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Sample records for mellitus type ii

  1. Serum markers for type II diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, Thomas O; Qian, Wei-Jun; Jacobs, Jon M; Polpitiya, Ashoka D; Camp, II, David G; Smith, Richard D

    2014-03-18

    A method for identifying persons with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus utilizing selected biomarkers described hereafter either alone or in combination. The present invention allows for broad based, reliable, screening of large population bases and provides other advantages, including the formulation of effective strategies for characterizing, archiving, and contrasting data from multiple sample types under varying conditions.

  2. Evaluation of Oral Health in Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rathy Ravindran; M.G. Deepa; A.K. Sruthi; Cherian Kuruvila; Priya, S.; S.Sunil; Joseph Edward; G Roopesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral cav ity re flects the general health status of a person and diagnosing and treating oral manifestations of systemic disease pose a greater challenge. Even though there is strong evidence that supports the relationship between oral health and diabetes mellitus, oral health awareness is lacking among diabetic patients and health professionals. The present study was undertaken to determine the oral health status in type II diabetic patients and also...

  3. Depression among patients with type-II diabetes mellitus.

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    Khan, Mohammad Akmal; Sultan, Sayed Mohammad; Nazli, Rubina; Akhtar, Tasleem; Khan, Mudasar Ahmad; Sher, Nabila; Aslam, Hina

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency of depression among patients with type-II diabetes mellitus in Peshawar at Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, from March to September 2010. Depression was assessed by using Beck Depressive Inventory-II (BDI-II). Out of 140 patients with type-II diabetes, 85 (61%) were women and 55 (39%) were men. Mean age was 45±7.45 years. Eighty four (60%) patients presented with severe depression. Depression was higher in females than males and widows. Depression was high in diabetic patients, especially in females and widows. It is of essence that psychiatric attention may be necessary to be incorporated in diabetes care both for prevention and treatment.

  4. HYPERURICAEMIA AS A PREDICTOR OF COMPLICATION IN TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS

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    Archana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : Increased uric acid level in case of Type II Diabetes Mellitus patient is associated with increased risk of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD compared to those Type II Diabetes Mellitus who have normal uric acid level. METHOD : Total 100 patients of Type II Diabetes Mellitus (known case of Type II Diabetes Mellitus under treatment and also newly diagnosed cases. were selected. 50 patients admitted or attending OPD selected as controls who were non - diabetic , diagnosed by screenin g with Fasting Blood Sugar, Random Blood Sugar and without any symptoms of Hyperglycaemia. RESULTS : In overall diabetics with CAD, serum uric acid level is >7.0 mg /dL in 14/49 patients compared to without CAD having serum uric acid levels <7.0 mg /dl in all 5 1 patients. The results were significant with p <0.001. Mean Serum Uric Acid Levels of all cases of Type II Diabetes Mellitus was higher than controls, with value of 5.14+ 1.25 mg /dl, which was statistically significant with p<0.0001. CONCLUSION : Serum Uric Acid level in both group that is in those who were known case of Type II Diabetes Mellitus and also newly diagnosed cases of Type II Diabetes Mellitus is higher than control group. Also increased serum uric acid level is also responsible for the complicati on of Type II Diabetes Mellitus like Coronary Artery Disease.

  5. BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF SUDARSHANA KRIYA IN TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS

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    Anupama

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sudarshana kriya is a Sanskrit term meaning ―proper vision, purified action by controlling the breath. Kri means to act with awareness. It normalizes breathing by concentrating on it systematically. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 40 subjects with type II diabetes 20 males, 20 females with age group of 40-60 were chosen. They underwent sudarshana kriya training for 6 days organized in Bangalore. A written consent was taken from subjects. They participated in 6 day Sudarshana kriya training held at Bangalore by a trained teacher. This 6 day training includes Sudarshana kriya and meditation. Our Study is designed to study the glycemic control and antilipemic effect of Sudarshana kriya in TypeII Diabetes Mellitus. RESULTS: Sudarshana kriya appears to be specialized pranayamic breathing capable of inducing series of beneficial changes besides causing significant fall of sugar levels, total cholesterol, triglyceride levels (p<0.001 and a raise in HDL cholesterol (p<0.001 CONCLUSION: Sudarshan Kriya can be used along with oral hypoglycemic agents as a holistic adjunct approach for a better glycemic and lipid profile control. Regular practice of Sudarshana Kriya reduces symptoms of mental depression for treating stress and anxiety in post- traumatic stress disorder. Sudarshana Kriya leaves one more alert aware, attentive and focused

  6. Fetuin-A and type II diabetes mellitus

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    Lamyaa Ismail Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion We concluded that fetuin-A may play a role in the pathogenesis of type II DM, and high serum fetuin-A has a strong association with IR and glycemic control in type II diabetic patients. Future studies are recommended to establish the possibility of using fetuin-A as a predictor of insulin resistance in type II diabetic patients.

  7. Evaluation of Oral Health in Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients

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    Rathy Ravindran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral cav ity re flects the general health status of a person and diagnosing and treating oral manifestations of systemic disease pose a greater challenge. Even though there is strong evidence that supports the relationship between oral health and diabetes mellitus, oral health awareness is lacking among diabetic patients and health professionals. The present study was undertaken to determine the oral health status in type II diabetic patients and also to compare the oral changes in controlled diabetes and u ncontrolled diabetes. Materials and methods: Study population consists of 60 diabetic patients w hich is divided into 30 controlled and 30 uncontrolled diabetics; 60 healthy subjects. Each of these diabetic groups were again subdivided according to their duration as patients having a disease duration below 10 years 15 and patients having a disease duration above 10 years. 15 Various oral manifestations were examined and also CPI score and loss of attachment were recorded. Statistical analysis was done. Results: The most frequent oral signs and symptoms obser ved in both controlled and uncontrolled diabetic patients was perio­ dontitis followed by hyposalivation, taste dysfunction, halitosis, fissured tongue, burning mouth, angular cheilitis, ulcer and lichen planus. These oral manifestation showed an increase in distribution in diabetic patients when compared to nondia betic. Community periodo ntal index (CPI scores for assess ing periodontal status showed higher scores in diabetics than nondiabetics and also in uncontrolled diabetes than controlled diabetes. For periodontal s tatus assessment based on disease duration, patient with higher disease duration showed higher CPI scores than those with a lesser disease duration. Assess ment of loss of attachment in our study showed higher values in diabetic patients compared to healthy controls. Conclusion: From our present study, it was clear that oral manifestations in uncontrolled

  8. Creatine kinase activity in patients with diabetes mellitus type I and type II.

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    Jevrić-Causević, Adlija; Malenica, Maja; Dujić, Tanja

    2006-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus can be looked upon as an array of diseases, all of which exhibit common symptoms. While pathogenesis of IDDM (insulin dependant diabetes mellitus) is well understood, the same is not true for diabetes mellitus type II. In the latter case, relative contribution of the two factors (insulin resistance or decreased insulin secretion) varies individually, being highly increased in peripheral tissues and strictly dependant on insulin for glucose uptake. Moreover, in patients with diabetes mellitus type II, disbalance at the level of regulation of glucose metabolism as well as lipid metabolism has been noted in skeletal muscles. It is normal to assume that in this type of diabetes, these changes are reflected at the level of total activity of enzyme creatine kinase. This experimental work was performed on a group of 80 regular patients of Sarajevo General Hospital. Forty of those patients were classified as patients with diabetes type I and forty as patients with diabetes type II. Each group of patients was carefully chosen and constituted of equal number of males and females. The same was applied for adequate controls. Concentration of glucose was determined for each patient with GOD method, while activity of creatine kinase was determined with CK-NAC activated kit. Statistical analysis of the results was performed with SPSS software for Windows. Obtained results point out highly expressed differences in enzyme activity between two populations examined. Changes in enzyme activity are more expressed in patients with diabetes type II. Positive correlation between concentration of glucose and serum activity of the enzyme is seen in both categories of diabetic patients which is not the case for the patients in control group. At the same time, correlation between age and type of diabetes does exist . This is not followed at the level of enzyme activity or concentration of glucose.

  9. Diagnostic Value of Adenosine Deaminase and Its Isoforms in Type II Diabetes Mellitus

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    Bagher Larijani; Ramin Heshmat; Mina Ebrahimi-Rad; Shohreh Khatami; Shirin Valadbeigi; Reza Saghiri

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. In the present study, we have investigated the activity of adenosine deaminase (ADA) as a diagnostic marker in type 2 (or II) diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Design and Methods. The deaminase activity of ADA1 and ADA2 was determined in serum from 33 patients with type 2 (or II) diabetes mellitus and 35 healthy controls. We also determined the proportion of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Results. Our results showed significant differences between total serum ADA (tADA) and ADA2 ac...

  10. PREVALENCE OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY IN PATIENTS WITH NEWLY DIAGNOSED TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS

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    A. Bostak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of type II diabetes mellitus and carries with it the threat of blindness. Accurate information regarding the incidence of diabetic retinopathy and associated risk factors is important in the prevention of its development and of the visual impairment caused by this complication. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in newly diagnosed patients with type II diabetes mellitus. We have also evaluated the association of diabetic retinopathy with clinical and biochemical variables. In a cross-sectional study, 152 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed type II diabetes mellitus were referred from two outpatient clinics in Tehran for ophthalmologic exam to detect retinopathy. Indirect ophthalmoscopy was performed and data regarding risk factors were extracted from routine medical records. Chi square and Mann Whitney U tests were used to analyze the data. The overall prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 13.8 %( 21 cases: three cases with microaneurysm only, 10 with mild, 5 with moderate and 2 with severe non proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Only one patient had advanced proliferative retinopathy. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was positively associated with age, duration of disease, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, and systolic blood pressure. Diabetic retinopathy is common in newly diagnosed type II diabetes mellitus patients. Ophthalmologic consultation is essential at the time of diagnosis for all patients.

  11. Plants used to manage type II diabetes mellitus in selected districts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: In this ethnobotanical survey, names, of plants used to manage diabetes mellitus type II ... tive medicine plays a significant role in Uganda, since it ..... Leaves may be reduced in size, the jelly drained and left to dry under sun's heat.

  12. Interaction between Sex and Social Support in the Control of Type II Diabetes Mellitus.

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    Heitzmann, Carma A.; Kaplan, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the role of social support in the control of Type II diabetes mellitus. Participants (N=37) in a behavioral program in diabetes care completed questionnaires and provided blood samples. For women, satisfaction with supportive relationships was associated with control of diabetes. The opposite was true for men. (BH)

  13. Physical activity in type II Diabetes Mellitus, an effective therapeutic element: review of the clinical impact

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    Pedro Iván Arias-Vázquez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A review was conducted in databases (PubMed, PEDro of type studies clinical trial, cohort study, systematic reviews, meta-analysis and clinical practice guidelines based on evidence they have studied the benefits of physical activity in the prevention , treatment and decreased risk of complications and death in patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Realization regular physical activity is associated with a decreased risk of developing Diabetes Mellitus; likewise was associated with decrease in glycated hemoglobin percentage A1C values. Diabetic patients undergoing high levels of physical activity had decreased risk of complications and death from cardiovascular disease and all causes. At present the scientific evidence on the impact of physical activity in the prevention and treatment of Diabetes Mellitus is solid, so it must be emphasized promoting physical activity as a fundamental part of the therapeutic regimens for this disease.

  14. Antioxidant status in type ii diabetes mellitus patients with or without microvascular complications

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    Kostić Nada

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems are important factors affecting the metabolism of lipoproteins in diabetes mellitus. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the lipid and antioxidant parameters in type II diabetes mellitus patients, and also to determine the effect of diabetic complications on these parameters. Method. Lipid status, Oxidized LDL cholesterol, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, superoxide dismutase (SOD and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1 levels in plasma of 50 type II diabetic patients were measured with commercially available kits. Results. The results showed only statistically significant higher levels of triglycerides (3.12±3.9 mmol/l in diabetics compared with the controls. Ox-LDL cholesterol (84.7±16.9 mmol/l and SOD activities (913.4±120.3 U/gHb in type 2 diabetes mellitus were higher than those of the controls, but there was no statistical significance. On the other hand, in patients with diabetes mellitus and complications, LDL cholesterol, PAI-1, SOD and GSH-Px activities were higher but not significantly than those without complications. Triglycerides and Ox-LDL cholesterol were lower in the group of diabetic patients with complications in comparison to the group without complications. Conclusion. These results indicate that antioxidant status may be affected in type II diabetic patients and that the rise in some enzyme activities could be a compensatory mechanism to prevent tissue damage. Our results suggest that the rise in PAI-1 in type II diabetics with complications may be a good marker of vascular endothelial dysfunction.

  15. Long-term Outcome of Implant Therapy in a Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patient

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    FUKUI, TATSUMASA; SHIBATA, Shunichi; Ogawa, Masayuki; OMORI, TOSHIKAZU; Iwasaki, Hitomi; AOSHIBA, HIDEYUKI; MATSUI, KOUSUKE; TSUKAHARA, TAKASHI; FUJIWARA, SHUU; 福井, 達真; 柴田, 俊一; 小川, 雅之; 大森, 俊和; 岩崎, ひとみ; 青芝, 秀幸

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, implant treatment has been used widely for a range of defective morphologies with a high rate of success. The difficulty of initial placement in diabetic patients were well known. This article describes our experience performing implant treatment on a type II diabetes patient 13 year earlier , and our subsequent observation of his progress. Patient: was male, aged 45 years at initial consultation and his underlying disease was diabetes mellitus. The lower left second premolar...

  16. The contribution of education to the control of Diabetes Mellitus, type II

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    Antonia Kalogianni

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus Type II, (non‐insulin‐dependent consists one of the greatest problems that the individual has faced, globally. The number of patients is increasing dramatically every year and pecis exted to be double the next decades. The aetiology and pathogenesis of the disease is mainly attributed to genetic factors. aim of pThe resent study was to evaluate whether administration of an educational program can contribute to the control of the disease. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature which referred to the relationship between education and the control of diabetes mellitus, type II. Results: The majority of research studies showed that there is a very strong correlation between education and the maintenance of plasma glucose level of patients with diabetes mellitus, type II, within normal range. An effective educative program is mainly comprised of basic knowledge of these parameters that exert a beneficial effect on the management of the disease such as : healthy nutrition habits, participation in physical exercise programs, avoidance of sedentary life, self‐monitoring of glucose, correct way to perform insulin injections, etc. The overall goal of the educative intervention is to help individuals with diabetes gain the necessary knowledge and support needed, to achieve optimal health by modifying their behaviour and adopting a more positive attitude to the disease. Conclusions: The present review confirms that educational intervention has beneficial effects on the control of Type II Diabetes Mellitus. The maintenance of plasma glucose levels into normal range indicates the effectiveness of education.

  17. Adipokines: Potential Therapeutic Targets for Vascular Dysfunction in Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity

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    Mostafa Wanees Ahmed El husseny

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipokines are bioactive molecules that regulate several physiological functions such as energy balance, insulin sensitization, appetite regulation, inflammatory response, and vascular homeostasis. They include proinflammatory cytokines such as adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as adiponectin, as well as vasodilator and vasoconstrictor molecules. In obesity and type II diabetes mellitus (DM, insulin resistance causes impairment of the endocrine function of the perivascular adipose tissue, an imbalance in the secretion of vasoconstrictor and vasodilator molecules, and an increased production of reactive oxygen species. Recent studies have shown that targeting plasma levels of adipokines or the expression of their receptors can increase insulin sensitivity, improve vascular function, and reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several reviews have discussed the potential of adipokines as therapeutic targets for type II DM and obesity; however, this review is the first to focus on their therapeutic potential for vascular dysfunction in type II DM and obesity.

  18. Interrelation between compensation of carbohydrate metabolism and severity of manifestations of oxidative stress in type II diabetes mellitus.

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    Nedosugova, L V; Lankin, V Z; Balabolkin, M I; Konovalova, G G; Lisina, M O; Antonova, K V; Tikhaze, A K; Belenkov, Yu N

    2003-08-01

    Glycosylation end-products formed during diabetes mellitus promoted atherogenic oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins. We evaluated the effects of compensation of carbohydrate metabolism and therapy with antioxidant probucol on parameters of free radical oxidation in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Compensation of carbohydrate metabolism reduced manifestations of oxidative stress, which was manifested in accelerated enzymatic utilization of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxides and decreased content of free radical oxidation products in low-density lipoproteins. In patients with type II diabetes mellitus combination therapy with antioxidant probucol decreased the severity of oxidative stress and stabilized carbohydrate metabolism without increasing the dose of hypoglycemic preparations.

  19. Helicobacter Pylori in periodontal pockets of chronic periodontitis patients with and without type II diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial

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    Savita Sambashivaiah

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This randomized controlled study evaluated the association of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori with chronic periodontitis patients with and without type II Diabetes Mellitus. H. pylori is considered to be a pathogen responsible for gastritis, peptic ulcers and a risk factor for gastric cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of H. pylori with chronic periodontitis patients with and without type II diabetes mellitus before and after treatment. The prevalence of H. pylori in periodontal pockets was determined by rapid urease test in a 36 patients, which were grouped as Group 1 (Healthy subjects, Group II (chronic periodontitis patients and Group III (Chronic periodontitis patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus, 12 in each group before treatment by collecting plaque samples. After treatment, 12 plaque samples were collected and prevalence H. pylori was detected. Group II and Group III had a significantly higher rate of positive results for H. pylori compared to healthy subjects before treatment. After treatment, H. pylori were not detected in Group II and in Group III Only one of 12 chronic periodontitis patients with Type II diabetes mellitus had H. pylori in the periodontal pocket. The prevalence of H. pylori did not differ significantly between the chronic periodontitis patients with and without type II diabetes mellitus. Meticulous scaling and root planning will reduce the prevalence of H. pylori in periodontal pockets.

  20. Uso de la metformina en la diabetes mellitus tipo II Use of metformin to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Yohana Salazar ÁLvarez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Metformina es una biguanida eficaz en el control metabólico de la diabetes mellitus tipo II, no insulinodependiente cuando el control dietético falla. Dada su probada eficacia y actual accesibilidad en el mercado de medicamentos en Cuba, para ser utilizada a nivel primario de atención no solo en pacientes sintomáticos sino en la población en riesgo, se presenta este artículo cuyo propósito es actualizar a los especialistas de Medicina General Integral y Medicina Interna acerca de aspectos de interés relacionados con este medicamento, como: interacciones medicamentosas, enfermedades concomitantes, la biotransformación de la droga y los posibles efectos adversos que se pueden asociar a su uso. Se presentan consideraciones finales acerca del uso de esta droga.Metformin is an effective biguanide for the metabolic control of non-insulin dependent type 2 diabetes mellitus when the dietary control fails. Given its proven efficacy and present accessibility in the pharmaceutical market in Cuba -to be used at primary health care not only in symptomatic patients but in the population at risk-this article was presented to update the knowledge of the Family Medicine and Internal Medicine specialists about interesting aspects related to this drug, i.e, drug interactions, concomitant diseases, drug biotransformation and the possible adverse effects associated to its use. Final remarks on the use of this drug were stated.

  1. Diabetes mellitus Type II and cognitive capacity in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

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    Degen, Christina; Toro, Pablo; Schönknecht, Peter; Sattler, Christine; Schröder, Johannes

    2016-06-30

    While diabetes mellitus (DM) Type II has repeatedly been linked to Alzheimer´s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), longitudinal research is scarce and disease duration has not always been taken into account. In a birth cohort born between 1930 and 1932 we investigated the influence of DM Type II and disease duration on neuropsychological functioning (memory/learning, attention, verbal fluency, visuospatial thinking and abstract thinking) across 14 years. Subjects who developed MCI or AD performed significantly poorer on all neuropsychological tests applied. While significant main effects DM Type II did not arise, its presence led to a significant deterioration of performance in the digit symbol test and visuospatial thinking over time. Additionally, in visuospatial thinking this change was more pronounced for individuals suffering from MCI/AD. We found that, as a concomitant disease DM Type II does not affect memory functioning, which is typically compromised in MCI and early AD. Rather, it may lead to deficits in cognitive flexibility and visuospatial thinking. DM Type II can be considered a frequent comorbid condition which can aggravate the course of MCI and AD. In this respect it may serve as a model for other comorbid conditions in AD.

  2. Myocardial glucose utilisation in type II diabetes mellitus patients treated with sulphonylurea drugs

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    Yokoyama, Ikuo [International University of Health and Welfare, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sanno Hospital, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan); University of Tokyo, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Inoue, Yusuke [University of Tokyo, Department of Radiology, Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo (Japan); Moritan, Toshiyuki [Suzuka University of Medical Science, Department of Clinical Engineering, Faculty of Medical Engineering, Suzuka (Japan); Ohtomo, Kuni [University of Tokyo, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nagai, Ryozo [University of Tokyo, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    Chronic sulphonylurea treatment maintains improved glycaemic control through mechanisms other than enhancement of insulin secretion and may act on various organs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the chronic use of sulphonylurea drugs influences PET measurement of myocardial glucose utilisation (MGU) in type II diabetes mellitus. Forty-two patients with type II diabetes mellitus and 17 control subjects underwent dynamic {sup 18}F-FDG PET to measure MGU during hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamping. Twenty-one patients had been taking sulphonylurea drugs for more than 1 year (SU group), and the other 21 patients were drug naive (non-SU group). The haemoglobin A1c levels in the two patient groups were similar. Glucose disposal rate (GDR) was also determined as a marker of whole-body insulin resistance. GDR in the SU group (9.01{+-}2.53 mg min{sup -1} kg{sup -1}) was significantly higher than that in the non-SU group (4.10{+-}2.47, p<0.01) and was similar to that in the controls (9.76{+-}2.97). MGU in the SU group (7.66{+-}3.02 mg min{sup -1} 100 g{sup -1}) was significantly higher than that in the non-SU group (5.53{+-}2.05, p<0.01) and was similar to that in the controls (7.49{+-}2.74). (orig.)

  3. COMPUTATIONAL STUDIES OF SIRTUINS IN THE TREATMENT OF TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS

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    DSVGK KALADHAR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ageing in humans refers to a biological process of life engaged with physical, psychological, and social changes. Different species of animals age at radically different paces and occurrences of diseases. Drug designing approaches related to an aging factor, Type 2 Diabetes mellitus has been reported in the present study. Resveratrol and human Sirtuins (1 to 6 are docked against Type 2 Diabetes mellitus HNF-1a motif with PDB ID: 2GYP using Hex 5.1. Resveratrol and Sirtuin 6 shown good results and can use as anti-aging drugs against Type 2 Diabetes mellitus.

  4. The Intrauterine Device in Women with Diabetes Mellitus Type I and II: A Systematic Review.

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    Goldstuck, Norman D; Steyn, Petrus S

    2013-12-11

    Background. Women with diabetes mellitus type I and type II need effective contraception for personal and medical reasons. Long acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods are among the most efficient and cost-effective methods. Study Design. We searched the Popline, PubMed, and clinicaltrials.gov databases from 1961 to March 2013 for studies on the efficacy of the IUD in diabetic women and the possible changes it may produce in laboratory parameters. Studies of at least 30 subjects with DM1 or DM2 who were studied for 6 to 12 months depending on the method of analysis were eligible. Results. The search produced seven articles which gave event rate efficacy evaluable results and three which evaluated the effect of the IUD on laboratory parameters. One of the earlier efficacy studies showed an abnormally high pregnancy rate which sparked a controversy which is discussed in the Introduction section. The remaining 6 studies produced acceptable pregnancy rates. The three laboratory studies showed that the copper and levonorgestrel releasing IUD/IUS do not affect the diabetic state in any way. Conclusions. The copper bearing and levonorgestrel releasing IUDs are safe and effective in women with diabetes type I and diabetes type II although the evidence in the latter is limited.

  5. The macrophage Ox-LDL receptor, CD36 and its association with type II diabetes mellitus.

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    Gautam, Sunaina; Banerjee, Monisha

    2011-04-01

    Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common and serious metabolic disorder worldwide. It is the third leading cause of death after cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Over time, diabetes mellitus can lead to different complications like atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and many micro- and macrovascular diseases. CD36 is a class B scavenger receptor whose expression is prevalent in vascular lesions. It has been shown that high plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels become atherogenic when oxidized to modified LDL (Ox-LDL) by inducing foam cell formation via enhanced CD36 expression on macrophages. In addition to Ox-LDL, raised levels of glucose, insulin resistance, low HDL cholesterol, increased levels of free fatty acid (FFA) all result in increased expression of CD36, thereby contributing to T2DM and related atherosclerosis. Adipocytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin, leptin, resistin along with peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) are important mediators in glucose homeostasis in association with CD36 and can be used as markers for T2DM and atherosclerosis. Several of these gene variants have shown association with lipid metabolism, T2DM and related complications. An attempt has been made to review the CD36 macrophage receptor and related molecules in association with T2DM.

  6. Erythematous oral candidiasis in patients with controlled type II diabetes mellitus and complete dentures.

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    Motta-Silva, Arlindo C; Aleva, Natanael A; Chavasco, Jorge K; Armond, Mônica C; França, Julieta P; Pereira, Luciano José

    2010-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a systemic condition characterized by a deficient sugar metabolism, which affects the immune system and favors the development of yeasts. The aim of the present study was to perform biochemical, morphological, exoenzyme analyses of Candida species and the molecular identification (DNA) of C. albicans in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. The exoenzyme quantification was compared to non-diabetic patients as controls. Two hundred and seventy-four patients who make use of complete dentures were evaluated, 28 of whom had diabetes and erythematous oral candidiasis. Other thirty patients presented the same clinical feature but without diabetes. Samples were isolated for biochemical identification (auxonogram), morphological identification (production of germ tubes) and PCR molecular identification (DNA). The capability of the Candida samples in producing phospholipases and proteinases was also determined. The diabetic patients had a greater diversity of Candida species (Fischer's exact test, P = 0.04). The production of proteinases by C. albicans in patients with diabetes was greater than in the control group (unpaired "t" test P 0.05). It was concluded that patients with controlled DM exhibited systemic conditions predisposing C. albicans proteinase increased production.

  7. Effect of chromium on the insulin resistance in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.

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    Vladeva, Stefka V; Terzieva, Dora D; Arabadjiiska, Desislava T

    2005-01-01

    Chromium deficiency in diabetic patients is a debatable problem. The prevailing opinion suggests the presence of low serum concentrations in such patients and therefore an early, long-term addition of chromium to the standard therapy is recommended. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of chromium on the insulin resistance in diabetic patients with type II diabetes mellitus. We have studied a total of 34 overweight patients with type II diabetes mellitus, who were distributed in two study sub-groups--patients with very good metabolic control and patients with bad control. For sixty days the patients of both groups received 30 microg of chromium picolinate as food additive. We measured the serum concentration of chromium (using atom-absorption methods), immune-reactive insulin and the insulin resistance index at baseline and at the end of the two-month period. The serum concentrations of chromium was significantly lower in diabetic patients than in the healthy individuals used as controls (2.18 +/- 0.87 nmol/l versus 4.03 +/- 0.96 nmol/l; p < 0.001). We found a significant decrease of the immune-reactive insulin and the insulin resistance index after a two-month application of chromium 30 microg daily (1 tablet of chrome picolinate). The effects of this trace element are analysed in the light of an improved first phase of secretion of insulin or facilitated post-receptor insulin sensibility as a way of potentiating the insulin action. Chromium included early in the complex therapy of diabetes is beneficial in the reduction of the degree of insulin resistance.

  8. Blood glucose responses of diabetes mellitus type II patients to some local fruits.

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    Guevarra, M T; Panlasigui, L N

    2000-12-01

    To determine the glucose responses of diabetes mellitus type II subjects to fruits, four locally available fruits (containing 25 g of available carbohydrates per serving portion) of chico, mango, pineapple, and papaya were tested among ten type II diabetic subjects, using wheat bread as the control. Results of the in vivo test indicated that chico and mango had significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05) blood glucose areas compared to wheat bread. Chico and mango also had a much lower glycemic index (GI), 57 and 59, respectively, compared to pineapple, 73 and papaya, 86. Differences in glucose responses to fruits and their varying GI are attributed to the amount of fiber, type and amount of sugars found, presence of antinutrients, acidity and physical characteristics of the fruits when chewed. The high fiber content of chico (7.9%), its fructose content (5.3%), its grainy texture when chewed and the presence of antinutrients (saponin, sapotin and achrasaponin) may contribute to its slow digestion and absorption. The low GI and blood glucose response of mango may be because of its fructose content (3.0%), acidity content (malic, citric and tartaric) and its phytic acid content (0.03%). Furthermore, starch, which is a possible factor contributing to low GI, is present in chico (0.8%) and mango (0.3%). Pineapple and papaya, the test fruits that elicited higher blood glucose responses and GI, have much lower fiber contents, less acids and contain glucose and sucrose sugars.

  9. [Hyperinsulinemia--the common denominator in type II diabetes mellitus,obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia and atherosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Málková, J; Andĕl, M; Stolba, P; Kimlová, I

    1994-01-17

    During the last twenty years we witnessed a remarkable increase in knowledge of the mechanism as regards insulin action, the central hormone of metabolic regulations. Interest in cellular and molecular mechanisms of action was conditioned by a high prevalence of insulin resistance and the fact that insulin resistance holds a key position in the pathogenesis of many diseases, in particular atherosclerosis, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus type II, ovarian hyperandrogenism and others. The syndrome of hyperinsulinaemia/insulin resistance is the basic component of the so-called X syndrome defined in 1988 by Reaven. It is encountered in subjects with a normal glucose tolerance but a predisposition for diabetes type II. If this disposition, probably genetic by nature, is potentiated by the central type of obesity and a sedentary lifestyle it can influence the development of hypertension and dyslipidemia. The sum of these factors promotes acceleration of atherosclerosis and frequently its premature manifestations: myocardial infarction and other cardiovascular diseases which hold the first place as regards causes of death on a world wide scale. It is important to identify but also to treat this complex not only metabolic risk factors for macrovascular diseases. It is a paradox that some drugs used as antihypertensives can cause deterioration of insulin resistance, subsequently influence in an adverse manner dyslipidemia and thus increase the metabolic risk of cardiovascular diseases. In the submitted paper the authors tried to summarize hitherto expressed views on the syndrome of hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance, using as a basic the results of their own work.

  10. The relationship between auditory brainstem response, nerve conduction studies, and metabolic risk factors in type II diabetes mellitus

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    Noha M Abo-Elfetoh

    2016-01-01

    Brainstem dysfunction and ABR changes are common in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. These changes are significantly correlated to NCS parameters on one hand and serum HbA1c% and lipid profile (total cholesterol and triglycerides on the other hand.

  11. [Diabetic foot risk in patients with type II diabetes mellitus in a family medicine unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Godínez, S A; Zonana-Nacach, A; Anzaldo-Campos, M C; Muñoz-Martínez, J A

    2014-01-01

    To determine the risk of diabetic foot in patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM) seen in a Family Medicine Unit. The study included type II DM patients with a disease duration ≥ 5 years seen in a Family Medicine Unit, Tijuana, Mexico, during September-December 2011. Neuropathy was assessed with the Diabetic Neuropathy Symptom questionnaire, and pressure sensation using a 10-g Semmes-Weinstein monofilament. A patient had a high risk of diabetic foot if there was sensitivity loss, foot deformities, and non-palpable pedal pulses. We studied 205 patients with an average (± SD) age and DM duration of 59 ± 10 years and 10.7 ± 6.7 years, respectively. Ninety one patients (44%) had a high risk of developing diabetic foot, and it was associated with; an education of less than 6 years (OR 2.3; 95%CI: 1-1-4.1), DM disease duration ≥ 10 years (OR 5.1; 95%CI: 2.8-9.4), female gender (OR 2.0; 95%CI: 1.1-3.6), monthly familiar income diabetic neuropathy, since they have a high risk of diabetic foot. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. EFFECT OF YOGA IN PATIENT’S WITH TYPE - II DIABETES MELLITUS

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    Satarupa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus is one of the most common chronic non - communicable diseases in the world. Type 2 DM is a heterogeneous disorder characterized b y a genetic predisposition and interaction between insulin resistance and pancreatic beta cell dysfunction. In addition to increased glucose level metabolic disorder of plasma lipid also occur in NIDDM patients. Yoga is an ancient Indian science. Nowa days yoga has been applied in the field of therapeutics in various diseases like hypertension, diabetes, asthma. In this case study had been conducted to understand effect of yoga in type 2 diabetics. The study is conducted on outdoor patient basis at Dept. of physiology V.S.S Medical College Burla with the help of department of Medicine and yoga center sambalpur. Sixty patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM were divided into two separate groups. Group I ( n 1 = 30 patients belonged to the Yoga group were put through various Yogic asana for 40 days , together with diet plus diabetic medicines. Group II ( n 2 = 30 patients or the control group patients , were retained on diet plus normal medical therapy. The basal parameters included in the biochemical investi gations are FBG , PPBG , HbA 1C and lipid profile. Data related to biochemical tests were analyzed by using SPSS programme version of 16.0 software facilities in the computer. From the statistical analysis of the results obtained in the present study and thei r comparison with other published reports , it may be concluded that yoga helps in decreasing blood sugar level and keep the diabetes in control. So also the reduction in HbA 1C protects the patients from early development of various microvascular and macrov ascular complications of diabetes mellitus. The change in lipid profile status prevents the early development of comorbid condition like hypertension , coronary artery disease. It can be concluded that yoga asana and pranayama may be used as an adjunct to m edical therapy to

  13. HABITS OF PATIENTS AND IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATOR IN THE TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE II IN PALMAS, TOCANTINS, BRAZIL

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    Maynard Noleto SALES

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus, a non-communicable disease that can affect men and women, can be classified as type I or type II. This disease is in the 4th position in numbers of deaths in Brazil, and therefore, involves attention, both from the government, as the patients and family. The aims of this study is describe the lifestyle in relation to diet, foot care and proper medication, and the point of view of patients with diabetes mellitus type II, on the importance of the practice of physical exercise, coordinated and programmed. We performed a study using Questionnaire of Self-Care Activities with Diabetes (QAD and a second questionnaire with questions related to the importance of exercise for patients with diabetes mellitus type II. Questionnaires were applied in 20 patients with the disease (08 men and 12 women, living in the city of Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil. Result: We noticed that even with the recommendations of healthcare professionals, most patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 has not adapted verification of blood glucose, proper nutrition and foot care. Moreover, despite the interviewees know the importance of performing regular physical activity, we noticed that these do not know how much of weekly days in which they must get physical exercise in order to control the disease. Most interviewees adopt just walk as the physical activity, and we have not verified from the answers of patients, if they know what the most beneficial exercises to control this disease.

  14. Analysis of lip print and fingerprint patterns in patients with type II diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjusha, P; Sudha, S; Shameena, PM; Chandni, R; Varma, Sujatha; Pandiar, Deepak

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Globally, the prevalence of diabetes is soaring high in the recent times. There is an ardent search in the scientific community for a reliable and cheap early predictor which can serve the purpose of mass screening of a genetically vulnerable population. Hence, the present study was conducted to assess the predictive role of cheiloscopy on type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several studies have established the association of dermatoglyphics with diabetes. However, results are still far from satisfaction. Thus, we also evaluated fingerprint analysis along with cheiloscopy. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 100 uncontrolled T2DM patients and 50 healthy controls. Lip prints were obtained using lipstick and cellophane paper analyzed and classified using Suzuki and Tsuchihashi's classification. Fingerprints were obtained using kajal stick, analyzed and classified using Henry's system of classification. Results: Type IV pattern of lip prints was found significantly more in the diabetic patients. Howbeit, fingerprint analysis did not reveal any significant association with diabetes. Conclusion: The present study showed a ray of hope for application of cheiloscopy as a potential biomarker in the early diagnosis of T2DM which can be used in mass screening. Further studies are warranted to confirm the findings. PMID:28932046

  15. Epigenetics and type II diabetes mellitus: underlying mechanisms of prenatal predisposition

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    J. David Sterns

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a widespread metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance resulting in abnormally high blood glucose levels. While the onset of T2DM is known to be influenced by a number of genetic factors, emerging research has demonstrated the additional role of a variety of epigenetic mechanisms in the development of this disorder. Epigenetics relates to the heritable changes in gene expression that cannot be explained by simple variations in the primary DNA sequence and includes DNA methylation and histone modification. These changes impact many processes, including stem cell differentiation into pancreatic endocrine cells as well as normal β-cell function. Recent studies focusing on the effects of maternal health, specifically as it is affected by famine and hyperglycemia, have found possible mechanisms to explain the increased likelihood of the fetus developing risk factors such as altered atherogenic lipid profiles, increased obesity and BMI, as well as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT for the development of T2DM later in life. It is suggested that these epigenetic influences happen early during gestation and are less susceptible to the effects of postnatal environmental modification as was previously thought. Regardless, emerging research into epigenetic-based treatment approaches for T2DM are promising and offer yet another means by which to limit the impact of this global epidemic.

  16. Differential impact of diabetes mellitus type II and arterial hypertension on collateral artery growth and concomitant macrophage accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Wulf D; Lund, Natalie; Sager, Hendrik; Becker, Wiebke; Wenzel, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus type II and arterial hypertension are major risk factors for peripheral arterial disease and have been considered to reduce collateral growth (arteriogenesis). Collateral growth proceeds through different stages. Vascular proliferation and macrophage accumulation are hallmarks of early collateral growth. We here compare the impact of arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus type II on collateral proliferation (Brdu incorporation) and macrophage accumulation (ED 2 staining) as well as collateral vessel function (collateral conductance) in a rat model of peripheral vascular disease (femoral artery occlusion), diabetes mellitus type II (Zucker fatty diabetic rats and Zucker lean rat controls) and arterial hypertension (induced via clip placement around the right renal arteriy). We furthermore tested the impact of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP‑1) on collateral proliferation and macrophage accumulation in these models Diabetic animals showed reduced vascular proliferation and macrophage accumulation, which however did not translate into a change of collateral conductance. Hypertensive animals on the contrary had reduced collateral conductances without altered macrophage accumulation and only a marginal reduction in collateral proliferation. Infusion of MCP‑1 only enhanced vascular proliferation in diabetic animals. These findings illustrate that impaired monocyte/macrophage recruitment is responsible for reduced collateral growth under diabetic conditions but not in arterial hypertension suggesting that diabetes mellitus in particular affects early stages of collateral growth whereas hypertension has its impact on later remodeling stages. Successful pro-arteriogenic treatment strategies in a patient population that presents with diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension need to address different stages of collateral growth and thus different molecular and cellular targets simultaneously.

  17. Analysis of serum from type II diabetes mellitus and diabetic complication using surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, H. W.; Yan, X. L.; Dong, R. X.; Ban, G.; Li, K.

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we show surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) of serums from type II diabetes mellitus and diabetic complication (coronary disease, glaucoma and cerebral infarction), and analyze the SERS through the multivariate statistical methods of principal component analysis (PCA). In particular, we find that there exist many adenines in these serums, which maybe come from DNA (RNA) damage. The relative intensity of the band at 725±2 cm-1 assigned to adenine is higher for patients than for the healthy volunteers; therefore, it can be used as an important ‘fingerprint’ in order to diagnose these diseases. It is also shown that serums from type II diabetes mellitus group, diabetic complication group and healthy volunteers group can be discriminated by PCA.

  18. Ceramide content is higher in type I compared to type II fibers in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ditte Bech; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Ara, Ignacio;

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated fiber-type-specific muscle ceramide content in obese subjects and type 2 diabetes patients. Two substudies, one which compared type 2 diabetes patients to both lean- and obese BMI-matched subjects and the other study which compared lean body-matched post-obese, obese...... index was higher in lean compared to type 2 diabetes patients and obese controls. Also in control and post-obese subjects, a higher insulin sensitivity was observed compared to obese subjects. Ceramide content was consistently higher in type I than in type II muscle fibers and higher in deltoideus than...... vastus lateralis across all groups. No significant differences between groups were observed in ceramide content in either of the two substudies. In human skeletal muscle, ceramide content was higher in type I than in type II fibers in patients with type 2 diabetes and in obese subjects, but overall...

  19. Effect of lipid matrix and cytoskeleton proteins on Ca2+-activated K+ channels in erythrocytes of alcoholic and II type diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop'eva, V D; Petrova, I V; Sitozhevskii, A V; Kremeno, S V; Koryukin, V I; Baskakov, M B; Bokhan, N A; Novitskii, V V

    2002-10-01

    We studied the effect of changes in erythrocyte volume and irreversible thermal denaturation of cytoskeleton proteins and lipid matrix on activity of Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels in erythrocytes of alcoholic and patients with II type diabetes mellitus. Changes in Ca(2+)-dependent potassium permeability of erythrocyte membrane in alcoholic patients and patients with II type diabetes mellitus are related to modification of cytoskeleton, rather than to changes in lipid matrix.

  20. Corneal endothelial morphology and central thickness in patients with type II diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storr-Paulsen, Allan; Singh, Amardeep; Jeppesen, Helene;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate corneal endothelial cell density and morphology in type II diabetic and non-diabetic patients and to relate potential differences to the glycaemic status. METHODS: A prospective clinical study including 107 patients with type II diabetes and 128 non-diabetic patients. Samp...

  1. Novel Risk Factors for Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Coronary Heart Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Dehghan (Abbas)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDespite the huge advances made in the understanding of type II diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD), these diseases still constitute a major health problem. Since the 1950s, epidemiologists focused on chronic disorders, including type II diabetes and CHD. Major aims of their researc

  2. Olmesartan with azelnidipine versus with trichlormethiazide on home blood pressure variability in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushigome, Emi; Matsumoto, Shinobu; Oyabu, Chikako; Ushigome, Hidetaka; Yokota, Isao; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Tanaka, Muhei; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Fukui, Michiaki

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of olmesartan combined with azelnidipine versus olmesartan combined with trichlormethiazide, on home blood pressure (BP) and pressure variability in type II diabetes mellitus patients using home BP telemonitoring system. We performed an open-label cross-over pilot study of 28 patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Patients received combination treatment with either olmesartan 20 mg plus azelnidipine 16 mg or olmesartan 20 mg plus trichlormethiazide 1 mg for more than 6 weeks each in a cross-over method. The coefficient of morning systolic BP variability in the olmesartan plus azelnidipine group was significantly lower than that in the olmesartan plus trichlormethiazide group (6.4 ± 1.9 vs. 7.5 ± 2.6, P = .004). There were no significant differences in mean morning systolic BP between the two groups. Using home BP telemonitoring for hypertensive patients with type II diabetes, this study revealed for the first time that the olmesartan with azelnidipine combination is superior to the olmesartan with trichlormethiazide combination in reducing home BP variability. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Polymorphism (G894T and Diabetes Mellitus (Type II among South Indians

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    T. Angeline

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to find out whether the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS G894T single-nucleotide polymorphism is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus in South Indian (Tamil population. A total number of 260 subjects comprising 100 type 2 diabetic mellitus patients and 160 healthy individuals with no documented history of diabetes were included for the study. DNA was isolated, and eNOS G894T genotyping was performed using the polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction enzyme analysis using Ban II. The genotype distribution in patients and controls were compatible with the Hardy-Weinberg expectations (P>0.05. Odds ratio indicates that the occurrence of mutant genotype (GT/TT was 7.2 times (95% CI = 4.09–12.71 more frequent in the cases than in controls. Thus, the present study demonstrates that there is an association of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (G894T polymorphism with diabetes mellitus among South Indians.

  4. Development of type 2 diabetes mellitus thirty-one years after Billroth II in a patient asking for diabetes surgery

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    M. Garciacaballero

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes surgery in obese and slim patients seems to be a superior alternative to the current medical treatment. Gastric bypass is an alternative treatment for diabetes. Nevertheless, there are still doubts whether diabetes can recur if you gain weight or if the effects are maintained over time. Other questions refer to the type of surgery to make the bypass limb length or reservoir size for the resolution of the Diabetes Mellitus. Presentation of case: Male patient 69-year-old came to us in order to perform tailored One Anastomosis Gastric Bypass (BAGUA to treat his type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. He has a history of peptic ulcer treated with subtotal gastrectomy and Billroth II reconstruction 49 years ago. He currently is not obese and developed diabetes 31 years after surgery. Discussion: Globally there are no reports of patients with normal BMI that after performing gastric bypass developed diabetes mellitus. There are cases where obese diabetic patients after gastric bypass improve or remits the T2DM, but it relapses due to insufficient weight loss or gain it. The patient with gastric bypass Billroth II type, should not developed diabetes. He is normal weight and not had weight gain that could be linked to the development of diabetes. Conclusions: The results generated by bariatric surgery are encouraging, but still do not clarify the precise way how surgery produces rapid improvement of systemic metabolism as in diabetes, but in our patient, the effect was quite different because the gastric bypass had no protective effect against diabetes.

  5. Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeFronzo, Ralph A; Ferrannini, Ele; Groop, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an expanding global health problem, closely linked to the epidemic of obesity. Individuals with T2DM are at high risk for both microvascular complications (including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy) and macrovascular complications (such as cardiovascular...

  6. The Effect of Chromium Picolinate Supplementation on the Pancreas and Macroangiopathy in Type II Diabetes Mellitus Rats

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    Shan Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim was to explore the effect of the chromium picolinate (CrPic administration on the pancreas and macroangiopathy of type II diabetes mellitus rats. Methods. The type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM rat model was induced by low-dose streptozotocin (STZ. The rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (ten rats in each group. After supplementing CrPic for 15 weeks, the histopathological examination was performed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining. Serum insulin and NO level were determined by radioimmunoassay and colorimetry, respectively. Serum glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C, adiponectin (APN, advanced glycation end products (AGES, and apelin were measured by ELISA. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was applied for detecting the mRNA expression of APN and apelin. Results. After CrPic treatment, compared with the T2DM control group (group 2, pancreas sections stained with HE showed the completed pancreatic cells structure and no inflammatory infiltration in groups 4 and 5. In addition, the levels of serum NO and insulin were significantly increased and the serum levels of HbA1C, AGES, APN, and apelin were significantly decreased in groups 4 and 5 compared with group 2. The mRNA expression of APN and apelin in groups 4 and 5 was also recovered to the normal level. Conclusion. CrPic can recover the function of Β-cells and alleviate macroangiopathy in STZ-induced T2DM rats.

  7. ORAL HYPOGLYCAEMIC AGENTS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS

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    Durgaprasad M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Diabetes is fast gaining the status of a potential epidemic globally. The number of people with diabetes has risen from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014, the rise seen more rapidly in developing and under developed countries. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM being the most common type, accounting for an estimated 85-95% of all diabetes cases. Diabetes remains a major cause of blindness, renal failure, and cardiovascular events including heart attacks, stroke and limb amputations. 1 Being an heterogeneous disorder, many adults with T2DM have difficulty controlling their blood sugar levels and associated complications as most of available antidiabetic agents aim to achieve only normoglycaemia and relieve diabetes symptoms, such as polydipsia, polyuria, weight loss, ketoacidosis while the longterm goals to prevent the development of or slow the progression of longterm complications of the disease is often unaddressed, therefore, there remains, a significant unmet demand for new agents that will help diabetic patients achieve treatment targets without increasing the risk for weight gain or hypoglycaemia. Among the new classes of oral agents, SGLT-2 inhibitors and mTOT insulin sensitisers appear to hold some good promise. However, recent articles published describing its adverse effect profile of SGLT-2 inhibitors had put a question mark on its utility. In this article, we have reviewed the plethora of available OHAs along with the newer OHAs for managing T2DM optimally.

  8. CLINICAL PROFILE OF PATTERN OF DYSLIPIDAEMIA AND ISCHAEMIC HEART DISEASE IN TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS

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    Atul Vijayrao Rajkondawar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The present research was undertaken to study the pattern of dyslipidaemia and varied clinical manifestations of ischaemic heart disease, its risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Diabetes Mellitus (DM has become major public health problem in India. It is not only increasing in morbidity and mortality, but also decreases the quality of life. Also, disease and its complications are causing heavy economic burden for patients suffering from it.1,2 Diabetes is endemic globally with increasing prevalence in both developing and developed countries. Diabetes is a major cause of mortality, but several studies indicate that it is likely underreported as a cause of death. A recent estimate suggested that diabetes was the fifth leading cause of death worldwide and was responsible for almost 3 million deaths annually (1.7-5.2% of all deaths. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 100 patients attending the outpatient department or admitted to medical wards, ICU of tertiary care centre and fulfilling the inclusion criteria were evaluated clinically. A baseline Electrocardiogram (ECG was taken in all cases irrespective of clinical evidence of cardiac involvement. Patients with normal ECG pattern were further evaluated by Treadmill Testing (TMT or stress test for subclinical cardiac involvement. Risk factor evaluation was done in all cases. RESULTS Prevalence of IHD was found to be 41% with a male predominance (1.067:1. Evaluation of risk factors has shown its strong association with IHD. Incidence of IHD was high when low HDL (P 25 had negatively significant association with IHD in type 2 diabetics (P=0.072. Smoking was not statistically associated (P=0.577 and in male alcoholics, IHD had positive association with alcohol (P=0.193. CONCLUSION The current study points out that there exists an increased incidence of ischaemic heart disease in diabetics with few, but not all risk factors contributing to it. Early detection, optimal glycaemic

  9. Exaggerated effects of particulate matter air pollution in genetic type II diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuiqing; Bai, Yuntao; Xu, Xiaohua; Sun, Lixian; Wang, Aixia; Wang, Tse-Yao; Maurya, Santosh K; Periasamy, Muthu; Morishita, Masako; Harkema, Jack; Ying, Zhekang; Sun, Qinghua; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2014-05-30

    Prior experimental and epidemiologic data support a link between exposure to fine ambient particulate matter (liver of the KKay mice. Concentrated ambient PM2.5 exposure impairs energy metabolism, concomitant with abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, increased inflammation in insulin responsive organs, brown adipose inflammation and results in imbalance in circulating leptin/adiponectin levels in a genetically susceptible diabetic model. These results provide additional insights into the mechanisms surrounding air pollution mediated susceptibility to Type II DM.

  10. Yoga Practice for the Management of Type II Diabetes Mellitus in Adults: A systematic Review

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    Badr Aljasir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of practicing yoga for the management of type II Diabetes was assessed in this systematic review through searching related electronic databases and the grey literature to the end of May 2007 using Ovid. All randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs comparing yoga practice with other type of intervention or with regular practice or both, were included regardless of language or type of publication. Each study was assessed for quality by two independent reviewers. Mean difference was used for summarizing the effect of each study outcomes with 95% confidence intervals. Pooling of the studies did not take place due to the wide clinical variation between the studies. Publication bias was assessed by statistical methods. Five trials with 363 participants met the inclusion criteria with medium to high risk of bias and different intervention characteristics. The studies’ results show improvement in outcomes among patients with diabetes type II. These improvements were mainly among short term or immediate diabetes outcomes and not all were statistically significant. The results were inconclusive and not significant for the long-term outcomes. No adverse effects were reported in any of the included studies. Short-term benefits for patients with diabetes may be achieved from practicing yoga. Further research is needed in this area. Factors like quality of the trials and other methodological issues should be improved by large randomized control trials with allocation concealment to assess the effectiveness of yoga on diabetes type II. A definitive recommendation for physicians to encourage their patients to practice yoga cannot be reached at present.

  11. 26. Effectiveness of telephone follow up in managing patients with type II diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala Taiyem

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common non-communicable diseases globally, labeled as the greatest healthcare challenge according to the World Health Organization and the International Diabetes Federation. This complex disease requires the involvement of multidisciplinary teams to reduce the risk and impact of long-term diabetes complications through intensive monitoring, education and lifestyle modifications with a great emphasis on promoting self-care. A brief and cost-effective interventions to improve diabetes self care management are needed. This study evaluated the effect of “educational” telephone intervention delivered by nurse specialist on glycemic control “Glyclated hemoglobin A1c”, and diabetes self-care management for patients with type 2 diabetes followed-up by a nurse-led cardiovascular disease management program of a tertiary hospital within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This quantitative descriptive and qauzi-experimental study was conducted over three months, included 60 adult patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes who were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. Participants within the intervention group received usual care and six educational phone calls promoting them to improve their diabetic self-care activities. Patients within the control arm continued to receive their usual care only. The telephone follow-up intervention increased frequency of exercise and foot care, improved diet and adherence to anti-diabetes medication. Modest improvement was detected on the glycemic control and home glucose monitoring. As a conclusion, the study indicated positive effect of the intervention on glycemic control and self-care management. Multi-centers and longitudinal studies with larger sample size are recommended for future studies.

  12. [Hypoglycemic action of different doses of nopal (Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire) in patients with type II diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati-Munari, A C; Del Valle-Martínez, L M; Ariza-Andraca, C R; Islas-Andrade, S; Chávez-Negrete, A

    1989-01-01

    To assess the relationship between the doses of O. streptacantha Lem. and its acute hypoglycemic action in diabetics, eight patients with type II diabetes mellitus were studied. Four test were performed to each patient with the intake of: (a) 400 ml of water, (b) 100 g (c) 300 g and (d) 500 g of broiled stems of O. streptacantha Lem. Serum glucose was measured at 0, 60, 120 and 180 minutes. Maximal decrease of serum glucose was noticed at 180 minutes, with a mean of 2.3, 10, 30.1 and 46.7 mg/dl less than basal value with 0, 100, 300 and 500 g respectively (P = NS, less than 0.05, less than 0.001 and less than 0.001 respectively). A significant direct correlation (r = 0.690, P less than 0.001) was noticed between the doses and the hypoglycemic effect.

  13. The effect of various forms of exercise in patients with obesity and type II mellitus diabetes

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    Stavrou V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is defined as excess weight for a given height, taking the concept of body mass index. Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body can not effectively use the insulin it produces, which regulates blood glucose levels. Several epidemiological investigations are being made in almost all countries in order to evaluate obesity especially in young ages. In obesity and obesity with type II diabetes in the general population exercise will show to be at least 60 minutes duration and 50% of maximum heart rate for adults to exercise 1-3 times per a week at least, lasting 30-60 minutes and low heart rate in children and decrease of adipose tissue after various forms of exercise lasting 40 to 80 minutes per a day and lasting 4-8 months. The protocols that had a positive effect had been tension in 50-70% maximum heart rate. Patients were tested with obesity and diabetes type II, were observed that through the exercise had decreased body weight and had positive effects on glycemic control, lipoproteins and lipids. The type of exercise with the best results were aerobic, with tension 40-60% of maximum heart rate and 60-80% of VO2max, while the frequency of exercise was 3 times per a week for 6-14 months.

  14. HEIGHT, WEIGHT, BMI, FBS, PPBS, CORRELATED WITH NERVE CONDUCTION VELOCITY IN TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS

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    Athikari ChandraSekhar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To look for changes in nerve conduction velocity (NCV in newly diagnosed type II diabetic subjects. To compare the nerve conduction velocity studies of both sensory and motor nerves in upper and lower limb are correlated with height, weight, BMI, fasting and PPBS. Materials and Methods: The study comprises of 40 subjects, 25 subjects were male and 15 subjects were female aged between 38-62 years. All the patents are on oral hypoglycaemic agents. Random sampling techniques were applied for the criteria of sample selection. Results: The mean MCV was significantly lower in type II diabetics common peroneal nerve (38.37±9.43 m/s and posterior tibial nerve (9.78±9.39 m/s. The mean SNC in the type II diabetes median nerve 43.25±11.64, ulnar nerve 43.62±15.77 m/sec sural nerve 38.27±14.32 m/sec and posterior tibial nerve 33.51±20.39. The height mean 163.53±7.23 cm, weight mean 66.98±8.70 kg, BMI 25.10±3.29, FBS mean 158.70±56.58 mg/dl and PPBS mean 223.68±67.95 mg/dl. Abnormal MCV, SCV was found to be associated with FBS and PPBS. Conclusion: Hyperglycaemia is a well established risk factor in type 2 diabetic subjects. Other parameters correlated with Height, Weight, BMI, FBS, PPBS increases most recognized neurological complications. Predominately sensorimotor distal polyneuropathy is the most common of the diabetic neuropathy. Distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy. In our study conducted the changes of diabetic neuropathy affected sensorimotor nerves in both limbs. Nerve conduction studies not only used to diagnose the DM but also monitor the effects of treatment of DM by regular NCS good glycemic control, symptoms of diabetic neuropathy can be reversed and further complication like foot ulceration.

  15. Relationship between insulin resistance and blood lipid and sport in patients with type II diabetes mellitus complicated with hypertension%2型糖尿病合并高血压患者胰岛素低抗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭丽艳; 杨红玉; 柴国禄; 沈凌元

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between insulin resistance and blood pressure and blood lipid in patients with type II diabetes mellitus complicated with hypertension.Methods The serum concentration of fasting glucose,insulin,lipids and the level of blood pressure were measured in 56 patients with type II diabetes mellitus complicated with hypertension.Results The insulin sensitivity index(ISI) decreased in patients with type II diabetes mellitus complicated with hypertension compared with the patients with type II diabetes mellitus with normal blood pressure(P< 0.05).A negative correlation with hypertension was found between ISI and SBP,DBP,TG,ApoB in patients with type II diabetes mellitus complicated with hypertension(P<0.05).There was a positive correlation between ISI and HDL in patients with type II diabetes mellitus complicated with hypertension(P<0.05).Conclusion Insulin resistance presents in patients of type II diabetes mellitus complicated with hypertension.Insulin resistance is the major cause of hypertension and lipid metabolic disturbance in patients with type II diabetes mellitus complicated with hypertension.

  16. An autosomal genomic scan for loci linked to type II diabetes mellitus and body-mass index in Pima Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R L; Ehm, M G; Pettitt, D J; Prochazka, M; Thompson, D B; Timberlake, D; Foroud, T; Kobes, S; Baier, L; Burns, D K; Almasy, L; Blangero, J; Garvey, W T; Bennett, P H; Knowler, W C

    1998-01-01

    Genetic factors influence the development of type II diabetes mellitus, but genetic loci for the most common forms of diabetes have not been identified. A genomic scan was conducted to identify loci linked to diabetes and body-mass index (BMI) in Pima Indians, a Native American population with a high prevalence of type II diabetes. Among 264 nuclear families containing 966 siblings, 516 autosomal markers with a median distance between adjacent markers of 6.4 cM were genotyped. Variance-components methods were used to test for linkage with an age-adjusted diabetes score and with BMI. In multipoint analyses, the strongest evidence for linkage with age-adjusted diabetes (LOD = 1.7) was on chromosome 11q, in the region that was also linked most strongly with BMI (LOD = 3.6). Bivariate linkage analyses strongly rejected both the null hypothesis of no linkage with either trait and the null hypothesis of no contribution of the locus to the covariation among the two traits. Sib-pair analyses suggest additional potential diabetes-susceptibility loci on chromosomes 1q and 7q. PMID:9758619

  17. DERMATOGLYPHIC STUDY: A COMPARISON IN HANDS OF TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS AND NORMAL PERSONS OF UDAIPUR REGION

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    Parveen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to evaluate dermatoglyphics as an effective and economical screening method for diabetes mellitus type II patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Dermatoglyphic patterns were recorded by Cummins ink method. Dermatoglyphic patterns of both hands of 200 persons, i.e., 100 each of patients and normal persons were recorded. Each group was divided into male and female group to avoid any variations. Controls were carefully selected to be free from any disease as disease could influence the dermatoglyphic pattern. OBSERVATIONS: Observations were tabulated to find out distribution of finger-tip patterns, TFRC (Total finger ridge countand AFRC (Absolute finger ridge count values, Various angles in palm i.e. atd angle, tad angle, tda angle, deviation of t, C-Line patterns, t’ and t” in both the males and females. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Statistical difference in fingertip patterns distribution, TFRC and AFRC values, atd angle, tad angle, tda angle were found. Dermot glyphic patterns observed in study of Type II diabetic patients may prove to be a useful, simple and economical screening method for early diagnosis of individuals in poor socio economic region with dense population like Udaipur region. Such individuals may be subjected later for further specific elaborative investigation to confirm the diagnosis.

  18. The effect of whole body vibration therapy on the physical function of people with type II diabetes mellitus: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, BSc, Jiaqi; Zhang, Hongyue; Kan, Laidi; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Pu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To review and assess the effectiveness of whole body vibration therapy on the physical function of patients with type II diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] A computerized database search was performed through PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database, and the reference lists of all relevant articles. The methodological quality was evaluated using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. [Results] Five articles (four studies) with a combined study population of 154 patients with type II diabetes qualified for the inclusion criteria. Our review shows that whole body vibration therapy may have a positive impact on the muscle strength and balance of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas the effect on their mobility is still under discussion. [Conclusion] There was no sufficient evidence to support the premise that whole body vibration therapy is beneficial for the physical function of people with type II diabetes. Larger and higher-quality trials are needed. PMID:27799718

  19. Clinical evaluation of oxidative stress in patients with diabetes mellitus type II: Impact of acute exercise

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    Kostić Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Exercise is a well recognized model of oxidative stress and, also, an important tool in diabetes management. The aim of our study was to evaluate oxidative stress in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and to determine influence of acute exercise training on the investigated parameters. Methods. To evaluate oxidative stress in the patients, we determinated following parameters: triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, oxidized LDL cholesterol (Ox LDL, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI which were measured at rest and immediately after the acute bout of cardiopulmonary exercise cycle-ergometer test. Results. In basal condition, diabetic patients compared to controls have significant higher values of TG (3.12 ± 1.09 vs 1.74 ± 0.9 mmol/L, p < 0.01, Ox LDL (84.73 ± 16.90 vs 79.00 ± 29.26 mmol/L, p < 0.05 and SOD enzyme activity (913.38 ± 120.36 vs 877.14 ± 153.18 U/g Hb, p < 0.05. During the acute exercise test, there was significant increase of Ox LDL in both the study patients (from 84.73 ± 16.90 to 92.33 ± 23.29 mmol/L, p < 0.05 and in the control group (from 79.00 ± 29.26 to 89.30 ± 29.07 mmol/L, p < 0.05. SOD activity was significantly increased in both groups during exercise, in diabetic patients from 913.38 ± 120.36 to 921.50 ± 130.03 U/gHb, p < 0.05, and in the controls from 877.14 ± 153.18 to 895.00 ± 193.49, U/gHb, p < 0.05. GSH-Px activity was significantly increased only in the diabetic patients after the acute exercise (from 45.04 ± 11.19 to 51.81 ± 15.07 U/gHb, p < 0.01, but not in the controls (from 44.63 ± 13.73 to 43.97 ± 25.97 U/gHb, p = ns. PAI significantly decreased during the exercise test, only in the healthy subjects (from 2.60 ± 0.35 to 2.22 ± 0.65, p < 0.05. Type 2 diabetic patients with complications had only significant increase in GSH-Px activity (from 47.10 ± 7.37 to 54.52 ± 11.97 U

  20. Intracellular insulin processing is altered in monocytes from patients with type II diabetes mellitus

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    Trischitta, V.; Benzi, L.; Brunetti, A.; Cecchetti, P.; Marchetti, P.; Vigneri, R.; Navalesi, R.

    1987-05-01

    We studied total cell-associated A14-(/sup 125/I)insulin radioactivity (including surface-bound and internalized radioactivity), insulin internalization, and its intracellular degradation at 37 C in monocytes from nonobese type II untreated diabetic patients (n = 9) and normal subjects (n = 7). Total cell-associated radioactivity was decreased in diabetic patients (2.65 +/- 1.21% (+/- SD) vs. 4.47 +/- 1.04% of total radioactivity. Insulin internalization was also reduced in diabetic patients (34.0 +/- 6.8% vs. 59.0 +/- 11.3% of cell-associated radioactivity. Using high performance liquid chromatography six intracellular forms of radioactivity derived from A14-(/sup 125/I) insulin were identified; 10-20% of intracellular radioactivity had approximately 300,000 mol wt and was identified as radioactivity bound to the insulin receptor, and the remaining intracellular radioactivity included intact A14-(/sup 125/I)insulin, (/sup 125/I)iodide, or (/sup 125/I)tyrosine, and three intermediate compounds. A progressive reduction of intact insulin and a corresponding increase in iodine were found when the incubation time was prolonged. Intracellular insulin degradation was reduced in monocytes from diabetic patients; intracellular intact insulin was 65.6 +/- 18.1% vs. 37.4 +/- 18.0% of intracellular radioactivity after 2 min and 23.6 +/- 22.3% vs. 3.9 +/- 2.3% after 60 min in diabetic patients vs. normal subjects, respectively. In conclusion, 1) human monocytes internalize and degrade insulin in the intracellular compartment in a stepwise time-dependent manner; and 2) in monocytes from type II diabetic patients total cell-associated radioactivity, insulin internalization, and insulin degradation are significantly reduced. These defects may be related to the cellular insulin resistance present in these patients.

  1. Pupil cycle time and contrast sensitivity in type II diabetes mellitus patients: A pilot study

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    Hoyoung Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pupil cycle time (PCT has been widely used for examination of ocular diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN. Aims: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the difference of contrast sensitivity according to PCT results, and the secondary aim was to determine the factors associated with PCT difference for type II diabetes patients. Settings and Design: A clinical pilot study that included a total of 60 eyes of 60 type II diabetes patients. Materials and Methods: We divided all patients into three groups according to PCT results. Group A and Group C were composed of patients who had upper one third PCT and lower one third PCT, respectively. We analyzed difference of age, diabetes duration, hypertension duration, mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, mean spherical equivalent (SE, HbA1C, glomerular filtration rate (GFR, stage of diabetic retinopathy, and Cardiac Autonomic Function Score (CAFS. Contrast sensitivity and decrease of visual acuity by glare were also estimated and analyzed for 28 eyes of 28 non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR patients. Group [NPDR] A and Group [NPDR] C were defined as those who had lower one third PCT and upper one third PCT, respectively. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 17.0 software. Results and Conclusions: Each group contained 20 eyes. Significant differences between Group A and Group C were observed in duration of diabetes and CAFS (P ≤ 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively. Contrast sensitivity in Group [NPDR] A was significantly more than in Group [NPDR] C at all cpds (all P ≤ 0.001. We found that PCT can influence contrast sensitivity or glare in diabetes patients and also confirmed a significant correlation of PCT with CAFS and duration of diabetes.

  2. Regulation of gut microbiota on type II diabetes mellitus%肠道菌群与Ⅱ型糖尿病作用机制综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申瑞玲; 林娟; 董吉林

    2014-01-01

    Human gut microbiota is associated with glucose and lipid metabolism and chronic diseases disease occurrence. In addition,there is a metabolic link between gut microbiota and type II diabetes mellitus. This paper summarized the relationship between gut microbiota and type II diabetes mellitus. And we explained the effect of gut microbiota on the regulatory mechanism of diabetes mellitus II from dietary intervention,inflammatory,lipid metabolism and appetite factors. This paper provided a more methodical idea for prevention and treatment of type II diabetes mellitus.%人体肠道菌群参与体内糖、脂等多种营养素的代谢,与多种代谢性疾病的发生和发展密切相关。肠道菌群与Ⅱ型糖尿病的发生和发展程度也有很大关系,该文主要介绍了肠道菌群与Ⅱ型糖尿病的相关性,重点从膳食诱导、炎症因子、调控脂质代谢和食欲相关因子等方面阐述了肠道菌群对Ⅱ型糖尿病的调节机制,为Ⅱ型糖尿病的预防和治疗提出了更为科学的思路。

  3. Education and technology used to improve the quality of life for people with diabetes mellitus type II

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    Dudley B

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Brooke Dudley, Brianne Heiland, Elizabeth Kohler-Rausch, Mark Kovic Midwestern University Occupational Therapy Program, Downers Grove, IL, USA Background: The incidence of type II diabetes mellitus (DMT2 is expected to continue to rise. Current research has analyzed various tools, strategies, programs, barriers, and support in regards to the self-management of this condition. However, past researchers have yet to analyze the education process; including the adaptation of specific strategies in activities of daily living and roles, as well as the influence of health care providers in the integration of these strategies. Objectives: The purpose of this qualitative case study was to identify the strengths and limitations of the current model of diabetes education in the United States and hypothesize how technology can impact quality of life. Methods: Key informants on diabetes education were recruited from diabetes education centers through the American Association of Diabetes Educators. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants. Results: Health care practitioners convey limited knowledge of DMT2. Individuals with DMT2 often have limited understanding of the implications of poor self-management. There appears to be no consistent standard of care for how to effectively incorporate self-management strategies. There is limited education for the use of technology in self-management. Diabetes educators describe that technology could be beneficial. Conclusion: Findings suggest the importance of the role of care providers in emphasizing the implications of poor self-management strategies; that a multidisciplinary approach may enhance the education process; and a need for further developments in technology to address DMT2 self-management strategies. Keywords: health promotion, quality of life, diabetes mellitus type 2, technology, health education

  4. Preventive Effect of Boiogito on Metabolic Disorders in the TSOD Mouse, a Model of Spontaneous Obese Type II Diabetes Mellitus

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    Tsutomu Shimada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available “Boiogito” is a Kampo preparation which has been used since ancient times in patients with obesity of the “asthenic constitution” type, so-called “watery obesity”, and its effect has been recognized clinically. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of Boiogito in the TSOD (Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes mouse, a model of spontaneous obese type II diabetes mellitus. Boiogito showed a significant anti-obesity effect in TSOD mice by suppressing body weight gain in a dosage-dependent manner. In addition, Boiogito showed significant ameliorative effects on features of metabolic syndrome such as hyperinsulinemia, fasting hyperglycemia and abnormal lipid metabolism. Regarding lipid accumulation in TSOD mice, Boiogito showed a significant suppressive effect on accumulation of subcutaneous fat, but the effect on the visceral fat accumulation that constitutes the basis of metabolic syndrome was weak, and the suppressive effect on insulin resistance was also weak. Furthermore, Boiogito did not alleviate the abnormal glucose tolerance, the hypertension or the peripheral neuropathy characteristically developed in the TSOD mice. In contrast, in the TSNO (Tsumura Suzuki Non-Obesity mice used as controls, Boiogito suppressed body weight gain and accumulation of subcutaneous and visceral fat. The above results suggested that Boiogito is effective as an anti-obesity drug against obesity of the “asthenic constitution” type in which subcutaneous fat accumulates, but cannot be expected to exert a preventive effect against various symptoms of metabolic syndrome that are based on visceral fat accumulation.

  5. Discovery of orally active hepatoselective glucokinase activators for treatment of Type II Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiayi; Lin, Songnian; Myers, Robert W; Trujillo, Maria E; Pachanski, Michele J; Malkani, Sunita; Chen, Hsuan-Shen; Chen, Zhesheng; Campbell, Brian; Eiermann, George J; Elowe, Nadine; Farrer, Brian T; Feng, Wen; Fu, Qinghong; Kats-Kagan, Roman; Kavana, Michael; McMasters, Daniel R; Mitra, Kaushik; Tong, Xinchun; Xu, Libo; Zhang, Fengqi; Zhang, Rui; Addona, George H; Berger, Joel P; Zhang, Bei; Parmee, Emma R

    2017-05-01

    Systemically acting glucokinase activators (GKA) have been demonstrated in clinical trials to effectively lower blood glucose in patients with type II diabetes. However, mechanism-based hypoglycemia is a major adverse effect that limits the therapeutic potential of these agents. We hypothesized that the predominant mechanism leading to hypoglycemia is GKA-induced excessive insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells at (sub-)euglycemic levels. We further hypothesized that restricting GK activation to hepatocytes would maintain glucose-lowering efficacy while significantly reducing hypoglycemic risk. Here we report the discovery of a novel series of carboxylic acid substituted GKAs based on pyridine-2-carboxamide. These GKAs exhibit preferential distribution to the liver versus the pancreas in mice. SAR studies led to the identification of a potent and orally active hepatoselective GKA, compound 6. GKA 6 demonstrated robust glucose lowering efficacy in high fat diet-fed mice at doses ⩾10mpk, with ⩾70-fold liver:pancreas distribution, minimal effects on plasma insulin levels, and significantly reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. [Level of knowledge of patients with type II diabetes mellitus in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro Chonsa, F; Lara Valdivielso, E; Muñoz Cacho, P; Herrera Plaza, T; Rodríguez Cordero, R; Mayo Alastrey, M A

    1991-01-01

    A personal interview to 148 patients was carried out with the aim of getting to know the level of information of type II diabetic patients at an Urban Health Center in Santander. A validated questionnaire made up of 14 questions on general aspects of diabetis, dietetic habits and capability to handle complications was used. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of questionnaire was 0.69. The correct answer average was 6.3 (IC = 5.9-6.5). Patients were best informed about general aspects and had much less information with regard to the handling of complications and to their diet. The differences among these three sections of questions were significative (p less than 0.001). The patients under diet treatment obtained worse results than those treated with oral hipoglucemiants and insulin. Our results are worse than those reported by other similar populations at a national level. Also, and due to the differences in knowledge within this group, we believe that the establishment of groups and subgroups when educating diabetic patients is possible and also highly recommended.

  7. Downregulation of Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity Onset Diabetes of Young Pathways in Human Pancreatic Islets from Hyperglycemic Donors

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    Jalal Taneera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although several molecular pathways have been linked to type 2 diabetes (T2D pathogenesis, it is uncertain which pathway has the most implication on the disease. Changes in the expression of an entire pathway might be more important for disease pathogenesis than changes in the expression of individual genes. To identify the molecular alterations in T2D, DNA microarrays of human pancreatic islets from donors with hyperglycemia n=20 and normoglycemia n=58 were subjected to Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA. About 178 KEGG pathways were investigated for gene expression changes between hyperglycemic donors compared to normoglycemic. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM and maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY pathways are downregulated in hyperglycemic donors, while proteasome and spliceosome pathways are upregulated. The mean centroid of gene expression of T2DM and MODY pathways was shown to be associated positively with insulin secretion and negatively with HbA1c level. To conclude, downregulation of T2DM and MODY pathways is involved in islet function and might be involved in T2D. Also, the study demonstrates that gene expression profiles from pancreatic islets can reveal some of the biological processes related to regulation of glucose hemostats and diabetes pathogenesis.

  8. Silent myocardial infarction in women with type II diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria

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    Elmir Omerovic

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Elmir Omerovic, Gerhard Brohall, Markus Müller, Truls Råmunddal, Göran Matejka, Finn Waagstein, Björn FagerbergThe Wallenburg Laboratory at Sahlgrenska Academy, Department of Cardiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg University, 413 45, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Cardiology and Department of Radiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, SwedenIntroduction: The aim of this study was to investigate whether asymptomatic women with diabetes mellitus (DM without previous history of ischemic heart disease (IHD and normal electrocardiogram (ECG have suffered silent myocardial infarction (MI.Methods: The study population consisted of 64-years old women with DM and albuminuria (n = 15 and aged- and body mass index-matched controls (n = 16. The patients were selected after screening of 240 women with previously known or unknown DM. The individuals with previous history of IHD and ECG suggesting the presence of IHD were excluded. All subjects were investigated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.Results: MRI investigation has revealed the presence of subendocardial MI in the two DM women (13%. No MI was detected in the control group. MR coronary angiography detected the presence of significant stenosis in the proximal segment of left anterior descending (LAD coronary artery in one DM woman. This patient developed unstable angina 1 week after the MRI investigation. The conventional angiography has confirmed the presence of significant stenosis in LAD demanding invasive revascularization by percutaneous coronary angioplasty. No difference was found in indices of left ventricular (LV systolic function while diastolic function was disturbed in the DM group. There was a tendency for increased LV mass in the DM group. No difference was found in the LV volumes.Conclusion: Clinically significant proportion of the women with DM and albuminuria without previous history of IHD have had silent MI. MRI screening of these high risk

  9. Education and technology used to improve the quality of life for people with diabetes mellitus type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Brooke; Heiland, Brianne; Kohler-Rausch, Elizabeth; Kovic, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of type II diabetes mellitus (DMT2) is expected to continue to rise. Current research has analyzed various tools, strategies, programs, barriers, and support in regards to the self-management of this condition. However, past researchers have yet to analyze the education process; including the adaptation of specific strategies in activities of daily living and roles, as well as the influence of health care providers in the integration of these strategies. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to identify the strengths and limitations of the current model of diabetes education in the United States and hypothesize how technology can impact quality of life. Key informants on diabetes education were recruited from diabetes education centers through the American Association of Diabetes Educators. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants. Health care practitioners convey limited knowledge of DMT2. Individuals with DMT2 often have limited understanding of the implications of poor self-management. There appears to be no consistent standard of care for how to effectively incorporate self-management strategies. There is limited education for the use of technology in self-management. Diabetes educators describe that technology could be beneficial. Findings suggest the importance of the role of care providers in emphasizing the implications of poor self-management strategies; that a multidisciplinary approach may enhance the education process; and a need for further developments in technology to address DMT2 self-management strategies.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of Bariatric Surgery: Increasing the Economic Viability of the Most Effective Treatment for Type II Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeremy A; Ewing, Joseph A; Hale, Allyson L; Blackhurst, Dawn W; Bour, Eric S; Scott, John D

    2015-08-01

    There has been considerable debate on the cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery within larger population groups. Despite the recognition that morbid obesity and its comorbidities are best treated surgically, insurance coverage is not universally available. One of the more costly comorbidities of obesity is Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We propose a model that demonstrates the cost-effectiveness of increasing the number of bariatric surgical operations performed on patients with T2DM in the United States. We applied published population cost estimates (2012) for medical care of T2DM to a retrospective cohort of morbidly obese patients in South Carolina. We compared differences in 10-year medical costs between those having bariatric surgery and controls. Resolution of T2DM in the bariatric cohort was assumed to be 40 per cent. Considering only the direct medical costs of T2DM, the 10-year aggregate cost savings compared with a control group is $2.7 million/1000 patients; the total (direct and indirect) cost savings is $5.4 million/1000 patients. When considering resolution of T2DM alone, increasing the number of bariatric operations for a given population leads to a substantial cost savings over a 10-year period. This study adds to the growing body of evidence suggesting that bariatric surgery is a cost-effective means of caring for the obese patient.

  11. Effectiveness of Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists in a Cohort of Dutch Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (ZODIAC-14)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hateren, Kornelis J. J.; Landman, Gijs W. D.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Kleefstra, Nanne

    OBJECTIVE: There is limited evidence with respect to the between-group effects of various angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) on blood pressure and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of differing ARBs on systolic blood pressure

  12. Effectiveness of Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists in a Cohort of Dutch Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (ZODIAC-14)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hateren, Kornelis J. J.; Landman, Gijs W. D.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Kleefstra, Nanne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is limited evidence with respect to the between-group effects of various angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) on blood pressure and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of differing ARBs on systolic blood pressure (SBP

  13. [The results of combined ozone therapy using in complex treatment of soft tissues infections in patients with diabetes mellitus type II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnik, Iu S; Salmina, A B; Tepliakova, O V; Drobushevskaia, A I; Pozhilenkova, E A; Morgun, A V; Shapran, M V; Kovalenko, A O

    2015-01-01

    Levels of interleukins-6, 8, 10, TNF-alpha and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were examined in peripheral blood of 60 patients with diabetes mellitus type II and soft tissues infections. It was revealed the elevated levels of proinflammatory (IL-6, 8), anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines and basic fibroblast growth factor at the time of admission. Application of combined ozone therapy including ozonated autohemotherapy and superficial management of wounds with ozone-oxygen mixture resulted in significant decrease of IL-6, 8, 10 production and high level of bFGF on blood serum. Thus effective local bactericidal impact of ozone in combination with normalization of proinflammatory cytokines levels and preserved high level of bFGF in peripheral blood provide better results of wound healing process in patients with diabetes mellitus type II.

  14. [Evaluation of changes in periodontal status of patients with diabetes mellitus type II in surgical in-patient department after using Parоdontax Extra Fresh toothpaste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovikova, T M; Belokonova, N A; Shurygina, E A; Eshchenko, Ia A; Raspopova, N N

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory periodontal disease in patients with type II diabetes mellitus are characterized by a more severe course. Properly organized oral hygiene can effectively prevent and treat inflammation of periodontal tissues. The choice of therapeutic-prophylactic toothpaste, as one of the main means of personal hygiene, is especially important in patients with diabetes in surgical in-patient department. The study revealed high need in dental care (90%) in 20 patients with diabetes mellitus type II admitted to purulent surgery unit. After a week of using toothpaste Parоdontax Extra Fresh oral hygiene index improved 1.8 times and BOP index reduced twice-folds. Decrease of tissue swelling and tartar formation was also seen.

  15. Protective role of Kalpaamruthaa in type II diabetes mellitus-induced cardiovascular disease through the modulation of protease-activated receptor-1

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    Raja Latha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kalpaamruthaa (KA is a formulatory herbal preparation has beneficial antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties against cardiovascular damage (CVD. Objective: The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective role of KA in type II diabetes mellitus-induced CVD through the modulation of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1. Materials and Methods: CVD was developed in 8 weeks after type II diabetes mellitus induction with high fat diet (2 weeks and low dose of streptozotocin (2 × 35 mg/kg b.w. i.p. in 24 h interval. CVD-induced rats treated with KA (200 mg/kg b.w. in 0.5 ml of olive oil orally for 4 weeks. Results: KA increased the activities of enzymatic antioxidants and the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants in pancreas of CVD-induced rats. KA effectively reduced the lipid peroxides and carbonyl content in the pancreas of CVD-induced rats. KA reduced cellular damage by ameliorating the activities of marker enzymes in plasma, heart and liver. The protective nature of KA was further evidenced by histological observation in pancreas. Further, KA reduced CVD by decreasing the expression of PAR1 in heart. Conclusion: This study exhibits the defending role of KA in type II diabetes mellitus-induced CVD through altering PAR1.

  16. A clinical study of serum phosphate and magnesium in type II diabetes mellitus

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    Revathi.R, Julius Amaldas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To assess serum phosphate and magnesium level in type-2 diabetic patients in comparison with those of control subjects. Methodology: There were 100 diabetic patients and 100 age matched non-diabetic (control subjects included in this study. Serum phosphate, serum magnesium and fasting and postprandial blood sugar measured among the diabetic and control groups using SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. Results: Serum phosphate level was significantly lower in diabetic patients (2.92 ± 0.75 as compared to control subjects (3.38 ± 0.49. Serum magnesium levels were significantly lower in diabetic patients (0.9 ± 0.15 compared to controls (2.75 ± 0.46 Conclusion: The study reveals that hyperglycemia may reduce serum levels of magnesium and phosphorus.

  17. Loss of Breathing Modulation of Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Recent and Long Standing Diabetes Mellitus Type II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estañol, Bruno; Fossion, Ruben; Toledo-Roy, Juan C.; Callejas-Rojas, José A.; Gien-López, José A.; Delgado-García, Guillermo R.; Frank, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Healthy subjects under rhythmic breathing have heart interbeat intervals with a respiratory band in the frequency domain that can be an index of vagal activity. Diabetes Mellitus Type II (DM) affects the autonomic nervous system of patients, thus it can be expected changes on the vagal activity. Here, the influence of DM on the breathing modulation of the heart rate is evaluated by analyzing in the frequency domain heart interbeat interval (IBI) records obtained from 30 recently diagnosed, 15 long standing DM patients, and 30 control subjects during standardized clinical tests of controlled breathing at 0.1 Hz, supine rest and standing upright. Fourier spectral analysis of IBI records quantifies heart rate variability in different regions: low-frequencies (LF, 0.04–0.15 Hz), high-frequencies (HF, 0.15–0.4 Hz), and a controlled breathing peak (RP, centered around 0.1 Hz). Two new parameters are introduced: the frequency radius rf (square root of the sum of LF and HF squared) and β (power of RP divided by the sum of LF and HF). As diabetes evolves, the controlled breathing peak loses power and shifts to smaller frequencies, indicating that heart rate modulation is slower in diabetic patients than in controls. In contrast to the traditional parameters LF, HF and LF/HF, which do not show significant differences between the three populations in neither of the clinical tests, the new parameters rf and β, distinguish between control and diabetic subjects in the case of controlled breathing. Sympathetic activity that is driven by the baroreceptor reflex associated with the 0.1 Hz breathing modulations is affected in DM patients. Diabetes produces not only a rigid heartbeat with less autonomic induced variability (rf diminishes), but also alters the coupling between breathing and heart rate (reduced β), due to a progressive decline of vagal and sympathetic activity. PMID:27802329

  18. Pharmacogenomics in type II diabetes mellitus management: Steps toward personalized medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Avery

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Peter Avery, Shaymaa S Mousa, Shaker A MousaThe Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, NY, USAAbstract: Advances in genotype technology in the last decade have put the pharmacogenomics revolution at the forefront of future medicine in clinical practice. Discovery of novel gene variations in drug transporters, drug targets, effector proteins and metabolizing enzymes in the form of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs continue to provide insight into the biological phenomena that govern drug efficacy and toxicity. To date, novel gene discoveries extracted from genome-wide association scans and candidate gene studies in at least four antidiabetic drug classes have helped illuminate possible causes of interindividual variability in response. Inadequate protocol guidelines for pharmacogenomics studies often leads to poorly designed studies, making it hard to formulate a definitive conclusion regarding the clinical relevance of the information at hand. These issues, along with the ethical, social, political, legislative, technological, and economic challenges associated with pharmacogenomics have only delayed its entry to mainstream clinical practice. On the other hand, these issues are being actively pursued and rapid progress is being made in each area which assures the possibility of gaining widespread acceptance in clinical practice.Keywords: pharmacogenomics, genetics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, personalized medicine, type 2 diabetes, pharmacotherapy, antidiabetic drugs, efficacy, and safety

  19. [Exploring the mechanism of rhizoma coptidis in treating type II diabetes mellitus based on metabolomics by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yuan, Zimin; Kong, Hongwei; Li, Yong; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2012-01-01

    Metabolomics was used to explore the mechanism of Rhizoma coptidis in treating type II diabetes mellitus. The rat model of type II diabetes mellitus was constructed by an injection of streptozocin (40 mg/kg), along with diets of fat emulsion. The rats were divided into four groups, the control group, the model group, the Rhizoma coptidis group (10 g/kg) and the metformin group (0.08 g/kg). After the treatment for 30 d, blood samples were collected to test biomedical indexes, and 24 h urine samples were collected for the metabolomics experiment. In the Rhizoma coptidis group, fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol (TC) and total plasma triglycerides (TG) were significantly decreased by 59.26%, 58.66% and 42.18%, respectively, compared with those in the model group. Based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, a urinary metabolomics method was used to study the mechanism of Rhizoma coptidis in treating diabetes mellitus. Based on the principal component analysis, it was found that the model group and control group were separated into two different clusters. The Rhizoma coptidis group was located between the model group and the control group, closer to the control group. Twelve significantly changed metabolites of diabetes mellitus were detected and identified, including 4-methyl phenol, benzoic acid, aminomalonic acid, and so on. After diabetic rats were administered with Rhizoma coptidis, 7 metabolites were significantly changed, and L-ascorbic acid and aminomalonic acid which related with the oxidative stress were significantly regulated to normal. The pharmacological results showed that Rhizoma coptidis could display anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects. The Rhizoma coptidis had antioxidation function in preventing the occurrence of complications with diabetes mellitus to some extent. The work illustrates that the metabolomics method is a useful tool to study the treatment mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine.

  20. Behandeling, controle en metabole instelling van patiënten met diabetes mellitus type II en de prevalentie van late complicaties bij deze patiënten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Verhoeven (Simon)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractDiabetes mellitus is een frequent voorkomende stofwisselingsaandoening, die in minstens twee afzonderlijke ziekten uiteenvalt. Dit zijn het type I diabetes mellitus, de insuline-afhankelijke vorm en het type ll diabetes mellitus, de niet primair insuline-afhankelijke vorm. Beide typen he

  1. Behandeling, controle en metabole instelling van patiënten met diabetes mellitus type II en de prevalentie van late complicaties bij deze patiënten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Verhoeven (Simon)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractDiabetes mellitus is een frequent voorkomende stofwisselingsaandoening, die in minstens twee afzonderlijke ziekten uiteenvalt. Dit zijn het type I diabetes mellitus, de insuline-afhankelijke vorm en het type ll diabetes mellitus, de niet primair insuline-afhankelijke vorm. Beide

  2. Association of Type II 5' Monodeiodinase Thr92Ala Single Nucleotide Gene Polymorphism and Circulating Thyroid Hormones Among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalakanti, Dhanunjaya; Dolia, Pragna B

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus and thyroid disorders are common endocrinopathies, which often occur parallel. Dyslipidemia is very common in both of these conditions. The development of hypothyroidism is well-known in type 1 diabetics, but it was not distinctly understood in type 2 diabetics. Thus we tried to examine the association between type II deiodinase (D2 or DIO2) Thr92Ala single nucleotide gene polymorphism and thyroid function among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. A total of 130 type 2 diabetics were screened and genotyped for DIO2 Thr92Ala polymorphism. Fasting plasma glucose, Glycosylated haemoglobin, lipid and thyroid profiles, malondialdehyde (MDA) and paraoxonase were estimated according to standard procedures. A significant altered level of thyroid hormones (TH's) was found in Ala/Ala genotype when compared with Thr/Thr or Thr/Ala genotype. DIO2 and T3:T4 ratio significantly decreased, whereas total T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone levels significantly elevated among Ala/Ala genotype (131 ± 30 ng/ml; 0.12 ± 0.05; 7.17 ± 2.05 µg/dl; 4.77 ± 3.1 µIU/ml, respectively) when compared with Thr/Thr + Thr/Ala genotypes (176 ± 33 ng/ml; 0.21 ± 0.05; 5.21 ± 1.1 µg/dl; 2.59 ± 1.61 µIU/ml respectively). Moreover, D2 levels were significantly negatively correlated with TH's levels except total T4 among Ala/Ala genotypes. All the patients were having a poor glycemic control, and their glycemic status was positively correlating with MDA levels. On the other hand, serum paraoxonase activity decreased among Ala/Ala genotype (104 ± 21 vs. 118 ± 18 nmol/min/ml). In conclusion, DIO2 Ala92 homozygous variant found to be associated with altered levels of DIO2, Thyroid profile and paraoxonase. Hence, we recommend to do detail study of genetic factors related to thyroid function and prevent additional diabetic complications.

  3. A Systematic Review: Family Support Integrated with Diabetes Self-Management among Uncontrolled Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamungkas, Rian Adi; Chamroonsawasdi, Kanittha; Vatanasomboon, Paranee

    2017-09-15

    The rate of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is dramatically increasing worldwide. Continuing diabetes mellitus (DM) care needs effective self-management education and support for both patients and family members. This study aimed to review and describe the impacts of diabetes mellitus self-management education (DSME) that involve family members on patient outcomes related to patient health behaviors and perceived self-efficacy on self-management such as medication adherence, blood glucose monitoring, diet and exercise changes, health outcomes including psychological well-being and self-efficacy, and physiological markers including body mass index, level of blood pressure, cholesterol level and glycemic control. Three databases, PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus were reviewed for relevant articles. The search terms were "type 2 diabetes," "self-management," "diabetes self-management education (DSME)," "family support," "social support," and "uncontrolled glycaemia." Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) guidelines were used to determine which studies to include in the review. Details of the family support components of DSME intervention and the impacts of these interventions had on improving the health outcomes patients with uncontrolled glycaemia patients. A total of 22 intervention studies were identified. These studies involved different DSME strategies, different components of family support provided, and different health outcomes to be measured among T2D patients. Overall, family support had a positive impact on healthy diet, increased perceived support, higher self-efficacy, improved psychological well-being and better glycemic control. This systematic review found evidence that DSME with family support improved self-management behaviors and health outcomes among uncontrolled glycaemia T2D patients. The findings suggest DSME models that include family engagement can be a useful direction for improving diabetes care.

  4. Correlation between the decrease of cholesterol efflux from macrophages in patients with type II diabetes mellitus and down-regulated CYP7A1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, L D; Li, C Q; Peng, R; Ren, X H; Ma, R L; Wang, Y; Lv, H J

    2015-07-31

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes of cellular cholesterol efflux from macrophages in patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM), and to determine the expression of CYP7A1, ABCG5, and LXRβ therein. We recruited 30 patients with type II DM (including 15 patients complicated with coronary heart disease and 15 patients with DM only) and 15 normal controls for this study. Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated for macrophage culture. The mRNA and protein expression levels of CYP7A1, ABCG5, and LXRβ were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot. The macrophage cholesterol efflux rate was determined with 10% autoserum and standard serum as receptors. We determined that the expression levels of macrophage CYP7A1 mRNA and protein in the type II DM group were significantly lower than those in the control group, but no differences were found in the ABCG5 and LXRβ expression levels between the groups. The macrophage cholesterol efflux rate in the patients with type II DM was also significantly decreased compared with that of the normal control subjects (P CYP7A1 mRNA expression and macrophage cholesterol efflux rate were significantly positively correlated. In summary, this study demonstrated that the macrophage cholesterol efflux in patients with type II DM was significantly reduced, and that this reduction was associated with the down-regulation of CYP7A1 expression.

  5. Development of type 2 diabetes mellitus thirty-one years after Billroth II in a patient asking for diabetes surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garciacaballero, M; Reyes-Ortiz, A; Toval, J A; Martínez-Moreno, J M; Miralles, F

    2014-07-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: La cirugía de la diabetes en pacientes obesos y delgados parece ser una alternativa superior al tratamiento médico actual. El bypass gástrico es un tratamiento alternativo al tratamiento médico actual. Sin embargo, todavía hay dudas sobre si la diabetes puede reaparecer si hay aumento de peso o si se mantienen los efectos en el tiempo. Otras preguntas se refieren al tipo de cirugía para hacer la longitud del remanente gástrico o el tamaño del reservorio para la resolución de la Diabetes Mellitus. Presentación del caso: Paciente masculino de 69 años de edad, vino a nosotros con el fin de realizar el bypass gástrico de una anastomosis a medida (BAGUA) para tratar su diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y el síndrome metabólico. Tiene antecedentes de úlcera péptica tratado con gastrectomía subtotal y reconstrucción tipo Billroth II hace 49 años. Actualmente él no es obeso y desarrolló diabetes 31 años después de la cirugía. DISCUSIÓN: A nivel mundial no hay reportes de pacientes con IMC normal que después de realizar un bypass gástrico desarrollaron diabetes mellitus. Hay casos en que los pacientes diabéticos obesos después del bypass gástrico mejoran o remite la DMT2, pero reaparece debido a la pérdida de peso insuficiente o reganancia de él. El paciente con un bypass gástrico tipo Billroth II, no debió desarrollar diabetes. Él tiene peso normal y no ha aumentado de peso que podría estar relacionado con el desarrollo de diabetes. CONCLUSIÓN: Los resultados generados por la cirugía bariátrica son alentadores, pero aún no aclaran la forma precisa cómo la cirugía produce una rápida mejoría del metabolismo sistémico como la diabetes, pero en nuestro paciente, el efecto fue muy diferente debido a que el bypass gástrico no tuvo un efecto protector contra la diabetes.

  6. SEROLOGICAL MARKERS OF CELIAC DISEASE AND HLA II ANTIGENS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Hennesy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied incidenceof immunological markers of celiac disease in children with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1 and their correlation with clinical peculiarities and polymorphous alleles of HLA. It was shown that incidence of celiac markers is higher in DM1 children than in general population and makes up 7.4%. Patients who were seropositive with celiac antigens had gastrointestinal symptoms and iron deficiency more often. The occurrence rate of other autoimmune disorders in seropositive patients was 24%, with high count of autoantibodies towards transglutaminase (AbTT — 50%. More than 78% of seroposetive patients possessed haplotypes DQ2 and|or DQ8 HLA. The occurrence rate was identical. In patients with high AbTT occurrence of HLA genotypes with DQ2 and/or DQ8 rose up to 100%.

  7. Improvement of the Effectiveness of Antiviral Treatment of Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C and Concomitant Diabetes Mellitus Type II using Alpha-Lipoic Acid and Lactulose

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    Oleksandra Marynchak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Imbalance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines was detected in 104 examined the patients with chronic hepatitis C. These changes were the most significant in patients with concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM type II. Achievement of sustained viral response (SVR under the influence of antiviral therapy depends on the state of cytokines system. This was evidenced by the detected correlation relationship between the levels of viral load (VL in patients with concomitant diabetes mellitus type II, namely, direct weak one between IL-4 and VL (r=0.21 and reverse weak one between the level of IL-2 and VL (r=-0.04. Virus elimination rate and frequency influenced by anti-viral therapy (AVT depends on the balance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This was shown in the research by detection of direct medium correlation relationship between VL and IL-4 (r= 0.31 and reverse medium correlation relationship between VL and IL-2 (r= -0.45.

  8. Effect of type II diabetes mellitus on intact parathyroid hormone level in end stage renal disease patients on maintenance hemodialysis

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    Subhasish Dan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteodystrophy is more common among hemodialysis patients than normal population. Earlier the higher incidence of osteodystrophy among maintenance hemodialysis (MHD patients was attributed to high Intact Parathyroid Hormone (iPTH level (150-300 pg/ml. Osteodystrophy due to high iPTH level is called High Turnover Bone Disease (HTBD. It was later found that another type of osteodystrophy, which can be attributed to low iPTH level and called Low Turnover Bone Disease (LTBD, also afflicts a subset of hemodialysis population, the diabetic End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD patients. In our study, we propose to ascertain if diabetic ESRD patients on MHD have lower iPTH level than their non-diabetic counterparts. Methods: Total 193 patients were enrolled into the study. Of them, 98 had diabetic nephropathy as primary cause of ESRD, 69 had Chronic Glomerulonephritis, 13 had Hypertensive Nephropathy, 8 had Polycystic Kidney Disease, 3 had Urolithiasis and 2 had Drug Induced Nephrotoxicity as primary cause of ESRD. All of them had been on MHD for more than 6 months. We measured the iPTH level of all the patients enrolled in the study. Result. Serum iPTH level was significantly lower in diabetic group than in non-diabetic group (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus contributes towards relatively low iPTH level in diabetic ESRD patients on MHD.

  9. Oxidative DNA damage and oxidized low density lipoprotein in Type II diabetes mellitus among patients with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasif, Wesam Ahmed; Mukhtar, Mohammed Hasan; Nour Eldein, Mohammed Mahmoud; Ashgar, Sami Sadagah

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is reported to be associated with various extragastrointestinal conditions such as insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. H. pylori infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are associated with oxidative stress, this cross-relation between H. pylori induced infection in T2DM and oxidative damage is still debated. Thus, the question arises whether an increase in the serum level of 8-OHdG and Ox-LDL will occurs in patients with T2DM infected H. pylori; this will be through determination and compare frequency of H. pylori infection in T2DM and non-diabetic patients. 100 patients presented with history of epigastric discomfort for more than 1 month; 50 patients with T2DM and 50 non-diabetics. Anti-H. pylori IgG using ELISA, fasting and postprandial glucose level, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Serum 8-OHdG and Ox-LDL was measured using ELISA for the 100 patients and 50 control subject. Rates of H. pylori infection of T2DM and non-diabetic were 66 and 58 %, respectively, (p = 0.001). H. pylori IgG antibody was not correlated with HbA1c either in T2DM (p = 0.06) or non-diabetic (p = 0.25). Serum 8-OHdG level in T2DM with positive H. pylori infection showed a significant difference compared to non-diabetics with positive H. pylori infection (p = 0.001) and higher than that in T2DM with negative H. pylori. A correlation between 8-OHdG concentration and HbA1c in T2DM patients infected with H. pylori was observed (r = 0.39, p = 0.02). Serum Ox-LDL level in T2DM with positive H. pylori infection showed a significant difference compared to diabetics with both negative H. pylori infection and in non-diabetics with positive H. pylori infection (p = 0.001). Increased levels of oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG) and Ox-LDL suggest the mechanistic link between H. pylori infection combined with diabetes and increased generation of ROS and could play as an important

  10. The acute effects of in-patient physiotherapy program on functional capacity in type II diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdirenç, Mehtap; Koçak, Gülsah; Güntekin, Rifat

    2004-06-01

    This study was planned to evaluate the acute effects of a short-term in-patient physiotherapy program on functional capacity in hospitalised type II diabetic patients. Forty four hospitalised type II diabetic patients in continuing medical care at Dokuz Eylül University Hospital were included in this study. Twenty three of the 44 patients were randomised to an exercise rehabilitation group and 21 to a control group. Patients in the exercise group were assigned to an average 12.0+/-2.4 days low-intensity exercise rehabilitation program during hospitalisation. The control group did not receive any exercise advice. Before and after the exercise rehabilitation program all patients' functional capacity was evaluated by the 6 min walking test. There were no significant differences in the main measured parameters among groups and in the 6 min walking test at baseline. At the end of the rehabilitation program, the resting heart rate (HR) decreased by 4.1% (Prehabilitation. The Borg scale did not change in the control group. Supervised in-patient exercise rehabilitation is a safe and effective intervention in type II diabetic patients, which reduces physical impairment and improves functional ability.

  11. A mixed-methods needs assessment of adult diabetes mellitus (type II) and hypertension care in Toledo, Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Annette M; Amick, Ashley E; Scholcoff, Cecilia; Doobay-Persaud, Ashti

    2017-02-28

    Non-communicable diseases, including diabetes mellitus and hypertension, continue to disproportionately burden low- and middle-income countries. However, little research has been done to establish current practices and management of chronic disease in these settings. The objective of this study was to examine current clinical management and identify potential gaps in care of patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension in the district of Toledo, Belize. The study used a mixed methodology to assess current practices and identify gaps in diabetes mellitus and hypertension care. One hundred and twenty charts of the general clinic population were reviewed to establish disease epidemiology. One hundred and seventy-eight diabetic and hypertensive charts were reviewed to assess current practices. Twenty providers completed questionnaires regarding diabetes mellitus and hypertension management. Twenty-five individuals with diabetes mellitus and/or hypertension answered a questionnaire and in-depth interview. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension was 12%. Approximately 51% (n = 43) of patients with hypertension were at blood pressure goal and 26% (n = 21) diabetic patients were at glycemic goal based on current guidelines. Of the patients with uncontrolled diabetes, 49% (n = 29) were on two oral agents and only 10% (n = 6) were on insulin. Providers stated that barriers to appropriate management include concerns prescribing insulin and patient health literacy. Patients demonstrated a general understanding of the concept of chronic illness, however lacked specific knowledge regarding disease processes and self-management strategies. This study provides an initial overview of diabetes mellitus and hypertension management in a diverse patient population in rural Belize. Results indicate areas for future investigation and possible intervention, including barriers to insulin use and opportunities for lifestyle-specific disease education for

  12. Exercise and cognitive function: a hypothesis for the association of type II diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease from an evolutionary perspective

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    Brito Gilberto NO

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The association of type II diabetes mellitus (DM2 with Alzheimer's disease (AD has received considerable attention in recent years. In the present paper, a hypothesis for this association from an evolutionary perspective, with emphasis on the close interplay between exercise and cognitive function, will be advanced in order to provide a biological rationale for the notion that the fundamental metabolic features of DM2 act in the brain over a protracted time span to induce the neuropathological characteristics of Alzheimer's disease thereby producing cognitive impairment. It is hoped that this hypothesis puts the association of DM2 and AD on firm conceptual grounds from a biological perspective and offers directions for further research.

  13. Osteogenesis Imperfecta with Celiac Disease and Type II Diabetes Mellitus Associated: Improvement with a Gluten-Free Diet

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    Luis Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI is a genetic disease, with a connective tissue alteration, consisting in the presence of multiple spontaneous fractures or after minimal traumatism. Its association with other metabolic processes is rarely described. We present the clinical case of a female adult patient of 43 years. From her infancy, she has had multiple fractures, needing several surgical interventions, and she was diagnosed of OI type 2 at adolescence age. Due mainly to difficulties in walking remaining in wheel-chair in the last three years, she was overweight with morbid obesity (BMI=45.4 and had a type-II DM associated. She suffered from recurrent abdominal pain and chronic diarrhea and was diagnosed of celiac disease (CD with increased intraepithelial duodenal infiltration, being classified as lymphocytic enteritis, Marsh I type. She was put on a gluten-free diet (GFD, having lost 6 kg of weight after 6 months, with a good control of DM-II and presenting a significant clinical improvement. It is rewarding to search the presence of two coincidental metabolic diseases associated to OI, specially CD, because of the dramatic clinical benefit in the general found after putting on a GFD.

  14. Non-adherence to diet and exercise recommendations amongst patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending Extension II Clinic in Botswana

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    Adewale B. Ganiyu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Extension II Clinic in Botswana have difficulty in adhering to the lifestyle modifications recommended by healthcare practitioners. Poor adherence to lifestyle recommendations leads to poor control of the condition and consequently to complications.Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine reasons for poor adherence to lifestyle recommendations amongst the patients. The objectives were to determine: reasons for pooradherence to dietary requirements, exercise recommendations, the support they had in adhering to the recommendations, and their understanding of the role of dietary and exercise requirements in the management of their condition.Method: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. The sample comprised of 105 participants. Data on participants’ baseline characteristics and adherence to dietary and exercise habits were analysed using the SPSS 14.0 version.Results: The sample of 104 participants comprised of 61 (58.7% women. The rates of nonadherence to diet and exercise were 37% and 52% respectively. The main reasons for nonadherence to diet were: poor self-discipline (63.4%; lack of information (33.3% and thetendency to eat out (31.7%. The main reasons for non-adherence to exercise were: lack of information (65.7%; the perception that exercise exacerbated their illness (57.6% and lack of an exercise partner (24.0%.Conclusion: There was a relatively high rate of non-adherence to both diet and exercise recommendations by patients suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus at Extension II Clinic,Botswana, with non-adherence to exercise recommendations more common.

  15. Rare types of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, B; Mihai, Cătălina; Cijevschi-Prelipcean, Cristina; Lăcătuşu, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a heterogenous disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and induced by a large number of etiopathogenic conditions. Beside type 1 and type 2 diabetes, which account for almost 90% of all cases, practitioners may encounter patients with more infrequent forms of diabetes, as those induced by mutations of a single gene, atypical immune disorders or neonatal diabetes. Monogenic diabetes is represented by genetic disorders in the structure of the beta-cell (the MODY syndromes and the mutations of mitochondrial DNA) or in the insulin's action (type A insulin resistance syndrome, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, leprechaunism, lipodystrophies). The rare forms of immune diabetes are determined by antibodies against insulin or insulin receptor or appear as a component of the "stiff man syndrome". Neonatal diabetes is induced by mutations in genes that control beta-cell development and function and may have a transient or permanent nature. Knowledge of the uncommon forms of diabetes mellitus enables physicians to apply the optimal treatment, to estimate the evolution of the patient and to apply a complete family screening in order to diagnose all other blood relatives as soon as possible.

  16. Compreendendo o significado de qualidade de vida segundo idosos portadores de diabetes mellitus tipo II Comprendiendo el significado de la calidad de vida según ancianos portadores de diabetes mellitus tipo II Understanding the meaning of quality of life to older persons with type-2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Patrícia Ribeiro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa com abordagem fenomenológica, objetivando descrever o significado de qualidade de vida, segundo relatos de idosos portadores de diabetes mellitus tipo II, e avaliar as repercussões da doença sobre sua vida. Entrevistamos 12 idosos diabéticos, no período de setembro a outubro de 2008, entre um e quarenta anos de evolução da doença. Foi feita a seguinte questão norteadora: "Para o Sr. (a, o que significa qualidade de vida?" A análise dos discursos mostrou facetas relevantes ligadas ao cotidiano do idoso com diabetes mellitus. Para eles, a qualidade de vida está intimamente relacionada à saúde física, independência na vida diária e econômica, integração social, suporte familiar e saúde mental-espiritual. A restrição alimentar foi o ponto de maior repercussão do diabetes sobre seu modo de viver. Verificou-se que cabe aos profissionais de saúde ampliar o diálogo profissional-paciente, promovendo autonomia e independência no cuidado e corresponsabilização.Esta es una investigación cualitativa con enfoque fenomenológico que pretende describir el significado de la calidad de vida según relatos de ancianos portadores de diabetes mellitus tipo II y evaluar las repercusiones de la enfermedad sobre su vida. Entrevistamos a 12 ancianos diabéticos en el período de septiembre a octubre de 2008, entre uno y cuarenta años de evolución de la enfermedad. Se hizo la siguiente cuestión guía: "Para usted, ¿qué significa calidad de vida?" El análisis de los discursos mostró facetas relevantes ligadas al cotidiano del anciano con diabetes mellitus. Para ellos, la calidad de vida está íntimamente relacionada con la salud física, independencia en la vida diaria y económica, integración social, soporte familiar y salud mental y espiritual. La restricción alimentar ha sido el punto de mayor repercusión de la diabetes sobre su modo de vivir. Se observó que compete a los profesionales de

  17. Diabetes mellitus type II as a risk factor for depression: a lower than expected risk in a general practice setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, S; van den Akker, M; van Boxtel, M P J; Jolles, J; Winkens, B; Metsemakers, J F M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM) in a primary setting is associated with an increased risk of subsequent depression. A retrospective cohort design was used based on the Registration Network Family Practice (RNH) database. Patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus at or after the age of 40 and who were diagnosed between 01-01-1980 and 01-01-2007 (N = 6,140), were compared with age-matched controls from a reference group (N = 18,416) without a history of diabetes. Both groups were followed for an emerging first diagnosis of depression (and/or depressive feelings) until January 1, 2008. 2.0% of the people diagnosed with diabetes mellitus developed a depressive disorder, compared to 1.6% of the reference group. After statistical correction for confounding factors diabetes mellitus was associated with an increased risk of developing subsequent depression (HR 1.26; 95% CI: 1.12-1.42) and/or depressive feelings (HR 1.33; 95% CI: 1.18-1.46). After statistical adjustment practice identification code, age and depression preceding diabetes, were significantly related to a diagnosis of depression. Patients with diabetes mellitus are more likely to develop subsequent depression than persons without a history of diabetes. Results from this large longitudinal study based on a general practice population indicate that this association is weaker than previously found in cross-sectional research using self-report surveys. Several explanations for this dissimilarity are discussed

  18. Enhanced escape of non-esterified fatty acids from tissue uptake : its role in impaired insulin-induced lowering of total rate of appearance in obesity and Type II diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, SC; Sluiter, WJ; Dullaart, RPF

    2000-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis. To estimate non-esterified fatty acids kinetics in patients with Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and obese subjects in the postabsorptive state and during hyperinsulinaemia using non-equlibrium tracer conditions. Methods. We evaluated the effect of hyperinsulinaemi

  19. Association of Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapy and the Risk of Vascular Complications in Patients With Type II Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ai-Lin; Chen, Bor-Chyuan; Mou, Chih-Hsin; Sun, Mao-Feng; Yen, Hung-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract With an increasing use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), evidence of long-term benefit with adjunctive TCM treatment is limited. This study investigated whether the concurrent TCM treatment reduces the risk of vascular complications in T2DM patients by using a large population from National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We identified 33,457 adult patients with newly diagnosed T2DM using anti-diabetic agents from a random sample of one million beneficiaries in the NHIRD between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2011. We recruited 1049 TCM users (received TCM over 30 days with a diagnosis of T2DM) and randomly selected 4092 controls as the non-TCM cohort at a ratio of 1:4 frequency-matched by age, sex, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and index year. We investigated the prescription pattern of TCM and conducted a Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of stroke, chronic kidney diseases (CKD), and diabetic foot between the 2 cohorts. In the TCM cohort, the prescription pattern of TCM was different between insulin and noninsulin patients. The most common herbs were Dan-Shen (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae) in noninsulin group and Da-Huang (Radix et Rhizoma Rhei) in insulin group. The most common formulae were Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan in noninsulin group and Yu-Quan-Wan in insulin group. Although no significant reduction in the hazard ratio of CKD and diabetic foot, the incidence rate of stroke was 7.19 per 1000 person-years in the TCM cohort and 10.66 per 1000 person-years in the control cohort, respectively. After adjustment of age, sex, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and antidiabetes agent use (including sulfonylureas, α-glucosidase, metformin, meglitinide, thiazolidinediones, and insulin), TCM cohorts were found to have a 33% decreased risk of stroke (95% CI = 0.46–0.97; P < 0.05). This population-based retrospective study showed that the complementary TCM therapy might

  20. [Comprehensive assessment of ischemic episodes and vasomotor function of vascular endothelium in patients with type II diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarchenko, I P; Posdniakova, N V; Dudukina, E A; Morozova, O I

    2007-01-01

    Value of functional state of endothelium in assessment of episodes of ischemia was studied in 93 patients (52 men and 41 women, mean age 58.3 +/- 4.8 years) divided into 2 groups. Group 1 comprised 47 patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and type II diabetes, group 2 comprised 46 patients with IHD without disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism. Patients of these groups had similar sex, age, and main risk factors. Examination included Holter ECG monitoring, stress test, echocardiography, test with reactive hyperemia (ultrasound measurement of endothelium dependent vasodilation of brachial artery). Number of painless ischemic episodes (PIE), total duration of episodes of ischemia, maximal depth of ST-segment lowering were greater in patients of group I compared with group 2. Correlation analysis revealed significant negative relationship between endothelial dysfunction and number and duration of episodes of ischemia, time interval between appearances of pain and ischemic ST depression.

  1. The use of oral recombinant feline interferon omega in two cats with type II diabetes mellitus and concurrent feline chronic gingivostomatitis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Rodolfo O; Gil, Solange; Brito, Maria Tv; McGahie, David; Niza, Maria Mre; Tavares, Luís

    2013-10-23

    Feline Chronic Gingivostomatitis Syndrome (FCGS) is a common disease in clinical practice. Among the therapeutic options available, long-acting corticosteroids are frequently used due to their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Although they may improve the clinical symptoms, they can lead to a progressive form of the disease that becomes refractory to treatment. Furthermore, their direct relationship with type II diabetes mellitus (DM) is well known. Consequently, these drugs are controversial and not recommended for routine management of FCGS. Recombinant feline interferon-omega (rFeIFN-ω) is an immunomodulatory compound. Recently, its daily oral administration has been shown to be successful in treating refractory cases of FCGS. This case study describes two clinical cases of type II DM complicated by FCGS. Both animals were calicivirus positive and they had been previously treated with long-acting corticosteroids, which may have been the major cause of DM. The two cats were treated with glargine insulin (Lantus, starting dose 1 IU/cat twice daily (BID)), achieving remission 10 and 18 weeks later respectively. Considering the difficulty with control of FCGS in these animals, an oral daily dose of rFeIFN-ω was started as an alternative to long-acting corticosteroids. In both cats oral clinical signs gradually improved and 60 days after the start of therapy the owners reported a significant relief of pain during mastication. According to the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report that describes the successful use of rFeIFN-ω in the management of FCGS in type II diabetic cats, in which long-acting corticosteroids are contraindicated.

  2. Polymorphism AvaII of the LDL receptor (rs5925 is associated with carotid-intima media thickness in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Nikolajević-Starčević

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Increased serum level of low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol is a well established risk factor for atherosclerosis development and progression. Genetic variation in the LDL receptor gene could modulate serum LDL level and response to statin treatment thus affecting atherosclerosis development and progression. The present study was designed to investigate the association between polymorphism AvaII (rs5925 of the LDL receptor gene with serum lipid levels and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2.Methods 595 patients with DM2 (399 on statin therapy and 196 without were enrolled in the study. The carotid intima-media thickness was assessed ultrasonographically. Biochemical analyses were performed using standard biochemical methods. AvaII (rs5925 genotypes were determined by real-time PCR. Results Genotype distribution and allele frequencies were not statistically significantly different between DM2 patients with regard to statin therapy. In DM2 patients using statins the highest serum levels of total and LDL cholesterol were observed in homozygous carriers of the A+ allele. After adjustment for well established cardiovascular risk factors homozygosity for the A+ allele (β=0.441 and p=0.04, statin treatment as well as serum levels of HDL, triglycerides, hsCRP and fibrinogen were independently associated with CIMT. Interactions of AvaII genotypes A-A+ and A+A+ with statin treatment were not statistically significant.Conclusion Homozigosity for the A+ allele of the AvaII polymorphism is associated with greater CIMT in DM2 patients.

  3. Diosgenin from Dioscorea bulbifera: novel hit for treatment of type II diabetes mellitus with inhibitory activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

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    Sougata Ghosh

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial metabolic disease characterized by post-prandial hyperglycemia (PPHG. α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitors aim to explore novel therapeutic agents. Herein we report the promises of Dioscorea bulbifera and its bioactive principle, diosgenin as novel α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitor. Among petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol and 70% ethanol (v/v extracts of bulbs of D. bulbifera, ethyl acetate extract showed highest inhibition upto 72.06 ± 0.51% and 82.64 ± 2.32% against α-amylase and α-glucosidase respectively. GC-TOF-MS analysis of ethyl acetate extract indicated presence of high diosgenin content. Diosgenin was isolated and identified by FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR and confirmed by HPLC which showed an α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition upto 70.94 ± 1.24% and 81.71 ± 3.39%, respectively. Kinetic studies confirmed the uncompetitive mode of binding of diosgenin to α-amylase indicated by lowering of both Km and Vm. Interaction studies revealed the quenching of intrinsic fluorescence of α-amylase in presence of diosgenin. Similarly, circular dichroism spectrometry showed diminished negative humped peaks at 208 nm and 222 nm. Molecular docking indicated hydrogen bonding between carboxyl group of Asp300, while hydrophobic interactions between Tyr62, Trp58, Trp59, Val163, His305 and Gln63 residues of α-amylase. Diosgenin interacted with two catalytic residues (Asp352 and Glu411 from α-glucosidase. This is the first report of its kind that provides an intense scientific rationale for use of diosgenin as novel drug candidate for type II diabetes mellitus.

  4. A prospective study on drug utilization pattern AND rationality in treatment of type II diabetes mellitus: a population based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Vihang Brahmbhatt

    2014-06-01

    Results: Diabetes mellitus was observed to be highest in patients with the age group of 60-70 years, affecting 66% males and 34% females. Among the participants 42 (84% were already on treatment for diabetes while 8 (16% were diagnosed at the time of admission. We observed that 27 (54% patients were treated with insulin + oral hypoglycemic agents, 13 (26% were treated with only Insulin while 10 (20% patients were prescribed only oral hypoglycemic agents. The most common comorbid conditions observed by us were hypertension, chronic renal disease, diabetic foot, septicemia, urinary tract infections and other susceptible infections. Conclusion: To conclude, the study reveals that Metformin continues to be the choice of oral hypoglycemic agents with least adverse effects and insulin was used to treat uncontrolled state, where physicians have greatly considered the socio-economic status while prescribing which is obvious with least use of costly insulin preparations. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 983-987

  5. Role of glipizide therapy on oxidative stress parameters in the patient with Type-II diabetes mellitus

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    Prakash P. Malam

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Glipizide therapy significantly reduced oxidative free radicals and increased antioxidant mechanism, which reduced oxidative stress, progression DM-II and its related complication. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 995-999

  6. Comparative Evaluation of the Lipid Profile in the Serum of Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Healthy Individuals with Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Biju; Prasad, Rajendra B; Shetty, Sucheta; Vishakh, R

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal disease is an immuno-inflammatory disease that is initiated by the interaction between microbial plaque and the periodontal tissues. The data available on the association of periodontal diseases with the lipid profile are conflicting. Therefore, a need for a study in this area was felt. To evaluate the lipid profile in the serum of patients with chronic periodontitis and chronic periodontitis with Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) patients and to compare it with healthy controls, to see whether they can serve as potential markers for chronic periodontitis and also to assess whether periodontitis can have systemic effects. This study is a cross-sectional study. This cross-sectional study was conducted involving 300 participants in the age group of 30-60 years from October 2010 to May 2015. Five milliliters of venous blood was collected from each of the study participants, from the antecubital vein. Lipid profile was assessed using the ERBA commercially available kit. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS software version 17. Multigroup comparison was carried out using ANOVA. The honest significant difference Tukey's test was used in conjunction with ANOVA to find means which are significantly different from each other. When the lipid profile was estimated, total cholesterol (TC) levels were seen to be significantly higher (P periodontitis group. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were seen to be significantly higher (P periodontitis group. The triglyceride (TGL) values were also significantly higher (P periodontitis group. The HDL and LDL levels were seen to be nonsignificant between chronic periodontitis and chronic periodontitis with diabetic group. The findings of the study showed that the lipid profile was significantly altered in patients with chronic periodontitis as compared to healthy controls. There was a potentiated difference in the values for TC, VLDL cholesterol, and TGL in patients with chronic periodontitis when compared to

  7. Resistance Training in Type II Diabetes Mellitus: Impact on Areas of Metabolic Dysfunction in Skeletal Muscle and Potential Impact on Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Wood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Type II Diabetes mellitus (T2DM is increasing rapidly and will continue to be a major healthcare expenditure burden. As such, identification of effective lifestyle treatments is paramount. Skeletal muscle and bone display metabolic and functional disruption in T2DM. Skeletal muscle in T2DM is characterized by insulin resistance, impaired glycogen synthesis, impairments in mitochondria, and lipid accumulation. Bone quality in T2DM is decreased, potentially due to the effects of advanced glycation endproducts on collagen, impaired osteoblast activity, and lipid accumulation. Although exercise is widely recognized as an important component of treatment for T2DM, the focus has largely been on aerobic exercise. Emerging research suggests that resistance training (strength training may impose potent and unique benefits in T2DM. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of resistance training in treating the dysfunction in skeletal muscle and the potential role for resistance training in treating the associated dysfunction in bone.

  8. Potential Utility of Sodium Selenate as an Adjunct to Metformin in Treating Type II Diabetes Mellitus in Rats: A Perspective on Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania M. Salama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metformin is widely regarded as the standard first-line antidiabetic agent, in terms of efficacy and safety profiles. However, in most patients with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM, it was found that metformin alone is not enough to adequately control hyperglycemia. Thus, we designed this study with the aim to investigate the effect of sodium selenate, a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP inhibitor, individually and as an adjunct to metformin, on a rat model that simulates the metabolic characteristics of human T2DM. T2DM model was achieved by feeding the rats with high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFFD for 8 weeks followed by a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ (35 mg/kg/day, i.p.. Changes in serum glucose, insulin, adiponectin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index, and the lipid profile were assessed. In addition, the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of PTP were determined in the liver. Results showed that the addition of sodium selenate to metformin was able to restore hepatic GSH back to normal levels. Also, this combination therapy corrected the altered serum total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, and adiponectin levels. In conclusion, additive therapeutic effect was recorded when sodium selenate was used as an adjunct to metformin.

  9. Recent insights in islet amyloid polypeptide-induced membrane disruption and its role in β-cell death in type II diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khemtémourian, L.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304824372; Killian, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071792317; Höppener, J.W.M.; Engel, M.F.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/263614190

    2008-01-01

    The presence of fibrillar protein deposits (amyloid) of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans is thought to be related to death of the insulin-producing islet β-cells in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The mechanism of hIAPP-induced β-cell death is not

  10. Apical Periodontitis and Endodontic Treatment in Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus: Comparative Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadi, Leena

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients compared with nondiabetic patients and to examine the effect of glycemic control on the prevalence of AP. Radiographs of a group of DM patients were compared with those of a matched nondiabetic group to identify AP. The diabetic group was subdivided according to the level of glycemic control into two subgroups: A well-controlled DM and a poorly controlled DM. The periapical index score was used to assess the periapical status. All groups were compared in regard to the presence of AP lesions, the number of end-odontically treated teeth (ET), and the percentage of failure of endodontically treated teeth (AP/ET ratio). Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0, Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used for all the analyses; p ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The prevalence of AP was higher in diabetic group than in the nondiabetic group (13.5 vs 11.9% respectively). Diabetic group had more teeth with endodontic treatment ET compared with nondiabetic group (4.18 vs 1.82% respectively); this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.001) along with higher AP/ET ratio (27.7 vs 19.3 respectively). The poorly controlled DM group had a higher prevalence of AP lesions compared with the well-controlled DM group (18.29 vs 9.21 respectively). This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.001); they also had a higher percentage of ET (5.55 vs 3.13% respectively) and AP/ ET ratio (32.0 vs 21.8% respectively). This survey demonstrates a higher prevalence of AP in DM patients compared with nondiabetic group, with an increased prevalence of persistent chronic AP. Compared with a well-controlled diabetic group, a poor glycemic control may be associated with a higher prevalence of AP and increased rate of endodontic failures. Counseling diabetic patients, particularly those with poor glycemic control, about the risk of

  11. Papel da cirurgia bariátrica no controle do diabete melito tipo II The role of bariatric surgery on diabetes mellitus type 2 control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Vodola Forcina

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Sabe-se que hoje um dos grandes problemas de saúde pública refere-se a diabete melito com projeção de atingir 366 milhões de pacientes até 2030, entre indivíduos insulino (DM tipo I e não-insulino (DM tipo II dependentes. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar por meio de revisão ampla da literatura os resultados encontrados no controle do DM tipo II com diferentes modalidades de tratamento cirúrgico disponíveis em nosso meio. MÉTODO: A partir de 2004 foram levantados 73 trabalhos, sendo que destes 22 versavam especificamente sobre o tema nas bases de dados LiIacs, Medline, Pubmed cruzando os descritores diabete melito e cirurgia. RESULTADOS: Dentre as operações avaliadas obtiveram resultados satisfatórios em 98,9% a derivação biliopancreática ou duodenal, em 83,7% bypass gástrico, em 71,6% gastroplastia e em 47,9% bandas gástricas. Quanto às complicações, encontram-se descritas as mais diversas, desde as da ferida operatória até casos de insuficiência hepática aguda após cirurgia bariátrica que evoluíram com necessidade de transplante ou mesmo óbito, demonstrando que a decisão pelo tratamento operatório deve ser feita de maneira criteriosa ponderando-se o custo benefício. CONCLUSÃO: As técnicas cirúrgicas bariátricas, exercem melhora do diabete tipo II e as derivações biliopancreática, duodenal switch, Scopinaro e bypass gástrico com Y de Roux são as mais indicadas.INTRODUCTION: One of the today's biggest health problems is diabetes mellitus and is projected to have 366 million patients in 2030, between insulin (DM I and non-insulin dependent (DM II. AIM: To evaluate through a literature review the surgical results in the type II using surgical methods available in bariatric surgery. METHOD: The scientific databases Lilacs, Medline and Pubmed were used to collect papers with the surgical treatment of diabetes and 73 articles were found, being 22 specifically related to the subject. RESULTS: Surgery shows inicial

  12. Comparative evaluation of the lipid profile in the serum of patients with type II diabetes mellitus and healthy individuals with periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Periodontal disease is an immuno-inflammatory disease that is initiated by the interaction between microbial plaque and the periodontal tissues. The data available on the association of periodontal diseases with the lipid profile are conflicting. Therefore, a need for a study in this area was felt. Aims: To evaluate the lipid profile in the serum of patients with chronic periodontitis and chronic periodontitis with Type II diabetes mellitus (DM patients and to compare it with healthy controls, to see whether they can serve as potential markers for chronic periodontitis and also to assess whether periodontitis can have systemic effects. Settings and Design: This study is a cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted involving 300 participants in the age group of 30–60 years from October 2010 to May 2015. Five milliliters of venous blood was collected from each of the study participants, from the antecubital vein. Lipid profile was assessed using the ERBA commercially available kit. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS software version 17. Multigroup comparison was carried out using ANOVA. The honest significant difference Tukey's test was used in conjunction with ANOVA to find means which are significantly different from each other. Results: When the lipid profile was estimated, total cholesterol (TC levels were seen to be significantly higher (P < 0.001 in the DM with periodontitis group. High-density lipoprotein (HDL levels were seen to be significantly higher (P < 0.001 in the control group. Mean serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL and very LDL (VLDL levels were seen to be significantly higher (P < 0.001 in the DM with periodontitis group. The triglyceride (TGL values were also significantly higher (P < 0.001 in the DM with periodontitis group. The HDL and LDL levels were seen to be nonsignificant between chronic periodontitis and chronic periodontitis with

  13. A STUDY TO CORRELATE HBA1C LEVELS AND LEFT VENTRICULAR DIASTOLIC DYSFUNCTION IN NEWLY DIAGNOSED TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasanthi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM To assess the correlation of HBA1C levels with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetic patient. This prospective study was done at Department of General Medicine, OPD, Medical Wards, Stanley Medical College and Hospital, Chennai. RESULT The mean HBA1C levels were meaningfully more in Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction (LVDD positive group compared to the LVDD negative group by 1.33%. This significant difference of 15% increase in mean HBA1C levels in LVDD positive group compared to the LVDD negative group is true and has not occurred by chance. CONCLUSION One-fifth to one-third of diabetic patients will develop LVDD. Patients with HBA1C (8 to 10 have double the chances to develop LVDD than with HbA1c 6.5 to 8. Patients with HBA1C more than 10 have five times the chances to develop LVDD than with HbA1C 6.5 to 8. Patients with HBA1C more than 10 have three times the chances to develop LVDD than with HBA1C 8 to 10. One-fourth to one-half of diabetic patients will develop LVDD grade 1. Patients with HBA1C 8 to 10 have double the chances to develop LVDD grade 1 than with HBA1C 6.5 to 8. Patients with HBA1C more than 10 have four times the chances to develop LVDD grade 1 than with HBA1C 6.5 to 8. Patients with HBA1C more than 10 have two times the chances to develop LVDD than with HBA1C 8 to 10

  14. Dyslipidemia in Type 2 Diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Subarna Dhoj Thapa; Shiva Raj K.C.; Santosh Gautam; Deepika Gyawali

    2017-01-01

    Background: In type 2 diabetes mellitus lipid abnormalities are very common and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases.  This study was conducted to find association of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at KISTMCTH. All the necessary data of patient with type 2 diabetes in the period between December 2016 and May 2017 were studied.Results: Out of 199 patients with diabetes mellitus 30.7% had total cholesterol...

  15. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarry-Horn, Jill L.; Evans, Barbara J.; Kerrigan, James R.

    2003-01-01

    In the United States, the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in children and adolescents has been increasing at an alarming rate. Early recognition and intervention can delay the onset of type 2 DM and prevent the long-term complications. School nurses have an essential role in implementing the American Diabetes Association (ADA)…

  16. [Surgical treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Esper, Raúl; Muciño-Bermejo, María Jimena

    2014-01-01

    Sustained remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus and significantly improved hyperlipidemia and arterial hypertension, control has been achieves in both lean and obese patient after bariatric surgery procedures or other gastrointestinal surgical procedures. It has been demonstrated that the metabolic effects of bariatric surgery in these patients derives not only in reducing weight and caloric intake, but also endocrine changes resulting from surgical manifestation gastrointestinal tract. In this article we review the clinical outcomes of such interventions (collectively called "metabolic surgery") and the perspectives on the role that these surgeries play in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  17. Lixisenatide for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an increasing health problem worldwide. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are an expanding drug class that target several of the pathophysiological traits of T2DM. Lixisenatide is a GLP-1 receptor agonist in development for once...

  18. Additive effects of cilnidipine, an L-/N-type calcium channel blocker, and an angiotensin II receptor blocker on reducing cardiorenal damage in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mori Y

    2014-06-01

    receptor type 1 antagonism. Thus, Cil may inhibit the progression of cardiorenal disease in type 2 diabetes patients by acting as an N-type CCB and inhibiting the aldosterone secretion and SNS activation when these drugs were administered in combination with an Ang II receptor blocker. Keywords: calcium channel blocker, combination therapy, angiotensin, type 2 diabetes mellitus

  19. The effect of metformin on the myocardial tolerance to ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat model of diabetes mellitus type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchuk, Ekaterina; Grineva, Elena; Bairamov, Alekber; Galagudza, Michael; Vlasov, Timur

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, evidence has been accumulated that metformin, an antidiabetic drug in the biguanide class, in addition to its well-recognized glucose-lowering effect, can also reduce cardiovascular mortality in the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Besides, there are a few experimental studies on the possibility of the direct anti-ischemic effect of the drug in both type 1 diabetes mellitus and T2DM. In our study, myocardial tolerance to ischemia in rats with neonatal streptozotocin T2DM was investigated using the model of global ischemia-reperfusion of the isolated perfused heart. Metformin was administered i.p. at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day for 3 days prior to isolated heart perfusion. The results showed that both the infarct size and postischemic recovery of left ventricular function were not different between controls and metformin-treated animals. At the same time, the infarct size in the T2DM animals was significantly lower than that in the controls (24.4 ± 7.6% versus 45.0 ± 10.4%, resp., P < .01), indicative of the metabolic preconditioning in T2DM. It follows that the protocol of metformin administration used in this study had not elicited cardioprotective effect in animals with T2DM so that the different mechanism(s) may underlie the beneficial effect of metformin on cardiovascular complications in patients with T2DM which, however, would need further investigation.

  20. The Effect of Metformin on the Myocardial Tolerance to Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in the Rat Model of Diabetes Mellitus Type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Kravchuk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, evidence has been accumulated that metformin, an antidiabetic drug in the biguanide class, in addition to its well-recognized glucose-lowering effect, can also reduce cardiovascular mortality in the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Besides, there are a few experimental studies on the possibility of the direct anti-ischemic effect of the drug in both type 1 diabetes mellitus and T2DM. In our study, myocardial tolerance to ischemia in rats with neonatal streptozotocin T2DM was investigated using the model of global ischemia-reperfusion of the isolated perfused heart. Metformin was administered i.p. at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day for 3 days prior to isolated heart perfusion. The results showed that both the infarct size and postischemic recovery of left ventricular function were not different between controls and metformin-treated animals. At the same time, the infarct size in the T2DM animals was significantly lower than that in the controls (24.4 ± 7.6% versus 45.0 ± 10.4%, resp., P<.01, indicative of the metabolic preconditioning in T2DM. It follows that the protocol of metformin administration used in this study had not elicited cardioprotective effect in animals with T2DM so that the different mechanism(s may underlie the beneficial effect of metformin on cardiovascular complications in patients with T2DM which, however, would need further investigation.

  1. Diabetes mellitus-associated periodontitis: differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspriello, S D; Zizzi, A; Tirabassi, G; Buldreghini, E; Biscotti, T; Faloia, E; Stramazzotti, D; Boscaro, M; Piemontese, M

    2011-04-01

    Although many studies have appeared about diabetes mellitus-associated periodontitis, few have compared periodontitis inflammatory markers between type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and information regarding this issue is scarce and contradictory. We evaluated the levels of plasma C-reactive protein and of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in gingival crevicular fluid in two groups of subjects affected by T1DM and T2DM, in order to identify possible differences between the two classes in the inflammatory mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-associated periodontitis. Plasma C-reactive protein and gingival crevicular fluid IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were measured in periodontitis patients affected by type 1 (P-T1DM, n = 24) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (P-T2DM, n = 24). Gingival crevicular fluid levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in P-T1DM subjects were significantly higher than in P-T2DM subjects. In P-T1DM subjects, we found significant negative correlations between the duration of diabetes mellitus and IL-1β and between the duration of diabetes mellitus and TNF-α. This study shows that IL-1β and TNF-α levels in periodontitis patients with T1DM are affected by the duration of diabetes mellitus. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. [Acatalasemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góth, László; Nagy, Teréz; Káplár, Miklós

    2015-03-08

    The catalase enzyme decomposes the toxic concentrations of hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water. Hydrogen peroxide is a highly reactive small molecule and its excessive concentration may cause significant damages to proteins, deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid and lipids. Acatalasemia refers to inherited deficiency of the catalase enzyme. In this review the authors discuss the possible role of the human catalase enzyme, the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide, and the phenomenon of hydrogen peroxide paradox. In addition, they review data obtained from Hungarian acatalasemic patients indicating an increased frequency of type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially in female patients, and an early onset of type 2 diabetes in these patients. There are 10 catalase gene variants which appear to be responsible for decreased blood catalase activity in acatalasemic patients with type 2 diabetes. It is assumed that low levels of blood catalase may cause an increased concentration of hydrogen peroxide which may contribute to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  3. Dyslipidemias in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Nnewi South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dyslipidemias in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Nnewi South-East Nigeria. ... of micro and macrovascular complications in diabetes mellitus patients. ... can be instituted to reduce the risk of macro and microvascular complications.

  4. Type 2 diabetes mellitus as a disorder of galanin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Penghua; Shi, Mingyi; Zhu, Yan; Bo, Ping; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus with its high morbidity and mortality becomes an important health problem. The multifactorial etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus is relative to many gene and molecule alterations, and increased insulin resistance. Besides these, however, there are still other predisposing and risk factors accounting for type 2 diabetes mellitus not to be identified and recognized. Emerging evidence indicated that defects in galanin function played a crucial role in development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Galanin homeostasis is tightly relative to insulin resistance and is regulated by blood glucose. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinism, enhanced plasma galanin levels and decreased galanin receptor activities are some of the characters of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The discrepancy between high insulin level and low glucose handling is named as insulin resistance. Similarly, the discrepancy between high galanin level and low glucose handling may be denominated as galanin resistance too. In this review, the characteristic milestones of type 2 diabetes mellitus were condensed as two analogical conceptual models, obesity-hyper-insulin-insulin resistance-type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity-hyper-galanin-galanin resistance-type 2 diabetes mellitus. Both galanin resistance and insulin resistance are correlative with each other. Conceptualizing the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus as a disorder of galanin resistance may inspire a new concept to deepen our knowledge about pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, eventually leading to novel preventive and therapeutic interventions for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  5. Managing hypertension in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horr, Samuel; Nissen, Steven

    2016-06-01

    Hypertension is a common problem in the diabetic population with estimates suggesting a prevalence exceeding 60%. Comorbid hypertension and diabetes mellitus are associated with high rates of macrovascular and microvascular complications. These two pathologies share overlapping risk factors, importantly central obesity. Treatment of hypertension is unequivocally beneficial and improves all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, major cardiovascular events, and microvascular outcomes including nephropathy and retinopathy. Although controversial, current guidelines recommend a target blood pressure in the diabetic population of diabetes. Management of blood pressure in patients with diabetes includes both lifestyle modifications and pharmacological therapies. This article reviews the evidence for management of hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and provides a recommended treatment strategy based on the available data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of Association Between HLA Class II DR4–DQ8 Haplotype and Type I Diabetes Mellitus in Children of East Azerbaijan State of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Sohrabi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Association between HLA-DR4–DQ8 haplotype and type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM-1A was investigated in children of East Azerbaijan state of Iran because such an association has not been previously studied in this population. Methods: HLA-typing was performed by polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific priming. For haplotype analysis, the logistic regression model was performed. Results: Of the three investigated alleles, the frequency of DRB1*0401 was significantly higher among patients compared with that in healthy subjects (76.74% vs. 23.26%. Conclusion: The findings of the current study are consistent with those of previous studies and show that DRB1*0401 is associated with DM-1A; the frequencies of the two other alleles were also higher among patients, although the differences were not statistically significant. Two haplotypes associated with these alleles were also surveyed, and DRB1*0401−-DQA1*0301−, and DRB1*0401−-DQA1*0301−-DQB1*0302− were the most frequent haplotypes among the patient group.

  7. AN ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF BRAINSTEM AUDITORY EVOKED POTENTIALS AMONG SOUTH INDIAN MIDDLE-AGED AND ELDERLY SUBJECTS AND PATIENTS WITH TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Venkatasubbaiah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Despite the evidence that the incidence of hearing impairment is higher in type 2 diabetes subjects, very little is known about the nature and characteristics of this disability and the specific mechanisms leading to the hearing problems in diabetic adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS 40 patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus were included in the study and grouped as patients aged 35 to 58 years (A and aged above 58 years (B; 40 patients were taken as control group with similar age grouping; 35 to 58 years (C above 58 years (D. Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA test was conducted according to the ASHA guidelines. Objective hearing evaluation was done by BERA (Brainstem Evoked Response Audiometry. RESULTS Higher degree of Hearing Loss (HL was observed in DM patients in all frequencies from 500 HZ to 10 KHZ in comparison to nonDM patients and it was statistically significant. Slower rate peaks occurred at I, III and V waves in elderly DM patients when compared to the elderly control group. (Peak I and V (p <0.001. Similarly, in the middle-aged group peaks I, III and V occurred at a significantly slower rate in the DM group when compared to the non-DM group (p <0.001. Interpeak latencies at 21.1 rate for peak III-V and peak I-V were consistently longer among the diabetics groups of two age groups when compared to the control group (p <0.001. Similar results were obtained at 63.3 rates in the elderly and middle-aged group. CONCLUSION In the earlier course of Type 2 Diabetes, though the person may be asymptomatic degenerative changes may begin to appear in the central auditory pathway and result in significant HL, which could be detected with early investigation to elicit of Brain Stem evoked potentials.

  8. Effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on insulin resistance in patients with type II diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontitis, as assessed by C-peptide and the Homeostasis Assessment Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammen, Jerry; Vadakkekuttical, Rosamma Joseph; George, Joseraj Manaloor; Kaziyarakath, Jaishid Ahadal; Radhakrishnan, Chandni

    2017-08-01

    A bidirectional relationship exists between diabetes and periodontitis. In the present clinical trial, we evaluated the effects of non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) on insulin resistance in patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic periodontitis. Forty chronic periodontitis patients with type II DM were selected and equally allocated to case and control groups. All patients were assessed for periodontal parameters and systemic parameters. The case group received NSPT, and both groups were re-evaluated after 3 months. All periodontal parameters were found to be significantly improved in the case group compared to the control group 3 months after NSPT. The mean differences in systemic parameters, such as fasting serum C-peptide, Homeostasis Assessment (HOMA) Index-insulin resistance, and HOMA-insulin sensitivity, from baseline to 3 months for the case group were 0.544 ± 0.73, 0.54 ± 0.63, and -25.44 ± 36.81, respectively; for the control group, they were significant at -1.66 ± 1.89, -1.48 ± 1.86, and 31.42 ± 38.82 respectively (P periodontal inflammation could affect glycemic control and insulin resistance. Effective periodontal therapy reduced insulin resistance and improved periodontal health status and insulin sensitivity in patients with type II DM and chronic periodontitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. The use of oral recombinant feline interferon omega in two cats with type II diabetes mellitus and concurrent feline chronic gingivostomatitis syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Leal, Rodolfo O; Gil, Solange; Brito, Maria T. V.; McGahie, David; Niza, Maria M. R. E.; Tavares, Luís

    2013-01-01

    Articles in International Journals Feline Chronic Gingivostomatitis Syndrome (FCGS) is a common disease in clinical practice. Among the therapeutic options available, long-acting corticosteroids are frequently used due to their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Although they may improve the clinical symptoms, they can lead to a progressive form of the disease that becomes refractory to treatment. Furthermore, their direct relationship with type II diabetes mel...

  10. Correlation of urinary monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 with other parameters of renal injury in type-II diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Salwa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the western world. Increased number of interstitial macrophages has been observed in biopsies from patients with DN. Monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1 is the strongest known chemo-tactic factor for monocytes and is upregulated in DN. We examined urinary levels of MCP-1 in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM to assess its possible correlation with other para-meters of renal injury. The urinary MCP-1 level was assessed in 75 patients with type-2 DM (25 patients each with no microalbuminuria, with macroalbuminuria and, with renal impairment and compared them with matched healthy control subjects. The HbA1c and estimated glomerular fil-tration rate (eGFR derived from the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD equation were examined in the study groups in relation to the urinary MCP-1. The urinary MCP-1 level was significantly higher in patients with micro and macroalbuminuria (167.41 ± 50.23 and 630.87 ± 318.10 ng/gm creatinine respectively as compared with normoalbuminuric patients and healthy controls (63.85 ± 21.15 and 61.50 ± 24.81 ng/gm creatinine, p< 0.001. MCP-1 correlated positively with urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR (r= 0.75, p< 0.001, HbA1c (r= 0.55, p< 0.001 and inversely with eGFR (r=-0.60, p< 0.001. Our findings suggest that hyperglycemia is associated with increased urinary levels of MCP-1 that is closely linked to renal damage as reflected by proteinuria and eGFR levels. Collectively, these findings suggest that MCP-1 is in-volved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy through its various stages.

  11. Development and standardization of radioimmunoassay technique for human proinsulin determining and its use in the study of type II diabetes mellitus associated to obesity; Desenvolvimento e padronizacao da tecnica de radioimunoensaio para a determinacao de pro-insulina humana e sua aplicacao no estudo do diabetes mellitus tipo II associado a obesidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Martha do

    1996-12-31

    The availability of immunoassay methodology for proinsulin is important to define its physiological and pathophysiological significance in humans. Serum concentration of proinsulin are elevated in patients with type II Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) and recently diagnosed Type I, so a raised circulating concentration of proinsulin may serve as an early indicator of {beta} cells dysfunction. recently, in NIDDM the serum concentrations of proinsulin and its B-chain-C-peptide junctional split form, des (31-32), were found to correlate with diastolic blood pressure, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The development of a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) methodology for proinsulin has been difficult due to its low concentration in serum and the presence of proinsulin conversion intermediates in fluids and tissues. Also other potentially cross-reactive peptides, including insulin and C-peptide, can interfere in the assay. This work describe a highly specific human proinsulin RIA developed by using biosynthetic human proinsulin (hPI) as immunogen, standard and tracer. (author) 133 refs., 17 figs., 36 tabs.

  12. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Functional Hypoparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Atmaca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study aims to investigate the effect of blood sugar regulation and vitamin D levels on calcium metabolism and parathormone levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Material and Method: We included 132 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who presented to our outpatient clinic for regular check up between August 2013 and October 2013. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, albumin, creatinine, parathormone, 25-Hydroxy vitamin D [25(OHD], spot urinary calcium and creatinine levels were studied for each patient. Results: Vitamin D levels were below 30 ng/mL in 96.9% (n=128 and below 20 ng/mL in 78.7% (n=102 of the patients included in the study. Patients with impaired blood sugar regulation (HbA1c >10% had lower levels of PTH, albumin and 25(OHD levels and higher phosphorus levels compared to patients with HbA1c levels below 10% (p=0.018, p=0.043, p=0.002, p=0.01, respectively. The rates of functional hypoparathyroidism (parathormone <65 ng/mL in patients with vitamin D levels below 30 ng/mL and 20 ng/mL were 63.2% and 59.6%, respectively. Among the diabetic patients with vitamin D levels <30 ng/mL, magnesium levels were significantly lower in those with functional hypoparathyroidism (parathormone <65 ng/mL compared to those with secondary hyperparathyroidism (p=0.015. Comparative statistical analysis of patients with HbA1c levels above and below 10% demonstrated higher proportion of patients with functional hypoparathyroidism in the group with impaired blood sugar regulation (p=0.035 for patients with vitamin levels below 30 ng/mL, and p=0.031 for patients with vitamin levels below 20 ng/mL. Discussion: Impaired blood sugar regulation leads to functional hypoparathyroidism with secondary hypomagnesemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus, as was previously described for subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  13. Momordica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Cheow Peng; Yassin, Zaitun; Hamid, Tengku-Aizan

    2012-08-15

    Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) is not only a nutritious vegetable but it is also used in traditional medical practices to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Experimental studies with animals and humans suggested that the vegetable has a possible role in glycaemic control. To assess the effects of mormodica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Several electronic databases were searched, among these were The Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 2012), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SIGLE and LILACS (all up to February 2012), combined with handsearches. No language restriction was used. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared momordica charantia with placebo or a control intervention, with or without pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Two authors independently extracted data. Risk of bias of the trials was evaluated using the parameters of randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding, completeness of outcome data, selective reporting and other potential sources of bias. A meta-analysis was not performed given the quality of data and the variability of preparations of momordica charantia used in the interventions (no similar preparation was tested twice). Four randomised controlled trials with up to three months duration and investigating 479 participants met the inclusion criteria. Risk of bias of these trials (only two studies were published as a full peer-reviewed publication) was generally high. Two RCTs compared the effects of preparations from different parts of the momordica charantia plant with placebo on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. There was no statistically significant difference in the glycaemic control with momordica charantia preparations compared to placebo. When momordica charantia was compared to metformin or glibenclamide, there was also no significant change in reliable parameters of glycaemic control. No serious adverse effects were reported in any trial. No trial investigated death from any cause

  14. Diabetes mellitus II. typu ve světle metabolického syndromu

    OpenAIRE

    Hrnčířová, Eliška

    2013-01-01

    DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE II IN THE LIGHT OF METABOLIC SYNDROME Author: Eliška Hrnčířová ¹ Tutor: MUDr. PharmDr. Kamil Rudolf, Ph.D. ¹, š ¹ Department of Clinical and Social Pharmacy, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové š II. intern gastroenterology clinic University Hospital Hradec Králové Background: My thesis deals with diabetes mellitus, a common chronic civilization disease, the essence of its creation, including the issue of the treatment, regime measures an...

  15. An Extended Minimal Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model: Evaluation of Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetic Nephropathy on Human IgG Pharmacokinetics in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Gurkishan S; Morris, Marilyn E

    2015-11-01

    Although many studies have evaluated the effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of low molecular weight molecules, there is limited information regarding effects on monoclonal antibodies. Our previous studies have reported significant increases in total (2-4 fold) and renal (100-300 fold) clearance of human IgG, an antibody isotype, in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Pioglitazone treatment incompletely reversed the disease-related PK changes. The objective of this study was to construct a mechanistic model for simultaneous fitting plasma and urine data, to yield physiologically relevant PK parameters. We propose an extended minimal physiologically based PK (mPBPK) model specifically for IgG by classifying organs as either leaky or tight vascular tissues, and adding a kidney compartment. The model incorporates convection as the primary mechanism of IgG movement from plasma into tissues, interstitial fluid (ISF) in extravascular distribution space, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), sieving coefficient and fraction reabsorbed in the kidney. The model captured the plasma and urine PK profiles well, and simulated concentrations in ISF. The model estimated a 2-4 fold increase in nonrenal clearance from plasma and 30-120 fold increase in renal clearance with T2DM, consistent with the experimental findings, and these differences in renal clearance were related to changes in GFR, sieving coefficient, and proximal tubular reabsorption. In conclusion, the mPBPK model offers a more relevant approach for analyzing plasma and urine IgG concentration-time data than conventional models and provides insight regarding alterations in distributional and elimination parameters occurring with T2DM.

  16. Teenage pregnancy in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, David; Doyle, Aoife; Firth, Richard G R; Byrne, Maria M; Daly, Sean; Mc Auliffe, Fionnuala; Foley, Micheal; Coulter-Smith, Samuel; Kinsley, Brendan T

    2010-03-01

    Younger maternal age at delivery has been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes. Pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Optimising diabetic glycaemic control prior to pregnancy is known to reduce the rate of congenital abnormalities and improve pregnancy outcomes. Teenage pregnancies are not usually planned and little data exist on teenage pregnancy complicated by T1DM. We sought to identify the glycemic control achieved in teenage pregnancy with T1DM and to clarify if there is an associated increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to those seen in older women with T1DM. We compared outcomes in 18 teenagers (TG) with 582 older women with T1DM (CON) from 1995-2007. TG booked to the combined diabetes-obstetrical service at a median gestational age of 11 weeks (range 6-22) compared to 7 weeks in CON (range 4-40, p teenage women with T1DM book later to specialised care and have worse glycaemic control in pregnancy compared to older women with T1DM. This group also appear to be more insulin resistant than older women in early pregnancy. Our data would suggest that teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus may constitute a high-risk group for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  17. Type-II Leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jihn E

    2016-01-01

    I will talk on our new theory on baryogenesis through type-II leptogenesis which is different from the well-known type-I leptogenesis. I will comment on the Jarlskog phases, $\\delta_{\\rm CKM}$ and $\\delta_{\\rm PMNS}$, in the CKM and PMNS matrices. In the type-II leptogenesis, the PMNS phase is used for Sakharov's condition on the global quantum number generation in the Universe. For this to be effective, the SU(2)$\\times$U(1) gauge symmetry must be broken during the leptogenesis epoch.

  18. Controlled type II diabetes mellitus has no major influence on platelet micro-RNA expression. Results from micro-array profiling in a cohort of 60 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratz, Christian; Nührenberg, Thomas; Fiebich, Bernd L; Amann, Michael; Kumar, Asit; Binder, Harald; Hoffmann, Isabell; Valina, Christian; Hochholzer, Willibald; Trenk, Dietmar; Neumann, Franz-Josef

    2014-05-05

    Diabetes mellitus as a major contributor to cardiovascular disease burden induces dysfunctional platelets. Platelets contain abundant miRNAs, which are linked to inflammatory responses and, thus, may play a role in atherogenesis. While diabetes mellitus affects plasma miRNAs, no data exist on platelet miRNA profiles in this disease. Therefore, this study sought to explore the miRNA profile of platelets in patients with diabetes mellitus that is unrelated to the presence or absence of coronary artery disease (CAD). Platelet miRNA profiles were assessed in stable diabetic and non-diabetic patients (each n=30); 15 patients in each group had CAD. Platelet miRNA was isolated from leucocyte-depleted platelet-rich plasma, and miRNA profiling was performed using LNA micro-array technology (miRBase18.0, containing 1,917 human miRNAs). Effects of diabetes mellitus were explored by univariate statistical tests for each miRNA, adjusted for potential confounders, and by developing a multivariable signature; evaluated by resampling techniques. Platelets in non-diabetic patients demonstrated miRNA expression profiles comparable to previous data. The miRNA profiles of platelets in diabetics were similar. Statistical analysis unveiled three miRNAs (miR-377-5p, miR-628-3p, miR-3137) with high reselection probabilities in resampling techniques, corresponding to signatures with modest discriminatory performance. Functional annotation of predicted targets for these miRNAs pointed towards an influence of diabetes mellitus on mRNA processing. We did not find major differences in platelet miRNA profiles between diabetics and non-diabetics. Minor differences pertained to miRNAs associated with mRNA processing. Thus, described differences in plasma miRNAs between diabetic and non-diabetic patients cannot be explained by plain changes in platelet miRNA profile.

  19. Lipid Status and Predisposing Genes in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 from Various Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikova, L I; Kolesnikov, S I; Darenskaya, M A; Grebenkina, L A; Semenova, N V; Osipova, E V; Gnusina, S V; Bardymova, T A

    2015-12-01

    The peculiarities of HLA class II profile and lipid metabolism were examined in Buryat and Russian ethnic groups of patients with diabetes mellitus type 1. The incidence of type 1 haplotypes in HLA class II gene family was lower in Buryats than that in Russians. In comparison with Russians, the course of diabetes mellitus type 1 in Buryat patients was characterized with a lower content of total lipids, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, and LDL, which probably explains a more favorable course of the disease in Buryat population.

  20. Association of Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapy and the Risk of Vascular Complications in Patients With Type II Diabetes Mellitus: A Nationwide, Retrospective, Taiwanese-Registry, Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ai-Lin; Chen, Bor-Chyuan; Mou, Chih-Hsin; Sun, Mao-Feng; Yen, Hung-Rong

    2016-01-01

    With an increasing use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), evidence of long-term benefit with adjunctive TCM treatment is limited. This study investigated whether the concurrent TCM treatment reduces the risk of vascular complications in T2DM patients by using a large population from National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD).We identified 33,457 adult patients with newly diagnosed T2DM using anti-diabetic agents from a random sample of one million beneficiaries in the NHIRD between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2011. We recruited 1049 TCM users (received TCM over 30 days with a diagnosis of T2DM) and randomly selected 4092 controls as the non-TCM cohort at a ratio of 1:4 frequency-matched by age, sex, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and index year. We investigated the prescription pattern of TCM and conducted a Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of stroke, chronic kidney diseases (CKD), and diabetic foot between the 2 cohorts.In the TCM cohort, the prescription pattern of TCM was different between insulin and noninsulin patients. The most common herbs were Dan-Shen (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae) in noninsulin group and Da-Huang (Radix et Rhizoma Rhei) in insulin group. The most common formulae were Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan in noninsulin group and Yu-Quan-Wan in insulin group. Although no significant reduction in the hazard ratio of CKD and diabetic foot, the incidence rate of stroke was 7.19 per 1000 person-years in the TCM cohort and 10.66 per 1000 person-years in the control cohort, respectively. After adjustment of age, sex, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and antidiabetes agent use (including sulfonylureas, α-glucosidase, metformin, meglitinide, thiazolidinediones, and insulin), TCM cohorts were found to have a 33% decreased risk of stroke (95% CI = 0.46-0.97; P < 0.05).This population-based retrospective study showed that the complementary TCM therapy might associate with

  1. Peptide and protein biomarkers for type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qibin; Metz, Thomas O.

    2016-08-30

    A method for identifying persons with increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes mellitus, or having type I diabetes mellitus, utilizing selected biomarkers described herein either alone or in combination. The present disclosure allows for broad based, reliable, screening of large population bases. Also provided are arrays and kits that can be used to perform such methods.

  2. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinehr, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is emerging as a new clinical problem within pediatric practice. Recent reports indicate an increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents around the world in all ethnicities, even if the prevalence of obesity is not increasing any more. The majority of young people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus was found in specific ethnic subgroups such as African-American, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islanders and American Indians. Clinicians should be aware of the frequent mild or asymptomatic manifestation of type 2 diabetes mellitus in childhood. Therefore, a screening seems meaningful especially in high risk groups such as children and adolescents with obesity, relatives with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and clinical features of insulin resistance (hypertension, dyslipidemia, polycystic ovarian syndrome, or acanthosis nigricans). Treatment of choice is lifestyle intervention followed by pharmacological treatment (e.g., metformin). New drugs such as dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitors or glucagon like peptide 1 mimetics are in the pipeline for treatment of youth with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, recent reports indicate a high dropout of the medical care system of adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus suggesting that management of children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus requires some remodeling of current healthcare practices. PMID:24379917

  3. Peptide and protein biomarkers for type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qibin; Metz, Thomas O.

    2014-06-10

    A method for identifying persons with increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes mellitus, or having type I diabetes mellitus, utilizing selected biomarkers described herein either alone or in combination. The present disclosure allows for broad based, reliable, screening of large population bases. Also provided are arrays and kits that can be used to perform such methods.

  4. PENGGUNAAN BALUTAN MODERN (HYDROCOLOID UNTUK PENYEMBUHAN LUKA DIABETES MELLITUS TIPE II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriani Adriani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The most common complications experienced by sufferers of diabetes mellitus tipe II , complications in the feet is about 15% of diabetic foot wounds, This research aims to know the influence of the modern use of a bandage (Hydrocoloid on wound healing of diabetes mellitus type II. The design of this research uses experimental research design using One Group Pretest Post Test Design. Sampling purposive sampling was done with a sample of 10 people. Results of statistical tests taken before given a modern bandage (hydrocoloid (pre-test, is 37,40. After given a bandage for modern (post-test, was 33.53. Bivariat analysis results showed differences in average values of wound healing on the client during the 3 days of 3,86 with p value = 0.000 means there is influence on the modern use of a bandage (hydrocoloid on wound healing of type 2 diabetes mellitus .Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that modern bandage (hydrocoloid is effective in healing diabetic wounds. It’s expected to patient of diabetes mellitus can leverage modern bandage (hydrocoloid for wound healings with DM type II  as one way of healing that is safe and effective. Komplikasi yang paling sering dialami oleh penderita Diabetes Mellitus tipe II adalah komplikasi pada kaki sekitar 15% yang disebut luka kaki Diabetes , penanganan luka diabetik secara efektif dapat mencegah terjadinya amputasi pada kaki, Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk  mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan balutan modern (Hydrocoloid terhadap penyembuhan   luka diabetes mellitus tipe II , Desain Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan penelitian eksperimen dengan menggunakan One Group Pretest Post Test Design. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan secara purposive sampling dengan sample 10 orang. Data dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan the pressure sore status tool (PSST diukur sebelum dan sesudah pemberian balutan sebanyak 3 kali untuk mengetahui pengaruh balutan modern hydrocoloid dilakukan  uji t

  5. Teenage pregnancy in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carmody, David

    2010-03-01

    Younger maternal age at delivery has been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes. Pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Optimising diabetic glycaemic control prior to pregnancy is known to reduce the rate of congenital abnormalities and improve pregnancy outcomes. Teenage pregnancies are not usually planned and little data exist on teenage pregnancy complicated by T1DM. We sought to identify the glycemic control achieved in teenage pregnancy with T1DM and to clarify if there is an associated increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to those seen in older women with T1DM. We compared outcomes in 18 teenagers (TG) with 582 older women with T1DM (CON) from 1995-2007. TG booked to the combined diabetes-obstetrical service at a median gestational age of 11 weeks (range 6-22) compared to 7 weeks in CON (range 4-40, p < 0.02). Glycaemic was worse in TG compared to CON at 13, 26 and 35 weeks gestation, despite higher insulin doses. First trimester miscarriage rate did not differ between groups. Major congenital anomaly rate was 6.2% (1\\/16) compared to 3.2% in CON. This preliminary study has demonstrated that pregnant teenage women with T1DM book later to specialised care and have worse glycaemic control in pregnancy compared to older women with T1DM. This group also appear to be more insulin resistant than older women in early pregnancy. Our data would suggest that teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus may constitute a high-risk group for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  6. A Single Blinded Randomized Controlled Study of the Effect of Conventional Oral Hypoglycemic Agents Versus Intensive Short-Term Insulin Therapy on Pure Tone Audiometry in Type II Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Neuropathy is frequently a late complication of diabetes mellitus. Auditory neuropathy and microangiopathy of inner ear are the possible causes of hearing loss in diabetics. To study the correlation between glycaemic control and hearing threshold in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to determine the differences of hearing threshold between groups treated with different modality. This single blind randomized controlled study was performed at the Department of Medicine and Department o...

  7. Brainstem auditory evoked potential abnormalities in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharat Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus represents a syndrome complex in which multiple organ systems, including the central nervous system, are affected. Aim: The study was conducted to determine the changes in the brainstem auditory evoked potentials in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 126 diabetic males, aged 35-50 years, and 106 age-matched, healthy male volunteers. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials were recorded and the results were analyzed statistically using student′s unpaired t-test. The data consisted of wave latencies I, II, III, IV, V and interpeak latencies I-III, III-V and I-V, separately for both ears. Results: The latency of wave IV was significantly delayed only in the right ear, while the latency of waves III, V and interpeak latencies III-V, I-V showed a significant delay bilaterally in diabetic males. However, no significant difference was found between diabetic and control subjects as regards to the latency of wave IV unilaterally in the left ear and the latencies of waves I, II and interpeak latency I-III bilaterally. Conclusion: Diabetes patients have an early involvement of central auditory pathway, which can be detected with fair accuracy with auditory evoked potential studies.

  8. Auditory Temporal Resolution in Individuals with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Introduction “Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by elevated blood sugar and abnormalities in insulin secretion and action” (American Diabetes Association). Previous literature has reported connection between diabetes mellitus and hearing impairment. There is a dearth of literature on auditory temporal resolution ability in individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2. Objective The main objective of the present study was to assess auditory temporal resolution a...

  9. Obesity and metabolic surgery in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Heike Raab; R. A. Weiner; Frenken, M.; K. Rett; Weiner, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity surgery is an effective method for treating obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2. This type of diabetes can be completely resolved in 78.1% of diabetic patients and can be improved or resolved in 86.6% of diabetic patients. But little is known about bariatric surgery in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods: We report of 6 female obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 who had bariatric surgery. Two of them underwent Roux-en Y gastric bypass (RNYGB), one of them had sleev...

  10. Preventive pharmacotherapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Neeraj; Kalra, Sanjay; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalkrishnan; Ajish, T P

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few decades certain demographic changes have been observed worldwide, which have led to an increase in the prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and associated cardiovascular disease are major contributors to this disease burden leading to rising morbidity and mortality. It is worrisome to see that type 2 diabetes with its micro- and macrovascular complications is occurring in younger populations where it was hitherto unseen. Prevention appears to be an important strategy to reduce the burden of disease. Along with inculcating healthy lifestyle habits across populations, it may be suitable to use preventive pharmacotherapy in those with pre-diabetes and / or other risk factors like obesity, hypertension, and on the like. Metformin, alpha glucosidase inhibitors like acarbose, miglitol, and voglibose, and pioglitazone have all been used with success. The issues of compliance and adverse effects during long-term use have tempered the use of these drugs. The best approach would be to motivate the patient for effective lifestyle changes, and pharmacological management if the lifestyle changes are not successful in achieving their goals.

  11. Fetal insulin and IGF-II contribute to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)-associated up-regulation of membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP) in the human feto-placental endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiden, U; Lassance, L; Tabrizi, N Ghaffari; Miedl, H; Tam-Amersdorfer, C; Cetin, I; Lang, U; Desoye, G

    2012-10-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)-associated hormonal and metabolic derangements in mother and fetus affect placental development and function. Indeed, in GDM, placentas are characterized by hypervascularization and vascular dysfunction. The membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP) is a key player in angiogenesis and vascular expansion. Here, we hypothesized elevated placental MT1-MMP levels in GDM induced by components of the diabetic environment. Therefore, we measured placental MT1-MMP in normal vs. GDM pregnancies, identified potential functional consequences, and investigated the contribution of hyperglycemia and the insulin/IGF axis. Immunohistochemistry identified placental cell types expressing MT1-MMP. MT1-MMP was compared between normal and GDM placentas by immunoblotting. Quantitative PCR of MT1-MMP in primary feto-placental endothelial cells (fpEC) and trophoblasts isolated from both normal and GDM placentas identified the cells contributing to the GDM-associated changes. A putative MT1-MMP role in angiogenesis was determined using blocking antibodies for in vitro angiogenesis assays. Potential GDM-associated factors and signaling pathways inducing MT1-MMP up-regulation in fpEC were identified using kinase inhibitors. Total and active MT1-MMP was increased in GDM placentas (+51 and 54%, respectively, Pfeto-placental endothelium, and insulin and IGF-II contribute. This may account for GDM-associated changes in the feto-placental vasculature.

  12. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) augments insulin sensitivity in mice with type II diabetes mellitus by potentiating PI3K/AKT pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tandrika; Singh, Rajiv Ranjan; Gupta, Sarika; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2017-03-01

    A direct link between development of insulin resistance and the presence of chronic inflammation, in case of obesity exists, with cytokines playing an important role in glucose metabolism. Members of TGF-β superfamily, including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), have been shown to be involved in islet morphogenesis, establishment of β-cell mass and adipose cell fate determination. Here, we demonstrate a novel and direct role of BMP-4 and -7 in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance. An age-dependent increase in serum BMP-4 and decrease in serum BMP-7 levels was observed in animal models of type II diabetes. In this study, BMP-7 and -4 have been demonstrated to have antagonistic effects on insulin signaling and thereby on glucose homeostasis. BMP-7 augmented glucose uptake in the insulin sensitive tissues such as the adipose and muscle by increasing Glut4 translocation to the plasma membrane through phosphorylation and activation of PDK1 and Akt, and phosphorylation and translocation of FoxO1 to the cytoplasm in liver/HepG2 cells. Restoration of BMP-7 levels in serum of diabetic animals resulted in decreased blood glucose levels in contrast to age matched untreated control groups, opening up a new therapeutic avenue for diabetes. On the contrary, BMP-4 inhibited insulin signaling through activation of PKC-θ isoform, and resulted in insulin resistance through the attenuation of insulin signaling. BMP-7 therefore is an attractive candidate for tackling a multifaceted disease such as diabetes, since it not only reduces body fat, but also strengthens insulin signaling, causing improved glucose uptake and ameliorating peripheral insulin resistance. © 2017 BioFactors, 43(2):195-209, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  13. Neurofibromatosis Type 1 and Diabetes Mellitus: An Unusual Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Ozhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a multisystemic disease. It may manifest as abnormalities of the nervous tissue, bones, soft tissue, or skin. Autoimmune disease associated with NF1 can be seen. Diabetes mellitus is rarely seen in association with NF1. Here, we report a case with established NF1 who also had a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.

  14. Clinical and biochemical profile of lean type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Punyakrit Deb Barma; Salam Ranabir; Lallan Prasad; Thangjam Premchand Singh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most prevalent form of diabetes worldwide. In western countries majority of the cases are obese. The scenario may be different in certain parts of India. Various studies have reported a high prevalence of lean type 2 diabetes mellitus with a body mass index < 19 kg/m 2 . Materials and Methods: We evaluated 100 cases of lean type 2 diabetes mellitus (62 males and 38 females). Results and Conclusion: The mean duration of diabetes was 51.7 months (rang...

  15. Exercise Training in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby Cheema

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Maori and Pacific Islands peoples of New Zealand suffer a greater burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and associated comorbidities than their European counterparts. Empirical evidence supports the clinical application of aerobic and resistance training for effective diabetes management and potential remission, but few studies have investigated the effectiveness of these interventions in specific ethnic cohorts. We recently conducted the first trial to investigate the effect of prescribed exercise training in Polynesian people with T2DM. This article presents the cultural considerations undertaken to successfully implement the study. The research procedures were accepted and approved by cultural liaisons and potential participants. The approved methodology involved a trial evaluating and comparing the effects of two, 16-week exercise regimens (i.e. aerobic training and resistance training on glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c, related diabetes markers (i.e. insulin resistance, blood lipids, relevant cytokines and anthropometric and hemodynamic indices and health-related quality of life. Future exercise-related research or implementation strategies in this cohort should focus on cultural awareness and techniques to enhance participation and compliance. Our approach to cultural consultation could be considered by researchers undertaking trials in this and other ethnic populations suffering an extreme burden of T2DM, including indigenous Australians and Americans.

  16. Fertility treatment and childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettner, Laura Ozer; Matthiesen, Niels Bjerregaard; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between specific types of fertility treatment and childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Nationwide birth cohort study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): All pregnancies resulting in a live-born singleton child in Denmark from 1995 to 2003....... INTERVENTION(S): Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus identified from redeemed prescriptions for insulin until 2013. RESULT(S): The study included 565,116 singleton pregnancies. A total of 14,985 children were conceived by ovulation induction or intrauterine insemination......, and 8,490 children were conceived by in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. During the follow-up period, 2,011 (0.4%) children developed type 1 diabetes mellitus. The primary analyses showed no association between fertility treatment and childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus...

  17. Paraoxonase 1: a better atherosclerotic risk predictor than HDL in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Surajeet Kumar; Singh, Kamna; Singh, Ritu

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a state of glycative stress and oxidative stress. Lower level of serum PON 1 has been correlated to higher morbidity and mortality related to cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus. To estimate and compare the serum PON 1 levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus and controls and to predict which one is the better atherosclerotic risk predictor among HDL and PON 1 in T2DM patients. An observational analytical case-control study was conducted with a sample size of 30 in two groups like group I (30 cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosed by ADA 2010 criteria) and group II (30 age and sex matched controls). Human serum paroxonase 1 levels were measured by ELISA. Both HDL and PON 1 were negatively correlated with the various atherogenic indices (AIP, AC, CRI I, CRI II) but the strength of negative correlation is always greater for PON 1. In multiple linear regression analysis, we found that the regression coefficient (β) is always higher for PON 1 than for HDL while taking the atherogenic indices as outcome variable. PON 1 can be a better predictor than HDL for atherosclerotic risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2013 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased mean platelet volume in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Coşkun Yenigün

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Platelet functions have important roles in the development of vascular complications in diabetic patients. Platelets with increased volume have increased activity compared to smaller ones; therefore, mean platelet volume (MPV is used as a marker for platelet activity. In the present study, we evaluated MPV in patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM and its associations with diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications. Methods: Consecutive type II diabetic patients were screened from outpatient clinic of Internal Medicine Department of Diskapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Education and Researsch Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. A total of 48 patients with type II DM and 30 age and gender matched healthy subjects constituted the study population. For all subjects a complete blood count including MPV, fasting blood glucose level and lipid parameters were studied. In diabetic patients, duration of diabetes and HbA1C level, presence of microvascular and macrovascular complications were noted additively. Mean platelet volume was compared between diabetic patients and healthy counterparents. Then, among diabetic patients, MPV was compared between the ones with and without microvascular and macrovascular complications. Results: Mean platelet volume was found significantly higher in diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic healthy subjects. Diabetic patients with at least one of the microvascular complications had significantly higher MPV than those without microvascular damage.Higher MPV levels have also been shown in diabetics with macrovascular complications compared to the ones without macrovascular disease. Conclusion: Mean platelet volume was found to be higher in type II diabetics and those having any of microvascular or macrovascular diabetic complications.

  19. [Dynamics of local expression of connexin-43 and basic fibroblast growth factor receptors in patients with skin and soft-tissue infections against the background of diabetes mellitus type II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnik, Iu S; Salmina, A B; Tepliakova, O V; Drobushevskaia, A I; Malinovskaia, N A; Pozhilenkova, E A; Morgun, A V; Gitlina, A G

    2014-01-01

    Clinical results of wound healing dynamics were studied in 60 patients with soft-tissue infection against the background of diabetes mellitus type II. At the same time the study considered indices of intercellular contacts protein tissue expression such as connexin 43 (Cx43) and basic fibroblast growth factor receptors (bFGFR). The basic therapy of biopsy material of wound borders was applied. The reduction of bFGFR expression and the minor growth of Cx43 expression were observed. The pain syndrome proceeded for a long time and there were signs of perifocal inflammation, retard wound healing with granulation tissue. The application of combined method of ozone therapy which included autohemotherapy with ozone and an external management of wound by ozone-oxygen mixture facilitated to considerable shortening of inflammatory phase and regeneration. It was associated with increased Cx43 expression (in 1.9 times) in comparison with initial level and bFGFR was enlarged in 1.7 times to eighth day of postoperative period.

  20. Pyridine sulfonamide as a small key organic molecule for the potential treatment of type-II diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease: In vitro studies against yeast α-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Sadaf; Khan, Islam Ullah; Bajda, Marek; Ashraf, Muhammad; Qurat-Ul-Ain; Shaukat, Ayesha; Rehman, Tanzeel Ur; Mutahir, Sadaf; Hussain, Sajjad; Mustafa, Ghulam; Yar, Muhammad

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the efficient high yield synthesis of novel pyridine 2,4,6-tricarbohydrazide derivatives (4a-4i) along with their α-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibition activities. The enzymes inhibition results showed the potential of synthesized compounds in controlling both type-II diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease. In vitro biological investigations revealed that most of compounds were more active against yeast α-glucosidase than the reference compound acarbose (IC50 38.25±0.12μM). Among the tested series the compound 4c bearing 4-flouro benzyl group was noted to be the most active (IC50 25.6±0.2μM) against α-glucosidase, and it displayed weak inhibition activities against AChE and BChE. Compound 4a exhibited the most desired results against all three enzymes, as it was significantly active against all the three enzymes; α-glucosidase (IC50 32.2±0.3μM), AChE (IC50 50.2±0.8μM) and BChE (IC50 43.8±0.8μM). Due to the most favorable activity of 4a against the tested enzymes, for molecular modeling studies this compound was selected to investigate its pattern of interaction with α-glucosidase and AChE targets.

  1. Verhoogd risico op diabetes mellitus type 2 en hart-en vaatziekten na diabetes gravidarum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopmans, Tara Eileen J P; Van Houten, Chantal B.; Kasius, Annemieke; Kouznetsova, Ouliana I.; Nguyen, A. Ly; Rooijmans, Sanne V.; van Munster, Daphne; van Vliet, E.O.G.; Franx, Arie; Koster, M. P H

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the longterm risk of developing type II diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) for women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. Design Systematic review and metaanalysis. Method Two search strategies were used in PubMed and Embase to determine the longterm r

  2. Early insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive disease characterised by beta cell ... The traditional approach to the management of T2DM is lifestyle change, diet, ... Physiologically, fasting glucose is controlled by endogenous basal.

  3. Diabetes mellitus type 2: a new indication for hypercortisolism screening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal'ya Ivanovna Volkova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Current review discusses novel data concerning prevalence of Cushing syndrome without characteristic clinical signs among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We also provide detailed analysis of difficulties in diagnostics and management of this condition

  4. Sulphonylurea monotherapy for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Bianca; Schroll, Jeppe B; Lund, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing health problem worldwide. Whether sulphonylureas show better, equal or worse therapeutic effects in comparison with other antidiabetic interventions for patients with T2DM remains controversial.......Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing health problem worldwide. Whether sulphonylureas show better, equal or worse therapeutic effects in comparison with other antidiabetic interventions for patients with T2DM remains controversial....

  5. Immunogenetics of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morran, Michael P; Vonberg, Andrew; Khadra, Anmar; Pietropaolo, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease arising through a complex interaction of both genetic and immunologic factors. Similar to the majority of autoimmune diseases, T1DM usually has a relapsing remitting disease course with autoantibody and T cellular responses to islet autoantigens, which precede the clinical onset of the disease process. The immunological diagnosis of autoimmune diseases relies primarily on the detection of autoantibodies in the serum of T1DM patients. Although their pathogenic significance remains uncertain, they have the practical advantage of serving as surrogate biomarkers for predicting the clinical onset of T1DM. Type 1 diabetes is a polygenic disease with a small number of genes having large effects (i.e. HLA), and a large number of genes having small effects. Risk of T1DM progression is conferred by specific HLA DR/DQ alleles [e.g., DRB1*03-DQB1*0201 (DR3) or DRB1*04-DQB1*0302 (DR4)]. In addition, HLA alleles such as DQB1*0602 are associated with dominant protection from T1DM in multiple populations. A discordance rate of greater than 50% between monozygotic twins indicates a potential involvement of environmental factors on disease development. Viral infections may play a role in the chain of events leading to disease, albeit conclusive evidence linking infections with T1DM remains to be firmly established. Two syndromes have been described in which an immune-mediated form of diabetes occurs as the result of a single gene defect. These syndromes are termed autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I (APS-I) or autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), and X-linked poyendocrinopathy, immune dysfunction and diarrhea (XPID). These two syndromes are unique models to understand the mechanisms involved in the loss of tolerance to self-antigens in autoimmune diabetes and its associated organ-specific autoimmune disorders. A growing number of animal models of these diseases have greatly helped

  6. Heart rate variability in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Balsamo Gardim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To gather current information about the effects of type 1 diabetes mellitus on children's cardiac autonomic behavior.DATA SOURCES: The search of articles was conducted on PubMed, Ibecs, Medline, Cochrane, Lilacs, SciELO and PEDro databases using the MeSH terms: "autonomic nervous system", "diabetes mellitus", "child", "type 1 diabetes mellitus", "sympathetic nervous system" and "parasympathetic nervous system", and their respective versions in Portuguese (DeCS. Articles published from January 2003 to February 2013 that enrolled children with 9-12 years old with type 1 diabetes mellitus were included in the review.DATA SYNTHESIS: The electronic search resulted in four articles that approached the heart rate variability in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, showing that, in general, these children present decreased global heart rate variability and vagal activity. The practice of physical activity promoted benefits for these individuals.CONCLUSIONS: Children with type 1 diabetes mellitus present changes on autonomic modulation, indicating the need for early attention to avoid future complications in this group.

  7. Effective Universal Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Núñez, Sara; Valenzuela-Suazo, Sandra; Cid-Henríquez, Patricia

    2017-04-06

    determine the prevalence of Effective Universal Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 in Chile and its relation with the variables: Health Care Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2; Average of diabetics with metabolic control in 2011-2013; Mortality Rate for Diabetes Mellitus; and Percentage of nurses participating in the Cardiovascular Health Program. cross-sectional descriptive study with ecological components that uses documentary sources of the Ministry of Health. It was established that there is correlation between the Universal Effective Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and the independent variables; it was applied the Pearson Coefficient, being significant at the 0.05 level. in Chile Universal Health Care Coverage of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (HbA1cdesafio e oportunidade em saúde. determinar la prevalencia de la Cobertura Universal Efectiva de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en Chile y su relación con las variables: Cobertura de Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2, Promedio de diabéticos con control metabólico en 2011-2013, Tasa de Mortalidad por Diabetes Mellitus y Porcentaje de participación de enfermeros en el Programa de Salud Cardiovascular. estudio descriptivo transversal con componentes ecológicos, utilizando fuentes documentales del Ministerio de Salud. Se estableció que existe correlación entre la Cobertura Universal Efectiva de la Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 y las variables independientes, aplicando el Coeficiente de Pearson, siendo significativa al nivel 0,05. en Chile la Cobertura Universal Efectiva de Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 (HbA1c<7% en población estimada) es menor que 20%; esta se relaciona con la Tasa de Mortalidad por Diabetes Mellitus y con el Porcentaje de participación de enfermeras en el Programa de Salud Cardiovascular, que es significativa al nivel 0,01. la prevalencia de Cobertura Universal Efectiva de la Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 es baja; sin embargo algunas regiones se destacan en la cobertura y en el control metabólico de pacientes que

  8. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors Associated With Risk of Progression From Gestational Diabetes Mellitus to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Wei; Tobias, Deirdre K; Bowers, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at substantially increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The identification of important modifiable factors could help prevent T2DM in this high-risk population. OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of physical...... their total physical activity levels, women who increased their total physical activity levels by 7.5 MET-h/wk or more (equivalent to 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical activity) had a 47% lower risk of T2DM (RR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.38-0.75); the association remained significant after additional...... activity and television watching and other sedentary behaviors, and changes in these behaviors in the progression from GDM to T2DM. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective cohort study of 4554 women from the Nurses' Health Study II who had a history of GDM, as part of the ongoing Diabetes & Women...

  9. Does emotional stress cause type 2 diabetes mellitus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, Frans; Kupper, Nina; Adriaanse, Marcel C

    2010-01-01

    , nephropathy, and neuropathy. The exact causes of type 2 diabetes are still not clear. Since the 17th century, it has been suggested that emotional stress plays a role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. So far, review studies have mainly focused on depression as a risk factor for the development...... of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Yet, chronic emotional stress is an established risk factor for the development of depression. The present review provides an overview of mainly prospective epidemiological studies that have investigated the associations between different forms of emotional stress...... and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results of longitudinal studies suggest that not only depression but also general emotional stress and anxiety, sleeping problems, anger, and hostility are associated with an increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes. Conflicting results were found...

  10. Effect of Community Intervention on Type II Diabetes Mellitus%社区干预对2型糖尿病的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑勇

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析社区干预对2型糖尿病患者疗效的影响。为社区慢性病干预提供建议。方法对大市口街道社区的300例2型糖尿病患者实施为期2年的综合干预,包括:建立档案,健康教育、膳食指导、用药指导、运动及心理指导、定期随访监测,对比分析社区干预前后患者的血糖控制情况。结果2型糖尿病患者社区干预2年后,空腹及餐后2h血糖、血压等各项指标达标率均有明显上升。干预前、后相关知识的知晓率,参与合理运动的人数均有显著提高。结论社区干预对糖尿病患者有较好的控制效果,普及了相关知识,延缓了糖尿病并发症的发生,提高了患者的生活质量,且成本低廉。社区卫生服务中心(站)应该开展积极、有效的干预。%Objective To analyze the community intervention in patients with type Ⅱ diabetes therapeutic effect. Chronic disease interventions for the community to make suggestions. Methods The large city of neighborhoods and communities of the 300 cases of mouth type Ⅱ diabetes to implement a two-year comprehensive intervention, including: the establishment of archives, health education, dietary guidance, medication guide, exercise, and psychological guidance, regular follow-up monitoring, comparative analysis of community before and after intervention in patients with blood glucose control the situ-ation. Results Ⅱ diabetes community intervention 2 years later, 2H fasting and postprandial blood glucose, blood pressure, and other indicators of compliance rates have increased significantly. Intervention before and after the relevant knowledge, awareness, participation in a reasonable number of movements were significantly increased. Conclusion The community in-tervention on patients with diabetes have better control effect, popularize relevant knowledge, the occurrence of delayed complications of diabetes and improve the quality of life of patients

  11. Prevalence of lean type 2 diabetes mellitus in recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Chaudhary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity has always been thought to be a risk factor for diabetes; however, some studies in India have reported that even lean people are prone to diabetes. We conducted this study to see if this holds true for this part of the country. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of lean type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM in recently diagnosed type 2 DM in Manipur. Materials and Methods: All recently diagnosed type 2 DM patients, within a period of 24 weeks, who attended the endocrine clinic of RIMS from Jan to Dec 2012 are included in the study. Exclusion criteria are patients with chronic diseases. Results: Out of the 181 recently diagnosed diabetics 3.9% had a BMI of <19 kg/m 2 of which five are females (5.4% of female patients and two are males (2.2% of male patients. Mean age of Lean diabetics is 54.86 ± 15.32, mean fasting glucose is 212 ± 105.5 mg% and mean postprandial glucose is 351.57 ± 167.79 mg%. DM complications were observed in 28.6% of the Lean diabetics. Conclusion: Our study shows a low prevalence rate of Lean DM in recently diagnosed type 2 DM.

  12. ATP-dependent potassium channels and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfanti, Dianne Heloisa; Alcazar, Larissa Pontes; Arakaki, Priscila Akemi; Martins, Laysa Toschi; Agustini, Bruna Carla; de Moraes Rego, Fabiane Gomes; Frigeri, Henrique Ravanhol

    2015-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a public health problem, which affects a millions worldwide. Most diabetes cases are classified as type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is highly associated with obesity. Type 2 diabetes is considered a multifactorial disorder, with both environmental and genetic factors contributing to its development. An important issue linked with diabetes development is the failure of the insulin releasing mechanism involving abnormal activity of the ATP-dependent potassium channel, KATP. This channel is a transmembrane protein encoded by the KCNJ11 and ABCC8 genes. Furthermore, polymorphisms in these genes have been linked to type 2 diabetes because of the role of KATP in insulin release. While several genetic variations have been reported to be associated with this disease, the E23K polymorphism is most commonly associated with this pathology, as well as to obesity. Here, we review the molecular genetics of the potassium channel and discusses its most described polymorphisms and their associations with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Positive Predictor of Type 2 Diabetes?

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Gregory E.; Illanes, Sebastian E.; Murray D. Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to consider the relative benefits of screening for type two diabetes mellitus in women with a previous pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus. Recent studies suggest that women who experience GDM are at a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes within 10–20 years of their index pregnancy. If considered as a stand-alone indicator of the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, GDM is a poor diagnostic test. Most women do not develop GDM during pregnancy a...

  14. Telemedicine compared with standard care in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ole W.; Lauszus, F. F.; Loekke, M.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Good metabolic control is important in type 2 diabetes mellitus to improve quality of life, work ability and life expectancy, and the use of telemedicine has proved efficient as an add-on to the usual treatment. However, few studies in type 2 diabetes patients have directly compared...... telemedicine with conventional outpatient treatment, and we wanted to evaluate whether telemedicine, compared with standard care, provides equivalent clinical outcomes. METHODS: Forty patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus allocated from October 2011-July 2012 were randomized to either treatment at home...

  15. Neurofibromatosis Type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Kasiri Ghahi

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2 is an inherited disease which is mainly characterized by the development of multiple schwannomas and meningiomas.  Incidence of the disease is about 1 in 60,000. Affected individuals inevitably develop schwannomas, typically affecting both auditory-vestibular nerve which lead in hearing loss and deafness. The majority of patients present with hearing loss, which is usually unilateral at onset and may be accompanied or preceded by tinnitus. Vestibular schwannomas may also cause dizziness or imbalance as a first symptom. Nausea, vomiting or true vertigo are rare symptoms, except in late-stage disease. NF II is caused by a defect in the gene that normally gives rise to a product called Merlin or Schwannomin, located on chromosome 22. Diagnosis is based on clinical and neuroimaging studies. Presymptomatic genetic testing is an integral part of the management of NF2 families. Prenatal diagnosis and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis is possible.

  16. Type 2 diabetes mellitus : prevention of macrovascular complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwisse-Pasterkamp, Susanne H; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce HR

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects a rapidly increasing number of patients. Most patients with Type 2 diabetes will develop vascular complications. This may be microvascular disease, such as nephropathy, retinopathy or polyneuropathy, and also macrovascular disease, such as coronary

  17. Challenges in diabetes mellitus type 2 management in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyawali, Bishal; Ferrario, Alessandra; van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    on the prevalence, cost and treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 and its complications in Nepal and to critically assess the challenges to be addressed to contain the epidemic and its negative economic impact. Design A comprehensive review of available evidence and data sources on prevalence, risk factors, cost......, complications, treatment, and management of diabetes mellitus type 2 in Nepal was conducted through an online database search for articles published in English between January 2000 and November 2015. Additionally, we performed a manual search of articles and reference lists of published articles for additional...... references. Results Diabetes mellitus type 2 is emerging as a major health care problem in Nepal, with rising prevalence and its complications especially in urban populations. Several challenges in diabetes management were identified, including high cost of treatment, limited health care facilities, and lack...

  18. Challenges in diabetes mellitus type 2 management in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyawali, Bishal; Ferrario, Alessandra; van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    on the prevalence, cost and treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 and its complications in Nepal and to critically assess the challenges to be addressed to contain the epidemic and its negative economic impact. DESIGN: A comprehensive review of available evidence and data sources on prevalence, risk factors, cost......, complications, treatment, and management of diabetes mellitus type 2 in Nepal was conducted through an online database search for articles published in English between January 2000 and November 2015. Additionally, we performed a manual search of articles and reference lists of published articles for additional...... references. RESULTS: Diabetes mellitus type 2 is emerging as a major health care problem in Nepal, with rising prevalence and its complications especially in urban populations. Several challenges in diabetes management were identified, including high cost of treatment, limited health care facilities...

  19. Bariatric Surgery in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahawar, Kamal K; De Alwis, Nimantha; Carr, William R J; Jennings, Neil; Schroeder, Norbert; Small, Peter K

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is recognised as an effective treatment strategy for obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An increasing number of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus also suffer with obesity and obesity-associated comorbidities but the role of bariatric and metabolic surgery in this group of patients is unclear. This systematic review investigates published English language scientific literature to understand the results of bariatric surgery in obese patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. We found that these patients can experience significant weight loss and comorbidity resolution with bariatric surgery. Though most patients also see a decline in total insulin requirement, glycaemic control remains difficult. Most of the patients reported in literature have undergone gastric bypass but data is insufficient to recommend any particular procedure.

  20. Hyperuricemia, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, and Hypertension: an Emerging Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortada, Ibrahim

    2017-09-01

    Uric acid is the final oxidation product of purine metabolism in circulation and has been associated with the occurrence of gout and kidney stones. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension are two important public health challenges, and both are linked to increased risk of cardiovascular events. Hyperuricemia has recently emerged as an independent risk factor in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension through several proposed mechanisms. Few clinical trials investigated the use of uric acid lowering agents in the management of these two disease entities; however, their results provided encouraging evidence to a potential role for these agents in fighting disease burden. Larger randomized controlled trials are therefore warranted to establish the role of uric acid as a promising target for novel therapeutic interventions in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

  1. Type II (noninsulin-dependent) diabetes: new treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, B J

    1997-01-01

    Type II diabetes (noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [NIDDM]) is a common primary and secondary diagnosis in home care patients. This article describes the pathophysiology of NIDDM, the new drugs that have been released for treatment, and the nursing implications inherent in using these new medications.

  2. Increased risk of common infections in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, L M A J; Gorter, K J; Hak, E; Goudzwaard, W L; Schellevis, F G; Hoepelman, A I M; Rutten, G E H M

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical data on the association of diabetes mellitus with common infections are virtually lacking, not conclusive, and often biased. We intended to determine the relative risks of common infections in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM1 and DM2, respectively). METHODS

  3. Preventing microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vijay

    2015-04-01

    Patients with complications of diabetes such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular complications have increased hospital stay with greater economic burden. Prevention of complications should be started before the onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) by working on risk factors and thereafter by intervention upon confirmatory diagnosis which can prevent further damage to β-cells. The actual risk of getting microvascular complications like microalbuminuria and retinopathy progression starts at glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level of 7%. As per the American Diabetes Association, a new pediatric glycemic control target of HbA1c 20 years as compared to patients <10 years of age. Screening of these complications should be done regularly, and appropriate preventive strategies should be followed. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blocker reduce progression from microalbuminuria to macroalbuminuria and increase the regression rate to normoalbuminuria. Diabetic microvascular complications can be controlled with tight glycemic therapy, dyslipidemia management and blood pressure control along with renal function monitoring, lifestyle changes, including smoking cessation and low-protein diet. An integrated and personalized care would reduce the risk of development of microvascular complications in T1DM patients. The child with diabetes who receives limited care is more likely to develop long-term complications at an earlier age. Screening for subclinical complications and early interventions with intensive therapy is the need of the hour.

  4. Psychological reactions before the diagnoses of diabetes mellitus type 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguelina Y. Domínguez-Reyes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation has the objective to determine the psychological reactions that characterize the subjects of recent diagnosis of Mellitus Diabetes, type II, that’s why a descriptive study followed by a quantitative methodology and a quality analysis was made. It was developed during the period September 2010-2011, using 25 patients as sample, which were attended in the “Atención Integral al Diabético” (Integral Attention to Diabetic Patients consult in the Policlinic “Juan M. Martínez Puentes” in Sancti Spiritus Municipality, the diagnostic was determined in a shorter time inferior than 6 months. For collecting data, different psychological techniques like questionnaire and Rotter’s Incomplete Phrases Test were applied. The most relevant result was that the instant reaction to the diagnosis of the disease in studied patients was characterized by fear and expectancy of changing in the way of living, with bigger repercussion in the relations with family and themselves. In these subjects prevails a negative image of the disease, with a pessimistic and fatalistic vision of their evolution, where family´s help is quite important. It is registered the relevant conflicts in the personal area, mainly, in relation with the disease.

  5. Preventing microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Viswanathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with complications of diabetes such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular complications have increased hospital stay with greater economic burden. Prevention of complications should be started before the onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM by working on risk factors and thereafter by intervention upon confirmatory diagnosis which can prevent further damage to β-cells. The actual risk of getting microvascular complications like microalbuminuria and retinopathy progression starts at glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c level of 7%. As per the American Diabetes Association, a new pediatric glycemic control target of HbA1c 20 years as compared to patients <10 years of age. Screening of these complications should be done regularly, and appropriate preventive strategies should be followed. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blocker reduce progression from microalbuminuria to macroalbuminuria and increase the regression rate to normoalbuminuria. Diabetic microvascular complications can be controlled with tight glycemic therapy, dyslipidemia management and blood pressure control along with renal function monitoring, lifestyle changes, including smoking cessation and low-protein diet. An integrated and personalized care would reduce the risk of development of microvascular complications in T1DM patients. The child with diabetes who receives limited care is more likely to develop long-term complications at an earlier age. Screening for subclinical complications and early interventions with intensive therapy is the need of the hour.

  6. Uso de la metformina en la diabetes mellitus tipo II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohana Salazar ÁLvarez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Metformina es una biguanida eficaz en el control metabólico de la diabetes mellitus tipo II, no insulinodependiente cuando el control dietético falla. Dada su probada eficacia y actual accesibilidad en el mercado de medicamentos en Cuba, para ser utilizada a nivel primario de atención no solo en pacientes sintomáticos sino en la población en riesgo, se presenta este artículo cuyo propósito es actualizar a los especialistas de Medicina General Integral y Medicina Interna acerca de aspectos de interés relacionados con este medicamento, como: interacciones medicamentosas, enfermedades concomitantes, la biotransformación de la droga y los posibles efectos adversos que se pueden asociar a su uso. Se presentan consideraciones finales acerca del uso de esta droga.

  7. Breast feeding and the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvik, K O; Green, A; Svendsen, Anders Jørgen

    1992-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to study the proposed inverse relationship between breast feeding and incidence of Type 1 diabetes mellitus. All Danish diabetic men born in Copenhagen during 1959-1964 and/or residing there for the first year of life (n = 119) were identified and a search made...

  8. Sensor Augmented Pump Therapy Use in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carolan, E

    2016-11-01

    Tight metabolic control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) reduces incidence and delays progression of micro-vascular complications. Severe hypoglycaemia remains a significant barrier to achieving optimal diabetes control. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) systems refine insulin delivery with programmable basal rates and mealtime bolusing

  9. Prescribing quality indicators of type 2 diabetes mellitus ambulatory care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martirosyan, L.; Braspenning, J.; Denig, P.; de Grauw, W. J. C.; Bouma, M.; Storms, F.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Existing performance indicators for assessing quality of care in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) focus mostly on registration of measurements and clinical outcomes, and not on quality of prescribing. Objective: To develop a set of valid prescribing quality indicators (PQI) for internal u

  10. Prevalence and awareness of type 2 diabetes mellitus among adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and awareness of type 2 diabetes mellitus among adult ... Information about causes and risk factors were collected using structured questionnaire. ... they were confirmed to have T2DM if they had blood glucose level of ≥126mg/dl.

  11. Metabolomics: Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) develops over many years, providing an opportunity to consider early prognostic tools that guide interventions to thwart disease. Advancements in analytical chemistry enable quantitation of hundreds of metabolites in biofluids and tissues (metabolomics), providing in...

  12. Method for identifying type I diabetes mellitus in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, Thomas O [Kennewick, WA; Qian, Weijun [Richland, WA; Jacobs, Jon M [Pasco, WA

    2011-04-12

    A method and system for classifying subject populations utilizing predictive and diagnostic biomarkers for type I diabetes mellitus. The method including determining the levels of a variety of markers within the serum or plasma of a target organism and correlating this level to general populations as a screen for predisposition or progressive monitoring of disease presence or predisposition.

  13. Fibrillary glomerulonephritis in a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, G.A.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, A.H.

    2006-01-01

    We report a 62-year-old man with documented type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension, who presented with a rapid deterioration in renal function. The sudden decrease in renal function in this well-controlled diabetic patient prompted us to consider a nondiabetic and nonhypertensive cause. The urina

  14. Type 1 diabetes mellitus and atopic diseases in children.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease .... resulting in b-cell apoptosis and diabetes. ROS, reactive ... IL-12 are associated with islet cell destruction22,23, and Th2 ... age- and sex-matched controls, and did not find a.

  15. Telemedicine compared with standard care in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, O. W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: For patients with T2DM does telemedicine, compared with standard care, provide equivalent clinical outcomes? Methods: Forty patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus allocated from October 2011 until July 2012 randomized to either treatment at home by video conferences only or the standard...

  16. A case of Klinefelter's syndrome with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xiao-pin; ZHAO Li; MAO Min; YANG Zhao-jun; XING Xiao-yan; LI Guang-wei

    2012-01-01

    Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) is the most common sex chromosome disease in men.Classical features of the syndrome include a eunuchoidal body habitus,small testes and hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism.There has been an increased risk of diabetes mellitus and autoimmune disease for KS patients.This paper reports a case of KS in association with type 1 diabetes mellitus.The patient was a 21-year-old man,who has been confirmed by absolute insulin deficiency and positive IA-2 autoantibody.The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test indicated his insulin sensitivity in normal range,and his blood glucose was controlled well by the insulin therapy.

  17. [Coma in type 2 diabete mellitus on metformin treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, C; Tellal, S; Fevre, G; Ragot, C; Vest, P; Foissaud, V; Renaudeau, C

    2003-01-01

    Non traumatic coma in diabete mellitus has two origins : hypo- or hyperglycemia. Coma with hyperglycemia can be due to ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar state or lactic acidosis. The present observation reports on a type 2 diabete mellitus patient presenting with a coma while the patient was on metformin and glibenclamide treatment. On admission, biologicals tests showed major acidosis, hyperglycemia and hyperosmolarity. No metformine accumulation was demonstrated by analytical measure. In this case, the association of hyperosmolar state and metabolic acidosis prove the difficulty of the differential diagnosis.

  18. Depression in type 2 diabetes mellitus--a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Samreen

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which has been associated with depression. Depression is more common in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as compared to those without. Both micro- and macro vascular diabetic complications are associated with depression and have shown to increase the risk of mood disorder. Further, poor glycemic control in T2DM patients could lead to more complications of diabetes and such patients are more likely to develop depression. More research is needed in this area to determine the exact relationship between depression and T2DM and to unfold the mystery of mechanism behind this.

  19. Immunogenetics of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    neuropathy, retinopathy and nephropathy, as well as a 3-fold ... of type 1 diabetes patients at diagnosis. Table 2. Evidence for an immune etiology to type 1 diabetes1. 1. ... titer can be observed during the pre-diabetic phase.6. Of the three islet ...

  20. Familial episodic ataxia type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugundhan, K; Thiruvarutchelvan, K; Sivakumar, S

    2011-10-01

    The familial episodic ataxia type II is a rare, dominantly inherited disease characterized by episodes of ataxia of early onset, often with completely normal cerebellar function between attacks. We report a family with affected members who had features of episodic ataxia type II and cerebellar atrophy on MRI imaging. All the affected members were successfully treated with acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. They are asymptomatic at 2 year follow-up.

  1. Glucocorticoid receptors in monocytes in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Binder, C

    1989-01-01

    Glucocorticoid receptor binding characteristics were investigated in 8 males with poorly controlled Type 1 diabetes mellitus and 14 healthy males. The cell type studied was monocytes, and a method for correction for heterogeneity in glucocorticoid binding in a mononuclear leucocyte population...... or with HbA1c. In conclusion, no major abnormalities in glucocorticoid receptor binding characteristics could be demonstrated in Type 1 diabetes mellitus....... was introduced. The number of receptors and the dissociation constant KD were, respectively, 13,699 and 2.93 X 10(-8) mol/l for the control group and 15,788 and 2.75 X 10(-8) mol/l for diabetics (p greater than 0.05). In diabetics, KD correlated negatively with blood glucose (r = 0.762, p less than 0...

  2. Association between periodontitis, gestational diabetes mellitus and diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Paschoal Esteves Lima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes is considered a risk factor for periodontitis. However, it is possible that periodontitis induces a systemic inflammatory process which could initiate and propagate an insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between periodontitis, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM 1 and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM 2 in pregnant women. Methods: The sample consisted of studying 20 pregnant women with DM 1 or DM 2, 20 women with GDM and 40 pregnant women without any endocrinopathy. Periodontal examination included analysis of bleeding on probing (BOP, probing depth (PD and clinical attachment level (CAL. Periodontitis was defined as the presence of four or more teeth with at least one site with PD ≥ 4 mm and CAL ≥ 3 mm with BOP associated in the same site. Results: Results demonstrated an association between GDM and high maternal age, body mass index (BMI and hypertension. The prevalence of periodontitis observed was 55%, 40% and 42,5% for women with DM 1 or DM 2 (p=0,360, with GDM (p=0,853 and in the control group, respectively. Conclusions: The sample showed high prevalence of periodontitis; however, there was no significant difference between pregnant women with DM 1 or DM 2, women with GDM or pregnant women in the control group.

  3. Canagliflozin use in Type I diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Peters et al documented the appearance of diabetic ketoacidosis without significant elevation of serum glucose in patients treated with Canagliflozin. They solicited patient reports from their practice and from other colleagues' practices and identified nine patients, mainly with Type I Diabetes. Erondu et al evaluated the Canagliflozin development data base to describe the rate and appearance of ketoacidosis in the study patients. They found that in the research patients with Type 2 Diabetes, the rate of ketoacidosis in Canagliflozin patients was uncommon and similar to the reported rate in Type 2 patients not receiving Canagliflozin. Finally, Henry et al reported on a research program that added Canagliflozin onto insulin therapy in Type I patients, finding that there were only modest improvements in HgBA1 C levels and weight, while this therapy produced increased levels of ketosis and 6% rate of ketoacidosis in Canagliflozin patients. This information strongly suggests that Canagliflozin, and possibly the other SGLT-2 inhibitors, are not proper therapy for patients with Type I Diabetes.

  4. Mapping the brain in type II diabetes: Voxel-based morphometry using DARTEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiye; Li, Lin; Sun, Jie; Ma, Lin

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the pattern of brain volume changes of the brain in patients with type II diabetes mellitus using voxel-based morphometry. Institutional ethics approval and informed consent were obtained. VBM based on the high resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient recalled echo MRI images was obtained from 16 type II diabetes patients (mean age 61.2 years) and 16 normal controls (mean age 59.6 years). All images were spatially preprocessed using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm, and the DARTEL templates were made from 100 normal subjects. Statistical parametric mapping was generated using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). An atrophy pattern of gray matter was seen in type II diabetes patients compared with controls that involved the right superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri, right precentral gyrus, and left rolandic operculum region. The loss of white matter volume in type II diabetes mellitus was observed in right temporal lobe and left inferior frontal triangle region. ROI analysis revealed that the gray and white matter volume of right temporal lobe were significant lower in type II diabetes mellitus than that in controls (P<0.05). This work demonstrated that type II diabetes mellitus patients mainly exhibited gray and white matter atrophy in right temporal lobe, and this finding supported that type II diabetes mellitus could lead to subtle diabetic brain structural changes in patients without dementia or macrovascular complications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mapping the brain in type II diabetes: Voxel-based morphometry using DARTEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhiye [Department of Radiology, PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Li, Lin [Department of Geriatric Endocrinology, PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Sun, Jie [Department of Endocrinology, PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Ma, Lin, E-mail: cjr.malin@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To investigate the pattern of brain volume changes of the brain in patients with type II diabetes mellitus using voxel-based morphometry. Material and methods: Institutional ethics approval and informed consent were obtained. VBM based on the high resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient recalled echo MRI images was obtained from 16 type II diabetes patients (mean age 61.2 years) and 16 normal controls (mean age 59.6 years). All images were spatially preprocessed using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm, and the DARTEL templates were made from 100 normal subjects. Statistical parametric mapping was generated using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results: An atrophy pattern of gray matter was seen in type II diabetes patients compared with controls that involved the right superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri, right precentral gyrus, and left rolandic operculum region. The loss of white matter volume in type II diabetes mellitus was observed in right temporal lobe and left inferior frontal triangle region. ROI analysis revealed that the gray and white matter volume of right temporal lobe were significant lower in type II diabetes mellitus than that in controls (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This work demonstrated that type II diabetes mellitus patients mainly exhibited gray and white matter atrophy in right temporal lobe, and this finding supported that type II diabetes mellitus could lead to subtle diabetic brain structural changes in patients without dementia or macrovascular complications.

  6. Obesity and metabolic surgery in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Raab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity surgery is an effective method for treating obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2. This type of diabetes can be completely resolved in 78.1% of diabetic patients and can be improved or resolved in 86.6% of diabetic patients. But little is known about bariatric surgery in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods: We report of 6 female obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 who had bariatric surgery. Two of them underwent Roux-en Y gastric bypass (RNYGB, one of them had sleeve gastrectomy and the remaining three had biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal-switch (BPD-DS. Results: Our results showed a remarkable weight reduction as well as an improvement in their blood glucose control and the insulin requirement in the follow-up years after surgery. Pre-surgery the BMI of our 6 patients ranged between 37.3-46.0 kg/m² and improved to 25.8-29.0 kg/m² one year after surgery. HbA1c decreased from 6.7-9.8% presurgery to 5.7-8.5% after one year postsurgery. The total amount of daily insulin requirement was reduced from 62-150 IU/day presurgery to 1554 IU/day after one year. Conclusion: The results are impressive and show an improvement in insulin sensitivity following obesity surgery. However, an optimal blood glucose control still remains very important in the therapy of diabetes mellitus type 1 to avoid long-term-complications.

  7. Genetics of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars; Pedersen, Oluf

    2005-01-01

    type 2 diabetes conferring insulin resistance of liver, muscle and fat (Pro12Ala) and a relative insulin secretory deficiency (Glu23Lys). It is likely that, in the near future, the recent more detailed knowledge of the human genome and insights into its haploblocks together with the developments...

  8. Type 1 diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Castaño, Jonathan; Ortega, Alexander; Ortega, Jonathan; Palacios, Julián Mauricio; Contreras, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Type 1 diabetes (DM1) affects the metabolism of glucose, lipids and proteins and increases the risk of periodontal disease. The aim of this research was to identify the periodontal characteristics of patients diagnosed with DM1. Materials and methods: the study examined 35 patients with DM1, who were given a complete periodontal exam; fasting values of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and glycemia were taken and the data were analyzed both descriptively and comparatively against the ...

  9. RHEUMATOLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurinder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM : To determine the prevalence of rheumatic musculoskeletal manifestations in type 2 diabetic individuals and compare them with non - diabetic individuals. METHODS: 100 type 2 diabetic patients and 100 age and sex matched individuals were included in the study. Complete musculoskeletal examination was carried out which included examinatio n of shoulder joints , hands , back and knees. Patients were also asked to mark the sites of pain on a mannequin. Intensity of pain was marked on a visual analogue scale. These variables were then evaluated using Chi square test . RESULTS : Prevalence of RMS was found to be much higher in case of diabetic individuals except osteoarthritis. 49 patients out of 100 diabetic patients were found to have some form of rheumatic musculoskeletal manifestations. Diabetic cheiroarthropathy was found in the highest number of cases. A significant relation of these manifestations was found with age , duration of diabetes and glycemic control. A significant relation was also found between these manifestations and chronic microangiopathic complications like retinopathy and neph ropathy. CONCLUSION : A detailed examination of musculoskeletal system is an important part of care in patients with type 2 diabetes and some of the manifestations could be a simple and reliable marker of microangiopathic complications like retinopathy and nephropathy.

  10. Canagliflozin Treatment in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis Triplitt; Susan Cornell

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) indicate a patient-centered approach that should go beyond glycemic control. Of the many antihyperglycemic agents available for treatment of T2DM, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors offer the advantages of reduced glycated hemoglobin (A1C), body weight (BW), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and are associated with a low risk of hypoglycemia when used either as monotherapy or with other agents not typically ass...

  11. Liraglutide in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Liraglutide is an acylated glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue with 97 % amino acid homology with native glucagon-like peptide-1 and greatly protracted action. It is widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and administered by subcutaneous injection once daily. The pharmacokinetic properties of liraglutide enable 24-h exposure coverage, a requirement for 24-h glycaemic control with once-daily dosing. The mechanism of protraction relates to slowed release from the injection site...

  12. Psychological aspects of diet therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    E G Starostina

    2008-01-01

    The importance of studying the psychological aspects of nutrition diet is, perhaps, the most commonly used words in the lexicon of Endocrinology and Diabetology and most unpleasant - for patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Any restrictions on certain aspects of nutrition in patients with diabetes create a negative attitude to the disease, since they require non-established habits and tastes, a significant change in lifestyle, often - constant "struggle" with gusto. And if type 1 diabetes de...

  13. The surgical treatment of type two diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pories, Walter J; Mehaffey, James H; Staton, Kyle M

    2011-08-01

    Since the discovery that gastric bypass surgery leads to the rapid reversal of type 2 diabetes mellitus in morbidly obese patients, researchers have been searching for possible mechanisms to explain the result. The significance of bariatric surgery is twofold. It offers hope and successful therapy to the severely obese; those with T2DM, sleep apnea, or polycystic ovary disease; and others plagued by the comorbidities of the metabolic syndrome. This article examines four surgical procedures and their outcomes.

  14. Periodontal disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseeb, Muhammad; Khawaja, Khadija Irfan; Ataullah, Khurram; Munir, Muhammad Bader; Fatima, Aziz

    2012-08-01

    To determine the periodontal status in well controlled and poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients compared with normal healthy individuals. Cross-sectional comparative study. Diabetes Management Centre, Services Hospital, Lahore, from November 2009 to January 2010. Forty well controlled and forty poorly controlled type 2 diabetic subjects having good oral hygiene (scored according to simplified oral hygiene index) were compared with a control group of forty normal healthy individuals. Probing depth (PD), gingival recession (GR), and attachment loss (AL) were recorded to obtain the periodontal status of each tooth, using a Michigan probe "0" with Williams marking. Glycemic control was evaluated by glycated Hb value. Using ANOVA and independent sample t-test, mean probing depth and attachment loss in each tooth type (incisors, canines, premolars and molars) were compared. Mean age of diabetic subjects was 58.86 ± 6.21 years and that of control group was 56.92 ± 6.91 years; 60% were females. Probing depth was greater in patients with poorly controlled diabetes compared to well controlled diabetic patients and non-diabetic controls (4.21 mm vs. 3.72 mm and 2.93 mm respectively, p diabetes (p diabetes, however, the difference was not statistically significant when comparing well controlled to the control group (p > 0.05). Number of sites and mean percentage of sites with attachment loss of ³ 4 and ³ 6 mm was also significantly higher in poorly controlled diabetes compared to the control group (p Periodontal status as estimated by probing depth and degree of attachment loss deteriorates significantly with poor glycemic control in diabetes.

  15. Influence of Bisphenol A on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Paola Provvisiero

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an organic synthetic compound employed to produce plastics and epoxy resins. It is used as a structural component in polycarbonate beverage bottles and as coating for metal surface in food containers and packaging. The adverse effects of BPA on human health are widely disputed. BPA has been recently associated with a wide variety of medical disorders and, in particular, it was identified as potential endocrine-disrupting compound with diabetogenic action. Most of the clinical observational studies in humans reveal a positive link between BPA exposure, evaluated by the measurement of urinary BPA levels, and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical studies on humans and preclinical studies on in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro models indicate that BPA, mostly at low doses, may have a role in increasing type 2 diabetes mellitus developmental risk, directly acting on pancreatic cells, in which BPA induces the impairment of insulin and glucagon secretion, triggers inhibition of cell growth and apoptosis, and acts on muscle, hepatic, and adipose cell function, triggering an insulin-resistant state. The current review summarizes the available evidences regarding the association between BPA and type 2 diabetes mellitus, focusing on both clinical and preclinical studies.

  16. Clinical and biochemical profile of lean type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punyakrit Deb Barma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most prevalent form of diabetes worldwide. In western countries majority of the cases are obese. The scenario may be different in certain parts of India. Various studies have reported a high prevalence of lean type 2 diabetes mellitus with a body mass index < 19 kg/m 2 . Materials and Methods: We evaluated 100 cases of lean type 2 diabetes mellitus (62 males and 38 females. Results and Conclusion: The mean duration of diabetes was 51.7 months (range 5-180 months. The glycemic control was poor according to standard guidelines. The majority of them showed response to oral hypoglycemic agents. Secondary failure to oral hypoglycemic agents was seen in 27 patients. The prevalence of microvascular complications was much higher than macrovascular complications. Neuropathy was the commonest complication seen in 70%, followed by retinopathy in 25%. Only 12 patients had hypertension, one had coronary artery disease and two had cerebrovascular accident. Lipid profile was not significantly deranged in our patients.

  17. Influence of Bisphenol A on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provvisiero, Donatella Paola; Pivonello, Claudia; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Negri, Mariarosaria; de Angelis, Cristina; Simeoli, Chiara; Pivonello, Rosario; Colao, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic synthetic compound employed to produce plastics and epoxy resins. It is used as a structural component in polycarbonate beverage bottles and as coating for metal surface in food containers and packaging. The adverse effects of BPA on human health are widely disputed. BPA has been recently associated with a wide variety of medical disorders and, in particular, it was identified as potential endocrine-disrupting compound with diabetogenic action. Most of the clinical observational studies in humans reveal a positive link between BPA exposure, evaluated by the measurement of urinary BPA levels, and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical studies on humans and preclinical studies on in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro models indicate that BPA, mostly at low doses, may have a role in increasing type 2 diabetes mellitus developmental risk, directly acting on pancreatic cells, in which BPA induces the impairment of insulin and glucagon secretion, triggers inhibition of cell growth and apoptosis, and acts on muscle, hepatic, and adipose cell function, triggering an insulin-resistant state. The current review summarizes the available evidences regarding the association between BPA and type 2 diabetes mellitus, focusing on both clinical and preclinical studies. PMID:27782064

  18. Trabecular bone histomorphometry in humans with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Laura A G; Akhter, Mohammed P; Drincic, Andjela; Recker, Robert R

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) have markedly increased risk of fracture, but little is known about abnormalities in bone microarchitecture or remodeling properties that might give insight into the pathogenesis of skeletal fragility in these patients. We report here a case-control study comparing bone histomorphometric and micro-CT results from iliac biopsies in 18 otherwise healthy subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with those from healthy age- and sex-matched non-diabetic control subjects. Five of the diabetics had histories of low-trauma fracture. Transilial bone biopsies were obtained after tetracycline labeling. The biopsy specimens were fixed, embedded, and scanned using a desktop μCT at 16 μm resolution. They were then sectioned and quantitative histomorphometry was performed as previously described by Recker et al. [1]. Two sections, >250 μm apart, were read from the central part of each biopsy. Overall there were no significant differences between diabetics and controls in histomorphometric or micro-CT measurements. However, fracturing diabetics had structural and dynamic trends different from nonfracturing diabetics by both methods of analysis. In conclusion, Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus does not result in abnormalities in bone histomorphometric or micro-CT variables in the absence of manifest complications from the diabetes. However, diabetics suffering fractures may have defects in their skeletal microarchitecture that may underlie the presence of excess skeletal fragility.

  19. Prognostic value of endothelial dysfunction in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana; Marice; Ladeia; Raphael; Ribeiro; Sampaio; Maiara; CostaHita; Luis; F; Adan

    2014-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus are at high risk of developing atherosclerosis, associated with higher rates of micro and macro vascular involvement such as coronary artery disease and renal disease. The role of hyperglycemia to induce synthesis of reactive oxygen species by the oxidation of glucose, leading to an increased production of advanced glycosylation end products, as well as inflammation and oxidative stress has been proposed as a possible mechanism in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction(ED). The interaction between C-peptide- the connecting segment of pro-insulin-and nitric oxide in vasodilation is also discussed. Therefore, endothelial dysfunction has been identified as an early marker of vascular disorder in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In some other diseases, ED has been considered an independent predictor of vascular disease, regardless of the method used. Studies have demonstrated the importance of endothelial dysfunction as an useful tool for identifying the risk of vascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, particularly as regards to renal impairment. The aim of this review is to clarify the prognostic value of endothelial dysfunction as a marker of vascular disease in these subjects.

  20. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telfer, Stephen J

    2014-09-01

    Exposure to fluoroquinolone antibiotics is postulated as a risk factor for subsequent development of type 2 diabetes. It is hypothesized that fluoroquinolones induce an intracellular magnesium deficit that can lead to insulin resistance. A temporal correlation is reported between the rate of outpatient prescription of quinolones and the incidence of diabetes during the period 1980-2011 with a lag of approximately two years (R(2)=0.86, Pfluoroquinolone prescription rates. A geographical correlation is reported (adj. R(2)=0.7, Pfluoroquinolone prescription, local rates of increase in the prevalence of obesity, and local rates of population growth as predictor variables. Prescription rates of non-quinolone antibiotics correlated less well with the local rates of increase in prevalence of diabetes. The data are consistent with fluoroquinolone exposure predisposing an individual to develop diabetes with a probability that strongly depends upon factors that also lead to an increase in obesity. According to the hypothesis, much of the increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes in the U.S. from 1990 to the present can be attributed to fluoroquinolone exposure. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Population genetics in minority children with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Robert

    2002-04-01

    Non-insulin dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus (DM) is a rapidly emerging health threat in minority populations in the United States, with the African-American, Hispanic, and Native American populations at greatest risk. Clearly, environmental factors play a role in this disorder, but the ethnic predilection suggests a significant genetic component. Type 2 DM is a condition not well understood on a genetic basis. Familial clustering and ethnic variation have been documented. The populations of Africans living in diverse environments provide a unique opportunity to study type 2 DM as the mechanism is becoming more clear.

  2. Type-II Weyl semimetals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluyanov, Alexey A; Gresch, Dominik; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, QuanSheng; Troyer, Matthias; Dai, Xi; Bernevig, B Andrei

    2015-11-26

    Fermions--elementary particles such as electrons--are classified as Dirac, Majorana or Weyl. Majorana and Weyl fermions had not been observed experimentally until the recent discovery of condensed matter systems such as topological superconductors and semimetals, in which they arise as low-energy excitations. Here we propose the existence of a previously overlooked type of Weyl fermion that emerges at the boundary between electron and hole pockets in a new phase of matter. This particle was missed by Weyl because it breaks the stringent Lorentz symmetry in high-energy physics. Lorentz invariance, however, is not present in condensed matter physics, and by generalizing the Dirac equation, we find the new type of Weyl fermion. In particular, whereas Weyl semimetals--materials hosting Weyl fermions--were previously thought to have standard Weyl points with a point-like Fermi surface (which we refer to as type-I), we discover a type-II Weyl point, which is still a protected crossing, but appears at the contact of electron and hole pockets in type-II Weyl semimetals. We predict that WTe2 is an example of a topological semimetal hosting the new particle as a low-energy excitation around such a type-II Weyl point. The existence of type-II Weyl points in WTe2 means that many of its physical properties are very different to those of standard Weyl semimetals with point-like Fermi surfaces.

  3. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RISK FACTORS OF TYPE-II DIABETES IN RURAL AND URBAN POPULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ch. Kiranmai; Sukhes; Rama Krishna; Preethi; Aruna

    2014-01-01

    : A study of effect of various risk factors on Type–II diabetes in Urban and rural population. Generally Indians seems to have great tendency to develop diabetes mellitus. In addition to this, unhealthy food habits, lack of physical activity, diabetic family history, age, obesity, smoking & alcoholism are the other causes for diabetes mellitus. AIM: To analyze the impact of different risk factors on TypeII diabetes in urban and rural population. METHODS: Total 160 subjects ...

  4. Gut microbiota and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Garach, Araceli; Diaz-Perdigones, Cristina; Tinahones, Francisco J

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, many studies have related gut microbiome to development of highly prevalent diseases such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. Obesity itself is associated to changes in the composition of gut microbiome, with a trend to an overgrowth of microorganisms more efficiently obtaining energy from diet. There are several mechanisms that relate microbiota to the onset of insulin resistance and diabetes, including changes in bowel permeability, endotoxemia, interaction with bile acids, changes in the proportion of brown adipose tissue, and effects associated to use of drugs like metformin. Currently, use of pro and prebiotics and other new techniques such as gut microbiota transplant, or even antibiotic therapy, has been postulated to be useful tools to modulate the development of obesity and insulin resistance through the diet. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  5. Celiac disease in type 1 diabetes mellitus

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    Camarca Maria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Celiac Disease (CD occurs in patients with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D ranging the prevalence of 4.4-11.1% versus 0.5% of the general population. The mechanism of association of these two diseases involves a shared genetic background: HLA genotype DR3-DQ2 and DR4-DQ8 are strongly associated with T1D, DR3-DQ2 with CD. The classical severe presentation of CD rarely occurs in T1D patients, but more often patients have few/mild symptoms of CD or are completely asymptomatic (silent CD. In fact diagnosis of CD is regularly performed by means of the screening in T1D patients. The effects of gluten-free diet (GFD on the growth and T1D metabolic control in CD/T1D patient are controversial. Regarding of the GFD composition, there is a debate on the higher glycaemic index of gluten-free foods respect to gluten-containing foods; furthermore GFD could be poorer of fibers and richer of fat. The adherence to GFD by children with CD-T1D has been reported generally below 50%, lower respect to the 73% of CD patients, a lower compliance being more frequent among asymptomatic patients. The more severe problems of GFD adherence usually occur during adolescence when in GFD non compliant subjects the lowest quality of life is reported. A psychological and educational support should be provided for these patients.

  6. Diabetes mellitus type 2 and functional foods of plant origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Manju

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is the common, exponentially growing, serious human health problem existing globally. Risk factors like genetic predisposition, lack of balanced diet, inappropriate and lethargic lifestyle, overweight, obesity, stress including emotional and oxidative and lack of probiotics in gut are found to be the causing factors either in isolation or in synergy predisposing Diabetes. High blood sugar is a common symptom in all types of diabetes mellitus and the physiological cause of diabetes is lack of hormone Insulin or resistance in function faced by insulin. Low levels of Insulin causes decreased utilization of glucose by body cells, increased mobilization of fats from fat storage cells and depletion of proteins in the tissues of the body, keeping the body in crisis. The functional foods help achieving optimal physiological metabolism and cellular functions helping the body to come out of these crises. The mechanism of the functional foods is envisaged to act via optimizing vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids, prebiotics and probiotics. This paper reviews role of functional foods of plant origin in the regulation of blood sugar in type 2 diabetes mellitus and also discusses some vital patents in this area. The article aims at creating awareness about key food ingredients in order to prevent most acute effects of diabetes mellitus and to greatly delay the chronic effects as well.

  7. Neglected-Noncompliant Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afdal .

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakDiabetes mellitus (DM tipe 1 merupakan kelainan sistemik akibat terjadinya gangguan metabolisme glukosayang ditandai oleh hiperglikemia kronis. Keadaan ini disebabkan oleh proses autoimun yang merusak sel βpankreas sehingga produksi insulin berkurang bahkan terhenti, penderitanya akan memerlukan asupan insulineksogen. Penyakit ini menimbulkan komplikasi kronik sehingga memerlukan manajemen pengobatan yangberkelanjutan dan edukasi pada pasien serta keluarganya. Penyakit yang tidak terkontrol akan menimbulkanberbagai komplikasi metabolisme, gangguan makrovaskular dan mikrovaskular yang menyebabkan penurunankualitas dan harapan hidup penderita.Kata Kunci : Diabetes melitus tipe 1, makrovaskular, mikrovaskularAbstractDiabetes mellitus (DM type 1 is a result of the systemic disorder of glucose metabolism disorder characterized bychronic hyperglycemia. This situation is caused by the autoimmune processes that destroy pancreatic β cellsresulting in the production of insulin is reduced even halted, the sufferer will require exogenous insulin intake. Thisraises the complications of chronic disease that requires ongoing medication management and education forpatients and their families. Uncontrolled disease will cause various metabolic complications, macrovascular andmicrovascular disorders that cause loss of quality and life expectancy of the patient.Keywords: Type 1 diabetes mellitus, macrovascular, microvascular

  8. Environmental modulators of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banshi Saboo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In genetically susceptible subjects, type 1 diabetes (T1D appears to be a chronic immune- mediated disease with a subclinical prodromal period characterized by selective loss of insulin-releasing pancreatic beta cells. However, only a relatively small proportion of genetically susceptible subjects progress to clinical disease, which indicates that environmental factors are needed to trigger and drive the disease process in genetically predisposed subjects. In this article we provide a selective review on environmental factors involved in the pathogenesis of T1D. Accumulating evidence suggests that the proportion of subjects with high-risk human leukocyte antigen (HLA genotypes has decreased over the last decades among patients with newly diagnosed T1D, whereas the proportion of those with low-risk or even protective HLA genotypes has increased. These findings indicate that increased environmental pressure is responsible for progression to clinical diabetes in patients with less genetic predisposition. The birth cohort studies indicate that the first signs of beta cell autoimmunity may be induced during infancy before age 3, which implies that dietary factors for beta cell autoimmunity and T1D may be active in that time period, during which early nutrition provides essential exogenous exposure. Progression to clinical T1D typically needs the combination of genetic disease susceptibility, a diabetogenic trigger, and a high exposure to a driving antigen. The triggers appear to be enteroviruses and rotaviruses as well as components of the infant diet including cows milk and gluten, while the Mediterranean diet appears protective. The only definite enterovirus responsible for T1D is congenital rubella, which may be complicated by late development of T1D. There is a temporal association between enteroviral infection and future development of antibodies resulting in T1D. Clinical studies indicate that islet cell antibodies develop 3 months after birth

  9. A Single Blinded Randomized Controlled Study of the Effect of Conventional Oral Hypoglycemic Agents Versus Intensive Short-Term Insulin Therapy on Pure Tone Audiometry in Type II Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma, A; Azmi, M Nor; Mazita, A; Marina, M B; Salina, H; Norlaila, M

    2011-04-01

    Neuropathy is frequently a late complication of diabetes mellitus. Auditory neuropathy and microangiopathy of inner ear are the possible causes of hearing loss in diabetics. To study the correlation between glycaemic control and hearing threshold in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to determine the differences of hearing threshold between groups treated with different modality. This single blind randomized controlled study was performed at the Department of Medicine and Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) between 1st May 2003 and 31st September 2004. This study was approved by Research Ethics Committee (code number FF-137). Subjects were randomized into two groups. Group 1 were patients treated with conventional oral hypoglycemic agents. The patients in group 2 were those treated with insulin injection. The subjects were seen 4 weekly for 3 months. Audiometric test were performed in all subjects at each visit. Blood were taken for fasting blood glucose, Hb1Ac, and fructosamine at every visit to determine the glycaemic controls of the subject. They were 11 patients (22 ears) treated with oral hypoglycemic agents and 17 patients treated (34 ears) with subcutaneous insulin. There is no significant difference between mean pure tone threshold before and after treatment at all frequencies in both groups. There is also no significance different in fasting glucose level and fructosamine. However, there is significant difference HbA1c levels between the two groups after treatment (P < 0.05). This study has shown that glycaemic control does not have significant impact on hearing. The hearing threshold is neither affected by insulin treatment nor by the glycaemic control.

  10. ASSOCIATION OF ABO BLOOD GROUPS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There are no confirmatory studies have been available in In dia to know the Association of ABO blood groups with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. We studied ABO blood groups association w ith Gender and age of onset of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The study results showing that Blood Group O fallowed by B and A showing the posi tive association with Type2 Diabetes melllitus. In Males Blood group O (20% fallowed by B (16.9% and A and AB. In Females Blood group O (22.85% fallowed by A group (11.42% and B and AB having association with Type2 Diabetes mellitus. The association as per age of onset of Type 2 DM with ABO blood Groups showing that the age of onset of Type2 DM in 41 - 50 yrs (34.28%. It is commonly associated with Blood group O (18.09%, and in the age of onset of Type 2 DM in 30 - 40yrs (33.33% is commly assoc iated wit h blood group O and B (10.47% equally and in 51 - 60yrs (26.66% with with blood group O (11.42% and in the age of onset of DM above 60yrs (5.71% with blood group O (2.85%. PATIENTS AND METHODOLOGY: It was a prospective study conducted in 105 patients wi th Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. Prior consent taken from the study subjects to obtain the information about age of completed years, gender, age of onset of Diabetes and family history of known Diabetes. The age of onset of Diabetes above 30yrs were taken for study. Exclusion criteria were patients with Psychiatric illness, acute illness, age less than 30yrs old and history of diabetic ketoacidosis. Blood samples were collected from them with consent. The samples were tested for ABO blood groups. The Control sa mples are randomly selected. Patient recruitment lasted for 1 month from 1.1.2015 to 31.1.2015

  11. Interleukin-1-receptor antagonist in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Claus M; Faulenbach, Mirjam; Vaag, Allan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The expression of interleukin-1-receptor antagonist is reduced in pancreatic islets of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and high glucose concentrations induce the production of interleukin-1beta in human pancreatic beta cells, leading to impaired insulin secretion, decreased cell...... proliferation, and apoptosis. METHODS: In this double-blind, parallel-group trial involving 70 patients with type 2 diabetes, we randomly assigned 34 patients to receive 100 mg of anakinra (a recombinant human interleukin-1-receptor antagonist) subcutaneously once daily for 13 weeks and 36 patients to receive...

  12. Long Term Monitoring of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Abacı

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common microvascular complications of type 1 diabetes include retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. Macrovascular complications that predispose to ischemic and peripheral vascular disease are rare under the age of 30 years. In addition, growth retardation, delay of puberty, psychiatric disorders, dermatologic complications (lipoatrophy, lipohypertrophy, necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum, autoimmune hypothyroidism, and celiac disease are the other complications associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus. In childhood and adolescence, monitoring and optimizing glycemic control is most important in management for preventing the development and progression of early complications. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 111-8

  13. Genetic basis of type 2 diabetes mellitus: implications for therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolford, Johanna K; de Courten, Barbora

    2004-01-01

    in the management of type 2 diabetes include lifestyle intervention through diet modification and exercise, and oral or injected hypoglycemic agents; however, not all individuals with type 2 diabetes respond in the same way to these treatments. Because of variability in the clinical course of the disease......Type 2 diabetes mellitus represents a multifactorial, heterogeneous group of disorders, which result from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased dramatically worldwide over the past several decades, a trend that has been heavily...... influenced by the relatively recent changes in diet and physical activity levels. There is also strong evidence supporting a genetic component to type 2 diabetes susceptibility and several genes underlying monogenic forms of diabetes have already been identified. However, common type 2 diabetes is likely...

  14. Sialolithiasis and Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agoeng Tjahjani Sarwono

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sialolithiasis is a common disease of the submandibular glands or its duct but rare in parotids of patients, especially in male adults. The accessory of salivary glands are small, unsheathed masses with a small canaliculi. The irritant factors might be due to inflammation of the inner layer of the canaliculi, that often concomitant to saliva stasis. This process leads to development of calculus that it is related to secretive specificity of the submandibular gland. The essential factor for its calcification is the stagnation of secretory matieral rich in calcium. The accumulation of this material would cause swelling, further obstruction and atrophy until there is widespread inflammation that has been termed sialadenitis. Diabetes mellitus is one of the medically compromised diseases. Although there are many assocaiations between diabetes mellitus and oral health, lack of investigation in this area has been done to study salivary gland alterations. Many diabetic patient complained xerostomia, a decreasing salivary flow and enlargement of the parotid gland due to a compensatory mechanism to xerostomia that has been termed sialadenosis. This review article summarized that there is no relationship between sialolithiasis and poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  15. [Comments on current guidelines of type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinka, Emil

    the American and Canadian Diabetes Association.Key words: type 2 diabetes mellitus - therapeutic recommendations - algorithm - empagliflozin - liraglutide.

  16. Different role of zinc transporter 8 between type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Bo; Huang, Gan; Zhou, Zhiguang

    2016-07-01

    Diabetes can be simply classified into type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8), a novel islet autoantigen, is specifically expressed in insulin-containing secretory granules of β-cells. Genetic studies show that the genotypes of SLC30A8 can determine either protective or diabetogenic response depending on environmental and lifestyle factors. The ZnT8 protein expression, as well as zinc content in β-cells, was decreased in diabetic mice. Thus, ZnT8 might participate in insulin biosynthesis and release, and subsequently involved deteriorated β-cell function through direct or indirect mechanisms in type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus. From a clinical feature standpoint, the prevalence of ZnT8A is gradiently increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus, latent autoimmune diabetes in adults and type 1 diabetes mellitus. The frequency and epitopes of ZnT8-specific T cells and cytokine release by ZnT8-specific T cells are also different in diabetic patients and healthy controls. Additionally, the response to ZnT8 administration is also different in type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the present review, we summarize the literature about clinical aspects of ZnT8 in the pathogenesis of diabetes, and suggest that ZnT8 might play a different role between type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  17. SOMATOSENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS IN DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE - 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder affecting majority of population. It is estimated that over 400 million people throughout the world have diabetes. It has progressed to be a pandemic from an epidemic causing morbidity and mortality in the population. Among the many complications of diabetes, diabetic neuropathies contribute majorly to the morbidity associated with the disease. Axonal conduction is affected by elevated levels of protein kinase c causing neuronal ischemia; decreased ce llular myoinositol affecting sodium potassium ATPase pump leads to decreased nerve conduction; Somatosensory E voked P otentials (SSEPs reflect the activity of somatosensory pathways mediated through the dorsal columns of the spinal cord and the specific so matosensory cortex. Recording of Somatosensory Evoked Potentials in diabetics is done to assess the sensory involvement of spinal cord. Presence of SEPs provides clear evidence for axonal continuity and by using different stimulation sites, the rate of reg eneration can be determined. Both onset and peak latencies of all SEP components are prolonged in patients with diabetes. Present study is done to compare somatosensory evoked potentials in diabetics and normal subjects. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: The present study was undertaken at the Upgraded Department of Physiology, Osmania Medical College, Koti, Hyderabad. The study was conducted on subjects, both male and female in the age group of 45 to 55 years, suffering from type II diabetes excluding other neurologi cal disorders. Non - invasive method of estimation of nerve conduction studies using SFEMG/EP — Electromyography or evoked potential system (Nicolet systems — USA using surface electrodes with automated computerized monitor attached with printer is used. RESUL TS : ANOVA showed statistically significant N9 latency (right & left sides. Latencies of all the components of SSEPs were more significant than amplitudes in Diabetic

  18. ESTIMATION OF MICROALBUMIN IN TYPE – 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACK GROUND: The objective of this study is to estimate microalbumin in type - 2 diabetes mellitus patients. METHODS: The sensitive marker for the detection of urine albumin excretion was done by estimation of morning urine sample by semi quantitative procedure by Bayerclinitek50 urine chemistry analyzer. For creatinine jaffes method , fasting blood sugar and post lunch blood sugar were estimated by glucometer and glycosylated hemoglobin ( HbA 1c was analyzed by Merck microlab 120 semi – automated analyzer. RESULTS: In the study significant increase in micro albumin was observed 193.50 ± 7 3.66 ( P<0.0001 in all the patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus which is the predictor of late development diabetic nephropathy. Para meters like fasting blood sugar , post lunch blood sugar , creatinine and glycosylated hemoglobin ( HbA 1c levels were increa sed above the normal range. CONCLUSION : In type 2 diabetes , microalbumin is the hallmark of subsequent diabetic nephropathy and a surrogate marker of cardiovascular diseases and increased cardiovascular mortality. In diabetic nephropathy patients , glomerular filtration rate is increased in early stage of the disease and glomerulopathy is an important renal structural change. Improving glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes may subsequently reduce the risk of complications

  19. Self-reported type 2 diabetes Mellitus is associated with abdominal obesity and poor perception of health in shift workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine FRÖHLICH

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate factors that are associated with type 2 diabetes Mellitus in shift workers of a slaughterhouse in Southern Brazil. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1,194 18- to 50-year-old workers of both sexes. The presence of type 2 diabetes Mellitus was self-reported and confirmed by the use of hypoglycemic drugs or insulin. The independent variables were sex, age, skin color, marital status, education level, family income, leisure time physical activity, smoking, and self-reported health and nutritional status (body mass index and waist circumference. Multivariate analysis was performed from an a priori conceptual model. Results: The prevalence of diabetes was 1.3% (95%CI=0.6-1.9. Type 2 diabetes Mellitus was associated with poor or regular self-reported health (OR=3.72; 95%CI=1.28-10.78 and level II abdominal obesity ³102 for men and ³88 for women (OR=5.76; 95%CI=1.07-29.10. Conclusion: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes Mellitus was low. Moreover, the study evidenced the importance of using waist circumference to surveil and screen for metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes Mellitus, and to monitor the low quality of life in the study individuals given the poor self-perceived health of workers with the said disease.

  20. Atopic Dermatitis and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Iranian Children

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    Ali R.  Tehrani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Atopic diseases, including asthma, eczema and allergic rhinitis, are characterized by a chronic inflammatory reaction mediated by T helper 2 cells, while type 1 diabetes mellitus is mediated by T helper 1 cells. Approach: The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of atopic dermatitis between children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and age-matched controls. We conducted a case-control study enrolling 150 cases with type 1 diabetes mellitus between 2-20 years from pediatric endocrine out patient clinic and 450 controls randomly selected from the general population matched on sex and age. The diagnosis of atopic dermatitis was determined for patients and controls by the Hanifin and Rajka’s diagnostic criteria. Results: From 150 cases, 75 (50% were male and 75 (50% were female, with the age between 2 and 20 and among the 450 controls, 228 were male (50. 66% and 222 were female (49.33% the age was as the case. Dermatitis past or present, was identified in 1.3% of cases and 3.1% of controls, a difference which was not statistically significant (P>0.05. Conclusion: In present study, the prevalence of atopic dermatitis was comparable in diabetic children and the controls which may be due to difference between races and geographic areas and lack of support for an inverse relationship between the Th2-mediated atopy and th1-mediated autoimmune disorder. Further studies are needed to show the difference in serum IgE and cytokine profiles between the groups.

  1. Brewer's Yeast Improves Blood Pressure in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Payam Hosseinzadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Brewer's yeast supplementation on serum lipoproteins and blood pressure in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods: In a randomized double blind clinical trial, 90 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited, and divided randomly into 2 groups, trial group received brewer's yeast (1800 mg/day and control group received placebo for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, food consumption (based on 24 hour food recall, fasting serum lipoproteins (Cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL-c, HDL-c, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured before and after the intervention. Data analyses were performed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences ver. 18.0, and the statistical tests included Independent t-test, Paired t-test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and analysis of covariance. This trial was registered in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT, No.IRCT138807062513N1.Results: Eighty-four subjects (21 men and 63 women aged 46.3±6.1 years completed the study. After 12 weeks supplementation, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were decreased in the group receiving brewer's yeast (4.1±1.5, P=0.007 and 5.7±0.6, P=0.001 respectively. No-significant changes in LDL-c, HDL-c, Triglyceride and Cholesterol were shown.Conclusion: Supplementation with Brewer's yeast besides the usual treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus can reduce systolic and diastolic blood pressures in diabetic patients.

  2. Sulfonylureas and cardiovascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    L V Nedosugova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses possible mechanisms for development of cardiovascular events (CVE in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients treated with sulfonylurea derivatives (SU. Several problems are highlighted in this review, including molecular aspects of pancreatic and extrapancreatic action of these drugs, their comparative potential to induce hypoglycemic events (as predictors of acute CVE and impairment of ischemic preconditioning, as well as antiarrhythmic activity of certain SU agents. Finally, efficacy and cardiovascular safety of glimepiride in T2DM patients is substantiated based on a survey of current literature.

  3. Incretin-based therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina; Holst, Jens J

    2009-01-01

    This review article focuses on the therapeutic potential of the incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM is characterized by insulin resistance, impaired glucose-induced insulin...... secretion and inappropriately regulated glucagon secretion which in combination eventually result in hyperglycemia and in the longer term microvascular and macrovascular diabetic complications. Traditional treatment modalities--even multidrug approaches--for T2DM are often unsatisfactory at getting patients...

  4. [Autoimmune diseases in type 1A diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo; Molina-Ayala, Mario Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Type 1A diabetes (DM1A) is an autoimmune disease that comprises 10% of patients with diabetes mellitus. Its frequency is gradually increasing in countries like Mexico. Patients with DM1A commonly have hypothyroidism, Addison disease, celiac disease and less common diseases such as polyglandular syndrome. These diseases are related to susceptibility genes such as HLA, CTLA-4 and PTPN22, which induce central and peripheral immunologic tolerance. This review article emphasizes the importance of searching other autoimmune diseases in patients with DM1A, to improve their prognosis and quality of life.

  5. Incretin-based therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina; Holst, Jens Juul

    2009-01-01

    secretion and inappropriately regulated glucagon secretion which in combination eventually result in hyperglycemia and in the longer term microvascular and macrovascular diabetic complications. Traditional treatment modalities--even multidrug approaches--for T2DM are often unsatisfactory at getting patients......This review article focuses on the therapeutic potential of the incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM is characterized by insulin resistance, impaired glucose-induced insulin...

  6. Mauriac syndrome: growth failure and type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mimi S; Quintos, J B

    2008-08-01

    Growth failure in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) can occur for several reasons. Mauriac syndrome is a rare cause of severe growth failure in T1DM. There may be different forms and etiologies involved in Mauriac syndrome. However, there are common features noted in these patients. We have compiled a review of cases reported in English in the last 30 years. With adequate insulin treatment there is reversal of growth failure and hepatomegaly if present. However, overly aggressive insulin delivery could result in rapid deterioration of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy. Close monitoring of growth and pubertal maturation in children with T1DM is essential.

  7. Pathophysiology of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 90-year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccardi, Francesco; Webb, David R; Yates, Thomas; Davies, Melanie J

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder associated with an increased risk of microvascular and macrovascular disease; its main clinical characteristic is hyperglycaemia. The last century has been characterised by remarkable advances in our understanding of the mechanisms leading to hyperglycaemia. The central role of insulin in glucose metabolism regulation was clearly demonstrated during the early 1920s, when Banting, Best, Collip and Macleod successfully reduced blood glucose levels and glycosuria in a patient treated with a substance purified from bovine pancreata. Later, during the mid-1930s, clinical observations suggested a possible distinction between 'insulin-sensitive' and 'insulin-insensitive' diabetes. Only during the 1950s, when a reliable measure of circulating insulin was available, was it possible to translate these clinical observations into pathophysiological and biochemical differences, and the terms 'insulin-dependent' (indicating undetectable insulin levels) and 'non-insulin-dependent' (normal or high insulin levels) started to emerge. The next 30 years were characterised by pivotal progress in the field of immunology that were instrumental in demonstrating an immune-mediated loss of insulin-secreting β-cells in subjects with 'insulin-dependent' diabetes. At the same time, new experimental techniques allowing measurement of insulin 'impedance' showed a reduced peripheral effect of insulin in subjects with 'non-insulin-dependent' diabetes (insulin resistance). The difference between the two types of diabetes emerging from decades of observations and experiments was further formally recognised in 1979, when the definitions 'type I' and 'type II' diabetes were introduced to replace the former 'insulin-dependent' and 'non-insulin-dependent' terms. In the following years, many studies elucidated the natural history and temporal contribution of insulin resistance and β-cell insulin secretion in 'type II' diabetes. Furthermore, a central

  8. Diabetes and the brain: Cognitive performance in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, A.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus are associated with altered brain function, a complication referred to as diabetic encephalopathy. The issues surrounding the cognitive and emotional status in chronic, older diabetic patients remain complex. The literature shows contrasting findings and

  9. Association of Psoriasis With the Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønnberg, Ann Sophie; Skov, Lone; Skytthe, Axel;

    2016-01-01

    and Relevance: This study determines the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the interaction between obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and psoriasis. Psoriasis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and obesity are also strongly associated in adults after taking key confounding factors, such as sex, age......Importance: Psoriasis has been shown to be associated with overweight and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The genetic association is unclear. Objective: To examine the association among psoriasis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height...... diagnoses of type 2 diabetes mellitus and self-reported BMI. Data were collected in the spring of 2002. Data were analyzed from January 1 to October 31, 2014. Main Outcomes and Measures: Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for psoriasis in relation to type 2 diabetes mellitus, increasing...

  10. Reduction of microalbuminuria in type-2 diabetes mellitus with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor alone and with cilnidipine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V K; Mishra, A; Gupta, K K; Misra, R; Patel, M L; Shilpa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to find out the antiproteinuric effect of enalapril angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor) alone or in combination with cilnidipine in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. The study was conducted on 71 patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus patients with hypertension and microalbuminuria. They were divided into two groups randomly as follows: Group I (enalaprilalone, n = 36) and Group II (enalapril with cilnidipine, n = 35). In both the groups, baseline 24 h urinary albumin was estimated and was repeated every 3 months upto 1-year. After 1-year follow-up, reduction in microalbuminuria was found to be greater in Group II. In Group I microalbuminuria came down by 25.68 ± 21.40 while in Group II it reduced by 54.88 ± 13.84 (P microalbuminuria reduction over and above the well-proven effect of ACE inhibitors.

  11. Use of pectin in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 in the complex treatment of the periodontal disease (report 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kosenko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. According the literature problem of the treatment of patients with periodontal tissues pathology, accompanied by diabetes mellitus, is serious and is not always successfully solved. Drugs that inhibit glucose absorption (polysugars are effective in diabetes mellitus. "Pektodent" (Ukraine applying in the treatment and prevention of chronic generalized periodontitis of II-III degree in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 can be appropriate in this case. The objective of this study was to develop technologies to ensure long-term rehabilitation in patients with diabetes mellitus after treatment of periodontal tissues. Materials and methods. 45 patients with diabetes type 2 with chronic generalized periodontitis of II-III severity grade were under observation for 12 months. Patients were divided into two groups, control (n = 22 and primary (n = 23. Clinical, laboratory and X-ray methods were used. The results of the treatment process were evaluated on the 1st, 7th and 14th day of research. The results of the rehabilitation process were evaluated in 30 days after treatment, and after 3, 6, and 12-month studies. Feasibilities of rehabilitation technology were determined by assessment of the influence on diabetes type 2 pathogenesis, and chronic generalized periodontitis of II-III degree Results and discussion. Endo-and exogenous application of "Pektodent" as a hygienic and prophylactic drug for oral use can significantly prolong remission period and reduce aggressive course as periodontitis and diabetes, normalizing blood pressure. Conclusions. 1. Pektodent" application in the treatment of periodontal tissues may provide long-term rehabilitation in patients with diabetes. 2. Rehabilitation period indicators in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2, such as a capillary glucose level in blood plasma, blood pressure, and impressive appearance of the lactobacilli that decrease Candida in the mouth were signs of quality treatment of

  12. [Tyrosinemia type II. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatiya, A I; Bouayed, M A; Touiza, E; Daoudi, K; Bhalil, S; Elmesbahi, I; Tahri, H

    2005-01-01

    Tyrosinemia type II or Richner-Hanhart syndrome is a rare hereditary disease characterized by the association of pseudoherpetiform corneal ulcerations and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis. We report the case of a 12 year-old young man presenting a superficial punctate keratitis and a corneal dystrophy in both eyes, associated with a palmoplantar hyperkeratosis. The dosage of the serum level of tyrosine is meaningfully raised to 1236 micromol/l. A dietary treatment restraining tyrosine and phenylalanine is started with favorable results after an evolution of 6 months. Tyrosinemia type II is an autosomal recessive disease, due to an enzymatic deficit in tyrosine aminotransferase. The diagnosis is based on the clinic and high level of serum and urinary tyrosine as well as of its urinary metabolites. This disease must be suspected in all cases of dentritic keratitis not reacting on the antiviral treatment, and more especially if it is associated with cutaneous lesions such as palmo-plantar keratosis.

  13. Prevalence of Celiac Disease in Omani Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Siham Al-Sinani; Sharef Waadallah Sharef; Saif Al-Yaarubi; Ibrahim Al-Zakwani; Khalid Al-Naamani; Aisha Al-Hajri; Said Al-Hasani

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Published studies on the prevalence of celiac disease in type 1 diabetes mellitus from the Arab World are scant. We aim to report the prevalence of celiac disease in Omani children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.Methods: Children with type 1 diabetes mellitus were prospectively screened for celiac disease, at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman over a period of one year (June 2011 - May 2012). Serum anti tissue transglutaminase IgA, endomysial IgA antibodies and total Ig...

  14. [Periodontal disease in children with diabetes mellitus type 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuleutaeva, S; Ashirbekova, Z; Manapova, D; Almurat, S; Kharchenko, V

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the article was to study the occurrence of periodontal diseases in children with type I diabetes mellitus. The examination of 78 children revealed periodontal diseases in 40 children with type I diabetes. OHI-S, CPITN, PMA indices were determined. Pathological changes in periodontal tissues were revealed in 100% of cases. The following were identified: gingival hemorrhage (100%), over - and under-gingival dental tartar (100%), inflammation of gingival papilla (87,5%) marginal (80%) and alveolar gingiva (55%). Spread of periodontal disease among children with I type diabetes is characterized as high and is equal to 100%. Degree of periodontal sickness is evaluated as average and is M=2,28; SD=0,47 according to CPITN index. Treatment and preventive measures should be carried out taking into account major somatic disease.

  15. Screening for Addison's disease in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and recurrent hypoglycaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhari, Taruna; Magzoub, Saeed; Griffiths, Melanie J; Buch, Harit N

    2007-01-01

    Background Addison's disease may present with recurrent hypoglycaemia in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus. There are no data, however, on the prevalence of Addison's disease presenting with recurrent hypoglycaemia in patients with diabetes mellitus. Methods Three year retrospective study of diabetic patients with “unexplained” recurrent hypoglycaemia investigated with a short Synacthen test to exclude adrenocortical insufficiency. Results 95 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus were studied. Addison's disease was identified as the cause of recurrent hypoglycaemia in one patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Conclusion Addison's disease is a relatively rare but remedial cause of recurrent hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. A low threshold for investigating patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and recurrent hypoglycaemia to detect Addison's disease is therefore suggested. PMID:17551075

  16. Noninsulin pharmacological management of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishvas Garg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The injectable nature and other shortcomings of insulin have stimulated interest in studying the noninsulin pharmacological therapies to manage type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic literature review of noninsulin pharmacological therapies for the management of T1DM. For this, the following PubMed search was conducted: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy"[Mesh] Limits: Review Sort by: Publication Date. After applying various inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 63 studies were reviewed. Based on this review, noninsulin pharmacological therapies can be divided into following classes: (1 Insulin-sensitizing agents (biguanides and thiazolidinediones, (2 gastrointestinal nutrient absorption modulators (α-Glucosidase inhibitors and amylin, (3 immunotherapeutic agents, (4 incretin-based therapies, (5 recombinant human insulin-like growth factors, and (6 other promising therapeutics. Some of these are already used either as monotherapy or adjuvant to insulin, whereas, to manage T1DM, the benefits and risks of the others are still under evaluation. Nonetheless, insulin still remains the cornerstone to manage the T1DM.

  17. Type 3 Diabetes Mellitus: A Novel Implication of Alzheimers Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszek, Jerzy; Trypka, Elzbieta; Tarasov, Vadim V; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2017-01-01

    The brain of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) showed the evidence of reduced expression of insulin and neuronal insulin receptors, as compared with those of age-matched controls. This event gradually and certainly leads to a breakdown of the entire insulin-signaling pathway, which manifests insulin resistance. This in turn affects brain metabolism and cognitive functions, which are the bestdocumented abnormalities in AD. These observations led Dr. de la Monte and her colleagues to suggest that AD is actually a neuroendocrine disorder that resembles type 2 diabetes mellitus. The truth would be more complex with understanding the role of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1, Aβ derived diffusible ligands, and advanced glycation end products. However, now it known as "brain diabetes" and is called type 3 diabetes mellitus (T3DM). This review provides an overview of "brain diabetes" focusing on the reason why the phenomenon is called T3DM. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Glycemic control and implant stabilization in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, T W; Dowell, S; Robinson, M; McMahan, C A

    2009-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is considered a relative contra-indication for implant therapy. However, the effect of glycemic level on implant integration in persons with diabetes remains poorly understood. The hypothesis of this research was that poor glycemic control is directly related to short-term-impairment implant stabilization. This prospective clinical study evaluated 10 non-diabetic individuals (12 implants) and 20 persons with type 2 diabetes (30 implants). Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels ranged from 4.7-12.6%. Implant stability was assessed by resonance frequency analysis over 4 months following placement. Minimum stability levels were observed 2-6 weeks following placement for all 42 implants. Persons with HbA1c > or = 8.1% had a greater maximum decrease in stability from baseline and required a longer time for healing, as indicated by return of stability level to baseline. This study demonstrates alterations in implant stability consistent with impaired implant integration for persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus in direct relation to hyperglycemic conditions.

  19. Gene expression profile in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Allam A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is an important component of metabolic syndrome X and predisposes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The incidence of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome X is increasing, and the cause(s for this increasing incidence is not clear. Although genetics could play an important role in the higher prevalence of these diseases, it is not clear how genetic factors interact with environmental and dietary factors to increase their incidence. We performed gene expression profile in subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus with and without family history of these diseases. It was noted that genes involved in carbohydrate, lipid and amino acid metabolism pathways, glycan of biosynthesis, metabolism of cofactors and vitamin pathways, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, signal transduction pathways, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, nervous system pathways, neurodegenerative disorders pathways are upregulated in obesity compared to healthy subjects. In contrast genes involved in cell adhesion molecules, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, insulin signaling and immune system pathways are downregulated in obese. Genes involved in signal transduction, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, antigen processing and presentation, complement and coagulation cascades, axon guidance and neurodegenerative disorders pathways are upregulated in subjects with type 2 diabetes with family history of diabetes compared to those who are diabetic but with no family history. Genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, immune, nervous system, and metabolic disorders pathways are upregulated in those with diabetes with family history of diabetes compared to those with diabetes but with no family history. In contrast, genes involved in lipid and amino acid pathways, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, signal transduction, insulin signaling and PPAR signaling pathways are downregulated in subjects with diabetes with family

  20. Gingival crevicular fluid adrenomedullin level in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertugrul, A S; Dikilitas, A; Sahin, H; Alpaslan, N Z; Bozoglan, A

    2013-06-01

    Adrenomedullin, an antimicrobial peptide, has biological applications in many tissues, but its main attribute is its ability to lower arterial pressure. The plasma adrenomedullin level is elevated in pathophysiological conditions such as arterial hypertension, acute coronary syndrome, renal diseases, diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to compare the amounts of adrenomedullin in the gingival crevicular fluid of periodontally healthy individuals, individuals with chronic periodontitis, periodontally healthy individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2 and individuals with chronic periodontitis and diabetes mellitus type 2. Eighty-four individuals were included in this study: 21 periodontally healthy individuals; 21 individuals with chronic periodontitis; 21 periodontally healthy individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2; and 21 individuals with chronic periodontitis and diabetes mellitus type 2. An ELISA was performed to measure the adrenomedullin levels in gingival crevicular fluid. Groups with diabetes mellitus type 2 (periodontally healthy individuals and individuals with chronic periodontitis) had significantly higher periodontal clinical indices than did nondiabetes mellitus groups (periodontally healthy individuals and individuals with chronic periodontitis). The group of individuals with chronic periodontitis and diabetes mellitus type 2 had a significantly higher total adrenomedullin level compared with the other groups. Also, a significantly higher total adrenomedullin level was found in diabetes mellitus type 2 groups (periodontally healthy individuals and individuals with chronic periodontitis) compared with nondiabetes mellitus groups (periodontally healthy individuals and individuals with chronic periodontitis). An increased adrenomedullin level was found in individuals with chronic periodontitis and also in individuals with diabetes mellitus. It is thought that the effect of diabetes mellitus on the pathogenesis of

  1. Prevalence of subclinical thyroid disorders in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satvic C Manjunath

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subclinical thyroid disorders usually do not produce symptoms of thyroid disease until they turn into over thyroid disease. Thyroid disease is more common in people with diabetes mellitus than in the general population and it is important to detect thyroid disorder before its clinical manifestation. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH can produce dyslipidemia, obesity thus resulting increased predisposition to coronary artery disease. Subclinical hyperthyroidism can aggravate hyperglycemia and impair blood sugar control. Objectives: Our objective is to determine the prevalence of subclinical thyroid disorders in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and to analyze the clinical and metabolic profile of patients with this dual endocrine disorder. Methods and Results: One hundred consecutive type 2 diabetic patients without clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders were screened for SCH and subclinical hyperthyroidism using serum free T 3 , free T 4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels. Individuals of subclinical thyroid disease were further screened for thyroperoxidase (TPO antibodies. SCH was detected in 13% of type 2 diabetic patients and none had subclinical hyperthyroidism in our study. SCH was common among females with type 2 diabetes (84.6%. Elevated TPO antibody levels were present in 84.6% SCH patients. Diabetic retinopathy among SCH patients showed significant association with higher serum TSH levels. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was present in 30.8% of SCH patients. Conclusion: SCH is common among type 2 diabetic patients, especially in females. It is most commonly secondary to autoimmune thyroid disease. Microvascular complications are commonly observed in this group of patients with dual endocrinal disorder and treating physician should be aware of the impact and should routinely screen SCH to prevent complications.

  2. Pathomechanism of Renal Damage in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliana Sambara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia in diabetic patients cause both chronic inflammation and extracellular matrix accumulation that can lead to progressive renal damage. Albumin, Gammaglutamytransferase (GGT and clusterin in urine are markers to detect damage in glomerulus, cell of the tubules and proximal tubules, respectively. METHODS: This study aimed to evaluate the pathomechanism of haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, albumin, GGT, clusterin, type IV collagen in urine, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM patients. The study was a cross sectional study involving 82 subjects consisting of 36 males and 46 females, 35-65 years old, divided into 3 groups: uncontrolled DM, controlled DM and non DM. Data were obtained from interviews, physical examinations (weight, height, blood pressure and laboratory examinations (HbA1c, serum glutamic oxaloacetic (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvic (SGPT, creatinine, hsCRP, urinary albumin, urinary GGT, urinary clusterin, and urinary type IV collagen. Statistical analysis was performed for correlation, difference and cross tabulation tests. RESULTS: The study results showed there were significant differences (p<0.05 between uncontrolled DM group compared with controlled DM and non DM groups in HbA1c, ratio of urinary type IV collagen and ratio of urinary albumin. However, there were no significant differences between controlled DM and non DM groups. There were positive significant correlations between HbA1c with hsCRP (r=0.223, p<0.05, HbA1c with ratio of urinary type IV collagen/creatinine (r=0.563, p<0.001, HbA1c with ratio of urinary albumin/creatinine (r=0.263, p<0.05, and ratio of urinary type IV collagen/creatinine with ratio urinary albumin/creatinine (r=0.613, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study indicated that albumin and type IV collagen in urine play a role in renal damage caused by uncontrolled glucose level in subjects with type 2 DM. The increased concentration of both HbA1c

  3. Comments to: «Type 2 diabetes mellitus – time to change the concept»

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg Viktorovich Udovichenko

    2014-01-01

    Authors of the paper “Diabetes mellitus – time to change the concept” (Diabetes Mellitus, 2013; №1: 91) address weight-reduction treatment modalities (including bariatric surgery) as the pivotal approach to type 2 diabetes management. While acknowledging the importance of weight loss in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), this short letter aims to advise the endocrinology community against viewing bariatric surgery as the ultimate solution of all challenges of T2DM.

  4. Association between obesity and depression in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2; a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo De la Cruz-Cano; Carlos Alfonso Tovilla-Zarate; Emilio Reyes-Ramos; Thelma Beatriz Gonzalez-Castro; Isela Juarez-Castro; Maria Lilia López-Narváez; Ana Fresan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus and depression are highly prevalent conditions throughout the world and have significant impact on health outcomes. It has been estimated that diabetes mellitus type 2 affects about 246 million people in the world; nevertheless, incidence varies among countries. There is evidence that depression is associated with a poor metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus that present other health problems (such as hypertension and obesity). The aim of th...

  5. Advances in management of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravindranath; Aathira; Vandana; Jain

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus has always posed a challenge to balance hyperglycemia control with hypoglycemia episodes. The quest for newer therapies is continuing and this review attempts to outline the recent developments. The insulin molecule itself has got moulded into different analogues by minor changes in its structure to ensure well controlled delivery, stable half-lives and lesser side effects. Insulin delivery systems have also consistently undergone advances from subcutaneous injections to continuous infusion to trials of inhalational delivery. Continuous glucose monitoring systems are also becoming more accurate and user friendly. Smartphones have also made their entry into therapy of diabetes by integrating blood glucose levels and food intake with calculated adequate insulin required. Artificial pancreas has enabled to a certain extent to close the loop between blood glucose level and insulin delivery with devices armed with meal and exercise announcements, dual hormone delivery and pramlintide infusion. Islet, pancreas-kidney and stem cells transplants are also being attempted though complete success is still a far way off. Incorporating insulin gene and secretary apparatus is another ambitious leap to achieve insulin independence though the search for the ideal vector and target cell is still continuing. Finally to stand up to the statement, prevention is better than cure, immunological methods are being investigated to be used as vaccine to prevent the onset of diabetes mellitus.

  6. Phlorotannins: Towards New Pharmacological Interventions for Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciliana Lopes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycaemia, and predicted by the World Health Organization as the expected 7th leading cause of death in 2030. Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2 comprises the majority of diabetic individuals around the world (90%–95%. Pathophysiologically, this disorder results from a deregulation of glucose homeostasis, worsened by overweight and by a sedentary lifestyle, culminating in life-threatening cardiovascular events. The currently available anti-diabetic drugs are not devoid of undesirable side effects, sometimes responsible for poor therapeutic compliance. This represents a challenge for contemporary medicine, and stimulates research focused on the development of safer and more efficient anti-diabetic therapies. Amongst the most promising sources of new bioactive molecules, seaweeds represent valuable, but still underexploited, biofactories for drug discovery and product development. In this review, the role of phlorotannins, a class of polyphenols exclusively produced by brown seaweeds, in the management of DMT2 will be discussed, focusing on various pharmacologically relevant mechanisms and targets, including pancreatic, hepatic and intestinal enzymes, glucose transport and metabolism, glucose-induced toxicity and β-cell cytoprotection, and considering numerous in vitro and in vivo surveys.

  7. Achalasia in a Patient with Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome Type II

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    Bashar S. Amr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Achalasia is a rare disease characterized by aperistalsis of the esophageal body and failure of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax. The etiology of this disease remains unknown. Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type II is a well-identified disease characterized by the occurrence of autoimmune Addison's disease in combination with autoimmune thyroid disease and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus. We report a case that suggests autoimmunity and immunogenicity as a probable contributing factor for association of these two rare disorders.

  8. Plasma Angiotensin II Levels In Women With Type 2 Diabetes With Or Without Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Ariadno, Etra

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background. Hypertension is a major risk for the development and progressivity complication of macro and microvascular of diabetes mellitus. Renin-angiotensin-aldosteron system (RAAS), insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction and autonomic nervous dysfunction play an important part in the pathogenesis of hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In RAAS, increased angiotensin II constricts arterioles, raises total peripheral resistance and blood volume. The rise in intravascular ...

  9. Papel de la insulina en el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus tipo II

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    Alberto Quirantes Hernández

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Se hace una revisión de las características clínicas, epidemiológicas y sociales de la diabetes mellitus tipo II (DMTII. Se analiza la fisiopatología de esta entidad y su manejo terapéutico, y se exponen los mecanismos de acción de las sulfonilureas y la conducta que clásicamente se ha seguido ante el fallo secundario a la acción de este medicamento y que ha consistido en sustituirlo, con la administración insulina lenta en su lugar. En etapas más recientes se plantea que en estos casos se mantiene la administración de la sulfonilurea y se logra un adecuado control metabólico al añadir una pequeña dosis diaria de insulina lenta, lo que ofrece indudables ventajas para el paciente. Se propone un esquema terapéutico sencillo con la asociación de ambos medicamentos y se sugiere realizar nuevas investigaciones al respecto.The clinical, epidemiological and social characteristics of diabetes mellitus type II (DMTII are reviewed. The physiopathology of this disease as well as its therapeutic management are analyzed. The mechanisms of action of sulphonylureas are also exposed. An explanation is given about the behavior that has been clasically followed when it is detected a secondary failure to the action of this drug, which is substituted, administrating slow insulin instead. It has been recently stated that in these cases when the administration of sulphonylurea is maintained, it is attained an adequate metabolic control by adding a small daily dosage of slow insulin, which is very advantageous for the patient. It is proposed a single therapeutic scheme with the association of both drugs, and it is suggested to male new investigations on this regards.

  10. Potential risk factors for developing diabetes mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Dušica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common multifactorial genetic syndrome, which is determined by several genes and environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of risk factors for developing diabetes type 2 among diabetic individuals and to compare the presence of risk factors among diabetic individuals with and without positive family history for type 2 diabetes. Material and methods This study was conducted in Cuprija during the period from February to June 2002. The case group included 137 individuals having diagnosis type 2 diabetes. The control group included 129 subjects having the following diagnoses: hypertension, angina pectoris, chronic obstructive lung disease, gastric ulcer or duodenal ulcer. All participants were interviewed at the Medical Center Cuprija using structural questionnaire. The data were collected regarding demographic characteristics, exposure to various chemical and physical agents, stress, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity and family history of diabetes. In the statistical analysis chi square test was used. Results The diabetic individuals were statistically significantly older (40 and more years old (p=0,000, and they came from rural areas more frequently (p=0,006 than the individuals without diabetes. Significantly more diabetics had lower educational level (p=0,000 and they were agriculture workers and housewives significantly more frequently (p=0,000 than nondiabetic individuals. Furthermore, obesity (p=0,000 and physical inactivity (p=0,003 were significantly more frequent among the diabetic individuals than the nondiabetics. The diabetic individuals had significanly (p=0,000 more numbers of relatives with diabetes mellitus type 2 than the nondiabetics. The diabetic individuals with positive family history of diabetes were significantly older (p=0,021 and more frequently from urban areas (p=0,018 than the diabetic individuals without the positive family history

  11. Thyroid dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laloo Demitrost

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM is a growing problem in our country and we have observed that many patients are associated with thyroid dysfunction later in their life. However, the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in these patients has not been investigated. Aims and Objectives: To find the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in type 2 DM in Manipur, India. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, data of 202 Type 2 DM patients who attended the diabetic clinic of the Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal from January 2011 to July 2012, and whose thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH level was investigated were included. The inclusion criteria are known cases of type 2 DM. Exclusion criteria are patients with previous history of hypothyroidism and those on drugs affecting the thyroid profile. Results: Out the 202 type 2 DM patients for the study of which 61 are males and 141 are females, 139 (68.8% are euthyroid, 33 (16.3% have subclinical hypothyroidism (10 males and 23 females, 23 (11.4% have hypothyroidism (6 males and 17 females, 4 (2% have subclinical hyperthyroidism and 3 (1.5% are hyperthyroidism cases. Maximum cases were of hypothyroidism (subclinical and clinical seen in the age group of 45-64 years. Patients with BMI > 25 were at increased risk of having hypothyroidism (P < 0.016. Conclusion: Prevalence of hypothyroidism is quite high in type 2 DM patients above 45 years and more so if their BMI is over 25.

  12. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Current Trends

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    Abdulfatai B. Olokoba

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic metabolic disorder in which prevalence has been increasing steadily all over the world. As a result of this trend, it is fast becoming an epidemic in some countries of the world with the number of people affected expected to double in the next decade due to increase in ageing population, thereby adding to the already existing burden for healthcare providers, especially in poorly developed countries. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include type 2 diabetes mellitus, prevalence, current diagnosis, and current treatment. Only articles in English were included. Screening and diagnosis is still based on World Health Organization (WHO and American Diabetes Association (ADA criteria which include both clinical and laboratory parameters. No cure has yet been found for the disease; however, treatment modalities include lifestyle modifications, treatment of obesity, oral hypoglycemic agents, and insulin sensitizers like metformin, a biguanide that reduces insulin resistance, is still the recommended first line medication especially for obese patients. Other effective medications include non-sulfonylurea secretagogues, thiazolidinediones, alpha glucosidase inhibitors, and insulin. Recent research into the pathophysiology of type 2 DM has led to the introduction of new medications like glucagon-like peptide 1 analogoues: dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors, inhibitors of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 and 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, insulin-releasing glucokinase activators and pancreatic-G-protein-coupled fatty-acid-receptor agonists, glucagon-receptor antagonists, metabolic inhibitors of hepatic glucose output and quick-release bromocriptine. Inhaled insulin was licensed for use in 2006 but has been withdrawn from the market because of low patronage.

  13. Contributions of no pharmacological treatment for Diabetes Mellitus Type 2.

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    Silas Santos Carvalho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Considering the type 2 diabetes an important public health problem, with high and increasing number of cases in the country and of its consequences, it has become necessary investment in new areas of research to strengthen the use of alternative therapies, relating benefit cost with lower rates of adverse effects. Thus, this study aimed to identify the benefits of physical activity and specific balanced diet in the control of diabetes mellitus type 2. Such strategies are recognized in the literature as non-pharmacological treatment and used as election therapy or as an adjunct to classical pharmacological treatment. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional pilot study at the Center for Diabetic Care and Hypertension in a Bahian in a city of Bahia in 2014, based on consultation records and questionnaire. The sample consisted of 56 adult individuals of both sexes, aged >40, with diabetes mellitus type 2, , registered and accompanied by the institution for disease control. Results: The average age of participants was 62 years, most are female, with low socioeconomic status, and reported no use of tobacco or alcohol. (85,7%, carbohydrates. Most participants had a mean age of 62 years, female, with low socioeconomic status, and reported no use of tobacco or alcohol. Best of glucose levels also predominated in the sample (85.7%, along with a low daily intake of fat and sugar / sweet carbohydrates, physical inactivity, overweight and previous guidance of oral hygiene. Most also said never done gingival treatment and tooth loss report was almost 100%. Conclusion: The results of this study point to a better relationship between glycemia and non-pharmacological therapies such as guided oral hygiene, physical activity and BMI

  14. Atorvastatin prevents type 2 diabetes mellitus--an experimental study.

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    Madhu, Sri Venkata; Aslam, Mohammad; Galav, Vikas; Bhattacharya, Swapan Kumar; Jafri, Aiman Abbas

    2014-04-05

    Recent reports of increased diabetes risk have raised concerns regarding the use of statins. The present study was therefore planned to clarify whether atorvastatin can prevent diabetes development in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eight week old male Wistar rats were randomized into three groups (n = 12 each group). Group A was given standard chow diet, while group B and group C were offered high sucrose diet. In addition to high sucrose diet, group C was given atorvastatin (20mg/kg/day) from beginning of study till 26th week. After 26 weeks, a low dose of streptozotocin (15 mg/kg, i.p.) was given to all 3 groups and further followed for 4 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance tests were done at week 4, 26 and week 30. Development of impaired glucose tolerance at week 26 (16.66% vs 100%, P = <0.001) and diabetes at week 30 (16.66% vs 81.81%, P = 0.002) was significantly lower in rats pretreated with atorvastatin along with high sucrose diet viz group C compared to group B rats who received high sucrose diet only respectively. Also, metabolic indices like body weight, hypertriglyceridemia, glucose area under the curve (Gl-AUC) were significantly lower in group C compared to group B (P = <0.05) while insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was also lower in group C (P = 0.05). This study clearly demonstrates for the first time in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus that atorvastatin prevents development of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Short-term glucose metabolism and gut hormone modulations after Billroth II gastrojejunostomy in nonobese gastric cancer patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance and normal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-juan; Xiao, Zhu; Yu, Hong-ling; Zhang, Xiang-xun; Cheng, Zhong; Tian, Hao-ming

    2013-08-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is effective in controlling blood glucose in obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The alterations of gut hormones involving in glucose metabolism may play an important role. Our aim was to explore the short-term effects of Billroth II gastrojejunostomy (a similar type of RYGB) on glucose metabolism and gut hormone modulations in nonobese patients with different levels of blood glucose tolerance. Twenty one nonobese gastric cancer patients with different levels of blood glucose tolerance were submitted to Billroth II gastrojejunostomy. Among them, seven had T2DM, seven with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and the other seven had normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Body weight, glucose parameters, responses of plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) to 75 g glucose were measured at baseline and 3 months after surgery. Similar weight losses were observed in all groups. Blood glucose was reduced in T2DM and IGT patients. Fasting and 30-min plasma glucose were increased significantly in NGT. GLP-1 showed insignificant alterations in all groups. PYY was evaluated in T2DM and IGT but remained unchanged in the NGT group. Decreased fasting and AUC GIP were observed in patients with T2DM; however, fasting and 30-min GIP were increased in NGT patients. Billroth II gastrojejunostomy is effective in reducing blood glucose in nonobese patients with T2DM and IGT but could deteriorate early blood glucose in nonobese NGT in a 3-month time period. Variations of glucose and gut hormone changes in the three groups suggest a role of proximal intestine in the pathophysiology of T2DM. Copyright © 2013 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Impacto de estratégias motivacionais e de ativação da intenção na prática da atividade física, modalidade caminhada, em pessoas com diabetes mellitus tipo II : ensaio clínico randomizado controlado: um estudo piloto = Motivational impact of strategies and of activation of intention in practice of physical activity, mode walk, in people with diabetes mellitus type II : clinical trial randomized controlled : a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Vieira da Silva

    2014-01-01

    O sedentarismo e a má alimentação, tão comuns nos dias de hoje, levam a patologias crônicas, como o diabetes mellitus tipo II. A atividade física é um dos pilares no tratamento do diabetes e está associada às melhorias nos níveis de glicose plasmática e à ação da insulina, o que acaba por melhorar a qualidade de vida do indivíduo. Entretanto, tem-se verificado as dificuldades dos profissionais de saúde em promover a adesão e manutenção deste comportamento nos indivíduos diabéticos. Este estud...

  17. Effect of diet on type 2 diabetes mellitus: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazrai, Y M; Defeudis, G; Pozzilli, P

    2014-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the fastest growing diseases; the number of people affected by diabetes will soon reach 552 million worldwide, with associated increases in complications and healthcare expenditure. Lifestyle and medical nutrition therapy are considered the keystones of type 2 diabetes prevention and treatment, but there is no definite consensus on how to treat this disease with these therapies. The American Diabetes Association has made several recommendations regarding the medical nutrition therapy of diabetes; these emphasize the importance of minimizing macrovascular and microvascular complications in people with diabetes. Four types of diets were reviewed for their effects on diabetes: the Mediterranean diet, a low-carbohydrate/high-protein diet, a vegan diet and a vegetarian diet. Each of the four types of diet has been shown to improve metabolic conditions, but the degree of improvement varies from patient to patient. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate a patient's pathophysiological characteristics in order to determine the diet that will achieve metabolic improvement in each individual. Many dietary regimens are available for patients with type 2 diabetes to choose from, according to personal taste and cultural tradition. It is important to provide a tailor-made diet wherever possible in order to maximize the efficacy of the diet on reducing diabetes symptoms and to encourage patient adherence. Additional randomized studies, both short term (to analyse physiological responses) and long term, could help reduce the multitude of diets currently recommended and focus on a shorter list of useful regimens.

  18. Current view from Alzheimer disease to type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Mahmood; Malik, Arif; Qazi, Aamer M; Sheikh, Ishfaq A; Manan, Abdul; Shaheen, Sumaira; Qazi, Mahmood H; Chaudhary, Adeel G; Abuzenadah, Adel M; Asif, Muhammad; Alqahtani, Mohammed H; Iqbal, Zafar; Shaik, Munvar M; Gan, Siew H; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2014-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that leads to memory problems. It has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus at both the molecular and biochemical level. Pancreatic cells have molecular similarities to the brain at the transcriptomic and proteomic levels. Several genes have been reported to be responsible for both AD and diabetes. Currently, no proper treatment is available but various therapeutic approaches are utilized worldwide for the management of these disorders and may be nanoparticles and herbal treatment of Bacopa monnieri will make promise for the treatment of AD in future. The formation of amyloids in neurons and the formation of amylin in pancreatic cells are potential links between these two disorders, which can be silent killers.

  19. Canagliflozin Treatment in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplitt, Curtis; Cornell, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) indicate a patient-centered approach that should go beyond glycemic control. Of the many antihyperglycemic agents available for treatment of T2DM, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors offer the advantages of reduced glycated hemoglobin (A1C), body weight (BW), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and are associated with a low risk of hypoglycemia when used either as monotherapy or with other agents not typically associated with increased risk of hypoglycemia. Collaborative, multidisciplinary teams are best suited to provide care to patients with diabetes, and clinical pharmacists can enhance the care provided by these teams. This review aims to provide insight into the mode of action, pharmacology, potential drug–drug interactions, clinical benefits, and safety considerations associated with use of the SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin in patients with T2DM and to provide information to enhance clinical pharmacists’ understanding of canagliflozin. PMID:26523120

  20. Immune Function of Vitamin D in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Jingbo Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is a well-known fat-soluble vitamin which is essential in the homeostasis of calcium and phosphorus. Vitamin D deficiency causes skeletal disorders, including rickets, osteomalacia, and osteoporosis. However, recent studies revealing the immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D have opened up a new understanding and possibility in this field. It has been proved that vitamin D is related to a variety of autoimmune diseases. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, being generally accepted as autoimmune mediated, is also proposed to be associated with the vitamin D status of the human body. Here, we reviewed briefly the epidemiological correlation between the vitamin D status and prevalence of T1DM, the possible mechanisms underlying this correlation, and clinical trials focusing on the therapeutic prospects of vitamin D in the treatment of T1DM.

  1. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, S; Tandon, Nikhil

    2013-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) which used to be a disease of adults is now seen commonly at an early age in children and adolescents. T2DM is now an important diagnostic consideration in children who present with signs and symptoms of diabetes. The emerging epidemic of obesity in children throughout the world and the resultant insulin resistance contributes to the increasing prevalence of T2DM in this population. The recommended treatment options include metformin and insulin. Optimal glycemic control is essential considering the lifelong nature of the disease and therefore, the increased risk of long term complications - both microvascular and macrovascular. This review article summarizes the classification, diagnosis, pathogenesis, management, complications and screening of T2DM in children, incorporating and contextualizing guidelines from various professional associations.

  2. Functional herbal food ingredients used in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Pathirage Kamal; Li, Yunman

    2012-01-01

    From many reports it is clear that diabetes will be one of the major diseases in the coming years. As a result there is a rapidly increasing interest in searching new medicines, or even better searching prophylactic methods. Based on a large number of chemical and pharmacological research work, numerous bioactive compounds have been found in functional herbal food ingredients for diabetes. The present paper reviews functional herbal food ingredients with regards to their anti-diabetic active principles and pharmacological test results, which are commonly used in Asian culinary system and medical system and have demonstrated clinical or/and experimental anti-diabetic effectiveness. Our idea of reviewing this article is to give more attention to these functional food ingredients as targets medicinal foods in order to prevent or slow down the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  3. Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with pituitary gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Omar; Banerjee, Swati; Kelly, Daniel F; Lee, Phillip D K

    2007-01-01

    Pituitary gigantism, a condition of endogenous growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion prior to epiphyseal closure, is a rare condition. In the adult condition of GH excess, acromegaly, the occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) have been reported, with resolution following normalization of GH levels. We report the case of a 16-year-old male with pituitary gigantism due to a large invasive suprasellar adenoma who presented with T2DM and DKA. Despite surgical de-bulking, radiotherapy and medical treatment with cabergoline and pegvisomant, GH and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels remained elevated. However, the T2DM and recurrent DKA were successfully managed with metformin and low-dose glargine insulin, respectively. We review the pathophysiology of T2DM and DKA in growth hormone excess and available treatment options.

  4. Vitamin D and type 2 diabetes mellitus (D2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Yan; Zhao, Hong-yan; Liu, Jian-Min

    2013-09-01

    Based on increasing evidence from animal and human studies, vitamin D deficiency is now regarded as a potential risk factor for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Vitamin D is involved in the pathogenesis of pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, insulin resistance, and systemic inflammation, conditions that contribute to the development of T2DM. Vitamin D can affect the progress of this disease directly through the activation of its own receptor, and indirectly via the regulation of calcium homeostasis. Observational studies have revealed the association between vitamin D deficiency and incident T2DM. More double-blind randomized control studies that investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and the occurrence of T2DM are needed.

  5. Oxidative stress, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and type 2diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Surapon Tangvarasittichai

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is increased in metabolic syndromeand type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and this appearsto underlie the development of cardiovascular disease,T2DM and diabetic complications. Increased oxidativestress appears to be a deleterious factor leading to insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, β-cell dysfunction, impaired glucose tolerance and ultimately leading to T2DM. Chronic oxidative stress, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia are particularly dangerous for β-cells from lowest levels of antioxidant, have high oxidative energy requirements, decrease the gene expression of key β-cell genes and induce cell death. If β-cell functioning is impaired, it results in an under production of insulin, impairs glucose stimulated insulin secretion, fasting hyperglycemia and eventually the development of T2DM.

  6. [Diet composition along the evolution of type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottenberg, Ana Maria Pita

    2008-03-01

    The importance of nutrition therapy in treating diabetes mellitus has been emphasized since it was first identified, being the only effective intervention then. In Type 1 diabetes, its importance is even more pronounced due to its association with the use of exogenous insulin. Appropriate caloric ingestion in order to attain normal body weight maintains anabolism, warranting growth and development and decreases insulin resistance. The correct use of micronutrients and macronutrients is vitally important. The knowledge of carbohydrate metabolism and its association with glycemic elevation, in qualitative and quantitative aspects, is emphasized since it enables good control, especially during the postprandial period. The correct use of proteins to prevent or treat nephropathies and lipids or to avoid dyslipidemia, obesity, and cardiovascular disease are also addressed. Sucrose and artificial sweeteners should be used with care. Compliance with treatment, however, is the key to reach the desired goals.

  7. Periapical healing outcome following single visit endodontic treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Moksha; Babshet, Medha

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of apical periodontitis in diabetes mellitus patients is high. The altered immunity in diabetes affects the healing process of periapical tissue. Single visit endodontic treatment has shown to increase the periapical healing rate with better patient compliance. Hence the present study aims at evaluating the clinical and radiographic healing outcome of single visit endodontic treatment, in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with periapical disease. Material and Methods Eighty patients with periapical disease were divided into 2 groups of 40 each: Group I, Control subjects and Group II, Type 2 diabetics. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels were assessed preoperatively and at follow up intervals in diabetics. Pre-operative assessment of periapical status was done using CPDR (Clinical periapical diagnosis of root), QLDR (Qualitative radiographic diagnosis of tooth) and QTDR (Quantitative radiographic diagnosis of tooth) criteria. Postoperative healing was evaluated following single-visit endodontic treatment by Strindberg criteria. Results Group 2 subjects had chronic and exacerbating lesions with significantly larger lesions (p=0.029). 100 % clinical healing outcome in diabetic group was seen in two months. Group 2 showed 85% success in one year on radiographic evaluation. Poor controlled diabetics showed failure compared to fair and good controlled. Conclusions Type 2 diabetics had chronic and larger sized lesions when compared to control subjects. The periapical lesions in patients with poor diabetic control showed failure. The clinical and radiographic healing outcome of single visit endodontic therapy was delayed in diabetic patients. Key words:Apical periodontitis, diabetes mellitus type 2, endodontics, periapical lesion, strindberg criteria. PMID:27957260

  8. Pediatric Type 1 and 2 Diabetes Mellitus : Epidemiology, Comorbidities, and Medication Utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazeli Farsani, S.

    2015-01-01

    The numbers of patients with diabetes mellitus (type 1 and type 2) are increasing globally, both in adults and children. Pediatric diabetes mellitus is an important health concern, since this disease has significant effects on health and quality of life, social function, use of medical services and

  9. Pediatric Type 1 and 2 Diabetes Mellitus : Epidemiology, Comorbidities, and Medication Utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazeli Farsani, S.

    2015-01-01

    The numbers of patients with diabetes mellitus (type 1 and type 2) are increasing globally, both in adults and children. Pediatric diabetes mellitus is an important health concern, since this disease has significant effects on health and quality of life, social function, use of medical services and

  10. Samenvatting van de standaard 'Diabetes mellitus type 2' (tweede herziening) van het Nederlands Huisartsen Genootschap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, M.; Rutten, G.E.H.M.; Grauw, W.J.C. de; Wiersma, T.; Goudswaard, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    The practice guideline 'Diabetes mellitus type 2' (second revision) addresses the diagnosis, treatment and management of adults with diabetes mellitus type 2 in general practice. The aim of management is the prevention and treatment of diabetes-related symptoms and complications such as cardiovascul

  11. Disorders of lipid metabolism in 3 patients with diabetes mellitus type 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Huijberts, M.S.P.

    2001-01-01

    Disorders of lipid metabolism in 3 patients with diabetes mellitus type 2] [Article in Dutch] Wolffenbuttel BH, Huijberts MS. Academisch Ziekenhuis, afd. Endocrinologie, Postbus 5800, 6202 AZ Maastrict. bwo@sint.azm.nl Three patients with diabetes mellitus (type 2) and cardiovascular disease had

  12. Mouse Models of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baribault, Helene

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a fast-growing epidemic in industrialized countries, associated with obesity, lack of physical exercise, aging, family history, and ethnic background. Diagnostic criteria are elevated fasting or postprandial blood glucose levels, a consequence of insulin resistance. Early intervention can help patients to revert the progression of the disease together with lifestyle changes or monotherapy. Systemic glucose toxicity can have devastating effects leading to pancreatic beta cell failure, blindness, nephropathy, and neuropathy, progressing to limb ulceration or even amputation. Existing treatments have numerous side effects and demonstrate variability in individual patient responsiveness. However, several emerging areas of discovery research are showing promises with the development of novel classes of antidiabetic drugs.The mouse has proven to be a reliable model for discovering and validating new treatments for type 2 diabetes mellitus. We review here commonly used methods to measure endpoints relevant to glucose metabolism which show good translatability to the diagnostic of type 2 diabetes in humans: baseline fasting glucose and insulin, glucose tolerance test, insulin sensitivity index, and body type composition. Improvements on these clinical values are essential for the progression of a novel potential therapeutic molecule through a preclinical and clinical pipeline.

  13. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khabbaz, Areej K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether type 2 diabetes is coupled with increased severity of periodontal destruction. A total of 80 subjects with type 2 diabetes and 78 healthy control subjects underwent a fullmouth periodontal examination. The study included dentate subjects with a minimum of 7 remaining teeth in each dental arch. Plaque score, bleeding on probing and clinical attachment loss were assessed. Diabetic patients showed a significantly lower percent of plaque-positive surfaces (P = 0.02) with a significant increase in the number and the percent of sites with clinical attachment loss ≥ 3 mm compared to controls. In the logistic regression analysis, age and diabetes were found to be associated with having > 15% sites with clinical attachment loss > 5 mm. There was a significant correlation between diabetes duration and the severity of periodontal attachment loss. Patients with type 2 diabetes were at higher risk of having severe forms of periodontal disease compared with non-diabetic subjects. The results highlight the need for frequent supportive periodontal care for patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  14. [A study of frequency of TNF alpha gene with type 2 diabetes mellitus with chronic periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Yu, Ning; Tan, Li-si; Liu, Jing-bo; Guo, Yan; Pan, Ya-ping

    2011-04-01

    To detect the frequency of TNF alpha gene in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus with chronic periodontitis, periodontitis without any systemic diseases and healthy controls. The case series were consisted of 112 patients with moderate, severe type 2 diabetes mellitus with chronic periodontitis, 99 patients with moderate, severe periodontitis without any systemic disease, 50 age- and gender-matched subjects with healthy periodontal conditions were enrolled. Clinical parameters were measured and recorded including probing depth(PD), clinical attachment loss(CAL), bleeding index(BI), and tooth movement(TM). The polymorphism of TNF-α-308 genotype (TNF1/2) was examined after electrophoresis on agarose gel and ethidium bromide staining. The difference between the case and healthy groups was analysed by Chi-square test, the difference in clinical index among groups which had different allele was analyzed for ANOVA with SPSS13.0 software package. We divided DM and CP groups into moderate and severe groups. There were significant difference between severe DM group and severe, moderate CP group, moderate DM group and chronic periodontitis of severe,moderate group. The probing depth and clinical attachment loss of the patients who took TNF-α-308 allele II were significantly higher than the patients who took TNF-α-308 allele I in DM and CP group. TNF-α-308 allele II might increase the susceptivity of periodontitis in population. TNF-α-308 allele II may play an important role in synergistic reaction of periodontitis and type 2 diabetes.

  15. ROLE OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL CARE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha O. Mahwi and Kawa A. Obied *

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of pharmaceutical care on the control of clinical parameters, such as fasting glycaemia and glycosylated hemoglobin also to assess drug therapy problems in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Setting: the study was conducted at Diabetic Center in Sulaimany/Iraq, during 18 September 2010 -20 January 2011. Methods: A prospective and randomized control trial study was conducted with 130 type 2 diabetes patients with glycosylated hemoglobin of higher than 7.0%, they were divided into two groups: (i pharmaceutical care (intervention group (n=65, and (ii the control group (n=65. They were monitored for 3 consecutive visits. Patients in the control group received usual medical care, but patients in the intervention group received both standard medical care and pharmaceutical care. Results: At the end of the study, a statistically significant reduction was observed in the glycemic levels of patients in the intervention group whilst a small reduction, which is statistically not significant, was detected in the control group. Furthermore, the follow-up of the intervention group by a pharmacist contributed to the resolution of 108 drug therapy problems identified. Conclusion: pharmaceutical care process provided by pharmacist to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus could yield measurable improvements in the glycemic control, resolution of drug therapy problems and improvements in the compliance toward antidiabetic medication.

  16. The role of hormonal treatment in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam SK

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Syed Khalid ImamLiaquat National Hospital and Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan; Al-Mouwasat Hospital, Jubail Industrial City, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a disorder of abnormal glucose metabolism resulting primarily from insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency and characterized by hyperglycemia causing significant short- and long-term complications. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM contributes to more than 90% of cases of diabetes. Obesity, sedentary lifestyles, and consumption of very high-caloric meals are thought to be the primary triggering factors causing T2DM in genetically predisposed individuals. Although treatment of hyperglycemia plays a key role in the management, therapies directed at other comorbid conditions, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, hypercoagulability, obesity, and insulin resistance, have also been a major focus of research and therapy. DM is rising to an epidemic proportion globally, and it is, indeed, one of the most challenging public health problems in the 21st century. According to 2011 statistics, there were approximately 366 million diabetes cases worldwide, and this figure would probably increase to 552 million by 2030. Long-term complications from high blood sugar include coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular events, peripheral arterial diseases leading to amputation, retinopathy, nephropathy leading to end-stage renal disease requiring hemodialysis and transplantation, and neuropathy. The acute complication of T2DM includes drug-induced hypoglycemia, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, and although uncommon, ketoacidosis. Diabetes care requires a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach to delay the progression to acute as well as chronic and debilitating long-term complications. This approach requires the thorough understanding of the pathophysiology of hyperglycemia and impact of various risk factors and comorbidities, careful selection of antihyperglycemic

  17. Evaluation of Preventive Studies in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Müyesser Sayki Arslan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic autoimmune disease in which destruction of the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans results in insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia. We only definitely know that autoimmunity is the most important effector mechanism of type 1 DM. Type 1 DM precipitates in genetically susceptible individuals after an exposure to environmental trigger. According to current data, type 1 DM-associated genes are classified as susceptibility and protective genes. This insidious disease process evolves over a period of years. Prevention of type 1 DM requires detection of the earliest events in the process. Until now, autoantibodies are generally used as a serum biomarker, but current studies about T cell and metabolome might strengthen diagnostic view. Current preventive clinical studies usually focus on environmental factors. During the natural course of type 1 DM, many strategies have been tested at different stages in the form of primary, secondary and tertiary studies. The aim of the intervention studies for type 1 diabetes is to suppress pathogenic autoreactivity, restore/preserve beta cell mass and function to sufficient levels to provide good metabolic control, and to delay or prevent disease development. Therapeutic studies evaluate the effect of antigen specific and non-specific immune interventions, restoration of the damaged beta cells and also combination of these therapies. The results of intervention studies done till now are modulation of autoimmune process and partial prevention of loss of insulin release following the diagnosis. A single long-term effective prevention has not been identified yet. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 38-45

  18. Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus through Telemedicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Carallo

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM has a huge and growing burden on public health, whereas new care models are not implemented into clinical practice; in fact the purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a program of integrated care for T2DM, compared with ordinary diligence."Progetto Diabete Calabria" is a new organizational model for the management of patients with diabetes mellitus, based on General Practitioners (GPs empowerment and the use of a web-based electronic health record, shared in remote consultations among GPs and Hospital Consultants. One-year change in glucose and main cardiovascular risk factors control in 104 patients (Cases following this integrated care program has been evaluated and compared with that of 208 control patients (Controls matched for age, gender, and cardiometabolic profile, and followed in an ordinary outpatient medical management by the Consultants only. Both patient groups had Day Hospitals before and after the study period.The mean number of accesses to the Consultants during the study was 0.6 ± 0.9 for Cases, and 1.3 ± 1.5 for Controls (p<0.0001. At follow-up, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c significantly decreased from 58 ± 6 to 54 ± 8 mmol/mol in Cases only (p=0.01; LDL cholesterol decreased in both groups; body mass index decreased in Cases only, from 31.0 ± 4.8 to 30.5 ± 4.6 kg/m(2 (p=0.03.The present study demonstrates that a health care program based on GPs empowerment and taking care plus remote consultation with Consultants is at least as effective as standard outpatient management, in order to improve the control of T2DM.

  19. [BO's abdominal acupuncture for obese type-2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan; Liu, Yunxia

    2015-04-01

    To observe the clinical efficacy of BO's abdominal acupuncture for obese type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Sixty patients of obese T2DM were randomly divided into an acupuncture group and a medication group, 30 cases in each one. Patients in the medication group were treated with basic treatment combined with oral administration of regular antidiabetics, three weeks as one session. Patients in the acupuncture group, based on the medication group, were treated with abdominal acupuncture at Yinqiguiyuan [Zhongwan (CV 12), Xiawan (CV 10), Qihai (CV 6), Guanguan (CV 4)], Fusiguan [Huaroumen (ST 24), Wailing (TE 5)], Tianshu (ST 25), Daheng (SP 15), Qixue (KI 13), etc.; the treatment was given three times per week, 3 weeks as one session. The systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, body mass index (BI) were observed before and after treatment in the two groups, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FINS), 2-hours postprandial blood glucose by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), HOMA-IR of insulin resistance index were calculated and adverge events were recorded. Compared before the treatment, SBP, WC, body weight, BMI, FPG, OG-TT2hBG, FINS, GTT2h insulin, HOMA-IR, TC and LDL-C in the acupuncture group were all significantly reduced (all P diabetes mellitus, featuring in lowering blood pressure, reducing weight, decreasing blood glucose, im- proving insulin resistance and lowering lipid, which has no adverse effects and is worthy of clinical popularization and application.

  20. A study of prevalence rate and risk factors of type II diabetes mellitus in patients with schizophrenia in Beijing community%北京社区精神分裂症患者2型糖尿病发生率及其相关因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫芳; 徐会利; 朱玉玲; 苏京利; 陈国澜; 陈玲; 任艳萍; 侯也之; 李文咏; 穆莉莉; 王诚; 李文秀; 吴晓梅; 陶玉芬

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解北京社区精神分裂症患者发生2型糖尿病的比例及其人口学特点。方法以北京市4个区县540名18~65岁慢性精神分裂症患者作为调查对象。使用一般人口学特征、疾病特征、用药情况、糖尿病病史登记表等进行访谈,检测身高、体质量及空腹血糖。结果精神分裂症患者糖尿病的发生率为15.7%,有随着年龄的增长而增加的趋势(P<0.05);单因素分析显示精神分裂症糖尿病患者与非糖尿病患者在发病次数、发病年龄、总病程方面比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。 Logistic回归分析显示控制其他影响因素的情况下,糖尿病的发生与急性起病、病程长、发病年龄晚有关( P<0.05)。结论慢性精神分裂症患者中糖尿病的发生率高于正常人群,与发病形式、发病年龄和病程有关。%Objective To explore the prevalence rate and demographic characteristics of type II diabetes mellitus in patients with schizophrenia in Beijing community.Methods A total of 540 patients with chronic schizophrenia from 18 to 65 years old in four districts and counties of Beijing were selected and investigated with basic socio-demographic, disease attribute,medication, history of diabetes, height, weight and fasting blood glucose.Results The prevalence rate of diabetes mellitus in patients with schizophrenia was 15.7% which was positively related with the age of patients ( P <0.05).Univariate analysis showed significant differences for recurrence times, age of onset and course of disease between the schizophsenia patients with diabetes mellitus and the schizophrenia patients without diabetes mellitus (P<0.05).Logistic regression analysis showed the onset of diabetes mellitus in the patients was related to acute onset, long course of disease and late age of onset (P<0.05).Conclusion It’s serious for the prevalence rate of diabetes mellitus in patients with schizophrenia

  1. Retinal Capillary Rarefaction in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumar, Agnes; Harazny, Joanna M.; Ott, Christian; Friedrich, Stefanie; Kistner, Iris; Striepe, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In diabetes mellitus type 2, capillary rarefaction plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of end-organ damage. We investigated retinal capillary density in patients with early disease. Methods This cross-sectional study compares retinal capillary rarefaction determined by intercapillary distance (ICD) and capillary area (CapA), measured non-invasively and in vivo by scanning laser Doppler flowmetry, in 73 patients with type 2 diabetes, 55 healthy controls and 134 individuals with hypertension stage 1 or 2. Results In diabetic patients, ICD was greater (23.2±5.5 vs 20.2±4.2, p = 0.013) and CapA smaller (1592±595 vs 1821±652, p = 0.019) than in healthy controls after adjustment for differences in cardiovascular risk factors between the groups. Compared to hypertensive patients, diabetic individuals showed no difference in ICD (23.1±5.8, p = 0.781) and CapA (1556±649, p = 0.768). Conclusion In the early stage of diabetes type 2, patients showed capillary rarefaction compared to healthy individuals. PMID:27935938

  2. Serum zinc and magnesium concentrations in type 2 diabetes mellitus with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushparani, D S; Anandan, S Nirmala; Theagarayan, P

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the serum levels of zinc (Zn) and magnesium (Mg) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) with periodontitis patients and to correlate them with the levels of serum cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and triglycerides among the study subjects. A total of 600 subjects participated in the study, who were divided into four groups as control healthy individuals (group I), type 2 DM without periodontitis (group II), type 2 DM with periodontitis (group III), and periodontitis subjects without DM (group IV), matched for age, sex, and duration of diabetes. Serum concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-c, Zn, and Mg were measured using enzymatic methods in an UV absorption spectrophotometer, and LDL-c was calculated using Friedwald's formula. Student's t-test, Pearson correlations, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used for statistical analysis. The serum zinc level was found to be significantly increased in type 2 DM without periodontitis (group II) and periodontitis subjects without type 2 DM (group IV) (P periodontitis (group III) when compared to control. The serum Mg level was found to be significantly decreased (P periodontitis (group III, P periodontitis had altered metabolism of Zn and Mg which were linked to increased values of serum cholesterol and LDL-c and decreased HDL-c, contributing to the progression and complications of type 2 DM with periodontitis.

  3. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Joon Ho; Kwak, Soo Heon; Jang, Hak C

    2017-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy, is characterized by underlying maternal defects in the β-cell response to insulin during pregnancy. Women with a previous history of GDM have a greater than 7-fold higher risk of developing postpartum diabetes compared with women without GDM. Various risk factors for postpartum diabetes have been identified, including maternal age, glucose levels in pregnancy, family history of diabetes, pre-pregnancy and postpartum body mass index, dietary patterns, physical activity, and breastfeeding. Genetic studies revealed that GDM shares common genetic variants with type 2 diabetes. A number of lifestyle interventional trials that aimed to ameliorate modifiable risk factors, including diet, exercise, and breastfeeding, succeeded in reducing the incidence of postpartum diabetes, weight retention, and other obesity-related morbidities. The present review summarizes the findings of previous studies on the incidence and risk factors of postpartum diabetes and discusses recent lifestyle interventional trials that attempted to prevent postpartum diabetes.

  4. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Joon Ho; Kwak, Soo Heon; Jang, Hak C.

    2017-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy, is characterized by underlying maternal defects in the β-cell response to insulin during pregnancy. Women with a previous history of GDM have a greater than 7-fold higher risk of developing postpartum diabetes compared with women without GDM. Various risk factors for postpartum diabetes have been identified, including maternal age, glucose levels in pregnancy, family history of diabetes, pre-pregnancy and postpartum body mass index, dietary patterns, physical activity, and breastfeeding. Genetic studies revealed that GDM shares common genetic variants with type 2 diabetes. A number of lifestyle interventional trials that aimed to ameliorate modifiable risk factors, including diet, exercise, and breastfeeding, succeeded in reducing the incidence of postpartum diabetes, weight retention, and other obesity-related morbidities. The present review summarizes the findings of previous studies on the incidence and risk factors of postpartum diabetes and discusses recent lifestyle interventional trials that attempted to prevent postpartum diabetes. PMID:28049284

  5. Catarata e diabetes mellitus tipo 1 Cataract and type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Manfroi Dal Pizzol

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de catarata e seus fatores de risco em uma população portadora de diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DM1. MÉTODOS: Estudo de casos e controles de um banco de dados de 181 pacientes (362 olhos com diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus tipo 1. Os pacientes foram classificados como casos quando apresentavam diagnóstico de catarata. As variáveis estudadas foram a presença ou não de retinopatia diabética, tratamento com panfotocoagulação, presença de hipertensão arterial sistêmica e neuropatia periférica, colesterol total, triglicerídios séricos, HDL, LDL, índice de massa corporal, creatinina sérica, albuminúria, hemoglobina glicosilada e glicemia de jejum. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de catarata foi de 19,9%. Na análise univariada foi encontrada associação estatisticamente significativa (pPURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of cataract and associated risk factors in a diabetic type 1 population. METHODS: 181 patients (362 eyes were evaluated in a case-control study. Cases were classified when cataract was present at the time of the examination. The studied outcomes were the presence of diabetic retinopathy, retinal panphotocoagulation, high blood pressure, peripheral neuropathy, total cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, HDL, LDL, body mass index, creatinine levels, albuminuria, glycosylated hemoglobin and glycemia levels. RESULTS: Cataract was present in 19.9% of the studied patients. The association of the presence of cataract and diabetic retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, elevated levels of creatinine, panphotocoagulation and high blood pressure were statistically significant (univariate analysis. After the logistic regression analysis the presence of cataract was significantly associated with the presence of diabetic retinopathy. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of cataract was 19.9% and the presence and severity of the diabetic retinopathy were the main risk factors for its development.

  6. Serological markers of enterocyte damage and apoptosis in patients with celiac disease, autoimmune diabetes mellitus and diabetes mellitus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmanová, I; Sánchez, D; Hábová, V; Anděl, M; Tučková, L; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, H

    2015-01-01

    Impairment of mucosal barrier integrity of small intestine might be causative in immune-mediated gastrointestinal diseases. We tested the markers of epithelial apoptosis - cytokeratin 18 caspase-cleaved fragment (cCK-18), and enterocyte damage - intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) in sera of patients with untreated celiac disease (CLD), those on gluten-free diet (CLD-GFD), patients with autoimmune diabetes mellitus (T1D), T1D with insulitis (T1D/INS), and diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2D). We found elevated levels of cCK-18 (Pdiabetes.

  7. Characterization of Vestibulopathy in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Bryan K; Wenzel, Angela; Kalyani, Rita R; Agrawal, Yuri; Feng, Allen L; Polydefkis, Michael; Ying, Howard S; Schubert, Michael C; Zuniga, M Geraldine; Della Santina, Charles C; Carey, John P

    2015-07-01

    Previous observational studies suggest higher rates of vestibular dysfunction among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) compared with those without diabetes. This study aims to functionally localize vestibular dysfunction in adults with type 2 DM. Prospective cohort study. Tertiary academic medical center. Adults 50 years of age and older with ≥10-year history of type 2 DM were recruited (December 2011-February 2013, n = 25). Vestibular function was assessed by cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs), testing the saccule and utricle, respectively. Head thrust dynamic visual acuity testing assessed semicircular canal (SCC) function in all canal planes. Results were compared with nondiabetic age-matched controls (n = 25). Subjects were 64.7 ± 7.6 years old, were 40% female, and had a mean hemoglobin A1c of 8.3% ± 1.7%. SCC dysfunction was more common than otoconial organ dysfunction, with 70% of subjects with DM demonstrating impaired performance of at least 1 SCC (ΔlogMAR ≥0.18) and 50% demonstrating otoconial organ impairment (absent ocular VEMP and/or cervical VEMP). Adults with type 2 DM had poorer lateral and superior SCC performance (P cervical VEMP peak-to-peak amplitude and ocular VEMP n1 amplitude were also decreased with diabetes (P < .01). Adults with type 2 DM have poorer performance on tests of vestibular function related to both SCC and otoconial organ function compared with nondiabetic age-matched adults. Future studies are needed to better understand the relationship between vestibular function and functional disability in persons with diabetes. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  8. The effects of bariatric surgeries on type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerd Ng, Jia; Ortiz, Roberto; Hughes, Tyler; Abou Ghantous, Michel; Bouhali, Othmane; Arredouani, Abdelilah; Allen, Roland

    2012-10-01

    We consider a scientific mystery which is of central importance in treating the most rapidly emerging national and global health threat: type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mystery involves a surprising effect of certain bariatric surgeries, and specifically Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), a procedure which bypasses most of the stomach and upper intestine. An unanticipated result is that RYGB is usually found to contribute within only a few days to glucose homeostasis. This means the surgery can immediately cure patients even before they start losing weight. We are investigating this wondrous biochemical response with a quantitative model which includes the most important mechanisms. One of the major contributors is glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), an incretin whose concentration is found to increase by a large amount right after the RYGB surgical procedure. However, our results, in conjunction with the experimental and medical data, indicate that other substances must also contribute. If these substances can be definitively identified, it may be possible to replace the surgery with pharmaceuticals as the preferred treatment for type 2 diabetes.

  9. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mario; Barbagallo; Ligia; J; Dominguez

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and biological evidences support a link between type 2 diabetes mellitus(DM2) and Alzheimer’s disease(AD). Persons with diabetes have a higher incidence of cognitive decline and an increased risk of developing all types of dementia. Cognitive deficits in persons with diabetes mainly affect the areas of psychomotor efficiency, attention, learning and memory, mental flexibility and speed, and executive function. The strong epidemiological association has suggested the existence of a physiopathological link. The determinants of the accelerated cognitive decline in DM2, however, are less clear. Increased cortical and subcortical atrophy have been evidenced after controlling for diabetic vascular disease and inadequate cerebral circulation. Most recent studies have focused on the role of insulin and insulin resistance as possible links between diabetes and AD. Disturbances in brain insulin signaling mechanisms may contribute to the molecular, biochemical, and histopathological lesions in AD. Hyperglycemia itself is a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Hypoglycemia may also have deleterious effects on cognitive function. Recurrent symptomatic and asymptomatic hypoglycemic episodes have been suggested to cause sub-clinical brain damage, and permanent cognitive impairment. Futuretrials are required to clarify the mechanistic link, to address the question whether cognitive decline may be prevented by an adequate metabolic control, and to elucidate the role of drugs that may cause hypoglycemic episodes.

  10. Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampatzis, Vassilios; Tziomalos, Konstantinos

    2012-12-15

    The rising rates of obesity in youth have concurrently led to an increase in the rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in this age group. However, there are limited data on the efficacy of different antidiabetic agents in youth. In this context, the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth trial recently reported that the majority of obese children and adolescents 10-17-years old with newly diagnosed T2DM (T2DM duration less than 2 years) could not achieve HbA1c levels 1 year with metformin monotherapy, metformin plus rosiglitazone combination, or metformin and lifestyle changes. These findings suggest that, in the majority of youth with T2DM, tight long-term glycemic control with oral agents is an elusive goal and that most patients will require treatment with insulin within a few years of diagnosis to achieve HbA1c targets and reduce the risk of macro- and microvascular complications. Therefore, reducing the incidence of T2DM by preventing pediatric obesity through the implementation of lifestyle changes in the community should be the primary objective of healthcare systems.

  11. Update on the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Peñalver, Juan José; Martín-Timón, Iciar; Sevillano-Collantes, Cristina; del Cañizo-Gómez, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    To achieve good metabolic control in diabetes and keep long term, a combination of changes in lifestyle and pharmacological treatment is necessary. Achieving near-normal glycated hemoglobin significantly, decreases risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications. At present there are different treatments, both oral and injectable, available for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Treatment algorithms designed to reduce the development or progression of the complications of diabetes emphasizes the need for good glycaemic control. The aim of this review is to perform an update on the benefits and limitations of different drugs, both current and future, for the treatment of T2DM. Initial intervention should focus on lifestyle changes. Moreover, changes in lifestyle have proven to be beneficial, but for many patients is a complication keep long term. Physicians should be familiar with the different types of existing drugs for the treatment of diabetes and select the most effective, safe and better tolerated by patients. Metformin remains the first choice of treatment for most patients. Other alternative or second-line treatment options should be individualized depending on the characteristics of each patient. This article reviews the treatments available for patients with T2DM, with an emphasis on agents introduced within the last decade. PMID:27660695

  12. Dapagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippatos, Theodosios D; Liberopoulos, Evangelos N; Elisaf, Moses S

    2015-02-01

    Dapagliflozin is a selective and reversible inhibitor of sodium-glucose linked transporter type 2 (SGLT2), which mediates approximately 90% of active renal glucose reabsorption in the early proximal tubule of the kidney. Dapagliflozin significantly reduces glucose reabsorption and decreases serum glucose concentration in an insulin-independent manner. The decrease of glucose reabsorption by dapagliflozin has also been associated with a reduction in body weight. Furthermore, the drug modestly reduces blood pressure levels through weight loss and its action as osmotic diuretic. Dapagliflozin has been approved as monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who cannot tolerate metformin or in combination with other antidiabetic drugs, with the exception of pioglitazone due to the theoretical increased risk of bladder cancer. The drug should not be prescribed in patients with moderate or severe renal impairment or in patients at risk for developing volume depletion. Dapagliflozin is associated with increased incidence of genital and lower urinary tract infections, but these infections are usually mild to moderate and respond to standard antimicrobial treatment. Based on current evidence, dapagliflozin is a useful drug for patients with T2DM with a favorable safety profile. However, further research regarding the effects of dapagliflozin on cardiovascular outcomes is needed.

  13. [Guidelines for the management of diabetes mellitus type 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla Bravo, José Javier

    2014-09-01

    In the last few years, the publication of new studies in diabetes, together with the development of new classes of blood glucose-lowering medications, have led to updates of the most prestigious clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of diabetes. Thus, a consensus statement from the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes on the management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes was published in April 2012. An update of one of the evidence-based guidelines issued by the Canadian Diabetes Association appeared in 2013 and this year, 2014, saw the publication of the consensus document of the redGDPS, whose guidelines are those most closely followed by primary care physicians in Spain. The three guidelines highlight the need for an individualized approach to type 2 diabetes mellitus, outlining both target glycemic goals and distinct treatment regimens based on patient characteristics, disease stage and the presence of comorbidities or complications. In the treatment of the disease, the three guidelines also stress the importance of considering patients' opinions and of recommending lifestyle modifications to achieve good disease control. Metformin is identified as the first-line drug, with the addition of other glucose-lowering agents if necessary.

  14. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileepan, Kavitha; Feldt, M Max

    2013-12-01

    On the basis of strong research evidence and consensus, type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) remains the most common form of DM in children and adolescents. The incidence of type 2 DM in the pediatric population is rapidly increasing because of the obesity epidemic, and minority groups are disproportionately affected. (2) (10) (19) On the basis of some research evidence and consensus, it can be challenging to initially differentiate between type 2 DM and type 1 DM clinically because of the increased prevalence of obesity, the complex interplay of autoimmunity and obesity, and common symptoms at presentation. (1) (10) (19) Significant evidence and consensus support a genetic basis for the development of type 2 DM in children. Physicians should routinely screen at risk children older than age 10 years for DM. Screening criteria include obesity, a family history of type 2 DM, a minority racial or ethnic background, acanthosis nigricans, or other diseases associated with insulin resistance, including polycystic ovary syndrome, hypertension, or dyslipidemia. (1) (10) (18) (19) On the basis of consensus, diagnosis of type 2 DM can be confirmed by an elevated fasting blood glucose level greater than 126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/L), an elevated 2-hour plasma glucose greater than 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) on an oral glucose tolerance test, an elevated random blood glucose greater than 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L), or a hemoglobin A1c level greater than 6.5% with suggestive symptoms. (10) According to strong research evidence and consensus, once the diagnosis has been made, treatment should be based on the acuity of presentation and should focus on lifestyle modification and on normalizing hyperglycemia to minimize complications. Metformin is currently first-line treatment for type 2 DM in children and adolescents older than age 10 years who present nonacutely. (18) (19) Strong research evidence and consensus demonstrate that because type 2 DM has an insidious onset, microvascular and

  15. Analysis of the Influence of Type of Diabetes Mellitus on the Development and Type of Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halilovic, Emina Alimanovic; Ljaljevic, Sanida; Alimanovic, Ilda; Mavija, Milka; Oros, Ana; Nisic, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Main the goal of the research is to analyze the occurrence of glaucoma in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM type 1) and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM type 2). Patients and methods: The study involved 140 patients, 34 with DM type 1 and 106 with DM type2. In relation to the type of glaucoma to the patients are divided into two groups: Primary and Secondary glaucoma. According to the stage of diabetic retinopathy (DR) patients were analyzed in three groups: non-proliferative, preproliferative and proliferative DR. Since ophthalmological parameters were analyzed: best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), visual field (VF) of computerized perimetry, excavatio optic nerve (E/D) by optic coherent tomography (OCT). Results: Applying the test of quotient chance found that subjects with DM type 1 have a 5.94 times greater chance of developing secondary glaucoma, but is of primary (P <0.0001). In patients with DM type 2, where the chance of getting the subjects of secondary glaucoma 4.43 times larger than that of the primary (P = 0.0002). Conclusion: Patients with DM type have great chance of developing secondary glaucoma of the primary. Primary glaucoma more common in NPDR but secondary glaucoma more common in PDR. PMID:25870475

  16. Endothelial dysfunction in normoglycaemic first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with hyperuricaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junxia; Xiang, Lin; Zhang, Bilin; Cheng, Yangyang

    2017-03-01

    To reveal the effect of hyperuricaemia on endothelial function in normoglycaemic first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In all, 40 first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus with hyperuricaemia, 40 first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus with normouricaemia and 35 healthy subjects without diabetic family history were recruited in this study. Anthropometric parameters as well as blood pressure, blood lipids, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were measured. Insulin resistance was assessed with homoeostasis model assessment index-insulin resistance index. To assess endothelial function, high-resolution ultrasonography was used for measuring flow- and nitroglycerine-mediated brachial artery vasodilation. When compared with control, flow-mediated dilation was lower in first-degree relatives with or without hyperuricaemia (both p diabetes mellitus (β = -0.677, p diabetes mellitus complicated with hyperuricaemia.

  17. Recent developments and emerging therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, A J; Krentz, A J

    1999-08-01

    Most patients with type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus require pharmacotherapy, initially as monotherapy and subsequently in combination, as adjuncts to diet and exercise. Exogenous insulin is ultimately required in a substantial proportion, reflecting the progressive natural history of the disease. Sulphonylureas and biguanides have been employed for over 4 decades as oral antidiabetic agents, but they have a limited capacity to provide long term glycaemic control and can cause serious adverse effects. Thus, more efficacious and tolerable antidiabetic agents are required. Recent years have witnessed the introduction of agents with novel modes of action, that is, the alpha-glucosidase inhibitors acarbose and miglitol (which reduce postprandial hyperglycaemia) and the first of the thiazolidinedione insulinsensitising drugs--troglitazone and rosiglitazone. Although the former has been withdrawn in some countries due to adverse effects, another 'glitazone' pioglitazone is expected to be approved in the near future. Other recently introduced drugs include glimepiride and the meglitinide insulin secretagogue, repaglinide. Attention is also focusing increasingly on combination therapy using insulin together with sulphonylureas, metformin or troglitazone. Rapid-acting insulin analogues are now being used as alternatives to conventional insulins; their role in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus is presently uncertain but reports of a reduced frequency of hypoglycaemia are encouraging. The development of new drugs aims to counter the principal metabolic defects of the disorder, respectively, relative insulin deficiency and insulin resistance. Novel classes of rapid-acting secretagogues under evaluation include the morphilinoguanide BTS 67582 and the meglitinides mitiglinide (KAD 1229) and senaglinide (A-4166). Succinate ester derivatives represent a potential novel approach to improving beta-cell function through enhancement of insulin biosynthesis and

  18. Ocular manifestations of Type 1 diabetes mellitus in pediatric population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Akil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: To evaluate the necessity of ocular screening in Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM. Aims: This study aims to investigate the diabetes-related ocular changes according to the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c level and duration of diabetes in children and compare the results with nondiabetic healthy children. Settings and Design: Observational cross-sectional study designed by ophthalmology and pediatric endocrinology clinics. Subjects and Methods: Forty-two children with Type 1 DM, 42 healthy gender- and age-matched children as controls were enrolled. All patients underwent ophthalmic and physical examination, with a review of medical history and current medication. HbA1c level, best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP, central corneal thickness (CCT, tear break-up time (BUT, Schirmer test, dilated fundus examination findings, central retinal thickness (CRT, and total macular volume (TMV measurements were noted. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, Chi-square test for comparison of the group parameters and correlation analyses (Spearman analysis were performed with SPSS statistical software 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. Results: Type 1 DM group exhibited significantly reduced Schirmer test, increased IOP and decreased retinal thickness relative to the age-matched control group (P < 0.05 but no statistically significant difference was found for the BUT (P = 0.182 and for the CCT (P = 0.495. The correlations between the age, duration, HbA1c and IOP, BUT, Schirmer test, TMV, CRT measurements did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: More frequent screening may be needed for complications, including neuropathy-related dry eye syndrome, IOP changes, and diabetic retinopathy in children with Type 1 DM.

  19. Misconceptions about smoking in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Tin Kin; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Wong, Janet Yuen Ha; Li, William Ho Cheung; Tan, Kathryn Choon Beng; Leung, Angela Yee Man; Wong, David Chung Ngok; Leung, Doris Yin Ping; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the smoking behaviours, perceptions about quitting smoking and factors associated with intention to quit in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Smoking causes type 2 diabetes mellitus. There has been limited research on the needs and concerns of smokers with type 2 diabetes mellitus about quitting smoking. The study used a qualitative design. Patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus who had a history of smoking were recruited at the outpatient diabetic clinics of two major local hospitals in Hong Kong for a semi-structured interview (n = 42), guided by the theory of planned behaviour. At data saturation, 22 current smokers and 20 ex-smokers with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited. The current smokers reported they had not quit smoking because of satisfaction with present health status, and misconceptions about the association between diabetes and smoking, and the perceived hazards of quitting. In contrast, ex-smokers had a positive opinion about quitting smoking, accepted advice about quitting from health professionals and received more family support than current smokers. Psychological addiction and weight gain after cessation made quitting challenging. Satisfaction with health status, inadequate knowledge about the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus and smoking, and misconceptions about quitting smoking resulted in negative attitudes toward quitting by type 2 diabetes mellitus smokers. Smoking peers, psychological addiction and post-cessation weight gain hindered the quitting process. Education on the causal link between smoking, type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications is important to raise health awareness and counter misconceptions about quitting smoking. Behavioural counselling with weight control strategies should be part of a comprehensive smoking cessation intervention for type 2 diabetes mellitus smokers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Risk Factors for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus among Children and Adolescents in Basrah

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    Athar Abdul Samad Majeed

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Environmental factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus, many of these factors have been uncovered despite much research. A case-control study was carried out to determine the potential maternal, neonatal and early childhood risk factors for type 1 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents in Basrah.Methods: A total of 96 diabetic patients who have been admitted to the pediatric wards at 3 main hospitals in Basrah, and those who have visited primary health care centers over the period from the 4th of November 2006 to the end of May 2007 were recruited. In addition, 299 non-diabetic children were included, their age ranged from 18 months to 17 years.Results: Family history of type 1 diabetes mellitus and thyroid diseases in first and second degree relatives was found to be an independent risk factor for type 1 diabetes mellitus, (p<0.001. Regarding maternal habits and illnesses during pregnancy, the study has revealed that tea drinking during pregnancy is a risk factor for type 1 diabetes mellitus in their offspring, (p<0.05. In addition, maternal pre-eclampsia and infections were found to be significant risk factor for type 1 diabetes mellitus, (p<0.001. Neonatal infections, eczema and rhinitis during infancy were also significantly associated with development of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Moreover, the results revealed that duration of <6 months breast feeding is an important trigger of type 1 diabetes mellitus.Conclusion: Exposure to environmental risk factors during pregnancy (tea drinking, pre-eclampsia, and infectious diseases, neonatal period (respiratory distress, jaundice and infections and early infancy are thought to play an important role in triggering the immune process leading to B-cell destruction and the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  1. Otoneurologic findings in Type 1 Diabetes mellitus patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rafaele Rigon; Angela Garcia Rossi; Pedro Luiz Cóser

    2007-01-01

    Alterações metabólicas, como acontecem no Diabetes mellitus, têm sido mencionadas no desenvolvimento e manutenção das queixas relacionadas ao aparelho vestibular e auditivo. OBJETIVO: Investigar o aparelho vestibular em uma população de indivíduos portadores de Diabetes mellitus Tipo 1. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 19 indivíduos, sendo 10 do gênero feminino (52,6%) e 9 do gênero masculino (47,3%), com idades variando de 8 a 25 anos, com diagnóstico médico de Diabetes mellitus tipo 1. Pa...

  2. [Coexistence of bronchial asthma and diabetes mellitus type 2--retrospective analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glück, J; Rogala, B

    1999-01-01

    Bronchial asthma and diabetes mellitus type 2 are often found among adult patients. However, coincidence of these two diseases is very rare. The aim of the study was the retrospective analysis of all patients with bronchial asthma and diabetes mellitus type 2 hospitalised in Department and Clinic of Internal Diseases and Allergology in Zabrze, Silesian School of Medicine in Katowice in 1988-1997. Diabetes mellitus type 2 was diagnosed according to WHO criteria of 1985 and bronchial asthma was diagnosed with the use of American Thoracic Society criteria. Bronchial asthma and diabetes mellitus type 2 occurring together were found in 18 patients (0.3% of all hospitalized patients). In most patients the symptoms of bronchial asthma preceded the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus by a few years. All these cases were heterogeneous in terms of the duration of the diseases, clinical picture, and therapeutical approaches. In patients with bronchial asthma the existence of diabetes mellitus type 2 was not related to use of glikocorticosteroids. Patients in whom the coexistence of bronchial asthma and diabetes mellitus type 2 was found should be subjects of further studies to extend our knowledge of patomechanism of these diseases.

  3. The prevalence of hypertension and microalbuminuria in diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2

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    Vasović Olga

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The prevalence of hypertension is two times higher in diabetics than in non-diabetics. In type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, the incidence of hypertension is similar to the incidence of nephropathy. In obese patients with type 2 DM (T2DM there can be associated complications of hyperinsulinaemia, dyslipidaemia, and hypertension, which can lead to coronary artery disease and stroke. These associated complications are the result of a genetic defect that produces insulin resistance - Syndrome X. Increased microalbuminuria correlates with increased levels of blood pressure (BP and increased LDL cholesterol, and this is why microalbuminuria is associated with an increase in cardiovascular deaths in diabetics, even in the absence of renal failure. AIM. The aim of this study was to research the influence of a patient's age, diabetes duration, and obesity on the frequency of hypertension and its association with microalbuminuria inT1DM and T2DM. METHOD. 168 hospitalized patients with DM (79T1DM, 89T2DM were analyzed. The main outcome measures were: 24-hour urinary albumin excretion rate by radioimmunoassay (MA=30-30O mg/24h, arterial hypertension (systolic BP>140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP>90 mm Hg, and body mass index (BMI. RESULTS. Microalbuminuria was detected in 42% of patients with T1DM and 47% of patients with T2DM. 34% of T1DM patients and 78% of T2DM patients were hypertensive. Patients were divided into four groups, according to the presence of hypertension and microalbuminuria; Group I - patients with hypertension and MA, Group II - patients with hypertension but without MA, Group III - patients without hypertension and MA, Group IV - patients without hypertension but with MA. 44% of T1DM patients were without hypertension and microalbuminuria, while the most frequent T2DM patients were those with hypertension (37% with and 41% without microalbuminuria. A significant correlation between BMI and diastolic BP in both types of DM (p<0

  4. ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS AMONG TYPE-2 DIABETES MELLITUS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Khushwant Kaur

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary driver of the epidemic of diabetes is the rapid epidemiological transition associated with changes in dietary patterns and decreased physical activity as evident from the higher prevalence of diabetes in urban population. Diabetes mellitus is increasing at an alarming rate in India. It is evident that physical activity (walking is beneficial in management of this disease. Walking can be effective in reducing weight, body mass index, waist hip circumference, body fat, blood pressure and thus cholesterol, high density lipoproteins ratio and may be effective in improving mood and quality of life. The objective of the present study was measuring the normal physical activity in terms of step counts done by the type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients and analyse the dietary pattern followed by T2DM. Methods: Eighty adults with type-2 diabetes mellitus were randomly allocated for observation of their normal daily physical activity using pedometer for whole day which means starting from early morning get up till bedtime in night. The subjects had been asked to count their steps in a particular activity also. Results: The mean value of step count with standard deviation among females (n=31 was found to be 9173.23 ± 3862.025 which was lesser than that among males (n=49 that is 9695.49 ± 5221.291. After measuring step count in any particular activity task, the mean value 2583.35 ± 2562.08 was found to be more in males than females where mean value was found to be 2197.13 ± 1732.75. The mean step count among total sample (n=80 was 9493.11 ± 4721.626 and mean particular activity step count was 2433.69 ± 2272.541. Discussion: This study showed that some subjects were so aware of their disease that they were found to be highly active after knowing their disease and condition. On other hand, there were some subjects having sedentary lifestyle with their HbA1c at the high risk level. They thought it to be as it is for the rest of

  5. Radiosurgery for type II neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Jeremy; Radatz, Matthias; Kemeny, Andras

    2008-01-01

    A summary of our radiosurgical experience treating type II neurofibromatosis (NF2) vestibular schwannomas (VSs), based on a retrospective consecutive series of 122 tumours in 92 patients, with an extended series of a further 22 patients (906 patient-years of follow-up) to investigate the risk of malignancy after radiosurgery. With current techniques, we estimate that 8 years after radiosurgery for NF2 VS, 20% of patients will have required further treatment, 50% will be well controlled, and in 30% there will have been some concern about control, but they will have been managed conservatively. Three years after treatment, approximately 40% retain their functional hearing, 40% have some deterioration, 20% becoming deaf in that ear. The risk of facial palsy was 5%. Two malignancies were recorded after radiosurgery, in one the malignant behaviour preceded treatment. This is less than the previously reported rate of spontaneously developing malignant gliomas in NF2. Whilst the clinical results are far worse than those achieved treating sporadic tumours, this applies equally to the results of surgery or observation when treating NF2 tumours. It is important therefore that these patients are given advice specific for NF2. Considering this, we believe that radiosurgery remains a valuable minimally invasive treatment option for selected NF2 patients.

  6. Sexual Dysfunction in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Forouzan Elyasi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual dysfunction (SD is one of the important problems in diabetic patients. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexual problems in Iranian women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among type 2 diabetic women who visited two outpatient endocrine clinics, namely Imam Hospital and Tuba clinic (Sari, Iran in 2012. Patients were asked to complete two validated questionnaires: Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI and The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS as well as a demographic questionnaire. Analysis was performed using descriptive and analytical tests. P<0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: One hundred and fifty women with type 2 diabetes were investigated. Most of the cases aged 40-44 years old. The mean of the total score of the FSFI questionnaire was 22. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction was 78.7% (CI: 71.4-84.4; among these, 58% (CI: 50.0-65.6 reported problems in lubrication, 50% (CI: 42.1-57.9 complained of decreased sexual desire, 50% (CI: 42.1-57.9 had problems with arousal, 47.3% (CI: 39.5-55.3 had dyspareunia, 32.7% (CI: 25.7-40.5 complained of orgasmic dysfunction and 42.7% (CI: 35.0-50.7 reported problems in sexual satisfaction. With regard to the results of the HADS questionnaire, 58.7% (CI: 50.7-66.2 of the patients had depression and 96.7% (CI: 92.4-98.6 had anxiety. Conclusion: This study showed the high prevalence of sexual dysfunction in diabetic women, especially among those complaining of depression. Health care professionals dealing with diabetic patients should be aware of possible presence of sexual dysfunction in female patients.

  7. Exenatide Use in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Angelos Kyriacou

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Exenatide is a GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist that has been approved in the UK for use in the management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM since 2006. It acts by increasing glucose-induced insulin release and by reducing glucagon secretion postprandially. It therefore increases insulin secretion and reduces glucose levels, especially postprandially. It also reduces gastric emptying and acts centrally to promote satiety. In clinical practice it reduces HbA1c (range; -0.4% to -1.3%, fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels and is the only antidiabetic agent (together with liraglutide; a human GLP-1 analogue to promote weight loss (range; -1.5 kg to -5.5 kg. It can be used as monotherapy or in combination with metformin and/or sulphonylureas (SU and/or thiazolinediones (TZD. When compared with insulin it causes similar reductions in HbA1c and glucose levels, but unlike insulin it has the advantage of inducing weight loss. Its main side effect is gastrointestinal (GI disturbances; nausea is the commonest GI adverse effect, albeit usually mild and transient. Hypoglycaemia is uncommon, especially when used as monotherapy or in combination with metformin. In this review article we scrutinize the currently available evidence for use of exenatide in the management of T2DM.

  8. Diabetes knowledge among Greek Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients.

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    Poulimeneas, Dimitrios; Grammatikopoulou, Maria G; Bougioukli, Vasiliki; Iosifidou, Parthena; Vasiloglou, Maria F; Gerama, Maria-Assimina; Mitsos, Dimitrios; Chrysanthakopoulou, Ioanna; Tsigga, Maria; Kazakos, Kyriakos

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes knowledge has been shown to improve glycemic control and associate with several demographic parameters. In Greece, a country with high obesity rates, disease knowledge has never been evaluated in diabetic patients. This cross sectional study aimed to assess diabetes knowledge and its associations between social and demographic parameters, among Greek type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. One hundred fifty nine patients with T2DM were recruited from an urban and a rural clinic in Greece. Diabetes knowledge was assessed with the Brief Diabetes Knowledge Test (DKT). Basic anthropometry was performed. Data regarding glycemic control and sociodemographic characteristics were collected from the patients' medical files. Greek T2DM patients demonstrated poor disease knowledge (mean DKT score 8.3±2.2/14.0 and mean DKT as a percent of correct answers 59.6±15.8%). No differences were observed between sex, place of residence, or glycemic control, among subjects. Patients with higher education demonstrated greater diabetes knowledge. Simple obesity with concurrent central obesity or suboptimal glycemic control decreased diabetes knowledge among participants. Additionally, waist circumference was inversely correlated to diabetes knowledge. Based on the DKT, Greek patients exhibit poor diabetes knowledge. This study provides evidence for the need for better diabetes education in order to ameliorate disease outcome. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Pharmacogenetic studies update in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shalini; Usman, Kauser; Banerjee, Monisha

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a silent progressive polygenic metabolic disorder resulting from ineffective insulin cascading in the body. World-wide, about 415 million people are suffering from T2DM with a projected rise to 642 million in 2040. T2DM is treated with several classes of oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) viz. biguanides, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, meglitinides, etc. Treatment strategies for T2DM are to minimize long-term micro and macro vascular complications by achieving an optimized glycemic control. Genetic variations in the human genome not only disclose the risk of T2DM development but also predict the personalized response to drug therapy. Inter-individual variability in response to OADs is due to polymorphisms in genes encoding drug receptors, transporters, and metabolizing enzymes for example, genetic variants in solute carrier transporters (SLC22A1, SLC22A2, SLC22A3, SLC47A1 and SLC47A2) are actively involved in glycemic/HbA1c management of metformin. In addition, CYP gene encoding Cytochrome P450 enzymes also play a crucial role with respect to metabolism of drugs. Pharmacogenetic studies provide insights on the relationship between individual genetic variants and variable therapeutic outcomes of various OADs. Clinical utility of pharmacogenetic study is to predict the therapeutic dose of various OADs on individual basis. Pharmacogenetics therefore, is a step towards personalized medicine which will greatly improve the efficacy of diabetes treatment. PMID:27555891

  10. Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Field Study

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    Dylan Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute hypo- and hyperglycemia causes cognitive and psychomotor impairment in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM that may affect sports performance. Objective. To quantify the effect of concurrent and antecedent blood glucose concentrations on sports skills and cognitive performance in youth with T1DM attending a sports camp. Design/Methods. 28 youth (ages 6–17 years attending a sports camp carried out multiple skill-based tests (tennis, basketball, or soccer skills with glucose monitoring over 4 days. Glucose levels at the time of testing were categorized as (a hypoglycemic (13.9 mM. Results. Overall, sports performance skill was ~20% lower when glucose concentrations were hypoglycemic compared to either acceptable or hyperglycemic at the time of skill testing (<.05. During Stroop testing, “reading” and “color recognition” also degraded during hypoglycemia, while “interference” scores improved (<.05. Nocturnal hypoglycemia was present in 66% of subjects, lasting an average of 84 minutes, but this did not affect sports skill performance the following day. Conclusions. Mild hypoglycemia markedly reduces sports skill performance and cognition in young athletes with T1DM.

  11. Endothelial and platelet markers in diabetes mellitus type 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Kubisz; Lucia Stanciaková; Ján Stasko; Peter Galajda; Marián Mokáň

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an extremely common disorder which carries a risk of vascular impairment. DM type2 (DM2) can be characterized by the dysfunction ofhaemostasis manifesting by stimulated coagulation process,disorder of platelet function and decreased fibrinolyticactivity. These all are the reasons why DM2 is the mostcommon acquired thrombophilia. Endothelial dysfunctionalong with platelet hyperactivity are unquestionablyinvolved in the hyperactivation of platelets and clottingfactors in DM. As a natural consequence of continuousinvestigation, many markers of endothelial dysfunctionand diabetic thrombocytopathy have been identifiedand considered for implementation in clinical practice.Endothelial function can be assessed by the evaluationof endothelial markers, circulating molecules synthesisedin various amounts by the endothelium. These markersprecede the signs of evident microangiopathy. Plateletshave an ethiopathogenic relation to the microangiopathy inDM. Their increased activity was confirmed in both typesof DM. Predictors of endothelial and platelet disorder couldimprove the screening of individuals at increased risk, thusleading to the early diagnosis, appropriate treatment, aswell as to the effective prevention of the complications ofDM2. In the article we deal with the mechanisms involvedin the pathogenesis of endothelial and platelet functionalabnormalities, endothelial and platelet markers of DM2considered for implementation in clinical practice andpossibilities of their detection.

  12. Immunomodulation with microbial vaccines to prevent type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2010-03-01

    Selected bacteria, viruses, parasites and nonliving, immunologically active microbial substances prevent autoimmune diabetes in animal models. Such agents might also have a protective effect in humans by providing immune stimuli critical during childhood development. The 'hygiene hypothesis' proposes that reduced exposure to environmental stimuli, including microbes, underlies the rising incidence of childhood autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). This hypothesis is supported by data that highlight the importance of infant exposure to environmental microbes for appropriate development of the immune system, which might explain the observation that administration of microbes or their components inhibits autoimmune disease in animals. This finding raises the possibility of using live, nonpathogenic microbes (for example, probiotics) or microbial components to modulate or 're-educate' the immune system and thereby vaccinate against T1DM. Progress has been assisted by the identification of receptors and pathways through which gut microbes influence development of the immune system. Such mechanistic data have moved a field that was once regarded as being on the scientific fringe to the mainstream, and support increased funding to advance this promising area of research in the hope that it might deliver the long awaited answer of how to safely prevent T1DM.

  13. Depression in type 2 diabetes mellitus: prevalence, impact, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenkovich, Katherine; Brown, Miriam E; Svrakic, Dragan M; Lustman, Patrick J

    2015-04-01

    Clinically significant depression is present in one of every four people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Depression increases the risk of the development of T2DM and the subsequent risks of hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and micro- and macrovascular complications. Conversely, a diagnosis of T2DM increases the risk of incident depression and can contribute to a more severe course of depression. This linkage reflects a shared etiology consisting of complex bidirectional interactions among multiple variables, a process that may include autonomic and neurohormonal dysregulation, weight gain, inflammation, and hippocampal structural alterations. Two recent meta-analyses of randomized controlled depression treatment trials in patients with T2DM concluded that psychotherapy and antidepressant medication (ADM) were each moderately effective for depression and that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) had beneficial effects on glycemic control. However, the number of studies (and patients exposed to randomized treatment) included in these analyses is extremely small and limits the certainty of conclusions that can be drawn from the data. Ultimately, there is no escaping the paucity of the evidence base and the need for additional controlled trials that specifically address depression management in T2DM. Future trials should determine both the effects of treatment and the change in depression during treatment on measures of mood, glycemic control, and medical outcome.

  14. Team care of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Yuan; Yu, Neng-Chun; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng; Tsai, Shih-Tzer; Tai, Tong-Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global health-care and national policy issue. As fluctuating glycemic control in diabetes often results in serious complications, we must encourage the diabetes educators' efforts at long-term follow-up among patients with T2DM. Therefore, certified diabetes educators (CDEs) play the most pivotal roles as life-long protectors for patients with T2DM. In the past 15 years, more than 4,000 CDEs have been trained and qualified, including health professionals such as physicians, nurses, dieticians, and pharmacists. The most important initiation of diabetes share care in Taiwan was originated in I-Lan County. Initiated to provide regional diabetes care, the name of this program is the Lan-Yang Diabetes Shared Care System. In 2006, the Taiwanese Association of Diabetes Educators (TADE) carried out a nationwide survey to evaluate the status of diabetes control in Taiwan, focusing on the "ABC" goal (A: HbA1c Five years later, in 2011, TADE compared two nationwide surveys and found total ABC attainment rates of 4.1% and 8.6%, respectively. The team-care approach to T2DM has been underway for over 20 years in Taiwan. Future interventions and treatment algorithms with team-based education should aim at preventing acute and chronic complications, which remains a long-term challenge in Taiwan.

  15. Type 2 diabetes mellitus: Role of melatonin and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zephy, Doddigarla; Ahmad, Jamal

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus caused by transfer of susceptible immortal gene from parent to progeny in individuals prone, and/or in contribution of factors such as obesity and physical inactivity results in chronic extracellular hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance or impaired glucose tolerance. Hyperglycemia leads to increased production of superoxide radical in mitochondrial electron transport chain, consequently, inhibit glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, increase the flux of substrates that direct the expression of genes responsible for activation of polyol, hexosamine, advanced glycation end products and protein kinase-C pathways enzymes. Simultaneously, these pathways add-up free radicals in the body, hamper cell redox state, alter genes of insulin sensitivity and are responsible for the diabetic complications like retinopathy, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, nephropathy and neuropathy. Experimental evidence suggests that the indoleamine hormone melatonin is capable of influencing in development of diabetic complications by neutralizing the unnecessary production of ROS, protection of beta cells, as they possess low antioxidant potential and normalize redox state in the cell. However, studies reported the beneficial effects of pharmacological supplementation of melatonin in humans but it has not been extensively studied in a multicountric, multicentric which should include all ethnic population.

  16. Attenuating type 2 diabetes with postpartum interventionsfollowing gestational diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes shouldbe screened during and after the postpartum periodbecause of a high risk for developing type 2 diabetesmellitus. Although differences exist between guidelinespracticed throughout various parts of the world, allrecommend the use of cutoffs for fasting and/or postloadplasma glucose to diagnose diabetes or prediabetes.The use of these glycemic parameters couldbe optimized when a trend is observed, rather thanconsidering them as isolated values at various timepoints. As the presence of insulin resistance and betacelldysfunction start before glycemic changes areevident, the estimation of insulin sensitivity and beta-cellfunction by Homeostatic Model Assessment is suggestedfor women who have additional risk factors for diabetes,such as obesity. Disease-modifying lifestyle interventionshould be the first-line strategy to prevent or delay theonset of diabetes in women with a history of gestationaldiabetes mellitus. Intensive lifestyle interventionsare designed to decrease caloric intake and increasephysical activity in order to reduce body weight and fat,which will in turn reduce insulin resistance. This articlealso reviews unique problems of postpartum women,which should be considered when designing andimplementing an intervention. Innovative "out of thebox" thinking is appreciated, as continued adherenceto a program is a challenge to both the women and thehealth care personnel who deal with them.

  17. Early Life Factors and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity, behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet, hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors.

  18. Scleredema Diabeticorum in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    C. Martín

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Scleredema adultorum, a connective tissue disorder of unknown aetiology, is characterized by a thickening of the reticular dermis in the upper back of the body that may decrease the mobility of the affected tissues. It has been reported in diabetic patients with poor metabolic control. Therapeutic options are limited with generally poor results. Case Report. 53-year-old white male with type 2 diabetes mellitus was referred to our department for evaluation of incipient nephropathy and retinopathy. On examination, he presented erythematous, indurated, painless and ill-defined plaque on the skin of the upper back with limited movement of shoulders. A biopsy was done revealing scleredema. PUVA treatment and physiotherapy were started with the amelioration of mobility and acquiring some elasticity of the upper back. Discussion. The development of scleredema in diabetic patients has been related to prolonged exposure to chronic hyperglycaemia. Our patient has had diabetes for 20 years with an acceptable glucose control, however he developed the scleredema 10 years ago. Conclusions. Scleredema is a rare connective disorder that seems to appear most frequently in diabetic subjects. Good metabolic control seems not to preclude its development. PUVA treatment and physiotherapy are therapeutic options that seem to be of some help.

  19. Association of Herpes Zoster and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

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    Hsin-Hung Chen

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to determine the association of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and the risk of herpes zoster (HZ.In this cohort study, we selected 4736 patients with T1DM registered in the Catastrophic Illness Patient Database who received insulin therapy before 2003 and 18944 participants without DM who were selected by frequency matched based on sex and age. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to measure the hazard ratios (HRs of HZ in the T1DM group compared with that in the non-T1DM group.Cox proportional hazard regression analysis showed that the adjusted HR of HZ was 2.38 times higher for patients in the T1DM group (95% CI = 1.77-3.19 than for those in the non-T1DM group. According to diabetes severity, mild and serious T1DM patients were associated with a higher risk of HZ (adjusted HR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.67-3.05; and adjusted HR = 5.08, 95% CI = 2.66-9.71, respectively than subjects without T1DM.Patients with T1DM are at a higher risk of HZ than those without T1DM.

  20. Renal AA Amyloidosis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Ramón Díez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease and a major cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality. Inflammation is closely involved in the pathogenesis of T2DM, and reactive amyloidosis occurs in the presence of chronic inflammation. We hypothesized that patients with T2DM may have a higher prevalence of renal AA amyloidosis (RAAA and that this could contribute to worse atherosclerosis and CVD. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 330 autopsy kidneys from patients with a previous T2DM diagnosis. The kidney tissue was evaluated in order to determine the presence of diabetic nephropathy and RAAA, and systemic vessels were evaluated for the presence of atherosclerosis. Results: RAAA was detected in 9% of our study population and was associated with an increased risk for nodular sclerosis [OR (95% CI] [11 (2.04-59.16], for chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy [4.59 (2.02-10.42], for myocardial infarction [3.41 (1.52-7.64] as well as for aortic [4.75 (1.09-20.69], coronary [3.22 (1.47-7.04], and intrarenal atherosclerosis [3.84 (1.46-10.09]. Conclusions: RAAA is prevalent in T2DM and is associated with worse CVD and renal disease, likely because RAAA is a marker of severe chronic inflammation.

  1. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: is it feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Andrea; Maggi, Daria; Maurizi, Anna Rita; Pozzilli, Paolo; Buzzetti, Raffaella

    2014-03-01

    The increasing global prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) requires the implementation of preventive strategies to halt this trend, tailored to the specific needs of individual regions. Risk factors for T2DM are among the main targets for improving health outcomes and curbing the development of diabetes; excessive weight and obesity are two of the most important risk factors that need to be addressed. A growing body of evidence suggests that subjects with pre-diabetes who lose body weight and increase physical activity can delay or prevent the onset of T2DM, and in some cases, blood glucose levels may return to normal. Several studies have shown that moderate to intensive levels of exercise are effective in reducing both intra-abdominal and total adiposity among obese subjects, both improving cardiovascular risk profile and reducing the risk of T2DM development. These consistent observations have given rise to large-scale randomized controlled trials that use lifestyle intervention (including behavioural strategies for the reinforcement of prescribed changes in nutritional intake, physical activity or both), with or without pharmacological treatment, in populations at high risk of developing T2DM. In this review, large-scale national trials that have focused on the prevention of T2DM are critically evaluated. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Qigong Exercises for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putiri, Amy L; Close, Jacqueline R; Lilly, Harold Ryan; Guillaume, Nathalie; Sun, Guan-Cheng

    2017-08-09

    Background: The purpose of this article is to clarify and define medical qigong and to identify an appropriate study design and methodology for a large-scale study looking at the effects of qigong in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), specifically subject enrollment criteria, selection of the control group and study duration. Methods: A comprehensive literature review of English databases was used to locate articles from 1980-May 2017 involving qigong and T2DM. Control groups, subject criteria and the results of major diabetic markers were reviewed and compared within each study. Definitions of qigong and its differentiation from physical exercise were also considered. Results: After a thorough review, it was found that qigong shows positive effects on T2DM; however, there were inconsistencies in control groups, research subjects and diabetic markers analyzed. It was also discovered that there is a large variation in styles and definitions of qigong. Conclusions: Qigong exercise has shown promising results in clinical experience and in randomized, controlled pilot studies for affecting aspects of T2DM including blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, weight, BMI and insulin resistance. Due to the inconsistencies in study design and methods and the lack of large-scale studies, further well-designed randomized control trials (RCT) are needed to evaluate the 'vital energy' or qi aspect of internal medical qigong in people who have been diagnosed with T2DM.

  3. Pharmacogenetic studies update in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shalini; Singh; Kauser; Usman; Monisha; Banerjee

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) is a silent progressive polygenic metabolic disorder resulting from ineffective insulin cascading in the body. World-wide, about 415 million people are suffering from T2DM with a projected rise to 642 million in 2040. T2DM is treated with several classes of oral antidiabetic drugs(OADs) viz. biguanides, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, meglitinides, etc. Treatment strategies for T2DM are to minimize long-term micro and macro vascular complications by achieving an optimized glycemic control. Genetic variations in the human genome not only disclose the risk of T2DM development but also predict the personalized response to drug therapy. Inter-individual variability in response to OADs is due to polymorphisms in genes encoding drug receptors, transporters, and metabolizing enzymes for example, genetic variants in solute carrier transporters(SLC22A1, SLC22A2, SLC22A3, SLC47A1 and SLC47A2) are actively involved in glycemic/HbA1c management of metformin. In addition, CYP gene encoding Cytochrome P450 enzymes also play a crucial role with respect to metabolism of drugs. Pharmacogenetic studies provide insights on the relationship between individual genetic variants and variable therapeutic outcomes of various OADs. Clinical utility of pharmacogenetic study is to predict the therapeutic dose of various OADs on individual basis. Pharmacogenetics therefore, is a step towards personalized medicine which will greatly improve the efficacy of diabetes treatment.

  4. Chemerin and prediction of Diabetes mellitus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbert, Thomas; Schwarz, Franziska; Fischer-Rosinsky, Antje; Maurer, Lukas; Möhlig, Matthias; Pfeiffer, A F H; Mai, Knut; Spranger, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    Insulin resistance and subclinical inflammation are characteristics in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The adipokine chemerin has been associated with both factors. The aim of this study was to analyse whether chemerin predicts T2DM. Blood samples of 440 participants of the Metabolic-Syndrome Berlin-Potsdam (MesyBepo) follow-up study without diabetes at baseline were available for chemerin measurement. Mean follow-up of participants was 5·3 years. Glucose metabolism was analysed using oral glucose tolerance test including insulin measurements. Chemerin was measured using a commercially available ELISA. Thirty-five individuals developed T2DM during follow-up. Chemerin predicted incident T2DM (Chemerin 1. Tertile: reference, 2. Tertile: OR 2·33 [0·68-7·95]; Chemerin 3. Tertile: OR 3·42 [1·01-11·58] after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, follow-up time, HbA1c, HOMA-IR and WHR). In a secondary analysis, chemerin also predicted worsening of fasting glucose and HbA1c (adjusted for age, sex, BMI, time of follow-up, WHR, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides). Our data suggest that chemerin is a weak predictor of T2DM. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Early Life Factors and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinli; Ma, Huijie; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity), behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet), hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine) or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors. PMID:24455747

  6. Insight into hypoglycemia in pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehecka Kimberly E

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypoglycemia is a common complication of insulin treatment in type 1 diabetes mellitus and can occur in any patient with diabetes when glucose consumption exceeds supply. Many studies have been done to elucidate those factors that predict severe hypoglycemia: younger age, longer duration of diabetes, lower HgbA1c, higher insulin dose, lower Body Mass Index, male gender, Caucasian race, underinsurance or low socioeconomic status, and the presence of psychiatric disorders. Hypoglycemia can affect patients' relationships, occupation, and daily activities such as driving. However, one of the greatest impacts is patients' fear of severe hypoglycemic events, which is a limiting factor in the optimization of glycemic control. Therefore, the importance of clinicians’ ability to identify those patients at greatest risk for hypoglycemic events is two-fold: 1 Patients at greatest risk may be counseled as such and offered newer therapies and monitoring technologies to prevent hypoglycemic events. 2 Patients at lower risk may be reassured and encouraged to improve their glycemic control. Since the risk of long-term complications with poor blood glucose control outweighs the risks of hypoglycemia with good blood glucose control, patients should be encouraged to aim for glucose concentrations in the physiologic range pre- and post-prandially. Advancements in care, including multiple daily injection therapy with analog insulin, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, and continuous glucose monitoring, have each subsequently improved glycemic control and decreased the risk of severe hypoglycemia.

  7. Targeting nocturnal hypertension in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossen, Niklas Blach; Knudsen, Søren Tang; Fleischer, Jesper; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Ebbehøj, Eva; Poulsen, Per Løgstrup; Hansen, Klavs Würgler

    2014-11-01

    Several studies in different populations have suggested that nighttime blood pressure (BP) is a stronger predictor of cardiovascular events than daytime BP. Consequently, treatment strategies to target nighttime BP have come into focus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of change of administration time of antihypertensive drugs. We included 41 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and nocturnal hypertension (nighttime systolic BP >120 mm Hg) in an open-label, crossover study. Patients were randomized to 8 weeks of either morning or bedtime administration of all of the individual's once-daily antihypertensive drugs, followed by 8 weeks of switched dosing regimen. Bedtime administration of antihypertensive drugs resulted in a significant reduction in nighttime (7.5 mm Hg; Phypertension, administration of once-daily antihypertensive drugs at bedtime may be favorable. The increased nocturnal natriuresis may reflect increased effect of bedtime-administered thiazides and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, suggesting a potential mechanism of the observed effects on BP with chronotherapeutic intervention.

  8. Teneligliptin in management of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma SK

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Surendra Kumar Sharma,1 A Panneerselvam,2 KP Singh,3 Girish Parmar,4 Pradeep Gadge,5 Onkar C Swami6 1Diabetes, Thyroid and Endocrine Centre, Galaxy Speciality Centre, Jaipur, 2Aruna Diabetes Centre, Chennai, 3Fortis Hospital, Sector 62, Phase VIII, Mohali, 4Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Andheri (W, Mumbai, 5Dr Gadge’s Diabetes Care Centre, Mumbai, 6Unichem Laboratories Ltd, Jogeshwari (W, Mumbai, India Abstract: Teneligliptin is a recently developed oral dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor indicated for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in adults along with diet and exercise. Teneligliptin has been recently available in Japan (Teneria®, Argentina (Teneglucon®, and India (Tenepure; Teneza at relatively affordable price. This is a positive step toward the management of T2DM in developing countries, where the cost of medicine is out-of-pocket expenditure and is a limiting factor for health care. This review evaluates the efficacy and safety of teneligliptin in the management of T2DM. Teneligliptin has been systematically evaluated in T2DM as monotherapy with diet and exercise and in combination with metformin, glimepiride, pioglitazone, and insulin in short-term (12 weeks and long-term (52 weeks studies. These studies have reported a reduction in HbA1c of 0.8%–0.9% within 12 weeks of therapy. Two 52-week studies reported sustained improvement in glycemic control with teneligliptin. Teneligliptin has been found to be well tolerated, and the safety profile is similar to other dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors. Hypoglycemia and constipation are the main adverse events. Teneligliptin can be administered safely to patients with mild, moderate, or severe renal impairment or end-stage renal disease without dose adjustment. Similarly, it can be used in patients with mild-to-moderate hepatic impairment. Teneligliptin is effective and well tolerated and may have an important role in the management of T2DM. Keywords: diabetes

  9. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN CHILDREN WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z ABDEYASDAN

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes melliuts is a chronic, metabolic disease that involves the macro and micro vascular complications and one of its maer ascular cowplications is the cardio vascular disease, as ,the risk of cardiovascular disease is 2-4 folds in diabetic patients in comparison with non diabetic individuals. The researches have demonstrated that the risk factors of the cardio vascular disease are formed at childhood. Therefore the preventive measures must begin from early childhood. So the present study was planned with the goals to determine and compare the cardia-vascular risk factors in the diabetic children with type 1 of diabetes mellitus. Method: This was an analytic, cross sectional study that has been done in two groups (case-control. In this research, 148 children, suffering from the typel diabetes mellitus being supported by the metabolism and endocrine research center, were chosen in the continues case manner and for the control group, 148 children, matched with the study group (according to the age and the sex, at 6-18 years old from the schools in Isfahan city randomly and at 2-6 years from the neiborhoods of the case group. The data-gathering tool was the questionnaires includes lipid profile, blood pressure, weight and height. To analyze the data we used the analytic (t student and logistic regression and descriptive (mean and standard deviation statistic methods and SPSS. Results: Findings revealed that the means of Lipid profile, systolic blood pressure and body mass index had not statistically significant differences in the two groups. But the mean of diastolic blood pressure and the mean arterial blood pressure in the control group were more than the case group and this difference was significant. The mean, 75 and 95 percentiles for cholesterol and LDL in all the age groups, mean, 75 and 95 percentile for triglyceride in all the age groups except the age group of 1-4 years in the diabetic and non diabetic groups were

  10. Treating type 2 diabetes mellitus with traditional chinese and Indian medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijun; Wang, Jeffrey; Chan, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a fast-growing epidemic affecting people globally. Furthermore, multiple complications and comorbidities are associated with T2DM. Lifestyle modifications along with pharmacotherapy and patient education are the mainstay of therapy for patients afflicted with T2DM. Western medications are frequently associated with severe adverse drug reactions and high costs of treatment. Herbal medications have long been used in the treatment and prevention of T2DM in both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and traditional Indian medicine (TIM). This review examines in vivo, in vitro, and clinical evidence supporting the use of various herbs used in TCM and TIM. The problems, challenges, and opportunities for the incorporation of herbal frequently used in TCM and TIM into Western therapy are presented and discussed.

  11. Treating Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Traditional Chinese and Indian Medicinal Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a fast-growing epidemic affecting people globally. Furthermore, multiple complications and comorbidities are associated with T2DM. Lifestyle modifications along with pharmacotherapy and patient education are the mainstay of therapy for patients afflicted with T2DM. Western medications are frequently associated with severe adverse drug reactions and high costs of treatment. Herbal medications have long been used in the treatment and prevention of T2DM in both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and traditional Indian medicine (TIM. This review examines in vivo, in vitro, and clinical evidence supporting the use of various herbs used in TCM and TIM. The problems, challenges, and opportunities for the incorporation of herbal frequently used in TCM and TIM into Western therapy are presented and discussed.

  12. Coexistent Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A and type 2 diabetes mellitus neuropathies in a Chinese family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A-ping Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A is caused by duplication of the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22 gene on chromosome 17. It is the most common inherited demyelinating neuropathy. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder that frequently causes predominantly sensory neuropathy. In this study, we report the occurrence of CMT1A in a Chinese family affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this family, seven individuals had duplication of the PMP22 gene, although only four had clinical features of polyneuropathy. All CMT1A patients with a clinical phenotype also presented with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The other three individuals had no signs of CMT1A or type 2 diabetes mellitus. We believe that there may be a genetic link between these two diseases.

  13. Assessment of knowledge, awareness, and self-reported risk factors for type II diabetes among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajerin, Arash; Fras, Andrew; Vanhecke, Thomas E; Ledesma, Jeremiah

    2008-08-01

    This study assessed adolescents' level of knowledge of and self-reported risk factors for type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We found adolescents had a relatively high level of knowledge and perception of health consequences from T2DM, but also had a high rate of self-reported risk factors.

  14. Bypass gástrico en Y de Roux para el tratamiento de pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo II con IMC de 30 a 35 kg/m² Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for treatment of patients with DM type 2 and BMI of 30 to 35 Kg/m²

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Navarrete Aulestia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La incidencia de obesidad y una de sus comorbilidades más temida la diabetes mellitus tipo II está en aumento y no pareciera haber tratamiento médico que ayude a controlar estas pandemias. Existe una técnica quirúrgica bariátrica, el Bypass Gástrico en Y de Roux (BGYR que es segura y no sólo ayuda a controlar el exceso de peso sino también produce resultados alentadores en el control y remisión de la diabetes. Métodos: Se presentan 15 pacientes con IMC entre 30 y 35 kg/mt² diabéticos tipo II seleccionados sometidos a BGYR por laparoscopia con seguimiento de un año. Resultados: Se operaron 14 mujeres y un hombre con los siguientes valores promedios: Edad: 37 años, Peso: 88,3 kg, IMC: 32,8 kg/mt², Glicemia: 120 ± 38,8 mg%, HbA1c: 7,6% ± 0,73. 40% de hipertensión arterial y 33,3% dislipidémicos. El tiempo quirúrgico promedio fue de 75 minutos, dos días de hospitalización bajo índice de complicaciones y sin mortalidad. Se logró una remisión de la diabetes en el 93%, de los casos, con descensos de la glicemia y HbA1c significativos (p ≤ 0,05 y p ≤ 0,001 respectivamente con un control de la dislipidemia del 100% y 83,3% de la HTA. Conclusiones: El BGYR en obesos tipo I diabéticos seleccionados es una técnica segura y eficaz en el control metabólico y de la obesidad.Background: The incidence of obesity and its most feared comorbidity, diabetes mellitus type 2, is increasing and there would not seem to be any medical treatment to help control these pandemics. However, there is a bariatric surgery technique, the Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB, which is safe and not only helps control excess weight, but produces encouraging results in the control and remission of diabetes. Methods: We present 15 selected patients with a BMI between 30 and 35 kg/mt² and diabetes type 2 who underwent a laparoscopic RYGB with of one-year follow-up. Results: A total of 14 women and one man were operated with the following average values: age

  15. Saxagliptin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: assessing cardiovascular data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobble Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM are at high risk for cardiovascular (CV disease; however, conclusive evidence that glycemic control leads to improved cardiovascular outcomes is lacking. Saxagliptin is a potent, selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor approved as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with T2DM. Saxagliptin was evaluated in a series of phase III trials as monotherapy; add-on therapy to metformin, a sulfonylurea, or a thiazolidinedione; and as initial therapy in combination with metformin. Saxagliptin consistently improved glycemic control (as reflected by significant decreases in glycated hemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose, and postprandial glucose compared with controls and was generally well tolerated. In these analyses, saxagliptin had clinically neutral effects on body weight, blood pressure, lipid levels, and other markers of CV risk compared with controls. A retrospective meta-analysis of 8 phase II and phase III trials found no evidence that saxagliptin increases CV risk in patients with T2DM (Cox proportional hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.23-0.80 for major adverse cardiovascular events retrospectively adjudicated. Instead, it raised the hypothesis that saxagliptin may reduce the risk of major adverse CV events. A long-term CV outcome trial, Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus-THrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 53 (SAVOR-TIMI 53 is currently ongoing to determine whether saxagliptin reduces CV risk in T2DM.

  16. The role of the intestinal microbiota in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knip, Mikael; Siljander, Heli

    2016-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic immune-mediated disease with a subclinical prodromal period, characterized by selective loss of insulin-producing-β cells in the pancreatic islets of genetically susceptible individuals. The incidence of T1DM has increased several fold in most developed countries since World War II, in conjunction with other immune-mediated diseases. Rapid environmental changes and modern lifestyles are probably the driving factors that underlie this increase. These effects might be mediated by changes in the human microbiota, particularly the intestinal microbiota. Research on the gut microbiome of individuals at risk of developing T1DM and in patients with established disease is still in its infancy, but initial findings indicate that the intestinal microbiome of individuals with prediabetes or diabetes mellitus is different to that of healthy individuals. The gut microbiota in individuals with preclinical T1DM is characterized by Bacteroidetes dominating at the phylum level, a dearth of butyrate-producing bacteria, reduced bacterial and functional diversity and low community stability. However, these changes seem to emerge after the appearance of autoantibodies that are predictive of T1DM, which suggests that the intestinal microbiota might be involved in the progression from β-cell autoimmunity to clinical disease rather than in the initiation of the disease process.

  17. Liraglutide in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Lisbeth V; Flint, Anne; Olsen, Anette K; Ingwersen, Steen H

    2016-06-01

    Liraglutide is an acylated glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue with 97 % amino acid homology with native glucagon-like peptide-1 and greatly protracted action. It is widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and administered by subcutaneous injection once daily. The pharmacokinetic properties of liraglutide enable 24-h exposure coverage, a requirement for 24-h glycaemic control with once-daily dosing. The mechanism of protraction relates to slowed release from the injection site, and a reduced elimination rate owing to metabolic stabilisation and reduced renal filtration. Drug exposure is largely independent of injection site, as well as age, race and ethnicity. Increasing body weight and male sex are associated with reduced concentrations, but there is substantial overlap between subgroups; therefore, dose escalation should be based on individual treatment outcome. Exposure is reduced with mild, moderate or severe renal or hepatic impairment. There are no clinically relevant changes in overall concentrations of various drugs (e.g. paracetamol, atorvastatin, griseofulvin, digoxin, lisinopril and oral combination contraceptives) when co-administered with liraglutide. Pharmacodynamic studies show multiple beneficial actions with liraglutide, including improved fasting and postprandial glycaemic control (mediated by increased insulin and reduced glucagon levels and minor delays in gastric emptying), reduced appetite and energy intake, and effects on postprandial lipid profiles. The counter-regulatory hormone response to hypoglycaemia is largely unaltered. The effects of liraglutide on insulin and glucagon secretion are glucose dependent, and hence the risk of hypoglycaemia is low. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of liraglutide make it an important treatment option for many patients with type 2 diabetes.

  18. Seroprevalence of hepatitis C infection in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demitrost Laloo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatitis C is an emerging disease with different studies showing varying prevalence rates across India. In several studies, prevalence of hepatitis C infection was found to be higher in diabetics than nondiabetics. However, none has been reported from India. Objectives: The aim was to determine the sero-prevalence of hepatitis C infection in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study of all T2DM patients attending endocrine clinic in Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal from October 2011 to September 2013. Subjects and Methods: All T2DM patients included and exclusion criteria are patients with other forms of diabetes, liver failure, renal failure, malignancy or other chronic illness. Patient′s age, sex, height, weight, body mass index, history of risk factors, etc., collected and investigated for blood glucose fasting and prandial levels, transaminases levels, hepatitis C virus (HCV screening, etc., Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using  Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20; appropriate test used where applicable. Results: Out of the 192 T2DM patients screened, prevalence rate of HCV sero-positivity is found to be 5.7% (11/192, higher in males. History of jaundice in the past was the only significant history among sero-positive patients. Transaminases levels are significantly higher in sero-postive cases. They had higher fasting and postprandial blood glucose, fasting glucose levels being significantly higher. Conclusion: Our study shows a slightly higher prevalence of hepatitis C infection in type 2 diabetics.

  19. LIFE STYLE, OBESITY, TYPE A PERSONALITY PATTERN AND TYPE-2 DIABETES MELLITUS – IS THERE A CORELATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available : IMPORTANCE: Diabetes mellitus has shown a rising trajectory to an epidemic level in the last century due to changes in human behavior and lifestyle. Personality assessment might further clarify the relationships between psychological characteristics and glucose regulation. OBJECTIVE: To find out difference with regard to socio demographic factors, lifestyle pattern and type A personality patterns between the experimental group and the normal controls. DESIGN: A case-control study was used. Period of collection of data extended from 15th Dec 2012 till 10th Jan 2013. SETTINGS: This study was conducted at the Medicine outpatient departments of Mahatma Gandhi Hospital in Jaipur. PARTICIPANTS: A consecutive sample of 50 adults with type 2 diabetes aged 20-80 years and 50 normal subjects matched on age, sex, education and marital status. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus diagnosed in Medicine Outpatient setting, their socio demographic variables, lifestyle patterns and premorbid personality traits. RESULTS: Analysis of data revealed that 84% of the subjects in the experimental group were from urban background and 70% lived in a nuclear family set up with 50% having less than 5 members in the family. A positive family history of Diabetes in first degree relatives was present in 48% and just 8% of the control group.70% were not following healthy eating habits as opposed to just 38% of the control group.40%,34% and 26% of the subjects in the experimental group used to consume a high sugar, fat and salt diet, respectively. Nearly 76% as opposed to 26% of the control group led a sedentary life. 80% of the experimental group had no hobbies with 19% enjoyed watching T.V. 78% as compared to just 30% in the control group were either overweight or obese.82% had type A personality traits being high on all its components as compared to just 20% in the control group. CONCLUSION: Type II Diabetes Mellitus is more prevalent in urban

  20. Neurofibromatosis type II presenting as vertical diplopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokwala, Ahmed; Knapp, Christopher; Gottlob, Irene

    2004-09-01

    Neurofibromatosis type II (NF II) is rare and most commonly presents with hearing loss, tinnitus and/or vestibular disturbance in the third decade of life. The authors describe a rare case presenting with NF II with vertical diplopia due to IV(th) nerve palsy. The patient was otherwise asymptomatic despite multiple extensive lesions on MRI.

  1. Depression and Associated Factors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, N A; Ariaratnam, S; Salleh, M R; Said, M A; Sulaiman, A H

    2016-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of major depressive disorder and its association with socio-demographic and clinical factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This was a cross-sectional study of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who attended the hospital-based primary care clinics at the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The patients were interviewed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview to diagnose depression based on the DSM-IV criteria. The socio-demographic and clinical data were obtained by interviewing the patients and subsequently verified against their respective case notes. A total of 204 patients were recruited. The prevalence of major depressive disorder was 15.7%. Major depressive disorder was significantly associated with younger age of patients (mean ± standard deviation, 57.8 ± 15.1 years, p = 0.04), younger age at diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (46.2 ± 13.0 years, p = 0.01), having secondary education (p = 0.02), and having a history of depression (p = 0.002). Multivariate analysis showed that current age (p = 0.04), duration of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.04), age at diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.01), and secondary education (p = 0.01) were significant factors. The prevalence of major depressive disorder was high among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Screening of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus for depression should be performed periodically or routinely, especially in the primary care setting.

  2. Different role of zinc transporter 8 between type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Diabetes can be simply classified into type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8), a novel islet autoantigen, is specifically expressed in insulin‐containing secretory granules of β‐cells. Genetic studies show that the genotypes of SLC30A8 can determine either protective or diabetogenic response depending on environmental and lifestyle factors. The ZnT8 protein expression, as well as zinc content in β‐cells, was decreased in diabetic mice. Thus, ...

  3. Managing type 1 diabetes mellitus in pregnancy-from planning to breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Ringholm; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Kelstrup, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus in pregnant women increases the risk of adverse outcomes for mother and offspring. Careful preconception counselling and screening is important, with particular focus on glycaemic control, indications for antihypertensive therapy, screening for diabetic nephropathy, diabe...

  4. Evaluation of pulmonary function changes in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Upper Egypt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohamad, Ismail L; Saad, Khaled; Abdel-Azeem, Ali; Mohamed, Sherif A.A; Othman, Hisham A.K; Abdel Baseer, Khaled A; Thabet, Ahmad F; El-Houfey, Amira A

    2015-01-01

    .... However, limited data are available on lung dysfunction in children with diabetes. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pulmonary function changes in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods...

  5. Cyclooxygenase 1 (COX1) expression in Type 2 diabetes mellitus: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sushma Verma

    2015-08-10

    Aug 10, 2015 ... India. Sushma Verma a. , Honey Chandra b. , Monisha Banerjee a, ... shows an estimate of 387 million people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) worldwide .... culture plates containing macrophage serum free (MSF) media.

  6. Central obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus among urban adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianty Pradono

    2016-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus prevalence in the population aged >15 years increased within 5 years. Lack of physical activity and central obesity were the major risk factors of T2DM prevalence in urban adults.

  7. Low dose spironolactone reduces blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenburg Oxlund, Christina; Henriksen, J. E.; Tarnow, L.

    2013-01-01

    Background:The increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with arterial hypertension is particularly pronounced in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Blood pressure control is, therefore, decisively important but often not sufficiently achieved.Objective:The primary...

  8. Type 2 diabetes mellitus: phylogenetic motifs for predicting protein functional sites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok Sharma; Tanuja Rastogi; Meenakshi Bhartiya; A K Shasany; S P S Khanuja

    2007-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes, is a medical condition associated with abnormally high levels of glucose (or sugar) in the blood. Keeping this view, we demonstrate the phylogenetic motifs (PMs) identification in type 2 diabetes mellitus very likely corresponding to protein functional sites. In this article, we have identified PMs for all the candidate genes for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Glycine 310 remains conserved for glucokinase and potassium channel KCNJ11. Isoleucine 137 was conserved for insulin receptor and regulatory subunit of a phosphorylating enzyme. Whereas residues valine, leucine, methionine were highly conserved for insulin receptor. Occurrence of proline was very high for calpain 10 gene and glucose transporter

  9. Heart rate variability and increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penčić-Popović Biljana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. To our knowledge there are no data about the relationship between elevated risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2 and altered cardiac autonomic function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between heart rate variability (HRV and slightly increased risk for DM2. Methods. We evaluated 69 subjects (50.0 ± 14.4 years; 30 male without DM2, coronary artery disease and arrhythmias. The subjects were divided into two groups according to the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC: group I (n = 39 included subjects with 12 > FINDRISC ≥ 7; group II (n = 30 subjects with FINDRISC < 7. HRV was derived from 24-h electrocardiogram. We used time domain variables and frequency domain analysis performed over the entire 24-h period, during the day (06-22 h and overnight (22-06 h. Results. Standard deviation of the average normal RR intervals was significantly lower in the group with increased risk for DM2 compared to the group II (127.1 ± 26.6 ms vs 149.6 ± 57.6 ms; p = 0.035. Other time domain measures were similar in both groups. The group I demonstrated significantly reduced frequency domain measures, total power - TP (7.2 ± 0.3 ln/ms2 vs 7.3 ± 0.3 ln/ms2; p = 0.029, and low frequency - LF (5.9 ± 0.4 ln/ms2 vs 6.3 ± 0.6 ln/ms2; p = 0.006, over entire 24 h, as well as TP (7.1 ± 0.3 ln/ms2 vs 7.3 ± 0.3 ln/ms2; p = 0.004, very low frequency (6.2 ± 0.2 ln/ms2 vs 6.3 ± 0.2 ln/ms2; p = 0.030, LF (5.9 ± 0.4 ln/ms2 vs 6.2 ± 0.3 ln/ms2; p = 0.000 and high frequency (5.7 ± 0.4 ln/ms2 vs 5.9 ± 0.4 ln/ms2; p = 0.011 during the daytime compared to the group II. Nocturnal frequency domain analysis was similar between the groups. The low diurnal frequency was independently related to elevated risk for diabetes mellitus (beta = -0,331; p = 0.006. Conclusion. The obtained results suggest that even slightly elevated risk for developing diabetes mellitus may be related to impaired HRV.

  10. Zinc and type 2 diabetes mellitus with periodontitis – a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushparani, D S

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been increasing rapidly worldwide, making it a huge health pressure on society in both the developed and developing countries. During the last thirty years, diabetes mellitus, a chronic metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia is proving itself to be fatal. Periodontitis was considered as one of the main, oral health problems encountered in patients with diabetes mellitus. There exists a direct relation between the risk of complications of diabetes and periodontitis over time. The present review gives an outline of the features that govern the interrelationship between zinc and diabetes mellitus with periodontal disease, including the physiologic mechanisms and clinical studies, and presents scientific evidences. The disturbance in the zinc micronutrient and increased oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes may bring about insulin resistance and the creation of diabetic complications. The progression of diabetes mellitus may bring about perturbation in micronutrient metabolism and status.

  11. Egg consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzevičienė, Lina; Ostrauskas, Rytas

    2012-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus appears to involve an interaction between susceptible genetic backgrounds and environmental factors including highly calorific diets. As it is important to identify modifiable risk factors that may help reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the aim of the present study was to determine the association between egg consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A specifically designed questionnaire was used to collect information on possible risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals for type 2 diabetes mellitus were calculated by conditional logistic regression. A case-control study in a Lithuanian out-patient clinic was performed in 2001. A total of 234 cases with a newly confirmed diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and 468 controls free of the disease. Variables such as BMI, family history of diabetes, cigarette smoking, education, morning exercise and plasma TAG level were retained in multivariate logistic regression models as confounders because their inclusion changed the value of the odds ratio by more than 10 % in any exposure category. After adjustment for possible confounders more than twofold increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus was determined for individuals consuming 3-4·9 eggs/week (OR = 2·60; 95 % CI 1·34, 5·08) and threefold increased risk of the disease was determined for individuals consuming ≥5 eggs/week (OR = 3·02; 95 % CI 1·14, 7·98) compared with those eating risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  12. Preliminary study: Evaluation of melatonin secretion in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Kor, Yilmaz; Geyikli, Iclal; Keskin, Mehmet; Akan, Muslum

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Melatonin is an indolamine hormone, synthesized from tryptophan in the pineal gland primarily. Melatonin exerts both antioxidative and immunoregulatory roles but little is known about melatonin secretion in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The aim of this study was to measure serum melatonin levels in patients with T1DM and investigates their relationship with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Forty children and adolescents with T1DM (18 boys and 22 gir...

  13. Liraglutide: a once-daily GLP-1 analogue for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina

    2007-01-01

    properties that are suitable for once-daily dosing. Liraglutide has demonstrated lasting improvement of HbA(1c )levels, weight reduction and improved beta-cell function in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Liraglutide is well tolerated; the adverse events that are most frequently reported being...... transient nausea and diarrhoea. This article reviews the mechanisms of action and efficacy of liraglutide for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. This agent is presently in Phase III clinical development....

  14. The prevalence and determinants of hypothyroidism in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fei; Bao, Cuiping; Deng, Meiyu; Xu, Hui; Fan, Meijuan; Paillard-Borg, Stéphanie; Xu, Weili; Qi, Xiuying

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hypothyroidism among hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its related factors, and to assess the prevalence of macrovascular and microvascular diseases among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients with hypothyroidism and euthyroidism. A total of 1662 type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients hospitalized at the Metabolic Diseases Hospital, Tianjin Medical University from 1 January 2008 to 1 March 2013 were included in this study. Information on demographic and anthropometric factors and additional variables related to hypothyroidism were collected from medical records. Prevalence rates were calculated and standardized using direct method based on the age-specific and sex-specific structure of all participants. Data were analyzed using binary logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. The prevalence of hypothyroidism among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients was 6.8 %, and 77.0 % of the patients with hypothyroidism had subclinical hypothyroidism. The prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with age, and was higher in women (10.8 %) than in men (3.4 %). Older age (odds ratio, 1.74; 95 % confidence interval, 1. 05 to 2.89), female gender (odds ratio, 2.02; 95 % confidence interval, 1.05 to 3.87), and positive thyroid peroxidase antibody (odds ratio, 4.99; 95 % confidence interval, 2.83 to 8.79) were associated with higher odds of hypothyroidism among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients. The type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients with hypothyroidism had higher prevalence of cerebrovascular diseases than those with euthyroidism after adjustment for age and gender. The prevalence of hypothyroidism among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients was 6.8 %, and most patients had subclinical hypothyroidism. Older age, female gender, and positive thyroid peroxidase antibody could be indicators for detecting hypothyroidism in type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients.

  15. Renal effects of canagliflozin in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkovic, Vlado; Jardine, Meg; Vijapurkar, Ujjwala; Meininger, Gary

    2015-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease is commonly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and may impact the efficacy and safety of glucose-lowering therapies. Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, reduces blood glucose levels in patients with T2DM by lowering the renal threshold for glucose, thereby promoting urinary glucose excretion. This review describes the pharmacology, efficacy and safety of canagliflozin according to kidney function in participants with T2DM. Published articles that reported efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics data for canagliflozin in patients with T2DM and impaired renal function, and renal safety data with canagliflozin in various populations of patients with T2DM through May 2015 were included. Early transient reductions in estimated glomerular filtration rate were observed with canagliflozin; these changes generally stabilized or attenuated over time and reversed after discontinuation, suggesting no renal (glomerular or tubular) damage with canagliflozin treatment. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios were reduced with canagliflozin. Canagliflozin was generally well tolerated in patients with normal or mild to moderately impaired renal function, with a modestly higher incidence of renal-related adverse events and volume depletion-related adverse events in patients with moderate renal impairment. Adverse events related to potassium elevations were infrequent with canagliflozin 100 mg regardless of kidney function status; however, patients with moderately impaired kidney function experienced hyperkalemia more frequently with canagliflozin 300 mg compared with patients treated with either canagliflozin 100 mg or placebo. Canagliflozin was not associated with increased cardiovascular risk across studies; however, relatively few events among patients with impaired renal function meant that the analysis was not adequately powered to examine this outcome, and results from separate trials are awaited

  16. Ketosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus: complication or compensatory mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kruljac

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The exact clinical role of diabetic ketosis in patients presenting to emergency departments with hyperglycemic crises is largely unknown. The aim of this brief review is to provide insights into possible mechanisms and clinical impact of diabetic ketosis in patients with hyperglycemic crises and clinical features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Patients with T2DM have impaired ketogenesis and lower blood ketone levels. High insulin, low glucagon, IGF-I, ghrelin and adiponectin levels are associated with suppressed ketogenesis. Adenosine 5’-monophosphate-activated protein kinase is an enzyme expressed in skeletal muscle and seems to have pivotal role in impaired ketogenesis. An increase in ketogenesis is associated with weight loss, increase in insulin sensitivity and serum IGF-I levels, which have beneficial effects on glycemia but also on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Ketone bodies are far more efficient fuel sources than glucose, especially in diabetics with heart failure and kidney disease. In theory, ketogenesis in patients with T2DM can be improved by low- carbohydrate and low-calorie diet, physical activity, moderate alcohol use, metformin, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists and sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2 inhibitors. SGLT-2 inhibitors are the most potent inducers of ketogenesis. They induce profound glycosuria with a consequent shift to fatty acid metabolism and increased ketogenesis. This could potentially explain how SGLT-2 inhibitor empagliflozin lowers cardiovascular mortality and slowers progression of kidney disease. Therefore, we believe that diabetic ketosis in patients with hyperglycemic crisis may be a compensatory mechanism, rather than a complication itself. Further prospective studies are needed to test this hypothesis.

  17. [Pharmaceutical and insulin therapy of diabetes mellitus type 2. Update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, E

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 in the adult population is > 7 %. Despite new therapy options and modern insulins, the therapy remains a challenge. Especially in patients with obesity or high insulin resistance it is often difficult to achieve the necessary target values. In most cases the disease is initially asymptomatic so that the aim is the early recognition and avoidance of complications. This article provides an update on the approach options of modern therapy forms in diabetes management. The foundations of every treatment program are lifestyle interventions, including diabetes schooling. When these fail a pharmaceutical therapy must be initiated which among others is oriented to hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). The HbA1c target value should take patient-specific circumstances into consideration and should be determined together with the patient. If no contraindications or intolerances are present, metformin is the medication of choice. Apart from metformin, the available data which can be used for guidance are limited. A combination therapy with one or two other oral or injectable medications is suitable to keep the side effects as low as possible. The advantages of other substances in individual cases could be a lower risk of hypoglycemia, reduced weight increase, oral administration and compatibility with renal insufficiency. Ultimately, insulin therapy will be necessary for many patients, either as monotherapy or in combination with other substances. Therapy decisions should be made together with the patient, taking personal preferences into consideration and should include age, body weight, comorbidities, occupational situation and compliance. The Reorganization of the Pharmaceutical Market Act represents a momentarily perceived clear barrier. In the interests of an individualized therapy and personalized disease management, a target-aimed flexibility in diabetes management should be possible in the future.

  18. Teneligliptin in management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Surendra Kumar; Panneerselvam, A; Singh, K P; Parmar, Girish; Gadge, Pradeep; Swami, Onkar C

    2016-01-01

    Teneligliptin is a recently developed oral dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor indicated for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in adults along with diet and exercise. Teneligliptin has been recently available in Japan (Teneria(®)), Argentina (Teneglucon(®)), and India (Tenepure; Teneza) at relatively affordable price. This is a positive step toward the management of T2DM in developing countries, where the cost of medicine is out-of-pocket expenditure and is a limiting factor for health care. This review evaluates the efficacy and safety of teneligliptin in the management of T2DM. Teneligliptin has been systematically evaluated in T2DM as monotherapy with diet and exercise and in combination with metformin, glimepiride, pioglitazone, and insulin in short-term (12 weeks) and long-term (52 weeks) studies. These studies have reported a reduction in HbA1c of 0.8%-0.9% within 12 weeks of therapy. Two 52-week studies reported sustained improvement in glycemic control with teneligliptin. Teneligliptin has been found to be well tolerated, and the safety profile is similar to other dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors. Hypoglycemia and constipation are the main adverse events. Teneligliptin can be administered safely to patients with mild, moderate, or severe renal impairment or end-stage renal disease without dose adjustment. Similarly, it can be used in patients with mild-to-moderate hepatic impairment. Teneligliptin is effective and well tolerated and may have an important role in the management of T2DM.

  19. [Atherogenic dyslipidemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chillarón, Juan J; Sales, María P; Flores Le-Roux, Juana A; Castells, Ignasi; Benaiges, David; Sagarra, Enric; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    2013-12-07

    To assess the prevalence of lipid abnormalities, with special emphasis on atherogenic dyslipidemia and its relationship with chronic complications in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Cross-sectional study including all patients aged 18 and over, diagnosed of T1DM attending the outpatient clinic at Hospital del Mar and Hospital de Granollers, in Barcelona, during 2008. Of the 291 enrolled patients, 17.2 and 7.9% had high density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol150 mg/dL, respectively. Hypoalphalipoproteinemic patients had a higher prevalence of peripheral neuropathy (28 vs. 7.1%, P<.001), macroalbuminuria (14 vs. 2.5%, P<.001) and higher concentrations of triglycerides (107.5 [55.8] vs. 82.7 [36] mg/dL, P<.0001) compared with those with normal/high HDL cholesterol levels. Hypertriglyceridemia was associated with increasing age (43.6 [11.2] vs. 37.6 [11.8] yr, P<.02), higher prevalence of hypertension (47.8 vs. 22.8%, P<.008), metabolic syndrome (82.6 vs. 22%, P<.001) and microangiopathic complications, lower insulin sensitivity (6.75 [2.1] vs. 8.54 [2.6] mg/Kg(-1)/min(-1), P<.004) compared with the normotriglyceridemic group. One in 5 patients with T1DM has hypoalphalipoproteinemia or hypertriglyceridemia and these conditions are associated with 3 fold-increase microangiopathy. Thus, in these patients glycemic and blood pressure but also lipid profile control must be optimum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus by viral eradication in chronic hepatitis C: Myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni, Ester; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Saracco, Giorgio

    2016-02-01

    Chronic hepatitis C is a systemic disease inducing metabolic alterations leading to extrahepatic consequences. In particular, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection seems to increase the risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in predisposed individuals, independently of liver disease stage. The mechanisms through which hepatitis C induces T2DM involve direct viral effects, insulin resistance, pro-inflammatory cytokines and other immune-mediated processes. Many studies have reported the clinical consequences of type 2 diabetes mellitus on hepatitis C outcome, but very few studies have addressed the issue of microangiopathic complications among patients with hepatitis C only, who develop type 2 diabetes mellitus. Moreover, clinical trials in HCV-positive patients have reported improvement in glucose metabolism after antiviral treatment; recent studies have suggested that this metabolic amelioration might have a clinical impact on type 2 diabetes mellitus-related complications. These observations raise the question as to whether the HCV eradication may also have an impact on the future morbidity and mortality due to type 2 diabetes mellitus. The scope of this review is to summarise the current evidence linking successful antiviral treatment and the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications in hepatitis C-infected patients.

  1. Does long-term coffee intake reduce type 2 diabetes mellitus risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimentel Gustavo D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review reports the evidence for a relation between long-term coffee intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Numerous epidemiological studies have evaluated this association and, at this moment, at least fourteen out of eighteen cohort studies revealed a substantially lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus with frequent coffee intake. Moderate coffee intake (≥4 cups of coffee/d of 150 mL or ≥400 mg of caffeine/d has generally been associated with a decrease in the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Besides, results of most studies suggest a dose-response relation, with greater reductions in type 2 diabetes mellitus risk with higher levels of coffee consumption. Several mechanisms underlying this protective effect, as well as the coffee components responsible for this association are suggested. Despite positive findings, it is still premature to recommend an increase in coffee consumption as a public health strategy to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus. More population-based surveys are necessary to clarify the long-term effects of decaffeinated and caffeinated coffee intake on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  2. Is Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus More Prevalent Than Expected in Transgender Persons? A Local Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defreyne, Justine; De Bacquer, Dirk; Shadid, Samyah; Lapauw, Bruno; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2017-09-01

    The International Diabetes Federation estimates that approximately 0.4% of the Belgian population is diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus, which is similar to other industrialized countries. The prevalence of transgenderism is estimated at 0.6% to 0.7% of all adults in Western populations. In this study, we evaluated whether there was an increased prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in transgender people in the local cohort. Medical records of transgender patients were analyzed retrospectively. From January 1, 2007 until October 10, 2016, 1,081 transgender patients presented at a tertiary reference center to start hormonal treatment. Nine of these 1,081 patients were previously diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 1 was diagnosed with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults. A 2.3-fold higher prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus was observed in transgender patients. We concluded that type 1 diabetes mellitus was more prevalent in transgender patients than one would expect from population prevalences. This could be a spurious result in a local cohort, because a causal relation seems unlikely, but our finding might encourage other centers to investigate this putative association. Defreyne J, De Bacquer D, Shadid S, et al. Is Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus More Prevalent Than Expected in Transgender Persons? A Local Observation. Sex Med 2017;5:e215-e218. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Non-diabetic renal disease in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Yaqub

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in diabetics worldwide, yet most patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus are not formally evaluated with a renal biopsy. The diagnosis is almost always based on clinical grounds. A wide spectrum of non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD is reported to occur in patients with type-2 diabetes. It has been estimated that up to one-third of all diabetic patients who present with proteinuria are suffering from NDRD. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the prevalence and etiology of NDRD in patients with type-2 diabetes. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with type-2 diabetes who underwent kidney biopsy on clinical suspicion of NDRD (absence of diabetic retinopathy and/or neuropathy; short duration of diabetes, i.e. less than five years from January 2003 through December 2007 at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. Based on the biopsy findings, patients were grouped as Group-I, isolated NDRD; Group-II, NDRD with underlying DN; and Group-III, isolated DN. Of 68 patients studied, 75% were males and the mean age was 56 years. The mean duration of diabetes was nine years. Group-I included 34 patients (52%, Group-II included 11 patients (17% and Group-III included 23 patients (31%. Among the Group-I patients, the mean age was 56 years (41-77 years. The most common NDRDs were acute interstitial nephritis (32%, diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (17%; membranous nephropathy (12% and crescentic glomerulonephritis (12%. Among Group-II, the mean age was 60 years (46-71 years, and the most common lesion was interstitial nephritis superimposed on underlying DN (63% cases. Among Group-III, the mean age was 53 years (42- 80 years. The mean proteinuria was 5, 6.3 and 7.3 g/24 h of urine collection in Groups I, II and III, respectively (P = NS. The mean duration of diabetes was 7.3, 11.7 and 10.7 years in Groups I, II and III, respectively. The duration of

  4. The occurrence of asthma in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemzadeh, M; Movahed, M R

    2009-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been found to be associated with cardiovascular disease. The goal of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of asthma in patients with type II DM after adjusting for other comorbid conditions. We used patient treatment files of inpatients' admissions containing discharge diagnosis (Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders (ICD)-9 codes) from Veterans Health Administration Hospitals. The patients were divided into two groups: ICD-9 code for DM and a control group with hypertension but no DM. ICD-9 codes for asthma were used to study the prevalence of asthma in DM patients versus the control. We performed uni- and multi-variable analysis adjusting for comorbid conditions. Asthma was present in 13 242 (4.5%) of DM patients versus 16 038 (2.9%) in the control group. Using multi-variable analysis, DM remained independently associated with asthma (odds ratio: 2.99; confidence interval: 2.92-3.06; P asthma is significantly higher in hospitalized patients with type II DM independent of other comorbid conditions. The pathogenesis of this association is not known warranting further investigation.

  5. PULMONARY FUNCTIONS IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE-2 DIABETES MELLITUS AND CORRELATION WITH DURATION AND GLYCEMIC INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an alarming increase in incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Asian Indians, since diabetes is a multisystem disorder which may affect many organs of the body it becomes important to study long term effect of diabetes mellitus on lung functions and also correlate the glycemic index with lung functions. Hence the present study was undertaken to establish the correlation between duration of diabetic mellitus and glycemic index with pulmonary function test. METHODOLOGY: 40 Type 2 diabetics taken as cases and controls and PFT was performed and documented and statically analyzed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: there was a decline in pulmonary functions FVC, FEV1, FEF25-75 and PEFR with increasing duration of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (P <0.05, however there was no changes seen with respect to Glycemic index and was not significant. In Type 2 Diabetes mellitus there is a mixed pattern of abnormality seen, restrictive and obstructive type of pulmonary pathology with increasing duration of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus.

  6. Association of salivary triglycerides and cholesterol with dental caries in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Priya; Sharma, Akhliesh; Kaje, Keerthan

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic disturbances in diabetes mellitus can affect oral health. Altered levels of salivary lipids have been suggested as a risk for dental caries. There has been lack of research in this regard and in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. To assess the salivary triglycerides and cholesterol levels in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and correlate them with their dental caries status. Thirty children aged 12-16 years with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy children were included in the study. Unstimulated saliva was collected from each child and evaluated for salivary triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Dental caries status (DMFT) was recorded. Salivary cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (p ≤ 0.05). In comparison to controls, mean DMFT score was higher in the diabetic children. Salivary triglycerides showed a significant correlation with dental caries status in the study group (p = 0.035). In normal children, salivary cholesterol levels showed a significant association with dental caries. (p = 0.008). Both salivary cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly higher in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Salivary triglycerides showed a significant association with dental caries in these children. © 2014 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Expression of periodontal inflammation into left ventricular hypertrophy in Type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarda, Trupti; Rathod, Surekha; Kolte, Abhay; Bodhare, Girish; Modak, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Chronic periodontitis, an inflammatory disease, is closely related to certain systemic conditions such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. These conditions, occurring as comorbidities, synergically affect periodontal tissues. This study aims to examine whether chronic gingivitis and chronic generalized severe periodontitis in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus are associated with increased left ventricular mass (LVM). A total of 45 patients affected with Type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited and divided into three groups with 15 patients each according to their periodontal status: Group I consisting of healthy individuals, Group II consisting of chronic gingivitis, and Group III consisting of chronic generalized severe periodontitis. They were assessed clinically, biochemically, and echocardiographically. LVM was calculated according to Devereux formula and was indexed to height. The differences in the means for LVM and LVM index (LVMI) were statistically significant in three groups with a P = 0.006 and 0.014, respectively. After adjusting for the confounders, the mean values of LVM in Group I, II, and III were 149.35 ± 35.51 g, 147.95 ± 31.59 g, and 156.36 ± 36.57 g, respectively and for LVMI, the mean values were 43.61 ± 12.16 g/m(2.7) (Group I), 47.12 ± 10.84 g/m(2.7) (Group II), and 46.34 ± 12.55 g/m(2.7) (Group III). A positive association between chronic generalized severe periodontitis and increased LVM in Type 2 DM patients was observed, suggesting the role of periodontal disease in the left ventricular hypertrophy.

  8. Earlier Age of Onset of Chronic Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus After a Hypertensive Disorder of Pregnancy or Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, Karst Y.; Franx, Arie; Van Rijn, Bas B.; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Boer, Jolanda M A; Verschuren, W.M. Monique; Oudijk, Martijn A.; Bots, Michiel L.; Van Der Schouw, Yvonne T.

    2015-01-01

    A prospective cohort study was conducted to assess the impact of a history of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on the risk and age of onset of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life, independent of

  9. Type-2 diabetes mellitus and auditory brainstem response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheelu S Siddiqi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes mellitus (DM causes pathophysiological changes at multiple organ system. With evoked potential techniques, the brain stem auditory response represents a simple procedure to detect both acoustic nerve and central nervous system pathway damage. The objective was to find the evidence of central neuropathy in diabetes patients by analyzing brainstem audiometry electric response obtained by auditory evoked potentials, quantify the characteristic of auditory brain response in long standing diabetes and to study the utility of auditory evoked potential in detecting the type, site, and nature of lesions. Design: A total of 25 Type-2 DM [13 (52% males and 12 (48% females] with duration of diabetes over 5 years and aged over 30 years. The brainstem evoked response audiometry (BERA was performed by universal smart box manual version 2.0 at 70, 80, and 90 dB. The wave latency pattern and interpeak latencies were estimated. This was compared with 25 healthy controls (17 [68%] males and 8 [32%] females. Result: In Type-2 DM, BERA study revealed that wave-III representing superior olivary complex at 80 dB had wave latency of (3.99 ± 0.24 ms P < 0.001, at 90 dB (3.92 ± 0.28 ms P < 0.001 compared with control. The latency of wave III was delayed by 0.39, 0.42, and 0.42 ms at 70, 80, and 90 dB, respectively. The absolute latency of wave V representing inferior colliculus at 70 dB (6.05 ± 0.27 ms P < 0.001, at 80 dB (5.98 ± 0.27 P < 0.001, and at 90 dB (6.02 ± 0.30 ms P < 0.002 compared with control. The latency of wave-V was delayed by 0.48, 0.47, and 0.50 ms at 70, 80, and 90 dB, respectively. Interlatencies I-III at 70 dB (2.33 ± 0.22 ms P < 0.001, at 80 dB (2.39 ± 0.26 ms P < 0.001, while at 90 dB (2.47 ± 0.25 ms P < 0.001 when compared with control. Interlatencies I-V at 70 dB (4.45 ± 0.29 ms P < 0.001 at 80 dB (4.39 ± 0.34 ms P < 0.001, and at 90 dB (4.57 ± 0.31 ms P < 0.001 compared with control. Out of 25 Type-2 DM, 13 (52

  10. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis and Type II Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ram Borgaonkar

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old female was diagnosed with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis in 1976 and Addison’s disease in 1979. At that time, her antimitochondrial antibody (AMA level was elevated at 1:32. She subsequently developed premature ovarian failure and type I diabetes mellitus. In 1996, she became jaundiced with a cholestatic enzyme pattern. AMA was positive at a titre of 1:256. A liver biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC. She underwent a liver transplantation in January 1998. This is the first report of PBC in association with type II autoimmune polyglandular syndrome. The association of PBC with other organ-specific autoimmune diseases supports an immune-mediated pathogenesis and may have implications in further studies of PBC.

  11. Past and current perspective on new therapeutic targets for Type-II diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pradip D; Mahajan, Umesh B; Patil, Kalpesh R; Chaudhari, Sandip; Patil, Chandragouda R; Agrawal, Yogeeta O; Ojha, Shreesh; Goyal, Sameer N

    2017-01-01

    Loss of pancreatic β-cell function is a hallmark of Type-II diabetes mellitus (DM). It is a chronic metabolic disorder that results from defects in both insulin secretion and insulin action. Recently, United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study reported that Type-II DM is a progressive disorder. Although, DM can be treated initially by monotherapy with oral agent; eventually, it may require multiple drugs. Additionally, insulin therapy is needed in many patients to achieve glycemic control. Pharmacological approaches are unsatisfactory in improving the consequences of insulin resistance. Single therapeutic approach in the treatment of Type-II DM is unsuccessful and usually a combination therapy is adopted. Increased understanding of biochemical, cellular and pathological alterations in Type-II DM has provided new insight in the management of Type-II DM. Knowledge of underlying mechanisms of Type-II DM development is essential for the exploration of novel therapeutic targets. Present review provides an insight into therapeutic targets of Type-II DM and their role in the development of insulin resistance. An overview of important signaling pathways and mechanisms in Type-II DM is provided for the better understanding of disease pathology. This review includes case studies of drugs that are withdrawn from the market. The experience gathered from previous studies and knowledge of Type-II DM pathways can guide the anti-diabetic drug development toward the discovery of clinically viable drugs that are useful in Type-II DM.

  12. Combined Atherosclerotic Lesions in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    L.V. Khimion

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Significant prevalence of atherosclerosis and its complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM determines the need for further investigations of existing risk factors. Objective. To determine the effect of various risk factors on the development of atherosclerotic lesions in patients with type 2 DM. Materials and methods. The average levels of systolic blood pressure (SBP, HbA1c, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, uric acid (UA, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL–C in the blood serum and the score by the anxiety and depression scale (HADRS compared to the evaluation of ultrasound data of atherosclerotic lesion of the carotid arteries (intima-media thickness ≥ 0.9 mm or the presence of atherosclerotic plaques and lower limb arteries (ankle-brachial index ≤ 0.9 were analyzed in 122 patients with type 2 DM (66 women, 56 men, mean age — 55.0 (49.8–62.0 years during 5-year follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 20. Results. During the study, patients were divided into 3 groups: group 1 — 48 people with atherosclerotic lesions of the carotid arteries and lower extremities, group 2 — 47 individuals with atherosclerosis of the carotid arteries, group 3 — 27 people with no signs of atherosclerotic lesion. It was found that in group 1 patients, the average levels of SBP (141.7 (132.1–152.9 mmHg, HbA1c (9.2 (8.2–9.9 %, hsCRP (5.8 (4.2–6.9 mg/L, UA (358.1 (302.4–396.1 μmol/L, LDL–C (4.1 (3.6–5.2 mmol/L, a score by HADRS (16.0 (9.0–18.8 points were significantly higher compared to that of in group 3 (SBP — 136.7 (128.3–143.3 mmHg, HbA1c — 7.7 (7.0–8.4 %, hsCRP — 2.7 (1.1–3.3 mg/L, UA — 276.8 (227.0–316.0 μmol/L, LDL–C — 3.3 (3.0–4.0 mmol/L, a score by HADRS (8.0 (7.0–10.0 points (p < 0.05. The average levels of HbA1c and hsCRP in group 1 patients were significantly higher compared with that of in group 2 (HbA1c — 8.7 (7.6–9

  13. Reduced glomerular angiotensin II receptor density in diabetes mellitus in the rat: time course and mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, B.M.

    1987-04-01

    Glomerular angiotensin II receptors are reduced in number in early diabetes mellitus, which may contribute to hyperfiltration and glomerular injury. The time course and role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the pathogenesis of the receptor abnormality were studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats made diabetic with streptozotocin (65 mg, iv). Glomerular angiotensin II receptors were measured by Scatchard analysis; insulin, renin activity, angiotensin II, and aldosterone were measured by RIA. Diabetes mellitus was documented at 24 h by a rise in plasma glucose (vehicle-injected control, 133 +/- 4; diabetic, 482 +/- 22 mg/dl and a fall in plasma insulin (control, 53.1 +/- 5.7; diabetic, 35.6 +/- 4.0 microIU/ml. At 24 h glomerular angiotensin II receptor density was decreased by 26.5% in diabetic rats (control, 75.5 +/- 9.6 X 10(6); diabetic, 55.5 +/- 8.3 X 10(6) receptors/glomerulus. Receptor occupancy could not explain the defect, because there was reduced binding in diabetic glomeruli after pretreatment with 3 M MgCl/sub 2/, a maneuver that caused dissociation of previously bound hormone. There was a progressive return of the receptor density toward normal over the 60 days following induction of diabetes, with diabetic glomeruli measuring 22.7%, 14.8%, and 3.7% fewer receptors than age-matched controls at 11 days, 1 month, and 2 months, respectively.

  14. Evaluation of salivary microbiota of pediatric patients with and without mellitus type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Suellen ZAITTER; Camila FERENCZ; Tomazinho, Paulo Henrique

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that can occur in childhoodand adolescence as a result of insulin deficiency, of peripheral resistance or both. Signs and symptoms in the oral cavity correlate this disease to dentistry, besides the increase of periodontal diseases and dental caries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the saliva of children with and without diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM-1). Salivary samples were collected and tested with culture kits for Lactobacillus and S. mutans,i...

  15. Demographic, breast-feeding, and nutritional trends among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Baruah, Manash P.; Ammini, Ariachery C; Khurana, Madan L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) requires a genetic predisposition to particular environmental triggers that may activate mechanisms leading to progressive loss of pancreatic beta cells. Aims: We tried to compare the impact of some demographic and environmental factors and breast-feeding on children (aged < 18 years) with recent onset diabetes mellitus (≤1 year) with that on age, sex, and socioeconomic status-matched controls. Material and Methods: A total of 43...

  16. A note on Type II covolutional codes

    OpenAIRE

    Johannesson, Rolf; Ståhl, Per; Wittenmark, Emma

    2000-01-01

    The result of a search for the world's second type II (doubly-even and self-dual) convolutional code is reported. A rate R=4/8, 16-state, time-invariant, convolutional code with free distance dfree=8 was found to be type II. The initial part of its weight spectrum is better than that of the Golay convolutional code (GCC). Generator matrices and path weight enumerators for some other type II convolutional codes are given. By the “wrap-around” technique tail-biting versions of (32, 18, 8) T...

  17. Prevalence of Celiac Disease in Omani Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross Sectional Study

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    Siham Al-Sinani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Published studies on the prevalence of celiac disease in type 1 diabetes mellitus from the Arab World are scant. We aim to report the prevalence of celiac disease in Omani children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.Methods: Children with type 1 diabetes mellitus were prospectively screened for celiac disease, at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman over a period of one year (June 2011 - May 2012. Serum anti tissue transglutaminase IgA, endomysial IgA antibodies and total IgA were measured for screening of celiac disease. Children with positive anti-tissue transglutaminase and/or endomysial IgA antibodies underwent endoscopy.Results: A total of 103 children with type 1 diabetes mellitus were initially included. Ten patients were lost to follow up. Ninety-three patients aged 2-17 years underwent screening for celiac disease. Sixteen patients had positive anti-tissue transglutaminase (17%. Fourteen patients underwent endoscopy with duodenal biopsies, while two were lost to follow-up. Five patients with positive anti-tissue transglutaminase had intestinal biopsy proven celiac disease. The prevalence of celiac disease is 5.5% in our cohort of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.Conclusions: The prevalence of celiac disease in Omani children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus is similar to the World’s reported prevalence, but is less than that reported for Middle Eastern Arab children. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study on the prevalence of celiac disease in Omani children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  18. Unstable bodyweight and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Satoru; Fujihara, Kazuya; Ishiguro, Hajime; Horikawa, Chika; Ohara, Nobumasa; Yachi, Yoko; Tanaka, Shiro; Shimano, Hitoshi; Kato, Kiminori; Hanyu, Osamu; Sone, Hirohito

    2017-07-01

    The present meta-analysis aimed to clarify the association of unstable bodyweight with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, an association that has been controversial among longitudinal studies. An electronic literature search using EMBASE and MEDLINE was followed up to 31 August 2016. The relative risks (RRs) of type 2 diabetes mellitus in individuals with unstable bodyweight were pooled using the inverse variance method. Eight studies were eligible for the meta-analysis. The median duration of measurements of weight change and follow-up years for ascertaining type 2 diabetes mellitus were 13.5 and 9.4 years, respectively. The pooled RR for the least vs most stable category was 1.33 (95% confidence interval 1.12-1.57). Between-study heterogeneity was statistically significant (P = 0.048). Whether type 2 diabetes mellitus was ascertained by blood testing explained 66.0% of the variance in the logarithm of RR (P = 0.02). In three studies in which blood testing was carried out, type 2 diabetes mellitus risk was not significant (RR 1.06, 95% confidence interval 0.91-1.25). Furthermore, publication bias that inflated type 2 diabetes mellitus risk was statistically detected by Egger's test (P = 0.09). Unstable bodyweight might be modestly associated with the elevated risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus; although serious biases, such as diagnostic suspicion bias and publication bias, made it difficult to assess this association. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Effect Of Diet Counseling On Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Kusumaneela Bolla

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diabetes is a metabolic disorder. Metabolism is the way the uses digested food for growth amp energy. Importance of diet in diabetes can be treated back to the days of the ancient ayurvedic physician Sushreeta. Type of diabetes age of the patient body weight severity of the hyperglycemia associated complications and mode of treatment being followed determine the exact allowance and type of diet. This needs to be worked out for each individual diabetic. Dietary management is the corn stone of diabetes treatment and should receive the almost consideration by the patient and by the treating physician. Objective To assess The Nutritional Status and To Study the Effect Of Diet Counseling on Type II Diabetic Patients. Methodology For this study from diabetic hospital in Vijayawada were selected. In this study 40 samples age 30 to 60 years. They belong to age between 30 to 60 years. Preparation of Questionnaire to collect the General information age sex past history of subjects Anthropometric data Biochemical information Dietary information. Conclusion There is significant changes in the blood sugar levels after the diet counseling. Intake of the high amounts of the fiber low glycemic foods and functional foods helps to reduce the blood sugar levels randomly.

  20. Hepatitis C virus infection and type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alessandro; Antonelli; Silvia; Martina; Ferrari; Dilia; Giuggioli; Andrea; Di; Domenicantonio; Ilaria; Ruffilli; Alda; Corrado; Silvia; Fabiani; Santino; Marchi; Clodoveo; Ferri; Ele; Ferrannini; Poupak; Fallahi

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus(HCV) infection and diabetes mellitus are two major public health problems that cause devastating health and financial burdens worldwide. Diabetes can be classified into two major types: type 1 diabetes mellitus(T1DM) and T2 DM. T2 DM is a common endocrine disorder that encompasses multifactorial mechanisms, and T1 DM is an immunologically mediated disease. Many epidemiological studies have shown an association between T2 DM and chronic hepatitis C(CHC) infection. The processes through which CHC is associated with T2 DM seem to involve direct viral effects, insulin resistance, proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and other immunemediated mechanisms. Few data have been reported on the association of CHC and T1 DM and reports on the potential association between T1 DM and acute HCV infection are even rarer. A small number of studies indicate that interferon-α therapy can stimulate pancreatic autoim-munity and in certain cases lead to the development of T1 DM. Diabetes and CHC have important interactions. Diabetic CHC patients have an increased risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma compared with nondiabetic CHC subjects. However, clinical trials on HCV-positive patients have reported improvements in glucose metabolism after antiviral treatment. Further studies are needed to improve prevention policies and to foster adequate and cost-effec-tive programmes for the surveillance and treatment of diabetic CHC patients.

  1. Bodyweight changes associated with antihyperglycaemic agents in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Kjeld; Mortensen, Lene S

    2007-01-01

    The majority of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are overweight or obese at the time of diagnosis, and obesity is a recognised risk factor for type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD). Conversely, weight loss has been shown to improve glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes...

  2. Predictive Value of Serum Sialic Acid in Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus and Its Complication (Nephropathy)

    OpenAIRE

    K, Prajna; Kumar J., Ashok; Rai, Srinidhi; Shetty, Shobith Kumar; Rai, Tirthal; Shrinidhi,; Begum, Mohamedi; MD, Shashikala

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Sialic acid levels are increased in type-2 diabetes mellitus and its estimation helps in predicting the occurrence of microvascular complication such as diabetic nephropathy. The present study compared the levels of sialic acid, glycated haemoglobin, serum creatinine and urine microalbumin: in type-2 diabetics without any complications; in type-2 diabetics with nephropathy; and in age and sex matched healthy individual (controls).

  3. Salivary glucose in monitoring glycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Mak, Joon Wah

    2017-01-01

    Incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide. Monitoring glycaemia is essential for control of diabetes mellitus. Conventional blood-based measurement of glucose requires venepuncture or needle prick, which is not free from pain and risk of infection. The non-invasiveness, ease and low-cost in collection made saliva an attractive alternative sample. The objective of this review was to systematically review the evidence on the relationship between salivary glucose level and blood glucose level in monitoring glycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. We searched studies which evaluate salivary glucose levels and serum glycaemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus in electronic databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid and Google Scholar. We selected the eligible studies, following the inclusion criteria set for this review. Due to heterogeneity of studies, we conducted qualitative synthesis of studies. Ten observational studies were included in this review, including a total of 321 cases and 323 controls with ages between 3 and 61 years and the majority were males (62%). Two studies were done exclusively on children below 17 years old. The significant difference between salivary glucose levels in type 1 diabetes mellitus and controls were reported in 6 studies with 8 data sets. Five studies with 7 datasets reported the correlation coefficient between salivary glucose and blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Findings suggest that salivary glucose concentrations may be helpful in monitoring glycaemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the utility of using salivary glucose level to monitor glycaemia should be evaluated in future well designed, prospective studies with adequate number of participants with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  4. [Insulinization in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Intensification options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente, Graciela V; Sinay, Isaac; Costa Gil, José E; Puchulu, Félix; Dieuzeide, Guillermo; Rodríguez, Martín; Faingold, María C; Litwak, León E

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with vascular complications and high rates of morbidity and mortality. Timely insulin therapy, intensified when necessary, represent appropriate measures to prevent or delay the onset of complications. However, the incidence of hypoglycemia and difficulties in treatment adherence represent barriers to achieve therapeutic success. Premixes analogs and, specially, combinations of insulin analogues are associated with pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic advantages, that translate into clinical benefits such as improved metabolic control, decreased hypoglycemic events and, for their simplicity, potentially greater adherence.

  5. Prevalence of subclinical thyroid disorders in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Satvic C Manjunath; Vishwanath Krishnamurthy; Balaraj K Puttaswamy; Srinivasa Prabhu; Poornachandra M Vishwanathaiah

    2013-01-01

    Background: Subclinical thyroid disorders usually do not produce symptoms of thyroid disease until they turn into over thyroid disease. Thyroid disease is more common in people with diabetes mellitus than in the general population and it is important to detect thyroid disorder before its clinical manifestation. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) can produce dyslipidemia, obesity thus resulting increased predisposition to coronary artery disease. Subclinical hyperthyroidism can aggravate hypergl...

  6. Analysis of epidemiological indices of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the adult population of Moscow

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    Marina Fedorovna Kalashnikova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a disease that presents a global medical problem. It is necessary to implement an in-depth analysis of the epidemiological situation of type 2 diabetes mellitus for planning and organizing specialized medical help to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.AimTo rate the basic epidemiological indices of type 2 diabetes mellitus in actual clinical practice using the informational database of national registry of diabetic patients.Materials and methodsEpidemiological analyses were performed in two administrative districts of Moscow. From 1999 to 2011 48978 adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were aged 18 years and older were registered. We used methods of clinical, analytical and statistical epidemiology with elements of descriptive research.ResultsThe prevalence rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 1590 per hundred thousand, most patients were in the 60–64 and 70–74 age groups, and approximately 80% of patients were older than 55 years. The morbidity rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 138,72 per hundred thousand and was found to be higher in women at 1,89. The mortality rate of adult patients with diabetes mellitus was 0,83, mostly in men of all ages. Cardiovascular diseases accounted for most of the registered cases of deaths (34,4%. The average life expectancy appeared to be 75,24±0,45 years, although women lived 6 years longer than men. The average duration of the disease was 10,04±0,34 years. A total of 0,4% of patients underwent hospital treatment and the average length of treatment was 17–18 days. The total number of days of disablement was an average of 307,33±30,13 days (80% of patients were older than 55 years. In the study group, a mean grade of НbА1c <7% was observed in 56,6% of patients. The prevalence rate of detected chronic complications was considerably lower compared to other epidemiological studies.ConclusionsOur epidemiological analyses revealed a number of features and consistent

  7. Zinc, copper, iron, and chromium concentrations in young patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaki, M; Saeb, M; Nazifi, S; Shamsaei, H A

    2012-08-01

    Homeostasis of trace elements can be disrupted by diabetes mellitus. On the other hand, disturbance in trace element status in diabetes mellitus may contribute to the insulin resistance and development of diabetic complications. The aim of present study was to compare the concentration of essential trace elements, zinc, copper, iron, and chromium in serum of patients who have type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 20) with those of nondiabetic control subjects (n = 20). The serum concentrations of zinc, copper, iron, and chromium were measured by means of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Shimadzu AA 670, Kyoto, Japan) after acid digestion. The results of this study showed that the mean values of zinc, copper, and chromium were significantly lower in the serum of patients with diabetes as compared to the control subjects (P diabetes mellitus.

  8. Diabetes mellitus type 1 as a health, nutriotial and social problem for children up to 18 years of age.

    OpenAIRE

    FRIDRICHOVSKÁ, Pavlína

    2011-01-01

    Work specifies the problems of children with diabetes mellitus type 1 - of site for health, in nutrition and social problems. The theoretical part is characterized by diabetes mellitus type 1, its causes, symptoms, treatment with diet and takes into account the specific problems arising from this condition for age. The practical part comprises the results of the questionnaire survey, which focuses on the problems of diabetes mellitus type 1 in childhood, and the level of knowledge about diabe...

  9. Association between the physical activity level and the quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Çolak, Tuğba Kuru; Acar, Gönül; Dereli, E. Elçin; Özgül, Bahar; Demirbüken, İlkşan; Alkaç, Çiğdem; Polat, M. Gülden

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity and regular exercise play an important role in glycemic control, which is considered an important part of the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study evaluated physical activity level and its relationship with quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] We evaluated 129 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus through a face-to-face interview using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire a...

  10. Association of plasma angiotensin-(1-7 level and left ventricular function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Pan Hao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We recently found that overexpression of angiotensin (Ang-converting enzyme 2, which metabolizes Ang-II to Ang-(1-7 and Ang-I to Ang-(1-9, may prevent diabetes-induced left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction in rats. Our objective was to evaluate the association of plasma Ang-(1-7 level and left ventricular function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured the left ventricular ejection fraction (EF, ratio of early to late left ventricular filling velocity (E/A and ratio of early diastolic mitral inflow to annular velocity (E/Ea by ultrasonography in 110 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus for more than 5 years. Anthropometric and fasting blood values were obtained from medical records. The plasma Ang-(1-7 level in patients with a poor EF (15 was significantly lower than that in patients with E/Ea ≤15. Ang-(1-7 level was negatively correlated with E/Ea and Log-N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and positively with EF and E/A. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that Ang-(1-7, hemoglobin A1c and Ang-II levels as well as duration of diabetes predicted EF; Ang-(1-7 level, fasting blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and duration of diabetes predicted E/A; and Ang-(1-7 and hemoglobin A1c levels predicted E/Ea. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Plasma Ang-(1-7 level is independently associated with left ventricular function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and may be a biomarker for assessing cardiac function in such patients.

  11. An Intriguing Relationship between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Hepatitis C Virus Infection: The Renal Perspective

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    Raman B. Suresh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus has emerged as the commonest cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD over the past three decades. It accounts for 30% to 50% of patients on renal replacement therapy (RRT; nearly 80% of patients are managed with hospital-based hemodialysis. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is endemic among patients on RRT, especially among those undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD (1, 2. Therefore, both the disorders are prevalent and coexist among patients with ESRD and frequently cause complications in a considerable majority of the affected patients resulting in poor outcomes.A number of studies have demonstrated a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with HCV in comparison to general population (2-6. Mehta et al., in a recent epidemiological study based on data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, provided compelling data for the distinctive association between chronic HCV infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus (3. In this report, anti-HCV positive subjects (>40 years old had a significantly higher prevalence (OR=3.77 of type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with HCV-negative subjects. Likewise, Egyptian investigators observed a two-fold higher incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients who had HCV infection compared with those who did not (4.

  12. Fulminant type I diabetes mellitus associated with nivolumab in a patient with relapsed classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, Wataru; Ohashi, Ken; Yamauchi, Nobuhiko; Tobinai, Kensei

    2017-03-01

    We report the case of a patient with relapsed classical Hodgkin lymphoma who developed fulminant type I diabetes mellitus as a severe adverse event of treatment with the anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) antibody, nivolumab. On the first day of the sixth cycle, the blood glucose level was markedly elevated (375 mg/dL). Although neither ketoacidosis nor ketonuria was detected, the markedly acute onset of the hyperglycemia was consistent with the typical clinical course of fulminant type I diabetes mellitus, and this diagnosis was supported by clinical data. All autoantibodies associated with type I diabetes mellitus were negative. The endogenous insulin secretion ceased completely within 2 weeks. After the blood glucose level was brought under control, nivolumab was resumed and continued without other major adverse events. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) analysis revealed that the patient carried the HLA-B*4002 haplotype, a susceptibility allele for this type of diabetes mellitus. This case suggests that fulminant type I diabetes mellitus may be triggered by nivolumab in patients with a genetic background associated with the condition, warranting careful future consideration of this particular adverse event.

  13. Subclinical Carotid Atherosclerosis in Asymptomatic Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinat, Esther; Marsal, Josep Ramon; Vidal, Teresa; Cebrian, Cristina; Falguera, Mireia; Vilanova, Ma Belen; Betriu, Àngels; Fernández, Elvira; Franch, Josep; Mauricio, Dídac

    2016-01-01

    Subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus are considered to be at high risk for cardiovascular disease. The identification of carotid atherosclerosis is a validated surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease. Nurses are key professionals in the improvement and intensification of cardiovascular preventive strategies. The aim is to study the presence of carotid atherosclerosis in a group of asymptomatic subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and no previous clinical cardiovascular disease. A total of 187 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 187 age- and sex-matched subjects without type 2 diabetes mellitus were studied in this cross-sectional, observational, cohort study. Standard operational procedures were applied by the nursing team regarding physical examination and carotid ultrasound assessment. Common, bulb, and internal carotid arteries were explored by measuring intima-media thickness and identifying atherosclerotic plaques. Carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) and carotid plaque prevalence were significantly greater in diabetic subjects than in the control group. Carotid plaques and c-IMT were more frequent in men than in women and increased with increasing age. In the multivariate analysis, age, gender, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, and hypercholesterolemia were positively associated with c-IMT, whereas age, gender, and weight were positively associated with carotid plaque. The current nurse-led study shows that subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a high prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis that is associated with cardiovascular risk factors.

  14. Non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Jai

    2013-03-01

    In contrast to Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), the incidence of non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD) is very high in Type 2 diabetic patients. A wide spectrum of non-diabetic nephropathy (NDN) including both glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions are reported in patients with Type 2 DM and their precise diagnosis requires histological examination of kidney tissue. Renal biopsy studies suggest that 25-50% of patients with Type 2 diabetes had glomerular lesions unrelated to or in addition to diabetic nephropathy. Histological studies confirm that NDRD can occur in isolated form without diabetic nephropathy or superimposed on diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy can occur in absence of retinopathy and chance of getting diabetic and non-diabetic renal lesions are nearly equal in Type 2 diabetic patient in absence of diabetic retinopathy (RP). The presence of RP suggests the concurrence of DN, but does not exclude non-diabetic nephropathy. Clearly, renal biopsy is indicated in proteinuric Type 2 diabetic patients for precise diagnosis of diabetic vs non-diabetic renal disease. Appropriate treatment of NDRD is associated with good clinical outcome. Thus, it is gratifying to treat NDRD in selected patients. Besides, 40 to 60% of ESRD in Type 2 diabetic patients is not caused by diabetic nephropathy.

  15. Nuevas estrategias terapéuticas en diabetes mellitus tipo 1 New therapeutic strategies for type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barajas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El principal determinante del riesgo de complicaciones derivadas de la diabetes mellitus tipo 1 se debe a los altos niveles de glucosa en sangre mantenidos durante largo tiempo. Para conseguir un beneficio terapéutico en pacientes con diabetes mellitus es necesario desarrollar tratamientos que permitan de manera segura, efectiva y estable mantener la normoglucemia. Lamentablemente, el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus tipo 1 mediante el aporte exógeno de insulina no es capaz de conseguir niveles estables de glucosa en sangre, de manera que con frecuencia se producen casos de severa hipoglucemia o hiperglucemia. Hasta la fecha la única solución para reestablecer de manera permanente la normoglucemia se consigue mediante el trasplante de páncreas o de islotes pancreáticos. Sin embargo, a medida que se incrementa el número de centros especializados en el trasplante de islotes, mayor es la necesidad de islotes para su trasplante. Así pues, el estudio de nuevas fuentes de células productoras de insulina así como de nuevos tratamientos que permitan preservar o incluso aumentar la masa de células beta en los pacientes con diabetes mellitus representa un objetivo de primera necesidad en este campo. En este sentido, en la última década ha habido un avance significativo en el campo de la biología de las células madre. Sin embargo, la identificación de células apropiadas para la generación de nuevas células beta, además del desarrollo de técnicas para la caracterización de estas células, así como de ensayos y modelos animales apropiados para probar su capacidad de diferenciación tanto in vitro como in vivo son de vital importancia para la puesta en marcha de nuevas estrategias terapéuticas basadas en la aplicación de las células madre para el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus tipo 1.The main determinant of the risk of complications from type 1 diabetes mellitus is the total lifetime blood glucose levels. To impact on the

  16. EVALUATION OF THE EXTRACTS OF LEUCAS ASPERA ON BIOCHEMICAL PROFILES IN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF DIABETES MELLITUS (TYPE- I IN RATS

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    T.Tukaram

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Leucas aspera leaves on experimental diabetes mellitus (type I in rats in terms of alterations in biochemical profiles. Thirty rats were randomly divided into six groups of 5 rats in each. Group-I were fed on basal diet without any treatment, group-II induced diabetic models (type-I (Alloxan monohydrate dissolved in sterile normal saline (150 mg/kgBW, ip, group-III, IV, V and VI were induced diabetics and treated with extract of Leucas aspera (30,100,150 and 300mg/kg BW respectively, PO twice daily in the morning and evening post prandially for thirty days respectively. The blood samples were collected on day 0, 10, 20 and 30 and were used for the analysis of biochemical profiles.The blood glucose (mg% were consistently increased significantly (P<0.01 in groups II,III, IV V and VI till day 20 while in groups V and VI there was a significant (P<0.01 decline in the values on day 30. There was found to have profound effect in lowering the blood glucose levels in dose dependent manner. The study revealed that experimental diabetes mellitus (type-I induced patho-biochemical changes were ameliorated more effectively by ethanolic extract of Leucas aspera in dose dependent manner.

  17. Coexistent Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A and type 2 diabetes mellitus neuropathies in a Chinese family

    OpenAIRE

    A-ping Sun; Lu Tang; Qin Liao; Hui Zhang; Ying-shuang Zhang; Jun Zhang(UT Austin)

    2015-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is caused by duplication of the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) gene on chromosome 17. It is the most common inherited demyelinating neuropathy. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder that frequently causes predominantly sensory neuropathy. In this study, we report the occurrence of CMT1A in a Chinese family affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this family, seven individuals had duplication of the PMP22 gene, although only ...

  18. Pleiotropic effects of fenofibrate: focus on type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Sergeevich Ametov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AimsThe aim of the present study was to investigate the role of chronic low-grade inflammation in the development of the diabetic neuropathy and the possibility of its medical treatment with fenofibrate (145 mg/day.Materials and MethodsThis trial included 60 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The serum levels of several factors were measured: tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP, markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde levels, haemostasis, uric acid, glycaemic and lipid profile and the peripheral status (electromyography, total symptom score [TSS] and neuropathy impairment score in the lower limbs [NIS-LL]. Follow-up was at 24 weeks.ResultsA significant negative correlation was found between the excitation rate of the sural nerve and levels of TNF, IL-6 and CRP (p <0.05. A number of changes were observed in the group of patients treated with fenofibrate (145 mg, daily for 24 weeks: Levels of TNF decreased from 9.6±3.68 to 8.1±3.02 pg/ml (p <0.05, IL-6 decreased from 3.3±1.69 to 2.7±1.28 pg/ml (p <0.05, CRP decreased from 5.6±3.63 to 3.1±2.34 mg/l (p <0.05, thiobarbituric acid (TBARS decreased from 3.1±089 to 2.6±1.21 mmol/l (p >0.05, uric acid decreased from 364±69.85 to 296.8±87.3 mmol/l (p <0.05 and fibrinogen decreased from 4.1±0.59 to 3.4±0.71 g/l (p <0.05. Improved levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, VLDL and atherogenic index (p <0.05 were observed. Significantly increased M-wave in extensor digitorum brevis muscle was observed, from 5.25±2.31 to 6.3±3.14 mV (p <0.05. In addition, TSS changed from 9.55±1.53 to 7.28±1.26 (p <0.005 and NIS-LL changed from 10.12±2.05 to 8.24±1.68 (p <0.05.ConclusionA correlation was found between EMG parameters and serum levels of inflammatory markers. Fenofibrate significantly reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines and improved lipid and purine metabolism as well as the function of the peripheral

  19. Knowledge and Lifestyle-Associated Prevalence of Obesity among Newly Diagnosed Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients Attending Diabetic Clinic at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana: A Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaa Obirikorang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the knowledge and prevalence of obesity among Ghanaian newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics. This cross-sectional study was conducted among diagnosed type 2 diabetics. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain data. Anthropometric measurements and fasting blood sugar levels were also assessed. Participants had adequate knowledge about the general concept of obesity (72.0% and method of weight measurement (98.6% but were less knowledgeable of ideal body weight (4.2%. The commonly known cause, complication, and management of obesity were poor diet (76.9%, hypertension (81.8%, and diet modification (86.7%, respectively. The anthropometric measures were higher among females compared to males. Prevalence of obesity was 61.3% according to WHR classification, 40.8% according to WHtR classification, 26.1% according to WC, and 14.8% according to BMI classification. Being female was significantly associated with high prevalence of obesity irrespective of the anthropometric measure used (p<0.05. Taking of snacks in meals, eating meals late at night, physical inactivity, excessive fast food intake, and alcoholic beverage intake were associated with increased prevalence of obesity (p<0.05. Prevalence of obesity is high among diabetic patient and thus increasing effort towards developing and making education programs by focusing on adjusting to lifestyle modifications is required.

  20. Renin-Angiotensin System Gene Variants and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Influence of Angiotensinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce-Tan, Siew Mei; Zain, Shamsul Mohd; Abdul Sattar, Munavvar Zubaid; Abdullah, Nor Azizan

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successfully used to call for variants associated with diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, some variants are not included in the GWAS to avoid penalty in multiple hypothetic testing. Thus, candidate gene approach is still useful even at GWAS era. This study attempted to assess whether genetic variations in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and their gene interactions are associated with T2DM risk. We genotyped 290 T2DM patients and 267 controls using three genes of the RAS, namely, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT), and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1). There were significant differences in allele frequencies between cases and controls for AGT variants (P = 0.05) but not for ACE and AGTR1. Haplotype TCG of the AGT was associated with increased risk of T2DM (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15-3.20, permuted P = 0.012); however, no evidence of significant gene-gene interactions was seen. Nonetheless, our analysis revealed that the associations of the AGT variants with T2DM were independently associated. Thus, this study suggests that genetic variants of the RAS can modestly influence the T2DM risk.

  1. Epidemiological Pattern of Newly Diagnosed Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, Taif, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglaa Mohamed Kamal Alanani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Type-1-diabetes mellitus (T1DM is the most commonly diagnosed type of DM in children and adolescents. We aim to identify the epidemiological profile, risk factors, clinical features, and factors related to delayed diagnosis or mismanagement in children with newly diagnosed T1DM in Taif, Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods. Ninety-nine newly diagnosed patients were included in the study along with 110 healthy controls. Patients were classified into 3 groups (I: >2 years, II: 2–>6 years, and III: 6–12 years. Both patients and controls were tested for C-peptide, TSH, and autoantibodies associated with DM and those attacking the thyroid gland. Results. Diabetic ketoacidosis was present in 79.8%. Delayed and missed diagnoses were recorded in 45.5%, with significant correlation to age and district of origin. Severity at presentation showed significant correlation with age and cow’s milk feeding. Group I, those with misdiagnosis or positive DM related autoantibodies, had more severe presentations. The correlation of C-peptide and TSH levels in patients and controls was significant for C-peptide and nonsignificant for TSH. Conclusion. Misdiagnosis and mismanagement are common and account for more severe presentation, especially in young children >2 years. Early introduction of cow’s milk appears to be a risk factor for the development of T1DM.

  2. Renin-Angiotensin System Gene Variants and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Influence of Angiotensinogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Mei Joyce-Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have been successfully used to call for variants associated with diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. However, some variants are not included in the GWAS to avoid penalty in multiple hypothetic testing. Thus, candidate gene approach is still useful even at GWAS era. This study attempted to assess whether genetic variations in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS and their gene interactions are associated with T2DM risk. We genotyped 290 T2DM patients and 267 controls using three genes of the RAS, namely, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, angiotensinogen (AGT, and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1. There were significant differences in allele frequencies between cases and controls for AGT variants (P=0.05 but not for ACE and AGTR1. Haplotype TCG of the AGT was associated with increased risk of T2DM (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15–3.20, permuted P=0.012; however, no evidence of significant gene-gene interactions was seen. Nonetheless, our analysis revealed that the associations of the AGT variants with T2DM were independently associated. Thus, this study suggests that genetic variants of the RAS can modestly influence the T2DM risk.

  3. Obesity and metabolic surgery in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Heike; Weiner, R A; Frenken, M; Rett, K; Weiner, S

    2013-03-01

    Introducción: La cirugía de la obesidad es un método eficaz para el tratamiento de la obesidad y la diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Este tipo de diabetes puede se resuelve por completo en el 78,1% de los pacientes diabéticos y mejora en el 86,6% de los pacientes diabéticos. Sin embargo, poco se sabe acerca de la cirugía bariátrica en la diabetes mellitus tipo 1. Métodos: Presentamos 6 pacientes mujeres obesas con diabetes mellitus tipo 1 que se sometieron a cirugía bariátrica. Dos de ellas fueron sometidas a un bypass gástrico en-Y-Roux (BPGYR), una se le realizó una gastrectomía en manga y a las tres restantes una derivación biliopancreática con-switch duodenal (DBP-SD). Resultados: Nuestros resultados mostraron una reducción de peso notable, así como una mejora en el control de la glucosa en sangre y el requerimiento de insulina en los años de seguimiento después de la cirugía. El IMC prequirúrgico de las 6 pacientes osciló entre 37,3-46,0 kg/m2 y mejoró a 25,8-29,0 kg/m2 un año después de la cirugía. La HbA1c disminuyó de 6,7-9,8% antes de la cirugía a 5,7-8,5% un año después de la cirugía. El requerimiento diario de insulina se redujo de 62-150 UI/día antes de la cirugía a 15-54 UI /día al cabo de un año. Conclusión: Los resultados son impresionantes y muestran una mejora en la sensibilidad a la insulina tras una cirugía de la obesidad. No obstante, un control óptimo de la glucosa de sangre sigue siendo muy importante en la terapia de la diabetes mellitus tipo 1 para evitarcomplicaciones a largo plazo.

  4. Magnesium in type 2 diabetes mellitus and its correlation with glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehal Hamdy El-said

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: hypomagnesaemia is closely linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus and it is strongly correlated to glycemic control. We recommend to measure serum Mg in type 2 diabetes and patients who need supplementation should be considered. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(8.000: 1958-1963

  5. The epidemiology of childhood-onset Type I diabetes mellitus in Romania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serban, V.; Timar, R.; Dabelea, D.

    2001-01-01

    The ONROCAD Study group was established to provide descriptive epidemiological information on type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) in Romania. Data on all new patients with type 1 DM with onset before age 15 years during the four-year period 1992-1995 in Romania were submitted from all members...

  6. Metabolic dysregulation and interventions in type 2 diabetes mellitus and HIV-lipodystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, J.P.H. van

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on two aspects of metabolic dysregulation, type 2 diabetes mellitus and HIV-lipodystrophy, and the effects of insulin-sensitizing agents. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have received increasing attenttion for the treatment of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. Currently, ther

  7. A novel Rad gene polymorphism combined with obesity increases risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国英; 牛天华; 陈常忠; 李琼芳; 徐希平

    2004-01-01

    @@ The ras-associated diabetes (Rad) was initially identified by subtraction cloning from the skeletal muscle of humans with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM).1 Rad mRNA expression is markedly increased in the skeletal muscle of type 2 DM patients compared with normal controls.

  8. THE CONTENT OF MICROELEMENTS IN BLOOD SERUM AND ERYTHROCYTES IN CHILDREN WITH DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE I DEPENDING ON LEVEL OF GLYCEMIC CONTROL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluschenko, N; Vasylyshyn, Kh; Roschupkin, A; Lekishvili, S; Gladchenko, O

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the content of chromium, cobalt and nickel in serum and erythrocytes in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, depending on the level of glycemic control. The study was conducted on 68 children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The patients were divided into four groups based on glycemic control. Group I was composed of 9 children with optimal level of glycemic control. Group II - 25 children with suboptimal level of glycemic control. Group III - 34 children with a high risk to life level of glycemic control. Group IV (control group) consisted of 30 healthy children. Compensation state of type 1 diabetes was evaluated according to ISPAD (Consensus for the Management of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescens 2000). The content of trace elements in biological agents was determined by atomic absorbtion spectrophotometry method with C-115M1 mass-spectrophotometer, manufactured by «Selmi» enterprise (Ukraine). It is found that there is a decrease in serum concentrations of chromium and erythrocyte content of cobalt in patients with optimal level of glycemic control. The deficiency of chromium is accompanied by the deficiency of cobalt in patients with suboptimal level of glycemic control. The lower levels of cobalt and nickel are recorded simultaneously, but there is theexcess of chromium in the erythrocytes of these patients. Patients, who suffer from 1 type diabetes mellitus and high risk for life level of glycemic control have considerable polideficiency of cobalt, nickel and chromium in serum.The increasing level of chromium was recorded only in the erythrocytes. The level of glycemic control and the duration of 1 type diabetes mellitus are important in the forecasting of the development of chronic diabetic complications. It is found that the duration of 1 type diabetes mellitus influences the levels of cobalt and nickel in serum mostly, while the level of glycemic control influences the chromium content.

  9. Hypertensive pregnancy disorders and subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the mother

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob A; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Sibai, Baha M;

    2009-01-01

    Minimal data exist concerning the relationship between hypertensive pregnancy disorders and various subsequent cardiovascular events and the effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus on these. In a registry-based cohort study, we identified women delivering in Denmark from 1978 to 2007 with a first...... for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The end points were subsequent hypertension, ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, thromboembolic event, stroke, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The risk of subsequent hypertension was increased 5.31-fold (range: 4.90 to 5.75) after gestational hypertension...... preeclampsia. Women having 2 pregnancies both complicated by preeclampsia had a 6.00-fold (range: 5.40 to 6.67) increased risk of subsequent hypertension compared with 2.70-fold (range: 2.51 to 2.90) for women having preeclampsia in their first pregnancy only and 4.34-fold (range: 3.98 to 4.74) for women...

  10. Prediction of First Cardiovascular Disease Event in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Dorte; Andersen, Gregers Stig; Hansen, Christian Stevns

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), but they are currently undertreated. There are no risk scores used on a regular basis in clinical practice for assessing the risk of CVD in type 1 diabetes mellitus. METHODS...... AND RESULTS: From 4306 clinically diagnosed adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, we developed a prediction model for estimating the risk of first fatal or nonfatal CVD event (ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, heart failure, and peripheral artery disease). Detailed clinical data including...... range, 2.9-10.9) a total of 793 (18.4%) patients developed CVD. The final prediction model included age, sex, diabetes duration, systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, albuminuria, glomerular filtration rate, smoking, and exercise. Discrimination was excellent...

  11. Elevated plasma levels of chemerin in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mengliu; Yang, Gangyi; Dong, Jing; Liu, Ying; Zong, Haihong; Liu, Hua; Boden, Guenther; Li, Ling

    2010-10-01

    Chemerin is a recently discovered metabolic regulator hormone. The pathophysiologic role of this hormone in humans remains unknown. In this study, we have compared plasma chemerin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with or without hypertension and in control subjects. We also assessed the association of plasma chemerin with body composition and metabolic parameters in these subjects. Plasma chemerin levels were found to be markedly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with hypertension as compared with patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and normal controls (P < 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, 2-hour plasma insulin after glucose overload, and HbA1c were independently related factors influencing plasma chemerin levels. The present work indicates the potential link of chemerin with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, obesity, and metabolic syndrome.

  12. Bauhinia variegata (Caesalpiniaceae) leaf extract: An effective treatment option in type I and type II diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Yogesh A; Garud, Mayuresh S

    2016-10-01

    Among various metabolic disorders, diabetes mellitus is one of the most common disorder. Present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aqueous extract of Bauhinia variegata leaves (AE) in animal models of type I and type II diabetes. Type I diabetes was induced by streptozotocin at the dose of 55mg/kg (i.p.) in male Sprague Dawley rats while type II diabetes was induced by high fat diet and streptozotocin at the dose of 35mg/kg (i.p.). Diabetic animals were treated with AE at the dose of 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg. Glipizide (5mg/kg) was used as standard treatment drug. Treatment was given for 28days. Parameters evaluated were body weight, plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, albumin, creatinine and bun urea nitrogen. In type II diabetes, high density lipoprotein levels in plasma and plasma insulin level were also evaluated. Histopathological study of pancreases were carried out in type I study. AE showed significant decrease in plasma glucose significantly. AE was also found to decrease cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen level in both types of diabetes. AE did not show any significant effect on plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase. AE was found to increase the albumin and total protein levels. Histopathological study showed that AE decreases the necrotic changes in the pancreatic tissue. Aqueous extract of B. variegata leaves was found effective in treatment of both type I and type II diabetes.

  13. The effect of probiotic soy milk and soy milk on anthropometric measures and blood pressure in patients with type II diabetes mellitus: A randomized double-blind clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Mitra; Salehi, Rasoul; Feizi, Awat; Mirlohi, Maryam; Kamali, Sara; Ghiasvand, Reza

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective of this clinical trial was to assess the effects of probiotic soy milk and soy milk on anthropometric measures and blood pressure (BP) in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. METHODS A total of 40 patients with T2D, 35-68 years old, were assigned to two groups in this randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. The patients in the intervention group consumed 200 ml/day of probiotic soy milk containing Lactobacillus planetarium A7 and those in control group consumed 200 ml/day of soy milk for 8 weeks. Anthropometric and BP measurements were performed according to standard protocols. For detecting within-group differences paired-sample t-tests was used and analysis of covariance was used for determining any differences between two groups. (The trial has been registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials, identifier: IRCT: IRCT201405265062N8). RESULTS In this study, we failed to find any significant changes between probiotic soy milk and soy milk in term of body mass index (26.65 ± 0.68 vs. 26.33 ± 0.74, P = 0.300) and waist to hip ratio (1.49 ± 0.08 vs. 1.54 ± 0.1, P = 0.170). Although soy milk did not have any effect on BP, probiotic soymilk significantly decreased systolic (14.7 ± 0.48 vs. 13.05 ± 0.16, P = 0.001) and diastolic BP (10 ± 0.7 vs. 9.1 ± 1, P = 0.031). CONCLUSION In our study, probiotic soy milk in comparing with soy milk did not have any beneficial effects on anthropometric measures in these patients. We need more clinical trial for confirming the effect of probiotic foods on anthropometric measure in diabetic patients. However, probiotic soy milk decreased systolic and diastolic BP significantly. PMID:26261453

  14. Remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus after bariatric surgery - comparison between procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Soto, María L; Martín-Leyva, Ana; González-Jiménez, Amalia; García-Rubio, Jesús; Cózar-Ibáñez, Antonio; Zamora-Camacho, Francisco J; Leyva-Martínez, María S; Jiménez-Ríos, Jose A; Escobar-Jiménez, Fernándo

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to assess the mid-term type 2 diabetes mellitus recovery patterns in morbidly obese patients by comparing some relevant physiological parameters of patients of bariatric surgery between two types of surgical procedures: mixed (roux-en-Y gastric bypass and biliopancreatic diversion) and restrictive (sleeve gastrectomy). This is a prospective and observational study of co-morbid, type 2 diabetes mellitus evolution in 49 morbidly obese patients: 37 underwent mixed surgery procedures and 12 a restrictive surgery procedure. We recorded weight, height, body mass index, and glycaemic, lipid, and nutritional blood parameters, prior to procedure, as well as six and twelve months post-operatively. In addition, we tested for differences in patient recovery and investigated predictive factors in diabetes remission. Both glycaemic and lipid profiles diminished significantly to healthy levels by 6 and 12 months post intervention. Type 2 diabetes mellitus showed remission in more than 80% of patients of both types of surgical procedures, with no difference between them. Baseline body mass index, glycated haemoglobin, and insulin intake, among others, were shown to be valuable predictors of diabetes remission one year after the intervention. The choice of the type of surgical procedure did not significantly affect the remission rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus in morbidly obese patients. (Endokrynol Pol 2017; 68 (1): 18-25).

  15. Different risk factor profiles for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägg, Stefanie; Thorn, Lena M; Forsblom, Carol M; Gordin, Daniel; Saraheimo, Markku; Tolonen, Nina; Wadén, Johan; Liebkind, Ron; Putaala, Jukka; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Groop, Per-Henrik

    2014-09-01

    Despite the fact that patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus have a markedly increased risk of experiencing a stroke, independent risk factors for stroke and its subtypes in these patients have remained unclear. A total of 4083 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus from the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) Study, without a history of stroke at baseline, were included. Strokes were classified based on medical files and brain imaging. At baseline, mean age was 37.4±11.8 years, duration of diabetes mellitus was 20.0 (11.0-30.0) years, and 51% were men. During 9.0±2.7 years (36 680 patient-years) of follow-up, 105 patients experienced an ischemic stroke and 44 a hemorrhagic stroke. Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed to determine independent risk factors. Independent risk factors for ischemic stroke were duration of diabetes mellitus, presence of diabetic nephropathy, higher hemoglobin A1c, higher systolic blood pressure, insulin resistance, and history of smoking, whereas sex, lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and the metabolic syndrome were not associated with an increased risk. Diabetic nephropathy, severe diabetic retinopathy, higher systolic blood pressure, and lower body mass index were independently associated with hemorrhagic stroke. The risk factor profile for ischemic stroke seems partly different from that of hemorrhagic stroke in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. [The use of achievements in human molecular immunogenetics in the management of type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedov, I I; Khaitov, R M; Alekseev, L P; Boldyreva, M N; Shestakova, M V; Trofimov, D Iu; Kuraeva, T L; Peterkova, V A

    2008-01-01

    New original data are presented on the use of achievements in human molecular immunogenetics in the management of type 1 diabetes mellitus. They include materials allowing for the prediction of the development of the disease at the population, family, and individual levels along with novel approaches to its radical treatment by the reconstitution of the lost glucose tolerance. The reported data may find wide application in current clinical practice. They open up new prospects for the enhancement of efficacy of prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus and other autoimmune diseases.

  17. Tipping the balance: the pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Rachel L; Short, Daniel K

    2011-12-01

    Obesity plays a major role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and it has long been accepted that weight loss plays a significant role in diabetes therapy. This weight loss has traditionally been accomplished through lifestyle changes including diet and exercise. What has only more recently gained acceptance is that bariatric surgery may have a role to play in diabetes therapy as well. This article discusses the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity and provides a basic understanding of these diseases, which forms the basis for understanding the importance of weight loss in their treatment. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Depression, anxiety and cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus--a study of adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Osijek, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degmecić, Dunja; Bacun, Tatjana; Kovac, Vlatka; Mioc, Josipa; Horvat, Jasna; Vcev, Aleksandar

    2014-06-01

    Aim of the study was to determine the rate of depression and anxiety in the patients with diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM), and also to determine the state of the congnitive functions in patients with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus compared with the control group. Study was designed as a epidemiological cross sectional study, sample consisted of 108 patients, 66 of the patients were diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus, and 42 were control group. All of them were interviewed by psychiatrist and tested through clinical interview with Hamilton depression rating scale, Hamilton Anxiety rating scale, Mini mental state examination and questionnaire about sociodemografic data. Results show that group of patients with DM were statistically significant more depressed than the control group of the patients (p = 0.035). Pathological anxiety measured by Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) appeared in 34 DM patients and 7 of the patients in control group, which is also statistically significant difference (p = 0.002). Evaluation of the cognitive status done with Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE showed us the patients with DM presented more cognitive dysfunctions compared with the control group. We can conclude that the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders in diabetic patients points to the need for greater investment in appropriate diagnostic evaluation of patients that consider mental issues.

  19. Correlation between Cystatin C and retinopathy of type-two diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, C; Wan, G M; Yan, P S; Wang, W Z; Liang, S Z; Dong, Y

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is one of most common diabetic microvascular complications. In recent years the incidence of the disease has increased, hence early diagnosis and treatment are of great importance. In order to find reliable biological indexes to diagnose and treat type-two diabetes mellitus promptly, this study focused on the correlation between Cystatin C (Cys C) and retinopathy of type-two diabetes mellitus patients. One hundred and eighty type-two diabetes mellitus patients and one hundred healthy controls (the control group) were chosen in this study. Of the patients ninety-eight patients had typetwo diabetes mellitus without retinopathy (non-diabetic retinopathy group) and eighty-two had typetwo diabetes mellitus with retinopathy (diabetic retinopathy group). Correlation of Cys C and typetwo diabetic retinopathy was analyzed by examining the waist-hip ratio, fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and Cys C of both groups. The results showed that FBG, TC, TG, LDL-C, HbA1c, Cys C in the type-two diabetes mellitus patients group were higher than those of the control group (P less than 0.05). Age, course of diabetes, FBG, HbA1c, and Cys C levels were statistically significant in both the DR group and NDR group (P less than 0.05). The result of logistic regression analysis indicates that there was a positive correlation between type-two diabetic retinopathy development and age, course of diabetes, and Cys C level (P less than 0.05). Thus, it can be seen that changes of Cys C levels can assist early diagnosis and treatment of diabetic retinopathy to some extent. The patients with high Cys C level, long course of diabetes, and old age are more likely to have diabetic retinopathy.

  20. DO GIANT PLANETS SURVIVE TYPE II MIGRATION?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (ASIAA), Taipei 10641, Taiwan (China); Ida, Shigeru, E-mail: yasu@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: ida@geo.titech.ac.jp [Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2013-09-10

    Planetary migration is one of the most serious problems to systematically understand the observations of exoplanets. We clarify that the theoretically predicted type II, migration (like type I migration) is too fast, by developing detailed analytical arguments in which the timescale of type II migration is compared with the disk lifetime. In the disk-dominated regime, the type II migration timescale is characterized by a local viscous diffusion timescale, while the disk lifetime is characterized by a global diffusion timescale that is much longer than the local one. Even in the planet-dominated regime where the inertia of the planet mass reduces the migration speed, the timescale is still shorter than the disk lifetime except in the final disk evolution stage where the total disk mass decays below the planet mass. This suggests that most giant planets plunge into the central stars within the disk lifetime, and it contradicts the exoplanet observations that gas giants are piled up at r {approx}> 1 AU. We examine additional processes that may arise in protoplanetary disks: dead zones, photoevaporation of gas, and gas flow across a gap formed by a type II migrator. Although they make the type II migration timescale closer to the disk lifetime, we show that none of them can act as an effective barrier for rapid type II migration with the current knowledge of these processes. We point out that gas flow across a gap and the fraction of the flow accreted onto the planets are uncertain and they may have the potential to solve the problem. Much more detailed investigation for each process may be needed to explain the observed distribution of gas giants in extrasolar planetary systems.

  1. PREVALENCE OF MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

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    Ramesh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Rheumatic complaints are more common with diabetes mellitus mainly type 2 diabetes. Females are more affected than males. AIM OF THE STUDY Is to know the prevalence of musculoskeletal manifestation in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS This prospective study was conducted in the department of medicine at ESIMC & PGIMSR for a period of 6 months. Known case of diabetes mellitus with rheumatic manifestations were included in the study. RESULTS In our study-36% of osteoarthritis, 28% of frozen shoulder, 4% of Dupuytren’s contracture, 28% of Charcot joint. CONCLUSION Early diagnosis and maintaining good glycemic control by pharmacotherapy diet exercise can decrease the prevalence of Rheumatic manifestation.

  2. A rare case of type 1 diabetes mellitus with pituitary hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Jostol; Sudeep, K; Venkatesha, B M

    2014-01-01

    Growth failure and pubertal abnormalities are not uncommon in chronic uncontrolled metabolic diseases like diabetes mellitus. We present a young girl with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes mellitus, who presented with short stature and primary amenorrhea, and on evaluation was found to have anterior pituitary hypoplasia. In addition to uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, she presented with early onset growth failure and lack of spontaneous secondary sexual characteristics. She had central hypothyroidism and inappropriately normal gonadotropin levels. However her serum cortisol levels were normal. MRI of the sellar-suprasellar region revealed a small anterior pituitary gland with thinning of the pituitary stalk consistent with pituitary hypoplasia. While uncontrolled type 1 diabetes itself may cause growth retardation and pubertal abnormalities, this girl had coexisting pituitary maldevelopment - a rare co-existence of two major illnesses of unrelated etiologies. The partial pituitary hormonal deficiency, which spared the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, may be due to a transcription factor defect.

  3. Marijuana Use and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, Stephen

    2016-11-01

    Marijuana is used by millions of people, with use likely to increase in the USA because of the trend towards increased decriminalization and legalization. Obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM) rates have increased dramatically in the USA over the past 30 years, with a recent estimate of 29 million individuals with DM. Because there is a plausible link between marijuana use and diabetes due to the known effects of cannabinoids on adipose tissue and glucose/insulin metabolism, it is important to study and understand how marijuana use is related to obesity and diabetes. This paper provides background on the human endocannabinoid system and studies of the association of marijuana use with body mass index/obesity, metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, and diabetes. The studies to date have shown that marijuana use is associated with either lower odds or no difference in the odds of diabetes than non-use.

  4. Lactic Acidosis in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acidosis occurs when lactate production exceeds its metabolism. There are many possible causes of lactic acidosis, and in any given patient, several causes may coexist. This Attending Rounds presents a case in point. Metformin’s role in the pathogenesis of lactic acidosis in patients with diabetes mellitus is complex, as the present case illustrates. The treatment of lactic acidosis is controversial, except for the imperative to remedy its underlying cause. The use of sodium bicarbonate to treat the often alarming metabolic derangements may be quite efficacious in that regard but is of questionable benefit to patients. Renal replacement therapies (RRTs) have particular appeal in this setting for a variety of reasons, but their effect on clinical outcomes is untested. PMID:25762524

  5. Qualitative study on the awareness of eye health risks associated with type II diabetes in Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Umaefulam, Valerie Onyinyechi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem and its burden is expected to increase in developing countries such as Nigeria. One of the most frequent complications of type II diabetes is diabetic retinopathy, and a major cause of blindness worldwide especially among adults. Objective: To determine the awareness of diabetes – related eye health risks and complications among type II diabetics in Lagos, Nigeria. Method: The study was carried out in Rhowil Medical Centre in La...

  6. An ecological analysis of food outlet density and prevalence of type II diabetes in South Carolina counties

    OpenAIRE

    AlHasan, Dana M.; Eberth, Jan Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that the built environment with high numbers of fast food restaurants and convenience stores and low numbers of super stores and grocery stores are related to obesity, type II diabetes mellitus, and other chronic diseases. Since few studies assess these relationships at the county level, we aim to examine fast food restaurant density, convenience store density, super store density, and grocery store density and prevalence of type II diabetes among counties in South ...

  7. PREVALENCE OF DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2 IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEPATITIS C VIRUS INFECTION

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    Ranjeet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of literature on the relationship of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV infection and diabetes mellitus type 2 as its unique extrahepatic manifestation. This association was for the first time made by Allison et al. in 1994 . [1] Since then a number of observational studies have been published on the prevalence of diabetes in HCV infection and also the link between association of cirrhosis with diabetes mellitus. AIMS : To study the prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 in patients diagnosed to have chronic hepatitis C virus infection. To compare it with the prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 in general population. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : A case control study. Participants were the subjects attending the OPD / indoor of Sri Guru Ramdas Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar. PATIENTS AND METHODS : 50 patients older than 18 years, with chronic HCV infection confirmed by ELISA, were investigated for their blood counts, LFTs, prothrombin time , serum proteins, glycosylated hemoglobin levels and abdominal ultrasonography after applying the exclusion criteria. Detailed clinical examination was done to assess for signs of encephalopathy and ascites. An equal number of age and sex matched , HCV seronegative patients with normal liver function tests were taken as controls. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was then determined among the two groups. A relationship between HCV and Diabetes mellitus type 2 was then established. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Data was expressed as mean + SD. For categorical variables a chi square test was applied and p value was calculated. For the comparison of continuous data, the student t – test was used. Probability levels less than 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS : 50% ( 25 out of 50 patients with chronic hepatitis C infection were diabetic while 30% (15 out of 50 of the controls were diabetic. The difference was statistically significant ( p=0.041 . Further , of the

  8. The Effect of Diabetes Mellitus Type I on Periodontal and Dental Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Rokhsareh; Taleghani, Ferial; Mohammadi, Samira; Zohri, Zahra

    2017-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus type I is a chronic metabolic disease with an autoimmune origin. The initial manifestations mainly appear during childhood and its prevalence is on the rise in many countries. Some of the complications of diabetes mellitus are problems related to oro-dental structures and periodontal diseases. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between diabetes mellitus type I and dental and periodontal status in Tehran, Iran. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 50 patients with diabetes mellitus type I who were under treatment in the Diabetic Patients' Center in Tehran and 50 healthy individuals who did not have diabetes, all recruited from schools. The subjects were divided into two age groups of 6-12 and 13-18 years. In test group, HbA1c (glycosylated haemoglobin) level of the patients was collected from the medical records of Association of Diabetic Patients. To make sure that the control subjects did not suffer from diabetes mellitus, their blood glucose was measured with the Glucocard 01 blood glucose monitoring kit (GT-1920, Japan). The periodontal and dental status were assessed using dmft/DMFT (Decayed, Missing, Filled Permanent Teeth), GI (Gingival Index), PPD (Periodontal Pocket Depth), PI (Plaque Index) and CI (Calculus Index). The data obtained from each group were compared statistically using the Mann-Whitney test and Kruskal Wallis Test. There was increase in PPD, GI and DMFT values with aging, with no significant differences between the diabetic and non-diabetic groups. PI and DMFT not only increased with aging but also were higher in both age groups in patients with diabetes compared to healthy subjects (pdiabetic patients (pperiodontal indices (pdiabetes mellitus type I are more susceptible to periodontal diseases and tooth loss and such problems might be aggravated with aging.

  9. The Search for Molecular Prognostic Markers of Diabetic Nephropathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    V. M. Ibragimov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to search for molecular prognostic markers of diabetic nephropathy (DN in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The study included 205 patients with T2DM and DN (stages 1 to 4. All patients were stratified by the MDRD equation. The control group included 30 healthy individuals. All T2DM patients were divided into 4 groups depending on the DN stages. Group 1 included 42 patients with DN-Stage 1 (prenephropathy, Group 2 included 48 patients with DN-Stage 2 (incipient nephropathy; Group 3 included 65 patients with DN-Stage 3 (overt nephropathy, and Group 4 included 50 patients with DN-Stage 4 (kidney failure. Molecular phenotyping of urine was processed with methods of proteomics: the prefractionation, the separation of proteins with standard sets (MB-HIC C8 Kit, MB-IMAC Cu, MB-Wax Kit, «Bruker», USA, matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, Ultraflex II, «Bruker», USA. The data of the molecular interactions and functional features of proteins were received with STRING 10.0 database. Potentially new molecular markers of DN development were identified. The research into signaling pathways and the molecules that are involved in ECM formation may help in developing strategies to prevent DN.

  10. Alogliptin in combination with metformin and pioglitazone for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Daniel Q; Neumiller, Joshua J

    2014-01-01

    Alogliptin is a selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor recently marketed for once-daily administration in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Fixed-dose combinations of alogliptin with both metformin and pioglitazone are also commercially available, providing a measure of convenience in addition to an effective mode of delivering combination therapy to improve glycemic control. Alogliptin has been studied clinically as initial therapy in treatment-naïve patients with T2DM and as initial therapy or add-on in combination with other antidiabetic agents. Clinical trial data with alogliptin demonstrate clinical efficacy in terms of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c and fasting plasma glucose reductions when used both as monotherapy and as a component of two- or three-drug combination regimens for the treatment of T2DM. Extensive Phase II and Phase III clinical trial data support the use of alogliptin in combination with metformin and pioglitazone. Glycemic reduction with both combinations is similar to the sum of the respective monotherapies, with adverse event rates similar - or more moderate - than those observed with up-titration of monotherapy or the addition of other antihyperglycemic agents.

  11. Metabolomic profile related to cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fontana, Beatriz; Morales-Santana, Sonia; Díaz Navarro, Caridad; Rozas-Moreno, Pedro; Genilloud, Olga; Vicente Pérez, Francisca; Pérez del Palacio, José; Muñoz-Torres, Mnuel

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) that represents one of the main causes of mortality in this population. The knowledge of the underlie factors involved in the development of CVD and the discovery of new biomarkers of the disease could help to early identification of high-risk patients. Using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) we analyzed the serum metabolomic profile of 30 subject distributed according three groups: (i) T2DM patients with CVD; (ii) T2DM patients without CVD; (iii) non-diabetic subjects as controls (C) in order to identify potential biomarkers of the CVD related to T2DM. A partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were applied to identify differential metabolites between different groups. Four glycerophospholipids were further identified as potential biomarkers of CVD in T2DM patients. Specifically, a reduction in phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) serum levels were found in T2DM patients compared to controls, presenting the patients with CVD the lowest serum levels of these metabolites. These results show a generalized reduction of circulating phospholipids species in T2DM patients which is more pronounced in those with CVD providing information of the pathways involved in the pathogenesis and progression of CVD associated to T2DM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Hepatitis C Virus Infected Population: A Southeast Asian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sadik Memon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study was aimed to investigate the frequency of diabetes mellitus type 2 in patients infected with chronic hepatitis C virus and its association with cirrhosis. Patients and Methods. This prospective case series was conducted at Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad, over a period of 4 months from June 2009 to October 2009. Hepatitis C virus seropositive patients who were older than 18 years, diabetic or nondiabetic, were included. Basic demographic data collected by questionnaire and laboratory investigations including fasting blood glucose levels, serum cholesterol, and liver function tests were done. A logistic regression model was used to explore the association between diabetic and nondiabetic HCV seropositives and type 2 diabetes mellitus with cirrhosis. Results. A total of 361 patients with hepatitis C were analyzed; the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in HCV patients was 31.5%. Out of the total number of the participants, 58.4% (n = 211 were cirrhotics, while 41.6% (n = 150 were noncirrhotic HCV seropositives. In multivariate analysis, cirrhotic patients appeared significantly more likely (P = 0.01 to be diabetic as compared with noncirrhotic patients (OR = 2.005, 95% CI: 1.15, 3.43. Conclusion. Advancing age, increased weight, and HCV genotype 3 are independent predictors of type 2 diabetes in HCV seropositive patients, and there is a statistically significant association of cirrhosis observed with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. Study of {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial imaging in diabetics. Comparison between patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and those with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawanaka, Masahiro [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    Myocardial accumulation of MIBG was studied in forty diabetic patients, including 17 with type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM, mean age 52.1{+-}17 y.) and 23 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM, mean age 61.6{+-}12 y.). Sixteen nondiabetic normal volunteers without hypertension (mean age 54.6{+-}16 y.) were studied as controls. Type 2 DM patients showed a significantly lower heart-to-mediastinum ratio (15 min.: 2.34{+-}0.35, 3 hr.: 2.27{+-}0.41) than control subjects (15 min.: 2.73{+-}0.25, 3 hr.: 2.95{+-}0.40) (p<0.05), but Type 2 DM patients did not. Type 2 DM patients showed higher washout rate of MIBG (31.7{+-}12%) than control subjects (19.3{+-}7.4%) (p<0.05), but type 2 DM patients did not. Thirteen of the 17 type 1 DM patients (76.4%) and 12 of the 23 type 2 DM patients (52.2%) showed regional defects on MIBG SPECT. Myocardial MIBG defects in diabetics were mainly found in the inferior, septal and lateral regions of the myocardium. In type 1 DM, the patients with MIBG defects had longer duration of the disease, showed much more decrease of the systolic pressure with standing and lower CV level of the R-R interval on ECG than the patients without MIBG defects, but not in type 2 DM patients. These results show that type 1 DM patients show much more abnormal MIBG accumulation than type 2 DM patients. It suggests that the glycemic control including the early stage of diabetes influences the cardiac sympathetic function in diabetics. (author)

  14. Low plasma aldosterone despite normal plasma renin activity in uncomplicated type 1 diabetes mellitus : effects of RAAS stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luik, PT; Kerstens, MN; Hoogenberg, K; Navis, GJ; Dullaart, RPF

    2003-01-01

    Background Data on levels and responsiveness of PRA and aldosterone in type 1 diabetes mellitus are conflicting. Earlier studies were not standardized with respect to the type of diabetes mellitus, the presence of diabetic complications or sodium intake. Therefore, we studied plasma renin activity a

  15. The Presence of Family History and the Development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk Factors in Rural Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Marsha Howell; Barnett Lammon, Carol Ann

    2007-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is reaching epidemic proportions among children and adolescents. School health fairs offer an opportunity to identify children with risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study identified selected risk factors (i.e., high-risk racial/ethnic group, obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated…

  16. Low plasma aldosterone despite normal plasma renin activity in uncomplicated type 1 diabetes mellitus : effects of RAAS stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luik, PT; Kerstens, MN; Hoogenberg, K; Navis, GJ; Dullaart, RPF

    Background Data on levels and responsiveness of PRA and aldosterone in type 1 diabetes mellitus are conflicting. Earlier studies were not standardized with respect to the type of diabetes mellitus, the presence of diabetic complications or sodium intake. Therefore, we studied plasma renin activity

  17. [Effect of melatonin on antioxidant state under type ii diabetes at rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarkov, A A; Popova, T N; Matasova, L V

    2013-01-01

    The effect of melatonin on the intensity of free radical processes and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1.) and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) has been investigated in liver and blood serum of rats with diabetes mellitus type II. The development of diabetes was accompanied by the increase in biochemiluminescence parameters and the enzyme activities studied. Melatonin administration changed the parameters studied towards control values.

  18. A COMPARISON OF RELATED FACTORS TO AN ADHERENCE TREATMENT IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS BETWEEN AN URBAN AND RURAL SAMPLES IN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO QUIRÓS-MORALES

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the Scale for Treatment Adherence in Type II Diabetes - version III (EATDM-III©, were compared in two Costa Rican samples, one from an urban zone and another from a rural zone. The N = 163 (n urban = 104, n rural = 59, both genders. The comparison results show statistically significant differences (p < 0.05 for the following factors: Diet, Medical Control and Organization - Communal Support. The rural zone has the bettercomparative scores. The study demonstrated the necessity of initiating and maintaining regional research on Type II Diabetes Mellitus in Costa Rica, and the same is suggested for the entire Latin American region.

  19. Association of neighbourhood unemployment rate with incident Type 2 diabetes mellitus in five German regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, G; Wellmann, J; Hartwig, S; Greiser, K H; Moebus, S; Jöckel, K-H; Schipf, S; Völzke, H; Maier, W; Meisinger, C; Tamayo, T; Rathmann, W; Berger, K

    2015-08-01

    To analyse the association of neighbourhood unemployment with incident self-reported physician-diagnosed Type 2 diabetes in a population aged 45-74 years from five German regions. Study participants were linked via their addresses at baseline to particular neighbourhoods. Individual-level data from five population-based studies were pooled and combined with contextual data on neighbourhood unemployment. Type 2 diabetes was assessed according to a self-reported physician diagnosis of diabetes. We estimated proportional hazard models (Weibull distribution) in order to obtain hazard ratios and 95% CIs of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, taking into account interval-censoring and clustering. We included 7250 participants residing in 228 inner city neighbourhoods in five German regions in our analysis. The incidence rate was 12.6 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 11.4-13.8). The risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus was higher in men [hazard ratio 1.79 (95% CI 1.47-2.18)] than in women and higher in people with a low education level [hazard ratio 1.55 (95% CI 1.18-2.02)] than in those with a high education level. Independently of individual-level characteristics, we found a higher risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in neighbourhoods with high levels of unemployment [quintile 5; hazard ratio 1.72 (95% CI 1.23-2.42)] than in neighbourhoods with low unemployment (quintile 1). Low education level and high neighbourhood unemployment were independently associated with an elevated risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Studies examining the impact of the residential environment on Type 2 diabetes mellitus will provide knowledge that is essential for the identification of high-risk populations. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  20. Caries, periodontal disease and tooth loss in patients with diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño Marín, Nuria; Loyola Rodríguez, Juan P; Medina Solis, Carlo E; Pontigo Loyola, América P; Reyes Macías, Juan F; Ortega Rosado, Jenny C; Aradillas García, Celia

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the frequency of caries, periodontal disease and tooth loss in patients affected by diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. It was a cross-sectional study involving 175 subjects distributed in the following groups: (1) 35 patients with diabetes type 1 (glycosylated hemoglobin values from 6.5%-7%), (2) 35 patients with diabetes type 1 (values of glycosylated hemoglobin higher than 7%), (3) 35 subjects without diabetes mellitus type 1, (4) 35 patients with diabetes type 2 and (5) 35 subjects without diabetes mellitus type 2. The following clinical parameters were evaluated for all the subjects who participated in the study: frequency of caries, filled teeth, missing teeth, prosthetic restoration, bacterial dental plaque, calculus index, probing depth and attachment level. On comparing the groups of patients with diabetes type 1 to the control group, there were no statistically significant differences among any of the study variables. On comparing the group of patients with diabetes type 2 to the control group, there were statistically significant differences in the variables missing teeth (p=0.0134), calculus (p=0.0001), probing depth (p=0.0009) and attachment level (p=0.0093). The variable periodontal disease showed statistically significant dIfferences in the group of patients with diabetes type 2. Prevention, supervision and review of the oral health of patients with diabetes (types 1 and 2) are needed in order to prevent oral alterations.

  1. Vasoconstricting effect of angiotensin II in human hand veins: influence of aging, diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Ohmori, Masami; Fujimura, Akio

    2002-09-01

    We examined human hand veins to determine whether venoconstricting response to angiotensin II (Ang II) and noradrenaline (NA) was influenced by aging or such diseases as diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HT). Twenty healthy male subjects (20-73 years), and 8 male patients with non-insulin-dependent DM and 8 male patients with essential HT were included in this study. A constant dose (50 ng/min) of Ang II or increasing dose (2-256 ng/min) of NA was infused into the dorsal hand vein and its diameter was measured using a linear variable differential transformer. The constant infusion of Ang II caused rapid desensitization or tachyphylaxis. The venoconstriction by Ang II in the 8 elderly subjects (58 to 73 years) was significantly (p<0.05) larger than that in the 8 young subjects (20 to 36 years) from 6 to 18 min after the start of the infusion (after 6 min: 63.6+/-11.6 (mean+/-SD)% vs. 39.9+/-20.8%, 12 min: 34.0+/-11.9% vs. 12.0+/-12.0%). However, the venoconstriction by Ang II in the patients with DM or HT was not significantly different from that in the 9 age-matched control subjects. No significant difference in venoconstrictor response to NA was observed between the young and elderly subjects, nor between the control subjects and the patients with DM or HT. These findings indicated that venoconstrictor response to Ang II might be greater in the elderly but might not be influenced by DM nor HT.

  2. Diabetes mellitus tipo 1 no contexto familiar e social Diabetes mellitus type 1 in the familiar and social context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Paula P. Góes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar as dificuldades da criança com diabetes mellitus tipo 1 no convívio diário com familiares e com a sociedade, enfocando aspectos relativos à alimentação e ao tratamento. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, realizado por meio de questionário semi-estruturado aplicado a pais e crianças com diabetes mellitus tipo 1, acompanhados pelo Grupo de Diabetes mellitus do Ambulatório de Pediatria da Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto (Famerp, São Paulo. Foram estudadas 13 crianças, coletando-se dados demográficos e aspectos relativos às dificuldades no controle da doença. RESULTADOS: As características do grupo de crianças estudadas foram: gênero feminino (77%, idade entre oito e 12 anos (77%, brancas (77%, católicas (61% e com antecedentes familiares de diabetes (54%. Como dificuldades foram citadas: o custo de alimentos especiais; o medo do desconhecido; ter que aprender sobre a doença rapidamente; ter vergonha de ter diabetes. Do total de crianças, 23% estavam aprendendo a aplicar insulina e 46% dos pacientes seguiam a orientação alimentar. A mãe foi o parente mais próximo que auxiliava a criança no tratamento em 69% dos casos. A hiperglicemia foi relatada por 62% das crianças, sendo detectada apenas após a realização da glicemia capilar. CONCLUSÕES: O presente trabalho salienta a importância de campanhas para orientar os pais sobre o controle da doença, os fatores associados ao desenvolvimento da doença e a necessidade de identificar os sintomas de hiperglicemia e a terapêutica alimentar, a fim de minimizar riscos futuros.OBJECTIVE: To identify the difficulties of children with diabetes mellitus type 1 in their family and social daily life, focusing on aspects related to feeding and treatment. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed with a semi-structured questionnaire applied to parents and children with diabetes mellitus type 1 at the Diabetes Clinic of the São José do Rio

  3. Peculiar Type II Supernovae from Blue Supergiants

    CERN Document Server

    Kleiser, Io K W; Kasen, Daniel; Young, Timothy R; Chornock, Ryan; Filippenko, Alexei V; Challis, Peter; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Kirshner, Robert P; Li, Weidong; Matheson, Thomas; Nugent, Peter E; Silverman, Jeffrey M

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of Type II supernovae (SNe) are produced by red supergiants (RSGs), but SN 1987A revealed that blue supergiants (BSGs) can produce members of this class as well, albeit with some peculiar properties. This best studied event revolutionized our understanding of SNe, and linking it to the bulk of Type II events is essential. We present here optical photometry and spectroscopy gathered for SN 2000cb, which is clearly not a standard Type II SN and yet is not a SN 1987A analog. The light curve of SN 2000cb is reminiscent of that of SN 1987A in shape, with a slow rise to a late optical peak, but on substantially different time scales. Spectroscopically, SN 2000cb resembles a normal SN II but with ejecta velocities that far exceed those measured for SN 1987A or normal SNe II, above 18000 km/s for H-alpha at early times. The red colours, high velocities, late photometric peak, and our modeling of this object all point toward a scenario involving the high-energy explosion of a small-radius star, most ...

  4. PLASMA-LIPOPROTEIN ABNORMALITIES IN TYPE-1 (INSULIN-DEPENDENT) DIABETES-MELLITUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DULLAART, RPF

    1995-01-01

    Lipoprotein abnormalities may well contribute to the increased risk of coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease observed in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. The spectrum of diabetes-associated changes in lipoprotein metabolism is discussed. The pla

  5. Identification of KCNJ15 as a susceptibility gene in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okamoto, Koji; Iwasaki, Naoko; Nishimura, Chisa

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in genome research have enabled the identification of new genomic variations that are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Via fine mapping of SNPs in a candidate region of chromosome 21q, the current study identifies potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J,...

  6. Treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus based on glucagon-like peptide-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    1999-01-01

    inhibition of gastrointestinal motility and secretion in the presence of nutrients in the lower small intestine). However, because of these same actions, the hormone can normalise the blood glucose of patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and, in contradistinction to insulin and sulphonylurea, it does...

  7. Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus : Changes in Tissue-specific Fat Distribution and Cardiac Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Jacqueline T.; de Mol, Pieter; de Vries, Suzanna T.; Widya, Ralph L.; Hammer, Sebastiaan; van Schinkel, Linda D.; van der Meer, Rutger W.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Webb, Andrew G.; Kan, Hermien E.; de Koning, Eelco J. P.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Lamb, Hildo J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the effects of an exercise intervention on organ-specific fat accumulation and cardiac function in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Written informed consent was obtained from all participants, and the study protocol was approved by the medical ethics

  8. Matige bloeddrukregulatie bij patienten met diabetes mellitus type 2 in de eerste en tweede lijn.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst-Schrivers, A.N.; Ubink-Veltmaat, L.J.; van der Horst, I.C.; Bilo, H.J.; Lambert, J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the degree to which the goals for adequate blood-pressure control in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are met in Dutch specialists' practice and in the primary-care setting. DESIGN: Cross sectional. METHOD: Data were collected from all consecutive patients with D

  9. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia and obesity: A systematic comparison of their impact on cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, E. van den; Kloppenborg, R.P.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Kappelle, L.J.; Biessels, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Vascular risk factors, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia and obesity, have been associated with an increased risk of cognitive dysfunction, particularly in the elderly. The aim of this systematic review was to compare these risk factors with regard to the nature and

  10. Guideline adherence and health outcomes in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients: A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. Oude Wesselink (Sandra); H.F. Lingsma (Hester); P.B.M. Robben (Paul); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The complex disease of diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) requires a high standard of quality of care. Clinical practice guidelines define norms for diabetes care that ensure regular monitoring of T2DM patients, including annual diagnostic tests. This study aims to quantify guid

  11. Whole grain foods for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, M. G.; van Binsbergen, J. J.; de Vos, R.; Vonk, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Diet as one aspect of lifestyle is thought to be one of the modifiable risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Information is needed as to which components of the diet could be protective for this disease. Objectives To asses the effects of whole-grain foods f

  12. Do patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have an increased prevalence of Cushing's syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Therese; Krarup, Thure; Hagen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Many clinical features are common for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Cushing's syndrome (CS) such as central obesity, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Patients with CS often have T2DM. Because T2DM is much more frequent than CS, it is possible that some patients with T2DM have...... appearance and hypertension or truncal obesity or dyslipidaemia....

  13. Change in perceived health and functioning over time in patients with type I diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hart, H.E.; Redekop, W.K.; Bilo, H.J.; Berg, M.; Meyboom-de Jong, B.

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate perceived health and functioning (PHF) of patients with type I diabetes mellitus (DMT1) over time and to compare change in perceived PHF with that of a sample of the general population. Methods: In a Dutch cohort of 234 patients with DMT1 we

  14. Correlation between serum osteocalcin and type 2 diabetes mellitus in elderly patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓捷

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between serum osteocalcin and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in elderly patients.Methods A total of 55 T2DM patients (diabetic group) and 50 non-diabetic subjects (control group) aged≥60 years were enrolled in this study.The

  15. Treatment of 35 Cases with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by Acupuncture-moxibustion Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳红; 张沈煜

    2010-01-01

    @@ Diabetes mellitus(DM)is a metabolic syndrome,characterized by long-standing hyperglycemia.The incidence of type 2 diabetes is higher than 90%.Treatment of diabetes by acupuncture existed in ancient times,and as early as in Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Jing(A-B Canon of Acupuncture and Moxibustion),it documented the points selection therapy in treating diabetes.

  16. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Case Decisions: Health-Related Service Considerations for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Ara J.; Wodrich, David L.; Lazar, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic illness that can impact learning and often requires medical management in the school setting. School psychologists must therefore be knowledgeable of special service eligibility criteria associated with T1DM, the health-related services often required of such students, and what health-related services…

  17. Whole grain foods for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, M.G.; Binsbergen, J.J. van; Vos, R.; Vonk, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diet as one aspect of lifestyle is thought to be one of the modifiable risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Information is needed as to which components of the diet could be protective for this disease. OBJECTIVES: To asses the effects of whole-grain foods

  18. Whole grain foods for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, M. G.; van Binsbergen, J. J.; de Vos, R.; Vonk, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Diet as one aspect of lifestyle is thought to be one of the modifiable risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Information is needed as to which components of the diet could be protective for this disease. Objectives To asses the effects of whole-grain foods

  19. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilke, Thomas; Boettger, Bjoern; Berg, Bjoern

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This analysis was conducted to investigate urinary tract infection (UTI) incidence among Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Germany in a real-world setting and to identify risk factors associated with UTI incidence/recurrence. METHODS: Our cohort study was conducted based...

  20. Association between vascular health and ovarian ageing in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yarde, F; Spiering, W; Franx, A; Visseren, F L J; Eijkemans, M J C; de Valk, H W; Broekmans, F J M; Fauser, BCJM; van Haeften, TW

    STUDY QUESTION: Is vascular health associated with ovarian reserve status using type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM-1) as a model for vascular compromise? SUMMARY ANSWER: No conclusive evidence for an association between vascular health and ovarian ageing was found in women with DM-1. WHAT IS KNOWN

  1. Antipsychotic drugs may worsen metabolic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, JA; Stolk, RP; Cohen, D; Klungel, OH; Erkens, JA; Leufkens, HGM; Grobbee, DE

    2004-01-01

    (B)ackground: Several studies have indicated that type 2 diabetes mellitus is more common among schizophrenic patients than in the general population. In this study, we investigated whether the use of antipsychotic drugs in patients with diabetes leads to worsening of glycemic control. Method: In th

  2. Imaging of beta-Cell Mass and Insulitis in Insulin-Dependent (Type 1) Diabetes Mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Gialleonardo, Valentina; de Vries, Erik F. J.; Di Girolamo, Marco; Quintero, Ana M.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Signore, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease with a complex multifactorial etiology and a poorly understood pathogenesis. Genetic and environmental factors cause an autoimmune reaction against pancreatic beta-cells, called insulitis, confirmed in pancreatic samples obtained at

  3. Targeting intensive glycaemic control versus targeting conventional glycaemic control for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Bianca; Lund, Søren; Gluud, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) exhibit an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality compared to the background population. Observational studies report a relationship between reduced blood glucose and reduced risk of both micro- and macrovascular complications in patien...

  4. Targeting intensive glycaemic control versus targeting conventional glycaemic control for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Bianca; Lund, Søren; Gluud, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality compared to the background population. Observational studies report an association between reduced blood glucose and reduced risk of both micro- and macrovascular complications in patients ...

  5. Short-term moderate sodium restriction induces relative hyperfiltration in normotensive normoalbuminuric Type I diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luik, PT; Hoogenberg, K; van der Kleij, FGH; Beusekamp, BJ; Kerstens, MN; de Jong, PE; Dullaart, RPF; Navis, GJ

    2002-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis. Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased extracellular volume. Sodium restriction might seem a logical form of treatment but data on its renal effects is conflicting. We therefore studied the effects of sodium restriction on renal haemodynamics in

  6. Continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus : glycaemia and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    Continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII) with an implantable pump is a last-resort treatment option for selected patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). As compared to the most commonly used forms of insulin administration -injections and an externally placed pump- which deliver in

  7. [Characteristics of oxidative stress in alcohol abusers with diabetes mellitus type 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indutnyĭ, A V; Vysokogorskiĭ, V E; Indutnaia, L N

    2004-01-01

    Hyrdogen peroxide induced chemiluminescence, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactive products and antioxidant activity were analyzed in blood serum of alcohol abusers with diabetes mellitus type 2. The chemiluminescence and TBA-tests were significantly higher in these patients whereas antioxidant activity remained uncharged compared with healthy volunteers and diabetic patients without alcohol background.

  8. Humoral immune response and delayed type hypersensitivity to influenza vaccine in patients with diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.A. Diepersloot (Rob); K.P. Bouter (Karel Paul); W.E.Ph. Beyer (Walter); N. Masurel (Nic); J.B. Hoekstra

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe antibody response and delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to commercially available trivalent influenza vaccine in 159 patients with diabetes mellitus was compared with response and reaction in 28 healthy volunteers. A correction for prevaccination titres was made. No differences

  9. Mogelijkheden voor webbased ondersteuning bij zelfmanagement van Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, W.; Rövekamp, T.; Keer, M.; Graaf, A. de; Keulen, H.M. van

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) gaat gepaard met hoge medische kosten en verlies van productiviteit. Webbased ondersteuning van zelfmanagement van T2DM kan hiervoor uitkomst bieden. Het doel van dit rapport is daarom aanbevelingen te geven voor webbased ondersteuning van zelfmanagement van T2DM.

  10. Plasma apolipoprotein M responses to statin and fibrate administration in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappelle, Paul J W H; Ahnström, Josefin; Dikkeschei, Bert D;

    2010-01-01

    by statin or fibrate administration in patients with diabetes mellitus. Methods: Fourteen type 2 diabetic patients participated in a placebo-controlled crossover study which included three 8-week treatment periods with simvastatin (40mg daily), bezafibrate (400mg daily), and their combination. Results: Apo...

  11. Retinopathy and clinical outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and anemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bello, Natalie A; Pfeffer, Marc A; Skali, Hicham; McGill, Janet B; Rossert, Jerome; Olson, Kurt A; Weinrauch, Larry; Cooper, Mark E; de Zeeuw, Dick; Rossing, Peter; McMurray, John J V; Solomon, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Retinopathy is an established microvascular complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but its independent relationship with macrovascular and other microvascular complications is less well defined across the spectrum of kidney disease in T2DM. We examined the prognostic value of

  12. HDL and LDL cholesterol significantly influence beta-cell function in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, Janine K; Brunham, Liam R; Verchere, C Bruce; Hayden, Michael R

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) display significant abnormalities in both LDL and HDL particles. Recent data suggest that these changes in lipoprotein particles could contribute to the pathogenesis of T2DM. In this review, we focus on these abnormalities and discuss

  13. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Case Decisions: Health-Related Service Considerations for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Ara J.; Wodrich, David L.; Lazar, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic illness that can impact learning and often requires medical management in the school setting. School psychologists must therefore be knowledgeable of special service eligibility criteria associated with T1DM, the health-related services often required of such students, and what health-related services…

  14. Replacing SUs with incretin-based therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Filip K; Holst, Jens Juul; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive disease characterized by insulin resistance, a steady decline in glucose-induced insulin secretion (most likely caused by a progressive decrease in functional beta-cell mass), and inappropriately regulated glucagon secretion; in combination...

  15. Prevalence of Obesity in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sharafi, Butheinah A.; Gunaid, Abdallah A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity is common in type 2 diabetic patients in some of the Middle Eastern countries, which are amongst the countries with highest rates of diabetes mellitus and obesity. Objectives: We conducted this study to assess the prevalence of obesity in Yemeni patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients and Methods: Body mass index (BMI) of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were 25-years-old or older was measured during their first visit to an endocrinology and diabetes clinic in Sana’a, Yemen over a 4-year period from May 2007 to May 2011. Results: The BMI was measured in 1640 patients (721 males and 919 females) who attended the clinic. According to the measured BMI, 328 (45.5%), 314 (43.5%), 79 (11%) of the male patients were non-obese (BMI < 25 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2), and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), respectively. On the other hand, 256 (28%), 369 (40.0%), and 294 (32%) of the female patients were non-obese (BMI < 25 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2), and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of obesity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Yemen is high with respect to the Yemeni population, especially in females. PMID:24748890

  16. Oral Candida spp carriers: its prevalence in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Ramon Felipe Fernandez; Jaimes-Aveldañez,Alejandra; Hernández-Pérez, Francisco; Arenas, Roberto; Miguel,Guadalupe Fabián-San

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevalence of oral candidiasis in diabetic patients is 13.7-64%. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species (75-86.5%). OBJECTIVE: To obtain the prevalence of Candida carriers among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to identify the species of the yeast. Study design: It is an open, observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective study. ...

  17. Linagliptin increases incretin levels, lowers glucagon, and improves glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, Thomas; Graefe-Mody, Ulrike; Deacon, Carolyn F;

    2012-01-01

    Linagliptin is a xanthine-based dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor that is now available in numerous countries worldwide for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to evaluate further the mechanisms underlying the improvements in glycemic control observed...

  18. Potentials of incretin-based therapies in dementia and stroke in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, Onno N.; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Biessels, Geert Jan

    2016-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at risk for accelerated cognitive decline and dementia. Furthermore, their risk of stroke is increased and their outcome after stroke is worse than in those without diabetes. Incretin-based therapies are a class of antidiabetic agents that are of interest i

  19. Skin autofluorescence is inversely related to HDL anti-oxidative capacity in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Douwe J.; de Boer, Jan Freark; Graaff, Reindert; de Vries, Rindert; Annema, Wijtske; Lefrandt, Joop D.; Smit, Andries J.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: High density lipoprotein (HDL) particles protect apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins from oxidative modification. An impaired anti-oxidative functionality of HDL in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may contribute to enhanced formation of oxidative stress products, such as Advanced Gly

  20. Cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: Management Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2005-01-01

    There is an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and morbidity in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus compared with the general population as shown by epidemiologic studies measuring cardiovascular endpoints, as well as by autopsy, angiographic, and coronary calcification stud