe. The fungus G. clarum significantly reduced the gall index (46.4% and the number of egg mass (78.8% of the nematode on tomato seedlings. The percentage of root colonization is not in itself an indicator of efficiency in controlling fungal infectivity of M. incognita in tomato plants, since A. scrobiculata exhibited a high degree of colonization (77.6% and was not effective in controlling nematode reproduction. The species of mycorrhizal fungi differ in efficiency in reducing the infectivity of M. incognita in tomato seedlings.
Rodrigo Vieira Silva
Full Text Available Considering that the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne exigua has caused great yield losses to coffee production in Brazil, this study aimed to determine whether the penetration and the reproduction events of this nematode on the roots of plants from two coffee cultivars with different levels of basal resistance to this nematode could be affected by silicon (Si. Coffee plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, which are susceptible and resistant, respectively, to M. exigua, were grown in pots containing Si-deficient soil that was amended with either calcium silicate (+Si or calcium carbonate (–Si. The Si concentration on the root tissue significantly increased by 159 and 97% for the +Si plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, respectively, compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. The population of M. exigua, the number of galls and the number of eggs were significantly reduced on the roots of the +Si plants of the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59 compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. It was concluded that the development and reproduction events of M. exigua were negatively impacted on the roots of coffee plants supplied with Si.
Full Text Available Suppression of root-knot nematodes is crucially important for maintaining the worldwide development of the banana industry. Growing concerns about human and environmental safety have led to the withdrawal of commonly used nematicides and soil fumigants, thus motivating the development of alternative nematode management strategies. In this study, Meloidogyne javanica was isolated, and the nematicidal effect of Camellia seed cake on this pest was investigated. The results showed that in dish experiments, Camellia seed cake extracts under low concentration (2 g/L showed a strong nematicidal effect. After treatment for 72 h, the eggs of M. javanica were gradually dissolved, and the intestine of the juveniles gradually became indistinct. Nematicidal compounds, including saponins identified by HPLC-ESI-MS and 8 types of volatile compounds identified by GC-MS, exhibited effective nematicidal activities, especially 4-methylphenol. The pot experiments demonstrated that the application of Camellia seed cake suppressed M. javanica, and promoted the banana plant growth. This study explored an effective nematicidal agent for application in soil and revealed its potential mechanism of nematode suppression.
Grandison, G S; Cooper, K M
The interaction between vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi and the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) was investigated using both nematode-susceptible (Grasslands Wairau) and nematode-resistant (Nevada Synthetic XX) cultivars of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) at four levels of applied phosphate. Mycorrhizal inoculation improved plant growth and reduced nematode numbers and adult development in roots in dually infected cultures of the susceptible cultivar. The tolerance of plants to nematode infection and development when preinfected with mycorrhizal fungi was no greater than when they were inoculated with nematodes and mycorrhizal fungi simultaneously. Growth of plants of the resistant cultivar was unaffected by nematode inoculation but was improved by mycorrhizal inoculation. Numbers of nematode juveniles were lower in the roots of the resistant than of the susceptible cultivar and were further reduced by mycorrhizal inoculation, although no adult nematodes developed in any resistant cultivar treatment. Inoculation of alfalfa with VAM fungi increased the tolerance and resistance of a cultivar susceptible to M. hapla and improved the resistance of a resistant cultivar.
Smith, G S; Roncadori, R W; Hussey, R S
Microplot and field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of two vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi, Glomus intraradices (Gi) and Gigaspora margarita (Gm), and dicalcium phosphate (P) on Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) reproduction and seed cotton yield of the Mi-susceptible cotton cultivar, Stoneville 213. In 1983 population densities of Mi juveniles were significantly lower 60 and 90 days after planting in microplots receiving Gi. Mycorrhizal fungi reduced the severity of yield losses to Mi, whereas P fertilization increased yield losses to Mi. In 1984 microplot yields were reduced linearly as nematode inoculum densities increased in treatments of Mi alone, Gm, or P, but the response was curvilinear with Gi. Yield suppressions in the 1984 field experiment occurred only in plots infested with Mi alone. In the 1984 microplots, numbers of Mi juveniles penetrating seedling roots increased Iinearly with increasing nematode inoculum densities and was favored when mycorrhizal fungi or superphosphate were added. Juvenile penetration of roots was negatively correlated with yields in all treatments (r = -0.54 to -0.81) except Gm and with number of bolls in Mi alone (r = -0.85) and P (r = -0.81) treatments. Mycorrhizal fungi can increase host tolerance to M. incognita in field conditions and may function as important biological control agents in soils infested with high population densities of efficient VAM species.
Zhi Wei Deng
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and nematicidal activity of essential oil of Agastache rugosa flowering aerial parts against the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and to isolate and identify any nematicidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 37 components of the essential oil were identified, with the principal compounds being methyleugenol (50.51%, estragole (8.55%, and eugenol (7.54%, followed by thymol (3.62%, pulegone (2.56%, limonene (2.49% and caryophyllene (2.38%. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the three active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as methyleugenol, estragole and eugenol. The essential oil of A. rugosa exhibited strong nematicidal activity against M. incognita, with a LC50 value of 47.3 μg/mL. The components eugenol (LC50 = 66.6 μg/mL and methyleugenol (LC50 = 89.4 μg/mL exhibited stronger nematicidal activity against M. incognita (LC50 = 185.9 μg/mL. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural nematicides for control of the root knot nematode.
Li, G J; Dong, Q E; Ma, L; Huang, Y; Zhu, M L; Ji, Y P; Wang, Q H; Mo, M H; Zhang, K Q
To characterize the nematicidal endophytic bacteria (NEB) of Wasabia japonica (wasabi) and evaluated the control efficacies of promising NEB as well as fresh wasabi residue (FWR) against Meloidogyne incognita on tomato. By in vitro bioassay, 53 NEB strains showing nematicidal efficacies of >50% against J2 of M. incognita were isolated from wasabi. Basing on 16S rRNA gene sequences, these NEB were identified into 18 species of 11 genera. In greenhouse, incorporation of selected NEB culture or FWR into potted soil significantly reduced infection of M. incognita on tomato. Treating tomatoes with either FWR or NEB of Raoultella terrigena RN16 and Pseudomonas reinekei SN21 in the field yielded excellent control efficacies against M. incognita, especially the combinations of FWR with either R. terrigena RN16 or Ps. reinekei SN21 at doses of 50 g plus 100 ml per plant or more. The results established that R. terrigena RN16 and Ps. reinekei SN21 applied separately or combined with FWR have the potential to provide bioprotection agents against M. incognita. This study provides novel way for disease management using combination of endophyte and host residue. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Guilherme Silva de Podestá
Full Text Available Organic matter plays a fundamental role in the antagonistic activity of microorganisms against phytonematode populations on the soil. In this study, the compatibility between the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (Pc-12 and the rhizobacterium Gracilibacillus dipsosauri (MIC 14 was evaluated in vitro, as well as the effect of the fungus at the concentration of 5,000 chlamydospores per gram of soil, rhizobacterium at 4.65 x 10(9 cells/g of soil, and the soil conditioner Ribumin® at 10 g/pot, either alone or in combination, against Meloidogyne javanica population in tomato plants (3,000 eggs/pot. A suspension of water or Ribumin® alone was applied on the soil as negative control, while a suspension of nematode eggs was applied as positive control. The reduction in the number of galls in roots per plant was 48 and 41% for the treatments Ribumin + MIC 14 + Pc-12 and MIC 14 + Pc-12, respectively. Regarding to the number of eggs per plant, MIC 14 and Pc-12 + Ribumin led to a reduction by 26 and 21%, respectively, compared to the control treatment. Interaction between the nematophagous fungus and the rhizobacterium was positive for the nematode control, even though G. dipsosauri inhibited P. chlamydosporia growth by up to 30% in in vitro tests.
Faske, T R
Cucumis melo var. texanus, a wild melon commonly found in the southern United States and two accessions, Burleson Co. and MX 1230, expressed resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in preliminary experiments. To characterize the mechanism of resistance, we evaluated root penetration, post-penetration development, reproduction, and emigration of M. incognita on these two accessions of C. melo var. texanus. Additionally, we evaluated 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus for their reaction against M. incognita in a greenhouse experiment. Fewer (P ≤ 0.05) J2 penetrated the root system of C. melo var. texanus accessions (Burleson Co. and MX 1230) and C. metuliferus (PI 482452) (resistant control), 7 days after inoculation (DAI) than in C. melo 'Hales Best Jumbo' (susceptible control). A delayed (P ≤ 0.05) rate of nematode development was observed at 7, 14, and 21 DAI that contributed to lower (P ≤ 0.05) egg production on both accessions and C. metuliferus compared with C. melo. Though J2 emigration was observed on all Cucumis genotypes a higher (P ≤ 0.05) rate of J2 emigration was observed from 3 to 6 DAI on accession Burleson Co. and C. metuliferus than on C. melo. The 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus varied relative to their reaction to M. incognita with eight supporting similar levels of nematode reproduction to that of C. metuliferus. Cucumis melo var. texanus may be a useful source of resistance against root-knot nematode in melon.
Dwiastuti, Mutia Erti; Fajri, Melisa N; Yunimar, Yunimar
Layu yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium spp. merupakan salah satu penyakit penting tanaman stroberi (Fragaria x ananassa Dutch.) di daerah subtropika, yang dapat menggagalkan panen. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mempelajari potensi Trichoderma spp. dalam mengendalikan Fusarium spp. Isolat Trichoderma spp. diisolasi dari rizosfer tanaman stroberi dan Fusarium spp. diisolasi dari tanaman stroberi yang mengalami layu fusarium. Isolat cendawan dimurnikan, dikarakterisasi, dan dibandingkan dengan isolat c...
Sônia Maria de Lima Salgado
Full Text Available A possibilidade de manejo de Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, pela ativação de mecanismos de defesa no cafeeiro representa uma alternativa potencialmente útil no manejo desse patógeno. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a eclosão e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de M. exigua na presença de produtos indutores de resistência e avaliar o efeito do acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM, Bion® na indução de resistência do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. 'Catuaí- 144' contra M. exigua. A eclosão e mortalidade do J2 foram avaliadas no ASM e ácido salicílico (AS nas dosagens de 0,2; 0,35 e 0,5 g. i. a./L; e no fosfito de potássio (Hortifós® PK e silicato de potássio (Supa-potássio® nas dosagens 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 mL/L, empregando água e aldicarbe como testemunhas. No segundo ensaio o ASM (0,2 g i.a./L foi aplicado na quantidade de 125 mL por planta de 'Catuaí-144' com um ano de idade, via pulverização foliar e diretamente ao solo aos 7 dias antes da inoculação e aos 2 e 7 dias após a inoculação de aproximadamente 7000 ovos de M. exigua/planta. Foram utilizadas 8 plantas/tratamento/bloco, totalizando 6 tratamentos (3 épocas de aplicação do ASM, testemunhas absoluta e inoculada, em 4 blocos. Aos 90 dias da inoculação, foi feita a avaliação da população final (número de ovos e juvenis de M. exigua, número de galhas, fator de reprodução (população final/população inicial e peso da matéria fresca da raiz. A dosagem dos produtos não influenciou a eclosão e mortalidade dos J2 de M. exigua. Menor eclosão dos J2 de M. exigua ocorreu igualmente no Supa-potássio® e ácido salicílico, enquanto que a eclosão no ASM e na água foi igual (P The parasitism of coffee roots by Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, widespread nematode in the main producing regions, can provoke a series of modifications in the normal development of the plant. The induction of resistance for the activation of existing latent mechanisms of
Isabel Cristina Madeira Ferreira
Full Text Available Estudou-se, in vitro e in vivo a atividade nematicida dos extratos aquosos de vedélia (Sphagneticola trilobata, erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens, cravo-de-defunto (Tagetes patula, girassol mexicano (Tithonia diversifolia, botão de ouro (Unxia suffruticosa e zínia (Zinnia peruviana, sobre Meloidogyne incognita. Os extratos foram preparados na proporção de 1,0g do material seco e triturado para 10mL de água destilada e armazenados por 24h, sendo seguidamente utilizados nos experimentos. Nos testes in vitro, foram depositados 4,0mL do extrato bruto e 2,0mL de uma suspensão aquosa contendo 200 ovos do nematóide em placas de Petri de 5cm de diâmetro e, quinze dias após, procedeu-se a contagem do número de juvenis eclodidos e dos ovos remanescentes para o cálculo das porcentagens de eclosão. Nos testes in vivo, os extratos foram aplicados, separadamente, via pulverização foliar, tratamento de raiz e vertido no solo, semanalmente durante 60 dias. Como testemunha utilizou-se apenas água nos dois experimentos. No ensaio in vitro observou-se que todos os extratos foram eficientes na redução da eclosão de juvenis de M. incognita quando comparados à testemunha, as porcentagens de redução foram 89,96%, 91,13%, 92,48%, 92,72%, 93,2% e 97,48% para erva-de-touro, cravo-de-defunto, girassol mexicano, vedélia, botão de ouro e zínia, respectivamente, e no ensaio in vivo, que os tratamentos não exerceram nenhum efeito sobre o peso do sistema radicular dos tomateiros, no entanto, observou-se que os resultados diferiram entre as espécies utilizadas e a forma de aplicação do extrato na avaliação do peso fresco da parte aérea das plantas. Quanto ao fator de reprodução, observou-se que nenhum dos extratos apresentou diferença estatística em relação à testemunha, no entanto, quando se compara as diferentes formas de aplicação dos mesmos, observa-se que houve diferença estatística quando os extratos de erva de touro e girassol
Siddiqui, Imran Ali; Haas, Dieter; Heeb, Stephan
In Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, mutation of the GacA-controlled aprA gene (encoding the major extracellular protease) or the gacA regulatory gene resulted in reduced biocontrol activity against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita during tomato and soybean infection. Culture supernatants of strain CHA0 inhibited egg hatching and induced mortality of M. incognita juveniles more strongly than did supernatants of aprA and gacA mutants, suggesting that AprA protease contributes to biocon...
Siddiqui, Imran Ali; Haas, Dieter; Heeb, Stephan
In Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, mutation of the GacA-controlled aprA gene (encoding the major extracellular protease) or the gacA regulatory gene resulted in reduced biocontrol activity against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita during tomato and soybean infection. Culture supernatants of strain CHA0 inhibited egg hatching and induced mortality of M. incognita juveniles more strongly than did supernatants of aprA and gacA mutants, suggesting that AprA protease contributes to biocontrol. PMID:16151170
Siddiqui, Z.A.; Mahmood, I.
#Bacillus subtilis$ et des filtrats de culture des champignons #Aspergillus niger, Curvularia tuberculata$ et #Penicillium coryophilum$ ont été utilisés, seuls ou en combinaison, comme traitement de semences pour protéger le pois chiche contre une maladie racinaire complexe associant le nématode "Meloidogyne incognita$ race 3 et le champignon #Macrophomina phaseolina$. D'une manière générale, les traitements à l'aide de ces quatre agents, seuls ou en combinaison, accroissent le poids sec et l...
Bernardo Eduardo Roberto de Almeida
Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de efetuar um levantamento da ocorrência de Meloidogyne exigua em seringueira em São José do Rio Claro, MT. Foram amostradas 191 propriedades agrícolas, totalizando cerca de 18.000ha. Os nematóides foram identificados no Laboratório de Nematologia do Departamento de Fitossanidade da FCAV/UNESP, em Jaboticabal, SP. Foram encontrados níveis populacionais de M. exigua entre 0 e 61.824 juvenis/5g de raízes.
Major quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been mapped to Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) chromosomes 11 and 14 that govern the highly resistant phenotype in response to infection by root-knot nematode (RKN; Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood & White); however, nearly nothing is known regarding the ...
Southern root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) are a pest on many economically important row crop and vegetable species and management relies on chemicals, plant resistance, and cultural practices such as crop rotation. Little is known about the inheritance of resistance to M. incognita or the...
Karssen, G.; Bolk, R.J.; Aelst, van A.C.; Beld, van den I.; Kox, L.F.F.; Korthals, G.W.; Molendijk, L.P.G.; Zijlstra, C.; Hoof, van R.A.; Cook, R.
A relatively small root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne minor n. sp., is described and illustrated from tomato from the Netherlands. This new species is characterised by the following features: female with dorsally curved stylet, 14 Pm long, with transversely ovoid knobs slightly sloping backwards from
Bélair, G.; Benoit, D. L.
Thirty-two weeds commonly found in the organic soils of southwestern Quebec were evaluated for host suitability to a local isolate of the northern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla under greenhouse conditions. Galls were observed on the roots of 21 species. Sixteen of the 21 had a reproduction factor (Pf/Pi = final number of M. hapla eggs and juveniles per initial number of M. hapla juveniles per pot) higher than carrot (Pf/Pi = 0.37), the major host crop in this agricultural area. Tomato cv. Rutgers was also included as a susceptible host and had the highest Pf/Pi value of 13.7. Bidens cernua, B. frondosa, B. vulgata, Erysimum cheiranthoides, Eupatorium maculatum, Matricaria matricarioides, Polygonum scabrum, Thalictrum pubescens, Veronica agrestis, and Sium suave are new host records for M. hapla. Bidens cernua, B. frondosa, B. wulgata, D. carota, M. matricarioides, Pasticana sativa, P. scabrum, S. suave, and Thlaspi arvense sustained moderate to high galling by M. hapla and supported high M. hapla production (12.4 ≤ Pf/Pi ≥ 2.9). Capsella bursa-pastoris, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Gnaphalium uliginosum, Stellaria media, and Veronica agrestis sustained moderate galling and supported moderate M. hapla reproduction (2.8 ≤ Pf/Pi ≥ 0.5). Chenopodium album, C. glaucum, E. cheiranthoides, P. convolvulus, Portulaca oleracea, and Rorippa islandica supported low reproduction (0.25 ≤ Pf/Pi ≥ 0.02) and sustained low galling. Galling was observed on Senecio vulgaris but no eggs or juveniles; thus, S. vulgaris may be useful as a trap plant. Eupatorium maculatum, and T. pubescens harbored no distinct galling but supported low to moderate M. hapla reproduction, respectively. Amaranthus retroflexus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Echinochloa crusgalli, Erigeron canadensis, Oenothera parviflora, Panicum capillare, Setaria glauca, S. viridis, and Solidago canadensis were nonhosts. Our results demonstrate the importance of adequate weed control in an integrated program
Full Text Available The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is a sedentary endoparasitic plant pathogen with a very wide host range, which causes annual crop losses amounting to millions of dollars. The small number of available nematicides and restrictions on the use of non-fumigant nematicides due to high toxicity to humans and non-target organisms hinder effective nematode control. A possible alternative to chemical nematicides is the use of biological control agents for the management of this nematode. In the present study, the efficacy of four biocontrol agents was tested against M. incognita at different doses. The biocontrol agents Pasteuria penetrans, Pochonia chlamydosporia, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma harzianum were mass produced and mixed with the formalin sterilized soil at the rates of 2 × 103, 4 × 103, 6 × 103, 8 × 103, and 1 × 104 endospores/chlamydospores/cfu per g of soil. Okra seeds (cv. Sabz Pari were sown in pots of soil amended with the different agents, and 10 d after emergence, the plants were inoculated with 2000 freshly hatched second stage juveniles of M. incognita. Data on plant growth parameters and nematode infestations were recorded 7 weeks after inoculation. The antagonists varied significantly in enhancing various growth parameters and reducing nematode infestations in a dose-responsive manner. Both P. penetrans and P. lilacinus were equally effective and caused maximum reductions in number of galls, egg masses, nematode fecundity and build up as compared with T. harzianum and P. chlamydosporia. Reductions in these parameters at the concentration of 8 × 103 were statistically similar with those caused at the concentration of 1 × 104 chlamydospores/ endospores/cfu. Our results indicate that application of antagonists can suppress galling and reproduction of M. incognita resulting in enhancement of plant growth.
Full Text Available The area planted to soybean in South Africa has increased by 54% since the 2009 growing season, mainly as a result of the increasing demand for protein-rich food and fodder sources. Moreover, the introduction of advanced technology, namely the availability of genetically modified herbicide tolerant soybean cultivars also contributed towards increased soybean production. The omnipresence of plant-parasitic nematodes in local agricultural soils, however, poses a threat to the sustainable expansion and production of soybean and other rotation crops. Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica are the predominant nematode pests in local soybean production areas and those where other grain-, legume- and/or vegetable crops are grown. The lack of registered nematicides for soybean locally, crop production systems that are conducive to nematode pest build-ups as well as the limited availability of genetic host plant resistance to root-knot nematode pests, complicate their management. Research aimed at various aspects related to soybean-nematode research, namely, audits of nematode assemblages associated with the crop, identification of genetic host plant resistance in soybean germplasm to M. incognita and M. javanica, the use of molecular markers that are linked to such genetic resistance traits as well as agronomic performance of pre-released cultivars that can be valuable to producers and the industry are accentuated in this review. Evaluation of synthetically-derived as well as biological-control agents are also discussed as complementary management tactics. It is important that lessons learned through extensive research on soybean-nematode interactions in South Africa be shared with researchers and industries in other countries as they might experience or expect similar problems and/or challenges.
Thies, Judy A; Ariss, Jennifer J; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Hassell, Richard L; Levi, Amnon
Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN.
Full Text Available Meloidogyne graminicola is one of the most economically important plant parasitic-nematodes (PPNs. In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial (mt DNA genome sequence of this plant pathogen. Compared with other PPNs genera, this genome (19,589 bp is only slightly smaller than that of Pratylenchus vulnus (21,656 bp. The nucleotide composition of the whole mtDNA sequence of M. graminicola is significantly biased toward A and T, with T being the most favored nucleotide and C being the least favored. The A+T content of the entire genome is 83.51%. The mt genome of M. graminicola contains 36 genes (lacking atp8 that are transcribed in the same direction. The gene arrangement of the mt genome of M. graminicola is unique. A total of 21 out of 22 tRNAs possess a DHU loop only, while tRNASer(AGN lacks a DHU loop. The two large noncoding regions (2,031 bp and 5,063 bp are disrupted by tRNASer(UCN. Phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes support the monophylies of the three orders Rhabditida, Mermithida and Trichinellida, the suborder Rhabditina and the three infraorders Spiruromorpha, Oxyuridomorpha and Ascaridomorpha, but do not support the monophylies of the two suborders Spirurina and Tylenchina, and the three infraorders Rhabditomorpha, Panagrolaimomorpha and Tylenchomorpha. The four Tylenchomorpha species including M. graminicola, P. vulnus, H. glycines and R. similis from the superfamily Tylenchoidea are placed within a well-supported monophyletic clade, but far from the other two Tylenchomorpha species B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus of Aphelenchoidea. In the clade of Tylenchoidea, M. graminicola is sister to P. vulnus, and H. glycines is sister to R. similis, which suggests root-knot nematodes has a closer relationship to Pratylenchidae nematodes than to cyst nematodes.
Ja Yeong Jang
Full Text Available Restricted usage of chemical nematicides has led to development of environmentally safe alternatives. A culture filtrate of Aspergillus niger F22 was highly active against Meloidogyne incognita with marked mortality of second-stage juveniles (J2s and inhibition of egg hatching. The nematicidal component was identified as oxalic acid by organic acid analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. Exposure to 2 mmol/L oxalic acid resulted in 100% juvenile mortality at 1 day after treatment and suppressed egg hatching by 95.6% at 7 days after treatment. Oxalic acid showed similar nematicidal activity against M. hapla, but was not highly toxic to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The fungus was incubated on solid medium and dried culture was used for preparation of a wettable powder-type (WP formulation as an active ingredient. Two WP formulations, F22-WP10 (ai 10% and oxalic acid-WP8 (ai 8%, were prepared using F22 solid culture and oxalic acid. In a field naturally infested with M. incognita, application of a mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 at 1,000- and 500-fold dilutions significantly reduced gall formation on the roots of watermelon plants by 58.8 and 70.7%, respectively, compared to the non-treated control. The disease control efficacy of the mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 was significantly higher than that of a chemical nematicide, Sunchungtan (ai 30% fosthiazate. These results suggest that A. niger F22 can be used as a microbial nematicide for the control of root-knot nematode disease.
Hirunsalee, A; Barker, K R; Beute, M K
A 3-year microplot study was initiated to characterize the population dynamics, reproduction potential, and survivorship of single or mixed populations of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 (Ma1) and race 2 (Ma2), as affected by crop rotations of peanut 'Florigiant' and M. incognita races 1 and 3-resistant 'McNair 373' and susceptible 'Coker 371-Gold' tobacco. Infection, reproduction, and root damage by Ma2 on peanut and by Ma1 on resistant tobacco were limited in the first year. Infection, reproduction, and root-damage potentials on susceptible tobacco were similar for Ma1 and Ma2. In the mixed (1:1) population, Ma1 was dominant on peanut and Ma2 was dominant on both tobacco cultivars. Crop rotation affected the population dynamics of different nematode races. For years 2 and 3, the low numbers of Ma1 and Ma2 from a previous-year poor host increased rapidly on suitable hosts. Ma1 had greater reproduction factors ([RF] = population density at harvest/population density at preplandng) than did Ma2 and Ma1 + Ma2 in second-year peanut plots following first-year resistant tobacco, and in third-year peanut plots following second-year tobacco. In mixed infestations, Ma1 predominated over Ma2 in previous-year peanut plots, whereas Ma2 predominated over Ma1 in previous-year tobacco plots. Moderate damage on resistant tobacco was induced by Ma1 in the second year. In the third year, moderate damage on peanut was associated with 'Ma2' from previous-year peanut plots. The resistant tobacco supported sufficient reproduction of Ma1 over 2 years to effect moderate damage and yield suppression to peanut in year 3.
Kemerait, Robert C.
Meloidogyne incognita causes more damage to cotton in the US than any other pathogen. The objective of this study was to document the cumulative effect of moderate resistance on M. incognita population density, root galling, and yield suppression in the southern United States on a moderately resistant cotton genotype grown continuously for three years. Cotton genotypes were Phytogen PH98-3196 (77% suppression of M. incognita), Acala NemX (85% suppression of M. incognita), and Delta and Pine Land DP458 B/R (susceptible standard, 0% suppression). Cotton was grown in fumigated and non-fumigated plots to measure yield loss. Each genotype and nematicide combination was planted in the same place for three years at two sites to document cumulative effects. In 2006, following three years of the different genotypes, all plots at one site were planted with susceptible cotton to document residual effects of planting resistant genotypes. Root galling and nematode population densities in the soil were significantly lower, and percentage yield suppression was numerically lower, when moderately resistant cotton was grown compared to the susceptible standard in both fields in all three years. Differences between susceptible and moderately resistant genotypes are established quickly (after only one season) and then either maintained at similar levels or slightly increased in subsequent years depending on initial nematode levels. However, when susceptible cotton was grown following three years of the moderately resistant genotypes, the nematode suppression provided by moderate resistance was undetectable by the end of the first season. Moderately resistant cotton genotypes are more beneficial than previously reported and should be pursued for nematode management. Rotation of moderately resistant and susceptible cotton could be used along with nematicides to manage root-knot nematodes in a continuous cotton cropping system and reduce selection pressure on the nematodes. PMID:22661787
Cason, K M; Hussey, R S; Roncadori, R W
The influence of two vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus (P) nutrition on penetration, development, and reproduction by Meloidogyne incognita on Walter tomato was studied in the greenhouse. Inoculation with either Gigaspora margarita or Glomus mosseae 2 wk prior to nematode inoculation did not alter infection by M. incognita compared with nonmycorrhizal plants, regardless of soil P level (either 3 mug [low P] or 30 mug [high P] available P/g soil). At a given soil P level, nematode penetration and reproduction did not differ in mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants. However, plants grown in high P soil had greater root weights, increased nematode penetration and egg production per plant, and decreased colonization by mycorrhizal fungi, compared with plants grown in low P soil. The number of eggs per female nematode on mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants was not influenced by P treatment. Tomato plants with split root systems grown in double-compartment containers which had either low P soil in both sides or high P in one side and low P in the other, were inoculated at transplanting with G. margarita and 2 wk later one-half of the split root system of each plant was inoculated with M. incognita larvae. Although the mycoorhizal fungus increased the inorganic P content of the root to a level comparable to that in plants grown in high P soil, nematode penetration and reproduction were not altered. In a third series of experiments, the rate of nematode development was not influenced by either the presence of G. margarita or high soil P, compared with control plants grown in low P soil. These data indicate that supplemental P (30 mu/g soil) alters root-knot nematode infection of tomato more than G. mosseae and G. margarita.
Siddiqui, I A; Shaukat, S S; Khan, A
The aim was to determine the influence of some Aspergillus species on the production of nematicidal agent(s) in vitro and biocontrol of Meloidogyne javanica in tomato by Pseudomonas fluorescens strains CHA0 and CHA0/pME3424. Six species of Aspergillus, isolated from the rhizosphere of certain crops, produced a variety of secondary metabolites in vitro. Culture filtrate (CF) obtained from Ps. fluorescens strain CHA0 and its2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol overproducing mutant CHA0/pME3424 grown in King's B liquid medium caused significant mortality of M. javanica juveniles in vitro. Bacterial growth medium amended with CF of A. niger enhanced nematicidal and beta-galactosidase activities of fluorescent pseudomonads while A. quadrilineatus repressed such activities. Methanol or ethyl acetate extracts of the CF of A. niger markedly optimized bacterial efficacy to cause nematode deaths while hexane extract of the fungus had no influence on the nematicidal activity of the bacterial strains. A. niger applied alone or in conjunction with the bacterial inoculants inhibited root-knot nematode galling in tomato. On the other hand, A. quadrilineatus used alone or together with CHA0 did not inhibit nematode galling but when used in combination with strain CHA0/pME3424 did reduce galling intensity. Aspergillus niger enhances the production of nematicidal compounds by Ps. fluorescensin vitro and improves biocontrol potential of the bacterial inoculants in tomato while A. quadrilineatus reduces bacterial performance to suppress root-knot nematodes. Rhizosphere harbours a variety of micro-organisms including bacteria, fungi and viruses. Aspergillus species are ubiquitous in most agricultural soils and generally produce a variety of secondary metabolites. Such metabolites synthesized by Aspergillus species may influence the production of nematicidal agents and subsequent biocontrol performance of the bacterial inoculants against plant-parasitic nematodes. This fact needs to be taken into
Full Text Available In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains, the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB Bacillus megaterium (three strains and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB B. circulans (three strains were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2, increased the counts of total bacteria and total bacterial spores in plants potted soil from 1.2 to 2.6 folds estimated 60 days post-inoculation. Consequently, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7 increased significantly the shoot length (cm, number of leaves / plant, shoot dry weight (g / plant and root dry weight (g / plant by 32.6 %, 30.8 %, 70.3 % and 14.2 %, respectively. Generally, the majority treatments significantly reduced the nematode multiplication which was more obvious after 60 days of inoculation. Among the applied strains, P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2 inoculations resulted in the highest reduction in nematode population comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control. They recorded the highest reduction in numbers of hatched juveniles/root by 95.8 %, females/root by 63.75 % and juveniles/1kg soil by 57.8 %. These results indicated that these bacterial biofertilizers are promising double purpose microorganisms for mobilizing of soil nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium and for the biological control of M. incognita.
Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la población inicial de Meloidogyne sp. en el cultivo del tomate. El estudio se realizó en León, Nicaragua en el año 2011. Las variables medidas fueron número de nematodos al trasplante y al momento de la cosecha, altura de la planta al momento de la madurez fisiológica y el rendimiento en kilogramos. La extracción de nematodos se realizó mediante el método de Baermann modificado. En el estudio, la densidad inicial (Pi presentó una correlación lineal positiva con la densidad final (Pf. Sin embargo, se observó que cuando la Pi era igual a 400 nematodos/100 g de suelo, el factor de reproducción se incrementaba a 3,64; por el contrario, cuando la Pi era igual a 700 nematodos/100 g de suelo, el factor de reproducción se reducía a 2,48. La Pi se correlacionó inversamente con el peso de frutos y altura de las plantas. Plantas con 200 nematodos/100 g de suelo presentaban peso de frutos de 2,19 kg y altura de 153,20 cm en comparación con 0,93 kg y 135,24 cm en plantas con 600 nematodos/100 g de suelo. Existió una correlación positiva entre Pi y Pf de Meloidogy- ne sp. en el tomate. Las poblaciones de este nematodo, se correlacionaron inversamente con las variables altura y peso de los frutos.
Full Text Available The root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is an obligate parasite that causes significant damage to a broad range of host plants. Infection is associated with secretion of proteins surrounded by proliferating cells. Many parasites are known to secrete effectors that interfere with plant innate immunity, enabling infection to occur; they can also release pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs, e.g., flagellin that trigger basal immunity through the nematode stylet into the plant cell. This leads to suppression of innate immunity and reprogramming of plant cells to form a feeding structure containing multinucleate giant cells. Effectors have generally been discovered using genetics or bioinformatics, but M. incognita is non-sexual and its genome sequence has not yet been reported. To partially overcome these limitations, we have used mass spectrometry to directly identify 486 proteins secreted by M. incognita. These proteins contain at least segmental sequence identity to those found in our 3 reference databases (published nematode proteins; unpublished M. incognita ESTs; published plant proteins. Several secreted proteins are homologous to plant proteins, which they may mimic, and they contain domains that suggest known effector functions (e.g., regulating the plant cell cycle or growth. Others have regulatory domains that could reprogram cells. Using in situ hybridization we observed that most secreted proteins were produced by the subventral glands, but we found that phasmids also secreted proteins. We annotated the functions of the secreted proteins and classified them according to roles they may play in the development of root knot disease. Our results show that parasite secretomes can be partially characterized without cognate genomic DNA sequence. We observed that the M. incognita secretome overlaps the reported secretome of mammalian parasitic nematodes (e.g., Brugia malayi, suggesting a common parasitic behavior and a possible
Guerrero-Diaz, M. M.; Lacasa-Martinez, C. M.; Hernandez-Pinera, A.; Martinez-Alarcon, V.; Lacasa Plasencia, A.
The nematode Meloidogyne incognita is responsible for substantial losses in greenhouse-grown peppers in southeastern Spain. This study evaluates the use of biodisinfestation (BS) (organic amendment + solarisation) as an alternative to using methyl bromide (MB) over three consecutive years to control the nematode in greenhouse conditions. Brassica carinata (BP) pellets or B. carinata (BP) + fresh sheep manure (M) were evaluated in treatments which began on two different dates (August and October) and the results were compared with MB-disinfested and untreated controls. During the third year, the gall index for BP was lower than that obtained for BP +M and in the August treatment than in the October treatment. The commercial crop of pepper fruit obtained with the biodisinfestation treatments begun in August was similar to or higher than that obtained with MB, and higher than that obtained with both October biodisinfestation treatments. The yield of the October biodisinfestation treatments was higher than that of the untreated one. In August of all the years studied, the accumulated exposure times were greater than the thresholds required to kill M. incognita populations at 15 cm depth. The incidence of the nematode did not correspond to the reduction achieved during solarisation, and seemed to increase during the crop cycle. Further studies should look at why high temperatures do not produce a sustained reduction in the populations of Meloidogyne incognita. (Author) 56 refs.
Singh, U B; Sahu, A; Sahu, N; Singh, R K; Renu, S; Singh, D P; Manna, M C; Sarma, B K; Singh, H B; Singh, K P
To study the biocontrol potential of nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora in protecting tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) against Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani under greenhouse and field conditions. Five isolates of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora isolated from different parts of India were tested against Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants grown under greenhouse and field conditions. Arthrobotrys oligospora-treated plants showed enhanced growth in terms of shoot and root length and biomass, chlorophyll and total phenolic content and high phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity in comparison with M. incognita- and R. solani-inoculated plants. Biochemical profiling when correlated with disease severity and intensity in A. oligospora-treated and untreated plants indicate that A. oligospora VNS-1 offered significant disease reduction in terms of number of root galls, seedling mortality, lesion length, disease index, better plant growth and fruit yield as compared to M. incognita- and R. solani-challenged plants. The result established that A. oligospora VNS-1 has the potential to provide bioprotection agents against M. incognita and R. solani. Arthrobotrys oligospora can be a better environment friendly option and can be incorporated in the integrated disease management module of crop protection. Application of A. oligospora not only helps in the control of nematodes but also increases plant growth and enhances nutritional value of tomato fruits. Thus, it proves to be an excellent biocontrol as well as plant growth promoting agent. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Full Text Available The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ulmi is synonymised with Meloidogyne mali based on morphological and morphometric similarities, common hosts, as well as biochemical similarities at both protein and DNA levels. M. mali was first described in Japan on Malus prunifolia Borkh.; and M. ulmi in Italy on Ulmus chenmoui W.C. Cheng. Morphological and morphometric studies of their holo- and paratypes revealed important similarities in the major characters as well as some general variability in a few others. Host test also showed that besides the two species being able to parasitize the type hosts of the other, they share some other common hosts. Our study of the esterase and malate dehydrogenase isozyme phenotypes of some M. ulmi populations gave a perfectly comparable result to that already known for M. mali. Finally, phylogenetic studies of their SSU and LSU rDNA sequence data revealed that the two are not distinguishable at DNA level. All these put together, leave strong evidences to support the fact that M. ulmi is not a valid species, but a junior synonym of M. mali. Brief discussion on the biology and life cycle of M. mali is given. An overview of all known hosts and the possible distribution of M. mali in Europe are also presented.
Full Text Available Lincat disease of tobacco causing severe losses of the product. Control of the disease with any available measure unlikely giving enough control. A number of Bacillus spp. isolates could suppressed the growth of pathogen in vitro and suppressed the development of lincat disease in the field. This article report the charactheristics of six isolates of Bacillus spp. (Ba-4, Ba-22, Ba-24, Ba-30, Ba-33, dan Ba-41. These isolates proven could suppressed lincat disease in the field. Characterization of the isolates include the morphological, physiological characteristics, and pathogenicity against tobacco plant. The results indicated that the bacterial isolates were belong to the genus Bacillus with the following charactheristics. The bacteria were rod shapes, forming endospore, Gram positive, fermentative, positive reaction in katalase, oksidase, and Voges Proskaeur tests. Negative results were obtained for Methyl Red test, hydrolysis of starch, gelatine, and casein. The present isolates could use citrate and several carbohydrates as carbon sources. Reduce nitrate to nitrite. The isolates could grow in the medium with high osmotic pressure, i.e. could grow in the medium with 7% NaCl. The present isolates grew well in the medium with pH of 4.5 €“10 and could grow in the temperature range of 10 €“50 °C. According to pathogenicity test, the present isolates were not belong to the plant pathogenic bacteria. The present isolates could suppressed the growth of Ralstonia solanacearum in vitro, and could reduce the egg number of Meloidogyne incognita. According to the physiological charactheristics tested, it seem that isolates of Ba-4, Ba-24, Ba-30, dan Ba-33, and Ba-41 having similar charactheristics with Bacillus cereus. The Ba-22 isolate, however, having similar characteristics with B. licheniformis.
Locally severe outbreaks of Fusarium wilt of cotton (Gossypium spp.) in South Georgia raised concerns about the genotypes of the causal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. Vegetative complementation tests and DNA sequence analysis were used to determine genetic diversity among 492 F. ox...
Moore, John E; Gilpin, Deidre; Crothers, Elizabeth; Canney, Anne; Kaneko, Aki; Matsuda, Motoo
An investigation was carried out into the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter subspecies (spp.) and Cryptosporidium spp. in fresh fecal specimens collected from members of the gull family (Larus spp.) from three coastal locations of Northern Ireland. A total of 205 fresh fecal specimens were collected from gulls, of which 28 of 205 (13.7%) were positive for Campylobacter spp. and none of 205 for Cryptosporidium spp. Of these campylobacters, 21 of 28 (75%) isolates obtained belonged to the urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) taxon, followed by five of 28 (17.9%) Campylobacter lari and 2/28 (7.1%) Campylobacter jejuni. It is significant that seagulls are the sole warm-blooded animal host of this bacterial taxon in Northern Ireland. It is proposed that physiological adaptation to starvation by gulls may lead to increased concentrations of urea through energy production from protein, yielding increased levels of urea for metabolism by UPTC organisms. In general, the possibility exists that environmental contamination of surface waters with campylobacters might be mediated by wild birds (such as gulls), where such waters are used for recreational purposes or where such waters are consumed untreated, might represent a risk to public health.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and monitor the presence of Aeromonas spp. strains in stool cultures. We analyzed 5564 stool cultures from September 2012 to August 2013. Sixty-three patients were positive for Aeromonas spp. The most frequent symptoms were: diarrhea (46.0% and abdominal pain (12.7%. Pediatric subjects were 28. Samples’ microscopic examination showed leukocytes in 38.1% of cases. It is still controversial whether Aeromonas are responsible for human gastroenteritis, but their presence in faecies of symptomatic patients supports their etiologic role. We propose search for toxins by polymerase chain reaction to identify strains that require an antibiotic therapy.
Adomako, J.; Kwoseh, C. K.
The increased concern for environmental and health hazards have called for a reduction in the use of synthetic nematicides for nematode control. Experiments were, therefore, conducted to ascertain the nematicidal potential of castor bean's crude extract and its five lower concentrations with water as control. In the in vitro studies, crude castor bean aqueous extract and 10, 20, 30 and 40% different concentrations with 100 root-knot nematode eggs or juveniles in separate Petri dishes showed that all the different concentrations had toxic effects on eggs and juveniles of root-knot nematode. Egg hatch inhibition and juvenile mortality increased with increased concentration of the extracts. With an increase in exposure time, juvenile mortality increased. In potted plant studies, crude castor bean aqueous extracts and its lower concentrations of 20, 40 and 60% caused significant improvement in plant growth measures such as height and fresh shoot weight over the water blank control. The crude castor bean extract was nematotoxic to root -knot nematodes in vitro and in potted-tomato plants, but this was not demonstrated in field studies. Further work needs to be done before a firm recommendation can be made. (au)
Leij, de F.A.A.M.
A thorough understanding of the interactions which occur between nematode parasites and nematode pests and the influence of biotic and abiotic factors on these interactions, is essential in the development of biological control agents for nematodes. The aim of this study was to develop a
Francisco José Carvalho Moreira
Full Text Available The correct identification of species and genus of nematodes that affect a particular culture is of great importance to form a quantity of information that will be useful to laboratories for diagnosis and control of these pathogens. Because of the increase in the production of ornamental and medicinal plants in the of Cear. á State, the agricultural importance of the genus Meloidogyne and the scarcity of information on the hospitability this pathogen in these species, in that it was to evaluate the susceptibility testing of 30 species, and 20 ornamental (Antirrhimum majus, Gazania ringens, Carthamus tinctorius, Bryophyllum cayicinum, Ceasalpinia pulcherrima, Thumbergia alata, Petunia hibryda, Exacum affine, Catharanthus roseus, Opuntia sp., Sansevieria trifasciata, Asparagus densiflorus, Hibiscus mutabilis-roreus, Impatiens balsamiana, Celosia spicata, Antirrhimum sp., Dianthus chinensis, Zinnia elegans, Tagetes patula, Capsicum annuum and 10 medicinal (Peumus boldus, Ocimum gratissimum, Mentha arvensis var. piperascens, Mentha x Vilosa, Plectranthus amboinicus, Ocimum bassilicum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia alba, Cymbopogon winterianus. The test was conducted in a greenhouse, of the Phytosanitary Sector, Department of Plant Science, Federal University of Ceará. The inoculation was conducted with 4,000 eggs/J2 for pot. Evaluation of the plants gave to 60 days after inoculation. Evaluated is the reaction of the plants, measuring up: number of galls and eggs, egg mass index, reproduction factor and reduce the reproduction factor. From these variables it was classified the reaction of plants to the nematode by means of five criterions. Of ownership of the results, it was verified that of the ornamental plants only species T. patula didn’t presented galls in your root system. Concerning medicinal species M. vilosa, C. citrates, L. alba, C. winterianus and P. boldus showed no galls in their root systems. Thus, concluded
Silva, Silas D; Carneiro, Regina M D G; Faria, Marcos; Souza, Daniela A; Monnerat, Rose G; Lopes, Rogerio B
Meloidogyne enterolobii is one of the most important root-knot nematode in tropical regions, due to its ability to overcome resistance mechanisms of a number of host plants. The lack of new and safe active ingredients against this nematode has restricted control alternatives for growers. Egg-parasitic fungi have been considered as potential candidates for the development of bionematicides. In tissue culture plates, Pochonia chlamydosporia (var. catenulata and chlamydosporia ) and Purpureocillium lilacinum strains were screened for their ability to infect eggs of the root-knot nematode M. enterolobii on water-agar surfaces. Reduction in the hatching of J2 varied from 13% to 84%, depending on strain. The more efficacious strains reduced hatchability of J2 by 57% to 84% when compared to untreated eggs, but average reductions were only 37% to 55% when the same strains were applied to egg masses. Combinations of fungal isolates (one of each species) did not increase the control efficacy in vitro. In experiments in which 10,000 nematode eggs were inoculated per plant, reductions in the number of eggs after 12 months were seen in three of four treatments in banana plants, reaching 34% for P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata . No significant reductions were seen in tomato plants after 3 mon. In another experiment with tomato plants using either P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata or P. lilacinum , the number of eggs was reduced by 34% and 44%, respectively, when initial infestation level was low (500 nematode eggs per plant), but tested strains were not effective under a moderate infestation level (5,000 eggs per plant). Under all infestation levels tested in this work, gall and egg mass indexes (MI) did not differ from the untreated controls, bringing concerns related to the practical adoption of this control strategy by farmers. In our opinion, if the fungi P . chlamydosporia and P . lilacinum are to be used as biocontrol tools toward M. entorolobii , they should focus on
Wheeler, T A; Leser, J F; Keeling, J W; Mullinix, B
Terminated small grain cover crops are valuable in light textured soils to reduce wind and rain erosion and for protection of young cotton seedlings. A three-year study was conducted to determine the impact of terminated small grain winter cover crops, which are hosts for Meloidogyne incognita, on cotton yield, root galling and nematode midseason population density. The small plot test consisted of the cover treatment as the main plots (winter fallow, oats, rye and wheat) and rate of aldicarb applied in-furrow at-plant (0, 0.59 and 0.84 kg a.i./ha) as subplots in a split-plot design with eight replications, arranged in a randomized complete block design. Roots of 10 cotton plants per plot were examined at approximately 35 days after planting. Root galling was affected by aldicarb rate (9.1, 3.8 and 3.4 galls/root system for 0, 0.59 and 0.84 kg aldicarb/ha), but not by cover crop. Soil samples were collected in mid-July and assayed for nematodes. The winter fallow plots had a lower density of M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) (transformed to Log(10) (J2 + 1)/500 cm(3) soil) than any of the cover crops (0.88, 1.58, 1.67 and 1.75 Log(10)(J2 + 1)/500 cm(3) soil for winter fallow, oats, rye and wheat, respectively). There were also fewer M. incognita eggs at midseason in the winter fallow (3,512, 7,953, 8,262 and 11,392 eggs/500 cm(3) soil for winter fallow, oats, rye and wheat, respectively). Yield (kg lint per ha) was increased by application of aldicarb (1,544, 1,710 and 1,697 for 0, 0.59 and 0.84 kg aldicarb/ha), but not by any cover crop treatments. These results were consistent over three years. The soil temperature at 15 cm depth, from when soils reached 18 degrees C to termination of the grass cover crop, averaged 9,588, 7,274 and 1,639 centigrade hours (with a minimum threshold of 10 degrees C), in 2005, 2006 and 2007, respectively. Under these conditions, potential reproduction of M. incognita on the cover crop did not result in a yield penalty.
Falkinham III, Joseph O.; Williams, Myra D.; Kwait, Rebecca; Lande, Leah
Objective/Background: A published survey of bacteria in showerhead biofilm samples revealed that Methylobacterium spp. and Mycobacterium spp. seldom coexisted in biofilms. Method: To confirm that information, biofilm samples were collected from household plumbing of Mycobacterium avium patients and Methylobacterium spp. and M. avium numbers were measured by direct colony counts. Results: The results demonstrated that if Methylobacterium spp. were present, Mycobacterium spp. were absent,...
Sapkota, Rumakanta; Skantar, Andrea M.; Nicolaisen, Mogens
. haplaand showed no significant amplification of DNA from non-target nematodes. The assay was able to detect M. haplain a background of plant and soil DNA. A dilution series of M. haplaeggs in soil showed a high correlation ( R 2 = 0 . 95 , P ...Early detection and quantification of Meloidogyne haplain soil is essential for effective disease management. The purpose of this study was to develop a real-time PCR assay for detection of M. haplain soil. Primers and a TaqMan probe were designed for M. hapladetection. The assay detected M......-knot development in carrots by testing soils before planting. The assay could be useful for management decisions in carrot cultivation....
Peng, Huan; Long, Haibo; Huang, Wenkun; Liu, Jing; Cui, Jiangkuan; Kong, Lingan; Hu, Xianqi; Gu, Jianfeng; Peng, Deliang
The northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) is a damaging nematode that has caused serious economic losses worldwide. In the present study, a sensitive, simple and rapid method was developed for detection of M. hapla in infested plant roots by combining a Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) card with loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The specific primers of LAMP were designed based on the distinction of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences between M. hapla and oth...
Chang, S; Kang, D-H
To develop a new isolation medium with higher recovery rates of Alicyclobacillus spp. SK agar was developed with optimized incubation temperature, pH, acidulant, Tween 80 concentration and divalent cation addition. Results indicate that detection of Alicyclobacillus spp. by SK agar was significantly higher (P > 0.05) than those obtained by K agar, orange serum agar, and potato dextrose agar. Current media used for Alicyclobacillus spp. isolation still resulted in high numbers of false negative products. The sensitivity of SK agar to Alicyclobacillus spp. allows detection of low numbers of Alicyclobacillus spp. and also provides a more higher isolation results compared with currently used media. SK agar will be useful to the fruit juice industry to obtain more accurate numbers of contaminant Alicyclobacillus spp. With this media, false negative samples can be reduced, and the likelihood of exported products being rejected can be greatly reduced.
Efecto del follaje de Tagetes minutasobre la nodulación radicular de Meloidogyne incognitaen Capsicum annuum, en invernadero Effect of the foliage of Tagetes minutaon Meloidogyne incognitaroot-galling on Capsicum annuumin a greenhouse
Santos Nélida Murga-Gutiérrez
Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto del follaje del “huacatay” Tagetes minutasobre la nodulación radicular producida por el nematodo Meloidogyne incognitaque parasita el “pimiento páprika” Capsicum annuumcultivado en invernadero, con la finalidad de obtener una alternativa de control de este nematodo. Se utilizaron tres grupos experimentales y un testigo, con 12 macetas cada uno, las cuales contenían suelo y arena estériles (1:1. A este substrato se adicionó el follaje de T. minutaal 20, 35 y 50% (v/v según grupo experimental, y el testigo no recibió esta enmienda. En cada maceta se sembró una plántula de C. annuum, y a la semana postsiembra se inoculó 5000 huevos de M. incognita.A las ocho semanas, se evaluaron los nódulos en sus raíces. Todas las plantas presentaron nódulos; aunque, en aquellas de los grupos experimentales el número de éstos fue menor que en las plantas testigo, con diferencia estadística significativa (p 0,05. Se concluye que el follaje de T. minutaadicionado como enmienda orgánica al 20, 35 y 50% al suelo de cultivo de plantas de C. annuum limita la nodulación radicular ocasionada por M. incognita. Lo cual sugiere su uso potencial en el control de este nematodo.The effect of the foliage of Tagetes minuta"huacatay" on Meloidogyne incognitaroot-galling on Capsicum annuum"paprika pepper" cultured in a greenhouse was researched, to obtain a control strategy for this nema-tode. Three experimental groups and one control with 12 pots each were used, which contained sterilized soil and sand (1:1. To this substrate was added cut foliage of T. minutaat 20, 35 and 50% (v/v according to the experimental group, and the control group remained without this amendment. In each pot a seedling of C. annuum was sown, and one week post-seeding was inoculated with 5000 eggs of M. incognita. Eight weeks later the root galling was evaluated. All the plants had root galling; although the number of galls in plants of the experimental
Thamsborg, Stig M.; Ketzis, Jennifer; Horii, Yoichiro
This paper reviews the occurrence and impact of threadworms, Strongyloides spp., in companion animals and large livestock, the potential zoonotic implications and future research. Strongyloides spp. infect a range of domestic animal species worldwide and clinical disease is most often encountered...
Efeito de isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus no desenvolvimento de cafezais e na população de Meloidogyne paranaensis Effect of isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus on the development of coffee plantations and on the population of Meloidogyne paranaensis
Marina Capparelli Cadioli
Full Text Available Com a finalidade de diminuir as perdas causadas pelos nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne (Goeldi, 1887 na cultura do cafeeiro, dentre as diversas medidas de manejo, o controle biológico com o fungo Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom., 1910 Samson, 1974 se destaca como uma alternativa de controle vantajosa, quer dos pontos de vista ecológico ou econômico. Assim, neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência de 10 isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus no controle de Meloidogyne paranaensis em cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatú, em casa-de-vegetação. No experimento I, as mudas de cafeeiro foram transplantadas em solo onde foram, anteriormente, cultivados tomateiros para multiplicação de M. paranaensis mais 50 g de arroz colonizado com os 10 isolados. No segundo experimento, mudas de cafeeiro foram transplantadas para substrato solo e areia (1:1 juntamente com 50 g de arroz colonizado com os isolados. Em seguida, as mudas foram inoculadas com ± 5000 ovos de M. paranaensis. Nos dois experimentos, após 15 dias procedeu-se aplicação por cobertura de 50 g dos isolados. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com 12 tratamentos. Após 90 dias, foram feitas as avaliações. Os isolados de P. lilacinus não afetaram o diâmetro do caule de cafeeiro. No experimento I, os isolados Pae 22, 24 e 28 promoveram o crescimento dos cafeeiros; todos os isolados reduziram a população de ovos no sistema radicular; e os isolados Pae 3 e 12 reduziram a população de J2 de M. paranaensis no solo. No experimento II, os isolados Pae 03, 10, 12 e 13 favoreceram o crescimento das plantas, mas reduziram o peso fresco do sistema radicular; todos os isolados reduziram a população de J2 no solo; e os isolados Pae 3, 10, 13, 18, 22 e 24 reduziram as malformações causadas por M. paranaensis nas raízes.In order to reduce the losses caused by nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne (Goeldi, 1887 in coffee plantation, among several management measures, biological
Claudia M. Romero-Vivas
Full Text Available La leptospirosis, la enfermedad bacteriana zoonótica y emergente más importante en el mundo, es causada por las especies patógenas de Leptospira spp. Han sido descritas veinte especies de Leptospira spp.; se ha determinado la secuencia del ADN genómico de algunas cepas patógenas; la función de la mayoría de los genes involucrados en su patogénesis permanece desconocida. La leptospirosis humana presenta un rango de síntomas que van desde una fiebre indiferenciada hasta una ictericia, hemorragia, fallas renales y pulmonares severas. La administración temprana e intravenosa de penicilina G es requerida para reducir las tasas de mortalidad, pero los antibióticos pueden no ser efectivos en la enfermedad pulmonar severa. En las Américas, las áreas de alto riesgo son Brasil, Centroamérica y el Caribe. En Colombia se han realizado pocos estudios. La prueba serológica de oro, la microaglutinación, tiene alta sesibilidad y especificidad cuando se usan baterías de serovariedades locales, pero es serogrupo específica. Las vacunas generan respuestas específicas para la serovariedad usada, pero no previenen la infección o trasmisión. Problemas en el diagnóstico de laboratorio de la leptospirosis conllevan a un subregistro en el número de casos; altas tasas de mortalidad asociadas a fallas renal y pulmonar son resultado de las dificultades en el manejo de los casos.
Qiu, Jinya Jack; Westerdahl, Becky B; Pryor, Alan
Ozone gas (O₃) is a reactive oxidizing agent with biocidal properties. Because of the current phasing out of methyl bromide, investigations on the use of ozone gas as a soil-fumigant were conducted. Ozone gas was produced at a concentration of 1% in air by a conventional electrical discharge O₃ generator. Two O₃ dosages and three gas flow rates were tested on a sandy loam soil collected from a tomato field that had a resident population of root knot nematodes, Meloidogyne javanica. At dosages equivalent to 50 and 250 kg of O₃/ha, M. javanica were reduced by 24% and 68%, and free-living nematodes by 19% and 52%, respectively. The reduction for both M. javanica and free-living nematodes was dosage dependent and flow rate independent. The rates of O₃ mass transfer (OMT) through three soils of different texture were greater at low and high moisture levels than at intermediate ones. At any one soil moisture level, the OMT rate varied with soil texture and soil organic matter content. Results suggest that soil texture, moisture, and organic matter content should be considered in determining O₃ dosage needed for effective nematode control.
Darban, Daim Ali; Pathan, Mumtaz Ali; Bhatti, Abdul Ghaffar; Maitelo, Sultan Ahmed
Pasteuria penetrans will build-up faster where there is a high initial nematode density and can suppress root-knot nematode populations in the roots of tomato plants. The effect of different initial densities of nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) (150, 750, 1500, 3000) and P. penetrans infected females (F1, F3) densities (F0=control and AC=absolute control without nematode or P. penetrans inoculum) on the build-up of Pasteuria population was investigated over four crop cycles. Two major points of interest were highlighted. First, that within a confined soil volume, densities of P. penetrans can increase >100 times within 2 or 3 crop cycles. Second, from a relatively small amount of spore inoculum, infection of the host is very high. There were more infected females in the higher P. penetrans doses. The root growth data confirms the greater number of females in the controls particularly at the higher inoculum densities in the third and fourth crops. P. penetrans generally caused the fresh root weights to be higher than those in the control. P. penetrans has shown greater reduction of egg masses per plant at most densities. The effects of different initial densities of M. javanica and P. penetrans on the development of the pest and parasite populations were monitored. And no attempt was made to return the P. penetrans spores to the pots after each crop so the build-up in actual numbers of infected females and spores under natural conditions may be underestimated.
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to observe the effect of fly ash on hatching, mortality and penetration of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita in pumpkin roots. For hatching experiment different fly ash-extract concentrations (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% were prepared. Hatching was significantly reduced in all concentrations, maximum being at 50% concentration. The mortality (% of juveniles was observed in 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7th days with different levels (5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 % of fly ash-extract. All the levels were found harmful to juveniles. As the level was increased, the killing percentage of juveniles was also increased. Highest mortality was observed in 7th day with 50% level.For the penetration experiment, fly ash was mixed with soil to prepare different concentrations (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%. Seeds of pumpkin were grown in coffee cups filled with different mixtures. At two leaf stage, seedlings were inoculated with 2000 larvae. The penetrated larvae in roots were observed after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days. Root penetration was found inversely proportional to concentration. Significant results in the suppression of nematode penetration were noted up to 40% concentration. However, none of the juveniles was penetrated at 50% concentration.International Journal of Environment Vol.5(3 2016, pp.66-73
Maryluce Albuquerque da Silva Campos
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the tolerance of micropropagated and mycorrhized alpinia plants to the parasite Meloidogyne arenaria. The experimental design was completely randomized with a factorial arrangement of four inoculation treatments with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF (Gigaspora albida, Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Acaulospora longula, and a non-inoculated control in the presence or absence of M. arenaria with five replicates. The following characteristics were evaluated after 270 days of mycorrhization and 170 days of M. arenaria inoculation: height, number of leaves and tillers, fresh mass of aerial and subterranean parts, dry mass of aerial parts, foliar area, nutritional content, mycorrhizal colonization, AMF sporulation, and the number of galls, egg masses, and eggs. The results indicated a significant interaction between the treatments for AMF spore density, total mycorrhizal colonization, and nutrient content (Zn, Na, and N, while the remaining parameters were influenced by either AMF or nematodes. Plants inoculated with A. longula or C. etunicatum exhibited greater growth than the control. Lower N content was observed in plants inoculated with AMF, while Zn and Na were found in larger quantities in plants inoculated with C. etunicatum. Fewer galls were observed on mycorrhized plants, and egg mass production and the number of eggs were lower in plants inoculated with G. albida. Plants inoculated with A. longula showed a higher percentage of total mycorrhizal colonization in the presence of the nematode. Therefore, the association of micropropagated alpinia plants and A. longula enhanced tolerance to parasitism by M. arenaria.
Medeiros, Hugo Agripino de; Araújo Filho, Jerônimo Vieira de; Freitas, Leandro Grassi de; Castillo, Pablo; Rubio, María Belén; Hermosa, Rosa; Monte, Enrique
Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are major crop pathogens worldwide. Trichoderma genus fungi are recognized biocontrol agents and a direct activity of Trichoderma atroviride (Ta) against the RKN Meloidogyne javanica (Mj), in terms of 42% reduction of number of galls (NG), 60% of number of egg masses and 90% of number of adult nematodes inside the roots, has been observed in tomato grown under greenhouse conditions. An in vivo split-root designed experiment served to demonstrate that Ta induces systemic resistance towards Mj, without the need for the organisms to be in direct contact, and significantly reduces NG (20%) and adult nematodes inside tomato roots (87%). The first generation (F1) of Ta-primed tomato plants inherited resistance to RKN; although, the induction of defenses occurred through different mechanisms, and in varying degrees, depending on the Ta-Mj interaction. Plant growth promotion induced by Ta was inherited without compromising the level of resistance to Mj, as the progeny of Ta-primed plants displayed increased size and resistance to Mj without fitness costs. Gene expression results from the defense inductions in the offspring of Ta-primed plants, suggested that an auxin-induced reactive oxygen species production promoted by Ta may act as a major defense strategy during plant growth.
Kapur-Ghai, J; Kaur, M; Goel, P
Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) are obligate, sedentary plant endoparasites that are extremely polyphagous in nature and cause severe economic losses in agriculture. Hence, it is essential to control the parasite at an early stage. For any control strategy to be effective, an early and accurate diagnosis is of paramount importance. Immunoassays have the inherent advantages of sensitivity and specificity; have the potential to identify and quantify these plant-parasitic nematodes. Hence, in the present studies, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed for the detection of M.incognita antigens. First an indirect ELISA was developed for detection and titration of anti-M.incognita antibodies. Results indicated as high as 320 K titre of the antisera. Finally competitive inhibition ELISA was developed employing these anti-M.incognita antibodies for detection of M.incognita antigens. Sensitivity of ELISA was 10 fg. Competitive inhibition ELISA developed in the present studies has the potential of being used as an easy, rapid, specific and sensitive diagnostic tool for the detection of M.incognita infection.
Davis, Richard F.; Kemerait, Robert C.
The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is a major parasite of cotton in the U.S., and management tactics for this nematode attempt to minimize population levels. We compared three post-harvest practices for their ability to reduce nematode population levels in the field, thereby reducing initial nematode population for the next year's crop. The three practices tested were: 1) chemical defoliation before harvest plus cutting cotton stalks after harvest, 2) chemical defoliation plus applying a herbicide to kill plants prior to cutting the stalks, and 3) chemical defoliation without cutting stalks. Experiments were conducted in both the greenhouse and in the field. The greenhouse experiments demonstrated that M. incognita reproduction (measured as egg counts and root gall rating indices) was significantly greater when stalks were not cut. Cutting stalks plus applying herbicide to kill cotton roots did not significantly reduce nematode reproduction compared to cutting stalks alone. In field experiments, cutting stalks reduced egg populations and root galling compared to defoliation without stalk cutting. In a greenhouse bioassay which used soil from the field plots, plants grown in soil from the defoliation only treatment had greater root gall ratings and egg counts than in the stalk cutting plus herbicide treatment. Therefore, we conclude that cutting cotton stalks immediately after harvest effectively reduces M. incognita reproduction, and may lead to a lower initial population density of this nematode in the following year. PMID:22736845
Full Text Available In 2012 and 2013, a two-year field study was conducted at the University of Ilorin Teaching and Research Farm, Ilorin, the Southern Guinea Savannah Zone, Nigeria, with the aim to investigate the effect of Trichoderma harzianumT22 as a bio-control agent against a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita on some soybean varieties. The experimental field, which naturally has been known for the presence of some nematodes such as Pratylenchus, Helicitylenchus, Radopholus, Meloidogyne, Rotylenchulus, Xyphinema, was divided into two blocks, each block consisting of three plots with alleys between blocks and plots measuring 5 m and 1.5 m respectively. All treatments were replicated five times by means of a Randomized Complete Block Design. The initial soil nematode population was increased by chopping six kilograms of Meloidogyne incognita galled roots of Celosia agentea from a pure culture into all the plots. One block was treated with bio-control agent Trichoderma harzianumT22 while the second block served as a control unit. The results show that in terms of plant height, the number of branches, yield and reduction of the soil nematode population and root galls, the plants on the Trichoderma treated plots performed significantly better (P=0.05 than those in the control unit did. This therefore implies that root-knot nematodes represent a major constraint in the production of soybean while Trichoderma harzianumT22 improves the yield growth and the yield of soybean as well as better controls soil nematode populations with respect to the control trials.
Mayer Newton Alex
Full Text Available Um amplo projeto de estudos sobre a utilização do umezeiro como porta-enxerto para pessegueiro está sendo desenvolvido na FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP, devido, especialmente, às promissoras características para uso como redutor de vigor da copa e sua boa qualidade de frutos. Alguns trabalhos na literatura citam o umezeiro como resistente ao nematóide das galhas, entretanto dispõe-se de poucas informações. Neste trabalho, teve-se por objetivo estudar a reação de clones de umezeiro e cultivares de pessegueiro a Meloidogyne javanica. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, com 6 tratamentos (Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro e as cultivares Okinawa, Aurora-1 e Dourado-1 de pessegueiro e 9 repetições. As plantas foram mantidas em vasos de cerâmica contendo uma mistura de solo e areia (1:1, v/v, previamente autoclavada a 121ºC e 1kgf.cm-2 por 2 horas. Aos sessenta dias após o plantio, cada planta foi inoculada com 3.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne javanica. Aos 100 dias após a inoculação, as plantas foram colhidas para avaliação da massa de matéria fresca do sistema radicular, número de galhas por sistema radicular, número de ovos e juvenis por 10 g de raízes, número de ovos e juvenis por sistema radicular e fator de reprodução. Verificou-se que todos os clones e cultivares de umezeiro e pessegueiro, respectivamente, mostraram-se resistentes a Meloidogyne javanica.
Starting next year gas utility Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, a.s., Bratislava (SPP) will decrease the fees for transport of gas to its client from third parties. This decision should have a positive effect mainly on large industrial customers. The fact that SPP decided not to apply the approved ruling to its full extent was the result of negotiations with the regulator and the Ministry of Economy. SPP is not afraid it might lose customers. This decision only gives them a competitive advantage. (Author)
Murga-Gutiérrez, Santos Nélida; Alvarado-Ibáñez, Juan Carlos; Vera-Obando, Nora Yessenia
Se investigó el efecto del follaje del "huacatay" Tagetes minuta sobre la nodulación radicular producida por el nematodo Meloidogyne incognita que parasita el "pimiento páprika" Capsicum annuum cultivado en invernadero, con la finalidad de obtener una alternativa de control de este nematodo. Se utilizaron tres grupos experimentales y un testigo, con 12 macetas cada uno, las cuales contenían suelo y arena estériles (1:1). A este substrato se adicionó el follaje de T. minuta al 20, 35 y 50% (v/...
Fouad, A F; Kum, K-Y; Clawson, M L; Barry, J; Abenoja, C; Zhu, Q; Caimano, M; Radolf, J D
Eubacterium spp. and Streptococcus spp. are virulent, commonly identified microorganisms in endodontic infections. The purpose of this study was to use molecular methods to identify these organisms in 22 infected root canals that include eight cases with preoperative clinical symptoms and five cases with a history of diabetes mellitus. The presence of Streptococcus spp. and Eubacterium spp. was examined using two sets of PCR primers specific with multiple species within the respective genera. Positive specimens had their PCR products sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed to identify the specific species. Sixteen specimens (73%) contained Eubacterium spp. and nine (41%) were positive for Streptococcus spp. Eubacterium infirmum was the most prevalent Eubacterium sp. This organism was significantly associated with a history of diabetes (OR = 9.6; P = 0.04). Streptococcus anginosus was the most common Streptococcus sp., but neither it nor any of the other streptococci were significantly associated with the clinical parameters evaluated.
Luiza Suely Semen Martins
Full Text Available A meloidoginose da goiabeira, causada por M. enterolobii (= M. mayaguensis, é hoje considerado o principal problema fitossanitário desta cultura em todo o País, pois sua incidência resulta em acentuada queda de produtividade e, na maioria das vezes, a morte das plantas em médio prazo. Visando a seu controle, objetivou-se neste trabalho identificar fontes de resistência em goiabeira Psidium guajava L e araçazeiro Psidium sp.. Foram avaliados onze genótipos oriundos do Câmpus da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA e de regiões próximas ao município de Lavras (MG. As sementes foram coletadas de frutos fisiologicamente maduros e germinadas em piscinas hidropônicas. Ao atingirem 12 cm de altura, foram transferidas para casa de vegetação, em vasos individuais, e mantidas a temperatura entre 18-38°C. Após quinze dias, foram inoculados individualmente com suspensão de 10.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 de M. enterolobii e avaliadas após 120 dias. As reações dos hospedeiros foram enquadradas nos parâmetros estabelecidos pelo fator de reprodução FR, estimado pelo quociente Pf/Pi, em que Pf representa a população final e Pi a população inicial. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 11 genótipos, uma espécie de nematoide e seis repetições, sendo duas plantas em cada genótipo adicionadas como controle. Quatro meses depois, foram avaliados os teores foliares de macro e micronutrientes e o grau de infecção de cada genótipo. A produção média de ovos e J2 de M. enterolobii variou de 200 a 428.146,1, e os fatores de reprodução (FR médios variaram de 0,02(ALU1 a 42,81(A-PASTO. Os genótipos de araçazeiro (Psidium spp. AUFLA1, AUFLA4, AUFLA5 e APASTO e os genótipos de goiabeira (P. guajava G-ROXA e G-AMAR foram considerados suscetíveis. Os genótipos de araçazeiro ALU1, ALU2, ALU3, AROXO-C e AROXO-U mostraram-se resistentes, reforçando a necessidade de trabalhos complementares com
Crescimento micelial e parasitismo de Paecilomyces lilacinus sobre ovos de Meloidogyne paranaensis em diferentes temperaturas"in vitro" "In vitro" mycelial growth and parasitism of Paecilomyces lilacinus on Meloidogyne paranaensis eggs at different temperatures
Marina Capparelli Cadioli
Full Text Available Paecilomyces lilacinus é um fungo de solo, parasita facultativo de ovos de nematóides, que pode crescer rapidamente "in vitro". Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o crescimento micelial de P. lilacinus em diferentes temperaturas e selecionar os melhores isolados quanto à capacidade de parasitar ovos de Meloidogyne paranaensis. Foram avaliados isolados de P. lilacinus, obtidos de solos coletados na região de Londrina, PR. Para o isolamento empregou-se a técnica de diluição seriada dos solos e plaqueamento em meio de cultura semi-seletivo. A determinação do crescimento micelial e do parasitismo "in vitro" dos isolados sobre M. paranaensis foi realizada em placas de Petri contendo meio BDA. Os isolados foram incubados em B.O.D. a temperaturas de 20ºC, 22,5ºC, 25ºC, 27,5ºC e 30ºC. A avaliação do crescimento foi interrompida quando em um dos tratamentos a colônia do fungo atingiu a borda da placa de Petri e a determinação do parasitismo foi realizada depois de oito dias de incubação, calculando-se a porcentagem de ovos parasitados. O crescimento micelial dos isolados de P. lilacinus teve grande dependência da temperatura de incubação a que foram submetidos, sendo mais rápido à temperatura de 22,5ºC. Os isolados de P. lilacinus revelaram habilidade para infectar os ovos de M. paranaensis em meio BDA, principalmente na temperatura de 25ºC.Paecilomyces lilacinus is a soil fungus, facultative parasite of nematode eggs, which develops quickly "in vitro". The mycelial growth of P. lilacinus isolates was evaluated at different temperatures and the best isolates, regarding the capacity to parasite Meloidogyne paranaensis eggs, were chosen. P. lilacinus soil isolates from Londrina, Parana state, were evaluated. Isolation was done using serial dilution of the soils and plating it in semi-selective agar medium. The determination of mycelial growth and "in vitro" parasitism of these isolates was done using Petri plates
Henrique Teixeira Nunes
Full Text Available Nematoides de galhas constituem importante grupo de patógenos da cultura da soja e o manejo integrado é uma das principais medidas de controle que visam à redução de perdas econômicas. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a eficácia dos fungos Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom. Samsom e Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard Zare & Gams (sinonímia Verticillium chlamydosporium, de um produto comercial à base de Bacillus sp. (Nemix e do nematicida químico Aldicarb no controle de Meloidogyne incognita em soja, variedade M-SOY 6101. O experimento foi realizado em casa-de-vegetação no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com nove tratamentos (três produtos biológicos usados no tratamento de sementes com ou sem a aplicação em pós-emergência, Aldicarb aplicado apenas em pós-emergência e duastestemunhas e quatro repetições. Aldicarb reduziu o número de ovos e de juvenis do nematoide. P. lilacinus foi o mais atuante dos agentes biológicos, favorecendo a manutenção da quantidade de matéria seca da raiz de soja e reduzindo o número de ovos. O produto Nemix e P. chlamydosporia somente tiveram ação efetiva na redução do número de ovos do nematoide. Com base nos resultados, foi possível concluir que o agente químico e os agentes biológicos avaliados neste trabalho tiveram moderada atividade no controle de M. incognita em soja.Root-knot nematodes are considered significant pathogens of soybean crops. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of two fungi (Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom. Samsom and Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard Zare & Gams (syn. Verticillium chlamydosporium, a commercial product based on Bacillus sp. and Aldicarb on the control of Meloidogyne incognita on soybean, cultivar M-SOY 6101. The experimental design was set as randomized blocks with four replications. Nine treatments were evaluated: three biological agents used for seed treatment with and without post-emergence application, Aldicarb on post
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar clones de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas resistentes à raça 1 de Meloidogyne incognita e avaliar a eficiência do método de seleção empregado, pela estimação dos coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental e das herdabilidades no sentido amplo. Foram utilizados 123 genótipos de batata-doce, entre os quais quatro cultivares comerciais - Brazlândia Rosada, Brazlândia Roxa, Brazlândia Branca e Palmas -, e 119 acessos previamente selecionados no programa de melhoramento vegetal da Universidade Federal de Lavras. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos aumentados, com três tratamentos comuns: as cultivares de batata-doce Brazlândia Branca e Palmas, e a cultivar de tomate Santa Clara, suscetível ao nematoide. A classificação dos níveis de resistência foi realizada de acordo com o fator de reprodução do nematoide e o índice de reprodução relativo à cultivar Santa Clara, de tomateiro. A relação entre os coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental e as herdabilidades no sentido amplo foram altas, tanto para o fator de reprodução quanto para o índice de reprodução dos nematoides, o que demonstra a eficiência do método empregado para a seleção de genótipos resistentes. Foram identificados 57 genótipos promissores de batata-doce, resistentes à raça 1 de M. incognita, e selecionados para continuar no programa de melhoramento.The objective of this work was to select sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas resistant clones to Meloidogyne incognita race 1, and to assess the efficiency of the selection method deployed, through the estimation of genetic and environmental coefficients of variation, and broad-sense heritabilities. Genotypes assessed comprised 123 sweetpotato entries altogether, including four commercial cultivars - Brazlândia Rosada, Brazlândia Roxa, Brazlândia Branca, Palmas - and 119 clones previously selected by the Universidade Federal de Lavras
Hercules Diniz Campos
Full Text Available Com vista ao estudo de atração e penetração de Meloidogyne javanica (Treub Chitwood e Heterodera glycines (Ichinoe em soja (Glycine max L., desenvolveu-se uma técnica empregando-se segmento de raiz com 2cm de comprimento. Nos segmentos de raiz de soja infectados, observou-se que a penetração de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 de M. javanica ocorre pela coifa seguida de migração entre os feixes vasculares do cilindro central. Juvenis de H. glycines penetraram, aproximadamente, 15mm da coifa. A região seccionada da raiz de soja atraiu três vezes mais J2 de M. javanica do que a região da coifa, mas esta não foi tão atrativa para J2 de H. glycines. A obstrução conjunta da coifa e do local seccionado reduziu (83% a penetração de J2, tanto de M. javanica quanto de H. glycines. Quando apenas um desses locais foi obstruído, a outra extremidade livre compensou o processo atrativo. Portanto, as substâncias atrativas são liberadas por essas extremidades. A penetração de J2 de M. javanica foi maior no segmento de raiz quando comparada com a plântula intacta de soja. Entretanto, os J2 de H. glycines penetraram menos em segmentos de raiz e em plântulas sem folhas, quando comparados com plântulas intactas e com as seccionadas no colo. Portanto, na cultivar de soja "Embrapa 20", a atração e os locais de penetração de J2 de H. glycines e M. javanica são diferenciados. Esta técnica poderá ser útil nos estudos de atração e penetração de outros nematoides endoparasitas.To study the attraction and penetration of Meloidogyne javanica (Treub Chitwood and Heterodera glycines (Ichinoe in soybean (Glycine max L., a technique using 2-cm long root segments was developed. In infected soybean root segments penetration of second stage juveniles (J2 of M. javanica occured through the root cap following migration between the vascular bundles of the central cylinder. Juveniles of H. glycines penetrated about 15mm from the root cap. The cut
Petra Regine Adelheid Kohler
Full Text Available The discovery of the third domain of life, the Archaea, is one of the most exciting findings of the last century. These remarkable prokaryotes are well known for their adaptations to extreme environments; however, Archaea have also conquered moderate environments. Many of the archaeal biochemical processes, such as methane production, are unique in nature and therefore of great scientific interest. Although formerly restricted to biochemical and physiological studies, sophisticated systems for genetic manipulation have been developed during the last two decades for methanogenic archaea, halophilic archaea and thermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing archaea. The availability of these tools has allowed for more complete studies of archaeal physiology and metabolism and most importantly provides the basis for the investigation of gene expression, regulation and function. In this review we provide an overview of methods for genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp., a group of methanogenic archaea that are key players in the global carbon cycle and which can be found in a variety of anaerobic environments.
Coupling of MIC-3 overexpression with the chromosome 11 and 14 root-knot nematode (RKN) (Meloidogyne incognita) resistance QTLs provides insights into the regulation of the RKN resistance response in Upland cotton...
High levels of resistance to root-knot nematode (RKN) (Meloidogyne incognita) in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is mediated by two major quantitative trait loci (QTL) located on chromosomes 11 and 14. We had previously determined that MIC-3 expression played a direct role in suppressing RKN egg...
Transcriptome analysis of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita)-infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) roots reveals complex gene expression profiles and metabolic networks of both host and nematode during susceptible and resistance responses
Shukla, Neha; Yadav, Rachita; Kaur, Pritam
Root knot nematodes (RKNs, Meloidogyne incognita) are economically important endoparasites having a wide-host range. We have taken a comprehensive transcriptomic approach to investigate the expression of both tomato and RKN genes in tomato roots at five infection time intervals from susceptible p...
Transcriptome analysis of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita)-infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) roots reveals complex gene expression profiles and metabolic networks of both host and nematode during susceptible and resistance responses
Shukla, Neha; Yadav, Rachita; Kaur, Pritam
Root knot nematodes (RKNs, Meloidogyne incognita) are economically important endoparasites having a wide-host range. We have taken a comprehensive transcriptomic approach to investigate the expression of both tomato and RKN genes in tomato roots at five infection time intervals from susceptible p...
Kumari, N Swarna; Sivakumar, C V
The efficacy of the obligate bacterial parasite, Pasteuria penetrans against the rootknot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita infestation was assessed in brinjal. The seedling pans with sterilized soil were inoculated with nematodes and root powder of P. penetrans were applied at different dosages viz., 0 x 10(6), 0.5 x 10(6) spores and 1 x 10(6) spores/pan. Seeds of brinjal cv Co2 were sown in the pans and seedlings were allowed to grow. The seedlings were transplanted to microplots containing sterilized soil. Observations on nematode infestation and plant growth were recorded at seedling, flowering, and fruiting stages. Nematode infestation was significantly reduced by P. penetrans treatment. There was 22, 75 and 86% reduction in nematode population of soil over control at seedling, flowering and fruiting stages, respectively, at higher spore density (1 x 10(6)). Egg mass production was decreased by 63, 78 and 89% over control at 35 (seedling), 100 (flowering) and 160 (fruiting) days after sowing respectively, at 1 x 10(6) spores treated soil. The parasitizing ability of P. penetrans increased with the age of the crop. At higher spore density the percentage of parasitization was increased from 52.0 (35 days after sowing) to 90.0 (160 days after sowing) %. At these stages of the crop, the spore load per juvenile also increased at the higher dose. The P. penetrans application enhanced the plant growth. The weight of the shoot was increased by 17.6% whereas root weight by 41.0% over the control at fruiting stage. The experimental results revealed the potential use of P. penetrans as biological control agent of M. incognita. Application of P. penetrans spores in the nursery is a good strategy since the mass multiplication is quite difficult.
Full Text Available Pseudomonas putida 1A00316 isolated from Antarctic soil showed nematicidal potential for biological control of Meloidogyne incognita; however, little was known about whether strain 1A00316 could produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs, and if they had potential for use in biological control against M. incognita. In this study, VOCs produced by a culture filtrate of P. putida 1A00316 were evaluated by in vitro experiments in three-compartment Petri dishes and 96-well culture plates. Our results showed that M. incognita juveniles gradually reduced their movement within 24–48 h of incubation with mortality ranging from 6.49 to 86.19%, and mostly stopped action after 72 h. Moreover, egg hatching in culture filtrates of strain 1A00316 was much reduced compared to that in sterile distilled water or culture medium. Volatiles from P. putida 1A00316 analysis carried out by solid-phase micro-extraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS included dimethyl-disulfide, 1-undecene, 2-nonanone, 2-octanone, (Z-hexen-1-ol acetate, 2-undecanone, and 1-(ethenyloxy-octadecane. Of these, dimethyl-disulfide, 2-nonanone, 2-octanone, (Z-hexen-1-ol acetate, and 2-undecanone had strong nematicidal activity against M. incognita J2 larvae by direct-contact in 96-well culture plates, and only 2-undecanone acted as a fumigant. In addition, the seven VOCs inhibited egg hatching of M. incognita both by direct-contact and by fumigation. All of the seven VOCs repelled M. incognita J2 juveniles in 2% water agar Petri plates. These results show that VOCs from strain 1A00316 act on different stages in the development of M. incognita via nematicidal, fumigant, and repellent activities and have potential for development as agents with multiple modes of control of root-knot nematodes.
Maria Clara VIEIRA DOS SANTOS
Full Text Available Sustainable strategies are required for control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne chitwoodi to reduce dependence on toxic chemical pesticides. The efficacy of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia in biocontrol could be enhanced by integration with control measures that reduce initial nematode infestations. The use of foliar sprays with plant defence activators can reduce the susceptibility of potato plants to M. chitwoodi. This study assessed effects of combined soil application of P. chlamydosporia with foliar sprays of benzothiadiazole (BTH or cis-jasmone on infection of potatoes by M. chitwoodi. Solanum tuberosum, cv. Désirée plants were grown in soil mixed with 5000 chlamydospores g-1 of soil, sprayed twice with BTH or cis-jasmone and inoculated with 300 M. chitwoodi second-stage juveniles. Forty-five days after inoculation, nematode reproduction, numbers of colony-forming units of the fungus g-1 of soil and g-1 of root, and egg parasitism were assessed by standard techniques. Foliar sprays of BTH or cis-jasmone combined with the fungus reduced nematode reproduction (P<0.05, LSD. The presence of the fungus slightly increased the efficacy of cis-jasmone, as the number of eggs per egg mass was less in plants treated both with cis-jasmone and the fungus than in the plants treated only with the defence activator. The proportion of parasitized eggs was greater in the cis-jasmone treatment where rhizosphere colonisation was less, suggesting that P. chlamydosporia became a poorer rhizosphere coloniser but a more efficient nematode parasite. The addition of P. chlamydosporia to soil in combination with application of inducers of plant defence could be an alternative control strategy to be used against M. chitwoodi in potato.
Full Text Available Introduction: Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. are important plant pathogens that make large damage to the crops. The activity of root-knot nematode and reaction of host plant results in the development of several knots on the root, which interrupts water and food absorption system of the plant. Among popular methods for controlling root-knot nematodes are physical methods (soil solarization and flooding, farming methods (crop rotation, weed removal, contaminated roots removal, fertilization, soil reinforcement, planting time adjustment, and use of resistant varieties, and chemical methods (disinfection with pesticide and foliar spray. Incomplete control, high cost and environmental problems (chemical compounds have directed some researchers toward to use non-chemical methods such as herbs and herbal products for the management nematodes. Mankind has used medicinal plants throughout the history in both direct and indirect ways. Today, medicinal plants have a considerable share of medical products. The nematicidal effect of many plants has been demonstrated and the use of plant products has been considered as a safe method to control root-knot nematode. This method is cheap and easy to use, does not cause environmental pollution, and is able to improve the soil in structural and nutritional terms. Organic plants possess a wide range of secondary metabolites such as phenyls, flavonoids, coinons, tanons, essences, alkaloids, saponins, and sterols. These substances are biodegradable owing to their natural origin and do not pollute the environment. Today, active plant compounds are given much attention because they are less durable and do not have the negative impact on mammals and non-target organisms. Plant products including essences and extracts are usually used to control plant diseases nematodes. Therefore, due to the favorable impact of plants in controlling Root-knot nematodes, In this study, the presence of several herbs (thyme, hyssop
Full Text Available Introduction: Biocontrol of nematode agents in order to decrease the hazardous impacts of chemical pesticide application including problems of public health and environmental pollution is apriority. In this study, solid (Vermicompost and liquid products (Liquid Vermicompost, Vermiwash and Coelomic fluidof the earthworm species Eisenia fetida were tested against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica in greenhouse conditions. Materials and Methods: In this study, Solid (Vermicompost and Liquid products(Wormtea, Vermiwash, Coelomic fluid erthworms (Eisenia foetida were tested against Meloidogyne javanica and also the effect of Vermicompost was evaluated on Pathogenicity of various nematode initial inoculum in two stage greenhouse conditions. Earthworm-based products (Vermicompost, Wormtea, Vermiwash and Coelomic fluid were added to tomato pots. Various treatments of liquid as well as solid products and their combination were used in the greenhouse trial. The first Stage greenhouse experiment- Tomato seeds grown in 2 kg sterilized soil. In the treatments having Vermicompost, pots incorporated with 200 gr of this compost homogeneously mixed with soil. After plants reached at two leaf stage, to study the effects of liquid products (Wormtea, Vermiwash, and Coelomic fluid they added to the pots (500cc along with the irrigation water every week and after of 4 leaf stage, 5000 nematode eggs and larva inoculated to the tomato host plants. 90 days after nematode inoculation, plant and nematode growth indices separately measured and compared. The experiment conducted based on completely randomized design having four replicates. The second stage greenhouse experiment- Tomato seeds grown in 2 kg sterilized soil. In the treatments, pots incorporated with 200 gr of this compost homogeneously mixed with soil. After of 4 leaf stage, 0,1000,2000,4000 and 10000 nematode eggs and larva inoculated to the tomato host plants. 90 days after nematode inoculation, plant
Full Text Available Etude de trois souches d'Arthrobotrys oligospora : Caractérisation biologique et effets sur Meloidogyne mayaguensis parasite de la tomate au Sénégal. Three strains (ORS 18690 S2, ORS 18691 S6 and ORS 18693 S5 of the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora have been isolated in Senegal for the first time. In vitro, two strains (ORS 18690 S2 and ORS 18693 S5 of them trapped 100 % and the other (ORS 18691 S5 80 %> of 7-day-old juvenile Meloidogyne mayaguensis within 48h. Optimal growth occured at 25-30°C and at a pH 5.6, but salinity inhibited development. In order to test the ability of fungi to control M. mayaguensis in pots on tomato, the fungus was incorporated into compost blocks or in vermiculite before sowing or subsequent transplanting. In pot experiments both strains reduced nematode populations ans stimulated seedling growth. However, these effects were higher in compost blocks than in vermiculite.
Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la especie de Meloidogyne asociada a dos plantaciones de higuera en Costa Rica. En marzo de 2012, en el distrito de Pacayas, provincia de Cartago, se detectaron agallas en los sistemas radicales de plantas de higuera (Ficus carica L. de dos fincas. De las raíces agalladas se extrajeron hembras, masas de huevos y juveniles (J2 de Meloidogyne sp. Se examinaron los patrones perineales de las hembras y los segundos estadios infectivos se analizaron morfológica y molecularmente mediante PCR-RFLP. Se amplificó la región intergénica (IGS del genoma mitocondrial, delimitada por el gen de la subunidad II de la citocromo oxidasa (COII y el gen ribosomal 16S. La población de nematodos se identificó como M. incognita. El tamaño de los productos de PCR generados con los imprimadores C2F3 y 1108 fue de 1,7 kb. Al tratar los productos de PCR con enzimas de restricción, se generaron cuatro fragmentos de 850, 450, 250 y 150 pb con la enzima AluI y dos fragmentos de 1300 y 400 pb con la enzima HinfI.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010 and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25, B. divergens (n = 1, B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1, B. gibsoni-like (n = 1, R. helvetica (n = 272, R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12 and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1. The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27, but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green
Schorn, Sabine; Pfister, Kurt; Reulen, Holger; Mahling, Monia; Silaghi, Cornelia
Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010) and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae) in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae) in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae) in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25), B. divergens (n = 1), B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1), B. gibsoni-like (n = 1), R. helvetica (n = 272), R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12) and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1). The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27), but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green areas are likely to remain in the research focus on
Realpe-Delgado, María Elena
Full Text Available Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and L. monocytogenes are zoonotic foodborne pathogens, associated with the consumption of contaminated foods of animal origin. In this study we determined the prevalence and risk factors associated with the presence of these microorganisms at all stages of the production system, in two Colombian poultry companies (EI-EI-I and II. In EI-I, Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp., were isolated from 10 % and 4.4 % of the specimens, and S. Heidelberg was the predominant serotype. Salmonella spp., was found in 6 % of hands and stool samples of workers. S. Saphra was the most prevalent serotype. In EI-II, the prevalence of Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp., from animal specimens was 7 % and 17 %, respectively. L. monocytogenes was not detected. This study established the prevalence of these zoonotic pathogens through the production chain and showed the presence of pathogen carriers among workers/food handlers. “Lack of medical examination of employees in the previous year” was found to be a possible risk factor for carriage of Salmonella spp.
Furustrand Tafin, U.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Trampuz, A.
We evaluated isothermal microcalorimetry for real-time susceptibility testing of non-Aspergillus molds. MIC and minimal effective concentration (MEC) values of Mucorales (n = 4), Fusarium spp. (n = 4), and Scedosporium spp. (n = 4) were determined by microbroth dilution according to the Clinical
Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) and zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.), which are both used as warm-season turfgrasses in the United States, are members of subfamily Chloridoideae and are reported to be at least 55% genetically similar. To assess if molecular tools between the two species can be interchanged, 93...
Falkinham, Joseph O; Williams, Myra D; Kwait, Rebecca; Lande, Leah
A published survey of bacteria in showerhead biofilm samples revealed that Methylobacterium spp. and Mycobacterium spp. seldom coexisted in biofilms. To confirm that information, biofilm samples were collected from household plumbing of Mycobacterium avium patients and Methylobacterium spp. and M. avium numbers were measured by direct colony counts. The results demonstrated that if Methylobacterium spp. were present, Mycobacterium spp. were absent, and the opposite. The data demonstrate that microbial populations in biofilms can influence the presence or absence of opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens and, thereby, increase the range of strategies to reduce exposure to waterborne pathogens. Finally, by assessing for the visual presence of methylobacteria as pink pigmentation on showers and shower curtains, homeowners and managers of hospitals and other buildings can quickly determine whether a premise plumbing biofilm sample has mycobacteria with a high degree of assurance. Copyright © 2016 Asian African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hllytchaikra Ferraz Fehlberg
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to standardize the high-resolution melting method for identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by amplification of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA using a single primer pair. The analyses were performed on individual reactions (containing DNA from a single species of a protozoan, on duplex reactions (containing DNA from two species of protozoa in each reaction, and on a multiplex reaction (containing DNA of four parasites in a single reaction. The proposed method allowed us to identify and discriminate the four species by analyzing the derivative, normalized, and difference melting curves, with high reproducibility among and within the experiments, as demonstrated by low coefficients of variation (less than 2.2% and 2.0%, respectively. This is the first study where this method is used for discrimination of these four species of protozoa in a single reaction.
Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A
Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti Soares
Full Text Available Objective: to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans.Method: this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy. The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol.Results: among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests.Conclusion: the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection.
加藤, 行男; 村上, 賢
A total of 291 fecal samples from 252 wild reptiles and 39 pet reptiles were examined for the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in Japan. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 29 (11.5%) of 252 wild reptiles and 22 (55.6%) of 39 pet reptiles. The isolates were identified into subspecies I to IV. The majority of isolates (43.6%) belonged to subspecies I and these isolates could be identified into 9 serovars. The serovars isolated were found to be S. Newport, S. Litchifield and S. Thompson which cause...
Dalzell, Johnathan J; McMaster, Steven; Johnston, Michael J; Kerr, Rachel; Fleming, Colin C; Maule, Aaron G
Nine non-nematode-derived double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), designed for use as controls in RNA interference (RNAi) screens of neuropeptide targets, were found to induce aberrant phenotypes and an unexpected inhibitory effect on motility of root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita J2s following 24h soaks in 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA; a simple soaking procedure which we have found to elicit profound knockdown of neuronal targets in Globodera pallida J2s. We have established that this inhibitory phenomenon is both time- and concentration-dependent, as shorter 4h soaks in 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA had no negative impact on M. incognita J2 stage worms, yet a 10-fold increase in concentration to 1 mg/ml for the same 4h time period had an even greater qualitative and quantitative impact on worm phenotype and motility. Further, a 10-fold increase of J2s soaked in 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA did not significantly alter the observed phenotypic aberration, which suggests that dsRNA uptake of the soaked J2s is not saturated under these conditions. This phenomenon was not initially observed in potato cyst nematode G. pallida J2s, which displayed no aberrant phenotype, or diminution of migratory activity in response to the same 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA 24h soaks. However, a 10-fold increase in dsRNA to 1mg/ml was found to elicit comparable irregularity of phenotype and inhibition of motility in G. pallida, to that initially observed in M. incognita following a 24h soak in 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA. Again, a 10-fold increase in the number of G. pallida J2s soaked in the same volume of 1 mg/ml dsRNA preparation did not significantly affect the observed phenotypic deviation. We do not observe any global impact on transcript abundance in either M. incognita or G. pallida J2s following 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA soaks, as revealed by reverse transcriptase-PCR and quantitative PCR data. This study aims to raise awareness of a phenomenon which we observe consistently and which we believe signifies a more expansive deficiency in our knowledge and
Bruna Hanielle Carneiro dos Santos
Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de compostos orgânicos no controle de Meloidogyne javanica, e no desenvolvimento de mudas de bananeiras 'Prata-Anã. O experimento foi conduzido em DIC, com dez repetições, e os tratamentos consistiram em quatro compostos constituídos de diferentes matérias-primas (restos da cultura da banana, cana-de-açúcar, esterco bovino, cascas de banana, plantas daninhas, capim andropogon, o esterco bovino, a torta de mamona e testemunhas (adubação mineral, carbofuran e testemunha absoluta (sem adição de composto orgânico. Em cada vaso, foram colocados 3 kg de solo autoclavado, incorporado com cada um dos tratamentos avaliados e inoculado com suspensão contendo 4.000 ovos de M. javanica. Após quatro dias, transplantou-se uma muda de bananeira 'Prata-Anã' micropropagada, e aos 60 dias, avaliaram-se: altura das plantas, diâmetro, número de folhas e peso de matéria seca da parte aérea, e número de galhas, massas de ovos, número de ovos e o número de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2, por 100 cm³ de solo. Testou-se in vitro o efeito das frações húmicas dos quatro compostos (que não causaram fitotoxidez e esterco bovino sobre a mortalidade e motilidade de J2 de M. javanica. O ensaio foi montado em placas de ELISA em DIC, com cinco repetições. Os compostos orgânicos e o esterco bovino aumentaram o desenvolvimento das mudas. A torta de mamona provocou efeito fitotóxico às mudas. Menor número de variáveis nematológicas foi proporcionado pela torta de mamona e pelo carbofuran. O número de J2 também foi menor nas parcelas tratadas com carbofuran e também pelo Composto 3, constituído por plantas daninhas+restos de cana-de-açúcar+ esterco bovino e pelo adubo mineral. Para o teste in vitro, as substâncias húmicas conferiram efeito nematicida e nematostático. Dentre os compostos, o C3 mostrou-se promissor por reduzir o desenvolvimento do nematoides e não apresentar efeito fitotóxico.
Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el efecto de densidad creciente de Meloidogyne exigua sobre el desarrollo de plantas de almácigo. Se trasplantaron plántulas de café variedad caturra a bolsas de polietileno con 1335 cm3 de sustrato desinfectado, para establecer un ensayo con diseño de bloques completos al azar, con 8 repeticiones. Los tratamientos aplicados consistieron de poblaciones iniciales (Pi de 0; 0,125; 0,25; 0,5; 1; 2; 4; 8; 16; 32 y 64 huevos+J2/ cm3 de sustrato, aplicadas un mes después del trasplante. El modelo y=m+(1-m ZP-T aplicado 234 días después del trasplante para la altura, diámetro, número de nudos y peso fresco aéreo, indicó que el límite de tolerancia (T fue de 0,66; 0,06; 0,13 y 0,88 huevos+J2/cm3, respectivamente; la producción mínima relativa (m fue de 0,79; 0,79; 0,33 y 0,54 respectivamente, a Pi iguales o mayores a 64 huevos+J2/cm3. El índice de agallas alcanzó el máximo a partir de una Pi de 2; el pico máximo de nematodos en el suelo y las raíces se alcanzó con Pi entre 2 y 4; mientras la tasa máxima de reproducción fue de 114 con Pi de 0,125. Se concluyó que la densidad crítica fue cercana a cero huevos/cm3 de sustrato como población inicial, y que el almácigo se debe desarrollar libre de nematodos, ya que aún con Pi bajas se puede alcanzar la máxima población en corto tiempo.
Full Text Available Meloidogyne incognita es un nematodo endoparásito sedentario, de penetración total y formador de nódulos radicales; tiene una amplia distribución geográfica y causa pérdidas agrícolas importantes. Recientemente se han utilizado abonos orgánicos y compuestos como la quitina en la supresión de plagas y enfermedades de plantas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de vermicompost de estiércol bovino y su enriquecimiento con quitina, sobre la infección de M. incognita en plantas de tomate var. Hayslip bajo condiciones de invernadero. Para esto se inocularon las plantas con 5000 unidades de inóculo (huevos+juveniles en segundo estado por maceta y se compararon con controles que fueron sembrados en suelo sin enmienda orgánica o quitina. La evaluación se llevó a cabo 60 días después y se midió el peso fresco aéreo y radical, peso seco aéreo, población total de nematodos en raíz y suelo, índice de nódulos radicales (INR, índice de masas de huevos (IMH, el factor de reproducción del nematodo (FR y recuento de grupos funcionales (hongos, bacterias y actinomicetes. La adición al suelo de vermicompost provocó un incremento en las variables peso fresco y seco foliar y peso fresco radical: a mayor porcentaje de vermicompost, mayor incremento; así mismo, la aplicación del vermicompost redujo la cantidad del nematodo en raíz y en suelo. La aplicación de quitina acentuó estos resultados, obteniéndose el menor factor de reproducción de M. Incognita, con un valor de 3,76 para la dosis de 50% vermicompost+quitina, mientras que en el testigo este factor fue de 93,20. La aplicación de quitina como enmienda única solo afectó la población de hongos en el suelo, mientras que la de actinomicetes aumentó en los tratamientos enmendados.
Full Text Available Heterodera glycines (Soybean Cyst nematode, or SCN and Meloidogyne incognita (Root-Knot nematode, or RKN are two damaging plant-parasitic nematodes on important field crops. Developing a quick method to distinguish between live and dead SCN and RKN second stage juveniles (J2 is vital for high throughput screening of pesticides or biological compounds against SCN and RKN. The in vitro assays were conducted in 96-well plates to determine the optimum chemical stimulus to distinguish between live and dead SCN and RKN J2. Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, and sodium hydroxide (NaOH were evaluated for the nematode response to see if these compounds can help distinguish between viable from the dead J2. Results indicated that live SCN J2 responded equally (P ≤ 0.05 to 1 μl Na2CO3 and 10 μl NaHCO3 in 100 μl of water at pH = 10. Live SCN J2 responded by twisting their bodies in a curling shape and increasing rate of movements within 2 minutes of exposure. The twisting activity continued for up to 30 minutes. Live RKN J2 responded by increasing activity with the application of 1 μl NaOH in 100 μl of water at pH = 10 also in the 2 minutes to 30 minutes time frame. Furthermore, in growth chamber tests to confirm the infectivity of live SCN. The live SCN as determined by exposure to 1 μl of Na2CO3 indicated 60.5% of the SCN J2 were alive and of those, 29.5% were infective and entered the soybean roots. The 1 μl of NaOH stimulus revealed that 75.2% RKN J2 were alive and of those, 14.9% were infective and entered soybean roots. These results confirmed that 1 μl of Na2CO3 added to 100 μl suspension of SCN J2 and 1 μl of NaOH added to 100 μl suspension of RKN J2 are the effective stimuli for rapidly distinguishing between live and dead SCN and RKN J2 in vitro. SCN and RKN J2 responded differently to different compounds.
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia spp... antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Serratia spp. from cultured isolates. The...
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Gisbert Domenech, Maria Carmen; Picó Sirvent, María Belén N:2949; Nuez Viñals, Fernando
Gisbert Domenech, MC.; Picó Sirvent, MBN.; Nuez Viñals, F. (2011). Regeneration in selected Cucurbita spp. germplasm. Report- Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative. 33-34:53-54. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/62926 Senia 53 54 33-34
Full Text Available Malaria remains a public health problem in West Nusa Tenggara Province. Central Lombok District is one of the areas with high case of malaria. Annual Malaria Incidence (AMI was increased from 5.9 ‰ in 2006, 6.7‰ up to 8.1‰ in 2008. The objective of the study is to describe the ecological condition of Anopheles spp. through observation, measurement of environmental variables, larvae and adult collection. This research was an observational research with cross-sectional study. The population of this study is all mosquitos and breeding habitats of Anopheles spp. that exist in the research location. Ecological observations carried out on anopheles breeding habitats including acidity, salinity, shaded places and aquatic biota. Air temperature and humidity measured at the adult mosquitoes trapping sites. The result showed that pH values of water is around 9.00, salinity in the breeding habitats around 14 ppm, and water biota (i.e. moss, grass, shrimps, fishes, tadpoles and crabs surrounded by bushes with larvae density 0,1-28,8 each dipping. The air measurement at the time was between 23°-27° Celsius and 65%-84% humidity. This research concludes that ecology and environmental conditions were supporting the development of larvae and adult mosquito of Anopheles spp.Keywords: ecology, Anopheles spp., Central Lombok
Hochel, I.; Růžičková, H.; Krásný, Lukáš; Demnerová, K.
Roč. 112, č. 6 (2012), s. 1257-1265 ISSN 1364-5072 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/10/0664 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : biotype * antibiotic resistance * Cronobacter spp Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.196, year: 2012
Durum wheat is the major cereal crop cultivated in Tunisia; covering over 40% of the cereal growing areas. Durum wheat production remains below expectation due to its low productivity that is attributed to the chronically abiotic and biotic stresses. Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium spp. has become an ...
Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra
A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3200 Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Echinococcus spp. serological reagents are devices that...
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... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350 Leptospira spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Leptospira spp. serological reagents are devices that...
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella spp... from clinical specimens or to identify antibodies to Brucella spp. in serum. Additionally, some of... to identify Brucella spp. directly from clinical specimens or cultured isolates derived from clinical...
M’ikanatha, Nkuchia M.; Dettinger, Lisa A.; Perry, Amanda; Rogers, Paul; Reynolds, Stanley M.
In 2010, we surveyed 176 clinical laboratories in Pennsylvania regarding stool specimen testing practices for enteropathogens, including Campylobacter spp. Most (96.3%) routinely test for Campylobacter spp. In 17 (15.7%), a stool antigen test is the sole method for diagnosis. We recommend that laboratory practice guidelines for Campylobacter spp. testing be developed. PMID:22377086
The spread of introduced saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) throughout many riparian systems across the western United States motivated the introduction of biological control agents that are specific to saltcedar, saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata, D. elongata; Chrysomelidae). I monitored small mam...
Our objective was to determine the suppressive abilities of bacterial metabolites derived from Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus spp. on Glomerella cingulata, Phomopsis sp., Phytophthora cactorum, and Fusicladosporium effusum, which are fungal or oomycete pathogens of pecan, and Monilinia fructicola, a f...
Darban, D A; Gowen, S R; Pembroke, B; Mahar, A N
Growth room and glasshouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of constant and fluctuating temperatures on the development of Pasteuria penetrans a hyperparasite of root-knot nematodes. Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) were inoculated with Meloidogyne javanica second-stage juveniles attached with endospores of P. penetrans and were grown in growth room at 26-29 degrees C and in glasshouse at 20-32 degrees C. The tomato plants were sampled from the growth room after 600 degree-days based on 17 degrees C/d, accumulating each day above a base temperature of 10 degrees C and from the glasshouse after 36 calendar days. Temperature affected the development of P. penetrans directly. The rate of development at constant temperature in growth room was faster than that in the glasshouse at fluctuating temperatures.
Martins Clélia Aparecida de Paiva
Full Text Available The presence of yeasts and staphylococci in the oral cavity is important because they can act as supplementary microbiota and in certain situations can cause oral or systemic diseases. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in the human oral cavity. Oral rinses were collected from sixty-eight individuals according to the technique described by Samaranayake and MacFarlane and then cultured on Sabouraud medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and Baird-Parker agar. After the incubation period, the microorganisms were isolated and identified through biochemical tests. The data obtained were statistically analysed by ANOVA. Candida spp. were isolated from 61.76% of the examined individuals and C. albicans was the more frequently isolated specie. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 95.60% of the individuals and 41 strains were coagulase negative (63%. Among the coagulase positive strains, nine were S. aureus, 11 S. hyicus and 4 S. schleiferi subspecie coagulans. No correlation was observed between the counts (cfu of the isolated Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp.
Guerra, Diogo Ribeiro Almeida
Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária Echinococcus spp., Taenia spp. and Toxocara spp. are important parasites of domestic and wild canids and neglected zoonotic helminths. Despite their relevance in Public Health, little is known about their prevalence in Portugal. An epidemiological study was conducted to clarify the role of canids in the sylvatic and synanthropic cycles of these pathogens in our country. Fecal samples from dog (n = 51), red fox (n = 62) and Iberia...
Bialvaei, Abed Zahedi; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Yousefi, Mehdi
This study was conducted in Iran in order to assess the distribution of CTX-M type ESBLs producing Enterobacteriaceae. From January 2012 to December 2013, totally 198 E. coli, 139 Klebsiella spp, 54 Salmonella spp and 52 Shigella spp from seven hospitals of six provinces in Iran were screened for resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. After identification and susceptibility testing, isolates presenting multiple-drug resistance (MDR) were evaluated for ESBL production by the disk combination method and by Etest using (cefotaxime and cefotaxime plus clavulanic acid). All isolates were also screened for blaCTX-M using conventional PCR. A total of 42.92%, 33.81%, 14.81% and 7.69% of the E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolates were MDR, respectively. The presence of CTX-M enzyme among ESBL-producing isolates was 85.18%, 77.7%, 50%, and 66.7%, in E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp respectively. The overall presence of CTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae was 15.4% and among the resistant isolates was 47.6%. This study indicated that resistance to β-lactams mediated by CTX-M enzymes in Iran had similar pattern as in other parts of the world. In order to control the spread of resistance, comprehensive studies and programs are needed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Antinematicidal Efficacy Of Root Exudates Of Some Crotalaria Species On Meloidogyne Incognita Root-Knot Nematode Kofoid And White Chitwood Isolated From Infected Lycopersicum Esculentum L.Tomato Plant
Full Text Available The antinematicidal efficacies of exudates of four common weeds Crotalaria breviflora Crotalaria juncea Crotalaria retusa and Crotalaria spectabilis were carried out against Meloidogyne incognita. The young actively growing seedling of the common weeds were uprooted and taken to the laboratory for analyses. The root exudates of test plants were prepared by growing the young actively growing seedlings in test tubes wrapped with black carbon paper for five days under lighted florescent bulbs. Root exudates of Crotalaria breviflora Crotalaria juncea Crotalaria retusa and Crotalaria spectabilis exhibited nematicidal properties against the Meloidogyne incognita. The effects varied with concentrations of the exudates P0.05 using analysis of variance ANOVA. The effects also differed among test plants with Crotalaria retusa topping in terms of reduction in nematode population. This was followed by C.breviflora C.juncea and C.spectabilis respectively. The results thus confirmed that all the test plants are potentially viable trap weeds and can be used for the control of Meloidogyne incognita and should be employed as such.
Paola Mendes Milanesi; Elena Blume; Marlove Fátima Brião Muniz; Lia Rejane Silveira Reiniger; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Emanuele Junges; Manoeli Lupatini
This study aimed i) to quantify the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. in rhizospheric soil, with and without symptoms of Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS) in eight soybean genotypes; ii) morphologically identify isolates of Fusarium spp. from roots with SDS; iii) evaluate the antagonism between Trichoderma spp. and Fusarium spp. isolates from rhizospheric soil and roots from with and without SDS, respectively; and iv) characterize through the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA the isolate...
Skinner, Delaina; Mitcham, Jessica R; Starkey, Lindsay A; Noden, Bruce H; Fairbanks, W Sue; Little, Susan E
American black bears (Ursus americanus) are commonly infested with ticks throughout their range, but there are few surveys for tick-borne disease agents in bears. To characterize tick infestations and determine the prevalence of current infection with Babesia spp. and past or current infection with Ehrlichia spp. in newly re-established populations of black bears in east central and southeastern Oklahoma, US, we identified adult (n=1,048) and immature (n=107) ticks recovered from bears (n=62). We evaluated serum and whole blood samples from a subset (n=49) for antibodies reactive to, and characteristic DNA fragments of, Ehrlichia spp., as well as characteristic DNA fragments of Babesia spp. Amblyomma americanum, the most common tick identified, was found on a majority (56/62; 90%) of bears and accounted for 697/1,048 (66.5%) of all ticks recovered. Other ticks included Dermacentor variabilis (338/1,048; 32.3%) from 36 bears, Amblyomma maculatum (9/1,048; 0.9%) from three bears, and Ixodes scapularis (4/1,048; 0.4%) from three bears. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. were detected in every bear tested (49/49; 100%); maximum inverse titers to Ehrlichia chaffeensis ranged from 64-4,096 (geometric mean titer 1,525). However, PCR failed to identify active infection with E. chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, or an Ehrlichia ruminantium-like agent. Infection with Babesia spp. was detected by PCR in 3/49 (6%) bears. Together these data confirm that tick infestations and infection with tick-borne disease agents are common in bears in the southern US. The significance of these infestations and infections to the health of bears, if any, and the identity of the Ehrlichia spp. responsible for the antibody reactivity seen, warrant further evaluation.
B. Riet-Correa; M.B. Castro; R.A. Lemos; G. Riet-Correa; V. Mustafa; F. Riet-Correa
Brachiaria species are the most important grasses for cattle production in Brazil. However, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria spp. is their toxicity. Most outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization are caused by B. decumbens; however B. brizantha, B. humidicola and B. ruziziensis can also cause poisoning. The poisoning affects cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. There are differences...
do Amaral, Renan Bressianini; Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Famadas, Kátia Maria; Garcia, Amanda Barbosa; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério
The family Streblidae comprises a monophyletic group of Hippoboscoidea, hematophagous dipterans that parasitize bats. Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. have been reported in bats sampled in Europe, Africa, Asia, North, Central and South America. However, there are few reports on the Bartonella and Rickettsia bacteria infecting Hippoboscoidea flies and mites. While Spinturnicidae mites are ectoparasites found only in bats, those belonging to the family Macronyssidae comprise mites that also parasitize other mammal species. This study investigates the occurrence and assesses the phylogenetic positioning of Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. found in Streblidae flies and Spinturnicidae and Macronyssidae mites collected from bats captured in Brazil. From May 2011 to April 2012 and September 2013 to December 2014, 400 Streblidae flies, 100 Macronyssidaes, and 100 Spinturnicidae mites were collected from bats captured in two sites in northeastern Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Forty (19.8%) out of 202 Streblidae flies were positive for Bartonella spp. in qPCR assays based on the nuoG gene. Among the flies positive for the bacterium, six (18%) were Paratrichobius longicrus, seven (29%) Strebla guajiro, two (40%) Aspidoptera phyllostomatis, five (11%) Aspidoptera falcata, one (10%) Trichobius anducei, one (25%) Megistopoda aranea, and 18 (32%) Trichobius joblingi, and collected from bats of the following species: Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus planirostris, Sturnira lilium, and Artibeus obscurus. Six sequences were obtained for Bartonella (nuoG [n = 2], gltA [n = 2], rpoB [n = 1], ribC = 1]). The phylogenetic analysis based on gltA (750pb) gene showed that the Bartonella sequences clustered with Bartonella genotypes detected in bats and ectoparasites previously sampled in Latin America, including Brazil. Only one sample (0.49%) of the species Trichobius joblingi collected from a specimen of Carollia perspicillata was positive
Dziedzic, Ewa; Jagła, Joanna
Micropropagation is the most appropriate method for large-scale production of Rubus and Ribes spp. The proliferation rate of Rubus spp. differs in shoot tips and nodal segments. The culture media used for raspberry and blackberry propagation are MS-based supplemented with different combination and ratio of plant growth regulators, depending on the stage of culture. The initiation medium containing 0.4 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA is used to stabilize shoot cultures. In multiplication media, concentration of cytokinin is doubled. In vitro rooting of shoots is achieved on media supplemented with 1.0 mg L(-1) IBA. Ribes spp. cultures are initiated from shoot tips, meristem, or dormant buds on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L(-1) BA, 0.5 mg L(-1) IBA, and 0.1 mg L(-1) GA(3.) After stabilization of shoot cultures in 3-4-week time, shoot multiplication is carried out on MS medium containing 1.0 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA. Shoots 2 cm long are cultured to rooting on a medium amended with 2.0 mg L(-1) IBA and 5.0 mg L(-1) IAA. Rooted plantlets are transferred to universal peat substrate and acclimatized in the greenhouse.
Sedlata Juraskova, E; Sedlackova, H; Janska, J; Holy, O; Lalova, I; Matouskova, I
To determine the current presence of Legionella spp. in the output water of dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) and examine its mitigation by disinfection at the Institute of Dentistry and Oral Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc and University Hospital Olomouc. The first stage of our survey involved collecting samples of DUWL output water from 50 dental chair units (DCUs), and 2 samples of the incoming potable water. In October 2015, a one-time disinfection (1 % Stabimed) of DUWLs was conducted. This was followed by collecting 10 control samples (survey stage 2). From the total of 50 samples (survey stage 1), 18 samples (36.0 %) tested positive for Legionella spp. Following the disinfection, nine of the ten samples no longer showed any presence of Legionella. Based on culture results, the one-time disinfection (1 % Stabimed) was effective. We are unable to comment on the duration of positive effect of disinfection on the occurrence of Legionella spp. in the outlet water. It was a one-time survey (Tab. 2, Ref. 32).
Carvalheira, Ana; Ferreira, Vânia; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula
Relatively little is known about the role of foods in the chain of transmission of acinetobacters and the occurrence of different Acinetobacter spp. in foods. Currently, there is no standard procedure to recover acinetobacters from food in order to gain insight into the food-related ecology and epidemiology of acinetobacters. This study aimed to assess whether enrichment in Dijkshoorn enrichment medium followed by plating in CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter medium is a useful method for the isolation of Acinetobacter spp. from foods. Recovery of six Acinetobacter species from food spiked with these organisms was compared for two selective enrichment media (Baumann's enrichment and Dijkshoorn's enrichment). Significantly (p enrichment. Next, the Dijkshoorn's enrichment followed by direct plating on CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter was applied to detect Acinetobacter spp. in different foods. Fourteen different presumptive acinetobacters were recovered and assumed to represent nine different strains on the basis of REP-PCR typing. Eight of these strains were identified by rpoB gene analysis as belonging to the species Acinetobacter johnsonii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter guillouiae and Acinetobacter gandensis. It was not possible to identify the species level of one strain which may suggests that it represents a distinct species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Olesen, M.; Gudmund-Høyer, E.; Norsker, Merete
: Seven healthy volunteers ingested in random order on seven different days: 20 g SPP; bread made of 180 g wheat flour served with 20 g raw SPP; bread baked of 180 g wheat flour and 20 g SPP; bread made from 180 g what flour; 20 g lactulose; 20 g oat bran; and 20 g wheat bran. The hydrogen breath test...... was used to evaluate oro-coecal transit time (OCTT) and fermentation. RESULTS: Fermentation of SPP yielded a measurable increase in end-expiratory H2. The total incremental increase in end expiratory H2 due to SPP was unaffected of whether SPP was served alone, as the raw flour served with bread, or baked...... into bread. The OCTT for raw SPP was significantly delayed compared to lactulose (P = 0.01). The OCTT for SPP baked into bread was significantly delayed compared to raw SPP (P = 0.01), indicating that SPP may be used as a marker of oro-coecal transit time for as well the fluid phase as the solid phase...
Gao, Lujuan; Sun, Yi; He, Chengyan; Li, Ming; Zeng, Tongxiang; Lu, Qiaoyun
Infections of Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp. are often chronic and recalcitrant. Systemic disseminations, which mostly occur in immunocompromised patients, are often refractory to available antifungal therapies. The conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) orchestrates cell growth and proliferation in response to nutrients and growth factors, which are important for pathogenicity and virulence. INK128 is a second-generation ATP-competitive TOR inhibitor, which binds the TOR catalytic domain and selectively inhibits TOR. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro activities of INK128 alone and the interactions of INK128 with conventional antifungal drugs including itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and amphotericin B against 18 strains of Exophiala spp. and 10 strains of Fusarium spp. via broth microdilution checkerboard technique system adapted from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method M38-A2. INK128 alone was inactive against all isolates tested. However, favorable synergistic effects between INK128 and voriconazole were observed in 61% Exophiala strains and 60% Fusarium strains, despite Fusarium strains exhibited high MIC values (4-8 μg/ml) against voriconazole. In addition, synergistic effects of INK128/itraconazole were shown in 33% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains, while synergy of INK128/posaconazole were observed in 28% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains. The effective working ranges of INK128 were 0.125-2 μg/ml and 1-4 μg/ml against Exophiala isolates and Fusarium isolates, respectively. No synergistic effect was observed when INK128 was combined with amphotericin B. No antagonism was observed in all combinations. In conclusion, INK128 could enhance the in vitro antifungal activity of voriconazole, itraconazole and posaconazole against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp., suggesting that azoles, especially voriconazole, combined with TOR kinase inhibitor might provide a potential strategy to
Fu, B; Jiang, Q; Liu, H-B; Liu, H
The presence of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacterial pathogens which often fail to be detected by cultivation and can regain the cultivability if the living conditions improve were reported. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in the biosolids during anaerobic digestion and its reactivation during the cake storage. The occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during mesophilic, temperature-phased, thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and the subsequent storage were studied by RT-qPCR and most probable number (MPN) method. The VBNC incidence of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during thermophilic digestion was four orders of magnitude higher than those of mesophilic digestion. Accordingly, higher resuscitation ratio of VBNC pathogens was also achieved in thermophilic digested sludge. As a result, the culturable Salmonella typhimurium contents in thermophilic digested sludge after cake storage were two orders of magnitude higher than mesophilic digestion. Both quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay results showed the two bacterial counting numbers remained stable throughout the cake storage. The results indicate that the increase in the culturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. after centrifugal dewatering was attributed to the resuscitation from the VBNC state to the culturable state. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion mainly induced Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. into VBNC state rather than killed them, suggesting that the biological safety of sewage sludge by temperature-phased anaerobic digestion should be carefully assessed. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Paola Mendes Milanesi
Full Text Available This study aimed i to quantify the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. in rhizospheric soil, with and without symptoms of Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS in eight soybean genotypes; ii morphologically identify isolates of Fusarium spp. from roots with SDS; iii evaluate the antagonism between Trichoderma spp. and Fusarium spp. isolates from rhizospheric soil and roots from with and without SDS, respectively; and iv characterize through the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA the isolates of Trichoderma spp. with better performance in the direct confrontation. The sampling of soil and roots was performed in an experimental area located in Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil. In the laboratory, serial dilutions of soil samples, counting of the number of Colony Forming Units (UFCs/g-1 of rhizospheric soil were performed as well as isolation for identification of isolates of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and testing of direct confrontation. There were significant differences between the population of Trichoderma spp. in the rhizosphere of plants with and without symptoms of SDS. For the population of Fusarium spp., significant difference was observed only in the rhizosphere of plants without symptoms of SDS. In diseased roots the following species were identified: F. solani, F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. oxysporum and F. verticillioides. In the test of direct confrontation, eight isolates of Trichoderma spp. achieved the best performance in the antagonism to Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. from areas with symptoms of SDS had a higher control efficiency in vitro. These isolates showed high similarity to the species of T. koningii agregate.
Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Dos Reis, Emily Marques; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Cerva, Cristine; Rosa, Júlio; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Lima, Francisco Esmaile Sales; Pacheco, Susi Missel; Rodrigues, Rogério Oliveira
The present study aimed to investigate the frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Brazilian bats and to determine possible risk factors associated to it. Ninety two bats of 12 species were evaluated. Whole genomic DNA from kidneys was extracted and real-time PCR specific to pathogenic Leptospira spp. was applied. Association between the frequency of specimens positive for Leptospira spp. and sex, age, bat species or family, season of collection, geographic localization and feeding habits was evaluated. The results showed that 39.13% of analyzed bats were found positive for Leptospira spp. Nine bat species had at least one positive result. There was no association among the evaluated variables and frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. Although the limitations due to lack of Leptospira spp. isolation, leptospiral carriage was demonstrated in bats of different species from southern Brazil, which reinforces the need for surveillance of infectious agents in wild animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Trimoulinard, A; Beral, M; Henry, I; Atiana, L; Porphyre, V; Tessier, C; Leclercq, A; Cardinale, E
One of the most popular meat products of the local "cuisine" is sausage composed with 100% chicken or 100% pork. In this study, we aimed to determine the presence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. in chicken- and pork-sausages, quantify Salmonella spp. population and identify the factors that could be associated with contamination in the outlets. Two hundred and three batches of pork and chicken sausages were randomly collected from 67 local outlets (supermarkets, groceries and butcher shops). Salmonella spp. was detected in 11.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): [10.0; 13.5]) of samples, Campylobacter spp. in 1.5% [0.7; 4.2] and Listeria monocytogenes in 5.9% [4.4; 7.3]. Most probable number of Salmonella spp. varied between 6cfu per gram to 320cfu per gram. Salmonella serotypes isolated from pork and chicken sausages were S. Typhimurium (45.8%), S. London (20.8%), S. Derby (16.7%), S. Newport (8.33%), S. Blockley (4.2%) and S. Weltevreden (4.17%). Using a logistic (mixed-effect) regression model, we found that Salmonella spp. contamination was positively associated with sausages sold in papers or plastic bags and no control of rodents. Chicken sausages were associated with a decreasing risk of Salmonella contamination. Listeria monocytogenes contamination was positively associated with the presence of fresh rodent droppings in the outlet and negatively when the staff was cleaning regularly their hands with soap and water or water only. All the sampled outlets of Reunion Island were not equivalent in terms of food safety measures. Increasing awareness of these traders remains a cornerstone to limit the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. in sausages, particularly in a tropical context (high temperature and humidity). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Khine Zar Wynn Myint; Khin Mya Lwin; Myo Myint
The microbial gibberellic acid (GA3) production of Pseudomonas spp., was studied and qualitatively indentified by UV spectrophotometer. 20 strains of Pseudomonas spp., were isolated and screened the gibberellic acid productivily in King's B medium. Among them, only four strains can produce microbial gibberellic acid. The Rf values and colour appearance under UV were the same as authentic gibberellic acid. Moreover, the gibberellic acid producer strains were identified as Pseudomonas spp., by cultural, biochemical and drug sensitivity pattern.
Full Text Available Valeriana spp. is a flowering plant that is well known for its essential oils, iridoid compounds such as monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, amino acids, and lignanoids. Valeriana spp. exhibits a wide range of biological activities such as lowering blood pressure and heart rate, antimyocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, antiarrhythmia, and regulation of blood lipid levels. This review focuses on the chemical constituents and cardiovascular activities of Valeriana spp.
Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Fernandez, Ivan; Lok, Gerrit B; Pozo, María J; Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; Van Wees, Saskia C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185445373
Beneficial root endophytes such as Trichoderma spp. can reduce infections by parasitic nematodes through triggering host defences. Little is currently known about the complex hormone signalling underlying the induction of resistance. In this study, we investigated whether Trichoderma modulates the
Doni, Febri; Anizan, I.; Che Radziah C. M., Z.; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan
Trichoderma spp. are considered as successful plant growth promoting fungi and have positive role in habitat engineering. In this study, the potential for Trichoderma spp. to regulate transpiration process in rice plant was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. The study revealed that Trichoderma spp. have potential to enhance growth of rice plant through transpirational processes. The results of the study add to the advancement of the understanding as to the role of Trichoderma spp. in improving rice physiological process.
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375 Mycoplasma... fluorescent dye (immunofluorescent reagents) used to identify Mycoplasma spp. directly from clinical specimens...
Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) officially indicated that it intended to drop its project of using geothermal energy in the Kosicka kotlina. This spring it published an advert that it was looking for a company that wished to acquire a majority stake in the company, Geoterm Kosice. The company was established to commercially develop this geothermal source. But it seems SPP does not want to drop the project completely. It has kept some important cards, such as control over the land where the boreholes are located Any company that wants to use geothermal energy needs a ruling issued by the Ministry of Environment defining the exploration area. Geothermal sources were found in the villages of Durkov, Svinica, Bidovce and Olsovany. Not so long ago the area was assigned to Geoterm but from May 9 the area can be explored by Slovgeoterm. Both companies have the same majority shareholder - SPP. It controls 96% of Geoterm shares and 50% of Slovgeoterm. So far it has only officially announced its intention to sell the Geoterm shares. But as far as the use of the geothermal resource is concerned since May Slovgeoterm has played a key role.The company focuses on the utilization of geothermal energy. In addition to the project in the Kosice region, it has also participated in a project to heat more than a thousand flats using geothermal water in Galanta and a project to heat greenhouses in Podhajske. There are also other geothermal projects running in Presov and Michalovce. Icelandic company, Enex, with the same specialisation controls 28% of the company and a further 20% is owned by the investment group, NEFCO based in Helsinki. Two percent of the company is owned by its general director and the general proxy of Geoterm, Otto Halas. And so without the agreement of this company no-one can start any activities related to the utilization of geothermal energy. (authors)
The genus of Phytophthora is a destructive plants pathogen. However the existence of these species in plant tissue was hardly to detect because the fungus may also be present as resistant propagules in soil or spread through waterways. This study aimed to test the FTA card as a direct bait to obtain the DNA of Phytophthora spp and also to investigate the suitability of FTA card as a sampling method. This research used several Phytophthora baits including FTA card followed by DNA extraction a...
Shi, Xiang; Wang, Shufeng; Sun, Haijing; Chen, Yitai; Wang, Dongxue; Pan, Hongwei; Zou, Yazhu; Liu, Jianfeng; Zheng, Linyu; Zhao, Xiulian; Jiang, Zeping
A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using tree seedlings for the phytoremediation of lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mine tailings. Seedlings of three Quercus spp. (Q. shumardii, Q. phellos, and Q. virginiana) and rooted cuttings of two Salix spp. (S. matsudana and S. integra) were transplanted into pots containing 50 and 100 % Pb/Zn mine tailings to evaluate their tolerance of heavy metals. The five species showed different tolerance levels to the Pb/Zn tailings treatments. Q. virginiana was highly tolerant to heavy metals and grew normally in the Pb/Zn tailings. The root systems showed marked differences between the Quercus spp. and Salix spp., indicating that different mechanisms operated to confer tolerance of heavy metals. The maximum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry value of the five species showed no differences among the treatments, except for Q. shumardii. All species showed low metal translocation factors (TFs). However, S. integra had significantly higher TF values for Zn (1.42-2.18) and cadmium (1.03-1.45) than did the other species. In this respect, Q. virginiana showed the highest tolerance and a low TF, implying that it is a candidate for phytostabilization of mine tailings in southern China. S. integra may be useful for phytoextraction of tailings in temperate regions.
Center, Barbara J.; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; Herre, E. Allen; Chung-Schickler, Genevieve C.
Syconia (enclosed infructescences) infested with host-specific species of Schistonchus (Aphelenchoididae) were collected from six species of Ficus (Moraceae) native to Florida or Panama. They were sectioned and histologically examined to assess the effects of parasitism. Parasitism by Schistonchus spp. was associated with hypertrophied cells, tissue necrosis, and the presence of an exudate in all species. Occasional hypertrophy of the outer epidermal cells occurred on seed florets, wasp florets, and on the endothecial cells of male florets in F. aurea (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida. Aberrations of the inner mesocarp occurred under the hypertrophied cells on seed florets. In F. laevigata (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida, Schistonchus sp. infested immature male florets and was associated with hypertrophy of endothecial cells, epidermal cells of the anther filaments, and anthers. Schistonchus sp. also caused aberrations of the anther filament, anthers, and pollen. Ficus poponoei (subgenus Urostigma) and F. glabrata (subgenus Pharmacosycea), both from Panama, had hypertrophied outer epidermal cells on seed florets. Ficus poponoei also had Schistonchus sp. within the pedicel of an aborted floret, with hypertrophy of the cortical parenchyma. Ficus trigonata (subgenus Urostigma) from Panama had hypertrophy of the outer epidermis of seed florets. When the outer epidermis on these florets was missing, the inner mesocarp was hypertrophied. Ficus maxima (subgenus Pharmacosycea) from Panama had hypertrophy on the outer epidermis of seed and aborted florets. Schistonchus spp. were not found in wasp larvae or pupae in any of the Ficus spp. examined. Hypertrophy was never observed in the absence of Schistonchus spp. PMID:19270912
Full Text Available Blackish or orange liquid-like spots were found on (n=100 fruits of chillies (Capsicum sold in five local markets in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici were identified as the causal agents of an anthracnose disease. This is the first report of Colletotrichum spp. as the causal agent of anthracnose infected chillies in Sabah.
Furustrand Tafin, Ulrika; Meis, Jacques F; Trampuz, Andrej
We evaluated isothermal microcalorimetry for real-time susceptibility testing of non-Aspergillus molds. MIC and minimal effective concentration (MEC) values of Mucorales (n = 4), Fusarium spp. (n = 4), and Scedosporium spp. (n = 4) were determined by microbroth dilution according to the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute M38-A2 guidelines. Heat production of molds was measured at 37 °C in Sabouraud dextrose broth inoculated with 2.5 × 10(4) spores/mL in the presence of amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, and anidulafungin. As determined by microcalorimetry, amphotericin B was the most active agent against Mucorales (MHIC 0.06-0.125 μg/mL) and Fusarium spp. (MHIC 1-4 μg/mL), whereas voriconazole was the most active agent against Scedosporium spp. (MHIC 0.25 to 8 μg/mL). The percentage of agreement (within one 2-fold dilution) between the MHIC and MIC (or MEC) was 67%, 92%, 75%, and 83% for amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, and caspofungin, respectively. Microcalorimetry provides additional information on timing of antifungal activity, enabling further investigation of drug-mold and drug-drug interaction, and optimization of antifungal treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Margalit Levi, Maayan; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; King, Roni; Baneth, Gad
Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. are apicomplexan parasites that infect a variety of animals, including canids. Their life-cycle includes an invertebrate hematophagous vector as a definitive host and vertebrates as intermediate hosts. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in wild golden jackals (Canis aureus) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Israel and to compare spleen with blood sample polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of infection. Blood and spleen samples from 109 golden jackals and 21 red foxes were tested by PCR for the detection of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. using primers for the 18S ribosomal (r) RNA gene. Hepatozoon canis was detected in 50/109 (46%) of the jackals and 9/21 (43%) of the foxes. "Babesia vulpes" (the Babesia microti-like piroplasm) was detected in 4/21 (19%) of the foxes and in none of the jackals. A previously unknown genotype termed Babesia sp. MML related to Babesia lengau (96-97% identity) was detected in 1/109 (1%) of the jackals and 4/21 (19%) of the foxes. Further characterization of this genotype carried out by PCR of the rRNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) indicated that it had only 87% identity with the B. lengau ITS2. Sex (male or female), age (juvenile or adult) and geographic zone (North, Central or South Israel) were not found to be significant risk factors for these protozoan infections. The prevalence of "B. vulpes" and Babesia sp. MML infections was significantly higher in foxes compared to jackals (χ 2 = 15.65, df = 1, P < 0.005), while there was no statistically significant difference in the rate of H. canis infection between these two canid species. A fair agreement beyond chance between identification in the blood and spleen of H. canis was found in 21 animals from which both blood and spleen samples were available (k = 0.33). This study describes a high prevalence of H. canis infection in
Stefanie Bressan Waller
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cases of sporotrichosis in humans and animals without satisfactory clinical response have increased, a warning sign of strains resistant to conventional antifungal agents. The urgent search for alternative therapies was an incentive for research on medicinal plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. properties. A bibliographic survey was performed based on scientific papers about in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils and extracts of plants in differents solvents against the fungal of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The study methodology consisted of a literature review in Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Bireme and Springer link with papers from 1986 to 2015. We found 141 species of plants that were investigated, of which 100 species were concentrated in 39 botanical families that had confirmed anti-Sporothrix activity. Combretaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae represented the botanical families with the greatest number of plants species with antifungal potential, using different methodologies. However, there are few studies with medicinal plants in experimental infection in animals that prove their activity in the treatment of sporotrichosis. It reinforces the need for further research related to standardization of in vitro methodologies and in vivo studies related to safety and to toxicity potential of these plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. activity.
Phani, Victor; Shivakumara, Tagginahalli N; Davies, Keith G; Rao, Uma
Root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita is an economically important pest of crops. Pasteuria penetrans , is a nematode hyperparasitic bacterium capable of suppressing the reproduction of RKN and thereby useful for its management. Secreted fatty acid and retinol-binding proteins are unique in nematodes and are engaged in nutrient acquisition, development and reproduction; they are also a component of the nematode cuticle and thought to be involved in the interface between hosts and parasites. Attachment of endospores to the cuticle of second stage juveniles of RKN is the primary step of infection and several factors have been identified to facilitate attachment. In this study, the full length of Mi-far-1 (573 bp) was cloned from M. incognita and characterized. Analysis revealed that the Mi-far-1 was rich in α-helix structure, contained a predicted consensus casein kinase II phosphorylation site and a glycosylation site. Quantitative PCR showed the highest expression in the fourth stage juveniles and in situ hybridization revealed the presence of Mi-far-1 mRNA in the hypodermis below the cuticle. Single copy insertion pattern of Mi-far-1 in M. incognita genome was detected by Southern blotting. Knockdown of Mi-far-1 showed significantly increased attachment of P. penetrans' endospores on juvenile cuticle surface and also affected host finding, root infection and nematode fecundity.
Cui, Ruqiang; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Yuyan; Huang, Wenkun; Fan, Chengming; Wu, Qingsong; Peng, Deliang; da Silva, Washington; Sun, Xiaotang
The full cDNA of Mi-ace-3 encoding an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in Meloidogyne incognita was cloned and characterized. Mi-ace-3 had an open reading frame of 1875 bp encoding 624 amino acid residues. Key residues essential to AChE structure and function were conserved. The deduced Mi-ACE-3 protein sequence had 72% amino acid similarity with that of Ditylenchus destructor Dd-AChE-3. Phylogenetic analyses using 41 AChEs from 24 species showed that Mi-ACE-3 formed a cluster with 4 other nematode AChEs. Our results revealed that the Mi-ace-3 cloned in this study, which is orthologous to Caenorhabditis elegans AChE, belongs to the nematode ACE-3/4 subgroup. There was a significant reduction in the number of galls in transgenic tobacco roots when Mi-ace-1, Mi-ace-2, and Mi-ace-3 were knocked down simultaneously, whereas little or no effect were observed when only one or two of these genes were knocked down. This is an indication that the functions of these three genes are redundant. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Root-knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne incognita is an economically important pest of crops. Pasteuria penetrans, is a nematode hyperparasitic bacterium capable of suppressing the reproduction of RKN and thereby useful for its management. Secreted fatty acid and retinol-binding proteins are unique in nematodes and are engaged in nutrient acquisition, development and reproduction; they are also a component of the nematode cuticle and thought to be involved in the interface between hosts and parasites. Attachment of endospores to the cuticle of second stage juveniles of RKN is the primary step of infection and several factors have been identified to facilitate attachment. In this study, the full length of Mi-far-1 (573 bp was cloned from M. incognita and characterized. Analysis revealed that the Mi-far-1 was rich in α-helix structure, contained a predicted consensus casein kinase II phosphorylation site and a glycosylation site. Quantitative PCR showed the highest expression in the fourth stage juveniles and in situ hybridization revealed the presence of Mi-far-1 mRNA in the hypodermis below the cuticle. Single copy insertion pattern of Mi-far-1 in M. incognita genome was detected by Southern blotting. Knockdown of Mi-far-1 showed significantly increased attachment of P. penetrans’ endospores on juvenile cuticle surface and also affected host finding, root infection and nematode fecundity.
Giné, Ariadna; Sorribas, Francisco J
The effectiveness of combining resistant tomato with BioAct WG (Purpureocillium lilacinum strain 251, Pl251) against Meloidogyne incognita was assessed in a tomato-cucumber rotation in a greenhouse over 2 years. Additionally, the enzymatic activity of the fungus, the percentage of fungal egg and juvenile parasitism, cardinal temperatures and the effect of water potential on mycelial growth and the soil receptivity to Pl251 were determined in vitro. Plant resistance was the only factor that suppressed nematode and crop yield losses. Percentage of egg parasitism in plots treated with BioAct WG was less than 2.6%. However, under in vitro conditions, Pl251 showed protease, lipase and chitinase activities and parasitised 94.5% of eggs, but no juveniles. Cardinal temperatures were 14.2, 24-26 and 35.4 °C. The maximum Pl251 mycelial growth was at -0.25 MPa and 25 °C. Soil temperatures and water potential in the greenhouse were in the range of the fungus. However, soil receptivity was lower in greenhouse soil, irrespective of sterilisation, than in sterilised sand. Plant resistance was the only factor able to suppress nematode densities, disease severity and yield losses, and to protect the following cucumber crop. Environmental factors involved in soil receptivity could have negatively affected fungus effectiveness. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Terefe, Metasebia; Tefera, Tadele; Sakhuja, P K
Bacillus firmus, commercial WP formulation (BioNem) was evaluated against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in a laboratory, greenhouse and under field conditions on tomato plants. In the laboratory tests, an aqueous suspension of BioNem at 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2% concentration reduced egg hatching from 98% to 100%, 24-days after treatment. Treatment of second-stage juveniles with 2.5% and 3% concentration of BioNem, caused 100% inhibition of mobility, 24 h after treatment. In the green house trials, BioNem applied at 8 g/pot (1200 cc soil) planted with a tomato seedlings reduced gall formation by 91%, final nematode populations by 76% and the number of eggs by 45%. Consequently, plant height and biomass was increased by 71% and 50%, respectively, compared to the untreated control, 50-days after treatment application. Application of BioNem at 16 g/pot was phytotoxic to plants. In the field trails, BioNem applied at 200 and 400 kg ha(-1) was effective in reducing the number of galls (75-84%), and increased shoot height (29-31%) and weight (20-24%) over the untreated control, 45-days after treatment. Our results indicate that B. firmus is a promising microorganism for the biological control of M. incognita in tomato pots.
Gamal El-Din Abd El Kader Y
Full Text Available Abstract Background Root-knot nematodes are sedentary endoparasites that can infect more than 3000 plant species. Root-knot nematodes cause an estimated $100 billion annual loss worldwide. For successful establishment of the root-knot nematode in its host plant, it causes dramatic morphological and physiological changes in plant cells. The expression of some plant genes is altered by the nematode as it establishes its feeding site. Results We examined the expression of soybean (Glycine max genes in galls formed in roots by the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, 12 days and 10 weeks after infection to understand the effects of infection of roots by M. incognita. Gene expression was monitored using the Affymetrix Soybean GeneChip containing 37,500 G. max probe sets. Gene expression patterns were integrated with biochemical pathways from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes using PAICE software. Genes encoding enzymes involved in carbohydrate and cell wall metabolism, cell cycle control and plant defense were altered. Conclusions A number of different soybean genes were identified that were differentially expressed which provided insights into the interaction between M. incognita and soybean and into the formation and maintenance of giant cells. Some of these genes may be candidates for broadening plants resistance to root-knot nematode through over-expression or silencing and require further examination.
Full Text Available Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs are piercing/sucking pests, which cause severe damage to crops worldwide, and are difficult to control. The cyst and root-knot nematodes (RKN are sedentary endoparasites that develop specialized multinucleate feeding structures from the plant cells called syncytia or giant cells respectively. Within these structures the nematodes produce feeding tubes, which act as molecular sieves with exclusion limits. For example, Heterodera schachtii is reportedly unable to ingest proteins larger than 28 kDa. However, it is unknown yet what is the molecular exclusion limit of the Meloidogyne hapla. Several types of Bacillus thuringiensis crystal proteins showed toxicity to M. hapla. To monitor the entry pathway of crystal proteins into M. hapla, second-stage juveniles (J2 were treated with NHS-rhodamine labeled nematicidal crystal proteins (Cry55Aa, Cry6Aa, and Cry5Ba. Confocal microscopic observation showed that these crystal proteins were initially detected in the stylet and esophageal lumen, and subsequently in the gut. Western blot analysis revealed that these crystal proteins were modified to different molecular sizes after being ingested. The uptake efficiency of the crystal proteins by the M. hapla J2 decreased with increasing of protein molecular mass, based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. Our discovery revealed 140 kDa nematicidal crystal proteins entered M. hapla J2 via the stylet, and it has important implications in designing a transgenic resistance approach to control RKN.
Yu, Ziquan; Xiong, Jing; Zhou, Qiaoni; Luo, Haiyan; Hu, Shengbiao; Xia, Liqiu; Sun, Ming; Li, Lin; Yu, Ziniu
Cry6A toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis is a representative nematicidal crystal protein with a variety of nematicidal properties to free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Cry6A shares very low homology and different structure with Cry5B, another representative nematicidal crystal protein, and probably acts in a distinct pathway. All these strongly indicate that Cry6A toxin is likely a potent candidate for nematicide. The present study dealt with global investigation to determine the detrimental impacts of Cry6Aa2 toxin on Meloidogyne hapla, a root-knot nematode, and evaluated its biocontrol efficacy in pot experiment. Obtained results indicated that Cry6Aa2 toxin exhibits obvious toxicity to second-stage juvenile of M. hapla, and significantly inhibits egg hatch, motility, and penetration to host plant. Pot experiment suggested that soil drenching with spore-crystal mixture of Cry6Aa2 can clearly lighten the disease of root-knot nematode, including reduction of galling index and egg masses on host plant root, decreasing final population of nematode in soil. Moreover, application of Cry6Aa2 can obviously promote plant growth. These results demonstrated that Cry6Aa2 toxin is a promising nematicidal agent, and possesses great potential in plant-parasitic nematode management and construction of transgenic crop with constant resistance to nematode. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
S. A. Abolusoro
Full Text Available Studies were conducted under field and screenhouse conditions to investigate the potentials of crude aqueous leaf extract of Hyptis suaveolens in the management of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita of three cowpea varieties (Sampea 9, 10 and 11. A Randomized Complete Block Design was used in the field while a completely randomized design was used for the screenhouse trials. Results showed that the treatment significantly (p < 0.05 improved the growth and yield of the three varieties and also reduced soil nematode population and root galls. It was also observed that all the three varieties were susceptible to the root-knot nematode infestation but Sampea 10 recorded higher yield that were significant in the pot trials. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and steroids in the leaves of H. suaveolens. For higher yield of the evaluated cowpea varieties in a nematode endemic zone, aqueous leaf extract of H. suaveolens is being recommended for infested soil treatment.
Manuel Francisco Polanco Puerta
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to cross lulo plants of cv. La Selva to obtain a hybrid with tolerance to the fruit borer Neoleucinodes elegantalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Crambidae and to the nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White (Nematoda: Heteroderidae, to obtain better-adapted plants to the conditions of the Colombian coffee-growing region and with bigger and non-dehiscent fruits. La Selva cultivar is a hybrid developed from the interspecific backcross of Solanum quitoense Lam. × Solanum hirtum Vahl with plants of lulo cv. Castilla Larga Vida. The experiment was conducted in the municipality of Dosquebradas, Risaralda, Colombia, located at 1,465 m a.s.l. F1 plants were obtained from reciprocal crossings. When inoculated with the nematode M. incognita, plants showed susceptibility in their seedling stage; however, when we carried out the evaluation six months after transplantation under field conditions, nematode infestation was less than 1%, which likely indicates the tolerance of these materials to the nematode. When assessing the resistance of the hybrid to the attack of N. elegantalis, we found that the evaluated materials were resistant to this insect. The resulting hybrids showed good agronomic characteristics, such as a good morphological structure and vigor, high productivity, good solar exposure adaptation, large fruits (5.6 cm average diameter similar to those of cv. Castilla, with yellow peel, green pulp and non-dehiscent fruits with pleasant aroma and flavor. As an undesirable characteristic plants had thorns on leaves and stems.
Saravanan, V S; Kalaiarasan, P; Madhaiyan, M; Thangaraju, M
To examine the zinc (Zn) solubilization potential and nematicidal properties of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, Differential Pulse Polarography and Gas Chromatography Coupled Mass Spectrometry were used to estimate the total Zn and Zn(2+) ions and identify the organic acids present in the culture supernatants. The effect of culture filtrate of Zn-amended G. diazotrophicus PAl5 on Meloidogyne incognita in tomato was examined under gnotobiotic conditions. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAl5 effectively solubilized the Zn compounds tested and 5-ketogluconic acid was identified as the major organic acid aiding the solubilization of zinc oxide. The presence of Zn compounds in the culture filtrates of G. diazotrophicus enhanced the mortality and reduced the root penetration of M. incognita under in vitro conditions. 5-ketogluconic acid produced by G. diazotrophicus mediated the solubilization process and the available Zn(2+) ions enhanced the nematicidal activity of G. diazotrophicus against M. incognita. Zn solubilization and enhanced nematicidal activity of Zn-amended G. diazotrophicus provides the possibility of exploiting it as a plant growth promoting bacteria.
Siddiqui, I A; Shaukat, S S
To assess the effects of various carbon and mineral sources on the nematicidal potential of biocontrol inoculants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa IE-6S+ and Ps. fluorescens CHA0 under laboratory and glasshouse conditions. Culture filtrates of strains IE-6S+ and CHA0, cultured in nutrient yeast extract broth, caused substantial mortality of the juveniles of Meloidogyne javanica. The nematicidal activities of the culture filtrates were altered after amendment with various carbon and mineral sources. Soil amendment with zinc alone or in combination with glycerol improved the biocontrol efficacy against root-knot nematode, promoted tomato plant growth and enhanced bacterial rhizosphere and endophytic colonization. Appropriate quantities of glycerol and zinc alone or in combination enhance the nematicidal activity of Ps. aeruginosa and Ps. fluorescens. Glucose reduces the activity of these bacteria against nematodes. Minerals and carbon sources are appealing because they are easy and economical to provide during liquid fermentation of inoculants or as fertilizer amendments to improve the biocontrol activity of indigenous and introduced bacteria.
Siddiqui, I A; Shaukat, S S
To determine the influence of soil-borne fungus Trichoderma harzianum on the biocontrol performance of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 and its 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) overproducing derivative CHA0/pME3424 against Meloidogyne javanica. Amendment of the culture filtrate (CF) or methanol extract of the CF of a T. harzianum strain Th6 to P. fluorescens growth medium enhanced the production of nematicidal compound(s) by bacterial inoculants in vitro. In addition, bacteria overwhelmingly expressed phl'-'lacZ reporter gene when the medium was amended with CF of T. harzianum. Pseudomonas fluorescens and T. harzianum applied together in unsterilized sandy loam soil caused greater reduction in nematode population densities in tomato roots. Trichoderma harzianum improves root-knot nematode biocontrol by the antagonistic rhizobacterium P. fluorescens both in vitro and under glasshouse conditions. The synergistic effect of T. harzianum on the production of nematicidal compound(s) critical in biocontrol may improve the efficacy of biocontrol bacteria against plant-parasitic nematodes. Considering the inconsistent performance of the biocontrol agents under field conditions, application of a mixture of compatible T. harzianum and P. fluorescens would more closely mimic the natural situation and might broaden the spectrum of biocontrol activity with enhanced efficacy and reliability of control.
Hajji-Hedfi, Lobna; Regaieg, Hajer; Larayedh, Asma; Chihani, Noura; Horrigue-Raouani, Najet
The efficacy of Verticillium leptobactrum isolate (HR1) was evaluated in the control of root-knot nematode and Fusarium wilt fungus under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Five concentrations of V. leptobactrum (HR1) isolate were tested for their nematicidal and fungicidal activities against Meloidogyne javanica and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici in vitro. Laboratory trials showed that mycelium growth inhibition of Fusarium wilt fungus was correlated to the increase of the concentration of culture filtrate. All dilutions showed efficiency in reducing the growth of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. The greatest nematicidal activity was observed at 50, 75, and 100% filtrate dilutions. The egg hatching percentage reached 42%, and the juvenile's corrected mortality registered 90% for the above treatments. In greenhouse experiment, the biocontrol agent fungus enhanced significantly tomato growth components (height and weight of plant and root). The multiplication rate of root-knot nematode and the Fusarium wilt disease incidence declined significantly with soil application of V. leptobactrum as with chemical treatments. The isolate HR1 was efficient to control wilt disease complex caused by M. javanica and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici.
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3355 Listeria spp... from clinical specimens. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of Listeria spp. antisera... clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of listeriosis, a disease caused by bacteria...
Nishi, Letícia; Bergamasco, Rosângela; Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas; Falavigna, Dina Lúcia Morais; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia; Mota, Lúcio Tadeu; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia
The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of cysts of Giardia spp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in waters of the Ivaí Indigenous Land, Brazil. Samples of river and spring water and of treated water were filtered and analyzed by direct immunofluorescence (Merifluor kit, Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, Ohio). Of 21 samples, 7 from each locality, 3 (3/7, 42.8%) from a river were positive for Giardia (mean concentration 2.57 cysts/L), and 1 (1/7, 14.3%) was positive for Cryptosporidium (6 oocysts/L). From springs, 1 sample (1/7, 14.3%) was positive for Cryptosporidium (6 oocysts/L). One sample (1/7, 14.3%) from treated water was positive for both, with 4 oocysts/L and 2 cysts/L. Giardia was the more frequent protozoan present.
Beyhan, Yunus Emre; Mungan, Mesut; Babür, Cahit
Ticks are a threat to human health by blood sucking and vectoring many disease agents. Tick-borne diseases are seen all over the world and play an important role in the dissemination of diseases. Although many of the tick species are present in Turkey, Amblyomma genus is seen more in South America and Africa. In this case,a person returning to the country after travelling to Africa who presented to the hospital complaining of tick bites and brought ticks to the parasitology laboratory was identified as Ablyomma spp. nymph. This case is a report concerning care of tick bites when travelling abroad and shows that these ticks can transmit disease agents from abroad.
Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs in women are a growing clinical concern. The most frequent risk factors of UTIs with fungal aetiology in women are: antibiotic therapy (especially broad-spectrum antibiotics, immunosuppressive therapy, diabetes, malnutrition, pregnancy, and frequent intercourse. The aim of the study was to analyse urinary tract infections with Candida spp. aetiology in women hospitalised at the Clinical Hospital in Poznań, Poland, between 2009 and 2011. The investigations revealed that as many as 71% of positive urine cultures with Candida fungi came from women. The following fungi were most frequently isolated from the patients under analysis: C. albicans (47%, C. glabrata (31%, C. tropicalis (6%, C. krusei (3%. In order to diagnose a UTI the diagnosis cannot be based on a single result of a urine culture. Due to the small number of antifungal drugs and high costs of treatment, antifungal drugs should be applied with due consideration and care.
Lafri, Ismail; El Hamzaoui, Basma; Bitam, Idir; Leulmi, Hamza; Lalout, Reda; Mediannikov, Oleg; Chergui, Mohamed; Karakellah, Mohamed; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe
Argasid ticks (soft ticks) are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks. Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria. Six species of argasid ticks were identified morphologically and through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence and prevalence of Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae was assessed by qPCR template assays in each specimen. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments. Two Borrelia species were identified: Borrelia hispanica in Ornithodoros occidentalis in Mostaganem, and Borrelia cf. turicatae in Carios capensis in Algiers. One new Bartonella genotype and one new Anaplasmataceae genotype were also identified in Argas persicus. The present study highlights the presence of relapsing fever borreliosis agents, although this disease is rarely diagnosed in Algeria. Other bacteria of unknown pathogenicity detected in argasid ticks which may bite humans deserve further investigation.
Full Text Available Argasid ticks (soft ticks are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks.Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria. Six species of argasid ticks were identified morphologically and through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence and prevalence of Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae was assessed by qPCR template assays in each specimen. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments. Two Borrelia species were identified: Borrelia hispanica in Ornithodoros occidentalis in Mostaganem, and Borrelia cf. turicatae in Carios capensis in Algiers. One new Bartonella genotype and one new Anaplasmataceae genotype were also identified in Argas persicus.The present study highlights the presence of relapsing fever borreliosis agents, although this disease is rarely diagnosed in Algeria. Other bacteria of unknown pathogenicity detected in argasid ticks which may bite humans deserve further investigation.
Nahar, Kamrun; Goyer, Claudia; Zebarth, Bernie J; Burton, David L; Whitney, Sean
Potato cultivars vary in their tolerance to common scab (CS), however how they affect CS-causing Streptomyces spp. populations over time is poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of potato cultivar on pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance, measured using quantitative PCR, in three spatial locations in a CS-infested field: 1) soil close to the plant (SCP); 2) rhizosphere (RS); and 3) geocaulosphere (GS) soils. Two tolerant (Gold Rush, Hindenburg) and two susceptible cultivars (Green Mountain, Agria) were tested. The abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp. significantly increased in late August compared with other dates in RS of susceptible cultivars in both years. Abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., when averaged over locations and time, was significantly greater in susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars in 2014. Principal coordinates analysis showed that SCP and RS soil properties (pH, organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations) explained 68% and 76% of total variation in Streptomyces spp. abundance among cultivars in 2013, respectively, suggesting that cultivars influenced CS pathogen growth conditions. The results suggested that the genetic background of potato cultivars influenced the abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., with 5 to 6 times more abundant Streptomyces spp. in RS of susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars, which would result in substantially more inoculum left in the field after harvest. .
Inconsistency of the biological control of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in melon by endophytic bacteria Inconsistência do controle biológico de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em meloeiro por bactérias endofíticas
Jeane E de Medeiros
Full Text Available We obtained 61 rhizobacterium isolates from rhizosphere soil samples collected in melon commercial fields located in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. These isolates, along with 56 endophytic bacteria from the Collection of Cultures of the Plant Bacteriology Laboratory of the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, were tested for controlling Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in melon. To infest the soil with nematodes, 1000 eggs of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 per plant were placed in pots where seedlings of the yellow-type melon, cultivar AF 682, were growing for 10 days. Two days before, 20 mL of bacterial suspension (0.7 OD570nm were poured into each pot. After 60 days, fresh root biomass, gall index, egg mass, and the nematode reproduction factor were assessed. Among the 117 isolates screened, the endophytic Bacillus ENM7, ENM10, and ENM51 were selected because they significantly reduced egg mass and/or gall index. However, when tested again, separately and in mixtures, these isolates nor confirmed their efficiency in vivo, neither affected juvenile emergence in vitro. These results give evidence on the inconsistency of using endophytic-bacteria in the control of M. incognita race 2 in melon.A partir de amostras de solo coletadas em plantios comerciais de meloeiro, situados em Mossoró-RN, foram obtidos 61 isolados de rizobactérias que, juntamente com outros 56 isolados endofíticos pertencentes à Coleção de Culturas do Laboratório de Fitobacteriologia da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, foram avaliados para o controle de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em melão. Plantas de meloeiro Amarelo, cultivar AF 682, com dez dias de idade tiveram o solo infestado com 1000 ovos de M. incognita raça 2 por planta. Dois dias antes, foram depositados em cada vaso 20 mL da suspensão bacteriana (DO570nm = 0,7. Decorridos 60 dias, foram determinados a biomassa fresca das raízes, os índices de galhas e de massa de ovos e o fator de
Gomes Luiz Humberto
Full Text Available A simple DNA isolation method was developed with routine chemicals that yields high quality and integrity preparations when compared to some of the most well known protocols. The method described does not require the use of lysing enzymes, water bath and the DNA was obtained within 40 minutes The amount of nucleic acid extracted (measured in terms of absorbancy at 260 nm from strains of Xanthomonas spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Erwinia spp. was two to five times higher than that of the most commonly used method.
A. G. S. Cuthbertson
Full Text Available Very little information exists in regards to the control options available for potato flea beetles, Epitrix spp. This short review covers both chemical and ecological options currently available for control of Epitrix spp. Synthetic pyrethroids are the weapon of choice for the beetles. However, the impetus in integrated pest management is to do timely (early-season applications with something harsh which will give long-term protection at a time when there are not a lot of beneficials in the field. Finding the balance for control of Epitrix spp. is proving difficult.
Jonatas Campos Almeida
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system. Samples of raw and treated water were collected and concentrated using the membrane filtration technique. Direct Immunofluorescence Test was performed on the samples. DNA extraction using a commercial kit was performed and the DNA extracted was submitted to a nested-PCR reaction (n-PCR and sequencing. In the immunofluorescence, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp.. In n-PCR and sequencing, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp., and 2/24 (8.33% samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp.. The sequencing showed Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis DNA. In raw water, there was moderate correlation among turbidity, color and Cryptosporidium spp. and between turbidity and Giardia spp.. The presence of these protozoans in the water indicates the need for monitoring for water-treatment companies.
Walter Peraza Padilla
Full Text Available Se evaluó el parasitismo in vitro de 14 aislamientos de hongos nematófagos (6 Trichoderma sp., 4 Paecilomyces sp., 2 Fusarium oxysporum, y 2 Monacrosporium sp. contra juveniles y huevos del nematodo agallador Meloidogyne javanica. Los hongos, de 3 regiones productoras de arroz en Costa Rica, (Pacífico Central, Huetar Atlántica y Chorotega, se aislaron mediante el método de espolvoreado en placas, durante abril del 2008 a agosto de 2009. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con 10 repeticiones por hongo, en agar-agua (AA. Se inoculó una suspensión de 1 a 1,5x10 6 conidios (ufc.ml -1 por plato Petri, y al cuarto día se depositó en 0,5 ml una suspensión de 150 juveniles y 100 huevos de M. javanica previamente desinfectados, a temperatura ambiente (23-26°C y con luz natural. Transcurridas 96 h se contó en cada plato el número de nematodos vivos, muertos ó parasi- tados y de huevos parasitados o no parasitados. Se realizó un análisis de regresión logística (RL para las variables evaluadas, el cual mostró diferencias significativas (p<0,0001 en el desempeño de los hongos evaluados, presentando rangos de entre 10% a 56% en nematodos muertos, de 13% a 79% en nematodos parasitados y de 1% a 96% en huevos parasitados. En general, los hongos del género Trichoderma (Tri1, Tri2, Tri3 y Tri4 fueron los más eficientes en el parasitismo sobre juveniles y huevos de M. javanica.
Lee, Sang Il; Lee, Keon Jin; Chun, Ho Hyun; Ha, Sanghyun; Gwak, Hyun Jung; Kim, Ho Myeong; Lee, Jong-Hee; Choi, Hak-Jong; Kim, Hyeong Hwan; Shin, Teak Soo; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Jin-Cheol
Oxalic acid has potent nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. In this study, fermentation parameters for oxalic acid production in submerged culture of Aspergillus niger F22 at 23, 25, and 30 °C were optimized in 5-L jar fermenters. The viscosity of the culture broth increased with increasing temperature. There was a negative correlation between oxalic acid production and the apparent viscosity; high volumetric productivity of oxalic acid was obtained at low apparent viscosity (less than 1000 cP), with a productivity of more than 100 mg/L h. When the apparent viscosity was over 2500 cP, the volumetric productivity decreased below 50 mg/L h. In addition, the volumetric mass transfer coefficient, K L a, positively correlated with volumetric productivity. When the K L a value increased from 0.0 to 0.017 /s, the volumetric productivity proportionally increased up to 176 mg/L h. When the temperature decreased, K L a increased due to the decrease in viscosity, leading to increased volumetric productivity. The highest productivity of 7453.3 mg/L was obtained at the lowest temperature, i.e., 23 °C. The nematicidal activity of culture filtrate was proportional to the content of oxalic acid. Based on a constant impeller tip speed, oxalic acid production was successfully scaled up to a 500-L pilot vessel, producing a final concentration comparable to that in the 5-L jar.
Full Text Available Plant pathogen effectors can recruit the host post-translational machinery to mediate their post-translational modification (PTM and regulate their activity to facilitate parasitism, but few studies have focused on this phenomenon in the field of plant-parasitic nematodes. In this study, we show that the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne graminicola has evolved a novel effector, MgGPP, that is exclusively expressed within the nematode subventral esophageal gland cells and up-regulated in the early parasitic stage of M. graminicola. The effector MgGPP plays a role in nematode parasitism. Transgenic rice lines expressing MgGPP become significantly more susceptible to M. graminicola infection than wild-type control plants, and conversely, in planta, the silencing of MgGPP through RNAi technology substantially increases the resistance of rice to M. graminicola. Significantly, we show that MgGPP is secreted into host plants and targeted to the ER, where the N-glycosylation and C-terminal proteolysis of MgGPP occur. C-terminal proteolysis promotes MgGPP to leave the ER, after which it is transported to the nucleus. In addition, N-glycosylation of MgGPP is required for suppressing the host response. The research data provide an intriguing example of in planta glycosylation in concert with proteolysis of a pathogen effector, which depict a novel mechanism by which parasitic nematodes could subjugate plant immunity and promote parasitism and may present a promising target for developing new strategies against nematode infections.
Chen, Jiansong; Hu, Lili; Sun, Longhua; Lin, Borong; Huang, Kun; Zhuo, Kan; Liao, Jinling
Plant-parasitic nematodes can secrete effector proteins into the host tissue to facilitate their parasitism. In this study, we report a novel effector protein, MgMO237, from Meloidogyne graminicola, which is exclusively expressed within the dorsal oesophageal gland cell and markedly up-regulated in parasitic third-/fourth-stage juveniles of M. graminicola. Transient expression of MgMO237 in protoplasts from rice roots showed that MgMO237 was localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of the host cells. Rice plants overexpressing MgMO237 showed an increased susceptibility to M. graminicola. In contrast, rice plants expressing RNA interference vectors targeting MgMO237 showed an increased resistance to M. graminicola. In addition, yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that MgMO237 interacted specifically with three rice endogenous proteins, i.e. 1,3-β-glucan synthase component (OsGSC), cysteine-rich repeat secretory protein 55 (OsCRRSP55) and pathogenesis-related BetvI family protein (OsBetvI), which are all related to host defences. Moreover, MgMO237 can suppress host defence responses, including the expression of host defence-related genes, cell wall callose deposition and the burst of reactive oxygen species. These results demonstrate that the effector MgMO237 probably promotes the parasitism of M. graminicola by interacting with multiple host defence-related proteins and suppressing plant basal immunity in the later parasitic stages of nematodes. © 2018 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.
Leonetti, Paola; Zonno, Maria Chiara; Molinari, Sergio; Altomare, Claudio
Salicylic acid-signaling pathway and ethylene biosynthesis were induced in tomato treated with Trichoderma harzianum when infected by root-knot nematodes and limited the infection by activation of SAR and ethylene production. Soil pre-treatment with Trichoderma harzianum (Th) strains ITEM 908 (T908) and T908-5 decreased susceptibility of tomato to Meloidogyne incognita, as assessed by restriction in nematode reproduction and development. The effect of T. harzianum treatments on plant defense was detected by monitoring the expression of the genes PR-1/PR-5 and JERF3/ACO, markers of the SA- and JA/ET-dependent signaling pathways, respectively. The compatible nematode-plant interaction in absence of fungi caused a marked suppression of PR-1, PR-5, and ACO gene expressions, either locally or systemically, whilst expression of JERF3 gene resulted unaffected. Conversely, when plants were pre-treated with Th-strains, over-expression of PR-1, PR-5, and ACO genes was observed in roots 5 days after nematode inoculation. JERF3 gene expression did not change in Th-colonized plants challenged with nematodes. In the absence of nematodes, Trichoderma-root interaction was characterized by the inhibition of both SA-dependent signaling pathway and ET biosynthesis, and, in the case of PR-1 and ACO genes, this inhibition was systemic. JERF3 gene expression was systemically restricted only at the very early stages of plant-fungi interaction. Data presented indicate that Th-colonization primed roots for Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) against root-knot nematodes and reacted to nematode infection more efficiently than untreated plants. Such a response probably involves also activation of ET production, through an augmented transcription of the ACO gene, which encodes for the enzyme catalyzing the last step of ET biosynthesis. JA signaling and Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR) do not seem to be involved in the biocontrol action of the tested Th-strains against RKNs.
Abdelnabby, Hazem; Wang, Yunhe; Xiao, Xueqiong; Wang, Gaofeng; Yang, Fan; Xiao, Yannong
The gradual withdraw of several broadly used nematicides from market has enhanced the need to develop sustainable and eco-friendly alternatives with nematicidal properties. Furfural is one of the promising alternatives to fill this need. Baseline information about the impact of furfural on egg hatch, penetration potential and ultrastructure of nematode is lacking. In this study, the reagent-grade (purity ≥ 99.0%) of furfural was applied against Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro tests showed gradual reduction in either the rate of egg hatch or second stage juvenile (J2) viability of M. incognita when immersed in concentrations ranging from 0 to 10.0 μl/ml furfural. The mean EC50 for J2 and egg hatch was 0.37 and 0.27 μl/ml furfural, respectively. Furfural, even at low concentrations, resulted in a considerable suppression in egg hatch. Hatch was 0.2 ml/kg soil. No adverse effect was detected on plants or free-living nematodes as a result of furfural application. Liquid furfural proved to have superior juvenile-suppressive effect whereas its vapor has such superiority against eggs. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study showed irregular appearance of the body surface accompanied with some cuticle disfigurement of furfural-treated juveniles. These results indicated that furfural can adversely affect egg hatch, juvenile viability, penetration potential and ultrastructure of M. incognita. Furfural may therefore be of a considerable potential as an appropriate alternative for class I nematicides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kaur, Talwinder; Jasrotia, Shivam; Ohri, Puja; Manhas, Rajesh Kumari
The present work demonstrated the nematicidal potential of Streptomyces hydrogenans strain DH16 (a strain with strong antagonism against fungal phytopathogens and insect pest) against Meloidogyne incognita. The culture supernatant and solvent extract significantly inhibited egg hatching (almost 100%) along with J2 mortality of more than 95% after 96h. The nematicidal activity of 10-(2,2-dimethyl-cyclohexyl)-6,9-dihydroxy-4,9-dimethyl-dec-2-enoic acid methyl ester (SH2; a new antifungal compound) purified from this streptomycete was also evaluated using different concentrations. The juvenile mortality of the nematode increased with increasing concentration and exposure time and reached the maximum (95%) after 96h at concentration of 100μg/ml. After 160h of incubation, egg hatch of 16% was observed at concentration of 100μg/ml as compared to control where 100% egg hatching was achieved. However, at the highest concentration of the compound (200μg/ml), 100% J2 mortality and 0% egg hatching were observed after 72 and 160h of incubation, respectively. In vivo pot experiments further revealed the nematicidal potential of S. hydrogenans where soil drenching with its culture supernatant and cells effectively controlled root galls, egg masses in nematode infested tomato plants and at the same time promoted the growth of tomato plants. Additionally, in the absence of nematodes, soil drenching with culture supernatant and cells significantly enhanced the various agronomic traits of plants as compared to control plants. Thus, the outcomes of the current study endorse the potential of S. hydrogenans strain DH16 and its metabolites to be developed as safe nematicidal and plant growth promoting agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to describe the role and mechanism of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Y1 against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Initially, the exposure of the bacterial culture supernatant and crude extract of Y1 to M. incognita significantly inhibited the hatching of eggs and caused the mortality of second-stage juveniles (J2, with these inhibitory effects depending on the length of incubation time and concentration of the treatment. The dipeptide cyclo(d-Pro-l-Leu was identified in B. amyloliquefaciens culture for the first time using chromatographic techniques and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR 1H, 13C, H-H COSY, HSQC, and HMBC and recognized to have nematocidal activity. Various concentrations of cyclo(d-Pro-l-Leu were investigated for their effect on the hatching of eggs and J2 mortality. Moreover, the in vivo nematocidal activity of the Y1 strain was investigated by conducting pot experiments in which tomato plants were inoculated with M. incognita. Each and every pot was amended 50 mL of fertilizer media (F, or Y1 culture, or nematicide (N (only once, or fertilizer media with N (FN at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks after transplantation. The results of the pot experiments demonstrated the antagonistic effect of B. amyloliquefaciens Y1 against M. incognita as it significantly decreases the count of eggs and galls per root of the tomato plant as well as the population of J2 in the soil. Besides, the investigation into the growth parameters, such as the length of shoot, shoot fresh and dry weights of the tomato plants, showed that they were significantly higher in the Y1 strain Y1-treated plants compared to F-, FN- and N-treated plants. Therefore, the biocontrol repertoire of this bacterium opens a new insight into the applications in crop pest control.
Siddiqui, I A; Shaukat, S S
The aim of the present investigation was to determine the influence of various Fusarium solani strains on the production of nematicidal agent(s) in vitro and biocontrol of Meloidogyne javanica in tomato by Pseudomonas fluorescens strains CHA0 and CHA0/pME3424. Culture filtrates (CF) of P. fluorescens strain CHA0 and its diacetylphloroglucinol-overproducing derivative CHA0/pME3424 caused substantial mortality of M. javanica juveniles in vitro. Bacterial growth medium amended with the growth medium of F. solani repressed the nematicidal activity of the bacteria. Methanol extract of F. solani CF resulting from Czapek's Dox liquid (CDL) medium without zinc amendment repressed the nematicidal activity of the bacteria while the CF obtained from CDL medium amended with zinc did not. Conidial suspension of F. solani strain Fs5 (repressor strain for the biosynthesis of nematicidal compounds in P. fluorescens) reduced biocontrol potential of the bacterial inoculants against M. javanica in tomato while strain Fs3 (non-repressor) did not. Fusarium solani strains with increased nematicidal activity repress the biosynthesis of nematicidal compounds by P. fluorescens strains in vitro and greatly alter its biocontrol efficacy against root-knot nematode under natural conditions. Fusarium solani strains are distributed worldwide and found in almost all the agricultural fields which suggest that some mycotoxin-producing strains will also be found in almost any soil sample taken. Besides the suppressive effect of these metabolite-producing strains on the production of nematicidal compound(s) critical in biocontrol, F. solani strains may also affect the performance of mycotoxin-sensitive biocontrol bacteria effective against plant-parasitic nematodes.
Hari C. Meher
Full Text Available Salicylic acid-(SA is a plant defense stimulator. Exogenous application of SA might influence the status of glutathione-(GSH. GSH activates and SA alters the expression of defense genes to modulate plant resistance against pathogens. The fate of GSH in a crop following SA treatment is largely unknown. The SA-induced profiles of free reduced-, free oxidized-(GSSG and protein bound-(PSSG glutathione in tomato crop following foliar treatment of transplant at 5.0-10.0 μg mL–1 were measured by liquid chromatography. Resistance to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita damaging tomato and crop performance were also evaluated. SA treatment at 5.0-10.0 μg mL–1 to tomato transplants increased GSH, GSSG and PSSG in plant leaf and root, more so in leaf, during crop growth and development. As the fruits ripened, GSH and PSSG increased and GSSG declined. SA reduced the root infection by M. incognita, nematode reproduction and thus, improved the resistance of tomato var. Pusa Ruby, but reduced crop growth and redox status. SA at 5.0 μg mL–1 improved yield and fruit quality. The study firstly linked SA with activation of glutathione metabolism and provided an additional dimension to the mechanism of induced resistance against obligate nematode pathogen. SA increased glutathione status in tomato crop, imparted resistance against M. incognita, augmented crop yield and functional food quality. SA can be applied at 5.0 μg mL–1 for metabolic engineering of tomato at transplanting to combine host-plant resistance and health benefits in formulating a strategic nematode management decision.
Application of the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. (SH 20 and SH 26) and P. aeruginosa SH 29 isolated from the rhizosphere soil of an Egyptian salt marsh plant for the cleaning of oil - contaminataed vessels and enhancing the biodegradat.
Jun 2, 2014 ... Introduction. Application of antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial ... Keywords: Bacillus spp, antibacterial activity, eyes pathogens, conjunctiva. African Health ... ml of respective test organism and allowed to dry. In the agar ...
Sofya K. Garushyants
Full Text Available While most endosymbiotic bacteria are transmitted only vertically, Holospora spp., an alphaproteobacterium from the Rickettsiales order, can desert its host and invade a new one. All bacteria from the genus Holospora are intranuclear symbionts of ciliates Paramecium spp. with strict species and nuclear specificity. Comparative metabolic reconstruction based on the newly sequenced genome of Holospora curviuscula, a macronuclear symbiont of Paramecium bursaria, and known genomes of other Holospora species shows that even though all Holospora spp. can persist outside the host, they cannot synthesize most of the essential small molecules, such as amino acids, and lack some central energy metabolic pathways, including glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. As the main energy source, Holospora spp. likely rely on nucleotides pirated from the host. Holospora-specific genes absent from other Rickettsiales are possibly involved in the lifestyle switch from the infectious to the reproductive form and in cell invasion.
The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catf...
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3870 Trypanosoma... consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Trypanosoma spp. in...
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065 Bordetella... serological tests to identify Bordetella spp. from cultured isolates or directly from clinical specimens. The...
Gore, P.S.; Raveendran, O.; Unnithan, R.V.
Occurrence, isolation and oxidative activity of Thiobacilli spp. from some sandy beaches of Kerala are reported. These organisms were encountered in polluted beaches and were dominant during monsoon in all the beaches...
Sagor, Rakibul Hasan; Alsunaidi, Mohammad A.; Ooi, Boon S.
The non-linear propagation of Surface-Plasmon-Polaritons (SPP) in single interface of metal and chalcogenide glass (ChG) is considered. A time domain simulation algorithm is developed using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method
Havelaar AH; During M; Versteegh JFM
Door middel van onderzoek van zes kunstmatig besmette gesimuleerde monsters drinkwater ( 4 Aeromonas spp., 1 Klebsiella oxytoca, 1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa) werd een vergelijking gemaakt van de resultaten van Aeromonas onderzoek in 14 laboratoria. De tellingen in de deelnemende laboratoria
had significant (P≤ 0.05) effect on bean plant girth, number of leaves, number of branches, mean number of flowers, total fresh ... Beans (Phaseolus spp) belong to one of several genera .... Meng (2016), that found that applying coffee pulp.
Dec 15, 2009 ... Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB. ISSN 1684–5315 ... Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH .... MATERIALS AND METHODS ..... rapidly expanding and is currently composed of over.
Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen capable of causing disease and even fatalities in newborn infants within the first weeks of life if consumed as part of the diet. Premature and immunocompromised newborn infants are at particular risk. The microorganism has been isolated from a variety of foods including contaminated infant milk formula powder and milk powder substitute. The study aimed to evaluate the level of microbiological contamination in 47 samples of mozzarella cheese made with cow’s milk collected from artisan cheese producers in Southern Italy. Samples were collected from commercial sales points and underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological analyses to test for the bacterial contaminants most commonly found in milk and cheese products. The 47 samples underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological tests according to ISO UNI EN standards. Analyses focused on Staphylococcus aures, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, Yersinia spp., total coliforms and Cronobacter sakazakii. The ISO/TS 22964:2006 method was used to investigate possible contamination by C. sakazakii. Biochemical identification was carried out using an automated system for identification and susceptibility tests. None of the samples examined resulted positive for Salmonella spp. or Listeria spp. Only one sample resulted positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas spp. was isolated in 10 (21% of 47 samples. High levels of total coliforms were found in 10 of 47 samples. Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii was isolated in one sample. This is the first study to confirm isolation of C. sakazakii in artisan mozzarella cheese made from cow’s milk. The presence of C. sakazakii could be related to external contamination during the phases of production or to the use of contaminated milk. Since mozzarella is recommended in the diet of children and adults of all ages, this
The research about potential of some probiotic isolates as an antibacterial on the growth of Vibrio spp had been done. This research aimed to know the antibacterial potency from some isolates probiotic on the growth of Vibrio spp. This research to tested the inhibition on the three species of Vibrio that are Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio prahaemolyticus, and Vibrio cholerae using agar diffusion method. Probiotic isolates come from lactic acid bacteria group that provide beneficial effects on health ...
Full Text Available Objective. To characterize and identify yeasts of the genus Malassezia by phenotypic features. Materials and methods. First, the macroscopic and microscopic morphological characteristics were described. In addition we performed biochemical and physiological assays as Tweens and Cremophor, including more. Results. Our results evidenced of 105 isolates obtained from dogs diagnosed with external otitis, it was possible to identify two distinct species from 46 isolates within the Malassezia genus: 36.19% (n=38 were identified as M. pachydermatis and 7.62% (n=8 as M. furfur. According to phenotypic patterns the remaining 56.19% (n=59 were reported as Malassezia spp., possibly corresponding to M. furfur and/or M. pachydermatis. Conclusions. Results emphasize the necessity to characterize according to species. It is not feasible to define Malassezia by species based on morphological, biochemical, and physiological findings. Therefore, molecular genotyping should be performed to identify markers allowing a more precise isolate identification. This would broaden our epidemiological knowledge regarding different species involved in canine otitis pathologies.
Full Text Available Prosopis is a commercially important plant genus, which has been used since ancient times, particularly for medicinal purposes. Traditionally, Paste, gum, and smoke from leaves and pods are applied for anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial purposes. Components of Prosopis such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, quinones, or phenolic compounds demonstrate potentials in various biofunctions, such as analgesic, anthelmintic, antibiotic, antiemetic, microbial antioxidant, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antipustule, and antiulcer activities; enhancement of H+, K+, ATPases; oral disinfection; and probiotic and nutritional effects; as well as in other biopharmaceutical applications, such as binding abilities for tablet production. The compound juliflorine provides a cure in Alzheimer disease by inhibiting acetylcholine esterase at cholinergic brain synapses. Some indirect medicinal applications of Prosopis spp. are indicated, including antimosquito larvicidal activity, chemical synthesis by associated fungal or bacterial symbionts, cyanobacterial degradation products, “mesquite” honey and pollens with high antioxidant activity, etc. This review will reveal the origins, distribution, folk uses, chemical components, biological functions, and applications of different representatives of Prosopis.
Full Text Available Brachiaria species are the most important grasses for cattle production in Brazil. However, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria spp. is their toxicity. Most outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization are caused by B. decumbens; however B. brizantha, B. humidicola and B. ruziziensis can also cause poisoning. The poisoning affects cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. There are differences in susceptibility among animals of the same species and it has been suggested that this resistance is genetic. Also has been suggested that buffalo and probably some sheep are resilient, i.e. when poisoned these animals have histologic lesions and high GGT serum concentrations, but do not show clinical signs. In general, saponin concentrations are higher in growing plants, but outbreaks occur all over the year, probably due to unexplained rise in saponin concentration in the plant. A clinical syndrome of progressive weight loss and death, without photosensitization, has been reported in cattle poisoned by B. decumbens. Main preventive measures are based on the selection of resistant or resilient animals and on the development of Brachiaria species or varieties with low saponin concentration.
Longyan, G.; Xinguo, L.; Lingxia, W.; Xuefei, J.
Being one of the important tropical and subtropical fruit trees, banana (Musa spp.) belongs to the family Musaceae and the order Scitaminae with two genera, Musa and Ensete. In a field survey, research team has discovered a potential banana mutant strain HD-1 with a sound economic value. The results of the finding are as follows: based on Simmonds classification, the pseudostem of banana strain HD-1 is relatively short and purplish red; its upright outward petiole groove has red edges and wraps its pseudostem loosely. Its ploidy is 3, AAA type. Karyotype analysis shows that the number of chromosomes is 33, the karyotype formula is 2n=3x=33=2L + 3 M2 + 4 M1 + 2 S, HD-1 is classified as 1B type. With the help of ISSR molecular markers, we find thatbanana HD-1 has the closest relationship with Pubei and Tianbao dwarf banana; the similarity coefficient is 0.81. In an artificial simulation tests of cold, drought and salt resistance environment changes of physiological and biochemical indexes indicate that HD-1 exhibits stronger defense capability than Brazil banana. By way of inoculation with injury of root dipping method, we respectively treat two kinds of banana seedlings inoculated Banana Fusarium wilt race 4 small species. The results show that their resistance evaluation scores are 3 and 4, disease levels are susceptible and high sensitivity respectively. We conclude that HD-1 has stronger resistance ability to Fusarium wilt than Brazil banana. (author)
Bento, C S; de Souza, A G; Sudré, C P; Pimenta, S; Rodrigues, R
This study aimed to identify Capsicum genotypes with resistance to bacterial spot (BS), anthracnose and Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV). Fifty-four genotypes of Capsicum spp were evaluated. Resistance reaction against BS was evaluated using three replicates, testing hypersensitivity and quantitative resistance in leaves. After evaluation, inoculated leaves were detached from the plants, being then cultivated until reproductive stage for evaluations anthracnose resistance in immature and mature fruit, totalizing 18 fruits per genotype. For PepYMV resistance was performed with five replications. Each genotype reaction was evaluated by a scoring scale, using the area under the disease progress curve for each pathosystem, and incubation period for the three systems. The latent period was evaluated only for the pathosystem Capsicum-Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Means were grouped by the Scott-Knott test. Measures of dissimilarity matrix among the genotypes were obtained by Gower's algorithm and the grouping was obtained by the UPGMA clustering method. The accessions belonging to the Capsicum frutescens were the most susceptible to the three diseases. At least one genotype of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum, Capsicum annuum, and Capsicum chinense showed resistance potential to BS and PepYMV, for use in breeding programs. The accession UENF 1381 (C. annuum) was resistant to the three pathogens.
Gomes, Carmen; Moreira, Rosana G; Castell-Perez, Elena
The FDA recently approved irradiation treatment of leafy greens such as spinach up to 1 kGy; however, it is important to reduce the dose required to decontaminate the produce while maintaining its quality. Thus, the objectives of this study were: (1) to assess the radiation sensitivities of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. inoculated in ready-to-eat baby spinach leaves under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and irradiated using a 1.35-MeV Van de Graff accelerator (the leaves were irradiated both at room temperature and at -5 °C); and (2) to understand and optimize the synergistic effect of MAP and irradiation by studying the radiolysis of ozone formation under different temperatures, the effect of dose rate on its formation, and its decomposition. Results showed that increased concentrations of oxygen in the packaging significantly increased the radiation sensitivity of the test organisms, ranging from 7% up to 25% reduction in D(10)-values. In particular, radiosensitization could be effected (P radiation under modified atmosphere packaging (100% O(2) and N(2):O(2)[1:1]) may be a viable tool for reducing microbial populations or eliminating Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. from baby spinach. A suggested treatment to achieve a 5-log reduction of the test organisms would be irradiation at room temperature under 100% O(2) atmosphere at a dose level of 0.7 kGy. Practical Application: Decontamination of minimally processed fruits and vegetables from food-borne pathogens presents technical and economical challenges to the produce industry. Internalized microorganisms cannot be eliminated by the current procedure (water-washed or treated with 200-ppm chlorine). The only technology available commercially is ionizing radiation; however, the actual radiation dose required to inactivate pathogens is too high to be tolerated by the product without unwanted changes. This study shows a new approach in using MAP with 100% O(2), which is converted to ozone to radiosensitize
Samantha Yuri Oshiro Branco Valadas
Full Text Available South American opossums are the definitive hosts of Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis speeri and Sarcocystis lindsayi. The sporocysts of these species of Sarcocystis are morphologically similar and methods like infectivity and pathogenicity for intermediate hosts (immunodeficient mice and psittacine birds and molecular tools are used for identification. Opossums are synanthropic wild animals, and widely distributed in Brazilian territory. Previous studies have shown high environmental contamination with S. neurona sporocysts in several Brazilian regions. This paper reviews information on Sarcocystis spp. shed by various opossum species and its occurrence in Brazil.
Alves, Carlos Roberto; Souza, Raquel Santos de; Charret, Karen Dos Santos; Côrtes, Luzia Monteiro de Castro; Sá-Silva, Matheus Pereira de; Barral-Veloso, Laura; Oliveira, Luiz Filipe Gonçalves; da Silva, Franklin Souza
Serine proteases have significant functions over a broad range of relevant biological processes to the Leishmania spp lifecycle. Data gathered here present an update on the Leishmania spp serine proteases and the status of these enzymes as part of the parasite degradome. The serine protease genes (n = 26 to 28) in Leishmania spp, which encode proteins with a wide range of molecular masses (35 kDa-115 kDa), are described along with their degrees of chromosomal and allelic synteny. Amid 17 putative Leishmania spp serine proteases, only ∼18% were experimentally demonstrated, as: signal peptidases that remove the signal peptide from secretory pre-proteins, maturases of other proteins and with metacaspase-like activity. These enzymes include those of clans SB, SC and SF. Classical inhibitors of serine proteases are used as tools for the characterization and investigation of Leishmania spp. Endogenous serine protease inhibitors, which are ecotin-like, can act modulating host actions. However, crude or synthetic based-natural serine protease inhibitors, such as potato tuber extract, Stichodactyla helianthus protease inhibitor I, fukugetin and epoxy-α-lapachone act on parasitic serine proteases and are promising leishmanicidal agents. The functional interrelationship between serine proteases and other Leishmania spp proteins demonstrate essential functions of these enzymes in parasite physiology and therefore their value as targets for leishmaniasis treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Razina, I N; Chesnokova, M G; Nedoseko, V B
The aim of the study was to assess the correlation of Candida spp. incidence in periodontal tissues with various clinical manifestations of chronic periodontal disease (CPD). Ninety patients with CPD were included in the study in which Candida spp. was evaluated in periodontal pockets content and gingival biopsy material. In severe CPD more Candida spp. were seen in gingival biopsy than in periodontal pockets (p=0.0006). Candida spp. incidence and quantity correlated directly with the disease grade showing incidence increase from 40 to 73.3% and quantity increase from 0.8±0.18 до 3.6±0.49 lg CFU/ml in light and severe CPD, correspondingly Candida spp. had statistically significant association with cyanotic gingival color (p=0.0018), tongue plaque and swelling (р=0.0042), lip exfoliation (р=0.0030), periodontal pockets depth >5 mm (р=0.0030), oral mucosa hyperemia (р=0.0157), alveolar bone destruction >1/2 of root length (р=0.0157). These data prove the relevance of Candida spp. and mycological assessment of gingival biopsy in CPD patients.
Full Text Available Soil microbes associated with rhizosphere are important for promoting plant growth and inducing resistance to diseases. The research was conducted to study the ability of Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. isolated from rhizosphere in lowland swampy area for controlling damping-off disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani Khun. Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. were cultured in bran, corn meal, and rice straw containing media and applied as inoculum to 2-weeks old seedlings. Application of two fungi isolates effectively induced resistance of chili plants to damping-off disease. Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. were significantly reduced disease incidence by 61.5–100% to 46.2–100%, respectively and disease severity by 50–100% and 30–95.9%, respectively. This experiment showed the potential of Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. as biocontrol agents to control damping-off disease on chili.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Quantity of Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., Acanthamoeba,Vermamoeba vermiformis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were estimated using qPCR methods. This dataset is...
Abdelfattah M. Selim
Full Text Available Abortion among dairy cattle is one of the major causes of economic losses in the livestock industry. This study describes a 1-step multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus, these are significant bacteria commonly implicated in bovine abortion. ß-actin was added to the same PCR reaction as an internal control to detect any extraction failure or PCR inhibition. The detection limit of multiplex real-time PCR using purified DNA from cultured organisms was set to 5 fg for Leptospira spp. and C. foetus and to 50 fg for Brucella spp. The multiplex real-time PCR did not produce any non-specific amplification when tested with different strains of the 3 pathogens. This multiplex real-time PCR provides a valuable tool for diagnosis, simultaneous and rapid detection for the 3 pathogens causing abortion in bovine.
Viken, Knut Ole
Abstract The objectives of this study were (1) to develop models for estimation of stand-level tree biomass for spruce (picea spp.)- pine (pinus spp.)- and broadleaved-dominated forest in Norway and, (2) develop biomass expansion factors (BEFs; ratio of stem volume to biomass) which convert stem volume to whole tree biomass for Norwegian forest conditions. A dataset from a 5 year period (2006 – 2010) from the Norwegian National Forest Inventory (NFI) were used to develop the...
Cui, Yanyan; Zhang, Yan; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Rongjun; Cao, Shuxuan; Wang, Xiaoxing; Yan, Yaqun; Ning, Changshen
Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp., which are important tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), impact the health of humans and animals in tropical and subtropical areas. Theileria and Anaplasma co-infections are common in sheep and goats. Following alignment of the relevant DNA sequences, two primer sets were designed to specifically target the Theileria spp. 18S rRNA and Anaplasma spp. 16S rRNA gene sequences. Genomic DNA from the two genera was serially diluted tenfold for testing the sensitivities of detection of the primer sets. The specificities of the primer sets were confirmed when DNA from Anaplasma and Theileria (positive controls), other related hematoparasites (negative controls) and ddH 2 O were used as templates. Fifty field samples were also used to evaluate the utility of single PCR and duplex PCR assays, and the detection results were compared with those of the PCR methods previously published. An optimized duplex PCR assay was established from the two primer sets based on the relevant genes from the two TBPs, and this assay generated products of 298-bp (Theileria spp.) and 139-bp (Anaplasma spp.). The detection limit of the assay was 29.4 × 10 -3 ng per μl, and there was no cross-reaction with the DNA from other hematoparasites. The results showed that the newly developed duplex PCR assay had an efficiency of detection (P > 0.05) similar to other published PCR methods. In this study, a duplex PCR assay was developed that can simultaneously identify Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in sheep and goats. This duplex PCR is a potentially valuable assay for epidemiological studies of TBPs in that it can detect cases of mixed infections of the pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Leite, Diniz Pereira; Yamamoto, Ana Caroline Akeme; Amadio, Janaína Vasconcellos Ribeiro de Souza; Martins, Evelin Rodrigues; do Santos, Fábio Alexandre Leal; Simões, Sara de Almeida Alves; Hahn, Rosane Christine
Atmospheric air is the most common vehicle for the dispersion of fungi. Fungi belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are cosmopolitan and are classified in the family Trichocomaceae. Species of the genera are commonly found in soil, decaying organic materials, animal feed, stored grains, and other materials. This study aimed to determine the taxonomic diversity of airborne fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium residing in the dust of library environments to contribute to current knowledge of these characteristic genera. Three libraries in the city of Cuiaba, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were selected as the study areas. A total of 168 samples were collected at randomized sites within each library in areas containing journals, archives, in study rooms, and in collection storage areas in two different periods, the dry season (n = 42) and the rainy season (n = 42). Samples were collected by exposing Petri dishes containing Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol to the environmental air. Additional samples were collected with sterile swabs which were rubbed over the surface of randomly chosen books on the shelves; the swabs were subsequently incubated in the laboratory. The genus Aspergillus was highlighted as one of the principal airborne fungi present in indoor environments. Aspergillus spp was identified in 1,277 (89.6%) samples and Penicillium spp in 148 (10.4%). The dry period exhibited a greater number of isolates of the two taxons.
Full Text Available Tuberculosis and brucellosis remain important causes of morbidity and mortality in many countries, for the detection of both diseases requires efficient and sensitive tool for effectuate the diagnosis. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the duplex PCR versus the nested PCR, for detection of Brucella spp. (BR and Mycobacterium spp. (TB. A total of 100 samples of tissues from tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes, bovine lung and bacterial isolate as positive controls were used. Were evaluated ten combinations of primers which were designed to flank the segment of the 16S rRNA sequence (RB and antigen gen MPB70 (TB, the best result for the Duplex PCR was obtained with the primers Bru-2F/Bru-2R for BR and Tub-1F/Tub-N-R for TB. The amplification of the products was 225 and 230-bp respectively. In order to compare the results of the proposed technique, all samples were initially analyzed and compared between PCR and nested PCR (Kappa, k = 0.85 and the concordance between Duplex PCR and nested PCR (k = 0.88 for the two bacteria was very good.
Lépesová, Kristína; Kraková, Lucia; Pangallo, Domenico; Medveďová, Alžbeta; Olejníková, Petra; Mackuľak, Tomáš; Tichý, Jozef; Grabic, Roman; Birošová, Lucia
Urban wastewater contains different micropollutants and high number of different microorganisms. Some bacteria in wastewater can attach to the surfaces and form biofilm, which gives bacteria advantage in fight against environmental stress. This work is focused on bacterial community analysis in biofilms isolated from influent and effluent sewerage of wastewater treatment plant in Bratislava. Biofilm microbiota detection was performed by culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches. Composition of bacterial strains was detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting coupled with the construction of 16S rRNA clone libraries. The biofilm collected at the inlet point was characterized primarily by the presence of Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp. and Janthinobacterium sp. clones, while in the biofilm isolated at outflow of wastewater treatment plant members of Pseudomonas genus were largely detected. Beside this analysis prevalence of antibiotics and resistant coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in sewerage was studied. In influent wastewater were dominant antibiotics like azithromycin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin. Removal efficiency of these antibiotics notably azithromycin and clarithromycin were 30% in most cases. The highest number of resistant bacteria with predominance of coliforms was detected in sample of effluent biofilm. Multidrug resistant strains in effluent biofilm showed very good ability to form biofilm. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Fancelli, Marilene; Sanches, Nilton F.; Dantas, Jorge L.L.; Caldas, Ranulfo C.; Morales, Cinara F.G.
The papaya borer weevil, Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall), is generally considered a secondary pest, but it has been reported in high infestations in Northeast Brazil. This work aimed at evaluating the occurrence of P. papayanus and reporting its infestation level in papaya genotypes kept at the germplasm bank of EMBRAPA Cassava and Tropical Fruits (Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil). The number of larvae, pupae and adults found in each plant of 65 Carica spp. genotypes and of three Vasconcella spp. genotypes was registered in three to five plants of each genotype, by cutting the exsudating trunks lengthwise. Papaya borer weevil was found in C. papaya and V. cauliflora but not in those of V. quercifolia. Among the evaluated genotypes, 52.4% of those belonging to the Solo group were infested, against 25.0% of the Formosa group. Larval infestation was the best criterion for sorting out genotypes concerning this insect infestation. This is also the first occurrence of the papaya borer weevil . (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Pathogens transmitted by ticks are an emerging problem worldwide, this study aimed to diagnose the causal agents of infection in dogs presenting suspected hemoparasitoses. Fifty-eight dogs with clinical signs such as depression, hemorrhagic diathesis and fever were evaluated regarding clinical presentation, hemogram, blood smears and serological tests, using the indirect immunofluorescence method for the agents Babesia vogeli and Ehrlichia canis and conventional PCR for Babesia spp. (gene 18S rRNA, Rangelia vitalii (gene 18S rRNA and Ehrlichia spp. (gene dsb. Five (8.6% of the 58 dogs were serologically positive for Babesia spp. and three (5.1% for E. canis. Four dogs (6.8% were positive for R. vitalii through the molecular diagnosis. The PCR products were sequenced and the DNA from R. vitalii was found to be 99% genetically identical to samples of R. vitalii that had been isolated in Brazil. No presence of Babesia spp. or E. canis was observed through PCR on the dogs evaluated here. The results indicate the presence of R. vitalii and exposure to Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. among the dogs analyzed.
Full Text Available In recent years haemosporidian infection by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium and Haemoproteus, has been considered one of the most important factors related to the extinction and/or population decline of several species of birds worldwide. In Brazil, despite the large avian biodiversity, few studies have been designed to detect this infection, especially among wild birds in captivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in wild birds in captivity in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil using microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction. Blood samples of 119 different species of birds kept in captivity at IBAMA during the period of July 2011 to July 2012 were collected. The parasite density was determined based only on readings of blood smears by light microscopy. The mean prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection obtained through the microscopic examination of blood smears and PCR were similar (83.19% and 81.3%, respectively, with Caracara plancus and Saltator similis being the most parasitized. The mean parasitemia determined by the microscopic counting of evolutionary forms of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. was 1.51%. The results obtained from this study reinforce the importance of the handling of captive birds, especially when they will be reintroduced into the wild.
Full Text Available Ash (Fraxinus spp. is a dominant tree species throughout urban and forested landscapes of North America (NA. The rapid invasion of NA by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, a wood-boring beetle endemic to Eastern Asia, has resulted in the death of millions of ash trees and threatens billions more. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue, which girdles and kills the tree. While NA ash species including black (F. nigra, green (F. pennsylvannica and white (F. americana are highly susceptible, the Asian species Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica is resistant to A. planipennis perhaps due to their co-evolutionary history. Little is known about the molecular genetics of ash. Hence, we undertook a functional genomics approach to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in ash phloem.Using 454 pyrosequencing we obtained 58,673 high quality ash sequences from pooled phloem samples of green, white, black, blue and Manchurian ash. Intriguingly, 45% of the deduced proteins were not significantly similar to any sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis of the ash sequences revealed a high occurrence of defense related genes. Expression analysis of early regulators potentially involved in plant defense (i.e. transcription factors, calcium dependent protein kinases and a lipoxygenase 3 revealed higher mRNA levels in resistant ash compared to susceptible ash species. Lastly, we predicted a total of 1,272 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 980 microsatellite loci, among which seven microsatellite loci showed polymorphism between different ash species.The current transcriptomic data provide an invaluable resource for understanding the genetic make-up of ash phloem, the target tissue of A. planipennis. These data along with future functional studies could lead to the identification/characterization of defense genes involved in resistance of ash to A. planipennis, and in future ash breeding programs for marker development.
Pfister, J A; Gardner, D R; Panter, K E; Manners, G D; Ralphs, M H; Stegelmeier, B L; Schoch, T K
Larkspurs (Delphinium spp.) are toxic plants that contain numerous diterpenoid alkaloids which occur as one of two structural types: (1) lycotonine, and (2) 7,8-methylenedioxylycoctonine (MDL-type). Among the lycoctonine type alkaloids are three N-(methylsuccinimido) anthranoyllycoctonine (MSAL-type) alkaloids which appear to be most toxic: methyllycaconitine (MLA), 14-deacetylnudicauline (DAN), and nudicauline. An ester function at C-18 is an important structural requirement for toxicity. Intoxication results from neuromuscular paralysis, as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the muscle and brain are blocked by toxic alkaloids. Clinical signs include labored breathing, rapid and irregular heartbeat, muscular weakness, and collapse. Toxic alkaloid concentration generally declines in tall larkspurs with maturation, but alkaloid concentration varies over years and from plant to plant, and is of little use for predicting consumption by cattle. Knowledge of toxic alkaloid concentration is valuable for management purposes when cattle begin to eat larkspur. Cattle generally begin consuming tall larkspur after flowering racemes are elongated, and consumption increases as larkspur matures. Weather is also a major factor in cattle consumption, as cattle tend to eat more larkspur during or just after summer storms. Management options that may be useful for livestock producers include conditioning cattle to avoid larkspur (food aversion learning), grazing tall larkspur ranges before flowering (early grazing) and after seed shatter (late grazing), grazing sheep before cattle, herbicidal control of larkspur plants, and drug therapy for intoxicated animals. Some potentially fruitful research avenues include examining alkaloid chemistry in low and plains larkspurs, developing immunologic methods for analyzing larkspur alkaloids, developing drug therapy, and devising grazing regimes specifically for low and plains larkspur.
Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Frickmann, Hagen; Ehlers, Julian; Krüger, Andreas; Margos, Gabriele; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Fingerle, Volker; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Kalckreuth, Vera von; Im, Justin; Pak, Gi Deok; Jeon, Hyon Jin; Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean Philibert; Heriniaina, Jean Noël; Razafindrabe, Tsiry; Konings, Frank; May, Jürgen; Hogan, Benedikt; Ganzhorn, Jörg; Panzner, Ursula; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Dekker, Denise; Marks, Florian; Poppert, Sven
The occurrence of tick-borne relapsing fever and leptospirosis in humans in Madagascar remains unclear despite the presence of their potential vectors and reservoir hosts. We screened 255 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 148 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks from Zebu cattle in Madagascar for Borrelia-specific DNA. Borrelia spp. DNA was detected in 21 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 2 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks. One Borrelia found in one Rhipicephalus microplus showed close relationship to Borrelia theileri based on genetic distance and phylogenetic analyses on 16S rRNA and flaB sequences. The borreliae from Amblyomma variegatum could not be identified due to very low quantities of present DNA reflected by high cycle threshold values in real-time-PCR. It is uncertain whether these low numbers of Borrelia spp. are sufficient for transmission of infection from ticks to humans. In order to determine whether spirochaete infections are relevant in humans, blood samples of 1009 patients from the highlands of Madagascar with fever of unknown origin were screened for Borrelia spp. - and in addition for Leptospira spp. - by real-time PCR. No target DNA was detected, indicating a limited relevance of these pathogens for humans in the highlands of Madagascar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lu, J; Struewing, I; Vereen, E; Kirby, A E; Levy, K; Moe, C; Ashbolt, N
This study investigated waterborne opportunistic pathogens (OPs) including potential hosts, and evaluated the use of Legionella spp. for indicating microbial water quality for OPs within a full-scale operating drinking water distribution system (DWDS). To investigate the occurrence of specific microbial pathogens within a major city DWDS we examined large volume (90 l drinking water) ultrafiltration (UF) concentrates collected from six sites between February, 2012 and June, 2013. The detection frequency and concentration estimates by qPCR were: Legionella spp. (57%/85 cell equivalent, CE l(-1) ), Mycobacterium spp. (88%/324 CE l(-1) ), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24%/2 CE l(-1) ), Vermamoeba vermiformis (24%/2 CE l(-1) ) and Acanthamoeba spp. (42%/5 cyst equivalent, CE l(-1) ). There was no detection of the following microorganisms: human faecal indicator Bacteroides (HF183), Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp. or Naegleria fowleri. There were significant correlations between the qPCR signals of Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium spp., and their potential hosts V. vermiformis and Acanthamoeba spp. Sequencing of Legionella spp. demonstrated limited diversity, with most sequences coming from two dominant groups, of which the larger dominant group was an unidentified species. Other known species including Legionella pneumophila were detected, but at low frequency. The densities of Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium spp. were generally higher (17 and 324 folds, respectively) for distal sites relative to the entry point to the DWDS. Legionella spp. occurred, had significant growth and were strongly associated with free-living amoebae (FLA) and Mycobacterium spp., suggesting that Legionella spp. could provide a useful DWDS monitoring role to indicate potential conditions for non-faecal OPs. The results provide insight into microbial pathogen detection that may aid in the monitoring of microbial water
Full Text Available Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. is threatened by substantial yield losses due to the south root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita. However, understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of nematode infection is still limited. In this study, we found that M. incognita infection affected the structure of cells in cucumber roots and treatment of the cytoskeleton inhibitor (cytochalasin D reduced root-knot nematode (RKN parasitism. It is known that Actin-Depolymerizing Factor (ADF affects cell structure, as well as the organization of the cytoskeleton. To address the hypothesis that nematode-induced abnormal cell structures and cytoskeletal rearrangements might be mediated by the ADF genes, we identified and characterized eight cucumber ADF (CsADF genes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the cucumber ADF gene family is grouped into four ancient subclasses. Expression analysis revealed that CsADF1, CsADF2-1, CsADF2-2, CsADF2-3 (Subclass I and CsADF6 (Subclass III have higher transcript levels than CsADF7-1, CsADF7-2 (Subclass II genes and CsADF5 (Subclass IV in roots. Members of subclass I genes (CsADF1, CsADF2-1, CsADF2-2 and CsADF2-3, with the exception of CsADF2-1, exhibited a induction of expression in roots 14 days after their inoculation (DAI with nematodes. However, the expression of subclass II genes (CsADF7-1 and CsADF7-2 showed no significant change after inoculation. The transcript levels of CsADF6 (Subclass III showed a specific induction at 21 DAI, while CsADF5 (Subclass IV was weakly expressed in roots, but was strongly up-regulated as early as 7 DAI. In addition, treatment of roots with cytochalasin D caused an approximately two-fold down-regulation of the CsADF genes in the treated plants. These results suggest that CsADF gene mediated actin dynamics are associated with structural changes in roots as a consequence of M. incognita infection.
Niño Nancy Eunice
Full Text Available
Este estudio se realizó en el Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales de la Universidad de Bogotá Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Chía (Cundinamarca, bajo condiciones de invernadero, durante diez meses de cultivo. Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes densidades poblacionales de Meloidogyne hapla (0, 50, 100, 200, 500 y 1.000 larvas J2/100 cc de suelo, sobre parámetros productivos de la uchuva: altura de las plantas, diámetro de tallo, peso fresco, peso seco y biomasa de follaje, peso fresco de raíces, índice de nodulación radicular y peso fresco de frutos. Se hizo análisis de varianza, pruebas de contrastes y prueba de Tukey (α=0,05, en un diseño completamente aleatorio, con seis tratamientos y cinco repeticiones, mediante el programa SAS v.8.0. El tratamiento de 500 larvas J2/100 cc suelo fue el que más afectó la altura de las plantas, el diámetro del tallo, la biomasa de follaje, el peso fresco de raíces y presentó el índice de nodulación radical más alto. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos inoculados con M. hapla , para peso fresco, peso seco de follaje y peso fresco de frutos, ni para el número de larvas J2 en suelo y masas de huevos. Mediante la ecuación: Y = m + (1–mZP-T propuesta por Seinhorst (1965, se estableció un límite de tolerancia de 50 larvas J2 de M. hapla /100 cc suelo, para peso fresco de raíces y un límite de tolerancia de 450 larvas J2 de M. hapla /100 cc suelo, para biomasa de follaje.
Duplan, Florent; Davies, Saran; Filler, Serina; Abdullah, Swaid; Keyte, Sophie; Newbury, Hannah; Helps, Chris R; Wall, Richard; Tasker, Séverine
Ticks derived from cats have rarely been evaluated for the presence of pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp., haemoplasma species and Hepatozoon spp. in ticks collected from cats in the UK. Five hundred and forty DNA samples extracted from 540 ticks collected from cats presenting to veterinarians in UK practices were used. Samples underwent a conventional generic PCR assay for detection of Hepatozoon spp. and real-time quantitative PCR assays for detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and three feline haemoplasma species and a generic qPCR for detection of Bartonella spp. Feline 28S rDNA served as an endogenous internal PCR control and was assessed within the haemoplasma qPCR assays. Samples positive on the conventional and quantitative generic PCRs were submitted for DNA sequencing for species identification. Feline 28S rDNA was amplified from 475 of the 540 (88.0%) ticks. No evidence of PCR inhibition was found using an internal amplification control. Of 540 ticks, 19 (3.5%) contained DNA from one of the tick-borne pathogens evaluated. Pathogens detected were: A. phagocytophilum (n = 5; 0.9%), Bartonella spp. (n = 7; 1.3%) [including Bartonella henselae (n = 3; 0.6%) and Bartonella clarridgeiae (n = 1; 0.2%)], haemoplasma species (n = 5; 0.9%), "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" (n = 3; 0.6%), Mycoplasma haemofelis (n = 1; 0.2%), "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" (n = 1; 0.2%), Hepatozoon spp. (n = 2; 0.4%), Hepatozoon felis (n = 1; 0.2%) and Hepatozoon silvestris (n = 1; 0.2%). These data provide important information on the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in ticks infesting cats, with the identification of haemoplasma species, A. phagocytophilum, H. felis and Bartonella spp. (including B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae). This study also documents the first report of H. silvestris in ticks collected from domestic cats.
del Socorro Santos Díaz, María; Barba de la Rosa, Ana-Paulina; Héliès-Toussaint, Cécile; Guéraud, Françoise
Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica, the domesticated O. species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products. Though differences in the phytochemical composition exist between wild and domesticated (O. ficus-indica) Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetatives (pear, roots, cladodes, seeds, and juice) exhibit beneficial properties mainly resulting from their high content in antioxidants (flavonoids, ascorbate), pigments (carotenoids, betalains), and phenolic acids. Other phytochemical components (biopeptides, soluble fibers) have been characterized and contribute to the medicinal properties of Opuntia spp. The biological properties of Opuntia spp. have been investigated on cellular and animal models and in clinical trials in humans, allowing characterization and clarification of the protective effect of Opuntia-enriched diets in chronic diseases. This review is an update on the phytochemical composition and biological properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential interest in medicine. PMID:28491239
María del Socorro Santos Díaz
Full Text Available Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica, the domesticated O. species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products. Though differences in the phytochemical composition exist between wild and domesticated (O. ficus-indica Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetatives (pear, roots, cladodes, seeds, and juice exhibit beneficial properties mainly resulting from their high content in antioxidants (flavonoids, ascorbate, pigments (carotenoids, betalains, and phenolic acids. Other phytochemical components (biopeptides, soluble fibers have been characterized and contribute to the medicinal properties of Opuntia spp. The biological properties of Opuntia spp. have been investigated on cellular and animal models and in clinical trials in humans, allowing characterization and clarification of the protective effect of Opuntia-enriched diets in chronic diseases. This review is an update on the phytochemical composition and biological properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential interest in medicine.
Del Socorro Santos Díaz, María; Barba de la Rosa, Ana-Paulina; Héliès-Toussaint, Cécile; Guéraud, Françoise; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne
Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica , the domesticated O . species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products. Though differences in the phytochemical composition exist between wild and domesticated ( O. ficus-indica ) Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetatives (pear, roots, cladodes, seeds, and juice) exhibit beneficial properties mainly resulting from their high content in antioxidants (flavonoids, ascorbate), pigments (carotenoids, betalains), and phenolic acids. Other phytochemical components (biopeptides, soluble fibers) have been characterized and contribute to the medicinal properties of Opuntia spp. The biological properties of Opuntia spp. have been investigated on cellular and animal models and in clinical trials in humans, allowing characterization and clarification of the protective effect of Opuntia -enriched diets in chronic diseases. This review is an update on the phytochemical composition and biological properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential interest in medicine.
Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is a common cause of bacterial food-borne illness. Birds, especially poultry are primary reservoirs of C. jejuni. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken cuts purchased in supermarkets of Londrina, Parana. A total of 50 samples of chicken cuts, such as breasts, thighs and drumsticks were analyzed. The confirmation of the presence of Campylobacter spp. was performed by identifying the suspected colonies on the selective medium using the polymerase chain reaction. Of the 50 samples analyzed, 28 (56% were positive for Campylobacter spp. Chicken meat, as observed in this study, is a possible source of Campylobacter transmission to humans. This study alerts for the importance to analyze the occurrence of Campylobacter in chicken meat, due to the significant number of positive samples observed and no available epidemiological data in Brazil. The correct orientation about handling and cooking of chicken meat is also necessary to prevent human infection by Campylobacter spp.
Grimaldi, A; Bartowsky, E; Jiranek, V
To assess glycosidase activities from a range of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus species and characterize these activities under conditions pertinent to the wine industry. Lactic acid bacteria were cultured in MRS broth supplemented with apple juice before being harvested, washed and assayed for glycosidase activity using p-nitrophenol-linked substrates. All strains exhibited a detectable capacity for the hydrolysis of the beta- and alpha-d-glucopyranosides. The magnitude of these activities and their response to the physico-chemical parameters investigated varied in a strain-dependent manner. The use of an assay buffer with a pH below 4 generally resulted in a reduced hydrolysis of both substrates while temperature optima ranged between 35 and 45 degrees C. The effect of the inclusion of ethanol in the assay buffer (up to 12%, v/v) ranged from near complete inhibition to increases in activity approaching 80%. With the clear exception of a single strain, glucose and fructose (0.1-20 g l(-1)) acted as inhibitors. An assessment of glycosidase activity during simultaneous exposure to glucose and ethanol at a pH of 3.5 suggested that ethanol decreased loss of activity under these wine-like conditions. Lactobacillus spp. and Pediococcus spp. possess varying degrees of beta- and alpha-d-glucopyranosidase activities, which in turn are influenced differently by exposure to ethanol and/or sugars, temperature and pH. Several strains appeared suited for further evaluation under winemaking conditions. This work highlights the fact that strains of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus have the potential to influence the glycoside composition of wine. Tailoring of wine may therefore be possible through selective application of strains or enzymatic extracts thereof.
Nunes, Maria Antónia; Rodrigues, Francisca; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P
Herbs have been used from ancient times for infusion preparation based on their potential health effects. In particular, the consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp. and Panax spp. has been largely associated to cardiovascular benefits. In this work, the label information of 52 herbal products for infusion preparation containing the referred herbs was analyzed and discussed, taking into consideration the European Union regulation for herbal products, which intends to protect public health and harmonize the legal framework in Member States. Details about the cardiovascular-related statements and warning notifications about consumption were considered. Also, regulatory issues and possible herb-drug interactions were explored and discussed. A total of 14 of the 52 herbal products selected presented health claims/statements on the label. Hibiscus was present in the majority of the products and, in some cases, it was mentioned only in the ingredients list and not on the product front-of-pack. Despite the promising outcomes of these plants to modulate cardiovascular risk markers, consumers with some sort of cardiovascular dysfunction and/or under medication treatments should be aware to carefully analyze the labels and consult additional information related to these herbal products. Manufacturers have also a huge responsibility to inform consumers by presenting awareness statements. Lastly, health professionals must advise and alert their patients about possible interactions that could occur between the concomitant consumption of drugs and herbs. Overall, there is still a real need of additional studies and clinical trials to better understand herbs effects and establish a science-based guidance to assess their safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Our study aimed at using PCR to identify the incidence of Bartonella spp. in blood of dogs. Altogether 286 dogs of 92 breeds aged 3 month to 17 years were tested from October 2008 to December 2009. Healthy dogs as well as dogs with various clinical symptoms of disease were included in the group. Samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR specific for the presence of Bartonella spp. Following the DNA examination in 286 dogs by PCR and subsequent sequencing, two samples were identified as Bartonella henselae (0.7%. Other species of Bartonella were not found. It was the first time in the Czech Republic when incidence of Bartonella spp. was determined in dogs.
Frecuencia de aislamiento de Staphylococcus spp meticilina resistentes y Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistentes en hospitales de Cuba Frequency of methicilline-resistant Staphylococcus spp and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp isolates in Cuban hospitals
Leonora González Mesa
Full Text Available La resistencia a meticilina en el género Staphylococcus spp es un problema creciente en el ámbito mundial. La producción de una PBP alterada (PBP2a con baja afinidad a betalactámicos, mediada por el gen mec A, es la responsable de esta resistencia. Mientras que los Staphylococcus spp todavía permanecen sensibles a vancomicina, algunos Enterococcus spp han adquirido la capacidad de neutralizar esta droga. En nuestro país no se conocen datos actualizados sobre la tasa de infección por S. aureus meticilina resistente (SAMR, ni sobre la circulación de este germen en la comunidad, tampoco existen reportes de Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistente (EVR. En este estudio fueron analizadas 774 cepas, colectadas en hospitales del país. Se determinó el mecanismo de resistencia utilizando métodos sugeridos por las guías NCCLS. El 9.3 % (23 de los S. aureus aislados en los hospitales y 4.0% (7 S. aureus aislados en la comunidad, fueron SAMR, portadores del gen mec A, el 69.9 % (72 de Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo, fueron resistentes a oxacilina. En la detección del Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistente (EVR, se encontró una cepa portadora de este fenotipo. Nuestros resultados revelan que en nuestro país los SAMR no son un problema en los hospitales, ni en el ambiente comunitario, a pesar de que se reporta por primera vez la circulación de estos en la comunidad y la circulación de EVR en el ambiente hospitalario, su frecuencia es muy baja lo que refleja los avances obtenidos en la aplicación de políticas encaminadas a racionalizar el uso y consumo de antibióticos.Resistance to methicilline in Staphylococcus spp genus is a growing problem worldwide. The production of an altered penicillin-fixing protein with low mecA gen-mediated affinity to beta-lactams is responsible for this resistance. Although Staphylococcus spp still remain susceptible to vancomycin, some Enterococcus spp have acquired the capacity of neutralizing this drug. In
An IRAF package to assist in SPP code development and debugging is described. SPP is the machine-independent programming language used by virtually all IRAF tasks. Tools have been written to aide both novice and advanced SPP programmers with development and debugging by providing tasks to check the code for the number and type of arguments in all calls to IRAF VOS library procedures, list the calling sequences of IRAF tasks, create a database of identifiers for quick access, check for memory which is not freed, and a source code formatter. Debugging is simplified since the programmer is able to get a better understanding of the structure of his/her code, and IRAF library procedure calls (probably the most common source of errors) are automatically checked for correctness.
Ait Lbacha, H; Alali, S; Zouagui, Z; El Mamoun, L; Rhalem, A; Petit, E; Haddad, N; Gandoin, C; Boulouis, H-J; Maillard, R
The prevalence of infection by Anaplasma spp. (including Anaplasma phagocytophilum) was determined using blood smear microscopy and PCR through screening of small ruminant blood samples collected from seven regions of Morocco. Co-infections of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp, Theileria spp. and Mycoplasma spp. were investigated and risk factors for Anaplasma spp. infection assessed. A total of 422 small ruminant blood samples were randomly collected from 70 flocks. Individual animal (breed, age, tick burden and previous treatment) and flock data (GPS coordinate of farm, size of flock and livestock production system) were collected. Upon examination of blood smears, 375 blood samples (88.9%) were found to contain Anaplasma-like erythrocytic inclusion bodies. Upon screening with a large spectrum PCR targeting the Anaplasma 16S rRNA region, 303 (71%) samples were found to be positive. All 303 samples screened with the A. phagocytophilum-specific PCR, which targets the msp2 region, were found to be negative. Differences in prevalence were found to be statistically significant with regard to region, altitude, flock size, livestock production system, grazing system, presence of clinical cases and application of tick and tick-borne diseases prophylactic measures. Kappa analysis revealed a poor concordance between microscopy and PCR (k = 0.14). Agreement with PCR is improved by considering microscopy and packed cell volume (PCV) in parallel. The prevalence of double infections was found to be 1.7, 2.5 and 24% for Anaplasma-Babesia, Anaplasma-Mycoplasma and Anaplasma-Theileria, respectively. Co-infection with three or more haemoparasites was found in 1.6% of animals examined. In conclusion, we demonstrate the high burden of anaplasmosis in small ruminants in Morocco and the high prevalence of co-infections of tick-borne diseases. There is an urgent need to improve the control of this neglected group of diseases. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Evaluation of plant aqueous extracts, added into the soil, on Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949 / Avaliação de extratos aquosos de várias espécies vegetais, aplicados ao solo, sobre Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949
Leandro Grassi de Freitas
Full Text Available The use of plant extracts with nematicidal properties to control plant nematodes can be a useful alternative to small farmers, regarding its low cost and non-toxic effects. The effect of the addition into the soil of aqueous extracts of 20 plant species on Meloidogyne javanica in plants of tomato was studied at greenhouse conditions. These were divided into two groups and evaluated in two separate experiments.The soil in the 2.0 L pots was infested with 5,000 eggs and, in the same day, it was applied 20 mL of aqueous extracts of the 20 plant species (Chrysanthemum parthenium, Arctium lappa, Cymbopogon citratus, Bacharis trimera, Equisetum sp., Melia azedarach, Mentha sp., Ricinus communis, Ocimum basilicum, Momordica charantia, Ruta graveolens, Coleus barbatus, Symphitum officinalis, Polygonum acre, Canavalia ensiformis, Foeniculum vulgare, Petiveria alliacea, Ageratum conyzoides, Mucuna pruriens and Azadirachta indica. Distilled water was used as control. Sixty days later, were evaluated for plant height, the fresh weight of shoot and root and the numbers of galls and eggs per root system. The extracts of Mentha sp., Arctium lappa and Ricinus communis reduced the number of galls of M. javanica in 75.6%; 65.7% and 54.4%; and the number of eggs in 81.7%, 75.9% and 56.6%, respectively.O uso de extratos vegetais com propriedades nematicidas no controle de fitonematóides representa mais uma alternativa para os pequenos produtores, com valor prático e econômico, e sem riscos de contaminação do ambiente. A adição ao solo dos extratos aquosos de 20 espécies de plantas foi avaliada sobre a população de Meloidogyne javanica em plantas de tomateiro, em casa de vegetação. Estas foram divididas em dois grupos e avaliadas em dois experimentos separados. No mesmo dia em que se infestou o solo com 5.000 ovos do nematóide, adicionou-se 20 mL dos extratos aquosos obtidos de folhas de artemísia (Chrysanthemum parthenium, bardana (Arctium lappa
Soil amendment with chopped or ground dry leaves of six species of plants for the control of Meloidogyne javanica in tomato under greenhouse conditions Incorporação ao solo de folhas secas picadas ou moídas de seis espécies de plantas para o controle de Meloidogyne javanica em tomateiro em casa de vegetação
Everaldo Antônio Lopes
Full Text Available Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of soil amendment with chopped (1cm² or ground (1mm sieve dry leaves of assa-peixe (Vernonia polyanthes, lemon-grass (Cymbopogon citratus, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora, castor (Ricinus communis, mango (Mangifera indica or neem (Azadirachta indica for the control Meloidogyne javanica. Into the soil (Yellow red oxisol of each pot were added leaves (5g kg-1 of soil and 5,000 eggs of the nematode. After seven days, one tomato seedling "Santa Cruz Kada" was transplanted to each pot. The tomato root weight, galls and eggs/root system were determined 60 days after transplant. None of the soil amendments reduced gall or eggs, when applied as leaf pieces. However, all tested plant species reduced the gall number, when they were incorporated into the soil as powder, and maximum nematode suppression occurred in soil amended with neem leaves (61%. The amendment with ground leaves of castor, neem, eucalyptus and lemon-grass reduced the number of eggs, with maximum reduction occurring in soil amended with ground castor leaves (69%, evidencing that these organic amendments can be an alternative for M. javanica control in tomato. Further studies are required under field conditions to confirm the potential of these organic amendments on the control of M. javanica.Experimentos em casa de vegetação foram conduzidos com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adição ao solo de folhas secas picadas (1cm² ou trituradas (peneira de 1mm de assa-peixe (Vernonia polyanthes, capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus, eucalipto (Eucalyptus citriodora, mamona (Ricinus communis, manga (Mangifera indica ou nim (Azadirachta indica para o controle de Meloidogyne javanica. Ao solo de cada vaso (latossolo vermelho-amarelo, foram adicionadas folhas (5g kg-1 de solo e 5.000 ovos do nematoide. Após sete dias, uma muda de tomateiro "Santa Cruz Kada" foi transplantada em cada vaso. O peso das raízes e os números de galhas e
d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Antunes, Ana Lúcia Sousa; Martino, Marinês Dalla Valle; Pignatari, Antonio Carlos Campos
Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus has emerged as an important agent in nosocomial infections. In this study, we report a case of bacteremia associated with a central venous catheter, caused by Staphylococcus cohnii spp urealyticus that was isolated in blood cultures from a 53-year-old male patient who was admitted to a general hospital in the city of São Paulo. We discuss in this report the difficulty in routinely identifying this microorganism in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Staphylococcus cohnii spp urealyticus is a microorganism found in human skin as part of the normal microbiota, and it can cause serious infections in humans, in some situations.
Krøjgaard, L H; Villumsen, S; Markussen, M D K
Earlier studies on the ecology of leptospirosis in temperate regions focused mainly on free-ranging rats in rural areas. Here we report on the occurrence of Leptospira spp. in Rattus norvegicus living in sewers in a suburban area in Copenhagen, Denmark. In 2006-2007, about 30 rats were captured...... in sewers at each of six different locations. Rat kidneys were screened by PCR for pathogenic Leptospira spp. In one location no infected rats were found, whereas the prevalence in the remaining five locations ranged between 48% and 89%. Micro-agglutination tests showed that serogroup Pomona, Sejroe...
Maco, Vicente; Maco, Vicente P.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo
Tungiasis is a neglected ectoparasitism of impoverished areas in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. The sand flea Tunga spp. preferably infests the soles and the periungueal and interdigital regions of the feet. Ectopic tungiasis is rare, even in highly endemic areas. We describe a case of an indigenous patient in Peru who presented with a nodular lesion in the extensor aspect of the knee and whose biopsy was compatible with Tunga spp. This is the first documented case of knee tungiasis in an endemic country. The historical, clinical, histological, and current epidemiological aspects of tungiasis in Peru are discussed here. PMID:20519602
Sagor, Rakibul Hasan
The non-linear propagation of Surface-Plasmon-Polaritons (SPP) in single interface of metal and chalcogenide glass (ChG) is considered. A time domain simulation algorithm is developed using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The general polarization algorithm incorporated in the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) is used to model frequency-dependent dispersion relation and third-order nonlinearity of ChG. The main objective is to observe the nonlinear behavior of SPP propagation and study the dynamics of the whole structure. © 2011 IEEE.
Full Text Available During the period from February until March 2004, 108 samples of soft cheese originating from markets of Pancevo, Subotica and Belgrade were examined. Microbiological analyses of the cheese samples to the presence of Escherichia coli was performed using methods described in the Regulations on methods for performing microbiological analyses and super analyses of consumer articles, while the presence of bacteria Enteroccocus spp. was performed on the dexter agar. From 108 samples of soft cheese from the territories of Pancevo, Belgrade and Subotica were isolated: Enterococcus spp. from 96% and Escherichia coli from 69%, cheese samples. Verocytotoxic E.coli was not isolated from any of the taken cheese samples.
Coupling of MIC-3 overexpression with the chromosomes 11 and 14 root-knot nematode (RKN) (Meloidogyne incognita) resistance QTLs provides insights into the regulation of the RKN resistance response in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).
Wubben, Martin J; Callahan, Franklin E; Jenkins, Johnie N; Deng, Dewayne D
Genetic analysis of MIC-3 transgene with RKN resistance QTLs provides insight into the resistance regulatory mechanism and provides a framework for testing additional hypotheses. Resistance to root-knot nematode (RKN) (Meloidogyne incognita) in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is mediated by two major quantitative trait loci (QTL) located on chromosomes 11 and 14. The MIC-3 (Meloidogyne Induced Cotton3) protein accumulates specifically within the immature galls of RKN-resistant plants that possess these QTLs. Recently, we showed that MIC-3 overexpression in an RKN-susceptible cotton genotype suppressed RKN egg production but not RKN-induced root galling. In this study, the MIC-3 overexpression construct T-DNA in the single-copy transgenic line '14-7-1' was converted into a codominant molecular marker that allowed the marker assisted selection of F2:3 cotton lines, derived from a cross between 14-7-1 and M-240 RNR, having all possible combinations of the chromosomes 11 and 14 QTLs with and without the MIC-3 overexpression construct. Root-knot nematode reproduction (eggs g(-1) root) and severity of RKN-induced root galling were assessed in these lines. We discovered that the addition of MIC-3 overexpression suppressed RKN reproduction in lines lacking both resistance QTLs and in lines having only the chromosome 14 QTL, suggesting an additive effect of the MIC-3 construct with this QTL. In contrast, MIC-3 overexpression did not improve resistance in lines having the single chromosome 11 QTL or in lines having both resistance QTLs, suggesting an epistatic interaction between the chromosome 11 QTL and the MIC-3 construct. Overexpression of MIC-3 did not affect the severity of RKN-induced root galling regardless of QTL genotype. These data provide new insights into the relative order of action of the chromosomes 11 and 14 QTLs and their potential roles in regulating MIC-3 expression as part of the RKN resistance response.
Ulloa, M; Wang, C; Saha, S; Hutmacher, R B; Stelly, D M; Jenkins, J N; Burke, J; Roberts, P A
Chromosome substitution (CS) lines in plants are a powerful genetic resource for analyzing the contribution of chromosome segments to phenotypic variance. In this study, a series of interspecific cotton (Gossypium spp.) CS lines were used to identify a new germplasm resource, and to validate chromosomal regions and favorable alleles associated with nematode or fungal disease resistance traits. The CS lines were developed in the G. hirsutum L. TM-1 background with chromosome or chromosome segment substitutions from G. barbadense L. Pima 3-79 or G. tomentosum. Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum) (races 1 and 4) resistance alleles and quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously placed on cotton chromosomes using SSR markers in two interspecific recombinant inbred line populations were chosen for testing. Phenotypic responses of increased resistance or susceptibility in controlled inoculation and infested field assays confirmed the resistance QTLs, based on substitution with the positive or negative allele for resistance. Lines CS-B22Lo, CS-B04, and CS-B18 showed high resistance to nematode root-galling, confirming QTLs on chromosomes 4 and 22 (long arm) with resistance alleles from Pima 3-79. Line CS-B16 had less fusarium race 1-induced vascular root staining and higher percent survival than the TM-1 parent, confirming a major resistance QTL on chromosome 16. Lines CS-B(17-11) and CS-B17 had high fusarium race 4 vascular symptoms and low survival due to susceptible alleles introgressed from Pima 3-79, confirming the localization on chromosome 17 of an identified QTL with resistance alleles from TM1 and other resistant lines. Analyses validated regions on chromosomes 11, 16, and 17 harboring nematode and fusarium wilt resistance genes and demonstrated the value of CS lines as both a germplasm resource for breeding programs and as a powerful genetic analysis tool for determining QTL effects for disease
Full Text Available The study aimed at determining the level of resistance of selected bacterial species (Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli isolated from rectal swabs of pigs to antimicrobial agents. The tested strains were isolated from piglets aged 7 to 30 days. Bacterial species were identified by standard microbiological techniques and susceptibility to antibiotics was determined quantitatively by the standard microdilution method. Resistance of the Staphylococcus aureus strain to oxacillin was confirmed by detection of the mecA gene and PBP2a. A total of 115 Staphylococcus spp. isolates were collected. In the case of Staphylococcus aureus, the methicillin-resistant strain (MRSA was identified. Moreover, higher frequency of coagulase-negative staphylococci with minimum inhibitory concentration of oxacillin ≥ 0.5 mg/l was noticed. Inducible resistance to clindamycin in the Staphylococcus hominis strain was also detected. The strains of Enterococcus spp. (61 isolates exhibited high resistance to tetracycline (98.5%, erythromycin (86.8% and chloramphenicol (54.4%. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci were not isolated. In the case of Escherichia coli strains (111 isolates, higher frequency of resistant strains to tetracycline (81.1% and ampicillin (62.2% was documented. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and production of broad-spectrum β-lactamases was not noticed. The presented study may be considered as a pilot project assessing the prevalence of resistant bacteria in piglets kept on a single farm. It demonstrated the presence of resistant strains of Staphylococcus spp., including one MRSA strain, Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli. These strains may be present as a result of postnatal colonization with both bacterial microflora of dams and environmental microflora.
Molecular characterization of 16 mustard (Brassica spp.) genotypes by using 12 RAPD markers revealed that three primers GLA-11, OPB-04 and OPD-02 showed good technical resolution and sufficient variations among different genotypes. A total of 40 RAPD bands were scored of which 38 (94.87%) polymorphic ...
Bagamba, F.; Burger, C.P.J.; Tushemereirwe, W.K.
The highland cooking banana (Musa spp., AAA-EA genome) is the most important crop in the East African Great Lakes region. In Uganda, production has expanded and productivity increased in the country’s southwest and declined in the Central region where the crop has traditional roots. Analyzing crop
Gall, Francesca; Colella, Giuseppe; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Rossiello, Raffaele; Angelillo, Italo Francesco; Liguori, Giorgio
To assess the presence of Candida spp. in lesions of the oral cavity in a sample of patients with precancer or cancer of the mouth and evaluate the limitations and advantages of microbiological and histological methods, 103 subjects with precancerous or cancerous lesions and not treated were observed between 2007 and 2009. The presence of Candida in the lesions was analyzed by microbiological and histological methods. Cohen's k statistic was used to assess the agreement between culture method and staining techniques. Forty-eight (47%) patients had cancer and 55 (53%) patients had precancerous lesions. Candida spp. were isolated from 31 (30%) patients with cancerous lesions and 33 (32%) with precancerous lesions. C. albicans was the most frequent species isolated in the lesions. The k value showed a fair overall agreement for comparisons between culture method and PAS (0.2825) or GMS (0.3112). This study supports the frequent presence of Candida spp. in cancer and precancerous lesions of the oral cavity. Both microbiological investigations and histological techniques were reliable for detection of Candida spp. It would be desirable for the two techniques to be considered complementary in the detection of yeast infections in these types of lesions.
Isolation rate in developing countries is between 5-35%. This study aimed at finding prevalence of children with campylobacter infection among children with acute diarrhea attending Mulago hospital. Objective: The objective was to establish the proportion of children infected with Campylobacter spp among children with ...
Feb 27, 2009 ... The reason was that there might be a certain maternal-specific marker just on one homologous chromosome, while the other one without this marker, among the highly heterozygous genome of Saccharum spp., and that the recombination of genes and chromosome happened in the period of meiosis might ...
Hao, Haihong; Pan, Huafang; Ahmad, Ijaz; Cheng, Guyue; Wang, Yulian; Dai, Menghong; Tao, Yanfei; Chen, Dongmei; Peng, Dapeng; Liu, Zhenli
Susceptibility breakpoints are crucial for prudent use of antimicrobials. This study has developed the first susceptibility breakpoint (MIC ≤ 0.25 μg/ml) for enrofloxacin against swine Salmonella spp. based on wild-type cutoff (COWT) and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) cutoff (COPD) values, consequently providing a criterion for susceptibility testing and clinical usage of enrofloxacin. PMID:23784134
This study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. and the associated renal morphological changes in pigs slaughtered in slaughter slabs within Abeokuta metropolis, Nigeria. A total of 42 pigs' kidney samples were randomly collected for the study. The samples were examined using ...
Full Text Available A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%: 1 bovine (2.5%, 9 sheep (15% and 15 goats (7.2% and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%. Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.
... serological tests to identify Haemophilus spp. directly from clinical specimens or tissue culture isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Haemophilus and provides epidemiological information on diseases cause by these...
Carlos Alberto Sangoquiza Caiza
Full Text Available Azospirillum is one of the most studied free-living rhizobacteria currently of great agricultural interest because of its ability to bind biological nitrogen and produce phytohormones. The present research aimed at the biological response of Azospirillum spp. facing different types of stress. For this purpose, the micro and macro morphological characterization of Azospirillum spp. And its biological response to stress temperature, pH, salinity. The results revealed that the isolates (C2, C3 and C4 of Azospirillum spp. Grow in greater abundance at temperatures between 28-38 °C and pH between 7-8. The C2 and C3 isolates showed good growth up to 3.5 % (m / v NaCl, whereas the C4 strain was less tolerant. These results have biotechnological applicability and are of great importance when defining and controlling the mass production conditions of Azospirillum spp. for future formulations as biofertilizer in several crops of interest in Ecuador.
The highest susceptibility of the isolates was seen for nystatin 62 (83.78%), ketoconazole 61 (82.43%) and fluconazole 60 (81.08%). Conclusion: Despite the noticeable resistance of Candida spp. isolates to miconazole and itraconazole, the results indicate that nystatin, ketoconazole and fluconazole are the drugs of choice ...
Estevinho, Leticia M; Chambó, Emerson Dechechi; Pereira, Ana Paula Rodrigues; Carvalho, Carlos Alfredo Lopes de; Toledo, Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de
Traditionally, melissopalynological and physicochemical analyses have been the most used to determine the botanical origin of honey. However, when performed individually, these analyses may provide less unambiguous results, making it difficult to discriminate between mono and multifloral honeys. In this context, with the aim of better characterizing this beehive product, a selection of 112 Lavandula spp. monofloral honey samples from several regions were evaluated by association of multivariate statistical techniques with physicochemical, melissopalynological and phenolic compounds analysis. All honey samples fulfilled the quality standards recommended by international legislation, except regarding sucrose content and diastase activity. The content of sucrose and the percentage of Lavandula spp. pollen have a strong positive association. In fact, it was found that higher amounts of sucrose in honey are related with highest percentage of pollen of Lavandula spp.. The samples were very similar for most of the physicochemical parameters, except for proline, flavonoids and phenols (bioactive factors). Concerning the pollen spectrum, the variation of Lavandula spp. pollen percentage in honey had little contribution to the formation of samples groups. The formation of two groups regarding the physicochemical parameters suggests that the presence of other pollen types in small percentages influences the factor termed as "bioactive", which has been linked to diverse beneficial health effects.
in this study was complete randomized design (CRD) through factorial experiment with 2 factors (factor A = effects of sterilization, factor B = effects of Trichoderma spp.) in three replicates for each treatment. Effects of the Trichoderma isolates on the substrate neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and pH as ...
Nancy E. Karraker; David S. Pilliod; Michael J. Adams; Evelyn L. Bull; Paul Stephen Corn; Lowell V. Diller; Linda A. Dupuis; Marc P. Hayes; Blake R. Hossack; Garth R. Hodgson; Erin J. Hyde; Kirk Lohman; Bradford R. Norman; Lisa M. Ollivier; Christopher A. Pearl; Charles R. Peterson
Tailed frogs (Ascaphus spp.) oviposit in cryptic locations in streams of the Pacific Northwest and Rocky Mountains. This aspect of their life history has restricted our understanding of their reproductive ecology. The recent split of A. montanus in the Rocky Mountains from A. truei was based on molecular...
The Azotobacter species was isolated from marine source in two different seasons. They were cultivated under laboratory conditions using Nitrogen free Azotobacter specific medium. We observed that they were present in both seasons. The phylogenetic tree revealed that our isolated Azotobacter spp. was distantly related ...
A six-year field study was conducted in the two major wild, or lowbush, blueberry growing regions in Maine, Midcoast and Downeast. This study used data from two cropping cycles (four years) to model the dynamics of Salmonella spp. prevalence in wild blueberry fields (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton). ...
May 23, 2011 ... was conducted to assess the effect of NaCl and PEG separately as well as in combination on plant micro- propagation efficiency of banana (Musa spp.) cv., Basrai. In this experiment, 4-weeks old plantlets of the 3rd sub- culture with well propagation on MS2b nutrient were sub- cultured on three differentially ...
Lerner, Amit; Browman, Howard I.
Both attraction and repulsion from linearly polarized light have been observed in zooplankton. A dichotomous choice experiment, consisting of plankton light traps deployed in natural waters at a depth of 30 m that projected either polarized or unpolarized light of the same intensity, was used to test the hypothesis that the North Atlantic copepod, Calanus spp., is linearly polarotactic. In addition, the transparency of these copepods, as they might be seen by polarization insensitive vs. sensitive visual systems, was measured. Calanus spp. exhibited negative polarotaxis with a preference ratio of 1.9:1. Their transparency decreased from 80% to 20% to 30% in the unpolarized, partially polarized, and electric (e-) vector orientation domains respectively - that is, these copepods would appear opaque and conspicuous to a polarization-sensitive viewer looking at them under conditions rich in polarized light. Since the only difference between the two plankton traps was the polarization cue, we conclude that Calanus spp. are polarization sensitive and exhibit negative polarotaxis at low light intensities (albeit well within the sensitivity range reported for copepods). We hypothesize that Calanus spp. can use polarization vision to reduce their risk of predation by polarization-sensitive predators and suggest that this be tested in future experiments.
Mehmet Hanifi Kokacya
Conclusion: Demodex spp. are more common in alcohol-dependent patients due conditions of reduced self-care and immunosuppression. Demodex parasites should be considered in alcohol-dependent patients with skin lesions, especially on the face, and should to be treated if needed. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 259-263
This study investigated the prevalence and antibiotics susceptibility of Enterococcus spp. isolated from patients and some selected hospital environment in Abuja, Nigeria. The samples included clinical and environmental. The clinical samples included stool, urine and wound swabs while the environmental samples ...
Background: Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus are among the Palestinian trees that are traditionally used in folkloric medicine in treating many diseases; leaves of which are thought to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant effects. The goal of this study is to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effect of ...
Versteegh JFM; During M; Havelaar AH; Koot W
In dit rapport worden uitvoering en resultaten van een orienterend onderzoek naar het voorkomen van Aeromonas spp. in het Nederlandse drinkwater in 1985 besproken. Het bleek dat in 71% van de onderzochte monsters (rein water "af pompstation" en water uit het distributienet) in 100 ml
... sound insulation in walls, ceilings and floors, roofs, sound barriers and thermal insulation. Further research is required to investigate the use of different wood species and different mineral binders. Keywords: podocarpus spp, wood-wool, wood-cement composites. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.
Out of the 93 cultured samples only 48 (51.6%) yielded colonies on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt agar (TCBS) with culture characteristics of Vibrio spp. More than half (n=27) of processed seafood samples (n=46) yielded colonies on TCBS, while only 44.6% of samples of meat and meat products showed colonies on TCBS.
Raveendran, O.; Kumaran, S.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.
Thiobacilli spp. occurring in surface and bottom water and sediment from seven stations in the Chaliyar Estuary, for a period of one year, were isolated and cultured. A total of 231 sample of water and sediments were analysed of which 77 gave...
Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis was used to evaluate the genetic variation of Piper spp. from Hainan, China. 247 polymorphic bands out of a total of 248 (99.60%) were generated from 74 individual plants of Piper spp. The overall level of genetic diversity among Piper spp. in Hainan was high, with the mean ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. 866.3720... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3720 Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. exoenzyme reagents are devices used...
Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, which is also known as mastitis, occupies a prominent place among the diseases that affect dairy cattle, having a great economic importance in the dairy sector. Mastitis may have different origins, however, infectious mastitis is the most frequent and represents a risk to public health due to the propagation of microorganisms through milk. Staphylococcus spp. are considered the microorganisms that cause the greatest losses in milk production, being that Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen of major importance because they present high resistence to antimicrobials. Empirical treatment, without prior identification of the pathogens and their resistance profile, may contribute to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and risk the efficiency of the antimicrobial. In that scenery, the study aimed to evaluate the resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. against some antimicrobials used in the treatment of cows with clinical mastitis. The study was conducted on a property in the state of São Paulo from January 2011 to June 2012. We evaluated 29 lactating cows that present clinical mastitis in, at least, one mammary quarter. The diagnosis of clinical mastitis was performed by evaluating the clinical signs and also by Tamis test. Samples of milk from mammary quarters were collected aseptically in sterile tubes for microbiological evaluation. Microorganisms were isolated on sheep blood agar 5% and Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol. The sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. to the antibiotics ampicillin, cephalexin, ceftiofur, cefaclor, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, penicillin G and oxacillin, was tested by disk diffusion test on Mueller-Hinton agar. From a total of 106 samples of milk analyzed, 64 (60.38% presented microbiological growth, being observed isolation of Streptococcus spp. 29 (34.52%, Staphylococcus spp. 28 (33.33%, Corynebacterium spp. 17 (20.24%, filamentous fungi 4 (4.76%, yeast 4 (4
Castillo-Ayala, A; Salas-Ubiarco, M G; Márquez-Padilla, M L; Osorio-Hernández, M D
The presence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella was studied in 70 samples of fresh retail chicken pieces and in 40 samples of roast chicken. Total plate count was performed in every sample as well. Most of the samples of fresh chicken yielded total plate counts > 10(8)/piece (thigh), while in roast chicken these counts ranged from 10(3) to 10(5)/piece (leg and thigh). Campylobacter was isolated from 33% of fresh chicken and from no sample of roast chicken. Salmonella was isolated from 69% of fresh chicken and 2.5% of roast chicken. There was no relationship between total plate counts in fresh chicken and isolation of either Campylobacter or Salmonella. Sixty percent of the Salmonella isolates belonged to serotype S. anatum, and about 50% of the isolates of Campylobacter were identified as being C. coli. The only Salmonella-positive sample of roast chicken yielded three serotypes: S. give, S. muenster, and S. manhattan. Presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in chicken is of concern, due to the risk of spreading from the raw food to other cooked foods. The isolation of pathogens from roast chicken indicates mishandling during processing and/or storage of the product.
Ashraf M. Abd-El-Malek
Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the presence of Aeromonas spp. in raw and ready-to-eat (RTE fish commonly consumed in Assiut city, Egypt, and to determine virulence factors due to they play a key role in their pathogenicity. Materials and Methods: A total of 125 samples of raw and RTE fish samples were taken from different fish markets and fish restaurants in Assiut Governorate and screened for the presence of Aeromonas spp. by enrichment on tryptic soy broth then incubated at 30°C for 24 h. Plating unto the sterile Petri dishes containing Aeromonas agar base to which Aeromonas selective supplement was added. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Presumptive Aeromonas colonies were biochemically confirmed and analyzed for pathogenicity by hemolysin production, protease, and lipase detection. Results: The results indicated that raw fish were contaminated with Aeromonas spp. (40% in wild and 36% in cultured Nile tilapia. Regarding RTE, Aeromonas spp. could be isolated with the percentage of 16%, 28% and 20% in fried Bolti, grilled Bolti and fried Bayad, respectively. Out of 35 isolates obtained, 22 were categorized as Aeromonas hydrophila, 12 were classified as Aeromonas sobria and Aeromonas caviae were found in only one isolate. The virulence factors of Aeromonas spp. were detected and the results showed that all isolates produced of hemolysin (91.4%, protease (77.1%, and lipase enzyme (17.1%. Conclusion: This study indicates that the presence of A. hydrophila with virulence potential in fresh and RTE fish may be a major threat to public health.
Reinitz, David M.; Yoshino, T.P.; Cole, Rebecca A.
Increased reporting of amphibian malformations in North America has been noted with concern in light of reports that amphibian numbers and species are declining worldwide. Ribeiroia ondatrae has been shown to cause a variety of types of malformations in amphibians. However, little is known about the prevalence of R. ondatrae in North America. To aid in conducting field studies of Ribeiroia spp., we have developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic. Herein, we describe the development of an accurate, rapid, simple, and cost-effective diagnostic for detection of Ribeiroia spp. infection in snails (Planorbella trivolvis). Candidate oligonucleotide primers for PCR were designed via DNA sequence analyses of multiple ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-2 regions from Ribeiroia spp. and Echinostoma spp. Comparison of consensus sequences determined from both genera identified areas of sequence potentially unique to Ribeiroia spp. The PCR reliably produced a diagnostic 290-base pair (bp) product in the presence of a wide concentration range of snail or frog DNA. Sensitivity was examined with DNA extracted from single R. ondatrae cercaria. The single-tube PCR could routinely detect less than 1 cercariae equivalent, because DNA isolated from a single cercaria could be diluted at least 1:50 and still yield a positive result via gel electrophoresis. An even more sensitive nested PCR also was developed that routinely detected 100 fg of the 290-bp fragment. The assay did not detect furcocercous cercariae of certain Schistosomatidae, Echinostoma sp., or Sphaeridiotrema globulus nor adults of Clinostomum sp. or Cyathocotyle bushiensis. Field testing of 137 P. trivolvis identified 3 positives with no overt environmental cross-reactivity, and results concurred with microscopic examinations in all cases. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2007.
Mikołajczyk, Anita; Radkowski, Mieczysław
Chickens at selected points in the slaughter process and after slaughter on the dressing line in poultry plants were sampled and analyzed for Salmonella. These chickens came from the northeast part of Poland. The examinations were carried out in quarters I, II, III, and IV of 1999. All the birds were determined to be healthy by a veterinary inspection. Swab samples were taken from the cloaca after stunning and from the skin surface and body cavity of the whole bird after evisceration, after rinsing at the final rinse station but before chilling in the spin-chiller, and after cooling in the continuous cooling plant at the end of the production day. In 1999, 400 whole chickens were examined. The percentage of these 400 chickens from which Salmonella spp. were isolated was relatively high (23.75%; Salmonella-positive results were observed in 95 cases). Salmonella spp. were found after stunning in 6% of the chickens (6 of 100 samples), after evisceration in 24% (24 of 100), before cooling in 52% (52 of 100), and after cooling in 13% (13 of 100). These results show that Salmonella spp. were found more often at some processing points than at others. The lowest Salmonella spp. contamination rate (6%) for slaughter birds was found after stunning, and the highest contamination rate was found before chilling (52%). The serological types of Salmonella spp. isolated from whole chickens were Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Saintpaul, Salmonella Agona, and Salmonella Infantis. The results of these investigations indicate that Salmonella Enteritidis is the dominant serological type in infections of slaughter chickens, as it is in many countries.
Luis G. Garcia-Montero; Domingo Moreno; Vicente J. Monleon; Fernando Arredondo-Ruiz
Aim of study: Tuber aestivum is the most widespread edible truffle, with increasing commercial interest. This species can produce carpophores with conifer hosts, in contrast with the inability of Pinus spp. to induce fruiting in other truffle species such as Tuber melanosporum. Therefore the objective is to...
Tereza Emmanuelle de Farias Rotondano
Full Text Available This study assessed the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in 100 tick-harboring dogs from a semiarid region of the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples and ticks were collected from the animals, and a questionnaire was submitted to dog owners to obtain general data. Blood samples were used to perform hemogram, direct blood smear and immunological and molecular hemoparasite detection. The 1,151 ticks collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus; direct smears revealed E. canis-like morulae in the monocytes of 4% (4/100 of the non-vaccinated female dogs, and 34% and 25% of the dogs tested positive for Ehrlichia canis by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, respectively. Blood smear examination revealed Babesia-suggestive merozoites in the erythrocytes of 2% (2/100 of the animals. Babesia vogeli was detected by PCR in ten animals (10% and was correlated with young age (p = 0.007 and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.01. None of the animals showed Hepatozoon spp. positivity. These results indicate that E. canis is the main tick-borne canine pathogen in the study area and provide the first report of B. vogeli infection in dogs from Paraiba State.
Rotondano, Tereza Emmanuelle de Farias; Almeida, Herta Karyanne Araújo; Krawczak, Felipe da Silva; Santana, Vanessa Lira; Vidal, Ivana Fernandes; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Ade lmeida, Alzira Maria Paiva; de Melo, Marcia Almeida
This study assessed the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in 100 tick-harboring dogs from a semiarid region of the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples and ticks were collected from the animals, and a questionnaire was submitted to dog owners to obtain general data. Blood samples were used to perform hemogram, direct blood smear and immunological and molecular hemoparasite detection. The 1,151 ticks collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus; direct smears revealed E. canis-like morulae in the monocytes of 4% (4/100) of the non-vaccinated female dogs, and 34% and 25% of the dogs tested positive for Ehrlichia canis by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Blood smear examination revealed Babesia-suggestive merozoites in the erythrocytes of 2% (2/100) of the animals. Babesia vogeli was detected by PCR in ten animals (10%) and was correlated with young age (p = 0.007) and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.01). None of the animals showed Hepatozoon spp. positivity. These results indicate that E. canis is the main tick-borne canine pathogen in the study area and provide the first report of B. vogeli infection in dogs from Paraiba State.
Herrin, Brian H; Peregrine, Andrew S; Goring, Jonas; Beall, Melissa J; Little, Susan E
Canine test results generated by veterinarians throughout Canada from 2013-2014 were evaluated to assess the geographical distribution of canine infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia spp., and Anaplasma spp. The percent positive test results of 115,636 SNAP® 4Dx® Plus tests from dogs tested were collated by province and municipality to determine the distribution of these vector-borne infections in Canada. A total of 2,844/115,636 (2.5%) dogs tested positive for antibody to B. burgdorferi. In contrast, positive test results for D. immitis antigen and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. were low, with less than 0.5% of dogs testing positive for any one of these three agents nationwide. Provincial seroprevalence for antibodies to B. burgdorferi ranged from 0.5% (Saskatchewan)-15.7% (Nova Scotia); the areas of highest percent positive test results were in proximity to regions in the USA considered endemic for Lyme borreliosis, including Nova Scotia (15.7%) and Eastern Ontario (5.1%). These high endemic foci, which had significantly higher percent positive test results than the rest of the nation (P Canada. Using dogs as sentinels for these pathogens can aid in recognition of the public and veterinary health threat that each pose.
Tortorano, A M; Richardson, M; Roilides, E; van Diepeningen, A; Caira, M; Munoz, P; Johnson, E; Meletiadis, J; Pana, Z-D; Lackner, M; Verweij, P; Freiberger, T; Cornely, O A; Arikan-Akdagli, S; Dannaoui, E; Groll, A H; Lagrou, K; Chakrabarti, A; Lanternier, F; Pagano, L; Skiada, A; Akova, M; Arendrup, M C; Boekhout, T; Chowdhary, A; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Guinea, J; Guarro, J; de Hoog, S; Hope, W; Kathuria, S; Lortholary, O; Meis, J F; Ullmann, A J; Petrikkos, G; Lass-Flörl, C
Mycoses summarized in the hyalohyphomycosis group are heterogeneous, defined by the presence of hyaline (non-dematiaceous) hyphae. The number of organisms implicated in hyalohyphomycosis is increasing and the most clinically important species belong to the genera Fusarium, Scedosporium, Acremonium, Scopulariopsis, Purpureocillium and Paecilomyces. Severely immunocompromised patients are particularly vulnerable to infection, and clinical manifestations range from colonization to chronic localized lesions to acute invasive and/or disseminated diseases. Diagnosis usually requires isolation and identification of the infecting pathogen. A poor prognosis is associated with fusariosis and early therapy of localized disease is important to prevent progression to a more aggressive or disseminated infection. Therapy should include voriconazole and surgical debridement where possible or posaconazole as salvage treatment. Voriconazole represents the first-line treatment of infections due to members of the genus Scedosporium. For Acremonium spp., Scopulariopsis spp., Purpureocillium spp. and Paecilomyces spp. the optimal antifungal treatment has not been established. Management usually consists of surgery and antifungal treatment, depending on the clinical presentation. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
Tryness Anastazia Mhone
Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to detect the presence of Salmonella spp., Candida albicans, Aspergillus spp., and antimicrobial residues in raw milk (n=120 and processed cow milk (n=20 from smallholder dairy farms from three sites in Zimbabwe. Culture and isolation of Salmonella spp., C. albicans, and Aspergillus spp. were performed using selective media, while antimicrobial residues were detected by a dye reduction test. No Salmonella, but C. albicans (17.5%; 21/120, Aspergillus spp. (0.8%; 1/120, and antimicrobial residues (2.5%; 3/120 were detected from raw milk. C. albicans was isolated from all three sites, while Aspergillus spp. and antimicrobial residues were detected from sites 1 and 3, respectively. From processed milk, only C. albicans (5% was isolated while Aspergillus spp. and antimicrobial residues were not detected. These results suggested low prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Aspergillus spp. and a relatively high prevalence of C. albicans in raw milk from the smallholder farms. The potential public health risks of C. albicans and the detected antimicrobial residues need to be considered. Thus, educating farmers on improving milking hygiene and storage of milk and establishing programmes for monitoring antimicrobial residues may help to improve the safety of milk from smallholder farms.
Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Rapiejko, Piotr
The concentration of airborne spores of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. has been investigated at three monitoring stations situated along the west-north and central-east transect in Poland (Szczecin, Olsztyn, Warszawa,) i.e. from a height of 100 m to 149 m above sea level. The aerobiological monitoring of fungal spores was performed by means of three Lanzoni volumetric spore traps. Cladosporium spp. spores were dominant at all the stations. The highest Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. numbers of spores were observed at all the cities in July and August. Statistically significant correlations have been found between the Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. concentration in the air and the mean air temperature, amount of precipitation, air pressure and relative air humidity. The spore count of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. is determined by the diversity of local flora and weather conditions, especially by the air temperature. The identification of factors, which influence and shape spore concentrations, may significantly improve the current methods of allergy prevention.
Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Horne, van P.L.M.
Campylobacter spp. is one of the leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in humans worldwide and human Campylobacter spp. infections can result in severe sequelae. Because broilers are an important reservoir for human Campylobacter spp. infections, it is relevant to control Campylobacter spp.
Parola, Philippe; Cornet, Jean-Paul; Sanogo, Yibayiri Osée; Miller, R Scott; Thien, Huynh Van; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Raoult, Didier; Telford III, Sam R; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda
A total of 650 ticks, including 13 species from five genera, were collected from animals, from people, or by flagging of the vegetation at sites on the Thai-Myanmar border and in Vietnam. They were tested by PCR to detect DNA of bacteria of the order RICKETTSIALES: Three Anaplasma spp. were detected in ticks collected in Thailand, including (i) Anaplasma sp. strain AnDa465, which was considered a genotype of Anaplasma platys (formerly Ehrlichia platys) and which was obtained from Dermacentor auratus ticks collected from dogs; (ii) Anaplasma sp. strain AnAj360, which was obtained from Amblyomma javanense ticks collected on a pangolin; and (iii) Anaplasma sp. strain AnHl446, which was closely related to Anaplasma bovis and which was detected in Haemaphysalis lagrangei ticks collected from a bear. Three Ehrlichia spp. were identified, including (i) Ehrlichia sp. strain EBm52, which was obtained from Boophilus microplus ticks collected from cattle from Thailand; (ii) Ehrlichia sp. strain EHh324, which was closely related to Ehrlichia chaffeensis and which was detected in Haemaphysalis hystricis ticks collected from wild pigs in Vietnam; and (iii) Ehrlichia sp. strain EHh317, which was closely related to Ehrlichia sp. strain EBm52 and which was also detected in H. hystricis ticks collected from wild pigs in Vietnam. Two Rickettsia spp. were detected in Thailand, including (i) Rickettsia sp. strain RDla420, which was detected in Dermacentor auratus ticks collected from a bear, and (ii) Rickettsia sp. strain RDla440, which was identified from two pools of Dermacentor larvae collected from a wild pig nest. Finally, two bacteria named Eubacterium sp. strain Hw124 and Eubacterium sp. strain Hw191 were identified in Haemaphysalis wellingtoni ticks collected from chicken in Thailand; these strains could belong to a new group of bacteria.
Parola, Philippe; Cornet, Jean-Paul; Sanogo, Yibayiri Osée; Miller, R. Scott; Thien, Huynh Van; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Raoult, Didier; Telford III, Sam R.; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda
A total of 650 ticks, including 13 species from five genera, were collected from animals, from people, or by flagging of the vegetation at sites on the Thai-Myanmar border and in Vietnam. They were tested by PCR to detect DNA of bacteria of the order Rickettsiales. Three Anaplasma spp. were detected in ticks collected in Thailand, including (i) Anaplasma sp. strain AnDa465, which was considered a genotype of Anaplasma platys (formerly Ehrlichia platys) and which was obtained from Dermacentor ...
Saad B. Almasaudi
Full Text Available The genus Acinetobacter is a major cause of nosocomial infections; it is increasingly being associated with various epidemics and has become a widespread concern in a variety of hospitals worldwide. Multi-antibiotic resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, is now recognized to be of great clinical significance. Numerous reports relay to the spread of A. baumannii in the hospital settings which leads to enhanced nosocomial outbreaks associated with high death rates. However, many other Acinetobacter spp. also can cause nosocomial infections. This review focused on the role of Acinetobacter spp. as nosocomial pathogens in addition to their persistence, antimicrobial resistance patterns and epidemiology. Keywords: Acinetobacter, Nosocomial infections, Multi-drug resistance, Epidemiology, Characteristics
Al-Sabi, Mohammad N S; Kapel, Christian M O
The genus Taenia includes several species of veterinary and public health importance, but diagnosis of the etiological agent in definitive and intermediate hosts often relies on labor intensive and few specific morphometric criteria, especially in immature worms and underdeveloped metacestodes. In the present study, a multiplex PCR, based on five primers targeting the 18S rDNA and ITS2 sequences, produced a species-specific banding patterns for a range of Taenia spp. Species typing by the multiplex PCR was compared to morphological identification and sequencing of cox1 and/or 12S rDNA genes. As compared to sequencing, the multiplex PCR identified 31 of 32 Taenia metacestodes from rodents, whereas only 14 cysts were specifically identified by morphology. Likewise, the multiplex PCR identified 108 of 130 adult worms, while only 57 were identified to species by morphology. The tested multiplex PCR system may potentially be used for studies of Taenia spp. transmitted between rodents and carnivores.
Fortes-Gabriel, Elsa; Carreira, Teresa; Vieira, Maria Luísa
Rodents play an important role in the transmission of pathogenic Leptospira spp. However, in Angola, neither the natural reservoirs of these spirochetes nor leptospirosis diagnosis has been considered. Regarding this gap, we captured rodents in Luanda and Huambo provinces to identify circulating Leptospira spp. Rodent kidney tissue was cultured and DNA amplified and sequenced. Culture isolates were evaluated for pathogenic status and typing with rabbit antisera; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were also performed. A total of 37 rodents were captured: Rattus rattus (15, 40.5%), Rattus norvegicus (9, 24.3%), and Mus musculus (13, 35.2%). Leptospiral DNA was amplified in eight (21.6%) kidney samples. From the cultures, we obtained four (10.8%) Leptospira isolates belonging to the Icterohaemorrhagiae and Ballum serogroups of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii genospecies, respectively. This study provides information about circulating leptospires spread by rats and mice in Angola. PMID:26928840
Bradford, L Latéy; Chibucos, Marcus C; Ma, Bing; Bruno, Vincent; Ravel, Jacques
Candida albicans is the predominant cause of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Little is known regarding the genetic diversity of Candida spp. in the vagina or the microvariations in strains over time that may contribute to the development of VVC. This study reports the draft genome sequences of four C. albicans and one C. glabrata strains isolated from women with VVC. An SNP-based whole-genome phylogeny indicates that these isolates are closely related; however, phylogenetic distances between them suggest that there may be genetic adaptations driven by unique host environments. These sequences will facilitate further comparative analyses and ultimately improve our understanding of genetic variation in isolates of Candida spp. that are associated with VVC. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Nemcovic, Marek; Jakubíková, Lucia; Víden, Ivan; Farkas, Vladimír
Light and starvation are two principal environmental stimuli inducing conidiation in the soil micromycete Trichoderma spp. We observed that volatiles produced by conidiating colonies of Trichoderma spp. elicited conidiation in colonies that had not been induced previously by exposure to light. The inducing effect of volatiles was both intra- and interspecific. Chemical profiles of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the nonconidiated colonies grown in the dark and by the conidiating colonies were compared using solid-phase microextraction of headspace samples followed by tandem GC-MS. The conidiation was accompanied by increased production of eight-carbon compounds 1-octen-3-ol and its analogs 3-octanol and 3-octanone. When vapors of these compounds were applied individually to dark-grown colonies, they elicited their conidiation already at submicromolar concentrations. It is concluded that the eight-carbon VOCs act as signaling molecules regulating development and mediating intercolony communication in Trichoderma.
Fishwick, P. A.
The design and implementation of a data communications protocol for the Intel Data Base Processor (DBP) is defined. The protocol is termed SPP (Service Port Protocol) since it enables data transfer between the host computer and the DBP service port. The protocol implementation is extensible in that it is explicitly layered and the protocol functionality is hierarchically organized. Extensive trace and performance capabilities have been supplied with the protocol software to permit optional efficient monitoring of the data transfer between the host and the Intel data base processor. Machine independence was considered to be an important attribute during the design and implementation of SPP. The protocol source is fully commented and is included in Appendix A of this report.
The genus Raoultella belongs to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. Raoultella spp. are Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile rods. This genus can be distinguished from the genus Klebsiella, in that genus use histamine as the only source of carbon in the medium. Also, Raoultella grow at 4 °C and do not produce gas from lactose at 44.5 °C. Raoultella sp. is known to inhabit natural environments (water, soil, plants). The reservoir of Raoultella is the gastrointestinal tract and upper respiratory tract. Raoultella spp. are opportunistic bacteria, which usually cause infections of the biliary tract, pneumonia and bacteraemia in oncologic and with lower immunity patients. Raoultella planticola and Raoultella ornithinolytica are the most frequently encountered human pathogens among the genus Raoultella. In this review, the current knowledge on Raoultella infections is summarized.
Fortes-Gabriel, Elsa; Carreira, Teresa; Vieira, Maria Luísa
Rodents play an important role in the transmission of pathogenic Leptospira spp. However, in Angola, neither the natural reservoirs of these spirochetes nor leptospirosis diagnosis has been considered. Regarding this gap, we captured rodents in Luanda and Huambo provinces to identify circulating Leptospira spp. Rodent kidney tissue was cultured and DNA amplified and sequenced. Culture isolates were evaluated for pathogenic status and typing with rabbit antisera; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were also performed. A total of 37 rodents were captured: Rattus rattus (15, 40.5%), Rattus norvegicus (9, 24.3%), and Mus musculus (13, 35.2%). Leptospiral DNA was amplified in eight (21.6%) kidney samples. From the cultures, we obtained four (10.8%) Leptospira isolates belonging to the Icterohaemorrhagiae and Ballum serogroups of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii genospecies, respectively. This study provides information about circulating leptospires spread by rats and mice in Angola. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Alexandre Le Roux
Full Text Available A 6-year-old Boxer was examined because of progressive neurologic signs, with severe hindlimb ataxia and head tilt on presentation. There was no history of diarrhea or vomiting. MRI of the brain revealed multifocal ill-defined T1-enhancing lesions affecting the cerebrum, brainstem, and cervical meninges, without associated mass effect. Meningoencephalitis was considered the most likely diagnosis. Multiple algae were observed on the cytology of the CSF and were most consistent with Prototheca spp. Antiprotozoal treatment was denied by the owners, and 5 weeks after diagnosis, the dog was euthanized due to progression of the neurologic deficits, and a necropsy was performed. Histological changes in the brain were compatible with severe multifocal protothecal meningoencephalitis. The specific Prototheca species was not identified. The gastrointestinal tract was unremarkable on histology. According to this report, Prototheca spp. should be included in the differentials for neurological deficits even in the absence of gastrointestinal signs.
Luis G. Garcia-Montero
Full Text Available Aim of study: Tuber aestivum is the most widespread edible truffle, with increasing commercial interest. This species can produce carpophores with conifer hosts, in contrast with the inability of Pinus spp. to induce fruiting in other truffle species such as Tuber melanosporum. Therefore the objective is to compare the characteristics and carpophore production of T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp.Area of study: We studied the natural habitats of T. aestivum in the Alto Tajo Nature Reserve in central Spain.Material and methods: During 5 years, we monitored the production of carpophores and brûlé size of 145 T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris and Quercus ilex subsp. ballota and Q. faginea hosts. Statistical treatment was performed using the Statistica Program v. 6.Main Results: The size of brûlés associated with Pinus was significantly smaller than that of brûlés associated with Quercus. However, carpophore production per brûlé, and especially for brûlés of similar size, was greater when the host plant was a pine. After accounting for brûlé size, the production of brûlés associated with Pinus spp. was 2.23 (95% CI, between 1.35 and 3.69 and 1.61 (95% CI, between 1.02 and 2.54 times greater than the production of brûlés associated with Quercus faginea and Q. ilex subsp. ballota, respectively.Research highlights: The considerable ability of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris to form effective brûlés and to produce carpophores of Tuber aestivum in natural conditions was clearly demonstrated, and suggest that those species can be of use in the culture of T. aestivum.Key words: Summer truffle; Tuber aestivum; truffle culture; truffle ecology; Pinus spp.; Quercus spp.
von Eiff, C; Herrmann, M; Peters, G
The in vitro susceptibilities of 63 isolates of Stomatococcus mucilaginosus and of 188 isolates of Micrococcus spp. to 18 antimicrobial agents were determined by the agar dilution method. Many beta-lactams, imipenem, rifampin, and the glycopeptides were shown to be active in vitro against Stomatococcus and Micrococcus isolates, whereas the activities of antibiotics such as some aminoglycosides, erythromycin, and fosfomycin against an important number of these microorganisms are limited.
von Eiff, C; Herrmann, M; Peters, G
The in vitro susceptibilities of 63 isolates of Stomatococcus mucilaginosus and of 188 isolates of Micrococcus spp. to 18 antimicrobial agents were determined by the agar dilution method. Many beta-lactams, imipenem, rifampin, and the glycopeptides were shown to be active in vitro against Stomatococcus and Micrococcus isolates, whereas the activities of antibiotics such as some aminoglycosides, erythromycin, and fosfomycin against an important number of these microorganisms are limited. PMID:7695321
Luiza Helena Urso Pitassi
Full Text Available Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%. Sixteen donors (3.2% were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions.
d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves [UNIFESP; Antunes, Ana Lúcia Sousa; Martino, Marinês Dalla Valle; Pignatari, Antonio Carlos Campos [UNIFESP
Staphylococcus coagulase negativos tem surgido como importantes agentes em infecções de pacientes hospitalizados. Neste estudo, relatamos o caso de bacteremia associada a cateter venoso central devido a Staphylococcus cohnii spp urealyticus isolado em hemocultura de um paciente do sexo masculino, 53 anos, internado em hospital geral da cidade de São Paulo. Discutimos nesse relato a dificuldade em identificar rotineiramente esse microrganismo no Laboratório de Microbiologia Clínica. Staphyloco...
Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; de Paiva Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Barjas-Castro, Maria Lourdes; Gilioli, Rovilson; Colombo, Silvia; Sowy, Stanley; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Nicholson, William L; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira
Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%). Sixteen donors (3.2%) were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions.
Thamires Martins; Adriana Frizzarin; Lívia Castelani; Heloisa Solda de Azevedo; Juliana Rodrigues Pozzi Arcaro; Cláudia Rodrigues Pozzi
Inflammation of the mammary gland, which is also known as mastitis, occupies a prominent place among the diseases that affect dairy cattle, having a great economic importance in the dairy sector. Mastitis may have different origins, however, infectious mastitis is the most frequent and represents a risk to public health due to the propagation of microorganisms through milk. Staphylococcus spp. are considered the microorganisms that cause the greatest losses in milk production, being that Stap...
Forero-Reyes, Consuelo M; Alvarado-Fernández, Angela M; Ceballos-Rojas, Ana M; González-Carmona, Lady C; Linares-Linares, Melva Y; Castañeda-Salazar, Rubiela; Pulido-Villamarín, Adriana; Góngora-Medina, Manuel E; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús A; Rodríguez-Bocanegra, María X
The genus Fusarium is widely recognized for its phytopathogenic capacity. However, it has been reported as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Thus, it can be considered a microorganism of interest in pathogenicity studies on different hosts. Therefore, this work evaluated the pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. isolates from different origins in plants and animals (murine hosts). Twelve isolates of Fusarium spp. from plants, animal superficial mycoses, and human superficial and systemic mycoses were inoculated in tomato, passion fruit and carnation plants, and in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed BALB/c mice. Pathogenicity tests in plants did not show all the symptoms associated with vascular wilt in the three plant models; however, colonization and necrosis of the vascular bundles, regardless of the species and origin of the isolates, showed the infective potential of Fusarium spp. in different plant species. Moreover, the pathogenicity tests in the murine model revealed behavioral changes. It was noteworthy that only five isolates (different origin and species) caused mortality. Additionally, it was observed that all isolates infected and colonized different organs, regardless of the species and origin of the isolates or host immune status. In contrast, the superficial inoculation test showed no evidence of epidermal injury or colonization. The observed results in plant and murine models suggest the pathogenic potential of Fusarium spp. isolates in different types of hosts. However, further studies on pathogenicity are needed to confirm the multihost capacity of this genus. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Abdelazez, Amro; Muhammad, Zafarullah; Zhang, Qiu-Xue; Zhu, Zong-Tao; Abdelmotaal, Heba; Sami, Rokayya; Meng, Xiang-Chen
Frozen dairy products have characteristics of both yogurt and ice cream and could be the persuasive carriers of probiotics. Functions of the frozen yogurt containing viable bifidobacterial cells are recognized and favored by the people of all ages. We developed a kind of yogurt supplemented by Bifidobacterium species. Firstly, five strains of Bifidobacterium spp. (Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11547, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 11549, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551, Bifidobacterium adoles...
Hsu, B.-M.; Ma, P.-H.; Su, I.-Z.; Chen, N.-S.
Legionella genera are parasites of FLA, and intracellular bacterial replication within the FLA plays a major role in the transmission of disease. At least 13 FLA species—including Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria spp., and Hartmannella spp.—support intracellular bacterial replication. In the study, Legionellae were detected with microbial culture or by direct DNA extraction and analysis from concentrated water samples or cultured free-living amoebae, combined with molecular methods that allow the taxonomic identification of these pathogens. The water samples were taken from a mud spring recreation area located in a mud-rock-formation area in southern Taiwan. Legionella were detected in 15 of the 34 samples (44.1%). Four of the 34 samples analyzed by Legionella culture were positive for Legionella, five of 34 were positive for Legionella when analyzed by direct DNA extraction and analysis, and 11 of 34 were positive for amoebae-resistant Legionella when analyzed by FLA culture. Ten samples were shown to be positive for Legionella by one analysis method and five samples were shown to be positive by two analysis methods. However, Legionella was detected in no sample by all three analysis methods. This suggests that the three analysis methods should be used together to detect Legionella in aquatic environments. In this study, L. pneumophila serotype 6 coexisted with A. polyphaga, and two uncultured Legionella spp. coexisted with either H. vermiformis or N. australiensis. Of the unnamed Legionella genotypes detected in six FLA culture samples, three were closely related to L. waltersii and the other three were closely related to L. pneumophila serotype 6. Legionella pneumophila serotype 6, L. drancourtii, and L. waltersii are noted endosymbionts of FLA and are categorized as pathogenic bacteria. This is significant for human health because these Legionella exist within FLA and thus come into contact with typically immunocompromised people.
Vasilica Savu; Ion Rădoi; Maria Magdici; Silvia Patruica; Nicoleta Ion; Agripina Sapcaliu
Nosema, a parasitic disease that affects adult honey bees, has a directly correlation with the losses of bee colonies, until to depopulation. The target of our study was to determine the antinosema action of an apifitoterapeutic formula that was obtained in an earlier phase of our researches. In the present study, we have had two experiences (F and N) formed by clinically healthy bees. The experimental bees have received, in vitro, naturally infested honey (7 spores by Nosema spp / field). Th...
Dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.), also known as pitaya or pitahaya, is increasingly gaining interest in many countries, including Thailand which is a country with a climate ideal for breeding different varieties of tropical and subtropical fruits in general, and dragon fruit more specifically. The benefits of dragon fruit for human health can be explained by its essential nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, dietary fibres and antioxidants. Dragon fruit is also an essent...
Best, M; Kennedy, M E; Coates, F
The efficacy of 14 disinfectants against Listeria innocua and two strains of Listeria monocytogenes in the presence of organic matter was studied. Quantitative efficacy tests were used. Many of the disinfectants tested were not as effective on Listeria spp. when the test organisms were dried onto the surface of steel disks (carrier tests) as they were when the organisms were placed in suspension (suspension test). The presence of whole serum and milk (2% fat) further reduced the disinfectant ...
Anwar, Ayaz; Khan, Naveed Ahmed; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah
Acanthamoeba spp. are protist pathogens and causative agents of serious infections including keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. Its ability to convert into dormant and highly resistant cysts form limits effectiveness of available therapeutic agents and presents a pivotal challenge for drug development. During the cyst stage, Acanthamoeba is protected by the presence of hardy cyst walls, comprised primarily of carbohydrates and cyst-specific proteins, hence synthesis inhibition ...
Seal, D; Stapleton, F; Dart, J
The water supply and dust samples from the home environment (bathrooms and kitchens) of 50 wearers of contact lenses (CLs) were cultured for the presence of free-living amoebae. CL cases, solutions, and water taps were cultured for bacteria, which amoebae require for growth. Acanthamoeba spp were isolated from water drawn from six bathroom cold water taps (tank supplied), five in the presence of limescale, and from one kitchen cold water tap (mains supplied). There was an association between ...
The state collected close to 15 bn Sk of SPP's last year profits. The income tax represents about 5,2 bn Sk and the dividends paid to state as owner of 51 percent of the stock of Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, a.s., Bratislava (SPP) amount up to 9,5 billion Sk. Investors Ruhrgas and Gaz de France will split 9 billion Sk. This was possible thank to a record-breaking net profit of 20.5 billion Sk made by the company due to deregulation of the distorted gas prices for consumers that lead to an average price increase by over 30 percent. A positive impact on the company's economy had also the dissolving of provisions and reserves but on the other hand the sales went down by close to 5 percent due to higher temperatures. Another factor that had a positive impact on the company revenues was the increase of gas volumes transported through the SPP network to Western Europe. Expenditures related to purchase of gas increased last year and not even the decrease USD exchange rates could eliminate the impact of increasing gas prices. The decrease of sales on the domestic market was one of the major factors that allowed the total cost to decrease on year-to-year basis by ten percent. A restructuring of SPP should bring along further savings but the company has not calculated the total effect of a restructuring yet. The strong positive impact the restructuring may have on the company should show in 2004 and later. Last year the company concentrated on savings in area of maintenance and repairs and this year it should be the procurement expenditures that should be decreased. The future economic result of the company would depend on several factors like exchange rates, sale volumes and price of natural gas. Oils prices have reached their new maximums and the gas prices, in general, follow the oil price
Shapiro, D. I.; Tylka, G. L.; Berry, E. C.; Lewis, L. C.
Previous studies indicated that dispersal of S. carpocapsae may be enhanced in soil with earthworms. The objective of this research was to determine and compare the effects of earthworms on dispersal of other Steinernema spp. Vertical dispersal of Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, and S. glaseri was tested in soil columns in the presence and absence of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris). Dispersal was evaluated by a bioassay and by direct extraction of nematodes from soil. Upward dispersal ...
Talitha Mayumi Francisco
Full Text Available Marmosets of the genus Callithrix are specialized in the consumption of tree exudates to obtain essential nutritional resource by boring holes into bark with teeth. However, marmoset preferences for particular tree species, location, type, and other suitable factors that aid in exudate acquisition need further research. In the current study, the intensity of exudate use from Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina trees by hybrid marmosets Callithrix spp. groups was studied in five forest fragments in Viçosa, in the state of Minas, Brazil. Thirty-nine A. peregrina var. peregrina trees were examined and 8,765 active and non-active holes were analyzed. The trunk of A. peregrina var. peregrina had a lower number of holes than the canopy: 11% were found on the trunk and 89% were found on the canopy. The upper canopy was the preferred area by Callithrix spp. for obtaining exudates. The intensity of tree exploitation by marmosets showed a moderate-to-weak correlation with diameter at breast height (DBH and total tree height. The overall results indicate that Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina provides food resources for hybrid marmosets (Callithrix spp. and these animals prefer to explore this resource on the apical parts of the plant, where the thickness, location, and age of the branches are the main features involved in the acquisition of exudates.
Full Text Available Malaria remains a public health problem in West Nusa Tenggara Province. Central Lombok District is one of the areas with high case of malaria. Annual Malaria Incidence (AMI was increased from 5.9 ‰ in 2006, 6.7‰ up to 8.1‰ in 2008. The objective of the study is to describe the ecological condition of Anopheles spp. through observation, measurement of environmental variables, larvae and adult collection. This research was an observational research with cross-sectional study. The population of this study is all mosquitos and breeding habitats of Anopheles spp. that exist in the research location. Ecological observations carried out on anopheles breeding habitats including acidity, salinity, shaded places and aquatic biota. Air temperature and humidity measured at the adult mosquitoes trapping sites. The result showed that pH values of water is around 9.00, salinity in the breeding habitats around 14 ppm, and water biota (i.e. moss, grass, shrimps, fishes, tadpoles and crabs surrounded by bushes with larvae density 0,1-28,8 each dipping. The air measurement at the time was between 23°-27° Celsius and 65%-84% humidity. This research concludes that ecology and environmental conditions were supporting the development of larvae and adult mosquito of Anopheles spp.
Wang, Min-Rui; Chen, Long; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Volk, Gayle M; Wang, Qiao-Chun
Cryopreservation provides valuable genes for further breeding of elite cultivars, and cryotherapy improves the production of virus-free plants in Malus spp., thus assisting the sustainable development of the apple industry. Apple (Malus spp.) is one of the most economically important temperate fruit crops. Wild Malus genetic resources and existing cultivars provide valuable genes for breeding new elite cultivars and rootstocks through traditional and biotechnological breeding programs. These valuable genes include those resistant to abiotic factors such as drought and salinity, and to biotic factors such as fungi, bacteria and aphids. Over the last three decades, great progress has been made in apple cryobiology, making Malus one of the most extensively studied plant genera with respect to cryopreservation. Explants such as pollen, seeds, in vivo dormant buds, and in vitro shoot tips have all been successfully cryopreserved, and large Malus cryobanks have been established. Cryotherapy has been used for virus eradication, to obtain virus-free apple plants. Cryopreservation provided valuable genes for further breeding of elite cultivars, and cryotherapy improved the production of virus-free plants in Malus spp., thus assisting the sustainable development of the apple industry. This review provides updated and comprehensive information on the development and progress of apple cryopreservation and cryotherapy. Future research will reveal new applications and uses for apple cryopreservation and cryotherapy.
Gonzalez-Astudillo, Viviana; Bustamante-Rengifo, Javier A; Bonilla, Álvaro; Lehmicke, Anna Joy J; Castillo, Andrés; Astudillo-Hernández, Miryam
Leptospirosis cases in Colombia are typically linked to peridomestic rodents; however, empirical data suggest that Leptospira-infected patients with no apparent exposure to these reservoirs are common. Cockroaches (Periplaneta spp.) have equal or greater interaction with humans than rodents, yet their potential role as carriers of Leptospira has not been assessed. We determined if pathogenic Leptospira is harbored by Periplaneta spp. in Cali (Colombia) and the variables influencing this relationship. Fifty-nine cockroaches were captured from seven sites and DNA was extracted from the body surface and digestive tract for a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, targeting genes secY and flaB. Logistic regression models and proportion tests showed a higher likelihood for Leptospira to be isolated from body surfaces (P > 0.001) and from individuals inside houses (six times more likely). These findings are the first to demonstrate an association between Periplaneta spp. and Leptospira, suggesting the need to investigate the potential for cockroaches to serve as reservoirs or transport hosts for Leptospira. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Adetunji, V. O.
Full Text Available Aims: This study investigated the ability of bacteriocins isolated from Bacillus spp. (Bacillus species to inhibit fourdifferent yeast isolates obtained from common food products (nono, yoghurt, ogi and cheese commonly consumed byNigerians with minimal heat treatment.Methodology and results: Forty-five Bacillus spp. was isolated and identified from common food products usingcultural, morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. These isolates were tested for antimicrobialactivity against Salmonella enteritidis (3, Micrococcus luteus (1 and Staphylococcus aureus (2. Eight bacteriocinproducing strains were identified from an over- night broth culture centrifugated at 3500 revolutions for five minutes.Fungicidal effects of these bacteriocins were tested against four yeast strains using the Agar Well Diffusion method. Thebacteriocins produced wide zones of inhibition ranging from 5.9±0.000 to 24.00±0.000 mm against the 4 yeast strainstested. There was a significant difference (at p<0.05 between the yeast organisms and the bacteriocins from theBacillus spp.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The study reveals the antifungal property of bacteriocins from Bacillusspp. and serves therefore as a base for further studies in its use in the control of diseases and extension of shelf-life ofproducts prone to fungi contamination.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the intra-uterine exposure to Sarcocystis spp. antigens, determining the number of foals with detectable concentrations of antibodies against these agents in the serum, before colostrum ingestion and collect data about exposure of horses to the parasite. Serum samples were collected from 195 thoroughbred mares and their newborns in two farms from southern Brazil. Parasite specific antibody responses to Sarcocystis antigens were detected using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT and immunoblot analysis. In 84.1% (159/189 of the pregnant mares and in 7.4% (14/189 of foals we detected antibodies anti-Sarcocystis spp. by IFAT. All samples seropositive from foals were also positive in their respective mares. Serum samples of seropositive foals by IFAT, showed no reactivity on the immunoblot, having as antigens S. neurona merozoites. In conclusion, the intra-uterine exposure to Sarcocystis spp. antigens in horses was demonstrated, with occurrence not only in mares, but also in their foals, before colostrum ingestion these occurrences were reduced.
Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. In Europe, campylobacteriosis is one of the leading food-borne bacterial diseases and the consumption of poultry meats is suspected to be one of the major causes of illness. The aim of our research was to determine the number of Campylobacter spp. in poultry carcasses and in poultry meat samples during their storage till to retail markets. The study was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 at slaughterhouse in Veneto region, followed by a test of fresh poultry meat placed on the market for sale. A total of 90 poultry carcass and 90 samples of poultry meat were examined. The quantitative examination resulted in Campylobacter spp. counts (mean: for carcasses between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 1,5 ∙103 ufc/g (4,2 ∙102 and poultry meat between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 3,7 ∙102 ufc/g (8,1 ∙101. The majority of isolates were classified as Campylobacter jejuni (58,3%, Campylobacter coli (22,9% or Arcobacter cryaerophilus (4,2%. Acknowledgments: The project was funded with grants from Fondazione Cariverona 2007.
Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Malenica-Staver, Mladenka; Lusić, Drazen
A rare sample of maple (Acer spp.) honey from Croatia was analysed. Ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) using: 1) pentane, 2) diethyl ether, 3) a mixture of pentane and diethyl ether (1:2 v/v) and 4) dichloromethane as solvents was applied. All the extracts were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The most representative extracts were 3) and 4). Syringaldehyde was the most striking compound, being dominant in the extracts 2), 3) and 4) with percentages 34.5%, 33.1% and 35.9%, respectively. In comparison to USE results of other single Croatian tree honey samples (Robinia pseudoacacia L. nectar honey, Salix spp. nectar and honeydew honeys, Quercus frainetto Ten. honeydew as well as Abies alba Mill. and Picea abies L. honeydew) and literature data the presence of syringaldehyde, previously identified in maple sap and syrup, can be pointed out as a distinct characteristic of the Acer spp. honey sample. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with GC and GC/MS identified benzaldehyde (16.5%), trans-linalool oxide (20.5%) and 2-phenylethanol (14.9%) as the major compounds that are common in different honey headspace compositions.
Full Text Available The broomrape (Orobanche spp. is an obligate holoparasitic weed that causes severe damage to many important vegetable crops. Many broomrape control strategies have been tested over the years. In this investigation, 125 Fusarium spp. isolates were recovered from diseased broomrape spikes collected from fields in agricultural areas near Hebron. The pathogenicity of isolates on broomrape was evaluated using an inoculum suspension containing mycelia and conidia. The most effective Fusarium isolates significantly increased the dead spikes of broomrape by 33.6–72.7% compared to the control; there was no obvious pathogenic effect on the tomato plants. Fusarium spp. isolates Fu 20, 25 and 119 were identified as F. solani, while Fu 30, 52, 59, 87 and 12-04 were F. oxysporum. In addition, the two previously known Fusarium strains, F. oxysporum strain EId (CNCM-I-1622 (Foxy and F. arthrosporioides strain E4a (CNCM-I-1621 (Farth were equally effective in controlling broomrape parasitizing tomato plants grown in pots, where the dead spikes of broomrape increased by 50.0 and 51.6%, respectively.
Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii is an important pathogen contaminating powdered infant formula (PIF. To describe the genotypic diversity of Cronobacter isolated in China, we identified the isolates using fusA allele sequencing, and subtyped all of the isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA. A total of 105 isolates were identified, which included C. sakazakii (58 isolates, C. malonaticus (30 isolates, C. dublinensis (11 isolates, C. turicensis (5 isolates, and C. muytjensii (1 isolate. These isolates were showed to have 85 PFGE-patterns, 71 sequence types (STs, and 55 MLVA-patterns. Comparisons among the three molecular subtyping methods revealed that the PFGE method was the most distinguishable tool in identifying clusters of Cronobacter spp. through DNA fingerprinting, and MLST method came second. However, ESTR-1, ESTR-2, ESTR-3, and ESTR-4 were not effective loci for subtyping Cronobacter spp. such that the MLVA method requires further improvement.
Azlan, Asprizatul; Yoza, Defri; Mardhiansyah, M
Trigona spp. is include into stingless bee honey. Trigona spp. has another names, such as, galo-galo (Sumatera), klanceng, lenceng (Jawa), andteuweul (Sunda). The population of Trigona spp. in many areas in Indonesia. Trigona spp. produce are honey, pollen, royal jelly, propolis and beeswax. People do not know much yet about the benefit and how to cultivation of Trigona spp. type, material and size of bee's nest. The purpose of this research is to know successfull affectiveness movement of Tr...
Mitchell, M A; Shane, S M
Captive reptiles are routinely identified as reservoirs of Salmonella spp. and reports of reptile-associated salmonellosis are increasing. Unfortunately, little is known about the epidemiology of Salmonella spp. and green iguanas. We did a limited survey of a green-iguana farm in El Salvador to identify sources of Salmonella spp. in green iguanas and their environment. A limited number of samples for microbiological culture were collected from iguanas (adult, hatchling, and embryos) and their environment (food, water, soil, shelter, insects, and wild-caught lizards). Salmonella spp. was isolated from the intestine of both adult (3/20) and hatchling iguanas (8/20). There was no evidence of Salmonella spp. in the reproductive tracts of female iguanas (0/10). Salmonella spp. was isolated from the surface of 40% (7/16) of the egg surfaces tested. Salmonella spp. was not identified from the externalized yolk-sac of the iguana embryos tested. Soil samples from a breeding pen and a nest were both positive for Salmonella spp. Eight different Salmonella spp. serotypes were identified in this survey. These results suggest that horizontal transmission of Salmonella spp. is a potential source of exposure to hatchling iguanas at this facility.
Chang, Su-Sen; Kang, Dong-Hyun
The first Alicyclobacillus spp. was isolated in 1982, and was originally thought to be strictly limited to thermophilic and acidic environments. Two years later, another Alicyclobacillus sp., A. acidoterrestris, was identified as the causative agent in spoilage of commercially pasteurized apple juice. Subsequent studies soon found that Alicyclobacillus spp. are soilborne bacteria, and do not strictly require thermophilic and acidic environments. Alicyclobacillus spp. posess several distinct characteristics; the major one is their ability to survive commercial pasteurization processes and produce off-flavors in fruit juices. The fruit juice industry has acknowledged Alicyclobacillus spp. as a major quality control target microorganism. Guaiacol and halophenols were identified as the offensive smelling agent in many Alicyclobacillus spp. related spoilage. Though the exact formation pathway of these off-flavors by Alicyclobacillus spp. are not yet identified, studies report that the presence of Alicyclobacillus spp. in the medium may be a major contributor to the formation of these off-flavors. Many identification methods and isolation media were developed in the last two decades. However, most of these methods were developed specifically for A. acidoterrestris, which was the first identified off-flavor producing Alicyclobacillus. However, recent studies indicate that other species of Alicyclobacillus may also produce guaiacol or the halophenols. In this respect, all Alicyclobacillus spp. should be monitored as potential spoilage bacteria in fruit juices. This article includes an overall review of the history of Alicyclobacillus spp., characteristics, suggested off-flavor production pathways, and commonly used identification methods for the currently identified Alicyclobacillus spp.
Marcos Antonio Dai Pra
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia do uso de cal virgem (CaO para a redução de Salmonella spp. e Clostridium spp. em cama de aviário. Foram aplicados quatro tratamentos: T1- sem adição de cal virgem (controle, T2- aplicação de cal virgem na dose de 300g m-2, T3- aplicação de cal virgem na dose de 600g m-2 e T4- aplicação de cal virgem na dose de 900g m-2. Os valores médios observados para o pH da cama após o 12° dia de aplicação de cal virgem foram 8,95 e 9,91, 10,75 e 11,11 para os tratamentos 1, 2, 3 e 4, respectivamente. O número mais provável Log10 (UFC de Salmonella spp. e Clostridium spp foi reduzido em 82 e 97% com a aplicação de cal na dosagem de 300g m-2 e 100% na dosagem de 600 e 900g m-2, ambos diferindo significativamente em relação ao controle (antes da aplicação da cal. A atividade de água da cama reduziu progressivamente (de 0,2 a 3,82% com a utilização de níveis crescentes de cal. Conclui-se que o uso da cal na cama de aviário, mesmo nas doses mais baixas, reduz o número mais provável de Salmonella e Clostridium ssp.This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of quicklime (CaO for reducing Salmonella and Clostridium spp. population in used litter from floor pens of broilers. Four treatments were tested: (T1 control (without quicklime; (T2 300g quicklime m-2; (T3 600g quicklime m-2; and (T4 900g quicklime m-2. The following average pH values were observed 12 days after adding quicklime: 8.95, 9.91, 10.75 and 11.11 for treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. An 82 and 97% reduction in the most probable number Log10 (CFU of Salmonella and Clostridium spp, respectively, was observed when 300g m-2 of quicklime was added to the used litter from floor pens of broilers. Additionally, a 100% reduction was obtained when both 600 and 900g m-2 of quicklime were added, differing significantly from control (before adding quicklime. A progressive reduction in water activity (from 0.2 to 3.82% was
Gondim, Leane S Q; Jesus, Rogério F; Ribeiro-Andrade, Müller; Silva, Jean C R; Siqueira, Daniel B; Marvulo, Maria F V; Aléssio, Felipe M; Mauffrey, Jean-François; Julião, Fred S; Savani, Elisa San Martin Mouriz; Soares, Rodrigo M; Gondim, Luís F P
Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora spp. are protozoan parasites that induce neurological diseases in horses and other animal species. Opossums (Didelphis albiventris and Didelphis virginiana) are definitive hosts of S. neurona, which is the major cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Neospora caninum causes abortion in cattle and infects a wide range of animal species, while N. hughesi is known to induce neurologic disease in equids. The aims of this study were to investigate S. neurona and N. caninum in tissues from opossums in the northeastern Brazil, and to isolate Brazilian strains of Sarcocystis spp. from wild opossums for comparison with previously isolated strains. Carcasses of 39 opossums from Bahia state were available for molecular identification of Sarcocystis spp. and N. caninum in their tissues, and for sporocyst detection by intestinal scraping. In addition, Sarcocystis-like sporocysts from nine additional opossums, obtained in São Paulo state, were tested. Sarcocystis DNA was found in 16 (41%) of the 39 opossums' carcasses; N. caninum DNA was detected in tissues from three opossums. The sporocysts from the nine additional opossums from São Paulo state were tested by bioassay and induced infection in nine budgerigars, but in none of the gamma-interferon knockout mice. In vitro isolation was successful using tissues from all nine budgerigars. The isolated strains were maintained in CV-1 and Vero cells. Three of nine isolates presented contamination in cell culture and were discarded. Analysis of six isolates based on five loci showed that these parasites were genetically different from each other and also distinct from S. neurona, S. falcatula, S. lindsayi, and S. speeri. In conclusion, opossums in the studied regions were infected with N. caninum and Sarcocystis spp. and represent a potential source of infection to other animals. This is the first report of N. caninum infection in tissues from black-eared opossum (D. aurita or D
Willian Oliveira Fahl
Full Text Available In Brazil, bats have been assigned an increasing importance in public health as they are important rabies reservoirs. Phylogenetic studies have shown that rabies virus (RABV strains from frugivorous bats Artibeus spp. are closely associated to those from the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, but little is known about the molecular diversity of RABV in Artibeus spp. The N and G genes of RABV isolated from Artibeus spp. and cattle infected by D. rotundus were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The N gene nucleotides tree showed three clusters: one for D. rotundus and two for Artibeus spp. Regarding putative N amino acid-trees, two clusters were formed, one for D. rotundus and another for Artibeus spp. RABV G gene phylogeny supported the distinction between D. rotundus and Artibeus spp. strains. These results show the intricate host relationship of RABV's evolutionary history, and are invaluable for the determination of RABV infection sources.
Willian Oliveira Fahl
Full Text Available In Brazil, bats have been assigned an increasing importance in public health as they are important rabies reservoirs. Phylogenetic studies have shown that rabies virus (RABV strains from frugivorous bats Artibeus spp. are closely associated to those from the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, but little is known about the molecular diversity of RABV in Artibeus spp. The N and G genes of RABV isolated from Artibeus spp. and cattle infected by D. rotundus were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The N gene nucleotides tree showed three clusters: one for D. rotundus and two for Artibeus spp. Regarding putative N amino acid-trees, two clusters were formed, one for D. rotundus and another for Artibeus spp. RABV G gene phylogeny supported the distinction between D. rotundus and Artibeus spp. strains. These results show the intricate host relationship of RABV's evolutionary history, and are invaluable for the determination of RABV infection sources.
Fahl, Willian Oliveira; Carnieli, Pedro; Castilho, Juliana Galera; Carrieri, Maria Luiza; Kotait, Ivanete; Iamamoto, Keila; Oliveira, Rafael Novaes; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo
In Brazil, bats have been assigned an increasing importance in public health as they are important rabies reservoirs. Phylogenetic studies have shown that rabies virus (RABV) strains from frugivorous bats Artibeus spp. are closely associated to those from the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, but little is known about the molecular diversity of RABV in Artibeus spp. The N and G genes of RABV isolated from Artibeus spp. and cattle infected by D. rotundus were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The N gene nucleotides tree showed three clusters: one for D. rotundus and two for Artibeus spp. Regarding putative N amino acid-trees, two clusters were formed, one for D. rotundus and another for Artibeus spp. RABV G gene phylogeny supported the distinction between D. rotundus and Artibeus spp. strains. These results show the intricate host relationship of RABV's evolutionary history, and are invaluable for the determination of RABV infection sources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Amoli, Aa Rahmani; Khoshnegah, J; Razmi, Ghr
We attempted to determine the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in Mashhad, northeast of Iran, via blood smear parasitology. The prevalence was investigated by examination of blood smear parasitology, using blood samples collected from 254 dogs (51 strays and 203 privately owned-dogs). Two stray dogs (2/51; 3.92%) and two privately-owned dogs (2/203; 0.98%) were infected with Hepatozoon spp. Therefore, as per blood smear parasitology, the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection was 1.57% (4/254). Sixteen out of 254 dogs (6.29%) were infested with ticks; all of which were Rhipicephalus sanguineus. One of the dogs infected with Hepatozoon spp. exhibited ticks at the time of examination. Concurrent infection with Ehrlichia canis and Leishmania infantum was not detected in the four Hepatozoon spp. infected dogs. This is the first epidemiological study on the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in dogs in Iran.
Ostankova, Yu V; Semenov, A V; Stoyanova, N A; Tokarevich, N K; Lyubimova, N E; Petrova, O A; Ananina, Yu V; Petrov, E M
Comparative typing of Leptospira spp. strain collection based on analysis of 16S RNA fragment. 2 pairs of primers were used for PCR, that jointly flank 1423b.p. sized fragment. Sequences of Leptospira spp. strain 16S rRNA, presented in the international database, were used for phylogenetic analysis. A high similarity, including interspecies, of the 16S fragment in Leptospira spp. strains was shown independently of the source, serovar and serogroup. Heterogeneity of the primary matrix, spontaneous mutations of hotspots and erroneous nucleotide couplings, characteristic for 16S sequence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. strains, are discussed. Molecular-genetic characteristic of certain reference Leptospira spp. strains by 16S sequence is obtained. Results of the studies give evidence on expedience of introduction into clinical practice of identification of Leptospira spp. by 16S sequence directly from the clinical material, that would allow to significantly reduce identification time, dismiss complex type-specific sera and other labor-intensive methods.