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Sample records for melipona quadrifasciata melipona

  1. A molecular marker distinguishes the subspecies Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponinae)

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    Ana M. Waldschmidt; Everaldo G. de Barros; Lucio A.O. Campos

    2000-01-01

    The stingless bee species Melipona quadrifasciata includes two subspecies, Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioids and Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata. The morphological difference between the two subspecies is the presence of three to five continuous yellow stripes on the terga on the 3rd to 6th segments in workers and males of M. q. quadrifasciata, and two to five interrupted bands in M. q. anthidioides. We identified a DNA marker which is present in M. q. quadrifasciata and absent in M....

  2. A molecular marker distinguishes the subspecies Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponinae

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    Ana M. Waldschmidt

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The stingless bee species Melipona quadrifasciata includes two subspecies, Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioids and Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata. The morphological difference between the two subspecies is the presence of three to five continuous yellow stripes on the terga on the 3rd to 6th segments in workers and males of M. q. quadrifasciata, and two to five interrupted bands in M. q. anthidioides. We identified a DNA marker which is present in M. q. quadrifasciata and absent in M. q. anthidioides. Only one among the M. q. quadrifasciata colonies did not present the marker. It was also absent in bees collected in northern Minas Gerais State (Brazil, despite their morphological resemblance to M. q. quadrifasciata. The marker can be used for studying the genetic structure of the hybridization zone formed by the intercrossing of the two subspecies.A espécie de abelha sem ferrão Melipona quadrifasciata apresenta duas subespécies, Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata Lep. e Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lep. A diferença morfológica entre as duas subespécies é a presença de três a cinco bandas tergais amarelas do 3º ao 6º segmentos em operárias e machos de M. q. quadrifasciata e duas a cinco bandas interrompidas em M. q. anthidioides. Nós identificamos um marcador de DNA que está presente em M. q. quadrifasciata e ausente em M. q. anthidioides. Este marcador está ausente em abelhas coletadas no norte do Estado de Minas Gerais (Brasil, embora esses indivíduos apresentem morfologia similar à de M. q. quadrifasciata. Este marcador poderá ser utilizado em estudos da zona de hibridação entre as subespécies.

  3. Extraction of genomic DNA from Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponinae)

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    Waldschmidt, Ana Maria; Salomão, Tânia Maria Fernandes; Barros, Everaldo Gonçalves de; Campos, Lúcio de Antônio Oliveira

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to test three different procedures for DNA extraction of Melipona quadrifasciata based on existing methods for DNA extraction of Apis, plants and fungi. These methods differ in the concentrations of specific substances in the extraction buffer. The results demonstrate that the method used for Apis is not adequate for DNA extraction from M. quadrifasciata. On the other hand, with minor modifications this method and the methods for plants and fungi were ad...

  4. Genetic divergence between Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae) populations.

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    Tavares, Mara Garcia; Pietrani, Nathalia Teixeira; de Castro Durvale, Maxwell; Resende, Helder Canto; de Oliveira Campos, Lucio Antonio

    2013-03-01

    Melipona quadrifasciata is a stingless bee widely found throughout the Brazilian territory, with two recognized subspecies, M. quadrifasciata anthidioides, that exhibits interrupted metasomal stripes, and M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata, with continuous metasomal stripes. This study aimed to estimate the genetic variability of these subspecies. For this purpose, 127 colonies from 15 Brazilian localities were analyzed, using nine species-specific microsatellite primers. At these loci, the number of alleles ranged from three to 15 (mean: 7.2), and the observed heterozygosity (Ho) ranged from 0.03-0.21, while the expected heterozygosity (He) ranged from 0.23-0.47. The genetic distances among populations ranged from 0.03-0.45. The FST multilocus value (0.23) indicated that the populations sampled were structured, and the clustering analysis showed the formation of two subgroups and two more distant populations. The first group contained the subspecies M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata, and the other, the subspecies M. quadrifasciata anthidioides and the two M. quadrifasciata populations with continuous metasomal stripes from northern Minas Gerais. These results confirmed that the yellow metasomal stripes alone are not a good means for correctly identifying the different subspecies of M. quadrifasciata.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism among populations of Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata Lepeletier (Apidae: Meliponini) from southern Brazil.

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    Torres, Rogelio R; Arias, Maria C; Moretto, Geraldo

    2009-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the Brazilian endemic stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata Lepeletier ranges from Rio Grande do Sul to Minas Gerais states. The objective of the present study was to verify mtDNA polymorphisms among samples of M. q. quadrifasciata collected in southern Brazil. Twenty nine colonies from three localities (Blumenau and Mafra/SC and Prudentópolis/ PR) were sampled. Seven mtDNA regions were amplified and further digested with 15 restriction enzymes (PCR-RFLP). Five composite haplotypes were identified, with two unique to samples from Prudentópolis and the remaining three to samples from Mafra and/or Blumenau.

  6. DNA characterization and karyotypic evolution in the bee genus Melipona (Hymenoptera, Meliponini)

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    Rocha, MP; Pompolo, SD; Dergam, JA; Fernandes, A; Campos, LAD

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed patterns of heterochromatic bands in the Neotropical stingless bee genus Melipona (Hymenoptera, Meliponini). Group I species (Melipona bicolor bicolor, Melipona quadrifasciata, Melipona asilvae, Melipona marginata, Melipona subnitida) were characterized by low heterochromatic content. Group 11 species (Melipona capixaba, Melipona compressipes, Melipona crinita, Melipona seminigra fuscopilosa e Melipona scutellaris) had high heterochromatic content. All species had 2n = 18 and n = ...

  7. Differentiation of Melipona quadrifasciata L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini subspecies using cytochrome b PCR-RFLP patterns

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    Rogério O. Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and M. quadrifasciata anthidioides are subspecies of M. quadrifasciata, a stingless bee species common in coastal Brazil. These subspecies are discriminated by the yellow stripe pattern of the abdominal tergites. We found Vsp I restriction patterns in the cytochrome b region closely associated to each subspecies in 155 M. quadrifasciata colonies of different geographical origin. This mitochondrial DNA molecular marker facilitates diagnosis of M. quadrifasciata subspecies matrilines and can be used to establish their natural distribution and identify hybrid colonies.

  8. Feulgen-DNA response and chromatin condensation in Malpighian tubules of Melipona rufiventris and Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera, Apoidea).

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    Mampumbu, André Roberto; Mello, Maria Luiza S

    2008-08-01

    Melipona quadrifasciata and Melipona rufiventris are stingless bee species which present low and high heterochromatin content, respectively, on their mitotic chromosomes as assessed visually after a C-banding assay. However, these species do not show differences in the C-banding responses of their Malpighian tubule interphase nuclei. In the present study, the Feulgen-DNA response, which could inform on differences in DNA depurination due to differences in chromatin condensation, was compared in the cell nuclei of the Malpighian tubules of these species. It was hypothesized that differences in acid hydrolysis kinetics patterns, as assessed by Feulgen reaction and studied microspectrophotometrically, could discriminate M. quadrifasciata and M. rufiventris interphase nuclei not distinguishable with the C-banding method. Feulgen-DNA values corresponding to more than one ploidy class were found in both species; these values at the hydrolysis time corresponding to the maximal DNA depurination for each ploidy degree were higher in M. quadrifasciata, reflecting a higher DNA content in the Malpighian tubule cell nuclei of this species compared to those of M. rufiventris at the same larval instar. The maximal Feulgen-DNA values of M. quadrifasciata after short (50 min) and long (90 min) hydrolysis times were found to be closer to each other, while those of M. rufiventris occurred sharply at the long hydrolysis time, indicating that DNA depurination in M. quadrifasciata occurred faster. This result is probably related to the involvement of differences in chromatin condensation; it agrees with the idea that M. rufiventris contains more heterochromatin than M. quadrifasciata, which is supported by the analysis of results obtained with the image analysis parameter average absorption ratio. The depurination kinetics studied here with the Feulgen reaction were revealed to be more pertinent than the C-banding technique in establishing differences in levels of chromatin condensation

  9. Floral preferences of a neotropical stingless bee, Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier (Apidae: Meliponina) in an urban forest fragment.

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    Antonini, Y; Costa, R G; Martins, R P

    2006-05-01

    Species of plants used by Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier for pollen and nectar gathering in an urban forest fragment were recorded in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Melipona quadrifasciata visited 22 out of 103 flowering plant species. The plant species belonged mainly to Myrtaceae, Asteraceae, and Convolvulaceae (64% of the visits). Melipona quadrifasciata tended to collect pollen or nectar each time, except for Myrtaceae species, from which both pollen and nectar were collected. Bee abundance at flowers did not significantly correlate to food availability (expressed by flowering plant richness). We found a relatively high similarity (50%) between plant species used by M. quadrifasciata, which was also found in studies carried out in São Paulo State. However, low similarity (17%) was found between the results of this study and those of another done in Bahia State, Brazil.

  10. Floral preferences of a neotropical stingless bee, Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier (Apidae: Meliponina in an urban forest fragment

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    Y. Antonini

    Full Text Available Species of plants used by Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier for pollen and nectar gathering in an urban forest fragment were recorded in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Melipona quadrifasciata visited 22 out of 103 flowering plant species. The plant species belonged mainly to Myrtaceae, Asteraceae, and Convolvulaceae (64% of the visits. Melipona quadrifasciata tended to collect pollen or nectar each time, except for Myrtaceae species, from which both pollen and nectar were collected. Bee abundance at flowers did not significantly correlate to food availability (expressed by flowering plant richness. We found a relatively high similarity (50% between plant species used by M. quadrifasciata, which was also found in studies carried out in São Paulo State. However, low similarity (17% was found between the results of this study and those of another done in Bahia State, Brazil.

  11. Chemical Composition and Pharmacological Effects of Geopropolis Produced by Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides

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    dos Santos, Cintia Miranda; Campos, Jaqueline Ferreira; dos Santos, Helder Freitas; Balestieri, José Benedito Perrella; Silva, Denise Brentan; de Picoli Souza, Kely; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Estevinho, Leticia M.; dos Santos, Edson Lucas

    2017-01-01

    Stingless bees produce geopropolis, which is popularly described for its medicinal properties, but for which few scientific studies have demonstrated pharmacological effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the chemical composition of the geopropolis of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides and to evaluate its antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. The composition of the hydroethanolic extract of geopropolis (HEG) included di- and trigalloyl...

  12. Chemical characterization, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of propolis obtained from Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and Tetragonisca angustula stingless bees.

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    Torres, A R; Sandjo, L P; Friedemann, M T; Tomazzoli, M M; Maraschin, M; Mello, C F; Santos, A R S

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the chemical composition, and antioxidant and antibacterial properties of ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) from Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and Tetragonisca angustula. Chemical composition of EEP was determined by colorimetry and chromatographic (HPLC-DAD and UPLC-Q/TOF-MS/MS) analysis. Antimicrobial activity of EEP was evaluated against gram-positive (S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, E. faecalis) and gram-negative (E. coli and K. pneumoniae) bacteria by the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) test using the microdilution method. Furthermore, the growth curve and integrity of cell membrane of S. aureus and E. coli were investigated using standard microbiological methods. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the EEP of M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata has a more complex chemical composition than the EEP of T. angustula. Moreover, UPLC-MS analyses of M. quadrifasciata quadrifascita indicated flavonoids and terpenes as major constituents. The bactericidal activity of both EEPs was higher against gram-positive bacteria than for gram-negative bacteria. The EEP from M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata presented MIC values lower than the EEP from T. angustula for all tested bacteria. The EEP from M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata caused lysis of the bacterial wall and release of intracellular components from both E. coli and S. aureus. Our findings indicate that the chemical composition of propolis from stingless bees is complex and depends on the species. The extract from M. quadrifasciata quadrifascita was more effective against gram-positive than gram-negative strains, especially against S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus compared to T. angustula extract, by a mechanism that involves disturbance of the bacterial cell membrane integrity.

  13. Chemical characterization, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of propolis obtained from Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and Tetragonisca angustula stingless bees

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    A.R. Torres

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the chemical composition, and antioxidant and antibacterial properties of ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP from Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and Tetragonisca angustula. Chemical composition of EEP was determined by colorimetry and chromatographic (HPLC-DAD and UPLC-Q/TOF-MS/MS analysis. Antimicrobial activity of EEP was evaluated against gram-positive (S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, E. faecalis and gram-negative (E. coli and K. pneumoniae bacteria by the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC test using the microdilution method. Furthermore, the growth curve and integrity of cell membrane of S. aureus and E. coli were investigated using standard microbiological methods. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the EEP of M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata has a more complex chemical composition than the EEP of T. angustula. Moreover, UPLC-MS analyses of M. quadrifasciata quadrifascita indicated flavonoids and terpenes as major constituents. The bactericidal activity of both EEPs was higher against gram-positive bacteria than for gram-negative bacteria. The EEP from M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata presented MIC values lower than the EEP from T. angustula for all tested bacteria. The EEP from M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata caused lysis of the bacterial wall and release of intracellular components from both E. coli and S. aureus. Our findings indicate that the chemical composition of propolis from stingless bees is complex and depends on the species. The extract from M. quadrifasciata quadrifascita was more effective against gram-positive than gram-negative strains, especially against S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus compared to T. angustula extract, by a mechanism that involves disturbance of the bacterial cell membrane integrity.

  14. Variation and genetic structure of Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae) populations based on ISSR pattern.

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    Nascimento, Marcília A; Batalha-Filho, Henrique; Waldschmidt, Ana M; Tavares, Mara G; Campos, Lucio A O; Salomão, Tânia M F

    2010-04-01

    For a study of diversity and genetic structuring in Melipona quadrifasciata, 61 colonies were collected in eight locations in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. By means of PCR analysis, 119 ISSR bands were obtained, 80 (68%) being polymorphic. H(e) and H (B) were 0.20 and 0.16, respectively. Two large groups were obtained by the UPGMA method, one formed by individuals from Januária, Urucuia, Rio Vermelho and Caeté and the other by individuals from São João Del Rei, Barbacena, Ressaquinha and Cristiano Otoni. The Φst and θ(B) values were 0.65 and 0.58, respectively, thereby indicating high population structuring. UPGMA grouping did not reveal genetic structuring of M. quadrifasciata in function of the tergite stripe pattern. The significant correlation between dissimilarity values and geographic distances (r = 0.3998; p Melipona quadrifasciata population structuring, possibly applicable to the studies of other bee species.

  15. Report on the microbiota of Melipona quadrifasciata affected by a recurrent disease.

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    Díaz, Sebastián; de Souza Urbano, Sarah; Caesar, Lílian; Blochtein, Betina; Sattler, Aroni; Zuge, Valmir; Haag, Karen Luisa

    2017-02-01

    Melipona quadrifasciata is an eusocial stingless bee traditionally used for honey production in Brazil. In the last decades, the species disappeared from the wild in Southern Brazil, being kept exclusively in managed colonies for commercial and recreational purposes. Stingless beekeepers from this region report annual losses of their colonies due to a syndrome of yet unknown causes. We investigate whether it is associated to pathogenic microorganisms already known to cause disease in bees. These results provide a starting point for future studies aimed at clarifying the relationship between the microbial community of stingless bees and their colony collapses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Correlation between mandibular gland secretion and cuticular hydrocarbons in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata.

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    Cruz-Landim, C; Ferreira-Caliman, M J; Gracioli-Vitti, L F; Zucchi, R

    2012-04-19

    We investigated whether Melipona quadrifasciata worker mandibular gland secretions contribute directly to their cuticular hydrocarbon profile. The mandibular gland secretion composition and cuticular surface compounds of newly emerged worker bees, nurse bees, and foragers were determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry and compared. Both the mandibular gland secretions and the cuticular surface compounds of all worker stages were found to be composed almost exclusively of hydrocarbons. Although the relative proportion of hydrocarbons from the cuticular surface and gland secretion was statistically different, there was a high similarity in the qualitative composition between these structures in all groups of bees.

  17. Tratamento para o combate do forídeo Pseudohypocera kerteszi em Melipona quadrifasciata Lep Treatment against the forid fly Pseudohypocera kerteszi in Melipona quadrifasciata Regional Lep

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    Geraldo Moretto

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O forideo P. kerteszi é uma praga que ataca principalmente as crias de abelhas sociais. As conseqüências do ataque vão desde o enfraquecimento até o extermínio total da colônia de abelhas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a criação de uma metodologia que permita a erradicação deste parasita quando estiver atacando colônias de abelhas melipona. Três colônias de M. quadrifasciata parasitadas com o forídeo foram tratadas com solução de mel de meliponídeos ou vinagre associada ao veneno de mosca oktrine. Um frasco contendo essa solução foi colocado entre o ninho e a lixeira em colmeias do modelo Uberlândia. Uma tela de malha que não permitisse a passagem das abelhas foi colocada entre o ninho e a lixeira. Por um período de três a sete dias foram encontrados forídeos mortos dentro ou próximo à solução.The forid fly P. kerteszi is a pest that mainly attacks the brood of social bees. The consequences of this attack range from weakening to total extermination of bee colonies. The objective of the present study was to develop a methodology that would eradicate this pest when P. kerteszi is parasitizing colonies of Melipona bees. Three M. quadrifasciata colonies parasitized with the forid fly were treated with a solution of meliponid honey or vinegar in combination with the oktrine fly poison. A flask containing this solution was placed between the nest and a garbage tray separated by a mesh net that would permit the passage of forid flies but not of bees. Dead forid flies inside or close to the solution were found daily for a period of three to seven days.

  18. Sex Determination in Bees. IV. Genetic Control of Juvenile Hormone Production in MELIPONA QUADRIFASCIATA (Apidae)

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    Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Akahira, Yukio; Camargo, Conceição A.

    1975-01-01

    Cell number and volume of corpora allata was determined for 8 phases of development, the first prepupal stage to adults 30 days old, in the social Apidae Melipona quadrifasciata. In the second prepupal stage a strong correlation was found between cell number and body weight ( r=0.651**), and cell number and corpora allata volume in prepupal stage (r=0.535*), which indicates that juvenile hormone has a definite role in caste determination in Melipona. The distribution of the volume of corpus allatum suggest a 3:1 segregation between bees with high volume of corpora allata against low and medium volume. This implies that genes xa and xb code for an enzyme that directly participates in juvenile hormone production. It was also concluded that the number of cells in the second prepupal stage is more important than the weight of the prepupa for caste determination. A scheme summarizing the genic control of sex and caste determination in Melipona bees in the prepupal phase is given. PMID:1213273

  19. The antennal sensilla of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini): a study of different sexes and castes

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    Ravaiano, Samira Veiga; Ferreira, Ríudo de Paiva; Campos, Lucio Antonio de Oliveira; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira

    2014-08-01

    The sensilla of insects are integumental units that play a role as sensory structures and are crucial for the perception of stimuli and for communication. In this study, we compared the antennal sensilla of females (workers and queens), males (haploid (n) and diploid (2n)), and queen-like males (QLMs, resulting from 2n males after juvenile hormone (JH) treatment) in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata. Images of the dorsal antenna surfaces were acquired using a scanning electron microscope. As reported for other hymenopterans, this species exhibits a heterogeneous sensillar distribution along the antennae. Thirteen different types of sensilla were found in the antennae of M. quadrifasciata: trichodea (subtypes I to VI), chaetica (subtypes I and II), placodea, basiconica, ampullacea, coeloconica, and coelocapitula. Sensilla trichodea I were the most abundant, followed by sensilla placodea, which might function in olfactory perception. Sensilla basiconica, sensilla chaetica I, sensilla coeloconica, and sensilla ampullacea were found exclusively in females. In terms of the composition and size of the sensilla, the antennae of QLMs most closely resemble those of the 2n male, although QLMs exhibit a queen phenotype. This study represents the first comparative analysis of the antennal sensilla of M. quadrifasciata. The differences found in the type and amount of sensilla between the castes and sexes are discussed based on the presumed sensillary functions.

  20. Ultrastructure of the intramandibular gland of workers and queens of the stingless bee, Melipona quadrifasciata.

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    Da Cruz-Landim, Carminda; Gracioli-Vitti, Luciana F; Abdalla, Fábio C

    2011-01-01

    The intramandibular glands of workers and queens of Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae), at different ages and from different functional groups, were studied using light and transmission electron microscopy. The results demonstrated that these glands are composed of two types of secretory structures: 1.A hypertrophied epidermis on the dorsal side of the mandible that is an epithelial gland. 2. Free secretory cells filling the inner spaces of the appendices that constitute a unicellular gland. The epithelial gland is larger in the young (1-2-day-old workers), and the gland becomes involuted during the nurse worker stage. The unicellular glands of the workers posses some secretion during all of the studied phases, but secretory activity is more intensive in the foraging workers. Vesicles of secretion are absent in the unicellular glands of queens. These results demonstrate that these glands show functional adaptations in different castes corresponding to the functions of each caste.

  1. Morphogenetic Alterations in Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Associated with Pesticides.

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    Prado-Silva, Arlete; Nunes, Lorena Andrade; Dos Santos, Jádilla Mendes; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello; Waldschmidt, Ana Maria

    2018-05-01

    Bees are major pollinators of both native flora and cultured crops. Nonetheless, despite their key functional role in ecosystems and agriculture, bee populations have been affected worldwide by deforestation and contamination by insecticides. Conversely, little is known about the effects of pesticides on morphogenetic development of neotropical stingless bees. We compared the fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in newly emerged bees and foragers of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides exposed to pesticides (experimental greenhouse and cultivated field). In addition, visitation behavior of foragers was inferred from pollen analyses and direct observation. A significant increase of FA (P < 0.001) was detected in bees from the greenhouse. Even though pesticides might affect their development, foragers seem to avoid contaminated plants whenever possible, as confirmed by pollen and visitation analyses. Consequently, the conservation of natural forests in agricultural landscapes is essential to ensure the health of colonies in stingless bees.

  2. Morphometry of the midgut of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Lepeletier) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) during metamorphosis.

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    Cruz, L C; Araújo, V A; Dolder, H; Araújo, A P A; Serrão, J E; Neves, C A

    2011-01-01

    In Hymenoptera, midgut changes begin in the last instar. At this stage, the larval epithelial digestive cells degenerate, leaving only the basal membrane and the regenerative cells which will develop into a new epithelium during the pupal stage and in the adult. Epithelium renewal is followed by changes in volume and shape of the midgut. Morphometric analysis of digestive cells and total midgut volume of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Lepeletier) were conducted to verify whether cell volume increase are sufficient to account for the total midgut volume increase that occurs during metamorphosis. An increase in midgut volume was verified in spite of the scarcity of cell proliferation found during metamorphosis. At the end of metamorphosis, the increase in cell volume was not sufficient to explain the increase in volume of the midgut, indicating that an increase in the number of digestive cells is apparently necessary. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which regenerative cells reconstitute the epithelium during metamorphosis remains unknown.

  3. Size and shape in Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier, 1836 (Hymenoptera; Meliponini).

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    Nunes, L A; Passos, G B; Carvalho, C A L; Araújo, E D

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to identify differences in wing shape among populations of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides obtained in 23 locations in the semi-arid region of Bahia state (Brazil). Analysis of the Procrustes distances among mean wing shapes indicated that population structure did not determine shape variation. Instead, populations were structured geographically according to wing size. The Partial Mantel Test between morphometric (shape and size) distance matrices and altitude, taking geographic distances into account, was used for a more detailed understanding of size and shape determinants. A partial Mantel test between morphometris (shape and size) variation and altitude, taking geographic distances into account, revealed that size (but not shape) is largely influenced by altitude (r = 0.54 p < 0.01). These results indicate greater evolutionary constraints for the shape variation, which must be directly associated with aerodynamic issues in this structure. The size, however, indicates that the bees tend to have larger wings in populations located at higher altitudes.

  4. Colour is more than hue: preferences for compiled colour traits in the stingless bees Melipona mondury and M. quadrifasciata.

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    Koethe, Sebastian; Bossems, Jessica; Dyer, Adrian G; Lunau, Klaus

    2016-10-01

    The colour vision of bees has been extensively analysed in honeybees and bumblebees, but few studies consider the visual perception of stingless bees (Meliponini). In a five-stage experiment the preference for colour intensity and purity, and the preference for the dominant wavelength were tested by presenting four colour stimuli in each test to freely flying experienced workers of two stingless bee species, Melipona mondury and Melipona quadrifasciata. The results with bee-blue, bee-UV-blue and bee-green colours offered in four combinations of varying colour intensity and purity suggest a complex interaction between these colour traits for the determination of colour choice. Specifically, M. mondury preferred bee-UV-blue colours over bee-green, bee-blue and bee-blue-green colours while M. quadrifasciata preferred bee-green colour stimuli. Moreover in M. mondury the preferences were different if the background colour was changed from grey to green. There was a significant difference between species where M. mondury preferred UV-reflecting over UV-absorbing bee-blue-green colour stimuli, whereas M. quadrifasciata showed an opposite preference. The different colour preferences of the free flying bees in identical conditions may be caused by the bees' experience with natural flowers precedent to the choice tests, suggesting reward partitioning between species.

  5. Chemical Composition and Pharmacological Effects of Geopropolis Produced by Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides.

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    Dos Santos, Cintia Miranda; Campos, Jaqueline Ferreira; Dos Santos, Helder Freitas; Balestieri, José Benedito Perrella; Silva, Denise Brentan; de Picoli Souza, Kely; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Estevinho, Leticia M; Dos Santos, Edson Lucas

    2017-01-01

    Stingless bees produce geopropolis, which is popularly described for its medicinal properties, but for which few scientific studies have demonstrated pharmacological effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the chemical composition of the geopropolis of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides and to evaluate its antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. The composition of the hydroethanolic extract of geopropolis (HEG) included di- and trigalloyl and phenylpropanyl heteroside derivatives, flavanones, diterpenes, and triterpenes. HEG showed antioxidant action via the direct capture of free radicals and by inhibiting the levels of oxidative hemolysis and malondialdehyde in human erythrocytes under oxidative stress. HEG also reduced the frequency of gene conversion and the number of mutant colonies of S. cerevisiae . The anti-inflammatory action of HEG was demonstrated by the inhibition of hyaluronidase enzyme activity. In addition, HEG induced cell death in all evaluated gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and yeasts, including clinical isolates with antimicrobial drug resistance. Collectively, these results demonstrate the potential of M. q. anthidioides geopropolis for the prevention and treatment of various diseases related to oxidative stress, mutagenesis, inflammatory processes, and microbial infections.

  6. Biopesticide-induced behavioral and morphological alterations in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Wagner F; Tomé, Hudson Vaner V; Bernardes, Rodrigo C; Siqueira, Maria Augusta L; Smagghe, Guy; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2015-09-01

    Because of their natural origin, biopesticides are assumed to be less harmful to beneficial insects, including bees, and therefore their use has been widely encouraged for crop protection. There is little evidence, however, to support this ingrained notion of biopesticide safety to pollinators. Because larval exposure is still largely unexplored in ecotoxicology and risk assessment on bees, an investigation was performed on the lethal and sublethal effects of a diet treated with 2 bioinsecticides, azadirachtin and spinosad, on the stingless bee, Melipona quadrifasciata, which is one of the most important pollinators in the Neotropics. Survival of stingless bee larvae was significantly compromised at doses above 210 ng a.i./bee for azadirachtin and 114 ng a.i./bee for spinosad. No sublethal effect was observed on larvae developmental time, but doses of both compounds negatively affected pupal body mass. Azadirachtin produced deformed pupae and adults as a result of its insect growth regulator properties, but spinosad was more harmful and produced greater numbers of deformed individuals. Only spinosad compromised walking activity of the adult workers at doses as low as 2.29 ng a.i./bee, which is 1/5000 of the maximum field recommended rate. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that bioinsecticides can pose significant risks to native pollinators with lethal and sublethal effects; future investigations are needed on the likelihood of such effects under field conditions. © 2015 SETAC.

  7. Size and shape in Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier, 1836 (Hymenoptera; Meliponini

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    LA Nunes

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify differences in wing shape among populations of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides obtained in 23 locations in the semi-arid region of Bahia state (Brazil. Analysis of the Procrustes distances among mean wing shapes indicated that population structure did not determine shape variation. Instead, populations were structured geographically according to wing size. The Partial Mantel Test between morphometric (shape and size distance matrices and altitude, taking geographic distances into account, was used for a more detailed understanding of size and shape determinants. A partial Mantel test between morphometris (shape and size variation and altitude, taking geographic distances into account, revealed that size (but not shape is largely influenced by altitude (r = 0.54 p < 0.01. These results indicate greater evolutionary constraints for the shape variation, which must be directly associated with aerodynamic issues in this structure. The size, however, indicates that the bees tend to have larger wings in populations located at higher altitudes.

  8. Factors influencing survival duration and choice of virgin queens in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärcher, Martin H.; Menezes, Cristiano; Alves, Denise A.; Beveridge, Oliver S.; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera-Lucia; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2013-06-01

    In Melipona quadrifasciata, about 10 % of the females develop into queens, almost all of which are killed. Occasionally, a new queen replaces or supersedes the mother queen or heads a new colony. We investigated virgin queen fate in queenright and queenless colonies to determine the effects of queen behaviour, body mass, nestmate or non-nestmate status, queenright or queenless colony status, and, when queenless, the effect of the time a colony had been queenless, on survival duration and acceptance. None of 220 virgin queens observed in four observation hives ever attacked another virgin queen nor did any of 88 virgin queens introduced into queenright colonies ever attack the resident queen. A new queen was only accepted in a queenless colony. Factors increasing survival duration and acceptance of virgin queens were to emerge from its cell at 2 h of queenlessness, to hide, and to avoid fights with workers. In this way, a virgin queen was more likely to be available when a colony chooses a new queen, 24-48 h after resident queen removal. Running, walking or resting, antennating or trophallaxis, played little or no role, as did the factors body mass or nestmate. "Queen choice" took about 2 h during which time other virgin queens were still being killed by workers. During this agitated process, the bees congregated around the new queen. She inflated her abdomen and some of the workers deposited a substance on internal nest surfaces including the glass lid of the observation hive.

  9. Chemical Composition and Pharmacological Effects of Geopropolis Produced by Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides

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    Cintia Miranda dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bees produce geopropolis, which is popularly described for its medicinal properties, but for which few scientific studies have demonstrated pharmacological effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the chemical composition of the geopropolis of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides and to evaluate its antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. The composition of the hydroethanolic extract of geopropolis (HEG included di- and trigalloyl and phenylpropanyl heteroside derivatives, flavanones, diterpenes, and triterpenes. HEG showed antioxidant action via the direct capture of free radicals and by inhibiting the levels of oxidative hemolysis and malondialdehyde in human erythrocytes under oxidative stress. HEG also reduced the frequency of gene conversion and the number of mutant colonies of S. cerevisiae. The anti-inflammatory action of HEG was demonstrated by the inhibition of hyaluronidase enzyme activity. In addition, HEG induced cell death in all evaluated gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and yeasts, including clinical isolates with antimicrobial drug resistance. Collectively, these results demonstrate the potential of M. q. anthidioides geopropolis for the prevention and treatment of various diseases related to oxidative stress, mutagenesis, inflammatory processes, and microbial infections.

  10. Protein content and electrophoretic profile of fat body and ovary extracts from workers of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera, Meliponini

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    Vagner T. Paes de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Workers of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Lepeletier, 1836 develop their ovaries and lay eggs, therefore the production of vitellogenin is expected. In electrophoretic profiles only fat body extracts from nurse workers and ovary extracts from newly-emerged workers show protein with molecular mass similar to vitellogenin. However, an increase in the protein content was detected in forager fat body. This increase was attributed to storage of vitellogenin or other proteins in the previous phase and not discharged into the hemolymph or to an effect of the increased titre of juvenile hormone in this phase of worker life over the fat body functioning.

  11. Interações agressivas em abelhas sem ferrão: Melipona quadrifasciata (Lepeletier invadindo ninho de Scaptotrigona bipunctata (Lepeletier

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    2015-08-01

    Abstract. This record describes the occurrence of conflicts between stingless bees of an active colony of Scaptotrigona bipunctata (Lepeletier and individuals of Melipona quadrifasciata (Lepeletier, and discusses possible hypotheses that motivated the attack. Behaviors were observed in an active colony of S. bipunctata. The active nest guards detained individuals of M. quadrifasciata who invaded the colony. The chances of misidentification of the colony entrance and error in the species possible aggregation were discarded, however, the hypothesis of the real invasion recorded in this study demonstrates a behavioral strategy by M. quadrifasciata suggests that there is an energy savings if successful in looting.

  12. Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Apidae) fat body persists through metamorphosis with a few apoptotic cells and an increased autophagy.

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    Santos, Douglas Elias; Azevedo, Dihego Oliveira; Campos, Lúcio Antônio Oliveira; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2015-03-01

    Fat body, typically comprising trophocytes, provides energy during metamorphosis. The fat body can be renewed once the larval phase is complete or recycled and relocated to form the fat body of the adult insect. This study aims to identify the class of programmed cell death that occurs within the fat body cells during the metamorphosis of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata. Using immunodetection techniques, the fat body of the post-defecating larvae and the white-, pink-, brown-, and black-eyed pupae were tested for cleaved caspase-3 and DNA integrity, followed by ultrastructural analysis and identification of autophagy using RT-PCR for the Atg1 gene. The fat body of M. quadrifasciata showed some apoptotic cells positive for cleaved caspase-3, although without DNA fragmentation. During development, the fat body cells revealed an increased number of mitochondria and free ribosomes, in addition to higher amounts of autophagy Atg1 mRNA, than that of the pupae. The fat body of M. quadrifasciata showed few cells which underwent apoptosis, but there was evidence of increased autophagy at the completion of the larval stage. All together, these data show that some fat body cells persist during metamorphosis in the stingless bee M. quadrifasciata.

  13. Polimorfismo enzimático em populações de Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae Enzymatic polymorphism in Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier populations (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae

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    Davi S. Aidar

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Them aim scope of this study is to characterize the enzymatic polymorphism found in the Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier, 1936 populations from Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo and Espírito Santo, Brazil and its hybrids. Samples from each colony (about 52 were prepared for starch gel electrophoresis in order to investigate the genetic variation of the following enzimes: esterase (EST, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH, malic enzyme (ME, phosphoglucomutase (PGM, superoxide desmutase (SOD, α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (αPGD, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP, hexokinase (HK and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI. The analysis showed that LAP and HK did not show enzymatic activity and EST showed two alleles(est-sand and est-f while all the others were shown to be monomorphic. The allele EST-S showed a frequency of 82,6%.

  14. Pollination of tomatoes by the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata and the honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, S A Bispo; Roselino, A C; Hrncir, M; Bego, L R

    2009-06-30

    The pollination effectiveness of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata and the honey bee Apis mellifera was tested in tomato plots. The experiment was conducted in four greenhouses as well as in an external open plot in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. The tomato plants were exposed to visits by M. quadrifasciata in one greenhouse and to A. mellifera in another; two greenhouses were maintained without bees (controls) and an open field plot was exposed to pollinators in an area where both honey bee and stingless bee colonies are abundant. We counted the number of tomatoes produced in each plot. Two hundred tomatoes from each plot were weighed, their vertical and transversal circumferences were measured, and the seeds were counted. We collected 253 Chrysomelidae, 17 Halictidae, one Paratrigona sp, and one honey bee from the flowers of the tomato plants in the open area. The largest number of fruits (1414 tomatoes), the heaviest and largest tomatoes, and the ones with the most seed were collected from the greenhouse with stingless bees. Fruits cultivated in the greenhouse with honey bees had the same weight and size as those produced in one of the control greenhouses. The stingless bee, M. quadrifasciata, was significantly more efficient than honey bees in pollinating greenhouse tomatoes.

  15. Adaptive behavior of Scotocryptus melitophilus Reitter (Coleoptera, Leiodidae to live with its host Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    José Maurício Dias Bezerra

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Forty six beetles Scotocryptus melitophilus Reitter, 1881 collected in a nest of Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier, 1836 were studied. All beetles were put together in a large petri dish with 14 males, 14 virgin queens and 14 workers of M. quadrifasciata, which was not aggressive towards the S. melitophilus and flew with 3 to 10 beetles attached to them. When groups of 20 workers, 20 males and 20 virgin queens were put separately in three petri dishes, the workers become attractive to beetles after they were seven days old, while the males after the 19 days old. Only one virgin queen five days old attracted one beetle. The anatomic parts of the workers bees more attractive to the beetles when smeared to a filter paper were the head (32%, abdomen (29% and legs (29%. The part of the workers bees that less attracted the beetles was the thorax (10%. 5. melitophilus, both males and females, are able to distinguish caste, sex and age differences of their host M. quadrifasciata, what can increase the adaptive value of the beetles involved in phoretic behavior.

  16. Geographic distribution and spatial differentiation in the color pattern of abdominal stripes of the Neotropical stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Henrique Batalha-Filho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier, 1836, regionally known as "mandaçaia", has been traditionally divided in two distinct subspecies: M. quadrifasciata anthidioides and M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata. The main difference between the subspecies refers to the yellow metasomal stripes which are continuous in M. q. quadrifasciata and discontinuous in M. q. anthidioides. This study investigated the geographic differentiation in the metasomal stripes and characterized the restriction sites in the mtDNA of both chromatic types. Specimens from 198 localities were examined, and the variation observed in the pattern of stripes was grouped into distinct classes. The distribution pattern found in the present work agrees with the previously reported pattern: M. q. quadrifasciata inhabits the southern portion of the distribution, from Misiones, Argentina, southeastern Paraguay and Rio Grande do Sul to southern São Paulo, and M. q. anthidioides ranges from northeastern São Paulo to the northern Diamantina Plateau, Bahia, and westwards to the central portion of the Goiás state. It is documented for the first time the occurrence of two populations with continuous stripes inhabiting disjunct areas in relation to M. q. quadrifasciata - one in northern Minas Gerais and another in northeastern Bahia and Sergipe. The data of RFLP showed two restriction patterns, one present in M. q. quadrifasciata, and another in M. q. anthidioides and in populations with continuous metasomal stripes from northern Minas Gerais and northeastern Bahia and Sergipe. The observed patterns of geographic differentiation of M. quadrifasciata suggests the occurrence of repeated events of geographical isolation, followed by range expansion, that occurred probably during the cycles of climatic changes in the Pleistocene.

  17. Modifications in the oviducts of workers and queens of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae) with different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrão, José Eduardo; Naves, Amanda Paula; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2011-10-01

    The study of morphological features of highly eusocial bees has helped to answer a series of questions concerning their biology. The labor division places the females into two castes, queen with reproductive function and worker with a wide variety of tasks. However, in different species and under different conditions, workers can develop ovaries and lay trophic eggs that are eaten by the queen or used to originate males. In this work, the development of the oviducts was monitored in workers and virgin queens of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides specimens of different ages to verify whether there is permanent sterility of these queens and workers due to aging. Lateral and common oviducts of virgin queens aged <7, 10, 15, 20, and 25 days old, physogastric queens, nurse, and forager workers were analyzed for histology and ultrastructure. Although the structural organization of the lateral and common oviducts were very similar, differences in width of the cuticle and the degree of chromatin condensation were observed, indicating differences in the development of this organ of the reproductive system between the castes. It was also demonstrated that electron-lucent vesicles appear to be related to the formation of the cuticle that lines the oviducts. Because no cellular death characteristics were found, it can be inferred that the absence of mating of the queens as old as of 25 days of age does not cause permanent sterility.

  18. Cytochemistry of fat body trophocytes and ovaries of workers and queens of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) during vitellogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes-de-Oliveira, Vagner Tadeu; Roat, Thaisa Cristina; Berger, Bruno; Da Cruz-Landim, Carminda

    2012-12-01

    The fat body (FB) of insects is where yolk proteins are synthesized. Therefore, relationships between the FB and oogenesis were studied in nurse workers, virgins, and physogastric queens of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides, a stingless bee in which the workers produce and lay eggs while provisioning brood cells. The relationships between FB and oogenesis, as well as the routes of materials from hemolymph to the oocytes, were studied through the cytochemical detection of lipids by osmium imidazole (OI), carbohydrates by ruthenium red (RR) and basic proteins by ammoniacal silver (AS). The results show differences in the presence of the studied materials in FB trophocytes and ovary of the classes of females studied and oogenesis phases. Material that tested positive for the treatments was detected among the classes of individuals studied in both, trophocytes and oocytes, and in the route of those materials from hemolymph to the oocytes. The differences found among the individual classes indicate relationships with the nutrition and adaptation to the parsimonious use of nutrients in the metabolism of reproduction. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, and Toxic Activities of Propolis from Two Native Bees in Brazil: Scaptotrigona depilis and Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides

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    Thaliny Bonamigo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a natural mixture of compounds produced by various bee species, including stingless bees. This compound has been shown to exhibit antioxidant, antiproliferative, and antitumor activities. The present study aimed to determine the chemical constituents as well as the antioxidant, cytotoxic, and toxic activities of ethanol extracts of propolis obtained from the stingless bees Scaptotrigona depilis and Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides, which are found in Brazil. Phytosterols, terpenes, phenolic compounds, and tocopherol were identified in the ethanol extracts of propolis (EEPs in different concentrations. The compounds stigmasterol, taraxasterol, vanilic acid, caffeic acid, quercetin, luteolin, and apigenin were found only in EEP-M. The EEPs were able to scavenge the free radicals 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and protected human erythrocytes against lipid peroxidation, with the latter effect being demonstrated by their antihemolytic activity and inhibition of malondialdehyde formation. The EEPs showed cytotoxic activity against erythroleukemic cells and necrosis was the main mechanism of death observed. In addition, the concentrations at which the EEPs were cytotoxic were not toxic against Caenorhabditis elegans. In this context, it is concluded that EEP-S and EEP-M show antioxidant and cytotoxic activities and are promising bioactive mixtures for the control of diseases associated with oxidative stress and tumor cell proliferation.

  20. Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, and Toxic Activities of Propolis from Two Native Bees in Brazil: Scaptotrigona depilis and Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamigo, Thaliny; Campos, Jaqueline Ferreira; Alfredo, Tamaeh Monteiro; Balestieri, José Benedito Perrella; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; de Picoli Souza, Kely; Dos Santos, Edson Lucas

    2017-01-01

    Propolis is a natural mixture of compounds produced by various bee species, including stingless bees. This compound has been shown to exhibit antioxidant, antiproliferative, and antitumor activities. The present study aimed to determine the chemical constituents as well as the antioxidant, cytotoxic, and toxic activities of ethanol extracts of propolis obtained from the stingless bees Scaptotrigona depilis and Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides , which are found in Brazil. Phytosterols, terpenes, phenolic compounds, and tocopherol were identified in the ethanol extracts of propolis (EEPs) in different concentrations. The compounds stigmasterol, taraxasterol, vanilic acid, caffeic acid, quercetin, luteolin, and apigenin were found only in EEP-M. The EEPs were able to scavenge the free radicals 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and protected human erythrocytes against lipid peroxidation, with the latter effect being demonstrated by their antihemolytic activity and inhibition of malondialdehyde formation. The EEPs showed cytotoxic activity against erythroleukemic cells and necrosis was the main mechanism of death observed. In addition, the concentrations at which the EEPs were cytotoxic were not toxic against Caenorhabditis elegans . In this context, it is concluded that EEP-S and EEP-M show antioxidant and cytotoxic activities and are promising bioactive mixtures for the control of diseases associated with oxidative stress and tumor cell proliferation.

  1. Imidacloprid-induced impairment of mushroom bodies and behavior of the native stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé, Hudson Vaner V; Martins, Gustavo F; Lima, Maria Augusta P; Campos, Lúcio Antonio O; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2012-01-01

    Declines in pollinator colonies represent a worldwide concern. The widespread use of agricultural pesticides is recognized as a potential cause of these declines. Previous studies have examined the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides such as imidacloprid on pollinator colonies, but these investigations have mainly focused on adult honey bees. Native stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponinae) are key pollinators in neotropical areas and are threatened with extinction due to deforestation and pesticide use. Few studies have directly investigated the effects of pesticides on these pollinators. Furthermore, the existing impact studies did not address the issue of larval ingestion of contaminated pollen and nectar, which could potentially have dire consequences for the colony. Here, we assessed the effects of imidacloprid ingestion by stingless bee larvae on their survival, development, neuromorphology and adult walking behavior. Increasing doses of imidacloprid were added to the diet provided to individual worker larvae of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides throughout their development. Survival rates above 50% were only observed at insecticide doses lower than 0.0056 µg active ingredient (a.i.)/bee. No sublethal effect on body mass or developmental time was observed in the surviving insects, but the pesticide treatment negatively affected the development of mushroom bodies in the brain and impaired the walking behavior of newly emerged adult workers. Therefore, stingless bee larvae are particularly susceptible to imidacloprid, as it caused both high mortality and sublethal effects that impaired brain development and compromised mobility at the young adult stage. These findings demonstrate the lethal effects of imidacloprid on native stingless bees and provide evidence of novel serious sublethal effects that may compromise colony survival. The ecological and economic importance of neotropical stingless bees as pollinators, their

  2. Imidacloprid-induced impairment of mushroom bodies and behavior of the native stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides.

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    Hudson Vaner V Tomé

    Full Text Available Declines in pollinator colonies represent a worldwide concern. The widespread use of agricultural pesticides is recognized as a potential cause of these declines. Previous studies have examined the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides such as imidacloprid on pollinator colonies, but these investigations have mainly focused on adult honey bees. Native stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponinae are key pollinators in neotropical areas and are threatened with extinction due to deforestation and pesticide use. Few studies have directly investigated the effects of pesticides on these pollinators. Furthermore, the existing impact studies did not address the issue of larval ingestion of contaminated pollen and nectar, which could potentially have dire consequences for the colony. Here, we assessed the effects of imidacloprid ingestion by stingless bee larvae on their survival, development, neuromorphology and adult walking behavior. Increasing doses of imidacloprid were added to the diet provided to individual worker larvae of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides throughout their development. Survival rates above 50% were only observed at insecticide doses lower than 0.0056 µg active ingredient (a.i./bee. No sublethal effect on body mass or developmental time was observed in the surviving insects, but the pesticide treatment negatively affected the development of mushroom bodies in the brain and impaired the walking behavior of newly emerged adult workers. Therefore, stingless bee larvae are particularly susceptible to imidacloprid, as it caused both high mortality and sublethal effects that impaired brain development and compromised mobility at the young adult stage. These findings demonstrate the lethal effects of imidacloprid on native stingless bees and provide evidence of novel serious sublethal effects that may compromise colony survival. The ecological and economic importance of neotropical stingless bees as pollinators

  3. Imidacloprid-Induced Impairment of Mushroom Bodies and Behavior of the Native Stingless Bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé, Hudson Vaner V.; Martins, Gustavo F.; Lima, Maria Augusta P.; Campos, Lúcio Antonio O.; Guedes, Raul Narciso C.

    2012-01-01

    Declines in pollinator colonies represent a worldwide concern. The widespread use of agricultural pesticides is recognized as a potential cause of these declines. Previous studies have examined the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides such as imidacloprid on pollinator colonies, but these investigations have mainly focused on adult honey bees. Native stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponinae) are key pollinators in neotropical areas and are threatened with extinction due to deforestation and pesticide use. Few studies have directly investigated the effects of pesticides on these pollinators. Furthermore, the existing impact studies did not address the issue of larval ingestion of contaminated pollen and nectar, which could potentially have dire consequences for the colony. Here, we assessed the effects of imidacloprid ingestion by stingless bee larvae on their survival, development, neuromorphology and adult walking behavior. Increasing doses of imidacloprid were added to the diet provided to individual worker larvae of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides throughout their development. Survival rates above 50% were only observed at insecticide doses lower than 0.0056 µg active ingredient (a.i.)/bee. No sublethal effect on body mass or developmental time was observed in the surviving insects, but the pesticide treatment negatively affected the development of mushroom bodies in the brain and impaired the walking behavior of newly emerged adult workers. Therefore, stingless bee larvae are particularly susceptible to imidacloprid, as it caused both high mortality and sublethal effects that impaired brain development and compromised mobility at the young adult stage. These findings demonstrate the lethal effects of imidacloprid on native stingless bees and provide evidence of novel serious sublethal effects that may compromise colony survival. The ecological and economic importance of neotropical stingless bees as pollinators, their

  4. Digestive and regenerative cells in the midgut of haploid and diploid males of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Kenner M. Fernandes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In eusocial bees, workers and queens are diploid (2n, whereas males are haploid (n. However, in some species, including the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier, 1836, 2n males arise from fertilized eggs resulting from the crossing between a queen and her brother. In the present study, we provide a comparative analysis of the digestive and regenerative cells in n and 2n pupae and adult males of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides. In n and 2n pupae and adult males, the number of regenerative cells/nest was similar. In n and 2n pupae, the mean number of digestive cells/midgut area was 2076 ± 0.60, whereas in adults it was 1234 ± 1.42 digestive cells/midgut area. The nuclear area of the digestive cells was also similar in both n and 2n adult males (~154 µm² and smaller in pupae (~91 µm²; this variation might be a result of DNA amplification in digestive cells during bee development. The results from our current study provide further understanding of the morphological and physiological aspects of the digestive tract of bees and show that the ploidy difference between n and 2n male stages does not affect the number of digestive and regenerative cells in the midgut of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides.

  5. Ultrastructure of the midgut endocrine cells in Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    C. A. Neves

    Full Text Available In this study we describe the ultrastructure of the endocrine cells observed in the midgut of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides. This bee has two types of endocrine cells, which are numerous on the posterior midgut region. Cells of the closed type are smaller and have irregular secretory granules with lower electrondensity than those of the open cell type. The open cell type has elongated mitochondria mainly on the basal area, where most of the secretory granules are also found. Besides the secretion granules and mitochondria, endocrine cells in this species have well-developed autophagic vacuoles and Golgi complex elements.

  6. Odor information transfer in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata: effect of in-hive experiences on classical conditioning of proboscis extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Cabe, Sofía I; Farina, Walter M

    2009-02-01

    A recent study showed that the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata could learn to discriminate odors in a classical conditioning of proboscis extension response (PER). Here we used this protocol to investigate the ability of these bees to use olfactory information obtained within the colony in an experimental context: the PER paradigm. We compared their success in solving a classical differential conditioning depending on the previous olfactory experiences received inside the nest. We found that M. quadrifasciata bees are capable of transferring the food-odor information acquired in the colony to a differential conditioning in the PER paradigm. Bees attained higher discrimination levels when they had previously encountered the rewarded odor associated to food inside the hive. The increase in the discrimination levels, however, was in some cases unspecific to the odor used indicating a certain degree of generalization. The influence of the food scent offered at a field feeder 24 h before the classical conditioning could also be seen in the discrimination attained by the foragers in the PER setup, detecting the presence of long-term memory. Moreover, the improved performance of recruited bees in the PER paradigm suggests the occurrence of social learning of nectar scents inside the stingless bees' hives.

  7. Effects of treatment of the fat body trophocytes of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides nurse workers and virgin queens in culture by juvenile hormone III and ecdysterone (20-HE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes-De-Oliveira, Vagner Tadeu; Berger, Bruno; Poiani, Silvana Beani; Paulino Simões, Zilá Luz; Da Cruz-Landim, Carminda

    2013-01-01

    The fat body (FB) consists of two types of cells: throphocytes and oenocytes. Throphocytes are related to intermediary metabolism storing lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins while oenocytes play role in the lipids and lipoproteins production. The vitellogenin is the precursor of egg yolk (vitelline) and is synthesized on FB. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of hormones acting in bee reproduction, as juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdisteroids (20 HE) on FB cells, where vitellogenin is synthesized. For the study were chose nurse workers that in Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides present activated ovaries and produce eggs, and virgin queens whose ovaries are not yet activated, presenting only previtellogenic follicles. FB trophocytes from these classes of bees were cultivated in media containing different amounts of JH and 20-HE. The effects on trophocytes cytoplasm reserves of lipids, proteins, and activity of acid phosphatase were compared by observing preparations from cultured FB, treated and control, by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the hormones effects are related to the bee's caste and functional ovary stage. The role of acid phosphatase on mobilization of the trophocyte reserves was also determined. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Transcript levels of ten caste-related genes in adult diploid males of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae: a comparison with haploid males, queens and workers

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    Andreia A. Borges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Hymenoptera, homozygosity at the sex locus results in the production of diploid males. In social species, these pose a double burden by having low fitness and drawing resources normally spent for increasing the work force of a colony. Yet, diploid males are of academic interest as they can elucidate effects of ploidy (normal males are haploid, whereas the female castes, the queens and workers, are diploid on morphology and life history. Herein we investigated expression levels of ten caste-related genes in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, comparing newly emerged and 5-day-old diploid males with haploid males, queens and workers. In diploid males, transcript levels for dunce and paramyosin were increased during the first five days of adult life, while those for diacylglycerol kinase and the transcriptional co-repressor groucho diminished. Two general trends were apparent, (i gene expression patterns in diploid males were overall more similar to haploid ones and workers than to queens, and (ii in queens and workers, more genes were up-regulated after emergence until day five, whereas in diploid and especially so in haploid males more genes were down-regulated. This difference between the sexes may be related to longevity, which is much longer in females than in males.

  9. Transcript levels of ten caste-related genes in adult diploid males of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae) - A comparison with haploid males, queens and workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Andreia A; Humann, Fernanda C; Oliveira Campos, Lucio A; Tavares, Mara G; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2011-10-01

    In Hymenoptera, homozygosity at the sex locus results in the production of diploid males. In social species, these pose a double burden by having low fitness and drawing resources normally spent for increasing the work force of a colony. Yet, diploid males are of academic interest as they can elucidate effects of ploidy (normal males are haploid, whereas the female castes, the queens and workers, are diploid) on morphology and life history. Herein we investigated expression levels of ten caste-related genes in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, comparing newly emerged and 5-day-old diploid males with haploid males, queens and workers. In diploid males, transcript levels for dunce and paramyosin were increased during the first five days of adult life, while those for diacylglycerol kinase and the transcriptional co-repressor groucho diminished. Two general trends were apparent, (i) gene expression patterns in diploid males were overall more similar to haploid ones and workers than to queens, and (ii) in queens and workers, more genes were up-regulated after emergence until day five, whereas in diploid and especially so in haploid males more genes were down-regulated. This difference between the sexes may be related to longevity, which is much longer in females than in males.

  10. CORRELAÇÃO ENTRE PARÂMETROS BIOMÉTRICOS E PRODUTIVOS EM COLÔNIAS DE Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides LEPELETIER (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE

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    Patricia Faquinello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In meliponini colonies, biometric characteristics may be associated with production traits, thus the study of correlations is extremely useful as a tool for colony selection process. The aim of this study was to estimate the correlations between biometric and productive parameters of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides. We analyzed 128 colonies, from 60 parental and two generations, F1 and F2. The following parameters were evaluated: queen and colony weight; number, length and width of brood disks; number, width, depth and volume of honey pots; number, width and depth of pollen pots; glossa size, and estimate of the population and honey production. The queen weight was correlated with the number of brood disks (0.23 and population (0.23, as well as the characteristic number of pollen pots is related to the length and width of brood disks and population (0.88, 0.54 and 0.52, respectively. The characteristic honey production is related to the number (0.93, width (0.50 and volume (0.47 of honey pots. The results showed that honey production is directly correlated with number, volume, width and depth of honey pots. On the other side, the population size was correlated with the number of brood disks and pollen pots.

  11. DNA characterization and karyotypic evolution in the bee genus Melipona (Hymenoptera, Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Marla Piumbini; Pompolo, Silvia Das Graças; Dergam, Jorge Abdala; Fernandes, Anderson; Campos, Lucio Antonio De Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed patterns of heterochromatic bands in the Neotropical stingless bee genus Melipona (Hymenoptera, Meliponini). Group I species (Melipona bicolor bicolor, Melipona quadrifasciata, Melipona asilvae, Melipona marginata, Melipona subnitida) were characterized by low heterochromatic content. Group II species (Melipona capixaba, Melipona compressipes, Melipona crinita, Melipona seminigra fuscopilosa e Melipona scutellaris) had high heterochromatic content. All species had 2n = 18 and n = 9. In species of Group I heterochromatin was pericentromeric and located on the short arm of acrocentric chromosomes, while in Group II species heterochromatin was distributed along most of the chromosome length. The most effective sequential staining was quinacrine mustard (QM)/distamycin (DA)/chromomycin A3(CMA3)/4-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Heterochromatic and euchromatic bands varied extensively within Group I. In Group II species euchromatin was restricted to the chromosome tips and it was uniformly GC+. Patterns of restriction enzymes (EcoRI, DraI, HindIII) showed that heterochromatin was heterogeneous. In all species the first pair of homologues was of unequal size and showed heteromorphism of a GC+ pericentromeric heterochromatin. In M. asilvae (Group I) this pair bore NOR and in M. compressipes (Group II) it hybridized with a rDNA FISH probe. As for Group I species the second pair was AT+ in M. subnitida and neutral for AT and GC in the remaining species of this group. Outgroup comparison indicates that high levels of heterochromatin represent a derived condition within Melipona. The pattern of karyotypic evolution sets Melipona in an isolated position within the Meliponini.

  12. Parâmetros genéticos para características produtivas e biométricas em abelha Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides LEPELETIER

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    K.N. Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estimar componentes de variância genética aditiva, fenotípica e residual e a herdabilidade para características relacionadas com a produção de mel e com a estrutura do ninho de abelhas Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides. Sessenta colônias de diferentes regiões da Bahia foram transladadas para caixas padronizadas modelo INPA e divididas, originando as gerações parentais G1 e G2. Foram medidas as características: estimativa da produção de mel; número, largura, volume e altura dos potes de mel; número, altura e diâmetro dos potes de pólen; peso; número, largura e diâmetro dos discos de cria e estimativa da população da colônia. As medidas foram corrigidas para o efeito fixo de mês de mensuração. Os componentes de variância e herdabilidade foram estimados por meio do método de semelhança entre parentes, utilizando-se abordagem Bayesiana. As médias e os desvios padrão variaram de 2,01±0,70cm para diâmetro de potes de pólen a 2.333,0±384,1kg para o peso das caixas. Houve indicação de convergência para todas as cadeias obtidas. As estimativas de variância genética aditiva variaram de 0,02cm para as características largura dos potes de mel a 38.587,72kg para o peso. Para as estimativas de variâncias fenotípicas, os valores variaram de 0,05 para a altura dos potes de pólen a 95.136,43kg para o peso; e para as variâncias residuais, os valores encontrados variaram de 0,02 para a variável largura dos potes de mel a 56.548,71kg para o peso. As estimativas de herdabilidade variaram de 0,35 a 0,53. Os resultados demonstraram que as características avaliadas possuem variação genética aditiva que garante boa resposta à seleção.

  13. On the identity of Melipona torrida Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Gabriel A. R.

    2013-01-01

    On the identity of Melipona torrida Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Melipona marginata var. torrida Friese, 1916, described from three workers putatively collected in Costa Rica, never had its identity properly recognized. Since its original description, no additional specimens have ever been collected in Costa Rica. It is argued here that Melipona torrida was based on mislabeled specimens and corresponds to Melipona marginata obscurior Moure, 1971, a form known only from southern Brazil, Argen...

  14. Transferability of microsatellite primers developed for stingless bees to four other species of the genus Melipona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, M V C; Miranda, E A; de Francisco, A K; Carvalho, C A L; Waldschmidt, A M

    2011-11-22

    Microsatellite markers are a useful tool for ecological monitoring of natural and managed populations. A technical limitation is the necessity for investment in the development of primers. Heterologous primers can provide an alternative to searching for new loci. In bees, these markers have been used in populational and intracolonial genetic analyses. The genus Melipona has the largest number of species among bee genera, about 70, occurring throughout the Neotropical region. However, only five species of the genus Melipona have specific microsatellite markers. Given the great diversity of this genus, this number is not representative. We analyzed the transferability of 49 microsatellite loci to four other species of the genus Melipona (M. scutellaris, M. mondury, M. mandacaia, and M. quadrifasciata). Four individuals of each species, from different localities, were used in amplification tests. Primer pairs described for five Melipona species and for Trigona carbonaria were tested. Among the 49 loci, 22 gave amplification products for all four species, while three gave nonspecific bands and five showed no amplification products. The remaining loci varied in the pattern of amplification, according to the species examined. The number of alleles ranged from 1 to 6. The results demonstrate the possibility of using these heterologous markers in other Melipona species, increasing the number of loci that can be analyzed and contributing to further genetic analyses of intra- and intercolonial structure, which is required for conservation measure planning, genetic improvement and resolution of taxonomic problems.

  15. Microsatellite loci for the stingless bee Melipona rufiventris (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Denilce Meneses; D Silva, Filipe Oliveira; Fernandes Salomão, Tânia Maria; Campos, Lúcio Antônio D Oliveira; Tavares, Mara Garcia

    2009-05-01

    Eight microsatellite primers were developed from ISSR (intersimple sequence repeats) markers for the stingless bee Melipona rufiventris. These primers were tested in 20 M. rufiventris workers, representing a single population from Minas Gerais state. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 5 (mean = 2.63) and the observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.00 to 0.44 (mean = 0.20) and from 0.05 to 0.68 (mean = 0.31), respectively. Several loci were also polymorphic in M. quadrifasciata, M. bicolor, M. mandacaia and Partamona helleri and should prove useful in population studies of other stingless bees. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. On the identity of Melipona torrida Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Gabriel A. R. Melo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available On the identity of Melipona torrida Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Melipona marginata var. torrida Friese, 1916, described from three workers putatively collected in Costa Rica, never had its identity properly recognized. Since its original description, no additional specimens have ever been collected in Costa Rica. It is argued here that Melipona torrida was based on mislabeled specimens and corresponds to Melipona marginata obscurior Moure, 1971, a form known only from southern Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. A lectotype is designated for Melipona torrida and notes on the type material of Melipona marginata obscurior are provided. Other known examples of species described from mislabeled specimens in Friese's Zur Bienenfauna von Costa Rica are discussed. It is pointed out that additional names proposed in this work, based on material from Costa Rica, might turn out to correspond to South American taxa. Also, the date of publication of this Friese's paper is discussed.

  17. Tragedy of the commons in Melipona bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenseleers, Tom; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2004-01-01

    In human society selfish use of common resources can lead to disaster, a situation known as the 'tragedy of the commons' (TOC). Although a TOC is usually prevented by coercion, theory predicts that close kinship ties can also favour reduced exploitation. We test this prediction using data on a TOC occurring in Melipona bee societies. PMID:15504003

  18. Tragedy of the commons in Melipona bees

    OpenAIRE

    Wenseleers, Tom; Ratnieks, Francis L.W.

    2004-01-01

    In human society selfish use of common resources can lead to disaster, a situation known as the 'tragedy of the commons' (TOC). Although a TOC is usually prevented by coercion, theory predicts that close kinship ties can also favour reduced exploitation. We test this prediction using data on a TOC occurring in Melipona bee societies.

  19. Antibacterial action of geopropolis of Melipona quadrifaciata in cultivation of secretion of otitis in dogs

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    Raísa Dias C

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of the present paper was to test the in vitro antibacterial activity of the Mandaçaia (Melipona quadrifaciata bee’s geopropolis. Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out with secretion samples collected from animals with ear diseases evaluated at Unifeso’s Clinic School of Veterinary Medicine, where in vitro tests took place, antibiograns with alcoholic extract of geopropolis were made 10 test tubes (two tubes for each concentration of 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%. Results. Were not identified microorganisms at concentrations of 70, 80 and 90%. Conclusions. The geopropolis of Melipona quadrifasciata showed antibacterial activity in vitro against microorganisms from ear secretion of dogs with otitis externa.

  20. Honey physicochemical properties of three species of the brazilian Melipona

    OpenAIRE

    Lage, Lorena G.A.; Coelho, Lívia L.; Resende, Helder C.; Tavares, Mara G.; Campos, Lucio A.O.; Fernandes-Salomão, Tânia M.

    2012-01-01

    Physicochemical analyses were carried out to evaluate 27 samples of honeys from three species of the Brazilian genus Melipona (M. capixaba, M. rufiventris and M. mondury) from Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais States. The parameters water activity (Aw), percentage of soluble solids (Brix %), pH, acidity (meq/Kg) and moisture (%) were evaluated. The honey characteristics obtained from these samples were very similar to the ones from other Melipona species. However, regarding the honey from Apis ...

  1. Physicochemical parameters of Amazon Melipona honey

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    Ligia Bicudo de Almeida-Muradian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bees produce a honey that is different from the Apis honey in terms of composition. There aren't enough data to establish quality control parameters for this product, mainly due to lack of research results. The aim of this work is to evaluate some physicochemical parameters that can be used for the characterization and for the quality control of the Meliponinae honey. Four different samples were collected in the Amazon region of Brazil in 2004 (Melipona compressipes manaoense bee and Melipona seminigra merribae bee. Honey analyses were performed as described by the official methods. The mean results were: moisture (30.13%, pH (3.65, acidity (24.57 mEq/kg, water activity (0.75, fructose (31.91%, glucose (29.30% and sucrose (0.19%. These results reinforce the need for a specific regulation for stingless bee honey. This will only be feasible when enough data is available to establish upper and lower limits for the physicochemical parameters used for quality control.

  2. Chemical changes associated with the invasion of a Melipona scutellaris colony by Melipona rufiventris workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianaro, Adriana; Flach, Adriana; Patricio, Eda F L R A; Nogueira-Neto, Paulo; Marsaioli, Anita J

    2007-05-01

    Wax constituents produced by worker bees and the chemistry of the nest batumen (mixture of wax, mud, and floral materials) in a Melipona scutellaris colony changed when it was invaded by Melipona rufiventris workers. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses showed that after invasion, the M. scutellaris workers of the invaded colony produced waxes with higher relative abundance of triacontanyl acetate and decreased the amounts of n-alkanes and n-9-alkenes. On the other hand, waxes from M. rufiventris workers displayed few changes. The change in the composition of the M. scutellaris waxes chemically differentiates that species from the M. rufiventris invader workers. Comparative analyses of batumens samples from pure and invaded colonies revealed greater amounts of terpenes and phenolic derivatives in the batumen from the invaded colony. This is the first report on the chemical characterization of batumens from stingless bees.

  3. Longitudinal Differentiation In Melipona Mandacaia (hymenoptera, Meliponini) Chromosomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, M P; Cruz, M P; Fernandes, A; Waldschmidt, A M; Silva-Júnior, J C; Pompolo, S G

    2003-01-01

    Melipona manducaia is a stingless bee endemic to northeast Brasil. We describe the M. mandacaia karyotype using C-banding technique, fluorochrome staining and treatment with restriction enzymes and discuss the position of this species in the context of the phylogeny of the genus. Melipona monducaia has 2n = 18 (14 SM + 2 M + 2 A). Heterochromatin was detected in the pericentromeric region of pairs 1, 2 and 8 and in the form of small blocks in the remaining pairs. Staining with base-specific f...

  4. Honey physicochemical properties of three species of the brazilian Melipona

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    Lorena G.A. Lage

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical analyses were carried out to evaluate 27 samples of honeys from three species of the Brazilian genus Melipona (M. capixaba, M. rufiventris and M. mondury from Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais States. The parameters water activity (Aw, percentage of soluble solids (Brix %, pH, acidity (meq/Kg and moisture (% were evaluated. The honey characteristics obtained from these samples were very similar to the ones from other Melipona species. However, regarding the honey from Apis (honey bee, only the pH values were similar. The low pH value and the high acidity detected in Melipona honey are potential factors for increasing the honey shelf life because they do not provide favorable conditions for the microbial development. On the other hand, the high level of water activity favors the growth of microorganisms, especially yeast, which demands a more careful handled and storage. The observed differences between Melipona and Apis honey reinforce the need for specific quality settings for stingless bee honey.Análises fisico-quimicas foram realizadas para avaliar vinte e sete amostras de mel de três espécies do gênero Melipona (M. capixaba, M. rufiventris e M. mondury coletadas nos Estados do Espírito Santo e de Minas Gerais. Os parâmetros atividade de água (aW, porcentagem de sólidos solúveis (Brix %, pH, acidez (meq.Kg-1 e umidade (% foram avaliados. As características do mel dessas amostras foram muito similares às do mel de outras espécies de Melipona. Entretanto, para o mel de Apis apenas os valores de pH foram similares. O baixo valor de pH e a elevada acidez detectados no mel de Melipona são fatores potenciais para uma maior vida útil do mesmo por não oferecerem condições favoráveis ao desenvolvimento microbiano. Por outro lado, o alto teor de atividade de água favorece o crescimento de microrganismos, especialmente de leveduras o que requer maior cuidado no manuseio e armazenamento do mel. As diferenças observadas

  5. Honey physicochemical properties of three species of the Brazilian Melipona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Lorena G A; Coelho, Lívia L; Resende, Helder C; Tavares, Mara G; Campos, Lucio A O; Fernandes-Salomão, Tânia M

    2012-09-01

    Physicochemical analyses were carried out to evaluate 27 samples of honeys from three species of the Brazilian genus Melipona (M. capixaba, M. rufiventris and M. mondury) from Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais States. The parameters water activity (Aw), percentage of soluble solids (Brix %), pH, acidity (meq/Kg) and moisture (%) were evaluated. The honey characteristics obtained from these samples were very similar to the ones from other Melipona species. However, regarding the honey from Apis (honey bee), only the pH values were similar. The low pH value and the high acidity detected in Melipona honey are potential factors for increasing the honey shelf life because they do not provide favorable conditions for the microbial development. On the other hand, the high level of water activity favors the growth of microorganisms, especially yeast, which demands a more careful handled and storage. The observed differences between Melipona and Apis honey reinforce the need for specific quality settings for stingless bee honey.

  6. Longitudinal differentiation in Melipona mandacaia (Hymenoptera, Meliponini) chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, M P; Cruz, M P; Fernandes, A; Waldschmidt, A M; Silva-Júnior, J C; Pompolo, S G

    2003-01-01

    Melipona mandacaia is a stingless bee endemic to northeast Brasil. We describe the M. mandacaia karyotype using C-banding technique. fluorochrome staining and treatment with restriction enzymes and discuss the position of this species in the context of the phylogeny of the genus. Melipona mandacaia has 2n = 18 (14 SM + 2 M + 2 A). Heterochromatin was detected in the pericentromeric region of pairs 1, 2 and 8 and in the form of small blocks in the remaining pairs. Staining with base-specific fluorochromes showed that this heterochromatin was rich AT (QM and DAPI), except in the region corresponding to the NOR which was rich GC (CMA3) and was cleaved by the HaeIII enzyme. Melipona mandacaia is a member of Group I Melipona. Treatment with DraI/Giemsa discloses a larger number of bands than treatment with DraI/QM. Pre-cleavage with DraI gave rise to a larger number of bands following QM staining; a circumstance evidently due to a removal of the DNA-protein complex that prevented the association of the fluorochrome with AT-rich DNA. The results highlight the complex nature of heterochromatin.

  7. Antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of stingless bee Melipona scutellaris geopropolis

    OpenAIRE

    da Cunha, Marcos Guilherme; Franchin, Marcelo; Galv?o, L?viaC?maradeCarvalho; de Ruiz, AnaL?ciaTascaG?is; de Carvalho, Jo?o Ernesto; Ikegaki, Masarahu; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Koo, Hyun; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Geopropolis is a type of propolis containing resin, wax, and soil, collected by threatened stingless bee species native to tropical countries and used in folk medicine. However, studies concerning the biological activity and chemical composition of geopropolis are scarce. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial and antiproliferative activity of the ethanolic extract of geopropolis (EEGP) collected by Melipona sc...

  8. Evidence of hybridization between two species of Melipona bees

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    Nascimento Vania Alves

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a case of hybridization between two species of Meliponinae bees (Melipona scutellaris from the Diamantina plateau in the State of Bahia, and Melipona capixaba from around Domingos Martins, in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. To demonstrate hybridization, electrophoretic profiles of esterase activity from three colonies were studied. Ten adult workers of M. scutellaris, M. capixaba and the hybrid colony were collected and processed individually. The pattern of esterase activity was constant for each species but differed between them, whereas hybrid bees had a pattern derived from both species. The fact that two ecologically different species of stingless bees separated by more than 300 km could still cross when placed in the same area suggests that there has not been any pressure to develop reproductive isolation.

  9. Diploid Male Production of Two Amazonian Melipona Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Izaura Bezerra Francini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The diploid male has already been recorded for Melipona Illger, and herein, in Melipona seminigra merrillae Cockerell and Melipona interrupta manaosensis Schwarz. This paper was carried out at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, AM, Brazil. We produced and monitored 31 new colonies of M. s. merrillae and 32 new colonies of M. i. manaosensis. We sampled 2,995 pupae of M. s. merrillae and 2,020 of M. i. manaosensis. In colonies with a 1 : 1 sex ratio, male diploidy was confirmed by cytogenetic analysis and workers’ behavior. We estimated 16 sex-determining alleles in M. s. merrillae and 22 in M. i. manaosensis. In colonies of M. i. manaosensis in a 1 : 1 sex ratio, workers killed the males and the queen that produced them soon after they emerged, as predicted. This behavior was not registered for M. s. merrillae, and sex ratios did not stay 1 : 1, indicating polyandry for this species.

  10. Preliminary Characterization of Mitochondrial Genome of Melipona scutellaris, a Brazilian Stingless Bee

    OpenAIRE

    Silverio, Manuella Souza; Rodovalho, Vinícius de Rezende; Bonetti, Ana Maria; de Oliveira, Guilherme Corrêa; Cuadros-Orellana, Sara; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos; Rodrigues dos Santos, Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Bees are manufacturers of relevant economical products and have a pollinator role fundamental to ecosystems. Traditionally, studies focused on the genus Melipona have been mostly based on behavioral, and social organization and ecological aspects. Only recently the evolutionary history of this genus has been assessed using molecular markers, including mitochondrial genes. Even though these studies have shed light on the evolutionary history of the Melipona genus, a more accurate picture may e...

  11. Diferenciação genética entre Melipona mondury, Smith 1863, Melipona rufiventris, Lepeletier, 1836 e Melipona sp. (Hymenoptera, Apidae) no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, utilizando marcadores ISSR

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Fábia Guimarães

    2008-01-01

    Melipona rufiventris, Lepeletier, 1836 e M. mondury, Smith, 1863 (Hymenoptera, Apidae) são espécies geneticamente similares, popularmente conhecidas como uruçu amarela. Estudos recentes, utilizando marcadores moleculares mostraram que as populações de uruçu amarela em Minas Gerais formam grupos distintos, sendo M. mondury pertencente à região de Mata Atlântica, M. rufiventris e uma terceira espécie, ainda não identificada aqui denominada de Melipona sp., pertencentes à região do Cerrado. O ob...

  12. Karyotypes and heterochromatin variation (C-bands in Melipona species (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae

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    Rocha Marla Piumbini

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the karyotypes of eight bee species of the genus Melipona and compare them in terms of heterochromatin content and location (C-banding technique. All species had 2n = 18 (females and n = 9 (males chromosomes, but a wide variation in heterochromatin content was detected among karyotypes. On the basis of these differences, the species were divided into two functional groups, one of them comprising species with a karyotype having a low heterochromatin content (M. bicolor bicolor, M. quadrifasciata, M. marginata, and M. asilvai, and the other species with a high heterochromatin content (M. seminigra fuscopilosa, M. capixaba, M. scutellaris, and M. captiosa. In the species with high heterochromatin content, heterochromatin occupied practically the entire extent of all chromosomes, with euchromatin being limited to the extremities, a fact that prevented observation of the centromere. In contrast, in the species with karyotypes having a low heterochromatin content, heterochromatin was visualized only in some chromosomes. In the chromosomes in which it was present, heterochromatin was located in the centromere or on the short arm. M. bicolor bicolor had the smallest heterochromatin content with only three chromosome pairs presenting heterochromatin in females. Increased heterochromatin content may be explained by interstitial and pericentromeric growth.

  13. Evaluation of the productive development of Melipona scutellaris beehives

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    Elisângela de Lima Alves

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Stingless beekeeping has drawn the general attention of beekeepers because of the easy management and the quality of products. Nevertheless, little is known about their production and biology. The present study evaluated the development of Melipona scutellaris hives, considering the production parameters in a beekeeping environment. The growth parameter of hives is food storage. In the case of M. scutellaris, storage is made inside beeswax pots. Therefore, beeswax pots in the hives were classified and counted as nectar pots, pollen pots, open pots, closed pots and empty pots. Hive dimensions were also taken and evaluated. The results indicated that hives show different amounts of pots that vary as a function of the number of individuals in the hive. It was confirmed that the availability of food resources determines the utilization of food storage, i.e., if there is resource limitation and foraging is compromised, bees utilize the food that is stored inside the pots.

  14. Cytogenetic analysis of the Amazon stingless bee Melipona seminigra merrillae reveals different chromosome number for the genus

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    Izaura Bezerra Francini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic analysis of the Amazon stingless bee Melipona seminigra merrillae, by conventional Giemsa staining and C-banding, revealed a different chromosome number for Melipona: 2n = 22 for females and diploid drones while the haploid drones present n = 11. There is no evidence of B chromosomes. This result contrasts with previous studies, in which the chromosome number of 19 Melipona species was determined as 2n = 18 for females and n = 9 for haploid males. Based on cytogenetic information available for other Melipona species, we propose that M. s. merrillae has a more derived diploid number. This indicates that chromosome number is not a conservative characteristic within the genus as previously thought. Cytogenetic data for stingless bees are scarce, especially in Amazon region. Additional studies will be very important in order to promote Melipona karyoevolution discussion and consequently a taxonomy review.

  15. Cytogenetic characterization of Melipona rufiventris Lepeletier 1836 and Melipona mondury Smith 1863 (Hymenoptera, Apidae by C banding and fluorochromes staining

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    Denilce Meneses Lopes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The stingless bees Melipona rufiventris and M. mondury were analyzed cytogenetically by conventional staining with Giemsa, C-banding and sequential staining with the fluorochromes CMA3/DA/DAPI. Both species presented 2n = 18 and n = 9, except for one colony of M. rufiventris, in which some individuals had 2n = 19 due to the presence of a B chromosome. After Giemsa staining and C-banding the chromosomes appeared very condensed and presented a high heterochromatic content, making it difficult to localize the centromere and therefore to visualize the chromosomes morphology. The constitutive heterochromatin was located in interstitial chromosome regions covering most of the chromosomes extension and consisted mainly of AT, as shown by DAPI staining. The euchromatin was restricted to the chromosome extremities and was GC-rich, as evidenced by CMA3 staining. The B chromosome was CMA3-negative and DAPI-positive, a heterochromatic constitution similar to that of the A genome chromosomes.

  16. Preliminary Characterization of Mitochondrial Genome of Melipona scutellaris, a Brazilian Stingless Bee

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    Manuella Souza Silverio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bees are manufacturers of relevant economical products and have a pollinator role fundamental to ecosystems. Traditionally, studies focused on the genus Melipona have been mostly based on behavioral, and social organization and ecological aspects. Only recently the evolutionary history of this genus has been assessed using molecular markers, including mitochondrial genes. Even though these studies have shed light on the evolutionary history of the Melipona genus, a more accurate picture may emerge when full nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of Melipona species become available. Here we present the assembly, annotation, and characterization of a draft mitochondrial genome of the Brazilian stingless bee Melipona scutellaris using Melipona bicolor as a reference organism. Using Illumina MiSeq data, we achieved the annotation of all protein coding genes, as well as the genes for the two ribosomal subunits (16S and 12S and transfer RNA genes as well. Using the COI sequence as a DNA barcode, we found that M. cramptoni is the closest species to M. scutellaris.

  17. A molecular phylogeny of the stingless bee genus Melipona (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Santiago R; Nieh, James C; Quental, Tiago B; Roubik, David W; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L; Pierce, Naomi E

    2010-08-01

    Stingless bees (Meliponini) constitute a diverse group of highly eusocial insects that occur throughout tropical regions around the world. The meliponine genus Melipona is restricted to the New World tropics and has over 50 described species. Melipona, like Apis, possesses the remarkable ability to use representational communication to indicate the location of foraging patches. Although Melipona has been the subject of numerous behavioral, ecological, and genetic studies, the evolutionary history of this genus remains largely unexplored. Here, we implement a multigene phylogenetic approach based on nuclear, mitochondrial, and ribosomal loci, coupled with molecular clock methods, to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships and antiquity of subgenera and species of Melipona. Our phylogenetic analysis resolves the relationship among subgenera and tends to agree with morphology-based classification hypotheses. Our molecular clock analysis indicates that the genus Melipona shared a most recent common ancestor at least approximately 14-17 million years (My) ago. These results provide the groundwork for future comparative analyses aimed at understanding the evolution of complex communication mechanisms in eusocial Apidae. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Preliminary characterization of mitochondrial genome of Melipona scutellaris, a Brazilian stingless bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverio, Manuella Souza; Rodovalho, Vinícius de Rezende; Bonetti, Ana Maria; de Oliveira, Guilherme Corrêa; Cuadros-Orellana, Sara; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos; Rodrigues dos Santos, Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Bees are manufacturers of relevant economical products and have a pollinator role fundamental to ecosystems. Traditionally, studies focused on the genus Melipona have been mostly based on behavioral, and social organization and ecological aspects. Only recently the evolutionary history of this genus has been assessed using molecular markers, including mitochondrial genes. Even though these studies have shed light on the evolutionary history of the Melipona genus, a more accurate picture may emerge when full nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of Melipona species become available. Here we present the assembly, annotation, and characterization of a draft mitochondrial genome of the Brazilian stingless bee Melipona scutellaris using Melipona bicolor as a reference organism. Using Illumina MiSeq data, we achieved the annotation of all protein coding genes, as well as the genes for the two ribosomal subunits (16S and 12S) and transfer RNA genes as well. Using the COI sequence as a DNA barcode, we found that M. cramptoni is the closest species to M. scutellaris.

  19. Differentially displayed expressed sequence tags in Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Flávia A; Nunes, Francis M F; Vieira, Carlos U; Machado, Maria Alice M S; Kerr, Warwick E; Silva, Wilson A; Bonetti, Ana Maria

    2006-03-01

    We have compared gene expression, using the Differential Display Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (DDRT-PCR) technique, by means of mRNA profile in Melipona scutellaris during ontogenetic postembryonic development, in adult worker, and in both Natural and Juvenile Hormone III-induced adult queen. Six, out of the nine ESTs described here, presented differentially expressed in the phases L1 or L2, or even in both of them, suggesting that key mechanisms to the development of Melipona scutellaris are regulated in these stages. The combination HT11G-AP05 revealed in L1 and L2 a product which matches to thioredoxin reductase protein domain in the Clostridium sporogenes, an important protein during cellular oxidoreduction processes. This study represents the first molecular evidence of differential gene expression profiles toward a description of the genetic developmental traits in the genus Melipona.

  20. Differentially displayed expressed sequence tags in Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini development

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    Santana Flávia A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We have compared gene expression, using the Differential Display Reverse Transcriptase - Polymerase Chain Reaction (DDRT-PCR technique, by means of mRNA profile in Melipona scutellaris during ontogenetic postembryonic development, in adult worker, and in both Natural and Juvenile Hormone III-induced adult queen. Six, out of the nine ESTs described here, presented differentially expressed in the phases L1 or L2, or even in both of them, suggesting that key mechanisms to the development of Melipona scutellaris are regulated in these stages. The combination HT11G-AP05 revealed in L1 and L2 a product which matches to thioredoxin reductase protein domain in the Clostridium sporogenes, an important protein during cellular oxidoreduction processes. This study represents the first molecular evidence of differential gene expression profiles toward a description of the genetic developmental traits in the genus Melipona.

  1. Filogeografia e conservação de Melipona capixaba Moure e Camargo, 1994 e Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811, e biogeografia do gênero Melipona Illiger, 1806 (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Resende, Helder Canto

    2012-01-01

    A abelha sem ferrão Melipona capixaba Moure e Camargo, 1994, a uruçu-capixaba, é endêmica da Mata Atlântica brasileira e está ameaçada de extinção. Sua distribuição geográfica é conhecida apenas em áreas de altitude do estado do Espírito Santo. Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811, a uruçu nordestina, tem sido considerada como presumivelmente ameaçada de extinção devido à redução de sua área de ocorrência natural. A espécie ocorre na Mata Atlântica entre os estados da Bahia ao Rio Grande d...

  2. Flight activity of Melipona asilvai Moure (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, B A; Carvalho, C A L; Alves, R M O

    2006-05-01

    Many stingless bee species are specific to their areas of occurrence. Even when adapted to their local climate and flora conditions, they are subject to modifications in the environment, directly influencing flight activity. The aim of this work is to obtain information about the flight activity of the stingless bee Melipona asilvai Moure, thus contributing to the knowledge of this species. The flow of bees entering and leaving the colony was evaluated, and the type of transported material was identified. This information was correlated with climatic data collected at the time of observations, performed between June 2002 and March 2003. It can be proved that temperature was the factor with the greatest influence on the external activity of this species, showing a significant positive correlation with the entry of bees into the colony and pollen collection. Mud collecting showed a significant positive correlation with a humidity increase. Flight activity began at a temperature of 21.0 degrees C and humidity of 84.5%, peaking at 27.4 degrees C and 60.6% RH, respectively.

  3. Does beekeeping reduce genetic variability in Melipona scutellaris (Apidae, Meliponini)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Zilse, G A; Costa-Pinto, M F F; Nunes-Silva, C G; Kerr, W E

    2009-06-30

    Many factors have contributed to reductions in wild populations of stingless bees, such as: deforestation, displacement and destruction of nests by honey gatherers, as well as use of insecticides and other agrochemicals. All of these can potentially affect the populational structure of native species. We analyzed genetic variability and populational structure of Melipona scutellaris, based on five microsatellite loci, using heterologous primers of M. bicolor. Samples were taken from 43 meliponaries distributed among 30 sites of four northeastern states of Brazil (Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe, and Bahia). Thirty-one alleles were found to be well distributed among the populations, with sizes ranging from 85 to 146 bp. In general, there was a variable distribution and frequency of alleles among populations, with either exclusive and/or fixed alleles at some sites. The population of Pernambuco was the most polymorphic, followed by Bahia, Alagoas and Sergipe. The heterozygosity was Ho = 0.36 on average, much lower than what has been reported for M. bicolor (Ho = 0.65). Most populations were not under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We found a higher variation within rather than among populations, indicating no genetic structuring in those bees maintained in meliponaries. This apparent homogenization may be due to intense beekeeping activity, including exchange of genetic material among beekeepers. Based on our findings, we recommend more studies of meliponaries and of wild populations in order to help orient management and conservation of these native pollinators.

  4. Genetic breeding on the bee Melipona scutellaris (Apidae, Meliponinae

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    Barros José de Ribamar Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A selection of queens of Melipona scutellaris through the most productive colonies were carried out during eight months in an orange honeyflow. Each of the colonies was evaluated by its production, that is, the gross weight production ( pollen, brood, geopropolis and wax of each hive. With this data a coefficient of repeatability was estimated by the intraclass correlation method, obtained r = 0.835 ± 0.071. The repeatibility is very high showing that the analysed data (production is repeatable. Selection was then carried out using the regression coefficient of each colony and the respective production gain. Using these data the colonies were divided into three groups according to the method Vencovsky and Kerr (1982: a with the colonies of highest productivity, b of least productivity, and c of intermediary productivity. Colonies with the highest production (Group a gave their queens to those of the lowest production (Group b after their queens were taken out and killed; while those of intermediate (Group c stayed with the same queens during the entire experiment both before and after the selection. The modifications in weight, that is, the genetic response was (R= 7.98 gr per day which indicated a selection gain. The estimate of the realized herdability is twice the rate of the response to selection (R by the selection differential (S2. That is then h²R=2(R/S2 then h²R= 0.166

  5. Antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of stingless bee Melipona scutellaris geopropolis

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    da Cunha Marcos Guilherme

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geopropolis is a type of propolis containing resin, wax, and soil, collected by threatened stingless bee species native to tropical countries and used in folk medicine. However, studies concerning the biological activity and chemical composition of geopropolis are scarce. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial and antiproliferative activity of the ethanolic extract of geopropolis (EEGP collected by Melipona scutellaris and its bioactive fraction against important clinical microorganisms as well as their in vitro cytotoxicity and chemical profile. Methods The antimicrobial activity of EEGP and fractions was examined by determining their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC against six bacteria strains as well as their ability to inhibit Streptococcus mutans biofilm adherence. Total growth inhibition (TGI was chosen to assay the antiproliferative activity of EEGP and its bioactive fraction against normal and cancer cell lines. The chemical composition of M. scutellaris geopropolis was identified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results EEGP significantly inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus strains and S. mutans at low concentrations, and its hexane fraction (HF presented the highest antibacterial activity. Also, both EEGP and HF inhibited S. mutans biofilm adherence (p Conclusions The empirical use of this unique type of geopropolis by folk medicine practitioners was confirmed in the present study, since it showed antimicrobial and antiproliferative potential against the cancer cell lines studied. It is possible that the major compounds found in this type of geopropolis are responsible for its properties.

  6. Flight activity of Melipona asilvai Moure (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    B. A. Souza

    Full Text Available Many stingless bee species are specific to their areas of occurrence. Even when adapted to their local climate and flora conditions, they are subject to modifications in the environment, directly influencing flight activity. The aim of this work is to obtain information about the flight activity of the stingless bee Melipona asilvai Moure, thus contributing to the knowledge of this species. The flow of bees entering and leaving the colony was evaluated, and the type of transported material was identified. This information was correlated with climatic data collected at the time of observations, performed between June 2002 and March 2003. It can be proved that temperature was the factor with the greatest influence on the external activity of this species, showing a significant positive correlation with the entry of bees into the colony and pollen collection. Mud collecting showed a significant positive correlation with a humidity increase. Flight activity began at a temperature of 21.0 °C and humidity of 84.5%, peaking at 27.4 °C and 60.6% RH, respectively.

  7. Colony strength and queen replacement in Melipona marginata (Apidae: Meliponini

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    A. de M. P. Kleinert

    Full Text Available Physogastric queens of Melipona marginata were removed from their colonies in order to verify the acceptance of a new queen by workers. Colony strength was evaluated according to queen oviposition rate and comb diameters. Replacement was observed seven times. Its occurrence and speed related positively to colony strength, independently of queen's age. In weak colonies, queen replacement was observed only once, following colony population increase that occurred after introduction of combs from another colony. Worker oviposition after queen removal was observed three times: in a strong colony with virgin queens and males, and in two of the weak colonies. In the first two or three days of new queen oviposition, during which most of the eggs were eaten by the queen, worker oviposition preceded almost all provisioning and oviposition processes (POPs. After this period, worker oviposition decreased until it reached around 25% of the POPs. Daily oviposition rate of young queens decreased or was even interrupted by hatching of their first brood.

  8. Antiproliferative Constituents of Geopropolis from the Bee Melipona scutellaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Marcos Guilherme; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Franchin, Marcelo; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Ikegaki, Masaharu; Ransom, Tanya; Beutler, John Albert

    2016-02-01

    Fractionation of geopropolis from Melipona scutellaris, guided by antiproliferative activity against two colon cancer cell lines (COLO205 and KM12), led to the isolation of two new cinnamic acid esters, mammea-type coumarins 5,7-dihydroxy-6-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-8-(4-cinnamoyl-3-methyl-1-oxobutyl)-4-propyl-coumarin (1) and 5,7-dihydroxy-6-(4-cinnamoyl-3-methyl-1-oxobutyl)-4-phenylcoumarin (2), along with five known coumarins, mammeigin (3), hydroxymammeigin (4), mammeisin (5), cinnamoyloxy-mammeisin (6), and mammein (7), and the prenylated benzophenone ent-nemorosone (8). Among the isolated compounds, 5 and 7 showed the highest cell growth inhibition against COLO205 (GI50 9.7 and 10.7 µM, respectively) and KM12 (GI50 12.0 and 10.9 µM, respectively). The presence of these compounds suggests that plants of Clusiaceae family, especially the genera Kielmeyera and Clusia, are likely to be major sources of geopropolis produced by M. scutellaris. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Honey quality of Melipona sp. bees in Acre, Brazil

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    Marcus Augusto Damaceno do Vale

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Honey from stingless bees (Melipona sp. is a nutritious and medicinal product economically valued in the informal Brazilian market, driven by the growing demand for natural products; however, its physicochemical characteristics are still unknown. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the physicochemical profile of the stingless bee honey produced in Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre. Honey samples were analyzed following the methodology recommended by Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento; the following parameters were established: moisture, total sugars, reducing sugars, apparent sucrose, ash, crude protein, diastase activity, Brix degrees, free acidity, lactonic acidity, total acidity, pH, hydroxymethylfurfural, electrical conductivity, color and Lugol, Lund and Fiehe reactions. Results show that these parameters are not suitable for all samples, being incompatible with established standards, indicating that the current legislation on Apis mellifera is not suitable for all characters analyzed, mainly moisture content, corroborating the need to standardize guidelines for honey from stingless bees. Moreover, there was no tampering in the honeys analyzed.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of honey of stingless bees, tiúba (Melipona fasciculata) and jandaira (Melipona subnitida) compared to the strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenório, Eleuza Gomes; de Jesus, Natália Rocha; Nascimento, Adenilde Ribeiro; Teles, Amanda Mara

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial activity of honeys of stingless bees produced in Maranhão, tiúba (Melipona fasciculata) and jandaira (Melipona subnitida), opposite the strains of pathogenic bacteria, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The honey samples were collected from different regions of Maranhão. Of the 17 samples collected, twelve samples were honey M. fasciculata and five were honey M. subnitida. We used the Kirby-Bauer method, and the technique of agar disk diffusion through the extent of inhibition in milimetros. Results were negative for all samples from M. fasciculata. However, the tests for M. subnitida demonstrated bacteriostatic halos ranging from 12 to 32,6mm.

  11. Are Isomeric Alkenes Used in Species Recognition among Neo-Tropical Stingless Bees (Melipona Spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen J; Shemilt, Sue; da S Lima, Cândida B; de Carvalho, Carlos A L

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of the role of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) in recognition is based largely on temperate ant species and honey bees. The stingless bees remain relatively poorly studied, despite being the largest group of eusocial bees, comprising more than 400 species in some 60 genera. The Meliponini and Apini diverged between 80-130 Myr B.P. so the evolutionary trajectories that shaped the chemical communication systems in ants, honeybees and stingless bees may be very different. The aim of this study was to study if a unique species CHC signal existed in Neotropical stingless bees, as has been shown for many temperate species, and what compounds are involved. This was achieved by collecting CHC data from 24 colonies belonging to six species of Melipona from North-Eastern Brazil and comparing the results with previously published CHC studies on Melipona. We found that each of the eleven Melipona species studied so far each produced a unique species CHC signal based around their alkene isomer production. A remarkable number of alkene isomers, up to 25 in M. asilvai, indicated the diversification of alkene positional isomers among the stingless bees. The only other group to have really diversified in alkene isomer production are the primitively eusocial Bumblebees (Bombus spp), which are the sister group of the stingless bees. Furthermore, among the eleven Neotropical Melipona species we could detect no effect of the environment on the proportion of alkane production as has been suggested for some other species.

  12. Cell provisioning and oviposition in Melipona beecheii (Apidae, Meliponinae),with a note on caste determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Johan Wilhelm van

    1999-01-01

    We examined the food provisioning and oviposition process (POP) for worker- and gyne-producing cells of Melipona beecheii. POPs for both castes did not differ significantly in duration and number of trophic eggs oviposited by workers in the cells. The frequency of food discharges by workers in

  13. Individual foraging, activity level and longevity in the stingless bee Melipona beecheii in Costa Rica (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesmeijer, J.C.; Tóth, E.

    1998-01-01

    Foraging behaviour of individually marked workers of Melipona beecheii (Meliponinae) was monitored in Costa Rica to investigate individual specialisation for different materials and how this influences foraging longevity. The majority of the individuals harvested one commodity (pollen, nectar or

  14. Desenvolvimento produtivo de colmeias de abelhas Melipona scutellaris

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    Adriana Evangelista Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n1p59 A criação de espécies nativas de abelhas, também conhecidas como abelhas sem ferrão, têm despertado interesse geral na área, em função da facilidade de manejo e da qualidade dos produtos. No entanto, pouco se sabe sobre sua produção e sua biologia e por isto o presente trabalho acompanhou o desenvolvimento de colmeias de Melipona scutellaris, avaliando os seus parâmetros produtivos em ambiente de criação. Como o crescimento de uma colmeia tem como parâmetro o armazenamento de alimento, e como no caso da abelha M.scutellaris este armazenamento é feito em potes construídos com cera, foram feitas contagens dos potes nas colmeias classificando-os como: potes abertos, potes fechados e potes vazios, separando-os de acordo com o conteúdo (mel ou pólen. Foram medidas as suas dimensões e anotadas para posterior avaliação dos dados. Com os resultados pôde-se averiguar que as colmeias apresentam quantidades de potes diferentes, variando em função do número de indivíduos que colaboram para este fator. Confirmou-se que, quando o alimento é escasso no pasto apícola, as abelhas usam o alimento armazenado nos potes, em função da diminuição de matéria-prima na entressafra.

  15. Antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of stingless bee Melipona scutellaris geopropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Marcos Guilherme; Franchin, Marcelo; de Carvalho Galvão, Lívia Câmara; de Ruiz, Ana Lúcia Tasca Góis; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Ikegaki, Masarahu; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Koo, Hyun; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2013-01-28

    Geopropolis is a type of propolis containing resin, wax, and soil, collected by threatened stingless bee species native to tropical countries and used in folk medicine. However, studies concerning the biological activity and chemical composition of geopropolis are scarce. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial and antiproliferative activity of the ethanolic extract of geopropolis (EEGP) collected by Melipona scutellaris and its bioactive fraction against important clinical microorganisms as well as their in vitro cytotoxicity and chemical profile. The antimicrobial activity of EEGP and fractions was examined by determining their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against six bacteria strains as well as their ability to inhibit Streptococcus mutans biofilm adherence. Total growth inhibition (TGI) was chosen to assay the antiproliferative activity of EEGP and its bioactive fraction against normal and cancer cell lines. The chemical composition of M. scutellaris geopropolis was identified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. EEGP significantly inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus strains and S. mutans at low concentrations, and its hexane fraction (HF) presented the highest antibacterial activity. Also, both EEGP and HF inhibited S. mutans biofilm adherence (p < 0.05) and showed selectivity against human cancer cell lines, although only HF demonstrated selectivity at low concentrations. The chemical analyses performed suggest the absence of flavonoids and the presence of benzophenones as geopropolis major compounds. The empirical use of this unique type of geopropolis by folk medicine practitioners was confirmed in the present study, since it showed antimicrobial and antiproliferative potential against the cancer cell lines studied. It is possible that the major compounds found in this type of geopropolis are responsible for its properties.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Melipona scutellaris, a Brazilian stingless bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ulisses de Padua; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Santos, Anderson Rodrigues Dos; Oliveira, Guilherme Correa de; Cuadros-Orellana, Sara; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Melipona scutellaris is a Brazilian stingless bee species and a highly important native pollinator besides its use in rational rearing for honey production. In this study, we present the whole mitochondrial DNA sequence of M. scutellaris from a haploid male. The mitogenome has a size of 14,862 bp and harbors 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes and 21 tRNA genes.

  17. Variation of fore wing shape in Melipona mandacaia Smith, 1863 (Hymenoptera, Meliponini) along its geographic range

    OpenAIRE

    Prado-Silva, Arlete; Nunes, Lorena Andrade; Alves, Rogério Marcos de Oliveira; Carneiro, Paulo Luiz Souza; Waldschmidt, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Melipona mandacaia is a stingless bee species responsible for the pollination of many native plants in Brazil, South America. In spite of its ecological and economic importance, natural populations of M. mandacaia have been depleted because of deforestation. In order to evaluate the interpopulation morphometric structure of remaining populations, we carried out geometric morphometric studies based on fore wing shape in this native bee species. The grouping analysis by UPGMA revealed three dis...

  18. Butinage à longue distance et recrutement chez une abeille sans aiguillon, Melipona mandacaia

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn-Neto , Brunno; Contrera , Felipe A.L.; Castro , Marina S.; Nieh , James C.

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Body size is hypothesized to play a major role in animal foraging, particularly in pollinators. In general, species with larger bodies forage over greater distances. Studies have found support for this body size-foraging range hypothesis across a wide variety of pollinator species, but have not investigated the possibility that this effect also applies within a pollinator species. We trained foragers of the stingless bee Melipona mandacaia to feeders in their native ha...

  19. Antibacterial action of geopropolis of Melipona quadrifaciata in cultivation of secretion of otitis in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Dias C, Raísa; Bóbany M, Denise; Taveira M, Marcus Vinicius; Alves S, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective. The objective of the present paper was to test the in vitro antibacterial activity of the Mandaçaia (Melipona quadrifaciata) bee’s geopropolis. Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out with secretion samples collected from animals with ear diseases evaluated at Unifeso’s Clinic School of Veterinary Medicine, where in vitro tests took place, antibiograns with alcoholic extract of geopropolis were made 10 test tubes (two tubes for each concentration of 50%, 6...

  20. Occurrence and biogeographic aspects of Melipona quinquefasciata in NE Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    LIMA-VERDE L. W.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The stingless bee Melipona quinquefasciata is not included among the nine bee species of Melipona described in literature of NE Brazil. However, reports of some farmers raised suspicion on the occurrence of M. quinquefasciata in the state of Ceará, in NE Brazil. Investigations were carried out from July 1997 to September 2000, by means of trips to the areas of probable occurrence of this bee species. Results confirmed the presence of M. quinquefasciata in Ceará and determined its habitat along the chapada do Araripe (Araripe plateau and all extension of planalto da Ibiapaba (Ibiapaba plateau, in altitudes between 600 and 900 m. Melipona quinquefasciata lives in the phytocoenosis of cerrado (Brazilian savanna, cerradão (savanna forest and carrasco (montane deciduous shrub vegetation on the top of Araripe plateau, and only carrasco in the Ibiapaba plateau. Due to pressures caused by reduction of the area covered with native vegetation, large use of agrochemicals in anthropic areas and generalised predatory hunting of honey and beeswax, M. quinquefasciata is in risk of disappearing from the ecosystems of Araripe and Ibiapaba plateaus within a few years.

  1. Occurrence and biogeographic aspects of Melipona quinquefasciata in NE Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. W. LIMA-VERDE

    Full Text Available The stingless bee Melipona quinquefasciata is not included among the nine bee species of Melipona described in literature of NE Brazil. However, reports of some farmers raised suspicion on the occurrence of M. quinquefasciata in the state of Ceará, in NE Brazil. Investigations were carried out from July 1997 to September 2000, by means of trips to the areas of probable occurrence of this bee species. Results confirmed the presence of M. quinquefasciata in Ceará and determined its habitat along the chapada do Araripe (Araripe plateau and all extension of planalto da Ibiapaba (Ibiapaba plateau, in altitudes between 600 and 900 m. Melipona quinquefasciata lives in the phytocoenosis of cerrado (Brazilian savanna, cerradão (savanna forest and carrasco (montane deciduous shrub vegetation on the top of Araripe plateau, and only carrasco in the Ibiapaba plateau. Due to pressures caused by reduction of the area covered with native vegetation, large use of agrochemicals in anthropic areas and generalised predatory hunting of honey and beeswax, M. quinquefasciata is in risk of disappearing from the ecosystems of Araripe and Ibiapaba plateaus within a few years.

  2. Oral toxicity of fipronil insecticide against the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris (Latreille, 1811).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Clara Tavares; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Malaspina, Osmar; Nocelli, Roberta Cornélio Ferreira

    2012-10-01

    For a better evaluation of the model using Apis mellifera in toxicology studies with insecticides, the oral acute toxicity of the insecticide fipronil against the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris was determined. The results showed that fipronil was highly toxic to M. scutellaris, with a calculated LC(50) (48 h) value of 0.011 ng a.i./μL of sucrose solution and an estimated oral LD(50) (48 h) of 0.6 ng a.i./bee. Our results showed that M. scutellaris bee is more sensitive to fipronil than the model specie A. mellifera.

  3. Intrinsic colony conditions affect the provisioning and oviposition process in the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R A; Morais, M M; Nascimento, F S; Bego, L R

    2009-01-01

    The cell provisioning and oviposition process (POP) is a unique characteristic of stingless bees (Meliponini), in which coordinated interactions between workers and queen regulate the filling of brood cells with larval resources and subsequent egg laying. Environmental conditions seem to regulate reproduction in stingless bees; however, little is known about how the amount of food affects quantitative sequences of the process. We examined intrinsic variables by comparing three colonies in distinct conditions (strong, intermediate and weak state). We predicted that some of these variables are correlated with temporal events of POP in Melipona scutellaris colonies. The results demonstrated that the strong colony had shorter periods of POP.

  4. [Visitation of orchid by Melipona capixaba Moure & Camargo (Hymenoptera: Apidae), bee threatened with extinction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Helder C; Barros, Fábio de; Campos, Lúcio A O; Fernandes-Salomão, Tânia M

    2008-01-01

    The stingless bee Melipona capixaba Moure & Camargo is a species restricted to the Atlantic forest in the Domingos Martins, Conceição do Castelo, Venda Nova do Imigrante and Afonso Cláudio County, in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Despite its cological importance as pollinator few studies have examined the ecology and biology of this bee. This note relates a case of the M. capixaba workers carrying pollinarium attached to the scuttellum. The pollinaria were identified as belonging to the orchid subtribe Maxillariinae species possibly of the genus Maxillaria sensu lato or Xylobium.

  5. Produção de hidromel utilizando mel de Melipona scutellaris

    OpenAIRE

    Peixoto, Samira; Carvalho, Carlos Alfredo; Estevinho, Leticia M.

    2014-01-01

    Atualmente, existe uma crescente procura de bebidas fermentadas por parte dos consu-midores, particularmente de hidromel, produzido empiricamente desde a antiguidade. De acordo com a literatura, este bebida tem excelentes efeitos na digestão e metabolismo e é benéfico para doentes com anemia crónica e doenças do trato gastrointestinal [1].Esta bebida é geralmente produzida utilizando mel de Apis mellifera, no entanto, no Brasil existe também mel de abelhas sem ferrão, como Melipona scutellaris...

  6. Observations on gynes and drones around nuptial flights in the stingless bees Tetragonisca angustula and Melipona beecheii (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, J.W. van; Sommeijer, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The nuptial flight of gynes of Tetragonisca angustula and Melipona beecheii was studied. The moment of nuptial flight was found to be related to the ambient temperature, and the duration of the nuptial flight for M. beecheii was longer in November (rainy season) than in March (dry season). A

  7. The deposition of anal excretions by Melipona favosa foragers (Apidae: Meliponinae): behavioural observations concerning the location of food sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar, I. (Ingrid); Sommeijer, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Melipona favosa consistently deposited anal excretions while foraging. Anal depositions were released more frequently and by more bees on artificial food sources at a greater distance from the nest. Our hypothesis that these deposits serve as scent marks is supported by experimental evidence

  8. Antibacterial properties and healing effects of Melipona scutellaris honey in MRSA-infected wounds of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Vanessa de Fátima Lima Paiva; Azevedo, Ítalo Medeiros; Rêgo, Amália Cínthia Meneses; Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa do; Araújo-Filho, Irami; Medeiros, Aldo Cunha

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the antimicrobial, immunological and healing effects of Melipona scutellaris honey on infected wounds of rat skin. Twenty four Wistar rats were distributed in four groups (6-each). The uninfected skin wounds of group I rats were treated daily with saline for 7 days. Uninfected wounds (group II) rats were treated with honey. In group III (treated with saline) and group IV (treated with honey) wounds were inoculated with MRSA ATTC43300. The first bacterial culture was performed 24 hours later. In the 7th day new culture was done, and wound biopsies were used for cytokines dosage and histopathology. In group I and III rats the CFU/g count of S. aureus in wounds was zero. In group II rats the CFU/g counts in the wound tissue were significantly higher than in wounds of group IV rats. The density histopathological parameters and the expression of TNF-α, IL1-β, Il-6 were significantly higher on wounds of group IV then in the other groups. Honey of Melipona scutellaris was effective in the management of infected wounds, by significant bacterial growth inhibition, enhancement of cytokine expression, and positively influenced the wound repair.

  9. INHIBITION OF PATHOGENS BY SPOROGENIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM HONEY OF Melipona sp. (APIDAE: APINAE: MELIPONINI

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    KELY DAMIANA NOVAES DA SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate sporogenic bacteria from the honey of stingless bees Melipona sp., in dry forest, and to evaluate their antagonistic potential for medicinal employment purposes and animal production. The honey samples were collected in Serra Talhada - PE, where honey was taken from four different hives (in triplicate, totaling 12 samples. The samples were diluted and subjected to 80 ºC for 20 minutes to eliminate vegetative cells. The dilutions were plated onto nutrient agar and incubated at 30 ºC for 72 hours. Then the colony forming units (CFU were quantified. The samples were also plated onto malt agar and Sabouraud agar, and incubated at 30 ºC for 14 days for the growth of yeast and molds. Total and fecal coliforms were quantified by the most probable number method (MPN. Seven isolates (I of sporogenic bacteria ( Bacillus were obtained, however only four showed probiotic potential. Isolate I - 5 showed the greatest probiotic potential and inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli , Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella sp., and Staphylococcus aureus . The growth of the Sarcina sp. was not inhibited by any isolate. No yeast, molds or coliforms were found. The Melipona sp. honey is a source of spore - forming bacteria and is antagonistic to microorganisms that contaminate honey. It has good microbiological quality.

  10. Gastroprotective Effect of Geopropolis from Melipona scutellaris Is Dependent on Production of Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin

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    Jerônimo Aparecido Ribeiro-Junior

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of ethanolic extract of geopropolis (EEGP from Melipona scutellaris and to investigate the possible mechanisms of action. The gastroprotective activity of the EEGP was evaluated using model ulcer induced by ethanol. To elucidate the possible mechanisms of action, we investigated the involvement of the nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH groups, nitric oxide and prostaglandins. In addition, the antisecretory activity of EEGP was also evaluated by pylorus ligated model. The EEGP orally administrated (300 mg/kg reduced the ulcerative lesions induced by the ethanol (P0.05. These results support the alternative medicine use of geopropolis as gastroprotective and the activities observed show to be related to nitric oxide and prostaglandins production.

  11. The cuticular hydrocarbons profiles in the stingless bee Melipona marginata reflect task-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Caliman, M J; Nascimento, F S; Turatti, I C; Mateus, S; Lopes, N P; Zucchi, R

    2010-07-01

    Members of social insect colonies employ a large variety of chemical signals during their life. Of these, cuticular hydrocarbons are of primary importance for social insects since they allow for the recognition of conspecifics, nestmates and even members of different castes. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the variation of the chemical profiles among workers of the stingless bee Melipona marginata, and (2) to investigate the dependence of the chemical profiles on the age and on the behavior of the studied individuals. The results showed that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of workers were composed of alkanes, alkenes and alkadienes that varied quantitatively and qualitatively according to function of workers in the colony. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Phenolic acids, hydrolyzable tannins, and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from the stingless bee Melipona fasciculata Smith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Richard Pereira; Abreu, Bruno Vinicius de Barros; Cunha, Mayara Soares; Batista, Marisa Cristina Aranha; Torres, Luce Maria Brandão; Nascimento, Flavia Raquel Fernandes; Ribeiro, Maria Nilce Sousa; Guerra, Rosane Nassar Meireles

    2014-03-26

    Geopropolis is a mixture of plant resins, waxes, and soil produced by the stingless bee Melipona fasciculata Smith. This paper describes the antioxidant activity and chemical composition of geopropolis produced by M. fasciculata. The total phenolic content determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was highest in the ethyl acetate fraction and hydroalcoholic extract. Antioxidant activity was assayed by the in vitro DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. The hydroalcoholic extract and fractions of geopropolis, except for the hexane fraction, exhibited antioxidant activity against DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP. The phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC-DAD-MS on the basis of the evaluation of their UV-vis absorption maxima (λmax) and mass spectral analysis. Eleven compounds belonging to the classes of phenolic acids and hydrolyzable tannins (gallotannins and ellagitannins) were tentatively identified. These compounds are responsible for the antioxidant activity and high phenolic content of geopropolis produced by M. fasciculata.

  13. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Geopropolis Collected by Melipona subnitida (Jandaíra) Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves de Souza, Silvana; Camara, Celso Amorim; Monica Sarmento da Silva, Eva; Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of the geopropolis collected by Melipona subnitida (jandaíra) stingless bee led to the isolation and characterization of two phenylpropanoids, 6-O-p-coumaroyl-D-galactopyranose (1) and 6-O-cinnamoyl-1-O-p-coumaroyl- β -D-glucopyranose (2), and seven flavonoids, 7-O-methyl-naringenin (3), 7-O-methyl aromadendrin (4), 7,4'-di-O-methyl aromadendrin (5), 4'-O-methyl kaempferol (6), 3-O-methyl quercetin (7), 5-O-methyl aromadendrin (8), and 5-O-methyl kaempferol (9). The structure of the new phenylpropanoid (1) was established from IR, LC-ESI-MS, and NMR spectral data, including 2D NMR experiments. The extract and fractions demonstrated significant antioxidant activity in DPPH, ABTS, and β -carotene/linoleic acid tests.

  14. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Geopropolis Collected by Melipona subnitida (Jandaíra Bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Alves de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the geopropolis collected by Melipona subnitida (jandaíra stingless bee led to the isolation and characterization of two phenylpropanoids, 6-O-p-coumaroyl-D-galactopyranose (1 and 6-O-cinnamoyl-1-O-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranose (2, and seven flavonoids, 7-O-methyl-naringenin (3, 7-O-methyl aromadendrin (4, 7,4′-di-O-methyl aromadendrin (5, 4′-O-methyl kaempferol (6, 3-O-methyl quercetin (7, 5-O-methyl aromadendrin (8, and 5-O-methyl kaempferol (9. The structure of the new phenylpropanoid (1 was established from IR, LC-ESI-MS, and NMR spectral data, including 2D NMR experiments. The extract and fractions demonstrated significant antioxidant activity in DPPH, ABTS, and β-carotene/linoleic acid tests.

  15. Gastroprotective Effect of Geopropolis from Melipona scutellaris Is Dependent on Production of Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Junior, Jerônimo Aparecido; Franchin, Marcelo; Cavallini, Miriam Elias; Denny, Carina; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Ikegaki, Masaharu; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of ethanolic extract of geopropolis (EEGP) from Melipona scutellaris and to investigate the possible mechanisms of action. The gastroprotective activity of the EEGP was evaluated using model ulcer induced by ethanol. To elucidate the possible mechanisms of action, we investigated the involvement of the nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) groups, nitric oxide and prostaglandins. In addition, the antisecretory activity of EEGP was also evaluated by pylorus ligated model. The EEGP orally administrated (300 mg/kg) reduced the ulcerative lesions induced by the ethanol (P 0.05). These results support the alternative medicine use of geopropolis as gastroprotective and the activities observed show to be related to nitric oxide and prostaglandins production.

  16. Antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of propolis from Melipona orbignyi (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Jaqueline Ferreira; dos Santos, Uilson Pereira; Macorini, Luis Fernando Benitez; de Melo, Adriana Mary Mestriner Felipe; Balestieri, José Benedito Perrella; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; de Picoli Souza, Kely; dos Santos, Edson Lucas

    2014-03-01

    Propolis from stingless bees is well known for its biologic properties; however, few studies have demonstrated these effects. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the chemical composition and antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of propolis from the stingless bee Melipona orbignyi, found in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The chemical composition of the ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) indicated the presence of aromatic acids, phenolic compounds, alcohols, terpenes and sugars. The EEP was active against the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and the fungus Candida albicans. The EEP showed antioxidant activity by scavenging free radicals and inhibiting hemolysis and lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes incubated with an oxidizing agent. Additionally, EEP promoted cytotoxic activity and primarily necrotic death in K562 erythroleukemia cells. Taken together, these results indicate that propolis from M. orbignyi has therapeutic potential for the treatment and/or prevention of diseases related to microorganism activity, oxidative stress and tumor cell proliferation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of antennal sensilla, larvae morphology and olfactory genes of Melipona scutellaris stingless bee.

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    Washington João de Carvalho

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence in the literature suggesting that caste differentiation in the stingless bee, Melipona scutellaris, and other bees in the genus Melipona, is triggered by environmental signals, particularly a primer pheromone. With the proper amount of food and a chemical stimulus, 25% of females emerge as queens, in agreement with a long-standing "two loci/two alleles model" proposed in the 1950s. We surmised that these larvae must be equipped with an olfactory system for reception of these chemical signals. Here we describe for the first time the diversity of antennal sensilla in adults and the morphology of larvae of M. scutellaris. Having found evidence for putative olfactory sensilla in larvae, we next asked whether olfactory proteins were expressed in larvae. Since the molecular basis of M. scutellaris is still unknown, we cloned olfactory genes encoding chemosensory proteins (CSP and odorant-binding proteins (OBPs using M. scutellaris cDNA template and primers designed on the basis CSPs and OBPs previously reported from the European honeybee, Apis mellifera. We cloned two CSP and two OBP genes and then attempted to express the proteins encoded by these genes. With a recombinant OBP, MscuOBP8, and a combinatorial single-chain variable fragment antibody library, we generated anti-MscuOBP8 monoclonal antibody. By immunohistochemistry we demonstrated that the anti-MscuOBP8 binds specifically to the MscuOBP8. Next, we found evidence that MscuOBP8 is expressed in M. scutellaris larvae and it is located in the mandibular region, thus further supporting the hypothesis of olfactory function in immature stages. Lastly, molecular modeling suggests that MscuOBP8 may function as a carrier of primer pheromones or other ligands.

  18. Characterization of antennal sensilla, larvae morphology and olfactory genes of Melipona scutellaris stingless bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Washington João de; Fujimura, Patrícia Tieme; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Cloonan, Kevin; da Silva, Neide Maria; Araújo, Ester Cristina Borges; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos; Leal, Walter S

    2017-01-01

    There is growing evidence in the literature suggesting that caste differentiation in the stingless bee, Melipona scutellaris, and other bees in the genus Melipona, is triggered by environmental signals, particularly a primer pheromone. With the proper amount of food and a chemical stimulus, 25% of females emerge as queens, in agreement with a long-standing "two loci/two alleles model" proposed in the 1950s. We surmised that these larvae must be equipped with an olfactory system for reception of these chemical signals. Here we describe for the first time the diversity of antennal sensilla in adults and the morphology of larvae of M. scutellaris. Having found evidence for putative olfactory sensilla in larvae, we next asked whether olfactory proteins were expressed in larvae. Since the molecular basis of M. scutellaris is still unknown, we cloned olfactory genes encoding chemosensory proteins (CSP) and odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) using M. scutellaris cDNA template and primers designed on the basis CSPs and OBPs previously reported from the European honeybee, Apis mellifera. We cloned two CSP and two OBP genes and then attempted to express the proteins encoded by these genes. With a recombinant OBP, MscuOBP8, and a combinatorial single-chain variable fragment antibody library, we generated anti-MscuOBP8 monoclonal antibody. By immunohistochemistry we demonstrated that the anti-MscuOBP8 binds specifically to the MscuOBP8. Next, we found evidence that MscuOBP8 is expressed in M. scutellaris larvae and it is located in the mandibular region, thus further supporting the hypothesis of olfactory function in immature stages. Lastly, molecular modeling suggests that MscuOBP8 may function as a carrier of primer pheromones or other ligands.

  19. The natural population of bees of the earth (Melipona beecheii) and their flora in the valley San Andrés

    OpenAIRE

    Katiuska Ravelo Pimentel; Fernando Ramón Hernández Martínez; Iván Paneque Torres; Luisa Elena Toledo Peña; Hilda Gutiérrez Hernández

    2014-01-01

    The relationship of the natural population of bees of the earth is evaluated (Melipona beecheii) and its flora in the valley San Andrés, to inclination observations and samplings carried out in the formations studied vegetable. The melliferous plants and their use like tree of the nest of Melipona beecheii were studied for each one of the vegetable formations of the valley San Andrés, the indexes of diversity and their relationship were also analyzed with the values of density of colonies. It...

  20. Por que Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae forrageia sob alta umidade relativa do ar?

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    Marília D. e Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Há evidências de que a temperatura do ar e a umidade relativa afetam a atividade de voo de espécies de abelhas sociais Meliponini. Em particular, as espécies grandes do gênero Melipona Illiger, 1806 responderiam de maneira mais estreita à variação na umidade relativa. Neste estudo defende-se o argumento de que a umidade relativa seja uma variável de confusão. Nesta linha de argumentação, também foi analisado o papel da coleta de pólen sobre o ritmo diário de forrageio. A robusta Melipona scutellaris (Latreille, 1811 foi usada como modelo e a atividade diária de voo e de forrageio de pólen foi medida em 12 colônias (4 colônias/hábitat, em três tipos de hábitats, que variam principalmente quanto à pluviosidade, na área de distribuição natural desta espécie (Floresta Pluvial, Floresta Sazonal e Transição Floresta Tropical-Cerrados. A maioria da atividade de voo acontece durante a manhã. A atividade de forrageio das colônias foi mais elevada nas primeiras horas do alvorecer, quando a umidade relativa também era alta, frequentemente associada a picos de coleta de pólen. A atividade de voo decresceu abruptamente durante as temperaturas altas ao redor do meio dia. A relação da atividade de voo com a umidade relativa foi altamente significativa e linear, contrastando com a relação significativa e unimodal com a temperatura. Na relação com o forrageio de M. scutellaris, a umidade relativa se configura como uma variável contingente, em hábitats tropicais úmidos, considerando os padrões diários de variação do microclima e de forrageio de pólen. Este último padrão também sustenta a hipótese de partição temporal de fontes florais de pólen.

  1. Revisão das espécies de Melipona do grupo fuliginosa (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apidae, Meliponini Revision of the species of Melipona of the fuliginosa group (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apidae, Meliponini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M. F. Camargo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Três espécies são reconhecidas: Melipona (Michmelia fuliginosa Lepeletier, 1836, de larga distribuição, do Suriname e Guiana Francesa até o sudeste do Brasil e noroeste da Argentina, M. (Michmelia titania Gribodo, 1893 (revalidado, endêmica do oeste da Amazônia, e M. (Michmelia fallax sp. nov., do noroeste do Equador até a América Central. Melipona fuliginosa distingue-se pela pilosidade dos tergos metassomáticos II-V, tanto do macho como da operária, densa e plumosa, e pelo primeiro tarsômero da perna III do macho mais largo que longo. Em M. titania e M. fallax sp. nov., a pilosidade dos tergos II-V é escassa e simples, não-plumosa, e o primeiro tarsômero tão longo quanto largo ou mais longo que largo. Operárias de Melipona titania e M. fallax sp. nov. separam-se pela forma do penicilo, que é fortemente sinuoso em M. titania, e nos machos de M. fallax sp. nov. as órbitas internas dos olhos são paralelas, enquanto em M. titania as órbitas são convergentes embaixo. Novos registros geográficos, dados bionômicos e uma chave para identificação das espécies são apresentados. Adicionalmente, são feitos comentários sobre o padrão biogeográfico e sobre as glândulas tergais das rainhas.Three species are recognized: Melipona (Michmelia fuliginosa Lepeletier, 1836, widely distributed, from Suriname and French Guiana to southeastern Brazil and northwestern Argentina, M. (Michmelia titania Gribodo, 1893 (revalidated, endemic to western Amazon and M. (Michmelia fallax sp. nov., from northwestern Ecuador to Central America. Melipona fuliginosa differs from the other species by the pilosity of metasomal terga II-V, dense and plumose, in both male and workers, and the first tarsomere of leg III of the male wider than long. In M. titania and M. fallax sp. nov., the pilosity of terga II-V is scarce and simple, non-plumose, and the first tarsomere of leg III of the male is as long as wide or longer. Workers of Melipona titania and

  2. Melipona mondury produces a geopropolis with antioxidant, antibacterial and antiproliferative activities

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    TÁSSIA L.A. DOS SANTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Geopropolis is a special type of propolis produced by stingless bees. Several pharmacological properties have been described for different types of geopropolis, but there have been no previous studies of the geopropolis from Melipona mondury. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of M. mondury geopropolis, and determined its chemical profile. The antioxidant activity was determined using in vitro ABTS·+, ·DPPH, and β-carotene/linoleic acid co-oxidation methods. The antibacterial activity was determined using a microdilution method with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The antiproliferative effect was determined in tumor cell lines using the Alamar Blue assay. The chemical profile was obtained using UHPLC-MS and UHPLC-MS/MS. The butanolic fraction had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds and more potent antioxidant properties in all assays. This fraction also had bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects against all bacterial strains at low concentrations, especially S. aureus. The hexane fraction had the highest antiproliferative potential, with IC50 values ranging from 24.2 to 46.6 µg/mL in HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia cell and K562 (human chronic myelocytic leukemia cell, respectively. Preliminary chemical analysis indicates the presence of terpenes and gallic acid in the geopropolis. Our results indicate the therapeutic potential of geopropolis from M. mondury against inflammatory, oxidative, infectious, and neoplastic diseases.

  3. PHYTOTOXIC POTENTIAL OF THE GEOPROPOLIS EXTRACTS OF THE JANDAIRA STINGLESS BEE (Melipona subnitida IN WEEDS

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    DANIEL SANTIAGO PEREIRA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research is to characterize the phytotoxic activity of geopropolis from the Jandaira bee (Melipona subnitida Ducke in the state of Ceará in Northeast Brazil and to analyze its effects. Extracts were prepared in 80% v/v grain alcohol at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0%. Their effects were determined on seed germination, radicle elongation, and hypocotyl growth of the pasture weeds malícia (Mimosa pudica and mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia. Extract phytotoxicity varied as functions of plant species, application dosage, and plant organ. M. pudica was more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of geopropolis than S. obtusifolia. There was a phytotoxic effect of 50% (PE50 for S. obtusifolia in terms of seed germination and in rootlet development near the maximum applied concentrations. M. pudica had PE50 and PE90 at the minimum concentration (0.25% and near the maximum (1.00%, respectively. Thus, geopropolis extracts from the Jandaira bee (M. subnitida are potentially phytotoxic to certain plant species.

  4. Apolar Bioactive Fraction of Melipona scutellaris Geopropolis on Streptococcus mutans Biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Guilherme da Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the bioactive nonpolar fraction of geopropolis on Streptococcus mutans biofilm. The ethanolic extract of Melipona scutellaris geopropolis was subjected to a liquid-liquid partition, thus obtaining the bioactive hexane fraction (HF possessing antimicrobial activity. The effects of HF on S. mutans UA159 biofilms generated on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs were analyzed by inhibition of formation, killing assay, and glycolytic pH-drop assays. Furthermore, biofilms treated with vehicle control and HF were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. HF at 250 μg/mL and 400 μg/mL caused 38% and 53% reduction in the biomass of biofilm, respectively, when compared to vehicle control (P0.05. In conclusion, the bioactive HF of geopropolis was promising to control the S. mutans biofilm formation, without affecting the microbial population but interfering with its structure by reducing the biochemical content of biofilm matrix.

  5. A Comparative Study of Relational Learning Capacity in Honeybees (Apis mellifera) and Stingless Bees (Melipona rufiventris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Antonio Mauricio; de Souza, Deisy das Graças; Reinhard, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Background Learning of arbitrary relations is the capacity to acquire knowledge about associations between events or stimuli that do not share any similarities, and use this knowledge to make behavioural choices. This capacity is well documented in humans and vertebrates, and there is some evidence it exists in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). However, little is known about whether the ability for relational learning extends to other invertebrates, although many insects have been shown to possess excellent learning capacities in spite of their small brains. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a symbolic matching-to-sample procedure, we show that the honeybee Apis mellifera rapidly learns arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, reaching 68.2% correct choice for pattern-colour relations and 73.3% for colour-pattern relations. However, Apis mellifera does not transfer this knowledge to the symmetrical relations when the stimulus order is reversed. A second bee species, the stingless bee Melipona rufiventris from Brazil, seems unable to learn the same arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, although it exhibits excellent discrimination learning. Conclusions/Significance Our results confirm that the capacity for learning arbitrary relations is not limited to vertebrates, but even insects with small brains can perform this learning task. Interestingly, it seems to be a species-specific ability. The disparity in relational learning performance between the two bee species we tested may be linked to their specific foraging and recruitment strategies, which evolved in adaptation to different environments. PMID:23251542

  6. Nectar profitability, not empty honey stores, stimulate recruitment and foraging in Melipona scutellaris (Apidae, Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P; de Sá Filho, Geovan Figueirêdo; Maia-Silva, Camila; Schorkopf, Martina; Hrncir, Michael; Barth, Friedrich G

    2016-10-01

    In stingless bees (Meliponini) like in many other eusocial insect colonies food hoarding plays an important role in colony survival. However, very little is known on how Meliponini, a taxon restricted to tropical and subtropical regions, respond to different store conditions. We studied the impact of honey removal on nectar foraging activity and recruitment behaviour in Melipona scutellaris and compared our results with studies of the honey bee Apis mellifera. As expected, foraging activity increased significantly during abundance of artificial nectar and when increasing its profitability. Foraging activity on colony level could thereby frequently increase by an order of magnitude. Intriguingly, however, poor honey store conditions did not induce increased nectar foraging or recruitment activity. We discuss possible reasons explaining why increasing recruitment and foraging activity are not used by meliponines to compensate for poor food conditions in the nest. Among these are meliponine specific adaptations to climatic and environmental conditions, as well as physiology and brood rearing, such as mass provisioning of the brood.

  7. Morphology and structure of the tarsal glands of the stingless bee Melipona seminigra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarau, Stefan; Hrncir, Michael; Zucchi, Ronaldo; Barth, Friedrich G.

    2005-03-01

    Footprint secretions deposited at the nest entrance or on food sources are used for chemical communication by honey bees, bumble bees, and stingless bees. The question of the glandular origin of the substances involved, however, has not been unequivocally answered yet. We investigated the morphology and structure of tarsal glands within the fifth tarsomeres of the legs of workers of Melipona seminigra in order to clarify their possible role in the secretion of footprints. The tarsal gland is a sac-like fold forming a reservoir. Its glandular tissue is composed of a unicellular layer of specialized epidermal cells, which cover the thin cuticular intima forming the reservoir. We found that the tarsal glands lack any openings to the outside and therefore conclude that they are not involved in the secretion of footprint substances. The secretion produced accumulates within the gland's reservoir and reaches as far as into the arolium. Thus it is likely that it serves to fill and unfold the arolium during walking to increase adhesion on smooth surfaces, as is known for honey bees and weaver ants.

  8. Melipona mondury produces a geopropolis with antioxidant, antibacterial and antiproliferative activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Tássia L A Dos; Queiroz, Raphael F; Sawaya, Alexandra C H F; Lopez, Begoña Gimenez-Cassina; Soares, Milena B P; Bezerra, Daniel P; Rodrigues, Ana Carolina B C; Paula, Vanderlúcia F DE; Waldschmidt, Ana Maria

    2017-01-01

    Geopropolis is a special type of propolis produced by stingless bees. Several pharmacological properties have been described for different types of geopropolis, but there have been no previous studies of the geopropolis from Melipona mondury. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of M. mondury geopropolis, and determined its chemical profile. The antioxidant activity was determined using in vitro ABTS·+, ·DPPH, and β-carotene/linoleic acid co-oxidation methods. The antibacterial activity was determined using a microdilution method with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The antiproliferative effect was determined in tumor cell lines using the Alamar Blue assay. The chemical profile was obtained using UHPLC-MS and UHPLC-MS/MS. The butanolic fraction had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds and more potent antioxidant properties in all assays. This fraction also had bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects against all bacterial strains at low concentrations, especially S. aureus. The hexane fraction had the highest antiproliferative potential, with IC50 values ranging from 24.2 to 46.6 µg/mL in HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia cell) and K562 (human chronic myelocytic leukemia cell), respectively. Preliminary chemical analysis indicates the presence of terpenes and gallic acid in the geopropolis. Our results indicate the therapeutic potential of geopropolis from M. mondury against inflammatory, oxidative, infectious, and neoplastic diseases.

  9. [ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF MELIPONA BEECHEII HONEY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO HEALTH: A REVIEW].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauich Kumul, Roger; Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Ortíz Vázquez, Elizabeth; Segura Campos, Maira Rubi

    2015-10-01

    The present article provides a literature review about the biological potential of Melipona beecheii. The objective is to project some tendecies in research about nutraceutical aspects related to the bioactive compounds presents in the honey of this stingless bee species, known for its medicinal properties traditional, in the Yucatan Peninsula. Currently, there is strong evidence that M. beecheii honey has bioactive compounds such as proteins, flavonoids and polyphenols with high antioxidant activity. The scientific evidence allows to propose to the honey of stingless bee species as a potential alternative for the obtention of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity in the Yucatan Peninsula and natural food being proposed to reduce some diseases associated with stress oxidative physiological human cells. However, there is still information that explains such antioxidant activity, therefore, according to the literature reviewed, sees the need to address nutraceuticals and functional aspects correlated with the bioactive compounds present in this honey bee. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Hygienic behavior in the stingless bees Melipona beecheii and Scaptotrigona pectoralis (Hymenoptera: Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, L M; Hart, A G; Ratnieks, F L W

    2009-05-19

    Hygienic behavior, a trait that may confer resistance to brood diseases in the honey bee Apis mellifera, was studied in two species of stingless bees in Mexico. Eight colonies each of Melipona beecheii and Scaptotrigona pectoralis were tested for hygienic behavior, the removal of dead or diseased brood, by freeze killing a comb of sealed cells containing pupae. Both species detected and removed dead brood. However, removal rates differed between species. In M. beecheii colonies, workers took 2-9 days to remove 100% of the dead brood (4.4 +/- 2.0 days, mean +/- SD), while S. pectoralis removed all dead brood in less than 3 days (2.3 +/- 0.6 days, mean +/- SD). We conclude that hygienic behavior is not unique to A. mellifera, and is not solely an adaptation for the reuse of brood cells as occurs in honey bees but not stingless bees. Although stingless bees do not reuse brood cells, space is limited. The removal of dead brood may be necessary to allow new cells to be constructed in the same place.

  11. Insights into the Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) fat body transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Cristina Soares; Serrão, José Eduardo; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Amaral, Isabel Marques Rodrigues; Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Maranhão, Andréa Queiroz; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    The insect fat body is a multifunctional organ analogous to the vertebrate liver. The fat body is involved in the metabolism of juvenile hormone, regulation of environmental stress, production of immunity regulator-like proteins in cells and protein storage. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in fat body physiology in stingless bees. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome of the fat body from the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. In silico analysis of a set of cDNA library sequences yielded 1728 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and 997 high-quality sequences that were assembled into 29 contigs and 117 singlets. The BLAST X tool showed that 86% of the ESTs shared similarity with Apis mellifera (honeybee) genes. The M. scutellaris fat body ESTs encoded proteins with roles in numerous physiological processes, including anti-oxidation, phosphorylation, metabolism, detoxification, transmembrane transport, intracellular transport, cell proliferation, protein hydrolysis and protein synthesis. This is the first report to describe a transcriptomic analysis of specific organs of M. scutellaris. Our findings provide new insights into the physiological role of the fat body in stingless bees.

  12. Apolar Bioactive Fraction of Melipona scutellaris Geopropolis on Streptococcus mutans Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Marcos Guilherme; Franchin, Marcelo; Galvão, Lívia Câmara de Carvalho; Bueno-Silva, Bruno; Ikegaki, Masaharu; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the bioactive nonpolar fraction of geopropolis on Streptococcus mutans biofilm. The ethanolic extract of Melipona scutellaris geopropolis was subjected to a liquid-liquid partition, thus obtaining the bioactive hexane fraction (HF) possessing antimicrobial activity. The effects of HF on S. mutans UA159 biofilms generated on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs were analyzed by inhibition of formation, killing assay, and glycolytic pH-drop assays. Furthermore, biofilms treated with vehicle control and HF were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). HF at 250  μ g/mL and 400  μ g/mL caused 38% and 53% reduction in the biomass of biofilm, respectively, when compared to vehicle control (P 0.05). In conclusion, the bioactive HF of geopropolis was promising to control the S. mutans biofilm formation, without affecting the microbial population but interfering with its structure by reducing the biochemical content of biofilm matrix.

  13. Sexual dimorphism and phenotypic plasticity in the antennal lobe of a stingless bee, Melipona scutellaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselino, Ana Carolina; Hrncir, Michael; da Cruz Landim, Carminda; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2015-07-01

    Among social insects, the stingless bees (Apidae, Meliponini), a mainly tropical group of highly eusocial bees, present an intriguing variety of well-described olfactory-dependent behaviors showing both caste- and sex-specific adaptations. By contrast, little is known about the neural structures underlying such behavioral richness or the olfactory detection and processing abilities of this insect group. This study therefore aimed to provide the first detailed description and comparison of the brains and primary olfactory centers, the antennal lobes, of the different members of a colony of the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. Global neutral red staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and 3D reconstructions were used to compare the brain structures of males, workers, and virgin queens with a special emphasis on the antennal lobe. We found significant differences between both sexes and castes with regard to the relative volumes of olfactory and visual neuropils in the brain and also in the number and volume of the olfactory glomeruli. In addition, we identified one (workers, queens) and three or four (males) macroglomeruli in the antennal lobe. In both sexes and all castes, the largest glomerulus (G1) was located at a similar position relative to four identified landmark glomeruli, close to the entrance of the antennal nerve. This similarity in position suggests that G1s of workers, virgin queens, and males of M. scutellaris may correspond to the same glomerular entity, possibly tuned to queen-emitted volatiles since all colony members need this information. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The use of polliniferous resources by Melipona capixaba, an endangered stingless bee species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Bruna Danielle Vieira; da Luz, Cynthia Fernandes Pinto; Campos, Lucio Antonio de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Pollen types present in samples from corbiculae of Melipona capixaba (Moure and Camargo) (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponina) worker bees were analyzed, as well as pollen samples from food pots inside the hives in three sites located at the bees' original habitat. The aim was to find out the sources used as a trophic resource by this species. The dominant pollen grains in the spectrum of the samples belonged to the families Myrtaceae and Melastomataceae. Eucalyptus was the most frequent pollen type in the corbiculae in Conceição do Castelo municipality; Eucalyptus, Myrcia, and Melastomatacea/Combretaceae in the Fazenda do Estado district; and Eucalyptus and Myrcia in the São Paulo de Aracê district, both in the Domingos Martins municipality. Eucalyptus and Melastomataceae/Combretaceae were the predominant pollen types in the food pots. Eucalyptus was the most prevalent type all year round or most of the year. The most common pollen types in the months that Eucalyptus was not present or dominant in the samples were of remaining native forest species, "ruderal" (field) plants, fruit-bearing plants, and introduced ornamental plants.

  15. A comparative study of relational learning capacity in honeybees (Apis mellifera and stingless bees (Melipona rufiventris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mauricio Moreno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Learning of arbitrary relations is the capacity to acquire knowledge about associations between events or stimuli that do not share any similarities, and use this knowledge to make behavioural choices. This capacity is well documented in humans and vertebrates, and there is some evidence it exists in the honeybee (Apis mellifera. However, little is known about whether the ability for relational learning extends to other invertebrates, although many insects have been shown to possess excellent learning capacities in spite of their small brains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a symbolic matching-to-sample procedure, we show that the honeybee Apis mellifera rapidly learns arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, reaching 68.2% correct choice for pattern-colour relations and 73.3% for colour-pattern relations. However, Apis mellifera does not transfer this knowledge to the symmetrical relations when the stimulus order is reversed. A second bee species, the stingless bee Melipona rufiventris from Brazil, seems unable to learn the same arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, although it exhibits excellent discrimination learning. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results confirm that the capacity for learning arbitrary relations is not limited to vertebrates, but even insects with small brains can perform this learning task. Interestingly, it seems to be a species-specific ability. The disparity in relational learning performance between the two bee species we tested may be linked to their specific foraging and recruitment strategies, which evolved in adaptation to different environments.

  16. A comparative study of relational learning capacity in honeybees (Apis mellifera) and stingless bees (Melipona rufiventris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Antonio Mauricio; de Souza, Deisy das Graças; Reinhard, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Learning of arbitrary relations is the capacity to acquire knowledge about associations between events or stimuli that do not share any similarities, and use this knowledge to make behavioural choices. This capacity is well documented in humans and vertebrates, and there is some evidence it exists in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). However, little is known about whether the ability for relational learning extends to other invertebrates, although many insects have been shown to possess excellent learning capacities in spite of their small brains. Using a symbolic matching-to-sample procedure, we show that the honeybee Apis mellifera rapidly learns arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, reaching 68.2% correct choice for pattern-colour relations and 73.3% for colour-pattern relations. However, Apis mellifera does not transfer this knowledge to the symmetrical relations when the stimulus order is reversed. A second bee species, the stingless bee Melipona rufiventris from Brazil, seems unable to learn the same arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, although it exhibits excellent discrimination learning. Our results confirm that the capacity for learning arbitrary relations is not limited to vertebrates, but even insects with small brains can perform this learning task. Interestingly, it seems to be a species-specific ability. The disparity in relational learning performance between the two bee species we tested may be linked to their specific foraging and recruitment strategies, which evolved in adaptation to different environments.

  17. Substituição natural de rainhas fisogástricas e distância de vôo dos machos em Tiuba (Melipona compressipes fasciculata Smith, 1854 e Uruçu (Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Apidae, Meliponini Natural substitutions of queens and flight distance of males in tiuba (Melipona compressipes fasciculata Smith, 1854 and uruçu (Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Apidae, Meliponini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislene Almeida Carvalho-Zilse

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata detalhes da vida reprodutiva de duas espécies de abelhas sem ferrão. Rainhas velhas de Melipona compressipes fasciculata, no Maranhão, morrem e são substituídas com sucesso em todos os meses. Rainhas de Melipona scutellaris, trazidas de Lençóis (BA - nordeste do Brasil para Uberlândia (MG, centro-sudeste do Brasil morreram durante todos os meses e não mostraram a existência de trimestre preferencial para as novas rainhas iniciarem postura. Quarenta machos de M. scutellaris, após serem marcados no tórax e libertados em grupos de 10 a 100, 400, 800 e 1000 metros do meliponário, tiveram seus retornos observados. Todos os machos libertados a 100 e 400 metros regressaram ao meliponário, 7 de 10 machos e 2 de 10 machos retornaram de 800 e 1000 metros, respectivamente. Os machos esperam constantemente pela saída de uma rainha virgem, próximos às colônias órfãs, o que indica que a maioria das rainhas é inseminada próximo aos seus ninhos, portanto, a dispersão dos genes depende do vôo dos machos e da distância de enxameagem para ocupação de uma cavidade para o novo ninho.This work reports on the reproductive life of the stingless bees (Meliponini. Old queens of Melipona compressipes fasciculata in Maranhão State, Brazil die and are successfully substituted by new ones in all months. Queens of Melipona scutellaris from Lençois (BA - northeastern Brazil brought to Uberlândia (Central South eastern Brazil died during all months, and there are no months where new queens are more able to begin egg laying. Forty males of M. scutellaris were marked in the thorax and released in groups of 10 at 100, 400, 800 and 1000 meters from the meliponary and their return to it was observed. All males released at 100 to 400 meters returned, 7 out of 10 and 2 out of 10 males returned respectively from 800 and 1000 meters. Males are constantly waiting for a virgin queen next to orphan colonies, the majority of the queens is

  18. Analysis of volatile components from Melipona beecheii geopropolis from Southeast Mexico by headspace solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-González, Ahira; López-Rivera, Paulina; Duarte-Lisci, Georgina; López-Ramírez, Ángel; Correa-Benítez, Adriana; Rivero-Cruz, J Fausto

    2016-01-01

    A head space solid-phase microextraction method combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed and optimised to extract and analyse volatile compounds of Melipona beecheii geopropolis. Seventy-three constituents were identified using this technique in the sample of geopropolis collected. The main compounds detected include β-fenchene (14.53-15.45%), styrene (8.72-9.98%), benzaldehyde (7.44-7.82%) and the most relevant volatile components presents at high level in the geopropolis were terpenoids (58.17%).

  19. Pollen foraging in colonies of Melipona bicolor (Apidae, Meliponini): effects of season, colony size and queen number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilário, S D; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V L

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the ratio between the number of pollen foragers and the total number of bees entering colonies of Melipona bicolor, a facultative polygynous species of stingless bees. The variables considered in our analysis were: seasonality, colony size and the number of physogastric queens in each colony. The pollen forager ratios varied significantly between seasons; the ratio was higher in winter than in summer. However, colony size and number of queens per colony had no significant effect. We conclude that seasonal differences in pollen harvest are related to the production of sexuals and to the number of individuals and their body size.

  20. Genetic Diversity of Melipona mandacaia SMITH 1863 (Hymenoptera, Apidae), an Endemic Bee Species from Brazilian Caatinga, Using ISSR

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Elder Assis; Batalha-Filho, Henrique; Oliveira, Priscila Santos; Alves, Rogério Marcos Oliveira; Campos, Lucio Antonio Oliveira; Waldschmidt, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the genetic diversity and structure of Melipona mandacaia, we analyzed 104 colonies collected in 12 localities in Bahia state, northeastern Brazil, using ISSR-PCR. A total of 109 bands were obtained with a significant polymorphism of 72.47%. Estimates of genetic diversity indicated low values of heterozygosity (He and HB values were 0.2616 and 0.2573, resp.). These reduced values have been reported in other studies in stingless bees and maybe justified by dispersion proce...

  1. Características físico-químicas de amostras de mel de Melipona asilvai (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Bruno de Almeida; Carvalho,Carlos Alfredo Lopes de; Sodré,Geni da Silva; Marchini,Luis Carlos

    2004-01-01

    Análises de amostras de mel da abelha Melipona asilvai provenientes dos municípios de Itaberaba e Tucano, região semi-árida do Estado da Bahia, foram realizadas com o objetivo de contribuir para o conhecimento das características físico-químicas desse produto. A maioria dos parâmetros físico-químicos apresentou valores adequados para o consumo humano, o que possibilita a exploração desse produto pelas comunidades rurais da região semi-árida da Bahia. Contudo, o teor de umidade elevado é um as...

  2. Características físico-químicas de amostras de mel de Melipona asilvai (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Bruno de Almeida; Carvalho, Carlos Alfredo Lopes de; Sodré, Geni da Silva; Marchini, Luis Carlos

    2004-01-01

    p. 1623-1624 Análises de amostras de mel da abelha Melipona asilvai provenientes dos municípios de Itaberaba e Tucano, região semi-árida do Estado da Bahia, foram realizadas com o objetivo de contribuir para o conhecimento das características físico-químicas desse produto. A maioria dos parâmetros físico-químicos apresentou valores adequados para o consumo humano, o que possibilita a exploração desse produto pelas comunidades rurais da região semi-árida da Bahia. Contudo, o teor de u...

  3. Epigenetic modifications and their relation to caste and sex determination and adult division of labor in the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Júnior, Carlos A M; Fujimura, Patrícia Tieme; Santos-Júnior, Célio Dias; Borges, Naiara Araújo; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos; Hartfelder, Klaus; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Bonetti, Ana Maria

    2017-01-01

    Stingless bees of the genus Melipona, have long been considered an enigmatic case among social insects for their mode of caste determination, where in addition to larval food type and quantity, the genotype also has a saying, as proposed over 50 years ago by Warwick E. Kerr. Several attempts have since tried to test his Mendelian two-loci/two-alleles segregation hypothesis, but only recently a single gene crucial for sex determination in bees was evidenced to be sex-specifically spliced and also caste-specifically expressed in a Melipona species. Since alternative splicing is frequently associated with epigenetic marks, and the epigenetic status plays a major role in setting the caste phenotype in the honey bee, we investigated here epigenetic chromatin modification in the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. We used an ELISA-based methodology to quantify global methylation status and western blot assays to reveal histone modifications. The results evidenced DNA methylation/demethylation events in larvae and pupae, and significant differences in histone methylation and phosphorylation between newly emerged adult queens and workers. The epigenetic dynamics seen in this stingless bee species represent a new facet in the caste determination process in Melipona bees and suggest a possible mechanism that is likely to link a genotype component to the larval diet and adult social behavior of these bees.

  4. Epigenetic modifications and their relation to caste and sex determination and adult division of labor in the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A.M. Cardoso-Júnior

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stingless bees of the genus Melipona, have long been considered an enigmatic case among social insects for their mode of caste determination, where in addition to larval food type and quantity, the genotype also has a saying, as proposed over 50 years ago by Warwick E. Kerr. Several attempts have since tried to test his Mendelian two-loci/two-alleles segregation hypothesis, but only recently a single gene crucial for sex determination in bees was evidenced to be sex-specifically spliced and also caste-specifically expressed in a Melipona species. Since alternative splicing is frequently associated with epigenetic marks, and the epigenetic status plays a major role in setting the caste phenotype in the honey bee, we investigated here epigenetic chromatin modification in the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. We used an ELISA-based methodology to quantify global methylation status and western blot assays to reveal histone modifications. The results evidenced DNA methylation/demethylation events in larvae and pupae, and significant differences in histone methylation and phosphorylation between newly emerged adult queens and workers. The epigenetic dynamics seen in this stingless bee species represent a new facet in the caste determination process in Melipona bees and suggest a possible mechanism that is likely to link a genotype component to the larval diet and adult social behavior of these bees.

  5. [Rediscovery of Melipona subnitida Ducke (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the "Restinga" in the Nacional Park Lençóis Maranhenses, Barreirinhas, MA, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rêgo, Márcia; Albuquerque, Patrícia

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 95 years after the original description, a nest of Melipona subnitida Ducke was rediscovered in the state of Maranhão, in a restinga ecosystem of the Barreirinhas municipality, Northeastern Brazil. The voucher specimens are deposited in the collection of the "Laboratório de Estudos sobre Abelhas" of the "Departamento de Biologia UFMA".

  6. Avaliação de alimentadores para abelha mandaçaia (Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides)

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio, R.B.; Paula-Leite, M.C.; Carvalho, C.A.L.; Faquinello, P.

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar diferentes dispositivos para alimentação de colônias de abelha mandaçaia. Foram avaliados três alimentadores, Eiratama, Pernambucano e Prato, para a alimentação energética. Foram utilizados 5 dispositivos por tratamento, totalizando 15 colônias. Foram avaliados à capacidade de coleta e tempo até o consumo total do alimento fornecido. O Prato apresentou média para consumo de alimento de 13,55 mL, sendo superior aos demais. Concluiu-se que, para a aliment...

  7. Caracterização do mel produzido por espécies de Melipona Illiger, 1806 (apidae: meliponini da região nordeste do Brasil: 1. Características físico-químicas Characterization of honey produced by species of Melipona Illiger, 1806 (apidae: meliponini from the northeast area of Brazil: 1. Physico-chemical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno de Almeida Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty three honey samples produced by four Melipona species from different areas of the State of Bahia, were analyzed with the aim to determine their physico-chemical characteristics, contributing to the establishment of standards for quality control. The majority of the average values for physico-chemical parameters fulfilled the quality criteria established by the Brazilian and international Legislations for Apis honey, except for moisture content, which afforded higher values. Concerning the high number of samples wich did not fit the limits for reducing sugars, it is necessary to define minimum values in order to characterize Melipona honeys, as well as criteria for use of diastasic activity.

  8. Five egg-laying queens in a single colony of brazilian stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris Latreille Presença de cinco rainhas fisogástricas em colônia de abelha sem ferrão (Melipona scutellaris Latreille

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    Carlos Alfredo Lopes de Carvalho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Polygyny, characterized by the presence of several egg-laying queens, is considered as a temporary colony status. In stingless bees it is rarely observed. This paper reports the first case of natural polygyny in Melipona scutellaris colony, with five egg-laying queens.Poliginia, caracterizada pela presença de mais de uma rainha poedeira, é considerada como uma condição temporária em colônias. Em abelhas sem ferrão isso é raramente observado. Este artigo registra o primeiro caso de poliginia natural em colônia de Melipona scutellaris, com cinco rainhas poedeiras.

  9. Genetic variability in Melipona quinquefasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) from northeastern Brazil determined using the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J O P; Freitas, B M; Jorge, D M M; Torres, D C; Soares, C E A; Grangeiro, T B

    2009-01-01

    Melipona quinquefasciata is a ground-nesting South American stingless bee whose geographic distribution was believed to comprise only the central and southern states of Brazil. We obtained partial sequences (about 500-570 bp) of first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) nuclear ribosomal DNA from Melipona specimens putatively identified as M. quinquefasciata collected from different localities in northeastern Brazil. To confirm the taxonomic identity of the northeastern samples, specimens from the state of Goiás (Central region of Brazil) were included for comparison. All sequences were deposited in GenBank (accession numbers EU073751-EU073759). The mean nucleotide divergence (excluding sites with insertions/deletions) in the ITS1 sequences was only 1.4%, ranging from 0 to 4.1%. When the sites with insertions/deletions were also taken into account, sequence divergences varied from 0 to 5.3%. In all pairwise comparisons, the ITS1 sequence from the specimens collected in Goiás was most divergent compared to the ITS1 sequences of the bees from the other locations. However, neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis showed that all ITS1 sequences from northeastern specimens along with the sample of Goiás were resolved in a single clade with a bootstrap support of 100%. The ITS1 sequencing data thus support the occurrence of M. quinquefasciata in northeast Brazil.

  10. Ecotoxicological effects of the insecticide fipronil in Brazilian native stingless bees Melipona scutellaris (Apidae: Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Cássio Resende; Travençolo, Bruno Augusto Nassif; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; Vieira Santos, Vanessa Santana; Campos, Carlos Fernando; de Campos Júnior, Edimar Olegário; Pereira, Boscolli Barbosa; Carvalho Naves, Maria Paula; de Rezende, Alexandre Azenha Alves; Spanó, Mário Antônio; Vieira, Carlos Ueira; Bonetti, Ana Maria

    2018-09-01

    Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera, Apidae) is a pollinator of various native and cultivated plants. Because of the expansion of agriculture and the need to ensure pest control, the use of insecticides such as fipronil (FP) has increased. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of sublethal doses of FP insecticide on M. scutellaris at different time intervals (6, 12, and 24 h) after exposure, via individually analyzed behavioral biomarkers (locomotor activity, behavioral change) as well as the effect of FP on different brain structures of bees (mushroom bodies, antennal cells, and optic cells), using sub-individual cell biomarkers (heterochromatin dispersion, total nuclear and heterochromatic volume). Forager bees were collected when they were returning to the nest and were exposed to three different concentrations of FP (0.40, 0.040, and 0.0040 ng a.i/bee) by topical application. The results revealed a reduction in the mean velocity, lethargy, motor difficulty, paralysis, and hyperexcitation in all groups of bees treated with FP. A modification of the heterochromatic dispersion pattern and changes in the total volume of the nucleus and heterochromatin were also observed in the mushroom bodies (6, 12, and 24 h of exposure) and antennal lobes (6 and 12 h) of bees exposed to 0.0040 ng a.i/bee (LD 50/100 ). FP is toxic to M. scutellaris and impairs the essential functions required for the foraging activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Floral Preference of Melipona eburnea Friese (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in a Colombian Andean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregon, D; Nates-Parra, G

    2014-02-01

    Melipona eburnea Friese is a stingless bee kept in some regions of Colombia, where it is reported to be vulnerable to extinction due to habitat disturbance. To contribute to raising conservation strategies, the aim of this study was to identify the floral preferences of this species using melissopalynological analysis. A total of 31 pollen pot samples and 37 honey samples were taken from March 2009 through March 2010 from four colonies in Fusagasuga, Colombia. We found 92 pollen types: 17 from pollen pot samples, 39 from honey samples (indicating the sources of nectar), and 36 in both types of samples. The most frequent pollen types in the pollen pot samples were Myrcia type (100%), Eucalyptus globulus (96.9%), and Fraxinus uhdei (96.9%). The most frequent pollen types in honey samples were E. globulus (97.4%) and Myrcia type (94.9%). The pollen types corresponded mainly to native plants (68%), trees (44.5%), plants whose sexual system is hermaphroditic (56.5%), and plants with inflorescences (76.2%). The most frequent shapes of the flowers were brush-like (type Myrtaceae) and dish-like (type Asteraceae), and the preferred flower colors were white or cream (52.2%). In general, we found that M. eburnea showed a strong preference for trees of the family Myrtaceae to obtain nectar and pollen, including native and introduced species. Some other families are contributing significantly, such as Melastomataceae for pollen collection and Asteraceae for nectar. These results highlight the key plant species for the diet of M. eburnea.

  12. Genetic variability in Melipona scutellaris from Recôncavo, Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, J L; Francisco, A K; Carvalho, C A L; Waldschmidt, A M

    2013-09-10

    Bees play a key role in pollination and thereby help maintain plant diversity. The stingless bee Melipona scutellaris is an important pollinator in northeastern Brazil because it is endemic to this region. Both deforestation and timber harvesting have reduced the nesting sites for this species, thus reducing its population and range. Genetic studies may help reverse this process by providing important tools for their proper management with a view to conservation of this species. Microsatellite markers have proven to be ideal for mapping genes and population genetic studies. Our aim was to study, using microsatellite markers, the interpopulation genetic variability of M. scutellaris in different parts of the Recôncavo region in Bahia State, Brazil. In all, 95 adult workers from 11 localities in Recôncavo Baiano (Amargosa, Cabaceiras do Paraguaçu, Conceição da Feira, Conceição do Almeida, Domingos Macedo Costa, Governador Mangabeira, Jaguaripe, Jiquiriça, Maragojipe, São Felipe, and Vera Cruz) were analyzed using 10 pairs of microsatellite primers developed for different Meliponini species. The total number of alleles, allele richness, and genetic diversity ranged from 2 to 7 per locus (average = 4.4), 1.00 to 4.88, and 0.0 to 0.850, respectively. The expected and observed heterozygosities varied from 0.0 to 0.76 and 0.0 to 0.84, respectively. No locus showed deviation from the expected frequencies in the chi-square test or linkage disequilibrium. The fixation index, analysis of molecular variance, and unweighted pair-group method using the arithmetic average revealed the effects of human activities on the populations of M. scutellaris, as little genetic structure was detected.

  13. Metals in geopropolis from beehive of Melipona scutellaris in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsucesso, Josemário S; Gloaguen, Thomas V; do Nascimento, Andreia S; de Carvalho, Carlos Alfredo L; de S Dias, Fabio

    2018-09-01

    Geopropolis, a different type of propolis, presents a mixture of resin and exudates, containing wax, silt, and sand particles. This product has been the subject of research interest for its physicochemical properties, economic importance, and likely for environmental monitoring. The determination of toxic metals in hive products has been reported as an efficient tool for environmental monitoring. As the honey production is now common in urban environments, this study aimed to determine the concentration of toxic metals in the Melipona scutellaris geopropolis of the Metropolitan Region of Salvador, Bahia. Geopropolis and soil samples were collected from seven important beehives between June 2015 and July 2016. After EPA 3050B acid digestion procedure, metals were determined by ICP OES. As the geopropolis is partially made from soil, the values of Cr and Fe were extremely more important than the values reported in propolis, wax, and honey found in other worldwide studies. It gives different characteristics to this product depending on the location of the hive and characterizes it as an efficient integrating indicator of soil pollution. Using the enrichment factor, we determined that the soils around the meliponary are not or only slightly polluted by Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn. However, there was a shift in the particle size of geopropolis, being loamier and less sandy than the surrounding soil. In such case, a higher metal content could be expected, though no metal enrichment in the geopropolis was found, even a decrease in zinc, possibly due to the exclusion of metals by bees, was noted. Nevertheless, the results on the proportions of lithogenic metal and anthropogenic metal indicate that some metals have an external origin (about 20% for Ni and Cu). Geopropolis can be considered as a good environmental indicator even in low contaminated areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Foraging behavior of Melipona rufiventris Lepeletier (Apinae; Meliponini in Ubatuba, SP, Brazil

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    AO. Fidalgo

    Full Text Available This study describes how the foraging activity of Melipona rufiventris is influenced by the environment and/or by the state of a colony. Two colonies were studied in Ubatuba, SP (44° 48’ W and 23° 22’ S from July/2000 to June/2001. These colonies were classified as strong (Colony 1 and intermediate (Colony 2 according to their general conditions: population and brood comb size and number of food pots. The bees were active from dawn to dusk. The number of pollen loads presented a positive correlation with relative humidity (r s = 0.401; p <0.01 and was highest between 70 and 90%. However, it was negatively correlated with temperature (r s = -0.228; p <0.01 showing a peak between 18 and 23 °C. The number of nectar loads presented a positive correlation with temperature (r s = 0.244; p <0.01 and light intensity (r s = 0.414; p <0.01; it was greater between 50 and 90% of relative humidity and 20 and 30 °C of temperature. They collected more nectar than pollen throughout the day, and were more active between 6 and 9 hours. Workers from Colony 1 (strong collected nectar in greater amounts and earlier than those from Colony 2 (intermediate. The number of pollen, nectar and resin loads varied considerably between the study days. Peaks of pollen collection occurred earlier in months with longer days and in a hotter and more humid climate. The foraging behavior of M. rufiventris is probably affected by the state of the colony and by environmental conditions, notably temperature, relative humidity, light intensity and length of the day.

  15. Selectividad de pecoreo de la abeja sin aguijón Melipona beecheii Bennett en la EEPF "Indio Hatuey", Matanzas Foraging selectivity of the stingless bee Melipona beecheii Bennett at the EEPF "Indio Hatuey", Matanzas

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    Leydi Fonte

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se realizó en la EEPF "Indio Hatuey", con el objetivo de determinar la selectividad de pecoreo de la abeja sin aguijón (Melipona beecheii Bennett, mediante el análisis palinológico de muestras de miel y polen. Previamente se realizó un inventario florístico del área, alrededor del emplazamiento del meliponario, basado en el radio de vuelo de las abejas. En las silvopasturas se utilizó el método de la escalera, y en el caso de los cercados vivos se contaron los árboles cada 10 m y se reflejaron en el croquis del área muestreada. En las arboledas y los traspatios de las viviendas se contaron y clasificaron todos los árboles existentes, y en el estrato herbáceo se aplicó el método de los pasos. En ambos tipos de muestra predominaron los granos de polen de guayaba (Psidium guajava y almácigo (Bursera simaruba, seguidos por los de dormidera (Mimosa pudica, sensitiva (Mimosa pigra, y naranjo y limonero (Citrus spp.. Se concluye que las abejas meliponas presentaron una marcada selectividad de pecoreo por las floraciones del almácigo y la guayaba, y que la Estación cuenta con el potencial melífero suficiente para que puedan desarrollarse favorablemente, sobre una base alimentaria sustentable.The work was conducted at the EEPF "Indio Hatuey" to determine the foraging selectivity of stingless bees (Melipona beecheii Bennett through the analysis of honey and pollen samples. A floristic inventory of the area had been previously made around the apiary location, taking into consideration the bees' flight radius. The stair method was used in the silvopastures, and in the case of the living fences the trees were counted every 10 meters and this was shown in the sketch of the sampled area. In the groves and yards all trees where counted and classified, and in the herbaceous stratum the step method was applied. The pollen grains of guava (Psidium guajava and mastic tree (Bursera simaruba predominated in both kinds of samples

  16. Acceptance threshold hypothesis is supported by chemical similarity of cuticular hydrocarbons in a stingless bee, Melipona asilvai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, D L; Nascimento, F S

    2012-11-01

    The ability to discriminate nestmates from non-nestmates in insect societies is essential to protect colonies from conspecific invaders. The acceptance threshold hypothesis predicts that organisms whose recognition systems classify recipients without errors should optimize the balance between acceptance and rejection. In this process, cuticular hydrocarbons play an important role as cues of recognition in social insects. The aims of this study were to determine whether guards exhibit a restrictive level of rejection towards chemically distinct individuals, becoming more permissive during the encounters with either nestmate or non-nestmate individuals bearing chemically similar profiles. The study demonstrates that Melipona asilvai (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) guards exhibit a flexible system of nestmate recognition according to the degree of chemical similarity between the incoming forager and its own cuticular hydrocarbons profile. Guards became less restrictive in their acceptance rates when they encounter non-nestmates with highly similar chemical profiles, which they probably mistake for nestmates, hence broadening their acceptance level.

  17. Cobalt chloride induces metaphase when topically applied to larvae and pupae of the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueira-Vieira, C; Tavares, R R; Morelli, S; Pereira, B B; Silva, R P; Torres-Mariano, A R; Kerr, W E; Bonetti, A M

    2013-06-20

    In order to optimize preparations of bee metaphases, we tested cobalt chloride, which has been used as a metaphase inducer in other organisms, such as hamsters and fish. Four microliters of 65 mM cobalt chloride aqueous solution was topically applied to larval and pupal stages of the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. The cerebral ganglion was removed after treatment and prepared for cytogenetic analysis. Identically manipulated untreated individuals were used as controls. The number of metaphases was increased 3-fold in treated individuals compared to controls. The micronucleus test showed no mutagenic effects of cobalt chloride on M. scutellaris cells. We concluded that cobalt chloride is a metaphase-inducing agent in M. scutellaris, thus being useful for cytogenetic analyses.

  18. Analysis of the intercaste transcriptional profile of Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) by mRNA differential display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siquieroli, Ana Carolina S; Vieira, Carlos U; Carvalho-Zilse, Gislene A; Goulart, Luiz R; Kerr, Warwick E; Bonetti, Ana M

    2009-01-01

    In colonies of Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 workers can be found with four ganglion nerve cells, a morphological characteristic of the queen. It is hypothesized that these workers, called intercastes, or phenocopies, are phenotypically-like workers, but genotypically identical to queens due to this specific trait. Workers with the same number of ganglion as queens seem to be intercastes between queens and workers. Our objective was to analyze the mRNA pro files of workers, queens, and intercastes of M. scutellaris through DDRT-PCR. Three hundred (300) pupae with white eyes were collected and externally identified according to the number of abdominal nerve ganglions: workers (5 ganglions), queens (4 ganglions) and intercastes (4 ganglions). The analysis identified differentially expressed transcripts that were present only in workers, but absent in intercastes and queens, confirming the hypothesis, by demonstrating the environmental effect on the queen genotype that generated phenotype-like workers.

  19. Prediction of social structure and genetic relatedness in colonies of the facultative polygynous stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Evelyze Pinheiro; de Oliveira Campos, Lucio Antonio; Tavares, Mara Garcia

    2011-04-01

    Stingless bee colonies typically consist of one single-mated mother queen and her worker offspring. The stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera: Apidae) shows facultative polygyny, which makes this species particularly suitable for testing theoretical expectations concerning social behavior. In this study, we investigated the social structure and genetic relatedness among workers from eight natural and six manipulated colonies of M. bicolor over a period of one year. The populations of M. bicolor contained monogynous and polygynous colonies. The estimated genetic relatedness among workers from monogynous and polygynous colonies was 0.75 ± 0.12 and 0.53 ± 0.16 (mean ± SEM), respectively. Although the parental genotypes had significant effects on genetic relatedness in monogynous and polygynous colonies, polygyny markedly decreased the relatedness among nestmate workers. Our findings also demonstrate that polygyny in M. bicolor may arise from the adoption of related or unrelated queens.

  20. Características físico-químicas de amostras de mel de Melipona asilvai (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Souza Bruno de Almeida

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Análises de amostras de mel da abelha Melipona asilvai provenientes dos municípios de Itaberaba e Tucano, região semi-árida do Estado da Bahia, foram realizadas com o objetivo de contribuir para o conhecimento das características físico-químicas desse produto. A maioria dos parâmetros físico-químicos apresentou valores adequados para o consumo humano, o que possibilita a exploração desse produto pelas comunidades rurais da região semi-árida da Bahia. Contudo, o teor de umidade elevado é um aspecto que merece uma maior atenção por parte do produtor, que deverá ter cuidado com a higiene na manipulação do mel durante a coleta e no processo de armazenamento.

  1. Analysis of the Intercaste Transcriptional Profile of Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini by mRNA Differential Display

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    ANA CAROLINA S SIQUIEROLI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In colonies of Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 workers can be found with four ganglion nerve cells, a morphological characteristic of the queen. It is hypothesized that these workers, called intercastes, or phenocopies, are phenotypically-like workers, but genotypically identical to queens due to this specific trait. Workers with the same number of ganglion as queens seem to be intercastes between queens and workers. Our objective was to analyze the mRNA pro files of workers, queens, and intercastes of M. scutellaris through DDRT-PCR. Three hundred (300 pupae with white eyes were collected and externally identified according to the number of abdominal nerve ganglions: workers (5 ganglions, queens (4 ganglions and intercastes (4 ganglions. The analysis identified differentially expressed transcripts that were present only in workers, but absent in intercastes and queens, confirming the hypothesis, by demonstrating the environmental effect on the queen genotype that generated phenotype-like workers.

  2. Prediction of social structure and genetic relatedness in colonies of the facultative polygynous stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Evelyze Pinheiro dos Reis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bee colonies typically consist of one single-mated mother queen and her worker offspring. The stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera: Apidae shows facultative polygyny, which makes this species particularly suitable for testing theoretical expectations concerning social behavior. In this study, we investigated the social structure and genetic relatedness among workers from eight natural and six manipulated colonies of M. bicolor over a period of one year. The populations of M. bicolor contained monogynous and polygynous colonies. The estimated genetic relatedness among workers from monogynous and polygynous colonies was 0.75 ± 0.12 and 0.53 ± 0.16 (mean ± SEM, respectively. Although the parental genotypes had significant effects on genetic relatedness in monogynous and polygynous colonies, polygyny markedly decreased the relatedness among nestmate workers. Our findings also demonstrate that polygyny in M. bicolor may arise from the adoption of related or unrelated queens.

  3. A protocol for isolating insect mitochondrial genomes: a case study of NUMT in Melipona flavolineata (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Françoso, Elaine; Gomes, Fernando; Arias, Maria Cristina

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear mitochondrial DNA insertions (NUMTs) are mitochondrial DNA sequences that have been transferred into the nucleus and are recognized by the presence of indels and stop codons. Although NUMTs have been identified in a diverse range of species, their discovery was frequently accidental. Here, our initial goal was to develop and standardize a simple method for isolating NUMTs from the nuclear genome of a single bee. Subsequently, we tested our new protocol by determining whether the indels and stop codons of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequence of Melipona flavolineata are of nuclear origin. The new protocol successfully demonstrated the presence of a COI NUMT. In addition to NUMT investigations, the protocol described here will also be very useful for studying mitochondrial mutations related to diseases and for sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes with high read coverage by Next-Generation technology.

  4. Qualidade dos méis produzidos por Melipona fasciculata Smith da região do cerrado maranhense

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    Carlos Alexandre Holanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The honey of Melipona fasciculata is few known in terms of composition, and therefore generally associated with the characteristics of the honey of Apis mellifera. This study contributes to the knowledge of the physico-chemical characteristics of honey of M. fasciculata of the municipalities of Barra do Corda, Jenipapo dos Vieiras, Fernando Falcão, Carolina and Riachão, in cerrado region from Maranhão. The parameters studied were: moisture, pH, acidity, reducing sugars, apparent sucrose, hydroxymethylfurfural, diastase activity, insoluble solids, ash and color. Some of the observed patterns may conform to the established for A. mellifera, but others must be accompanied by a specific legislation.

  5. The natural population of bees of the earth (Melipona beecheii and their flora in the valley San Andrés

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    Katiuska Ravelo Pimentel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship of the natural population of bees of the earth is evaluated (Melipona beecheii and its flora in the valley San Andrés, to inclination observations and samplings carried out in the formations studied vegetable. The melliferous plants and their use like tree of the nest of Melipona beecheii were studied for each one of the vegetable formations of the valley San Andrés, the indexes of diversity and their relationship were also analyzed with the values of density of colonies. It was determined that the density of colonies of bees of the earth is directly related with the wealth and diversity of species of melliferous plants found in the study area. He was also proven that the arboreal species more used as tree of the nest they are: Bursera simaruba, Guazuma ulmifolia, Psidium guajava, Mangifera indica and Roystonea regia.

  6. Espécies nectaríferas e poliníferas utilizadas pela abelha Melipona compressipes fasciculata (MELIPONINAE, APIDAE), no Maranhão

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Absy, Maria Lúcia; Souza, Antônio Carlos Marques

    1986-01-01

    Este trabalho apresenta 79 espécies de plantas que fornecem néctar e/ou pólen para operárias de Melipona compressipes fasciculata, que é a abelha mais comum do Maranhão. A maioria dessas plantas são também visitadas por Apis mellifera. Sugere-se, com isso, o plantio de algumas espécies em estradas, cercas, ruas, avenidas e praças, a fim de melhorar a pasto apícola. This paper lists 79 species of plants used by Melipona compressipes fasciculata, the most common bee of Maranhão (a northern B...

  7. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of geopropolis produced by Melipona fasciculata (Meliponinae) in flooded fields and cerrado areas of Maranhão State, northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    BATISTA,Marisa Cristina Aranha; ABREU,Bruno Vinicius de Barros; DUTRA,Richard Pereira; CUNHA,Mayara Soares; AMARAL,Flavia Maria Mendonça do; TORRES,Luce Maria Brandão; RIBEIRO,Maria Nilce de Sousa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Geopropolis, a mixture of plant resin, wax, soil and salivary secretion, is produced by the stingless bee Melipona fasciculata. This aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of geopropolis collected from beehives in two phytogeographical regions, flooded fields and cerrado, in the municipalities of Palmeirândia and Fernando Falcão, Maranhão State, northeastern Brazil. The geopropolis compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass sp...

  8. Chemical composition, botanical evaluation and screening of radical scavenging activity of collected pollen by the stingless bees Melipona rufiventris (Uruçu-amarela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tania M S; Camara, Celso A; Lins, Antonio C S; Agra, Maria de Fátima; Silva, Eva M S; Reis, Igor T; Freitas, Breno M

    2009-06-01

    Stingless bees in Brazil are indigenous and found all over the country. Bee pollen is used for its nutritional value in the human diet. It is made up of natural flower pollen mixed with nectar and bee secretions. In order to evaluate the chemical composition, free radical scavenging activity, and botanical origin, sample of pollen loads from stingless bee, Melipona rufiventris (Uruçu amarela) was studied. The EtOAc extract of pollen of Melipona rufiventris yielded the following compounds: p-hydroxycinnamic acid, dihydroquercetin, isorhamnetin, isorhamnetin3-O-(6'-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin, and quercetin. This is the first report of the isolation of isorhamnetin3-O-(6'O-E-p-coumaroyl)beta-D-glucopyranoside from pollen. The free radicalscavenging activities of different solvent extracts of pollen were determined using DPPH assay. This activity decreases in the order: EtOAc>EtOH>Hexane extract. It appears that the EtOAc extract of the pollen is a good scavenger of active oxygen species. The botanical evaluation of pollen loads showed the composition by two pollen types, with the dominant type (97.3%) being Scopariadulcis (L.) (Scrophulariaceae) and the minor one Senna obtusifolia (L.) Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae). This suggests a specific foraging behavior in Melipona rufiventris bees, even in an environment with such a rich botanical diversity as the Northeastern Brazil.

  9. Melitocoria de Zygia racemosa (Ducke Barneby & Grimes por Melipona seminigra merrillae Cockerell, 1919 y Melipona compressipes manaosensis Schwarz, 1932 (Hymenoptera, Meliponina en la Amazonía Central, Brasil Melitocory of Zygia racemosa (Ducke Barneby & Grimes by Melipona seminigra merrillae Cockerell, 1919 and Melipona compressipes manaosensis Schwarz, 1932 (Hymenoptera, Meliponina in Central Amazon, Brazil

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    Christinny Giselly Bacelar-Lima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el periodo de enero a abril de 2005 fueron encontradas semillas de Zygia racemosa, incorporadas al geoprópolis, en el interior de abejas sin aguijón en dos meliponarios experimentales en Manaus - AM. Fue observada intensa actividad de las obreras de M. seminigra merrillae y M. compressipes manaosensis llegando del campo con semillas fijas en las corbículas adheridas con resina y/o saliendo de las colonias con las semillas atrapadas en las mandíbulas. Ochenta semillas fueron recogidas en el interior de las colonias (mezcladas al geoprópolis en los basureros y fisuras y también en el exterior, cerca de la entrada de las colonias, como resultado de la caída de esas semillas de las corbículas durante el vuelo de las obreras. Las semillas fueron plantadas en semilleros para la producción de esquejes y posterior identificación de la especie vegetal. Paralelamente se realizó el rastreo en campo en un radio de aproximadamente 3Km para la confirmación de la dispersión de las semillas, observaciones de comportamiento de las abejas forrajeando y recolección de semillas. Un total de 170 plántulas de Z. racemosa fueron encontradas en los alrededores del meliponario del GPA-INPA y 160 en el meliponario Vale Verde. Esos resultados indican que tanto M. compressipes manaosensis como M. seminigra merrillae recolectan y dispersan las semillas de Z. racemosa.During the period from January to April 2005 seeds of Zygia racemosa were found incorporated in the nest structures, inside the colonies of stingless bee in two experimental meliponaries in Manaus - Am. It was registered an intense activity of the bee-workers of Melipona seminigra merrillae and M. compressipes manaosensis arriving from the field with seeds set in the corbiculae adhered with resin and/or leaving the colonies with the seeds clipped in their jaws. Eighty seeds were collected inside the colonies (mixed with the batume in the litter and/or cracks, and also outside them, near

  10. Espectro polínico de amostras de mel de Melipona mandacaia Smith, 1863 (Hymenoptera: Apidae = Pollen spectrum from honey samples of Melipona mandacaia Smith, 1863 stingless bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Rogério Marcos de Oliveira Alves

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O espectro polínico de amostras de mel da abelha Melipona mandacaia foi analisado com objetivo de elucidar os recursos alimentares utilizados por essa espécie. A identificação das plantas visitadas foi realizada com base na análise dos tipos polínicos encontrados nas amostras de mel coletadas em 11 colônias localizadas no município de São Gabriel, em área de caatinga do Estado da Bahia, Brasil (11º14’S e 41º52’W. As análises quantitativas e qualitativas foram realizadas com o objetivo de determinar as porcentagens e classes de freqüência dos tipos polínicos presentes nas amostras de mel. Foram encontrados 26 tipos polínicos, sendo o tipo Piptadenia rigida (Mimosaceae considerado dominante. Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, Mimosa verrucata (Mimosaceae e M. arenosa (Mimosaceae foram considerados pólen isolado importante. As famílias mais representativas no espectro polínico das amostras de mel foram Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae e Anacardiaceae.The pollen spectrum from honey samples of Melipona mandacaia stingless bee was analyzed aiming at elucidating the alimentaryresources used by that species. The identification of the visited plants was based on the analysis of pollen from honey samples collected in 11 hives located in São Gabriel county, in the semiarid area of Bahia State, Brazil (11º14’S and 41º52’W. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of honey samples were conducted in order to determine the pollen types percentages and frequency classes. Twenty-six pollen types were found, being the Piptadenia rigida type (Mimosaceae considered dominant. Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, Mimosa verrucata (Mimosaceae and M. arenosa (Mimosaceae were considered important isolated pollen. The most representative families found in the pollen spectrum of the honey samples were Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae and Anacardiaceae.

  11. Características físico-químicas de amostras de mel de Melipona mandacaia Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae Physico-chemical characteristics of honey samples of stingless bee Melipona mandacaia Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Rogério Marcos de Oliveira Alves

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Análises de amostras de mel da abelha Melipona mandacaia provenientes do município de São Gabriel, região semi-árida do Estado da Bahia, foram realizadas com o objetivo de contribuir para o conhecimento das características físico-químicas desse produto. Os parâmetros analisados foram: Umidade (%; Hidroximetilfurfural (mg.kg-1; Açúcares Redutores (%; Sacarose (%; Viscosidade (mPa. s; Condutividade Elétrica (µS; pH; Acidez (meq.kg-1; Índice de Formol (mL.kg-1; e Cor. A maioria dos parâmetros físico-químicos apresentou valores médios adequados para o consumo humano, o que possibilita a exploração desse produto pelas comunidades rurais da região semi-árida da Bahia. Contudo, o teor de umidade elevado é um aspecto que requer uma maior atenção por parte do produtor, que deverá ter maiores cuidados com a higiene na manipulação do mel durante a coleta e no processo de armazenamento, evitando a sua contaminação por microrganismos que causam a depreciação do produto.Honey samples of the Melipona mandacaia stingless bee collected in the São Gabriel county, semi-arid region of the State of Bahia, Brazil, were analyzed with the objective of contributing for the knowledge of the characteristics physico-chemical of that product. The parameters analyzed were: Moisture (%; Hydroxymethylfurfural (mg.kg-1; Reducing Sugars (%; Sucrose (%; Viscosity (mPa.s; Electrical Conductivity (µS; pH; Acidity (meq.kg-1; Formol Index (mL.kg-1; and Color. Most of the physico-chemical parameters showed values adequated for the human consumption, facilitating the exploration of the product by rural communities of the semi-arid area of Bahia. However, the high moisture content is an aspect that deserves a greater attention by the part of producers, who should have concern with hygiene cares when manipulating the honey during the collection and the storage processes, avoiding its contamination with microorganisms that may cause depreciation of the

  12. Occurrence, morphology and ultrastructure of the Dufour gland in Melipona bicolor Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Meliponini Ocorrência, morfologia e ultra-estrutura da glândula de Dufour em Melipona bicolor Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Meliponini

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    Fábio Camargo Abdalla

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence, morphology and ultrastructure of the Dufour gland in Melipona bicolor Lepeletier, 1836 are presented. The Dufour gland is not present in workers. In virgin queens the gland cells show characteristics of low activity, which are described in the text. In physogastric queens the gland epithelium is higher and the cells more active than in virgin queens, showing numerous basal plasmic membrane invaginations impregnated by an electrondense material, increased apical invaginations and accumulation of substances that will be released to the gland lumen in the subcuticular space. Therefore, the data show that the Dufour gland is more developed in physogastric than in virgin queens, indicating a possible involvement of the Dufour gland in the reproduction of this species.A ocorrência, morfologia e ultra-estrutura da glândula de Dufour em Melipona bicolor Lepeletier, 1836 são apresentados. A glândula de Dufour não está presente nas operárias. Nas rainhas virgens, as células glandulares mostram características de baixa atividade, as quais são descritas no texto. Nas rainhas fisogástricas, o epitélio glandular é mais alto e as células mais ativas do que nas rainhas virgens, mostrando numerosas invaginações da membrana plasmática basal impregnadas por material eletrondenso, além do aumento da freqüência de invaginações apicais e acúmulo de substâncias no espaço subcuticular, as quais serão posteriormente liberadas ao lúmen da glândula. Portanto, os dados mostram que a glândula de Dufour é mais desenvolvida nas rainhas fisogástricas do que nas virgens, indicando um possível envolvimento da glândula de Dufour na reprodução desta espécie.

  13. Areas of natural occurrence of Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera: Apidae in the state of Bahia, Brazil

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    Rogério M.O. Alves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The bee Melipona scutellaris is considered the reared meliponine species with the largest distribution in the North and Northeast regions of Brazil, with records from the state of Rio Grande do Norte down to the state of Bahia. Considering the importance of this species in the generation of income for family agriculture and in the preservation of areas with natural vegetation, this study aimed at providing knowledge on the distribution of natural colonies of M. scutellaris in the state of Bahia. Literature information, interviews with stinglessbee beekeepers, and expeditions were conducted to confirm the natural occurrence of the species. A total of 102 municipalities showed records for M. scutellaris, whose occurrence was observed in areas ranging from sea level up to 1,200-meter height. The occurrence of this species in the state of Bahia is considered to be restricted to municipalities on the coastal area and the Chapada Diamantina with its rainforests. Geographic coordinates, elevation, climate and vegetation data were obtained, which allowed a map to be prepared for the area of occurrence in order to support conservation and management policies for the species.A abelha Melipona scutellaris é considerada a espécie criada de meliponíneo com maior distribuição no norte e nordeste do Brasil, com ocorrência registradas desde o Estado do Grande do Norte até o Estado da Bahia. Considerando a importância desta espécie na geração de renda para agricultura familiar e na manutenção de áreas com vegetação natural, este trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer a distribuição de colônias naturais de M. scutellaris no Estado da Bahia. Informações de literatura, entrevistas com meliponicultores e expedições foram realizadas para confirmar a ocorrência natural da espécie. Um total de 102 municípios apresentou registro de M. scutellaris, cuja ocorrência foi observada em áreas desde o nível do mar até 1.200 metros de altitude. A

  14. Caracterização do mel produzido por espécies de Melipona Illiger, 1806 (apidae: meliponini) da região nordeste do Brasil: 1. Características físico-químicas Characterization of honey produced by species of Melipona Illiger, 1806 (apidae: meliponini) from the northeast area of Brazil: 1. Physico-chemical characteristics

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    Bruno de Almeida Souza; Luís Carlos Marchini; Melissa Oda-Souza; Carlos Alfredo Lopes de Carvalho; Rogério Marcos de Oliveira Alves

    2009-01-01

    Thirty three honey samples produced by four Melipona species from different areas of the State of Bahia, were analyzed with the aim to determine their physico-chemical characteristics, contributing to the establishment of standards for quality control. The majority of the average values for physico-chemical parameters fulfilled the quality criteria established by the Brazilian and international Legislations for Apis honey, except for moisture content, which afforded higher values. Concerning ...

  15. Genetic divergence between populations of the stingless bee uruçu amarela (Melipona rufiventris group, Hymenoptera, Meliponini: is there a new Melipona species in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais?

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    Mara Garcia Tavares

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Allozyme, microsatellite and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD molecular markers were used to investigate the within and between population genetic variability and between population genetic differentiation of the Brazilian stingless bee uruçu amarela (nominally Melipona rufiventris Lepeletier, 1836 present in savanna and Atlantic forest habitats of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais (MG. We found low levels of within population variability, although there were a large number of private alleles that specifically characterized these populations. The F ST values indicated a high level of genetic diversity between populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA showed a high degree of population differentiation between the savanna and Atlantic forest habitats, confirmed by population pairwise F ST data. Principal coordinates analysis and unweighted pair-group method using an arithmetic average (UPGMA dendrograms also confirmed that in Minas Gerais the savanna populations (M. rufiventris were genetically distinct from those present in the Atlantic forest (M. mondury. In addition, populations from locations near the towns of Dom Bosco and Brasilândia de Minas were genetically different from those collected in other localities in the savanna. Our data indicate that populations of uruçu amarela found in the savanna and Atlantic forest habitats of Minas Gerais state should be treated separately for conservation purposes and that special attention should be given to the populations found in the region of Dom Bosco and Brasilândia de Minas until their taxonomic status is clarified.

  16. Morphometric differences and fluctuating asymmetry in Melipona subnitida Ducke 1910 (Hymenoptera: Apidae in different types of housing

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    C. B. S. Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract A geometric morphometrics approach was applied to evaluate differences in forewing patterns of the Jandaira bee (Melipona subnitida Ducke. For this, we studied the presence of fluctuating asymmetry (FA in forewing shape and size of colonies kept in either rational hive boxes or natural tree trunks. We detected significant FA for wing size as well as wing shape independent of the type of housing (rational box or tree trunks, indicating the overall presence of stress during the development of the studied specimens. FA was also significant (p < 0.01 between rational boxes, possibly related to the use of various models of rational boxes used for keeping stingless bees. In addition, a Principal Component Analysis indicated morphometric variation between bee colonies kept in either rational hive boxes or in tree trunks, that may be related to the different origins of the bees: tree trunk colonies were relocated natural colonies while rational box colonies originated from multiplying other colonies. We conclude that adequate measures should be taken to reduce the amount of stress during bee handling by using standard models of rational boxes that cause the least disruption.

  17. Areas of natural occurrence of Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the state of Bahia, Brazil.

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    Alves, Rogério M O; Carvalho, Carlos A L; Souza, Bruno A; Santos, Wyratan S

    2012-09-01

    The bee Melipona scutellaris is considered the reared meliponine species with the largest distribution in the North and Northeast regions of Brazil, with records from the state of Rio Grande do Norte down to the state of Bahia. Considering the importance of this species in the generation of income for family agriculture and in the preservation of areas with natural vegetation, this study aimed at providing knowledge on the distribution of natural colonies of M. scutellaris in the state of Bahia. Literature information, interviews with stinglessbee beekeepers, and expeditions were conducted to confirm the natural occurrence of the species. A total of 102 municipalities showed records for M. scutellaris, whose occurrence was observed in areas ranging from sea level up to 1,200-meter height. The occurrence of this species in the state of Bahia is considered to be restricted to municipalities on the coastal area and the Chapada Diamantina with its rainforests. Geographic coordinates, elevation, climate and vegetation data were obtained, which allowed a map to be prepared for the area of occurrence in order to support conservation and management policies for the species.

  18. Estudo Comparativo das Sensilas Antenais de Operárias de Melipona scutellaris Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae de Diferentes Altitudes

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    Marcília Aparecida Nascimento

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensilas são estruturas sensoriais presentes nas antenas dos insetos e são responsáveis pela higro- quimio-, termo- e mecanorrecepção. No presente trabalho, as sensilas presentes nos três flagelômeros (F mais distais de Melipona scutellaris Latreille (Hymenopera: Apidae coletadas em diferentes altitudes (200 e acima de 900m foram avaliadas qualitativamente e quantitativamente. A identificação, contagem e medição das sensilas foram feitas a partir de imagens da superfície dorsal das antenas que foram obtidas com o auxílio de microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Foram observadas as sensilas placoide, basicônica, celocônica, ampulácea, campaniforme e tricoide reta e curvada. Comparativamente, o grupo localizado a 200m de altitude possui sensilas tricoides retas em maior quantidade nos três flagelômeros, enquanto que o grupo de altitudes acima de 900m apresentou maior quantidade de sensilas tricoides curvadas no F9, sendo as mesmas maiores para o F10. Essas diferenças foram discutidas em função da localização geográfica dos diferentes grupos aqui estudados. Os resultados da investigação da estrutura antenal de M. scutellaris contribuem para um melhor entendimento da biologia dessa espécie.

  19. Stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris) learn to associate footprint cues at food sources with a specific reward context.

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    Roselino, Ana Carolina; Rodrigues, André Vieira; Hrncir, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Foraging insects leave chemical footprints on flowers that subsequent foragers may use as indicators for recent flower visits and, thus, potential resource depletion. Accordingly, foragers should reject food sources presenting these chemical cues. Contrasting this assumption, experimental studies in stingless bees (Apidae, Meliponini), so far, demonstrated an attractive effect of footprints. These findings lead to doubts about the meaning of these chemical cues in natural foraging contexts. Here, we asked whether foragers of stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris) use footprints according to the previously experienced reward level of visited food sources. Bees were trained to artificial flower patches, at which the reward of a flower either decreased or, alternatively, increased after a visit by a forager. Individuals were allowed a total of nine foraging bouts to the patch, after which their preference for visited or unvisited flowers was tested. In the choice tests, bees trained under the decreasing reward context preferred unvisited flowers, whereas individuals trained under the increasing reward context preferred visited flowers. Foragers without experience chose randomly between visited and unvisited flowers. These results demonstrate that M. scutellaris learns to associate unspecific footprint cues at food sources with differential, specific reward contexts, and uses these chemical cues accordingly for their foraging decisions.

  20. Microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics of honeys from the bee Melipona fasciculata produced in two regions of Brazil

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    Rachel Torquato Fernandes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The honey from Tiúba bees (Melipona fasciculata is commercially important in the Brazilian state of Maranhão. However, the absence of any specific legislation for this kind of honey is an obstacle to its increased production and commercialization. Determining the microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics of different Tiúba honey can inform the elaboration of specific legislation. Thus, honey samples from two Water Catchment Areas in Maranhão (Munim and Pericumã, sample size 20 for each were collected and submitted for microbiological analysis (total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, molds and yeasts, Clostridium sulfite reducers and Salmonella sp. and physical-chemical analysis (moisture content, reducing and non-reducing sugars, insoluble and soluble solids, ash content, acidity and pH. Most of honeys sampled were suitable for human consumption, except for one sample from Pericumã. Honeys from the two water catchment areas presented differences in some physicochemical characteristics, which can be attributed to the botanic, soil and climatic diversity of the two areas. Still, these Tiúba honey samples did not fall within the Brazilian legislation for Apis mellifera honey for some of the physical-chemical characteristics, and so is not properly regulated, thus reinforcing the need for specific legislation for this type of honey.

  1. Morphometric differences and fluctuating asymmetry in Melipona subnitida Ducke 1910 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in different types of housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, C B S; Nunes, L A; Carvalho, C A L; Ribeiro, M F; Souza, B A; Silva, C S B

    2016-01-01

    A geometric morphometrics approach was applied to evaluate differences in forewing patterns of the Jandaira bee (Melipona subnitida Ducke). For this, we studied the presence of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in forewing shape and size of colonies kept in either rational hive boxes or natural tree trunks. We detected significant FA for wing size as well as wing shape independent of the type of housing (rational box or tree trunks), indicating the overall presence of stress during the development of the studied specimens. FA was also significant (p < 0.01) between rational boxes, possibly related to the use of various models of rational boxes used for keeping stingless bees. In addition, a Principal Component Analysis indicated morphometric variation between bee colonies kept in either rational hive boxes or in tree trunks, that may be related to the different origins of the bees: tree trunk colonies were relocated natural colonies while rational box colonies originated from multiplying other colonies. We conclude that adequate measures should be taken to reduce the amount of stress during bee handling by using standard models of rational boxes that cause the least disruption.

  2. Genetic Diversity of Melipona mandacaia SMITH 1863 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, an Endemic Bee Species from Brazilian Caatinga, Using ISSR

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    Elder Assis Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the genetic diversity and structure of Melipona mandacaia, we analyzed 104 colonies collected in 12 localities in Bahia state, northeastern Brazil, using ISSR-PCR. A total of 109 bands were obtained with a significant polymorphism of 72.47%. Estimates of genetic diversity indicated low values of heterozygosity (He and HB values were 0.2616 and 0.2573, resp.. These reduced values have been reported in other studies in stingless bees and maybe justified by dispersion process in the origin of new nests. AMOVA revealed that the higher percentage of variation is within localities (70.39%. The ΦST and θB values were, respectively, 0.2961 and 0.3289, thereby indicating a moderate population structuring. The correlation between genetic and geographic distances (r=0.4542; P<0.01 suggests isolation by distance. Our study contributes to describing the genetic diversity of endemic organisms from Caatinga and may help future efforts to preserve this threatened biome.

  3. Chemical Profile and Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, Antimutagenic and Antimicrobial Activities of Geopropolis from the Stingless Bee Melipona orbignyi.

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    Santos, Helder Freitas Dos; Campos, Jaqueline Ferreira; Santos, Cintia Miranda Dos; Balestieri, José Benedito Perrella; Silva, Denise Brentan; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; de Picoli Souza, Kely; Estevinho, Leticia Miranda; Dos Santos, Edson Lucas

    2017-05-03

    Geopropolis is a resin mixed with mud, produced only by stingless bees. Despite being popularly known for its medicinal properties, few scientific studies have proven its biological activities. In this context, the objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and antimicrobial activities of the Melipona orbignyi geopropolis. The hydroalcoholic extract of geopropolis (HEGP) was prepared and its chemical composition determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS). The antioxidant activity was determined by the capture of free radicals and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the inhibition of the hyaluronidase enzyme and the antimutagenic action was investigated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae colonies. The antimicrobial activities were determined against bacteria and yeasts, isolated from reference strains and hospital origin. The chemical composition of HEGP included flavonoids, derivatives of glycosylated phenolic acids and terpenoids. HEGP showed high antioxidant activity, it inhibited the activity of the inflammatory enzyme hyaluronidase and reduced the mutagenic effects in S. cerevisiae . In relation to the antimicrobial activity, it promoted the death of all microorganisms evaluated. In conclusion, this study reveals for the first time the chemical composition of the HEGP of M. orbignyi and demonstrates its pharmacological properties.

  4. The Stingless Bee Melipona solani Deposits a Signature Mixture and Methyl Oleate to Mark Valuable Food Sources.

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    Alavez-Rosas, David; Malo, Edi A; Guzmán, Miguel A; Sánchez-Guillén, Daniel; Villanueva-Gutiérrez, Rogel; Cruz-López, Leopoldo

    2017-10-01

    Stingless bees foraging for food improve recruitment by depositing chemical cues on valuable food sites or pheromone marks on vegetation. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and bioassays, we showed that Melipona solani foragers leave a mixture composed mostly of long chain hydrocarbons from their abdominal cuticle plus methyl oleate from the labial gland as a scent mark on rich food sites. The composition of hydrocarbons was highly variable among individuals and varied in proportions, depending on the body part. A wide ratio of compounds present in different body parts of the bees elicited electroantennogram responses from foragers and these responses were dose dependent. Generally, in bioassays, these bees prefer to visit previously visited feeders and feeders marked with extracts from any body part of conspecifics. The mean number of visits to a feeder was enhanced when synthetic methyl oleate was added. We propose that this could be a case of multi-source odor marking, in which hydrocarbons, found in large abundance, act as a signature mixture with attraction enhanced through deposition of methyl oleate, which may indicate a rich food source.

  5. Bioactive Fraction of Geopropolis from Melipona scutellaris Decreases Neutrophils Migration in the Inflammatory Process: Involvement of Nitric Oxide Pathway

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    Marcelo Franchin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the ethanolic extract of geopropolis (EEGP from Melipona scutellaris and its fractions on the modulation of neutrophil migration in the inflammatory process, and the participation of nitric oxide (NO pathway, as well as to check the chemical profile of the bioactive fraction. EEGP and its aqueous fraction decreased neutrophil migration in the peritoneal cavity and also the interaction of leukocytes (rolling and adhesion with endothelial cells. The levels of chemokines CXCL1/KC and CXCL2/MIP-2 were not altered after treatment with EEGP and the aqueous fraction. It was found that the injection of NO pathway antagonists abolished the EEGP and the aqueous fraction inhibitory activity on the neutrophil migration. The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 (ICAM-1 was reduced, and nitrite levels increased after treatment with EEGP and aqueous fraction. In the carrageenan-induced paw edema model, EEGP and the aqueous fraction showed antiedema activity. No pattern of flavonoid and phenolic acid commonly found in propolis samples of Apis mellifera could be detected in the aqueous fraction samples. These data indicate that the aqueous fraction found has promising bioactive substances with anti-inflammatory activity.

  6. Stingless bees (Melipona subnitida) adjust brood production rather than foraging activity in response to changes in pollen stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia-Silva, Camila; Hrncir, Michael; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia; Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P

    2016-10-01

    Highly eusocial bees (honey bees and stingless bees) sustain their colonies through periods of resource scarcity by food stored within the nest. The protein supply necessary for successful brood production is ensured through adjustments of the colonies' pollen foraging according to the availability of this resource in the environment. In honey bees Apis mellifera, in addition, pollen foraging is regulated through the broods' demand for this resource. Here, we investigated the influence of the colony's pollen store level on pollen foraging and brood production in stingless bees (Melipona subnitida). When pollen was added to the nests, colonies increased their brood production and reduced their pollen foraging within 24 h. On the other hand, when pollen reserves were removed, colonies significantly reduced their brood production. In strong contrast to A. mellifera; however, M. subnitida did not significantly increase its pollen foraging activity under poor pollen store conditions. This difference concerning the regulation of pollen foraging may be due to differences regarding the mechanism of brood provisioning. Honey bees progressively feed young larvae and, consequently, require a constant pollen supply. Stingless bees, by contrast, mass-provision their brood cells and temporary absence of pollen storage will not immediately result in substantial brood loss.

  7. Variation in daily flight activity and foraging patterns in colonies of uruçu - Melipona scutellaris Latreille (Apidae, Meliponini

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    Leonardo Monteiro Pierrot

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The flight activities of five colonies of Melipona (Michmelia scutellaris Latreille, 1811 kept among mixed fruit crop plantations in within fragments of Atlantic Rainforest in Pernambuco, NE-Brazil was examined. The daily deployment of foragers to collect pollen, nectar, resin and mud was observed. The colonies performed between 2,640 and 14,250 flights per day. Variations in the number of total daily flights were similar between colonies on all observation days. Proportional allocation of foragers to the different resources also among colonies showed similar variation. More than 90% of the pollen collection flights were made early in the morning. Nectar was collected in similar proportional frequencies with a reduction in activity at noon. On a single day, was observed atypical intense pollen foraging during the afternoon by all colonies. This indicates a high plasticity in foraging behaviour and efficient recruitment to resources which are presented by mass flowering trees with synchronised big bang or multiple bang flowering. Resource availability of the surrounding vegetation, therefore, seems to be the major factor in defining the forager activities on a given day.

  8. Bioactive Fraction of Geopropolis from Melipona scutellaris Decreases Neutrophils Migration in the Inflammatory Process: Involvement of Nitric Oxide Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchin, Marcelo; da Cunha, Marcos Guilherme; Denny, Carina; Napimoga, Marcelo Henrique; Cunha, Thiago Mattar; Bueno-Silva, Bruno; Matias de Alencar, Severino; Ikegaki, Masaharu; Luiz Rosalen, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the ethanolic extract of geopropolis (EEGP) from Melipona scutellaris and its fractions on the modulation of neutrophil migration in the inflammatory process, and the participation of nitric oxide (NO) pathway, as well as to check the chemical profile of the bioactive fraction. EEGP and its aqueous fraction decreased neutrophil migration in the peritoneal cavity and also the interaction of leukocytes (rolling and adhesion) with endothelial cells. The levels of chemokines CXCL1/KC and CXCL2/MIP-2 were not altered after treatment with EEGP and the aqueous fraction. It was found that the injection of NO pathway antagonists abolished the EEGP and the aqueous fraction inhibitory activity on the neutrophil migration. The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 (ICAM-1) was reduced, and nitrite levels increased after treatment with EEGP and aqueous fraction. In the carrageenan-induced paw edema model, EEGP and the aqueous fraction showed antiedema activity. No pattern of flavonoid and phenolic acid commonly found in propolis samples of Apis mellifera could be detected in the aqueous fraction samples. These data indicate that the aqueous fraction found has promising bioactive substances with anti-inflammatory activity.

  9. Chemical Profile and Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, Antimutagenic and Antimicrobial Activities of Geopropolis from the Stingless Bee Melipona orbignyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Helder Freitas; Campos, Jaqueline Ferreira; dos Santos, Cintia Miranda; Balestieri, José Benedito Perrella; Silva, Denise Brentan; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; de Picoli Souza, Kely; Estevinho, Leticia Miranda; dos Santos, Edson Lucas

    2017-01-01

    Geopropolis is a resin mixed with mud, produced only by stingless bees. Despite being popularly known for its medicinal properties, few scientific studies have proven its biological activities. In this context, the objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and antimicrobial activities of the Melipona orbignyi geopropolis. The hydroalcoholic extract of geopropolis (HEGP) was prepared and its chemical composition determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS). The antioxidant activity was determined by the capture of free radicals and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the inhibition of the hyaluronidase enzyme and the antimutagenic action was investigated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae colonies. The antimicrobial activities were determined against bacteria and yeasts, isolated from reference strains and hospital origin. The chemical composition of HEGP included flavonoids, derivatives of glycosylated phenolic acids and terpenoids. HEGP showed high antioxidant activity, it inhibited the activity of the inflammatory enzyme hyaluronidase and reduced the mutagenic effects in S. cerevisiae. In relation to the antimicrobial activity, it promoted the death of all microorganisms evaluated. In conclusion, this study reveals for the first time the chemical composition of the HEGP of M. orbignyi and demonstrates its pharmacological properties. PMID:28467350

  10. Pollen resources and trophic niche breadth of Apis mellifera and Melipona obscurior (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in a subtropical climate in the Atlantic rain forest of southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Hilgert-Moreira , Suzane; Nascher , Carla; Callegari-Jacques , Sidia; Blochtein , Betina

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Pollen sources that comprise the trophic niche of native bee species Melipona obscurior and introduced Apis mellifera and the breadth of this niche were studied in two areas in the Atlantic rain forest of southern Brazil. Pollen obtained from the forager bees during a period of 12 months showed that the richness of pollen types found in each sample varied from 5 to 21 for A. mellifera and from 1 to 10 for M. obscurior. In both areas, A. mellifera had higher niche bread...

  11. Presença de cinco rainhas fisogástricas em colônia de abelha sem ferrão (Melipona scutellaris Latreille)

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Carlos Alfredo Lopes de; Souza, Bruno de Almeida; Dias, Carleandro de Souza; Alves, Rogério Marcos de Oliveira; Melo, Alex Fábio de Lima; Soares, Ana Cristina Fermino; Carvalho-Zilse, Gislene Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Polygyny, characterized by the presence of several egg-laying queens, is considered as a temporary colony status. In stingless bees it is rarely observed. This paper reports the first case of natural polygyny in Melipona scutellaris colony, with five egg-laying queens.Poliginia, caracterizada pela presença de mais de uma rainha poedeira, é considerada como uma condição temporária em colônias. Em abelhas sem ferrão isso é raramente observado. Este artigo registra o primeiro caso de poliginia n...

  12. Antimicrobial activity of honey of africanized bee (Apis mellifera) and stingless bee, tiuba (Melipona fasciculata) against strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenório, Eleuza Gomes; Alves, Natália Furtado; Mendes, Bianca Evanita Pimenta

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of honey of Africanized bees (Apis mellifera) and stingless bees (Melipona fasciculata), produced under the same flowering conditions, in municipalities of Baixada Maranhese, Brazil, against strains of pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. In each municipality, the apiary and meliponario were less than 150 meters away from each other. The Kirby-Bauer method, and the diffusion technique of the agar plate through the extension of the inhibition in millimeters were used. The test results were negative for all samples, which did not demonstrate antimicrobial activity in any of the microorganisms tested.

  13. Potencial antioxidante de la miel de Melipona beecheii y su relación con la salud: una revisión

    OpenAIRE

    Cauich Kumul, Roger; Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Ortíz Vázquez, Elizabeth; Segura Campos, Maira Rubi

    2015-01-01

    El presente artículo provee una revisión de literatura sobre el potencial biológico de la miel de Melipona beecheii. El objetivo es proyectar algunas tendencias en investigación sobre los aspectos nutracéuticos relacionados con los compuestos bioactivos presentes en la miel de esta especie de abeja sin aguijón, reconocida por sus características medicinales tradicionales, en la Península de Yucatán. Actualmente existe una evidencia sólida que demuestra que la miel de M. beecheii posee compues...

  14. Extreme Effects of Season on the Foraging Activities and Colony Productivity of a Stingless Bee (Melipona asilvai Moure, 1971 in Northeast Brazil

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    Daniela Lima do Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the influence of season on foraging activities and internal colonial parameters of Melipona asilvai in an Atlantic forest area of northeast Brazil. We used video cameras connected to a PC to monitor all departures and returns of foragers and the types of materials they carried. Foraging activities decreased almost 90% from dry to rainy seasons, but temperature and humidity were not the main factors influencing departures. Observed honey storage and an extreme cutback in activities during the rainy period suggest a seasonal diapause in this species.

  15. Espectro polínico de mel de tiúba (Melipona fasciculata Smith, 1854, Hymenoptera, Apidae Pollen spectrum of honey of "tiúba" (Melipona fasciculata Smith, 1854, Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Adriana Cecília Lima Martins

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O espectro polínico do mel de Melipona fasciculata Smith foi analisado com o objetivo de identificar os recursos nectaríferos utilizados por essa espécie. A identificação das plantas visitadas foi realizada com base na análise dos tipos polínicos encontrados em 12 amostras de mel coletadas, mensalmente, em uma colônia localizada no município de Palmeirândia, na área da Baixada Ocidental Maranhense (02º40'47,6S, 44º52'39,8"W, Brasil. As análises quantitativas e qualitativas foram realizadas com o objetivo de determinar as porcentagens e classes de frequência dos tipos polínicos presentes nas amostras de mel. Foram encontrados 45 tipos polínicos, sendo Pontederia parviflora Alexander (Pontederiaceae, espécie mais frequente em todo o período de amostragem (38,6%, pólen dominante em Outubro (86%, Junho (85%, Julho (76%, Agosto (49% e Setembro (51% e pólen acessório em Dezembro, Janeiro e Março. Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth (Mimosaceae foi a segunda espécie mais frequente (22,8% sendo pólen dominante em Novembro (46%, Abril (74% e Maio (72%. Myrcia eximia DC (Myrtaceae foi considerada pólen isolado importante. As famílias mais representativas no espectro polínico das amostras de mel foram Pontederiaceae e Mimosaceae. 50% dos méis foram biflorais, havendo também méis monoflorais (41,7% e heteroflorais (8,3%.The pollen spectrum of honey of the Melipona fasciculata was analyzed aiming to elucidate the nectariferous resources used by this species. The identification of the visited plants was based upon the analysis of the pollen spectrum of 12 honey samples collected in one meliponarium located in Palmeirândia county, lowland area of Maranhão State, Brazil (02º40'47,6S, 44º52'39,8"W. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of honey samples was conducted in order to determine the pollen type percentages and frequency classes. Forty-five pollen types were found, being Pontederia parviflora Alexander (Pontederiaceae the

  16. Workers make the queens in melipona bees: identification of geraniol as a caste determining compound from labial glands of nurse bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarau, Stefan; van Veen, Johan W; Twele, Robert; Reichle, Christian; Gonzales, Eduardo Herrera; Aguilar, Ingrid; Francke, Wittko; Ayasse, Manfred

    2010-06-01

    Reproductive division of labor in advanced eusocial honey bees and stingless bees is based on the ability of totipotent female larvae to develop into either workers or queens. In nearly all species, caste is determined by larval nutrition. However, the mechanism that triggers queen development in Melipona bees is still unresolved. Several hypotheses have been proposed, ranging from the proximate (a genetic determination of caste development) to the ultimate (a model in which larvae have complete control over their own caste fate). Here, we showed that the addition of geraniol, the main compound in labial gland secretions of nurse workers, to the larval food significantly increases the number of larvae that develop into queens. Interestingly, the proportion of queens in treated brood exactly matched the value (25%) predicted by the two-locus, two-allele model of genetic queen determination, in which only females that are heterozygous at both loci are capable of developing into queens. We conclude that labial gland secretions, added to the food of some cells by nurse bees, trigger queen development, provided that the larvae are genetically predisposed towards this developmental pathway. In Melipona beecheii, geraniol acts as a primer pheromone representing the first caste determination substance identified to date.

  17. Methyl farnesoate epoxidase (mfe) gene expression and juvenile hormone titers in the life cycle of a highly eusocial stingless bee, Melipona scutellaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Júnior, Carlos Antônio Mendes; Silva, Renato Pereira; Borges, Naiara Araújo; de Carvalho, Washington João; Walter, S Leal; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Bitondi, Marcia Maria Gentile; Ueira Vieira, Carlos; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2017-08-01

    In social insects, juvenile hormone (JH) has acquired novel functions related to caste determination and division of labor among workers, and this is best evidenced in the honey bee. In contrast to honey bees, stingless bees are a much more diverse group of highly eusocial bees, and the genus Melipona has long called special attention due to a proposed genetic mechanism of caste determination. Here, we examined methyl farnesoate epoxidase (mfe) gene expression, encoding an enzyme relevant for the final step in JH biosynthesis, and measured the hemolymph JH titers for all life cycle stages of Melipona scutellaris queens and workers. We confirmed that mfe is exclusively expressed in the corpora allata. The JH titer is high in the second larval instar, drops in the third, and rises again as the larvae enter metamorphosis. During the pupal stage, mfe expression is initialy elevated, but then gradually drops to low levels before adult emergence. No variation was, however, seen in the JH titer. In adult virgin queens, mfe expression and the JH titer are significantly elevated, possibly associated with their reproductive potential. For workers we found that JH titers are lower in foragers than in nurse bees, while mfe expression did not differ. Stingless bees are, thus, distinct from honey bee workers, suggesting that they have maintained the ancestral gonadotropic function for JH. Hence, the physiological circuitries underlying a highly eusocial life style may be variable, even within a monophyletic clade such as the corbiculate bees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemical composition, botanical evaluation and screening of radical scavenging activity of collected pollen by the stingless bees Melipona rufiventris (Uruçu-amarela

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    Tania M.S. Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bees in Brazil are indigenous and found all over the country. Bee pollen is used for its nutritional value in the human diet. It is made up of natural flower pollen mixed with nectar and bee secretions. In order to evaluate the chemical composition, free radical scavenging activity, and botanical origin, sample of pollen loads from stingless bee, Melipona rufiventris (Uruçu amarela was studied. The EtOAc extract of pollen of Melipona rufiventris yielded the following compounds: p-hydroxycinnamic acid, dihydroquercetin, isorhamnetin, isorhamnetin3-O-(6"-O-E-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin, and quercetin. This is the first report of the isolation of isorhamnetin3-O-(6"O-E-p-coumaroylβ-D-glucopyranoside from pollen. The free radicalscavenging activities of different solvent extracts of pollen were determined using DPPH assay. This activity decreases in the order: EtOAc>EtOH>Hexane extract. It appears that the EtOAc extract of the pollen is a good scavenger of active oxygen species. The botanical evaluation of pollen loads showed the composition by two pollen types, with the dominant type (97.3% being Scopariadulcis (L. (Scrophulariaceae and the minor one Senna obtusifolia (L. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae. This suggests a specific foraging behavior in Melipona rufiventris bees, even in an environment with such a rich botanical diversity as the Northeastern Brazil.As abelhas sem ferrão são espécies indígenas encontradas em todo o Brasil. Seu pólen é utilizado devido ao seu valor nutricional na dieta humana. É produzido a partir de pólen floral misturado com néctar e líquidos secretados pelas abelhas. Visando avaliar a composição química, a atividade sequestradora de radicais livres e a origem botânica foi estudado o pólencoletado pela abelha sem ferrão Melipona rufiventris (Uruçu-amarela. Do extrato acetato de etila foram isolados os compostos: ácido phidroxicinâmico, dihidroquercetina, isoramnetina, 3O(6

  19. Antimicrobial activity and rutin identification of honey produced by the stingless bee Melipona compressipes manaosensis and commercial honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Renah Boanerges de Queiroz; da Costa, Cristovão Alves; Albuquerque, Patrícia Melchionna; Junior, Sergio Duvoisin

    2013-07-01

    Honey has been identified as a potential alternative to the widespread use of antibiotics, which are of significant concern considering the emergence of resistant bacteria. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of honey samples produced by a stingless bee species and by Apis sp. against pathogenic bacteria, as well as to identify the presence of phenolic compounds. Honey samples from the stingless bee M. compressipes manaosensis were collected twice, during the dry and rainy seasons. Three commercial honey samples from Apis sp. were also included in this study. Two different assays were performed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the honey samples: agar-well diffusion and broth macrodilution. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to assess phenolic compounds from honey. HPLC analysis was performed in order to identify rutin and apigenin on honey samples. Chromatograms were recorded at 340 and 290 nm. Two honey samples were identified as having the highest antimicrobial activity using the agar diffusion method. Honey produced by Melipona compressipes manaosensis inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (0157: H7), Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei and Klebsiella sp. A sample of honey produced by Apis sp. also inhibited the growth of Salmonella paratyphi. The macrodilution technique presented greater sensitivity for the antibacterial testing, since all honey samples showed activity. Flavonoid rutin was identified in the honey sample produced by the stingless bee. Honey samples tested in this work showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results reported herein highlight the potential of using honey to control bacterial growth.

  20. The queen is dead--long live the workers: intraspecific parasitism by workers in the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, D A; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V L; Francoy, T M; Santos-Filho, P S; Nogueira-Neto, P; Billen, J; Wenseleers, T

    2009-10-01

    Insect societies are well known for their high degree of cooperation, but their colonies can potentially be exploited by reproductive workers who lay unfertilized, male eggs, rather than work for the good of the colony. Recently, it has also been discovered that workers in bumblebees and Asian honeybees can succeed in entering and parasitizing unrelated colonies to produce their own male offspring. The aim of this study was to investigate whether such intraspecific worker parasitism might also occur in stingless bees, another group of highly social bees. Based on a large-scale genetic study of the species Melipona scutellaris, and the genotyping of nearly 600 males from 45 colonies, we show that approximately 20% of all males are workers' sons, but that around 80% of these had genotypes that were incompatible with them being the sons of workers of the resident queen. By tracking colonies over multiple generations, we show that these males were not produced by drifted workers, but rather by workers that were the offspring of a previous, superseded queen. This means that uniquely, workers reproductively parasitize the next-generation workforce. Our results are surprising given that most colonies were sampled many months after the previous queen had died and that workers normally only have a life expectancy of approximately 30 days. It also implies that reproductive workers greatly outlive all other workers. We explain our results in the context of kin selection theory, and the fact that it pays workers more from exploiting the colony if costs are carried by less related individuals.

  1. Número de alelos XO em uma população de Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae Number of XO alleles in a population of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae

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    Davi S. Aidar

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of xo alleles of a population of stingless bees can be estimated by observing the male proportion of the first brood comb produced by a new queen (about 40 Fl bees and the total number of colonies. A proportion of 50% diploid males indicates insemination of the queen by a single male with some xo sex allele: 25% diploid male would indicate insemination by two males (one with some xo as the queen and another with different one. Diploidy was confirmed by cytology of the testis. The original population (78 colonies of Ribeirão Preto, State S. Paulo, Brazil, had 8 xo sex alleles. From this population, 10 colonies were orphaned and taken to the Serra do Mar (Sea Mountains at Espirito Santo State (1200 km far in order that the virgin queen of each colony would cross with males of this region. Ten days after the nine hives (one was lost were brought back to Ribeirão Preto. No one of them produced diploid males. New samples took from all the Meliponary revealed that the number of xo sex alleles to have increased to 17,3. Than, this methodology can be used to increase the genetic variability of the stingless bees populations.

  2. Comparative study on the use of specific and heterologous microsatellite primers in the stingless bees Melipona rufiventris and M. mondury (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Denilce Meneses Lopes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their high degree of polymorphism, microsatellites are considered useful tools for studying population genetics. Nevertheless, studies of genetic diversity in stingless bees by means of these primers have revealed a low level of polymorphism, possibly the consequence of the heterologous primers used, since in most cases these were not specifically designed for the species under consideration. Herein we compared the number of polymorphic loci and alleles per locus, as well as observed heterozygosity in Melipona rufiventris and M. mondury populations, using specific and heterologous primers. The use of specific primers placed in evidence the greater frequency of polymorphic loci and alleles per locus, besides an expressive increase in observed heterozygosity in M. rufiventris and M. mondury, thereby reinforcing the idea that populational studies should be undertaken by preferably using species-specific microsatellite primers.

  3. Comparative study on the use of specific and heterologous microsatellite primers in the stingless bees Melipona rufiventris and M. mondury (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Denilce Meneses; de Oliveira Campos, Lúcio Antônio; Salomão, Tânia Maria Fernandes; Tavares, Mara Garcia

    2010-04-01

    Due to their high degree of polymorphism, microsatellites are considered useful tools for studying population genetics. Nevertheless, studies of genetic diversity in stingless bees by means of these primers have revealed a low level of polymorphism, possibly the consequence of the heterologous primers used, since in most cases these were not specifically designed for the species under consideration. Herein we compared the number of polymorphic loci and alleles per locus, as well as observed heterozygosity in Melipona rufiventris and M. mondury populations, using specific and heterologous primers. The use of specific primers placed in evidence the greater frequency of polymorphic loci and alleles per locus, besides an expressive increase in observed heterozygosity in M. rufiventris and M. mondury, thereby reinforcing the idea that populational studies should be undertaken by preferably using species-specific microsatellite primers.

  4. Efeitos da aplicação tópica do mel de Melipona subnitida em feridas infectadas de ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Alves,Diego Felipe Sampaio; Cabral Júnior,Francisco das Chagas; Cabral,Pedro Paulo de Arruda Câmara; Oliveira Junior,Ruy Medeiros de; Rego,Amália Cínthia Meneses do; Medeiros,Aldo Cunha

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar efeitos do uso tópico do mel da abelha silvestre Melipona subnitida na evolução de feridas infectadas de pele. MÉTODO: Ratos Wistar foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em grupos de 6, anestesiados com tiopental sódico 20mg/Kg IP e cetamina 30mg/Kg IM e submetidos a exérese de segmento de 1 cm² de pele total do dorso. Os ratos do grupo C (não infectado) foram tratados com solução salina sobre a ferida diariamente e no grupo MEL (não infectado) as feridas foram tratadas com mel ...

  5. Molecular characterization of the gene feminizer in the stingless bee Melipona interrupta (Hymenoptera: Apidae) reveals association to sex and caste development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Diana V; Silva, Carlos Gustavo N; Hasselmann, Martin; Viana, Luciana S; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Carvalho-Zilse, Gislene A

    2015-11-01

    In highly eusocial insects, development of reproductive traits are regulated not only by sex determination pathway, but it also depends on caste fate. The molecular basis of both mechanisms in stingless bees and possible interaction with each other is still obscure. Here, we investigate sex determination in Melipona interrupta, focusing on characterization and expression analysis of the feminizer gene (Mi-fem), and its association to a major component of caste determination, the juvenile hormone (JH). We present evidence that Mi-fem mRNA is sex-specifically spliced in which only the female splice variant encodes the full length protein, following the same principle known for other bee species. We quantified Mi-fem expression among developmental stages, sexes and castes. Mi-fem expression varies considerably throughout development, with higher expression levels in embryos. Also, fem levels in pupae and newly emerged adults were significantly higher in queens than workers and males. Finally, we ectopically applied JH in cocoon spinning larvae, which correspond to the time window where queen/worker phenotypes diverge. We observed a significantly increase in Mi-fem expression compared to control groups. Since up to 100% of females turn into queens when treated with JH (while control groups are composed mainly of workers), we propose that fem might act to regulate queens' development. Our findings provide support for the conserved regulatory function of fem in Melipona bees and demonstrate a significant correlation between key elements of sex and caste determination pathways, opening the avenue to further investigate the molecular basis of these complex traits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterisation of phenolic compounds by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS of geopropolis from the stingless bee Melipona subnitida (jandaíra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Silvana Alves; da Silva, Telma Maria Guedes; da Silva, Eva Monica Sarmento; Camara, Celso Amorim; Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento

    2018-05-17

    Melipona subnitida Ducke (jandaíra) is a stingless bee native to north-eastern Brazil, which produces geopropolis, a mixture of beeswax, plant resins, pollens and earth that is used for sealing beehives. To extend the knowledge on phenolic compounds in fractions obtained by C18-solid phase extraction (SPE) of nine geopropolis samples from Melipona subnitida collected at different times. Chromatographic profiles of nine samples of geopropolis from jandaíra were analysed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS) and combined with the use of data-independent acquisition (MSE) for the profiling and structural characterisation of the phenolic compounds. The isolated compound was identified by nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen and carbon ( 1 H- and 13 C-NMR). The present study with geopropolis of jandaíra resulted in the characterisation of 51 phenolics by UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS: four galloyl glucosides, one ellagic acid, 11 acyl-hexosides, 23 acyl-galloyl-hexosides and 12 flavonoids. The structures of two compounds (1,6-di-O-(E)-coumaroyl-2-O-galloyl-β-d-glucopyranoside and 1-O-cinnamoyl-6-O-(E)-coumaroyl-2-O-galloyl-β-d-glucopyranoside) were established by 1 H and the attached proton test (APT) experiments as well as high-resolution electrospray ionisation mass spectroscopy (HR-ESI-MS) analysis. The geopropolis of jandaíra showed phenolic compounds galloyl hexosides, ellagic acid, acyl-(cinnamoyl/coumaroyl)-hexosides, acyl-(cinnamoyl/coumaroyl)-galloyl-hexosides and flavonoids (aglycones and acylated-O-glycosides). Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Termorregulação em colônias de Melipona eburnea (Apidae: Meliponina criadas racionalmente em Rio Branco, Acre

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    Francisco Cildomar da Silva Correia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo. A temperatura é o agente climático que afeta mais diretamente o metabolismo das abelhas, influenciando no desenvolvimento das crias, podendo acarretar resultados negativos para produção de mel. O objetivo deste estudo foi conhecer a diferença da termorregulação de colônias de Melipona eburnea Friese. As observações foram realizadas en­tre 09 de junho e 09 de julho de 2016, 24 horas por dia, utilizando-se dois ninhos de M. eburnea, um em caixa racional e outro em troncode árvore. Utilizou-se Data Logger(modelo HOBO U12 – 012, com exatidão de ±0,35 °C. Verificou-se que o ninho de M. eburnea em oco de árvore manteve uma temperatura média de 31,7 ºC, enquanto que o ninho em caixa racional apresentou temperatura média de 27,8 ºC. A temperatura ambiente variou de 16,6 a 34,2 °C, com média de 23,8 ºC. A espécie M. eburnea em caixa racional apresentou termorregulação inferior à colônia em oco de árvore e também maior oscilação de temperatura. Concluiu-se que M. eburnea mantém sua colônia em homeostase, mesmo quando há variações na temperatura ambiente (ninho em oco de árvore. M. eburnea apresentou termorregulação insatisfatória, quando mantida em caixa racional. Thermoregulation in colonies of Melipona eburnea Friese(Apidae: Meliponina rationally bred in Rio Branco, Acre Abstract. Temperature is the climatic agent that most directly affects the metabolism of bees, influencing at the development of the young being able lead to negative results for honey production. The objective of this study was to know the difference of thermoregulation of Melipona eburnea Friese colonies. The observations were made between June 9 and July 9, 2016, 24 hours a day, using two nests of M. eburnea, one in rational box and the other in tree trunk. Was used Data Logger (model HOBO U12-012 was used, with accuracy of ± 0.35 °C. Was verified that the nest of M. eburnea in tree hollow maintained an average temperature of 31

  8. Avaliação farmacognóstica de geoprópolis de Melipona fasciculata Smith da Baixada maranhense, Brasil

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    Richard Pereira Dutra

    Full Text Available Melipona fasciculata Smith é uma abelha nativa, social e sem ferrão que produz cera, mel e geoprópolis. O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar, do ponto de vista farmacognóstico, o geoprópolis de Melipona fasciculata, coletado em meliponários nos municípios de Arari, São Bento e São João Batista, da Baixada maranhense, no Estado do Maranhão, visando estabelecer dados para o controle de qualidade e padronização do produto. A metodologia utilizada constou de análises sensoriais, abordagem química, perfis cromatográficos e determinação dos teores de flavonóides. Os resultados demonstram que o geoprópolis apresenta características sensoriais similares às encontradas para própolis de Apis mellifera, presença de compostos fenólicos em maior concentração, além de substâncias da classe dos terpenos e saponinas e ausência de alcalóides. Os perfis cromatográficos indicaram que a composição e concentração das substâncias químicas são diferentes entre as amostras. Os teores de flavonóides variaram de 0,17 - 2,6%, os quais para a maioria das amostras apresentaram valores acima do mínimo exigido pela legislação brasileira para própolis de Apis mellifera. Os dados encontrados sugerem que as variações qualitativa e quantitativa de flavonóides e outros constituintes químicos no geoprópolis são fortemente afetados pela flora visitada pelas abelhas, região geográfica e fatores ambientais.

  9. Efeitos da aplicação tópica do mel de Melipona subnitida em feridas infectadas de ratos

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    Diego Felipe Sampaio Alves

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar efeitos do uso tópico do mel da abelha silvestre Melipona subnitida na evolução de feridas infectadas de pele. MÉTODO: Ratos Wistar foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em grupos de 6, anestesiados com tiopental sódico 20mg/Kg IP e cetamina 30mg/Kg IM e submetidos a exérese de segmento de 1 cm² de pele total do dorso. Os ratos do grupo C (não infectado foram tratados com solução salina sobre a ferida diariamente e no grupo MEL (não infectado as feridas foram tratadas com mel uma vez por dia. Nos grupos C/I e MEL/I as feridas foram inoculadas com solução polimicrobiana. Culturas foram feitas 24 horas após. Caracterizada a infecção, as feridas foram tratadas com solução salina e mel, respectivamente. No terceiro dia de tratamento foi feita nova cultura. Após epitelização foi contado o tempo de cicatrização e as feridas foram biopsiadas para histopatologia e dosagem de TNF-α, IL-1β e IL-6 no tecido. RESULTADOS: O tempo médio de cicatrização do grupo MEL/I foi menor que nos demais grupos (P<0,05. Verificou-se que a densidade de colágeno, leucócitos, fibroblastos e dosagem de citocinas (especialmente TNF foi maior no grupo infectado e tratado com mel que nos demais grupos. Houve significante redução de bactérias Gram-negativas e positivas nas feridas após o tratamento com mel. CONCLUSÃO: O uso tópico de mel de Melipona subnitida em feridas infectadas da pele de ratos estimulou a resposta imunológica, reduziu a infecção e o tempo de cicatrização.

  10. Adaptação e comportamento de pastejo da abelha jandaíra (Melipona subnitida Ducke em ambiente protegido - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1777 Adaptation and foraging behavior of the stingless bee (Melipona subnitida Ducke in a caged environment - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1777

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    Eva Mônica Sarmento da Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A influência do ambiente protegido no comportamento de pastejo da abelha sem ferrão jandaíra (Melipona subnitida Ducke foi estudada no Estado do Ceará, região Nordeste do Brasil. Foram investigados aspectos como comportamento, adaptação das abelhas à casa de vegetação e o padrão diário de forrageamento destas na cultura do pimentão (Capsicum annuum L., cultivada em ambiente protegido. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente por meio de análise de variância, com médias comparadas a posteriori, pelo teste de Tukey. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que M. subnitida Ducke adapta-se bem ao uso em casa de vegetação e realiza vôos de forrageamento durante todo o dia, podendo ser utilizada para polinização de culturas agrícolas, sob cultivo protegido.The effect of caged environment on the foraging behavior of the stingless bee Melipona subnitida Ducke was studied in the state of Ceará, NE Brazil. Species adaptation to enclosures, foraging behavioral aspects and daily foraging pattern were investigated in a greenhouse sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. crop. Data were analyzed by Anova and means were compared a posteriori using Tukey test. The results showed that M. subnitida Ducke adapts well to greenhouses and forages throughout the day. It may be concluded that this bee species can be used for crop pollination in protected environments.

  11. Caracterización de la miel de Meliponas en ecosistemas periurbanos y agrícolas del Consejo Popular Horquita

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    Ing. Nelvis Fernández García

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en cuatro ecosistemas del Consejo Popular “Horquita”, municipio Abreus, provincia Cienfuegos. Se caracterizaron desde el punto de vista microbiológico las mieles de colmenas de Abejas Meliponas. Mediante un diseño completamente aleatorizado para cada ecosistema se tomaron de cinco colmenas muestras de miel (250 ml, todas ellas de cajas, modalidad Nogueira-Neto, 1997. Las muestras fueron enviadas al Centro Provincial de Higiene y Epidemiología de la provincia Santa Clara donde fueron analizadas. En todos los ecosistemas existió integración agricultura-ganadería o crianza de traspatio, y en algunos casos aguas residuales dentro del rango de vuelo de las abejas. Las mieles analizadas cumplieron con las exigencias internacionales presentando, en todos los casos, características microbiológicas óptimas para su consumo y comercialización. Se propone como parámetros microbiológicos para la miel en el territorio menos de 10 UFC/g, tanto para microorganismos a 30oC (bacterias, hongos y levaduras como para coliformes totales. Palabras clave: Ecosistemas, miel, bacterias, hongos, levaduras.

  12. Natural factors and antropics and their relationship with the density of colonies of Melipona beecheii in five vegetable formations of the valley San Andres

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    Katiuska Ravelo Pimentel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is evaluated the influence of natural factors and antropics on the density of colonies of Melipona beecheii in forest five vegetable formations of the solid one of the valley San Andrés, through surveys to residents and workers of the area, as well as the observations and samplings carried out in the studied vegetable formations. The following factors were studied: rocosity, vegetable covering, flourished plants, height of the entrance hole and the man's activity; being determined that the density of beehives has been affected fundamentally by factors antropics, having this its biggest incidence in the gallery forests, being this the most affected one. The pruning of trees, the naturalness of the forests and their access affect the population's conservation considerably under natural conditions, what demonstrates that this it is the main factor that locates in extirpation danger to the species in the study area. In turn the density of colonies keeps direct relationship with the other analyzed factors, since the same ones depend on the trees for the location of its nests, of the time in that the plants flourish for its feeding and of the holes found in the rocks, so much for the making of its colonies like it stops its establishment and reproduction.

  13. Foraging behavior, environmental parameters and nests development of Melipona colimana Ayala (Hymenoptera: Meliponini) in temperate climate of Jalisco, México.

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    Macías-Macías, J O; Tapia-Gonzalez, J M; Contreras-Escareño, F

    2017-01-01

    Melipona colimana Ayala is an endemic species inhabiting temperate forests of pine and oak of south of Jalisco in Mexico. During a year, it was recorded every 15 days foraging activity, environmental parameters and the development of colonies of M. colimana in its wild habitat. For five minutes every hour from 7:00 to 21:00, the bees that entered and left the hive and bringing pollen and resin were registered. Every hour the relative humidity, temperature, wind speed and light intensity was recorded and related to foraging activity. Additionally, the weight of the colonies recently transferred to wooden boxes, the number of brood combs, honey pots and pollen were registered. The time of beginning and ending of the foraging activity differs from the reports of stingless bees of tropical weather and the same happens with the pollen collection. The environmental parameters that affect other tropical stingless bees in the foraging activity also affect M. colimana in temperate climate. It was determined that the major activity season and the presence of more pollen pots in the colony is from November through February, for what it could be the best time of the year for the division and obtainance of new colonies, while the critical period of minor activity and pollen flow was during rainy season. These data may be useful for the future sustainable use of this species in temperate climate.

  14. Out with the garbage: the parasitic strategy of the mantisfly Plega hagenella mass-infesting colonies of the eusocial bee Melipona subnitida in northeastern Brazil

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    Maia-Silva, Camila; Hrncir, Michael; Koedam, Dirk; Machado, Renato Jose Pires; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Between April and June of 2012 mantisflies ( Plega hagenella) were found to be extensively parasitizing the nests of two groups of managed colonzies of eusocial stingless bees ( Melipona subnitida) in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. The mantisfly larvae developed inside closed brood cells of the bee comb, where each mantispid larva fed on the bee larva or pupa present in a single brood cell. Mature mantispid larvae pupated inside silken cocoons spun in place within their hosts' brood cells then emerged as pharate adults inside the bee colony. Pharate adults were never attacked and killed by host colony workers. Instead, colony workers picked up the pharates and removed them from the nest unharmed, treating them similar to the way that the general refuse is removed from the nest. Adult mantispids subsequently eclosed from their pupal exuviae outside the nest. Manipulative experiments showed that post-eclosion adult mantispids placed back within active bee colonies were quickly attacked and killed. These observations demonstrate that pharate and post-eclosion adults of P. hagenella are perceived differently by colony workers and that delayed adult eclosion is an important functional element in the parasitic life strategy of P. hagenella, allowing adults to escape without injury from the bee colonies they parasitize.

  15. Insights into the role of age and social interactions on the sexual attractiveness of queens in an eusocial bee, Melipona flavolineata (Apidae, Meliponini)

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    Veiga, Jamille Costa; Menezes, Cristiano; Contrera, Felipe Andrés León

    2017-04-01

    The attraction of sexual partners is a vital necessity among insects, and it involves conflict of interests and complex communication systems among male and female. In this study, we investigated the developing of sexual attractiveness in virgin queens (i.e., gynes) of Melipona flavolineata, an eusocial stingless bee. We followed the development of sexual attractiveness in 64 gynes, belonging to seven age classes (0, 3, 6, 9, 15, 18 days post-emergence), and we also evaluated the effect of different social interactions (such as competition between queens and interactions with workers) on the development of attractiveness in other 60 gynes. We used the number of males that tried to mate with a focal gyne as a representative variable of its sexual attractiveness. During the essays, each gyne was individually presented to 10 sexually mature males, and during 3 min, we counted the number of males that everted their genitalia in response to the presence of a gyne. Here, we show that M. flavolineata gynes are capable to (i) maintain their sexual attractiveness for long periods through adult life, (ii) they need a minimum social interaction to trigger the development of sexual attractiveness, and (iii) that gynes express this trait only within a social context. We conclude that the effective occurrence of matings is conditional on potential social interactions that gynes experienced before taking the nuptial flight, when they are still in the nest. These findings bring insights into the factors determining reproductive success in social insects.

  16. New molecular evidence for fragmentation between two distant populations of the threatened stingless bee Melipona subnitida Ducke (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini

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    Geice R. Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For a snapshot assessment of the genetic diversity present within Melipona subnitida, an endemic stingless bee distributed in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil, populations separated by over 1,000 km distance were analyzed by ISSR genotyping. This is a prerequisite for the establishment of efficient management and conservation practices. From 21 ISSR primers tested, only nine revealed consistent and polymorphic bands (loci. PCR reactions resulted in 165 loci, of which 92 were polymorphic (57.5%. Both ΦST (ARLEQUIN and θB (HICKORY presented high values of similar magnitude (0.34, p<0.0001 and 0.33, p<0.0001, respectively, showing that these two groups were highly structured. The dendrogram obtained by the cluster analysis and the scatter-plot of the PCoA corroborate with the data presented by the AMOVA and θB tests. Clear evidence of subdivision among sampling sites was also observed by the Bayesian grouping model analysis (STRUCTURE of the ISSR data. It is clear from this study that conservation strategies should take into account the heterogeneity of these two separate populations, and address actions towards their sustainability by integrating our findings with ecological tools.

  17. Geopropolis from Melipona scutellaris decreases the mechanical inflammatory hypernociception by inhibiting the production of IL-1β and TNF-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchin, Marcelo; da Cunha, Marcos Guilherme; Denny, Carina; Napimoga, Marcelo Henrique; Cunha, Thiago Mattar; Koo, Hyun; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Ikegaki, Masaharu; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2012-09-28

    The pharmacological activity of geopropolis collected by stingless bees (important and threatened pollinators), a product widely used in folk medicine by several communities in Brazil, especially in the Northeast Region, needs to be studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of Melipona scutellaris geopropolis (stingless bee) using different models of nociception. The antinociceptive activity of the ethanolic extract of geopropolis (EEGP) and fractions was evaluated using writhing induced by acetic acid, formalin test, carrageenan-induced hypernociception, and quantification of IL-1β and TNF-α. The chemical composition was assessed by quantification of total flavonoids and phenolic compounds. EEGP and its hexane and aqueous fractions showed antinociceptive activity. Both EEGP and its aqueous fraction presented activity in the mechanical inflammatory hypernociception induced by the carrageenan model, an effect mediated by the inhibition of IL-1β and TNF-α. The chemical composition of EEGP and its hexane and aqueous fractions showed a significant presence of phenolic compounds and absence of flavonoids. Our data indicate that geopropolis is a natural source of bioactive substances with promising antinociceptive activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of a monofloral honey of Mimosa scabrella provided by Melipona marginata during winter in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsato, Débora M; Prudente, Arthur S; Döll-Boscardin, Patrícia M; Borsato, Aurélio V; Luz, Cynthia F P; Maia, Beatriz H L N S; Cabrini, Daniela A; Otuki, Michel F; Miguel, Marilis D; Farago, Paulo V; Miguel, Obdulio G

    2014-07-01

    Melipona marginata is an endangered species of stingless bee from Brazil that produces honey with particular physicochemical features and a remarkable exotic flavor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report devoted to exploring the medicinal potential of this honey. Thus, the aim of this paper was to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory activity of honey extract from M. marginata on skin inflammation. The honey sample was classified as a monofloral honey of Mimosa scabrella. The presence of 11 phenolic compounds as kaempferol and caffeic acid was detected using the high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV-ESI-MS) method. The anti-inflammatory activity was measured using a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced ear edema model of inflammation in mice. The topical application of the M. marginata honey extract (1.0 mg/ear) was able to reduce ear edema with an inhibitory effect of 54 ± 5%. This extract decreased the myeloperoxidase activity in 75 ± 3%, which suggests a lower leucocyte infiltration that was confirmed by histological analysis. This extract also provided a reduction of 55 ± 14% in the production of reactive oxygen species. This anti-inflammatory activity could be due to a synergic effect of the phenolic compounds identified in the honey sample. Taken together, these results open up new possibilities for the use of M. marginata honey extract in skin disorders.

  19. Evidence of at least two evolutionary lineages in Melipona subnitida (Apidae, Meliponini) suggested by mtDNA variability and geometric morphometrics of forewings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatti, Vanessa; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Franco, Fernando Faria; Francoy, Tiago Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Melipona subnitida, a tropical stingless bee, is an endemic species of the Brazilian northeast and exhibits great potential for honey and pollen production in addition to its role as one of the main pollinators of the Caatinga biome. To understand the genetic structure and better assist in the conservation of this species, we characterized the population variability of M. subnitida using geometric morphometrics of the forewing and cytochrome c oxidase I gene fragment sequencing. We collected workers from six localities in the northernmost distribution. Both methodologies indicated that the variability among the sampled populations is related both to the environment in which samples were collected and the geographical distance between the sampling sites, indicating that differentiation among the populations is due to the existence of at least evolutionary lineages. Molecular clock data suggest that this differentiation may have begun in the middle Pleistocene, approximately 396 kya. The conservation of all evolutionary lineages is important since they can present differential resistance to environmental changes, as resistance to drought and diseases.

  20. Foraging behavior, environmental parameters and nests development of Melipona colimana Ayala (Hymenoptera: Meliponini in temperate climate of Jalisco, México

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    J. O. Macías-Macías

    Full Text Available Abstract Melipona colimana Ayala is an endemic species inhabiting temperate forests of pine and oak of south of Jalisco in Mexico. During a year, it was recorded every 15 days foraging activity, environmental parameters and the development of colonies of M. colimana in its wild habitat. For five minutes every hour from 7:00 to 21:00, the bees that entered and left the hive and bringing pollen and resin were registered. Every hour the relative humidity, temperature, wind speed and light intensity was recorded and related to foraging activity. Additionally, the weight of the colonies recently transferred to wooden boxes, the number of brood combs, honey pots and pollen were registered. The time of beginning and ending of the foraging activity differs from the reports of stingless bees of tropical weather and the same happens with the pollen collection. The environmental parameters that affect other tropical stingless bees in the foraging activity also affect M. colimana in temperate climate. It was determined that the major activity season and the presence of more pollen pots in the colony is from November through February, for what it could be the best time of the year for the division and obtainance of new colonies, while the critical period of minor activity and pollen flow was during rainy season. These data may be useful for the future sustainable use of this species in temperate climate.

  1. Seasonal flight and resource collection patterns of colonies of the stingless bee Melipona bicolor schencki Gribodo (Apidae, Meliponini in an Araucaria forest area in southern Brazil

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    Ney Telles Ferreira Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Melipona bicolor schencki occurs in southern Brazil and at high elevations in southeastern Brazil. It has potential for use in meliponiculture but this stingless bee species is vulnerable to extinction and we have little knowledge about its ecology. In order to gather essential information for species conservation and management, we made a study of seasonal flight activities in its natural environment. We sampled bees entering the nests with pollen, nectar/water and resin/mud, in five colonies during each season. In parallel, we analyzed the influence of hour of the day and meteorological factors on flight activity. Flights were most intense during spring and summer, with daily mean estimates of 2,100 and 2,333 flights respectively, while in fall and winter the daily flight estimate was reduced to 612 and 1,104 flights, respectively. Nectar and water were the most frequently-collected resources, followed by pollen and building materials. This preference occurred in all seasons, but with variations in intensity. During spring, daily flight activity lasted over 14 hours; this period was reduced in the other seasons, reaching eight hours in winter. Meteorological factors were associated with 40.2% of the variation in flight and resource collection activity. Apparently, other factors that we did not measure, such as colony needs and availability of floral resources, also strongly influence the intensity of resource collection.

  2. Pollen spectrum of the honey of uruçu bee (Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera: Apidae in the North Coast of Bahia State

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    Larissa Silva Souza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Regional-level studies of floral resources used by social bees for honey production can contribute to the improvement of management strategies for bee pastures and colonies, by identifying the most visited flowers and thus characterizing the various geographical origins of honey. The objective of this study was to investigate, through pollen analysis, the types of pollen and nectar sources used by the uruçu bee (Melipona scutellaris L. in the North Coast of Bahia. Honey samples were taken monthly from five colonies in an apiary from August 2010 to July 2011. Pollen analysis of honey was performed by using the acetolysis method, followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis of pollen grains. Fifty pollen types belonging to 40 genera and 17 families were identified. The results indicate predominance of pollen types belonging to the families Fabaceae and Myrtaceae, which suggests that the bees preferred foraging from trees and shrubs. These plants should be included in regional reforestation projects in order to improve management of this bee species and honey production.

  3. Pollen analysis of the post-emergence residue of Melipona (Melikerria interrupta Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae bred in the central Amazon region

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    Marcos Gonçalves Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We applied an "adapted" protocol for collecting and processing pollen grains in the pollen analysis of the post-emergence residue of Melipona (Melikerria interrupta Latreille. The study was conducted at the Sant'Ana honey farm, located on the banks of the Solimões River, in the municipality of Manacapuru, in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, where a colony was monitored in October and November 2010. From that colony, 10 samples of post-emergence residue were collected. Unlike in the acetolysis method, there was no need to expose pollen grains to an acidic medium, because pollen loses its content during the larval digestive process. We identified 32 pollen types, from 19 botanical families, plus three undetermined pollen types. The most representative family was Fabaceae (Mimosoideae, with eight pollen types, Mimosa guilandinae being the most common species. Only the pollen of Miconia (Melastomataceae, with 74.10%, was classified as a common pollen. We also found that the pollen of Mimosa pudica (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae retained its content, indicating that not all resources furnished by workers are utilized by the larvae. The protocol applied here, despite omitting the acetolysis process, was efficient, providing full details of pollen contained in post-emergence residue.

  4. Ácidos fenólicos, flavonoides e atividade antioxidante em méis de Melipona fasciculata, M. flavolineata (Apidae, Meliponini e Apis mellifera (Apidae, Apini da Amazônia

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    Patricia Sertão Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Honey produced by three stingless bee species (Melipona flavolineata, M. fasciculata and Apis mellifera from different regions of the Amazon was analyzed by separating phenolic acids and flavonoids using the HPLC technique. Data were subjected to multivariate statistical analysis (PCA, HCA and DA. Results showed the three species of honey samples could be distinguished by phenolic composition. Antioxidant activity of the honeys was determined by studying the capacity of inhibiting radicals using DPPH assay. Honeys with higher phenolic compound contents had greater antioxidant capacity and darker color.

  5. CARACTERIZAÇÃO FÍSICO-QUÍMICA DO MEL DE MELIPONA FULVA LEPELETIER, 1836 (HIMENOPTERA: APIDAE: MELIPONINAE) UTILIZADA NA MELIPONICULTURA POR COMUNIDADES TRADICIONAIS DO ENTORNO DA CIDADE DE MACAPÁ-AP

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    Chaves, Alison Felipe Alencar; Gomes, Jorge Emílio Henriques; da Costa, Arley José Silveira

    2012-01-01

    O estudo buscou determinar as características físico-químicas do mel de abelha sem ferrão Melipona fulva Lepeletier, 1836 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponinae) utilizada na meliponicultura por comunidades tradicionais do entorno da cidade de Macapá, AP. As características físico-químicas analisadas foram: umidade, cinzas, acidez, pH, condutividade e hidroximetilfurfural. Os resultados foram expressos em média ± desvio padrão e comparados com os valores limites presentes na legislação vigente e c...

  6. Estudo químico e potencial antioxidante do mel e geoprópolis coletados pela abelha sem ferrão mandaçaia (Melipona mandacaia).

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    Paulo Ricardo da Silva

    2015-01-01

    A espécie de abelha sem ferrão Melipona mandacaia é conhecida popularmente como mandaçaia e é nativa do Nordeste brasileiro. Neste estudo foi analisado o mel e a geoprópolis da mandaçaia. Foram realizadas as análises palinológicas, físico-químicas tais como umidade, pH, acidez livre, hidroximetilfurfural, teor de cinzas, açucares redutores e atividade de água, aminoácidos, minerais e atividade antirradicalar em quatro amostras de mel. Os principais constituintes fenólicos do mel foram extraíd...

  7. Diversidade genÃtica da abelha sem ferrÃo melipona quinquefasciata baseada no sequÃnciamento das regiÃes its1 e 18s do dna ribossÃmico nuclear

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    JÃlio OtÃvio Portela Pereira

    2006-01-01

    A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no perÃodo de janeiro de 2003 a marÃo de 2006, nos Departamentos de Zootecnia, e Biologia da Universidade Federal do CearÃ, localizada no municÃpio de Fortaleza, estado do CearÃ. As amostras de abelhas foram coletadas nos estados do CearÃ, Piauà e GoiÃs. O objetivo desta tese foi estudar a diversidade genÃtica de populaÃÃes da abelha sem ferrÃo Melipona quinquefasciata, ocorrendo naturalmente na Chapada do Araripe (Sul do CearÃ), na Chapada da Ibiapaba (Oeste do Ce...

  8. Espectro polínico de amostras de mel de Melipona mandacaia Smith, 1863 (Hymenoptera: Apidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i1.1061 Pollen spectrum from honey samples of Melipona mandacaia Smith, 1863 stingless bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i1.1061

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    Carlos Afredo Lopes de Carvalho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O espectro polínico de amostras de mel da abelha Melipona mandacaia foi analisado com objetivo de elucidar os recursos alimentares utilizados por essa espécie. A identificação das plantas visitadas foi realizada com base na análise dos tipos polínicos encontrados nas amostras de mel coletadas em 11 colônias localizadas no município de São Gabriel, em área de caatinga do Estado da Bahia, Brasil (11º14’S e 41º52’W. As análises quantitativas e qualitativas foram realizadas com o objetivo de determinar as porcentagens e classes de freqüência dos tipos polínicos presentes nas amostras de mel. Foram encontrados 26 tipos polínicos, sendo o tipo Piptadenia rigida (Mimosaceae considerado dominante. Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, Mimosa verrucata (Mimosaceae e M. arenosa (Mimosaceae foram considerados pólen isolado importante. As famílias mais representativas no espectro polínico das amostras de mel foram Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae e AnacardiaceaeThe pollen spectrum from honey samples of Melipona mandacaia stingless bee was analyzed aiming at elucidating the alimentary resources used by that species. The identification of the visited plants was based on the analysis of pollen from honey samples collected in 11 hives located in São Gabriel county, in the semiarid area of Bahia State, Brazil (11º14’S and 41º52’W. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of honey samples were conducted in order to determine the pollen types percentages and frequency classes. Twenty-six pollen types were found, being the Piptadenia rigida type (Mimosaceae considered dominant. Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, Mimosa verrucata (Mimosaceae and M. arenosa (Mimosaceae were considered important isolated pollen. The most representative families found in the pollen spectrum of the honey samples were Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae and Anacardiaceae

  9. Estudo de plantas visitadas por abelhas Melipona scutellaris na microrregião do brejo no Estado da Paraíba - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1988 Study of plants visited by bees Melipona scutellaris in brejo Paraibano- DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1988

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    Genaro S. Dornellas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de inventariar as plantas visitadas por abelhas Melipona scutellaris L. na Microrregião do Brejo Paraibano, delimitaram-se, 4 linhas de transecção de aproximadamente 1km2 cada, partindo-se do meliponário constituído por 20 colméias da estação experimental Chã de Jardim da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, no município de Areia, estado da Paraíba. As trilhas foram percorridas uma vez por semana durante todo o período de execução do trabalho (abril a julho, nos horários das 7h30min às 10h30min, no qual todas as plantas em florescimento com até 3m de altura foram observadas, por cerca de 5 minutos, anotando-se a visita das abelhas Uruçu. A conclusão foi que essas abelhas apresentam preferência pela vegetação característica da Mata Atlântica e capoeira em detrimento da vegetação de campo, mostrando-se bastante seletivas com relação à escolha de fontes alimentares. Para os meliponicultores, pode-se sugerir como pasto apícola as plantas: Erytroxylon sp., Schamanthus sp, Caliandra brevipes, Wulffia stenoglossa, Croton alagoenis, Jaquemontia sp.The present work had the aim to inventory plants visited by bees Melipona scutellaris in Brejo Paraibano using 20 beehives of bees M. scutellaris L.. Data of four lines of transection were delimited approximately 1km2 each from the mellyponary. Lines were drawn inside of this transection, where each trail was traveled, once a week, during a whole period of work from 7h30min to 10h30min. Along the trail all the plants in flowering were observed about 5 minutes during the visit of Uruçu bees or other ones. During the course plants were collected for botanic identification. For identification of transection line which was more foraged by Uruçu bees, statistical formula used no parametric Kruskal-Wallis for independent “K” samples (Siegel, 1975. The M. scutellaris is shown quite selective regarding to the choice of alimentary sources. For apicultures it can be

  10. Floral preferences and climate influence in nectar and pollen foraging by Melipona rufiventris Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Meliponini) in Ubatuba, São Paulo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo, Adriana de O; Kleinert, Astrid de M P

    2010-01-01

    We describe the environment effects on the amount and quality of resources collected by Melipona rufiventris Lepeletier in the Atlantic Forest at Ubatuba city, São Paulo state, Brazil (44º48'W, 23º22'S). Bees carrying pollen and/or nectar were captured at nest entrances during 5 min every hour, from sunrise to sunset, once a month. Pollen loads were counted and saved for acetolysis. Nectar was collected, the volume was determined and the total dissolved solids were determined by refractometer. Air temperature, relative humidity and light intensity were also registered. The number of pollen loads reached its maximum value between 70% and 90% of relative humidity and 18ºC and 23ºC; for nectar loads this range was broader, 50-90% and 20-30ºC. The number of pollen loads increased as relative humidity rose (rs = 0.401; P < 0.01) and high temperatures had a strong negative influence on the number of pollen loads collected (rs = -0.228; P < 0.01). The number of nectar loads positively correlated with temperature (rs = 0.244; P < 0.01) and light intensity (rs = 0.414; P < 0.01). The percentage of total dissolved solids (TDS) on nectar loads positively correlated with temperature and light intensity (rs = 0.361; P < 0.01 and rs = 0.245; P < 0.01), negatively correlated with relative humidity (rs = -0.629; P < 0.01), and it increased along the day. Most nectar loads had TDS between 11% and 30%, with an average of 24.7%. The volume measures did not show any pattern. Important pollen sources were Sapindaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rubiaceae, Arecaceae, Solanaceae and Myrtaceae; nectar sources were Sapindaceae, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, Arecaceae and Solanaceae.

  11. Caracterización físico-química y organoléptica de miel de Melipona beecheii obtenida en sistemas agroforestales

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    Leydi Fonte

    Full Text Available La investigación se realizó en la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes "Indio Hatuey", con el objetivo de determinar las características organolépticas y físico-químicas de la miel producida por Melipona beecheii. Para la extracción y el envasado de la miel se utilizaron jeringuillas estériles y frascos secos esterilizados, debidamente etiquetados. Después, se detectó en la muestra la presencia de granos de polen pertenecientes a Gliricidia sepium, y se realizó un análisis sensorial y físico-químico basado en los siguientes indicadores: aspecto, color, olor, sabor, textura, humedad (g/100 g, acidez libre (meq/100 g, pH y sólidos solubles (g/100 g = %. Además, se realizaron determinaciones cromatográficas de los azúcares presentes. Los valores de pH estuvieron alrededor de 3,6; la acidez libre fue de 35,0 meq/100 g, y la humedad, de 24 %. Por su parte, el análisis sensorial estuvo acorde con las especificaciones de calidad recomendadas en la norma de calidad cubana, ya que la miel no presentó ningún sabor, aroma o color desagradables. Se concluye que la miel de M. beecheii presentó una excelente calidad, al no sufrir ningún proceso de degradación aparente; por ello se puede considerar como una miel fresca, lo que constituye un requisito clave para cualquier alimento destinado al consumo humano.

  12. Cuantificación de la emergencia y distribución de individuos en Melipona colimana (Hymenoptera: Meliponini en clima templado

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    José Octavio Macías-Macíasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Melipona colimana es una abeja sin aguijón endémica de México que habita las regiones de clima templado del sur del estado de Jalisco. Se hicieron observaciones durante el otoño para contabilizar la emergencia de los individuos e inferir la posible participación de las obreras en la producción de machos. Se analizó el comportamiento de las obreras y la reina en el proceso de aprovisionamiento y oviposición (POP, se obtuvo la proporción de individuos en los panales de cría y su distribución espacial para detectar aglomeraciones de machos. En los análisis de los POP no se observaron evidencias de la actividad de obreras reproductivas. En los panales, el 65.9 % de los individuos que emergieron fueron obreras, el 22.4 % machos (sin registrarse aglomeraciones y el 11.5 % resultaron reinas vírgenes. Se observó que la producción de individuos sexuados (machos y reinas fue más alta que las especies tropicales, lo que pudiera ser una estrategia de esta especie para garantizar su reproducción en climas templados. El no tener evidencias visuales de la actividad de obreras reproductivas, junto con el hecho de que no se registraron aglomeraciones de machos en los panales de cría, sugiere que en esta especie y en esta temporada del año todos los huevos que se desarrollaron como machos provienen de la reina. Con los resultados de este trabajo se amplía el conocimiento de la biología particular de esta especie de clima templado y se hace una comparación con las especies de distribución tropical.

  13. Temporal Variation in Honey Production by the Stingless Bee Melipona subnitida (Hymenoptera: Apidae): Long-Term Management Reveals its Potential as a Commercial Species in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffler, Sheina; Menezes, Cristiano; Menezes, Paulo Roberto; Kleinert, Astrid de Matos Peixoto; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia; Pope, Nathaniel; Jaffé, Rodolfo

    2015-06-01

    Even though stingless beekeeping has a great potential as a sustainable development tool, the activity remains essentially informal, technical knowledge is scarce, and management practices lack the sophistication and standardization found in apiculture. Here, we contributed to the further development of stingless beekeeping by investigating the long-term impact of management and climate on honey production and colony survival in the stingless bee Melipona subnitida Ducke (1910). We analyzed a 10-yr record of 155 M. subnitida colonies kept by a commercial honey producer of northeastern Brazil. This constitutes the longest and most accurate record available for a stingless bee. We modeled honey production in relation to time (years), age, management practices (colony division and food supplementation), and climatic factors (temperature and precipitation), and used a model selection approach to identify which factors best explained honey production. We also modeled colony mortality in relation to climatic factors. Although the amount of honey produced by each colony decreased over time, we found that the probability of producing honey increased over the years. Colony divisions decreased honey production, but did not affect honey presence, while supplementary feeding positively affected honey production. In warmer years, the probability of producing honey decreased and the amount of honey produced was lower. In years with lower precipitation, fewer colonies produced honey. In contrast, colony mortality was not affected by climatic factors, and some colonies lived up to nine years, enduring extreme climatic conditions. Our findings provide useful guidelines to improve management and honey production in stingless bees. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The mitochondrial genome of the stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini: sequence, gene organization and a unique tRNA translocation event conserved across the tribe Meliponini

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    Daniela Silvestre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available At present a complete mtDNA sequence has been reported for only two hymenopterans, the Old World honey bee, Apis mellifera and the sawfly Perga condei. Among the bee group, the tribe Meliponini (stingless bees has some distinction due to its Pantropical distribution, great number of species and large importance as main pollinators in several ecosystems, including the Brazilian rain forest. However few molecular studies have been conducted on this group of bees and few sequence data from mitochondrial genomes have been described. In this project, we PCR amplified and sequenced 78% of the mitochondrial genome of the stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Apidae, Meliponini. The sequenced region contains all of the 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes, 18 of 22 tRNA genes, and both rRNA genes (one of them was partially sequenced. We also report the genome organization (gene content and order, gene translation, genetic code, and other molecular features, such as base frequencies, codon usage, gene initiation and termination. We compare these characteristics of M. bicolor to those of the mitochondrial genome of A. mellifera and other insects. A highly biased A+T content is a typical characteristic of the A. mellifera mitochondrial genome and it was even more extreme in that of M. bicolor. Length and compositional differences between M. bicolor and A. mellifera genes were detected and the gene order was compared. Eleven tRNA gene translocations were observed between these two species. This latter finding was surprising, considering the taxonomic proximity of these two bee tribes. The tRNA Lys gene translocation was investigated within Meliponini and showed high conservation across the Pantropical range of the tribe.

  15. Informações biológicas e estimativa do tamanho ideal da colmeia para a abelha tiúba do Maranhão (Melipona compressipes fasciculata Smith - Hymenoptera, Apidae Biological informations and ideal size estimation of hives for the stingless bees of Maranhão (Melipona compressipes fasciculata, Smith - Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Warwick Estevam Kerr

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Four places in Latin-America have Melipona Illiger, 1806 beekeeping: Mexico, with M. beecheii Bennet, 1831; Northeast Brasil, with M. scutellaris Latreille, 1811; Maranhão State (Brazil with M. compressipes fasciculata Smith, 1854; Venezuela, in her coast, with M. favosa (Fabricius, 1798. Natural colonies of M. compressipes fasciculata occupied tree holes ranging from 6,5 to 24 1. The average honey production of 60 colonies in hives with capacity of 50.2 1, 41.0, 30.2, 16.5 and 6.2 were respectively 8.4, 6.5, 5.5, 3.3 and 2.0 Kg. Due to lack of bee flowers within the city limits, hives with a volume of 27 1 (30x30x30 cm were used successfully in our future experiments with M. compressipes fasciculata instead of the ideal size of 40 to 50 liters, since the intense use of biological material did not allow the colonies to reach large sizes.

  16. Análise físico-química dos méis das abelhas Apis mellifera e Melipona scutellaris produzidos em regiões distintas no Estado da Paraíba

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelista-Rodrigues,Adriana; Silva,Eva Mônica.Sarmento da; Beserra,Ennio Marcello Fernandes; Rodrigues,Marcelo Luis

    2005-01-01

    O mel de abelhas é um produto muito apreciado, no entanto, de fácil adulteração com açúcares ou xaropes. Desta forma, é necessário que haja algumas análises para a determinação da sua qualidade para que seja comercializado. Este trabalho teve como objetivo fazer a análise físico-química dos méis de abelha Apis mellifera. e Melipona scutellaris para a comparação entre as espécies e entre as localidades do Brejo e do Cariri (regiões do Estado da Paraíba). Observou-se que o mel de abelha nativa ...

  17. Fat body, hemolymph and ovary routes for delivery of substances to ovary in Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides: differences among castes through the use of electron-opaque tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz-Landim, Carminda; Roat, Thaisa Cristina; Berger, Bruno

    2013-08-01

    The yolk protein precursor, vitellogenin (Vg), in bees is synthesized in the fat body trophocytes, delivered to the hemolymph and ultimately absorbed from there during the vitellogenic phase of oocytes in the active ovary. The routes tracing the material exchange that occurs between the trophocytes and the hemolymph, in addition to the transportation from the hemolymph to the ovarian follicles, were marked by alkaline phosphatase and lanthanum nitrate (LN). Active ovaries from nurse workers and physogastric queens, as well as inactive ovaries of virgin queens, were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The LN permitted better visualization of the routes of exchanges between the organs and the hemolymph. Both methods demonstrate the apparent differences between the phases of the ovary and the bee caste. In inactive ovaries of the virgin queens, the routes from the follicular epithelium to the oocyte remain closed; conversely, they are open in active ovaries of the nurse workers and physogastric queens. The differences between the methods and classes of bees are discussed.

  18. Análise físico-química dos méis das abelhas Apis mellifera e Melipona scutellaris produzidos em regiões distintas no Estado da Paraíba

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    Evangelista-Rodrigues Adriana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O mel de abelhas é um produto muito apreciado, no entanto, de fácil adulteração com açúcares ou xaropes. Desta forma, é necessário que haja algumas análises para a determinação da sua qualidade para que seja comercializado. Este trabalho teve como objetivo fazer a análise físico-química dos méis de abelha Apis mellifera. e Melipona scutellaris para a comparação entre as espécies e entre as localidades do Brejo e do Cariri (regiões do Estado da Paraíba. Observou-se que o mel de abelha nativa apresenta um maior teor de água (umidade de 25,25% quando comparado com o mel de abelha africanizada (18,76%, dificultando o seu armazenamento, pois o alto teor de água do produto diminui a sua vida útil de prateleira. Para as análises de hidroximetilfurfural, o valor mais alto foi para o mel produzido na região do Cariri, quando comparado com o mel produzido na região do Brejo, o que pode ser explicado pela diferença de temperatura, sendo mais alta no Cariri. Para os valores de pH, obteve-se diferença significativa entre os méis, com o mel do Cariri apresentando valor mais baixo (3,8. Para Acidez Total, o mel de abelha africanizada do Brejo Paraibano apresentou 41,6 meq/kg de mel, enquanto o mel de abelha nativa apresentou 28,3 meq/kg de mel. Para os demais parâmetros estudados, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. Conclui-se que os méis produzidos pelas abelhas africanizadas (A. mellifera e pela abelha nativa Melipona scutellaris na Estação Experimental do Cariri e da Chã-de-Jardim pertencentes ao CCA/UFPB apresentam valores diferentes dos padrões da Regulamento Técnico de Identidade e Qualidade do Mel (Ministério da Agricultura e do Abastecimento para alguns parâmetros, o que pode dificultar o seu armazenamento por um longo período.

  19. Variação sazonal das condições internas de colônias de Melipona marginata obscurior Moure, no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Seasonal variations in the internal condictions of colonies the Melipona marginata obscurior Moure, at Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Francine Von B. Borges

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento das condições internas das colônias de Melipona marginata obscurior Moure, 1971, ao longo do ano, é importante para a compreensão do comportamento das abelhas sem ferrão e seu manejo. Visa-se o estudo da biologia de M. marginata obscurior em ambiente natural, com ênfase na variação sazonal das condições internas das colônias. Quatro colônias foram estudadas no Centro de Pesquisas e Conservação da Natureza Pró-Mata, em São Francisco de Paula, RS. Avaliou-se o volume dos ninhos, a ocorrência e duração da diapausa e o número total de favos e de células de cria nos dois últimos favos. O volume do invólucro inicial das quatro colônias foi semelhante, variando de 2,26 a 2,69 litros. Ao final da avaliação observou-se que o volume do invólucro da colônia A reduziu 5%, enquanto as demais cresceram 61% (colônia B, 84% (C e 71% (D. A partir do monitoramento mensal dos favos de cria constatou-se a ocorrência de diapausa em três colônias (B, C e D enquanto a colônia A permaneceu com postura ininterruptamente. As colônias cessaram a construção de células de cria e postura da rainha durante o outono e reiniciaram esta atividade no final do inverno. Sugere-se que a variação do período de diapausa (8 a 23 semanas seja determinada por fatores internos das colônias. O número máximo de favos registrado durante a primavera e o verão variou de 6 a 8, enquanto que o número estimado de células de cria dos dois últimos favos variou de 116 a 1190. Foi possível reconhecer padrões, bem como variações sazonais, relacionados ao volume do invólucro dos ninhos, à ocorrência de diapausa e ao número de favos e de células de cria nos dois últimos favos. Variações sazonais das condições internas entre as colônias mostraram-se evidentes e podem ser creditadas a características intrínsecas das colônias.The knowledge of the internal conditions of Melipona marginata obscurior Moure, 1971 colonies, through

  20. Atividades externas de Melipona marginata obscurior Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, em distintas épocas do ano, em São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil External activities of Melipona marginata obscurior Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, in distinct times of the year, at São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Francine von B. Borges

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Propõe-se a análise das atividades de vôo de Melipona marginata obscurior Moure, 1971, em diferentes épocas do ano. Atividades de vôo de abelhas de duas colônias foram estudadas no Centro de Pesquisas e Conservação da Natureza Pró-Mata, em São Francisco de Paula, RS. Na primavera-verão, a amplitude diária de atividade de vôo foi de nove e 13 horas para colônias A e B, respectivamente, com maior intensidade de vôo entre nove e 11 horas. A temperatura mínima para vôo foi de 14,3°C e a partir desta tornaram-se mais intensas. A maior intensidade de vôo ocorreu na faixa de 81-90% de umidade relativa e radiação solar a partir de 300 W/m². Para a colônia A, apenas a temperatura influenciou significativamente as atividades de vôo das abelhas, enquanto que para a colônia B foi somente a radiação solar. No outono-inverno, a amplitude diária de atividades de vôo foi de 10 horas, e entre 10 e 15 horas estas atividades foram mais intensas. A temperatura mínima para vôo foi de 13,7°C, e a partir desta temperatura as atividades tornaram-se mais intensas. Assim como na primavera-verão, a maior intensidade de vôo neste período ocorreu a partir de 300 W/m² de radiação solar. A temperatura e a radiação solar exerceram influência significativa nas atividades externas das abelhas das duas colônias no outono-inverno. As atividades de coleta de pólen pelas abelhas, na primavera-verão, ocorreram desde as primeiras horas da manhã, enquanto no outono-inverno o forrageamento foi tardio.It is proposed a seasonal analysis of the external activities of Melipona marginata obscurior Moure, 1971, in different times of the year. The flight activities of the bees of colonies were studied in the Centro de Pesquisas e Conservação da Natureza Pró-Mata, at São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul. In the spring-summer period, the diary amplitude of the flight activity was about 9 and 13 hours to the colonies A and B, respectively

  1. Flight activity and responses to climatic conditions of two subspecies of Melipona marginata Lepeletier (Apidae, Meliponinae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinert-Giovannini, A; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V L

    1986-01-01

    The flight activity of two colonies of M. m. marginata and six colonies of M. m. obscurior was studied in Sao Paulo, Brazil during three periods in 1981-1983. All colonies were hived except for one colony of M. m. obscurior which nested in a hollow tree. The two subspecies showed the same responses to the climatic factors analyzed. Flight activity was correlated positively with temperature and negatively with RH. In favorable conditions foraging took place throughout the day but both species were most active between 11 and 13 h. In the last observation period (October 1982-January 1983), when only two obscurior colonies were studied, flight activity was not correlated to RH, occurring even when RH was unfavorably high. This was a very rainy season, and it is suggested that the behavior of the bees indicates a flexible response to prevailing weather conditions.

  2. The chemical composition and pharmacological activities of geopropolis produced by Melipona fasciculata Smith in northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Maria José Abigail Mendes [UNESP; Búfalo, Michelle Cristiane [UNESP; Conti, Bruno José [UNESP; Fernandes Jr., Ary [UNESP; Trusheva, Boryana; Bankova, Vassya; Sforcin, José Maurício [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Geopropolis is produced by stingless bees from resinous materials of plants, adding salivary secretions, wax, mud or clay, and has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of respiratory diseases and dermatoses. Therefore, it is important to study its antibacterial, antitumor and immunomodulatory properties are important to confirm the ethnopharmacological applications. This work aimed to evaluate its chemical composition, and its antimicrobial, anti-tumoral and immunomodulatory acti...

  3. Antagonism of Apis mellifera and Melipona beecheii for the sources of feeding

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    Ailyn Leal-Ramos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The competition is defined as the interrelation among species that influence negatively in the abundance or the growth of the population of an or both species. They can be defined two competition types: competition of exploitation for the use of a resource shared as the food and the competition by interference when decreases the efficiency of exploitation of another species for the competition for the territory. With the objective of determining the possible antagonism of A. mellifera and M. beecheii for the source of pollen, the origin of the pollen stored in the reservations of foods of the beehives of A. mellifera and M. beecheii through palinologic analysis carried out to samples of pollen of both species of bees settled down. The diversity of pollen found in the samples is superior in A. mellifera with regard to M. beecheii being Mimosa pudica and Mimosa pigra the identified species with a high frequency. On the other hand, 71,4% of the vegetable identified species coincides in the pollen found in the samples of A. mellifera and M. beecheii, being a half similarity among the grains of pollen of the beehives of both species expressed by a coefficient of similarity of Jaccard 0,5219.

  4. Atividade antimicrobiana de méis de cinco espécies de abelhas brasileiras sem ferrão Antimicrobial activity of honey from five species of Brazilian stingless bees

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    Manuela Dória Mercês

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A atividade antimicrobiana de méis produzidos por Melipona asilvai, Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides, Friseomelita doederleinei, Tetragonisca angustula e Plebeia sp. foi investigada. O teste de difusão em poço demonstrou que todos os méis tem ação antibacteriana frente a Staphylococcus aureus, mas somente as amostras produzidas por M. quadrifasciata anthidioides e F. doederleinei inibiram o crescimento de Escherichia coli. No ensaio de determinação da concentração inibitória mínima, os méis de M. asilvai, M. quadrifasciata anthidioides, F. doederleinei e T. angustula foram mais ativos que os de Plebeia sp. frente a S. aureus e E. coli. Os micro-organismos Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Candida albicans foram resistentes a todos os méis em ambos ensaios. Os méis foram mais efetivos contra as bactérias do que frente a uma solução de açúcar, sugerindo que o mecanismo de inibição do crescimento bacteriano não está somente relacionado ao efeito osmótico. Os resultados obtidos podem explicar o uso medicinal desses méis em doenças bacterianas.The antimicrobial activity of honey produced by Melipona asilvai, Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides, Friseomelita doederleinei, Tetragonisca angustula and Plebeia sp. were investigated. The agar well diffusion assay demonstrated that all honeys had antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, but only the samples from M. quadrifasciata anthidioides and F. doederleinei inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli. In the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration determination assay, M. asilvai, M. quadrifasciata anthidioides, F. doederleinei and T. angustula honeys were more active than that from Plebeia sp. for S. aureus and E. coli. The microorganisms Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were resistant to the all native stingless bee honeys in both assays. Honeys were more effective against bacteria than a sugar solution, suggesting that the mechanism for bacterial growth inhibition

  5. Antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens and immunomodulatory effects and toxicity of geopropolis produced by the stingless bee Melipona fasciculata Smith

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    Liberio Silvana A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Native bees of the tribe Meliponini produce a distinct kind of propolis called geopropolis. Although many pharmacological activities of propolis have already been demonstrated, little is known about geopropolis, particularly regarding its antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens. The present study aimed at investigating the antimicrobial activity of M. fasciculata geopropolis against oral pathogens, its effects on S. mutans biofilms, and the chemical contents of the extracts. A gel prepared with a geopropolis extract was also analyzed for its activity on S. mutans and its immunotoxicological potential. Methods Antimicrobial activities of three hydroalcoholic extracts (HAEs of geopropolis, and hexane and chloroform fractions of one extract, were evaluated using the agar diffusion method and the broth dilution technique. Ethanol (70%, v/v and chlorhexidine (0.12%, w/w were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Total phenol and flavonoid concentrations were assayed by spectrophotometry. Immunotoxicity was evaluated in mice by topical application in the oral cavity followed by quantification of biochemical and immunological parameters, and macro-microscopic analysis of animal organs. Results Two extracts, HAE-2 and HAE-3, showed inhibition zones ranging from 9 to 13 mm in diameter for S. mutans and C. albicans, but presented no activity against L. acidophilus. The MBCs for HAE-2 and HAE-3 against S. mutans were 6.25 mg/mL and 12.5 mg/mL, respectively. HAE-2 was fractionated, and its chloroform fraction had an MBC of 14.57 mg/mL. HAE-2 also exhibited bactericidal effects on S. mutans biofilms after 3 h of treatment. Significant differences (p Conclusions In summary, geopropolis produced by M. fasciculata can exert antimicrobial action against S. mutans and C. albicans, with significant inhibitory activity against S. mutans biofilms. The extract with the highest flavonoid concentration, HAE-2, presented the highest antimicrobial activity. In addition, a geopropolis-based gel is not toxic in an animal model and displays anti-inflammatory effect.

  6. Immunomodulatory/inflammatory effects of geopropolis produced by Melipona fasciculata Smith in combination with doxorubicin on THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Lucas Pires Garcia; Conte, Fernanda Lopes; Cardoso, Eliza de Oliveira; Conti, Bruno José; Santiago, Karina Basso; Golim, Marjorie de Assis; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Sforcin, José Maurício

    2016-12-01

    Geopropolis (GEO) in combination with doxorubicin (DOX) reduced HEp-2 cells viability compared to GEO and DOX alone. A possible effect of this combination on the innate immunity could take place, and its effects were analysed on THP-1 cell - a human leukaemia monocytic cell line used as a model to study monocyte activity and macrophage activity, assessing cell viability, expression of cell markers and cytokine production. THP-1 cells were incubated with GEO, DOX and their combination. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay, cell markers expression by flow cytometry and cytokine production by ELISA. GEO + DOX did not affect cell viability. GEO alone or in combination increased TLR-4 and CD80 but not HLA-DR and TLR-2 expression. GEO stimulated TNF-α production while DOX alone or in combination did not affect it. GEO alone or in combination inhibited IL-6 production. GEO exerted a pro-inflammatory profile by increasing TLR-4 and CD80 expression and TNF-α production, favouring the activation of the immune/inflammatory response. GEO + DOX did not affect cell viability and presented an immunomodulatory action. Lower concentrations of DOX combined to GEO could be used in cancer patients, avoiding side effects and benefiting from the biological properties of GEO. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. Behavioural data on the production of males by workers in the stingless bee Melipona favosa (Apidae, Meliponinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommeijer, M.J.; Chinh, T.X.; Meeuwsen, F.J.A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Male production was studied in four queenright M. favosa colonies by permanent and long duration observation of egg-laying and subsequent bee emergence. Workers produced males in all colonies; they produced 94.5% of all males.

  8. Antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens and immunomodulatory effects and toxicity of geopropolis produced by the stingless bee Melipona fasciculata Smith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberio, Silvana A; Pereira, Antônio Luís A; Dutra, Richard P; Reis, Aramys S; Araújo, Maria José A M; Mattar, Nadia S; Silva, Lucilene A; Ribeiro, Maria Nilce S; Nascimento, Flávia Raquel F; Guerra, Rosane N M; Monteiro-Neto, Valério

    2011-11-04

    Native bees of the tribe Meliponini produce a distinct kind of propolis called geopropolis. Although many pharmacological activities of propolis have already been demonstrated, little is known about geopropolis, particularly regarding its antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens. The present study aimed at investigating the antimicrobial activity of M. fasciculata geopropolis against oral pathogens, its effects on S. mutans biofilms, and the chemical contents of the extracts. A gel prepared with a geopropolis extract was also analyzed for its activity on S. mutans and its immunotoxicological potential. Antimicrobial activities of three hydroalcoholic extracts (HAEs) of geopropolis, and hexane and chloroform fractions of one extract, were evaluated using the agar diffusion method and the broth dilution technique. Ethanol (70%, v/v) and chlorhexidine (0.12%, w/w) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Total phenol and flavonoid concentrations were assayed by spectrophotometry. Immunotoxicity was evaluated in mice by topical application in the oral cavity followed by quantification of biochemical and immunological parameters, and macro-microscopic analysis of animal organs. Two extracts, HAE-2 and HAE-3, showed inhibition zones ranging from 9 to 13 mm in diameter for S. mutans and C. albicans, but presented no activity against L. acidophilus. The MBCs for HAE-2 and HAE-3 against S. mutans were 6.25 mg/mL and 12.5 mg/mL, respectively. HAE-2 was fractionated, and its chloroform fraction had an MBC of 14.57 mg/mL. HAE-2 also exhibited bactericidal effects on S. mutans biofilms after 3 h of treatment. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in total phenol and flavonoid concentrations were observed among the samples. Signs toxic effects were not observed after application of the geopropolis-based gel, but an increase in the production of IL-4 and IL-10, anti-inflammatory cytokines, was detected. In summary, geopropolis produced by M. fasciculata can exert antimicrobial action against S. mutans and C. albicans, with significant inhibitory activity against S. mutans biofilms. The extract with the highest flavonoid concentration, HAE-2, presented the highest antimicrobial activity. In addition, a geopropolis-based gel is not toxic in an animal model and displays anti-inflammatory effect. © 2011 Liberio et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  9. Combinatorial effects of geopropolis produced by Melipona fasciculata Smith with anticancer drugs against human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (HEp-2) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomeu, Ariane Rocha; Frión-Herrera, Yahima; da Silva, Livia Matsumoto; Romagnoli, Graziela Gorete; de Oliveira, Deilson Elgui; Sforcin, José Maurício

    2016-07-01

    The identification of natural products exerting a combined effect with therapeutic agents could be an alternative for cancer treatment, reducing the concentration of the drugs and side effects. Geopropolis (Geo) is produced by some stingless bees from a mixture of vegetable resins, gland secretions of the bees and soil. It has been used popularly as an antiseptic agent and to treat respiratory diseases and dermatosis. To determine whether Geo enhances the anticancer effect of carboplatin, methotrexate and doxorubicin (DOX), human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (HEp-2) cells were treated with Geo alone or in combination with each drug. Cell growth, cytotoxicity and apoptosis were evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and flow cytometry. Scratch assay was used to analyze cell migration and transmission electron microscopy to observe morphologic alterations. The influence of Geo on drug resistance was also investigated assessing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) action. Geo inhibited cell proliferation and migration. The combination Geo+DOX led to the highest cytotoxic activity and induced apoptosis, leading to loss of membrane integrity. Geo had no effect on P-gp-mediated efflux of DOX. Data indicate that Geo combined with DOX could be a potential clinical chemotherapeutic approach for laryngeal cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Physicochemical aspects and sensory profile of stingless bee honeys from Seridó region, State of Rio Grande do Norte, BrazilAspectos físico-químicos e perfil sensorial de méis de abelhas sem ferrão da região do Seridó, Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Maria Batista Sousa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bee honey is a highly valued product of the Seridó region, state of Rio Grande do Norte due to its specific sensory and nutritional characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and sensory profile of stingless bee honeys produced in the Seridó region, state of Rio Grande do Norte. Twenty-nine honey samples from the following stingless bees were analyzed: M. subnitida D., Frieseomellita doederleini F., Melipona scutellaris L., Frieseomellita flavicornis, Scaptotrigrona SP, Nannotrigona testaceicornis L., Melipona compressipes fasciculada S., Melipona quadrifasciata Lep, Melipona quinquefasciata, M. scutellaris L. and Partamona helleri F. The composition considering moisture, total sugars, reducing sugars, apparent sucrose, protein, vitamin C, and ash, and the total acidity, pH, and color were evaluated. A sensory profile, considering the aroma, color, viscosity, flavor, acidity attributes and general acceptability, and the acceptability, regarding aroma, color and flavor, were also analyzed. The honeys were different (p O mel de abelhas sem ferrão é um produto bastante valorizado na região do Seridó do Rio Grande do Norte, em função de suas características nutritivas e sensoriais específicas. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os aspectos físico-químicos e perfil sensorial de méis de abelhas sem ferrão produzidos na região do Seridó do Rio Grande do Norte. Foram analisadas 29 amostras de mel das seguintes abelhas sem ferrão: M. subnitida D., Frieseomellita doederleini F., Melipona scutellaris L., Frieseomellita flavicornis, Scaptotrigrona SP, Nannotrigona testaceicornis L., Melipona compressipes fasciculada S., Melipona quadrifasciata Lep, Melipona quinquefasciata, M. scutellaris L. e Partamona helleri F. Os aspectos físico-químicos analisados foram: umidade, açúcares totais, açucares redutores, sacarose aparente, cinzas, acidez total, pH, proteína, vitamina C e cor

  11. Physicochemical characteristics and sensory profile of honey samples from stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponinae submitted to a dehumidification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A.L. Carvalho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a dehumidification process on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of stingless-bee honey. Melipona scutellaris and M. quadrifasciata honey samples were submitted to a dehumidification process and to physicochemical (reducing sugars, apparent sucrose, moisture, diastatic activity, hydroxymethylfurfural, ash, pH, acidity, and electric conductivity and sensory evaluations (fluidity, color, aroma, crystallization,flavor,and acceptability. The results indicated that the dehumidification process does not interfere with honey quality and acceptability.Este estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do processo de desumidificação sobre as características físico-químicas e sensoriais do mel das abelhas sem ferrão. Amostras de méis de Melipona scutellaris e M. quadrifasciata foram submetidas ao processo de desumidificação, passando em seguida por avaliações físico-químicas (açúcares redutores, sacarose aparente, umidade, atividade diastásica, hidroximetilfurfural, cinzas, pH, acidez e condutividade elétrica e sensoriais (fluidez, cor, aroma, cristalização, sabor e aceitabilidade. Os resultados indicaram que o processo de desumidificação não interfere na qualidade e aceitabilidade do mel.

  12. Divergências morfométricas entre populações isoladas de Melipona subnitida Ducke (Hymenoptera: Apidae no semiárido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aldenor de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo realizar um estudo morfométrico desta espécie de abelha criada em condições artificiais no semiárido brasileiro, com a finalidade de verificar divergência em sua morfologia, de forma a identificar possíveis variações dessa espécie. As abelhas foram coletadas de criadores de abelhas sem ferrão distintos, de duas localidades sendo uma delas o município de São João do Rio do Peixe, Paraíba-PB, sob as coordenadas: lat. 06° 43' 44" S e long. 38° 26' 56" W. E a outra no município de Mossoró sob as coordenadas lati. 5°03'40’’ S, long. 37º23'51’ W. Distantes 262 quilômetros entre si. O período da pesquisa compreendeu os meses de dezembro de 2012 a janeiro do ano de 2013. Foram avaliados 200 cortiços, e identificados 30 de maior percentual de produção, de onde foram selecionados aleatoriamente 10 para nível de coletas dos insetos em cada localidade. Foram coletadas 60 abelhas operárias, sendo 3 abelhas referentes a cada cortiço. Os parâmetros avaliados dentro do estudo morfométrico foram: Comprimento Transversal, Comprimento Longitudinal, Pernas Coletoras Asas Anteriores Asas Posteriores e Peso por Inseto. Em relação a características avaliadas foram constatadas diferenças significativas entre todas quando se trata dos indivíduos das duas localidades. Corroborando a existência de variabilidade morfométricas entre as localidades. Na análise discriminante obtida para classificação de indivíduos entre as localidades, o município de são João do Rio do Peixe obteve uma taxa de classificação Correta de 100,0%, já para Mossoró a taxa foi de 96,67%, sendo que a média geral foi de 98,33%. Pela validação cruzada, estas localidade tiveram, respectivamente, identificação correta de seus indivíduos com taxas de 100% e 93,33%. A média geral da validação cruzada foi de 96,97%. As variações de tamanho encontradas neste trabalho constatadas pela morfometria demonstram que as técnicas são ferramentas importantes na avaliação e no desenvolvimento de estratégias de conservação e de sustentabilidade.

  13. Levantamento da fauna de abelhas silvestres na "zona da mata" de Minas Gerais: III. Mata secundária na região de Viçosa (Hymenoptera, Apoidea Survey of the wild bees of the "zona da mata" of Minas Gerais, Brazil: III. Secondary forest in Viçosa region (Hymenoptera, Apoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Cure

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of a wild bee fauna survey in a secondary forest is reported. Sampling was carried out mainly on herbaceous and shrubby vegetation under and at the border of the forest. Results are compared with data collected with the same methodology from a previously surveyed grassland nearby. The secondary forest was richer in Anthophoridae and Apidae species, and less diverse in Megachilidae. Similarity between the two habitats was low. Several unidentified species of Ceratinula, Trichocerapis mirabilis and the stingless bees Melipona bicolor, M. quadrifasciata, M. marginata, Paratrigona subnuda, Scaptotrigona tubiba and S. xanthotricha, are among the species dependent on the forest environment to survive. Bee population densities in the forest understory are as large as the largest values found for open vegetation in Southeastern Brazil; species richness is also comparable to those of other areas in Southeastern Brazil. Sampling strategies are discussed.

  14. Perfil sensorial e aceitabilidade de méis de abelhas sem ferrão submetidos a processos de conservação Sensorial profile and acceptability of stingless bee honey submitted to conservation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geni da Silva Sodré

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou o perfil sensorial e a aceitabilidade de méis de abelhas sem ferrão submetidos a dois processos de conservação, objetivando obter maior vida de prateleira. Foram utilizadas amostras de méis de Melipona scutellaris e M. quadrifasciata, coletadas no Estado da Bahia entre dezembro de 2005 e janeiro de 2006. As amostras foram submetidas aos processos de pasteurização e desumidificação, passando em seguida por avaliação sensorial. O perfil sensorial foi determinado no Laboratório de Entomologia do Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Ambientais e Biológicas da Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, em Cruz das Almas, Estado da Bahia. Os atributos analisados foram: fluidez, cor, aroma, cristalização, sabor e aceitabilidade. Os resultados mostraram que os processos de conservação utilizados não interferem no perfil sensorial e na aceitabilidade do produto.The present work was conducted to evaluate the sensorial profile and the acceptability of the honey of stingless bees submitted to two conservation processes seeking to obtain longer shelf life. The samples of Melipona scutellaris and M. quadrifasciata honey were collected in the State of Bahia, Brazil, between December 2005 and January 2006. The samples were first submitted to pasteurization and dehumidification processes and then to sensorial evaluation. The sensorial profile was determined in the Laboratory of Entomology in the Center for Agrarian, Biological, and Environmental Sciences of the Federal University of Recôncavo Bahiano, in Cruz das Almas, in the state of Bahia. The analyzed attributes were: fluidity, color, scent, crystallization, flavour, and acceptability. The results show that the conservation processes used do not interfere with the sensorial profile and the product acceptability.

  15. Abelhas (Hymenoptera: apoidea visitantes das flores de goiaba em pomar comercial in Salinas, MG Bee diversity in a commercial guava orchard in Salinas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire Alves Guimarães

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As abelhas são responsáveis por cerca de 80% a 100% da polinização de culturas agrícolas, especialmente aquelas relacionadas com a produção de sementes e frutos. A investigação da diversidade de abelhas em pomares de goiaba pode ser subsídio para estratégias de incremento da produtividade. Nesta perspectiva, o objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a diversidade de abelhas visitantes das flores de goiaba (Psidium guajava, em pomar comercial em Salinas (MG. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em maio de 2005 e foram coletadas as abelhas visitantes das flores nos horários entre 6h e 18h, totalizando-se 44 horas de coleta. Coletaram-se 705 abelhas de 17 espécies, sendo Trigona spinipes a mais freqüente e dominante na cultura da goiaba. Apis mellifera, Melipona quadrifasciata e Tetragonisca angustula foram consideradas acessórias. Aproximadamente 84% dos indivíduos foram coletados da manhã, de 6h às 10h.Pollination is an important factor in agricultural systems, especially in growing fruits and seed production, which depend greatly on bee visiting during blossom season; highly successful gains within these activities varies between 80 and nearly 100 per cent, owing to the bees. The assessment of bee diversity in commercial orchards of guava may contribute to a more desirable strategic design and consequent improvement of production. The aim of the study was identify the diversity of visiting bees to guava flowers (Psidium guajava in a commercial orchard in Salinas, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The work was carried during blossom season of May - 2005. Field works occurred between 6:00 am to 6:00 pm, counting with 44 hours of collection, when 705 bees were collected. The richness observed was of 17 species, the most frequent and dominant being Trigona spinipes. Among the collection there were some considered accessory species: Apis mellifera, Melipona quadrifasciata and Tetragonisca angustula. Most of individual bees have been captured

  16. Termorregulação colonial e a influência da temperatura no desenvolvimento da cria em abelhas sem ferrão, Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini)

    OpenAIRE

    Yara Sbrolin Roldão

    2011-01-01

    Uma característica dos insetos sociais, entre elas as abelhas, é o controle da temperatura de seus ninhos. Abelhas sociais são denominadas como animais heterotérmicos, ou seja, são endotérmicas quando realizam atividades motoras (adultas) e ectotérmicas quando apresentam inatividade (cria e abelhas jovens). Essa característica está entrelaçada com o comportamento social. As abelhas melíferas (Apidae; Apini: Apis mellifera) são conhecidas por apresentarem uma temperatura ótima dentro de seus n...

  17. Valor nutricional do mel e pólen de abelhas sem ferrão da região Amazônica

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Rosa Cristina da Silva; Yuyama,Lucia Kiyoko Ozaki; Aguiar,Jaime Paiva Lopes; Oliveira,Francisco Plácido Magalhães

    2004-01-01

    Avaliou-se os constituintes nutricionais de amostras do mel e pólen das espécies Melipona seminigra merrillae (jandaíra), Melipona compressipes manaosensis (jupará), Melipona rufiventris paraensis (uruçu boca de ralo), provenientes do meliponário da Fazenda Poranga no município de Itacoatiara - AM e Meliponário Abelhudo em Manaus - AM. Os resultados demonstraram o potencial do mel como fonte de energia, particularmente a M. rufiventris com 305,3±2,4 kcal em 100g. O pólen da espécie M. compres...

  18. Sequence and expression pattern of the germ line marker vasa in honey bees and stingless bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Queens and workers of social insects differ in the rates of egg laying. Using genomic information we determined the sequence of vasa, a highly conserved gene specific to the germ line of metazoans, for the honey bee and four stingless bees. The vasa sequence of social bees differed from that of other insects in two motifs. By RT-PCR we confirmed the germ line specificity of Amvasa expression in honey bees. In situ hybridization on ovarioles showed that Amvasa is expressed throughout the germarium, except for the transition zone beneath the terminal filament. A diffuse vasa signal was also seen in terminal filaments suggesting the presence of germ line cells. Oocytes showed elevated levels of Amvasa transcripts in the lower germarium and after follicles became segregated. In previtellogenic follicles, Amvasa transcription was detected in the trophocytes, which appear to supply its mRNA to the growing oocyte. A similar picture was obtained for ovarioles of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, except that Amvasa expression was higher in the oocytes of previtellogenic follicles. The social bees differ in this respect from Drosophila, the model system for insect oogenesis, suggesting that changes in the sequence and expression pattern of vasa may have occurred during social evolution. PMID:21637523

  19. Stingless bees further improve apple pollination and production

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    Blandina Felipe Viana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of Africanised honeybee (Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier hives to increase pollination success in apple orchards is a widespread practice. However, this study is the first to investigate the number of honeybee hives ha-1 required to increase the production of fruits and seeds as well as the potential contribution of the stingless bee Mandaçaia (Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier. We performed tests in a 43-ha apple orchard located in the municipality of Ibicoara (13º24’50.7’’S and 41º17’7.4’’W in Chapada Diamantina, State of Bahia, Brazil. In 2011, fruits from the Eva variety set six seeds on average, and neither a greater number of hives (from 7 to 11 hives ha-1 nor a greater number of pollen collectors at the honeybee hives displayed general effects on the seed number. Without wild pollinators, seven Africanised honeybee hives ha-1 with pollen collectors is currently the best option for apple producers because no further increase in the seed number was observed with higher hive densities. In 2012, supplementation with both stingless bees (12 hives ha-1 and Africanised honeybees (7 hives ha-1 provided higher seed and fruit production than supplementation with honeybees (7 hives ha-1 alone. Therefore, the stingless bee can improve the performance of honeybee as a pollinator of apple flowers, since the presence of both of these bees results in increases in apple fruit and seed number.

  20. Sequence and expression pattern of the germ line marker vasa in honey bees and stingless bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Donato Tanaka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Queens and workers of social insects differ in the rates of egg laying. Using genomic information we determined the sequence of vasa, a highly conserved gene specific to the germ line of metazoans, for the honey bee and four stingless bees. The vasa sequence of social bees differed from that of other insects in two motifs. By RT-PCR we confirmed the germ line specificity of Amvasa expression in honey bees. In situ hybridization on ovarioles showed that Amvasa is expressed throughout the germarium, except for the transition zone beneath the terminal filament. A diffuse vasa signal was also seen in terminal filaments suggesting the presence of germ line cells. Oocytes showed elevated levels of Amvasa transcripts in the lower germarium and after follicles became segregated. In previtellogenic follicles, Amvasa transcription was detected in the trophocytes, which appear to supply its mRNA to the growing oocyte. A similar picture was obtained for ovarioles of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, except that Amvasa expression was higher in the oocytes of previtellogenic follicles. The social bees differ in this respect from Drosophila, the model system for insect oogenesis, suggesting that changes in the sequence and expression pattern of vasa may have occurred during social evolution.

  1. Constituintes fenólicos e atividade antioxidante da geoprópolis de duas espécies de abelhas sem ferrão amazônicas

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    Ellen Cristina Costa da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of stingless Amazonian bees, Melipona interrupta and Melipona seminigra. The chemical investigation of geopropolis from Melipona interrupta led to the isolation of 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavonone, 3,5,6,7,4'-pentahydroxyflavonol, naringenine-4'-O-b-D-glucopyranoside and myricetin-3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside. Their structures were assigned based on spectroscopic analyses, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. Antioxidant activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of M. interrupta and M. seminigra were measured using the 1,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay. This is also the first work reporting the chemical investigation of stingless bee species from the Amazonian region.

  2. Phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of amazonian stingless bees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ellen Cristina Costa da; Muniz, Magno Perea; Nunomura, Rita de Cassia Saraiva, E-mail: ellensilva@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Departamento de Produtos Naturais, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Zilse, Gislene Almeida Carvalho [Departamento de Biodiversidade, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of stingless Amazonian bees, Melipona interrupta and Melipona seminigra. The chemical investigation of geopropolis from Melipona interrupta led to the isolation of 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavonone, 3,5,6,7,4'-pentahydroxyflavonol, naringenine-4'-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside and myricetin-3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside. Their structures were assigned based on spectroscopic analyses, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. Antioxidant activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of M. interrupta and M. seminigra were measured using the 1,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. This is also the first work reporting the chemical investigation of stingless bee species from the Amazonian region. (author)

  3. Phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of amazonian stingless bees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Ellen Cristina Costa da; Muniz, Magno Perêa; Nunomura, Rita de Cássia Saraiva; Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi; Zilse, Gislene Almeida Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of stingless Amazonian bees, Melipona interrupta and Melipona seminigra. The chemical investigation of geopropolis from Melipona interrupta led to the isolation of 5,7,4’-trihydroxyflavonone, 3,5,6,7,4’-pentahydroxyflavonol, naringenine-4’-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and myricetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. Their structures were assigned based on spectroscopic analyses, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. Antioxidant activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of M. interrupta and M. seminigra were measured using the 1,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. This is also the first work reporting the chemical investigation of stingless bee species from the Amazonian region. (author)

  4. Phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of amazonian stingless bees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ellen Cristina Costa da; Muniz, Magno Perea; Nunomura, Rita de Cassia Saraiva, E-mail: ellensilva@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Departamento de Produtos Naturais, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Zilse, Gislene Almeida Carvalho [Departamento de Biodiversidade, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of stingless Amazonian bees, Melipona interrupta and Melipona seminigra. The chemical investigation of geopropolis from Melipona interrupta led to the isolation of 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavonone, 3,5,6,7,4'-pentahydroxyflavonol, naringenine-4'-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside and myricetin-3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside. Their structures were assigned based on spectroscopic analyses, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. Antioxidant activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of M. interrupta and M. seminigra were measured using the 1,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. This is also the first work reporting the chemical investigation of stingless bee species from the Amazonian region. (author)

  5. Safeguarding Ecosystem Services: A Methodological Framework to Buffer the Joint Effect of Habitat Configuration and Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza C Giannini

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services provided by mobile agents are increasingly threatened by the loss and modification of natural habitats and by climate change, risking the maintenance of biodiversity, ecosystem functions, and human welfare. Research oriented towards a better understanding of the joint effects of land use and climate change over the provision of specific ecosystem services is therefore essential to safeguard such services. Here we propose a methodological framework, which integrates species distribution forecasts and graph theory to identify key conservation areas, which if protected or restored could improve habitat connectivity and safeguard ecosystem services. We applied the proposed framework to the provision of pollination services by a tropical stingless bee (Melipona quadrifasciata, a key pollinator of native flora from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and important agricultural crops. Based on the current distribution of this bee and that of the plant species used to feed and nest, we projected the joint distribution of bees and plants in the future, considering a moderate climate change scenario (following IPPC. We then used this information, the bee's flight range, and the current mapping of Atlantic Forest remnants to infer habitat suitability and quantify local and regional habitat connectivity for 2030, 2050 and 2080. Our results revealed north to south and coastal to inland shifts in the pollinator distribution during the next 70 years. Current and future connectivity maps unraveled the most important corridors, which if protected or restored, could facilitate the dispersal and establishment of bees during distribution shifts. Our results also suggest that coffee plantations from eastern São Paulo and southern Minas Gerais States could suffer a pollinator deficit in the future, whereas pollination services seem to be secured in southern Brazil. Landowners and governmental agencies could use this information to implement new land use

  6. Safeguarding Ecosystem Services: A Methodological Framework to Buffer the Joint Effect of Habitat Configuration and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Tereza C.; Tambosi, Leandro R.; Acosta, André L.; Jaffé, Rodolfo; Saraiva, Antonio M.; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L.; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by mobile agents are increasingly threatened by the loss and modification of natural habitats and by climate change, risking the maintenance of biodiversity, ecosystem functions, and human welfare. Research oriented towards a better understanding of the joint effects of land use and climate change over the provision of specific ecosystem services is therefore essential to safeguard such services. Here we propose a methodological framework, which integrates species distribution forecasts and graph theory to identify key conservation areas, which if protected or restored could improve habitat connectivity and safeguard ecosystem services. We applied the proposed framework to the provision of pollination services by a tropical stingless bee (Melipona quadrifasciata), a key pollinator of native flora from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and important agricultural crops. Based on the current distribution of this bee and that of the plant species used to feed and nest, we projected the joint distribution of bees and plants in the future, considering a moderate climate change scenario (following IPPC). We then used this information, the bee’s flight range, and the current mapping of Atlantic Forest remnants to infer habitat suitability and quantify local and regional habitat connectivity for 2030, 2050 and 2080. Our results revealed north to south and coastal to inland shifts in the pollinator distribution during the next 70 years. Current and future connectivity maps unraveled the most important corridors, which if protected or restored, could facilitate the dispersal and establishment of bees during distribution shifts. Our results also suggest that coffee plantations from eastern São Paulo and southern Minas Gerais States could suffer a pollinator deficit in the future, whereas pollination services seem to be secured in southern Brazil. Landowners and governmental agencies could use this information to implement new land use schemes

  7. Safeguarding Ecosystem Services: A Methodological Framework to Buffer the Joint Effect of Habitat Configuration and Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Tereza C; Tambosi, Leandro R; Acosta, André L; Jaffé, Rodolfo; Saraiva, Antonio M; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by mobile agents are increasingly threatened by the loss and modification of natural habitats and by climate change, risking the maintenance of biodiversity, ecosystem functions, and human welfare. Research oriented towards a better understanding of the joint effects of land use and climate change over the provision of specific ecosystem services is therefore essential to safeguard such services. Here we propose a methodological framework, which integrates species distribution forecasts and graph theory to identify key conservation areas, which if protected or restored could improve habitat connectivity and safeguard ecosystem services. We applied the proposed framework to the provision of pollination services by a tropical stingless bee (Melipona quadrifasciata), a key pollinator of native flora from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and important agricultural crops. Based on the current distribution of this bee and that of the plant species used to feed and nest, we projected the joint distribution of bees and plants in the future, considering a moderate climate change scenario (following IPPC). We then used this information, the bee's flight range, and the current mapping of Atlantic Forest remnants to infer habitat suitability and quantify local and regional habitat connectivity for 2030, 2050 and 2080. Our results revealed north to south and coastal to inland shifts in the pollinator distribution during the next 70 years. Current and future connectivity maps unraveled the most important corridors, which if protected or restored, could facilitate the dispersal and establishment of bees during distribution shifts. Our results also suggest that coffee plantations from eastern São Paulo and southern Minas Gerais States could suffer a pollinator deficit in the future, whereas pollination services seem to be secured in southern Brazil. Landowners and governmental agencies could use this information to implement new land use schemes. Overall

  8. Valor nutricional do mel e pólen de abelhas sem ferrão da região Amazônica Nutricional value of honey and pollen of stingerless bees of the Amazonian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cristina da Silva Souza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se os constituintes nutricionais de amostras do mel e pólen das espécies Melipona seminigra merrillae (jandaíra, Melipona compressipes manaosensis (jupará, Melipona rufiventris paraensis (uruçu boca de ralo, provenientes do meliponário da Fazenda Poranga no município de Itacoatiara - AM e Meliponário Abelhudo em Manaus - AM. Os resultados demonstraram o potencial do mel como fonte de energia, particularmente a M. rufiventris com 305,3±2,4 kcal em 100g. O pólen da espécie M. compressipes apresentou a maior concentração de proteína 15,7±0,0% e energia 309,8±0,8 kcal. Tais constatações sugerem a implementação de novos estudos visando à incorporação destes produtos na dieta dos amazônidas, possibilitando uma nova fonte alternativa de alimento potencialmente nutritivo e saudável.We evaluated the nutricional constituent of honey and pollen samples of the Melipona species seminigra merrillae (jandaíra Melipona compressipes manaosensis (jupará, Melipona rufiventris paraensis (uruçu boca de ralo, proceeding from the Poranga Honey Farm in Itacoatiara - AM, and Meliponário Abelhudo in Manaus, AM. The results demonstrated the potencial of honey as a source of energy, particularly the kcal M. rufiventris with 305.3±2.4 kcal in 100g. The compressis pollen of species presented the highest concentration of protein 15.7±0.0 % and energy 309.8±0.8 kcal. Thus we suggest the implementation of new studies aiming at the incorporation of these products in the diet of the Amazon population, making possible a new potentially nutritional and alternative healthful food source.

  9. Efeito da exclusão dos insetos polinizadores na produção do café Bourbon The effect of the exclusion of pollinating insects on the yield of the bourbon coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Nogueira - Neto

    1959-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente ensaio, realizado com a var. bourbon de Coffea arabica, além de dar informações sôbre a produção dos cafeeiros protegidos dos insetos polinizadores, permitiu também averiguar o comportamento de várias espécies de abelhas e obter outras informações correlatas. Constatou-se, assim, que o néctar da flor é ainda abundante mesmo 24 horas após a antese e que o teor de açúcar do néctar é elevado, da ordem de 38%, em média. Apis mellifera foi a espécie mais freqüentemente encontrada coletando o néctar e o pólen. Em dias chuvosos, muitas das abelhas dessa espécie apenas coletam o pólen. Das abelhas indígenas, somente Plebéia sp. e Nannotrigona (Na. testaceicomis e Melipona quadrifasciata foram encontradas colhendo o pólen. Com tempo bom, as abelhas visitam as flôres do café em grande número, tendo-se notado que A. mellifera ocorre com maior freqüência em horas próximas do meio dia, à temperatura de 30 a 32°C. As abelhas Plebeia sp. e N. (Na. testaceicomis iniciam o vôo mais tarde que a A. mellifera. Em observações realizadas no decurso de 24 horas verificou-se que uma abelha européia trabalhou num território de 13m x 6m, enquanto outras abelhas marcadas não foram vistas novamente. As observações feitas indicaram também que as abelhas grandes, como A. mellifera e Melipona quadrifasciata, são mais eficientes do que as pequenas como polinizadoras do cafeeiro. Em flores mais velhas, com a base da corola já desprendida, encontraram-se as abelhas menores, lambendo diretamente os nectários. As espécies de meliponíneos Plebeia sp., Tetragona (Tetragonisca jaty, N. (Na. testaceicomis e Trigona (Trigona ruficrus, foram vistas muitas vêzes alcançando os nectários através de cortes feitos na base das corolas por Trigona (Trigona hyalinata. Observações adicionais mostraram que as abelhas M. quadrifasciata e Cephalotrigona capitata, bem como A. mellifera, dão preferência as flôres de exemplares

  10. New Penicillium and Talaromyces species from honey, pollen and nests of stingless bees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, Renan N.; Bezerra, Jadson D.P.; Souza-Motta, Cristina M.

    2018-01-01

    of nests of Melipona scutellaris. A total of 100 isolates were obtained during the survey and 82% of those strains belonged to Penicillium and 18% to Talaromyces. Identification of these isolates was performed based on phenotypic characters and ß-tubulin and ITS sequencing. Twenty-one species were......., Penicillium mellis sp. nov., Penicillium meliponae sp. nov.) and Gracilenta (Penicillium apimei sp. nov.) and the three new Talaromyces species to sections Helici (Talaromyces pigmentosus sp. nov.), Talaromyces (Talaromyces mycothecae sp. nov.) and Trachyspermi (Talaromyces brasiliensis sp. nov...

  11. Physico-chemical properties of honeys produced by two stingless ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and sodium (Na) contents were 25.43%, 0.76%, and 12.67% for Trigona carbonaria honey and 26.51%, 1.03% and 11.96% for Melipona beecheii .The fructose, glucose, reducing sugar, higher sugar, sucrose and calorific value contents of Trigona carbonaria honey were 37.25%, 31.64%, ...

  12. Screening for quality indicators and phenolic compounds of biotechnological interest in honey samples from six species of stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Gomes de OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract Honey from stingless bees of the genus Melipona is a well sought product. Nevertheless lack of legal frameworks for quality assessment complicates the evaluation of food safety and marketing of these products. Seeking to assess the quality of honey from the bees of this genus, physical and chemical analyses, identification of phenolic compounds, and microbiological evaluation from six species of stingless bees was performed. The honey samples showed high reducing sugars, low protein levels and a balanced microbiota. High total phenols and flavonoids and higher antioxidant activity were also recorded. Different phenolic compounds of great biotechnological potential were identified and of these apigenin, kaempferol and luteolin were identified for the first time in honey. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the few works describing a detail characterization of melipona honey together with identification of the phenolic compounds of significant therapeutic value.

  13. Intraspecific queen parasitism in a highly eusocial bee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenseleers, Tom; Alves, Denise A.; Francoy, Tiago M.; Billen, Johan; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L.

    2011-01-01

    Insect societies are well-known for their advanced cooperation, but their colonies are also vulnerable to reproductive parasitism. Here, we present a novel example of an intraspecific social parasitism in a highly eusocial bee, the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. In particular, we provide genetic evidence which shows that, upon loss of the mother queen, many colonies are invaded by unrelated queens that fly in from unrelated hives nearby. The reasons for the occurrence of this surprising form of social parasitism may be linked to the fact that unlike honeybees, Melipona bees produce new queens in great excess of colony needs, and that this exerts much greater selection on queens to seek alternative reproductive options, such as by taking over other nests. Overall, our results are the first to demonstrate that queens in highly eusocial bees can found colonies not only via supersedure or swarming, but also by infiltrating and taking over other unrelated nests. PMID:20961883

  14. Intraspecific queen parasitism in a highly eusocial bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenseleers, Tom; Alves, Denise A; Francoy, Tiago M; Billen, Johan; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L

    2011-04-23

    Insect societies are well-known for their advanced cooperation, but their colonies are also vulnerable to reproductive parasitism. Here, we present a novel example of an intraspecific social parasitism in a highly eusocial bee, the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. In particular, we provide genetic evidence which shows that, upon loss of the mother queen, many colonies are invaded by unrelated queens that fly in from unrelated hives nearby. The reasons for the occurrence of this surprising form of social parasitism may be linked to the fact that unlike honeybees, Melipona bees produce new queens in great excess of colony needs, and that this exerts much greater selection on queens to seek alternative reproductive options, such as by taking over other nests. Overall, our results are the first to demonstrate that queens in highly eusocial bees can found colonies not only via supersedure or swarming, but also by infiltrating and taking over other unrelated nests.

  15. Physicochemical characteristics of pollen collected by Amazonian stingless bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemilla Sarmento Rebelo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical characteristics of pollen collected by the Amazonian stingless bees Melipona seminigra and Melipona interrupta , in order to verify whether their characteristics meet the physicochemical requirements established by the Brazilian Technical Regulation for Identity and Quality of Bee Pollen. Physicochemical analyses were performed through official analytical methods. Results of pollen analyses collected by M. seminigra and M. interrupta were respectively as follows: moisture: 53.39 and 37.12%; protein: 37.63 and 24.00%; lipids: 10.81 and 6.47%; ash: 4.03 and 2.74%; crude fiber: 9.30 and 13.65%; carbohydrates: 25.66 and 44.27%; energy: 350.47 and 331.33kcal%; pH: 3.70 and 3.34; total solids: 46.60 and 62.87%, and water activity: 0.91 and 0.85. The percentages of moisture and pH in pollen collected by both studied bees are not in agreement with the Technical Regulation for bee pollen. Since some characteristics, which are inherent to the Melipona pollen, were not in conform to the current Regulation, we recommend that further studies should be conducted to better characterize it, and correct the Regulation, if necessary.

  16. Ecuadorian honey types described by Kichwa community in Rio Chico, Pastaza province, Ecuador using Free-Choice Profiling

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    Patricia Vit

    Full Text Available Abstract Pastaza is the largest and least populated province in Ecuador, with seven native indigenous nationalities. The Kichwas from the Rio Chico community live near to the capital city Puyo, are recognized for their knowledge on stingless honey bees. From the 400 species of Neotropical Meliponini that make honey in cerumen pots, almost 100 thrive in Southern Ecuador, and confer such biodiversity to pot-honey. In this study sensory characteristics of Ecuadorian false and genuine honeys with diverse entomological origin: Apis mellifera – light amber and amber, Geotrigona leucogastra, Melipona grandis and Scaptotrigona sp. (S. ederi np Schwarz were investigated with Kichwa assessors (four female and four male, aged 18–62 years old. The panel was asked to taste and to identify sensory attributes of honey (appearance, taste, smell, aroma, mouthfeel, other tactile sensations, and to score their intensities in 10 cm unstructured line scales anchored with the words weak and strong, using the Free-Choice Profile methodology The Generalized Procrustes Analysis was used on the data. The first and second dimensions accounted for by 61.1% of the variance. In the descriptive sensory evaluation, darker honeys (amber A. mellifera, false and Geotrigona were separated from (light amber A. mellifera, Melipona and Scaptotrigona by the first dimension; whereas thicker honeys (A. mellifera and false were discriminated from thinner honeys (Geotrigona, Melipona and Scaptotrigona by the second dimension. The assessors were able to evaluate and differentiate honey types without previous sensory training. Remarkably, two Kichwa ladies immediately spit out the false honey, in contrast to an acceptance study on 18-honeys, where the false honey was scored among the preferred ones by 58 participants of the First Congress on Apiculture and Meliponiculture in Ecuador. Therefore, results suggest that Ecuadorian native Kichwas keep a sensory legacy of ancestral knowledge

  17. Alelle number and heterozigosity for microsatellite loci in different stingless bee species (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Flávio de O; Brito, Rute M; Arias, Maria C

    2006-01-01

    In the present study we compare genetic characteristics (allele diversity and observed heterozygosity) of microsatellite loci, from three stingless bee species (Plebeia remota Holmberg, Partamona mulata Moure In Camargo and Partamona helleri Friese), amplified by using heterospecific primers originally designed for Melipona bicolor Lepeletier and Scaptotrigona postica Latreille. We analyzed 360 individuals of P. remota from 72 nests, 58 individuals of R. mulata from 58 nests, and 47 individuals of P. helleri from 47 nests. The three species studied showed low level of polymorphism for the loci amplified with primers derived from M. bicolor. However, for the loci amplified with primers derived from S. postica, only P. remota presented low level of polymorphism.

  18. Eufriesea nigrescens y E. Pretiosa (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini: un caso de oportunismo o simbiosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González B. Victor Hugo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Una colonia mixta se forma cuando un nido es ocupado por más de una especie (Michener 1974. En Bombus, este tipo de colonias son muy comunes de manera natural; la reina de una especie invade el nido de otra, mata a la reina hospedera y pone sus propias crías (Michener 1974. Este tipo de relaciones interespecíficas son raras en otros apidos y han sido registradas una sola vez entre dos especies de Meliponini: Melipona fuliginosa y M. panamica (= M. fasciata (Roubik 1981, Roubik, como pers., y dos especies de Euglossini: Eulaema cingulata y E. polychroma (Roubik 1990.

  19. Neutral Sterols of Cephalic Glands of Stingless Bees and Their Correlation with Sterols from Pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Juliana Ferreira-Caliman

    2012-01-01

    de novo and, thus, all phytophagous insects depend on an exogenous source of sterols for growth, development, and reproduction. The sterol requirements of social bees are not fully known due to the fact that there is no well-defined diet available throughout the year with regard to floral resources. Our study aimed to characterize the sterols present in pollen stored in Melipona marginata and Melipona scutellaris colonies, as well as evaluating their presence in the mandibular, hypopharyngeal, and cephalic salivary gland secretions. We analyzed the chemical composition of pollen stored in the colonies and the composition of the cephalic glands of workers in three adult functional phases (newly emerged, nurses, and foragers by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The results showed that the pollen analyzed contained campesterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol, isofucosterol, lanosterol, and small amounts of cholesterol. The glands showed the same compounds found in the pollen analyzed, except lanosterol that was not found in M. scutellaris glands. Surprisingly, cholesterol was found in some glands with relative ratios greater than those found in pollen.

  20. Abundância, Distribuição Espacial de Ninhos de Abelhas Sem Ferrão (Apidae: Meliponini e Espécies Vegetais Utilizadas para Nidificação em um Fragmento de Floresta Secundária em Rio Branco, Acre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco da Silva Correia

    2016-12-01

    Abstract. Was conducted a study of the abundance, distribution of bee nests stingless (Apidae: Meliponini and plant species used for nesting in a fragment of secondary forest in Rio Branco-Acre. The field surveys took place in August 2015 in a forest area measuring 137 ha. The nesting substrates (trees were identified and their location recorded by GPS, and also checked the CAP measures (circumference at breast height and height of entry of the nests from the ground. In total, we found 25 nests of stingless bees distributed in three genera, with Melipona eburnea Friese the most abundant species (n=14, followed by Scaptotrigona sp. (n=7, Melipona crinita Moure & Kerr (n=2 and Tetragona sp. (n=2. The botanical species most provided cavities for foundation of the nests were Eugenia jambolana Lam. (Myrtaceae with seven nests (28% in an only individual, followed by Spondias lutea L. (Anacardiaceae and Castilla ulei Warb. (Moraceae, both with three nests (12%. The density of nests was significantly lower (0.18/ha when compared to other studies in the Neotropics, which may be related to fragment size and the degree of disturbance since it is characterized by being in a forest regeneration process.

  1. Estudo morfobiométrico de abelhas jandaíra (Melípona subnitida duck criadas em cortiços racionais no município de São João do Rio do Peixe – PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whalamys Lourenço de Araújo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Em virtude da grande disseminação da abelha Jandaíra em diversas regiões do Nordeste brasileiro, este trabalho teve por objetivo realizar um estudo morfobiométrico desta espécie de melipona, criada em cortiços artificiais no município de São João do Rio do Peixe – PB, com a finalidade de verificar a viabilidade do modelo da chave entomológica proposta por pesquisadores já consagrados em Entomologia, diante das características morfobiométricas apresentadas por estas abelhas. A pesquisa foi dimensionada em um meliponário presente na região Sertaneja Paraibana, num total de 30 abelhas, de 10 distintos cortiços. A espécie em estudo, de acordo com a chave entomológica utilizada, pertence ao gênero Melipona e subgênero Melipona s.str., depois do confronto das características e descritas e as encontradas no inseto, o que demonstrou a eficácia da chave para identificação das abelhas criadas no sertão, que por sua vez apresentaram, em média, 8,85 mm de Comprimento Transversal; 3,38 mm de Comprimento Longitudinal; 7,84 mm de Pernas Coletoras; 6,99 mm de Asas Anteriores; 5,18 mm de Asas Posteriores e por fim 0,0520 mg de Peso Médio, além de características distintas da espécie em sua morfologia externa. Há uma necessidade de se estudar a variabilidade genética através de análises moleculares para uma melhor compreensão da diversidade e dinâmica dessas populações de insetos, bem como fazer uma revisão mais ampla dos subgêneros, em se tratando de morfologia descritiva.

  2. Organization of the cysts in bee (Hymenoptera, Apidae testis: number of spermatozoa per cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Landim Carminda da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the cyst cells in Apis mellifera Linné, 1758, Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1804, and Melipona bicolor bicolor Lepeletier, 1836 testis, as well as the average number of spermatic cells are reported. The data indicates a supporting and nourrishing role of the cyst cells to the developing cystocytes. The counts of immature spermatozoa in the cysts show an average of 202.8 ± 21.2 spermatozoa for A. mellifera, 117.4 ± 8.68 for S. postica and 88.8 ± 15.57 for M. bicolor, which predict the occurrence of 8 mitotic cycles in the cystocytes of A. mellifera and 7 in the meliponines, considering that only one spermatozoom originates of each final spermatogonium.

  3. Physical-chemical characterization of honey of guarana (“Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis” in Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso Caracterização físico-química do mel de guaranazeiro ("Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis" em Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio do Nascimento Ferreira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available It was determined the physical-chemical characteristics and the pollinic origins of 17 samples of honey from guarana plant cultivation (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis, produced by Apis mellifera L, Scaptotrigona sp. L and Melipona seminigra sp honey bee species in Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Pollinic and physical-chemical analysis were determined, considering the variables humidity rate, free acidity, reducing sugar in inverted sugar, apparent sucrose, ashes and solids insoluble in water, comparing the samples to the identity and quality standards established by the local legislation. Means comparisons were made by the Dunnet test at 5% probability. The humidity rate for honey produced by indigenous honey bees – Scaptotrigona sp and Melipona seminigra sp – was high when compared to honey produced by Africanized honey bees, and the levels of reducing sugars for Scaptotrigona sp were low. Any other determinations were accordingly to standards imposed by Brazilian legislation. Through pollinic analysis, it was verified that the pollen from guarana flower was present in all samples of honey, being considered dominant pollen, with 80% of the pollen grain in the samples, showing the apicultural pontential of this species as a honey plant.Objetivou-se com o presente estudo avaliar as características físico-químicas e a origem polínica de 17 amostras de méis oriundos da cultura do guaranazeiro (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis, produzido no município de Alta Floresta - MT por abelhas das espécies Apis mellifera L, Scaptotrigona sp. L e Melipona seminigra sp L. Foram realizadas as análises físico-químicas e polínicas, tendo como variáveis os teores de umidade, acidez livre, açúcares redutores em açúcar invertido, sacarose aparente, cinza e sólidos insolúveis em água, comparando-se as amostras aos Padrões de Identidade e Qualidade (PIQ estabelecidos pela legislação vigente. As comparações das médias foram

  4. Thermal evidence of the invasion of a stingless bee nest by a mammal

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    S. D. Hilário

    Full Text Available Melipona bicolor, an inhabitant of the Atlantic Rainforest, nidifies in hollows of live or dead trees. In order to study thermoregulation of a nest of this species, a temperature data logger was installed inside a hollow tree. After this, an intruder dug a hole, invaded the nest, and probably consumed its honey, pollen and bees, having remained there during three days. Thermal evidence and its behavior allowed the delimitation of a small number of suspects, wich we analized here. The intruder was a small mammal, predominantly nocturnal, that takes shelter in burrows, probably the yellow armadillo (Euphractus sexcinctus. Other evidence, if collected immediately after invasion, could precisely indicate precisely the species.

  5. Not Only Single Mating in Stingless Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Robert J.; Weißschuh, Nicole; Engels, Wolf; Hartfelder, Klaus; Quezada-Euan, J. Javier G.

    Queens of the large, pantropical and fully eusocial taxon Meliponinae (stingless bees) are generally considered to be singly mated. We indirectly estimated queen mating frequency in two meliponids, Melipona beecheii and Scaptotrigona postica, by examining genotypes of workers at microsatellite DNA loci. Microsatellites were highly variable, providing suitable markers with which to assign patrilinial origin of workers within colonies headed by single queens. Queen mating frequency varied between 1 and 3 (M. beecheii) and 1 and 6 (S. postica), representing the first clear documentation of polyandry in the Meliponinae. Effective paternity frequency, me, was lower, although above 2 for S. postica. Stingless bees may provide suitable subjects for the testing of recent inclusive fitness arguments describing intracolony kin conflict in social Hymenoptera.

  6. Towards greater realism in inclusive fitness models: the case of worker reproduction in insect societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenseleers, Tom; Helanterä, Heikki; Alves, Denise A.; Dueñez-Guzmán, Edgar; Pamilo, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    The conflicts over sex allocation and male production in insect societies have long served as an important test bed for Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness, but have for the most part been considered separately. Here, we develop new coevolutionary models to examine the interaction between these two conflicts and demonstrate that sex ratio and colony productivity costs of worker reproduction can lead to vastly different outcomes even in species that show no variation in their relatedness structure. Empirical data on worker-produced males in eight species of Melipona bees support the predictions from a model that takes into account the demographic details of colony growth and reproduction. Overall, these models contribute significantly to explaining behavioural variation that previous theories could not account for. PMID:24132088

  7. Recurso polínico coletado por abelhas sem ferrão (Apidae, Meliponinae em um fragmento de floresta na região de Manaus - Amazonas Pollen resources collected by stingless bees (Apidae, Meliponinae in a forest fragment in the Manaus region, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Plácido Magalhães Oliveira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O recurso polínico coletado por operárias de Melipona seminigra merrillae Cockerell, Melipona fulva Lepeletier, Trigona fulviventris (Smith e CephaloTrigona femorata Guérin, no Campus da UFAM, Manaus (AM foi estudado no período de março a outubro de 2001. Noventa tipos polínicos foram coletados pelas abelhas, distribuídos em 31 famílias, 67 gêneros e 10 formas Tipo. Trigona fulviventris diversificou mais suas coletas, utilizando 58 fontes no período. O tamanho do nicho polínico utilizado pelas abelhas ficou assim distribuído: T. fulviventris (58, M.s. merrillae (41, C. femorata (34 e M. fulva (25. Dos tipos determinados, os que mais contribuíram para a dieta das abelhas, apresentando as maiores freqüências nas amostras de pólen, foram Miconia myriantha (12,91%, Leucaena leucocephala (9,52%, Tapirira guianensis (6,53%, Eugenia stipitata (6,22%, Protium heptaphyllum (6,17% e Vismia guianensis (5,93%. As abelhas de modo geral concentraram suas coletas em um número reduzido de espécies vegetais e com um grau diferenciado de uso para cada uma das fontes. Tipos polínicos com freqüência acima de 10% ocorreram em pequena proporção na maioria dos meses, sendo responsáveis por mais de 50% do total do pólen coletado em cada mês. A utilização das fontes de pólen variou conforme a espécie. T. fulviventris teve uma dieta mais ampla e diversificada, enquanto M. fulva foi a que menos diversificou suas coletas. T. fulviventris apresentou maior uniformidade no uso das fontes polínicas e a sobreposição de nichos polínicos foi maior entre M.s. merrillae e M. fulva e menor entre T. fulviventris e C. femorata.The objective of this study was to characterize the resources used by Amazonian bees Melipona seminigra merrillae, Melipona fulva, Trigona fulviventris and CephaloTrigona femorata, in an urban Forest patch at Manaus city from March to October 2001. The pollen analysis determined 90 pollen types, distributed in 31 families, 67

  8. Abelhas sem ferrão (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponini da Estação Ecológica de Água Limpa, Cataguases-MG, Brasil.

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    Hugo Werneck

    2014-08-01

    Stingless Bees of the Estação Ecológica de Água Limpa, Cataguases-MG, Brazil Abstract. This study carried out a survey of nests of stingless bees present in the Estação Ecológica de Água Limpa (EEAL in the municipality of Cataguases, Minas Gerais. We found twenty-one nests belonging to nine species: Friesella schrottkyi (Friese, Melipona bicolor Lepeletier, Plebeia sp. 1, Plebeia sp. 2, Tetragona clavipes (Fabricius, Tetragona quadrangula (Fabricius, Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, Trigona hyalinata (Lepeletier, Trigona spinipes (Fabricius. Twenty of the 21 nests were found in arboreal substrate. The fauna of stingless bees observed in EEAL is represented by a low number of species. Although the local vegetation has the potential to provide substrates for nesting and floral resources, the low species richness may be related to the fact that the EEAL is an isolated forest remnant.

  9. ANOTHER CIVILIZATION OF HONEY. THE USE OF HONEY BY GUAYCURUS INDIAN GROUPS ACCORDING TO THE EVIDENCES FROM JESUIT SOURCES (XVIII C.

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    María Celeste Medrano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Guaycurus groups inhabiting the Gran Chaco region in the 18th century made extensive use of honey produced by native stingless bees (Tribe Meliponini. These practices were extensively registered by the Jesuits who tried to evangelize in the area. This paper is based on the analysis of the evidences obtained from these sources and current ethnographic data related to the use of honey. The aim is to discuss the uses and traditional knowledge and identify meliponas species mentioned in these sources from the collection of individuals and reports of Indian and creole people about them, contributing to a corpus that includes the diversity of expertise in the area regarding these practices.

  10. OTRA CIVILIZACIÓN DE LA MIEL: UTILIZACIÓN DE MIEL EN GRUPOS INDÍGENAS GUAYCURÚES A PARTIR DE LA EVIDENCIA DE FUENTES JESUITAS (Siglo XVIII

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    María Celeste Medrano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los grupos guaycurúes que habitaban la región del Gran Chaco durante el siglo XVIII realizaban un extenso aprovechamiento de mieles procedentes de abejas nativas sin aguijón (Tribu Meliponini. Estas prácticas fueron extensamente documentadas por los jesuitas que misionaron en el área. El presente trabajo se basa en el análisis de las evidencias obtenidas en estas fuentes y datos etnográficos actuales relacionados al aprovechamiento de miel. El objetivo es examinar los usos y saberes tradicionales e identificar las especies de meliponas mencionadas en dichas fuentes a partir de la colecta de ejemplares y los discursos de indígenas y criollos elaborados sobre las mismas aportando a un corpus que incluya la diversidad de conocimientos existentes en la zona sobre estas prácticas.

  11. Thermal evidence of the invasion of a stingless bee nest by a mammal

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    Hilário S. D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Melipona bicolor, an inhabitant of the Atlantic Rainforest, nidifies in hollows of live or dead trees. In order to study thermoregulation of a nest of this species, a temperature data logger was installed inside a hollow tree. After this, an intruder dug a hole, invaded the nest, and probably consumed its honey, pollen and bees, having remained there during three days. Thermal evidence and its behavior allowed the delimitation of a small number of suspects, wich we analized here. The intruder was a small mammal, predominantly nocturnal, that takes shelter in burrows, probably the yellow armadillo (Euphractus sexcinctus. Other evidence, if collected immediately after invasion, could precisely indicate precisely the species.

  12. OTRA CIVILIZACIÓN DE LA MIEL: UTILIZACIÓN DE MIEL EN GRUPOS INDÍGENAS GUAYCURÚES A PARTIR DE LA EVIDENCIA DE FUENTES JESUITAS (Siglo XVIII

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    María Celeste Medrano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Guaycurus groups inhabiting the Gran Chaco region in the 18th century made extensive use of honey produced by native stingless bees (Tribe Meliponini. These practices were extensively registered by the Jesuits who tried to evangelize in the area. This paper is based on the analysis of the evidences obtained from these sources and current ethnographic data related to the use of honey. The aim is to discuss the uses and traditional knowledge andidentify meliponas species mentioned in these sources from the collection of individuals and reports of Indian and creole people about them, contributing to a corpus that includes the diversity of expertise in the area regarding these practices.RESUMEN: Los grupos guaycurúes que habitaban la región del Gran Chaco durante el siglo XVIII realizaban un extenso aprovechamiento de mieles procedentes de abejas nativas sin aguijón (Tribu Meliponini. Estas prácticas fueron extensamente documentadas por los jesuitas que misionaron en el área. El presente trabajo se basa en el análisis de las evidencias obtenidas en estas fuentes y datos etnográficos actuales relacionados al aprovechamiento de miel. El objetivo es examinar los usos y saberes tradicionales e identificar las especies de meliponas mencionadas en dichas fuentes a partir de la colecta de ejemplares y los discursos de indígenas y criollos elaborados sobre las mismas aportando a un corpus que incluya ladiversidad de conocimientos existentes en la zona sobre estas prácticas.

  13. Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of two stingless bee honeys: a comparison with Apis mellifera honey from Nsukka, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nweze, Justus Amuche; Okafor, J I; Nweze, Emeka I; Nweze, Julius Eyiuche

    2017-11-06

    Several physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of two Nigerian stingless bee honey varieties (Melipona sp. and Hypotrigona sp.) were compared with Apis mellifera honey using standard analytical procedures. The mean pH of Apis mellifera, Hypotrigona sp. and Melipona sp. honeys were 4.24 ± 0.28, 3.75 ± 0.11 and 4.21 ± 0.37 respectively. The mean moisture contents of the honeys were 11.74 ± 0.47, 17.50 ± 0.80, and 13.86 ± 1.06%. Honey samples from Hypotrigona sp. when compared with other honey samples had the highest mean total dissolved solids (370.01 ± 22.51 ppm), hydroxymethylfurfural (16.58 ± 0.37 mg/kg), total acidity (35.57 ± 0.42 meq/kg), protein content (16.58 ± 0.37 g/kg), phenol content (527.41 ± 3.60 mg/kg), and ascorbic acid (161.69 ± 6.70 mg/kg), antioxidant equivalent-ascorbic acid assay value (342.33 ± 0.78 mg/kg) as well as ferric reducing power (666.88 ± 1.73 μM Fe(II)/100 g) (p honeys. This is the first study to compare the properties of Nigerian honey bees. Our results suggested that these honeys (specifically Hypotrigona sp. honey) is a good source of antioxidants comparable to A. mellifera honey.

  14. Meliponini Neotropicais: o gênero Dolichotrigona Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae Neotropical Meliponini: the genus Dolichotrigona Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae

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    João M. F. Camargo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O gênero neotropical de abelhas-sem-ferrão Dolichotrigona Moure, 1950, é revisado. Sete espécies novas são descritas: D. mendersoni sp. nov. (Brasil: AM, AC, RO, D. clavicornis sp. nov. (Brasil: AC, D. rondoni sp. nov. (Brasil: RO, D. tavaresi sp. nov. (Brasil: AM, AC, D. browni sp. nov. (Brasil: RO, AC, MT; Peru, Equador, Bolívia, D. moratoi sp. nov. (Brasil, AM, AC e D. chachapoya sp. nov. (Peru. O holótipo de Trigona martinezi Brèthes, 1920, e o lectótipo de Melipona longitarsis Ducke, 1916 - aqui designado -, foram examinados e redescritos. Trigona schulthessi Friese, 1900, foi interpretada com base na literatura. Chave para identificação das espécies e ilustrações dos principais caracteres diagnósticos são apresentadas.The Neotropical stingless bees genus Dolichotrigona Moure, 1950, is revised. Seven new species are described: D. mendersoni sp. nov. (Brazil: AM, AC, RO, D. clavicornis sp. nov. (Brazil: AC, D. rondoni sp. nov. (Brazil: RO, D. tavaresi sp. nov. (Brazil: AM, AC, D. browni sp. nov. (Brazil: RO, AC, MT; Peru, Equador, Bolivia, D. moratoi sp. nov. (Brazil, AM, AC and D. chachapoya sp. nov. (Peru. The holotype of Trigona martinezi Brèthes, 1920, and the lectotype of Melipona longitarsis Ducke, 1916 - herein designated -, were examined and redescribed. Trigona schulthessi Friese, 1900, was interpreted based on the literature. Identification key for species and illustrations of the main diagnostic characters are presented.

  15. Captura de enxames de abelhas sem ferrão (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae sem destruição de árvores Capturing stingless bee nests (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae without destroying the trees

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    Alexandre Coletto-Silva

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil a criação racional de abelhas sem ferrão é denominada meliponicultura. As abelhas sem ferrão possuem diferentes comportamentos de nidificação, com ninhos internos (cavidades naturais ou não e externos. Um dos principais problemas apresentados na meliponicultura é a captura de uma colônia com o objetivo de iniciar um meliponário sem "destruir as árvores" ou mesmo as próprias colônias durante a captura. O presente trabalho apresenta um método alternativo para captura de colônias de abelhas sem ferrão, especialmente, do gênero Melipona Illiger, 1806, que são as espécies mais utilizadas para produção de mel e pólen, na região Amazônica. O método consiste em abrir uma janela na árvore, coletar o material e fechar a abertura utilizando a resina vegetal conhecida como breu.Meliponiculture is the name for stingless beekeeping in Brazil. Stingless bees have different nest behaviors showing external and internal nests (natural cavities or not. One of the main problems of meliponiculture is the capture of a colony in order to begin a meliponary without destroying trees or the colonies during the capture. A new alternative method for the capture of stingless bee colonies is presented for the genus Melipona Illiger, 1806, which are the species mostly used for producing honey and pollen. The method is to open the tree, collect the colony, and then close the tree with natural resins known as "breu".

  16. A stingless bee can use visual odometry to estimate both height and distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckles, M A; Roubik, D W; Nieh, J C

    2012-09-15

    Bees move and forage within three dimensions and rely heavily on vision for navigation. The use of vision-based odometry has been studied extensively in horizontal distance measurement, but not vertical distance measurement. The honey bee Apis mellifera and the stingless bee Melipona seminigra measure distance visually using optic flow-movement of images as they pass across the retina. The honey bees gauge height using image motion in the ventral visual field. The stingless bees forage at different tropical forest canopy levels, ranging up to 40 m at our site. Thus, estimating height would be advantageous. We provide the first evidence that the stingless bee Melipona panamica utilizes optic flow information to gauge not only distance traveled but also height above ground, by processing information primarily from the lateral visual field. After training bees to forage at a set height in a vertical tunnel lined with black and white stripes, we observed foragers that explored a new tunnel with no feeder. In a new tunnel, bees searched at the same height they were trained to. In a narrower tunnel, bees experienced more image motion and significantly lowered their search height. In a wider tunnel, bees experienced less image motion and searched at significantly greater heights. In a tunnel without optic cues, bees were disoriented and searched at random heights. A horizontal tunnel testing these variables similarly affected foraging, but bees exhibited less precision (greater variance in search positions). Accurately gauging flight height above ground may be crucial for this species and others that compete for resources located at heights ranging from ground level to the high tropical forest canopies.

  17. Abelhas-sem-ferrão amazônicas defendem meliponários contra saques de outras abelhas Amazonian stingless bees protect meliponaries against robber bees

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    André Rodrigo Rech

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Entre as abelhas eussociais, dois gêneros apresentam estratégia de vida cleptobiótica, obtendo recursos alimentares de ninhos de outras abelhas ao invés de coletá-los em flores. Entre as espécies atacadas existe um gradiente de suscetibilidade ao roubo variando desde espécies vulneráveis até altamente resistentes. Neste trabalho nós descrevemos um ataque de Lestrimelitta rufipes a um ninho de Scaptotrigona sp. em um meliponário na Amazônia central (Amazonas, Brazil. O ninho atacado foi transferido para um meliponário com espécies resistentes (Duckeola ghilianii e Melipona fulva e as interações foram descritas. As abelhas resistentes contra-atacaram e afugentaram as ladras protegendo o ninho de Scaptotrigona sp.. A presença de comportamento defensivo em gêneros não proximamente relacionados sugere que ele tenha evoluído mais de uma vez entre os Meliponini. Considerando o comportamento descrito, sugerimos a criação de espécies nativas resistentes em meliponários de regiões onde elas forem nativas, devido ao potencial que elas tem na proteção.Among eusocial bees, two genera evolved a cleptobiotic life strategy, stealing food resources from other bee nest instead of collecting it from flowers. Under natural conditions there is a gradient of strategies against robbing, from more susceptible to highly resistant species. In this work, we describe one attack of the robber bee Lestrimelitta rufipes to a nest of Scaptotrigona sp. in the Amazon Rain Forest (Amazonas, Brazil. The attacked nest was introduced in a beekeeping area with bees already known to be resistant to cleptobiosis. The resident bees (Duckeola ghilianii and Melipona fulva counter-attacked the robber bees and successfully protect the Scaptotrigona sp. nest. The presence of the defensive behaviour in unrelated genera suggests it evolved many times in social bees. Based on the protective behaviour described here, we suggest that in order to reduce the damage caused

  18. Removal of clay by stingless bees: load size and moisture selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Pereira, Raul

    2014-09-01

    Some organisms disperse energy, associated with the transportation of resource, which is not necessarily food. Stingless bees of Central Amazonia (Melipona flavolineata and M. lateralis) collect clay in banks along streams for nest building. The moisture of the clay varies along the bank, and bees collect clay from specific location, indicating that there is some sort of preference regarding their selection. This study aims at identifying: if larger bees carry more clay; if there is a preference for moisture of substrates; and if bees are less efficient accumulating and transporting clay when it is wet. In order to do so, I measured the size of the bees and of the pellets of clay found in the corbicula. I set up a field experiment to test substrate preferences. The amount of clay transported, increased exponentially in accordance to the size of the bee, and the preferred substrate was the driest clay. The amount and the efficiency of removal of clay were not affected by the moisture of the substrate. Despite the wet clay being denser, it does not reduce the efficiency of exploitation of the resource, but suggests that bees spend more energy to carry the same quantity of wet clay, which may be the underlying mechanism explaining their preference for removing drier clay.

  19. Electrophoresis characterisation of protein as a method to establish the entomological origin of stingless bee honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramón-Sierra, Jesús Manuel; Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; de la Luz Ortiz-Vázquez, Elizabeth

    2015-09-15

    Increasing production of stingless-bee honey and the prospect of broader marker for natural and organic products indicate the need to establish parameters to determinate the entomological origin and authenticity of honey. In this research, honeys of Apis mellifera, Melipona beecheii and Trigona spp. were collected in Yucatan, Mexico. Stingless-bee honeys contained more water and less total sugars and reducing sugars. SDS-PAGE patterns show distinctive bands for each kind of honey. The SDS-PAGE pattern of A. mellifera proteins honey showed three bands with molecular weights between 10.2 and 74.8kDa, there were five proteins bands in M. beecheii honey with molecular weights between 6.1 and 97.0kDa and nine for Trigona spp. proteins between 9.3 and 86.7kDa. Conventional physicochemical parameters along with electrophoresis profiles of stingless-bee honeys proteins could be an alternative for determination of entomological origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of a propolis extract on Streptococcus mutans counts in vivo

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    Silvana Alves de Carvalho Duailibe

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibacterial action of an extract of geopropolis produced by the bee Melipona compressipes fasciculata on the concentration of Streptococcus mutans colonizing the oral cavity of young patients. Forty-one young volunteers performed 21 mouth rinses divided into three rinses per day for 7 days, with no other changes in their oral hygiene and dietary habits. Saliva was collected at three time points: before the first rinse, and one hour and 7 days after the first rinse. A reduction in the concentration of S. mutans was observed in 49% of all samples collected after use of the extract, 26% showed no alterations, and an increasing in S. mutans was observed in 25%. Was performed with the Statistica for Windows 5.9 program using the Kruskal-Wallis test for analysis of variance and the Mann-Whitney U test, with the level of significance set at 5%. The propolis extract possesses in vivo antimicrobial activity against S. mutans present in the oral cavity and might be used as an alternative measure to prevent dental caries.

  1. Diversity of Stingless Bees (Hymenoptera:Meliponini) Used in Meliponiculture in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nates Parra, Guiomar; Rosso Londono, Juan Manuel

    2013-01-01

    There are close to 120 species of native stingless bees in Colombia, many of them with important uses and meanings for diverse social and cultural groups. The stingless beekeeping (meliponiculture) is an activity in process of growth and technification in Latin America and other regions, but there are a little information about their characteristics and development in Colombia. Through information collected by interviews to 75 stingless beekeepers of 16 departments of Colombia, 25 species of stingless bees were identified, grouped in 12 genera. Approximately nine more uncertain species were also found, four new records for the country are presented, and geographical distribution, urban beekeeping and vernacular names reported. The characteristics of most common cultivated genera (Tetragonisca, Melipona, Paratrigona, Scaptotrigona and Nannotrigona) are presented, and the importance of the link between biological and cultural diversity revealed in vernacular names, are discussed. Facing a growing of meliponiculture in the world, some research needs and risks for the conservation and management of the diversity of stingless bees and related knowledge are remarked.

  2. Broad Protein Spectrum in Stored Pollen of Three Stingless Bees from the Chaco Dry Forest in South America (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini and Its Ecological Implications

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    Favio Gerardo Vossler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein content of pollen stored by three meliponine species was variable from 9.78% (less than half the value considered as optimal to brood development in Apis mellifera in type Capparis tweediana-C. speciosa to more than 26% in type Maytenus vitis-idaea and some Prosopis samples. This pollen of low protein value was occasionally foraged (only six out of 75 masses analyzed of G. argentina, but none in 86 masses of T. fiebrigi or in ten of M. orbignyi. However, it is likely that amino acid deficiencies of certain pollens are compensated by randomly foraging on a broad spectrum of pollen plants. The large amounts of pollen stored in their nests might also be important in compensating these deficiencies. The only sample studied for M. orbignyi showed a protein value greater than the one required for A. mellifera and was dominated by types Acacia praecox and Prosopis. As this species also prefers Solanum and other protein-rich pollen, more samples would need to be analyzed to establish whether protein requirements are high for this Melipona species. Pollen showing the highest protein content (>26% belonged to highly nectariferous plants well represented in meliponine and Apis honey such as Prosopis, Maytenus, and Ziziphus.

  3. An Alien in the Group: Eusocial Male Bees Sharing Nonspecific Reproductive Aggregations

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, C. F.; Ferreira-Caliman, M. J.; Nascimento, F. S.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual selection predicts that individuals competing for access to sexual partners should maximize their chances of mating by looking for sites where the chances of finding partners are more likely to occur. However, males of stingless bees have been observed sharing nonspecific reproductive aggregations. This uncommon behavior appears to confer no obvious increase of individual fitness. It has been suggested that this reproductive strategy is due to the similarity between male odors common to different stingless bee species. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are candidate odors of interest because their nonvolatile pheromone nature allows them to play an important role in sexual behavior and species recognition. Here, we review the literature to evaluate whether any phylogenetic patterns exist among male stingless bees that aggregate with closely or distantly related species. We also compared the CHC profiles of males of Neotropical stingless bee species (Plebeia sp. Schwarz, Trigona spinipes (F.), Tetragona clavipes (F.), Nannotrigona testaceicornis (Lepeletier), Scaptotrigona aff. depilis (Moure), Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille), and Melipona subnitida (Ducke) to reveal any chemical similarities among their male odors. We found males of 21 stingless bee species involved in interspecific interactions mainly from Neotropical and Indo-Malayan/Australasian regions. Alien males did not necessarily visit host aggregations of closely related species. Furthermore, the CHC profiles of different studied species were very distinct from each other and do not overlapped at all. It is unclear yet why this apparently nonadaptive behavior carried out by some stingless bee males. PMID:26518220

  4. Comparison of the Antimicrobial Activities of Four Honeys From Three Countries (New Zealand, Cuba, and Kenya

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    Gianluca Morroni

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Skin and chronic wound infections are an increasing and urgent health problem worldwide. Their management is difficult and the development of antibiotic resistance by both planktonic and biofilm-associated bacteria necessitates the use of alternative treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of four honeys from different floral and geographical origins: Melipona beecheii honey (Cuba and three Apis mellifera honeys [Manuka honey (New Zealand, A. mellifera honey (Cuba, and African honey (Kenya]. The physicochemical parameters were within the ranges reported for these honeys and M. beecheii honey stood out due to its acidic character. An agar incorporation technique was used to determine the minimum active dilution of each honey against 52 clinical isolates (34 Gram-positive, 17 Gram-negative, and 1 Candida albicans. The antibiofilm activity of honeys was tested by assessing their ability to inhibit biofilm formation and to disrupt preformed biofilms. Overall, M. beecheii honey had the highest antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity, although a marked disruption in preformed biofilms was shared by all tested honeys. Structural changes induced by M. beecheii honey on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells were observed by transmission electron microscopy suggesting that this honey has a potent antimicrobial action and may be an excellent candidate for the development of topical preparations for the treatment of infected wounds.

  5. Removal of clay by stingless bees: load size and moisture selection

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    RAUL COSTA-PEREIRA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Some organisms disperse energy, associated with the transportation of resource, which is not necessarily food. Stingless bees of Central Amazonia (Melipona flavolineata and M. lateralis collect clay in banks along streams for nest building. The moisture of the clay varies along the bank, and bees collect clay from specific location, indicating that there is some sort of preference regarding their selection. This study aims at identifying: if larger bees carry more clay; if there is a preference for moisture of substrates; and if bees are less efficient accumulating and transporting clay when it is wet. In order to do so, I measured the size of the bees and of the pellets of clay found in the corbicula. I set up a field experiment to test substrate preferences. The amount of clay transported, increased exponentially in accordance to the size of the bee, and the preferred substrate was the driest clay. The amount and the efficiency of removal of clay were not affected by the moisture of the substrate. Despite the wet clay being denser, it does not reduce the efficiency of exploitation of the resource, but suggests that bees spend more energy to carry the same quantity of wet clay, which may be the underlying mechanism explaining their preference for removing drier clay.

  6. BIOLOGY OF POLLINATION OF Citrus sinensis VARIETY ‘PERA RIO’

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    GENEROSA SOUSA RIBEIRO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aspects related to the floral biology of Citrus sinensis ‘Pera Rio’ variety were studied in the present work aiming to obtain information about the pollination ecology in the local agriculture. Studies of flowering, anthesis, pollen / ovule ratio, stigmatic receptivity, pollen viability, nectar characterization and floral visitors were carried out. From the data studied, the following information was obtained: C. sinensis variety ‘Pera Rio’ flourishes in two annual periods (dry and rainy, the anthesis occurs from 9:00 AM with duration of 24 hours, during which period stigma receptivity, pollen viability and nectar secretion are highly significant, demonstrating that the species also possesses characteristics of allogenic plants. Apis mellifera was a floral visitor, with a greater number of individuals with a Relative Frequency (RF of 51.1%. Melipona scutellaris obtained second place in visits with RR = 23.6%; Followed by Trigona spinipes with FR = 17.7%. The two seasons (dry and rainy presented high similarity (Morisita index = 0.64. C. sinensis has floral biology favorable to cross pollination and bees A. mellifera and M. scutellaris are potential pollinators of this fruit in the conditions in the region of the Recôncavo Baiano. The reproductive system of C. sinensis is mixed, being favorable to entomophilic pollination.

  7. Diversity of Stingless Bees (Hymenoptera:Meliponini) Used in Meliponiculture in Colombia; Diversidad de abejas sin aguijon (hymenoptera:meliponini) utilizadas en meliponicultura en Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nates Parra, Guiomar; Rosso Londono, Juan Manuel

    2013-07-01

    There are close to 120 species of native stingless bees in Colombia, many of them with important uses and meanings for diverse social and cultural groups. The stingless beekeeping (meliponiculture) is an activity in process of growth and technification in Latin America and other regions, but there are a little information about their characteristics and development in Colombia. Through information collected by interviews to 75 stingless beekeepers of 16 departments of Colombia, 25 species of stingless bees were identified, grouped in 12 genera. Approximately nine more uncertain species were also found, four new records for the country are presented, and geographical distribution, urban beekeeping and vernacular names reported. The characteristics of most common cultivated genera (Tetragonisca, Melipona, Paratrigona, Scaptotrigona and Nannotrigona) are presented, and the importance of the link between biological and cultural diversity revealed in vernacular names, are discussed. Facing a growing of meliponiculture in the world, some research needs and risks for the conservation and management of the diversity of stingless bees and related knowledge are remarked.

  8. Microbiological Assessment, Nutritional Characterization and Phenolic Compounds of Bee Pollen from Mellipona mandacaia Smith, 1983

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    Marivalda Santa Bárbara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the microbiological parameters and the chemical composition of 21 samples of stingless bee pollen (Melipona mandacaia from two regions of Bahia, Brazil (João Dourado and Uibaí, with particular emphasis on the nutritional value, total phenols and flavonoids and fatty acids composition. Regarding the microbiological quality, the studied microorganisms (moulds and yeasts, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp., psychrotrophic and sulfite-reducing Clostridia were absent in all samples. On the other hand, the values obtained for the aerobic mesophilic microorganism ranged from 11.0 ± 1.0 to 1.32 ± 1.2 cfu∙g−1 (JD samples and from 282 ± 3.82 to 688 ± 10.1 cfu∙g−1 (U samples. The nutritional parameters (moisture, ash, water activity, pH, total acidity, protein, fiber, total phenolic, flavonoids and reducing sugars were within the stipulated by law, except for pH and moisture content, which presented superior and inferior values, respectively. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (54.1% were significantly higher than saturated (42.18% and monounsaturated (3.71%. It was found that the bee pollen is safe from the microbiological point of view and has a good nutritional quality. The influence of the geographical origin on the assessed parameters was evident, especially concerning the fatty acid profile.

  9. Microbiological assessment, nutritional characterization and phenolic compounds of bee pollen from Mellipona mandacaia Smith, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárbara, Marivalda Santa; Machado, Cerilene Santiago; Sodré, Geni da Silva; Dias, Luís G; Estevinho, Leticia M; de Carvalho, Carlos Alfredo Lopes

    2015-07-09

    This study aims to assess the microbiological parameters and the chemical composition of 21 samples of stingless bee pollen (Melipona mandacaia) from two regions of Bahia, Brazil (João Dourado and Uibaí), with particular emphasis on the nutritional value, total phenols and flavonoids and fatty acids composition. Regarding the microbiological quality, the studied microorganisms (moulds and yeasts, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp., psychrotrophic and sulfite-reducing Clostridia) were absent in all samples. On the other hand, the values obtained for the aerobic mesophilic microorganism ranged from 11.0 ± 1.0 to 1.32 ± 1.2 cfu∙g(-)(1) (JD samples) and from 282 ± 3.82 to 688 ± 10.1 cfu∙g(-)(1) (U samples). The nutritional parameters (moisture, ash, water activity, pH, total acidity, protein, fiber, total phenolic, flavonoids and reducing sugars) were within the stipulated by law, except for pH and moisture content, which presented superior and inferior values, respectively. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (54.1%) were significantly higher than saturated (42.18%) and monounsaturated (3.71%). It was found that the bee pollen is safe from the microbiological point of view and has a good nutritional quality. The influence of the geographical origin on the assessed parameters was evident, especially concerning the fatty acid profile.

  10. Effects of Cinnamoyloxy-mammeisin from Geopropolis on Osteoclast Differentiation and Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Periodontitis.

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    da Cunha, Marcos Guilherme; Ramos-Junior, Erivan Schnaider; Franchin, Marcelo; Taira, Thaise Mayumi; Beutler, John A; Franco, Gilson Cesar Nobre; Ikegaki, Masaharu; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Fukada, Sandra Yasuyo; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2017-06-23

    Bone-loss-related diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteomyelitis, osteoporosis, and periodontitis are associated with high rates of morbidity worldwide. These disorders are characterized by an imbalance between the formation and activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, leading to bone loss. In this context, we evaluated the effect of cinnamoyloxy-mammeisin (CNM), an anti-inflammatory coumarin found in Melipona scutellaris geopropolis, on key targets related to bone remodeling. In the present study we investigated the in vitro effects of CNM on osteoclast differentiation and M-CSF+RANKL-induced osteoclastogenic marker expression. Additionally, the interference of CNM treatment on osteoclast activity was evaluated by zymography and resorption area. Finally, we assessed the capacity of the compound to mitigate alveolar bone loss in vivo in experimental murine periodontitis induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis. We observed that treatment with CNM impaired osteoclast differentiation, as evidenced by a reduced number of tartrate-resistant acid-phosphatase-positive multinucleated cells (TRAP+) as well as the expression of osteoclastogenic markers upon M-CSF+RANKL-induced stimulation. Similarly, we observed reduced gelatinolytic and resorption capacity in M-CSF+RANKL-induced cells in vitro. Lastly, CNM attenuated alveolar bone loss in an experimental murine periodontitis model. These findings indicate that CNM may be considered a promising treatment for bone loss diseases.

  11. Effect of a propolis extract on Streptococcus mutans counts in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duailibe, Silvana Alves de Carvalho; Gonçalves, Azizedite Guedes; Ahid, Fernando Jorge Mendes

    2007-10-01

    To evaluate the antibacterial action of an extract of geopropolis produced by the bee Melipona compressipes fasciculata on the concentration of Streptococcus mutans colonizing the oral cavity of young patients. Forty-one young volunteers performed 21 mouth rinses divided into three rinses per day for 7 days, with no other changes in their oral hygiene and dietary habits. Saliva was collected at three time points: before the first rinse, and one hour and 7 days after the first rinse. A reduction in the concentration of S. mutans was observed in 49% of all samples collected after use of the extract, 26% showed no alterations, and an increasing in S. mutans was observed in 25%. Was performed with the Statistica for Windows 5.9 program using the Kruskal-Wallis test for analysis of variance and the Mann-Whitney U test, with the level of significance set at 5%. The propolis extract possesses in vivo antimicrobial activity against S. mutans present in the oral cavity and might be used as an alternative measure to prevent dental caries.

  12. How a Huottuja (Piaroa community perceives genuine and false honey from the Venezuelan Amazon, by free-choice profi le sensory method

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    Patricia Vit

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pot honey is the most abundant honey in the forest, produced by many species of stingless bees (Meliponini of the Huottuja (Piaroa community in Paria Grande, Venezuela. However, the commercialization of this honey is low, and false honeys, which are sold in labelled bottles, are easily found in the market. This study has investigated the ability of an untrained panel of Piaroa assessors to differentiate the genuine from the false pot honey using the Free-choice profile. This sensory method allows consumers to use their own words to describe and to quantify sensory attributes of a product. The genuine honeys, light amber Melipona fuscopilosa "isabitto" and dark amber Tetragona clavipes "ajavitte", the false light and dark "angelita" honeys, and the amber Apis mellifera honey, were evaluated. Sensory attributes related to the appearance, color, odor, flavor and mouthfeel were elicited in a qualitative session and were quantified in 10-cm unstructured line scales using individual score sheets. The data were analyzed by Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA. The bidimensional plot successfully separated genuine from false pot honeys. The first dimension (39.50% was represented by the low viscosity, fermented odor and sour taste, whereas the second dimension (24.69% was related to fruity and honey odor and flavor. Huottuja assessors differentiated the five honey types in terms of the perceived sensory characteristics.

  13. How a Huottuja (Piaroa community perceives genuine and false honey from the Venezuelan Amazon, by free-choice profi le sensory method

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    Patricia Vit

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Pot honey is the most abundant honey in the forest, produced by many species of stingless bees (Meliponini of the Huottuja (Piaroa community in Paria Grande, Venezuela. However, the commercialization of this honey is low, and false honeys, which are sold in labelled bottles, are easily found in the market. This study has investigated the ability of an untrained panel of Piaroa assessors to differentiate the genuine from the false pot honey using the Free-choice profile. This sensory method allows consumers to use their own words to describe and to quantify sensory attributes of a product. The genuine honeys, light amber Melipona fuscopilosa "isabitto" and dark amber Tetragona clavipes "ajavitte", the false light and dark "angelita" honeys, and the amber Apis mellifera honey, were evaluated. Sensory attributes related to the appearance, color, odor, flavor and mouthfeel were elicited in a qualitative session and were quantified in 10-cm unstructured line scales using individual score sheets. The data were analyzed by Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA. The bidimensional plot successfully separated genuine from false pot honeys. The first dimension (39.50% was represented by the low viscosity, fermented odor and sour taste, whereas the second dimension (24.69% was related to fruity and honey odor and flavor. Huottuja assessors differentiated the five honey types in terms of the perceived sensory characteristics.

  14. An overview of cytogenetics of the tribe Meliponini (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Mara Garcia; Lopes, Denilce Meneses; Campos, L A O

    2017-06-01

    The present study provides a comprehensive review of cytogenetic data on Meliponini and their chromosomal evolution. The compiled data show that only 104 species of stingless bees, representing 32 of the 54 living genera have been studied cytogenetically and that among these species, it is possible to recognize three main groups with n = 9, 15 and 17, respectively. The first group comprises the species of the genus Melipona, whereas karyotypes with n = 15 and n = 17 have been detected in species from different genera. Karyotypes with n = 17 are the most common among the Meliponini studied to date. Cytogenetic information on Meliponini also shows that although chromosome number, in general, is conserved among species of a certain genus, other aspects, such as chromosome morphology, quantity, distribution and composition of heterochromatin, may vary between them. This reinforces the fact that the variations observed in the karyotypes of different Meliponini groups cannot be explained by a single theory or a single type of structural change. In addition, we present a discussion about how these karyotype variations are related to the phylogenetic relationships among the different genera of this tribe.

  15. Effect of Three Entomopathogenic Fungi on Three Species of Stingless Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Under Laboratory Conditions.

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    Toledo-Hernández, R A; Ruíz-Toledo, J; Toledo, J; Sánchez, D

    2016-05-04

    Development of alternative strategies for pest control with reduced effect on beneficial organisms is a priority given the increasing global loss of biodiversity. Biological control with entomopathogenic fungi arises as a viable option to control insect pests. However, few studies have focused on the consequences of using these organisms on pollinators other than the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) or bumble bees (Bombus spp). We evaluated the pathogenicity of commercial formulations of three widely used entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin, Beauveria bassiana Vuillemin, and Isaria fumosorosea (Wize), to three species of stingless bees: Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, Scaptotrigona mexicana Guérin-Meneville, and Melipona beecheii Bennett. Bioassays consisted of exposing groups of bees to the recommended field concentration of each fungus using a microspray tower under laboratory conditions. Susceptibility to fungi varied greatly among species. Isaria fumosorosea (strain Ifu-lu 01) and the two formulations of B. bassiana (Bea-TNK and BotanicGard) caused entomopathogenic fungi on stingless bees, further field studies are required to support this finding. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Evidence of separate karyotype evolutionary pathway in Euglossa orchid bees by cytogenetic analyses

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    ANDERSON FERNANDES

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Euglossini are solitary bees considered important pollinators of many orchid species. Information regarding chromosome organization is available for only a small number of species in this group. In the present work, the species Euglossa townsendi and E. carolina were analyzed by cytogenetic techniques to collect information that may aid the understanding of their evolution and chromosomal organization. The chromosome number found was n = 21 for males and 2n = 42 for females in the two species. The distribution and amount of heterochromatin regions differed in the two species analyzed, where they were classified as “high” or “low” heterochromatin content, similarly to what has already been performed in social bee species of the genus Melipona. Banding patterns found in this study suggest that other mechanisms may have occurred in the karyotype evolution of this group, unlike those suggested for social bees and ants. Karyotype evolution of solitary bees appears to have occurred as an event separate from other hymenopterans and did not involve chromosome fissions and heterochromatin amplification.

  17. Evidence of separate karyotype evolutionary pathway in Euglossa orchid bees by cytogenetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Anderson; Werneck, Hugo A; Pompolo, Silvia G; Lopes, Denilce M

    2013-09-01

    Euglossini are solitary bees considered important pollinators of many orchid species. Information regarding chromosome organization is available for only a small number of species in this group. In the present work, the species Euglossa townsendi and E. carolina were analyzed by cytogenetic techniques to collect information that may aid the understanding of their evolution and chromosomal organization. The chromosome number found was n = 21 for males and 2n = 42 for females in the two species. The distribution and amount of heterochromatin regions differed in the two species analyzed, where they were classified as “high” or “low” heterochromatin content, similarly to what has already been performed in social bee species of the genus Melipona. Banding patterns found in this study suggest that other mechanisms may have occurred in the karyotype evolution of this group, unlike those suggested for social bees and ants. Karyotype evolution of solitary bees appears to have occurred as an event separate from other hymenopterans and did not involve chromosome fissions and heterochromatin amplification.

  18. Potential pollinators of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae), in open crops and the effect of a solitary bee in fruit set and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A O R; Bartelli, B F; Nogueira-Ferreira, F H

    2014-06-01

    We identified native bees that are floral visitors and potential pollinators of tomato in Cerrado areas, described the foraging behavior of these species, and verified the influence of the visitation of a solitary bee on the quantity and quality of fruits. Three areas of tomato crops, located in Minas Gerais, Brazil, were sampled between March and November 2012. We collected 185 bees belonging to 13 species. Exomalopsis (Exomalopsis) analis Spinola, 1853 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was the most abundant. Ten species performed buzz pollination. Apis mellifera L. 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and Paratrigona lineata (Lepeletier, 1836) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) could also act as pollinators. The fruit set and number of seeds obtained from the pollination treatment by E. analis were higher than those in the control group. Our results allowed the identification of potential tomato pollinators in Cerrado areas and also contributed information regarding the impact of a single species (E. analis) on fruit set and quality. Although most of the visiting bees show the ability for tomato pollination, there is an absence of adequate management techniques, and its usage is difficult with the aim of increasing the crop production, which is the case for E. analis. Species such as Melipona quinquefasciata, P. lineata, and A. mellifera, which are easy to handle, are not used for pollination services. Finally, it is suggested that a combination of different bee species that are able to pollinate the tomato is necessary to prevent the super-exploitation of only a single species for pollination services and to guarantee the occurrence of potential pollinators in the crop area.

  19. Diversity, local knowledge and use of stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) in the municipality of Nocupétaro, Michoacan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-González, Alejandro; Camou-Guerrero, Andrés; Reyes-Salas, Octavio; Argueta, Arturo; Casas, Alejandro

    2014-06-05

    Stingless bees were significant resources managed by Mesoamerican peoples during pre-Columbian times and remain important in particular areas. Our study aimed at inventorying stingless bees' species, traditional knowledge and forms of use and management of them at the municipality of Nocupetaro, Michoacán, Mexico, a region of the Balsas River Basin. We inventoried the stingless bees of the municipality of Nocupétaro, Michoacán, México, through extensive collecting of bee specimens in different vegetation types. We then conducted semi-structured interviews to local experts in order to document their knowledge and management techniques of stingless bees' species. We identified a total of eight stingless bees' species in the study area as well as three additional unidentified taxa recognized by people through the local names. Our inventory included one new record of species for the region (Lestrimelitta chamelensis Ayala, 1999). The taxa identified are all used by local people. Scaptotrigona hellwegeri Friese, 1900; Melipona fasciata Latreille, 1811; Frieseomelitta nigra Cresson, 1878 and Geotrigona acapulconis Strand, 1919 are particularly valued as food (honey), medicinal (honey and pollen), and material for handcrafts (wax). All species recorded are wild and their products are obtained through gathering. On average, local experts were able to collect 4 nests of stingless bees per year obtaining on average 6 L of honey and 4 Kg of wax but some came to collect up 10-12 hives per year (18 L of honey and 24 Kg of wax). Local knowledge about use, management and ecological issues on stingless bees is persistent and deep in the study area. Information about this group of bees is progressively scarcer in Mexico and significant effort should be done from ethnobiological and ecological perspectives in order to complement the national inventory of bee resources and traditional knowledge and management of them.

  20. Diversity, local knowledge and use of stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) in the municipality of Nocupétaro, Michoacan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Stingless bees were significant resources managed by Mesoamerican peoples during pre-Columbian times and remain important in particular areas. Our study aimed at inventorying stingless bees’ species, traditional knowledge and forms of use and management of them at the municipality of Nocupetaro, Michoacán, Mexico, a region of the Balsas River Basin. Methods We inventoried the stingless bees of the municipality of Nocupétaro, Michoacán, México, through extensive collecting of bee specimens in different vegetation types. We then conducted semi-structured interviews to local experts in order to document their knowledge and management techniques of stingless bees’ species. Results We identified a total of eight stingless bees’ species in the study area as well as three additional unidentified taxa recognized by people through the local names. Our inventory included one new record of species for the region (Lestrimelitta chamelensis Ayala, 1999). The taxa identified are all used by local people. Scaptotrigona hellwegeri Friese, 1900; Melipona fasciata Latreille, 1811; Frieseomelitta nigra Cresson, 1878 and Geotrigona acapulconis Strand, 1919 are particularly valued as food (honey), medicinal (honey and pollen), and material for handcrafts (wax). All species recorded are wild and their products are obtained through gathering. On average, local experts were able to collect 4 nests of stingless bees per year obtaining on average 6 L of honey and 4 Kg of wax but some came to collect up 10–12 hives per year (18 L of honey and 24 Kg of wax). Conclusions Local knowledge about use, management and ecological issues on stingless bees is persistent and deep in the study area. Information about this group of bees is progressively scarcer in Mexico and significant effort should be done from ethnobiological and ecological perspectives in order to complement the national inventory of bee resources and traditional knowledge and management of them. PMID:24903644

  1. DIVERSIDAD DE ABEJAS SIN AGUIJÓN (HYMENOPTERA:MELIPONINI UTILIZADAS EN MELIPONICULTURA EN COLOMBIA

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    Guiomar Nates Parra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia se conoce la existencia de cerca de 120 especies de abejas nativas sin aguijón, muchas de las cuales tienen importantes usos y representaciones para diversos grupos sociales y culturales. A pesar de que su cría y manejo (meliponicultura, es una actividad que viene creciendo y tecnificándose en Latinoamérica y otras regiones del mundo, sus características y desarrollo en Colombia han sido poco documentados. Se presentan los resultados de entrevistas y visitas a 75 personas en 16 departamentos de Colombia, que cultivan 25 especies de abejas sin aguijón, agrupadas en 12 géneros. Se encontraron al menos nueve especies más sin identificación completa, se reportan cuatro nuevos registros para el país y se amplía la distribución para 21 taxones. Se presenta información sobre la distribución regional y altitudinal, el cultivo urbano y las denominaciones locales para las abejas. Se revisan algunas características de los géneros cultivados más comunes (Tetragonisca, Melipona, Paratrigona, Scaptotrigona, y Nannotrigona y se discute la importancia del vínculo entre diversidad biológica y cultural que se manifiesta en los nombres locales reportados. Ante un escenario mundial de expansión de la meliponicultura, se resaltan necesidades de investigación y riesgos para la conservación y manejo de la diversidad de abejas sin aguijón y los conocimientos asociados.

  2. Hygienic behaviour in Brazilian stingless bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Denise A.; Bento, José M. S.; Marchini, Luis C.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Social insects have many defence mechanisms against pests and pathogens. One of these is hygienic behaviour, which has been studied in detail in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Hygienic honey bee workers remove dead and diseased larvae and pupae from sealed brood cells, thereby reducing disease transfer within the colony. Stingless bees, Meliponini, also rear broods in sealed cells. We investigated hygienic behaviour in three species of Brazilian stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris, Scaptotrigona depilis, Tetragonisca angustula) in response to freeze-killed brood. All three species had high mean levels of freeze-killed brood removal after 48 h ∼99% in M. scutellaris, 80% in S. depilis and 62% in T. angustula (N=8 colonies per species; three trials per colony). These levels are greater than in unselected honey bee populations, ∼46%. In S. depilis there was also considerable intercolony variation, ranging from 27% to 100% removal after 2 days. Interestingly, in the S. depilis colony with the slowest removal of freeze-killed brood, 15% of the adult bees emerging from their cells had shrivelled wings indicating a disease or disorder, which is as yet unidentified. Although the gross symptoms resembled the effects of deformed wing virus in the honey bee, this virus was not detected in the samples. When brood comb from the diseased colony was introduced to the other S. depilis colonies, there was a significant negative correlation between freeze-killed brood removal and the emergence of deformed worker bees (P=0.001), and a positive correlation with the cleaning out of brood cells (P=0.0008). This shows that the more hygienic colonies were detecting and removing unhealthy brood prior to adult emergence. Our results indicate that hygienic behaviour may play an important role in colony health in stingless bees. The low levels of disease normally seen in stingless bees may be because they have effective mechanisms of disease management, not because they lack

  3. FLOWERING AND POLLINATORS OF THREE DISTYLOUS SPECIES OF Psychotria (Rubiaceae CO-OCCURRING IN THE BRAZILIAN ATLANTIC FOREST1

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    Celice Alexandre Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigates the flowering and pollinators of the floral morphs of three co-occurring distylous species, Psychotria conjugens Müll, P. hastisepala Müll. Arg. and P. sessilis Vell., in two consecutive flowering seasons in an Atlantic Forest fragment in southeastern Brazil. The species have diurnal, cream-colored, tubular, nectariferous flowers and their flowering occurs in the rainy season, from September to April, with little or no overlapping between species, characterizing a staggered flowering. The flowering of the long-and short-styled floral morphs of each species was synchronous, but the number of open flowers per day per morph tended to vary in each flowering season. These numbers were higher in P. sessilis and P. conjugens and, probably, resulted in higher total numbers of visits on its flowers (up to 1084 visits in P. sessilis and 756 in P. conjugens, compared to that observed in P. hastisepala (up to 71. There was a higher frequency of visits to long-styled flowers of all species. The bee Ariphanarthra palpalis was a common pollinator to all species. This bee is native to Brazil, solitary, considered relatively rare and its host plants were unknown. Other native bees (Melipona spp. also visited the flowers of the Psychotria species. The availability of flowers with similar floral features over eight months, the staggered flowering and common pollinators appear to be part of a strategy to attract floral visitors, minimizing the competition for pollinators and then favoring the legitimate pollination of these plants.

  4. Meliponiculture in Quilombola communities of Ipiranga and Gurugi, Paraíba state, Brazil: an ethnoecological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The Quilombola communities of Ipiranga and Gurugi, located in Atlantic Rainforest in Southern of Paraíba state, have stories that are interwoven throughout time. The practice of meliponicultura has been carried out for generations in these social groups and provides an elaborate ecological knowledge based on native stingless bees, the melliferous flora and the management techniques used. The traditional knowledge that Quilombola have of stingless bees is of utmost importance for the establishment of conservation strategies for many species. Methods To deepen study concerning the ecological knowledge of the beekeepers, the method of participant observation together with structured and semi-structured interviews was used, as well as the collection of entomological and botanical categories of bees and plants mentioned. With the aim of recording the knowledge related to meliponiculture previously exercised by the residents, the method of the oral story was employed. Results and discussion Results show that the informants sampled possess knowledge of twelve categories of stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini), classified according to morphological, behavioral and ecological characteristics. Their management techniques are represented by the making of traditional cortiço and the melliferous flora is composed of many species predominant in the Atlantic Rainforest. From recording the memories and recollections of the individuals, it was observed that an intricate system of beliefs has permeated the keeping of uruçu bees (Melipona scutellaris) for generations. Conclusion According to management techniques used by beekeepers, the keeping of stingless bees in the communities is considered a traditional activity that is embedded within a network of ecological knowledge and beliefs accumulated by generations over time, and is undergoing a process of transformation that provides new meanings to such knowledge, as can be observed in the practices of young people. PMID

  5. FLORESCIMENTO INDUZIDO DA JUREMA PRETA PARA FORNECER PÓLEN À ABELHA MELÍFERA NA ESTIAGEM DA CAATINGA

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    ALINE DOS SANTOS SILVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of increasing pollen supply to honey bees (Apis mellifera during the dry season in Caatinga (shrub vegetation of NE Brazil by inducing Mimosa tenui-flora to bloom. The work was carried out from August to December 2012 in Altamira Apícola Apiaries, situat-ed at Limoeiro do Norte – Ceará, Brazil. The experiment comprised three phases: Phase 1 – the amount of wa-ter needed to induce the blooming of Mimosa tenuiflora (T0L, T250L, T500L, T750L and T1000L; Phase 2 – Floral biology and flower visitors; Phase 3 – pollen harvested by the colonies and percentage of M. tenuiflora in the honey bee diet by sampling and comparing pollen loads from colonies placed 20m with those more than 3km away from the induced plants. Results of the Phase 1 showed that the treatments 3, 4 and 5 induced blooming, and T1000L produced a greater number of inflorescences (p <0.05. Blooming reached its peak eight days after induction. Hymenoptera represented more than 95% of floral visitors with Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes and Melipona subnitida as the most frequent bee species. Palynological analyses carried out in phase 3 showed a significant (p<0,05 increment in pollen collection and the participation of M. tenuiflora pollen in the diet of colonies situated 20 meters from the induced plants. Induction of flowering Mimosa tenuiflora increased the supply and collection of pollen by bees in the critical period of the year, minimizing the effect of drought on the colonies.

  6. Physical properties of honeys produced in the Northeast of Brazil

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    Patricia Argemira Costa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the rheological, thermal and some other physical-chemical properties of selected honeys produced in the Northeast of Brazil. Two samples were produced by native “Jandaira” bees (Melipona subnitida and ten other samples by Africanized bees (Apis mellifera. The samples were analyzed for pH, water activity (aW, soluble solids and water content. Viscosity flow curves were obtained using a rheometer (25ºC, 0-100s-1. Thermal analyses were performed on a differential scanning calorimeter, with heating rate of 10ºC/min (-100 to 100ºC. The water content and the pH of the honey samples varied from 17.2 to 27.9% and from 3.2 to 4.2, respectively, and, the aW of the samples varied from 0.57 to 0.74. Two samples were out of specification with respect to water content, according to Brazilian laws. In relation to rheology, all honey samples showed Newtonian behaviour with no thixotropy or dilatancy. The viscosity varied as an exponential function of the water content. The highest viscosity was obtained for the sample with lower values of water content and aW. Thermograms showed a glass transition (Tg occurring between -52.4 and -42.6ºC, in the samples produced by Apis mellifera and -67.6 and -57.0ºC for the other samples. A linear relationship was obtained between Tg and water content. In conclusion, the honey viscosity depended on the water content of the product. The higher the water value and therefore the greater the aw, the lower viscosity and Tg of the samples.

  7. Hygienic behaviour in Brazilian stingless bees

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    Hasan Al Toufailia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Social insects have many defence mechanisms against pests and pathogens. One of these is hygienic behaviour, which has been studied in detail in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Hygienic honey bee workers remove dead and diseased larvae and pupae from sealed brood cells, thereby reducing disease transfer within the colony. Stingless bees, Meliponini, also rear broods in sealed cells. We investigated hygienic behaviour in three species of Brazilian stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris, Scaptotrigona depilis, Tetragonisca angustula in response to freeze-killed brood. All three species had high mean levels of freeze-killed brood removal after 48 h ∼99% in M. scutellaris, 80% in S. depilis and 62% in T. angustula (N=8 colonies per species; three trials per colony. These levels are greater than in unselected honey bee populations, ∼46%. In S. depilis there was also considerable intercolony variation, ranging from 27% to 100% removal after 2 days. Interestingly, in the S. depilis colony with the slowest removal of freeze-killed brood, 15% of the adult bees emerging from their cells had shrivelled wings indicating a disease or disorder, which is as yet unidentified. Although the gross symptoms resembled the effects of deformed wing virus in the honey bee, this virus was not detected in the samples. When brood comb from the diseased colony was introduced to the other S. depilis colonies, there was a significant negative correlation between freeze-killed brood removal and the emergence of deformed worker bees (P=0.001, and a positive correlation with the cleaning out of brood cells (P=0.0008. This shows that the more hygienic colonies were detecting and removing unhealthy brood prior to adult emergence. Our results indicate that hygienic behaviour may play an important role in colony health in stingless bees. The low levels of disease normally seen in stingless bees may be because they have effective mechanisms of disease management, not because

  8. Meliponiculture in Rio Grande do Norte

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    Ulysses Madureira Maia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Maia U.M., Jaffe R., Carvalho A.T. & Imperatriz-Fonseca V.L. [Meliponiculture in Rio Grande do Norte.] Meliponicultura no Rio Grande do Norte. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4:327-333, 2015. Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes, 3900, Monte Alegre, Ribeirão Preto, SP 14040-901, Brasil. E-mail: ummaia@usp.br This study aimed to assess the current status of stingless bee beekeeping (meliponiculture in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, with the aid of structured questionnaires made during visits to beekeepers. The results were compared with a previous census made in the state and with a similar study from Australia. Meliponiculture in Rio Grande do Norte is still informal and little standardized. The activity has grown in recent years considering the mean number of nests per beekeeper. Most apiaries are formed of up to 50 colonies, usually distributed in the backyards of homes. Twelve species of stingless bees were reared in the state, and the most common was the “Jandaíra” bee (Melipona subnitida, whose honey is considered medicinal. While many beekeepers already know the importance of bees as pollinators, stingless bees are still not used for crop pollination. Compared to a recent analysis of beekeeping in Australia, meliponiculture in Brazil is more traditional, honey is the main product and the number of colonies per beekeeper is much higher. Our results highlight the need to reinforce knowledge about bees and promote specific training aimed at improving and standardizing management practices.

  9. An insight into the antibiofilm properties of Costa Rican stingless bee honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, L G; Beukelman, C J; van den Berg, A J J; Aerts, P C; Quarles van Ufford, H C; Nijland, R; Arias, M L

    2017-04-02

    There is an increasing search for antibiofilm agents that either have specific activity against biofilms or may act in synergy with antimicrobials. Our objective is to examine the the antibiofilm properties of stingless bee honeys. Meliponini honeys from Costa Rica were examined along with Medihoney as a reference. All honeys were submitted to a screening composed of minimum inhibitory concentration, inhibition of biofilm formation and biofilm destruction microplate-based assays against a Staphylococcus aureus biofilm forming strain. Dialysis led to the isolation of an antibiofilm fraction in Tetragonisca angustula honeys. The honey antibiofilm fraction was evaluated for protease activity and for any synergistic effect with antibiotics on a Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. The active fraction was then separated through activity guided isolation techniques involving SDS-PAGEs, anion exchange and size exclusion fast protein liquid chromatographies. The fractions obtained and the isolated antibiofilm constituents were tested for amylase and DNase activity. A total of 57 Meliponini honeys from Costa Rica were studied in this research. The honeys studied belonged to the Tetragonisca angustula (n=36) and Melipona beecheii (n=21) species. Costa Rican Tetragonisca angustula honeys can inhibit the planktonic growth, biofilm formation, and are capable of destroying a Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. The antibiofilm effect was observed in the protein fraction of Tetragonisca angustula honeys. The biofilm destruction proteins allowed ampicillin and vancomycin to recover their antimicrobial activity over a Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. The antibiofilm proteins are of bee origin, and their activity was not due to serine, cysteine or metalloproteases. There were 2 proteins causing the antibiofilm action; these were named the Tetragonisca angustula biofilm destruction factors (TABDFs). TABDF-1 is a monomeric protein of approximately 50kDa that is responsible of the amylase activity

  10. Communities of Social Bees (Apidae: Meliponini) in Trap-Nests: the Spatial Dynamics of Reproduction in an Area of Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M D; Ramalho, M; Monteiro, D

    2014-08-01

    As most stingless bee species depend on preexisting cavities, principally tree hollows, nesting site availability may represent an important restriction in the structuring of their forest communities. The present study examined the spatial dynamics of stingless bee communities in an area of Atlantic Forest by evaluating their swarming to trap-nests. The field work was performed in the Michelin Ecological Reserve (MER) on the southeastern coast of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Seven hundred and twenty trap-nests were distributed within two forest habitats in advanced and initial stages of regeneration. The trap-nests were monitored between September 2009 and March 2011. Twenty-five trap-nests were occupied by five bee species, resulting in a capture ratio of 0.035 swarms/trap (approximately 0.14 swarms/ha), corresponding to 10 swarms/year (0.056 swarms/ha/year). According to previous study at MER, the most abundant species in natural nests were also the most common in trap-nests in the two forest habitats examined, with the exception of Melipona scutellaris Latreille. Swarms of higher numbers of species were captured in initial regeneration stage forests than in advanced regeneration stage areas, and differences in species compositions were significant between both habitats (p = 0.03); these apparent differences were not consistent, however, when considering richness (p = 0.14) and total abundance (p = 0.08). The present study suggests the existence of a minimum cavity size threshold of approximately 1 L for most local species of stingless bees and sustains the hypothesis of a mass effect of Tetragonisca angustula Latreille populations from surrounding disturbed habitats on the MER forest community in terms of propagule (swarm) pressure. Examining swarm densities with trap-nests can be a promising technique for comparative analyses of the carrying capacities of forest habitats for stingless bee colonies, as long as size thresholds of cavities for nesting

  11. Fungal Planet description sheets: 400-468.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Richardson, D M; Le Roux, J J; Strasberg, D; Edwards, J; Roets, F; Hubka, V; Taylor, P W J; Heykoop, M; Martín, M P; Moreno, G; Sutton, D A; Wiederhold, N P; Barnes, C W; Carlavilla, J R; Gené, J; Giraldo, A; Guarnaccia, V; Guarro, J; Hernández-Restrepo, M; Kolařík, M; Manjón, J L; Pascoe, I G; Popov, E S; Sandoval-Denis, M; Woudenberg, J H C; Acharya, K; Alexandrova, A V; Alvarado, P; Barbosa, R N; Baseia, I G; Blanchette, R A; Boekhout, T; Burgess, T I; Cano-Lira, J F; Čmoková, A; Dimitrov, R A; Dyakov, M Yu; Dueñas, M; Dutta, A K; Esteve-Raventós, F; Fedosova, A G; Fournier, J; Gamboa, P; Gouliamova, D E; Grebenc, T; Groenewald, M; Hanse, B; Hardy, G E St J; Held, B W; Jurjević, Ž; Kaewgrajang, T; Latha, K P D; Lombard, L; Luangsa-Ard, J J; Lysková, P; Mallátová, N; Manimohan, P; Miller, A N; Mirabolfathy, M; Morozova, O V; Obodai, M; Oliveira, N T; Ordóñez, M E; Otto, E C; Paloi, S; Peterson, S W; Phosri, C; Roux, J; Salazar, W A; Sánchez, A; Sarria, G A; Shin, H-D; Silva, B D B; Silva, G A; Smith, M Th; Souza-Motta, C M; Stchigel, A M; Stoilova-Disheva, M M; Sulzbacher, M A; Telleria, M T; Toapanta, C; Traba, J M; Valenzuela-Lopez, N; Watling, R; Groenewald, J Z

    2016-06-01

    ), Ochroconis dracaenae (on Dracaena reflexa), Rasamsonia columbiensis (air of a hotel conference room), Paecilomyces tabacinus (on Nicotiana tabacum), Toxicocladosporium hominis (from human broncoalveolar lavage fluid), Nothophoma macrospora (from respiratory secretion of a patient with pneumonia), and Penidiellopsis radicularis (incl. Penidiellopsis gen. nov.) from a human nail. Novel taxa described from Malaysia include Prosopidicola albizziae (on Albizzia falcataria), Proxipyricularia asari (on Asarum sp.), Diaporthe passifloricola (on Passiflora foetida), Paramycoleptodiscus albizziae (incl. Paramycoleptodiscus gen. nov.) on Albizzia falcataria, and Malaysiasca phaii (incl. Malaysiasca gen. nov.) on Phaius reflexipetalus. Two species are newly described from human patients in the Czech Republic, namely Microascus longicollis (from toenails of patient with suspected onychomycosis), and Chrysosporium echinulatum (from sole skin of patient). Furthermore, Alternaria quercicola is described on leaves of Quercus brantii (Iran), Stemphylium beticola on leaves of Beta vulgaris (The Netherlands), Scleroderma capeverdeanum on soil (Cape Verde Islands), Scleroderma dunensis on soil, and Blastobotrys meliponae from bee honey (Brazil), Ganoderma mbrekobenum on angiosperms (Ghana), Geoglossum raitviirii and Entoloma kruticianum on soil (Russia), Priceomyces vitoshaensis on Pterostichus melas (Carabidae) (Bulgaria) is the only one for which the family is listed, Ganoderma ecuadoriense on decaying wood (Ecuador), Thyrostroma cornicola on Cornus officinalis (Korea), Cercophora vinosa on decorticated branch of Salix sp. (France), Coprinus pinetorum, Coprinus littoralis and Xerocomellus poederi on soil (Spain). Two new genera from Colombia include Helminthosporiella and Uwemyces on leaves of Elaeis oleifera. Two species are described from India, namely Russula intervenosa (ectomycorrhizal with Shorea robusta), and Crinipellis odorata (on bark of Mytragyna parviflora). Novelties from Thailand

  12. DNA barcoding for biosecurity: case studies from the UK plant protection program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Jennifer; Ostojá-Starzewski, Jozef C; Prior, Thomas; Lawson, Rebecca; Hall, Jayne; Boonham, Neil

    2016-11-01

    Since its conception, DNA barcoding has seen a rapid uptake within the research community. Nevertheless, as with many new scientific tools, progression towards the point of routine deployment within diagnostic laboratories has been slow. In this paper, we discuss the application of DNA barcoding in the Defra plant health diagnostic laboratories, where DNA barcoding is used primarily for the identification of invertebrate pests. We present a series of case studies that demonstrate the successful application of DNA barcoding but also reveal some potential limitations to expanded use. The regulated plant pest, Bursephalenchus xylophilus, and one of its vectors, Monochamus alternatus, were found in dining chairs. Some traded wood products are potentially high risk, allowing the movement of longhorn beetles; Trichoferus campestris, Leptura quadrifasciata, and Trichoferus holosericeus were found in a wooden cutlery tray, a railway sleeper, and a dining chair, respectively. An outbreak of Meloidogyne fallax was identified in Allium ampeloprasum and in three weed species. Reference sequences for UK native psyllids were generated to enable the development of rapid diagnostics to be used for monitoring following the release of Aphalara itadori as a biological control agent for Fallopia japonica.