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Sample records for melittobia digitata dahms

  1. Wolbachia in two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Claudia S.; Sivinski, John [United States Dept. of Agriculture, Gainesville, FL (United States). Center for Medical, Agriculture and Veterinary Entomology]. E-mails: cclaudia@bioinf.uni-leipzig.de; john.sivinski@ars.usda.gov; Matthews, Robert W. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Entomology]. E-mail: rmatthew@uga.edu; Gonzalez, Jorge M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Entomology]. E-mail: jmgonzalez@neo.tamu.edu; Aluja, Martin [Instituto de Ecologia A.C., Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: martin.aluja@inecol.edu.mx

    2008-11-15

    We investigated two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms, a gregarious parasitoid (primarily upon a wide range of solitary bees, wasps, and flies), in search of Wolbachia infection. The first population, from Xalapa, Mexico, was originally collected from and reared on Mexican fruit fly pupae, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae); the other, from Athens, Georgia, was collected from and reared on prepupae of mud dauber wasps, Trypoxylon politum Say (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae). PCR studies of the ITS2 region corroborated that both parasitoid populations were the same species; this potentially provides a useful molecular taxonomic profile since females of Melittobia species are superficially similar. Amplification of the Wolbachia surface protein gene (wsp) confirmed the presence of this endosymbiont in both populations. Sequencing revealed that the Wolbachia harbored in both populations exhibited a wsp belonging to a unique subgroup (denoted here as Dig) within the B-supergroup of known wsp genes. This new subgroup of wsp may either belong to a different strain of Wolbachia from those previously found to infect Melittobia or may be the result of a recombination event. In either case, known hosts of Wolbachia with a wsp of this subgroup are only distantly related taxonomically. Reasons are advanced as to why Melittobia - an easily reared and managed parasitoid - holds promise as an instructive model organism of Wolbachia infection amenable to the investigation of Wolbachia strains among its diverse hosts. (author)

  2. Adansonia digitata

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    Ife Journal of Science. (2016) vol. 18, no. 4. EFFECTS OF FEEDING PROCESSED BAOBAB (Adansonia digitata) SEED ON THE. HEAMATOLOGY ... and groundnut cake), others like pigeon pea seed meal, cottonseed meal, cashew nut meal, sunflower seed meal and lima bean meal are not usually available and not within ...

  3. Inexplicably female-biased sex ratios in Melittobia wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Jun; Kamimura, Yoshitaka; West, Stuart A

    2014-09-01

    The sex ratio behavior of parasitoid wasps in the genus Melittobia is scandalous. In contrast to the prediction of Hamilton's local mate competition theory, and the behavior of numerous other species, their extremely female-biased sex ratios (1-5% males) change little in response to the number of females that lay eggs on a patch. We examined the mating structure and fitness consequences of adjusting the sex ratio in M. australica and found that (1) the rate of inbreeding did not differ from that expected with random mating within each patch; (2) the fitness of females that produced less female-biased sex ratios (10 or 20% males) was greater than that of females who produced the sex ratio normally observed in M. australica. These results suggest that neither assortative mating nor asymmetrical competition between males can explain the extreme sex ratios. More generally, the finding that the sex ratios produced by females led to a decrease in their fitness suggests that the existing theory fails to capture a key aspect of the natural history of Melittobia, and emphasizes the importance of examining the fitness consequences of different sex ratio strategies, not only whether observed sex ratios correlate with theoretical predictions. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Development of microsatellite markers and estimation of inbreeding frequency in the parasitoid wasp Melittobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abe, Jun; Pannebakker, Bart A.

    2017-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Melittobia is an important insect for basic and applied biology. Specifically, their extremely female-biased sex ratios, which contrast to the prediction of pre-existing theories, are needed to be explained from the aspect of evolutionary biology. In this study, using

  5. Phlorotannin Composition of Laminaria digitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, Anne M; Caligiani, Augusta; Sforza, Stefano; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Gruppen, Harry

    2017-11-01

    Phlorotannins are complex mixtures of phloroglucinol oligomers connected via C-C (fucols) or C-O-C (phlorethols) linkages. Their uniformity in subunits and large molecular weight hamper their structural analysis. Despite its commercial relevance for alginate extraction, phlorotannins in Laminaria digitata have not been studied. To obtain quantitative and structural information on phlorotannins in a methanolic extract from L. digitata. The combined use of 13 C and 1 H NMR spectroscopy allowed characterisation of linkage types and extract purity. The purity determined was used to calibrate the responses obtained with the colorimetric 2,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde (DMBA) and Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) assays. Using NP-flash chromatography, phlorotannin fractions separated on oligomer size were obtained and enabled structural and molecular weight characterisation using ESI-MS and MALDI-TOF-MS. The fucol-to-phlorethol linkage ratio was 1:26 and the extract was 60.1% pure, determined by NMR spectroscopy. For DMBA, the response of the extract was 12 times lower than that of phloroglucinol, whereas there was no difference for FC. By accounting for differences in response, the colorimetric assays were applicable for quantification using phloroglucinol as a standard. The phlorotannin content was around 4.5% DM. Fucol- and phlorethol-linkage types were annotated based on characteristic MS n fragmentations. Structural isomers of phlorotannins up to a degree of polymerisation of 18 (DP18) were annotated and identification of several isomers hinted at branched phloroglucinol oligomers. With MALDI-TOF-MS phlorotannins up to DP27 were annotated. By combining several analytical techniques, phlorotannins in L. digitata were quantified and characterised with respect to fucol-to-phlorethol linkage ratio, molecular weight (distribution), and occurrence of structural isomers. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Immunomodulatory activity of methanol extract of Adansonia digitata L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immunomodulatory activity of methanol extract of Adansonia digitata L. Amrish Sharma, Vinod Rangari. Abstract. Purpose: To evaluate the immune-modulatory activities of various plant parts Adansonia digitata L. using delayed-type hypersensitivity rat model. Methods: Defatted leaf, root bark and fruit pulp of A. digitata were ...

  7. Distribution et structure des parcs à Adansonia digitata L. (baobab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les usages diversifiés et rependus des produits surtout à des fins alimentaires du baobab (Adansonia digitata) induits une forte pression sur cette dernière. La présente étude est une contribution à la gestion durable des parcs à A. digitata L. au Togo. Elle a pour objectifs de : (i) déterminer la distribution spatiale des ...

  8. Nutritional Evaluation of Adansonia digitata (Baobab Fruit) as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding trial was carried out to investigate the nutritional value of Adansonia digitata (Baobab seed and fruit pulp) as feed resource using one hundred and fifty (150) day old broiler chicks. Maize meal was replaced with Baobab meal at 0, 20, 30, 40 and 50% replacement levels. The birds were equally and randomly allotted ...

  9. Ameliorative Effects of Adansonia Digitata Leaf Extract on Carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adansonia digitata is locally consumed as food in Nigeria. In the present study, the ... Carbon tetrachloride treatment significantly (P<0.05) reduced levels of testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and superoxide dismutase levels with distortions in the cyto-architecture of the testes in treated animals.

  10. The time dependence of molecular iodine emission from Laminaria digitata

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    J. Orphal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the first in situ detection of molecular iodine emitted from the brown macroalga Laminaria digitata under natural stress conditions. We show that the release of I2 occurs in short, strong bursts with a complex time signature. The new data indicate that algal control of I2 release in the form of an oscillatory time-dependence may be based on a nonlinear autocatalytic reaction scheme which is closely linked to the production of H2O2.

  11. The time dependence of molecular iodine emission from Laminaria digitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixneuf, S.; Ruth, A. A.; Vaughan, S.; Varma, R. M.; Orphal, J.

    2009-02-01

    We present the first in situ detection of molecular iodine emitted from the brown macroalga Laminaria digitata under natural stress conditions. We show that the release of I2 occurs in short, strong bursts with a complex time signature. The new data indicate that algal control of I2 release in the form of an oscillatory time-dependence may be based on a nonlinear autocatalytic reaction scheme which is closely linked to the production of H2O2.

  12. Studies on the seedling growth of Adansonia digitata AL. | Chia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The germination and growth of seedlings of Adansonia digitata were investigated at the Biological garden of ABU Zaria, Nigeria (07o38′ and 11o11′N) at different planting depths and soil types. The seeds were planted at different planting depths of 1.0 cm, 2.0 cm, 4.0 cm and 6.0 cm in nursery bags and kept in a screen ...

  13. The mitochondrial genome of the brown alga Laminaria digitata : a comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudot-le Secq, MP; Kloareg, B; Loiseaux-de Goer, S

    We report here the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the brown alga Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V. Lamouroux. L. digitata mtDNA is a circular molecule of 38,007 bp (64.9 % A+ T), encoding 63 genes and 3 ORFs and with only 6-7 % of non-coding sequences. Based on gene content and

  14. Iodine contributes to osmotic acclimatisation in the kelp Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschke, Udo; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2014-02-01

    Iodide (I⁻) retained by the brown macroalga Laminaria digitata at millimolar levels, possesses antioxidant activities, but the wider physiological significance of its accumulation remains poorly understood. In its natural habitat in the lower intertidal, L. digitata experiences salinity changes and osmotic homeostasis is achieved by regulating the organic osmolyte mannitol. However, I⁻ may also holds an osmotic function. Here, impacts of hypo- and hypersaline conditions on I⁻ release from, and accumulation by, L. digitata were assessed. Additionally, mannitol accumulation was determined at high salinities, and physiological responses to externally elevated iodine concentrations and salinities were characterised by chl a fluorometry. Net I⁻ release rates increased with decreasing salinity. I⁻ was accumulated at normal (35 S A) and high salinities (50 S A); this coincided with enhanced rETRmax and qP causing pronounced photoprotection capabilities via NPQ. At 50 S A elevated tissue iodine levels impeded the well-established response of mannitol accumulation and prevented photoinhibition. Contrarily, low tissue iodine levels limited photoprotection capabilities and resulted in photoinhibition at 50 S A, even though mannitol was accumulated. The results indicate a, so far, undescribed osmotic function of I⁻ in L. digitata and, thus, multifunctional principles of this halogen in kelps. The osmotic function of mannitol may have been substituted by that of I⁻ under hypersaline conditions, suggesting a complementary role of inorganic and organic solutes under salinity stress. This study also provides first evidence that iodine accumulation in L. digitata positively affects photo-physiology.

  15. Integrated bioethanol and protein production from brown seaweed Laminaria digitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaoru; Hansen, Jonas Høeg; Bjerre, Anne-Belinda

    2015-12-01

    A wild-growing glucose-rich (i.e. 56.7% glucose content) brown seaweed species Laminaria digitata, collected from the North Coast of Denmark in August 2012, was used as the feedstock for an integrated bioethanol and protein production. Glutamic acid and aspartic acid are the two most abundant amino acids in the algal protein, both with proportional content of 10% in crude protein. Only minor pretreatment of milling was used on the biomass to facilitate the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation (SHF) resulted in obviously higher ethanol yield than the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). High conversion rate at maximum of 84.1% glucose recovery by enzymatic hydrolysis and overall ethanol yield at maximum of 77.7% theoretical were achieved. Protein content in the solid residues after fermentation was enriched by 2.7 fold, with similar distributions of amino acids, due to the hydrolysis of polymers in the seaweed cell wall matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of Mannuronan C-5-Epimerase Genes from the Brown Alga Laminaria digitata1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyvall, Pi; Corre, Erwan; Boisset, Claire; Barbeyron, Tristan; Rousvoal, Sylvie; Scornet, Delphine; Kloareg, Bernard; Boyen, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    Alginate is an industrially important polysaccharide obtained commercially by harvesting brown algae. The final step in alginate biosynthesis, the epimerization of β-1,4-d-mannuronic acid to α-1,4-l-guluronic acid, a structural change that controls the physicochemical properties of the alginate, is catalyzed by the enzyme mannuronan C-5-epimerase. Six different cDNAs with homology to bacterial mannuronan C-5-epimerases were isolated from the brown alga Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae). Hydrophobic cluster analysis indicated that the proteins encoded by the L. digitata sequences have important structural similarities to the bacterial mannuronan C-5-epimerases, including conservation of the catalytic site. The expression of the C-5-epimerase genes was examined by northern-blot analysis and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in L. digitata throughout a year. Expression was also monitored in protoplast cultures by northern and western blot, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and activity measurements. From both the structural comparisons and the expression pattern, it appears that the cDNAs isolated from L. digitata encode functional mannuronan C-5-epimerases. The phylogenetic relationships of the bacterial and brown algal enzymes and the inferences on the origin of alginate biosynthetic machinery are discussed. PMID:14526115

  17. Effect of drought stress on early growth of Adansonia digitata (L.) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drought and high temperatures are said to have triggered increased tree mortality and could be linked to the menace of climate change. This research therefore investigated the effect of drought stress on early growth of Adansonia digitata where seedlings were exposed to different watering frequencies (Once daily, after 3, ...

  18. Extraction and characterization of sodium alginate from Moroccan Laminaria digitata brown seaweed

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    Mohamed Fertah

    2017-05-01

    Viscosimetric measurements gave an intrinsic viscosity of 2.542 dL/g which permits to calculate the average molar mass value (1.14 × 105 g/mol. By analyzing 1H NMR spectra, Moroccan L. digitata alginates showed a high quantity of both homopolymeric mannoronic and guluronic blocks (FMM = 0.47 and (FGG = 0.41 respectively, while the alternating block fractions (FMG = 0.06 and FGM = 0.06 showed low values than those previously described in the literature. The M/G ratio value is 1.12 allowing the preparation of alginates suitable to form soft and elastic gels more than brittle ones. The characteristics obtained for Moroccan Laminaria digitata may be useful to obtain polyelectrolyte complexes for the production of drug delivery micro- and nanoparticles. In some cases, a charged polysaccharide with low viscosity is needed.

  19. Isolation and Evaluation of Mucilage of Adansonia digitata Linn as a Suspending Agent

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    S. S. Deshmukh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural excipients can serve as alternative to synthetic products because of local accessibility, biodegradability, eco-friendly nature and cost effectiveness as compared to synthetic products. Therefore, it is a current need to explore natural excipients that can be used as an effective alternative excipient for the formulation of pharmaceutical dosage forms. Adansonia digitata (Malvaceae has been traditionally used as febrifuge, antiasthmatic and also in the treatment of dysentery, smallpox, and measles. Reports have indicated that mucilage of the leaves of the plant is edible and nontoxic; hence, the present study is an attempt of isolation and evaluation of mucilage obtained from leaves of Adansonia digitata as suspending agent. Various physicochemical as well as suspending agent properties of mucilage were studied. Mucilage obtained from leaves has shown comparable results with sodium carboxy methyl cellulose.

  20. Observations on the symbiosis between Colus gracilis (Da Costa, 1778) (Mollusca: Gastropoda) and Hormathia digitata (O.F. Müller, 1776) (Cnidaria: Actiniaria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ates, R.M.L.

    1998-01-01

    Aquarium observations of the behaviour of the actinian Hormathia digitata when mounting live specimens of the gastropod Colus gracilis are fully described for the first time. C. gracilis actively initiates an association with H. digitata by approaching and remaining stationary near the actinian.

  1. Adaptive properties of Adansonia digitata L. (Baobab) & Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) R.Br. (African Locust Bean) to drought stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouda, Zoewinde Henri-Noel

    been suggested as a strategy to improve local population livelihoods. The present thesis studies the adaptive properties to drought stress of A. digitata and P. biglobosa at nursery level, two species native to African savannas. Nursery trials were established with seeds of seven provenances of each...... of the two species. Three water regimes were applied, corresponding to 100%, 75% and 50% of field capacity. The effects of drought stress on the seedling survival, growth and dry matter partitioning was investigated on both species, and for A. digitata the experiment also included seedling morphology...... and physiology. A. digitata had a much higher survival rate than P. biglobosa. However, both species showed a strong reduction of the relative growth rate (diameter and height) and the total dry weight under the effect of applied water stress. Despite differences between provenances of P. biglobosa...

  2. Butanol fermentation of the brown seaweed Laminaria digitata by Clostridium beijerinckii DSM-6422

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaoru; From, Nikolaj; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-01-01

    Seaweed represents an abundant, renewable, and fast-growing biomass resource for 3rd generation biofuel production. This study reports an efficient butanol fermentation process carried out by Clostridium beijerinckii DSM-6422 using enzymatic hydrolysate of the sugar-rich brown seaweed Laminaria...... of using the seaweed L. digitata as a potential biomass for butanol production. For the first time, consumption of alginate components was observed by C. beijerinckii DSM-6422. The efficient utilization of sugars and lactic acid further highlighted the potential of using this strain for future development...

  3. Compositional variations of brown seaweeds Laminaria digitata and Saccharina latissima in Danish waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manns, Dirk Martin; Nielsen, Mette Møller; Bruhn, Annette

    2017-01-01

    , but mannuronic/glucuronic acid ratios differed between species and location from 1.33 to 3.64. Wild L. digitata harvested from the North Sea in August contained >50% glucans by weight and had low ash contents for three consecutive years (2012-2014). Compositional variation of the seaweeds was mainly related...... to season but also varied with species, location, and within populations. Among environmental variables (temperature, salinity, phosphate, nitrate, ammonia), only temperature was found to correlate with the chemical composition of the seaweeds. Amino acid profiles were dominated by glutamic acid, aspartic...

  4. Oligoguluronates Elicit an Oxidative Burst in the Brown Algal Kelp Laminaria digitata1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Frithjof Christian; Kloareg, Bernard; Guern, Jean; Potin, Philippe

    2001-01-01

    Oligomeric degradation products of alginate elicited a respiratory and oxidative burst in the sporophytes of the kelp Laminaria digitata. The generation of activated oxygen species (AOS), O2−, and H2O2 was detected at the single cell level, using nitroblue tetrazolium precipitation and a redox-sensitive fluorescent probe, respectively. The oxidative burst involved diphenyleneiodonium-sensitive AOS-generating machinery and its amplitude depended on the type of tissue. After a first elicitation plants were desensitized for about 3 h. The activity of alginate oligosaccharides was dose dependent, saturating around 40 μm. It was also structure-dependent, with homopolymeric blocks of α-1,4-l-guluronic acid, i.e. the functional analogs of oligogalacturonic blocks in pectins, being the most active signals. The perception of oligoguluronate signals resulted in a strong efflux of potassium. Pharmacological dissection of the early events preceding the emission of AOS indicated that the transduction chain of oligoguluronate signals in L. digitata is likely to feature protein kinases, phospholipase A2, as well as K+, Ca2+, and anion channels. PMID:11154336

  5. Butanol fermentation of the brown seaweed Laminaria digitata by Clostridium beijerinckii DSM-6422.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaoru; From, Nikolaj; Angelidaki, Irini; Huijgen, Wouter J J; Bjerre, Anne-Belinda

    2017-08-01

    Seaweed represents an abundant, renewable, and fast-growing biomass resource for 3rd generation biofuel production. This study reports an efficient butanol fermentation process carried out by Clostridium beijerinckii DSM-6422 using enzymatic hydrolysate of the sugar-rich brown seaweed Laminaria digitata harvested from the coast of the Danish North Sea as substrate. The highest butanol yield (0.42g/g-consumed-substrates) compared to literature was achieved, with a significantly higher butanol:acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) molar ratio (0.85) than typical (0.6). This demonstrates the possibility of using the seaweed L. digitata as a potential biomass for butanol production. For the first time, consumption of alginate components was observed by C. beijerinckii DSM-6422. The efficient utilization of sugars and lactic acid further highlighted the potential of using this strain for future development of large-scale cost-effective butanol production based on (ensiled) seaweed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Biometrics in Laminaria digitata: A useful tool to assess biomass, carbon and nitrogen contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaert, F.; Janquin, M.-A.; Davoult, D.

    2008-10-01

    Sporophytes of Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V. Lamouroux (Ochrophyta: Phaeophyceae) were haphazardly collected seasonally from September 1996 to March 1999 in the rocky shore of the eastern English Channel in order to conduct a biometrical study relating fresh weight (FW), dry weight (DW), carbon and nitrogen masses to the length of the thalli. The aim was to create a tool that allows estimation of the weight of the algae by a simple, rapid and non destructive morphological measurement of the total length of the sporophyte. The highly significant and lasting relationships obtained appeared very useful to express the standing biomass of L. digitata in terms of carbon or nitrogen. Variations in tissue carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) were examined over a complete seasonal cycle and showed clear patterns, ranged from 26.8 to 33.1% of the total dry weight for carbon and 1.87 to 3.20% for nitrogen. The seasonal variations in C/N ratio corresponded to a winter nitrogen uptake from the medium and to high spring carbon assimilation due to photosynthesis.

  7. Transcriptomic Resilience of the Montipora digitata Holobiont to Low pH

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    Raúl A. González-Pech

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is considered as one of the major threats for coral reefs at a global scale. Marine calcifying organisms, including stony corals, are expected to be the most affected by the predicted decrease of the surface water pH at the end of the century. The severity of the impacts on coral reefs remains as a matter of controversy. Although previous studies have explored the physiological response of stony corals to changes in pH, the response of the holobiont (i.e., the coral itself plus its symbionts remains largely unexplored. In the present study, we assessed the changes in overall gene expression of the coral Montipora digitata and its microalgal symbionts after a short (3 days and a longer (42 days exposure to low pH (7.6. The short-term exposure to low pH caused small differences in the expression level of the host, impacting mostly genes associated with stress response in other scleractinians. Longer exposure to low pH resulted in no significant changes in gene expression of treated vs. control coral hosts. Gene expression in the eukaryotic symbionts remained unaltered at both exposure times. Our findings suggest resilience, in terms of gene expression, of the M. digitata holobiont to pH decrease, as well as capability to acclimatize to extended periods of exposure to low pH.

  8. Trophic significance of the kelp Laminaria digitata (Lamour.) for the associated food web: a between-sites comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Gauthier; Riera, Pascal; Leroux, Cédric

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed at establishing the trophic significance of the kelp Laminaria digitata for consumers inhabiting two rocky shores of Northern Brittany (France), displaying contrasted ecological conditions. The general trophic structure did not vary between these two sites, with a wide diversity of filter-feeders and predators, and only 14% of the species sampled belonging to the grazers' trophic group. The diversity of food sources fueling the food web appeared also similar. The food webs comprised four trophic levels and the prevalence of omnivory appeared relatively low compared to previous studies in the same area. Conversely, to the food web structure, which did not differ, the biochemical composition of L. digitata differed between the two sites, and was correlated to a larger diversity of grazers feeding on this kelp in sheltered conditions. This indicated that the spatial variability occurring in the nutritive value of L. digitata is likely to deeply affect the functioning of kelp-associated food webs. The contribution of L. digitata-derived organic matter to the diet of filter-feeders inhabiting these two environments was assessed using the mixing model Isosource, which showed the higher contribution of kelp matter in sheltered conditions. These results highlight the spatial variability that may occur in the functioning of kelp-associated food webs. Moreover, this suggests that hydrodynamics is likely to control the availability of kelp-derived organic matter to local filter-feeders, probably through an increase of detritus export in exposed areas.

  9. First report of powdery mildew on cucumis zambianus, cucurbita digitata and zehneria scabraCaused by podosphaera xanthii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew is a serious disease of cucurbit crops worldwide. In the fall of 2016, symptoms of powdery mildew were observed on 2-month old plants of Cucumis zambianus, Cucurbita digitata and Zehneria scabra in research plots in Charleston, SC. Incidence on 28 plants of C. zambianus was 64.3%. On ...

  10. Ethno-food knowledge of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) and characterisation of its traditional fermented novel foods from Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chadare, F.J.; Nout, M.J.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Adansonia digitata is a key economic tree used daily by local populations in Africa for food, medicines and cultural purposes. The aim of the study was to record the ethno-food knowledge on baobab processing and derived foods, and to further provide the properties of traditional fermented foods, for

  11. Impact of African elephants on baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) population structure in northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupika, O.L.; Kativu, S.; Gandiwa, E.; Gumbie, A.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of African elephant (Loxodonta africana) on population structure of baobab trees (Adansonia digitata L.) was assessed in northern Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), southeast Zimbabwe. Baobabs were sampled in March 2008 and September 2012 using 11 randomly laid belt transects of variable

  12. Abundance and structure of African baobab (Adansonia digitata) across different soil types in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mashapa, C.; Zisadza-Gandiwa, P.; Gandiwa, E.; Kativu, S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the abundance and structure of African baobab (Adansonia digitata) across soil group strata in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe. The study was based on a stratified random sampling design composed of the following soil group substrates: (i) granophyres, (ii) malvernia, and

  13. Macroalgae Laminaria digitata and Saccharina latissima as Potential Biomasses for Biogas and Total Phenolics Production: Focusing on Seasonal and Spatial Variations of the Algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Este, Martina; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Ciofalo, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Laminaria digitata (L. digitata) and Saccharina latissima (S. latissima) are the most common species of macroalgae in the north Atlantic and north Pacific. Because of their interesting composition, they have recently attracted attention as useful biomass for various purposes such as for biochemic......Laminaria digitata (L. digitata) and Saccharina latissima (S. latissima) are the most common species of macroalgae in the north Atlantic and north Pacific. Because of their interesting composition, they have recently attracted attention as useful biomass for various purposes...... such as for biochemicals and bioenergy production. Nevertheless their composition varies according to the season and to the local environmental conditions. Therefore, in this study different samples harvested throughout a year and in different locations in Denmark were analyzed. The aim of the study was identifying...... in summer when the sugar level and the light intensity reached their maximum....

  14. Reactions of Adansonia digitata L. provenances to long-term stress at seedling stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouda, Z. H N; Bayala, J.; Jensen, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of drought stress on growth parameters and dry matter partitioning of seven provenances (six from West Africa and one from East Africa) of Adansonia digitata L. were assessed in a seedling experiment in Burkina Faso. Three water regimes corresponding to 100 % (control), 75 % and 50...... % of field capacity were applied over a period of 18 months. While survival was unaffected by the stress treatments, provenances and water regimes significantly affected growth parameters, and plant dry matter accumulation was significantly reduced by water stress. Provenances had growth rates of diameter...... and height in response to stress. The fresh weight/dry weight ratio increased with increasing stress. In response to stress, shoot/root ratios decreased at the start of the experiment, but increased at the end, compared to the control. Differences between provenances were not correlated to environmental...

  15. Brown seaweed processing: enzymatic saccharification of Laminaria digitata requires no pre-treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manns, Dirk; Andersen, Stinus K.; Saake, Bodo

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the effect of different milling pre-treatments on enzymatic glucose release from the brown seaweed Laminaria digitata having high glucan (laminarin) content. Wet refiner milling, using rotating disc distances of 0.1–2 mm, generated populations of differently sized pieces...... of lamina having decreasing average surface area (100–0.1 mm2) with increased milling severity. Higher milling severity (lower rotating disc distance) also induced higher spontaneous carbohydrate solubilization from the material. Due to the seaweed material consisting of flat blades, the milling did...... not increase the overall surface area of the seaweed material, and size diminution of the laminas by milling did not improve the enzymatic glucose release. Milling was thus not required for enzymatic saccharification because all available glucose was released even from unmilled material. Treatment...

  16. Seasonal variation in the chemical composition of the bioenergy feedstock Laminaria digitata for thermochemical conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J M M; Ross, A B; Anastasakis, K; Hodgson, E M; Gallagher, J A; Jones, J M; Donnison, I S

    2011-01-01

    To avoid negative impacts on food production, novel non-food biofuel feedstocks need to be identified and utilised. One option is to utilise marine biomass, notably fast-growing, large marine 'plants' such as the macroalgal kelps. This paper reports on the changing composition of Laminaria digitata throughout it growth cycle as determined by new technologies. The potential of Laminaria sp. as a feedstock for biofuel production and future biorefining possibilities was assessed through proximate and ultimate analysis, initial pyrolysis rates using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), metals content and pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Samples harvested in March contained the lowest proportion of carbohydrate and the highest ash and alkali metal content, whereas samples harvested in July contained the highest proportions of carbohydrate, lowest alkali metals and ash content. July was therefore considered the most suitable month for harvesting kelp biomass for thermochemical conversion to biofuels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Marine Algae Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida and Kombu (Laminaria digitata japonica as Food Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Vallorani

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude proteins and their amino acid composition, -carotene, vitamins B1, B2, B6, niacin and minerals were determined in two edible brown marine algae (Phaeophyceae, Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida and Kombu (Laminaria digitata japonica. The amino acid scores for five key essential amino acids, frequently deficient in mixed human diet, and essential amino acid index were calculated. The results have shown the presence of all essential amino acids. The values of essential amino acid ratios of analysed algae exceed the ratios of reference proteins suggested by FAO/WHO/UNU, except for tryptophan, the first limiting amino acid in both analysed algae. Iodine, the most important component of sea vegetables is present in high amounts as well as the vitamins B1, B2, B6, niacin and β-carotene. The content of minerals was found high, while the presence of heavy metals was negligible.

  18. Herbivore-induced chemical and molecular responses of the kelps Laminaria digitata and Lessonia spicata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Andrés; Cabioch, Léa; Brillet-Guéguen, Loraine; Corre, Erwan; Cosse, Audrey; Dartevelle, Laurence; Duruflé, Harold; Fasshauer, Carina; Goulitquer, Sophie; Thomas, François; Correa, Juan A.; Potin, Philippe; Faugeron, Sylvain; Leblanc, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Kelps are founding species of temperate marine ecosystems, living in intertidal coastal areas where they are often challenged by generalist and specialist herbivores. As most sessile organisms, kelps develop defensive strategies to restrain grazing damage and preserve their own fitness during interactions with herbivores. To decipher some inducible defense and signaling mechanisms, we carried out metabolome and transcriptome analyses in two emblematic kelp species, Lessonia spicata from South Pacific coasts and Laminaria digitata from North Atlantic, when challenged with their main specialist herbivores. Mass spectrometry based metabolomics revealed large metabolic changes induced in these two brown algae following challenges with their own specialist herbivores. Targeted metabolic profiling of L. spicata further showed that free fatty acid (FFA) and amino acid (AA) metabolisms were particularly regulated under grazing. An early stress response was illustrated by the accumulation of Sulphur containing amino acids in the first twelve hours of herbivory pressure. At latter time periods (after 24 hours), we observed FFA liberation and eicosanoid oxylipins synthesis likely representing metabolites related to stress. Global transcriptomic analysis identified sets of candidate genes specifically induced by grazing in both kelps. qPCR analysis of the top candidate genes during a 48-hours time course validated the results. Most of these genes were particularly activated by herbivore challenge after 24 hours, suggesting that transcriptional reprogramming could be operated at this time period. We demonstrated the potential utility of these genes as molecular markers for herbivory by measuring their inductions in grazed individuals of field harvested L. digitata and L. spicata. By unravelling the regulation of some metabolites and genes following grazing pressure in two kelps representative of the two hemispheres, this work contributes to provide a set of herbivore

  19. Herbivore-induced chemical and molecular responses of the kelps Laminaria digitata and Lessonia spicata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ritter

    Full Text Available Kelps are founding species of temperate marine ecosystems, living in intertidal coastal areas where they are often challenged by generalist and specialist herbivores. As most sessile organisms, kelps develop defensive strategies to restrain grazing damage and preserve their own fitness during interactions with herbivores. To decipher some inducible defense and signaling mechanisms, we carried out metabolome and transcriptome analyses in two emblematic kelp species, Lessonia spicata from South Pacific coasts and Laminaria digitata from North Atlantic, when challenged with their main specialist herbivores. Mass spectrometry based metabolomics revealed large metabolic changes induced in these two brown algae following challenges with their own specialist herbivores. Targeted metabolic profiling of L. spicata further showed that free fatty acid (FFA and amino acid (AA metabolisms were particularly regulated under grazing. An early stress response was illustrated by the accumulation of Sulphur containing amino acids in the first twelve hours of herbivory pressure. At latter time periods (after 24 hours, we observed FFA liberation and eicosanoid oxylipins synthesis likely representing metabolites related to stress. Global transcriptomic analysis identified sets of candidate genes specifically induced by grazing in both kelps. qPCR analysis of the top candidate genes during a 48-hours time course validated the results. Most of these genes were particularly activated by herbivore challenge after 24 hours, suggesting that transcriptional reprogramming could be operated at this time period. We demonstrated the potential utility of these genes as molecular markers for herbivory by measuring their inductions in grazed individuals of field harvested L. digitata and L. spicata. By unravelling the regulation of some metabolites and genes following grazing pressure in two kelps representative of the two hemispheres, this work contributes to provide a set of

  20. Laminaria digitata as potential carbon source in heterotrophic microalgae cultivation for the production of fish feed supplement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Este, Martina; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-01-01

    A novel concept using the macroalgae Laminaria digitata as substrate to grow heterotrophically microalgae species to be used as fish feed supplement is investigated in the present study. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the macroalgae was performed to release the sugars present in the biomass. The hydroly......A novel concept using the macroalgae Laminaria digitata as substrate to grow heterotrophically microalgae species to be used as fish feed supplement is investigated in the present study. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the macroalgae was performed to release the sugars present in the biomass...... was selected for further cultivation in batch reactors and its protein content and amino acid composition were measured. At the end of the process the biomass production reached 10.68 ± 1.33 g L− 1with a total protein accumulation of 41.77 ± 1.82% (dry weight basis) and a protein yield of 0.17 ± 0.06. Moreover...

  1. Study of the mechanisms of iodine accumulation by the brown alga Laminaria digitata and by the mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaeghe, E.

    2007-11-01

    Within the frame of the Nuclear Environmental Toxicology program which aims at a better understanding of the iodine biological transfer and concentration paths, this research thesis first reports a literature survey on the presence of iodine in laminaria and vanadate-containing halo-peroxidases. The author describes the development and the implementation of a screening test and the obtained results. He comments the results of in vivo investigations of the iodine capture inhibition in the Laminaria digitata. He describes chemical imagery experiments enabling the identification of tissue and sub-cellular distributions of iodine in L. digitata samples. The second part of the report deals with the mammal case, describes the strategies used for target protein identification, the development of the synthesis of inhibitors and of their photo-active analogues, as well as their biological assessments. Finally, he describes the various experimental protocols used in the different investigations

  2. The history of introduction of the African baobab (Adansonia digitata, Malvaceae: Bombacoideae) in the Indian subcontinent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Karen L; Rangan, Haripriya; Kull, Christian A; Murphy, Daniel J

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the pathways of introduction of the African baobab, Adansonia digitata, to the Indian subcontinent, we examined 10 microsatellite loci in individuals from Africa, India, the Mascarenes and Malaysia, and matched this with historical evidence of human interactions between source and destination regions. Genetic analysis showed broad congruence of African clusters with biogeographic regions except along the Zambezi (Mozambique) and Kilwa (Tanzania), where populations included a mixture of individuals assigned to at least two different clusters. Individuals from West Africa, the Mascarenes, southeast India and Malaysia shared a cluster. Baobabs from western and central India clustered separately from Africa. Genetic diversity was lower in populations from the Indian subcontinent than in African populations, but the former contained private alleles. Phylogenetic analysis showed Indian populations were closest to those from the Mombasa-Dar es Salaam coast. The genetic results provide evidence of multiple introductions of African baobabs to the Indian subcontinent over a longer time period than previously assumed. Individuals belonging to different genetic clusters in Zambezi and Kilwa may reflect the history of trafficking captives from inland areas to supply the slave trade between the fifteenth and nineteenth centuries. Baobabs in the Mascarenes, southeast India and Malaysia indicate introduction from West Africa through eighteenth and nineteenth century European colonial networks.

  3. A 1000-Year Carbon Isotope Rainfall Proxy Record from South African Baobab Trees (Adansonia digitata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodborne, Stephan; Hall, Grant; Robertson, Iain; Patrut, Adrian; Rouault, Mathieu; Loader, Neil J; Hofmeyr, Michele

    2015-01-01

    A proxy rainfall record for northeastern South Africa based on carbon isotope analysis of four baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) trees shows centennial and decadal scale variability over the last 1,000 years. The record is in good agreement with a 200-year tree ring record from Zimbabwe, and it indicates the existence of a rainfall dipole between the summer and winter rainfall areas of South Africa. The wettest period was c. AD 1075 in the Medieval Warm Period, and the driest periods were c. AD 1635, c. AD 1695 and c. AD1805 during the Little Ice Age. Decadal-scale variability suggests that the rainfall forcing mechanisms are a complex interaction between proximal and distal factors. Periods of higher rainfall are significantly associated with lower sea-surface temperatures in the Agulhas Current core region and a negative Dipole Moment Index in the Indian Ocean. The correlation between rainfall and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation Index is non-static. Wetter conditions are associated with predominantly El Niño conditions over most of the record, but since about AD 1970 this relationship inverted and wet conditions are currently associated with la Nina conditions. The effect of both proximal and distal oceanic influences are insufficient to explain the rainfall regime shift between the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age, and the evidence suggests that this was the result of a northward shift of the subtropical westerlies rather than a southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone.

  4. Adansonia digitata L. (baobab: a review of traditional information and taxonomic description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitin Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adansonia digitata L. (Malvaceae is commonly known as baobab tree native to Africa. Baobab is a multi-purpose tree which offers protection and provides food, clothing and medicine as well as raw material for many useful items. The fruit pulp, seeds, leaves, flowers, roots, and bark of baobab are edible and they have been studied by scientists for their useful properties. The fruit pulp have very high vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus, carbohydrates, fibers, potassium, proteins and lipids content, which can be used in seasoning as an appetizer and also make juices. Seeds contain appreciable quantities of phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, sodium, iron, manganese, whereas they have high levels of lysine, thiamine, calcium and iron. Baobab has numerous biological properties including antimicrobial, anti-malarial, diarrhoea, anaemia, asthma, antiviral, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities amongst others. Phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of flavonoids, phytosterols, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. The review summarizes the information on various aspects of traditional information, taxonomic description, medicinal properties and importantly nutritional value.

  5. Adaptive properties of Adansonia digitata L. (Baobab) & Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) R.Br. (African Locust Bean) to drought stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouda, Zoewinde Henri-Noel

    and physiology. A. digitata had a much higher survival rate than P. biglobosa. However, both species showed a strong reduction of the relative growth rate (diameter and height) and the total dry weight under the effect of applied water stress. Despite differences between provenances of P. biglobosa......, it was not possible to link their geographical position or climatic parameters to growth performance, fresh to dry weight or shoot to root ratios. Although some morphological parameters were correlated with the rainfall for A. digitata, none of the physiological differences between provenances were correlated...

  6. Influence of exudates of the kelp Laminaria digitata on biofilm formation of associated and exogenous bacterial epiphytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaün, Stéphanie; La Barre, Stéphane; Dos Santos-Goncalvez, Marina; Potin, Philippe; Haras, Dominique; Bazire, Alexis

    2012-08-01

    Wild populations of brown marine algae (Phaeophyta) provide extensive surfaces to bacteria and epiphytic eukaryotes for colonization. On one hand, various strategies allow kelps prevent frond surface fouling which would retard growth by reducing photosynthesis and increasing pathogenesis. On the other hand, production and release of organic exudates of high energy value, sometimes in association with more or less selective control of settlement of epiphytic strains, allow bacteria to establish surface consortia not leading to macrofouling. Here, we present the analysis of adhesion and biofilm formation of bacterial isolates from the kelp Laminaria digitata and of characterized and referenced marine isolates. When they were grown in flow cell under standard nutrient regimes, all used bacteria, except one, were able to adhere on glass and then develop as biofilms, with different architecture. Then, we evaluated the effect of extracts from undisturbed young Laminaria thalli and from young thalli subjected to oxidative stress elicitation; this latter condition induced the production of defense molecules. We observed increasing or decreasing adhesion depending on the referenced strains, but no effects were observed against strains isolated from L. digitata. Such effects were less observed on biofilms. Our results suggested that L. digitata is able to modulate its bacterial colonization. Finally, mannitol, a regular surface active component of Laminaria exudates was tested individually, and it showed a pronounced increased on one biofilm strain. Results of these experiments are original and can be usefully linked to what we already know on the oxidative halogen metabolism peculiar to Laminaria. Hopefully, we will be able to understand more about the unique relationship that bacteria have been sharing with Laminaria for an estimated one billion years.

  7. Corneal opacity due to Setaria digitata in a Jersey cross-bred Cow and its surgical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A Jersey cross bred cow brought to the peripheral hospital, Uttara Kannada with clinical signs of lacrimation, corneal opacity, bleophorospasm and presence of white thread like worm in its anterior chamber of the right eye. The worm was surgically removed by limbal incision and an adequate post operative care was taken for early recovery. The worm was morphologically identified as Setaria digitata. The cow attains normal sight in 3 weeks postoperatively. [Vet. World 2009; 2(2.000: 69-70

  8. Methanolic Extracts of Cochorous olitorous (L. and Adansonia digitata (L. Leaves Against Irradiation-Induced Atherosclerosis in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir O. BELLO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the anti-atherosclerotic and antioxidative effect of the methanolic extracts (MExt of Cochorous olitorous (CO and Adansonia digitata (AD leaves on irradiation-induced atherosclerosis in male Wistar rats. Atherosclerosis was induced in male rats by a single dose of 6 gray whole body gamma radiation. MExt of C. olitorous and A. digitata leaves at 500 and 1,000 mg/kg bwt were administered as treatment for 7 days. Blood serum was analysed for lipid profile, MDA (malondialdehyde and liver tissue for antioxidants enzymes, whereas the therapeutic potential was compared to the lipids-lowering drug lovastatin at 10 mg/kg/bwt. The phytochemical studies showed the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins and saponins. Treatment with MExt of CO and AD normalized the elevated MDA level, whereas the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the treated rats increased. Pronounced changes were observed at 1,000 mg/kg bwt mixture of MExt of CO and AD for 1 weeks and it was more potent than the standard drug. The current study provided strong evidence that MExt of CO and AD might be important in the treatment of atherosclerosis and ROS without any side effects at the studied dosage and duration.

  9. Crude fucoidan content in two North Atlantic kelp species, Saccharina latissima and Laminaria digitata - seasonal variation and impact of environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Annette; Janicek, Tina; Manns, Dirk Martin

    2017-01-01

    . The relations between the fucoidan content and key environmental factors (irradiance, nutrient availability, salinity and exposure) were examined by sampling natural populations of the common North Atlantic kelps, Saccharina latissima and Laminaria digitata, over a full year at Hanstholm in the North Sea...

  10. Abundance, distribution and status of African baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) in dry savanna woodlands in southern Gonarezhou National Park, southeast Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mpofu, E.; Gandiwa, E.; Zisadza-Gandiwa, P.; Zinhiva, H.

    2012-01-01

    The abundance, distribution and status of baobabs (Adansonia digitata L.) in three land categories namely, (i) plains, (ii) riverine and rocky outcrops, and (iii) development areas, in southern Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), southeast Zimbabwe, were determined. Baobabs were sampled between April

  11. Beauty in Baobab: a pilot study of the safety and efficacy of Adansonia digitata seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baatile M. Komane

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recently there has been a renewed impetus in the search for novel ingredients to be used in the cosmetic industry and Baobab (Adansonia digitata L., Malvaceae seed oil has received high interest. In this study, a commercial Baobab seed oil sample was characterised (fatty acid content using GCxGC-ToF-MS and a pilot study on the safety and efficacy of the seed oil was performed. The safety and efficacy of Baobab seed oil after topical application was determined using healthy adult female caucasian participants (n = 20. A 2× magnifying lamp was used for visual analysis, while for monitoring and evaluation of the irritancy level, transepidermal water loss (TEWL and hydration level of the skin, Chromameter®, Aquaflux® and Corneometer® instruments, respectively, were used. In addition, Aquaflux® and Corneometer® instruments were used to assess occlusive effects. Thirteen methyl esters were identified using GCxGC-ToF-MS. The major fatty acids included 36.0% linoleic acid, 25.1% oleic acid and 28.8% palmitic acid with 10.1% constituting trace fatty acids. The irritancy of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS in the patch test differed significantly compared to both de-ionised water (p < 0.001 and Baobab seed oil (p < 0.001 but the difference between the irritancy of Baobab seed oil and de-ionised water was not significant (p = 0.850. The moisture efficacy test indicated a reduced TEWL (p = 0.048 and an improved capacitance moisture retention (p < 0.001 for all the test products (Baobab oil, liquid paraffin, Vaseline® intensive care lotion and Vaseline®. The occlusivity wipe-off test indicated an increased moisture hydration (p < 0.001 and decreased TEWL particularly when Baobab oil was applied. Baobab possesses hydrating, moisturising and occlusive properties when topically applied to the skin. Baobab seed oil could be a valuable functional ingredient for cosmeceutical applications.

  12. Nutritional variation in baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) fruit pulp and seeds based on Africa geographical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthai, Kinuthia U; Karori, Mbuthia S; Muchugi, Alice; Indieka, Abwao S; Dembele, Catherine; Mng'omba, Simon; Jamnadass, Ramni

    2017-11-01

    Baobab ( Adansonia digitata L.) is an indigenous fruit tree associated with the Savannah drylands of sub-Saharan Africa. Local communities mainly utilize the leaves, pulp, and seeds of baobab as a source of food and for income generation. The present study was conducted to determine the nutritive attributes of baobab fruit pulp and seeds across provenances in east, west, and southern Africa and to determine whether the nutrient content varied with the provenance of origin. Pulp and seed proximate composition and mineral element concentration were determined using the AOAC 1984 methods and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), respectively. The results showed that there exist significant variation ( p  < .05) in pulp moisture, protein, fiber, ash, and elemental content among provenances. The highest mean pulp crude fiber (8.68 g 100 g -1 dw) was recorded in Kenya. At country level, Malawi had the highest mean pulp potassium (22.2 mg g -1 ), calcium (4,300 mg kg -1 ), magnesium (2,300 mg kg -1 ), sodium (1,000 mg kg -1 ), and phosphorus (1,100 mg kg -1 ) levels. Kenya had the highest mean pulp iron (57.4 μg g -1 ) and manganese (27.2 μg g -1 ) content, while Mali had the lowest iron (13.1 μg g -1 ) and manganese (8.6 μg g -1 ). At country level, the mean seed calcium content was highest (3,200 mg kg -1 ) in Malawi and lowest (2,000 mg kg -1 ) in Kenya. The highest mean iron content of 63.7 μg g -1 was recorded in seeds from Kenya, while the lowest (25.8 μg g -1 ) was in Mali. Baobab seed mineral and proximate content varied significantly ( p  < .001) among the selected countries. Overall, baobab fruit pulp and seeds contain significant amounts of nutritionally essential minerals and proximate components but the amounts varied significantly among the selected countries. This variation offers opportunities for selecting provenances to concentrate on during germplasm collection for conservation and

  13. Variation in biochemical composition of Saccharina latissima and Laminaria digitata along an estuarine salinity gradient in inner Danish waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Møller; Manns, Dirk Martin; D'Este, Martina

    2016-01-01

    In European kelp cultivation, knowledge on the spatial variation in biomass productivity and quality needs to be established. The present study provides a detailed overview of the biochemical composition and biomass production potential of Saccharina latissima and Laminaria digitata along...... a salinity gradient (16–31 PSU) in inner Danish waters. We discuss the results in a cultivation perspective, and evaluate the potential use of Laminariales as an energy feedstock, a feed additive and a bioremediation tool for mitigating eutrophication. We found the highest biomass production potential......, the highest protein content (7.5% of dry matter), and the highest capacity for bio-remediation of nitrogen (1.88% N of dry matter) at high salinities, as opposed to the highest concentrations of fermentable sugars (90% of dry matter) and pigments at low salinities. Thus, areas suitable for high biomass...

  14. Alteration of sexual reproduction and genetic diversity in the kelp species Laminaria digitata at the southern limit of its range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppliger, Luz Valeria; von Dassow, Peter; Bouchemousse, Sarah; Robuchon, Marine; Valero, Myriam; Correa, Juan A; Mauger, Stéphane; Destombe, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation to marginal habitats at species range-limits has often been associated with parthenogenetic reproduction in terrestrial animals and plants. Laboratory observations have shown that brown algae exhibit a high propensity for parthenogenesis by various mechanisms. The kelp Laminaria digitata is an important component of the ecosystem in Northern European rocky intertidal habitats. We studied four L. digitata populations for the effects of marginality on genetic diversity and sexual reproduction. Two populations were marginal: One (Locquirec, in Northern Brittany) was well within the geographic range, but was genetically isolated from other populations by large stretches of sandy beaches. Another population was at the range limits of the species (Quiberon, in Southern Brittany) and was exposed to much higher seasonal temperature changes. Microsatellite analyses confirmed that these populations showed decreased genetic and allelic diversity, consistent with marginality and genetic isolation. Sporophytes from both marginal populations showed greatly diminished spore-production compared to central populations, but only the southern-limit population (Quiberon) showed a high propensity for producing unreduced (2N) spores. Unreduced 2N spores formed phenotypically normal gametophytes with nuclear area consistent with ≥2N DNA contents, and microsatellite studies suggested these were produced at least in part by automixis. However, despite this being the dominant path of spore production in Quiberon sporophyte individuals, the genetic evidence indicated the population was maintained mostly by sexual reproduction. Thus, although spore production and development showed the expected tendency of geographical parthenogenesis in marginal populations, this appeared to be a consequence of maladaptation, rather than an adaptation to, life in a marginal habitat.

  15. Alteration of sexual reproduction and genetic diversity in the kelp species Laminaria digitata at the southern limit of its range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Valeria Oppliger

    Full Text Available Adaptation to marginal habitats at species range-limits has often been associated with parthenogenetic reproduction in terrestrial animals and plants. Laboratory observations have shown that brown algae exhibit a high propensity for parthenogenesis by various mechanisms. The kelp Laminaria digitata is an important component of the ecosystem in Northern European rocky intertidal habitats. We studied four L. digitata populations for the effects of marginality on genetic diversity and sexual reproduction. Two populations were marginal: One (Locquirec, in Northern Brittany was well within the geographic range, but was genetically isolated from other populations by large stretches of sandy beaches. Another population was at the range limits of the species (Quiberon, in Southern Brittany and was exposed to much higher seasonal temperature changes. Microsatellite analyses confirmed that these populations showed decreased genetic and allelic diversity, consistent with marginality and genetic isolation. Sporophytes from both marginal populations showed greatly diminished spore-production compared to central populations, but only the southern-limit population (Quiberon showed a high propensity for producing unreduced (2N spores. Unreduced 2N spores formed phenotypically normal gametophytes with nuclear area consistent with ≥2N DNA contents, and microsatellite studies suggested these were produced at least in part by automixis. However, despite this being the dominant path of spore production in Quiberon sporophyte individuals, the genetic evidence indicated the population was maintained mostly by sexual reproduction. Thus, although spore production and development showed the expected tendency of geographical parthenogenesis in marginal populations, this appeared to be a consequence of maladaptation, rather than an adaptation to, life in a marginal habitat.

  16. Influence of variable feeding on mesophilic and thermophilic co-digestion of Laminaria digitata and cattle manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarker, Shiplu; Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Bruhn, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Anaerobic co-digestion of L. digitata and cattle manure, at ∼35 and ∼50 °C. • Mesophilic co-digestion showed somewhat stable specific methane, but increased volumetric yield. • Thermophilic co-digester yielded higher methane at higher input of algae compared to control. • Mesophilic co-digester performed better in terms of various parameters except methane yield. - Abstract: In this study the effect of various feeding ratios on mesophilic (∼35 °C) and thermophilic (∼50 °C) co-digestion of brown algae Laminaria digitata and cattle manure was investigated. Algae input of 15% VS caused no influence on specific methane yield from mesophilic co-digester while deteriorated the process parameters such as the development of propionic acid in total volatile fatty acids (tVFA) pattern of the thermophilic co-digester. The accumulation of tVFA continued for the latter reactor as the feeding ratio of algae enhanced to 24% VS, but the specific methane yield improved dramatically. Same rise in feeding once again showed no improvement in specific methane yield from mesophilic co-digester even though the other process parameters stabilized or, enriched such as the gain in average volumetric methane yield. For the last feeding ratio at 41% VS algae, specific methane yield from mesophilic co-digester slightly increased which however was not still comparable with the ultimate methane yield from the cattle manure alone. The thermophilic co-digestion on the other hand yielded maximum specific methane, together with the improvement in different process characteristics, as the feeding of algae maximized at the final stage. The trend of methane production from this reactor nevertheless was sharply downward towards the end of the experiment suggesting that the optimum feeding ratio has already been achieved for the present experimental conditions

  17. Fast time resolution measurements of high concentrations of iodine above a Laminaria Digitata seaweed bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen; Adams, Thomas; Leblanc, Catherine; Potin, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    We report observations of extremely large concentrations of molecular iodine (I2) measured in situ above a seaweed bed composed of laminaria digitata (90%) and laminaria hyperborea (10%) growing in its natural habitat. Measurements were made off the coast of Roscoff in Brittany, France, during day-time low tides on several days in September and November 2012 with the greatest tidal amplitudes. Iodine was quantified using a portable, battery-powered broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer (BBCEAS) deployed from the in-shore research vessel "Aurelia" operated by the Station Biologique de Roscoff. For the 5 second integration times used here, the BBCEAS instrument has a detection limit for iodine of 12 pptv (parts per trillion by volume). The boat was anchored above the seaweed bed before it was exposed to air by the ebbing tide; the boat was grounded on the seaweed bed around the tidal minimum, and then refloated as the incoming tide covered the seaweed. I2 concentrations were strongly anti-correlated with water depth. Initially little I2 was seen above background levels whilst the blades of the seaweed plants were floating on the water surface. However several hundred pptv of I2 was observed within a few minutes of the plants' stipes breaking the surface and first blades coming to rest on rocks out of the water. Iodine concentrations increased further as the tide ebbed, typically peaking around 1500 pptv around the tidal minimum (by which time the seaweed had been exposed for 45 minutes). I2 concentrations decreased rapidly back to background levels as the returning tide submerged the seaweeds. The concentration profiles showed a lot of high frequency structure, with I2 concentrations commonly varying by a factor 2 (or more) within 60 seconds. Additionally the profiles of I2 emitted from the seaweeds immediately below the instrument's inlet typically sat on a smoothly-varying background of approximately 100 pptv, which we attribute to I2 from other more

  18. Analysis of bacterial community shifts in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs fed diets supplemented with β-glucan from Laminaria digitata, Laminaria hyperborea and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P; Dal Bello, F; O'Doherty, J; Arendt, E K; Sweeney, T; Coffey, A

    2013-07-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of algal and yeast β-glucans on the porcine gastrointestinal microbiota, specifically the community of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and coliforms. A total of 48 pigs were fed four diets over a 28-day period to determine the effect that each had on these communities. The control diet consisted of wheat and soya bean meal. The remaining three diets contained wheat and soya bean meal supplemented with β-glucan at 250 g/tonne from Laminaria digitata, Laminaria hyperborea or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Faecal samples were collected from animals before feeding each diet and after the feeding period. The animals were slaughtered the following day and samples were collected from the stomach, ileum, caecum, proximal colon and distal colon. Alterations in Lactobacillus in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were analysed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles generated by group-specific 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicons. Plate count analysis was also performed to quantify total coliforms. DGGE profiles indicated that all β-glucan diets provoked the emergence of a richer community of Lactobacillus. The richest community of lactobacilli emerged after feeding L. digitata (LD β-glucan). Plate count analysis revealed that the L. hyperborea (LH β-glucan) diet had a statistically significant effect on the coliform counts in the proximal colon in comparison with the control diet. β-glucan from L. digitata and S. cerevisiae also generally reduced coliforms but to a lesser extent. Nevertheless, the β-glucan diets did not significantly reduce levels of Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium. DGGE analysis of GIT samples indicated that the three β-glucan diets generally promoted the establishment of a more varied range of Lactobacillus species in the caecum, proximal and distal colon. The LH β-glucan had the most profound reducing effect on coliform counts when compared with the control diet and diets supplemented with L

  19. Waterborne signaling primes the expression of elicitor-induced genes and buffers the oxidative responses in the brown alga Laminaria digitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, François; Cosse, Audrey; Goulitquer, Sophie; Raimund, Stefan; Morin, Pascal; Valero, Myriam; Leblanc, Catherine; Potin, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    As marine sessile organisms, seaweeds must respond efficiently to biotic and abiotic challenges in their natural environment to reduce the fitness consequences of wounds and oxidative stress. This study explores the early steps of the defense responses of a large marine brown alga (the tangle kelp Laminaria digitata) and investigates its ability to transmit a warning message to neighboring conspecifics. We compared the early responses to elicitation with oligoguluronates in laboratory-grown and harvested wild individuals of L. digitata. We followed the release of H₂O₂ and the concomitant production of volatile organic compounds. We also monitored the kinetics of expression of defense-related genes following the oxidative burst. Laboratory-grown algae were transplanted in kelp habitats to further evaluate their responses to elicitation after a transient immersion in natural seawater. In addition, a novel conditioning procedure was established to mimic field conditions in the laboratory. Our experiments showed that L. digitata integrates waterborne cues present in the kelp bed and/or released from elicited neighboring plants. Indeed, the exposure to elicited conspecifics changes the patterns of oxidative burst and volatile emissions and potentiates this kelp for faster induction of genes specifically regulated in response to oligoguluronates. Thus, waterborne signals shape the elicitor-induced responses of kelps through a yet unknown mechanism reminiscent of priming in land plants.

  20. Waterborne signaling primes the expression of elicitor-induced genes and buffers the oxidative responses in the brown alga Laminaria digitata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Thomas

    Full Text Available As marine sessile organisms, seaweeds must respond efficiently to biotic and abiotic challenges in their natural environment to reduce the fitness consequences of wounds and oxidative stress. This study explores the early steps of the defense responses of a large marine brown alga (the tangle kelp Laminaria digitata and investigates its ability to transmit a warning message to neighboring conspecifics. We compared the early responses to elicitation with oligoguluronates in laboratory-grown and harvested wild individuals of L. digitata. We followed the release of H₂O₂ and the concomitant production of volatile organic compounds. We also monitored the kinetics of expression of defense-related genes following the oxidative burst. Laboratory-grown algae were transplanted in kelp habitats to further evaluate their responses to elicitation after a transient immersion in natural seawater. In addition, a novel conditioning procedure was established to mimic field conditions in the laboratory. Our experiments showed that L. digitata integrates waterborne cues present in the kelp bed and/or released from elicited neighboring plants. Indeed, the exposure to elicited conspecifics changes the patterns of oxidative burst and volatile emissions and potentiates this kelp for faster induction of genes specifically regulated in response to oligoguluronates. Thus, waterborne signals shape the elicitor-induced responses of kelps through a yet unknown mechanism reminiscent of priming in land plants.

  1. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Adansonia digitata L. Seed oil gotten from Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria, on some strains of bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R.O. Edogbanya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of essential oils as antibacterial agents have become popular over the years, this is in a bid to search for alternative ways of dealing with strains of bacteria that have become resistant to conventional antibiotics. This study was carried out to evaluate the antibacterial potentials of Adansonia digitata seed oil from Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria, on the clinical isolates of some bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The oil was extracted from the seeds using the soxhlet extraction method with n-hexane as the solvent. Well diffusion method was used to test susceptibility of the strains of bacteria to the oil, using Gentamycin and Streptomycin as standard positive controls. Experiments were carried out in duplicates. Data obtained from the experiment was analysed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT, with P < 0.05 considered significant. The results revealed that A. digitata oil was unable to create any inhibition zones in the bacteria cultures. From this research it can be concluded that A. digitata oil had no Antibacterial activity.

  2. Not all Laminaria digitata are the same! Phenotypic plasticity and the selection of appropriate surrogate macroalgae for ecohydraulic experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Robert E.; McLelland, Stuart J.; Henry, Pierre-Yves T.; Paul, Maike; Eiff, Olivier; Evertsen, Antti-Jussi O.; Aberle, Jochen; Teacă, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Whilst early physical modelling and theoretical studies of the interactions between vegetation and flowing water employed rigid structures such as wooden dowels, recent studies have progressed to flexible surrogate plants. However, even appropriately-scaled flexible surrogates fail to capture the variability in thallus morphology, flexibility and strength, both within and between individuals, and frontal or planform area over space and time. Furthermore, although there have been a number of field studies, measurements of hydraulic variables have generally been limited to time-averaged at-a-point measurements that aim to approximate the depth-mean velocity. This is problematic because in spatially heterogeneous flows, point measurements are dependent upon the sampling location. Herein, we describe research carried out by the participants in the PISCES work package of the HYDRALAB IV project that sought to address these limitations and assess the level of complexity needed to adequately reproduce the hydrodynamics of the natural system in physical models. We selected an 11 m long × 6 m wide region of a tidal inlet, the Hopavågen Bay, Sør-Trøndelag, Norway, that contained 19 Laminaria digitata thalli and 101 other macroalgae thalli. Two L. digitata specimens ~0.50 m apart were selected for detailed study and a 2 m long × 8 m wide frame was oriented around them by enforcing zero cross-stream discharge at its upstream edge. We then quantified: 1. the mean and turbulent flow field of the undisturbed condition (Case A); 2. the positions, geometrical and biomechanical properties of the macroalgae; and 3. the mean and turbulent flow field after the macroalgae were completely removed (Case B). Later, Case A was replicated in the same location (±0.025 m) before the 19 L. digitata thalli were replaced with 19 "optimized" surrogates (Case C). These three cases were then repeated in the Total Environment Simulator at the University of Hull, UK. Live macroalgae thalli could

  3. The time-dependent emission of molecular iodine from Laminaria Digitata measured with incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixneuf, S.

    2009-04-01

    The release of molecular iodine (I2) from the oceans into the atmosphere has been recognized to correlate strongly with ozone depletion events and aerosol formation in the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL), which affects in turn global radiative forcing. The detailed mechanisms and dominant sources leading to the observed concentrations of I2 in the marine troposphere are still under intense investigation. In a recent campaign on the Irish west coast at Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station [1], it was found that significant levels of molecular iodine correlated with times of low tide, suggesting that the emission of air-exposed macro-algae may be a prime source of molecular iodine in coastal areas [2]. To further investigate this hypothesis we tried to detect the I2 emission of the brown seaweed Laminaria digitata, one of the most efficient iodine accumulators among living systems, directly by means of highly sensitive incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) [3]. IBBCEAS combines a good temporal and spatial resolution with high molecule-specific detection limits [4] comparable to that of typical LP-DOAS. IBBCEAS thus complements LP-DOAS in the search for sources of tropospheric trace gases. In this presentation the first direct observation of the time dependence of molecular iodine emission from Laminaria digitata will be shown. Plants were studied under naturally occurring stress for quasi in situ conditions for many hours. Surprisingly, the release of I2 occurs in short, strong bursts with quasi-oscillatory behaviour, bearing similarities to well known "iodine clock reactions". References [1] Saiz-Lopez A. & Plane, J. M. C. Novel iodine chemistry in the marine boundary layer. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L04112 (2004) doi:10.1029/2003GL019215. [2] McFiggans, G., Coe, H., Burgess, R., Allan, J., Cubison, M., Alfarra, M. R., Saunders, R., Saiz-Lopez, A., Plane, J. M. C., Wevill, D. J., Carpenter, L. J., Rickard, A. R. & Monks, P. S. Direct

  4. In vivo speciation studies and antioxidant properties of bromine in Laminaria digitata reinforce the significance of iodine accumulation for kelps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Frithjof C; Carpenter, Lucy J; Leblanc, Catherine; Toyama, Chiaki; Uchida, Yuka; Maskrey, Benjamin H; Robinson, Joanne; Verhaeghe, Elodie F; Malin, Gill; Luther, George W; Kroneck, Peter M H; Kloareg, Bernard; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Megson, Ian L; Potin, Philippe; Feiters, Martin C

    2013-07-01

    The metabolism of bromine in marine brown algae remains poorly understood. This contrasts with the recent finding that the accumulation of iodide in the brown alga Laminaria serves the provision of an inorganic antioxidant - the first case documented from a living system. The aim of this study was to use an interdisciplinary array of techniques to study the chemical speciation, transformation, and function of bromine in Laminaria and to investigate the link between bromine and iodine metabolism, in particular in the antioxidant context. First, bromine and iodine levels in different Laminaria tissues were compared by inductively coupled plasma MS. Using in vivo X-ray absorption spectroscopy, it was found that, similarly to iodine, bromine is predominantly present in this alga in the form of bromide, albeit at lower concentrations, and that it shows similar behaviour upon oxidative stress. However, from a thermodynamic and kinetic standpoint, supported by in vitro and reconstituted in vivo assays, bromide is less suitable than iodide as an antioxidant against most reactive oxygen species except superoxide, possibly explaining why kelps prefer to accumulate iodide. This constitutes the first-ever study exploring the potential antioxidant function of bromide in a living system and other potential physiological roles. Given the tissue-specific differences observed in the content and speciation of bromine, it is concluded that the bromide uptake mechanism is different from the vanadium iodoperoxidase-mediated uptake of iodide in L. digitata and that its function is likely to be complementary to the iodide antioxidant system for detoxifying superoxide.

  5. Abundance and Structure of African Baobab (Adansonia digitata across Different Soil Types in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Mashapa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the abundance and structure of African baobab (Adansonia digitata across soil group strata in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe. The study was based on a stratified random sampling design composed of the following soil group substrates: (i granophyres, (ii malvernia, and (iii rhyolite. Belt transects of 0.3×0.1 km were randomly laid across soil group. Baobab abundance and population structure were determined from the density and size class distribution, respectively. There were significant differences in plant height and plant density across Gonarezhou soil groups. Study sites on granophyres derived soil group indicated viable abundance and recruitment of baobab population. Whereas the study highlighted a concern over the unbalanced size structure distribution of baobab population on malvernia derived soil group, our results indicated that baobabs are in danger of extirpation on malvernia derived soil group. Baobab community in Gonarezhou tends to occur more densely along environmental gradient of soil group type as influenced by the underlying geological soil substrate of granophyres. Malvernia derived soil group is likely less ideal for baobab recruitment.

  6. Adansonia digitata and Adansonia gregorii fruit shells serve as a protection against high temperatures experienced during wildfires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Andreas; Neinhuis, Christoph; Lautenschläger, Thea

    2018-02-17

    The thick and woody shell of the fruit of Adansonia species cannot be explained solely by adaptation to zoochory or hydrochory. Since the trunks of Adansonia possess a thick and fire-resistant bark and wildfires occur regularly in its habitat (savannah), we examined with the African Adanonia digitata and the Australian Adansonia gregorii whether the fruit offers protection against high heat typically experienced in wildfires. Heat-resistance tests were conducted by applying a simple heat test based on known temperature and temperature residence times occurring in savannah fires and complemented by tests to reveal the impact of heat on germination since long-term seed dormancy is known for Adansonia. Germination tests with acid treated and heat treated seeds were performed to establish if heat also increased germination rate as effectively as acid treatments have been found to do. Heat was found to increase germination rate, but not as effectively as treatment with acid, therefore fruits exposed to high temperatures experienced in wildfires may have a better chance of germination than fruits that were not exposed to wildfires. The ability of the investigated fruits to protect seeds from high temperatures suggests that wildfires may have played a role in the evolution of the hard-shell structure typically found in Adansonia.

  7. The importance of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) in rural West African subsistence--suggestion of a cautionary approach to international market export of baobab fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Christine; Prehsler, Sarah; Hartl, Anna; Vogl, Christian R

    2010-01-01

    The European Commission recently authorized the import of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) fruit pulp as a novel food. In rural West Africa the multipurpose baobab is used extensively for subsistence. Three hundred traditional uses of the baobab were documented in Benin, Mali, and Senegal across 11 ethnic groups and 4 agroecological zones. Baobab fruits and leaves are consumed throughout the year. The export of baobab fruits could negatively influence livelihoods, including reduced nutritional intake, change of power relations, and access rights. Capacity building and certification could encourage a sustainable and ethical trade of baobab fruits without neglecting baobab use in subsistence.

  8. Exploration of the phycoremediation potential of Laminaria digitata towards diflubenzuron, lindane, copper and cadmium in a multitrophic pilot-scale experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anacleto, Patrícia; van den Heuvel, Freek H M; Oliveira, C

    2017-01-01

    The presence of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems can cause serious problems to the environment and marine organisms. This study aims to evaluate the phycoremediation capacity of macroalgae Laminaria digitata for pesticides (diflubenzuron and lindane) and toxic elements (cadmium and copper) in s...... strategy to remove/decrease contaminant levels from the aquatic environment.......) in seawater with the presence or absence of mussels. The photosynthetic activity was monitored in the macroalgae to assess its "physiological status". The results showed that the presence of algae decreased diflubenzuron concentration in mussels by 70% after 120 h of exposure. Additionally, this macroalgae...

  9. Bending properties of a macroalga: Adaptation of Peirce's cantilever test for in situ measurements of Laminaria digitata (Laminariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Pierre-Yves T

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: The mechanical properties of a plant are key variables governing the interaction between the plant and its environment. Thus, measuring variables such as the flexural rigidity (bending) of a plant element is necessary to understand and predict the plant-flow interaction. However, plant elements such as macrophyte blades can be relatively thin and flexible, thus difficult to characterize. Different adaptations of the classical 3-point bending tests can also affect the interpretation of the flexural rigidity of an element. A simple, robust, method is newly applied to a biomaterial and validated here as an alternative to measure flexural rigidity of thin, flexible plant elements.• Methods: Based on a bending test procedure developed for the textile industry, an apparatus for in-situ measurements was developed and compared with other normalized methods, then used in a field test on the blade of a marine macroalga (Laminaria digitata) to assess its suitability to measure the bending modulus of a biomaterial.• Key results: Results of the presented method on selected surrogate materials agree with a normalized cantilever method (ISO 9073-7:1998) and 3-point bending test (ISO 178:2010). Values determined for the bending moduli for blades of L. digitaria were in the typical range for algal material. The range of validity of the method is discussed.• Conclusion: By validating this method with existing norms, this study suggests a better approach to measure bending properties of different biomaterials in the field compared with more traditional bending tests and opens new possibilities. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  10. Trophic ecology in a Northern Brittany (Batz Island, France) kelp ( Laminaria digitata) forest, as investigated through stable isotopes and chemical assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Gauthier; Riera, Pascal; Leroux, Cédric

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at characterizing the relationships between the food web's structure and the nutritive value of basal food sources in a Northern Brittany (France) Laminaria digitata bed. Stable isotopes were used to identify the food sources consumed by benthic invertebrates, and the nutritive value of primary producers was assessed according to four descriptors (total organic matter, C/N ratio, proteins content, lipids content). Although the food web appeared to be based on a wide diversity of food sources, only Rhodophyta (red algae) and biofilms (epilithic and epiphytic) were heavily consumed by grazers. In contrast, Phaeophyta (brown algae), which are dominant in this habitat, have no specialized grazer (with the exception of Helcion pellucidum, specialized grazer of Laminaria digitata). This selective consumption may be related to the higher protein content and lower C/N ratio of Rhodophyta and biofilms, in comparison with Phaeophyta. Fresh brown algae are thus of poor nutritive value, but processes associated with their degradation are likely to improve this nutritive value, leading in the assimilation of detritus by filter-feeders, revealed by high δ13C in these consumers. Our results thus suggest that the nutritive value of basal food sources may be an important factor involved in the structuration of kelp-associated food webs.

  11. Effects of dietary supplementation with Laminaria hyperborea, Laminaria digitata, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the IL-17 pathway in the porcine colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M T; O'Shea, C J; Collins, C B; O'Doherty, J V; Sweeney, T

    2012-12-01

    An unregulated T(h)17 inflammatory response has been highlighted as a major contributor to the underlying pathology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) whereas regulatory T (T(REG)) cells) have been highlighted as pivotal in suppressing autoimmune and inflammatory responses in the gut. Following dietary supplementation, β-glucans have been shown to reduce the T(h)17 signature molecule IL-17a in the porcine colon. To expand this observation we examined the effects of supplementing feeds with β-glucans derived from seaweeds Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria digitata and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on gene expression of a range of cytokines, receptors, and signal transducing molecules relevant to the T(h)17 and T(REG) pathways in the porcine colon. All sources of β-glucans significantly decreased the expression of T(h)17-related cytokines (IL-17a, IL-17F, and IL-22), receptor IL23R, and IL-6. There was no alteration to the T(REG)-related target, Foxp3, or to TGF-β, although a significant reduction in IL-10 was observed in the L. digitata supplementation group.

  12. Molecular iodine (I2) emission from two Laminaria species (Phaeophyceae) and impact of irradiance and temperature on I2 emission into air and iodide release into seawater from Laminaria digitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschke, Udo; Dixneuf, Sophie; Ruth, Albert A; Schmid, Matthias; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2013-12-01

    Kelps of the genus Laminaria accumulate iodine at high concentrations, but the iodine retaining capacity can be affected by emersion and physiological stress. In this study, I2 emission into the atmosphere from Laminaria digitata and Laminaria hyperborea was compared under controlled low irradiances and temperatures. The two species exhibited different I2 emission rates as blades of L. digitata emitted I2 at rates five times higher than those from newly-grown blades (current growth season) of L. hyperborea. I2 emission was not detectable from old blades (previous growth season) of L. hyperborea. Additionally, effects of irradiance and temperature on both I2 emission into air and net I(-) release into seawater where assessed for L. digitata while monitoring photo-physiological parameters as stress indicators. Irradiances between 30 and 120 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) had only marginal effects on both I2 emission and I(-) release rates, but physiological stress, indicated by photoinhibition, was observed. The results suggest that the irradiances applied here were not stressful enough to impact on the iodine release. By contrast, at elevated temperatures (20 °C), photoinhibition was accompanied by an increase in I2 emission rates, but net I(-) release rates remained similar at 10-20 °C. High I2 emission rates into air and I(-) release into seawater observed from L. digitata underpin the fundamental function of this kelp as mediator of coastal iodine fluxes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Butterflies of Uganda: Memories of a child soldier | Dahms | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 40, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Butterflies of Uganda: Memories ...

  14. Butterflies of Uganda: Memories of a child soldier | Dahms | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 40, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file ...

  15. Heinrich Schenker, Walter Dahms, and the Music of the South

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koslovsky, John

    2017-01-01

    In recent years scholars have made great strides in contextualizing the theories of Heinrich Schenker (18681935) within the politics and culture of the interwar period. Many of Schenker’s closest pupils and disciples have now also come under investigation. Few present as bewildering a story as

  16. The biogeochemical effect of seaweeds upon close-to natural concentrations of dissolved iodate and iodide in seawater Preliminary study with Laminaria digitata and Fucus serratus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdale, Victor W.

    2008-06-01

    Toward assessing the biogeochemical significance of seaweeds in relation to dissolved iodine in seawater, the effect of whole seaweeds ( Laminaria digitata and Fucus serratus) upon iodide and iodate, at essentially natural concentrations, has been studied. The weeds were carefully removed from the sub-littoral zone of the Menai Straits and exposed to iodide and iodate at their natural temperature (6 °C), but under continuous illumination. Laminaria digitata was found to decrease the concentration of iodate with an exponential rate constant of 0.008-0.24 h -1. This is a newly discovered process which, if substantiated, will require an entirely new mechanism. Generally, apparent iodide concentration increased except in a run with seawater augmented with iodide, where it first decreased. The rate constant for loss of iodide was 0.014-0.16 h -1. Meanwhile, F. serratus was found not to decrease iodate concentrations, as did L. digitata. Indeed, after ˜30 h iodate concentrations increased, suggesting that the weed may take in iodide before oxidising and releasing it. If substantiated, this finding may offer a way into one of the most elusive of processes within the iodine cycle - iodide oxidation. With both seaweeds sustained long-term increases of apparent iodide concentration are most easily explained as a secretion by the weeds of organic matter which is capable of reducing the Ce(IV) reagent used in determination of total iodine. Modelling of the catalytic method used is provided to support this contention. The possibility of developing this to measure the strain that seaweeds endure in this kind of biogeochemical flux experiment is discussed. A Chemical Oxygen Demand type of approach is applied using Ce(IV) as oxidant. The results of the iodine experiments are contrasted with the several investigations of 131I interaction with seaweeds, which have routinely used discs of weed cut from the frond. It is argued that experiments conducted with stable iodine may

  17. Comparative ozone responses of cutleaf coneflowers (Rudbeckia laciniata var. digitata, var. ampla) from Rocky Mountain and Great Smoky Mountains National Parks, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Howard S; Johnson, Jennifer; Kohut, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L. var. digitata) is native to Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) and an ozone bioindicator species. Variety ampla, whose ozone sensitivity is less well known, is native to Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO). In the early 2000s, researchers found putative ozone symptoms on var. ampla and rhizomes were sent to Appalachian State University to verify that the symptoms were the result of ozone exposure. In 2011, potted plants were exposed to ambient ozone from May to August. These same plants were grown in open-top chambers (OTCs) in 2012 and 2013, and exposed to charcoal-filtered (CF), non-filtered (NF), elevated ozone (EO), NF+50ppb in 2012 for 47days and NF+30/NF+50ppb ozone in 2013 for 36 and 36days, respectively. Ozone symptoms similar to those found in ROMO (blue-black adaxial stippling) were reproduced both in ambient air and in the OTCs. Both varieties exhibited foliar injury in the OTCs in an exposure-dependent manner, verifying that symptoms resulted from ozone exposure. In two of the three study years, var. digitata appeared more sensitive than var. ampla. Exposure to EO caused reductions in ambient photosynthetic rate (A) and stomatal conductance (g s ) for both varieties. Light response curves indicated that ozone reduced A, g s , and the apparent quantum yield while it increased the light compensation point. In CF air, var. ampla had higher light saturated A (18.2±1.04 vs 11.6±0.37μmolm -2 s -1 ), higher light saturation (1833±166.7 vs 1108±141.7μmolm -2 s -1 ), and lower Ci/Ca ratio (0.67±0.01 vs 0.77±0.01) than var. digitata. Coneflowers in both Parks are adversely affected by exposure to ambient ozone and if ozone concentrations increase in the Rocky Mountains, greater amounts of injury on var. ampla can be expected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [EFFECT OF FUCOIDANS ISOLATED FROM SEAWEEDS LAMINARIA DIGITATA AND FUCUS VESICULOSUS ON CELL LINES HELA G-63, ECV 304 AND PC 12].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhurishkina, E V; Lapina, I M; Ivanen, D R; Stepanov, S I; Shvetsova, S V; Shavarda, A L; Giliano, N Ya; Kulminskaya, A A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate cytotoxicity of fucoidans on mammals cells. Three different samples of fucoidans were isolated from mechanically grounded brown algae Laminaria digitata and Fucus ve- siculosus. The sample F2 that differed from the others by higher sulfatation level and suppression of HeLa G-63 line culture growth was taken for further study in cell lines HeLa G-63, ECV 304 and PC 12. We have shown that fucoidan preparation F2 inhibits proliferation and induces cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner for all investigated cell lines. Neuroendocrine tumor rat cell line PC 12 appeared to be the most sensitive to fucoidan treatment whereas endothelial human cells ECV 304 were the least sensitive.

  19. Exploration of the phycoremediation potential of Laminaria digitata towards diflubenzuron, lindane, copper and cadmium in a multitrophic pilot-scale experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacleto, Patrícia; van den Heuvel, Freek H M; Oliveira, C; Rasmussen, Rie R; Fernandes, José O; Sloth, Jens J; Barbosa, Vera; Alves, Ricardo N; Marques, António; Cunha, Sara C

    2017-06-01

    The presence of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems can cause serious problems to the environment and marine organisms. This study aims to evaluate the phycoremediation capacity of macroalgae Laminaria digitata for pesticides (diflubenzuron and lindane) and toxic elements (cadmium and copper) in seawater in the presence or absence of mussels. The photosynthetic activity was monitored in the macroalgae to assess its "physiological status". The results showed that the presence of algae decreased diflubenzuron concentration in mussels by 70% after 120 h of exposure. Additionally, this macroalgae was efficient to reduce lindane, Cu and Cd in seawater; even though it not was able to reduce these contaminants in mussels. The studied pollutants did not affect the physiological status of macroalgae. This study reveals that the application of phycoremediation with macroalgae can be an useful and effective mitigation strategy to remove/decrease contaminant levels from the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adansonia digitata L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 janv. 2015 ... Traitement et analyse des données : Les analyses statistiques des résultats ont été effectuées avec le logiciel XLSTAT version 2010. Les données de la circonférence ont été transformées en diamètre sur la base de l'équation : circonférence = π x diamètre. Le diamètre moyen du houppier a été calculé ...

  1. Adansonia digitata L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    Écologie Appliquée (LEA), Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques (FSA), Université d'Abomey-Calavi. (UAC), Bénin. 01 BP 526 Cotonou, Bénin. 2Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Sciences et Techniques Agronomiques de Kétou, ...

  2. Chromosome stickiness during meiotic behavior analysis of Passiflora serrato-digitata L. (PassifloraCEAE Aderência cromossômica durante a análise do comportamento meiótico de Passiflora serrato-digitata L (PassifloraCEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Peres Kiihl

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Almost 90% of species of the genus Passiflora are native to the American continent, with high commercial value due to the fact that some species are used for human food while others have ornamental and medical qualities. Passiflora serrato-digitata is one of the species that integrates the Paraná Agronomic Institute germoplasm bank at its experimental base in Londrina, PR, Brazil. Collected flower buds were fixed in ethanol/acetic acid (3:1 v/v for 24h, transferred to 70% alcohol and stored under refrigeration. Slides were prepared by the squashing technique and stained with 1.0% propionic carmine; they were analyzed under an optic microscope. Irregularities in the chromosome segregation process of P. serrato-digitata have been verified by meiotic behavior analysis. These comprised precocious migration to poles in metaphase I and II, non-oriented chromosomes in metaphase plate in metaphase I and II, laggard chromosomes in anaphase I and II towards the formation of micronucleus in telophase I and II, and microspores in tetrads. Chromosome stickiness was another irregularity reported in the Passiflora genus for the first time. These irregularities which also contributed to the formation of monads, dyads and triads, resulted in normal imbalanced 2n and 4n microspores. According to the observed Meiotic Index of 71.83%, this species is not meiotically stable.Cerca de 90% das espécies do gênero Passiflora são nativas das Américas, sendo que aproximadamente 200 espécies são nativas do Brasil. Possuem grande importância comercial, pois algumas espécies são utilizadas na alimentação humana, outras apresentam propriedades medicinais e ornamentais. A espécie Passiflora serrato-digitata faz parte do banco de germoplasma do Instituto Agronômico do Paraná - IAPAR, estação experimental de Londrina, PR. Botões florais colhidos foram fixados em etanol/ácido acético (3:1 v/v por 24 horas, transferidos para álcool a 70% e acondicionado sob

  3. Evaluation of food grade solvents for lipid extraction and impact of storage temperature on fatty acid composition of edible seaweeds Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae) and Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Matthias; Guihéneuf, Freddy; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the impact of different food- and non-food grade extraction solvents on yield and fatty acid composition of the lipid extracts of two seaweed species (Palmaria palmata and Laminaria digitata). The application of chloroform/methanol and three different food grade solvents (ethanol, hexane, ethanol/hexane) revealed significant differences in both, extraction yield and fatty acid composition. The extraction efficiency, in terms of yields of total fatty acids (TFA), was in the order: chloroform/methanol>ethanol>hexane>ethanol/hexane for both species. Highest levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were achieved by the extraction with ethanol. Additionally the effect of storage temperature on the stability of PUFA in ground and freeze-dried seaweed biomass was investigated. Seaweed samples were stored for a total duration of 22months at three different temperatures (-20°C, 4°C and 20°C). Levels of TFA and PUFA were only stable after storage at -20°C for the two seaweed species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of level and duration of feeding polysaccharide (laminarin and fucoidan) extracts from brown seaweed (Laminaria digitata) on quality indices of fresh pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroney, N C; O'Grady, M N; Robertson, R C; Stanton, C; O'Doherty, J V; Kerry, J P

    2015-01-01

    The effect of level (450 or 900 mg laminarin (L) and fucoidan (F) /kg feed) and duration (3 or 6 wks) of feeding a seaweed (Laminaria digitata) extract containing L/F on the quality of pork (longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL)) stored in modified atmosphere packs and on organ lipid stability was examined. Mechanisms of L/F antioxidant activity in LTL were evaluated. Plasma total antioxidant status, LTL pH, colour, microbiology and 'eating quality' sensory analysis were unaffected by dietary L/F. 'Visual' sensory descriptors (purchasing appeal and overall visual acceptability) were enhanced (p<0.05) in L/F450-3 LTL. Lipid oxidation was lower (p<0.05) in L/F450-3 and L/F900-3 LTL and reduced in L/F900-6 kidney homogenates. In cooked minced pork, lipid oxidation was not reduced by dietary L/F. Saturated fatty acids were lower (p<0.05) in L/F900-6 LTL. Results indicated L/F in pig diets for 3 weeks enhanced pork quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Metagenomics Approach to Evaluate the Impact of Dietary Supplementation with Ascophyllum nodosum or Laminaria digitata on Rumen Function in Rusitec Fermenters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanche, Alejandro; Jones, Eleanor; Parveen, Ifat; Newbold, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing need to identify alternative feeds for livestock that do not compete with foods for humans. Seaweed might provide such a resource, but there is limited information available on its value as an animal feed. Here we use a multi-omics approach to investigate the value of two brown seaweeds, Ascophyllum nodosum (ASC) and Laminaria digitata (LAM), as alternative feeds for ruminants. These seaweeds were supplemented at 5% inclusion rate into a control diet (CON) in a rumen simulation fermenter. The seaweeds had no substantial effect on rumen fermentation, feed degradability or methane emissions. Concentrations of total bacteria, anaerobic fungi, biodiversity indices and abundances of the main bacterial and methanogen genera were also unaffected. However, species-specific effects of brown seaweed on the rumen function were noted: ASC promoted a substantial decrease in N degradability (−24%) due to its high phlorotannins content. Canonical correspondence analysis of the bacterial community revealed that low N availability led to a change in the structure of the bacterial community. ASC also decreased the concentration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 post-inoculation. In contrast, LAM which has a much lower phlorotannin content did not cause detrimental effects on N degradability nor modified the structure of the bacterial community in comparison to CON. This adaptation of the microbial community to LAM diets led to a greater microbial ability to digest xylan (+70%) and carboxy-methyl-cellulose (+41%). These differences among brown seaweeds resulted in greater microbial protein synthesis (+15%) and non-ammonia N flow (+11%) in LAM than in ASC diets and thus should led to a greater amino acid supply to the intestine of the animal. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that incorporation of brown seaweed into the diet can be considered as a suitable nutritional strategy for ruminants; however, special care must be taken with those seaweeds with high

  6. A metagenomics approach to evaluate the impact of dietary supplementation with Ascophyllum nodosum or Laminaria digitata on rumen function in rusitec fermenters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro eBelanche

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need to identify alternative feeds for livestock that do not compete with foods for humans. Seaweed might provide such a resource, but there is limited information available on its value as an animal feed. Here we use a multi-omics approach to investigate the value of two brown seaweeds, Ascophyllum nodosum (ASC and Laminaria digitata (LAM, as alternative feeds for ruminants. These seaweeds were supplemented at 5% inclusion rate into a control diet (CON in a rumen simulation fermenter. The seaweeds had no substantial effect on rumen fermentation, feed degradability or methane emissions. Concentrations of total bacteria, anaerobic fungi, biodiversity indices and abundances of the main bacterial and methanogen genera were also unaffected. However, species-specific effects of brown seaweed on the rumen function were noted: ASC promoted a substantial decrease in N degradability (-24% due to its high phlorotannins content. Canonical correspondence analysis of the bacterial community revealed that low N availability led to a change in the structure of the bacterial community. ASC also decreased the concentration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 post-inoculation. In contrast, LAM which has a much lower phlorotannin content did not cause detrimental effects on N degradability nor modified the structure of the bacterial community in comparison to CON. This adaptation of the microbial community to LAM diets led to a greater microbial ability to digest xylan (+70% and carboxy-methyl-cellulose (+41%. These differences among brown seaweeds resulted in greater microbial protein synthesis (+15% and non-ammonia N flow (+11% in LAM than in ASC diets and thus should led to a greater amino acid supply to the intestine of the animal. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that incorporation of brown seaweed into the diet can be considered as a suitable nutritional strategy for ruminants; however special care must be taken with those seaweeds with high

  7. The effects of liquid versus spray-dried Laminaria digitata extract on selected bacterial groups in the piglet gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphya, Padraigin; Dal Bello, Fabio; O'Doherty, John; Arendt, Elke K; Sweeney, Torres; Coffey, Aidan

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the effects of supplementing animal feed with a liquid and spray-dried fucoidan and laminarin extract, derived from the seaweed Laminaria digitata on the porcine gastrointestinal microbiota, specifically the communities of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and enterobacteria were evaluated. Twenty four piglets were fed one of three diets over a 21-day period to determine the effect that each had on the bacterial communities. The dietary treatments were as follows; (1) control diet, (2) control diet plus spray-dried formulation of laminarin fucoidan (L/F-SD) extract, (3) control diet plus a liquid formulation of (L/F-WS) extract. Control diet consisted of wheat, soya bean meal, soya oil and a vitamin and mineral mixture. The L/F-SD and L/F-WS supplemented diets had equal proportion of 500 ppm laminarin and fucoidan. At the end of the 21 day feeding period all animals were sacrificed and samples were collected from the ileum, caecum and colon. Counts were determined for Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and enterobacteria. Plate count analysis revealed that the L/F-SD diet caused a statistically significant 1.5 log and 2 log increases in the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts of ileum samples respectively. A greater difference was observed with the L/F-WS diet in that Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium increased by 2 log and 3 log respectively. Alterations in the Lactobacillus species composition of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were analysed using specific PCR - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The DGGE profiles indicated that Lactobacillus species richness decreased along the gastrointestinal tract i.e. the number of dominant species detected in the colon was less than those detected in the ileum and caecum irrespective of the diet consumed. Consumption of both the L/F-SD and L/F-WS diets resulted in a richer Lactobacillus species composition in the ileum, with the L/F-SD diet being associated the emergence of Lactobacillus

  8. Rhizome extracts of Curcuma zedoaria Rosc induce caspase dependant apoptosis via generation of reactive oxygen species in filarial parasite Setaria digitata in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senathilake, K S; Karunanayake, E H; Samarakoon, S R; Tennekoon, K H; de Silva, E D

    2016-08-01

    Human lymphatic filariasis (LF) is mainly caused by filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti and is the second leading cause of long term and permanent disability in tropical countries. To date, incapability to eliminate long lived adult parasites by current drugs remains the major challenge in the elimination of LF. Hence, in the current study, the efficacy of rhizome extracts of Curcuma zedoaria (a plant traditionally used in Sri Lanka in the management of LF) was evaluated as an effective filaricide in vitro. Sequential solvent extracts of C. zedoaria rhizomes were screened for in vitro antifilarial activity at 0.01-1 mg/mL concentrations by motility inhibition assay and 3-(4, 5 dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay using cattle parasite Setaria digitata as a model organism. Exposure of parasites to hexane and chloroform extracts of C. zedoaria caused a dose dependant reduction in motility and viability of microfilariae (IC50 = 72.42 μg/mL for hexane extract, 191.14 μg/mL for chloroform extract) and adult parasites (IC50 = 77.07 μg/mL for hexane extract, 259.87 μg/mL for chloroform extract). Both extracts were less toxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells when compared to filariae. A dose dependant increase in caspase 3/CED 3 and a decrease in total protein content, cyclooxygenase (COX) and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activities were observed in adult parasites treated with hexane or chloroform extract. A significant degree of chromatin condensation and apoptotic body formation were also observed in these worms by Hoechst 33342 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining respectively. Dose dependant chromosomal DNA laddering was observed in treated adult worms but not in microfilariae in response to both extracts. Oxidative stress parameters such as reduction in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and increase in glutathione s transferase (GST

  9. Phlorotannin Composition of Laminaria digitata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Anne M.; Caligiani, Augusta; Sforza, Stefano; Vincken, Jean Paul; Gruppen, Harry

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Phlorotannins are complex mixtures of phloroglucinol oligomers connected via C-C (fucols) or C-O-C (phlorethols) linkages. Their uniformity in subunits and large molecular weight hamper their structural analysis. Despite its commercial relevance for alginate extraction,

  10. Semiochemical exploitation of host-associated cues by seven Melittobia parasitoid species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González, Jorge M.; Camino, Dakota; Simon, Sabrina; Cusumano, Antonino

    2018-01-01

    Chemical compounds (infochemicals or semiochemicals) play an important role both in intra-specific and inter-specific communication. For example, chemical cues appear to play a key role in the host selection process adopted by insect parasitoids. In recent years significant advances have been made

  11. VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION OF Adansonia digitata (L.) USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ridwan

    Akinyele, A.O. (2007): Silvicultural requirement of seedlings of Buchholzia coriacea Engler. Unpublished PhD theses, submitted to the. Dept. of Forest Resources Management,. University of Ibadan, 20-34. Akinyele, A.O. (2010): Effects of growth hormones, rooting media and leaf size on juvenile stem cuttings of Buchholzia.

  12. Distribution et structure des parcs à Adansonia digitata L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACER_USER

    à juillet et de septembre à octobre) affectée par la mousson (masse d'air froide et humide qui souffle du. Sud-ouest vers le Nord-est). La zone septentrionale située au-dessus du parallèle 8o Nord, jouit d'un climat tropical soudanien avec une saison des pluies (avril-octobre) et une saison sèche (novembre-mars). Elle est.

  13. Physicochemical analysis of the fruit of Adansonia digitata (Boababa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The L-ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) content of the pulp was also determined titrimetrically using indophenol dye. The seed oil obtained was subjected to a series of chemical tests to determine some useful parameters of the oil such as the iodine value, peroxide value, specific gravity and refractive index etc. Light yellow seed oil ...

  14. Degradation properties of wild Adansonia digitata (Baobab) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with storage time were observed. These include initial increase followed by decrease in peroxide value, iodine value and increase in free fatty acids, saponification value and refractive index. These changes have been interpreted to be due to some structural changes in the triglyceride leading to the formation of new ...

  15. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Adansonia digitata gum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sedimentation volume and rate, rheology, and ease of redispersion were employed as evaluation parameters. The results showed that both hot and cold water extracts of the gum used at 2-3 % w/v produced a better suspending property than 4 % w/v Compound Tragacanth gum. The suspending ability of the gums was in ...

  16. Glycaemic Index Of Maize Meal With Baobab ( Adansonia digitata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maize meal as (tuwo) with Baobab soup as (miyan kuka) is a popular meal in northern and middle belt of Nigeria. Aims: The meal was fed to diabetic and healthy subjects to establish the glycaemic index of this commonly consumed meal in the environment. Subjects and Methods: Ten type II diabetic and seven ...

  17. Effects of feeding processed baobab ( Adansonia digitata ) seed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding graded levels of processed baobab seed meal (Decorticated Un-defatted Roasted Baobab Seed meal, DURBSM) on one hundred and seventy six (176) Arbor Acre broiler chicks. They were fed at 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% inclusion level for 30 days. The data ...

  18. Effects of Adansonia digitata (Baobab) bark meal additive on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and eighty fingerlings (3.09 ± 0.21 g) were stocked at ten fingerlings per tank in 18 plastic tanks (58L). Each treatment was replicated in a completely randomized design and fish were fed to satiation for 12 weeks. Data was analyzed for analysis of variance and Duncan Multiple Range Test to separate means .

  19. Status of African baobab (Adansonia digitata) across Gonarezhou ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    Tropical Resource Ecology Programme, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP 167, Mt Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe, 2 Department of. Environmental Science, Bindura University of Science Education, Private Bag 1020, Bindura, Zimbabwe, 3 Scientific Services, Gonarezhou. National Park, Parks and Wildlife Management ...

  20. Status of African baobab (Adansonia digitata) across Gonarezhou ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    Baobab plant density was calculated from the formula: baobab plant density = numbers of baobab plants in a belt transect area (per km2). Baobab variable's data were tested for normality using the Shapiro-Wilk test. Data on baobab basal area, plant density and grass height were log10(y + 1) transformed, where y is the ...

  1. Potential of the baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) as a proxy climate archive

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Robertson, I

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The large girth and immense size of the baobab has caused many to speculate about its age. Unfortunately reliable age estimates cannot be determined from growth rates as the girth varies in response to different moisture regimes. In a similar way...

  2. Effect of Baobab ( Adansonia digitata L.) Fruit Pulp Drink on Iron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the effect of consuming baobab fruit pulp drink with the diet on iron status of school children. Materials and Methods: Baobab fruit pulp was scrapped from the seeds and mixed with water in the ratio of 1:2 (w/v) to produce a refreshing drink. One hundred and forty two school children 6-8 yrs involved ...

  3. Laminaria digitata phlorotannins decrease protein degradation and methanogenesis during in vitro ruminal fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Anne M.; Pellikaan, Wilbert F.; Bouwhuis, Anouk; Vincken, Jean Paul; Gruppen, Harry; Hendriks, Wouter H.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phlorotannins (PhTs) are marine tannins consisting of phloroglucinol subunits connected via carbon-carbon and ether linkages. These have non-covalent protein binding properties and are, therefore, expected to be beneficial in protecting protein from hydrolysis during ruminal

  4. Breeding for high production of leaves of baobab (Adansonia digitata L) in an irrigated hedge system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korbo, Adama; Kjær, Erik Dahl; Sanou, Haby

    2013-01-01

    evaluated monthly from the third month after establishment. We found lowered leaf productivity during the dry season despite the plants being irrigated. We provide the first estimates of heritability for leaf production and growth of the species. We assumed that the families of seed from open...... productivity were moderate to low, predicting moderate genetic gain from selection. Strong genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated between diameter and leaf production, indicating that simple selection for diameter can efficiently increase leaf production. The dry weight/fresh weight ratio...... was not significantly different among provenances or families within provenances. Based on the findings, we discuss how breeding can increase the total leaf production and its seasonal distribution....

  5. Genetic Variation in Food Potential and Adaptation of Baobab (Adansonia digitata L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korbo, Adama

    The baobab is one of the most important African multipurpose tree species providing food, medicine, fodder, and income to the people living in the South of African Sahara. Because of the important role and the increasing international interest, the species has been proposed for future domestication...... programme. However the quantitative genetic related to the species has not been investigated sufficiently. Therefore the present research aimed to generate knowledge to support domestication and conservation of baobab. The genetic analyses have focused on traits as: survival and growth with and without...... water stress, leaf productivity (total and distributed over the year), and leaf quality (sliminess/taste and provitamin A). The water stress test is based on an approach to change the length of the raining season rather than simply stress the plants. This part of the study has involved ecophysiological...

  6. Genetic Variation in Food Potential and Adaptation of Baobab (Adansonia digitata L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korbo, Adama

    water stress, leaf productivity (total and distributed over the year), and leaf quality (sliminess/taste and provitamin A). The water stress test is based on an approach to change the length of the raining season rather than simply stress the plants. This part of the study has involved ecophysiological...... trees from various origins reveal relative high resistance to reduced growth length but the growth rate is influenced. In addition provitamin A in the leaves varied substantially according to origin with highest levels of provitamin A in some of the provenances from dry areas....

  7. System Qualities Ontology, Tradespace and Affordability (SQOTA) Project: Phase 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-30

    tradespace and make smart decisions quickly that take into account how the many characteristics and functions of systems impact each other 2. Rapidly...as the AFRL "Technology Horizons " report (Dahm, 2010), the National Research Council’s "Critical Code" Report (NRC, 2010), the SERC "Systems 2020...Date April 30, 2017 8 Dahm, 2010) Dahm, W.,Technology Horizons , AF/ST-TR 10-01-PR, 15 May 2010. (Holland, 2012

  8. Reduction of inorganics from macroalgae Laminaria digitata and spent mushroom compost (SMC) by acid leaching and selective hydrothermal liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib Sohail; Jasiunas, Lukas; Xu, Chunbao (Charles)

    2018-01-01

    . This research studied the effects of different acid leaching treatments on such feedstocks, subsequent HTL, and bio-crude properties. Leaching treatments were performed using five different agents: deionized water, acetic acid, citric acid, sulfuric acid, and hydrochloric acid. Performance of leaching...... with a holding time of 15 min and pressures of 27–30 MPa. For macroalgae, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid were found the most effective in reducing the ash content from 30.42 to 20.45 and 20.87%, respectively, followed by acetic and citric acid treatment that could reduce the ash content to 21.5 and 22.......15%, respectively. Similarly for SMC, citric acid and acetic acid were found the most effective in reducing the ash content from 50.34 to 37.04 and 39.94%, respectively. Citric acid did not show significant leaching of organic components such as carbohydrates and proteins and represented a less toxic and hazardous...

  9. Dewatering treatments to increase dry matter content of the brown seaweed, kelp (Laminaria digitata ((Hudson) JV Lamouroux)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Joe A; Turner, Lesley B; Adams, Jessica M M; Dyer, Philip W; Theodorou, Michael K

    2017-01-01

    Macroalgal water content is an on-going problem for the use of readily accessible seaweeds in sustainable biorefining, including fuel production. Silage is a reduced-water, compactable, easily stored, transportable material. Ensiling could establish a non-seasonal supply of preserved algal biomass, but requires high initial dry matter content to mitigate environmental pollution risks from effluent. This study investigated potential dewatering methods for kelp harvested throughout the year. Treatments included air-drying, osmotic media and acids. Significant interactions between treatment and harvest-time were observed for traits of interest. Fresh weight loss during treatment was composed of changes in water and dry matter content. Air-drying gave reliable increase in final dry matter content; in summer and autumn 30% dry matter content was reached after 24h. Dilute hydrochloric acid reduced stickiness and rendered material suitable for dewatering by screw-pressing; it may be possible to use the consequent pH reduction to promote efficient preservation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. The Macroalgae Biorefinery for Production of Bioethanol and Fish Feed from the Two Brown Algae: Laminaria Digitata and Saccharina Latissima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaoru; Bjerre, Anne-Belinda; Hansen, Jonas Høeg

    and conversion of the differently pretreated macroalgae biomass into ethanol by fermentation were compared. The protein contents and nutrient salts in residues from ethanol fermentation trials were characterized for potential fish feed. A first-step scenario for sustainability and feasibility assessment...

  11. Laminaria digitata as a potential carbon source for succinic acid and bioenergy production in a biorefinery perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Fotidis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    to 298 and 285 NmL CH4 g− 1 VSadded, respectively. PHSR could potentially be used for: dietary food additive, fish feed, bioenergy production and added value products. This study opens possibility to conceive different biorefinery scenarios in which the efficient use of the macroalgal biomass fractions...... can provide numerous added-value bio-based products and energy....

  12. Effect of Callophora erythrocephala Meigen puparial size on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most important biological control agents which are pro-ovigenic and synovigenic parasitoids usually assess their host critically before laying eggs in the Melittobia acasta Walker, a synovigenic parasitoid of several dipteran species is potentially as agent for the biological control of such nuisance dipteran fly pest as ...

  13. Phycoremediation potential of brown macroalgae species Saccharina latissimi and Laminaria digitata towards inorganic arsenic in a multitrophic pilot-scale experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Cunha, Sara; Fernandes, José

    2017-01-01

    The presence of organic pollutants and toxic elements in aquatic ecosystems can cause serious problems to the environment and marine organisms and subsequently lead to adverse effects to human health following consumption of contaminated seafood. Hence, technological solutions for the.......Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous metalloid found in soils, groundwater, surface water, air, and consequently also in various food items. Arsenic is bioaccumulated in the marine food chain and total arsenic concentrations in the mg/kg range is usually found in marine organisms. The toxicity ofarsenic depends...

  14. Genetic diversity and demographic evolution of baobab (Adansonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-09-18

    Sep 18, 2013 ... Figure 1. Map of Senegal showing the geographical location of the studied baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) populations. new diploid species from Africa, which co-exists with A. digitata in Africa. A. digitata and A. kilima were found to be genetically similar, suggesting that tetraploidy evolved relatively recently ...

  15. Morfologia polínica de espécies do gênero Merremia Dennst. (Convolvulaceae ocorrentes no Estado da Bahia, Brasil Morphology pollen of species genus Merremia Dennst. (Convolvulaceae ocurring in Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Regina Batista Leite

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Merremia (Convolvulaceae teve as espécies nativas na Bahia inventariadas e estudadas sob o ponto de vista palinológico. Foram registrados nove táxons do gênero: M. aegyptia (L. Urb., M. cissoides (Lam. Hallier f., M. digitata (Spreng. Hall. f. var. digitata, M. digitata var. ericoides (Meissn. Austin & Staples, M. dissecta (Jacq. Hall. f. var. edentata (Meisn. O'Donell, M. flagellaris (Choisy O'Donell, M. macrocalyx (Ruiz et Pav. O'Donell, M. tomentosa (Choisy Hall. f. e M. umbellata (L. Hall. f. Em M. digitata var. digitata e M. flagellaris os grãos de pólen apresentavam-se irregularmente e com três e seis colpos; membrana apertural espessa em M. aegyptia, M. cissoides, M. digitata var. ericoides; a exina é espessa e granulada em todas as espécies, o teto é fino; sexina mais espessa que nexina. Os grãos de pólen com 6 aberturas são zonocolpados (M. umbellata ou pantocolpados (M. digitata var. digitata, M. digitata var. ericoides, e M. flagellaris, podendo ocorrer em um mesmo espécime mais de um tipo apertural de grão de pólen. Os dados palinológicos observados vêm fortalecer a união das espécies M. aegyptia, M. dissecta var. edentata e M. macrocalyx em M. sect. Schizips, M. umbellata em M. sect. Xanthips e as demais em M. sect. Cissoides. Nesta última seção, com exceção de M. tomentosa, as espécies restantes pertencem ao complexo M. digitata. No referido complexo as espécies não estão bem delimitadas sendo necessário que estudos mais profundos sejam realizados afim de melhor delimitá-las.Species of the genus Merremia (Convolvulaceae from State of Bahia were surveyed, and their pollen grains were studied by usual methods. Nine taxa were recorded: M. aegyptia (L. Urb., M. cissoides (Lam. Hallier f., M. digitata (Spreng. Hall. f. var. digitata, M. digitata var. ericoides (Meissn. Austin & Staples, M. dissecta (Jacq. Hall. f. var. edentata (Meisn. O'Donell, M. flagellaris (Choisy O'Donell, M. macrocalyx

  16. The performance of weaned albino rats (Wister strain) fed Baobab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two diets prepared from A. digitata leaf were fed parallel into albino rats with diets containing roasted full fat soyabean as control. The result reveals that A. digitata leaves can be included in the diet of albino rats at up to 20% level without depression in performance of feed intake, body weight gain and feed to gain ration ...

  17. Sensitivity of Laminariales zoospores from Helgoland (North Sea) to ultraviolet and photosynthetically active radiation : implications for depth distribution and seasonal reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roleda, MY; Wiencke, C; Hanelt, D; Van de Poll, W; Gruber, A

    Depth distribution of kelp species in Helgoland (North Sea) is characterized by occurrence of Laminaria digitata in the upper sublittoral, whereas L. saccharina and L. hyperborea dominate the mid and lower sublittoral region. Laminaria digitata is fertile in summer whereas both other species are

  18. Flicien Kabuga, multimillionaire Rwandan businessman, Bosco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gerhard

    BUTTERFLIES OF UGANDA: MEMORIES OF A CHILD SOLDIER. Darin Dahms and Sönke C. Weiss. Joh Brendow & Sohn Verlag GmbH. 2007. 140 pages. ISBN 3865062040, 9783865062048. "I was conceived in rape."1 At least for this reviewer, this is one of the most powerful, hard-hitting opening lines of any book he ...

  19. Women at Altitude: Effects of Menstrual Cycle Phase and Alpha-Adrenergic Blockade on High Altitude Acclimatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    and venous tone. Alpha 1-adrenergic blockade with prazosin attenuated the rise in SNS activity at 4,300 m and prevented the increase in PNS activity in...Physiol 1991;70(3):1129-36. 4. Zamudio S., S.K. Palmer, T.E. Dahms, et al. Blood volume expansion, preeclampsia , and infant birth weight at high altitude

  20. Purpose and Need for a Grassland Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Cathy W. Dahms

    2004-01-01

    This report is volume 1 of an ecological assessment of grassland ecosystems in the Southwestern United States, and it is one of a series of planned publications addressing major ecosystems of the Southwest. The first assessment, General Technical Report RM-GTR- 295, An Assessment of Forest Ecosystem Health in the Southwest (by Dahms and Geils, technical editors,...

  1. Targeted Zinc Delivery: A Novel Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    metabolism and homeostasis: the application of tracer techniques to human zinc physiology. Biometals 2001, 14(3-4):397-412. 23. Dahm P, Yeung LL...human prostate epithelial cell line. Biometals 21(4):405–16, 2008. JETO-091217-CK.indd 9 5/14/2010 11:56:40 AM

  2. Virginity and the clutch size behavior of a parasitoid wasp where mothers mate their sons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Jun; Innocent, Tabitha M.; Reece, Sarah E.; West, Stuart A.

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical research on the evolution of clutch size has proved to be an extremely productive area of evolutionary biology. A general prediction is that individuals should produce a smaller number of offspring when resources are more limited, such as when multiple individuals compete for the same resources for their development. However, we expect that the opposite prediction arises with virgin females of haplodiploid species, which are subject to extreme local mate competition. We test the key assumption and predictions of this theory with the parasitoid wasp Melittobia australica. Our data demonstrate that there is a trade-off between the size of the first and subsequent clutches and that virgin females adjust their production of sons according to the mating status (mated or not) of cofounding females. We also found that mated females facultatively change their offspring sex ratio in response to the mating status of cofoundresses. We discuss the potential mechanisms used to recognize the mating status and the implications of our results in the context of the extremely female-biased sex ratios observed across Melittobia species.. PMID:24619355

  3. Population dynamics of estuarine amphipods in Cochin backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, K.K.C.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Venugopal, P.; Peter, G.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Rao, T.S.S.

    Population dynamics of 11 gammarid amphipod species (belonging to 9 genera), collected from Cochin backwaters, have been studied for the first time, based on an year round collection. The species are : Corophium triaenonyx Stebbing, Photis digitata...

  4. Pollution of River Spree in Berlin from 1871 to 1914

    OpenAIRE

    Winklhöfer, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the late 19th and early 20th century, industrialization and burgeoning town populations in Europe flooded rivers with waste water; rivers with restricted drainage became noticeably polluted. Berlin exemplified these problems and challenges and the kinds of responses and solutions that were brought to bear. Upstream of Köpenick, the Müggelspree could cope with the discharge of several small industrial establishments. The situation at Dahme River was different, however, becaus...

  5. Algal epibiosis on Megabalanus tintinnabulum and its role in segregation of the Balanus amphitrite population

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Eswaran, R.; Khandeparker, L.

    .C., Khandeparker L., Desai D.V., Baragi L.V., Gaonkar G.A. (2010) Larval development, sensory mechanisms and physiological adaptations in acorn barnacles with special reference to Balanus amphitrite. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 392, 89... of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite Darwin in a tropical estuary: implications of environmental perturbation, reproduction and larval ecology. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 89, 909-920. Dobretsov S., Dahms H.U., Qian P...

  6. Nest structure and communal nesting in Euglossa (Glossura annectans Dressler (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Garófalo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Three nests of Euglossa (Glossura annectans Dressier, 1982 were obtained from trap nests at Serra do Japi, Jundiai, São Paulo State, Brazil. The bees nested in bamboo cane (one nest and in wooden-boxes (two nests. Solitary (two cases and pleometrotic (one case foundations were observed. Two nests were re-used once by two females working in each of them. Re-using females that shared the nests were of the same generation and each built, provisioned and oviposited in her own cells, characterizing a communal association. The brood development period was related to climatic conditions. Natural enemies included Anthrax oedipus oedipus Fabricius, 1805 (Bombyliidae, Coelioxys sp. (Megachilidae and Melittobia sp. (Eulophidae.

  7. Sourcing and bioprocessing of brown seaweed for maximizing glucose release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manns, Dirk Martin

    composition of four populations of Saccharina latissima and Laminaria digitata from three different locations from Danish waters was documented. The chemical composition of brown seaweed varied mainly in regard to the season but differed also with respect to species, location, between the years and even...... season, species or location from 1.3 to 3.6 but without a general pattern. The highest concentrations of glucan were found in August for wild growing L. digitata from the North Sea, with the glucose potential lying >50 % w/wDM for three sequential years (2012-2014) accompanied by mannitol levels of about...... 10 % w/wDM and low ash levels of 10-11 % w/wDM. Generally spoken, glucose levels of L. digitata appeared to be superior to those of S. latissima. Cultivation of S. latissima in the Limfjorden, Denmark to obtain high glucan levels was not possible due to the incidence of biofouling in the summer...

  8. Toxic elements and speciation in seafood samples from different contaminated sites in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Anacleto, Patrícia; Barbosa, Vera

    2015-01-01

    in bivalve species (between 20 and 43%). The highest levels of As were found in macroalgae species L. digitata and S. latissima (41mgkg(-1) and 43mgkg(-1), respectively), with iAs accounting almost 50% of the total As content in L. digitata but not with S. latissima nor in the remaining seafood samples......The presence of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), arsenic (TAs), inorganic arsenic (iAs), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and iron (Fe) was investigated in seafood collected from European marine ecosystems subjected to strong anthropogenic...

  9. Women at Altitude: Effects of Menstrual Cycle Phase and Alpha-Adrenergic Blockade on High Altitude Acclimatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, vA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction...Palmer SK, Dahms TE, et al. Blood volume expansion, preeclampsia , and infant birth weight at high altitude. J Appl Physiol 1993;74:1566- 73. Contract...is Ms. Virginia Miller at DSN 343-7327 or by email at virginia.miller@det.amedd.army.mil. FOR THE COMMANDER: PHYL IM. RINEHART Deputy Chief of, Staff for Information Management

  10. Macroalgae - Production and Biorefining in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele; Hou, Xiaoru; Bastianoni, Simone

    Macroalgae is a key biomass for the development of circular economy. This study analyzes the environmental sustainability of a macroalgae production and conversion system in Denmark. A brown algae model based on Laminaria digitata and Saccharina latissima is utilized as feedstock for a biorefinery...

  11. Resolubilization of Protein from Water-Insoluble Phlorotannin-Protein Complexes upon Acidification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Anne M.; Blok, Annelies E.; Westphal, Adrie H.; Hendriks, Wouter H.; Gruppen, Harry; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    Marine phlorotannins (PhT) from Laminaria digitata might protect feed proteins from ruminal digestion by formation of insoluble non-covalent tannin-protein complexes at rumen pH (6-7). Formation and disintegration of PhT-protein complexes was studied with β-casein (random coil) and bovine serum

  12. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds in macroalgaes, bivalves, and fish from coastal areas in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Álvarez-Muñoz, D.; Rodríguez-Mozaz, S.; Maulvault, A.L.; Tediosi, A.; Fernández-Tejedor, M.; Heuvel, Van den F.; Kotterman, M.; Marques, A.; Barceló, D.

    2015-01-01

    The ocurrence and levels of PhACs, Endocrine Disrupting and related Compounds (EDCs) in seafood from potential contaminated areas in Europe has been studied. Macroalgae (S. accharina latissima and Laminaria digitata), bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Mytilus spp., Chamalea gallina and

  13. 21 CFR 884.4260 - Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator. 884.4260... Devices § 884.4260 Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator. (a) Identification. A hygroscopic Laminaria... conical and expansible material made from the root of a seaweed (Laminaria digitata or Laminaria japonica...

  14. Leaf phenolics and seaweed tannins : analysis, enzymatic oxidation and non-covalent protein binding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Anne M.

    2017-01-01

    Upon extraction of proteins from sugar beet leaves (Beta vulgaris L.) and oarweed (Laminaria digitata) for animal food and feed purposes, endogenous phenolics and proteins can interact with each other, which might affect the protein’s applicability. Sugar beet leaf proteins might become

  15. Acid resistance, bile tolerance and antimicrobial properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maari is a fermented food condiment obtained by spontaneous fermentation of seeds from the baobab tree (Adansonia digitata). Nine dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, isolated from traditional maari fermentation were examined for their resistance to pH 2.5, their tolerance to 0.3% bile and their antimicrobial ...

  16. Efficiency of inactivation of trypsin inhibitory activity in some selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trypsin inhibitor (TI) levels in the crop seeds varied between 0.0 in Adansonia digitata and 40.8 TIU/mg in Pterocarpus osun. Efficiency of inactivation of TI by autoclaving ranged from 58.1% in Millettia thonningii to 100% in Sesbania pachycarpa and Lonchocarpus. sericeus. It is concluded that the effect of heat treatment on ...

  17. (baobab) and Tamarindus indica (tamarind)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds from two indigenous wild trees namely Adansonia digitata (baobab) and Tamarindus indica (tamarind) were analyzed. From this study, the protein contents were observed to be 24.98% and 17.99 % for baobab and tamarind respectively. These values are fairly high compared to cereals and root crops such as whole ...

  18. Evaluation des potentiels nutritionnels et technologiques de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Par ailleurs, le bissap avec des teneurs en anthocyanes de 767 et 967 mg/100 g respectivement pour les varietes THAI et CLT 92, constitue une bonne source de colorant naturel. The physico-chemical, biochemical and nutritional characterization of the baobab fruit (Adansonia digitata), Ditax (Detarium senegalensis) fruit, ...

  19. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemicals, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of a lichen species Cladonia digitata. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1684-5315. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News.

  20. Phytochemicals, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of a lichen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant activity assessment was performed using the free radical scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and reducing power assay. Phytochemical screening was done using chemical tests. Antibacterial activities of Cladonia digitata were determined by a disk diffusion method at ...

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication: Influence of Levamisole on antibody response to Newcastle disease vaccination in chemically Immunosupressed Broiler Chicken. Abstract · Vol 59, No 1 (2011) - Articles Evaluation of safety, growth promoting and immuno-potentiating activities of the African Baobab (Adansonia digitata) fruit-pulp ...

  2. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adansonia digitata L. ( The Baobab Tree) of Bombacaceae is a tree with swollen trunk that attains a dia. of 10m. Leaves are digitately compound with leaflets up to 18cm. long. Flowers are large, solitary, waxy white, and open at dusk. They open in 30 seconds and are bat pollinated. Stamens are many. Fruit is about 30 cm ...

  3. Prévention du brunissement lors de l'extraction de jus de banane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Par ailleurs, la confiture contenant la poudre de baobab (Adansonia digitata) aura une meilleure conservation grâce à son pH plus acide. ... conducted with a view to evaluating both the ability of various anti browning treatments to prevent browning of plantain juice and also to value the residues from the extraction as jam.

  4. Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences - Vol 32, No 2 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) Fruit Pulp Drink on Iron Status of School Children · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Composition, Acceptability and Efficacy of Fermented and Unfermented Cereal-based Oral Rehydration Solution for Home Management of Diarrhoea in Children · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL ...

  5. The genus Sinularia (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) at Palau, Micronesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ofwegen, van L.P.

    2008-01-01

    A collection of Sinularia specimens from Palau has been studied, which represents 38 different species. Of these, 15 are new to science, which are described and figured: S. babeldaobensis; S. bisulca; S. crebra; S. digitata; S. finitima; S. flaccida; S. foliata; S. humilis; S. luxuriosa; S.

  6. Botanical galactogogues: nutritional values and therapeutic potentials

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-01-31

    Jan 31, 2013 ... multifunctional activity in the nursing mother and the child. Adansonia digitata can be used as weaning food due ... development of infants, and exclusive breastfeeding is the optimal way of feeding infants (Kramer and ..... Tannins hasten the healing of wounds and inflamed mucus membrane, hence herbs ...

  7. Genetic diversity and demographic evolution of baobab ( Adansonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the spatial genetic structure of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) populations from three agroecological sites located in sahelian zone of Senegal using ITS1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS2 gene sequences. To determine the extent of isolation, gene sequences were analyzed between and among three sahelian ...

  8. Composition of amino acids, fatty acids and dietary fibre monomers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increasing demand for sources of energy and non-meat protein with balanced amino acid profiles worldwide. Nuts are rich in protein and essential amino acids, and have a high energy value due to their high fat content. Kernels from two wild fruits in Mozambique, Adansonia digitata and Sclerocarya birrea, were ...

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chia, A.M. Vol 3, No 1 (2008) - Articles Studies on the seedling growth of Adansonia digitata AL. Abstract PDF · Vol 2, No 4 (2007) - Articles The effect of seed mass and cotyledon removal on the germination and growth of fluted pumpkin (telfaria occidentalis hook. F) Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1597-6343. AJOL African Journals ...

  10. 993-IJBCS-Article-Dr Intisar Elterafi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    compound of the most biological interest. (Donald et al., 1992; Kraus, 1995; ... 1968), which exhibit similar biological properties, to a greater or .... Acacia melifera, Acacia nilotica and other semi desert spp. on clay. Semi desert on clay. 14 25'. 33 29'. 405. 306.4. 28.6. 39. S5. Acacia Senegal, Adonseiana digitata & other semi ...

  11. In-ovo evaluation of the antiviral activity of methanolic root-bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... Application of ethnoveterinary medicine in the control of poultry diseases is being embraced in many parts of the world for more profitable production. This study investigated the antiviral property of the root-bark extract of the African Baobab tree (Adansonia digitata Lin) against Newcastle disease virus.

  12. 32_155 - 161_BIO 083 Magashi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    ammagashi93@gmail.com carried out to characterize the chemical profile of digitata using GC-MS and HPLC analysis The plant stem bark the crude extracts of each solvent were characterized usin spectrometry (GC MS) analysis \\High performance liquid chromatogra revealed the chemical profile of the extract with.

  13. 2029-IJBCS-Article-Muhammad abdullahi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Sensorial analysis was done and the outcome informed the choice of samples analysed for volatile compounds profile by GC-MS analysis of the ... This study shows that incorporation of A. digitata fruit pulp increased the bioavailability of .... (SD=standard deviation, in parenthesis);. Values are means of three replicate and ...

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the chemical composition and physicochemical properties of the seeds of baobab ( Adasonia digitata) Abstract PDF · Vol 6, No 16 (2007) - Articles Levels of antinutritional factors in some wild edible fruits of Northern Nigeria Abstract PDF · Vol 15, No 1 (2004) - Articles Comparatcve chemical evaluation of locust ...

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chipurura, B. Vol 14, No 2 (2014) - Articles Sensory properties and consumer acceptance of a stirred-type yoghurt Produced from Baobab (Adansonia digitata) pulp during refrigerated storage. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1684-5374. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameh, DA. Vol 11, No 2 (2008) - Articles Glycaemic Index Of Maize Meal With Baobab (Adansonia digitata) Leaf Soup In Diabetic And Healthy Subjects. Abstract · Vol 11, No 3 (2008) - Articles Glycaemic Index Of Boiled Cocoyam And Stew Abstract. ISSN: 1118-8561. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adams, SY. Vol 11, No 1 (2016) - Articles Simultaneous Transesterification of Baobab Seed (Adansonia digitata) Oil Using Heterogeneous Zn/SiO2 Supported Catalyst Abstract. ISSN: 0795-5111. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adansonia digitata) seed on the heamatology and serum biochemistry of broiler chicks. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0794-4896. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  19. Assessment of antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of stem and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study seeks to validate the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of stem and root barks from Adansonia digitata (Bombacaceae), investigate the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extracts and bioactive constituents present in the barks. Crude ethanolic and aqueous extracts of stem and root barks were ...

  20. Science World Journal - Vol 9, No 2 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipid profile of alloxan-induced diabetic wistar rats treated with methanolic extract of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. HY Bako, JS Mohammad, PM Wazir, T Bulus, MY Gwarzo, MM Zubairu, 19-24 ...

  1. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    Effect of Temephos 20EC on Non-Target Saxicolous Fauna of a Tropical African Island ... Whereas impact of temephos on Cheumatopsyche digitata' (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) was marginal. (-16.7%), there was ..... Simulium whereas water temperatures deforestation can lead to changes in the above 1000 m are so ...

  2. Africa’s wooden elephant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebauer, Jens; Adam, Yahia O.; Cuni Sanchez, Aida

    2016-01-01

    Wild edible fruits hold great potential for improving human diets, especially in agricultural societies of the developing world. In Africa, a well-known supplier of such fruits is the baobab (Adansonia digitata L., Malvaceae), one of the most remarkable trees of the world. Several studies in diff...

  3. Affinities of the family Sollasellidae (Porifera, Demospongiae). I. Morphological evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.; Hooper, J.N.A.; Beglinger, E.; Erpenbeck, D.

    2006-01-01

    Comparison of Sollasella digitata Lendenfeld, 1888, up until the present assigned to its own family Sollasellidae Lendenfeld, 1887 in the order Hadromerida, and Raspailopsis cervicornis Burton, 1959, assigned to Raspailiidae Nardo, 1833 in the order Poecilosclerida, leads to the conclusion that both

  4. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ACrab in the Lab that Identified High and Low. Tides in the Sea Two Miles Away. (8) 778 (RF). A Letter to a Young Friend (12) 1110 (RF). A short biography of Israel Moiseevich Gelfand. (2) 104 (AIB). Acrocarpus fraxinifolius (1) (FT). Adamantane (12) 1232 (GA). Adansonia digitata L. (2) (FT). Additor (3) 220 (GA). Aerosols ...

  5. 75 FR 8252 - Laminarin; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... countries such as Ireland, France, and Japan, where Laminaria digitata is used for sea-vegetable production... 1995 (UMRA) (Public Law 104-4). This action does not involve any technical standards that would require... Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (NTTAA), Public Law 104-113, section 12(d) (15 U.S.C. 272...

  6. Selected indigenous wild fruits influence on feeding behaviour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding behaviour of captive male olive baboons was studied in a 200 feeding trial using five selected indigenous fruits: Strychnos spinosa (SS), Nuclear latifolia (NL), Piliostigma thonningii (PT), Detarium macrocarpum (DM) and Adansonia digitata (AD), categorized into large, medium and small sizes with a view to foster ...

  7. EFFECTS OF NaOH MODIFICATION ON THE MECHANICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    [16], jute [17 and18], hemp [19] in composites production has been reported. However, literature on the use of baobab (Adansonia-digitata) in this area of application is scanty. Presently, their use is only limited to making of rope, string, cord for musical instruments, snares, fishing-nets, mats and waterproof hats[20]. These.

  8. Noninvasive Measurement of EKG Properties of 3D Artificial Heart Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy H. Salazar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Developing and testing a custom fabricated 16-electrode noninvasive direct contact system was necessary to assess the electrical properties of bioengineered heart muscle and to further evaluate the efficacy of cardiac constructs. By culturing neonatal rat primary cardiac cells on a fibrin gel, we constructed 3D artificial heart muscle (3D-AHM, as described in previous studies, which were used in validating this novel system. Electrical and mechanical functional assessment of the tissues was performed, which yielded contractile forces of the tissues, electrical field potential characteristics, and tissue conduction velocities (CV (20–170 cm/s. Immunohistological evaluation revealed the formation of cardiac tissue structures and cardiomyocyte proliferation. EKG data analysis also yielded time delays between signals in the range of 0–38 ms with electrical maps showing some evidence of synchronous contraction within the fabricated tissues. This study demonstrates the effectiveness and practicality of our novel EKG measuring system to acquire distinct electrical metrics of 3D-AHM, which will aid in increasing the viability and applicability of cardiac tissue constructs.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of Penicillium subgenus Penicillium using partial P-tubulin sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R.A.; Seifert, K.A.; Kuijpers, A.F.A.

    2004-01-01

    with the classification into sections and series proposed in the accompanying monograph. There was good strict consensus support for much of the gene tree, and good bootstrap support for some parts. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that sect. Viridicata, the largest section in the subgenus, is divided into three...... the paraphyletic P. nordicum. The phylogeny for sect. Roqueforti (100%) was robust, with excellent bootstrap support for all included species, i.e. P. roqueforti (100%), P. carneum (94%) and P. paneum (100%). In sect. Penicillium, Series Expansa was paraphyletic, with the monophyletic ser. Italica derived within...... it. The synnematous species in ser. Claviformia were a paraphyletic group with the species of ser. Urticicolae., including P. griseofulvum (99%), derived within. Section Digitata, ser. Digitata comprised a single well-supported species, P. digitatum (100%). The phylogenetic structure of sect...

  10. Temporal, spatial and substrate-dependent variations of Danish hard-bottom macrofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, L.; Dahl, K.

    2002-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the Danish hard-bottom fauna is at present limited because of sampling problems. In this study, two different sampling units were used to yield quantitative results of the fauna on two stone reefs in Kattegat: natural holdfasts of Laminaria digitata and plastic pan-scourers ......Detailed knowledge of the Danish hard-bottom fauna is at present limited because of sampling problems. In this study, two different sampling units were used to yield quantitative results of the fauna on two stone reefs in Kattegat: natural holdfasts of Laminaria digitata and plastic pan...... investigations of the fauna. In contrast, the Laminaria holdfasts were too small and variable to be suitable for such studies...

  11. Unconventional biomasses as feedstocks for production of biofuels and succinic acid in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi

    significantly improve the sustainability indicators of the overall biorefinery process. In this study, unconventional lignocellulosic- and aquatic biomasses were investigated as biorefinery feedstocks. The studied biomasses were Jerusalem artichoke, industrial hemp and macroalgae species Laminaria digitata...... composition and productivity of eleven different Jerusalem artichoke clones was examined at three harvest times. Yields of up to 35 t ha-1 of dry lignocellulose matter was reported, nonetheless the amount of cellulose in many cases was less than 50% of what was observed in e.g. hemp. However, the underground...... methods for pretreatment and saccharification of biomass were used depending on the type of biomass. L. digitata did not required any pretreatment before enzymatic hydrolysis other than milling and drying. Pretreatments using H2SO4, NaOH and H2O2 at different conditions were used to pretreat hemp prior...

  12. The seaweeds Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum are significant contributors to coastal iodine emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.-J. Huang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of a pilot study in 2007, which found high mixing ratios of molecular iodine (I2 above the intertidal macroalgae (seaweed beds at Mweenish Bay (Ireland, we extended the study to nine different locations in the vicinity of Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station on the west coast of Ireland during a field campaign in 2009. The mean values of chem{I_2} mixing ratio found above the macroalgae beds at nine different locations ranged from 104 to 393 ppt, implying a high source strength of I2. Such mixing ratios are sufficient to result in photochemically driven coastal new-particle formation events. Mixing ratios above the Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus beds increased with exposure time: after 6 h exposure to ambient air the mixing ratios were one order of magnitude higher than those initially present. This contrasts with the emission characteristics of Laminaria digitata, where most I2 was emitted within the first half hour of exposure. Discrete in situ measurements (offline of I2 emission from ambient air-exposed chamber experiments of L. digitata, A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus substantially supported the field observations. Further online and time-resolved measurements of the I2 emission from O3-exposed macroalgal experiments in a chamber confirmed the distinct I2 emission characteristics of A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus compared to those of L. digitata. The emission rates of A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus were comparable to or even higher than L. digitata after the initial exposure period of ~20–30 min. We suggest that A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus may provide an important source of photolabile iodine in the coastal boundary layer and that their impact on photochemistry and coastal new-particle formation should be reevaluated in light of their longer exposure at low tide and their widespread distribution.

  13. Decline in Kelp in West Europe and Climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Raybaud

    Full Text Available Kelp ecosystems form widespread underwater forests playing a major role in structuring the biodiversity at a regional scale. Some seaweeds such as Laminaria digitata are also economically important, being exploited for their alginate and iodine content. Although some studies have shown that kelp ecosystems are regressing and that multiple causes are likely to be at the origin of the disappearance of certain populations, the extent to which global climate change may play a role remains speculative. Here we show that many populations of L. digitata along European coasts are on the verge of local extinction due to a climate-caused increase in sea temperature. By modeling the spatial distribution of the seaweed, we evaluate the possible implications of global climate change for the geographical patterns of the species using temperature data from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5. Projections of the future range of L. digitata throughout the 21st century show large shifts in the suitable habitat of the kelp and a northward retreat of the southern limit of its current geographic distribution from France to Danish coasts and the southern regions of the United Kingdom. However, these projections depend on the intensity of warming. A medium to high warming is expected to lead to the extirpation of the species as early as the first half of the 21st century and there is high confidence that regional extinction will spread northwards by the end of this century. These changes are likely to cause the decline of species whose life cycle is closely dependent upon L. digitata and lead to the establishment of new ecosystems with lower ecological and economic values.

  14. Review of the genus Merulempista Roesler, 1967 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae from China, with description of two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingdang Ren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Merulempista Roesler, 1967 is reviewed for China. Of the four species treated in this paper, Merulempista rubriptera Li & Ren, sp. n. and M. digitata Li & Ren, sp. n. are described as new; M. cyclogramma (Hampson, 1896 is newly recorded for China, and its taxonomic position is briefly discussed. Photographs of the adults and genitalia are provided, along with a key to the known Chinese species.

  15. Savoir-faire des populations locales des taxons du Jardin Botanique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2 sept. 2013 ... pour guérir l'asthme : la poudre obtenue par pulvérisation des feuilles de Adansonia digitata est consommée en sauce ; le décocté de feuilles de. Baphia nitida (okoué) est consommé en boisson ; l'infusion des feuilles de Boerhavia diffusa donne une solution prise en boisson ; le décocté de pétioles de.

  16. EFFECT OF DROUGHT STRESS ON EARLY GROWTH OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ridwan

    design was used and data was collected on stem height, collar diameter, leaf production and seedling dry weight. ... 4°27′6″E) which covers an area of about 350km. 2 .... and 4.50g) differed (P<0.05) from. A. digitata. Once daily. Once after 3 days. Once after 7 days. Once after 14 days. RID REGION OF NIGERIA. E 8, No.

  17. Impact of different alginate lyases on combined cellulase–lyase saccharification of brown seaweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manns, Dirk Martin; Nyffenegger, Christian; Saake, B.

    2016-01-01

    -guluronic acid. When applied together with a fungal cellulase preparation (Cellic®CTec2) at pH 6 and 40 °C on a glucan rich brown seaweed Laminaria digitata the viscosity decreased in the initial minutes while measurable alginate degradation occurred primarily within the first 1–2 hours of reaction. Whereas FALy...... solubilization of sulfated fucoidan, whereas most of the nitrogen was recovered in the residual seaweed solids....

  18. The seaweeds Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum are significant contributors to coastal iodine emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R.-J.; Thorenz, U. R.; Kundel, M.; Venables, D. S.; Ceburnis, D.; Ho, K. F.; Chen, J.; Vogel, A. L.; Küpper, F. C.; Smyth, P. P. A.; Nitschke, U.; Stengel, D. B.; Berresheim, H.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Hoffmann, T.

    2013-05-01

    Based on the results of a pilot study in 2007, which found high mixing ratios of molecular iodine (I2) above the intertidal macroalgae (seaweed) beds at Mweenish Bay (Ireland), we extended the study to nine different locations in the vicinity of Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station on the west coast of Ireland during a field campaign in 2009. The mean values of \\chem{I_2} mixing ratio found above the macroalgae beds at nine different locations ranged from 104 to 393 ppt, implying a high source strength of I2. Such mixing ratios are sufficient to result in photochemically driven coastal new-particle formation events. Mixing ratios above the Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus beds increased with exposure time: after 6 h exposure to ambient air the mixing ratios were one order of magnitude higher than those initially present. This contrasts with the emission characteristics of Laminaria digitata, where most I2 was emitted within the first half hour of exposure. Discrete in situ measurements (offline) of I2 emission from ambient air-exposed chamber experiments of L. digitata, A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus substantially supported the field observations. Further online and time-resolved measurements of the I2 emission from O3-exposed macroalgal experiments in a chamber confirmed the distinct I2 emission characteristics of A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus compared to those of L. digitata. The emission rates of A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus were comparable to or even higher than L. digitata after the initial exposure period of 20-30 min. We suggest that A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus may provide an important source of photolabile iodine in the coastal boundary layer and that their impact on photochemistry and coastal new-particle formation should be reevaluated in light of their longer exposure at low tide and their widespread distribution.

  19. Fucus and Ascophyllum seaweeds are significant contributors to coastal iodine emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R.-J.; Thorenz, U. R.; Kundel, M.; Venables, D. S.; Ceburnis, D.; Chen, J.; Vogel, A. L.; Küpper, F. C.; Smyth, P. P. A.; Berresheim, H.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Hoffmann, T.

    2012-09-01

    Based on the results of a pilot study in 2007, which found high mixing ratios of molecular iodine (I2) above the intertidal macroalgae (seaweed) beds at Mweenish Bay (Ireland), we extended the study to nine different locations in the vicinity of Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station on the west coast of Ireland during a field campaign in 2009. I2 mixing ratios from 104 to 393 ppt were found above the macroalgae beds, implying a high source strength of I2. Such mixing ratios are sufficient to result in photochemically-driven coastal new-particle formation events. Mixing ratios above the Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus beds increased with exposure time - after 6 h exposure to ambient air the mixing ratios were one order of magnitude higher than those initially present. This contrasts with the emission characteristics of Laminaria digitata, where most I2 was emitted within the first half hour of exposure. Discrete in situ measurements (off-line) of I2 emission from ambient air-exposed chamber experiments of L. digitata, A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus substantially supported the field observations. Further online and time-resolved measurements of the I2 emission from O3-exposed macroalgal experiments in chamber confirmed the distinct I2 emission characteristics of A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus compared to that of L. digitata. The emission rates of A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus were comparable to or even higher than L. digitata after the initial exposure period of ~20-30 min. We suggest that A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus may provide an unaccounted and important source of photolabile iodine in the coastal boundary layer and that their impact on photochemistry and coastal new particle formation should be reevaluated in light of their longer exposure at low-tide and their widespread distribution.

  20. Tissue Cu, Fe and Mn concentrations in different-aged and different functional thallus regions of three brown algae from western Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, D. B.; McGrath, H.; Morrison, L. J.

    2005-12-01

    Copper and iron concentrations in three brown algae, Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Laminaria digitata (and additionally Mn in L. digitata) from the Irish west coast were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Metal concentrations in the three species were indicative of prevailing bioavailable metal concentrations in situ but varied greatly between functional tissue parts, between sites and over time. Cu concentrations in actively growing tips of A. nodosum decreased over a 4-month period during autumn/winter, while Fe concentrations increased. Both Fe and Cu concentrations in different thallus sections of A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus increased with increasing age of thallus part in a clean site, but there was no consistent trend for F. vesiculosus from an industrialized site. Within sites, concentrations of all Cu and Fe were similar in both fucoids, but concentrations at the industrialized site were about twice as high as at the pristine site. In L. digitata, all three metals were highest in holdfasts, but had distinctly different distribution patterns in stipes and blade sections, which were most likely related to growth pattern and tissue function. Fe was lowest in meristematic and young blade regions, suggesting small-scale Fe limitation in actively growing tissue. Mn concentrations were higher in distal blade sections than in stipes, and Cu concentrations were highest in meristematic and young thallus parts.

  1. Heritability of the Symbiodinium community in vertically- and horizontally-transmitting broadcast spawning corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Kate M; Willis, Bette L; Bay, Line K

    2017-08-15

    The dinoflagellate-coral partnership influences the coral holobiont's tolerance to thermal stress and bleaching. However, the comparative roles of host genetic versus environmental factors in determining the composition of this symbiosis are largely unknown. Here we quantify the heritability of the initial Symbiodinium communities for two broadcast-spawning corals with different symbiont transmission modes: Acropora tenuis has environmental acquisition, whereas Montipora digitata has maternal transmission. Using high throughput sequencing of the ITS-2 region to characterize communities in parents, juveniles and eggs, we describe previously undocumented Symbiodinium diversity and dynamics in both corals. After one month of uptake in the field, Symbiodinium communities associated with A. tenuis juveniles were dominated by A3, C1, D1, A-type CCMP828, and D1a in proportional abundances conserved between experiments in two years. M. digitata eggs were predominantly characterized by C15, D1, and A3. In contrast to current paradigms, host genetic influences accounted for a surprising 29% of phenotypic variation in Symbiodinium communities in the horizontally-transmitting A. tenuis, but only 62% in the vertically-transmitting M. digitata. Our results reveal hitherto unknown flexibility in the acquisition of Symbiodinium communities and substantial heritability in both species, providing material for selection to produce partnerships that are locally adapted to changing environmental conditions.

  2. Nesting biology of four species of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae in Chaco Serrano woodland, Central Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana L Musicante

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Trypoxylon (Trypargilum (Crabronidae wasps are solitary spider predators that can build their nests in artificial trap-nests, which enables study of their nesting architecture and biology. Twenty traps (each containing 15-30 internodes of cane were placed in each of nine sites of Chaco Serrano Woodland in Central Argentina (Córdoba in October 2005, and were recovered in June 2006. We obtained 91 nests of four species of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum. In the laboratory, each Trypoxylon nest was sectioned longitudinally to study its architecture. The number of brood cells was counted, and the occurrence and length of vestibular and intercalary cells and the pre-closing plug space were recorded. We measured the diameter of the cane entrance, total length of the nest, length of each brood cell, maximum thickness of mud partitions and closing plug thickness. We also recorded the cell contents: the wasps, their natural enemies and the prey spiders. Mortality was assessed and the sex ratio calculated for each species. Finally, the nests were examined to help clarify the function of the vestibular cell. The nest architecture was similar in the four species, with linear brood cells located one after the other separated by mud partitions, as in other species of the subgenus Trypargilum. Forty-eight percent of the nests had vestibular cells, but only two had intercalary cells. The thickness of the mud partitions and the length of the brood cells differed among species and were related to the size of the emerged wasp. The diameter of the nest entrance was directly related to the average length of the fore-tibia. Sex ratios of all species did not deviate from 0.5. Mortality due to parasitoids (Eulophidae; Melittobia sp. was similar among species, while the mortality due to cuckoo wasps (Chrysididae in T. lactitarse was higher than in the other species. The presence of vestibular cells was not related either to the mortality due to natural enemies or to the

  3. Analysis of nutritional components of eight famine foods of the Republic of Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, L P; Vanderjagt, D J; Rivera, C; Tsin, A T; Muhamadu, I; Mahamadou, O; Millson, M; Pastuszyn, A; Glew, R H

    1998-01-01

    In the western Sahel, indigenous plants become important staples when cereal harvests are inadequate to support populations inhabiting that region of Africa. The purpose of this study was to assess the nutrient content of several of these edible wild plants. The leaves of the following seven plant foods were analyzed: Ziziphus mauritiana, Cerathotheca sesamoides, Moringa oleifera, Leptadenia hastata, Hibiscus sabdarifa, Amaranthus viridis, and Adansonia digitata. The fatty acid, vitamin E, carotenoid, selected mineral and amino acid contents of these plant foods were determined. These same analyses were performed on the fruit of the Adanisonia digitata. In quantitative and qualitative terms, Amaranthus viridis was found to be an excellent source of protein. Its amino acid composition compared favorably to that of a World Health Organization (WHO) protein standard. It also contained considerable amounts of the two fatty acids that are essential in humans (linoleic and alpha-linolenic) and a number of minerals including iron, magnesium. calcium and zinc. The leaves of Hibiscus sabdarifa contained an appreciable quantity of protein the composition of which was comparable to the WHO standard. The mineral content of the leaves of this plant was also exceptionally high; noteworthy was its high zinc content. H. sabdarifa also contained significant quantities of the two essential fatty acids. Ziziphus mauritiana was an excellent source of the essential fatty acid linoleic acid and several of the metals including iron, calcium, magnesium and zinc. Its content of other essential nutrients, however, was rather low. In general, Adansonia digitata leaves were nutritionally superior to the fruit of the tree; however, the fruit did contain useful quantities of potassium, phosphorus, zinc and alpha-linolenic acid. The Leptadenia hastata leaves were an especially good source of lutein and beta-carotene. These data should be useful to the people who inhabit the western Sahel in

  4. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source...... of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown seaweed Laminaria digitata was co-digested with cattle manure at mesophilic and thermophilic condition...

  5. Development of edible and active film coatings from marine products : desarrollo de recubrimientos activos comestibles a partir de productos del mar

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Pascual, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    Se desarrollaron películas activas y comestibles de proteínas y polisacáridos, a partir de recursos de origen marino, tales como los desechos del procesado industrial de cefalópodos (Dosidicus gigas) y las algas infrautilizadas (Mastocarpus stellatus, Laminaria digitata y Ascophyllum nodosum). Con este fin, se valorizaron los materiales poliméricos y extractos potencialmente bioactivos recuperados para el desarrollo de películas antioxidantes y su caracterización físico-química; y se microenc...

  6. Low nutritional quality of unconventional tropical crop seeds in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proll, J; Petzke, K J; Ezeagu, I E; Metges, C C

    1998-11-01

    As the search for alternative sources of food to alleviate hunger continues, this study was undertaken to determine the biological value in growing rats (BV) of proteins of some lesser known tropical seeds gathered in Nigeria. Antinutritional factors (trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, oxalate, tannin, alkaloids) and amino acid compositions were also determined, and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) was calculated using the amino acid requirement pattern of the preschool child and individual seed-specific correction factors for crude protein. A rat growth and balance study was conducted to determine digestibility, nitrogen-, and energy balance by feeding as the only unsupplemented protein source milled and heat-treated seeds of Adansonia digitata (Bombacaceae) and Prosopis africana, Lonchocarpus sericeus, Enterolobium cyclocarpium, Sesbania pachycarpa and Pterocarpus osun (Leguminosae) in comparison to casein fortified with methionine (control). Diets containing P. africana and L. sericeus seeds caused poor feed intake and weight loss in rats and were excluded from the nitrogen-balance test. Among the seed samples, S. pachycarpa followed by A. digitata showed the most advantageous nutritional quality [amino acid composition, digestibility, BV and net protein utilization (NPU)]. True digestibility was 82.9 and 74.5 vs. 98.5, BV was 64.6 and 70.0 vs. 90.4, and NPU was 53.5 and 52.1 vs. 89.0 for S. pachycarpa and A. digitata vs. casein (control), respectively. In terms of PDCAAS, lysine was the first limiting amino acid for S. pachycarpa (88%) and for A. digitata (58%). The PDCAAS of all essential amino acids was below 100% for E. cyclocarpium (e.g., cysteine + methionine: 37%) and for P. africana (e.g., threonine: 46%, except valine and a very high content of cysteine and methionine). In conclusion, all seeds tested in the rat balance trial were of inferior quality compared to casein. Before these tropical seeds could be used as food components

  7. The sublittoral macroflora of Hornsund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Tatarek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Combined hydroacoustic, video and direct examination by scuba-diving of the underwater meadows of Hornsund, a flagship biodiversity site in Svalbard, revealed 17 species of macroalgae with a biomass, dominated by Laminariales, of as much as 3 kg m−2. The biomass dominants were Laminaria digitata and Saccharina latissima, which were most abundant at depths of between 5 and 10 m. The species data presented are the first records for the fjord and provide a starting point for new research and a baseline for future assessments of climate-induced changes.

  8. In vitro ruminal fermentation and methane production of different seaweed species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Alcaide, E.; Carro, M.D.; Roleda, M. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Seaweeds have potentials as alternative feed for ruminants, but there is a limited knowledge on their nutritive value. Seven seaweed species collected along the coast above the Arctic circle of Norway, both in spring and autumn, were assessed for nutrients and total polyphenols (TEP) content, gas...... production kinetics and in vitro rumen fermentation in batch cultures of ruminal microorganisms. The seaweeds were three red species (Mastocarpus stellatus, Palmaria palmata and Porphyra sp.), three brown species (Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata and Pelvetia canaliculata) and one green species...

  9. 1386-IJBCS-Article-Dominique C K Sohouhfove

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Les lipides, protéines, glucides, minéraux ont été analysés suivant les protocoles standards et les données sont comparées aux données de la littérature concernant l'huile de palme, le beurre de karité et la farine de Adansonia digitata utilisée au Bénin dans l'alimentation. MATERIELS ET METHODES. Matériel végétal.

  10. Methodology for quantitative determination of the carbohydrate composition of brown seaweeds (Laminariaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manns, Dirk; Deutschle, A. L.; Saake, B.

    2014-01-01

    The monosaccharide composition of four different samples of brown seaweeds Laminaria digitata and Saccharina latissima were compared by different high performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) methods after different acid hydrolysis treatments or a cellulase treatment. A two-step treatment...... of 72% (w/w) H2SO4 + 4% (w/w) H2SO4 performed best, but cellulase treatment released more glucose than acid treatments. HPAEC with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) allowed quantification of all present neutral sugars and the sugar alcohol mannitol. Furthermore, the use of guluronic, glucuronic...

  11. Nuevos métodos de obtención de bioqueroseno a partir de extractos de algas

    OpenAIRE

    Correa-Guimaraes, Alejandra; Dante, Roberto C.; Navas Gracia, Luis Manuel; Martin G., Jesus; Duran Altisent, Jose Maria

    2010-01-01

    A partir de biomasa de algas en forma de pasta y procedente de su centrifugación (Nanochloropsis gaditana, Ascophyllum Nodosum y Laminaria Digitata) se elabora por procedimiento de solvólisis un biodiesel susceptible de hidrogenación en bioquioqueroseno y para su posterior uso como combustible de aviones. Este trabajo investiga la composición de las algas en ácido algínico y en sus unidades constituyentes o ácidos manurónico y gulurónico, y el contenido en alginato de sodio sobre alga...

  12. Crystallite sizes of porites species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhlia Zafarina Zakaria; Julynnie Wajir; Fauziah Abdul Aziz

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the crystallite sizes of Porites species. A set of 9 Porites skeletons i.e. Porites australiensis, Porites cylindrica, Porites lutea, Porites lichen, Porites digitata, Porites nigrescens, Porites rus, Porites annae and Porites sp. were studied by using X-Ray Diffraction method. The values of FWHM and theta (θ) are used in Scherrer equation to determine the crystallite sizes of all Porites samples. It was found that the crystallite sizes were in the range of 1000.78 - 1706.04 Angstrom. (author)

  13. Comparative Study Of Focal Mechanisms In South Central Chile Before And After The 2010 Maule Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, H.; Rietbrock, A.; Ryder, I. M.; Haberland, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    On 27 February 2010, a Mw=8.8 earthquake occurred off the coast of south central Chile rupturing nearly 500 km of the subduction zone plate interface. The earthquake also generated a tsunami and caused more than 500 fatalities. The largest earthquakes recorded have taken place along subduction margins (e.g. Chile 1960, 2010, Andaman-Sumatra 2004, Japan 2011) and understanding their rupture mechanisms and deformation regimes is therefore of vital importance. From November 2004 to October 2005, the TIPTEQ project ("From The Incoming Plate to megaThrust EarthQuake"; Rietbrock et al., 2007; Haberland et al., 2009) maintained a network of 120 seismic stations inland and 10 stations at sea between 37 and 39° lat. S., continuously-recording and monitoring the seismicity occurring in the area before the 2010 Maule earthquake. By using first motion polarities and moment tensor inversion we have computed and analyzed focal mechanisms for a subset of data from these records. We found thrust faulting along the subduction interface down to a depth of ~30 km, followed by a gap in the seismicity and then deeper earthquakes showing diverse faulting mechanisms more sparsely distributed within the subducting plate. We also see strike-slip crustal faulting occurring down to ~12 km depth within the area of the Lanalhue fault. The most striking observation is the presence of deep (40 km) normal faulting seismicity in the fore-arc, close to the trench. We have now started to analyze the International Maule Aftershocks Dataset (IMAD) of the 2010 earthquake in the southern rupture region. Again we observe thrust faulting in the subduction interface and a seismic gap between an upper and lower zone of seismicity along the interface. By comparison of the pre- and post-earthquake datasets we are investigating whether the Maule earthquake caused any changes in the style of deformation in this part of Chile. References Haberland, C., A. Rietbrock, D. Lange, K. Bataille, and T. Dahm (2009

  14. Antifilarial lead molecules isolated from Trachyspermum ammi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Nisha; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja; Perumal, Vanamail; Muthuswamy, Kalyanasundaram

    2008-09-11

    Lymphatic filariasis is caused by infection with the parasitic filarial nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori, transmitted by mosquitoes. The lack of an adulticidal drug poses a challenge to filariasis elimination, hence it is essential to develop an effective antifilarial drug which could either kill or permanently sterilize the adult worms. In the reported work the in vitro activity of a methanolic extract of fruits of Trachyspermum ammi (Apiaceae) against adult bovine filarial Setaria digitata worms has been investigated. A bioassay-guided fractionation was carried out by subjecting the crude extract to flash chromatography. HPLC analysis was done for the crude extract and active fraction. The crude extract and the active fraction showed significant activity against the adult S. digitata by both a worm motility and MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] reduction assays. The isolated active principle was chemically characterized by IR, (1)H-NMR and MS analysis and identified as a phenolic monoterpene. It was screened for in vivo antifilarial activity against the human filarial worm B. malayi in Mastomys coucha, showing macrofilaricidal activity and female worm sterility in vivo against B. malayi. The findings thus provide a new lead for development of a macrofilaricidal drug from natural products.

  15. Antifilarial Lead Molecules Isolated from Trachyspermum ammi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyanasundaram Muthuswamy

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is caused by infection with the parasitic filarial nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori, transmitted by mosquitoes. The lack of an adulticidal drug poses a challenge to filariasis elimination, hence it is essential to develop an effective antifilarial drug which could either kill or permanently sterilize the adult worms. In the reported work the in vitro activity of a methanolic extract of fruits of Trachyspermum ammi (Apiaceae against adult bovine filarial Setaria digitata worms has been investigated. A bioassay-guided fractionation was carried out by subjecting the crude extract to flash chromatography. HPLC analysis was done for the crude extract and active fraction. The crude extract and the active fraction showed significant activity against the adult S. digitata by both a worm motility and MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] reduction assays. The isolated active principle was chemically characterized by IR, 1H-NMR and MS analysis and identified as a phenolic monoterpene. It was screened for in vivo antifilarial activity against the human filarial worm B. malayi in Mastomys coucha, showing macrofilaricidal activity and female worm sterility in vivo against B. malayi. The findings thus provide a new lead for development of a macrofilaricidal drug from natural products

  16. The levels of lead in some vegetables in Makarfi, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garba, M.A.; Musa, H.A.; Musa, A.; Mohammed, L.

    2010-01-01

    Lead(Pb) serves no useful purpose in the human body and its presence can lead to toxic effects. Human activities have dramatically increased the environmental load of Pb. This study reports the concentrations of Pb in Moringa oleifera, Venonia amygdalina, Teilferia occidentalis Adansonia digitata, Lactuca serriola, Amaranthus tricolor, Moringa oleifera and Brassica olaracea sampled from five sites in Makarfi Local Government Area, Nigeria. The samples were digested using a tri-acid mixture (HNO 3 :HCIO 4 :H 2 SO 4 25:4:2). The Pb content of the digests obtained was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). The results showed that 100% of the samples contained Pb in concentrations ranging from 0.035±0.052 to 0.624±0.001mg/g, with Adasonia digitata recording the highest concentration and Venonia amygdalina recording the least. The Pb concentration recorded in all the samples were above the WHO limit (0.01mg/g dry weight of drug) with no significant difference (P<0.05) among them. The study indicated that the samples analyzed were contaminated with abnormal levels of Pb sufficient to expose residents of the area to adverse health effects of the metal.

  17. Development of PCR-Based Markers to Determine the Sex of Kelps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka P Lipinska

    Full Text Available Sex discriminating genetic markers are commonly used to facilitate breeding programs in economically and ecologically important animal and plant species. However, despite their considerable economic and ecological value, the development of sex markers for kelp species has been very limited. In this study, we used the recently described sequence of the sex determining region (SDR of the brown algal model Ectocarpus to develop novel DNA-based sex-markers for three commercially relevant kelps: Laminaria digitata, Undaria pinnatifida and Macrocystis pyrifera. Markers were designed within nine protein coding genes of Ectocarpus male and female (U/V sex chromosomes and tested on gametophytes of the three kelp species. Seven primer pairs corresponding to three loci in the Ectocarpus SDR amplified sex-specific bands in the three kelp species, yielding at least one male and one female marker for each species. Our work has generated the first male sex-specific markers for L. digitata and U. pinnatifida, as well as the first sex markers developed for the genus Macrocystis. The markers and methodology presented here will not only facilitate seaweed breeding programs but also represent useful tools for population and demography studies and provide a means to investigate the evolution of sex determination across this largely understudied eukaryotic group.

  18. A study of gamma-emitting radionuclides present into the sediments and algae of the ''Baie de l'Orne'' (Central Normandy Coast) collecting during the years 1980 - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepy, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    The present status of some environmental effects of existing sources of gamma-emitting radionuclides, along the Central part of the Normandy Coast (Calvados shores and river Orne mouth) was determined. A systematic study was made on the behaviour of the marine sediments and brown alga 'Laminaria digitata' with regard to their properties as indicators of radioactive contamination. Marine sediments were collected into the river Orne at fixed locations and into the sea in and around the estuary from 1977 to 1982. Algae samples were picked up along the coast from 1980 to 1982, mostly on the western part of the Orne estuary. Dosimetry techniques employed have produced accurate and reliable results, despite the very low levels of activity involved. Gamma-emitting radionuclides present in the environment (chiefly 106 Ru, 137 Cs, 95 Zr) were identified and measured. Their behaviour into the marine sediments and into Laminaria Digitata were determined. This study provides evidence on the presence of numerous gamma-emitting radionuclides into the marine environment of the Central part of the Normandy coast, but, altogether with very low levels of radioactivity [fr

  19. Antibacterial activities of selected edible plants extracts against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djeussi, Doriane E; Noumedem, Jaurès A K; Seukep, Jackson A; Fankam, Aimé G; Voukeng, Igor K; Tankeo, Simplice B; Nkuete, Antoine H L; Kuete, Victor

    2013-07-10

    In response to the propagation of bacteria resistant to many antibiotics also called multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria, the discovery of new and more efficient antibacterial agents is primordial. The present study was aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activities of seven Cameroonian dietary plants (Adansonia digitata, Aframomum alboviolaceum, Aframomum polyanthum, Anonidium. mannii, Hibiscus sabdarifa, Ocimum gratissimum and Tamarindus indica). The phytochemical screening of the studied extracts was performed using described methods whilst the liquid broth micro dilution was used for all antimicrobial assays against 27 Gram-negative bacteria. The results of the phytochemical tests indicate that all tested extracts contained phenols and triterpenes, other classes of chemicals being selectively present. The studied extracts displayed various degrees of antibacterial activities. The extracts of A. digitata, H. sabdarifa, A. polyanthum, A. alboviolaceum and O. gratissimum showed the best spectra of activity, their inhibitory effects being recorded against 81.48%, 66.66%, 62.96%, 55.55%, and 55.55% of the 27 tested bacteria respectively. The extract of A. polyanthum was very active against E. aerogenes EA294 with the lowest recorded minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 32 μg/ml. The results of the present work provide useful baseline information for the potential use of the studied edible plants in the fight against both sensitive and MDR phenotypes.

  20. Biogas production generated through continuous digestion of natural and cultivated seaweeds with dairy slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Muhammad Rizwan; Wall, David M; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-11-01

    The technical feasibility of long term anaerobic mono-digestion of two brown seaweeds, and co-digestion of both seaweeds with dairy slurry was investigated whilst increasing the organic loading rate (OLR). One seaweed was natural (L. digitata); the second seaweed (S. Latissima) was cultivated. Higher proportions of L. digitata in co-digestion (66.6%) allowed the digester to operate more efficiently (OLR of 5kgVSm(-3)d(-1) achieving a specific methane yield (SMY) of 232LCH4kg(-1)VS) as compared to lower proportions (33.3%). Co-digestion of 66.6% cultivated S. latissima, with dairy slurry allowed a higher SMY of 252LCH4kg(-1)VS but at a lower OLR of 4kgVSm(-3)d(-1). Optimum conditions for mono-digestion of both seaweeds were effected at 4kgVSm(-3)d(-1). Chloride concentrations increased to high levels in the digestion of both seaweeds but were not detrimental to operation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. β-1,3-Glucans are components of brown seaweed (Phaeophyceae) cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimundo, Sandra Cristina; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Eberhard, Stefan; Hahn, Michael G; Popper, Zoë A

    2017-03-01

    LAMP is a cell wall-directed monoclonal antibody (mAb) that recognizes a β-(1,3)-glucan epitope. It has primarily been used in the immunolocalization of callose in vascular plant cell wall research. It was generated against a brown seaweed storage polysaccharide, laminarin, although it has not often been applied in algal research. We conducted in vitro (glycome profiling of cell wall extracts) and in situ (immunolabeling of sections) studies on the brown seaweeds Fucus vesiculosus (Fucales) and Laminaria digitata (Laminariales). Although glycome profiling did not give a positive signal with the LAMP mAb, this antibody clearly detected the presence of the β-(1,3)-glucan in situ, showing that this epitope is a constituent of these brown algal cell walls. In F. vesiculosus, the β-(1,3)-glucan epitope was present throughout the cell walls in all thallus parts; in L. digitata, the epitope was restricted to the sieve plates of the conductive elements. The sieve plate walls also stained with aniline blue, a fluorochrome used as a probe for callose. Enzymatic digestion with an endo-β-(1,3)-glucanase removed the ability of the LAMP mAb to label the cell walls. Thus, β-(1,3)-glucans are structural polysaccharides of F. vesiculosus cell walls and are integral components of the sieve plates in these brown seaweeds, reminiscent of plant callose.

  2. Multiscale Stuart-Landau Emulators: Application to Wind-Driven Ocean Gyres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri Kondrashov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The multiscale variability of the ocean circulation due to its nonlinear dynamics remains a big challenge for theoretical understanding and practical ocean modeling. This paper demonstrates how the data-adaptive harmonic (DAH decomposition and inverse stochastic modeling techniques introduced in (Chekroun and Kondrashov, (2017, Chaos, 27, allow for reproducing with high fidelity the main statistical properties of multiscale variability in a coarse-grained eddy-resolving ocean flow. This fully-data-driven approach relies on extraction of frequency-ranked time-dependent coefficients describing the evolution of spatio-temporal DAH modes (DAHMs in the oceanic flow data. In turn, the time series of these coefficients are efficiently modeled by a family of low-order stochastic differential equations (SDEs stacked per frequency, involving a fixed set of predictor functions and a small number of model coefficients. These SDEs take the form of stochastic oscillators, identified as multilayer Stuart–Landau models (MSLMs, and their use is justified by relying on the theory of Ruelle–Pollicott resonances. The good modeling skills shown by the resulting DAH-MSLM emulators demonstrates the feasibility of using a network of stochastic oscillators for the modeling of geophysical turbulence. In a certain sense, the original quasiperiodic Landau view of turbulence, with the amendment of the inclusion of stochasticity, may be well suited to describe turbulence.

  3. Early detection and efficient therapy of cardiac angiosarcoma due to routine transesophageal echocardiography after cerebrovascular stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Vogelgesang

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Dirk Vogelgesang1, Johannes B Dahm2, Holm Großmann3, Andre Hippe4, Astrid Hummel5, Christian Lotze6, Silke Vogelgesang71Practice of Cardiology, Greifswald, 2Practice of Cardiology, Goettingen, 3Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Herzzentrum Karlsburg, 4Department of Neurology, 5Department of Cardiology, 6Department of Haematology and Oncology, 7Department of Pathology, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, GermanyAbstract: Primary malignant cardiac tumors (cardiac angiosarcomas are exceedingly rare. Since there are initially nonspecific or missing symptoms, these tumors are usually diagnosed only in an advanced, often incurable stage, after the large tumor mass elicits hemodynamic obstructive symptoms. A 59-year-old female presented with symptoms of cerebral ischemia. A computed tomography (CT scan showed changes suggestive of stroke. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed an inhomogeneous, medium-echogenic, floating mass at the roof of the left atrium near the mouth of the right upper pulmonary vein, indicative of a thrombus. At surgery, a solitary tumor was completely enucleated. Histologically, cardiac angiosarcoma was diagnosed. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and was free of symptoms and recurrence of disease at 14 months follow-up. Due to the fortuitous appearance of clinical signs indicative of stroke, cardiac angiosarcoma was diagnosed and effectively treated at an early, nonmetastatic, and therefore potentially curable stage. Although cardiac angiosarcoma is a rare disease, it should be taken into consideration as a potential cause of cerebral embolic disease.Keywords: cardiac angiosarcoma, stroke, embolism

  4. Combining linear polarization spectroscopy and the Representative Layer Theory to measure the Beer-Lambert law absorbance of highly scattering materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobrecht, Alexia; Bendoula, Ryad; Roger, Jean-Michel; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Visible and Near Infrared (Vis-NIR) Spectroscopy is a powerful non destructive analytical method used to analyze major compounds in bulk materials and products and requiring no sample preparation. It is widely used in routine analysis and also in-line in industries, in-vivo with biomedical applications or in-field for agricultural and environmental applications. However, highly scattering samples subvert Beer-Lambert law's linear relationship between spectral absorbance and the concentrations. Instead of spectral pre-processing, which is commonly used by Vis-NIR spectroscopists to mitigate the scattering effect, we put forward an optical method, based on Polarized Light Spectroscopy to improve the absorbance signal measurement on highly scattering samples. This method selects part of the signal which is less impacted by scattering. The resulted signal is combined in the Absorption/Remission function defined in Dahm's Representative Layer Theory to compute an absorbance signal fulfilling Beer-Lambert's law, i.e. being linearly related to concentration of the chemicals composing the sample. The underpinning theories have been experimentally evaluated on scattering samples in liquid form and in powdered form. The method produced more accurate spectra and the Pearson's coefficient assessing the linearity between the absorbance spectra and the concentration of the added dye improved from 0.94 to 0.99 for liquid samples and 0.84-0.97 for powdered samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Enraizamento de estacas de três espécies silvestres de Passiflora Cutting rooting of three wild Passiflora species

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    Marcelo Fideles Braga

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Em ambiente com nebulização controlada, estacas herbáceas com um par de folhas, contendo 2 ou 3 nós, foram testadas quanto ao enraizamento, utilizando-se de bandeja de poliestireno com célula de 95cm³ e saco plástico de 15x25x0,02cm com 1.730 cm³. Foram testadas estacas de Passiflora actinia, P. serrato-digitata e P. setacea. Observou-se que P. serrato-digitata apresentou 94,3% de estacas enraizadas com brotos e 2,4% de mortalidade; enquanto P. actinia e P. setacea apresentaram, respetivamente, 30,5% e 28,6% de estacas enraizadas com brotos e 56,8% e 60,7% de mortalidade. A alta mortalidade das estacas foi atribuída ao estado fenológico das matrizes de P. actinia e P. setacea e ao ataque de larvas de bradisia (Bradysia spp. Estacas com dois e três nós não apresentaram diferenças significativas, e o recipiente saco plástico de 1.730 cm³ proporcionou melhor desenvolvimento das mudas.Steam cuttings of three wild Passiflora species where tested for rooting in a mist regulated greenhouse. Cuttings with two or three buds were used with two kinds of containers: polystyrene trays with 95 cm³ cells and perforated plastic bags of 15x25x0.02cm, with 1,730 cm³. Passiflora serrato-digitata was the best, with 94.3% of rooted cuttings with shoots e only 2.4% of death cuttings. P. actinia and P. setacea showed , respectivelly, 30.5% and 28.6% of rooted cuttings and 56.8% and 60.7%, of death cuttings. The high death were attribute to phenological phases of P. actinia and P. setacea or injury caused by fungus-gnat larvae (Bradysia spp.. Cuttings with two or three buds didn't show differences among them. Plastic bags proporcioned the best results, increasing rooted cuttings and plant development.

  6. Toxic elements and speciation in seafood samples from different contaminated sites in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Anacleto, Patrícia; Barbosa, Vera; Sloth, Jens J; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Tediosi, Alice; Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita; van den Heuvel, Fredericus H M; Kotterman, Michiel; Marques, António

    2015-11-01

    The presence of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), arsenic (TAs), inorganic arsenic (iAs), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and iron (Fe) was investigated in seafood collected from European marine ecosystems subjected to strong anthropogenic pressure, i.e. hotspot areas. Different species (Mytilus galloprovincialis, n=50; Chamelea gallina, n=50; Liza aurata, n=25; Platichthys flesus, n=25; Laminaria digitata, n=15; and Saccharina latissima, n=15) sampled in Tagus estuary, Po delta, Ebro delta, western Scheldt, and in the vicinities of a fish farm area (Solund, Norway), between September and December 2013, were selected to assess metal contamination and potential risks to seafood consumers, as well as to determine the suitability of ecologically distinct organisms as bioindicators in environmental monitoring studies. Species exhibited different elemental profiles, likely as a result of their ecological strategies, metabolism and levels in the environment (i.e. seawater and sediments). Higher levels of Cd (0.15-0.94 mg kg(-1)), Pb (0.37-0.89 mg kg(-1)), Co (0.48-1.1 mg kg(-1)), Cu (4.8-8.4 mg kg(-1)), Zn (75-153 mg kg(-1)), Cr (1.0-4.5 mg kg(-1)) and Fe (283-930 mg kg(-1)) were detected in bivalve species, particularly in M. galloprovincialis from Ebro and Po deltas, whereas the highest content of Hg was found in P. flesus (0.86 mg kg(-1)). In fish species, most Hg was organic (MeHg; from 69 to 79%), whereas lower proportions of MeHg were encountered in bivalve species (between 20 and 43%). The highest levels of As were found in macroalgae species L. digitata and S. latissima (41 mg kg(-1) and 43 mg kg(-1), respectively), with iAs accounting almost 50% of the total As content in L. digitata but not with S. latissima nor in the remaining seafood samples. This work highlights that the selection of the most appropriate bioindicator species is a fundamental step in environmental monitoring of each contaminant

  7. Spectroscopic studies of molecular iodine emitted into the gas phase by seaweed

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    S. M. Ball

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Time profiles of molecular iodine emissions from seven species of seaweed have been measured at high time resolution (7.5 s by direct spectroscopic quantification of the gas phase I2 using broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy. Substantial differences were found between species, both in the amounts of I2 emitted when the plants were exposed to air and in the shapes of their emission time profiles. Two species of kelp, Laminaria digitata and Laminaria hyperborea, were found to be the most potent emitters, producing an intense burst of I2 when first exposed to air. I2 was also observed from Saccharina latissima and Ascophyllum nodosum but in lower amounts and with broader time profiles. I2 mixing ratios from two Fucus species and Dictyopteris membranacea were at or below the detection limit of the present instrument (25 pptv. A further set of experiments investigated the time dependence of I2 emissions and aerosol particle formation when fragments of L. digitata were exposed to desiccation in air, to ozone and to oligoguluronate stress factors. Particle formation occurred in all L. digitata stress experiments where ozone and light were present, subject to the I2 mixing ratios being above certain threshold amounts. Moreover, the particle number concentrations closely tracked variations in the I2 mixing ratios, confirming the results of previous studies that the condensable particle-forming gases derive from the photochemical oxidation of the plant's I2 emissions. This work also supports the theory that particle nucleation in the coastal atmosphere occurs in "hot-spot" regions of locally elevated concentrations of condensable gases: the greatest atmospheric concentrations of I2 and hence of condensable iodine oxides are likely to be above plants of the most efficiently

  8. Perchlorate in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinelango, P. Kalyani; Tian Kang; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    2006-01-01

    There has been no reliable published data on the presence of perchlorate in seawater. Seaweeds are among the most important plant life in the ocean and are good sources of iodine and have been widely used as food and nutritional supplement. Perchlorate is known to inhibit the transport of iodide by the sodium iodide symporter (NIS), present e.g., in the thyroid and mammary glands. With perchlorate being increasingly detected in drinking water, milk and various other foods, increasing the iodide intake through inexpensive natural supplements may be an attractive solution for maintaining iodine assimilation. We report here measurable concentrations of perchlorate in several samples of seawater (detectable in about half the samples analyzed). We also report the iodide and perchlorate concentrations of 11 different species of seaweed and the corresponding bioconcentration factors (BCF) for perchlorate and iodide, relative to the seawater from which they were harvested. All seaweed samples came from the same region, off the coast of Northeastern Maine. Concentrations of iodide and perchlorate in four seawater samples collected from the region near harvest time were 30 ± 11 and 0.16 ± 0.084 μg l -1 , respectively. Concentrations of both iodide and perchlorate varied over a wide range for different seaweed species; iodide ranging from 16 to 3134 mg kg -1 and perchlorate from 0.077 to 3.2 mg kg -1 . The Laminaria species had the highest iodide concentration; Laminaria digitata is the seaweed species most commonly used in the kelp tablets sold in health food stores. Our sample of L. digitata contained 3134 ± 15 mg iodide/kg dry weight. The BCF varied widely for different species, with Laminaria species concentrating iodide preferentially over perchlorate. The iodide BCF (BCF i ) to perchlorate BCF (BCF p ) quotient ranged from 0.66 to 53; L. digitata and L. saccarina having a BCF i /BCF p value of 45 and 53, respectively, far greater than a simple anion exchange process

  9. Aspectos vegetativos de combinações copa/porta-enxerto em maracujazeiro

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    Givanildo Roncatto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O maracujazeiro tem-se destacado entre as principais frutíferas do País. Porém, a vida útil vem sendo reduzida principalmente devido aos danos causados por doenças do sistema radicular, sendo que a enxertia com espécies nativas e resistentes a doenças pode solucionar o problema. Com isso, objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho vegetativo das mudas enxertadas de combinações de variedades-copa e espécies de porta-enxertos de maracujazeiro. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em viveiro telado (50% de sombreamento, na Embrapa/Acre, em Rio Branco-AC, entre setembro e dezembro de 2007. As sete variedades estudadas foram o maracujazeiro-amarelo 'FB 100' e 'FB 200' do viveiro Flora Brasil (Araguari-MG, UFAC 07; 25; 38; 64 e 70 (Universidade Federal do Acre, Rio Branco-AC, e os porta-enxertos foram Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa (acesso Cuiabá-MT, P. alata, P. edulis e P. quadrangularis (acesso Guiratinga-MT, P. serrato-digitata (acesso IAC-Campinas-SP. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao caso, com 12 repetições. Os tratamentos foram 35 combinações copa/porta-enxerto constituídas por 5 portas-enxertos combinados com 7 copas. O método de enxertia utilizado foi o de fenda cheia no topo hipocotiledonar, tendo os porta-enxertos as seguintes características: três folhas verdadeiras e altura de plântula variável (6 a 8cm, 30 a 90 dias após a semeadura. Foram avaliadas a altura de plantas, o diâmetro do caule, o número de folhas e de entrenós como valores de desenvolvimento das plantas. As combinações de melhor desenvolvimento vegetativo para o diâmetro e o número de entrenós foram FB 100 e FB 200 sobre P. edulis e P. alata, UFAC 07 sobre P. serrato-digitata e P. quadrangularis, UFAC 38 sobre P. edulis. Já para a altura de plantas e o número de folhas, as combinações de melhor desenvolvimento vegetativo foram FB 100 e FB 200 sobre P. edulis e P. alata, bem como FB 100 e FB 200 sobre P. serrato-digitata, UFAC 38 sobre P. alata

  10. Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Activity of Fourteen Wild Edible Fruits from Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile G. Nacoulma

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of fourteen (14 species of wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso wereanalyzed for their phenolic and flavonoid contents, and their antioxidant activities usingthe DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The data obtained show that the total phenolic andtotal flavonoid levels were significantly higher in the acetone than in the methanol extracts.Detarium microcarpum fruit had the highest phenolic and the highest flavonoid content,followed by that of Adansonia digitata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Ximenia americana andLannea microcarpa. Significant amounts of total phenolics were also detected in the otherfruit species in the following order of decreasing levels: Tamarindus indica > Sclerocaryabirrea > Dialium guineense > Gardenia erubescens > Diospyros mespiliformis > Parkiabiglobosa > Ficus sycomorus > Vitellaria paradoxa. Detarium microcarpum fruit alsoshowed the highest antioxidant activity using the three antioxidant assays. Fruits with highantioxidant activities were also found to possess high phenolic and flavonoid contents.There was a strong correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid levels and antioxidantactivities.

  11. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of fourteen wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamien-Meda, Aline; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Compaoré, Moussa M Y; Meda, Roland N T; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Zeba, Boukare; Millogo, Jeanne F; Nacoulma, Odile G

    2008-03-06

    A total of fourteen (14) species of wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso were analyzed for their phenolic and flavonoid contents, and their antioxidant activities using the DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The data obtained show that the total phenolic and total flavonoid levels were significantly higher in the acetone than in the methanol extracts.Detarium microcarpum fruit had the highest phenolic and the highest flavonoid content,followed by that of Adansonia digitata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Ximenia americana and Lannea microcarpa. Significant amounts of total phenolics were also detected in the other fruit species in the following order of decreasing levels: Tamarindus indica > Sclerocaryabirrea > Dialium guineense > Gardenia erubescens > Diospyros mespiliformis > Parkiabiglobosa > Ficus sycomorus > Vitellaria paradoxa. Detarium microcarpum fruit also showed the highest antioxidant activity using the three antioxidant assays. Fruits with high antioxidant activities were also found to possess high phenolic and flavonoid contents. There was a strong correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid levels and antioxidant activities.

  12. Mussels as bioindicators of diclofenac contamination in coastal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, S C; Pena, A; Fernandes, J O

    2017-06-01

    Diclofenac a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) has been confirmed as an emerging contaminant in the aquatic environment. Toxicology studies have revealed that harmful effects may emerge from diclofenac presence not only for human health, but also for marine organisms, which implies its monitoring. To overcome the demanding challenges of diclofenac quantification in biotic aquatic species, a novel method for the determination of diclofenac in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Mytilus edulis) and macroalgae (Laminaria digitata) using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated according to the EC Decision 2002/657/EC. Additionally, a study was done about diclofenac contamination in mussels collected from 8 sites along the 1115 miles of coastline in Portugal in 2015. The results suggested that levels in mussels are closely related to the environmental contamination. Therefore, mussels can be a potential bioindicator of diclofenac contamination in the coastal environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-starch polysaccharides extracted from seaweed can modulate intestinal absorption of glucose and insulin response in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaugelade, P; Hoebler, C; Bernard, F; Guillon, F; Lahaye, M; Duee, P H; Darcy-Vrillon, B

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the possible effects of algal polysaccharides on postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses in an animal model, the pig. Three seaweed fibres of different viscosities, extracted from Palmaria palmata (PP), Eucheuma cottonii (EC), or Laminaria digitata (LD), were compared to purified cellulose (CEL). Blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were monitored and intestinal absorption quantified for 8 h following a high carbohydrate test-meal supplemented with 5% fibre. Digestive contents were also sampled, 5 h postprandial. As compared to CEL, PP had no effect on glucose and insulin responses. The latter decreased with EC, but glucose absorption balance was not modified. LD addition resulted in a dramatically reduced glucose absorption balance, accompanied by a higher amount of starch left in the small intestine. Among polysaccharides tested, only the highly viscous alginates could affect intestinal absorption of glucose and insulin response.

  14. Radiocarbon dating of a very large African baobab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrut, Adrian; von Reden, Karl F; Lowy, Daniel A; Alberts, Andries H; Pohlman, John W; Wittmann, Rudolf; Gerlach, Dana; Xu, Li; Mitchell, Clark S

    2007-11-01

    In late 2004, Grootboom, probably the largest known African baobab (Adansonia digitata L.), collapsed unexpectedly in northeastern Namibia. Ten wood samples collected from different areas of the trunk were processed and investigated by accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating. The radiocarbon dates of three samples were greater than 1000 years BP (radiocarbon years before present, i.e., before AD 1950). The corresponding calibrated calendar age of the oldest sample was 1275 +/- 50 years, making Grootboom the oldest known angiosperm tree with reliable dating results. Variations in radiocarbon dates among the wood samples indicated that, morphologically, Grootboom was a quintuple tree, whereas genetically, it was a single individual. Ages of extreme lateral samples revealed that, over the past 500-600 years, Grootbooom had almost ceased growing, providing information about climate changes in central southern Africa. The sudden demise of Grootboom coincided with the spread of the poorly studied baobab disease, which has become epidemic in Namibia.

  15. Seaweed as innovative feedstock for energy and feed – Evaluating the impacts through a Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele; Romeo, Daina; D'Este, Martina

    2017-01-01

    Offshore cultivation of seaweed provides an innovative feedstock for biobased products supporting blue growth in northern Europe. This paper analyzes two alternative exploitation pathways: energy and protein production. The first pathway is based on anaerobic digestion of seaweed which is converted...... provide environmental benefits in terms of mitigation of climate change, with biogas production from dried Laminaria digitata being the most favorable scenario, quantified as −18.7*102 kg CO2 eq./ha. This scenario presents also the lowest consumption of total cumulative energy demand, 1.7*104 MJ...... into biogas, for production of electricity and heat, and digestate, used as fertilizer; the second pathway uses seaweed hydrolysate as a substrate for cultivation of heterotrophic microalgae. As a result the seaweed sugars are consumed while new proteins are produced enhancing the total output. We performed...

  16. Cultivation of kelp species in the Limfjord, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegeberg, S.

    2010-04-15

    To evaluate the scope of the work and yield of cultivating kelp species in the Danish waters for DONG Energy, Denmark, a pilot?scale cultivation project was initiated in connection with the review of the potential of algal biomass for bio?energy production in Denmark. Two species of large brown algae, sea girdles (Laminaria digitata) and sweet tangle (Saccharina latissima) were cultivated with the expectation to gain maximum biomass yield, partly because of the species' size and partly because of their growth strategy. The result of the pilot study was that sugar seaweed's average maximum length was 7-8 cm, while finger seaweed's length was only 5 cm. The relative small yield is attributable to an overgrowth of sessile animals (hydroids and sea squirts). (ln)

  17. Caracterização agromorfológica do maracujazeiro (Passiflora spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crochemore Maria Lúcia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo descreve a variação genética de 55 acessos de Passiflora spp., constituídos de P. edulis, P. alata, P. coccinea, P. caerulea, P. foetida, P. giberti, P. macrocarpa, P. macrocarpa x alata, P. serrato digitata, P. suberosa e um acesso Passiflora sp. Vinte e dois descritores morfológicos foram avaliados sobre plantas isoladas em sistema de espaldeira e permitiram estruturar a diversidade encontrada. As relações filogenéticas entre os acessos, avaliadas pela análise de componentes principais e de distâncias genéticas, mostraram existir ampla diversidade entre as espécies estudadas. Algumas espécies mostraram caracteres monomórficos. Importante variabilidade foi observada dentro de P. alata e de P. edulis, e pequenas divergências foram encontradas entre os acessos da forma flavicarpa.

  18. Mineral values of selected plant foods common to southern Burkina Faso and to Niamey, Niger, west Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G C; Clegg, M S; Keen, C L; Grivetti, L E

    1996-01-01

    Wild and cultivated fruits, leaves, nuts, seeds, spices and vegetables from southern Burkina Faso and Niamey, Niger, were analysed for their copper, iron, magnesium, manganese and zinc concentrations and compared to imported, exotic reference foods found within the study area. The species analysed covered a broad spectrum of local diet; 33 were wild and 16 were cultivated. The edible wild plants were often the highest in mineral concentrations. Five species analysed, exhibited consistently high mineral values, specifically, Adansonia digitata, Boerhavia diffusa, Cerathoteca sesamoides, Sclerocarya birrea and Xylopia sp. The latter was particularly high in zinc, an observation which suggests that there may be a solid rationale for local traditions which recommended its consumption during pregnancy and lactation. Respondents indicated that during times of drought, wild plants were not consumed in the volume they once were, due to changes of infrastructure and in famine relief programmes.

  19. Aspectos biológicos de Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae em genótipos de maracujazeiro Biological aspects of Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae on passion fruit genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Leal Boiça Júnior

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de genótipos de maracujazeiro no desenvolvimento de Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae. O experimento foi conduzido em laboratório, sob condições ambientais controladas (temperatura de 26 ± 1ºC, U. R. de 60 ± 10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Lagartas recém-eclodidas foram alimentadas com folhas de genótipos de maracujazeiro: Passiflora edulis Sims., P. alata Dryand., P. serrato-digitata L., P. edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. ('Sul Brasil', P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. edulis f. flavicarpa ('Maguary FB-100' e P. foetida L. Para cada genótipo estudado, utilizaram-se 50 lagartas, provenientes de ovos coletados no campo. Essas lagartas foram mantidas em ramos de maracijazeiro, no interior de tubos de PVC até a pupação. Observações e reposição do alimento (ramos, diárias, foram realizadas. Os parâmetros avaliados foram duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, peso das lagartas, peso das pupas e longevidade do adulto. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com sete tratamentos e dez repetições. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância, e quando observadas diferenças, as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Os genótipos P. alata, P. serrato-digitata e P. foetida não são adequados ao desenvolvimento de D. juno juno, impossibilitando a sobrevivência das lagartas, o que mostra o alto grau de antibiose desses materiais. Entre os demais, P. edulis, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, Maguary FB-100 e Sul Brasil foram mais adequados.It was studied the effect of passion fruit genotypes on Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae development. The experiment was carried out in a laboratory, under controlled conditions (temperature: 26 ± 1°C, RH = 60 ± 10% and photophase of 14 hours. Newly-hatched larvae were fed with leaves from different passion fruit genotypes: Passiflora edulis Sims., P. alata Dryand., P. serrato-digitata L., P

  20. Seaweed Bioactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaharudin, Nazikussabah Binti

    α-amylase and α-glucosidase were identified. The edible seaweeds that were showing high potential for inhibiting the enzymes were selected to investigate their effect on the postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels following a starch load in a human meal study. In vitro studies and a human...... postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations following a starch load in a human meal study. There was no significant effect in plasma glucose but both brown seaweeds lowered postprandial insulin response following consumption of Laminaria digitata or Undaria pinnatifida compared to the control meal....... Maintenance of normal plasma glucose concentration is essential for the human health. Diet and exercise play important role to control blood sugar level. Limiting intake of high Glycaemic Index (GI) foods as part of a balanced diet is known to be important. In addition, having the right food intake such ad...

  1. Gene expression of corals in response to macroalgal competitors.

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    Tonya L Shearer

    Full Text Available As corals decline and macroalgae proliferate on coral reefs, coral-macroalgal competition becomes more frequent and ecologically important. Whether corals are damaged by these interactions depends on susceptibility of the coral and traits of macroalgal competitors. Investigating changes in gene expression of corals and their intracellular symbiotic algae, Symbiodinium, in response to contact with different macroalgae provides insight into the biological processes and cellular pathways affected by competition with macroalgae. We evaluated the gene expression profiles of coral and Symbiodinium genes from two confamilial corals, Acropora millepora and Montipora digitata, after 6 h and 48 h of contact with four common macroalgae that differ in their allelopathic potency to corals. Contacts with macroalgae affected different biological pathways in the more susceptible (A. millepora versus the more resistant (M. digitata coral. Genes of coral hosts and of their associated Symbiodinium also responded in species-specific and time-specific ways to each macroalga. Changes in number and expression intensity of affected genes were greater after 6 h compared to 48 h of contact and were greater following contact with Chlorodesmis fastigiata and Amphiroa crassa than following contact with Galaxaura filamentosa or Turbinaria conoides. We documented a divergence in transcriptional responses between two confamilial corals and their associated Symbiodinium, as well as a diversity of dynamic responses within each coral species with respect to the species of macroalgal competitor and the duration of exposure to that competitor. These responses included early initiation of immune processes by Montipora, which is more resistant to damage after long-term macroalgal contact. Activation of the immune response by corals that better resist algal competition is consistent with the hypothesis that some macroalgal effects on corals may be mediated by microbial pathogens.

  2. The cultivation of European kelp for bioenergy: Site and species selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerrison, Philip D.; Stanley, Michele S.; Edwards, Maeve D.; Black, Kenneth D.; Hughes, Adam D.

    2015-01-01

    Seaweeds are receiving increasing attention as third generation biofuels, which do not compete for land or freshwater with agricultural crops and have a high polysaccharide content. Seaweed growth is dependent on the presence of suitable physical and chemical conditions. The selection of cultivation sites with suitable characteristics is therefore essential for the successful establishment of European seaweed mariculture. The growth conditions of the site directly impact the biomass yield and composition of the crop, which in turn control the conversion efficiency of biomass to bioenergy. This review focuses on three European brown phaeophyte kelp species which may be suitable for large-scale offshore cultivation: Laminaria digitata, Saccharina latissima and Sacchoriza polyschides. It describes the known responses of each to a number of important physical and chemical parameters: temperature, salinity, water motion, nutrient concentrations, carbon dioxide/pH, light and ultra-violet radiation. It also reports density effects on their growth rate and what is known concerning the impact of disease and grazing. Conclusions are made on the conditions necessary for the optimal growth of each species for biofuel production. Where conditions are sub-optimal, this review has made recommendations for the most suitable species for a particular set of environmental conditions. - Highlights: • We review the response of three brown seaweeds to various physico-chemical conditions. • This will aid site and species selection of seaweed cultivation for biofuel. • Laminaria digitata, Saccharina latissima and Sacchoriza polyschides were examined. • Differential tolerance will allow one species to be cultivated where another cannot. • A table highlights these tolerances and the ideal conditions for a cultivation site

  3. Essential and toxic elements in seaweeds for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desideri, D; Cantaluppi, C; Ceccotto, F; Meli, M A; Roselli, C; Feduzi, L

    2016-01-01

    Essential elements (K, Ca, P, S, Cl, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Br, and I) and nonessential or toxic elements (Al, Ti, Si, Rb, Sr, As, Cd, Sn, and Pb) were determined by energy-dispersive polarized x-ray fluorescence spectrometry in 14 seaweeds purchased in local specialty stores in Italy and consumed by humans. The differences in elements between the algae species reached up to 2-4 orders of magnitude. Lithothamnium calcareum showed the highest levels of Ca, Al, Si, Fe, and Ti. Palmaria palmata showed the highest concentrations of K, Rb, and Cl. The highest content of S was in Chondrus crispus. Laminaria digitata contained the highest concentrations of total As, Cd, Sn, Br, and I. The highest concentration of Zn was in Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Ulva lactuca displayed the highest levels of Cu, Ni, Mn, and Pb. Iodine levels ranged from 3.4 in Chlorella pyrenoidosa to 7316 mg/kg(dry) in Laminaria digitata. The nutrimental importance of essential elements was assessed using nutritional requirements. The results showed that the consumption of algae might serve as an important source of the essential elements. Health risk due to the toxic elements present in seaweed was estimated using risk estimators. Total As, Cd, and Pb concentrations ranged from <1 to 67.6, to 7.2 and to 6.7 mg/kg(dry) respectively; therefore, their contribution to total elemental intake does not appear to pose any threat to the consumers, but the concentrations of these elements should be controlled to protect the consumer against potential adverse health risks.

  4. Green energy from marine algae: biogas production and composition from the anaerobic digestion of Irish seaweed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, C H; Bartlett, J

    2013-01-01

    Marine algae have emerged as an alternative feedstock for the production of a number of renewable fuels, including biogas. In addition to energy potential, other characteristics make them attractive as an energy source, including their ability to absorb carbon dioxide (CO2), higher productivity rates than land-based crops and the lack of water use or land competition. For Ireland, biofuels from marine algae can play an important role by reducing imports of fossil fuels as well as providing the necessary energy in rural communities. In this study, five potential seaweed species common in Irish waters, Saccorhiza polyschides, Ulva sp., Laminaria digitata, Fucus serratus and Saccharina latissima, were co-digested individually with bovine slurry. Batch reactors of 120ml and 1000ml were set up and incubated at 35 degrees C to investigate their suitability for production of biogas. Digesters fed with S. latissima produced the maximum methane yield (335 ml g volatile solids(-1) (g(VS)(-1) followed by S. polyschides with 255 ml g(VS)(-1). L. digitata produced 246ml g(VS)(-1) and the lowest yields were from the green seaweed Ulva sp. 191ml g(VS)(-1). The methane and CO2 percentages ranged between 50-72% and 10-45%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the seaweed species investigated are good feedstocks candidates for the production of biogas and methane as a source of energy. Their use on a large-scale process will require further investigation to increase yields and reduce production costs.

  5. The 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory, antioxidant, antimycobacterial activity and cytotoxicity of fourteen ethnomedicinally used African spices and culinary herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzoyem, Jean Paul; Kuete, Victor; McGaw, Lyndy J; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2014-10-28

    Culinary herbs and spices are widely used ethnomedically across Africa. They are traditionally employed in the treatment of several ailments including inflammation disorders, pain alleviation and infectious diseases. Pharmacological studies are necessary to provide a scientific basis to substantiate their traditional use and safety. In this study, the 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory, antioxidant, antimycobacterial and the cytotoxic activities, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of fourteen edible plants were investigated. The 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity was evaluated by the ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX) assay method. The antioxidant activity was determined using free-radical scavenging assays. The antimycobacterial activity was determined by a broth microdilution method against three species of mycobacteria: Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium fortuitum using tetrazolium violet as growth indicator. The cytotoxicity was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on Vero monkey kidney cells. All the extracts tested had some 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity ranging from 32.9 to 78.64%. Adansonia digitata (fruit) had the highest antioxidant capacity (IC₅₀ values of 8.15 μg/mL and 9.16 μg/mL in the DPPH and ABTS assays respectively; TEAC of 0.75 in the FRAP assay) along with the highest amount of total phenolics (237.68 mg GAE/g) and total flavonoids (16.14 mg E/g). There were good correlations between DPPH and ABTS values (R(2) 0.98) and between total phenolics and total flavonoids (R(2) 0.94). Tamarindus indica had significant antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium aurum (MIC 78 μg/mL). As could be expected with edible plants, all the extracts had a relatively low cytotoxicity with LC₅₀ values higher than 102 μg/mL with the exception of the two Aframomum species (33 and 74 μg/mL). This study provides scientific support for some of the the traditional uses

  6. Taxonomic identification of appendicularians collected in the epipelagic waters off northern Chile (Tunicata, Appendicularia Identificación taxonómica de las apendicularias capturadas en aguas epipelágicas de la zona norte de Chile (Tunicata, Appendicularia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILLERMO ARAVENA

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This work provides a first taxonomic description of appendicularians collected during September and August of 1995 in the north coast of Chile (18º23'-31º00' S. Fifteen species were identified. They belong to the families Oikopleuridae (Oikopleura longicauda, O. cophocerca, O. dioica, O. rufescens, O. fusiformis, O. albicans, O. gracilis and Megalocercus abyssorum, and Fritillariidae (Fritillaria pellucida typica, F. pellucida omani, F. haplostoma F. tenella, F. formica digitata, F. venusta and F. fraudax. All the species are first records for waters of northern Chile, thus broadening their previous distribution in the southeast Pacific. The most abundant species were Oikopleura longicauda (56.1 %, O. gracilis (10.4 %, Fritillaria pellucida typica (6.7 %; O. albicans (5.0 %; F. pellucida omani (4.7 %; O. cophocerca (4.4 % and F. venusta (4.1 %, whereas the eight remaining species, constituted 8.6 % of the total appendicularians collectedEl presente trabajo proporciona una primera descripción taxonómica de las apendicularias colectadas durante septiembre y agosto de 1995 en la costa norte de Chile (18º23'-31º00' S. Se identificaron 15 especies de apendicularias pertenecientes a las familias Oikopleuridae (Oikopleura longicauda, O. cophocerca, O. dioica, O. rufescens, O. fusiformis, O. albicans, O. gracilis and Megalocercus abyssorum y Fritillariidae (Fritillaria pellucida typica, F. pellucida omani, F. haplostoma F. tenella, F. formica digitata, F. venusta and F. fraudax. Todas las especies identificadas se registran por primera vez para aguas del norte de Chile y se amplía su distribución en esta área del Pacífico Suroriental. Las especies más abundantes fueron Oikopleura longicauda (56,1 %, O. gracilis (10,4 %, Fritillaria pellucida typica (6,7 %; O. albicans (5,0 %; F. pellucida omani (4,7 %; O. cophocerca (4,4 % y F. venusta (4,1 %, mientras que las ocho especies restantes constituyeron el 8,6 % del total de apendicularias

  7. Pegamento da enxertia em diferentes combinações de variedades e espécies utilizadas como copa e como porta-enxertos de maracujazeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givanildo Roncatto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é o maior produtor de maracujá. Mas, apesar da posição de destaque, a vida útil do maracujazeiro vem sendo reduzida, principalmente, devido aos danos causados por doenças do sistema radicular. A enxertia com espécies nativas e resistentes a doenças apresenta-se como alternativa de produção. Com isso, objetivou-se avaliar o pegamento da enxertia nas combinações de variedades-copa e espécies de porta-enxertos de maracujazeiro. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em viveiro telado (50% de sombreamento, na Embrapa Acre, em Rio Branco-AC, entre setembro e dezembro de 2007. A variedade-copa utilizada para todos os tratamentos foi o maracujazeiro-amarelo 'FB 100' e 'FB 200' do viveiro Flora Brasil (Araguari-MG e outras 5 variedades regionais (UFAC-Universidade Federal do Acre, Rio Branco-AC, e os porta-enxertos foram Passiflora edulis Sims (maracujazeiro-amarelo (acesso Cuiabá-MT, P. alata, P. edulis (maracujazeiro-roxo e P. quadrangularis (acesso Guiratinga-MT, P. serrato-digitata (acesso IAC-Campinas-SP. As sementes foram previamente embebidas em água destilada por cerca de 24 h e posteriormente semeadas em tubetes plásticos (25x5cm com substrato Plantmax@. O método de enxertia utilizado foi o de fenda cheia no topo hipocotiledonar, tendo os porta-enxertos as seguintes características: três folhas verdadeiras e altura de plântula variável (6 a 8cm, 30 a 90 dias após a semeadura. Decapitaram-se as plântulas na altura dos cotilédones com lâmina de aço, as quais foram mergulhadas em água sanitária a 70%, a cada enxertia realizada. Os enxertos foram obtidos de plântula inteira, com cerca de 10 cm de comprimento, fazendo-se a limpeza das folhas. As combinações de melhor desempenho em relação ao pegamento da enxertia foram UFAC 07 sobre P. edulis (maracujazeiro-roxo e P. alata, UFAC 38 sobre P. edulis (maracujazeiro-amarelo, P. edulis (maracujazeiro-roxo e P. alata, UFAC 64 sobre P. serrato-digitata, com 100% de pegamento

  8. Application of mass spectrometric techniques for the trace analysis of short-lived iodine-containing volatiles emitted by seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundel, Michael; Thorenz, Ute R; Petersen, Jan H; Huang, Ru-Jin; Bings, Nicolas H; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2012-04-01

    Knowledge of the composition and emission rates of iodine-containing volatiles from major widespread seaweed species is important for modeling the impact of halogens on gas-phase atmospheric chemistry, new particle formation, and climate. In this work, we present the application of mass spectrometric techniques for the quantification of short-lived iodine-containing volatiles emitted by eight different seaweeds from the intertidal zone of Helgoland, Germany. A previously developed online time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometric method was used to determine I(2) emission rates and investigate temporally resolved emission profiles. Simultaneously, iodocarbons were preconcentrated on solid adsorbent tubes and quantified offline using thermodesorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total iodine content of the seaweeds was determined using microwave-assisted tetramethylammonium hydroxide extraction followed by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry analysis. The highest total iodine content was found in the Laminariales, followed by the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus, Fucus serratus, and both red algae Chondrus crispus and Delesseria sanguinea. Laminariales were found to be the strongest I(2) emitters. Time series of the iodine release of Laminaria digitata and Laminaria hyperborea showed a strong initial I(2) emission when first exposed to air followed by an exponential decline of the release rate. For both species, I(2) emission bursts were observed. For Laminaria saccharina und F. serratus, a more continuous I(2) release profile was detected, however, F. serratus released much less I(2). A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus showed a completely different emission behavior. The I(2) emission rates of these species were slowly increasing with time during the first 1 to 2 h until a more or less stable I(2) emission rate was reached. The lowest I(2) emission rates were detected for the red algae C. crispus and D. sanguinea. Total iodocarbon

  9. A systematic review of anti-obesity medicinal plants - an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Jouyandeh, Zahra; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-06-19

    Obesity is the most prevalent health problem affecting all age groups, and leads to many complications in the form of chronic heart disease, diabetes mellitus Type 2 and stroke. A systematic review about safety and efficacy of herbal medicines in the management of obesity in human was carried out by searching bibliographic data bases such as, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and IranMedex, for studies reported between 30th December 2008 to 23rd April 2012 on human or animals, investigating the beneficial and harmful effects of herbal medicine to treat obesity. Actually we limited our search to such a narrow window of time in order to update our article published before December of 2008. In this update, the search terms were "obesity" and ("herbal medicine" or "plant", "plant medicinal" or "medicine traditional") without narrowing or limiting search items. Publications with available abstracts were reviewed only. Total publications found in the initial search were 651. Total number of publications for review study was 33 by excluding publications related to animals study.Studies with Nigella Sativa, Camellia Sinensis, Crocus Sativus L, Seaweed laminaria Digitata, Xantigen, virgin olive oil, Catechin enriched green tea, Monoselect Camellia, Oolong tea, Yacon syrup, Irvingia Gabonensi, Weighlevel, RCM-104 compound of Camellia Sinensis, Pistachio, Psyllium fibre, black Chinese tea, sea buckthorn and bilberries show significant decreases in body weight. Only, alginate-based brown seaweed and Laminaria Digitata caused an abdominal bloating and upper respiratory tract infection as the side effect in the trial group. No other significant adverse effects were reported in all 33 trials included in this article.In conclusion, Nigella Sativa, Camellia Synensis, Green Tea, and Black Chinese Tea seem to have satisfactory anti-obesity effects. The effect size of these medicinal plants is a critical point that should be considered for interpretation. Although there

  10. Genetic variations among passion fruit species using rapd markers Variação genética entre espécies de maracujá utilizando marcadores rapd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de Andrade Aukar

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been evaluated the genetic variability through the use of RAPD molecular markers on the following passionflower species: Passiflora amethystina, P. caerulea, P. cincinnata, P. coccinea, P. serrato digitata, P. foetida, P. maliformis, P. alata, P. giberti, P. laurifolia, P. macrocarpa, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. suberosa, P. ligularis, P. capsularis, P. edulis Sims and its botanical variety P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. In this research work, the analyses of the random amplified polymorphic DNA products (RAPD were employed to estimate the genetic diversity and the taxonomic linkage within the species above. The total of 21 primers were used in this study which generated 270 different polymorphic products. It was possible to detect that the Passiflora species had shown a similarity of 17,3%, and between Passiflora edulis Sims and Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa a similarity of 34,35% has been found. The rate of similarity within edulis specie is low, making it clear that a large variability between the yellow and the purple forms exists.Foram avaliadas as variações genéticas através de marcadores moleculares RAPD, as seguintes espécies de maracujá: Passiflora amethystina, P. caerulea, P. cincinnata, P. coccinea, P. serrato digitata, P. foetida, P. maliformis, P. alata, P. giberti, P. laurifolia, P. macrocarpa, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. suberosa, P. ligularis, P. capsularis, P. edulis Sims e sua variedade botânica P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. Neste estudo, a análise dos produtos da amplificação ao acaso do DNA polimórfico (RAPD foi usada para estimar a diversidade genética e as relações taxonômicas entre as espécies. Foram utilizados 21 "primers", que produziram um total de 270 bandas polimórficas. Verificou-se que as espécies de Passiflora apresentaram uma média de similaridade de 17,3%, e entre Passiflora edulis Sims e Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa, de 34,35%. Pode-se perceber que o valor de

  11. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Oostindie

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available - M.M. van Bruinessen, Ann Kumar, The diary of a Javanese Muslim; Politics and the pesantren 1883-1886, Canberra: Australian National University, Faculty of Asian Studies Monographs, New Series No. 71, 1985. - J.G. de Casparis, John N. Miksic, Archaeological research on the ‘Forbidden Hill’ of Singapore: Excavations at Fort Canning, 1984, Singapore: National Museum, 1985. - Bernhard Dahm, Audrey R. Kahin, Regional dynamics of the Indonesian revolution; Unity from diversity, Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1985. XI + 306 pp. - G.W.J. Drewes, Marcel Bonneff, Pérégrinations javanaises. Les Voyages de R.M.A. Purwalelana; Une vision de Java au XIXe siècle (c.1860-1875, Études insulindiennes/Archipel, 7, Éditions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, Paris, 1986. 384 pp. - C. Fasseur, C.W. Watson, Kerinci. Two historical studies. Occasional paper no.3, University of Kent at Canterbury, 1984, X + 63 pp. - L.G.M. Jaquet, The Kenpeitai in Java and Sumatra; Selections form the authorised history of the Kenpietai by the national federation of Kenpeitai veterans associations. - Pieter ter Keurs, Erhard Schlesier, Me’udana, Südost-Neuguinea, Teil 2, Das soziale Leben, 1983. - Werner Kraus, Mitsuo Nakamura, The crescent arises over the Banyan tree, Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press, 1983. XI + 223 pp. - J.A. de Moor, Leon Salim, Prisoners of Kota Cane, (Translated and introduced by Audrey R. Kahin, Ithaca, New York: Cornell modern Indonesia project, translation series, no. 66, 1986, 112 pp. - Gert J. Oostindie, Cornelis Ch. Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean and in the Guianas 1680-1791. Assen: Van Gorcum, 1985. xvi + 712 pp., ill. - Gert J. Oostindie, Cornelis Ch. Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild coast 1580-1680. Assen: Van Gorcum, 1971. xvi + 647 pp., ills. - S.O. Robson, J. Joseph Errington, Language and social change in Java: Linguistic reflexes of modernization in a traditional royal polity, Athens, Ohio

  12. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael Williams; Deforesting the earth; From prehistory to global crisis (Greg Bankoff Alexander Adelaar, Nikolaus P. Himmelmann (eds; The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar (René van den Berg Wim Ravesteijn, Jan Kop (eds; Bouwen in de archipel; Burgerlijke Openbare Werken in Nederlands-Indië en Indonesië 1800-2000 (Freek Colombijn Susan Rodgers; Print, poetics, and politics; A Sumatran epic in the colonial Indies and New Order Indonesia (Bernhard Dahm Robert A. Scebold; Central Tagbanwa; a Philippine language on the brink of extinction; Sociolinguistics, grammar, and lexicon (Aone van Engelenhoven Adrian Vickers; Journeys of desire; A study of the Balinese text Malat (Amrit Gomperts B.J. Terwiel; Thailand’s political history; From the fall of Ayutthaya to recent times (Hans Hägerdal Robert van Niel; Java’s Northeast Coast 1740-1840; A study in colonial encroachment and dominance (Mason C. Hoadley Terence H. Hull (ed.; People, population, and policy in Indonesia (Santo Koesoebjono W.L. Korthals Altes; Tussen cultures en kredieten; Een institutionele geschiedenis van de Nederlandsch-Indische Handelsbank en Nationale Handelsbank, 1863-1964 (Koh Keng Weh William van der Heide; Malaysian cinema, Asian film; Border crossings and national cultures (Benjamin McKay Angela Romano; Politics and the press in Indonesia; Understanding an evolving political culture (Soe Tjen Marching Simon Harrison; Fracturing resemblances; Identity and mimetic conflict in Melanesia and the West (Toon van Meijl Daniel Fitzpatrick; Land claims in East Timor (Johanna van Reenen Susi Moeimam, Hein Steinhauer; Nederlands-Indonesisch Woordenboek (Stuart Robson Terance W. Bigalke; Tana Toraja: a social history of an Indonesian people (Dik Roth K. Alexander Adelaar (with the assistance of Pak Vitus Kaslem; Salako or Badameà; Sketch grammar, texts and lexicon of a Kanayatn dialect in West Borneo (Hein Steinhauer

  13. Tracking Down the Causes of Recent Induced and Natural Intraplate Earthquakes with 3D Seismological Analyses in Northwest Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uta, P.; Brandes, C.; Boennemann, C.; Plenefisch, T.; Winsemann, J.

    2015-12-01

    Northwest Germany is a typical low strain intraplate region with a low seismic activity. Nevertheless, 58 well documented earthquakes with magnitudes of 0.5 - 4.3 affected the area in the last 40 years. Most of the epicenters were located in the vicinity of active natural gas fields and some inside. Accordingly, the earthquakes were interpreted as a consequence of hydrocarbon recovery (e.g. Dahm et al. 2007, Bischoff et al. 2013) and classified as induced events in the bulletins of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR). The two major ones have magnitudes of 4.3 and 4.0. They are the strongest earthquakes ever recorded in Northern Germany. Consequently, these events raise the question whether the ongoing extraction itself can cause them or if other natural tectonic processes like glacial isostatic adjustment may considerably contribute to their initiation. Recent studies of Brandes et al. (2012) imply that lithospheric stress changes due to post glacial isostatic adjustment might be also a potential natural cause for earthquakes in Central Europe. In order to better analyse the earthquakes and to test this latter hypothesis we performed a relocalization of the events with the NonLinLoc (Lomax et al. 2000) program package and two differently scaled 3D P-wave velocity models. Depending on the station coverage for a distinct event, either a fine gridded local model (88 x 73 x 15 km, WEG-model, made available by the industry) or a coarse regional model (1600 x 1600 x 45 km, data from CRUST1.0, Laske et al. 2013) and for some cases a combination of both models was used for the relocalization. The results confirm the trend of the older routine analysis: The majority of the events are located at the margins of the natural gas fields, some of them are now located closer to them. Focal depths mostly vary between 3.5 km and 10 km. However, for some of the events, especially for the older events with relatively bad station coverage, the error bars

  14. THE LAST GASP OF GAS GIANT PLANET FORMATION: A SPITZER STUDY OF THE 5 Myr OLD CLUSTER NGC 2362

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, Thayne; Lada, Charles J.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Irwin, Jonathan; Kenyon, Scott J.; Plavchan, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Expanding upon the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) survey from Dahm and Hillenbrand, we describe Spitzer IRAC and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer observations of the populous, 5 Myr old open cluster NGC 2362. We analyze the mid-IR colors of cluster members and compared their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to star+circumstellar disk models to constrain the disk morphologies and evolutionary states. Early/intermediate-type confirmed/candidate cluster members either have photospheric mid-IR emission or weak, optically thin IR excess emission at λ ≥ 24 μm consistent with debris disks. Few late-type, solar/subsolar-mass stars have primordial disks. The disk population around late-type stars is dominated by disks with inner holes (canonical 'transition disks') and 'homologously depleted' disks. Both types of disks represent an intermediate stage between primordial disks and debris disks. Thus, in agreement with previous results, we find that multiple paths for the primordial-to-debris disk transition exist. Because these 'evolved primordial disks' greatly outnumber primordial disks, our results undermine standard arguments in favor of a ∼ 5 yr timescale for the transition based on data from Taurus-Auriga. Because the typical transition timescale is far longer than 10 5 yr, these data also appear to rule out standard ultraviolet photoevaporation scenarios as the primary mechanism to explain the transition. Combining our data with other Spitzer surveys, we investigate the evolution of debris disks around high/intermediate-mass stars and investigate timescales for giant planet formation. Consistent with Currie et al., the luminosity of 24 μm emission in debris disks due to planet formation peaks at ∼10-20 Myr. If the gas and dust in disks evolve on similar timescales, the formation timescale for gas giant planets surrounding early-type, high/intermediate-mass (∼>1.4 M sun ) stars is likely 1-5 Myr. Most solar/subsolar-mass stars detected by Spitzer

  15. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Baal

    1972-10-01

    . 388 pp., 4 plates, 5 figs. - B. Dahm, Melford E. Spiro, Buddhism and society. A great tradition and its Burmese Vicissitudes. Harper and Row Publishers, New York, Evanston and London 1970. 510 p. - E. Allard, Cora Vreede-de Stuers, Girl students in Jaipur, a study in attitudes towards family life, marriage and career. “Studies of developing countries”, Van Gorcum & Comp. N.V., Assen 1970. 141 pages, 25 tables, 8 plates.

  16. Edible seaweed as future functional food: Identification of α-glucosidase inhibitors by combined use of high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition profiling and HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingrui; Kongstad, Kenneth T; Wiese, Stefanie; Jäger, Anna K; Staerk, Dan

    2016-07-15

    Crude chloroform, ethanol and acetone extracts of nineteen seaweed species were screened for their antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Samples showing more than 60% α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, at a concentration of 1 mg/ml, were furthermore investigated using high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition profiling combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-bioassay/HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR). The results showed Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesicolosus to be rich in antioxidants, equaling a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of 135 and 108 mM Troloxmg(-1) extract, respectively. HR-bioassay/HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR showed the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of A. nodosum, F. vesoculosus, Laminaria digitata, Laminaria japonica and Undaria pinnatifida to be caused by phlorotannins as well as fatty acids - with oleic acid, linoleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid being the most potent with IC50 values of 0.069, 0.075 and 0.10 mM, respectively, and showing a mixed-type inhibition mode. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fungi associated with black mould on baobab trees in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruywagen, Elsie M; Crous, Pedro W; Roux, Jolanda; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    There have been numerous reports in the scientific and popular literature suggesting that African baobab (Adansonia digitata) trees are dying, with symptoms including a black mould on their bark. The aim of this study was to determine the identity of the fungi causing this black mould and to consider whether they might be affecting the health of trees. The fungi were identified by sequencing directly from mycelium on the infected tissue as well as from cultures on agar. Sequence data for the ITS region of the rDNA resulted in the identification of four fungi including Aureobasidium pullulans, Toxicocladosporium irritans and a new species of Rachicladosporium described here as Rachicladosporium africanum. A single isolate of an unknown Cladosporium sp. was also found. These fungi, referred to here as black mould, are not true sooty mould fungi and they were shown to penetrate below the bark of infected tissue, causing a distinct host reaction. Although infections can lead to dieback of small twigs on severely infected branches, the mould was not found to kill trees.

  18. How does molecular-assisted identification affect our estimation of α, β and γ biodiversity? An example from understory red seaweeds (Rhodophyta) of Laminaria kelp forests in Brittany, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robuchon, Marine; Valero, Myriam; Gey, Delphine; Le Gall, Line

    2015-04-01

    Using two distinct identification methods, one based on morphological characters only and the other combining morphological and molecular characters (integrative identification method), we investigated the differences in the biodiversity patterns of red seaweed communities associated with kelp forests at various spatial scales: the regional diversity of Brittany, France (γ-diversity), the local diversity at different Breton sites (α-diversity) and the differentiation in species diversity and abundances among those sites (β-diversity). To characterise α and β diversities, we conducted an initial survey in winter 2011 at 20 sites belonging to four different sub-regions, with specimens collected from six quadrats of 0.10 m(2) at each site, three in the tidal zone dominated by Laminaria digitata and three in the zone dominated by Laminaria hyperborea. To further characterise the regional diversity, we carried out another survey combining several sampling methods (quadrats and visual census) in different seasons (winter, spring and summer) and different years (2011 and 2012). In all, we collected 1990 specimens that were assigned to 76 taxa with the identification method based on morphological characters and 139 taxa using the integrative method. For γ and α diversity, the use of molecular characters revealed several cases of cryptic diversity and both increased the number of identified taxa and improved their taxonomic resolution. However, the addition of molecular characters for specimen identification only slightly affected estimates of β-diversity.

  19. Alginate and Algal-Based Beads for the Sorption of Metal Cations: Cu(II and Pb(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengye Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Alginate and algal-biomass (Laminaria digitata beads were prepared by homogeneous Ca ionotropic gelation. In addition, glutaraldehyde-crosslinked poly (ethyleneimine (PEI was incorporated into algal beads. The three sorbents were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX: the sorption occurs in the whole mass of the sorbents. Sorption experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of pH, sorption isotherms, and uptake kinetics. A special attention was paid to the effect of drying (air-drying vs. freeze-drying on the mass transfer properties. For alginate, freeze drying is required for maintaining the porosity of the hydrogel, while for algal-based sorbents the swelling of the material minimizes the impact of the drying procedure. The maximum sorption capacities observed from experiments were 415, 296 and 218 mg Pb g−1 and 112, 77 and 67 mg Cu g−1 for alginate, algal and algal/PEI beads respectively. Though the sorption capacities of algal-beads decreased slightly (compared to alginate beads, the greener and cheaper one-pot synthesis of algal beads makes this sorbent more competitive for environmental applications. PEI in algal beads decreases the sorption properties in the case of the sorption of metal cations under selected experimental conditions.

  20. Hydrogen production from algal biomass via steam gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Gozde; Uddin, Md Azhar; Yanik, Jale

    2014-08-01

    Algal biomasses were tested as feedstock for steam gasification in a dual-bed microreactor in a two-stage process. Gasification experiments were carried out in absence and presence of catalyst. The catalysts used were 10% Fe₂O₃-90% CeO₂ and red mud (activated and natural forms). Effects of catalysts on tar formation and gasification efficiencies were comparatively investigated. It was observed that the characteristic of algae gasification was dependent on its components and the catalysts used. The main role of the catalyst was reforming of the tar derived from algae pyrolysis, besides enhancing water gas shift reaction. The tar reduction levels were in the range of 80-100% for seaweeds and of 53-70% for microalgae. Fe₂O₃-CeO₂ was found to be the most effective catalyst. The maximum hydrogen yields obtained were 1036 cc/g algae for Fucus serratus, 937 cc/g algae for Laminaria digitata and 413 cc/g algae for Nannochloropsis oculata. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Diversity of kelp holdfast-associated fauna in an Arctic fjord - inconsistent responses to glacial mineral sedimentation across different taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronowicz, Marta; Kukliński, Piotr; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria

    2018-05-01

    Kelp forests are complex underwater habitats that support diverse assemblages of animals ranging from sessile filter feeding invertebrates to fishes and marine mammals. In this study, the diversity of invertebrate fauna associated with kelp holdfasts was surveyed in a high Arctic glacial fjord (76 N, Hornsund, Svalbard). The effects of algal host identity (three kelp species: Laminaria digitata, Saccharina latissima and Alaria esculenta), depth (5 and 10 m) and glacier-derived disturbance (three sites with varying levels of mineral sedimentation) on faunal species richness and composition were studied based on 239 collected algal holdfasts. The species pool was mostly made up by three taxa: colonial Bryozoa and Hydrozoa, and Polychaeta. While the all-taxa species richness did not differ between depths, algal hosts and sites, the patterns varied when the two colonial sessile filter-feeding taxa were analysed alone (Hydrozoa and Bryozoa). The Hydrozoa sample species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were the highest at undisturbed sites, whereas Bryozoa species richness was higher in sediment-impacted localities, indicating relative insensitivity of this phylum to the increased level of mineral suspension in the water column. The average taxonomic distinctness of Bryozoa did not vary between sites. The species composition of kelp-associated fauna varied between sites and depths for the whole community and the most dominant taxa (Bryozoa, Hydrozoa). The high load of inorganic suspension and sedimentation did not cause pauperization of kelp holdfast-associated fauna but instead triggered the changes in species composition and shifts between dominant taxonomic groups.

  2. Variability and similarities in the structural properties of two related Laminaria kelp species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Pierre-Yves

    2018-01-01

    Kelps of the genus Laminaria have long been studied and shown to exhibit a seasonal shift in growth and morphology, as nutrients and light levels change during the year. However, the variation of kelp biomechanical properties has been little explored despite the importance of these properties for the interaction of kelp with the flow. Previous research showed that aging does influence the algae biomechanical properties, so this study further investigates the variability of kelp biomechanical properties and morphological characteristics at a given site as a function of the season (growth phase), species, and different kelp parts. Mechanical parameters and morphological characteristics were measured on kelps sampled in winter and summer, and DNA sequencing was used to identify the two related species, L. digitata and L. hyperborea. Descriptive statistics and statistical analysis were used to detect trends in the modulation of kelp mechanical design. Although two distinct species were identified, only minor structural differences were observed between them. The biomechanical properties varied significantly along the kelp, and significant seasonal shifts occurred at the blade level, in relation to the different morphological changes during blade renewal. In general, the variations of the structural properties were mostly linked to the blade growth activity. The absence of significant variation in the mechanical design of the two species highlights the significance of the adaptation to the same local environmental conditions, this adaptation being a key process in vegetation-flow interactions and having implications on the interaction between kelp and hydrodynamics.

  3. Selection of yeast strains for bioethanol production from UK seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostas, Emily T; White, Daniel A; Du, Chenyu; Cook, David J

    Macroalgae (seaweeds) are a promising feedstock for the production of third generation bioethanol, since they have high carbohydrate contents, contain little or no lignin and are available in abundance. However, seaweeds typically contain a more diverse array of monomeric sugars than are commonly present in feedstocks derived from lignocellulosic material which are currently used for bioethanol production. Hence, identification of a suitable fermentative microorganism that can utilise the principal sugars released from the hydrolysis of macroalgae remains a major objective. The present study used a phenotypic microarray technique to screen 24 different yeast strains for their ability to metabolise individual monosaccharides commonly found in seaweeds, as well as hydrolysates following an acid pre-treatment of five native UK seaweed species ( Laminaria digitata , Fucus serratus , Chondrus crispus , Palmaria palmata and Ulva lactuca ). Five strains of yeast (three Saccharomyces spp, one Pichia sp and one Candida sp) were selected and subsequently evaluated for bioethanol production during fermentation of the hydrolysates. Four out of the five selected strains converted these monomeric sugars into bioethanol, with the highest ethanol yield (13 g L -1 ) resulting from a fermentation using C. crispus hydrolysate with Saccharomyces cerevisiae YPS128. This study demonstrated the novel application of a phenotypic microarray technique to screen for yeast capable of metabolising sugars present in seaweed hydrolysates; however, metabolic activity did not always imply fermentative production of ethanol.

  4. Characterization of protein, lipid and mineral contents in common Norwegian seaweeds and evaluation of their potential as food and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehre, Hanne K; Malde, Marian K; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik; Elvevoll, Edel O

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine protein and amino acid composition, lipid and fatty acid composition, along with a range of essential minerals in common Norwegian seaweed species representing the red (Palmaria palmata and Vertebrata lanosa), green (Cladophora rupestris, Enteromorpha intestinalis and Ulva lactuca) and brown (Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata, Laminaria hyperborea, Fucus vesiculosus and Pelvetia canaliculata) classes and assess their potential as alternatives to cereals in food and feed. As macroalgae accumulate heavy metals, arsenic, cadmium and mercury were also analyzed. Proteins ranged from 34 to 123 g kg(-1) dry weight (DW) and the essential amino acid levels may cover both human and salmonid requirements. Lipids were low (6-58 g kg(-1) DW), but the red algae had high relative content of long-chained omega-3 fatty acids (32-34 % of the fatty acids). Iodine contents were particularly high in the Laminaria species. Of the heavy metals only arsenic levels may be of concern. In total, the red alga P. palmata was regarded as the best alternative to cereals in food and feed. For several of the other species, single-component extraction for the ingredients market may be better than using the whole product. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. The potential for kelp manufacture to lead to arsenic pollution of remote Scottish islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riekie, G J; Williams, P N; Raab, A; Meharg, A A

    2006-10-01

    Burning seaweed to produce kelp, valued for its high potash and soda content, was formerly a significant industry in remote coastal areas of Scotland and elsewhere. Given the high concentrations of arsenic in seaweeds, up to 100 mg kg(-1), this study investigates the possibility that the kelp industry caused arsenic contamination of these pristine environments. A series of laboratory-scale seaweed burning experiments was conducted, and analysis of the products using HPLC ICP-MS shows that at least 40% of the arsenic originally in the seaweed could have been released into the fumes. The hypothesis that the burning process transforms arsenic from low toxicity arsenosugars in the original seaweeds (Fucus vesiculosus and Laminaria digitata) to highly toxic inorganic forms, predominantly arsenate, is consistent with As speciation analysis results. A field study conducted on Westray, Orkney, once a major centre for kelp production, shows that elevated arsenic levels (10.7+/-3.0 mg kg(-1), compared to background levels of 1.7+/-0.2 mg kg(-1)) persist in soils in the immediate vicinity of the kelp burning pits. A model combining results from the burning experiments with data from historical records demonstrates the potential for arsenic deposition of 47 g ha(-1) year(-1) on land adjacent to the main kelp burning location on Westray, and for arsenic concentrations exceeding current UK soil guideline values during the 50 year period of peak kelp production.

  6. AMS radiocarbon dating of very large Grandidier’s baobabs (Adansonia grandidieri)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrut, Adrian [Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Reden, Karl F. von [NOSAMS Facility, Dept. of Geology & Geophysics, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Danthu, Pascal [Cirad, UPR BSEF, Montpellier (France); DP Forêt et Biodiversité, Antananarivo (Madagascar); Leong Pock-Tsy, Jean-Michel [DP Forêt et Biodiversité, Antananarivo (Madagascar); Rakosy, Laszlo; Patrut, Roxana T. [Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Biology and Geology, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Lowy, Daniel A. [Nova University, Alexandria Campus, Alexandria, VA (United States); Margineanu, Dragos [Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-10-15

    The article reports the AMS radiocarbon investigation of the two largest known Adansonia grandidieri specimens. The two baobabs, which are named Tsitakakoike and Pregnant baobab, are located in Southwestern Madagascar, near Andombiro. A third specimen from this area, the House baobab, was also investigated. According to measurements, Tsitakakoike is the biggest individual above ground level of all Adansonia species. The House baobab was selected for its exposed structure, which is identical to the closed ring-shaped structure with false cavities identified by us in large and old Adansonia digitata specimens. According to our research, Tsitakakoike and the Pregnant baobab have multi-stemmed cylindrical trunks which are mainly hollow; the two very large baobabs also possess a ring-shaped structure. The radiocarbon dates of the oldest wood samples collected from the large trunks were 1274 ± 20 BP for Tsitakakoike and 930 ± 20 BP for the Pregnant baobab. According to their original positions and to the architectures of the two A. grandidieri, the ages of Tsitakakoike and Pregnant baobab would be between 1300 and 1500 years. Therefore, A. grandidieri becomes the third Adansonia species with individuals that can live over 1000 years, according to accurate dating results.

  7. The genus Manota Williston (Diptera: Mycetophilidae) in Peruvian Amazonia, with description of sixteen new species and notes on local species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippa, Heikki; Kurina, Olavi; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2017-02-21

    A comprehensive study of material of the worldwide fungus gnat genus Manota Williston, sampled from the Allpahuayo-Mishana National Reserve in Peruvian Amazonia, was conducted. The following 16 species are described as new: M. aligera sp. n., M. aristoseta sp. n., M. calva sp. n., M. ciliata sp. n., M. exigua sp. n., M. digitata sp. n., M. flabellata sp. n., M. iquitosensis sp. n., M. limulata sp. n., M. micella sp. n., M. minutula sp. n., M. nuda sp. n., M. parvula sp. n., M. pauloides sp. n., M. pustulosa sp. n. and M. serrulata sp. n. In addition, the following 16 species are recorded: M. acuminata Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005, M. acutistylus Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005, M. anfracta Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. appendiculata Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. aristata Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. bisulca Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. diversiseta Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005, M. iota Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. micula Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. papillosa Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. paula Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. penicillata Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005, M. pisinna Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. quantula Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. spinosa Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 and M. virgata Hippa & Kurina, 2013. Altogether 67 species of Manota are now known from the Neotropical region.

  8. The search for natural bioactive compounds through a multidisciplinary approach in Bolivia. Part II. Antimalarial activity of some plants used by Mosetene indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, V; Sauvain, M; Bourdy, G; Callapa, J; Rojas, I; Vargas, L; Tae, A; Deharo, E

    2000-02-01

    Forty-six different species collected in the Mosetene ethnia, dwelling in the Andean Piedmont of Bolivia, were screened for antimalarial properties. Thirty-three extracts were screened for antimalarial activity in vitro on Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistant strain (Indo), and forty-seven extracts were evaluated in vivo on the rodent malaria P. vinckei petteri 279BY. Only two plants are specifically used in combination by the Mosetene against malaria attack (Hymenachne donacifolia and Tesseria integrifolia), but they did not display any activity in vivo at 1000 mg/kg. The in vivo most active extracts were Swietenia macrophylla bark, Trema micrantha bark and Triplaris americana bark, not all of them were used for antimalarial purposes by the Mosetene. The following extracts were moderately active: Jacaratia digitata inner bark and Momordica charantia aerial part (both traditionally used as febrifuge), Kalanchoe pinnate aerial part (used in inflammatory processes), Lunania parviflora twigs and leaves, Phyllanthus acuminatus (used as piscicide), Tynanthus schumannianus fruit (used against diarrhoea), Triumfetta semitrilobata (used as febrifuge, to alleviate kidney and gynecological pain) and finally Solanum mammosum fruit (used against scabies). We present here the results of this screening, emphazing on the in vivo antimalarial activity of the selected plants. The antimalarial in vivo activity of the selected species, in relation with their traditional Mosetene use is then discussed.

  9. Reef Development on Artificial Patch Reefs in Shallow Water of Panjang Island, Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasik; Sugiyanto; Sugianto, Denny N.; Sabdono, Agus

    2018-02-01

    Reef restoration methods are generally developed by propagation of coral fragments, coral recruits and provide substrate for coral attachment using artificial reefs (ARs). ARs have been widely applied as a tool for reef restoration in degraded natural reefs. Successful of coral restoration is determined by reef development such as increasing coral biomass, natural of coral recruits and fauna associated. Artificial Patch Reefs (APRs) is designed by combined of artificial reefs and coral transplantation and constructed by modular circular structures in shape, were deployed from small boats by scuba divers, and are suitable near natural reefs for shallow water with low visibility of Panjang Island, Central Java. Branching corals of Acropora aspera, Montipora digitata and Porites cylindrica fragments were transplanted on to each module of two units of artificial patch reefs in different periods. Coral fragments of Acropora evolved high survival and high growth, Porites fragments have moderate survival and low growth, while fragment of Montipora show in low survival and moderate growth. Within 19 to 22 months of APRs deployment, scleractinian corals were recruited on the surface of artificial patch reef substrates. The most recruits abundant was Montastrea, followed by Poritids, Pocilloporids, and Acroporids. We conclude that artificial patch reefs with developed by coral fragments and natural coral recruitment is one of an alternative rehabilitation method in shallow reef with low visibility.

  10. Intraspecific variations in responses to ocean acidification in two branching coral species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizawa, Ayami; Uechi, Hikaru; Iguchi, Akira; Nakamura, Takashi; Kumagai, Naoki H; Suzuki, Atsushi; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Nojiri, Yukihiro

    2017-09-15

    Ocean acidification is widely recognised to have a negative impact on marine calcifying organisms by reducing calcifications, but controversy remains over whether such organisms could cope with ocean acidification within a range of phenotypic plasticity and/or adapt to future acidifying ocean. We performed a laboratory rearing experiment using clonal fragments of the common branching corals Montipora digitata and Porites cylindrica under control and acidified seawater (lower pH) conditions (approximately 400 and 900μatm pCO 2 , respectively) and evaluated the intraspecific variations in their responses to ocean acidification. Intra- and interspecific variations in calcification and photosynthetic efficiency were evident according to both pCO 2 conditions and colony, indicating that responses to acidification may be individually variable at the colony level. Our results suggest that some corals may cope with ocean acidification within their present genotypic composition by adaptation through phenotypic plasticity, while others may be placed under selective pressures resulting in population alteration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of seasonal variation on biomethane production from seaweed and on application as a gaseous transport biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Muhammad Rizwan; Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-06-01

    Biomethane produced from seaweed may be used as a transport biofuel. Seasonal variation will have an effect on this industry. Laminaria digitata, a typical Irish brown seaweed species, shows significant seasonal variation both in proximate, ultimate and biochemical composition. The characteristics in August were optimal with the lowest level of ash (20% of volatile solids), a C:N ratio of 32 and the highest specific methane yield measured at 327LCH4kgVS(-1), which was 72% of theoretical yield. The highest yield per mass collected of 53m(3)CH4t(-1) was achieved in August, which is 4.5 times higher than the lowest value, obtained in December. A seaweed cultivation area of 11,800ha would be required to satisfy the 2020 target for advanced biofuels in Ireland, of 1.25% renewable energy supply in transport (RES-T) based on the optimal gross energy yield obtained in August (200GJha(-1)yr(-1)). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Concentrations and speciation of arsenic in New England seaweed species harvested for food and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Vivien F; Jackson, Brian P

    2016-11-01

    A survey of arsenic (As) concentrations and speciation was conducted on 10 species of seaweed from commercial harvesters and from collection at two sites in New England. Concentrations of As ranged from 4 to 106 mg/kg, mostly in the form of arsenosugars, with the distribution of arsenosugar analogs varying between taxa. In brown algae, As levels were correlated with phosphate concentrations, and arsenosugar speciation reflected differences in sulfur and phosphate concentrations between taxa. Several samples of the brown algae species Laminaria digitata contained significant levels of inorganic As (2.8-20 mg/kg), the most toxic form of As. A weak acid extraction with microwave heating was compared with a weaker methanol: water extraction method, and found to give slightly higher extraction efficiency with comparable relative concentrations of inorganic As, supporting the use of this faster and simpler extraction method for monitoring. Seaweed is a niche dietary item in the U.S. but its popularity is increasing; it is also used in agriculture and livestock farming which provide potential indirect routes for human exposure. The presence of occasional high concentrations of iAs, as well as the lack of toxicity studies on organic As species, suggest that monitoring of these high As foods is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Searching for the oldest baobab of Madagascar: radiocarbon investigation of large Adansonia rubrostipa trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Patrut

    Full Text Available We extended our research on the architecture, growth and age of trees belonging to the genus Adansonia, by starting to investigate large individuals of the most widespread Malagasy species. Our research also intends to identify the oldest baobabs of Madagascar. Here we present results of the radiocarbon investigation of the two most representative Adansonia rubrostipa (fony baobab specimens, which are located in south-western Madagascar, in the Tsimanampetsotse National Park. We found that the fony baobab called "Grandmother" consists of 3 perfectly fused stems of different ages. The radiocarbon date of the oldest sample was found to be 1136 ± 16 BP. We estimated that the oldest part of this tree, which is mainly hollow, has an age close to 1,600 yr. This value is comparable to the age of the oldest Adansonia digitata (African baobab specimens. By its age, the Grandmother is a major candidate for the oldest baobab of Madagascar. The second investigated specimen, called the "polygamous baobab", consists of 6 partially fused stems of different ages. According to dating results, this fony baobab is 1,000 yr old. This research is the first investigation of the structure and age of Malagasy baobabs.

  14. In vitro screening of natural feed additives from crustaceans, diatoms, seaweeds and plant extracts to manipulate rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanche, Alejandro; Ramos-Morales, Eva; Newbold, C Jamie

    2016-07-01

    Eight natural products from animal, unicellular algae, brown seaweed and plant origins were chosen according to their theoretical antimicrobial activity: Diatomaceous earths (DE), insoluble chitosan (ICHI), soluble chitosan (CHI), seaweed meal (SWM), Ascophyllum nodosum (ASC), Laminaria digitata (LAM), neem oil (NOIL) and an ivy fruit extract rich in saponins (IVY). Dose-response incubations were conducted to determine their effect on rumen fermentation pattern and gas production, while their anti-protozoal activity was tested using (14) C-labelled bacteria. DE, SWM, NOIL and ICHI had very small effects on rumen function when used at inclusion rate up to 2 g L(-1) . ASC had anti-protozoal effects (up to -23%) promoting a decrease in gas production and methanogenesis (-15%). LAM increased VFA production (+7%) and shifted from butyrate to acetate. CHI also shifted fermentation towards propionate production and lower methane (-23%) and protozoal activity (-56%). IVY decreased protozoal activity (-39%) and ammonia concentration (-56%), as well as increased feed fermentation (+11% VFA concentration) and shifted from acetate to propionate production. ASC, LAM, CHI and IVY showed promising potential in vitro as feed additives to improve rumen function, thus more research is needed to investigate their mode of action in the rumen microbial ecosystem. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. A Regional Stable Carbon Isotope Dendro-Climatology from the South African Summer Rainfall Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Woodborne

    Full Text Available Carbon isotope analysis of four baobab (Adansonia digitata L. trees from the Pafuri region of South Africa yielded a 1000-year proxy rainfall record. The Pafuri record age model was based on 17 radiocarbon dates, cross correlation of the climate record, and ring structures that were presumed to be annual for two of the trees. Here we present the analysis of five additional baobabs from the Mapungubwe region, approximately 200km west of Pafuri. The Mapungubwe chronology demonstrates that ring structures are not necessarily annually formed, and accordingly the Pafuri chronology is revised. Changes in intrinsic water-use efficiency indicate an active response by the trees to elevated atmospheric CO2, but this has little effect on the environmental signal. The revised Pafuri record, and the new Mapungubwe record correlate significantly with local rainfall. Both records confirm that the Medieval Warm Period was substantially wetter than present, and the Little Ice Age was the driest period in the last 1000 years. Although Mapungubwe is generally drier than Pafuri, both regions experience elevated rainfall peaking between AD 1570 and AD 1620 after which dry conditions persist in the Mapungubwe area until about AD 1840. Differences between the two records correlate with Agulhas Current sea-surface temperature variations suggesting east/west displacement of the temperate tropical trough system as an underlying mechanism. The Pafuri and Mapungubwe records are combined to provide a regional climate proxy record for the northern summer rainfall area of southern Africa.

  16. Modelling a demand driven biogas system for production of electricity at peak demand and for production of biomethane at other times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, R; Wall, D; Murphy, J D

    2016-09-01

    Four feedstocks were assessed for use in a demand driven biogas system. Biomethane potential (BMP) assays were conducted for grass silage, food waste, Laminaria digitata and dairy cow slurry. Semi-continuous trials were undertaken for all feedstocks, assessing biogas and biomethane production. Three kinetic models of the semi-continuous trials were compared. A first order model most accurately correlated with gas production in the pulse fed semi-continuous system. This model was developed for production of electricity on demand, and biomethane upgrading. The model examined a theoretical grass silage digester that would produce 435kWe in a continuous fed system. Adaptation to demand driven biogas required 187min to produce sufficient methane to run a 2MWe combined heat and power (CHP) unit for 60min. The upgrading system was dispatched 71min following CHP shutdown. Of the biogas produced 21% was used in the CHP and 79% was used in the upgrading system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pegamento da enxertia em diferentes combinações de variedades e espécies utilizadas como copa e como porta-enxertos de maracujazeiro Grafting sucess in different combinationsof species and varieties used as scion and the rootstock of passion fruit plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givanildo Roncatto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é o maior produtor de maracujá. Mas, apesar da posição de destaque, a vida útil do maracujazeiro vem sendo reduzida, principalmente, devido aos danos causados por doenças do sistema radicular. A enxertia com espécies nativas e resistentes a doenças apresenta-se como alternativa de produção. Com isso, objetivou-se avaliar o pegamento da enxertia nas combinações de variedades-copa e espécies de porta-enxertos de maracujazeiro. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em viveiro telado (50% de sombreamento, na Embrapa Acre, em Rio Branco-AC, entre setembro e dezembro de 2007. A variedade-copa utilizada para todos os tratamentos foi o maracujazeiro-amarelo 'FB 100' e 'FB 200' do viveiro Flora Brasil (Araguari-MG e outras 5 variedades regionais (UFAC-Universidade Federal do Acre, Rio Branco-AC, e os porta-enxertos foram Passiflora edulis Sims (maracujazeiro-amarelo (acesso Cuiabá-MT, P. alata, P. edulis (maracujazeiro-roxo e P. quadrangularis (acesso Guiratinga-MT, P. serrato-digitata (acesso IAC-Campinas-SP. As sementes foram previamente embebidas em água destilada por cerca de 24 h e posteriormente semeadas em tubetes plásticos (25x5cm com substrato Plantmax@. O método de enxertia utilizado foi o de fenda cheia no topo hipocotiledonar, tendo os porta-enxertos as seguintes características: três folhas verdadeiras e altura de plântula variável (6 a 8cm, 30 a 90 dias após a semeadura. Decapitaram-se as plântulas na altura dos cotilédones com lâmina de aço, as quais foram mergulhadas em água sanitária a 70%, a cada enxertia realizada. Os enxertos foram obtidos de plântula inteira, com cerca de 10 cm de comprimento, fazendo-se a limpeza das folhas. As combinações de melhor desempenho em relação ao pegamento da enxertia foram UFAC 07 sobre P. edulis (maracujazeiro-roxo e P. alata, UFAC 38 sobre P. edulis (maracujazeiro-amarelo, P. edulis (maracujazeiro-roxo e P. alata, UFAC 64 sobre P. serrato-digitata, com 100% de pegamento

  18. {sup 129}I determination by direct Ge gamma-X spectrometry and its application to the concentration variation in two seaweed species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, E.; Bouisset, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Environmental Radioactivity Measurement Lab., 91 - Orsay (France); Masson, M.; Germain, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Octeville-Cherbourg Radioecology Lab., 50 - Octeville -Cherbourg (France); Siclet, F. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France)

    2004-07-01

    The quantification of radionuclides by direct Ge gamma-X spectrometry with energy below 100 keV requires the elementary composition knowledge of the sample or the development of a device for determining the mass attenuation coefficients. This is especially true for {sup 129}I which is characterised by a 29.7 keV X-ray and 39.6 keV gamma ray. An experimental equipment has been developed in order to obtain this mass attenuation coefficient as a function of the energy. The elementary composition of a sample could change according to the biological phase of the organism and the sample preparation. {sup 129}I concentrations have been measured in samples of seaweed (Fucus serratus and Laminaria digitata) collected monthly during one year nearby La Hague reprocessing plant. Its quantification in different parts of these seaweeds was also performed in order to study the activity distribution. This paper will present measurement methodology used for {sup 129}I determination and its concentration variations during one-year period and the organo-tropism of {sup 129}I in the two seaweeds. (author)

  19. Inhibitory effects of edible seaweeds, polyphenolics and alginates on the activities of porcine pancreatic α-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaharudin, Nazikussabah Binti; Asunción Salmeán, Armando; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2018-01-01

    Edible seaweeds are valuable because of their organoleptic properties and complex polysaccharide content. A study was conducted to investigate the potential of dried edible seaweed extracts, its potential phenolic compounds and alginates for α-amylase inhibitory effects. The kinetics of inhibitio...... information that crude extracts of brown edible seaweeds, phenolic compounds and alginates are potent α-amylase inhibitors, thereby potentially retarding glucose liberation from starches and alleviation of postprandial hyperglycaemia.......Edible seaweeds are valuable because of their organoleptic properties and complex polysaccharide content. A study was conducted to investigate the potential of dried edible seaweed extracts, its potential phenolic compounds and alginates for α-amylase inhibitory effects. The kinetics of inhibition...... was assessed in comparison with acarbose. The methanol extract of Laminaria digitata and the acetone extract of Undaria pinnatifida showed inhibitory activity against α-amylase, IC50 0.74 ± 0.02 mg/ml and 0.81 ± 0.03 mg/ml, respectively; both showed mixed-type inhibition. Phenolic compound, 2...

  20. Anion binding in biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiters, Martin C [Department of Organic Chemistry, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Faculty of Science, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram [EMBL Hamburg Outstation at DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Kostenko, Alexander V; Soldatov, Alexander V [Faculty of Physics, Southern Federal University, Sorge 5, Rostov-na-Donu, 344090 (Russian Federation); Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris-VI, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, BP 74, F-29682 Roscoff cedex, Bretagne (France); Kuepper, Frithjof C [Scottish Association for Marine Science, Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory, Oban, Argyll PA37 1QA, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P [Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, ETH Zuerich, Schafmattstrasse 20, Zuerich, 8093 (Switzerland); Bevers, Loes E; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R, E-mail: m.feiters@science.ru.n [Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L{sub 3} (2p{sub 3/2}) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  1. Anion binding in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feiters, Martin C; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kostenko, Alexander V; Soldatov, Alexander V; Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe; Kuepper, Frithjof C; Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P; Bevers, Loes E; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R

    2009-01-01

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L 3 (2p 3/2 ) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  2. Anion binding in biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiters, Martin C.; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kostenko, Alexander V.; Soldatov, Alexander V.; Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P.; Bevers, Loes E.; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2009-11-01

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L3 (2p3/2) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  3. Trace analysis of short-lived iodine-containing volatiles emitted by different types of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorenz, U. R.; Kundel, M.; Huang, R.-J.; Hoffmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric iodine chemistry in the lower troposphere gained more attention in the last decade, because of its role in depleting tropospheric ozone and accelerating the ozone destroying capacity of other halogen species [1]. The iodine oxides formed during this reaction may also undergo further oxidation and form polyoxides which then can act as cloud condensation nuclei [2]. Precursors of both reactions are gaseous molecular iodine (I2) and volatile iodocarbons. Both I2 and iodocarbons are emitted by different kinds of macroalgae, whereby the emission of I2 dominates [3]. Iodocarbons are also released by different kinds of microalgaeand itis assumed that also I2 is released by these algae. Here we present the results of the measurement of iodine containing volatiles emitted by eight different macroalgae found in the intertidal zone and microalgae, two pure cultures and two net samples. To measure I2 emissionfrom macroalgae an on-line time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometric method was used[4] to determine the emission rates and to investigate temporally resolved emission profiles. The molecular iodine emissions from microalgae were measured using a recently developed denuder sampling technique and GC-MS method [5]. Iodocarbons were preconcentrated on solid adsorbent tubes and measured using thermodesorption-GC-MS. The results of the macroalgae experiments showed that Laminariales were found to be the strongest I2 emitters. Time series of the iodine release of L. digitata and L. hyperborea showed a strong I2 emission when first exposed to air followed by an exponential decline of the release rate. For both species I2 emission bursts were observed. For L. saccharina und F. serratus a more continuous I2 release profile was detected, however, F. serratus released much less I2. For A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus the I2 emission rates were slowly increasing with time (1h-2h) until a more or less stable I2 emission rate was reached. The lowest I2 emission rates were

  4. The Neotropical genera Macrostomus Wiedemann and Porphyrochroa Melander (Diptera, Empididae, Empidinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Rafael

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Macrostomus ferrugineus (Fabricius, 1805, the type-species of Macrostomus Wiedemann, 1817 and Porphyrochroa palliata (Coquillett, 1902, the type-species of Porphyrochroa Melander, 1927 are redescribed and figured from the types. Both Neotropical genera are considered sistergroups and their synapomorphies are presented. The species belonging to both genera, and those Neotropical species remaining in the heterogeneous group Rhamphomyia Meigen, 1822 are listed. A key to genera is provided, 25 species are transferred to Porphyrochroa: P. abdominalis (Bezzi, 1905 comb. nov., P. argyrina (Bezzi, 1909 comb. nov., P. barueri (Smith, 1962 comb. nov., P. carrerai (Smith, 1962 comb. nov., P. catarinae (Smith, 1962 comb. nov., P. cyanogaster (Wheeler & Melander, 1901 comb. nov., P. digitata (Smith, 1962 comb. nov., P. distinctipennis (Smith, 1962 comb. nov., P. divisa (Smith, 1962 comb. nov., P. dolichocera (Bezzi, 1905 comb. nov., P. fasciventris (Curran, 1931, P. furcifer (Wheeler & Melander, 1901 comb. nov., P. galactodes (Bezzi, 1909 comb. nov., P. juri (Smith, 1962 comb. nov., P. micrargyra (Bezzi, 1909 comb. nov., P. monstrosa (Bezzi, 1909 comb. nov., P. mundurucu (Smith, 1962 comb. nov., P. mura (Smith, 1962 comb. nov., P. orthoneura (Bezzi, 1905 comb. nov., P. palliata (Coquillett, 1902, P. penicillata (Bezzi, 1909 comb. nov., P. perpulchra (Bezzi, 1909 comb. nov., P. pulchriventris (Bezzi, 1905 comb. nov., P. rotundipennis (Bezzi, 1905 comb. nov., P. seticauda (Smith, 1963 comb. nov., P. variseta (Smith, 1962 comb. nov. and P. wiedemanni (Smith, 1962 comb. nov. A lectotype is designated for P. palliata (Coquillett, 1902.Macrostomus ferrugineus (Fabricius, 1805, espécie-tipo de Macrostomus Wiedemann, 1817 e Porphyrochroa palliata (Coquillett, 1902, espécie-tipo de Porphyrochroa Melander, 1927 são redescritas e ilustradas a partir dos tipos. Os dois gêneros são neotropicais, considerados grupo-irmãos e suas sinapomorfias são apresentadas. S

  5. Preferência alimentar de Dione juno juno (CRAMER, 1779 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae por genótipos de maracujazeiro Feeding preference of Dione juno juno (CRAMER, 1779 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae to passion fruit genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Robles Angelini

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o efeito de genótipos de maracujazeiro quanto à atratividade e à não-preferência para alimentação de lagartas de Dione juno juno, em diferentes idades, através de testes com e sem chance de escolha. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no Departamento de Fitossanidade da FCAV/UNESP de Jaboticabal-SP, sob condições ambientais controladas (T=26=±=1°C=U.=R.= 60 ± 10% e fotofase = 14 horas, utilizando-se dos genótipos Passiflora edulis, P. gibertii, P. alata, Sul Brasil, IAC-275, Flora FB 300, P. serrato-digitata, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, Maguary FB-100 e P. foetida. Para o teste com chance de escolha, foram utilizadas placas de Petri, onde foram distribuídos, de forma eqüidistante, um disco foliar (3,2 cm de cada genótipo estudado e liberando-se em seguida, no centro da placa, 5 lagartas recém-eclodidas ou uma lagarta com 10 dias de idade por material. No teste sem chance de escolha, foi colocado apenas um disco de cada genótipo por placa de Petri (9 cm de diâmetro, mantendo-se o mesmo padrão de infestação utilizado no teste com chance. As avaliações foram realizadas em duas etapas, sendo que, na primeira, avaliou-se a atratividade, contando o número de lagartas em cada material a 1; 3; 5; 10; 15; 30; 60; 120; 240 minutos e 24 horas após a liberação das mesmas. Na segunda etapa, observou-se o consumo foliar 24 horas após o início do teste. O genótipo menos atrativo às lagartas recém-eclodidas e de 10 dias de idade foi P. alata em testes com e sem chance de escolha. O genótipo P. alata foi o menos consumido em teste com chance de escolha, sendo que, no teste sem chance, P. alata e P. foetida destacaram-se como os menos consumidos para as duas fases larvais.This aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of passion fruit genotypes on the attractiveness and feeding non-preference of D. juno juno larvae, through free-choice and no-choice tests. The experiments were

  6. Nutritive and Antioxidant properties of Shade Dried Leafy Vegetables Consumed in Northern Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Dehegnan Oulaï

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Leafy vegetables are highly perishable and often subjected to post-harvest wastes. Among the various methods of preservation, the effect of shadow drying on the nutritive value and antioxidant properties of five (5 leafy vegetables species widely consumed in Northern Côte d’Ivoire was investigated. These species were Amaranthus hybridus, Andasonia digitata, Ceiba patendra, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Vigna unguiculata. Experiment was conducted as follow: portions of washed and drained fresh leafy vegetables (500 g were spread on clean filter paper and kept in a well-ventilated room of the laboratory at 25°C for 5, 10 and 15 days. The results of proximate composition after 15 days of shadow drying were: moisture (15.19 – 20.36%, ash (9.14 -19.54%, crude fiber (11.04 – 27.40%, proteins (11.14 - 17.94%, lipids (2.41 – 5.86% and carbohydrates (16.59 – 45.14%. The concentration of minerals increased with respective values after 15 days of shadow drying: calcium (68.14-408.09 mg/100 g, magnesium (50.62-317.23 mg/100 g, iron (27.52-92.03 mg/100 g and zinc (10.17-16.73 mg/100 g. During shadow drying, vitamin C and carotenoids were subjected to losses estimated to 35.52 – 70.50% and 22.82 – 45.63%, respectively. Contrary to these losses, antioxidant activity increased and ranged from 57.45 to 75.55 % after 15 days of shadow drying. All these results suggest that the considerable nutrient contents of shade dried leafy vegetables make them good source of food supplements in order to meet the nutritional requirements of Ivorian population.

  7. Molecular systematics reveals increased diversity within the South African Laurencia complex (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Caitlynne; Bolton, John J; Mattio, Lydiane; Mandiwana-Neudani, Tshifhiwa G; Anderson, Robert J

    2017-08-01

    Previous publications list ten species in the Laurencia complex from South Africa with all ascribed to the genus Laurencia sensu stricto. However, the diversity of the complex in South Africa has not yet been re-assessed following the numerous recent taxonomic changes. This study investigated the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy of this group in South Africa using recent collections. Methods included molecular phylogenetic analyses of plastid rbcL gene sequences (a total of 146; including eleven outgroup taxa) using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference, and the examination of morphological and anatomical characters, including the number of corps en cerise when present. The seven genera of the Laurencia complex formed monophyletic clades with high posterior probabilities. Seventeen morphotypes were identified: 14 in the genus Laurencia sensu stricto, among which eight corresponded to Laurencia species currently recognized from South Africa and one each to species of Palisada, Chondrophycus, and Laurenciella. The six remaining morphotypes in Laurencia sensu stricto did not match any descriptions and are described here as five new species: Laurencia alfredensis sp. nov., Laurencia dichotoma sp. nov., Laurencia digitata sp. nov., Laurencia multiclavata sp. nov. and Laurencia sodwaniensis sp. nov. and a new variety: Laurencia pumila var. dehoopiensis var. nov. Laurencia stegengae nom. nov. is established to replace Laurencia peninsularis Stegenga, Bolton and Anderson nom. illeg. The diversity is likely greater, with six additional unidentified specimens found in this molecular investigation. These findings place South Africa alongside Australia in having one of the most diverse floras of this group in the world. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  8. Algal Foams Applied in Fixed-Bed Process for Lead(II Removal Using Recirculation or One-Pass Modes

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    Shengye Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of brown algae into biopolymer beads or foams for metal sorption has been previously reported. However, the direct use of these biomasses for preparing foams is a new approach. In this study, two kinds of porous foams were prepared by ionotropic gelation using algal biomass (AB, Laminaria digitata or alginate (as the reference and applied for Pb(II sorption. These foams (manufactured as macroporous discs were packed in filtration holders (simulating fixed-bed column and the system was operated in either a recirculation or a one-pass mode. Sorption isotherms, uptake kinetics and sorbent reuse were studied in the recirculation mode (analogous to batch system. In the one-pass mode (continuous fixed-bed system, the influence of parameters such as flow rate, feed metal concentration and bed height were investigated on both sorption and desorption. In addition, the effect of Cu(II on Pb(II recovery from binary solutions was also studied in terms of both sorption and desorption. Sorption isotherms are well fitted by the Langmuir equation while the pseudo-second order rate equation described well both sorption and desorption kinetic profiles. The study of material regeneration confirms that the reuse of the foams was feasible with a small mass loss, even after 9 cycles. In the one-pass mode, for alginate foams, a slower flow rate led to a smaller saturation volume, while the effect of flow rate was less marked for AB foams. Competitive study suggests that the foams have a preference for Pb(II over Cu(II but cannot selectively remove Pb(II from the binary solution.

  9. Seasonal and algal diet-driven patterns of the digestive microbiota of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata, a generalist marine herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobet, Angélique; Mest, Laëtitia; Perennou, Morgan; Dittami, Simon M; Caralp, Claire; Coulombet, Céline; Huchette, Sylvain; Roussel, Sabine; Michel, Gurvan; Leblanc, Catherine

    2018-03-27

    Holobionts have a digestive microbiota with catabolic abilities allowing the degradation of complex dietary compounds for the host. In terrestrial herbivores, the digestive microbiota is known to degrade complex polysaccharides from land plants while in marine herbivores, the digestive microbiota is poorly characterized. Most of the latter are generalists and consume red, green, and brown macroalgae, three distinct lineages characterized by a specific composition in complex polysaccharides, which represent half of their biomass. Subsequently, each macroalga features a specific epiphytic microbiota, and the digestive microbiota of marine herbivores is expected to vary with a monospecific algal diet. We investigated the effect of four monospecific diets (Palmaria palmata, Ulva lactuca, Saccharina latissima, Laminaria digitata) on the composition and specificity of the digestive microbiota of a generalist marine herbivore, the abalone, farmed in a temperate coastal area over a year. The microbiota from the abalone digestive gland was sampled every 2 months and explored using metabarcoding. Diversity and multivariate analyses showed that patterns of the microbiota were significantly linked to seasonal variations of contextual parameters but not directly to a specific algal diet. Three core genera: Psychrilyobacter, Mycoplasma, and Vibrio constantly dominated the microbiota in the abalone digestive gland. Additionally, a less abundant and diet-specific core microbiota featured genera representing aerobic primary degraders of algal polysaccharides. This study highlights the establishment of a persistent core microbiota in the digestive gland of the abalone since its juvenile state and the presence of a less abundant and diet-specific core community. While composed of different microbial taxa compared to terrestrial herbivores, the digestive gland constitutes a particular niche in the abalone holobiont, where bacteria (i) may cooperate to degrade algal polysaccharides to

  10. Microsensor studies on Padina from a natural CO2 seep: implications of morphology on acclimation to low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Laurie C; Fink, Artur; Bischof, Kai; de Beer, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    Low seawater pH can be harmful to many calcifying marine organisms, but the calcifying macroalgae Padina spp. flourish at natural submarine carbon dioxide seeps where seawater pH is low. We show that the microenvironment created by the rolled thallus margin of Padina australis facilitates supersaturation of CaCO3 and calcifi-cation via photosynthesis-induced elevated pH. Using microsensors to investigate oxygen and pH dynamics in the microenvironment of P. australis at a shallow CO2 seep, we found that, under saturating light, the pH inside the microenvironment (pHME ) was higher than the external seawater (pHSW ) at all pHSW levels investigated, and the difference (i.e., pHME - pHSW ) increased with decreasing pHSW (0.9 units at pHSW 7.0). Gross photosynthesis (Pg ) inside the microenvironment increased with decreasing pHSW , but algae from the control site reached a threshold at pH 6.5. Seep algae showed no pH threshold with respect to Pg within the pHSW range investigated. The external carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor, acetazolamide, strongly inhibited Pg of P. australis at pHSW 8.2, but the effect was diminished under low pHSW (6.4-7.5), suggesting a greater dependence on membrane-bound CA for the dehydration of HCO3 (-) ions during dissolved inorganic carbon uptake at the higher pHSW . In comparison, a calcifying green alga, Halimeda cuneata f. digitata, was not inhibited by AZ, suggesting efficient bicarbonate transport. The ability of P. australis to elevate pHME at the site of calcification and its strong dependence on CA may explain why it can thrive at low pHSW . © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  11. Vegetation structure, carbon sequestration potential and species conservation in four agroforestry systems in Cameroon (Tropical Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Noiha Noumi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT As the rate of forest degradation continues to rise, agroforestry may serve as a way of conserving species and carbon sinks. The aim of this study was to assess agrobiodiversity and carbon sequestration potential in agrosystems in Cameroon. Three age groups of agrosystems were studied. Data were collected in 100x50 m2 quadrates. Density ranged from 53.17±0.08 to 1463±50.11; basal area from 2.07±0.00 to 988.39±16.13 m2/ha; Shannon diversity from 3.3±0.71 to 3.68±0.72; Carbon storage from 12.1±0.27 to 54.65±1.38 t C/ha for 1-10-year-old agrosystems with lowest values in neem; 34.78±0.87 to 71.34±1.6 t C/ha for 10-20-year-old stands with lowest values in cashew; 28.24±0.04 to 108.51±2.46 t C/ha for +20-year-old stands with highest values in eucalyptus; Carbon sequestration potential from 296.7±1.98 to 859.33±10.01 t CO2eq/ha. The highest carbon stocks were found in eucalyptus stands (p<0.05. Several endogenous species, especially Afzelia bipindensis (EN, Leptoderris ledermannii (EN, Mansonia altissima (EN, Entandrophragma cylindricum (VU, Nesogordonia papaverifera (VU, Quassia sanguinea (VU, Vitellaria paradoxa (VU, Afzelia africana (VU, Erythrina senegalensis (LC, Detarium microcarpum (LC, senna spectabilis (LC, were assessed. Other overexploited species, especially Carissa edulis, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides, Adansonia digitata, Securidaca longepedonculata, were assessed as well. The studied systems are significant CO2eq sinks and refuge centre for agrobiodiversity.

  12. Zinc concentrations in marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland in relation to phylogenetic grouping, habitat and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengel, Dagmar B.; Macken, Ailbhe; Morrison, Liam; Morley, Nicholas

    2004-05-01

    Zinc concentrations in 19 species of marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland (Spiddal, Co. Galway) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Algae were collected from a single site but occupied different shore levels and belonged to distinct phylogenetic groupings and to different (previously recognised) morphological groups. Concentrations ranged from 15-115 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight. The greatest variation in concentration occurred amongst the red algal species, containing both maximum and minimum concentrations. Zn concentrations in brown and green algae were generally lower than those in red algae. When grouped according to thallus morphology, thin, branched sheets (which consisted mainly of red algae) contained the highest Zn concentrations. In filamentous algae, Zn levels were higher than in thick-leathery or coarsely branched algae. However, all green algal species examined had similar Zn concentrations, despite their different morphologies. In brown algae, the highest Zn levels were detected in mid-shore fucoids (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus), while thicker, subtidal and low-shore brown algae (Laminaria digitata, Halydris siliquosa) exhibited lower Zn concentrations. The lowest Zn concentrations were detected in high-intertidal species (Fucus spiralis, Pelvetia canaliculata), the only marine lichen examined (Ramalina siliquosa) and a red crustose alga (Corallina officinalis). In all morphological groups, red algal representatives contained relatively higher levels of Zn, the exception being Corallina officinalis. Zn levels in 4 species from a second, estuarine site in Galway Bay exhibited the same relative differences amongst species, but were all consistently higher than in algae from Spiddal. It is concluded that Zn accumulation in macroalgae is closely related to ecological growth strategies, following a functional-form model. However, the phylogenetic origin of species which determines carbohydrate and phenol composition

  13. Zinc concentrations in marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland in relation to phylogenetic grouping, habitat and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stengel, Dagmar B.; Macken, Ailbhe; Morrison, Liam; Morley, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    Zinc concentrations in 19 species of marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland (Spiddal, Co. Galway) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Algae were collected from a single site but occupied different shore levels and belonged to distinct phylogenetic groupings and to different (previously recognised) morphological groups. Concentrations ranged from 15-115 μg g -1 dry weight. The greatest variation in concentration occurred amongst the red algal species, containing both maximum and minimum concentrations. Zn concentrations in brown and green algae were generally lower than those in red algae. When grouped according to thallus morphology, thin, branched sheets (which consisted mainly of red algae) contained the highest Zn concentrations. In filamentous algae, Zn levels were higher than in thick-leathery or coarsely branched algae. However, all green algal species examined had similar Zn concentrations, despite their different morphologies. In brown algae, the highest Zn levels were detected in mid-shore fucoids (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus), while thicker, subtidal and low-shore brown algae (Laminaria digitata, Halydris siliquosa) exhibited lower Zn concentrations. The lowest Zn concentrations were detected in high-intertidal species (Fucus spiralis, Pelvetia canaliculata), the only marine lichen examined (Ramalina siliquosa) and a red crustose alga (Corallina officinalis). In all morphological groups, red algal representatives contained relatively higher levels of Zn, the exception being Corallina officinalis. Zn levels in 4 species from a second, estuarine site in Galway Bay exhibited the same relative differences amongst species, but were all consistently higher than in algae from Spiddal. It is concluded that Zn accumulation in macroalgae is closely related to ecological growth strategies, following a functional-form model. However, the phylogenetic origin of species which determines carbohydrate and phenol composition, and

  14. Comparison of mechanical properties of four large, wave-exposed seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Deane L; Hurd, Catriona L; Speck, Thomas

    2006-10-01

    Seaweeds have a simple structural design compared to most terrestrial plants. Nonetheless, some species have adapted to the severe mechanical conditions of the surf zone. The material properties of either tissue sections or the whole stipe of four wave-exposed seaweeds, Durvillaea antarctica, D. willana, Laminaria digitata, and L. hyperborea, were tested in tension, bending, and torsion. Durvillaea has a very low modulus of elasticity in tension (E(tension) = 3-7 MN·m(-2)) and in bending (E(bending) = 9-12 MN · m(-2)), torsion modulus (G = 0.3 MN · m(-2)) and strength (σ(b)rk = 1-2 MN · m(-2)), combining a compliable and twistable stipe "material" with a comparatively high breaking strain (ε(brk) = 0.4-0.6). In comparison, the smaller stipes of Laminaria have a higher modulus of elasticity in tension (E(tension) = 6-28 MN·m(-2)) and in bending (E(bending) = 84-109 MN·m(-2)), similar strength (σ(brk) = 1-3 MN·m(-2)), and a higher torsion modulus (G = 0.7-10 MN·m(-2)), combined with a lower breaking strain (ε(brk) = 0.2-0.3) than Durvillaea. Time-dependent, viscoelastic reactions were investigated with cycling tests. The tested species dissipated 42-52% of the loading energy in tension through plastic-viscoelastic processes, a finding that bears important ecological implications. Overall, there seems to be no correlation between single material properties and the size or habitat position of the tested seaweed species.

  15. Different levels of taxonomic resolution in bioassessment: a case study of oligochaeta in lowland streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Cortelezzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study evaluated the use of oligochaetes at different levels of taxonomic resolution as environmental indicators in Argentine lowland streams affected by different land uses. METHODS: Sampling sites were grouped based on the physicochemical and habitat characteristics (low-, moderate-, and high-impact disturbance. Collection of the oligochaetes samples was carried out seasonally in sediment and vegetation habitats. RESULTS: The increases in nutrients and organic matter produced elevated densities of the Oligochaeta, but when the disturbance also involved changes in the physical habitat or enhancements in toxic substances, the abundance decreased significantly to values even lower than those of non-impacted environments. The responses of Naidinae and Tubificinae were similar. The density of the Pristininae decreased with increasing impact, but those of the Enchytraeidae and Rhyacodrilinae increased at the most highly impacted sites. The Opistocystidae were not recorded in high-impact sites. Species richness and diversity (H' were lower in high-impact sites and even lower in sediments. Some species presented no restrictions in the habitat type or with the contamination level: Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, Dero furcatus, D. digitata, D. pectinata, Pristina longiseta, and P. aequiseta. Moreover, Trieminentia corderoi, Slavina appendiculata, and Aulodrilus pigueti exhibited the highest abundances at low-impact sites and were not registered in high-impact sites. CONCLUSIONS: The Oligochaeta show a relatively wide ecological valence through their extensive number of species. Although lower taxonomic levels can give information about environmental status, test-species' sensitivities to different types and degrees of contamination will be of utmost relevance to the evaluation of ecological quality.

  16. Annelida (Oligochaeta and Aphanoneura) from the Natural Reserve of Isla Martín García (upper Río de la Plata estuary, Argentina): biodiversity and response to environmental variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    César, I I

    2014-02-01

    The Island of Martín García--located in the Upper Río de la Plata, to the south of the Uruguay River--is an outcropping of the crystalline basement. Fourteen sampling sites were selected, five along the littoral section of the island and nine in inland ponds. Four major environmental variables were measured: water temperature, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, and pH. A total of 34 species of Oligochaeta and Aphanoneura were found, 30 belonging to Naididae plus one species each of the Narapidae, Lumbricidae, Enchytraeidae, and Aeolosomatidae. The thirteen most frequent species were: A. leydigi (30%), N. bonettoi (13%), L. hoffmeisteri (11%), N. variabilis (10%), S. trivandrana (6.5%), A. pigueti (5.6%), D. sawayai (4.5%), D. digitata (3.5%), C. diastrophus (2.7%), A. costatus (2.5%), P. longiseta (2.0%), Enchytraeidae (1.5%), and A. p. paraguayensis (1.4%). UPGMA clustering of species based on their occurrence in different ecological conditions revealed two main species groups. Canonic-correspondence analysis (CCA) was conducted with the 15 most frequent and abundant species in the 9 sampling sites and the 4 environmental variables. Results from the CCA revealed that the order of fluctuation of the environmental variables during the sampling period was, from the greatest to the least: dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, and water temperature. Approximately 97.6% of the correlations between species and environmental variables were expressed on axis 1 of the ordination diagram. Species richness correlated with the four environmental variables in the following order, from the weakest to the strongest: water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, and dissolved oxygen.

  17. Seaweed-coral interactions: variance in seaweed allelopathy, coral susceptibility, and potential effects on coral resilience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta M Bonaldo

    Full Text Available Tropical reefs are in global decline with seaweeds commonly replacing corals. Negative associations between macroalgae and corals are well documented, but the mechanisms involved, the dynamics of the interactions, and variance in effects of different macroalgal-coral pairings are poorly investigated. We assessed the frequency, magnitude, and dynamics of macroalgal-coral competition involving allelopathic and non-allelopathic macroalgae on three, spatially grouped pairs of no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPAs and non-MPAs in Fiji. In non-MPAs, biomass of herbivorous fishes was 70-80% lower, macroalgal cover 4-9 fold higher, macroalgal-coral contacts 5-15 fold more frequent and 23-67 fold more extensive (measured as % of colony margin contacted by macroalgae, and coral cover 51-68% lower than in MPAs. Coral contacts with allelopathic macroalgae occurred less frequently than expected by chance across all sites, while contact with non-allelopathic macroalgae tended to occur more frequently than expected. Transplants of allelopathic macroalgae (Chlorodesmis fastigiata and Galaxaura filamentosa against coral edges inflicted damage to Acropora aspera and Pocillopora damicornis more rapidly and extensively than to Porites cylindrica and Porites lobata, which appeared more resistant to these macroalgae. Montipora digitata experienced intermediate damage. Extent of damage from macroalgal contact was independent of coral colony size for each of the 10 macroalgal-coral pairings we established. When natural contacts with Galaxaura filamentosa were removed in the field, recovery was rapid for Porites lobata, but Pocillopora damicornis did not recover and damage continued to expand. As macroalgae increase on overfished tropical reefs, allelopathy could produce feedbacks that suppress coral resilience, prevent coral recovery, and promote the stability of algal beds in habitats previously available to corals.

  18. Effect of alginate on satiation, appetite, gastric function, and selected gut satiety hormones in overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odunsi, Suwebatu T; Vázquez-Roque, María I; Camilleri, Michael; Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios; Clark, Matthew M; Wodrich, Lynne; Lempke, Mary; McKinzie, Sanna; Ryks, Michael; Burton, Duane; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2010-08-01

    Lack of control of food intake, excess size, and frequency of meals are critical to the development of obesity. The stomach signals satiation postprandially and may play an important role in control of calorie intake. Sodium alginate (based on brown seaweed Laminaria digitata) is currently marketed as a weight loss supplement, but its effects on gastric motor functions and satiation are unknown. We evaluated effects of 10 days treatment with alginate or placebo on gastric functions, satiation, appetite, and gut hormones associated with satiety in overweight or obese adults. We conducted a randomized, 1:1, placebo-controlled, allocation-concealed study in 48 overweight or obese participants with excluded psychiatric comorbidity and binge eating disorder. All underwent measurements of gastric emptying (GE), fasting, and postprandial gastric volumes (GVs), postprandial satiation, calorie intake at a free choice meal and selected gut hormones after 1 week of alginate (three capsules vs. matching placebo per day, ingested 30 min before the main meal). Six capsules were ingested with water 30 min before the GE, GV, and satiation tests on days 8-10. There were no treatment group effects on GE or volumes, gut hormones (ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY)), satiation, total and macronutrient calorie intake at a free choice meal. There was no difference detected in results between obese and overweight patients. Alginate treatment for a period of 10 days showed no effect on gastric motor functions, satiation, appetite, or gut hormones. These results question the use of short-term alginate treatment for weight loss.

  19. Evaluation of Nutritive and Antioxidant Properties of Blanched Leafy Vegetables Consumed in Northern Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oulai Patricia D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of steam blanching processing on the nutritive value and the antioxidant properties of five leafy vegetable species (Amaranthus hybridus, Andasonia digitata, Ceiba patendra, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Vigna unguiculata that are used for sauce preparation in Northern CÔte d'Ivoire. The selected leafy vegetables were subjected to blanching in pressure cooker for 15, 25 and 45 min and the physicochemical properties were determined using AOAC methods. The result of the study revealed that longer time of blanching (higher than 15 min caused negative impact by reducing nutritive value but positive impact by reducing anti-nutrients and increasing polyphenols. The registered losses (p0.05 at 15 min were as follow: ash (0.08-10.01%, proteins (0.36-12.03%, vitamin C (19.56-68.67%, carotenoids (18.91-55.48% oxalates (3.58-21.39% and phytates (10.51-68.02%. The average increase of polyphenols contents at 15 min of blanching was 1.61 to 30.72%. In addition, a slight increase (0.35-4.16% of fibres content was observed in the studied blanched leafy vegetables. Furthermore, after 15 min of blanching time the residual contents (p0.05 of minerals were: calcium (264.88-844.92 mg/100 g, magnesium (49.45-435.43 mg/100 g, potassium (675-1895.41 mg/100 g, iron (14.54-70.89 mg/100 g and zinc (9.48-36.46 mg/100 g. All these results suggest that the recommended time of domestic blanching must be less than 15 min for the studied leafy vegetables in order to contribute efficiently to the nutritional requirement and to the food security of Ivorian population

  20. Pratiques sylvicoles et culturales dans les pays agroforestiers suivant un gradient pluviométrique nord-sud dans la région de Maradi au Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larwanou, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sylvicultural and Cultural Practices in Agroforestry Parklands According to a North-South Rainfall Gradient in Maradi Region, Niger. A study on sylvicultural and cultural practices in the parklands was conducted in three village territories of Maradi region following a rainfall gradient. Surveys conducted with farmers coupled with sylvicultural data collection are used as the methodological tools. The results showed that farmers` managed natural regeneration in the village territories has lasted at least 10 years. It is practiced by imitating relatives and neighbors or initiated by development projects or extension services. The reasons that guided farmers to care and protect trees are wood provision to households, soil fertilization, fodder, and pharmacopeia and erosion control. Plant diversity is more important in Moulmouchi than Batchaka and Koda. Also, species with high agronomic, economic and food values are preferred by farmers. The different sylvicultural operations carried out in the village territories indicate that farmers pay attention to the protection and management of trees in their farms. Some species like Acacia senegal, Azadirachta indica and Adansonia digitata inventoried in the farms have been planted and conserved with others from natural regeneration. Sylvicultural and cultural operations used by farmers for tree management in the fields are many and diverse. The more used operations are improved clearing, pruning and by staking plant. Nevertheless, farmers use some practices which do not favour the preservation of trees in the farms. Some of them are abusive cutting, groundnut growing, bark removal, use of animals for plowing and illegal cutting of trees by transhumant herders. Pharmacopeia, construction and energy, fodder, human food are the principal uses of tree species in this region. The most harvested tree organs are wood, leaves, fruits and barks. Benefits derived from trees are what make farmers to manage and

  1. Identification of a novel yolk protein in the hermatypic coral Galaxea fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Hideki; Andoh, Tadashi; Watanabe, Toshiki

    2007-03-01

    The reef-building (or hermatypic) coral Galaxea fascicularis (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia, Scleractinia) has an annual reproductive cycle. Females of G. fascicularis release packages (or ;bundles') of eggs for external fertilization, whereas male individuals form bundles consisting of sperm and infertile ;pseudo-eggs' that are thought to confer buoyancy to the male bundle. In the egg of G. fascicularis, four proteins (GfEP-1 to 4) were found to be stored in high abundance, and three of them (GfEP-1, 2 and 3) are generated by processing of a vitellogenin (Vg)-like precursor. In the present study, a cDNA encoding GfEP-4 was cloned and its sequence determined (GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession no. AB259859). The amino acid sequence of this protein does not exhibit similarity to known proteins, including Vgs or other yolk proteins found in some invertebrates. The expression of GfEP-4 mRNA was observed in females, and also in the majority of males examined, although expression levels were lower than in females. The GfEP-4 protein was detected in pseudo-eggs, where its concentration was 20-100 times lower than in eggs. In contrast, GfEP-1, 2 and 3 were not detected in pseudo-eggs. A protein (28 kDa) which cross-reacted with anti-GfEP-4 antibodies was detected in eggs of the coral Montipora digitata, suggesting the possibility that homologs of this protein are present in the eggs of other scleractinian corals.

  2. Zinc concentrations in marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland in relation to phylogenetic grouping, habitat and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Dagmar B; Macken, Ailbhe; Morrison, Liam; Morley, Nicholas

    2004-05-01

    Zinc concentrations in 19 species of marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland (Spiddal, Co. Galway) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Algae were collected from a single site but occupied different shore levels and belonged to distinct phylogenetic groupings and to different (previously recognised) morphological groups. Concentrations ranged from 15-115 microg g(-1) dry weight. The greatest variation in concentration occurred amongst the red algal species, containing both maximum and minimum concentrations. Zn concentrations in brown and green algae were generally lower than those in red algae. When grouped according to thallus morphology, thin, branched sheets (which consisted mainly of red algae) contained the highest Zn concentrations. In filamentous algae, Zn levels were higher than in thick-leathery or coarsely branched algae. However, all green algal species examined had similar Zn concentrations, despite their different morphologies. In brown algae, the highest Zn levels were detected in mid-shore fucoids (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus), while thicker, subtidal and low-shore brown algae (Laminaria digitata, Halydris siliquosa) exhibited lower Zn concentrations. The lowest Zn concentrations were detected in high-intertidal species (Fucus spiralis, Pelvetia canaliculata), the only marine lichen examined (Ramalina siliquosa) and a red crustose alga (Corallina officinalis). In all morphological groups, red algal representatives contained relatively higher levels of Zn, the exception being Corallina officinalis. Zn levels in 4 species from a second, estuarine site in Galway Bay exhibited the same relative differences amongst species, but were all consistently higher than in algae from Spiddal. It is concluded that Zn accumulation in macroalgae is closely related to ecological growth strategies, following a functional-form model. However, the phylogenetic origin of species which determines carbohydrate and phenol composition

  3. Microbial community diversity associated with moonmilk deposits in a karstic cave system in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, D.; Hutchens, E.; Clipson, Nick; McDermott, Frank

    2009-04-01

    has been unaltered by human disturbance or practices. The aim of this study was to examine microbial community diversity associated with moonmilk deposits at Ballynamintra Cave, Ireland using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). The results revealed considerable bacterial and fungal diversity associated with moonmilk in a karstic cave system, suggesting that the microbial community implicated in moonmilk formation may be more diverse than previously thought. These results suggest that microbes may have important functional roles in subterranean environments. Although the moonmilk in this study was largely comprised of calcite, microbial involvement in calcite precipitation could result in the bioavailability of a range of organic compounds for subsequent microbial metabolism. References: Baskar, S., Baskar, R., Mauclaire, L., and McKenzie, J.A. 2006. Microbially induced calcite precipitation in culture experiments: Possible origin for stalactites in Sahastradhara caves, Dehradun, India. Current Science 90: 58-64. Burford, E.P., Fomina, M., Gadd, G. 2003. Fungal involvement in bioweathering and biotrasformations of rocks and minerals. Min Mag 67(6):1172-1155. Engel, A.S., Stern, L.A., Bennett, P.C. 2004. Microbial contributions to cave formation: new insights into sulfuric acid speleogenesis. Geology 32(5): 369-372. Gadd, G.M. (2004). Mycotransformation of organic and inorganic substrates. Mycologist 18: 60-70. Northup, D., Barns, S.M., Yu, Laura, E., Spilde, M.N., Schelble, R.T., Dano, K.E., Crossey, L.J., Connolly, C.A., Boston, P.J., and Dahm, C.N. 2003. Diverse microbial communities inhabiting ferromanganese deposits in Lechuguilla and Spider Caves. Environmental Microbiology 5(11): 1071-1086.

  4. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Kemp

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available - Anne Booth, W.L. Korthals Altes, Changing economy in Indonesia, Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute (General trade statistics, 1822-1949; volume 12a. - Wim van den Doel, Robert Cribb, Historical dictionary of Indonesia. Metuchen, N.J., & London: The Scarecrow Press, 1992. - C.D. Grijns, Kingsley Bolton, Sociolinguistics today; International perspectives. London and New York: Routledge, 1992, 383 pp., Helen Kwok (eds. - David Henley, Ole Bruun, Asian perceptions of nature: Papers presented at a Workshop, NIAS, Copenhagen, Denmark, October 1991. Copenhagen: Nordic Institute of Asian studies (Nordic Proceedings in Asian studies No. 3, 1992, 261 pp., Arne Kalland (eds. - Ward Keeler, Jonathon Falla, True love and Bartholomew: Rebels on the Burmese border. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991. - Elsbeth Locher-Scholten, Mary F. Somers Heidhues, Bangka tin and mentok pepper; Chinese settlement on an Indonesian island. Singapore: Institute of South-east Asian studies, 1992, 296 pp. - Marie Alexandrine Martin, Christin Kocher Schmid, Of people and plants. A botanical ethnography of Nokopo village, Madang and Morobe provinces, Papua New Guinea. Ethnologisches Seminar der Universität und Museum für Völkerkunde, Basel, 1991, 336 pp. - J. Noorduyn, Bernhard Dahm, Regions and regional developments in the Malay-Indonesian world: 6 European Colloquium on Indonesian and Malay studies (ECIMS June 1987 Passau. Wiesbaden: Harassowitz, 1992, x + 221 pp., maps. - J. Noorduyn, J.N. Sneddon, Studies in Sulawesi Linguistics, Part II, NUSA, Linguistic studies of Indonesian and other languages in Indonesia, volume 33. Jakarta: Baden Penyelenggara Seri Nusa, Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya. 1991, x + 115 pp., maps. - Anton Ploeg, Richard Michael Bourke, Taim hangre: Variation in subsistence food supply in the Papua New Guinea highlands, Unpublished PhD thesis, submitted in the department of human geography, The Australian National University, RSPac

  5. Exupéry - a mobile fast response system for managing a volcanic crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hort, M. K.

    2009-12-01

    analyze the incoming data (e.g. earthquake classification, rapid moment tensor inversion, deformation modeling, an automatic alert level system) which are currently under development. Exupery Working Group: Barsch R (2); Bernsdorf S (3); Beyreuther M (2); Cong X (4); Dahm T (1); Eineder M (4); Erbertseder T (4); Gerstenecker C (5); Hammer C (6); Hansteen T (7); Krieger L (1); Läufer G (5); Maerker C (4); Montalvo Garcia A (1); Ohrnberger M (6); Rix M (4); Rödelsperger S (5); Seidenberger K (4); Shirzaei M (8); Stammler K (9); Stittgen H (9); Valks P (4); Walter T (8); Wallenstein N (10); Wassermann J (2); Zakšek K (1) (1)Institute of Geophysics, Hamburg, Germany; (2) Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Geophysical Observatory, Munich, Germany; (3)Centauron - geosoftware & consulting, Weimar, Germany; (4)DLR Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany; (5)Institute of Physical Geodesy, Darmstadt, Germany; (6)Institute of Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany; (7) IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, Germany; (8)Department physics of the earth, GFZ, Potsdam, Germany; (9)BGR, Geocentre Hannover, Germany; (10)CVARG, Universidade Dos Acores; Portugal

  6. Spatially explicit multi-threat assessment of food tree species in Burkina Faso: A fine-scale approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Gaisberger

    Full Text Available Over the last decades agroforestry parklands in Burkina Faso have come under increasing demographic as well as climatic pressures, which are threatening indigenous tree species that contribute substantially to income generation and nutrition in rural households. Analyzing the threats as well as the species vulnerability to them is fundamental for priority setting in conservation planning. Guided by literature and local experts we selected 16 important food tree species (Acacia macrostachya, Acacia senegal, Adansonia digitata, Annona senegalensis, Balanites aegyptiaca, Bombax costatum, Boscia senegalensis, Detarium microcarpum, Lannea microcarpa, Parkia biglobosa, Sclerocarya birrea, Strychnos spinosa, Tamarindus indica, Vitellaria paradoxa, Ximenia americana, Ziziphus mauritiana and six key threats to them (overexploitation, overgrazing, fire, cotton production, mining and climate change. We developed a species-specific and spatially explicit approach combining freely accessible datasets, species distribution models (SDMs, climate models and expert survey results to predict, at fine scale, where these threats are likely to have the greatest impact. We find that all species face serious threats throughout much of their distribution in Burkina Faso and that climate change is predicted to be the most prevalent threat in the long term, whereas overexploitation and cotton production are the most important short-term threats. Tree populations growing in areas designated as 'highly threatened' due to climate change should be used as seed sources for ex situ conservation and planting in areas where future climate is predicting suitable habitats. Assisted regeneration is suggested for populations in areas where suitable habitat under future climate conditions coincides with high threat levels due to short-term threats. In the case of Vitellaria paradoxa, we suggest collecting seed along the northern margins of its distribution and considering assisted

  7. Persistent differences between coastal and offshore kelp forest communities in a warming Gulf of Maine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon D Witman

    Full Text Available Kelp forests provide important ecosystem services, yet coastal kelp communities are increasingly altered by anthropogenic impacts. Kelp forests in remote, offshore locations may provide an informative contrast due to reduced impacts from local stressors. We tested the hypothesis that shallow kelp assemblages (12-15 m depth and associated fish and benthic communities in the coastal southwest Gulf of Maine (GOM differed significantly from sites on Cashes Ledge, 145 km offshore by sampling five coastal and three offshore sites at 43.0 +/- 0.07° N latitude. Offshore sites on Cashes Ledge supported the greatest density (47.8 plants m2 and standing crop biomass (5.5 kg m2 fresh weight of the foundation species Saccharina latissima kelp at this depth in the Western North Atlantic. Offshore densities of S. latissima were over 150 times greater than at coastal sites, with similar but lower magnitude trends for congeneric S. digitata. Despite these differences, S. latissima underwent a significant 36.2% decrease between 1987 and 2015 on Cashes Ledge, concurrent with a rapid warming of the GOM and invasion by the kelp-encrusting bryozoan Membranipora membranacea. In contrast to kelp, the invasive red alga Dasysiphonia japonica was significantly more abundant at coastal sites, suggesting light or dispersal limitation offshore. Spatial differences in fish abundance mirrored those of kelp, as the average biomass of all fish on Cashes Ledge was 305 times greater than at the coastal sites. Remote video censuses of cod (Gadus morhua, cunner (Tautaogolabrus adspersus, and pollock (Pollachius virens corroborated these findings. Understory benthic communities also differed between regions, with greater abundance of sessile invertebrates offshore. Populations of kelp-consuming sea urchins Stronglyocentrotus droebachiensis, were virtually absent from Cashes Ledge while small urchins were abundant onshore, suggesting recruitment limitation offshore. Despite

  8. Development of a locally sustainable functional food based on mutandabota, a traditional food in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Augustine; Linnemann, Anita R; Sybesma, Wilbert; Kort, Remco; Nout, M J R; Smid, Eddy J

    2014-05-01

    A probiotic dairy product was developed on the basis of a traditional dish called mutandabota to enable resource-poor populations in southern Africa to benefit from a functional food. Mutandabota is widely consumed in rural southern Africa, making it an ideal food matrix to carry probiotics. First, a process to produce probiotic mutandabota was designed. Raw cow milk was boiled and subsequently cooled to ambient temperature (25°C). Next, dry pulp from the fruit of the baobab tree (Adansonia digitata L.) was added to the milk at a concentration of 4% (wt/vol). This mixture was inoculated with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba and left to ferment for 24h, while the growth of the bacterial culture was monitored. Final ingredients were then added to produce probiotic mutandabota that had 14% (wt/vol) baobab fruit pulp and 7% (wt/vol) sugar in cow milk. The pH of probiotic mutandabota was pH 3.5, which ensures that the product is microbiologically safe. The viable plate count of L. rhamnosus yoba increased from 5.8 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL at the point of inoculation to 8.8 ± 0.4 log cfu/mL at the moment of consumption, thereby meeting the criterion to have a viable count of the probiotic bacterium in excess of 6 log cfu/mL of a product. Baobab fruit pulp at 4% promoted growth of L. rhamnosus yoba with a maximal specific growth rate (μmax) of 0.6 ± 0.2/h at 30°C. The developed technology, though specific for this particular product, has potential to be applied for the delivery of probiotics through a variety of indigenous foods in different regions of the world. Upon consumption, probiotic mutandabota is expected to improve the population's intestinal health, which is especially relevant for vulnerable target groups such as children and elderly people. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatially explicit multi-threat assessment of food tree species in Burkina Faso: A fine-scale approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisberger, Hannes; Kindt, Roeland; Loo, Judy; Schmidt, Marco; Bognounou, Fidèle; Da, Sié Sylvestre; Diallo, Ousmane Boukary; Ganaba, Souleymane; Gnoumou, Assan; Lompo, Djingdia; Lykke, Anne Mette; Mbayngone, Elisée; Nacoulma, Blandine Marie Ivette; Ouedraogo, Moussa; Ouédraogo, Oumarou; Parkouda, Charles; Porembski, Stefan; Savadogo, Patrice; Thiombiano, Adjima; Zerbo, Guibien; Vinceti, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decades agroforestry parklands in Burkina Faso have come under increasing demographic as well as climatic pressures, which are threatening indigenous tree species that contribute substantially to income generation and nutrition in rural households. Analyzing the threats as well as the species vulnerability to them is fundamental for priority setting in conservation planning. Guided by literature and local experts we selected 16 important food tree species (Acacia macrostachya, Acacia senegal, Adansonia digitata, Annona senegalensis, Balanites aegyptiaca, Bombax costatum, Boscia senegalensis, Detarium microcarpum, Lannea microcarpa, Parkia biglobosa, Sclerocarya birrea, Strychnos spinosa, Tamarindus indica, Vitellaria paradoxa, Ximenia americana, Ziziphus mauritiana) and six key threats to them (overexploitation, overgrazing, fire, cotton production, mining and climate change). We developed a species-specific and spatially explicit approach combining freely accessible datasets, species distribution models (SDMs), climate models and expert survey results to predict, at fine scale, where these threats are likely to have the greatest impact. We find that all species face serious threats throughout much of their distribution in Burkina Faso and that climate change is predicted to be the most prevalent threat in the long term, whereas overexploitation and cotton production are the most important short-term threats. Tree populations growing in areas designated as 'highly threatened' due to climate change should be used as seed sources for ex situ conservation and planting in areas where future climate is predicting suitable habitats. Assisted regeneration is suggested for populations in areas where suitable habitat under future climate conditions coincides with high threat levels due to short-term threats. In the case of Vitellaria paradoxa, we suggest collecting seed along the northern margins of its distribution and considering assisted regeneration in the

  10. Nutritional Value of Tamarindus Indica Fruit Pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiteva, R.; Kitui, J.L

    2007-01-01

    In Kenya Tamarindus Indica (Tamarind) fruits are not fully utilized despite their abundance in Nyanza, Rift Valley and Eastern provinces. This study determined the nutritional composition of the edible fruit pulp to enhance utilization. The edible portion of Tamarindus indica fruit ('Ukwaju' in Kiswahili) was analysed for it's chemical and nutritional composition. The fruit was sampled from Kitui, Mwingi and Makueni districts of Ukambani, with an assumption that they could be climatically different. The analysis carried out included moisture content, sulphated ash, Vitamin C content, crude protein and minerals namely Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn. The energy contents were determined and total carbohydrates calculated. The results showed very low protein content of 0.01% for Kvisuni and Makindu divisions, while Katse and Kyanundu in Mwingi and TARDA in Makueni districts gave the highest value of 0.02% . This is a fairly low protein content compared with other indigenous fruits like Andasonia digitata (Baobab) with a value of 2.9%. The fat content was also low, especially for Makueni that had a value of 0.04% for the unripe fruits while Mwingi gave 0.04% for those fruits that were ripe. Vitamin C content was similar for the fruit from the three districts (8mg100g-1 ) sample. The fruits also contained an appreciable high internal energy level with Mbitini recording highest at 2.94 kcal. All samples had levels of Fe above 1mg100g-1 . Sodium was also available in all samples with TARDA sample having the highest (0.8mg/100g-1 ) . Potassium values were over 200 mg100g-1 s ample for all samples with TARDA leading (1050 mg100g-1 ) . Calcium in all samples was over 20 mg100g-1 w hile mg was 30 mg100g-1 w ith Makindu having the highest value of 75.2mg100g-1 . This fruit, therefore has the potential of providing nutrients and can be used as a food supplement

  11. Iodine Emissions from Seaweeds: Species-dependent and Seasonal Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Thomas; Ball, Stephen; Leblanc, Catherine; Potin, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Emissions of iodine from macroalgae into the marine boundary layer (MBL) significantly impact tropospheric chemistry and the biogeochemical cycling of iodine. Gas-phase iodine chemistry perturbs the usual HOx and NOx radical cycles, provides additional sink reactions for tropospheric ozone, and modifies atmospheric oxidizing capacity. Iodine oxides (IxOywith x ≥ 2) formed through the reaction of iodine atoms with ozone nucleate new aerosol particles which, if they grow sufficiently, can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and so influence the local climate in coastal regions. Some seaweeds, such as brown algae, are important bio-accumulators of iodine. They specifically induce iodine metabolism to protect themselves against oxidative stress, both as a defence mechanism and when exposed to air around low tide. Indeed the dominant emission source of iodine into the atmosphere in coastal regions comes from intertidal macroalgal beds, particularly those of kelp species. We present results from an extensive laboratory study of molecular iodine (I2) emissions from five seaweed species (two Fucales, Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus, and three kelp species, Laminaria digitata, L. hyperborea and Saccharina latissima). Eighty-four incubation experiments were performed at the Station Biologique in Roscoff (Brittany, France) between September 2012 and June 2013 to quantify species-dependent I2 emission rates in response to progressive air exposure, mimicking low tide, and to investigate any seasonal differences. Measurements were conducted on 'fresh' biological samples: Ascophyllum and Fucus thalli were collected whilst still submerged on an ebbing tide, transported in seawater to the laboratory and analysed immediately; kelp samples were collected by boat, stored in an outside aquarium in running seawater and analysed within a few days. I2 emissions were quantified at high time resolution by broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometry (1σ detection limit

  12. Potent α-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargava Shobha Y

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indian medicinal plants used in the Ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. Pancreatic α-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. In this study, seventeen Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for α-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on PPA (porcine pancreatic α-amylase. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the lead extracts was performed in order to determine the probable constituents. Methods Analysis of the 126 extracts, obtained from 17 plants (Aloe vera (L. Burm.f., Adansonia digitata L., Allium sativum L., Casia fistula L., Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don., Cinnamomum verum Persl., Coccinia grandis (L. Voigt., Linum usitatisumum L., Mangifera indica L., Morus alba L., Nerium oleander L., Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Piper nigrum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers., Trigonella foenum-graceum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc. for PPA inhibition was initially performed qualitatively by starch-iodine colour assay. The lead extracts were further quantified with respect to PPA inhibition using the chromogenic DNSA (3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid method. Phytochemical constituents of the extracts exhibiting≥ 50% inhibition were analysed qualitatively as well as by GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry. Results Of the 126 extracts obtained from 17 plants, 17 extracts exhibited PPA inhibitory potential to varying degrees (10%-60.5% while 4 extracts showed low inhibition ( 50% was obtained with 3 isopropanol extracts. All these 3 extracts exhibited concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, viz., seeds of Linum usitatisumum (540 μgml-1, leaves of Morus alba (1440 μgml-1 and Ocimum tenuiflorum (8.9 μgml-1. Acarbose as the

  13. Persistent differences between coastal and offshore kelp forest communities in a warming Gulf of Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witman, Jon D; Lamb, Robert W

    2018-01-01

    Kelp forests provide important ecosystem services, yet coastal kelp communities are increasingly altered by anthropogenic impacts. Kelp forests in remote, offshore locations may provide an informative contrast due to reduced impacts from local stressors. We tested the hypothesis that shallow kelp assemblages (12-15 m depth) and associated fish and benthic communities in the coastal southwest Gulf of Maine (GOM) differed significantly from sites on Cashes Ledge, 145 km offshore by sampling five coastal and three offshore sites at 43.0 +/- 0.07° N latitude. Offshore sites on Cashes Ledge supported the greatest density (47.8 plants m2) and standing crop biomass (5.5 kg m2 fresh weight) of the foundation species Saccharina latissima kelp at this depth in the Western North Atlantic. Offshore densities of S. latissima were over 150 times greater than at coastal sites, with similar but lower magnitude trends for congeneric S. digitata. Despite these differences, S. latissima underwent a significant 36.2% decrease between 1987 and 2015 on Cashes Ledge, concurrent with a rapid warming of the GOM and invasion by the kelp-encrusting bryozoan Membranipora membranacea. In contrast to kelp, the invasive red alga Dasysiphonia japonica was significantly more abundant at coastal sites, suggesting light or dispersal limitation offshore. Spatial differences in fish abundance mirrored those of kelp, as the average biomass of all fish on Cashes Ledge was 305 times greater than at the coastal sites. Remote video censuses of cod (Gadus morhua), cunner (Tautaogolabrus adspersus), and pollock (Pollachius virens) corroborated these findings. Understory benthic communities also differed between regions, with greater abundance of sessile invertebrates offshore. Populations of kelp-consuming sea urchins Stronglyocentrotus droebachiensis, were virtually absent from Cashes Ledge while small urchins were abundant onshore, suggesting recruitment limitation offshore. Despite widespread warming of

  14. Biologia de Imaturos e Adultos de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae Alimentados com Lagartas de Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, criadas em Diferentes Genótipos de Maracujazeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Angelini

    2015-12-01

    Abstract. The development of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae nymphs fed with Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae larvae reared on leaves of the passion fruit genotypes Passiflora edulis Sims., Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. (Seleção de Jaboticabal, P. edulis f. flavicarpa (cv. Sul Brasil and P. edulis f. flavicarpa (cv. Maguary FB-100, P. alata, P. serrato-digitata and P. foetida. The experiment was conducted under controlled conditions (temperature: 26 ± 1°C, RH = 60 ± 10% and photophase of 14 hours. Second instar nymphs of the predator were kept in plastic cups (4.5 cm high and 7.5 cm wide groups of five. Ten-day-old (approx. 2 cm D. juno juno larvae reared on leaves of different passion fruit genotypes were provided daily to P. nigrispinus. The experiment was carried out with 10 replications, totalizing 50 nymphs per treatment. Daily evaluations were performed to measure the duration and viability of each instar, the body mass of nymphs (24 hours after each ecdysis and adults, and the duration and viability of the nymph phase and adult longevity under starvation. Results show the influence of passion fruit genotypes at the third trophic level, since larvae reared with P. edulis f. flavicarpa (Seleção de Jaboticabal have shown to be more adequate for predator development. The results of this experiment show the influence of passion fruit genotypes on the third trophic level. The genotype P. edulis f. flavicarpa cv. Sul Brasil has a less appropriate to the predator, suggesting a negative way the association between host plant resistance and use of biological control. Already P. edulis and genotypes P. edulis f. flavicarpa Jaboticabal Selection can be used along with the predator because these cultivars did not affect the third trophic level. P. edulis f. flavicarpa cv. Maguary FB-100, considered ill-suited to the development of larvae of D. juno juno, affected the predator, resulting in a negative

  15. The potential of macroalgae as a source of carbohydrates for use in bioethanol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwachukwu, A.N. [School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Chukwu, M.A. [Department of Sustainable Chemical Engineering, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Fossil fuel which is the global energy source gives rise to land contamination, air pollution, climate change, fuel crises, hike of price of petroleum products, crises in oil producing nations, dependency on oil producing countries and high risk associated with oil exploitation has led to a search for sustainable and efficient energy sources. Several types and sources of biofuels have been recently studied as potential source of energy to replace the environmentally unfriendly fossil fuels. Bioethanol produced from terrestrial plants have attracted the attention of the global society, though numerous controversies and debates were associated with the technology; such as the issue of food versus fuel competition, which further encouraged more research work on a sustainable renewable bioethanol source. This study aims at determining total carbohydrates from macroalgal specie (Laminaria digitata) for use in bioethanol fermentation, also using wet and analytical chemistry to extract and spectrophotometrically analyse the sample in respect to glucose and sucrose standards. The samples were lyophilized and the resulting powder extracted in a water bath at 100oC in 15minutes. The analysis was performed using anthrone (colorimetric) method and the analyte read in a UV-visible spectrophotometer at 620nm. The result showed that carbohydrates were present in the samples, indicated by green and yellow, colourless pigments. Glucose and sucrose were the main identified sugars from the standards analysed. The concentration of sugars varied with time; months and seasons of the year. Result of the samples showed highest level of sugar concentration in May 2010 and lowest sugar concentration in November 2010. It was observed that the mass of sugars (glucose and sucrose) deposited as a result of photosynthesis, significantly contributed to the weight of biomass. The implication of the result indicated that: the smaller the biomass, the most likely it is to have lower mass of sugars

  16. PREFACE: Preface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qingming; Wang, Lihong V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2011-02-01

    and imaging from all over the world, including the United States, Russia, Australia, Canada, Israel, France, Ireland, Japan, Korea and China. The major topics covered at the conference and presented in this volume include: Photonic Therapeutics, Diagnostics and Instrumentations; Tissue Optics and Laser Tissue Interaction; Biomedical Spectroscopy and Microscopy; Multimodal and Hybrid Biomedical Imaging; and Optical Molecular Imaging. The conference voted for the three best student papers; awards were presented to the participant students whose posters were recognized as excellent and who took part in the oral presentation competition. The conference received 133 submitted abstracts, and this volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes a selection of 53 excellent submissions. The Conference Secretariat and Local Organizing Committee deserve recognition for planning a smoothly run and productive conference with comprehensive, instructive lectures and innovative work displayed in poster presentations. The faculties and students from Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics were dedicated to their work in reception and service during the conference. It is a pleasure to thank all of them for their efficient and hard work. We are also grateful for the financial support from 111 Project (B07038), and the assistance in organization and coordination from Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Finally, we would like to thank all the authors for their contributions to PIBM 2010 and all the members of the Committees for their cooperation and time spent reviewing submissions. Special thanks are due to the Advisory Committee members Shu Chien, Aaron Ciechanover, Steve Dahms, Da Hsuan Feng, Steven R Goodman, Brian Salzberg, Fujia Yang, Jianquan Yao, Baoyong Zheng and Olivia Ho Cheng for their participation on-site, and their significant contributions to the conference. Wuhan, PR ChinaDecember, 2010

  17. Enxertia de progênies de maracujazeiro-roxo australiano em espécies nativas Grafting of australian purple passion fruit progenies in different native species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio de Carvalho Pires

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O maracujá-roxo (Passiflora edulis, apesar de ser desconhecido no Brasil, pode tornar-se numa fonte de renda alternativa para o agricultor, devido à boa remuneração e aceitação da fruta in natura no mercado europeu. Com o objetivo de avaliar a produção de mudas clonais de maracujá-roxo provenientes da Austrália, foi realizado um experimento no Setor de Fruticultura da Universidade de Brasília entre os meses de maio de 2005 e fevereiro de 2006. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com 3 repetições, em arranjo fatorial 7 x 2 x 3, sendo sete porta-enxertos, duas variedades-copa e três épocas de avaliação. A parcela foi formada por 3 plantas úteis. Utilizaram-se como porta-enxertos (PE as espécies P. serrato digitata, P. nitida, P. coccinea, P. quadrangularis, P. edulis e P. edulis f. flavicarpa híbrido 'EC-2-0' e o híbrido P. coccinea X P. setacea, e como copa (CP, as variedades '96A' e '25' de maracujazeiro-roxo. As estacas enraizadas foram transferidas para sacolas plásticas e mantidas sob nebulização intermitente. A enxertia foi efetuada 30 dias após. As avaliações do índice de pegamento foram efetuadas aos 31 e 61 dias após a enxertia (DAE. As combinações CP/PE (entre "25" e "96 A" X P. nitida, seguidas das combinações ("25" e "96 A" X P. edulis f. flavicarpa híbrido 'EC-2-0', com 100%, 90%, 90% e 80%, respectivamente, obtiveram alto índice de pegamento aos 61 DAE. A produção de mudas de maracujazeiro-roxo enxertadas nas espécies de maracujazeiro silvestres e comerciais P. nitida, P. quadrangularis, P. edulis f. flavicarpa híbrido 'EC-2-0' e P. edulis é viável do ponto de vista técnico, pois não ocorreram problemas de incompatibilidade, e os enxertos apresentaram alta taxa de pegamento.Purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, even though is unknown in Brazil, can be an alternative income for the farmers due to good price and acceptance by the European market. Aiming to

  18. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Michiel Otto

    1991-01-01

    ., Deborah Gewertz (eds. - Marijke J. Klokke, Annette Claben, Kann die Gupta-Kunst Kalidasas Werke illustrieren? Teil I: Text; Teil II: Abbildungen. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer, 1988. [Marburger Studien zur Afrika- und Asienkunde, Serie B: Asien, Band 11.] 90, XLV pp., 10 figs, 32 pls. - J. Kommers, Michael Young, Malinowski among the Magi. The Natives of Mailu, London and New York: Routledge, 1988. [International library of Anthropology.] viii + 355 pp. - Niels Mulder, Bernhard Dahm, Culture and technological development in Southeast Asia. Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 1988., Gotz Link (eds. - Jan Michiel Otto, F. von Benda-Beckmann, Between kinship and the state; Social security and law in developing countries, Dordrecht: Foris, 1988. vii + 495 pp., K. von Benda-Beckmann, E. Casino (eds. - Nigel Phillips, Rainer Carle, Cultures and societies of North Sumatra, Berlin and Hamburg: Dietrich Reimer, 1987. [Veroffentlichungen des Seminars für Indonesische und Sudseesprachen der Universität Hamburg, Band 19.] 514 pp. - R. De Ridder, James J. Fox, To speak in pairs; Essays on the ritual languages of Eastern Indonesia, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988. [Cambridge studies in oral literature 15.] xi + 338 pp.; bibl.; ills. - Matthew Schoffeleers, Serge Tcherkezoff, Duel classification reconsidered (Translation by Martin Thom, New York/Paris: Cambridge University Press and Éditions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, 1987, 157 pp. - G.J. Schutte, J.L. Blussé, De dagregisters van het kasteel Zeelandia, Taiwan 1629-1662. Deel I: 1629-1641, uitgegeven door J.L. Blussé, M.E. van Opstall en Ts’ao Yung-ho, met medewerking van Chiang Shu-sheng en W. Milde. [Rijks Geschiedkundige Publicatiën, Grote Serie 195.] ‘s-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff, 1986. xxi + 548 pp., map, indices - H. Steinhauer, Olaf H. Smedal, Lom-Indonesian-English and English-Lom Wordlists, NUSA Linguistic studies of Indonesian and other languages in Indonesia, Vol. 28/29, 1987. viii

  19. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Rodenburg

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available - Leonard Y. Andaya, H.A. Poeze, Excursies in Celebes; Een bundel bijdragen bij het afscheid van J. Noorduyn als directeur-secretaris van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. Leiden: KITLV Uitgeverij, 1991, 348 pp., P. Schoorl (eds. - Anne Booth, Adrian Clemens, Changing economy in Indonesia Volume 12b; Regional patterns in foreign trade 1911-40. Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute, 1992., J.Thomas Lindblad, Jeroen Touwen (eds. - A.P. Borsboom, James F. Weiner, The empty place; Poetry space, and being among the Foi of Papua New Guinea. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991. - Martin van Bruinessen, Ozay Mehmet, Islamic identity and development; Studies of the Islamic periphery. London and New York: Routledge, 1990 (cheap paperback edition: Kula Lumpur: Forum, 1990, 259 pp. - H.J.M. Claessen, Timothy Earle, Chiefdoms: power, economy, and ideology. A school of American research book. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991. 341 pp., bibliography, maps, figs. - H.J.M. Claessen, Henk Schulte Nordholt, State, village, and ritual in Bali; A historical perspective. (Comparitive Asian studies 7. Amsterdam: VU University press for the centre for Asian studies Amsterdam, 1991. 50 pp. - B. Dahm, Ruby R. Paredes, Philippine colonial democracy. (Monograph series 32/Yale University Southeast Asia studies. New Haven: Yale Center for international and Asia studies, 1988, 166 pp. - Eve Danziger, Bambi B. Schieffelin, The give and take of everyday life; Language socialization of Kaluli children. (Studies in the social and cultural foundations of language 9. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991. - Roy Ellen, David Hicks, Kinship and religion in Eastern Indonesia. (Gothenburg studies in social anthropology 12. Gothenburg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis, 1990, viii 132 pp., maps, figs, tbls. - Paul van der Grijp, Pierre Lemonnier, Guerres et festins; Paix, échanges et competition dans les highlands de Nouvelle

  20. 6. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings; 6. Rostocker Bioenergieforum. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelles, Michael (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    Within the 6th Rostock bioenergy forum at 14th and 15th June, 2012, in Rostock (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Regional concepts of bioenergy as a contribution to the energy policy turnaround (A. Schuette); (2) Bio energy region Ruegen - Regional mastering of the energy policy turnaround (S. Gehrig); (3) Bio energy Austria - Developments, state of the art and perspectives (A.M. Ragossnig); (4) Public relations and conflict management at regional bio energy projects (T. Turk); (5) Approaches for the determination of a regional added value by biomass by means of the technical-economical accompanying research in competition bio energy regions (S. Bohnet); (6) Town with energy efficiency - SEE - Stuttgart: Flagship project ''Wilhelma'' (A. Hilse); (7) Paludiculture - A regional bio energy concept for Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (C. Schroeder); (8) Pilot projects for the utilization of biomass from paludiculture in integrated biomass heating systems in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (T. Dahms); (9) Production of biomass in wet peatlands (paludiculture). The EU-AID project 'Wetland energy' in Belarus - solutions for the substitution of fossil fuels (peat briquettes) by biomass from wet peatlands (W. Wichtmann); (10) State of the art of the compacting of straw in Germany (T. Hering); (11) Heating with straw - Cost structure of the agricultural heat production (M. Dietze); (12) Utilization and development of alternative fuels - state of the art and innovations (L. Di Matteo); (13) Production of qualitatively high-value wood-pellets for an energetic utilization (C. Kirsten); (14) Decentralized power generation from solid biomass in the course of the Renewable Energy Law EEG (P. Sauter); (15) MixBioPellets: Improvement of the market relevance of alternative and mixed biomass pellets in Europe - Framework conditions, measures and suitable utilisation concepts (T. Zeng); (16) Optimisation of a pellet

  1. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Sutherland

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available - Tim Behrend, Nancy K. Florida, Javanese literature in Surakarta manuscripts; Volume 2; Manuscripts of the Mangkunagaran palace. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 2000, 575 pp. - Harold Brookfield, Judith M. Heimann, The most offending soul alive; Tom Harrisson and his remarkable life. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 1998, 468 pp. - Harold Brookfield, Victor T. King, Rural development and social science research; Case studies from Borneo. Phillips, Maine: Borneo Research Council, 1999, xiii + 359 pp. [Borneo Research Council Proceedings Series 6.] - J.G. de Casparis, Roy E. Jordaan, The Sailendras in Central Javanese history; A survey of research from 1950 to 1999. Yogyakarta: Penerbitan Universitas Sanata Dharma, 1999, iv + 108 pp. - H.J.M. Claessen, Francoise Douaire-Marsaudon, Les premiers fruits; Parenté, identité sexuelle et pouvoirs en Polynésie occidentale (Tonga, Wallis et Futuna. Paris: Éditions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, 1998, x + 338 pp. - Matthew Isaac Cohen, Andrew Beatty, Varieties of Javanese religion; An anthropological account. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999, xv + 272 pp. [Cambridge Studies in Social and Cultural Anthropology 111.] - Matthew Isaac Cohen, Sylvia Tiwon, Breaking the spell; Colonialism and literary renaissance in Indonesia. Leiden: Department of Languages and Cultures of Southeast Asia and Oceania, University of Leiden, 1999, vi + 235 pp. [Semaian 18.] - Freek Colombijn, Victor T. King, Anthropology and development in South-East Asia; Theory and practice. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1999, xx + 308 pp. - Bernhard Dahm, Cive J. Christie, A modern history of South-East Asia; Decolonization, nationalism and seperatism. London: Tauris, 1996, x + 286 pp. - J. van Goor, Leonard Blussé, Pilgrims to the past; Private conversations with historians of European expansion. Leiden: Research School CNWS, 1996, 339 pp., Frans-Paul van der Putten, Hans

  2. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2002-01-01

    geschiedenis van de Indisch-Nederlandse dagbladpers, 1744-1905. Amsterdam: Nijgh en Van Ditmar, Leiden: KITLV Uitgeverij, 2001, 862 pp. -Edwin Wieringa, Marijke J. Klokke, Narrative sculpture and literary traditions in South and Southeast Asia. Leiden: Brill, 2000, xiv + 127 pp. [Studies in Asian Art and Archaeology (continuation of: Studies in South Asian Culture 23.] -Catharina Williams-van Klinken, Mark Donohue, A grammar of Tukang Besi. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1999, xxvi + 576 pp. [Mouton Grammar Library 20.] -Kees Zandvliet, Thomas Suárez, Early mapping of Southeast Asia. Singapore: Periplus Editions, 1999, 280 pp. -Claudia Zingerli, Bernhard Dahm ,Vietnamese villages in transition; Background and consequences of reform policies in rural Vietnam. Passau: Department of Southeast Asian Studies, University of Passau, 1999, xiv + 224 pp. [Passau Contributions to Southeast Asian Studies 7.], Vincent J.H. Houben (eds

  3. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Metcalf

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available - M.A. van Bakel, R. Borofsky, Making history; Pukapukan and anthropological constructions of knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. 201 pp.; ill. - Andrew Beatty, J.A. Feldman et al., Nias, tribal treasures: Cosmic reflections in stone, wood and gold, Delft: Volkenkundig Museum Nusantara, 1990. - A.G. van Beek, Christian F. Feest, Technologie und ergologie in der Völkerkunde, Band 2, Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag, Ethnologische Paperbacks, 1989. xiv, 290 pp., Alfred Janata (eds. - N. Bootsma, Bernhard Dahm, José Rizal, Der nationalheld der Filipinos, Zürich: Munster-Schmidt Verlag Göttingen, 1988, 88 pp. - Aart G. Broek, John de Pool, Bolívar op / en Curaçoa: Historische novelle / leyende histórico [Inleiding door / introducción del L.W. Statius van Eps en / y E. Luckmann-Levy Maduro; vertaling uit het Spaans door L. Hoetink-Espinal], Zutphen: De Walburg Pers, 1988. - Martin van Bruinessen, Peter Kloos, Door het oog van de antropoloog: Botsende visies bij heronderzoek. Muiderberg: Dick Coutinho, 1988, 148 pp. - J.G. de Casparis, Charles Higham, The Archaeology of mainland Southeast Asia. From 10,000 B.C. to the fall of Angkor. Cambridge World Archaeology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. - H.J.M. Claessen, Luc de Heusch, Ecrits sur la royauté sacrée. Brussel, Institut de Sociologie: Editions de l’Université de Bruxelles. 1987. 314 pp. - H. Dagmar, Erich Kolig, The Noonkanbah Story, Dunedin: University of Otago Press, 1987. - Anke van Dijke, Linda Terpstra, Anil Ramdas, De strijd van de dansers; Biografische vertellingen uit Curaçao, Amsterdam: SUA, 1988. - B.F. Galjart, Hans-Dieter Evers, Strategische gruppen. Vergleichende studien zu staat, bürokratie und klassenbildung in der dritten welt. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag, 1988, 279 pp., Tilman Schiel (eds. - J. Hoffenaar, G. Teitler, Anatomie van de Indische defensie: Scenario’s, plannen, beleid 1892-1920. [Anatomy of the defence of the

  4. Skeletons in confusion: a review of astrophorid sponges with (dicho–calthrops as structural megascleres (Porifera, Demospongiae, Astrophorida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob van Soest

    2010-11-01

    geodioides, is barely distinct from the type species of Calthropella, C. simplex. Two species previously assigned to Dercitus or Stoeba (Dercitus loricatus and Stoeba natalensis are excluded from the genus Dercitus as they do not fit with the emended and improved definition of the genus. One species assigned to Calthropella, C. digitata, is excluded from that genus and assigned to the ancorinid genus Stelletta. Based on the similarity of the megascleres and their structure-less arrangement, we predict that the two reviewed genera will be found to be closely related and eventually will need to be accomodated in a single family, but independent molecular evidence is awaited before changes in the family classification, including a verdict on the validity of the family Calthropellidae, will be proposed. Our review included 38 valid species among which fourteen species and one subspecies appear to be new to science. Four of these were represented by insufficient material for a proper description, but the remaining ten are described as new species: Dercitus (Stoeba senegalensis sp. n., Dercitus (Stoeba verdensis sp. n., Dercitus (Stoeba fijiensis sp. n., Dercitus (Stoeba bahamensis sp. n., Dercitus (Halinastra berau sp. n., Dercitus (Halinastra japonensis sp. n., Dercitus (Halinastra arubensis sp. n., Dercitus (Halinastra sibogae sp. n., Calthropella (Calthropella xavierae sp. n., and Calthropella (Pachataxa pyrifera sp. n. The new subspecies, Dercitus (Dercitus bucklandi lusitanicus ssp. n. is described for southern East Atlantic populations of the nominal species. Several specimens assigned to existing species were found to be deviating to the extent that they are likely members of further undescribed species. These are briefly discussed to facilitate further studies of the diversity of the two genera. Species of both genera and the six subgenera, including deviating or insufficiently characterized specimens belonging to species not yet properly described, are keyed out

  5. Emissions and Distribution of Reactive Iodine from Seaweed in Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbanski, Martin; Pöhler, Denis; Schmitt, Stefan; Kreher, Karin; Johnston, Paul; Platt, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    compared to Mace Head. IO levels up to 40 ppt were observed with LP-DOAS and 70 ppt at 1.3 m height with CE-DOAS. Second, we found out that Laminaria digitata is not a dominant iodine source to the atmosphere, while Ascophyllum nodosum due to its high abundance in the intertidal zone is by far the strongest source. Third, we observed also high IO levels above 30 ppt at rainy, cold and windy weather. Thus former observations that these emissions arise only at sunny and warm weather could not be confirmed. Fourth, we investigated that IO increases rapidly with decreasing distance to the emitting seaweed patches. Above the seaweed patches IO reaches concentrations much above 50 ppt which is sufficient to start particle nucleation events. We conclude that coastal seaweed emissions are thus much more relevant for the atmosphere than so far expected from previous observations performed at Mace Head which is rather characterized by low IO levels in comparison to other locations. Reasons and explanations for these findings will be presented. A review of the coastal seaweed iodine emissions and its influence on the atmosphere is thus urgently needed. In a third field study on the east coast of the New Zealand south island, for the first time high IO mixing ratios of up to 68 ppt were observed on a southern hemispheric coast. Four, previously uninvestigated, seaweed species were identified as emitters of reactive iodine species and emission rates were estimated. The observations in New Zealand showed also differences in the seaweed distribution to northern hemispheric locations which need to be considered in global estimates of coastal iodine emissions.

  6. Wild medicinal and food plants used by communities living in Mopane woodlands of southern Angola: Results of an ethnobotanical field investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urso, Valeria; Signorini, Maria Adele; Tonini, Matteo; Bruschi, Piero

    2016-01-11

    Mopane woodlands play an important role in the livelihood strategies of local populations; however, they have been scarcely investigated by ethnobiologists and very little is currently known about plants traditionally used by local communities, especially about medicinal plants. Our investigation was aimed to document ethnobotanical knowledge in seven communities living in conditions of extreme poverty in a Mopane area of southern Angola (Namibe province). We focused on plants used as medicines and/or food, in order to highlight the role of wild plants in the livelihood of local communities, and possibly to find out plants with potential pharmacological interest. Ethnobotanical data were recorded through semi-structured interviews, filed in a database and quantitatively analyzed. The following synthetic indexes were used: Cultural Importance index (CI), Informant Consensus Factor (FIC), Fidelity Level (FL). Sixty-six informants (26 males, 40 females) were interviewed. A total of 1247 citations were recorded, concerning 132 ethnospecies (folk taxonomic units not necessarily corresponding to single botanical species); 104 were identified at different taxonomic levels. For medicinal purposes, 116 ethnospecies and 20 different uses (650 citations) were reported; for food purposes, 33 ethnospecies and 8 different uses (597 citations). The main used parts resulted to be fruit (471 citations; 21 ethnospecies), followed by underground organs (288, 82) and leaves (175, 41). According to CI values, Berchemia discolor, Ximenia americana var. americana and Adansonia digitata have the highest cultural value in the investigated communities. All of them are woody plants, as well as most of the identified ethnospecies (trees 34.6%, shrubs 32.7%, perennials 21.2%, annuals 8.7%, others 2.8%). Medicinal plants are especially used to treat disorders of the gastrointestinal tract (52 ethnospecies, 205 citations), obstetric/gynecological troubles (27, 40) and colds and respiratory tract

  7. Diversity and primary productivity of hill beech forests from Doftana Valley (Romanian Subcarpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Paucã-Comãnescu

    2009-12-01

    area, where by May it represents up to 20% of the inferior layer's biomass; on the limestone ground they do not exceed 0.5%. The most frequent are on the soil surface: Polytrichum formosum, Pogonatum nanum, Hypnum cupressiforme, Tortella tortuosa at Sotrile and, respectively Metzgeria furcata var. ulvula, Leskea nervosa , Ctenidium molluscum at Lunca Mare. In the Lunca Mare area, the most relevant herbaceous species in the structure of the biomass are Viola reichenbachiana, Festuca drymeja, Sanicula europaea and Campanula trachelium; in spring there are also Erytronium dens-canis and Lathyrus vernus. In the Sotrile area these are: Luzula luzuloides, Carex digitata, Calamagrostis arundinacea and Hieracium transsylvanicum, in both spring and autumn. Hedera helix, present especially at the surface, is the most frequent and best represented in terms of biomass in both beech forests, and in particular in the Lunca Mare site. The species characteristic to the phytocoenological association and to the alliances where these beech forests are included are representative through their biomass for the Hieracio rotundati-Fagetum association, while the orchids species characteristic to associations present on the limestone ground, although very diverse and with a great number of individuals for this taxonomic group, are not representative, neither as frequency nor as biomass or density, compared to other herbal species with a larger coenotic value, which are included in the Epipactieto-Fagetum association. The necromass accumulated in the area analyzed decays slowly, varying greatly with surface and time. It averages 4492 kg/ha in the Lunca Mare area and 4134 kg/ha in the Sotrile area. The necromass is made mostly of fallen leaves, and, at least in the Lunca Mare area, the July values are amplified by vernal herb flora.