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Sample records for melipona compressipes tetragonisca

  1. Antimicrobial activity and rutin identification of honey produced by the stingless bee Melipona compressipes manaosensis and commercial honey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Honey has been identified as a potential alternative to the widespread use of antibiotics, which are of significant concern considering the emergence of resistant bacteria. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of honey samples produced by a stingless bee species and by Apis sp. against pathogenic bacteria, as well as to identify the presence of phenolic compounds. Methods Honey samples from the stingless bee M. compressipes manaosensis were collected twice, during the dry and rainy seasons. Three commercial honey samples from Apis sp. were also included in this study. Two different assays were performed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the honey samples: agar-well diffusion and broth macrodilution. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to assess phenolic compounds from honey. HPLC analysis was performed in order to identify rutin and apigenin on honey samples. Chromatograms were recorded at 340 and 290 nm. Results Two honey samples were identified as having the highest antimicrobial activity using the agar diffusion method. Honey produced by Melipona compressipes manaosensis inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (0157: H7), Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei and Klebsiella sp. A sample of honey produced by Apis sp. also inhibited the growth of Salmonella paratyphi. The macrodilution technique presented greater sensitivity for the antibacterial testing, since all honey samples showed activity. Flavonoid rutin was identified in the honey sample produced by the stingless bee. Conclusions Honey samples tested in this work showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results reported herein highlight the potential of using honey to control bacterial growth. PMID:23815879

  2. Physicochemical parameters of Amazon Melipona honey

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    Ligia Bicudo de Almeida-Muradian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bees produce a honey that is different from the Apis honey in terms of composition. There aren't enough data to establish quality control parameters for this product, mainly due to lack of research results. The aim of this work is to evaluate some physicochemical parameters that can be used for the characterization and for the quality control of the Meliponinae honey. Four different samples were collected in the Amazon region of Brazil in 2004 (Melipona compressipes manaoense bee and Melipona seminigra merribae bee. Honey analyses were performed as described by the official methods. The mean results were: moisture (30.13%, pH (3.65, acidity (24.57 mEq/kg, water activity (0.75, fructose (31.91%, glucose (29.30% and sucrose (0.19%. These results reinforce the need for a specific regulation for stingless bee honey. This will only be feasible when enough data is available to establish upper and lower limits for the physicochemical parameters used for quality control.

  3. On the identity of Melipona torrida Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Gabriel A. R. Melo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available On the identity of Melipona torrida Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Melipona marginata var. torrida Friese, 1916, described from three workers putatively collected in Costa Rica, never had its identity properly recognized. Since its original description, no additional specimens have ever been collected in Costa Rica. It is argued here that Melipona torrida was based on mislabeled specimens and corresponds to Melipona marginata obscurior Moure, 1971, a form known only from southern Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. A lectotype is designated for Melipona torrida and notes on the type material of Melipona marginata obscurior are provided. Other known examples of species described from mislabeled specimens in Friese's Zur Bienenfauna von Costa Rica are discussed. It is pointed out that additional names proposed in this work, based on material from Costa Rica, might turn out to correspond to South American taxa. Also, the date of publication of this Friese's paper is discussed.

  4. A molecular marker distinguishes the subspecies Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponinae

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    Ana M. Waldschmidt

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The stingless bee species Melipona quadrifasciata includes two subspecies, Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioids and Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata. The morphological difference between the two subspecies is the presence of three to five continuous yellow stripes on the terga on the 3rd to 6th segments in workers and males of M. q. quadrifasciata, and two to five interrupted bands in M. q. anthidioides. We identified a DNA marker which is present in M. q. quadrifasciata and absent in M. q. anthidioides. Only one among the M. q. quadrifasciata colonies did not present the marker. It was also absent in bees collected in northern Minas Gerais State (Brazil, despite their morphological resemblance to M. q. quadrifasciata. The marker can be used for studying the genetic structure of the hybridization zone formed by the intercrossing of the two subspecies.A espécie de abelha sem ferrão Melipona quadrifasciata apresenta duas subespécies, Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata Lep. e Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lep. A diferença morfológica entre as duas subespécies é a presença de três a cinco bandas tergais amarelas do 3º ao 6º segmentos em operárias e machos de M. q. quadrifasciata e duas a cinco bandas interrompidas em M. q. anthidioides. Nós identificamos um marcador de DNA que está presente em M. q. quadrifasciata e ausente em M. q. anthidioides. Este marcador está ausente em abelhas coletadas no norte do Estado de Minas Gerais (Brasil, embora esses indivíduos apresentem morfologia similar à de M. q. quadrifasciata. Este marcador poderá ser utilizado em estudos da zona de hibridação entre as subespécies.

  5. Queen volatiles as a modulator of Tetragonisca angustula drone behavior.

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    Fierro, Macario M; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Sánchez, Daniel; Villanueva-Gutiérrez, Rogel; Vandame, Remy

    2011-11-01

    Tetragonisca angustula mating occurs during the virgin queen nuptial flight, usually in the presence of a drone congregation area (DCA). The presence of virgin queen pheromone is considered the trigger for DCA establishment, although this has not been demonstrated experimentally. We established meliponaries, in different habitats, with T. angustula virgin queens during the main drone reproduction period. Eight DCAs were observed in urban areas, and all established outside or near colonies containing at least one virgin queen. The accumulation of drones in the DCAs occurred from 08:00 to 18:00 h and over 3-35 days. The number of drones in DCAs ranged from 60 to 2,000. In field trials, drones were attracted to virgin queens and also, unexpectedly, to physogastric queens. Volatiles collected from both virgin and physogastric queens elicited strong electoantennogram (EAG) responses from drones. Virgin and physogastric queen volatiles were qualitatively similar, but quantitatively different, in chemical composition. The queen's abdomen was the principal source of these compounds. Isopropyl hexanoate (IPH), the most abundant compound in virgin queen volatiles and one of the most abundant in physogastric queen volatiles, was identified as one of the compounds that elicited EAG responses and was demonstrated to attract drones in a field test.

  6. Ciclo de desarrollo de Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula, Latreille 1811 (Hymenoptera, Trigonini

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    María Giomar Nates Parra

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el ciclo de desarrollo de una abeja sin aguijón: Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula. Latreille 1811 (Hymenoptera. Trigonini. Los resultados fueron los siguientes: El periodo comprendido entre la postura del huevo y la emergencia del imago, es, en las obreras, de 36.5 días en promedio. La duración del ciclo se hace mayor a medida que las celdas se alejan del centro del panal. Se determinaron 3 instares larvales y 5 fases pupales para obreras.

  7. Genetic divergence in Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera, Meliponinae, Trigonini based on rapd markers

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    Rosana de Cássia Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonest neotropical stingless bees is Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811, popularly known in Portuguese as jataí, which occurs in variable nesting sites from Mexico to Argentina. We used 18 primers to generate 218 RAPD markers which we used to determined the genetic distance between T. angustula populations from 25 localities in three different Latin America countries, using Tetragonisca weyrauchi from the Brazilian state of Acre and the common honey bee (Apis mellifera as outgroups. Genetic distance, calculated as the Percentage of Dissimilarity (14%, based on all markers divided the T. angustula population into eastern (group 1 and western (group 2 groups. However, we were able to separate the two groups by using only two primers that have generated five specific molecular markers. The eastern group consists of T. angustula angustula which occurs from Panama to the Brazilian states of Maranhão and northern Minas Gerais and has spread through the Brazilian Atlantic Forest as far as the southern Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. Group 2 is made up of T. angustula fiebrigi which has a more southerly and western distribution, occurring only in the western Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul as well as the west of some other Brazilian states (Goiás, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná and Santa Catarina and northeastern Argentina.

  8. Extraction of genomic DNA from Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponinae)

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    Waldschmidt, Ana Maria; Salomão, Tânia Maria Fernandes; Barros, Everaldo Gonçalves de; Campos, Lúcio de Antônio Oliveira

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to test three different procedures for DNA extraction of Melipona quadrifasciata based on existing methods for DNA extraction of Apis, plants and fungi. These methods differ in the concentrations of specific substances in the extraction buffer. The results demonstrate that the method used for Apis is not adequate for DNA extraction from M. quadrifasciata. On the other hand, with minor modifications this method and the methods for plants and fungi were ad...

  9. Diploid Male Production of Two Amazonian Melipona Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Izaura Bezerra Francini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The diploid male has already been recorded for Melipona Illger, and herein, in Melipona seminigra merrillae Cockerell and Melipona interrupta manaosensis Schwarz. This paper was carried out at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, AM, Brazil. We produced and monitored 31 new colonies of M. s. merrillae and 32 new colonies of M. i. manaosensis. We sampled 2,995 pupae of M. s. merrillae and 2,020 of M. i. manaosensis. In colonies with a 1 : 1 sex ratio, male diploidy was confirmed by cytogenetic analysis and workers’ behavior. We estimated 16 sex-determining alleles in M. s. merrillae and 22 in M. i. manaosensis. In colonies of M. i. manaosensis in a 1 : 1 sex ratio, workers killed the males and the queen that produced them soon after they emerged, as predicted. This behavior was not registered for M. s. merrillae, and sex ratios did not stay 1 : 1, indicating polyandry for this species.

  10. PODER ANTIBACTERIAL DE MIELES DE Tetragonisca angustula, VALORADA POR CONCENTRACIÓN MÍNIMA INHIBITORIA

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    VIVIANA GAMBOA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Mediante pruebas in vitro se determinó la capacidad antibacteriana, de 37 mieles de la especie Tetragonisca angustula de siete regiones de Colombia, con la técnica de Concentración Mínima Inhibitoria (CMI frente a tres especies de bacterias Gram positivas y tres Gram negativas. La técnica CMI se evaluó en microdiluciones (v/v al 90%, 45%, 22,5%, 12,3%, 5,6% de miel, contra las cepas Gram negativas Salmonella enterica sp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, ATCC 14028; Escherichia coli, ATCC 31617 y Klebsiella pneumoniae sp. pneumoniae, ATCC 700603 y Gram positivas Bacillus subtilis sp. spizizenii, ATCC 6633; Staphylococcus aureus sp. aureus Rosenbach, ATCC 6538 y Micrococcus luteus Kocuria rhizophila, ATCC 9341. Las muestras de miel correspondieron a los departamentos de Antioquia, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Santander, Tolima y Valle del Cauca. Las mieles analizadas por prueba binomial presentaron efecto bactericida contra todas las cepas bacterianas del ensayo con mayor efectividad para E. coli, M. luteus y S. enterica, con una probabilidad de p(x=1 a una dilución de 90%; al ser diluidas el mayor efecto se evidenció frente a M. luteus donde aún en dilución 5,6% presentaban probabilidades de p(x=0,62 de actividad inhibitoria por parte de las mieles. En dilución de miel al 90%, el efecto fue solo cercano a p(x=0,5 para K. pneumoniae, B. subtilis y S. aureus. La región de Antioquia, la cual hace parte de las mieles con mayor número de muestras dentro del ensayo, exhibe la mayor acción bactericida. Palabras clave: miel, Tetragonisca angustula, CMI.; ABSTRACT The in vitro antibacterial capacity was determined for 37 honeys of Tetragonisca angustula from seven regions of Colombia, by minimum inhibitory concentration (CMI against three positive Gram bacteria and three negative Gram bacteria. The CMI technique was evaluated by microdilutions (v/v to 90%, 45%, 22.5%, 12.3%, 5.6% of honey against the negative Gram bacteria

  11. Notas sobre a bionomia de Tetragonisca weyrauchi schwarz, 1943 (Apidae, MeliponinI Notes on the bionomy of The stingless bee Tetragonisca weyrauchi Schwarz, 1943 (Apidae, Meliponini

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    Marilda Cortopassi-Laurino

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a abelha sem ferrão, Tetragonisca weyrauchi tem sua distribuição restrita à região Amazônica. Constrói ninhos aéreos freqüentemente em forquilhas inclinadas de árvores. Os ninhos, cilindróides e verticais, medem cerca de 60cm de circunferência na parte mais larga e 35cm de altura. A cobertura é de uma película fina e maleável com diferentes consistências. A maioria dos ninhos apresenta, na parte superior, um prolongamento com várias protuberâncias e aberturas, ou só aberturas, com diâmetros milimétricos variáveis ao longo do dia, denominado aqui de respiráculo. A morfologia do ninho, com a porta na parte inferior e o respiráculo na parte superior, parece estar bem adaptado ao ambiente tropical em que se encontra. As médias das temperaturas internas de um ninho habitado e outro vazio acompanharam as flutuações ambientais com alto valor de correlação (r=0,98. Os resultados sugerem que a estrutura física do ninho seria responsável por uma pequena parcela na retenção da energia calorífera. Se existe termorregulação, ela deve ser mais evidente acima dos 33ºC ambientais, temperatura onde ocorreu tendência de estabilidade. A grande quantidade de lamelas de cerume ao redor dos favos de cria horizontais, o tamanho dos potes ovóides de alimento ao redor de 1-2 cm de altura, a porcentagem de água no mel ao redor de 27.6%, o aspecto do tubo de entrada com pequenos orifícios, os valores de temperatura em que ocorre a abertura desse tubo pela manhã, entre 21-23ºC, e as coletas de néctar, predominantemente em Myrtacea, fazem com que seja atribuída grande semelhança física e comportamental entre T.weyrauchi e T. angustula. Os ninhos se adaptam bem em colônias tipo Paulo Nogueira-Neto. São abelhas agressivas quando manuseadas. Estima-se que seus ninhos tenham uma população de 2000-3000 indivíduos.In Brazil, the stingless bee Tetragonisca weyrauchi has its distribution restricted to the Amazonian

  12. Observaciones sobre algunos comportamientos de Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula. Iliiger (Hym. Apidae.

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    Morales Soto Gilberto

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Las abejas sin aguijón del género Trigona constituyen uno de los grupos de insectos más amplios v diversos de la región tropical. Aunque su origen parece haber sido África, su mayor especiación ocurrió en el Trópico Americano, con cerca de 300 especies. En la región Neotropical, estas abejas son el grupo más importante de polinizadores de muchas plantas ornamentales, frutales y maderables. La interdependencia entre dichas plantas y las abejas, es en muchos casos altamente compleja y la ruptura de esa estrecha asociación por la intervención errónea del hombre, podría implicar la desaparición de unas otras respectivamente. Existen estudios sobre los hábitos de nidifación y arquitectura de los nidos de las trigonas y se posee conocimientos al respecto sobre la especia Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula Illiger. Sin embargo, los trabajos sobre comportamiento e importancia económica de este grupo de insectos son muy escasos y en el medio prácticamente inexistentes.

  13. Tipos polínicos coletados por Nannotrigona testaceicornis e Tetragonisca angustula (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae

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    Carvalho Carlos Alfredo Lopes de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Os tipos polínicos coletados no mesmo pasto apícola por Nannotrigona testaceicornis e Tetragonisca angustula (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae foram estudados e comparados durante dois meses em Piracicaba-SP, (22o43'S; 47o25'W; altitude: 580m. As massas de pólen foram obtidas através da captura de operárias que retornavam à colônia das 5:00 às 19:00 horas nos meses de outubro e novembro de 1996. Trinta e um tipos polínicos pertencentes a 22 famílias foram identificados, dos quais 22,58% foram coletados exclusivamente por N. testaceicornis, 35,48% por T. angustula e 41,94%, por ambas as espécies. As famílias Fabaceae, Liliaceae, Mimosaceae e Myrtaceae e as espécies Bulbine frutescens, Eucalyptus spp., Leucaena leucocephala e Tipuana tipu foram as mais freqüentes e constantes durante os trabalhos. O índice de similaridade entre as fontes de pólen explorada pelas abelhas foi igual a 0,78.

  14. Genetic variability in captive populations of the stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula.

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    Santiago, Leandro R; Francisco, Flávio O; Jaffé, Rodolfo; Arias, Maria C

    2016-08-01

    Low genetic variability has normally been considered a consequence of animal husbandry and a major contributing factor to declining bee populations. Here, we performed a molecular analysis of captive and wild populations of the stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula, one of the most commonly kept species across South America. Microsatellite analyses showed similar genetic variability between wild and captive populations However, captive populations showed lower mitochondrial genetic variability. Male-mediated gene flow, transport and division of nests are suggested as the most probable explanations for the observed patterns of genetic structure. We conclude that increasing the number of colonies kept through nest divisions does not negatively affect nuclear genetic variability, which seems to be maintained by small-scale male dispersal and human-mediated nest transport. However, the transport of nests from distant localities should be practiced with caution given the high genetic differentiation observed between samples from western and eastern areas. The high genetic structure verified is the result of a long-term evolutionary process, and bees from distant localities may represent unique evolutionary lineages.

  15. Evaluation of the productive development of Melipona scutellaris beehives

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    Elisângela de Lima Alves

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Stingless beekeeping has drawn the general attention of beekeepers because of the easy management and the quality of products. Nevertheless, little is known about their production and biology. The present study evaluated the development of Melipona scutellaris hives, considering the production parameters in a beekeeping environment. The growth parameter of hives is food storage. In the case of M. scutellaris, storage is made inside beeswax pots. Therefore, beeswax pots in the hives were classified and counted as nectar pots, pollen pots, open pots, closed pots and empty pots. Hive dimensions were also taken and evaluated. The results indicated that hives show different amounts of pots that vary as a function of the number of individuals in the hive. It was confirmed that the availability of food resources determines the utilization of food storage, i.e., if there is resource limitation and foraging is compromised, bees utilize the food that is stored inside the pots.

  16. [Fungi microbiot of Melipona subnitida Ducke (Hymenoptera: Apidae)].

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    Ferraz, Richard E; Feijó, Francisco M C; Alves, Nilza D; Lima, Paulo M; Pereira, Daniel S; Freitas, Carlos C O

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the occurrence of filamentous fungi found on the surface of the bees body from the specie Melipona subnitida Ducke that inhabits rocky places on the semi-arid Northeastern Brazil. Bees with cause of natural death were collected of beehives belonging to the Centro de Multiplicação de Animais Silvestres of the Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido. We found the fungi: Aspergillus sp. 6 (37.5%); Aspergillus niger 2 (12.5%); Penicilium sp. 2 (12.5%); Aspergillus terreus 1 (6.3%); Curvularia sp. 1 (6.35%); Monilia sp. 1 (6.3%); Nigrospora sp. 1 (6.3%); Cladosporium sp. 1 (6.3%); Tricoderma sp. 1 (6.3%).

  17. Cytogenetic characterization of Melipona rufiventris Lepeletier 1836 and Melipona mondury Smith 1863 (Hymenoptera, Apidae by C banding and fluorochromes staining

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    Denilce Meneses Lopes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The stingless bees Melipona rufiventris and M. mondury were analyzed cytogenetically by conventional staining with Giemsa, C-banding and sequential staining with the fluorochromes CMA3/DA/DAPI. Both species presented 2n = 18 and n = 9, except for one colony of M. rufiventris, in which some individuals had 2n = 19 due to the presence of a B chromosome. After Giemsa staining and C-banding the chromosomes appeared very condensed and presented a high heterochromatic content, making it difficult to localize the centromere and therefore to visualize the chromosomes morphology. The constitutive heterochromatin was located in interstitial chromosome regions covering most of the chromosomes extension and consisted mainly of AT, as shown by DAPI staining. The euchromatin was restricted to the chromosome extremities and was GC-rich, as evidenced by CMA3 staining. The B chromosome was CMA3-negative and DAPI-positive, a heterochromatic constitution similar to that of the A genome chromosomes.

  18. Preliminary Characterization of Mitochondrial Genome of Melipona scutellaris, a Brazilian Stingless Bee

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    Manuella Souza Silverio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bees are manufacturers of relevant economical products and have a pollinator role fundamental to ecosystems. Traditionally, studies focused on the genus Melipona have been mostly based on behavioral, and social organization and ecological aspects. Only recently the evolutionary history of this genus has been assessed using molecular markers, including mitochondrial genes. Even though these studies have shed light on the evolutionary history of the Melipona genus, a more accurate picture may emerge when full nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of Melipona species become available. Here we present the assembly, annotation, and characterization of a draft mitochondrial genome of the Brazilian stingless bee Melipona scutellaris using Melipona bicolor as a reference organism. Using Illumina MiSeq data, we achieved the annotation of all protein coding genes, as well as the genes for the two ribosomal subunits (16S and 12S and transfer RNA genes as well. Using the COI sequence as a DNA barcode, we found that M. cramptoni is the closest species to M. scutellaris.

  19. Floral sources to Tetragonisca angustula (Hymenoptera: Apidae and their pollen morphology in a Southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Juliana Almeida Braga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The stingless bees are important flowers visitors of several plant species, due to their feeding habits and foraging behavior, constituting an important group to maintain biodiversity and the dynamics of tropical communities. Among stingless bees, Tetragonisca angustula is widely distributed in tropical habitats, and has been considered an important pollinator of different plant families. To support a rational economic use of this group, there is a need to characterize the plant species that represent important sources as part of their diet, as preferred, alternative or casual food sources. The aim of this survey was to distinguish the plant species that T. angustula visited most often. The study was undertaken in four regions of the Atlantic Rainforest in Rio de Janeiro state (Brazil over a year from March 2008 to February 2009. For this, we collected bees, flowering plants and bee pollen loads from the four sites, and evaluated pollen morphology in the laboratory. Field observations showed the presence of plants belonging to ten different families and pollen loads showed the presence of pollen types belonging to 26 plant families. There were strong differences between pollen types, especially regarding pollen grain shape. The present survey suggests a high value of these plant species as trophic resources for the T. angustula in the understory of Atlantic Rainforest. Changes in these fragments of this forest may compromise the availability of resources for Tetragonisca angustula species and other stingless bees.

  20. Does beekeeping reduce genetic variability in Melipona scutellaris (Apidae, Meliponini)?

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    Carvalho-Zilse, G A; Costa-Pinto, M F F; Nunes-Silva, C G; Kerr, W E

    2009-06-30

    Many factors have contributed to reductions in wild populations of stingless bees, such as: deforestation, displacement and destruction of nests by honey gatherers, as well as use of insecticides and other agrochemicals. All of these can potentially affect the populational structure of native species. We analyzed genetic variability and populational structure of Melipona scutellaris, based on five microsatellite loci, using heterologous primers of M. bicolor. Samples were taken from 43 meliponaries distributed among 30 sites of four northeastern states of Brazil (Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe, and Bahia). Thirty-one alleles were found to be well distributed among the populations, with sizes ranging from 85 to 146 bp. In general, there was a variable distribution and frequency of alleles among populations, with either exclusive and/or fixed alleles at some sites. The population of Pernambuco was the most polymorphic, followed by Bahia, Alagoas and Sergipe. The heterozygosity was Ho = 0.36 on average, much lower than what has been reported for M. bicolor (Ho = 0.65). Most populations were not under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We found a higher variation within rather than among populations, indicating no genetic structuring in those bees maintained in meliponaries. This apparent homogenization may be due to intense beekeeping activity, including exchange of genetic material among beekeepers. Based on our findings, we recommend more studies of meliponaries and of wild populations in order to help orient management and conservation of these native pollinators.

  1. Flight activity of Melipona asilvai Moure (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    B. A. Souza

    Full Text Available Many stingless bee species are specific to their areas of occurrence. Even when adapted to their local climate and flora conditions, they are subject to modifications in the environment, directly influencing flight activity. The aim of this work is to obtain information about the flight activity of the stingless bee Melipona asilvai Moure, thus contributing to the knowledge of this species. The flow of bees entering and leaving the colony was evaluated, and the type of transported material was identified. This information was correlated with climatic data collected at the time of observations, performed between June 2002 and March 2003. It can be proved that temperature was the factor with the greatest influence on the external activity of this species, showing a significant positive correlation with the entry of bees into the colony and pollen collection. Mud collecting showed a significant positive correlation with a humidity increase. Flight activity began at a temperature of 21.0 °C and humidity of 84.5%, peaking at 27.4 °C and 60.6% RH, respectively.

  2. Antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of stingless bee Melipona scutellaris geopropolis

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    da Cunha Marcos Guilherme

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geopropolis is a type of propolis containing resin, wax, and soil, collected by threatened stingless bee species native to tropical countries and used in folk medicine. However, studies concerning the biological activity and chemical composition of geopropolis are scarce. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial and antiproliferative activity of the ethanolic extract of geopropolis (EEGP collected by Melipona scutellaris and its bioactive fraction against important clinical microorganisms as well as their in vitro cytotoxicity and chemical profile. Methods The antimicrobial activity of EEGP and fractions was examined by determining their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC against six bacteria strains as well as their ability to inhibit Streptococcus mutans biofilm adherence. Total growth inhibition (TGI was chosen to assay the antiproliferative activity of EEGP and its bioactive fraction against normal and cancer cell lines. The chemical composition of M. scutellaris geopropolis was identified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results EEGP significantly inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus strains and S. mutans at low concentrations, and its hexane fraction (HF presented the highest antibacterial activity. Also, both EEGP and HF inhibited S. mutans biofilm adherence (p Conclusions The empirical use of this unique type of geopropolis by folk medicine practitioners was confirmed in the present study, since it showed antimicrobial and antiproliferative potential against the cancer cell lines studied. It is possible that the major compounds found in this type of geopropolis are responsible for its properties.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of honey of stingless bees, tiúba (Melipona fasciculata) and jandaira (Melipona subnitida) compared to the strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    Tenório, Eleuza Gomes; de Jesus, Natália Rocha; Nascimento, Adenilde Ribeiro; Teles, Amanda Mara

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial activity of honeys of stingless bees produced in Maranhão, tiúba (Melipona fasciculata) and jandaira (Melipona subnitida), opposite the strains of pathogenic bacteria, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The honey samples were collected from different regions of Maranhão. Of the 17 samples collected, twelve samples were honey M. fasciculata and five were honey M. subnitida. We used the Kirby-Bauer method, and the technique of agar disk diffusion through the extent of inhibition in milimetros. Results were negative for all samples from M. fasciculata. However, the tests for M. subnitida demonstrated bacteriostatic halos ranging from 12 to 32,6mm.

  4. Are Isomeric Alkenes Used in Species Recognition among Neo-Tropical Stingless Bees (Melipona Spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen J; Shemilt, Sue; da S Lima, Cândida B; de Carvalho, Carlos A L

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of the role of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) in recognition is based largely on temperate ant species and honey bees. The stingless bees remain relatively poorly studied, despite being the largest group of eusocial bees, comprising more than 400 species in some 60 genera. The Meliponini and Apini diverged between 80-130 Myr B.P. so the evolutionary trajectories that shaped the chemical communication systems in ants, honeybees and stingless bees may be very different. The aim of this study was to study if a unique species CHC signal existed in Neotropical stingless bees, as has been shown for many temperate species, and what compounds are involved. This was achieved by collecting CHC data from 24 colonies belonging to six species of Melipona from North-Eastern Brazil and comparing the results with previously published CHC studies on Melipona. We found that each of the eleven Melipona species studied so far each produced a unique species CHC signal based around their alkene isomer production. A remarkable number of alkene isomers, up to 25 in M. asilvai, indicated the diversification of alkene positional isomers among the stingless bees. The only other group to have really diversified in alkene isomer production are the primitively eusocial Bumblebees (Bombus spp), which are the sister group of the stingless bees. Furthermore, among the eleven Neotropical Melipona species we could detect no effect of the environment on the proportion of alkane production as has been suggested for some other species.

  5. Floral sources to Tetragonisca angustula (Hymenoptera: Apidae and their pollen morphology in a Southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Juliana Almeida Braga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The stingless bees are important flowers visitors of several plant species, due to their feeding habits and foraging behavior, constituting an important group to maintain biodiversity and the dynamics of tropical communities. Among stingless bees, Tetragonisca angustula is widely distributed in tropical habitats, and has been considered an important pollinator of different plant families. To support a rational economic use of this group, there is a need to characterize the plant species that represent important sources as part of their diet, as preferred, alternative or casual food sources. The aim of this survey was to distinguish the plant species that T. angustula visited most often. The study was undertaken in four regions of the Atlantic Rainforest in Rio de Janeiro state (Brazil over a year from March 2008 to February 2009. For this, we collected bees, flowering plants and bee pollen loads from the four sites, and evaluated pollen morphology in the laboratory. Field observations showed the presence of plants belonging to ten different families and pollen loads showed the presence of pollen types belonging to 26 plant families. There were strong differences between pollen types, especially regarding pollen grain shape. The present survey suggests a high value of these plant species as trophic resources for the T. angustula in the understory of Atlantic Rainforest. Changes in these fragments of this forest may compromise the availability of resources for Tetragonisca angustula species and other stingless bees.Para apoyar el uso racional de las abejas sin aguijón, es necesario conocer las especies de plantas que actúan como fuentes de recursos para estas abejas en su ambiente natural. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar las especies de plantas que fueron visitadas con mayor frecuencia por abejas Tetragonisca angustula y describir los granos de polen de estas plantas. El estudio se realizó en la Mata Atlántica, donde se recogieron

  6. Individual foraging, activity level and longevity in the stingless bee Melipona beecheii in Costa Rica (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesmeijer, J.C.; Tóth, E.

    1998-01-01

    Foraging behaviour of individually marked workers of Melipona beecheii (Meliponinae) was monitored in Costa Rica to investigate individual specialisation for different materials and how this influences foraging longevity. The majority of the individuals harvested one commodity (pollen, nectar or

  7. Antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of stingless bee Melipona scutellaris geopropolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Geopropolis is a type of propolis containing resin, wax, and soil, collected by threatened stingless bee species native to tropical countries and used in folk medicine. However, studies concerning the biological activity and chemical composition of geopropolis are scarce. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial and antiproliferative activity of the ethanolic extract of geopropolis (EEGP) collected by Melipona scutellaris and its bioactive fraction against important clinical microorganisms as well as their in vitro cytotoxicity and chemical profile. Methods The antimicrobial activity of EEGP and fractions was examined by determining their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against six bacteria strains as well as their ability to inhibit Streptococcus mutans biofilm adherence. Total growth inhibition (TGI) was chosen to assay the antiproliferative activity of EEGP and its bioactive fraction against normal and cancer cell lines. The chemical composition of M. scutellaris geopropolis was identified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results EEGP significantly inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus strains and S. mutans at low concentrations, and its hexane fraction (HF) presented the highest antibacterial activity. Also, both EEGP and HF inhibited S. mutans biofilm adherence (p HF demonstrated selectivity at low concentrations. The chemical analyses performed suggest the absence of flavonoids and the presence of benzophenones as geopropolis major compounds. Conclusions The empirical use of this unique type of geopropolis by folk medicine practitioners was confirmed in the present study, since it showed antimicrobial and antiproliferative potential against the cancer cell lines studied. It is possible that the major compounds found in this type of geopropolis are responsible for its properties. PMID:23356696

  8. Desenvolvimento produtivo de colmeias de abelhas Melipona scutellaris

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    Adriana Evangelista Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n1p59 A criação de espécies nativas de abelhas, também conhecidas como abelhas sem ferrão, têm despertado interesse geral na área, em função da facilidade de manejo e da qualidade dos produtos. No entanto, pouco se sabe sobre sua produção e sua biologia e por isto o presente trabalho acompanhou o desenvolvimento de colmeias de Melipona scutellaris, avaliando os seus parâmetros produtivos em ambiente de criação. Como o crescimento de uma colmeia tem como parâmetro o armazenamento de alimento, e como no caso da abelha M.scutellaris este armazenamento é feito em potes construídos com cera, foram feitas contagens dos potes nas colmeias classificando-os como: potes abertos, potes fechados e potes vazios, separando-os de acordo com o conteúdo (mel ou pólen. Foram medidas as suas dimensões e anotadas para posterior avaliação dos dados. Com os resultados pôde-se averiguar que as colmeias apresentam quantidades de potes diferentes, variando em função do número de indivíduos que colaboram para este fator. Confirmou-se que, quando o alimento é escasso no pasto apícola, as abelhas usam o alimento armazenado nos potes, em função da diminuição de matéria-prima na entressafra.

  9. Composição de amostras de mel de abelha Jataí (Tetragonisca angustula latreille, 1811 Composition of the honey of samples originated from Jataí bees (Tetragonisca angustula latreille, 1811

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    Daniela de Almeida Anacleto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available As características físico-químicas do mel produzido pelas abelhas sem ferrão ainda são pouco conhecidas, principalmente devido à elevada diversidade da flora apícola e à baixa produção que é inerente a estas espécies. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as características físico-químicas de 20 amostras de mel de Jataí (Tetragonisca angustula, do município de Piracicaba, estado de São Paulo, contribuindo para o estabelecimento de um padrão de qualidade do mel das abelhas sem ferrão brasileiras, possibilitando o controle da fraude deste produto. Desta maneira, as seguintes análises foram realizadas: açúcares totais, açúcares redutores, sacarose aparente, umidade, hidroximetilfurfural, proteínas, cinzas, pH, acidez, índice de formol, condutividade elétrica, cor, atividade diastásica e atividade de água. Os resultados demonstram que a legislação atual, referente ao mel de Apis mellifera, não é adequada para todos os caracteres analisados, reforçando a necessidade de um padrão próprio para os méis de meliponíneos.The knowledge regarding the physicochemical characteristics of the honey produced by stingless bees is still limited, mainly due to the high diversity of the floral resources and the low production that is inherent to these species. This research deals with the physicochemical characteristics of 20 samples of Tetragonisca angustula honey, from the municipality of Piracicaba, state of São Paulo, Brazil, contributing to the establishment of a quality standard for the honey produced by Brazilian stingless bees making possible the control of this product. Thus, the following parameters were determined: total sugars, reducing sugars, apparent sucrose, moisture content, hydroxymethylfurfural, proteins, ashes, pH, acidity, formol index, electrical conductivity, color, diastase activity, and water activity. The results indicated that the Brazilian standard rules, referring to the Apis mellifera honey, are

  10. Occurrence and biogeographic aspects of Melipona quinquefasciata in NE Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    LIMA-VERDE L. W.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The stingless bee Melipona quinquefasciata is not included among the nine bee species of Melipona described in literature of NE Brazil. However, reports of some farmers raised suspicion on the occurrence of M. quinquefasciata in the state of Ceará, in NE Brazil. Investigations were carried out from July 1997 to September 2000, by means of trips to the areas of probable occurrence of this bee species. Results confirmed the presence of M. quinquefasciata in Ceará and determined its habitat along the chapada do Araripe (Araripe plateau and all extension of planalto da Ibiapaba (Ibiapaba plateau, in altitudes between 600 and 900 m. Melipona quinquefasciata lives in the phytocoenosis of cerrado (Brazilian savanna, cerradão (savanna forest and carrasco (montane deciduous shrub vegetation on the top of Araripe plateau, and only carrasco in the Ibiapaba plateau. Due to pressures caused by reduction of the area covered with native vegetation, large use of agrochemicals in anthropic areas and generalised predatory hunting of honey and beeswax, M. quinquefasciata is in risk of disappearing from the ecosystems of Araripe and Ibiapaba plateaus within a few years.

  11. Microbiological and physicochemical analysis of yateí (Tetragonisca angustula honey for assessing quality standards and commercialization

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    Amada B Pucciarelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the interest in the production and trading of yateí (Tetragonisca angustula honey in the province of Misiones, Argentina, in this work we assessed microbiological and physicochemical parameters in order to contribute to the elaboration of standards for quality control and promote commercialization. Results showed that yateí honey samples had significantly different microbiological and physicochemical characteristics in comparison to established quality standards for Apis mellifera honey. Thus, we observed that values for pH (3.72, glucose (19.01 g/100 g and fructose (23.74 g/100 g were lower than A. mellifera quality standards, while acidity (79.42 meq/kg, moisture (24%, and mould and yeast count (MY (3.02 log CFU/g were higher. The acid content was correlated with glucose (R²=0.75 and fructose (R²=0.68 content, and also with mould and yeast counts (R²=0.45 to a lesser extent. The incidence of microorganisms in yateí honey samples reached 42.85% and 39% for Clostridium sulfite-reducers and Bacillus spp., respectively. No C. botulinum or B. cereus cells were detected. Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. incidence was similar (ca. 7.14%, whereas Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. were not detected. We conclude that the microbiological and physicochemical properties of yateí honey are different from those of A. mellifera honey; hence, different quality standards could be implemented to promote its commercialization.

  12. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytotoxic Activities of Propolis from the Stingless Bee Tetragonisca fiebrigi (Jataí

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    Jaqueline Ferreira Campos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis from stingless bees Tetragonisca fiebrigi found in Brazil is used in folk medicine by their nutritional and therapeutic properties. However, there are no scientific records evidencing such properties. The present study was designed to investigate the chemical composition and the biological properties of propolis from T. fiebrigi. For this, the chemical composition of the ethanol extract of propolis (EEP was determined by GC-MS and presented phenolic compounds, alcohol, and terpenes as its major class compounds. The antimicrobial activity was accessed in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and in fungi, isolated from different biological fluids and reference strains. The EEP was active against all microorganisms and showed antioxidant activity by scavenging free radicals, inhibiting hemolysis and lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes incubated with an oxidizing agent. The anti-inflammatory potential of the EEP was confirmed by inhibition of the hyaluronidase enzyme. The cytotoxic activity was concentration-dependent against K562 cells, with a predominance of death by necrosis. Taken together, these results show that propolis from T. fiebrigi has important therapeutic activities, which suggest its potential application in the pharmaceutical industry, as well as in health foods, beverages, and nutritional supplements.

  13. Avaliação de diferentes modelos de colméias para abelhas jataí (Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, 1811 Evaluation of different types of stingless bees hives (Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, 1811

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    Maria Claudia Colla Ruvolo-Takasusuki

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de colônias de abelhas jataís, Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera, Meliponinae na região de Maringá, Estado do Paraná, alojadas nos seguintes modelos de colméia: Fritzen, Guiliani, Nogueira-Neto e Antonio Carlos Farias (ACF. O experimento foi realizado no período de dezembro de 1999 a dezembro de 2000, com 20 colônias. Mensalmente, as colméias foram pesadas e obtendo-se o peso da colônia. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente utilizando o mês como co-variável e o teste de Scheffe para comparação das médias. As colônias alojadas em colméias dos modelos Guiliani e Nogueira-Neto apresentaram um melhor desenvolvimento diferindo (p = 0,0004 das colônias alojadas nos modelos Fritzen e ACF. O peso médio das colônias foi de 387,3 ± 92,2g, 375,8 ± 72,6g, 241,2 ± 137,1g e 230,9 ± 55,3g, respectivamente, para as alojadas nos modelos Guiliani, Nogueira-Neto, ACF e Fritzen. Os meses críticos foram março e maio de 2000, nos quais ocorreram oito mortes e oito abandonos. Pode-se verificar que as colônias mantidas nas colméias Guiliani e Nogueira-Neto apresentaram uma maior uniformidade no peso. Portanto, pode-se concluir que os modelos de colméias Guiliani e Nogueira-Neto seriam os mais recomendados para a região de Maringá, Estado do Paraná.This research was carried out to evaluate the performance of stingless bees' colonies, Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera, Meliponinae, in Maringá region in the south of Brazil. Twenty colonies were settled in the following types of hives: Fritzen, Guiliani, Nogueira-Neto, and Antonio Carlos Farias (ACF, with five replications each type. The experimental season was from December, 1999 to December 2000. Monthly, the hives were weighed in order to get the colony weight. Data were analyzed statistically using the month as co variable and Scheffes’s test to compare the means. The colonies settled in

  14. Tratamento para o combate do forídeo Pseudohypocera kerteszi em Melipona quadrifasciata Lep Treatment against the forid fly Pseudohypocera kerteszi in Melipona quadrifasciata Regional Lep

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    Geraldo Moretto

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O forideo P. kerteszi é uma praga que ataca principalmente as crias de abelhas sociais. As conseqüências do ataque vão desde o enfraquecimento até o extermínio total da colônia de abelhas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a criação de uma metodologia que permita a erradicação deste parasita quando estiver atacando colônias de abelhas melipona. Três colônias de M. quadrifasciata parasitadas com o forídeo foram tratadas com solução de mel de meliponídeos ou vinagre associada ao veneno de mosca oktrine. Um frasco contendo essa solução foi colocado entre o ninho e a lixeira em colmeias do modelo Uberlândia. Uma tela de malha que não permitisse a passagem das abelhas foi colocada entre o ninho e a lixeira. Por um período de três a sete dias foram encontrados forídeos mortos dentro ou próximo à solução.The forid fly P. kerteszi is a pest that mainly attacks the brood of social bees. The consequences of this attack range from weakening to total extermination of bee colonies. The objective of the present study was to develop a methodology that would eradicate this pest when P. kerteszi is parasitizing colonies of Melipona bees. Three M. quadrifasciata colonies parasitized with the forid fly were treated with a solution of meliponid honey or vinegar in combination with the oktrine fly poison. A flask containing this solution was placed between the nest and a garbage tray separated by a mesh net that would permit the passage of forid flies but not of bees. Dead forid flies inside or close to the solution were found daily for a period of three to seven days.

  15. INHIBITION OF PATHOGENS BY SPOROGENIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM HONEY OF Melipona sp. (APIDAE: APINAE: MELIPONINI

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    KELY DAMIANA NOVAES DA SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate sporogenic bacteria from the honey of stingless bees Melipona sp., in dry forest, and to evaluate their antagonistic potential for medicinal employment purposes and animal production. The honey samples were collected in Serra Talhada - PE, where honey was taken from four different hives (in triplicate, totaling 12 samples. The samples were diluted and subjected to 80 ºC for 20 minutes to eliminate vegetative cells. The dilutions were plated onto nutrient agar and incubated at 30 ºC for 72 hours. Then the colony forming units (CFU were quantified. The samples were also plated onto malt agar and Sabouraud agar, and incubated at 30 ºC for 14 days for the growth of yeast and molds. Total and fecal coliforms were quantified by the most probable number method (MPN. Seven isolates (I of sporogenic bacteria ( Bacillus were obtained, however only four showed probiotic potential. Isolate I - 5 showed the greatest probiotic potential and inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli , Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella sp., and Staphylococcus aureus . The growth of the Sarcina sp. was not inhibited by any isolate. No yeast, molds or coliforms were found. The Melipona sp. honey is a source of spore - forming bacteria and is antagonistic to microorganisms that contaminate honey. It has good microbiological quality.

  16. Antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of propolis from Melipona orbignyi (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Jaqueline Ferreira; dos Santos, Uilson Pereira; Macorini, Luis Fernando Benitez; de Melo, Adriana Mary Mestriner Felipe; Balestieri, José Benedito Perrella; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; de Picoli Souza, Kely; dos Santos, Edson Lucas

    2014-03-01

    Propolis from stingless bees is well known for its biologic properties; however, few studies have demonstrated these effects. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the chemical composition and antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of propolis from the stingless bee Melipona orbignyi, found in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The chemical composition of the ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) indicated the presence of aromatic acids, phenolic compounds, alcohols, terpenes and sugars. The EEP was active against the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and the fungus Candida albicans. The EEP showed antioxidant activity by scavenging free radicals and inhibiting hemolysis and lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes incubated with an oxidizing agent. Additionally, EEP promoted cytotoxic activity and primarily necrotic death in K562 erythroleukemia cells. Taken together, these results indicate that propolis from M. orbignyi has therapeutic potential for the treatment and/or prevention of diseases related to microorganism activity, oxidative stress and tumor cell proliferation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tratamento para o combate do forídeo Pseudohypocera kerteszi em Melipona quadrifasciata Lep

    OpenAIRE

    Moretto, Geraldo; FURB

    2008-01-01

    O forideo P. kerteszi é uma praga que ataca principalmente as crias de abelhas sociais. As conseqüências do ataque vão desde o enfraquecimento até o extermínio total da colônia de abelhas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a criação de uma metodologia que permita a erradicação deste parasita quando estiver atacando colônias de abelhas melipona. Três colônias de M. quadrifasciata parasitadas com o forídeo foram tratadas com solução de mel de meliponídeos ou vinagre associada ao veneno de mosca okt...

  18. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Geopropolis Collected by Melipona subnitida (Jandaíra Bees

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    Silvana Alves de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the geopropolis collected by Melipona subnitida (jandaíra stingless bee led to the isolation and characterization of two phenylpropanoids, 6-O-p-coumaroyl-D-galactopyranose (1 and 6-O-cinnamoyl-1-O-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranose (2, and seven flavonoids, 7-O-methyl-naringenin (3, 7-O-methyl aromadendrin (4, 7,4′-di-O-methyl aromadendrin (5, 4′-O-methyl kaempferol (6, 3-O-methyl quercetin (7, 5-O-methyl aromadendrin (8, and 5-O-methyl kaempferol (9. The structure of the new phenylpropanoid (1 was established from IR, LC-ESI-MS, and NMR spectral data, including 2D NMR experiments. The extract and fractions demonstrated significant antioxidant activity in DPPH, ABTS, and β-carotene/linoleic acid tests.

  19. Characterization of antennal sensilla, larvae morphology and olfactory genes of Melipona scutellaris stingless bee.

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    Washington João de Carvalho

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence in the literature suggesting that caste differentiation in the stingless bee, Melipona scutellaris, and other bees in the genus Melipona, is triggered by environmental signals, particularly a primer pheromone. With the proper amount of food and a chemical stimulus, 25% of females emerge as queens, in agreement with a long-standing "two loci/two alleles model" proposed in the 1950s. We surmised that these larvae must be equipped with an olfactory system for reception of these chemical signals. Here we describe for the first time the diversity of antennal sensilla in adults and the morphology of larvae of M. scutellaris. Having found evidence for putative olfactory sensilla in larvae, we next asked whether olfactory proteins were expressed in larvae. Since the molecular basis of M. scutellaris is still unknown, we cloned olfactory genes encoding chemosensory proteins (CSP and odorant-binding proteins (OBPs using M. scutellaris cDNA template and primers designed on the basis CSPs and OBPs previously reported from the European honeybee, Apis mellifera. We cloned two CSP and two OBP genes and then attempted to express the proteins encoded by these genes. With a recombinant OBP, MscuOBP8, and a combinatorial single-chain variable fragment antibody library, we generated anti-MscuOBP8 monoclonal antibody. By immunohistochemistry we demonstrated that the anti-MscuOBP8 binds specifically to the MscuOBP8. Next, we found evidence that MscuOBP8 is expressed in M. scutellaris larvae and it is located in the mandibular region, thus further supporting the hypothesis of olfactory function in immature stages. Lastly, molecular modeling suggests that MscuOBP8 may function as a carrier of primer pheromones or other ligands.

  20. Por que Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae forrageia sob alta umidade relativa do ar?

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    Marília D. e Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Há evidências de que a temperatura do ar e a umidade relativa afetam a atividade de voo de espécies de abelhas sociais Meliponini. Em particular, as espécies grandes do gênero Melipona Illiger, 1806 responderiam de maneira mais estreita à variação na umidade relativa. Neste estudo defende-se o argumento de que a umidade relativa seja uma variável de confusão. Nesta linha de argumentação, também foi analisado o papel da coleta de pólen sobre o ritmo diário de forrageio. A robusta Melipona scutellaris (Latreille, 1811 foi usada como modelo e a atividade diária de voo e de forrageio de pólen foi medida em 12 colônias (4 colônias/hábitat, em três tipos de hábitats, que variam principalmente quanto à pluviosidade, na área de distribuição natural desta espécie (Floresta Pluvial, Floresta Sazonal e Transição Floresta Tropical-Cerrados. A maioria da atividade de voo acontece durante a manhã. A atividade de forrageio das colônias foi mais elevada nas primeiras horas do alvorecer, quando a umidade relativa também era alta, frequentemente associada a picos de coleta de pólen. A atividade de voo decresceu abruptamente durante as temperaturas altas ao redor do meio dia. A relação da atividade de voo com a umidade relativa foi altamente significativa e linear, contrastando com a relação significativa e unimodal com a temperatura. Na relação com o forrageio de M. scutellaris, a umidade relativa se configura como uma variável contingente, em hábitats tropicais úmidos, considerando os padrões diários de variação do microclima e de forrageio de pólen. Este último padrão também sustenta a hipótese de partição temporal de fontes florais de pólen.

  1. TIPOS POLÍNICOS COLETADOS POR Tetragonisca angustula (LATREILLE, 1811 EM UM FRAGMENTO DE FLORESTA ATLÂNTICA NO ESPÍRITO SANTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Torres

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A identificação da dieta de abelhas é fundamental para o conhecimento da biologia e da ecologia destes insetos. Aqui apresentamos a identificação dos tipos polínicos coletados por Tetragonisca angustula em um fragmento de Floresta Atlântica no Espírito Santo. As amostras de pólen foram coletadas durante 12 meses no Parque Estadual da Cachoeira da Fumaça (PECF. Os indivíduos estudados foram capturados com rede entomológica e as pelotas de pólen foram removidas de suas corbículas. Para identificação dos tipos polínicos, os grãos de pólen foram acetolisados, montados em lâminas e analisados em microscopia de luz (ML. Foram identificados 32 tipos polínicos pertencentes a 16 famílias de angiospermas. Fabaceae e Myrtaceae apresentaram a maior riqueza de tipos polínicos, com cinco tipos cada. A maior diversidade de tipos polínicos foi encontrada nos meses de setembro e outubro. A diversidade de famílias botânicas visitadas por T. angustula confirma o hábito generalista desta espécie e permite verificar que o PECF é um importante refúgio para esta espécie de abelha nativa.

  2. A Comparative Study of Relational Learning Capacity in Honeybees (Apis mellifera) and Stingless Bees (Melipona rufiventris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Antonio Mauricio; de Souza, Deisy das Graças; Reinhard, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Background Learning of arbitrary relations is the capacity to acquire knowledge about associations between events or stimuli that do not share any similarities, and use this knowledge to make behavioural choices. This capacity is well documented in humans and vertebrates, and there is some evidence it exists in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). However, little is known about whether the ability for relational learning extends to other invertebrates, although many insects have been shown to possess excellent learning capacities in spite of their small brains. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a symbolic matching-to-sample procedure, we show that the honeybee Apis mellifera rapidly learns arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, reaching 68.2% correct choice for pattern-colour relations and 73.3% for colour-pattern relations. However, Apis mellifera does not transfer this knowledge to the symmetrical relations when the stimulus order is reversed. A second bee species, the stingless bee Melipona rufiventris from Brazil, seems unable to learn the same arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, although it exhibits excellent discrimination learning. Conclusions/Significance Our results confirm that the capacity for learning arbitrary relations is not limited to vertebrates, but even insects with small brains can perform this learning task. Interestingly, it seems to be a species-specific ability. The disparity in relational learning performance between the two bee species we tested may be linked to their specific foraging and recruitment strategies, which evolved in adaptation to different environments. PMID:23251542

  3. The antennal sensilla of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini): a study of different sexes and castes

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    Ravaiano, Samira Veiga; Ferreira, Ríudo de Paiva; Campos, Lucio Antonio de Oliveira; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira

    2014-08-01

    The sensilla of insects are integumental units that play a role as sensory structures and are crucial for the perception of stimuli and for communication. In this study, we compared the antennal sensilla of females (workers and queens), males (haploid (n) and diploid (2n)), and queen-like males (QLMs, resulting from 2n males after juvenile hormone (JH) treatment) in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata. Images of the dorsal antenna surfaces were acquired using a scanning electron microscope. As reported for other hymenopterans, this species exhibits a heterogeneous sensillar distribution along the antennae. Thirteen different types of sensilla were found in the antennae of M. quadrifasciata: trichodea (subtypes I to VI), chaetica (subtypes I and II), placodea, basiconica, ampullacea, coeloconica, and coelocapitula. Sensilla trichodea I were the most abundant, followed by sensilla placodea, which might function in olfactory perception. Sensilla basiconica, sensilla chaetica I, sensilla coeloconica, and sensilla ampullacea were found exclusively in females. In terms of the composition and size of the sensilla, the antennae of QLMs most closely resemble those of the 2n male, although QLMs exhibit a queen phenotype. This study represents the first comparative analysis of the antennal sensilla of M. quadrifasciata. The differences found in the type and amount of sensilla between the castes and sexes are discussed based on the presumed sensillary functions.

  4. PHYTOTOXIC POTENTIAL OF THE GEOPROPOLIS EXTRACTS OF THE JANDAIRA STINGLESS BEE (Melipona subnitida IN WEEDS

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    DANIEL SANTIAGO PEREIRA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research is to characterize the phytotoxic activity of geopropolis from the Jandaira bee (Melipona subnitida Ducke in the state of Ceará in Northeast Brazil and to analyze its effects. Extracts were prepared in 80% v/v grain alcohol at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0%. Their effects were determined on seed germination, radicle elongation, and hypocotyl growth of the pasture weeds malícia (Mimosa pudica and mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia. Extract phytotoxicity varied as functions of plant species, application dosage, and plant organ. M. pudica was more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of geopropolis than S. obtusifolia. There was a phytotoxic effect of 50% (PE50 for S. obtusifolia in terms of seed germination and in rootlet development near the maximum applied concentrations. M. pudica had PE50 and PE90 at the minimum concentration (0.25% and near the maximum (1.00%, respectively. Thus, geopropolis extracts from the Jandaira bee (M. subnitida are potentially phytotoxic to certain plant species.

  5. Protein content and electrophoretic profile of fat body and ovary extracts from workers of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera, Meliponini

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    Vagner T. Paes de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Workers of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Lepeletier, 1836 develop their ovaries and lay eggs, therefore the production of vitellogenin is expected. In electrophoretic profiles only fat body extracts from nurse workers and ovary extracts from newly-emerged workers show protein with molecular mass similar to vitellogenin. However, an increase in the protein content was detected in forager fat body. This increase was attributed to storage of vitellogenin or other proteins in the previous phase and not discharged into the hemolymph or to an effect of the increased titre of juvenile hormone in this phase of worker life over the fat body functioning.

  6. Epigenetic modifications and their relation to caste and sex determination and adult division of labor in the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris

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    Carlos A.M. Cardoso-Júnior

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stingless bees of the genus Melipona, have long been considered an enigmatic case among social insects for their mode of caste determination, where in addition to larval food type and quantity, the genotype also has a saying, as proposed over 50 years ago by Warwick E. Kerr. Several attempts have since tried to test his Mendelian two-loci/two-alleles segregation hypothesis, but only recently a single gene crucial for sex determination in bees was evidenced to be sex-specifically spliced and also caste-specifically expressed in a Melipona species. Since alternative splicing is frequently associated with epigenetic marks, and the epigenetic status plays a major role in setting the caste phenotype in the honey bee, we investigated here epigenetic chromatin modification in the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. We used an ELISA-based methodology to quantify global methylation status and western blot assays to reveal histone modifications. The results evidenced DNA methylation/demethylation events in larvae and pupae, and significant differences in histone methylation and phosphorylation between newly emerged adult queens and workers. The epigenetic dynamics seen in this stingless bee species represent a new facet in the caste determination process in Melipona bees and suggest a possible mechanism that is likely to link a genotype component to the larval diet and adult social behavior of these bees.

  7. [Rediscovery of Melipona subnitida Ducke (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the "Restinga" in the Nacional Park Lençóis Maranhenses, Barreirinhas, MA, Brazil].

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    Rêgo, Márcia; Albuquerque, Patrícia

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 95 years after the original description, a nest of Melipona subnitida Ducke was rediscovered in the state of Maranhão, in a restinga ecosystem of the Barreirinhas municipality, Northeastern Brazil. The voucher specimens are deposited in the collection of the "Laboratório de Estudos sobre Abelhas" of the "Departamento de Biologia UFMA".

  8. Colour is more than hue: preferences for compiled colour traits in the stingless bees Melipona mondury and M. quadrifasciata.

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    Koethe, Sebastian; Bossems, Jessica; Dyer, Adrian G; Lunau, Klaus

    2016-10-01

    The colour vision of bees has been extensively analysed in honeybees and bumblebees, but few studies consider the visual perception of stingless bees (Meliponini). In a five-stage experiment the preference for colour intensity and purity, and the preference for the dominant wavelength were tested by presenting four colour stimuli in each test to freely flying experienced workers of two stingless bee species, Melipona mondury and Melipona quadrifasciata. The results with bee-blue, bee-UV-blue and bee-green colours offered in four combinations of varying colour intensity and purity suggest a complex interaction between these colour traits for the determination of colour choice. Specifically, M. mondury preferred bee-UV-blue colours over bee-green, bee-blue and bee-blue-green colours while M. quadrifasciata preferred bee-green colour stimuli. Moreover in M. mondury the preferences were different if the background colour was changed from grey to green. There was a significant difference between species where M. mondury preferred UV-reflecting over UV-absorbing bee-blue-green colour stimuli, whereas M. quadrifasciata showed an opposite preference. The different colour preferences of the free flying bees in identical conditions may be caused by the bees' experience with natural flowers precedent to the choice tests, suggesting reward partitioning between species.

  9. El aprovechamiento de la miel melipona como un atractivo turístico sustentable de Quintana Roo

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    Horacio Espinosa Coria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo ofrecer una propuesta para la diversificación de la oferta turística quintanarroense, a través del aprovechamiento de bienes culturales que coadyuven al rescate y salvaguarda del patrimonio material e intangible de las comunidades rurales de la denominada zona maya. Se revisa la literatura para esclarecer conceptos como el turismo cultural, describir las rutas gastronómicas e identificar la viabilidad de crear una de éstas alrededor del cultivo de la miel de la abeja melipona en poblados para los que este producto tiene especial relevancia. Dicho trabajo puede clasificarse como una investigación de tipo documental, con elementos de una investigación acción dado su carácter prescriptivo. Entre los hallazgos destacan, en primer lugar, las distintas experiencias internacionales, nacionales y locales de proyectos de turismo cultural, gastronómico y ecológico, como opciones distintas de desarrollo al tradicional producto de sol, mar y playa. En segundo término, se hace evidente que los saberes legendarios sobre la producción y uso de la miel melipona son un patrimonio en donde el valor radica en permitir al turista reconocer e interpretar a la miel como un elemento de la cultura local, cuyo principal atractivo turístico fuera precisamente la nominación maya.

  10. Foraging behavior of Melipona rufiventris Lepeletier (Apinae; Meliponini in Ubatuba, SP, Brazil

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    AO. Fidalgo

    Full Text Available This study describes how the foraging activity of Melipona rufiventris is influenced by the environment and/or by the state of a colony. Two colonies were studied in Ubatuba, SP (44° 48’ W and 23° 22’ S from July/2000 to June/2001. These colonies were classified as strong (Colony 1 and intermediate (Colony 2 according to their general conditions: population and brood comb size and number of food pots. The bees were active from dawn to dusk. The number of pollen loads presented a positive correlation with relative humidity (r s = 0.401; p <0.01 and was highest between 70 and 90%. However, it was negatively correlated with temperature (r s = -0.228; p <0.01 showing a peak between 18 and 23 °C. The number of nectar loads presented a positive correlation with temperature (r s = 0.244; p <0.01 and light intensity (r s = 0.414; p <0.01; it was greater between 50 and 90% of relative humidity and 20 and 30 °C of temperature. They collected more nectar than pollen throughout the day, and were more active between 6 and 9 hours. Workers from Colony 1 (strong collected nectar in greater amounts and earlier than those from Colony 2 (intermediate. The number of pollen, nectar and resin loads varied considerably between the study days. Peaks of pollen collection occurred earlier in months with longer days and in a hotter and more humid climate. The foraging behavior of M. rufiventris is probably affected by the state of the colony and by environmental conditions, notably temperature, relative humidity, light intensity and length of the day.

  11. Caracterização do mel produzido por espécies de Melipona Illiger, 1806 (apidae: meliponini da região nordeste do Brasil: 1. Características físico-químicas Characterization of honey produced by species of Melipona Illiger, 1806 (apidae: meliponini from the northeast area of Brazil: 1. Physico-chemical characteristics

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    Bruno de Almeida Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty three honey samples produced by four Melipona species from different areas of the State of Bahia, were analyzed with the aim to determine their physico-chemical characteristics, contributing to the establishment of standards for quality control. The majority of the average values for physico-chemical parameters fulfilled the quality criteria established by the Brazilian and international Legislations for Apis honey, except for moisture content, which afforded higher values. Concerning the high number of samples wich did not fit the limits for reducing sugars, it is necessary to define minimum values in order to characterize Melipona honeys, as well as criteria for use of diastasic activity.

  12. Primeros resultados de la caracterización botánica de mieles producidas por Tetragonisca angustula (Apidae, Meliponinae en Los Naranjos, Salta, Argentina First results of botanical characterization of honeys produced by Tetragonisca angustula (Apidae, Meliponinae in Los Naranjos, Salta, Argentina

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    F. F Flores

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el análisis melisopalinológico de diez muestras de miel de Tetragonisca angustula Latreille criadas en la localidad Los Naranjos (S 23° 07' 19,2"; O 64° 40' 32,6", Salta, Argentina. Se reconoció un total de 49 tipos polínicos. En las mieles monoflorales, los tipos dominantes correspondieron a: Anadenanthera colubrina, Baccharis, Citrus sp., Myrtaceae nativas y un tipo indeterminado (tipo 6. Las restantes muestras fueron multiflorales. El 62 % de los tipos polínicos corresponde a representantes de la Selva Montana de Yungas; tipos como Anadenanthera colubrina, Bocconia integrifolia, Parapiptadenia excelsa, Phyllostylon rhamnoides, Sapium haematospermum, tipo Myrsine y un conjunto de Myrtaceae nativas que constituyen la primera cita como plantas nectaríferas para T. angustula. También se identificó polen proveniente de plantas típicas de ambientes antropizados como Carica papaya, Citrus sp., Eucalyptus sp., Leonurus sibiricus, entre otros. Estos resultados constituyen una primera aproximación al conocimiento de la flora utilizada por T. angustula y al origen geográfico de sus mieles, estableciendo el primer registro para Selva Montana de Yungas.The melissopalynological analysis was performed on ten honeys samples of Tetragonisca angustula Latreille breeding in the locality Los Naranjos (S 23° 07' 19,2"; W 64° 40' 32,6", Salta, Argentina. We found a whole of 49 pollen types. In the honey monofloral, the dominant types corresponded to: Anadenanthera colubrina, Baccharis, Citrus sp., native Myrtaceae and a type undetermined (type 6. The remaining samples were multifloral. 62% of pollen types corresponding to representatives of the Yungas mountain forest; types like Anadenanthera colubrina, Bocconia integrifolia, Parapiptadenia excelsa, Phyllostylon rhamnoides, Sapium haematospermum, type Myrsine and a set of native Myrtaceae, which constitute the first appointment as nectar sources for T. angustula. Also identified pollen

  13. Selectividad de pecoreo de la abeja sin aguijón Melipona beecheii Bennett en la EEPF "Indio Hatuey", Matanzas Foraging selectivity of the stingless bee Melipona beecheii Bennett at the EEPF "Indio Hatuey", Matanzas

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    Leydi Fonte

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se realizó en la EEPF "Indio Hatuey", con el objetivo de determinar la selectividad de pecoreo de la abeja sin aguijón (Melipona beecheii Bennett, mediante el análisis palinológico de muestras de miel y polen. Previamente se realizó un inventario florístico del área, alrededor del emplazamiento del meliponario, basado en el radio de vuelo de las abejas. En las silvopasturas se utilizó el método de la escalera, y en el caso de los cercados vivos se contaron los árboles cada 10 m y se reflejaron en el croquis del área muestreada. En las arboledas y los traspatios de las viviendas se contaron y clasificaron todos los árboles existentes, y en el estrato herbáceo se aplicó el método de los pasos. En ambos tipos de muestra predominaron los granos de polen de guayaba (Psidium guajava y almácigo (Bursera simaruba, seguidos por los de dormidera (Mimosa pudica, sensitiva (Mimosa pigra, y naranjo y limonero (Citrus spp.. Se concluye que las abejas meliponas presentaron una marcada selectividad de pecoreo por las floraciones del almácigo y la guayaba, y que la Estación cuenta con el potencial melífero suficiente para que puedan desarrollarse favorablemente, sobre una base alimentaria sustentable.The work was conducted at the EEPF "Indio Hatuey" to determine the foraging selectivity of stingless bees (Melipona beecheii Bennett through the analysis of honey and pollen samples. A floristic inventory of the area had been previously made around the apiary location, taking into consideration the bees' flight radius. The stair method was used in the silvopastures, and in the case of the living fences the trees were counted every 10 meters and this was shown in the sketch of the sampled area. In the groves and yards all trees where counted and classified, and in the herbaceous stratum the step method was applied. The pollen grains of guava (Psidium guajava and mastic tree (Bursera simaruba predominated in both kinds of samples

  14. Polimorfismo enzimático em populações de Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae Enzymatic polymorphism in Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier populations (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae

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    Davi S. Aidar

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Them aim scope of this study is to characterize the enzymatic polymorphism found in the Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier, 1936 populations from Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo and Espírito Santo, Brazil and its hybrids. Samples from each colony (about 52 were prepared for starch gel electrophoresis in order to investigate the genetic variation of the following enzimes: esterase (EST, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH, malic enzyme (ME, phosphoglucomutase (PGM, superoxide desmutase (SOD, α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (αPGD, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP, hexokinase (HK and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI. The analysis showed that LAP and HK did not show enzymatic activity and EST showed two alleles(est-sand and est-f while all the others were shown to be monomorphic. The allele EST-S showed a frequency of 82,6%.

  15. Características físico-químicas de amostras de mel de Melipona asilvai (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Souza Bruno de Almeida

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Análises de amostras de mel da abelha Melipona asilvai provenientes dos municípios de Itaberaba e Tucano, região semi-árida do Estado da Bahia, foram realizadas com o objetivo de contribuir para o conhecimento das características físico-químicas desse produto. A maioria dos parâmetros físico-químicos apresentou valores adequados para o consumo humano, o que possibilita a exploração desse produto pelas comunidades rurais da região semi-árida da Bahia. Contudo, o teor de umidade elevado é um aspecto que merece uma maior atenção por parte do produtor, que deverá ter cuidado com a higiene na manipulação do mel durante a coleta e no processo de armazenamento.

  16. A protocol for isolating insect mitochondrial genomes: a case study of NUMT in Melipona flavolineata (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Françoso, Elaine; Gomes, Fernando; Arias, Maria Cristina

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear mitochondrial DNA insertions (NUMTs) are mitochondrial DNA sequences that have been transferred into the nucleus and are recognized by the presence of indels and stop codons. Although NUMTs have been identified in a diverse range of species, their discovery was frequently accidental. Here, our initial goal was to develop and standardize a simple method for isolating NUMTs from the nuclear genome of a single bee. Subsequently, we tested our new protocol by determining whether the indels and stop codons of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequence of Melipona flavolineata are of nuclear origin. The new protocol successfully demonstrated the presence of a COI NUMT. In addition to NUMT investigations, the protocol described here will also be very useful for studying mitochondrial mutations related to diseases and for sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes with high read coverage by Next-Generation technology.

  17. Analysis of the Intercaste Transcriptional Profile of Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini by mRNA Differential Display

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    ANA CAROLINA S SIQUIEROLI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In colonies of Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 workers can be found with four ganglion nerve cells, a morphological characteristic of the queen. It is hypothesized that these workers, called intercastes, or phenocopies, are phenotypically-like workers, but genotypically identical to queens due to this specific trait. Workers with the same number of ganglion as queens seem to be intercastes between queens and workers. Our objective was to analyze the mRNA pro files of workers, queens, and intercastes of M. scutellaris through DDRT-PCR. Three hundred (300 pupae with white eyes were collected and externally identified according to the number of abdominal nerve ganglions: workers (5 ganglions, queens (4 ganglions and intercastes (4 ganglions. The analysis identified differentially expressed transcripts that were present only in workers, but absent in intercastes and queens, confirming the hypothesis, by demonstrating the environmental effect on the queen genotype that generated phenotype-like workers.

  18. Geographic distribution and spatial differentiation in the color pattern of abdominal stripes of the Neotropical stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

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    Batalha-Filho, Henrique; Melo, Gabriel A. R.; Waldschmidt, Ana M.; Campos, Lucio A. O.; Fernandes-Salomão, Tânia M.

    2009-01-01

    Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier, 1836, regionally known as "mandaçaia", has been traditionally divided in two distinct subspecies: M. quadrifasciata anthidioides and M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata. The main difference between the subspecies refers to the yellow metasomal stripes which are continuous in M. q. quadrifasciata and discontinuous in M. q. anthidioides. This study investigated the geographic differentiation in the metasomal stripes and characterized the restriction sites in the...

  19. Espectro polínico de amostras de mel de Melipona mandacaia Smith, 1863 (Hymenoptera: Apidae = Pollen spectrum from honey samples of Melipona mandacaia Smith, 1863 stingless bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Rogério Marcos de Oliveira Alves

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O espectro polínico de amostras de mel da abelha Melipona mandacaia foi analisado com objetivo de elucidar os recursos alimentares utilizados por essa espécie. A identificação das plantas visitadas foi realizada com base na análise dos tipos polínicos encontrados nas amostras de mel coletadas em 11 colônias localizadas no município de São Gabriel, em área de caatinga do Estado da Bahia, Brasil (11º14’S e 41º52’W. As análises quantitativas e qualitativas foram realizadas com o objetivo de determinar as porcentagens e classes de freqüência dos tipos polínicos presentes nas amostras de mel. Foram encontrados 26 tipos polínicos, sendo o tipo Piptadenia rigida (Mimosaceae considerado dominante. Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, Mimosa verrucata (Mimosaceae e M. arenosa (Mimosaceae foram considerados pólen isolado importante. As famílias mais representativas no espectro polínico das amostras de mel foram Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae e Anacardiaceae.The pollen spectrum from honey samples of Melipona mandacaia stingless bee was analyzed aiming at elucidating the alimentaryresources used by that species. The identification of the visited plants was based on the analysis of pollen from honey samples collected in 11 hives located in São Gabriel county, in the semiarid area of Bahia State, Brazil (11º14’S and 41º52’W. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of honey samples were conducted in order to determine the pollen types percentages and frequency classes. Twenty-six pollen types were found, being the Piptadenia rigida type (Mimosaceae considered dominant. Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, Mimosa verrucata (Mimosaceae and M. arenosa (Mimosaceae were considered important isolated pollen. The most representative families found in the pollen spectrum of the honey samples were Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae and Anacardiaceae.

  20. Areas of natural occurrence of Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera: Apidae in the state of Bahia, Brazil

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    Rogério M.O. Alves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The bee Melipona scutellaris is considered the reared meliponine species with the largest distribution in the North and Northeast regions of Brazil, with records from the state of Rio Grande do Norte down to the state of Bahia. Considering the importance of this species in the generation of income for family agriculture and in the preservation of areas with natural vegetation, this study aimed at providing knowledge on the distribution of natural colonies of M. scutellaris in the state of Bahia. Literature information, interviews with stinglessbee beekeepers, and expeditions were conducted to confirm the natural occurrence of the species. A total of 102 municipalities showed records for M. scutellaris, whose occurrence was observed in areas ranging from sea level up to 1,200-meter height. The occurrence of this species in the state of Bahia is considered to be restricted to municipalities on the coastal area and the Chapada Diamantina with its rainforests. Geographic coordinates, elevation, climate and vegetation data were obtained, which allowed a map to be prepared for the area of occurrence in order to support conservation and management policies for the species.A abelha Melipona scutellaris é considerada a espécie criada de meliponíneo com maior distribuição no norte e nordeste do Brasil, com ocorrência registradas desde o Estado do Grande do Norte até o Estado da Bahia. Considerando a importância desta espécie na geração de renda para agricultura familiar e na manutenção de áreas com vegetação natural, este trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer a distribuição de colônias naturais de M. scutellaris no Estado da Bahia. Informações de literatura, entrevistas com meliponicultores e expedições foram realizadas para confirmar a ocorrência natural da espécie. Um total de 102 municípios apresentou registro de M. scutellaris, cuja ocorrência foi observada em áreas desde o nível do mar até 1.200 metros de altitude. A

  1. Stingless bees (Melipona subnitida) adjust brood production rather than foraging activity in response to changes in pollen stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia-Silva, Camila; Hrncir, Michael; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia; Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P

    2016-10-01

    Highly eusocial bees (honey bees and stingless bees) sustain their colonies through periods of resource scarcity by food stored within the nest. The protein supply necessary for successful brood production is ensured through adjustments of the colonies' pollen foraging according to the availability of this resource in the environment. In honey bees Apis mellifera, in addition, pollen foraging is regulated through the broods' demand for this resource. Here, we investigated the influence of the colony's pollen store level on pollen foraging and brood production in stingless bees (Melipona subnitida). When pollen was added to the nests, colonies increased their brood production and reduced their pollen foraging within 24 h. On the other hand, when pollen reserves were removed, colonies significantly reduced their brood production. In strong contrast to A. mellifera; however, M. subnitida did not significantly increase its pollen foraging activity under poor pollen store conditions. This difference concerning the regulation of pollen foraging may be due to differences regarding the mechanism of brood provisioning. Honey bees progressively feed young larvae and, consequently, require a constant pollen supply. Stingless bees, by contrast, mass-provision their brood cells and temporary absence of pollen storage will not immediately result in substantial brood loss.

  2. Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Apidae) fat body persists through metamorphosis with a few apoptotic cells and an increased autophagy.

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    Santos, Douglas Elias; Azevedo, Dihego Oliveira; Campos, Lúcio Antônio Oliveira; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2015-03-01

    Fat body, typically comprising trophocytes, provides energy during metamorphosis. The fat body can be renewed once the larval phase is complete or recycled and relocated to form the fat body of the adult insect. This study aims to identify the class of programmed cell death that occurs within the fat body cells during the metamorphosis of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata. Using immunodetection techniques, the fat body of the post-defecating larvae and the white-, pink-, brown-, and black-eyed pupae were tested for cleaved caspase-3 and DNA integrity, followed by ultrastructural analysis and identification of autophagy using RT-PCR for the Atg1 gene. The fat body of M. quadrifasciata showed some apoptotic cells positive for cleaved caspase-3, although without DNA fragmentation. During development, the fat body cells revealed an increased number of mitochondria and free ribosomes, in addition to higher amounts of autophagy Atg1 mRNA, than that of the pupae. The fat body of M. quadrifasciata showed few cells which underwent apoptosis, but there was evidence of increased autophagy at the completion of the larval stage. All together, these data show that some fat body cells persist during metamorphosis in the stingless bee M. quadrifasciata.

  3. Estudo Comparativo das Sensilas Antenais de Operárias de Melipona scutellaris Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae de Diferentes Altitudes

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    Marcília Aparecida Nascimento

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensilas são estruturas sensoriais presentes nas antenas dos insetos e são responsáveis pela higro- quimio-, termo- e mecanorrecepção. No presente trabalho, as sensilas presentes nos três flagelômeros (F mais distais de Melipona scutellaris Latreille (Hymenopera: Apidae coletadas em diferentes altitudes (200 e acima de 900m foram avaliadas qualitativamente e quantitativamente. A identificação, contagem e medição das sensilas foram feitas a partir de imagens da superfície dorsal das antenas que foram obtidas com o auxílio de microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Foram observadas as sensilas placoide, basicônica, celocônica, ampulácea, campaniforme e tricoide reta e curvada. Comparativamente, o grupo localizado a 200m de altitude possui sensilas tricoides retas em maior quantidade nos três flagelômeros, enquanto que o grupo de altitudes acima de 900m apresentou maior quantidade de sensilas tricoides curvadas no F9, sendo as mesmas maiores para o F10. Essas diferenças foram discutidas em função da localização geográfica dos diferentes grupos aqui estudados. Os resultados da investigação da estrutura antenal de M. scutellaris contribuem para um melhor entendimento da biologia dessa espécie.

  4. Variation in daily flight activity and foraging patterns in colonies of uruçu - Melipona scutellaris Latreille (Apidae, Meliponini

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    Leonardo Monteiro Pierrot

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The flight activities of five colonies of Melipona (Michmelia scutellaris Latreille, 1811 kept among mixed fruit crop plantations in within fragments of Atlantic Rainforest in Pernambuco, NE-Brazil was examined. The daily deployment of foragers to collect pollen, nectar, resin and mud was observed. The colonies performed between 2,640 and 14,250 flights per day. Variations in the number of total daily flights were similar between colonies on all observation days. Proportional allocation of foragers to the different resources also among colonies showed similar variation. More than 90% of the pollen collection flights were made early in the morning. Nectar was collected in similar proportional frequencies with a reduction in activity at noon. On a single day, was observed atypical intense pollen foraging during the afternoon by all colonies. This indicates a high plasticity in foraging behaviour and efficient recruitment to resources which are presented by mass flowering trees with synchronised big bang or multiple bang flowering. Resource availability of the surrounding vegetation, therefore, seems to be the major factor in defining the forager activities on a given day.

  5. Genetic Diversity of Melipona mandacaia SMITH 1863 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, an Endemic Bee Species from Brazilian Caatinga, Using ISSR

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    Elder Assis Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the genetic diversity and structure of Melipona mandacaia, we analyzed 104 colonies collected in 12 localities in Bahia state, northeastern Brazil, using ISSR-PCR. A total of 109 bands were obtained with a significant polymorphism of 72.47%. Estimates of genetic diversity indicated low values of heterozygosity (He and HB values were 0.2616 and 0.2573, resp.. These reduced values have been reported in other studies in stingless bees and maybe justified by dispersion process in the origin of new nests. AMOVA revealed that the higher percentage of variation is within localities (70.39%. The ΦST and θB values were, respectively, 0.2961 and 0.3289, thereby indicating a moderate population structuring. The correlation between genetic and geographic distances (r=0.4542; P<0.01 suggests isolation by distance. Our study contributes to describing the genetic diversity of endemic organisms from Caatinga and may help future efforts to preserve this threatened biome.

  6. Pollination of tomatoes by the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata and the honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, S A Bispo; Roselino, A C; Hrncir, M; Bego, L R

    2009-06-30

    The pollination effectiveness of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata and the honey bee Apis mellifera was tested in tomato plots. The experiment was conducted in four greenhouses as well as in an external open plot in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. The tomato plants were exposed to visits by M. quadrifasciata in one greenhouse and to A. mellifera in another; two greenhouses were maintained without bees (controls) and an open field plot was exposed to pollinators in an area where both honey bee and stingless bee colonies are abundant. We counted the number of tomatoes produced in each plot. Two hundred tomatoes from each plot were weighed, their vertical and transversal circumferences were measured, and the seeds were counted. We collected 253 Chrysomelidae, 17 Halictidae, one Paratrigona sp, and one honey bee from the flowers of the tomato plants in the open area. The largest number of fruits (1414 tomatoes), the heaviest and largest tomatoes, and the ones with the most seed were collected from the greenhouse with stingless bees. Fruits cultivated in the greenhouse with honey bees had the same weight and size as those produced in one of the control greenhouses. The stingless bee, M. quadrifasciata, was significantly more efficient than honey bees in pollinating greenhouse tomatoes.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of honey of africanized bee (Apis mellifera) and stingless bee, tiuba (Melipona fasciculata) against strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus

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    Tenório, Eleuza Gomes; Alves, Natália Furtado; Mendes, Bianca Evanita Pimenta

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of honey of Africanized bees (Apis mellifera) and stingless bees (Melipona fasciculata), produced under the same flowering conditions, in municipalities of Baixada Maranhese, Brazil, against strains of pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. In each municipality, the apiary and meliponario were less than 150 meters away from each other. The Kirby-Bauer method, and the diffusion technique of the agar plate through the extension of the inhibition in millimeters were used. The test results were negative for all samples, which did not demonstrate antimicrobial activity in any of the microorganisms tested.

  8. Imidacloprid-induced impairment of mushroom bodies and behavior of the native stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides.

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    Hudson Vaner V Tomé

    Full Text Available Declines in pollinator colonies represent a worldwide concern. The widespread use of agricultural pesticides is recognized as a potential cause of these declines. Previous studies have examined the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides such as imidacloprid on pollinator colonies, but these investigations have mainly focused on adult honey bees. Native stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponinae are key pollinators in neotropical areas and are threatened with extinction due to deforestation and pesticide use. Few studies have directly investigated the effects of pesticides on these pollinators. Furthermore, the existing impact studies did not address the issue of larval ingestion of contaminated pollen and nectar, which could potentially have dire consequences for the colony. Here, we assessed the effects of imidacloprid ingestion by stingless bee larvae on their survival, development, neuromorphology and adult walking behavior. Increasing doses of imidacloprid were added to the diet provided to individual worker larvae of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides throughout their development. Survival rates above 50% were only observed at insecticide doses lower than 0.0056 µg active ingredient (a.i./bee. No sublethal effect on body mass or developmental time was observed in the surviving insects, but the pesticide treatment negatively affected the development of mushroom bodies in the brain and impaired the walking behavior of newly emerged adult workers. Therefore, stingless bee larvae are particularly susceptible to imidacloprid, as it caused both high mortality and sublethal effects that impaired brain development and compromised mobility at the young adult stage. These findings demonstrate the lethal effects of imidacloprid on native stingless bees and provide evidence of novel serious sublethal effects that may compromise colony survival. The ecological and economic importance of neotropical stingless bees as pollinators

  9. Chemical composition, botanical evaluation and screening of radical scavenging activity of collected pollen by the stingless bees Melipona rufiventris (Uruçu-amarela

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    Tania M.S. Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bees in Brazil are indigenous and found all over the country. Bee pollen is used for its nutritional value in the human diet. It is made up of natural flower pollen mixed with nectar and bee secretions. In order to evaluate the chemical composition, free radical scavenging activity, and botanical origin, sample of pollen loads from stingless bee, Melipona rufiventris (Uruçu amarela was studied. The EtOAc extract of pollen of Melipona rufiventris yielded the following compounds: p-hydroxycinnamic acid, dihydroquercetin, isorhamnetin, isorhamnetin3-O-(6"-O-E-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin, and quercetin. This is the first report of the isolation of isorhamnetin3-O-(6"O-E-p-coumaroylβ-D-glucopyranoside from pollen. The free radicalscavenging activities of different solvent extracts of pollen were determined using DPPH assay. This activity decreases in the order: EtOAc>EtOH>Hexane extract. It appears that the EtOAc extract of the pollen is a good scavenger of active oxygen species. The botanical evaluation of pollen loads showed the composition by two pollen types, with the dominant type (97.3% being Scopariadulcis (L. (Scrophulariaceae and the minor one Senna obtusifolia (L. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae. This suggests a specific foraging behavior in Melipona rufiventris bees, even in an environment with such a rich botanical diversity as the Northeastern Brazil.As abelhas sem ferrão são espécies indígenas encontradas em todo o Brasil. Seu pólen é utilizado devido ao seu valor nutricional na dieta humana. É produzido a partir de pólen floral misturado com néctar e líquidos secretados pelas abelhas. Visando avaliar a composição química, a atividade sequestradora de radicais livres e a origem botânica foi estudado o pólencoletado pela abelha sem ferrão Melipona rufiventris (Uruçu-amarela. Do extrato acetato de etila foram isolados os compostos: ácido phidroxicinâmico, dihidroquercetina, isoramnetina, 3O(6

  10. Correlação entre parâmetros biométricos e produtivos em colônias de Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Faquinello, Patricia; Brito, Baden Bell Pereira; Carvalho, Carlos Alfredo Lopes de; Paula-Leite, Meiby Carneiro de; Alves, Rogerio Marcos de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Em colônias de melíponas, características biométricas podem estar associadas às características de produção; portanto, o estudo da correlação é de grande valia como ferramenta para o processo de seleção de colônias. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar as correlações entre os parâmetros biométricos e produtivos de Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides. Foram analisadas 128 colônias, provenientes de 60 colônias parentais e duas gerações, F1 e F2. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: peso da rainha e...

  11. CORRELAÇÃO ENTRE PARÂMETROS BIOMÉTRICOS E PRODUTIVOS EM COLÔNIAS DE Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides LEPELETIER (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Faquinello; Baden Bell Pereira Brito; Carlos Alfredo Lopes de Carvalho; Meiby Carneiro de Paula-Leite; Rogerio Marcos de Oliveira Alves

    2013-01-01

    Em colônias de melíponas, características biométricas podem estar associadas às características de produção; portanto, o estudo da correlação é de grande valia como ferramenta para o processo de seleção de colônias. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar as correlações entre os parâmetros biométricos e produtivos de Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides. Foram analisadas 128 colônias, provenientes de 60 colônias parentais e duas gerações, F1 e F2. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: peso da rainha e...

  12. Distribuição geográfica, filogeografia e história evolutiva da abelha sem ferrão Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

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    Batalha Filho, Henrique

    2008-01-01

    A abelha Melipona quadrifasciata, conhecida popularmente como mandaçaia, apresenta duas subespécies: M. q. anthidioides e M. q. quadrifasciata. A principal diferença entre as subespécies são as faixas tergais amarelas, que são contínuas em M. q. quadrifasciata e descontínuas em M. q. anthidioides. A correlação entre a distribuição geográfica e a coloração metassomal e os sítios de restrição do DNA mitocondrial foi caracterizado de ambos morfotipos de M. quadrifasciata, como determinado pelos ...

  13. Avaliação farmacognóstica de geoprópolis de Melipona fasciculata Smith da Baixada maranhense, Brasil

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    Richard Pereira Dutra

    Full Text Available Melipona fasciculata Smith é uma abelha nativa, social e sem ferrão que produz cera, mel e geoprópolis. O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar, do ponto de vista farmacognóstico, o geoprópolis de Melipona fasciculata, coletado em meliponários nos municípios de Arari, São Bento e São João Batista, da Baixada maranhense, no Estado do Maranhão, visando estabelecer dados para o controle de qualidade e padronização do produto. A metodologia utilizada constou de análises sensoriais, abordagem química, perfis cromatográficos e determinação dos teores de flavonóides. Os resultados demonstram que o geoprópolis apresenta características sensoriais similares às encontradas para própolis de Apis mellifera, presença de compostos fenólicos em maior concentração, além de substâncias da classe dos terpenos e saponinas e ausência de alcalóides. Os perfis cromatográficos indicaram que a composição e concentração das substâncias químicas são diferentes entre as amostras. Os teores de flavonóides variaram de 0,17 - 2,6%, os quais para a maioria das amostras apresentaram valores acima do mínimo exigido pela legislação brasileira para própolis de Apis mellifera. Os dados encontrados sugerem que as variações qualitativa e quantitativa de flavonóides e outros constituintes químicos no geoprópolis são fortemente afetados pela flora visitada pelas abelhas, região geográfica e fatores ambientais.

  14. Efeitos da aplicação tópica do mel de Melipona subnitida em feridas infectadas de ratos

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    Diego Felipe Sampaio Alves

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar efeitos do uso tópico do mel da abelha silvestre Melipona subnitida na evolução de feridas infectadas de pele. MÉTODO: Ratos Wistar foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em grupos de 6, anestesiados com tiopental sódico 20mg/Kg IP e cetamina 30mg/Kg IM e submetidos a exérese de segmento de 1 cm² de pele total do dorso. Os ratos do grupo C (não infectado foram tratados com solução salina sobre a ferida diariamente e no grupo MEL (não infectado as feridas foram tratadas com mel uma vez por dia. Nos grupos C/I e MEL/I as feridas foram inoculadas com solução polimicrobiana. Culturas foram feitas 24 horas após. Caracterizada a infecção, as feridas foram tratadas com solução salina e mel, respectivamente. No terceiro dia de tratamento foi feita nova cultura. Após epitelização foi contado o tempo de cicatrização e as feridas foram biopsiadas para histopatologia e dosagem de TNF-α, IL-1β e IL-6 no tecido. RESULTADOS: O tempo médio de cicatrização do grupo MEL/I foi menor que nos demais grupos (P<0,05. Verificou-se que a densidade de colágeno, leucócitos, fibroblastos e dosagem de citocinas (especialmente TNF foi maior no grupo infectado e tratado com mel que nos demais grupos. Houve significante redução de bactérias Gram-negativas e positivas nas feridas após o tratamento com mel. CONCLUSÃO: O uso tópico de mel de Melipona subnitida em feridas infectadas da pele de ratos estimulou a resposta imunológica, reduziu a infecção e o tempo de cicatrização.

  15. Adaptação e comportamento de pastejo da abelha jandaíra (Melipona subnitida Ducke em ambiente protegido - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1777 Adaptation and foraging behavior of the stingless bee (Melipona subnitida Ducke in a caged environment - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1777

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    Eva Mônica Sarmento da Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A influência do ambiente protegido no comportamento de pastejo da abelha sem ferrão jandaíra (Melipona subnitida Ducke foi estudada no Estado do Ceará, região Nordeste do Brasil. Foram investigados aspectos como comportamento, adaptação das abelhas à casa de vegetação e o padrão diário de forrageamento destas na cultura do pimentão (Capsicum annuum L., cultivada em ambiente protegido. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente por meio de análise de variância, com médias comparadas a posteriori, pelo teste de Tukey. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que M. subnitida Ducke adapta-se bem ao uso em casa de vegetação e realiza vôos de forrageamento durante todo o dia, podendo ser utilizada para polinização de culturas agrícolas, sob cultivo protegido.The effect of caged environment on the foraging behavior of the stingless bee Melipona subnitida Ducke was studied in the state of Ceará, NE Brazil. Species adaptation to enclosures, foraging behavioral aspects and daily foraging pattern were investigated in a greenhouse sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. crop. Data were analyzed by Anova and means were compared a posteriori using Tukey test. The results showed that M. subnitida Ducke adapts well to greenhouses and forages throughout the day. It may be concluded that this bee species can be used for crop pollination in protected environments.

  16. Insights into the role of age and social interactions on the sexual attractiveness of queens in an eusocial bee, Melipona flavolineata (Apidae, Meliponini)

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    Veiga, Jamille Costa; Menezes, Cristiano; Contrera, Felipe Andrés León

    2017-04-01

    The attraction of sexual partners is a vital necessity among insects, and it involves conflict of interests and complex communication systems among male and female. In this study, we investigated the developing of sexual attractiveness in virgin queens (i.e., gynes) of Melipona flavolineata, an eusocial stingless bee. We followed the development of sexual attractiveness in 64 gynes, belonging to seven age classes (0, 3, 6, 9, 15, 18 days post-emergence), and we also evaluated the effect of different social interactions (such as competition between queens and interactions with workers) on the development of attractiveness in other 60 gynes. We used the number of males that tried to mate with a focal gyne as a representative variable of its sexual attractiveness. During the essays, each gyne was individually presented to 10 sexually mature males, and during 3 min, we counted the number of males that everted their genitalia in response to the presence of a gyne. Here, we show that M. flavolineata gynes are capable to (i) maintain their sexual attractiveness for long periods through adult life, (ii) they need a minimum social interaction to trigger the development of sexual attractiveness, and (iii) that gynes express this trait only within a social context. We conclude that the effective occurrence of matings is conditional on potential social interactions that gynes experienced before taking the nuptial flight, when they are still in the nest. These findings bring insights into the factors determining reproductive success in social insects.

  17. Natural factors and antropics and their relationship with the density of colonies of Melipona beecheii in five vegetable formations of the valley San Andres

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    Katiuska Ravelo Pimentel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is evaluated the influence of natural factors and antropics on the density of colonies of Melipona beecheii in forest five vegetable formations of the solid one of the valley San Andrés, through surveys to residents and workers of the area, as well as the observations and samplings carried out in the studied vegetable formations. The following factors were studied: rocosity, vegetable covering, flourished plants, height of the entrance hole and the man's activity; being determined that the density of beehives has been affected fundamentally by factors antropics, having this its biggest incidence in the gallery forests, being this the most affected one. The pruning of trees, the naturalness of the forests and their access affect the population's conservation considerably under natural conditions, what demonstrates that this it is the main factor that locates in extirpation danger to the species in the study area. In turn the density of colonies keeps direct relationship with the other analyzed factors, since the same ones depend on the trees for the location of its nests, of the time in that the plants flourish for its feeding and of the holes found in the rocks, so much for the making of its colonies like it stops its establishment and reproduction.

  18. Transcript levels of ten caste-related genes in adult diploid males of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae: a comparison with haploid males, queens and workers

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    Andreia A. Borges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Hymenoptera, homozygosity at the sex locus results in the production of diploid males. In social species, these pose a double burden by having low fitness and drawing resources normally spent for increasing the work force of a colony. Yet, diploid males are of academic interest as they can elucidate effects of ploidy (normal males are haploid, whereas the female castes, the queens and workers, are diploid on morphology and life history. Herein we investigated expression levels of ten caste-related genes in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, comparing newly emerged and 5-day-old diploid males with haploid males, queens and workers. In diploid males, transcript levels for dunce and paramyosin were increased during the first five days of adult life, while those for diacylglycerol kinase and the transcriptional co-repressor groucho diminished. Two general trends were apparent, (i gene expression patterns in diploid males were overall more similar to haploid ones and workers than to queens, and (ii in queens and workers, more genes were up-regulated after emergence until day five, whereas in diploid and especially so in haploid males more genes were down-regulated. This difference between the sexes may be related to longevity, which is much longer in females than in males.

  19. Evidence of at least two evolutionary lineages in Melipona subnitida (Apidae, Meliponini) suggested by mtDNA variability and geometric morphometrics of forewings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatti, Vanessa; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Franco, Fernando Faria; Francoy, Tiago Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Melipona subnitida, a tropical stingless bee, is an endemic species of the Brazilian northeast and exhibits great potential for honey and pollen production in addition to its role as one of the main pollinators of the Caatinga biome. To understand the genetic structure and better assist in the conservation of this species, we characterized the population variability of M. subnitida using geometric morphometrics of the forewing and cytochrome c oxidase I gene fragment sequencing. We collected workers from six localities in the northernmost distribution. Both methodologies indicated that the variability among the sampled populations is related both to the environment in which samples were collected and the geographical distance between the sampling sites, indicating that differentiation among the populations is due to the existence of at least evolutionary lineages. Molecular clock data suggest that this differentiation may have begun in the middle Pleistocene, approximately 396 kya. The conservation of all evolutionary lineages is important since they can present differential resistance to environmental changes, as resistance to drought and diseases.

  20. Digestive and regenerative cells in the midgut of haploid and diploid males of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Kenner M. Fernandes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In eusocial bees, workers and queens are diploid (2n, whereas males are haploid (n. However, in some species, including the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier, 1836, 2n males arise from fertilized eggs resulting from the crossing between a queen and her brother. In the present study, we provide a comparative analysis of the digestive and regenerative cells in n and 2n pupae and adult males of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides. In n and 2n pupae and adult males, the number of regenerative cells/nest was similar. In n and 2n pupae, the mean number of digestive cells/midgut area was 2076 ± 0.60, whereas in adults it was 1234 ± 1.42 digestive cells/midgut area. The nuclear area of the digestive cells was also similar in both n and 2n adult males (~154 µm² and smaller in pupae (~91 µm²; this variation might be a result of DNA amplification in digestive cells during bee development. The results from our current study provide further understanding of the morphological and physiological aspects of the digestive tract of bees and show that the ploidy difference between n and 2n male stages does not affect the number of digestive and regenerative cells in the midgut of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides.

  1. Foraging behavior, environmental parameters and nests development of Melipona colimana Ayala (Hymenoptera: Meliponini in temperate climate of Jalisco, México

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    J. O. Macías-Macías

    Full Text Available Abstract Melipona colimana Ayala is an endemic species inhabiting temperate forests of pine and oak of south of Jalisco in Mexico. During a year, it was recorded every 15 days foraging activity, environmental parameters and the development of colonies of M. colimana in its wild habitat. For five minutes every hour from 7:00 to 21:00, the bees that entered and left the hive and bringing pollen and resin were registered. Every hour the relative humidity, temperature, wind speed and light intensity was recorded and related to foraging activity. Additionally, the weight of the colonies recently transferred to wooden boxes, the number of brood combs, honey pots and pollen were registered. The time of beginning and ending of the foraging activity differs from the reports of stingless bees of tropical weather and the same happens with the pollen collection. The environmental parameters that affect other tropical stingless bees in the foraging activity also affect M. colimana in temperate climate. It was determined that the major activity season and the presence of more pollen pots in the colony is from November through February, for what it could be the best time of the year for the division and obtainance of new colonies, while the critical period of minor activity and pollen flow was during rainy season. These data may be useful for the future sustainable use of this species in temperate climate.

  2. Pollen analysis of the post-emergence residue of Melipona (Melikerria interrupta Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae bred in the central Amazon region

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    Marcos Gonçalves Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We applied an "adapted" protocol for collecting and processing pollen grains in the pollen analysis of the post-emergence residue of Melipona (Melikerria interrupta Latreille. The study was conducted at the Sant'Ana honey farm, located on the banks of the Solimões River, in the municipality of Manacapuru, in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, where a colony was monitored in October and November 2010. From that colony, 10 samples of post-emergence residue were collected. Unlike in the acetolysis method, there was no need to expose pollen grains to an acidic medium, because pollen loses its content during the larval digestive process. We identified 32 pollen types, from 19 botanical families, plus three undetermined pollen types. The most representative family was Fabaceae (Mimosoideae, with eight pollen types, Mimosa guilandinae being the most common species. Only the pollen of Miconia (Melastomataceae, with 74.10%, was classified as a common pollen. We also found that the pollen of Mimosa pudica (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae retained its content, indicating that not all resources furnished by workers are utilized by the larvae. The protocol applied here, despite omitting the acetolysis process, was efficient, providing full details of pollen contained in post-emergence residue.

  3. Espectro polínico de amostras de mel de Melipona mandacaia Smith, 1863 (Hymenoptera: Apidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i1.1061 Pollen spectrum from honey samples of Melipona mandacaia Smith, 1863 stingless bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i1.1061

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    Carlos Afredo Lopes de Carvalho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O espectro polínico de amostras de mel da abelha Melipona mandacaia foi analisado com objetivo de elucidar os recursos alimentares utilizados por essa espécie. A identificação das plantas visitadas foi realizada com base na análise dos tipos polínicos encontrados nas amostras de mel coletadas em 11 colônias localizadas no município de São Gabriel, em área de caatinga do Estado da Bahia, Brasil (11º14’S e 41º52’W. As análises quantitativas e qualitativas foram realizadas com o objetivo de determinar as porcentagens e classes de freqüência dos tipos polínicos presentes nas amostras de mel. Foram encontrados 26 tipos polínicos, sendo o tipo Piptadenia rigida (Mimosaceae considerado dominante. Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, Mimosa verrucata (Mimosaceae e M. arenosa (Mimosaceae foram considerados pólen isolado importante. As famílias mais representativas no espectro polínico das amostras de mel foram Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae e AnacardiaceaeThe pollen spectrum from honey samples of Melipona mandacaia stingless bee was analyzed aiming at elucidating the alimentary resources used by that species. The identification of the visited plants was based on the analysis of pollen from honey samples collected in 11 hives located in São Gabriel county, in the semiarid area of Bahia State, Brazil (11º14’S and 41º52’W. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of honey samples were conducted in order to determine the pollen types percentages and frequency classes. Twenty-six pollen types were found, being the Piptadenia rigida type (Mimosaceae considered dominant. Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, Mimosa verrucata (Mimosaceae and M. arenosa (Mimosaceae were considered important isolated pollen. The most representative families found in the pollen spectrum of the honey samples were Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae and Anacardiaceae

  4. Temporal Variation in Honey Production by the Stingless Bee Melipona subnitida (Hymenoptera: Apidae): Long-Term Management Reveals its Potential as a Commercial Species in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffler, Sheina; Menezes, Cristiano; Menezes, Paulo Roberto; Kleinert, Astrid de Matos Peixoto; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia; Pope, Nathaniel; Jaffé, Rodolfo

    2015-06-01

    Even though stingless beekeeping has a great potential as a sustainable development tool, the activity remains essentially informal, technical knowledge is scarce, and management practices lack the sophistication and standardization found in apiculture. Here, we contributed to the further development of stingless beekeeping by investigating the long-term impact of management and climate on honey production and colony survival in the stingless bee Melipona subnitida Ducke (1910). We analyzed a 10-yr record of 155 M. subnitida colonies kept by a commercial honey producer of northeastern Brazil. This constitutes the longest and most accurate record available for a stingless bee. We modeled honey production in relation to time (years), age, management practices (colony division and food supplementation), and climatic factors (temperature and precipitation), and used a model selection approach to identify which factors best explained honey production. We also modeled colony mortality in relation to climatic factors. Although the amount of honey produced by each colony decreased over time, we found that the probability of producing honey increased over the years. Colony divisions decreased honey production, but did not affect honey presence, while supplementary feeding positively affected honey production. In warmer years, the probability of producing honey decreased and the amount of honey produced was lower. In years with lower precipitation, fewer colonies produced honey. In contrast, colony mortality was not affected by climatic factors, and some colonies lived up to nine years, enduring extreme climatic conditions. Our findings provide useful guidelines to improve management and honey production in stingless bees. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Caracterización físico-química y organoléptica de miel de Melipona beecheii obtenida en sistemas agroforestales

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    Leydi Fonte

    Full Text Available La investigación se realizó en la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes "Indio Hatuey", con el objetivo de determinar las características organolépticas y físico-químicas de la miel producida por Melipona beecheii. Para la extracción y el envasado de la miel se utilizaron jeringuillas estériles y frascos secos esterilizados, debidamente etiquetados. Después, se detectó en la muestra la presencia de granos de polen pertenecientes a Gliricidia sepium, y se realizó un análisis sensorial y físico-químico basado en los siguientes indicadores: aspecto, color, olor, sabor, textura, humedad (g/100 g, acidez libre (meq/100 g, pH y sólidos solubles (g/100 g = %. Además, se realizaron determinaciones cromatográficas de los azúcares presentes. Los valores de pH estuvieron alrededor de 3,6; la acidez libre fue de 35,0 meq/100 g, y la humedad, de 24 %. Por su parte, el análisis sensorial estuvo acorde con las especificaciones de calidad recomendadas en la norma de calidad cubana, ya que la miel no presentó ningún sabor, aroma o color desagradables. Se concluye que la miel de M. beecheii presentó una excelente calidad, al no sufrir ningún proceso de degradación aparente; por ello se puede considerar como una miel fresca, lo que constituye un requisito clave para cualquier alimento destinado al consumo humano.

  6. Parâmetros genéticos para características produtivas e biométricas em abelha Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides LEPELETIER

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    K.N. Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estimar componentes de variância genética aditiva, fenotípica e residual e a herdabilidade para características relacionadas com a produção de mel e com a estrutura do ninho de abelhas Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides. Sessenta colônias de diferentes regiões da Bahia foram transladadas para caixas padronizadas modelo INPA e divididas, originando as gerações parentais G1 e G2. Foram medidas as características: estimativa da produção de mel; número, largura, volume e altura dos potes de mel; número, altura e diâmetro dos potes de pólen; peso; número, largura e diâmetro dos discos de cria e estimativa da população da colônia. As medidas foram corrigidas para o efeito fixo de mês de mensuração. Os componentes de variância e herdabilidade foram estimados por meio do método de semelhança entre parentes, utilizando-se abordagem Bayesiana. As médias e os desvios padrão variaram de 2,01±0,70cm para diâmetro de potes de pólen a 2.333,0±384,1kg para o peso das caixas. Houve indicação de convergência para todas as cadeias obtidas. As estimativas de variância genética aditiva variaram de 0,02cm para as características largura dos potes de mel a 38.587,72kg para o peso. Para as estimativas de variâncias fenotípicas, os valores variaram de 0,05 para a altura dos potes de pólen a 95.136,43kg para o peso; e para as variâncias residuais, os valores encontrados variaram de 0,02 para a variável largura dos potes de mel a 56.548,71kg para o peso. As estimativas de herdabilidade variaram de 0,35 a 0,53. Os resultados demonstraram que as características avaliadas possuem variação genética aditiva que garante boa resposta à seleção.

  7. Number of malpighian tubules in larvae and adults of stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Costa, K; Kerr, W E; Carvalho-Zilse, G A

    2012-02-01

    The number of Malpighian tubules in larvae and adults of bees is variable. Larvae of Apis mellifera L. have four Malpighian tubules, while adults have 100 tubules. In stingless bees, this number varies from four to eight. The objectives of this study were to provide characteristics of the Malpighian tubules as well as to quantify their number in larvae and adults of six species of Meliponinae, Melipona seminigra merrillae Cockerell, Melipona compressipes manaosensis Schwarz, Melipona rufiventris Lepeletier, Scaptotrigona Moure, Frieseomelitta Ihering, and Trigona williana Friese. Malpighian tubules were dissected from larvae and adults, measured, quantified, and maintained in microtubes with Dietrich's solution. The numbers of Malpighian tubules were constant only for larvae of M. rufiventris (four and eight) and Scaptotrigona sp. (four). The most frequent number of tubules in the Melipona group was seven and eight in larvae, and 70 and 90 in adults. In the Trigona group were four and 20 to 40, for larvae and adults, respectively. The results showed differences in the number of Malpighian tubules among the species analyzed and also between the larvae and adults of the same species. Despite the variation observed, species of the group Melipona always have a larger number and longer Malpighian tubules in both larvae and adults as compared to the Trigona group, which may indicate an evolutionary trend of differentiation between these groups.

  8. Atividade antiviral e virucida de extratos hidroalcoólicos de própolis marrom, verde e de abelhas Jataí (Tetragonisca angustula frente ao herpersvírus bovino tipo 1 (BoHV-1 e ao vírus da diarreia viral bovina (BVDV

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    Cristina Mendes Peter

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Dentre as propriedades biológicas da própolis, a atividade antimicrobiana tem merecido destacada atenção. No presente trabalho, descreve-se a ação antiviral e virucida de três extratos hidroalcoólicos de própolis (marrom, verde e de abelhas jataí (Tetragonisca angustula, frente ao Herpesvírus Bovino tipo (BoHV-1 e ao Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina (BVDV. Os três extratos hidroalcoólicos foram obtidos de extração etanólica e são oriundos do sul do Brasil. A composição química dos extratos de própolis foi determinada pela cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência acoplada a espectrômetro de massas (UFLC-PDA-ESI-TOF/MS que identificou e quantificou compostos como: ácido cafeico e ácido p-cumárico, ácido clorogênico, ácido ferúlico, além de flavonoides como a rutina. A toxicidade celular bem como a atividade antiviral dos extratos de própolis em monocamadas de células MDBK (Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney foi avaliada através de observação microscópica e quantificada pelo teste de MTT (3-(4,5 dimetiltiazol-2yl-2-5-difenil-2H tetrazolato de bromo. O extrato de própolis de abelhas jataí demonstrou ser menos citotóxico (1,57μg/mL, quando comparado aos extratos verde (0,78μg/mL e marrom (0,39μg/mL. Quanto a atividade antiviral, a própolis verde demostrou maior eficácia em ambos os tratamentos celulares (pós e pré-exposição frente ao BoHV-1 em relação aos outros extratos, ou seja, houve maior viabilidade celular quando comparada aos controles de células e vírus. Já a de jataí apresentou atividade frente aos dois vírus (BoHV-1 e BVDV no método pré-infecção, enquanto a própolis marrom demonstrou ação apenas frente ao BoHV-1 também no método pré-infecção. Para determinação da atividade virucida foram utilizadas diferentes diluições dos vírus, bem como temperaturas e tempos distintos de incubação. A própolis verde a 37°C propiciou a maior redução no título viral (4,33log em

  9. Estudio palinológico de las reservas alimentarias (miel y masas de polen) de abejas nativas sin aguijón (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) : un aporte al conocimiento de la interacción abeja-planta en el Chaco Seco de Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Vossler, Favio Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo abordar la interacción entre las plantas proveedoras de recursos florales y tres especies de abejas nativas de la tribu Meliponini a través del estudio palinológico de la miel y masas polínicas almacenadas en los nidos. Las especies de abejas seleccionadas fueron Tetragonisca fiebrigi, Melipona orbignyi y Geotrigona argentina. Para llevar a cabo este estudio, se tomaron muestras de reservas alimentarias (miel y masas de polen) de nidos proveni...

  10. Atividade antimicrobiana de méis de cinco espécies de abelhas brasileiras sem ferrão Antimicrobial activity of honey from five species of Brazilian stingless bees

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    Manuela Dória Mercês

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A atividade antimicrobiana de méis produzidos por Melipona asilvai, Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides, Friseomelita doederleinei, Tetragonisca angustula e Plebeia sp. foi investigada. O teste de difusão em poço demonstrou que todos os méis tem ação antibacteriana frente a Staphylococcus aureus, mas somente as amostras produzidas por M. quadrifasciata anthidioides e F. doederleinei inibiram o crescimento de Escherichia coli. No ensaio de determinação da concentração inibitória mínima, os méis de M. asilvai, M. quadrifasciata anthidioides, F. doederleinei e T. angustula foram mais ativos que os de Plebeia sp. frente a S. aureus e E. coli. Os micro-organismos Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Candida albicans foram resistentes a todos os méis em ambos ensaios. Os méis foram mais efetivos contra as bactérias do que frente a uma solução de açúcar, sugerindo que o mecanismo de inibição do crescimento bacteriano não está somente relacionado ao efeito osmótico. Os resultados obtidos podem explicar o uso medicinal desses méis em doenças bacterianas.The antimicrobial activity of honey produced by Melipona asilvai, Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides, Friseomelita doederleinei, Tetragonisca angustula and Plebeia sp. were investigated. The agar well diffusion assay demonstrated that all honeys had antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, but only the samples from M. quadrifasciata anthidioides and F. doederleinei inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli. In the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration determination assay, M. asilvai, M. quadrifasciata anthidioides, F. doederleinei and T. angustula honeys were more active than that from Plebeia sp. for S. aureus and E. coli. The microorganisms Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were resistant to the all native stingless bee honeys in both assays. Honeys were more effective against bacteria than a sugar solution, suggesting that the mechanism for bacterial growth inhibition

  11. Abelhas (Hymenoptera: apoidea visitantes das flores de goiaba em pomar comercial in Salinas, MG Bee diversity in a commercial guava orchard in Salinas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Rosemeire Alves Guimarães

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As abelhas são responsáveis por cerca de 80% a 100% da polinização de culturas agrícolas, especialmente aquelas relacionadas com a produção de sementes e frutos. A investigação da diversidade de abelhas em pomares de goiaba pode ser subsídio para estratégias de incremento da produtividade. Nesta perspectiva, o objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a diversidade de abelhas visitantes das flores de goiaba (Psidium guajava, em pomar comercial em Salinas (MG. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em maio de 2005 e foram coletadas as abelhas visitantes das flores nos horários entre 6h e 18h, totalizando-se 44 horas de coleta. Coletaram-se 705 abelhas de 17 espécies, sendo Trigona spinipes a mais freqüente e dominante na cultura da goiaba. Apis mellifera, Melipona quadrifasciata e Tetragonisca angustula foram consideradas acessórias. Aproximadamente 84% dos indivíduos foram coletados da manhã, de 6h às 10h.Pollination is an important factor in agricultural systems, especially in growing fruits and seed production, which depend greatly on bee visiting during blossom season; highly successful gains within these activities varies between 80 and nearly 100 per cent, owing to the bees. The assessment of bee diversity in commercial orchards of guava may contribute to a more desirable strategic design and consequent improvement of production. The aim of the study was identify the diversity of visiting bees to guava flowers (Psidium guajava in a commercial orchard in Salinas, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The work was carried during blossom season of May - 2005. Field works occurred between 6:00 am to 6:00 pm, counting with 44 hours of collection, when 705 bees were collected. The richness observed was of 17 species, the most frequent and dominant being Trigona spinipes. Among the collection there were some considered accessory species: Apis mellifera, Melipona quadrifasciata and Tetragonisca angustula. Most of individual bees have been captured

  12. Diversity of Stingless Bees (Hymenoptera:Meliponini) Used in Meliponiculture in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nates Parra, Guiomar; Rosso Londono, Juan Manuel

    2013-01-01

    There are close to 120 species of native stingless bees in Colombia, many of them with important uses and meanings for diverse social and cultural groups. The stingless beekeeping (meliponiculture) is an activity in process of growth and technification in Latin America and other regions, but there are a little information about their characteristics and development in Colombia. Through information collected by interviews to 75 stingless beekeepers of 16 departments of Colombia, 25 species of stingless bees were identified, grouped in 12 genera. Approximately nine more uncertain species were also found, four new records for the country are presented, and geographical distribution, urban beekeeping and vernacular names reported. The characteristics of most common cultivated genera (Tetragonisca, Melipona, Paratrigona, Scaptotrigona and Nannotrigona) are presented, and the importance of the link between biological and cultural diversity revealed in vernacular names, are discussed. Facing a growing of meliponiculture in the world, some research needs and risks for the conservation and management of the diversity of stingless bees and related knowledge are remarked.

  13. Flight activity and responses to climatic conditions of two subspecies of Melipona marginata Lepeletier (Apidae, Meliponinae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinert-Giovannini, A.; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V.L.

    1986-01-01

    The flight activity of two colonies of M. m. marginata and six colonies of M. m. obscurior was studied in Sao Paulo, Brazil during three periods in 1981-1983. All colonies were hived except for one colony of M. m. obscurior which nested in a hollow tree. The two subspecies showed the same responses to the climatic factors analyzed. Flight activity was correlated positively with temperature and negatively with RH. In favorable conditions foraging took place throughout the day but both species were most active between 11 and 13 h. In the last observation period (October 1982-January 1983), when only two obscurior colonies were studied, flight activity was not correlated to RH, occurring even when RH was unfavorably high. This was a very rainy season, and it is suggested that the behavior of the bees indicates a flexible response to prevailing weather conditions.

  14. Ultrastructure of the midgut endocrine cells in Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    C. A. Neves

    Full Text Available In this study we describe the ultrastructure of the endocrine cells observed in the midgut of M. quadrifasciata anthidioides. This bee has two types of endocrine cells, which are numerous on the posterior midgut region. Cells of the closed type are smaller and have irregular secretory granules with lower electrondensity than those of the open cell type. The open cell type has elongated mitochondria mainly on the basal area, where most of the secretory granules are also found. Besides the secretion granules and mitochondria, endocrine cells in this species have well-developed autophagic vacuoles and Golgi complex elements.

  15. Antagonism of Apis mellifera and Melipona beecheii for the sources of feeding

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    Ailyn Leal-Ramos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The competition is defined as the interrelation among species that influence negatively in the abundance or the growth of the population of an or both species. They can be defined two competition types: competition of exploitation for the use of a resource shared as the food and the competition by interference when decreases the efficiency of exploitation of another species for the competition for the territory. With the objective of determining the possible antagonism of A. mellifera and M. beecheii for the source of pollen, the origin of the pollen stored in the reservations of foods of the beehives of A. mellifera and M. beecheii through palinologic analysis carried out to samples of pollen of both species of bees settled down. The diversity of pollen found in the samples is superior in A. mellifera with regard to M. beecheii being Mimosa pudica and Mimosa pigra the identified species with a high frequency. On the other hand, 71,4% of the vegetable identified species coincides in the pollen found in the samples of A. mellifera and M. beecheii, being a half similarity among the grains of pollen of the beehives of both species expressed by a coefficient of similarity of Jaccard 0,5219.

  16. Hygienic behaviour in Brazilian stingless bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Al Toufailia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Social insects have many defence mechanisms against pests and pathogens. One of these is hygienic behaviour, which has been studied in detail in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Hygienic honey bee workers remove dead and diseased larvae and pupae from sealed brood cells, thereby reducing disease transfer within the colony. Stingless bees, Meliponini, also rear broods in sealed cells. We investigated hygienic behaviour in three species of Brazilian stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris, Scaptotrigona depilis, Tetragonisca angustula in response to freeze-killed brood. All three species had high mean levels of freeze-killed brood removal after 48 h ∼99% in M. scutellaris, 80% in S. depilis and 62% in T. angustula (N=8 colonies per species; three trials per colony. These levels are greater than in unselected honey bee populations, ∼46%. In S. depilis there was also considerable intercolony variation, ranging from 27% to 100% removal after 2 days. Interestingly, in the S. depilis colony with the slowest removal of freeze-killed brood, 15% of the adult bees emerging from their cells had shrivelled wings indicating a disease or disorder, which is as yet unidentified. Although the gross symptoms resembled the effects of deformed wing virus in the honey bee, this virus was not detected in the samples. When brood comb from the diseased colony was introduced to the other S. depilis colonies, there was a significant negative correlation between freeze-killed brood removal and the emergence of deformed worker bees (P=0.001, and a positive correlation with the cleaning out of brood cells (P=0.0008. This shows that the more hygienic colonies were detecting and removing unhealthy brood prior to adult emergence. Our results indicate that hygienic behaviour may play an important role in colony health in stingless bees. The low levels of disease normally seen in stingless bees may be because they have effective mechanisms of disease management, not because

  17. Hygienic behaviour in Brazilian stingless bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Denise A.; Bento, José M. S.; Marchini, Luis C.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Social insects have many defence mechanisms against pests and pathogens. One of these is hygienic behaviour, which has been studied in detail in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Hygienic honey bee workers remove dead and diseased larvae and pupae from sealed brood cells, thereby reducing disease transfer within the colony. Stingless bees, Meliponini, also rear broods in sealed cells. We investigated hygienic behaviour in three species of Brazilian stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris, Scaptotrigona depilis, Tetragonisca angustula) in response to freeze-killed brood. All three species had high mean levels of freeze-killed brood removal after 48 h ∼99% in M. scutellaris, 80% in S. depilis and 62% in T. angustula (N=8 colonies per species; three trials per colony). These levels are greater than in unselected honey bee populations, ∼46%. In S. depilis there was also considerable intercolony variation, ranging from 27% to 100% removal after 2 days. Interestingly, in the S. depilis colony with the slowest removal of freeze-killed brood, 15% of the adult bees emerging from their cells had shrivelled wings indicating a disease or disorder, which is as yet unidentified. Although the gross symptoms resembled the effects of deformed wing virus in the honey bee, this virus was not detected in the samples. When brood comb from the diseased colony was introduced to the other S. depilis colonies, there was a significant negative correlation between freeze-killed brood removal and the emergence of deformed worker bees (P=0.001), and a positive correlation with the cleaning out of brood cells (P=0.0008). This shows that the more hygienic colonies were detecting and removing unhealthy brood prior to adult emergence. Our results indicate that hygienic behaviour may play an important role in colony health in stingless bees. The low levels of disease normally seen in stingless bees may be because they have effective mechanisms of disease management, not because they lack

  18. DIVERSIDAD DE ABEJAS SIN AGUIJÓN (HYMENOPTERA:MELIPONINI UTILIZADAS EN MELIPONICULTURA EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiomar Nates Parra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia se conoce la existencia de cerca de 120 especies de abejas nativas sin aguijón, muchas de las cuales tienen importantes usos y representaciones para diversos grupos sociales y culturales. A pesar de que su cría y manejo (meliponicultura, es una actividad que viene creciendo y tecnificándose en Latinoamérica y otras regiones del mundo, sus características y desarrollo en Colombia han sido poco documentados. Se presentan los resultados de entrevistas y visitas a 75 personas en 16 departamentos de Colombia, que cultivan 25 especies de abejas sin aguijón, agrupadas en 12 géneros. Se encontraron al menos nueve especies más sin identificación completa, se reportan cuatro nuevos registros para el país y se amplía la distribución para 21 taxones. Se presenta información sobre la distribución regional y altitudinal, el cultivo urbano y las denominaciones locales para las abejas. Se revisan algunas características de los géneros cultivados más comunes (Tetragonisca, Melipona, Paratrigona, Scaptotrigona, y Nannotrigona y se discute la importancia del vínculo entre diversidad biológica y cultural que se manifiesta en los nombres locales reportados. Ante un escenario mundial de expansión de la meliponicultura, se resaltan necesidades de investigación y riesgos para la conservación y manejo de la diversidad de abejas sin aguijón y los conocimientos asociados.

  19. Effect of Three Entomopathogenic Fungi on Three Species of Stingless Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Under Laboratory Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Hernández, R A; Ruíz-Toledo, J; Toledo, J; Sánchez, D

    2016-05-04

    Development of alternative strategies for pest control with reduced effect on beneficial organisms is a priority given the increasing global loss of biodiversity. Biological control with entomopathogenic fungi arises as a viable option to control insect pests. However, few studies have focused on the consequences of using these organisms on pollinators other than the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) or bumble bees (Bombus spp). We evaluated the pathogenicity of commercial formulations of three widely used entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin, Beauveria bassiana Vuillemin, and Isaria fumosorosea (Wize), to three species of stingless bees: Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, Scaptotrigona mexicana Guérin-Meneville, and Melipona beecheii Bennett. Bioassays consisted of exposing groups of bees to the recommended field concentration of each fungus using a microspray tower under laboratory conditions. Susceptibility to fungi varied greatly among species. Isaria fumosorosea (strain Ifu-lu 01) and the two formulations of B. bassiana (Bea-TNK and BotanicGard) caused <30.3% mortality in all bee species. Metarhizium anisopliae (Meta-TNK and strain Ma-lu 01) was highly active against T. angustula (94.2% mortality) and moderately active against M. beecheii (53.0% mortality) and S. mexicana (38.9% mortality). Though our laboratory-derived results suggest a moderate to high impact of these entomopathogenic fungi on stingless bees, further field studies are required to support this finding. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Behavioural data on the production of males by workers in the stingless bee Melipona favosa (Apidae, Meliponinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommeijer, M.J.; Chinh, T.X.; Meeuwsen, F.J.A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Male production was studied in four queenright M. favosa colonies by permanent and long duration observation of egg-laying and subsequent bee emergence. Workers produced males in all colonies; they produced 94.5% of all males.

  1. Aplicabilidade de marcadores microssatélites na análise de resposta de populações de Tetragonisca angustula (Apoidea, Hymenoptera) à heterogeneidade de habitats na costa Atlântica.

    OpenAIRE

    Gurgel, Zafira Evelma da Rocha

    2013-01-01

    1. As abelhas sem ferrão A tribo Meliponini pertence à família Apidae (Apoidea, Hymenoptera) que se destaca como a mais diversificada e com distribuição mais ampla no mundo (Silveira et al., 2002). Das 19 tribos da sub-família Apinae, Meliponini e Apini agrupam as abelhas com comportamento eusocial, o mais alto nível de organização social (Michener, 2000). As abelhas Meliponini apresentam ampla distribuição nos trópicos de todo o mundo (Michener, 2000). A região neotropical contém o mai...

  2. Communities of Social Bees (Apidae: Meliponini) in Trap-Nests: the Spatial Dynamics of Reproduction in an Area of Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M D; Ramalho, M; Monteiro, D

    2014-08-01

    As most stingless bee species depend on preexisting cavities, principally tree hollows, nesting site availability may represent an important restriction in the structuring of their forest communities. The present study examined the spatial dynamics of stingless bee communities in an area of Atlantic Forest by evaluating their swarming to trap-nests. The field work was performed in the Michelin Ecological Reserve (MER) on the southeastern coast of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Seven hundred and twenty trap-nests were distributed within two forest habitats in advanced and initial stages of regeneration. The trap-nests were monitored between September 2009 and March 2011. Twenty-five trap-nests were occupied by five bee species, resulting in a capture ratio of 0.035 swarms/trap (approximately 0.14 swarms/ha), corresponding to 10 swarms/year (0.056 swarms/ha/year). According to previous study at MER, the most abundant species in natural nests were also the most common in trap-nests in the two forest habitats examined, with the exception of Melipona scutellaris Latreille. Swarms of higher numbers of species were captured in initial regeneration stage forests than in advanced regeneration stage areas, and differences in species compositions were significant between both habitats (p = 0.03); these apparent differences were not consistent, however, when considering richness (p = 0.14) and total abundance (p = 0.08). The present study suggests the existence of a minimum cavity size threshold of approximately 1 L for most local species of stingless bees and sustains the hypothesis of a mass effect of Tetragonisca angustula Latreille populations from surrounding disturbed habitats on the MER forest community in terms of propagule (swarm) pressure. Examining swarm densities with trap-nests can be a promising technique for comparative analyses of the carrying capacities of forest habitats for stingless bee colonies, as long as size thresholds of cavities for nesting

  3. Efeito da exclusão dos insetos polinizadores na produção do café Bourbon The effect of the exclusion of pollinating insects on the yield of the bourbon coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Nogueira - Neto

    1959-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente ensaio, realizado com a var. bourbon de Coffea arabica, além de dar informações sôbre a produção dos cafeeiros protegidos dos insetos polinizadores, permitiu também averiguar o comportamento de várias espécies de abelhas e obter outras informações correlatas. Constatou-se, assim, que o néctar da flor é ainda abundante mesmo 24 horas após a antese e que o teor de açúcar do néctar é elevado, da ordem de 38%, em média. Apis mellifera foi a espécie mais freqüentemente encontrada coletando o néctar e o pólen. Em dias chuvosos, muitas das abelhas dessa espécie apenas coletam o pólen. Das abelhas indígenas, somente Plebéia sp. e Nannotrigona (Na. testaceicomis e Melipona quadrifasciata foram encontradas colhendo o pólen. Com tempo bom, as abelhas visitam as flôres do café em grande número, tendo-se notado que A. mellifera ocorre com maior freqüência em horas próximas do meio dia, à temperatura de 30 a 32°C. As abelhas Plebeia sp. e N. (Na. testaceicomis iniciam o vôo mais tarde que a A. mellifera. Em observações realizadas no decurso de 24 horas verificou-se que uma abelha européia trabalhou num território de 13m x 6m, enquanto outras abelhas marcadas não foram vistas novamente. As observações feitas indicaram também que as abelhas grandes, como A. mellifera e Melipona quadrifasciata, são mais eficientes do que as pequenas como polinizadoras do cafeeiro. Em flores mais velhas, com a base da corola já desprendida, encontraram-se as abelhas menores, lambendo diretamente os nectários. As espécies de meliponíneos Plebeia sp., Tetragona (Tetragonisca jaty, N. (Na. testaceicomis e Trigona (Trigona ruficrus, foram vistas muitas vêzes alcançando os nectários através de cortes feitos na base das corolas por Trigona (Trigona hyalinata. Observações adicionais mostraram que as abelhas M. quadrifasciata e Cephalotrigona capitata, bem como A. mellifera, dão preferência as flôres de exemplares

  4. Termorregulação colonial e a influência da temperatura no desenvolvimento da cria em abelhas sem ferrão, Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini)

    OpenAIRE

    Yara Sbrolin Roldão

    2011-01-01

    Uma característica dos insetos sociais, entre elas as abelhas, é o controle da temperatura de seus ninhos. Abelhas sociais são denominadas como animais heterotérmicos, ou seja, são endotérmicas quando realizam atividades motoras (adultas) e ectotérmicas quando apresentam inatividade (cria e abelhas jovens). Essa característica está entrelaçada com o comportamento social. As abelhas melíferas (Apidae; Apini: Apis mellifera) são conhecidas por apresentarem uma temperatura ótima dentro de seus n...

  5. Effects of stingless bee and honey bee propolis on four species of bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    FARNESI, A. P.; AQUINO-FERREIRA, R.; JONG, D. De; BASTOS, J. K.; SOARES, A. E. E.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the antibacterial activities of several types of propolis, including Africanized honey bee green propolis and propolis produced by meliponini bees. The antibacterial activity of green propolis against Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus was superior to that of Melipona quadrifasciata and Scaptotrigona sp propolis. Only two samples of propolis (green propolis and Scaptotrigona sp propolis) were efficient against Escherichia coli. Melipona quadrifasciata propolis was better...

  6. A case of multiple mating in stingless bees (Meliponinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imperatriz-Fonseca, V.L.; Matos, E.T.; Ferreira, F.; Velthuis, H.H.W.

    1998-01-01

    In several stingless bee species many males aggregate in the vicinity of a nest when a virgin queen is present in the colony and is preparing for the nuptial flight. We report such male assemblage for Tetragonisca angustula. The departure of a virgin queen from the colony and the

  7. Characterization of Bioactive Constituents from Honey Produced by Costa Rican Stingless Bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamora Fallas, L.G.

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance created the need for innovations in topical treatments for wound healing. This thesis comprises a series of investigations that allowed Costa Rican Tetragonisca angustula honeys to pass from being a highly regarded traditional medicine to becoming a novel candidate for wound

  8. Phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of amazonian stingless bees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ellen Cristina Costa da; Muniz, Magno Perea; Nunomura, Rita de Cassia Saraiva, E-mail: ellensilva@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Departamento de Produtos Naturais, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Zilse, Gislene Almeida Carvalho [Departamento de Biodiversidade, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of stingless Amazonian bees, Melipona interrupta and Melipona seminigra. The chemical investigation of geopropolis from Melipona interrupta led to the isolation of 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavonone, 3,5,6,7,4'-pentahydroxyflavonol, naringenine-4'-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside and myricetin-3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside. Their structures were assigned based on spectroscopic analyses, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. Antioxidant activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of M. interrupta and M. seminigra were measured using the 1,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. This is also the first work reporting the chemical investigation of stingless bee species from the Amazonian region. (author)

  9. Physico-chemical properties of honeys produced by two stingless ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and sodium (Na) contents were 25.43%, 0.76%, and 12.67% for Trigona carbonaria honey and 26.51%, 1.03% and 11.96% for Melipona beecheii .The fructose, glucose, reducing sugar, higher sugar, sucrose and calorific value contents of Trigona carbonaria honey were 37.25%, 31.64%, ...

  10. Stingless Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini in Oriental Mountains Cementeries from Colombia

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    Guiomar Nates-Parra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In 11 cemeteries of Cundinamarca and Meta (Colombia departments we found 203 nests of stingless bees pertaining to 15 species. The majority of the found nests (61% belong to genus Nannotrigona Cokerell, 1922. Nannotrigona mellaria was the specie with the greater nests number and higher population; Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula was found in all cemeteries, but in a smaller percentage that N. mellaria (29% of the total. In the Tena (Cundinamarca cemetery was found the nest highest density (118 nest/ha, with a tombs occupation percentage of 13.9%. We discussed the importance of cemeteries as an alternative for wild bees nesting sites conservation in urban areas.

  11. Screening for quality indicators and phenolic compounds of biotechnological interest in honey samples from six species of stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Rosane Gomes de OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract Honey from stingless bees of the genus Melipona is a well sought product. Nevertheless lack of legal frameworks for quality assessment complicates the evaluation of food safety and marketing of these products. Seeking to assess the quality of honey from the bees of this genus, physical and chemical analyses, identification of phenolic compounds, and microbiological evaluation from six species of stingless bees was performed. The honey samples showed high reducing sugars, low protein levels and a balanced microbiota. High total phenols and flavonoids and higher antioxidant activity were also recorded. Different phenolic compounds of great biotechnological potential were identified and of these apigenin, kaempferol and luteolin were identified for the first time in honey. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the few works describing a detail characterization of melipona honey together with identification of the phenolic compounds of significant therapeutic value.

  12. Physicochemical characteristics and sensory profile of honey samples from stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponinae) submitted to a dehumidification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Carlos A L; Sodré, Geni S; Fonseca, Antonio A O; Alves, Rogério M O; Souza, Bruno A; Clarton, Lana

    2009-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a dehumidification process on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of stingless-bee honey. Melipona scutellaris and M. quadrifasciata honey samples were submitted to a dehumidification process and to physicochemical (reducing sugars, apparent sucrose, moisture, diastatic activity, hydroxymethylfurfural, ash, pH, acidity, and electric conductivity) and sensory evaluations (fluidity, color, aroma, crystallization,flavor,and acceptability). The results indicated that the dehumidification process does not interfere with honey quality and acceptability.

  13. Produção de cultivares de morangueiro polinizadas pela abelha jataí em ambiente protegido Yield of strawberry cultivars polinized by jatai bees under protected environment

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    Odirce Teixeira Antunes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do morangueiro, tradicionalmente produzida a campo, teve seu sistema de cultivo modificado, sendo hoje produzido também em ambientes protegidos. Essa tecnologia pode, porém, ocasionar a produção de frutos deformados, devido à polinização entomófila insuficiente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade dos frutos de morangueiro em ambiente protegido, utilizando a abelha jataí como agente polinizador. Foram avaliadas quatro cultivares de morangueiro (Oso Grande, Tudla, Chandler e Dover, na ausência e presença de duas e quatro colméias da Tetragonisca angustula (abelha sem ferrão Jataí. Os tratamentos constituíram um fatorial 4 x 3, dispostos em um delineamento completamente casualizado, com sete repetições e 6 plantas úteis por parcela. Os rendimentos obtidos nas cvs. Oso Grande, Tudla e Chandler demonstram que a presença da abelha jataí na polinização em ambiente protegido contribui para o aumento da produtividade. A cv. Dover é a que se mostrou menos dependente de agentes polinizadores. A presença de abelhas eleva a porcentagem de frutos comerciáveis. A recomendação é da utilização de quatro colméias de Tetragonisca angustula para cada 170 m² de área protegida.Strawberry, which used to be typically grown in field conditions, had the growth system changed to be produced under protected environment. However, the harvested fruits in this system may show a certain deformation due to the insects pollination's deficit. In this work the strawberry yield was evaluated under protected cultivation, using stinglees bees (Meliponinae Jatai as a pollination agent. Four strawberry cultivars (Oso Grande, Tudla, Chandler, and Dover were evaluated in the presence of Tetragonisca angustula L. (Jatai bee, using two, four, and no beehives. A completely randomized design in a 4 x 3 factorial scheme with seven replications and six plants per plot was used. The yield of Oso Grande, Tudla, and Chandler cultivars

  14. Ecuadorian honey types described by Kichwa community in Rio Chico, Pastaza province, Ecuador using Free-Choice Profiling

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    Patricia Vit

    Full Text Available Abstract Pastaza is the largest and least populated province in Ecuador, with seven native indigenous nationalities. The Kichwas from the Rio Chico community live near to the capital city Puyo, are recognized for their knowledge on stingless honey bees. From the 400 species of Neotropical Meliponini that make honey in cerumen pots, almost 100 thrive in Southern Ecuador, and confer such biodiversity to pot-honey. In this study sensory characteristics of Ecuadorian false and genuine honeys with diverse entomological origin: Apis mellifera – light amber and amber, Geotrigona leucogastra, Melipona grandis and Scaptotrigona sp. (S. ederi np Schwarz were investigated with Kichwa assessors (four female and four male, aged 18–62 years old. The panel was asked to taste and to identify sensory attributes of honey (appearance, taste, smell, aroma, mouthfeel, other tactile sensations, and to score their intensities in 10 cm unstructured line scales anchored with the words weak and strong, using the Free-Choice Profile methodology The Generalized Procrustes Analysis was used on the data. The first and second dimensions accounted for by 61.1% of the variance. In the descriptive sensory evaluation, darker honeys (amber A. mellifera, false and Geotrigona were separated from (light amber A. mellifera, Melipona and Scaptotrigona by the first dimension; whereas thicker honeys (A. mellifera and false were discriminated from thinner honeys (Geotrigona, Melipona and Scaptotrigona by the second dimension. The assessors were able to evaluate and differentiate honey types without previous sensory training. Remarkably, two Kichwa ladies immediately spit out the false honey, in contrast to an acceptance study on 18-honeys, where the false honey was scored among the preferred ones by 58 participants of the First Congress on Apiculture and Meliponiculture in Ecuador. Therefore, results suggest that Ecuadorian native Kichwas keep a sensory legacy of ancestral knowledge

  15. Utilização de agentes polinizadores na produção de sementes de cenoura e pimenta doce em cultivo protegido Influence of pollinators on seed production and quality of carrot and sweet pepper in a greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warley Marcos Nascimento

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A polinização constitui um processo fundamental para a perpetuação de várias espécies vegetais, e o desenvolvimento dos frutos e das sementes está diretamente relacionado com a polinização das flores. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência de agentes polinizadores na produção e qualidade de sementes de cenoura e de pimenta doce em sistema de cultivo protegido. No ensaio de cenoura utilizaram-se, em telados, os tratamentos de polinização com as abelhas Arapuá (Trigona spinipes, Jataí (Tetragonisca angustula, Tibuna (Nannotrigona (Scaptotrigona bipunctata, moscas (Musca domestica, polinização manual e livre (fora do telado. No ensaio de pimenta doce, utilizaram-se os tratamentos de polinização com as abelhas Arapuá (Trigona spinipes, Jataí (Tetragonisca angustula, Marmelada (Frieseomellita varia, polinização manual e livre (auto fecundação. A utilização de abelhas Jataí e Tibuna apresentou grande potencial para a produção de sementes de cenoura em condições de cultivo protegido. Para a produção de sementes de pimenta doce não há necessidade de utilização de agentes polinizadores, no entanto a presença desses agentes aumenta o peso dos frutos. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes das duas espécies não foi influenciada pelos diferentes tipos de polinização.Pollination is a fundamental process for the perpetuation of various plant species, and the development of fruits and seeds is directly related to the pollination of flowers. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the influence of pollinators on seed production and quality of carrot and sweet pepper under greenhouse conditions. In the carrot study, plants were grown in cages, and the following treatments were used: pollination with Arapuá (Trigona spinipes bees, Jataí (Tetragonisca angustula bees, Tibuna (Nannotrigona (Scaptotrigona bipunctata bees, flies (Musca domestica, hand pollination, and free pollination (outside

  16. Entomofauna visitante de Belamcanda chinensis (L. DC (Iridaceae durante o período de floração Flowering entomofauna Belamcanda chinensis (L. DC. (Iridaceae during flowering time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Jesus Vitali

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the reproductive biology of B. chinensis (L. DC. (Iridaceae was realized comprising floral biology and breeding systems. The floral biology studies included analyses of nectar production, occurence of osmophores, corolla pigments, ultraviolet reflexion and absortion patterns, viability of pollen, pollinators and flower visitors. The breeding systems were studied taking into account the results of manual pollinators tests. B. chinensis is self-compatible bul cross-pollination is more frequent. The effective pollinators are Plebeia droryana (Friese, 1906 (45,7%, Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793 (27,3%, Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811 (9,3%. Others insects visitors are considered nectar and pollen thieves. The flowering begins generally in January and February. The complete reproductive cicle, as here considered, begining with floral bud production ending with development of mature fruits, lasts January to June. Seed dispersion is ornitocoric.

  17. Identification of oxygen containing volatiles in cephalic secretions of workers of Brazilian stingless bees

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    Francke Wittko

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents of cephalic secrections of 11 Brazilian social stingless bee species of the Tetragonisca - Tetragona line have been analysed. By gas chromatography/mass spectrometry 145 compounds could be identified which include 72 esters, 22 alcohols, 16 carboxylic acids, 13 terpenoids, 8 aldehydes, 7 ketones, 4 aromatic compounds, 2 lactones and 1 dihydropyran. Structural relations, origin, and distribution of these compounds are discussed. With respect to qualitative and quantitative composition, each species shows a specific odour pattern which is made up by less specific components. To a certain extent, closely related species show some similarities in the odour bouquets. The mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of typical wax type esters and DMDS derivatives of unsaturated esters are discussed in detail.

  18. Comportamento de forrageamento de abelhas e outros insetos nas panículas da mangueira (Mangifera indica L. e produção de frutos = Forage behaviour of bees and other insects on mango flowers (Mangifera indica L. and fruit production

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    Darclet Terezinha Malerbo-Souza

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de se estudar a frequência,constância, o tipo de coleta (néctar e/ou pólen e comportamento de forrageamento dos insetos visitantes às flores da mangueira (Mangifera indica L. e seu efeito na produção de frutos. A frequência e o tipo de coleta dos insetos nas flores foram obtidos durante os primeiros 10 min. em cada horário, das 7 às 18h, com três repetições em cada ano. O teste de polinização foi realizado, utilizando-se dois tratamentos: panículas cobertas para se impedir a visita dos insetos e panículas descobertas (controle nas quais foi permitida a visita dos insetos. Os insetos da ordem Diptera, a abelha Tetragonisca angustula e o coleóptero Diabrotica speciosa foram espécies constantes nas panículas da mangueira, e os dípteros foramos mais frequentes. A porcentagem de frutificação foi maior nas flores visitadas pelos insetos.This research was carried out to study the frequency and constancy of visitors on mango inflorescence (Mangifera indica L. as well ascollection type (nectar and pollen, its forage behaviour and these effects on fruit production. The frequency and collection type by insects on flowers were obtained in the first ten minutes of each hour between 7:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m., with three replications in two years. The pollination test was performed with two treatments: overed flowers and uncovered flowers with free insect visits. Diptera order insects, stingless bees Tetragonisca angustula and Diabrotica speciosa were constant species on mango flowers, and Diptera insectswere the more frequent visitors. Fruition percentage was higher in flowers visited by insects.

  19. Abundância, Distribuição Espacial de Ninhos de Abelhas Sem Ferrão (Apidae: Meliponini e Espécies Vegetais Utilizadas para Nidificação em um Fragmento de Floresta Secundária em Rio Branco, Acre

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    Francisco da Silva Correia

    2016-12-01

    Abstract. Was conducted a study of the abundance, distribution of bee nests stingless (Apidae: Meliponini and plant species used for nesting in a fragment of secondary forest in Rio Branco-Acre. The field surveys took place in August 2015 in a forest area measuring 137 ha. The nesting substrates (trees were identified and their location recorded by GPS, and also checked the CAP measures (circumference at breast height and height of entry of the nests from the ground. In total, we found 25 nests of stingless bees distributed in three genera, with Melipona eburnea Friese the most abundant species (n=14, followed by Scaptotrigona sp. (n=7, Melipona crinita Moure & Kerr (n=2 and Tetragona sp. (n=2. The botanical species most provided cavities for foundation of the nests were Eugenia jambolana Lam. (Myrtaceae with seven nests (28% in an only individual, followed by Spondias lutea L. (Anacardiaceae and Castilla ulei Warb. (Moraceae, both with three nests (12%. The density of nests was significantly lower (0.18/ha when compared to other studies in the Neotropics, which may be related to fragment size and the degree of disturbance since it is characterized by being in a forest regeneration process.

  20. Physicochemical characteristics and sensory profile of honey samples from stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponinae submitted to a dehumidification process

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    Carlos A.L. Carvalho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a dehumidification process on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of stingless-bee honey. Melipona scutellaris and M. quadrifasciata honey samples were submitted to a dehumidification process and to physicochemical (reducing sugars, apparent sucrose, moisture, diastatic activity, hydroxymethylfurfural, ash, pH, acidity, and electric conductivity and sensory evaluations (fluidity, color, aroma, crystallization,flavor,and acceptability. The results indicated that the dehumidification process does not interfere with honey quality and acceptability.Este estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do processo de desumidificação sobre as características físico-químicas e sensoriais do mel das abelhas sem ferrão. Amostras de méis de Melipona scutellaris e M. quadrifasciata foram submetidas ao processo de desumidificação, passando em seguida por avaliações físico-químicas (açúcares redutores, sacarose aparente, umidade, atividade diastásica, hidroximetilfurfural, cinzas, pH, acidez e condutividade elétrica e sensoriais (fluidez, cor, aroma, cristalização, sabor e aceitabilidade. Os resultados indicaram que o processo de desumidificação não interfere na qualidade e aceitabilidade do mel.

  1. Taxa de polinização cruzada em cubiu Natural outcrossing in cocona

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    Waldelice Oliveira de Paiva

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a frequência de hibridação natural em Cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal foram avaliadas em Manaus, AM, duas cultivares que se diferenciavam pela presença ou ausência de pigmentação de antocianina nos ramos, pecíolos e nervuras das folha. A taxa de polinização cruzada foi avaliada em três épocas do florescimento das plantas e foi estimada em 31%. Durante o desenvolvimento da cultura, observou-se grande presença de abelhas dos gêneros (Apidae Paratrigona, Trigona e Melipona e coleópteros Crysomelidae.In order to evaluate the natural rates of outcrossing in cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal, two cultivars, one with antocyanin presence and other without antocyanin, were planted in Manaus, AM, Brazil. The percentage of cross-polination was evaluated in three plant flowering periods and was estimated in 31%. During the period of cultivation, high presence of beas of Apidae genus Paratrigona, Trigona and Melipona and beetle Crysomelidae were observed.

  2. Visitantes florais e produção de frutos em cultura de laranja ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck = Floral visitors and fruit production on sweet orange crop ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Maria Gamito

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi realizado em florada de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, variedade Pera-Rio, com os objetivos de estudar os insetos visitantes nas flores d e laranjeira, o seu comportamento nas flores, o tipo de coleta efetuada e o efeito dessas visitas na produção de frutos, em quantidade e qualidade. Os dados de freqüência foram obtidos por contagem nos primeiros 10 minutos de cada horário, das 8h às 18h, em três dias distintos, percorrendo-se as linhas da cultura. O comportamento forrageiro de cada espécie de inseto foi avaliado através de observações visuais, no decorrer do dia, no período experimental. Os insetos observados foram abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula. As abelhas A. mellifera foram os visitantes florais maisfreqüentes e preferiram coletar néctar comparado ao pólen. Os botões florais descobertos produziram mais frutos que os botões florais cobertos. Os frutos decorrentes do tratamento coberto foram menores, mais ácidos e com menor quantidade de vitamina C que os frutos do tratamento descoberto. The present experiment was carried out in flowerage of sweet orange(Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, Pera-rio variety, to study the insects involv ed in pollination, their behaviour in the flower (nectar or pollen collection and the effect of the pollination on fruit production (quantity and quality. More frequent insects were recorded daily (counted during ten minutes, every hour from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., with three replications. The forage behaviour and nectar and/or pollen collect was also observed. The insect visitors onflowers were Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera, followed by stingless bees Trigona spinipes and Tetragonisca angustula. A. mellifera were the most frequent visitors and preferred to collectnectar than pollen. The uncovered flowers -buds produced more fruits than the covered ones. Another observation was that fruits derived from covered

  3. Abelhas (Hymenoptera: Apoidea visitantes das flores de urucum em Vitória da Conquista, BA Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea visitors of the annatto flowers in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil

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    Augusto Jorge Cavalcante Costa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O urucum é um arbusto da família Bixaceae, utilizado na fabricação de corantes naturais para a indústria alimentícia e cosmética. No Brasil, somente nos últimos 15 anos, houve maior interesse pelo cultivo, pois se tornou uma alternativa agrícola promissora. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar as abelhas visitantes das flores do urucuzeiro em Vitória da Conquista, BA. O trabalho foi conduzido no campo experimental da UESB, em uma lavoura do tipo cultivado Peruana Paulista. A coleta das abelhas visitantes foi feita na época principal de floração do urucueiro: março/abril, das 6h às 18h. Foram coletadas 3019 abelhas de 22 espécies, com predominância na visitação das 8h às 14h em relação ao número de indivíduos e número de espécies capturadas. As espécies mais freqüentes foram: Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, Apis mellifera L., Schwarziana quadripunctata (Lepeletier e Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille. Espécies de maior porte, como Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier, Bombus morio (Swederus e Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, consideradas como eficientes na polinização da cultura do urucum, não foram abundantes neste estudo.Annatto is a shrub from Bixaceae family, which natural pigment (annatto is widely used in food and cosmetic industries. In Brazil, the interest for this crop started in the last fifteen years, once it became a promising agricultural alternative. This study was aimed at identifing visitor bees of annatto flowers at the agriculture region of Vitória da Conquista (BA. The research was carried out in the experimental field of UESB, in an experimental plot planted with the cv. Peruana Paulista. The visitor bees were collected during the main blooming period: March/April, between 6:00h and 18:00h. A total of 3,019 bees from 22 species was collected, with higher visitation during the period from 8:00 to 14:00h, regarding the number of individuals and species. The species most frequent were Trigona spinipes

  4. Visitantes florais e produção de frutos em cultura de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.612 Floral visitors and fruit production on sweet orange crop (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.612

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    Darclet Terezinha Malerbo Souza

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi realizado em florada de laranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, variedade Pera-Rio, com os objetivos de estudar os insetos visitantes nas flores d e laranjeira, o seu comportamento nas flores, o tipo de coleta efetuada e o efeito dessas visitas na produção de frutos, em quantidade e qualidade. Os dados de freqüência foram obtidos por contagem nos primeiros 10 minutos de cada horário, das 8h às 18h, em três dias distintos, percorrendo-se as linhas da cultura. O comportamento forrageiro de cada espécie de inseto foi avaliado através de observações visuais, no decorrer do dia, no período experimental. Os insetos observados foram abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula. As abelhas A. mellifera foram os visitantes florais mais freqüentes e preferiram coletar néctar comparado ao pólen. Os botões florais descobertos produziram mais frutos que os botões florais cobertos. Os frutos decorrentes do tratamento coberto foram menores, mais ácidos e com menor quantidade de vitamina C que os frutos do tratamento descoberto.The present experiment was carried out in flowerage of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, Pera-rio variety, to study the insects involv ed in pollination, their behaviour in the flower (nectar or pollen collection and the effect of the pollination on fruit production (quantity and quality. More frequent insects were recorded daily (counted during ten minutes, every hour from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., with three replications. The forage behaviour and nectar and/or pollen collect was also observed. The insect visitors on flowers were Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera, followed by stingless bees Trigona spinipes and Tetragonisca angustula. A. mellifera were the most frequent visitors and preferred to collect nectar than pollen. The uncovered flowers -buds produced more fruits than the covered ones. Another observation was that fruits derived from covered

  5. Towards greater realism in inclusive fitness models: the case of worker reproduction in insect societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenseleers, Tom; Helanterä, Heikki; Alves, Denise A; Dueñez-Guzmán, Edgar; Pamilo, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    The conflicts over sex allocation and male production in insect societies have long served as an important test bed for Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness, but have for the most part been considered separately. Here, we develop new coevolutionary models to examine the interaction between these two conflicts and demonstrate that sex ratio and colony productivity costs of worker reproduction can lead to vastly different outcomes even in species that show no variation in their relatedness structure. Empirical data on worker-produced males in eight species of Melipona bees support the predictions from a model that takes into account the demographic details of colony growth and reproduction. Overall, these models contribute significantly to explaining behavioural variation that previous theories could not account for.

  6. Physical-chemical characterization of honey of guarana (“Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis” in Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso Caracterização físico-química do mel de guaranazeiro ("Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis" em Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso

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    Márcio do Nascimento Ferreira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available It was determined the physical-chemical characteristics and the pollinic origins of 17 samples of honey from guarana plant cultivation (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis, produced by Apis mellifera L, Scaptotrigona sp. L and Melipona seminigra sp honey bee species in Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Pollinic and physical-chemical analysis were determined, considering the variables humidity rate, free acidity, reducing sugar in inverted sugar, apparent sucrose, ashes and solids insoluble in water, comparing the samples to the identity and quality standards established by the local legislation. Means comparisons were made by the Dunnet test at 5% probability. The humidity rate for honey produced by indigenous honey bees – Scaptotrigona sp and Melipona seminigra sp – was high when compared to honey produced by Africanized honey bees, and the levels of reducing sugars for Scaptotrigona sp were low. Any other determinations were accordingly to standards imposed by Brazilian legislation. Through pollinic analysis, it was verified that the pollen from guarana flower was present in all samples of honey, being considered dominant pollen, with 80% of the pollen grain in the samples, showing the apicultural pontential of this species as a honey plant.Objetivou-se com o presente estudo avaliar as características físico-químicas e a origem polínica de 17 amostras de méis oriundos da cultura do guaranazeiro (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis, produzido no município de Alta Floresta - MT por abelhas das espécies Apis mellifera L, Scaptotrigona sp. L e Melipona seminigra sp L. Foram realizadas as análises físico-químicas e polínicas, tendo como variáveis os teores de umidade, acidez livre, açúcares redutores em açúcar invertido, sacarose aparente, cinza e sólidos insolúveis em água, comparando-se as amostras aos Padrões de Identidade e Qualidade (PIQ estabelecidos pela legislação vigente. As comparações das médias foram

  7. Cytotoxicity mechanisms in melanoma cells and UPLC-QTOF/MS2chemical characterization of two Brazilian stingless bee propolis: Uncommon presence of piperidinic alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisilotto, Júlia; Sandjo, Louis P; Faqueti, Larissa G; Fernandes, Heloísa; Joppi, Débora; Biavatti, Maique W; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia Beatriz

    2018-02-05

    The present study characterized propolis extracts produced by Scaptotrigona bipunctata (Tubuna) and Melipona quadrifasciata (Mandaçaia) by LC-MS/MS; their cytotoxicity as well as the mechanism of action in a melanoma cellular model were also assessed. The chemical characterization performed by UPLC-ESI-QTOF/MS 2 analysis revealed uncommon presence of piperidinic alkaloids in Tubuna's propolis extract together with C-glycopyranoside flavonoids. Mandaçaia's propolis collected in the same area rather presented terpenoids and flavonoids. Regarding the mechanism of cytotoxicity, propolis extracts increased the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced the potential of mitochondrial membrane, induced a decrease in the proteins Bcl-2 and AKT-3 levels, and decreased melanoma cells' migration and invasion. Both propolis extracts induced apoptosis while only Mandaçaia's propolis extract induced cell cycle arrest in G2/M. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Beekeeping from Antiquity Through the Middle Ages.

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    Kritsky, Gene

    2017-01-31

    Beekeeping had its origins in honey hunting-the opportunistic stealing of honey from wild honey bee nests. True beekeeping began when humans started providing artificial cavities within which the bees could build comb for the queen to lay her eggs and the workers could process honey. By 2450 BCE, the Egyptians had developed sophisticated apiculture, and, within two millennia, beekeeping with horizontal hives had spread throughout the Mediterranean. During Europe's Middle Ages, honey and wax became important commodities for trade, and beekeeping in skep, log, box, and tree hives flourished to meet the demand. Other species of honey bees contributed to the development and spread of beekeeping in Asia beginning around 300 BCE. Meanwhile, beekeeping evolved independently in Mesoamerica with the stingless bee Melipona beecheii, as documented by archaeological finds and written accounts that survived Spanish conquest.

  9. OTRA CIVILIZACIÓN DE LA MIEL: UTILIZACIÓN DE MIEL EN GRUPOS INDÍGENAS GUAYCURÚES A PARTIR DE LA EVIDENCIA DE FUENTES JESUITAS (Siglo XVIII

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    María Celeste Medrano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los grupos guaycurúes que habitaban la región del Gran Chaco durante el siglo XVIII realizaban un extenso aprovechamiento de mieles procedentes de abejas nativas sin aguijón (Tribu Meliponini. Estas prácticas fueron extensamente documentadas por los jesuitas que misionaron en el área. El presente trabajo se basa en el análisis de las evidencias obtenidas en estas fuentes y datos etnográficos actuales relacionados al aprovechamiento de miel. El objetivo es examinar los usos y saberes tradicionales e identificar las especies de meliponas mencionadas en dichas fuentes a partir de la colecta de ejemplares y los discursos de indígenas y criollos elaborados sobre las mismas aportando a un corpus que incluya la diversidad de conocimientos existentes en la zona sobre estas prácticas.

  10. Organization of the cysts in bee (Hymenoptera, Apidae testis: number of spermatozoa per cyst

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    Cruz-Landim Carminda da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the cyst cells in Apis mellifera Linné, 1758, Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1804, and Melipona bicolor bicolor Lepeletier, 1836 testis, as well as the average number of spermatic cells are reported. The data indicates a supporting and nourrishing role of the cyst cells to the developing cystocytes. The counts of immature spermatozoa in the cysts show an average of 202.8 ± 21.2 spermatozoa for A. mellifera, 117.4 ± 8.68 for S. postica and 88.8 ± 15.57 for M. bicolor, which predict the occurrence of 8 mitotic cycles in the cystocytes of A. mellifera and 7 in the meliponines, considering that only one spermatozoom originates of each final spermatogonium.

  11. Recurso polínico coletado por abelhas sem ferrão (Apidae, Meliponinae em um fragmento de floresta na região de Manaus - Amazonas Pollen resources collected by stingless bees (Apidae, Meliponinae in a forest fragment in the Manaus region, Amazonas

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    Francisco Plácido Magalhães Oliveira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O recurso polínico coletado por operárias de Melipona seminigra merrillae Cockerell, Melipona fulva Lepeletier, Trigona fulviventris (Smith e CephaloTrigona femorata Guérin, no Campus da UFAM, Manaus (AM foi estudado no período de março a outubro de 2001. Noventa tipos polínicos foram coletados pelas abelhas, distribuídos em 31 famílias, 67 gêneros e 10 formas Tipo. Trigona fulviventris diversificou mais suas coletas, utilizando 58 fontes no período. O tamanho do nicho polínico utilizado pelas abelhas ficou assim distribuído: T. fulviventris (58, M.s. merrillae (41, C. femorata (34 e M. fulva (25. Dos tipos determinados, os que mais contribuíram para a dieta das abelhas, apresentando as maiores freqüências nas amostras de pólen, foram Miconia myriantha (12,91%, Leucaena leucocephala (9,52%, Tapirira guianensis (6,53%, Eugenia stipitata (6,22%, Protium heptaphyllum (6,17% e Vismia guianensis (5,93%. As abelhas de modo geral concentraram suas coletas em um número reduzido de espécies vegetais e com um grau diferenciado de uso para cada uma das fontes. Tipos polínicos com freqüência acima de 10% ocorreram em pequena proporção na maioria dos meses, sendo responsáveis por mais de 50% do total do pólen coletado em cada mês. A utilização das fontes de pólen variou conforme a espécie. T. fulviventris teve uma dieta mais ampla e diversificada, enquanto M. fulva foi a que menos diversificou suas coletas. T. fulviventris apresentou maior uniformidade no uso das fontes polínicas e a sobreposição de nichos polínicos foi maior entre M.s. merrillae e M. fulva e menor entre T. fulviventris e C. femorata.The objective of this study was to characterize the resources used by Amazonian bees Melipona seminigra merrillae, Melipona fulva, Trigona fulviventris and CephaloTrigona femorata, in an urban Forest patch at Manaus city from March to October 2001. The pollen analysis determined 90 pollen types, distributed in 31 families, 67

  12. Perfil sensorial e aceitabilidade de méis de abelhas sem ferrão submetidos a processos de conservação Sensorial profile and acceptability of stingless bee honey submitted to conservation processes

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    Geni da Silva Sodré

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou o perfil sensorial e a aceitabilidade de méis de abelhas sem ferrão submetidos a dois processos de conservação, objetivando obter maior vida de prateleira. Foram utilizadas amostras de méis de Melipona scutellaris e M. quadrifasciata, coletadas no Estado da Bahia entre dezembro de 2005 e janeiro de 2006. As amostras foram submetidas aos processos de pasteurização e desumidificação, passando em seguida por avaliação sensorial. O perfil sensorial foi determinado no Laboratório de Entomologia do Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Ambientais e Biológicas da Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, em Cruz das Almas, Estado da Bahia. Os atributos analisados foram: fluidez, cor, aroma, cristalização, sabor e aceitabilidade. Os resultados mostraram que os processos de conservação utilizados não interferem no perfil sensorial e na aceitabilidade do produto.The present work was conducted to evaluate the sensorial profile and the acceptability of the honey of stingless bees submitted to two conservation processes seeking to obtain longer shelf life. The samples of Melipona scutellaris and M. quadrifasciata honey were collected in the State of Bahia, Brazil, between December 2005 and January 2006. The samples were first submitted to pasteurization and dehumidification processes and then to sensorial evaluation. The sensorial profile was determined in the Laboratory of Entomology in the Center for Agrarian, Biological, and Environmental Sciences of the Federal University of Recôncavo Bahiano, in Cruz das Almas, in the state of Bahia. The analyzed attributes were: fluidity, color, scent, crystallization, flavour, and acceptability. The results show that the conservation processes used do not interfere with the sensorial profile and the product acceptability.

  13. OTRA CIVILIZACIÓN DE LA MIEL: UTILIZACIÓN DE MIEL EN GRUPOS INDÍGENAS GUAYCURÚES A PARTIR DE LA EVIDENCIA DE FUENTES JESUITAS (Siglo XVIII

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    María Celeste Medrano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Guaycurus groups inhabiting the Gran Chaco region in the 18th century made extensive use of honey produced by native stingless bees (Tribe Meliponini. These practices were extensively registered by the Jesuits who tried to evangelize in the area. This paper is based on the analysis of the evidences obtained from these sources and current ethnographic data related to the use of honey. The aim is to discuss the uses and traditional knowledge andidentify meliponas species mentioned in these sources from the collection of individuals and reports of Indian and creole people about them, contributing to a corpus that includes the diversity of expertise in the area regarding these practices.RESUMEN: Los grupos guaycurúes que habitaban la región del Gran Chaco durante el siglo XVIII realizaban un extenso aprovechamiento de mieles procedentes de abejas nativas sin aguijón (Tribu Meliponini. Estas prácticas fueron extensamente documentadas por los jesuitas que misionaron en el área. El presente trabajo se basa en el análisis de las evidencias obtenidas en estas fuentes y datos etnográficos actuales relacionados al aprovechamiento de miel. El objetivo es examinar los usos y saberes tradicionales e identificar las especies de meliponas mencionadas en dichas fuentes a partir de la colecta de ejemplares y los discursos de indígenas y criollos elaborados sobre las mismas aportando a un corpus que incluya ladiversidad de conocimientos existentes en la zona sobre estas prácticas.

  14. Mieles y plantas en la medicina criolla del norte de Misiones, Argentina

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    Fernando Zamudio

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los usos medicinales de los productos obtenidos de colonias de abejas silvestres, en cuanto al uso diferencial de estos recursos según las especies de abejas y el consenso de usos de mezclas que involucran mieles. Se reportaron 412 usos correspondientes a 9 taxones de abejas. Entre los productos de los nidos de estos insectos, la miel es el más utilizado como remedio, principalmente para el sistema respiratorio y como alimento funcional. La misma se emplea en diversas formas de preparación y están presentes en 61 preparados mixtos donde se combinan con plantas (39 especies, productos manufacturados (6 y de origen animal (5. Se halló consenso en el uso de algunos productos, no así en las combinaciones en las que intervienen. Las mieles de Tetragonisca fiebrigi y de Apis mellifera se destacan por su importancia y versatilidad de uso. Éstas pueden ser consideradas recursos medicinales complementarios y a priori no intercambiables. Sin embargo, las especificidades deben ser entendidas como alternativas no categóricas, cuyo uso es moldeado por otros factores como disponibilidad y acceso

  15. Influence of temperature and packaging type on quality parameters and antimicrobial properties during Yateí honey storage

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    Ramón Alejandro MARTÍNEZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tetragonisca fiebrigi, is a bee of the subfamily Meliponidae traditionally known as Yateí. Its honey differs from the honey produced by Apis mellifera because it is less viscous, more acidic, has sweetness and particular aromas. It is important to know the behavior of yatei honey in different storage conditions, in order to preserve the characteristics of the honey and ensure the product as harmless. The objective was to determine the influence of temperature, packaging type and storage time of Yateí honey on antimicrobial properties, microbial (Total Mesophilic Aerobic and Mold and Yeast Count and physicochemical parameters (pH, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, acidity, moisture content and diastase, with methodology of national and international standards. The antimicrobial effect was variable against strains of the genus Staphylococcus aureus. The most significant microbiological quality levels were Mold and Yeast counts (> 102 CFU / g. The physicochemical parameters with the most significant values were acidity (to: 42.5 meq acid/kg honey, moisture content (to: 26% and HMF (to: 3.8mg/kg honey. Storage at refrigeration temperature maintained standard values close to Apis mellifera honey during 180 days; whereas at room temperature it was better to maintain antimicrobial power. No significant difference was found between plastic storage containers vs. glass.

  16. Handling sticky Resin by Stingless Bees: Adhesive Properties of Surface Structures

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    MARKUS GASTAUER

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Many Stingless Bees (Hymenoptera: Meliponini like Tetragonisca angustula collect resin to defend their nests against intruders like ants or Robber Bees. Small portions of resin are attached to intruders bodies and extremities causing their immobilization. It has been observed that resin is removed easily from the bee's mandible but adheres strongly to the intruder's cuticle. We tested the hypothesis that resin sticks lesser to the mandibles of Stingless Bees than to the surface of intruders due to special surface structures or adhesive properties of these structures. The surface structures of the mandible of T. angustula and the trochanter of Camponotus sericeiventris were studied by scanning electron microscopy. To measure adhesion properties, selected surfaces were fixed on a fine glass pin and withdrawn from a glass tip covered with resin. The deformation of the glass pin indicates adhesion forces operating between the resin and the selective surface. The absolute value of the forces is computed from the glass pin's stiffness. It has been shown that resin sticks more to the smooth mandible of the bee than to the structured trochanter of the ant. A new hypothesis to be tested says that the bees might lubricate their mandibles with nectar or honey to reduce the resin's adhesion temporarily.

  17. Effect of biotic factors on the spatial distribution of stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponini) in fragmented neotropical habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, M M; Cruz-López, L; Sánchez, D; Villanueva-Gutiérrez, R; Vandame, R

    2012-04-01

    We recorded stingless bee colony abundance and nesting habits in three sites with different anthropogenic activities in the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico: (1) agroforestry (7 hacacao crop), (2) grassland (12 ha), and (3) urban area (3 ha). A total of 67 nests were found, representing five stingless bee species, Tetragonisca angustula angustula (Lepeletier), Trigona fulviventris (Guérin), Scaptotrigona mexicana (Guérin), Scaptotrigona pectoralis (Dalla Torre), and Oxytrigona mediorufa (Cockerell). The most abundant stingless bee in each site was T. angustula angustula (>50%). The primary tree species used by the bees were Ficus spp. (Moraceae, 37.8%) and Cordia alliodora (Boraginaceae, 13.5%). The nest entrance height of T. angustula angustula (96 ± 19 cm) was different than the other species, and this bee was the only one that used all different nesting sites. Volatiles analyzed by gas chromatography from pollen collected by the stingless bees differed between bee species, but were highly similar in respect to the fragrances of the pollen collected by the same species at any site. Our data indicate that T. angustula angustula experienced low heterospecific and high intraspecific foraging overlap especially in the urban site. We observed cluster spatial distribution in grassland and in agroforestry sites. In the urban site, T. angustula angustula presented random distribution tended to disperse. Trigona fulviventris was the only overdispersed and solitary species.

  18. Reproductive biology of the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas in its center of origin

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    Manuel Rincón-Rabanales

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we studied the main characteristics of flowering, reproductive system and diversity of pollinators for the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas (L. in a site of tropical southeastern Mexico, within its center of origin. The plants were monoecious with inflorescences of unisexual flowers. The male flowers produced from 3062–5016 pollen grains (266–647 per anther. The plants produced fruits with both geitonogamy and xenogamy, although insect pollination significantly increased the number and quality of fruits. A high diversity of flower visiting insects (36 species was found, of which nine were classified as efficient pollinators. The native stingless bees Scaptotrigona mexicana (Guérin-Meneville and Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille were the most frequent visitors and their presence coincided with the hours when the stigma was receptive. It is noteworthy that the female flowers open before the male flowers, favoring xenogamy, which may explain the high genetic variability reported in J. curcas for this region of the world.

  19. Visitantes florais de Lagerstroemia speciosa Pers: (Lythraceae Floral visitors in Lagerstroemia speciosa Pers: (Lythraceae

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    Maria de Jesus Vitali-Veiga

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out with Lagerstroemia speciosa Pers. on floral reproductive systems, diversity and constancy of visiting insects at different hours of day, the behaviour of these insects at the flowers and the influence of these environmental factors in relation to their visits. The fenology, anthesis and others particularity of this vegetal species was studied. A great diversity of insects was verified visiting the flowers with the predominance of bees. The most frequent and constant species encountered were: Nannotrigona testaceicornis (Lepeletier, 1836 (40,2%, Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811 (16,9%, Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (11,8%, Plebeia droryana (Friese, 1900 (9,1 % e Exomalopsis fulvofasciata (Smith, 1879 (8,5%. The blossoms possessis features of melittophily syndrome and diurnal anthesis. The environmental factors influence the insects foraging activity, mainly temperature, light, time of day, humidity and wind speed. The effective pollinators were the large insects like Bombus morio (Swederus, 1787, Bombus atratus (Franklin, 1913, Centris tarsata (Smith, 1874, Centris flavifrons Fabricius, 1775, Xylocopa suspecta Camargo & Moure, 1988, Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier, 1789 and Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841.

  20. Melitofilia em Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae

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    Fábio Verçoza

    2010-11-01

    Abstract. This work aimed to study the floral biology and the pollination’s ecology of Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae by bees in the sandbank vegetation of the Grumari Environmental Protection Area (EPA , located in the western zone of Rio de Janeiro’s city. The study was developed between the months of June of 2008 to June of 2009. Sampling on morphology, color and odor of the flowers of the species were made. The number of open flowers per day in each individual was recorded, as well as the opening steps, determining the period of anthesis. The occurrence of floral visitors was recorded through the observation of the visit’s time, of the adaptability for pollination, of the ease of access to the reward and of the intra-floral behavior played. C. rosea occurs in psamophily communities and in post-beach sandbank of Grumari’s EPA. It presents typical characteristics of mellitophily (pollination by bees and the flowers are pollinated by Xylocopa frontalis Oliver. It also receives visits from Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, Trigona spinipes Fabricius and Apis mellifera Linnaeus, which collects pollen without pollinating the flowers. X. frontalis proved to be the only effective pollinator of C. rosea in the Grumari sandbank, making the plant directly dependent on this species for fruit and seed’s production in this location.

  1. Stingless Bees as Alternative Pollinators of Canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Sidia; Nunes-Silva, Patrícia; Lisboa, Bruno B; Tirelli, Flavia P; Sattler, Aroni; Both Hilgert-Moreira, Suzane; Blochtein, Betina

    2015-06-01

    Alternative pollinators can ensure pollination services if the availability of the managed or most common pollinator is compromised. In this study, the behavior and pollination efficiency of Apis mellifera L. and two species of stingless bees, Plebeia emerina Friese and Tetragonisca fiebrigi Schwarz, were evaluated and compared in flowers of Brassica napus L. 'Hyola 61'. A. mellifera was an efficient pollinator when collecting nectar because it effectively touched the reproductive organs of the flower. In contrast, stingless bees were efficient pollinators only when collecting pollen. The number of pollen grains deposited on the stigma after a single visit by worker bees of the three species was greater than the number of grains resulting from pollination without the bee visits. On average, the three species deposited enough pollen grains to fertilize all of the flower ovules. A. mellifera and P. emerina had similar pollination efficiency because no significant differences were observed in the characteristics of the siliques produced. Although T. fiebrigi is also an effective pollinator, the seed mass produced by their pollination was lower. Native bees promoted similar rates of fruit set compared with A. mellifera. Thus, P. emerina has potential to be used for pollination in canola crops. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Plants and pollinating bees in Maringá, State of Paraná, Brazil

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    Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de Toledo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to survey the bees as visitors to melliferous flora in the region of Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil. A total of 331 insects were captured, and the fauna comprised 39.88% Trigona spinipes, 38.37% Apis mellifera, 8.16% Tetragonisca angustula, 3.93% Halictidae, 1.21% Megachilidae, 2.42% Anthophoridae, and 3.32% other Hymenoptera. Eleven plant species from nine families were observed. The four families most frequently visited by A. mellifera were Pontederiaceae (93.53%, Sterculiaceae and Polygoniaceae (47.22%, Apocynaceae and Apiaceae (42.86%. The families most visited by T. spinipes were Lamiaceae (64.70%, Apocynaceae (57.14%, Sterculiaceae (51.85% and Anacardiaceae (48.39%, and the families most visited by T. angustula were (28.57%, Asteraceae (22.22% and Labiatae (16.47%. Three species predominated in number of bee visits Dombeya wallichii (32.63%, Ocimum americanum (15.5% and Antigonon leptopus (15.2%. T. angustula was the most frequent visitor of O. gratissimum flowers (60.87%.As abelhas sem ferrão são responsáveis por cerca de 30-90% da reprodução dos vegetais nas florestas tropicais, através do mecanismo de polinização, na fecundação cruzada (Kerr et al. , 1994. Esse trabalho teve o objetivo de realizar um levantamento de angiospermas e os insetos que as polinizam na região de Maringá, PR, com o intuito de contribuir com o entendimento da biodiversidade dessa região. As abelhas foram coletadas entre agosto de 1999 a janeiro de 2000, com o auxílio de uma rede entomológica, durante suas visitas às flores. As coletas foram semanais. Foram coletados 331 insetos, dos quais 39,88% eram Trigona spinipes, 38,37% Apis mellifera, 8,16% Tetragonisca angustula, 3,93% Halictidae, 1,21% Megachilidae, 2,42% Anthophoridae e 3,32% de outros Hymenoptera. Foram observadas 11 espécies vegetais pertencentes a nove famílias. As quatro famílias mais visitadas pelas abelhas A. mellifera foram Pontederiaceae

  3. Diversidade de abelhas visitantes das flores de Citrus em pomares de laranjeira e tangerineira Diversity of flowers visiting bees of Citrus in salinas, state of minas gerais

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    Eduardo Tigre do Nascimento

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A presença de abelhas em culturas de valor comercial, no período de florescimento, é importante não apenas para garantir a polinização cruzada, quando indispensável, mas também para incrementar a produção de frutos e sementes. Nessa perspectiva, o presente trabalho teve a finalidade de identificar as abelhas visitantes das flores em pomar de laranjeira (Citrus sinensis e tangerineira (Citrus reticulata em Salinas - MG. O trabalho foi conduzido na fazenda experimental Santa Isabel, da Escola Agrotécnica Federal de Salinas - MG, em pomares de laranjeira com as variedades, pera, baía e baianinha, e de tangerineira, variedade poncã. As coletas das abelhas visitantes das culturas da laranjeira e tangerineira foram feitas nas floradas principais, entre os meses de agosto e outubro. Foram coletadas as abelhas que visitaram as flores nos horários entre 06 h e 18 h, totalizando 52 horas na laranjeira e 50 horas na tangerineira. No pomar de laranjeira, foram coletados 5.045 espécimes com riqueza de 12 espécies, e na tangerineira, 1.428 espécimes com 20 espécies. As espécies de abelhas de maior predominância e dominância em todos os horários amostrados foram Apis mellifera e Trigona spinipes na cultura da laranjeira e A. mellifera, T. spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula na cultura da tangerineira.The presence of bees on cultures with commercial value during flowering is important to ensure the cross-pollination, when necessary, but also to increase the production of fruits and seeds. This work aimed to identify flowers' visiting bees on orange and tangerine orchards in Salinas - MG. The work was leaded on Santa Isabel experimental farm of the Federal Agro-technical School of Salinas - MG, on orange orchards (Citrus sinensis with pear, bahia and baianinha varieties in the spacing of 5,0 x 6,0, and on tangerine orchards (C. reticulate using poncã variety in the spacing of 5,0 x 5,0. The sampling of visiting bees from orange and tangerine

  4. Onde os mais Adaptados Permanecem: Comunidade de Abelhas sem Ferrão (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponini em Áreas Urbanas do Município de Ubá, Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Gustavo Araújo

    2016-12-01

    Where the most Adapted Remain: Stingless Bees Community (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponini in Urban Areas of the City of Uba, Minas Gerais, Brazil Abstract. The urbanization has caused the fragmentation of various natural environments, taking to loss of many ecological processes in which includes pollination, realized mainly by bees, in special Meliponini species, which has drastically reduced their populations due to loss of habitat for urban expansion. The aim of this study was to survey the species of stingless bees in urban areas of the municipality of Ubá - MG, Brazil, relate the richness and abundance of species found with the percentage of occupation of the structural variables of the urban landscape and relate the presence of the species obtained with these variables. Were found 28 nests belonging to four species, Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, Nannotrigona testaceicornis (Lepeletier and Friesella schrottkyi (Friese. There was no significant relationship between richness and abundance of Meliponini and structural variables of vegetation, possibly due to low values in the number of nests and species obtained. Only T. spinipes showed related to the presence of vegetation. The results show that the Meliponini community is composed by generalist species able to use artificial cavities and ornamental plants as an alternative source of resources, common in urban areas. The results obtained in this study is a warning to current conditions of the plant remaining in urban areas in the city of Ubá, besides may also be used as support in taking-decision on projects for the conservation and recovery of degraded areas, focusing on bees and their importance to the sustainability of these ecosystems.

  5. Context affects nestmate recognition errors in honey bees and stingless bees.

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    Couvillon, Margaret J; Segers, Francisca H I D; Cooper-Bowman, Roseanne; Truslove, Gemma; Nascimento, Daniela L; Nascimento, Fabio S; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2013-08-15

    Nestmate recognition studies, where a discriminator first recognises and then behaviourally discriminates (accepts/rejects) another individual, have used a variety of methodologies and contexts. This is potentially problematic because recognition errors in discrimination behaviour are predicted to be context-dependent. Here we compare the recognition decisions (accept/reject) of discriminators in two eusocial bees, Apis mellifera and Tetragonisca angustula, under different contexts. These contexts include natural guards at the hive entrance (control); natural guards held in plastic test arenas away from the hive entrance that vary either in the presence or absence of colony odour or the presence or absence of an additional nestmate discriminator; and, for the honey bee, the inside of the nest. For both honey bee and stingless bee guards, total recognition errors of behavioural discrimination made by guards (% nestmates rejected + % non-nestmates accepted) are much lower at the colony entrance (honey bee: 30.9%; stingless bee: 33.3%) than in the test arenas (honey bee: 60-86%; stingless bee: 61-81%; Phoney bees, although this reduction still fell short of bringing error levels down to what was found at the colony entrance. Lastly, in honey bees, the data show that the in-nest collective behavioural discrimination by ca. 30 workers that contact an intruder is insufficient to achieve error-free recognition and is not as effective as the discrimination by guards at the entrance. Overall, these data demonstrate that context is a significant factor in a discriminators' ability to make appropriate recognition decisions, and should be considered when designing recognition study methodologies.

  6. Visitantes florais de Erythrina speciosa Andr. (Leguminosae Flowering visitors of Erythrina speciosa Andr., Leguminosae

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    Maria J. Vitali-Veiga

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Inspite of Etythrina species exhibit morphologic attributes for adaptation to pollination by nectarivorous birds mentioned in the literature, E. speciosa is pollinated by lots of bees (Apinae and Meliponinae which show a great urban occurrence. Systems of E. speciosa floral reproduction, fenology, diversity, frequency and constancy of insects visiting at different hours and flowering periods were studied. E. speciosa is Biocompatible, but xenogamy is the predominant system of reproduction. A large diversity of insects visiting the inflorescences was observed, with predominance of bees. The bee species showed a higher frequency: Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (45,0 %, Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793 (28,6%, Trigona hyalinata (Lepeletier, 1836 (12,2 % and the ant Zacryptoceruspusillus Klug, 1824 (2,8 %. Constant but not frequent were the bees (Apidae Plebeia droryana (Friese, 1900, Friesella schrottkyi (Friese, 1900, Nannotrigona testaceicornis (Lepeletier, 1836, Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811, the wasps (Vespidae Polybia paulista Ihering, 1896, Protopolybia exigua (de Saussure, 1854, Agelaia pallipes (Olivier. 1791, the ant (Formicidae Pseudomyrmex sp. and the beetle (Chrysomelidae Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824. E. speciosa flowers were visited by hummingbirds (Trochilidae: Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788, Clorostilbon aureoventris (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838 and Amazilia sp. The birds Passer domeslicus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Ploceidae and Coereba flaveola (Linnaeus, 1758 (Emberizidac, also are present. The frequency and insect distribution were influenced by ambiental factors. Temperature, light, time, barometric pressure, relative humidity and wind velocity were significantly correlated with insect numbers. There is a visit sequence, by floral resource disponibility during the day, conditioned by transport ability, insect numbers and colony necessity, which begins by A. mellifera followed by meliponid bees. These bees make the

  7. Enhanced production of parthenocarpic cucumbers pollinated with stingless bees and Africanized honey bees in greenhouses

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    Euclides Braga Malheiros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Crops have different levels of dependence on pollinators; this holds true even for cultivars of the same species, as in the case of cucumber (Cucumis sativus. The aim of this research was to assess the attractiveness of flowers of three Japanese parthenocarpic cucumber cultivars and evaluate the importance of Africanized bees (Apis mellifera, and the Brazilian native stingless bees, Jataí (Tetragonisca angustula and Iraí (Nannotrigona testaceicornis on fruit production. Several parameters, including frequency of bee visits to flowers as well as duration of nectar collection and fruit set were examined; additionally, fruit weight, length and diameter were evaluated. Three greenhouses located in Ribeirão Preto, SP, were used for planting three cucumber cultivars (Hokushin, Yoshinari and Soudai. The female flowers were more attractive than male flowers; however, Jataí bees were not observed visiting the flowers. The Africanized and the Iraí bees collected only nectar, with a visitation peak between 10 and 12h. Visits to female flowers had a longer duration than visits to male flower visits in all three cultivars. Africanized bee colonies declined due to loss of bees while in the greenhouse; the native stingless bee colonies did not suffer these losses. When bees were excluded, fruit set was 78%; however, when bees had access to the flowers, fruit set was significantly (19.2% higher. Fruit size and weight did not differ with and without bees. This demonstrates that even in parthenocarpic cucumber cultivars, which do not require pollination in order to from fruits, fruit production is significantly increased by bee pollination.

  8. Sequence and expression pattern of the germ line marker vasa in honey bees and stingless bees

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    Érica Donato Tanaka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Queens and workers of social insects differ in the rates of egg laying. Using genomic information we determined the sequence of vasa, a highly conserved gene specific to the germ line of metazoans, for the honey bee and four stingless bees. The vasa sequence of social bees differed from that of other insects in two motifs. By RT-PCR we confirmed the germ line specificity of Amvasa expression in honey bees. In situ hybridization on ovarioles showed that Amvasa is expressed throughout the germarium, except for the transition zone beneath the terminal filament. A diffuse vasa signal was also seen in terminal filaments suggesting the presence of germ line cells. Oocytes showed elevated levels of Amvasa transcripts in the lower germarium and after follicles became segregated. In previtellogenic follicles, Amvasa transcription was detected in the trophocytes, which appear to supply its mRNA to the growing oocyte. A similar picture was obtained for ovarioles of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, except that Amvasa expression was higher in the oocytes of previtellogenic follicles. The social bees differ in this respect from Drosophila, the model system for insect oogenesis, suggesting that changes in the sequence and expression pattern of vasa may have occurred during social evolution.

  9. Removal of clay by stingless bees: load size and moisture selection

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    RAUL COSTA-PEREIRA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Some organisms disperse energy, associated with the transportation of resource, which is not necessarily food. Stingless bees of Central Amazonia (Melipona flavolineata and M. lateralis collect clay in banks along streams for nest building. The moisture of the clay varies along the bank, and bees collect clay from specific location, indicating that there is some sort of preference regarding their selection. This study aims at identifying: if larger bees carry more clay; if there is a preference for moisture of substrates; and if bees are less efficient accumulating and transporting clay when it is wet. In order to do so, I measured the size of the bees and of the pellets of clay found in the corbicula. I set up a field experiment to test substrate preferences. The amount of clay transported, increased exponentially in accordance to the size of the bee, and the preferred substrate was the driest clay. The amount and the efficiency of removal of clay were not affected by the moisture of the substrate. Despite the wet clay being denser, it does not reduce the efficiency of exploitation of the resource, but suggests that bees spend more energy to carry the same quantity of wet clay, which may be the underlying mechanism explaining their preference for removing drier clay.

  10. Microbiological Assessment, Nutritional Characterization and Phenolic Compounds of Bee Pollen from Mellipona mandacaia Smith, 1983.

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    Bárbara, Marivalda Santa; Machado, Cerilene Santiago; Sodré, Geni da Silva; Dias, Luís G; Estevinho, Leticia M; de Carvalho, Carlos Alfredo Lopes

    2015-07-09

    This study aims to assess the microbiological parameters and the chemical composition of 21 samples of stingless bee pollen (Melipona mandacaia) from two regions of Bahia, Brazil (João Dourado and Uibaí), with particular emphasis on the nutritional value, total phenols and flavonoids and fatty acids composition. Regarding the microbiological quality, the studied microorganisms (moulds and yeasts, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp., psychrotrophic and sulfite-reducing Clostridia) were absent in all samples. On the other hand, the values obtained for the aerobic mesophilic microorganism ranged from 11.0 ± 1.0 to 1.32 ± 1.2 cfu∙g-1 (JD samples) and from 282 ± 3.82 to 688 ± 10.1 cfu∙g-1 (U samples). The nutritional parameters (moisture, ash, water activity, pH, total acidity, protein, fiber, total phenolic, flavonoids and reducing sugars) were within the stipulated by law, except for pH and moisture content, which presented superior and inferior values, respectively. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (54.1%) were significantly higher than saturated (42.18%) and monounsaturated (3.71%). It was found that the bee pollen is safe from the microbiological point of view and has a good nutritional quality. The influence of the geographical origin on the assessed parameters was evident, especially concerning the fatty acid profile.

  11. Microbiological Assessment, Nutritional Characterization and Phenolic Compounds of Bee Pollen from Mellipona mandacaia Smith, 1983

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    Marivalda Santa Bárbara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the microbiological parameters and the chemical composition of 21 samples of stingless bee pollen (Melipona mandacaia from two regions of Bahia, Brazil (João Dourado and Uibaí, with particular emphasis on the nutritional value, total phenols and flavonoids and fatty acids composition. Regarding the microbiological quality, the studied microorganisms (moulds and yeasts, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp., psychrotrophic and sulfite-reducing Clostridia were absent in all samples. On the other hand, the values obtained for the aerobic mesophilic microorganism ranged from 11.0 ± 1.0 to 1.32 ± 1.2 cfu∙g−1 (JD samples and from 282 ± 3.82 to 688 ± 10.1 cfu∙g−1 (U samples. The nutritional parameters (moisture, ash, water activity, pH, total acidity, protein, fiber, total phenolic, flavonoids and reducing sugars were within the stipulated by law, except for pH and moisture content, which presented superior and inferior values, respectively. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (54.1% were significantly higher than saturated (42.18% and monounsaturated (3.71%. It was found that the bee pollen is safe from the microbiological point of view and has a good nutritional quality. The influence of the geographical origin on the assessed parameters was evident, especially concerning the fatty acid profile.

  12. An overview of cytogenetics of the tribe Meliponini (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

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    Tavares, Mara Garcia; Lopes, Denilce Meneses; Campos, L A O

    2017-06-01

    The present study provides a comprehensive review of cytogenetic data on Meliponini and their chromosomal evolution. The compiled data show that only 104 species of stingless bees, representing 32 of the 54 living genera have been studied cytogenetically and that among these species, it is possible to recognize three main groups with n = 9, 15 and 17, respectively. The first group comprises the species of the genus Melipona, whereas karyotypes with n = 15 and n = 17 have been detected in species from different genera. Karyotypes with n = 17 are the most common among the Meliponini studied to date. Cytogenetic information on Meliponini also shows that although chromosome number, in general, is conserved among species of a certain genus, other aspects, such as chromosome morphology, quantity, distribution and composition of heterochromatin, may vary between them. This reinforces the fact that the variations observed in the karyotypes of different Meliponini groups cannot be explained by a single theory or a single type of structural change. In addition, we present a discussion about how these karyotype variations are related to the phylogenetic relationships among the different genera of this tribe.

  13. Removal of clay by stingless bees: load size and moisture selection.

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    Costa-Pereira, Raul

    2014-09-01

    Some organisms disperse energy, associated with the transportation of resource, which is not necessarily food. Stingless bees of Central Amazonia (Melipona flavolineata and M. lateralis) collect clay in banks along streams for nest building. The moisture of the clay varies along the bank, and bees collect clay from specific location, indicating that there is some sort of preference regarding their selection. This study aims at identifying: if larger bees carry more clay; if there is a preference for moisture of substrates; and if bees are less efficient accumulating and transporting clay when it is wet. In order to do so, I measured the size of the bees and of the pellets of clay found in the corbicula. I set up a field experiment to test substrate preferences. The amount of clay transported, increased exponentially in accordance to the size of the bee, and the preferred substrate was the driest clay. The amount and the efficiency of removal of clay were not affected by the moisture of the substrate. Despite the wet clay being denser, it does not reduce the efficiency of exploitation of the resource, but suggests that bees spend more energy to carry the same quantity of wet clay, which may be the underlying mechanism explaining their preference for removing drier clay.

  14. BIOLOGY OF POLLINATION OF Citrus sinensis VARIETY ‘PERA RIO’

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    GENEROSA SOUSA RIBEIRO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aspects related to the floral biology of Citrus sinensis ‘Pera Rio’ variety were studied in the present work aiming to obtain information about the pollination ecology in the local agriculture. Studies of flowering, anthesis, pollen / ovule ratio, stigmatic receptivity, pollen viability, nectar characterization and floral visitors were carried out. From the data studied, the following information was obtained: C. sinensis variety ‘Pera Rio’ flourishes in two annual periods (dry and rainy, the anthesis occurs from 9:00 AM with duration of 24 hours, during which period stigma receptivity, pollen viability and nectar secretion are highly significant, demonstrating that the species also possesses characteristics of allogenic plants. Apis mellifera was a floral visitor, with a greater number of individuals with a Relative Frequency (RF of 51.1%. Melipona scutellaris obtained second place in visits with RR = 23.6%; Followed by Trigona spinipes with FR = 17.7%. The two seasons (dry and rainy presented high similarity (Morisita index = 0.64. C. sinensis has floral biology favorable to cross pollination and bees A. mellifera and M. scutellaris are potential pollinators of this fruit in the conditions in the region of the Recôncavo Baiano. The reproductive system of C. sinensis is mixed, being favorable to entomophilic pollination.

  15. Ultrastructure of the excretory organs of Bombus morio (Hymenoptera: Bombini): bee without rectal pads.

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    Gonçalves, Wagner Gonzaga; Fialho, Maria do Carmo Queiroz; Azevedo, Dihego Oliveira; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2014-02-01

    Bumblebees need to keep bodily homeostasis and for that have an efficient system of excretion formed by the Malpighian tubules, ileum, and rectum. We analyzed the excretory organs of Bombus morio, a bee without rectal pads. In addition, we analyzed the rectal epithelium of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides which has rectal pads. The Malpighian tubules exhibited two cell types and the ileum four types. However, comparative analysis of the rectum showed that only cells of the anterior region of the rectal epithelium of B. morio are structurally distinct. We suggest that cells of the Malpighian tubules of B. morio have an excretory feature and that cells of ileum have different functions, such as ion absorption and water, organic compound, and protein secretion. In addition, only the anterior region of the rectum of B. morio showed characteristic absorption. We suggest that Malpighian tubules participate in the excretion of solutes and that the ileum and rectal epithelium are responsible for homeostasis of water and solutes, compensating for the absence of rectal papillae. These results contribute to our understanding of the morphophysiology of the excretory organs of bees without rectal pads.

  16. Stingless bees further improve apple pollination and production

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    Blandina Felipe Viana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of Africanised honeybee (Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier hives to increase pollination success in apple orchards is a widespread practice. However, this study is the first to investigate the number of honeybee hives ha-1 required to increase the production of fruits and seeds as well as the potential contribution of the stingless bee Mandaçaia (Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier. We performed tests in a 43-ha apple orchard located in the municipality of Ibicoara (13º24’50.7’’S and 41º17’7.4’’W in Chapada Diamantina, State of Bahia, Brazil. In 2011, fruits from the Eva variety set six seeds on average, and neither a greater number of hives (from 7 to 11 hives ha-1 nor a greater number of pollen collectors at the honeybee hives displayed general effects on the seed number. Without wild pollinators, seven Africanised honeybee hives ha-1 with pollen collectors is currently the best option for apple producers because no further increase in the seed number was observed with higher hive densities. In 2012, supplementation with both stingless bees (12 hives ha-1 and Africanised honeybees (7 hives ha-1 provided higher seed and fruit production than supplementation with honeybees (7 hives ha-1 alone. Therefore, the stingless bee can improve the performance of honeybee as a pollinator of apple flowers, since the presence of both of these bees results in increases in apple fruit and seed number.

  17. Potential pollinators of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae), in open crops and the effect of a solitary bee in fruit set and quality.

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    Santos, A O R; Bartelli, B F; Nogueira-Ferreira, F H

    2014-06-01

    We identified native bees that are floral visitors and potential pollinators of tomato in Cerrado areas, described the foraging behavior of these species, and verified the influence of the visitation of a solitary bee on the quantity and quality of fruits. Three areas of tomato crops, located in Minas Gerais, Brazil, were sampled between March and November 2012. We collected 185 bees belonging to 13 species. Exomalopsis (Exomalopsis) analis Spinola, 1853 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was the most abundant. Ten species performed buzz pollination. Apis mellifera L. 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and Paratrigona lineata (Lepeletier, 1836) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) could also act as pollinators. The fruit set and number of seeds obtained from the pollination treatment by E. analis were higher than those in the control group. Our results allowed the identification of potential tomato pollinators in Cerrado areas and also contributed information regarding the impact of a single species (E. analis) on fruit set and quality. Although most of the visiting bees show the ability for tomato pollination, there is an absence of adequate management techniques, and its usage is difficult with the aim of increasing the crop production, which is the case for E. analis. Species such as Melipona quinquefasciata, P. lineata, and A. mellifera, which are easy to handle, are not used for pollination services. Finally, it is suggested that a combination of different bee species that are able to pollinate the tomato is necessary to prevent the super-exploitation of only a single species for pollination services and to guarantee the occurrence of potential pollinators in the crop area.

  18. Sex expression, breeding system and pollinators of Piper caldense (PIPERACEAE in the Brazilian Atlantic forest

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    Milene Faria Vieira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Neotropical Piper species have bisexual flowers. Such reproductive trait is considered basal in this pantropical genus. However, neotropical species having unisexual (staminate flowers along with bisexual ones have also been reported. Dichogamy is common in the genus, associated with either self-compatibility or -incompatibility, as well as with entomophily. We analyzed a natural population of Piper caldense in a Atlantic Forest area (Viçosa municipality, Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. Preliminary observations indicated that the species produces two flower types. We analyzed flower sex in spikes of 50 plants. We obtained additional information through morphological and anatomical studies and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The longevity and exposure dynamics of stigmatic papillae and the pollen release sequence of all four stamens were investigated to verify the degree of dichogamy. Pollination tests were performed, pollinators were identified and their visitation frequency was recorded. Piper caldense has both bisexual and staminate flowers, each flower type being located on separate spikes. These spikes occurred on the same plant, thus indicating andromonoecy; furthermore, plants having only spikes with staminate flowers were also observed. This gender had not yet been reported to the genus. Gradual and sequential exposure of stigmatic papillae associated with asynchronous pollen release (one stamen a day resulted in incomplete protogyny. Hand pollination tests showed that the species is self-incompatible. Social bees, mainly Apis mellifera and Melipona spp., were the major pollinator group. Our study reinforces the need to associate morphological analysis with floral biology and indicates future changes in studies addressing reproductive traits associated with the phylogeny of the Piper genus.

  19. Meliponiculture in Quilombola communities of Ipiranga and Gurugi, Paraíba state, Brazil: an ethnoecological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The Quilombola communities of Ipiranga and Gurugi, located in Atlantic Rainforest in Southern of Paraíba state, have stories that are interwoven throughout time. The practice of meliponicultura has been carried out for generations in these social groups and provides an elaborate ecological knowledge based on native stingless bees, the melliferous flora and the management techniques used. The traditional knowledge that Quilombola have of stingless bees is of utmost importance for the establishment of conservation strategies for many species. Methods To deepen study concerning the ecological knowledge of the beekeepers, the method of participant observation together with structured and semi-structured interviews was used, as well as the collection of entomological and botanical categories of bees and plants mentioned. With the aim of recording the knowledge related to meliponiculture previously exercised by the residents, the method of the oral story was employed. Results and discussion Results show that the informants sampled possess knowledge of twelve categories of stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini), classified according to morphological, behavioral and ecological characteristics. Their management techniques are represented by the making of traditional cortiço and the melliferous flora is composed of many species predominant in the Atlantic Rainforest. From recording the memories and recollections of the individuals, it was observed that an intricate system of beliefs has permeated the keeping of uruçu bees (Melipona scutellaris) for generations. Conclusion According to management techniques used by beekeepers, the keeping of stingless bees in the communities is considered a traditional activity that is embedded within a network of ecological knowledge and beliefs accumulated by generations over time, and is undergoing a process of transformation that provides new meanings to such knowledge, as can be observed in the practices of young people. PMID

  20. Comparative toxicity of pesticides to stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos-Núñez, Gustavo Rafael; Quezada-Euán, José Javier G; Ancona-Xiu, Patricia; Moo-Valle, Humberto; Carmona, Angelica; Ruiz Sanchez, Esaú

    2009-10-01

    Stingless bees are potential pollinators of commercial tropical crops and their use may increase in the short term. However, studies comparing the toxicity of pesticides to different individuals and species are lacking, making it difficult to evaluate their short- and long-term effects on colonies and populations of these insects. In this work, we tested the lethality of compounds from the main pesticide groups on stingless bees of the species Melipona beecheii Bennett, Trigona nigra Provancher, and Nannotrigona perilampoides Cresson. The LDo (in micrograms per bee) for each pesticide was calculated for callow workers and foragers of the three species as well as for gynes and drones of M. beecheii. The results showed that all species were highly susceptible to the evaluated compounds. Nicotinoid pesticides were the most toxic, followed in descending order by permethrin, diazinon, and methomyl. We found evidence of a relationship between the body weight of the species and their LD50 for permethrin and methomyl (r = 0.91 and 0.90, respectively) but not for diazinon (r = -0.089). An analysis of contingency tables showed that within each species, callow workers had higher mortalities than foragers (P < 0.01). In M. beecheii at similar pesticide dose more males died compared with females [chi2((0.0),1) = 10.16]. However, gynes were less resistant than workers [chi2((0.01),1)) = 8.11]. The potential negative consequences of pesticides to native stingless bees are discussed considering the reproductive biology of these insects. It is important to take actions to prevent damage to these key species for the ecology and agriculture of Mexico and Latin America

  1. Diversity, local knowledge and use of stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) in the municipality of Nocupétaro, Michoacan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-González, Alejandro; Camou-Guerrero, Andrés; Reyes-Salas, Octavio; Argueta, Arturo; Casas, Alejandro

    2014-06-05

    Stingless bees were significant resources managed by Mesoamerican peoples during pre-Columbian times and remain important in particular areas. Our study aimed at inventorying stingless bees' species, traditional knowledge and forms of use and management of them at the municipality of Nocupetaro, Michoacán, Mexico, a region of the Balsas River Basin. We inventoried the stingless bees of the municipality of Nocupétaro, Michoacán, México, through extensive collecting of bee specimens in different vegetation types. We then conducted semi-structured interviews to local experts in order to document their knowledge and management techniques of stingless bees' species. We identified a total of eight stingless bees' species in the study area as well as three additional unidentified taxa recognized by people through the local names. Our inventory included one new record of species for the region (Lestrimelitta chamelensis Ayala, 1999). The taxa identified are all used by local people. Scaptotrigona hellwegeri Friese, 1900; Melipona fasciata Latreille, 1811; Frieseomelitta nigra Cresson, 1878 and Geotrigona acapulconis Strand, 1919 are particularly valued as food (honey), medicinal (honey and pollen), and material for handcrafts (wax). All species recorded are wild and their products are obtained through gathering. On average, local experts were able to collect 4 nests of stingless bees per year obtaining on average 6 L of honey and 4 Kg of wax but some came to collect up 10-12 hives per year (18 L of honey and 24 Kg of wax). Local knowledge about use, management and ecological issues on stingless bees is persistent and deep in the study area. Information about this group of bees is progressively scarcer in Mexico and significant effort should be done from ethnobiological and ecological perspectives in order to complement the national inventory of bee resources and traditional knowledge and management of them.

  2. Safeguarding Ecosystem Services: A Methodological Framework to Buffer the Joint Effect of Habitat Configuration and Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Tereza C; Tambosi, Leandro R; Acosta, André L; Jaffé, Rodolfo; Saraiva, Antonio M; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by mobile agents are increasingly threatened by the loss and modification of natural habitats and by climate change, risking the maintenance of biodiversity, ecosystem functions, and human welfare. Research oriented towards a better understanding of the joint effects of land use and climate change over the provision of specific ecosystem services is therefore essential to safeguard such services. Here we propose a methodological framework, which integrates species distribution forecasts and graph theory to identify key conservation areas, which if protected or restored could improve habitat connectivity and safeguard ecosystem services. We applied the proposed framework to the provision of pollination services by a tropical stingless bee (Melipona quadrifasciata), a key pollinator of native flora from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and important agricultural crops. Based on the current distribution of this bee and that of the plant species used to feed and nest, we projected the joint distribution of bees and plants in the future, considering a moderate climate change scenario (following IPPC). We then used this information, the bee's flight range, and the current mapping of Atlantic Forest remnants to infer habitat suitability and quantify local and regional habitat connectivity for 2030, 2050 and 2080. Our results revealed north to south and coastal to inland shifts in the pollinator distribution during the next 70 years. Current and future connectivity maps unraveled the most important corridors, which if protected or restored, could facilitate the dispersal and establishment of bees during distribution shifts. Our results also suggest that coffee plantations from eastern São Paulo and southern Minas Gerais States could suffer a pollinator deficit in the future, whereas pollination services seem to be secured in southern Brazil. Landowners and governmental agencies could use this information to implement new land use schemes. Overall

  3. FLORESCIMENTO INDUZIDO DA JUREMA PRETA PARA FORNECER PÓLEN À ABELHA MELÍFERA NA ESTIAGEM DA CAATINGA

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    ALINE DOS SANTOS SILVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of increasing pollen supply to honey bees (Apis mellifera during the dry season in Caatinga (shrub vegetation of NE Brazil by inducing Mimosa tenui-flora to bloom. The work was carried out from August to December 2012 in Altamira Apícola Apiaries, situat-ed at Limoeiro do Norte – Ceará, Brazil. The experiment comprised three phases: Phase 1 – the amount of wa-ter needed to induce the blooming of Mimosa tenuiflora (T0L, T250L, T500L, T750L and T1000L; Phase 2 – Floral biology and flower visitors; Phase 3 – pollen harvested by the colonies and percentage of M. tenuiflora in the honey bee diet by sampling and comparing pollen loads from colonies placed 20m with those more than 3km away from the induced plants. Results of the Phase 1 showed that the treatments 3, 4 and 5 induced blooming, and T1000L produced a greater number of inflorescences (p <0.05. Blooming reached its peak eight days after induction. Hymenoptera represented more than 95% of floral visitors with Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes and Melipona subnitida as the most frequent bee species. Palynological analyses carried out in phase 3 showed a significant (p<0,05 increment in pollen collection and the participation of M. tenuiflora pollen in the diet of colonies situated 20 meters from the induced plants. Induction of flowering Mimosa tenuiflora increased the supply and collection of pollen by bees in the critical period of the year, minimizing the effect of drought on the colonies.

  4. Fungal Planet description sheets: 400-468.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Richardson, D M; Le Roux, J J; Strasberg, D; Edwards, J; Roets, F; Hubka, V; Taylor, P W J; Heykoop, M; Martín, M P; Moreno, G; Sutton, D A; Wiederhold, N P; Barnes, C W; Carlavilla, J R; Gené, J; Giraldo, A; Guarnaccia, V; Guarro, J; Hernández-Restrepo, M; Kolařík, M; Manjón, J L; Pascoe, I G; Popov, E S; Sandoval-Denis, M; Woudenberg, J H C; Acharya, K; Alexandrova, A V; Alvarado, P; Barbosa, R N; Baseia, I G; Blanchette, R A; Boekhout, T; Burgess, T I; Cano-Lira, J F; Čmoková, A; Dimitrov, R A; Dyakov, M Yu; Dueñas, M; Dutta, A K; Esteve-Raventós, F; Fedosova, A G; Fournier, J; Gamboa, P; Gouliamova, D E; Grebenc, T; Groenewald, M; Hanse, B; Hardy, G E St J; Held, B W; Jurjević, Ž; Kaewgrajang, T; Latha, K P D; Lombard, L; Luangsa-Ard, J J; Lysková, P; Mallátová, N; Manimohan, P; Miller, A N; Mirabolfathy, M; Morozova, O V; Obodai, M; Oliveira, N T; Ordóñez, M E; Otto, E C; Paloi, S; Peterson, S W; Phosri, C; Roux, J; Salazar, W A; Sánchez, A; Sarria, G A; Shin, H-D; Silva, B D B; Silva, G A; Smith, M Th; Souza-Motta, C M; Stchigel, A M; Stoilova-Disheva, M M; Sulzbacher, M A; Telleria, M T; Toapanta, C; Traba, J M; Valenzuela-Lopez, N; Watling, R; Groenewald, J Z

    2016-06-01

    ), Ochroconis dracaenae (on Dracaena reflexa), Rasamsonia columbiensis (air of a hotel conference room), Paecilomyces tabacinus (on Nicotiana tabacum), Toxicocladosporium hominis (from human broncoalveolar lavage fluid), Nothophoma macrospora (from respiratory secretion of a patient with pneumonia), and Penidiellopsis radicularis (incl. Penidiellopsis gen. nov.) from a human nail. Novel taxa described from Malaysia include Prosopidicola albizziae (on Albizzia falcataria), Proxipyricularia asari (on Asarum sp.), Diaporthe passifloricola (on Passiflora foetida), Paramycoleptodiscus albizziae (incl. Paramycoleptodiscus gen. nov.) on Albizzia falcataria, and Malaysiasca phaii (incl. Malaysiasca gen. nov.) on Phaius reflexipetalus. Two species are newly described from human patients in the Czech Republic, namely Microascus longicollis (from toenails of patient with suspected onychomycosis), and Chrysosporium echinulatum (from sole skin of patient). Furthermore, Alternaria quercicola is described on leaves of Quercus brantii (Iran), Stemphylium beticola on leaves of Beta vulgaris (The Netherlands), Scleroderma capeverdeanum on soil (Cape Verde Islands), Scleroderma dunensis on soil, and Blastobotrys meliponae from bee honey (Brazil), Ganoderma mbrekobenum on angiosperms (Ghana), Geoglossum raitviirii and Entoloma kruticianum on soil (Russia), Priceomyces vitoshaensis on Pterostichus melas (Carabidae) (Bulgaria) is the only one for which the family is listed, Ganoderma ecuadoriense on decaying wood (Ecuador), Thyrostroma cornicola on Cornus officinalis (Korea), Cercophora vinosa on decorticated branch of Salix sp. (France), Coprinus pinetorum, Coprinus littoralis and Xerocomellus poederi on soil (Spain). Two new genera from Colombia include Helminthosporiella and Uwemyces on leaves of Elaeis oleifera. Two species are described from India, namely Russula intervenosa (ectomycorrhizal with Shorea robusta), and Crinipellis odorata (on bark of Mytragyna parviflora). Novelties from Thailand